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Sample records for bioinspired polymer-calcium phosphate

  1. Synthesis and characterization of carbonated hydroxyapatite and bioinspired polymer-calcium phosphate nanocomposites

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yusufoglu, Yusuf [Iowa State Univ., Ames, IA (United States)

    2009-01-01

    Nature offers many exciting ideas and inspiration for the development of new materials and processes. The toughness of spider silk, the strength and lightweight of bone, and the adhesion abilities of the gecko's feet are some of the many examples of highperformance natural materials, which have attracted the interest of scientist to duplicate their properties in man-made materials. Materials found in nature combine many inspiring properties such as miniaturization, sophistication, hierarchical organization, hybridization, and adaptability. In all biological systems, whether very basic or highly complex, nature provides a multiplicity of materials, architectures, systems and functions. Generally, the architectural configurations and material characteristics are the important features that have been duplicated from nature for building synthetic structural composites.

  2. Bio-inspired dicalcium phosphate anhydrate/poly(lactic acid) nanocomposite fibrous scaffolds for hard tissue regeneration: in situ synthesis and electrospinning.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chae, Taesik; Yang, Heejae; Ko, Frank; Troczynski, Tom

    2014-02-01

    The fundamental building blocks of hierarchically structured bone tissue are mineralized collagen fibrils with calcium phosphate nanocrystals that are biologically "engineered" through biomineralization. In this study, we demonstrate an original invention of dicalcium phosphate anhydrate (DCPA)/poly(lactic acid) (PLA) composite nanofibers, which mimics the mineralized collagen fibrils via biomimetic in situ synthesis and electrospinning for hard tissue regenerative medicines. The interaction of the Ca(2+) ions and the carbonyl groups in the PLA provides nucleation sites for DCPA during the in situ synthesis process. This resulted in the improved dispersion of DCPA nanocrystallites in the intrananoporous PLA nanofibers through electrospinning, compared to the severely agglomerated clusters of DCPA nanoparticles fabricated by conventional mechanical blending/electrospinning methods. The addition of poly(ethylene glycol), as a copolymer source, generated more stable and efficient electrospun jets and aided in the electrospinability of the PLA nanofibers incorporating the nanocrystallites. It is expected that the uniformly distributed DCPA nanocrystallites and its unique nanocomposite fibrous topography will enhance the biological performance and the structural stability of the scaffolds used for hard tissue reconstruction and regeneration.

  3. Designing Bioinspired Robots Editorial

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Claudio Moriconi

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available This IJARS issue is dedicated to a new international conference series, which has been promoted by ENEA and IARP (International Advanced Robotics Programme. The first conference, entitled Bio-inspired Robotics, was held on 14th-15th May 2014 at the ENEA’s Frascati Centre. The conference was dedicated to young researchers and scholars with promising ideas, methods and products for innovation and technology transfer in the field of service robots with bio-inspired design and operation.

  4. Bioinspired Poly(2-oxazolines

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Helmut Schlaad

    2011-02-01

    Full Text Available Poly(2-oxazolines are regarded as pseudopeptides, thus bioinspired polymers, due to their structural relationship to polypeptides. Materials and solution properties can be tuned by varying the side-chain (hydrophilic-hydrophobic, chiral, bioorganic, etc., opening the way to advanced stimulus-responsive materials and complex colloidal structures. The bioinspired “smart” solution and aggregation behavior of poly(2-oxazolines in aqueous environments are discussed in this review.

  5. Parallel Architectures and Bioinspired Algorithms

    CERN Document Server

    Pérez, José; Lanchares, Juan

    2012-01-01

    This monograph presents examples of best practices when combining bioinspired algorithms with parallel architectures. The book includes recent work by leading researchers in the field and offers a map with the main paths already explored and new ways towards the future. Parallel Architectures and Bioinspired Algorithms will be of value to both specialists in Bioinspired Algorithms, Parallel and Distributed Computing, as well as computer science students trying to understand the present and the future of Parallel Architectures and Bioinspired Algorithms.

  6. Bioinspired swimming simulations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bergmann, Michel; Iollo, Angelo

    2016-10-01

    We present a method to simulate the flow past bioinspired swimmers starting from pictures of an actual fish. The overall approach requires i) a skeleton graph generation to get a level-set function from pictures; ii) optimal transportation to obtain the velocity on the body surface; iii) flow simulations realized with a Cartesian method based on penalization. This technique can be used to automate modeling swimming motion from data collected by biologists. We illustrate this paradigm by simulating the swimming of a mackerel fish.

  7. Designing bioinspired superoleophobic surfaces

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brown, Philip S.; Bhushan, Bharat

    2016-01-01

    Nature provides a range of functional surfaces, for example, water-repellent or superhydrophobic surfaces, most common among them the lotus leaf. While water-repellency is widespread in nature, oil-repellency is typically limited to surfaces submerged in water, such as fish scales. To achieve oleophobicity in air, inspiration must be taken from natural structures and chemistries that are not readily available in nature need to be introduced. Researchers usually turn to fluorinated materials to provide the low surface energy that, when combined with bioinspired surface topography, is the key to unlocking oil-repellency. This review presents the state-of-the-art in the fabrication of superoleophobic surfaces.

  8. Combining Bio-inspired Sensing with Bio-inspired Locomotion

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Shaikh, Danish; Hallam, John; Christensen-Dalsgaard, Jakob

    In this paper we present a preliminary Braitenberg vehicle–like approach to combine bio-inspired audition with bio-inspired quadruped locomotion in simulation. Locomotion gaits of the salamander–like robot Salamandra robotica are modified by a lizard’s peripheral auditory system model that modula......In this paper we present a preliminary Braitenberg vehicle–like approach to combine bio-inspired audition with bio-inspired quadruped locomotion in simulation. Locomotion gaits of the salamander–like robot Salamandra robotica are modified by a lizard’s peripheral auditory system model...... that modulates the parameters of the locomotor central pattern generators. We present phonotactic performance results of the simulated lizard-salamander hybrid robot....

  9. Spintronic Nanodevices for Bioinspired Computing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grollier, Julie; Querlioz, Damien; Stiles, Mark D

    2016-10-01

    Bioinspired hardware holds the promise of low-energy, intelligent, and highly adaptable computing systems. Applications span from automatic classification for big data management, through unmanned vehicle control, to control for biomedical prosthesis. However, one of the major challenges of fabricating bioinspired hardware is building ultra-high-density networks out of complex processing units interlinked by tunable connections. Nanometer-scale devices exploiting spin electronics (or spintronics) can be a key technology in this context. In particular, magnetic tunnel junctions (MTJs) are well suited for this purpose because of their multiple tunable functionalities. One such functionality, non-volatile memory, can provide massive embedded memory in unconventional circuits, thus escaping the von-Neumann bottleneck arising when memory and processors are located separately. Other features of spintronic devices that could be beneficial for bioinspired computing include tunable fast nonlinear dynamics, controlled stochasticity, and the ability of single devices to change functions in different operating conditions. Large networks of interacting spintronic nanodevices can have their interactions tuned to induce complex dynamics such as synchronization, chaos, soliton diffusion, phase transitions, criticality, and convergence to multiple metastable states. A number of groups have recently proposed bioinspired architectures that include one or several types of spintronic nanodevices. In this paper, we show how spintronics can be used for bioinspired computing. We review the different approaches that have been proposed, the recent advances in this direction, and the challenges toward fully integrated spintronics complementary metal-oxide-semiconductor (CMOS) bioinspired hardware.

  10. Designing bioinspired superoleophobic surfaces

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Philip S. Brown

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Nature provides a range of functional surfaces, for example, water-repellent or superhydrophobic surfaces, most common among them the lotus leaf. While water-repellency is widespread in nature, oil-repellency is typically limited to surfaces submerged in water, such as fish scales. To achieve oleophobicity in air, inspiration must be taken from natural structures and chemistries that are not readily available in nature need to be introduced. Researchers usually turn to fluorinated materials to provide the low surface energy that, when combined with bioinspired surface topography, is the key to unlocking oil-repellency. This review presents the state-of-the-art in the fabrication of superoleophobic surfaces.

  11. Bio-inspired vision

    Science.gov (United States)

    Posch, C.

    2012-01-01

    Nature still outperforms the most powerful computers in routine functions involving perception, sensing and actuation like vision, audition, and motion control, and is, most strikingly, orders of magnitude more energy-efficient than its artificial competitors. The reasons for the superior performance of biological systems are subject to diverse investigations, but it is clear that the form of hardware and the style of computation in nervous systems are fundamentally different from what is used in artificial synchronous information processing systems. Very generally speaking, biological neural systems rely on a large number of relatively simple, slow and unreliable processing elements and obtain performance and robustness from a massively parallel principle of operation and a high level of redundancy where the failure of single elements usually does not induce any observable system performance degradation. In the late 1980`s, Carver Mead demonstrated that silicon VLSI technology can be employed in implementing ``neuromorphic'' circuits that mimic neural functions and fabricating building blocks that work like their biological role models. Neuromorphic systems, as the biological systems they model, are adaptive, fault-tolerant and scalable, and process information using energy-efficient, asynchronous, event-driven methods. In this paper, some basics of neuromorphic electronic engineering and its impact on recent developments in optical sensing and artificial vision are presented. It is demonstrated that bio-inspired vision systems have the potential to outperform conventional, frame-based vision acquisition and processing systems in many application fields and to establish new benchmarks in terms of redundancy suppression/data compression, dynamic range, temporal resolution and power efficiency to realize advanced functionality like 3D vision, object tracking, motor control, visual feedback loops, etc. in real-time. It is argued that future artificial vision systems

  12. Bioinspired structure of bioceramics for bone regeneration in load-bearing sites.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Faming; Chang, Jiang; Lu, Jianxi; Lin, Kaili; Ning, Congqin

    2007-11-01

    The major problem with the use of porous bioceramics as bone regeneration grafts is their weak mechanical strength, which has not been overcome to date. Here we described a novel way to solve this problem. Beta-tricalcium phosphate (beta-TCP) bioceramics with a bioinspired structure were designed and prepared with a porous cancellous core (porosity: 70-90%) inside and a dense compact shell (porosity: 5-10%) outside that mimics the characteristics of natural bone. They showed excellent mechanical properties, with a compressive strength of 10-80MPa and an elastic modulus of 180MPa-1.0GPa, which could be tailored by the dense/porous cross-sectional area ratio obeying the rule of exponential growth. The in vitro degradation of the bioinspired bioceramics was faster than that of dense bioceramics but slower than that of porous counterparts. The changes in mechanical properties of the bioinspired ceramics during in vitro degradation were also investigated. A concept of the bioinspired macrostructure design of natural bone was proposed which provided a simple but effective way to increase the mechanical properties of porous bioceramics for load-bearing bone regeneration applications. It should be readily applicable to other porous materials.

  13. Bio-inspired computation in telecommunications

    CERN Document Server

    Yang, Xin-She; Ting, TO

    2015-01-01

    Bio-inspired computation, especially those based on swarm intelligence, has become increasingly popular in the last decade. Bio-Inspired Computation in Telecommunications reviews the latest developments in bio-inspired computation from both theory and application as they relate to telecommunications and image processing, providing a complete resource that analyzes and discusses the latest and future trends in research directions. Written by recognized experts, this is a must-have guide for researchers, telecommunication engineers, computer scientists and PhD students.

  14. Switchable bio-inspired adhesives

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kroner, Elmar

    2015-03-01

    Geckos have astonishing climbing abilities. They can adhere to almost any surface and can run on walls and even stick to ceilings. The extraordinary adhesion performance is caused by a combination of a complex surface pattern on their toes and the biomechanics of its movement. These biological dry adhesives have been intensely investigated during recent years because of the unique combination of adhesive properties. They provide high adhesion, allow for easy detachment, can be removed residue-free, and have self-cleaning properties. Many aspects have been successfully mimicked, leading to artificial, bio-inspired, patterned dry adhesives, and were addressed and in some aspects they even outperform the adhesion capabilities of geckos. However, designing artificial patterned adhesion systems with switchable adhesion remains a big challenge; the gecko's adhesion system is based on a complex hierarchical surface structure and on advanced biomechanics, which are both difficult to mimic. In this paper, two approaches are presented to achieve switchable adhesion. The first approach is based on a patterned polydimethylsiloxane (PDMS) polymer, where adhesion can be switched on and off by applying a low and a high compressive preload. The switch in adhesion is caused by a reversible mechanical instability of the adhesive silicone structures. The second approach is based on a composite material consisting of a Nickel- Titanium (NiTi) shape memory alloy and a patterned adhesive PDMS layer. The NiTi alloy is trained to change its surface topography as a function of temperature, which results in a change of the contact area and of alignment of the adhesive pattern towards a substrate, leading to switchable adhesion. These examples show that the unique properties of bio-inspired adhesives can be greatly improved by new concepts such as mechanical instability or by the use of active materials which react to external stimuli.

  15. Bioinspiration: applying mechanical design to experimental biology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Flammang, Brooke E; Porter, Marianne E

    2011-07-01

    The production of bioinspired and biomimetic constructs has fostered much collaboration between biologists and engineers, although the extent of biological accuracy employed in the designs produced has not always been a priority. Even the exact definitions of "bioinspired" and "biomimetic" differ among biologists, engineers, and industrial designers, leading to confusion regarding the level of integration and replication of biological principles and physiology. By any name, biologically-inspired mechanical constructs have become an increasingly important research tool in experimental biology, offering the opportunity to focus research by creating model organisms that can be easily manipulated to fill a desired parameter space of structural and functional repertoires. Innovative researchers with both biological and engineering backgrounds have found ways to use bioinspired models to explore the biomechanics of organisms from all kingdoms to answer a variety of different questions. Bringing together these biologists and engineers will hopefully result in an open discourse of techniques and fruitful collaborations for experimental and industrial endeavors.

  16. Bioinspiration From Nano to Micro Scales

    CERN Document Server

    2012-01-01

    Methods in bioinspiration and biomimicking have been around for a long time. However, due to current advances in modern physical, biological sciences, and technologies, our understanding of the methods have evolved to a new level. This is due not only to the identification of mysterious and fascinating phenomena but also to the understandings of the correlation between the structural factors and the performance based on the latest theoretical, modeling, and experimental technologies. Bioinspiration: From Nano to Micro Scale provides readers with a broad view of the frontiers of research in the area of bioinspiration from the nano to macroscopic scales, particularly in the areas of biomineralization, antifreeze protein, and antifreeze effect. It also covers such methods as the lotus effect and superhydrophobicity, structural colors in animal kingdom and beyond, as well as behavior in ion channels. A number of international experts in related fields have contributed to this book, which offers a comprehensive an...

  17. Bioinspired catalysis metal-sulfur complexes

    CERN Document Server

    Weigand, Wolfgang

    2014-01-01

    The growing interest in green chemistry calls for new, efficient and cheap catalysts. Living organisms contain a wide range of remarkably powerful enzymes, which can be imitated by chemists in the search for new catalysts. In bioinspired catalysis, chemists use the basic principles of biological enzymes when creating new catalyst analogues. In this book, an international group of experts cover the topic from theoretical aspects to applications by including a wide variety of examples of different systems. This valuable overview of bioinspired metal-sulfur catalysis is a must-have for all sci

  18. Bioinspired Materials for Water Purification

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alfredo Gonzalez-Perez

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available Water scarcity issues associated with inadequate access to clean water and sanitation is a ubiquitous problem occurring globally. Addressing future challenges will require a combination of new technological development in water purification and environmental remediation technology with suitable conservation policies. In this scenario, new bioinspired materials will play a pivotal role in the development of more efficient and environmentally friendly solutions. The role of amphiphilic self-assembly on the fabrication of new biomimetic membranes for membrane separation like reverse osmosis is emphasized. Mesoporous support materials for semiconductor growth in the photocatalytic degradation of pollutants and new carriers for immobilization of bacteria in bioreactors are used in the removal and processing of different kind of water pollutants like heavy metals. Obstacles to improve and optimize the fabrication as well as a better understanding of their performance in small-scale and pilot purification systems need to be addressed. However, it is expected that these new biomimetic materials will find their way into the current water purification technologies to improve their purification/removal performance in a cost-effective and environmentally friendly way.

  19. Sodium Phosphate

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sodium phosphate is used in adults 18 years of age or older to empty the colon (large intestine, bowel) ... view of the walls of the colon. Sodium phosphate is in a class of medications called saline ...

  20. Phosphate salts

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... levels that are too high, and for preventing kidney stones. They are also taken for treating osteomalacia (often ... But intravenous phosphate salts should not be used. Kidney stones (nephrolithiasis). Taking potassium phosphate by mouth might help ...

  1. Bio-inspired dynamic robots

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rudolph, Alan S.; Wax, Steven G.; Christodoulou, Leo

    2003-09-01

    The unique performance of biological systems across a wide spectrum of phylogenetic species has historically provided inspirations for roboticists in new designs and fabrication of new robotic platforms. Of particular interest to a number of important applications is to create dynamic robots able to adapt to a change in their world, unplanned events that are sometimes unexpected, and sometimes unstable, harsh conditions. It is likely that the exploring dynamics in biological systems will continue to provide rich solutions to attaining robots capable of more complex tasks for this purpose. This is because the long-term design process of evolution utilizes a natural selection process that responds to such changes. Recently, there have been significant advances across a number of interdisciplinary efforts that have generated new capabilities in biorobotics. Whole body dynamics that capture the force dynamics and functional stability of legged systems over rough terrain have been elucidated and applied in legged robotic systems. Exploying the force dynamics of flapping winged insect flight has provided key discoveries and enabled the fabrication of new micro air vehicles. New classes of materials are being developed that emulate the ability of natural muscle, capturing the compliant and soft subtle movement and performance of biological appendages. In addition, classes of new multifunctional materials are being developed to enable the design of biorobotics with the structural and functional efficiency of living organisms. Optical flow and other sensors based on the principles of invertebrate vision have been implemented on robotic platforms for autonomous robotic guidance and control. These fundamental advances have resulted in the emergence of a new generation of bioinspired dynamic robots which show significant performance improvements in early prototype testing and that could someday be useful in a number of significant applications such as search and rescue and

  2. Bio-inspired variable structural color materials.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhao, Yuanjin; Xie, Zhuoying; Gu, Hongcheng; Zhu, Cun; Gu, Zhongze

    2012-04-21

    Natural structural color materials, especially those that can undergo reversible changes, are attracting increasing interest in a wide variety of research fields. Inspired by the natural creatures, many elaborately nanostructured photonic materials with variable structural colors were developed. These materials have found important applications in switches, display devices, sensors, and so on. In this critical review, we will provide up-to-date research concerning the natural and bio-inspired photonic materials with variable structural colors. After introducing the variable structural colors in natural creatures, we will focus on the studies of artificial variable structural color photonic materials, including their bio-inspired designs, fabrications and applications. The prospects for the future development of these fantastic variable structural color materials will also be presented. We believe this review will promote the communications among biology, bionics, chemistry, optical physics, and material science (196 references).

  3. Bioinspired terpene synthesis: a radical approach.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Justicia, José; Álvarez de Cienfuegos, Luis; Campaña, Araceli G; Miguel, Delia; Jakoby, Verena; Gansäuer, Andreas; Cuerva, Juan M

    2011-07-01

    This tutorial review highlights the development of radical-based bioinspired synthesis of terpenes from the initial proposal to the development of modern catalytic methods for performing such processes. The power of the radical approach is demonstrated by the straightforward syntheses of many natural products from readily available starting materials. The efficiency of these processes nicely complements the described cationic polyolefin cyclisations and even suggests that modern radical methods provide means to improve upon nature's synthetic pathways.

  4. Bioinspired synthesis of magnetic nanoparticles

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    David, Anand [Iowa State Univ., Ames, IA (United States)

    2009-01-01

    The synthesis of magnetic nanoparticles has long been an area of active research. Magnetic nanoparticles can be used in a wide variety of applications such as magnetic inks, magnetic memory devices, drug delivery, magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) contrast agents, and pathogen detection in foods. In applications such as MRI, particle uniformity is particularly crucial, as is the magnetic response of the particles. Uniform magnetic particles with good magnetic properties are therefore required. One particularly effective technique for synthesizing nanoparticles involves biomineralization, which is a naturally occurring process that can produce highly complex nanostructures. Also, the technique involves mild conditions (ambient temperature and close to neutral pH) that make this approach suitable for a wide variety of materials. The term 'bioinspired' is important because biomineralization research is inspired by the naturally occurring process, which occurs in certain microorganisms called 'magnetotactic bacteria'. Magnetotactic bacteria use biomineralization proteins to produce magnetite crystals having very good uniformity in size and morphology. The bacteria use these magnetic particles to navigate according to external magnetic fields. Because these bacteria synthesize high quality crystals, research has focused on imitating aspects of this biomineralization in vitro. In particular, a biomineralization iron-binding protein found in a certain species of magnetotactic bacteria, magnetospirillum magneticum, AMB-1, has been extracted and used for in vitro magnetite synthesis; Pluronic F127 gel was used to increase the viscosity of the reaction medium to better mimic the conditions in the bacteria. It was shown that the biomineralization protein mms6 was able to facilitate uniform magnetite synthesis. In addition, a similar biomineralization process using mms6 and a shorter version of this protein, C25, has been used to synthesize cobalt ferrite

  5. Bioinspired Composite Materials: Applications in Diagnostics and Therapeutics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Prasad, Alisha; Mahato, Kuldeep; Chandra, Pranjal; Srivastava, Ananya; Joshi, Shrikrishna N.; Maurya, Pawan Kumar

    2016-08-01

    Evolution-optimized specimens from nature with inimitable properties, and unique structure-function relationships have long served as a source of inspiration for researchers all over the world. For instance, the micro/nanostructured patterns of lotus-leaf and gecko feet helps in self-cleaning, and adhesion, respectively. Such unique properties shown by creatures are results of billions of years of adaptive transformation, that have been mimicked by applying both science and engineering concepts to design bioinspired materials. Various bioinspired composite materials have been developed based on biomimetic principles. This review presents the latest developments in bioinspired materials under various categories with emphasis on diagnostic and therapeutic applications.

  6. Advances in bio-inspired computing for combinatorial optimization problems

    CERN Document Server

    Pintea, Camelia-Mihaela

    2013-01-01

    Advances in Bio-inspired Combinatorial Optimization Problems' illustrates several recent bio-inspired efficient algorithms for solving NP-hard problems.Theoretical bio-inspired concepts and models, in particular for agents, ants and virtual robots are described. Large-scale optimization problems, for example: the Generalized Traveling Salesman Problem and the Railway Traveling Salesman Problem, are solved and their results are discussed.Some of the main concepts and models described in this book are: inner rule to guide ant search - a recent model in ant optimization, heterogeneous sensitive a

  7. Bio-inspired computational techniques based on advanced condition monitoring

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Su Liangcheng; He Shan; Li Xiaoli; Li Xinglin

    2011-01-01

    The application of bio-inspired computational techniques to the field of condition monitoring is addressed.First, the bio-inspired computational techniques are briefly addressed; the advantages and disadvantages of these computational methods are made clear. Then, the roles of condition monitoring in the predictive maintenance and failures prediction and the development trends of condition monitoring are discussed. Finally, a case study on the condition monitoring of grinding machine is described, which shows the application of bio-inspired computational technique to a practical condition monitoring system.

  8. Soft robotics: a bioinspired evolution in robotics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Sangbae; Laschi, Cecilia; Trimmer, Barry

    2013-05-01

    Animals exploit soft structures to move effectively in complex natural environments. These capabilities have inspired robotic engineers to incorporate soft technologies into their designs. The goal is to endow robots with new, bioinspired capabilities that permit adaptive, flexible interactions with unpredictable environments. Here, we review emerging soft-bodied robotic systems, and in particular recent developments inspired by soft-bodied animals. Incorporating soft technologies can potentially reduce the mechanical and algorithmic complexity involved in robot design. Incorporating soft technologies will also expedite the evolution of robots that can safely interact with humans and natural environments. Finally, soft robotics technology can be combined with tissue engineering to create hybrid systems for medical applications.

  9. Bioinspired Functional Surfaces for Technological Applications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sharma, Vipul; Kumar, Suneel; Reddy, Kumbam Lingeshwar; Bahuguna, Ashish; Krishnan, Venkata

    2016-08-01

    Biological matters have been in continuous encounter with extreme environmental conditions leading to their evolution over millions of years. The fittest have survived through continuous evolution, an ongoing process. Biological surfaces are the important active interfaces between biological matters and the environment, and have been evolving over time to a higher state of intelligent functionality. Bioinspired surfaces with special functionalities have grabbed attention in materials research in the recent times. The microstructures and mechanisms behind these functional biological surfaces with interesting properties have inspired scientists to create artificial materials and surfaces which possess the properties equivalent to their counterparts. In this review, we have described the interplay between unique multiscale (micro- and nano-scale) structures of biological surfaces with intrinsic material properties which have inspired researchers to achieve the desired wettability and functionalities. Inspired by naturally occurring surfaces, researchers have designed and fabricated novel interfacial materials with versatile functionalities and wettability, such as superantiwetting surfaces (superhydrophobic and superoleophobic), omniphobic, switching wettability and water collecting surfaces. These strategies collectively enable functional surfaces to be utilized in different applications such as fog harvesting, surface-enhanced Raman spectroscopy (SERS), catalysis, sensing and biological applications. This paper delivers a critical review of such inspiring biological surfaces and artificial bioinspired surfaces utilized in different applications, where material science and engineering have merged by taking inspiration from the natural systems.

  10. Bioinspired computation in combinatorial optimization: algorithms and their computational complexity

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Neumann, Frank; Witt, Carsten

    2012-01-01

    Bioinspired computation methods, such as evolutionary algorithms and ant colony optimization, are being applied successfully to complex engineering and combinatorial optimization problems, and it is very important that we understand the computational complexity of these algorithms. This tutorials...

  11. Bio-inspired computation in unmanned aerial vehicles

    CERN Document Server

    Duan, Haibin

    2014-01-01

    Bio-inspired Computation in Unmanned Aerial Vehicles focuses on the aspects of path planning, formation control, heterogeneous cooperative control and vision-based surveillance and navigation in Unmanned Aerial Vehicles (UAVs) from the perspective of bio-inspired computation. It helps readers to gain a comprehensive understanding of control-related problems in UAVs, presenting the latest advances in bio-inspired computation. By combining bio-inspired computation and UAV control problems, key questions are explored in depth, and each piece is content-rich while remaining accessible. With abundant illustrations of simulation work, this book links theory, algorithms and implementation procedures, demonstrating the simulation results with graphics that are intuitive without sacrificing academic rigor. Further, it pays due attention to both the conceptual framework and the implementation procedures. The book offers a valuable resource for scientists, researchers and graduate students in the field of Control, Aeros...

  12. Bioinspired Nanoscale Materials for Biomedical and Energy Applications

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bhattacharya, Priyanka; Du, Dan; Lin, Yuehe

    2014-05-01

    The demand of green, affordable and environmentally sustainable materials has encouraged scientists in different fields to draw inspiration from nature in developing materials with unique properties such as miniaturization, hierarchical organization, and adaptability. Together with the exceptional properties of nanomaterials, over the past century, the field of bioinspired nanomaterials has taken huge leaps. While on one hand, the sophistication of hierarchical structures endow biological systems with multifunctionality, the synthetic control on the creation of nanomaterials enables the design of materials with specific functionalities. The aim of this review is to provide a comprehensive, up-to-date overview of the field of bioinspired nanomaterials, which we have broadly categorized into biotemplates and biomimics. We will discuss the application of bioinspired nanomaterials as biotemplates in catalysis, nanomedicine, immunoassays and in energy, drawing attention to novel materials such as protein cages. Further, the applications of bioinspired materials in tissue engineering and biomineralization will also be discussed.

  13. Bioinspired polarization navigation sensor for autonomous munitions systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Giakos, G. C.; Quang, T.; Farrahi, T.; Deshpande, A.; Narayan, C.; Shrestha, S.; Li, Y.; Agarwal, M.

    2013-05-01

    Small unmanned aerial vehicles UAVs (SUAVs), micro air vehicles (MAVs), Automated Target Recognition (ATR), and munitions guidance, require extreme operational agility and robustness which can be partially offset by efficient bioinspired imaging sensor designs capable to provide enhanced guidance, navigation and control capabilities (GNC). Bioinspired-based imaging technology can be proved useful either for long-distance surveillance of targets in a cluttered environment, or at close distances limited by space surroundings and obstructions. The purpose of this study is to explore the phenomenology of image formation by different insect eye architectures, which would directly benefit the areas of defense and security, on the following four distinct areas: a) fabrication of the bioinspired sensor b) optical architecture, c) topology, and d) artificial intelligence. The outcome of this study indicates that bioinspired imaging can impact the areas of defense and security significantly by dedicated designs fitting into different combat scenarios and applications.

  14. Bio-Inspired Political Systems. Opening a Field

    CERN Document Server

    Mezza-Garcia, Nathalie

    2012-01-01

    In this paper we highlight the scopes of engineering bio-inspired political systems, which are political systems based on the properties of life that self-organize the increasing complexity of human social systems. We describe bio-inspired political systems and conjecture about various ways to get to them, most notably, metaheuristics, modeling and simulation and complexified topologies. Bio-inspired political systems operate with nature-based dynamics, inspired on the knowledge that has been acquired about complexity from natural social systems and life. Bio-inspired political systems are presented as the best alternative for organizing human sociopolitical interactions as computation and microelectronics-based technology profoundly modify the ways in which humans decide. Therefore, weakening classical political systems. For instance, dwindling top-down power structures, modifying the notion of geographical spatiality and augmenting the political granularity. We also argue that, more than a new theoretical p...

  15. Human Factors Issues for Interaction with Bio-Inspired Swarms

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-10-01

    subtle leaders of fish schools. Pheromone trails also suggest a way to support human interaction as has been explored to a limited extent... Human Factors issues for Interaction with Bio-Inspired Swarms Michael Lewis*, Michael Goodrich**, Katia Sycara+, Mark Steinberg++ * School of...Enabling a human to control such bio-inspired systems is a considerable challenge due to the limitations of each individual robot and the sheer

  16. Aurelia aurita bio-inspired tilt sensor

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smith, Colin; Villanueva, Alex; Priya, Shashank

    2012-10-01

    The quickly expanding field of mobile robots, unmanned underwater vehicles, and micro-air vehicles urgently needs a cheap and effective means for measuring vehicle inclination. Commonly, tilt or inclination has been mathematically derived from accelerometers; however, there is inherent error in any indirect measurement. This paper reports a bio-inspired tilt sensor that mimics the natural balance organ of jellyfish, called the ‘statocyst’. Biological statocysts from the species Aurelia aurita were characterized by scanning electron microscopy to investigate the morphology and size of the natural sensor. An artificial tilt sensor was then developed by using printed electronics that incorporates a novel voltage divider concept in conjunction with small surface mount devices. This sensor was found to have minimum sensitivity of 4.21° with a standard deviation of 1.77°. These results open the possibility of developing elegant tilt sensor architecture for both air and water based platforms.

  17. Bioinspired Sensory Systems for Shear Flow Detection

    Science.gov (United States)

    Colvert, Brendan; Chen, Kevin K.; Kanso, Eva

    2017-03-01

    Aquatic organisms such as copepods exhibit remarkable responses to changes in ambient flows, especially shear gradients, when foraging, mating and escaping. To accomplish these tasks, the sensory system of the organism must decode the local sensory measurements to detect the flow properties. Evidence suggests that organisms sense differences in the hydrodynamic signal rather than absolute values of the ambient flow. In this paper, we develop a mathematical framework for shear flow detection using a bioinspired sensory system that measures only differences in velocity. We show that the sensory system is capable of reconstructing the properties of the ambient shear flow under certain conditions on the flow sensors. We discuss these conditions and provide explicit expressions for processing the sensory measurements and extracting the flow properties. These findings suggest that by combining suitable velocity sensors and physics-based methods for decoding sensory measurements, we obtain a powerful approach for understanding and developing underwater sensory systems.

  18. Tough, bio-inspired hybrid materials

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Munch, Etienne; Launey, Maximimilan E.; Alsem, Daan H.; Saiz, Eduardo; Tomsia, Antoni P.; Ritchie, Robert O.

    2008-10-06

    The notion of mimicking natural structures in the synthesis of new structural materials has generated enormous interest but has yielded few practical advances. Natural composites achieve strength and toughness through complex hierarchical designs extremely difficult to replicate synthetically. Here we emulate Nature's toughening mechanisms through the combination of two ordinary compounds, aluminum oxide and polymethylmethacrylate, into ice-templated structures whose toughness can be over 300 times (in energy terms) that of their constituents. The final product is a bulk hybrid ceramic material whose high yield strength and fracture toughness ({approx}200 MPa and {approx}30 MPa{radical}m) provide specific properties comparable to aluminum alloys. These model materials can be used to identify the key microstructural features that should guide the synthesis of bio-inspired ceramic-based composites with unique strength and toughness.

  19. Damping by branching: a bioinspiration from trees

    CERN Document Server

    Theckes, Benoit; Boutillon, Xavier

    2011-01-01

    Man-made slender structures are known to be sensitive to high levels of vibration, due to their flexibility, which often cause irreversible damage. In nature, trees repeatedly endure large amplitudes of motion, mostly caused by strong climatic events, yet with minor or no damage in most cases. A new damping mechanism inspired by the architecture of trees is here identified and characterized in the simplest tree-like structure, a Y-shape branched structure. Through analytical and numerical analyses of a simple two-degree-of-freedom model, branching is shown to be the key ingredient in this protective mechanism that we call damping-by-branching. It originates in the geometrical nonlinearities so that it is specifically efficient to damp out large amplitudes of motion. A more realistic model, using flexible beam approximation, shows that the mechanism is robust. Finally, two bioinspired architectures are analyzed, showing significant levels of damping achieved via branching with typically 30% of the energy being...

  20. Bio-inspired odor-based navigation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Porter, Maynard J., III; Vasquez, Juan R.

    2006-05-01

    The ability of many insects, especially moths, to locate either food or a member of the opposite sex is an amazing achievement. There are numerous scenarios where having this ability embedded into ground-based or aerial vehicles would be invaluable. This paper presents results from a 3-D computer simulation of an Unmanned Aerial Vehicle (UAV) autonomously tracking a chemical plume to its source. The simulation study includes a simulated dynamic chemical plume, 6-degree of freedom, nonlinear aircraft model, and a bio-inspired navigation algorithm. The emphasis of this paper is the development and analysis of the navigation algorithm. The foundation of this algorithm is a fuzzy controller designed to categorize where in the plume the aircraft is located: coming into the plume, in the plume, exiting the plume, or out of the plume.

  1. Bioarchitecture: bioinspired art and architecture--a perspective.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ripley, Renee L; Bhushan, Bharat

    2016-08-06

    Art and architecture can be an obvious choice to pair with science though historically this has not always been the case. This paper is an attempt to interact across disciplines, define a new genre, bioarchitecture, and present opportunities for further research, collaboration and professional cooperation. Biomimetics, or the copying of living nature, is a field that is highly interdisciplinary, involving the understanding of biological functions, structures and principles of various objects found in nature by scientists. Biomimetics can lead to biologically inspired design, adaptation or derivation from living nature. As applied to engineering, bioinspiration is a more appropriate term, involving interpretation, rather than direct copying. Art involves the creation of discrete visual objects intended by their creators to be appreciated by others. Architecture is a design practice that makes a theoretical argument and contributes to the discourse of the discipline. Bioarchitecture is a blending of art/architecture and biomimetics/bioinspiration, and incorporates a bioinspired design from the outset in all parts of the work at all scales. Herein, we examine various attempts to date of art and architecture to incorporate bioinspired design into their practice, and provide an outlook and provocation to encourage collaboration among scientists and designers, with the aim of achieving bioarchitecture.This article is part of the themed issue 'Bioinspired hierarchically structured surfaces for green science'.

  2. Water collection behavior and hanging ability of bioinspired fiber.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hou, Yongping; Chen, Yuan; Xue, Yan; Zheng, Yongmei; Jiang, Lei

    2012-03-13

    Since the water-collecting ability of the wetted cribellate spider capture silk is the result of a unique fiber structure, bioinspired fibers have been researched significantly so as to expose a new water-acquiring route in fogging-collection projects. However, the design of the geometry of bioinspired fiber is related to the ability of hanging drops, which has not been investigated in depth so far. Here, we fabricate bioinspired fibers to investigate the water collection behavior and the influence of geometry (i.e., periodicity of spindle knot) on the hanging-drop ability. We especially discuss water collection related to the periodicity of geometry on the bioinspired fiber. We reveal the length of the three phase contact line (TCL) at threshold conditions in conjunction with the maximal volume of a hanging drop at different modes. The study demonstrates that the geometrical structure of bioinspired fiber induces much stronger water hanging ability than that of uniform fiber, attributed to such special geometry that offers effectively an increasing TCL length or limits the contact length to be shorted. In addition, the geometry also improves the fog-collection efficiency by controlling tiny water drops to be collected in the large water drops at a given location.

  3. On the role(s) of additives in bioinspired silicification.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Patwardhan, Siddharth V; Clarson, Stephen J; Perry, Carole C

    2005-03-07

    Biological organisms are able to direct the formation of patterned and hierarchical biomineral structures. Extractable organic materials have been found entrapped in diatom, sponge and plant biosilica, some of which have been isolated by selective chemical dissolution methods and their composition and structure studied. Information gained from the bioextracts has inspired materials chemists to design biomimetic analogues and develop bioinspired synthetic schemes for silica formation. The results obtained from bioinspired silicification investigations are hypothesised to arise from specific modes of action of the organic additives, which are described in this review. Specifically, additives in bioinspired silicification act either as catalysts, aggregation promoting agents or structure-directing agents or more typically, exhibit a combination of these behaviours.

  4. Bio-inspired nanotechnology from surface analysis to applications

    CERN Document Server

    Walsh, Tiffany

    2014-01-01

    This book focuses on the use of bio-inspired and biomimetic methods for the fabrication and activation of nanomaterials. This includes studies concerning the binding of the biomolecules to the surface of inorganic structures, structure/function relationships of the final materials, and extensive discussions on the final applications of such biomimetic materials in unique applications including energy harvesting/storage, biomedical diagnostics, and materials assembly. This book also: ·          Covers the sustainable features of bio-inspired nanotechnology ·          Includes studies on the unique applications of biomimetic materials, such as energy harvesting and biomedical diagnostics Bio-Inspired Nanotechnology: From Surface Analysis to Applications is an ideal book for researchers, students, nanomaterials engineers, bioengineers, chemists, biologists, physicists, and medical researchers.

  5. Green processes for nanotechnology from inorganic to bioinspired nanomaterials

    CERN Document Server

    Basiuk, Elena

    2015-01-01

    This book provides the state-of-the-art survey of green techniques in preparation of different classes of nanomaterials, with an emphasis on the use of renewable sources. Key topics covered include fabrication of nanomaterials using green techniques as well as their properties and applications, the use of renewable sources to obtain nanomaterials of different classes, from simple metal and metal oxide nanoparticles to complex bioinspired nanomaterials, economic contributions of nanotechnology to green and sustainable growth, and more. This is an ideal book for students, lecturers, researchers and engineers dealing with versatile (mainly chemical, biological, and medical) aspects of nanotechnology, including fabrication of nanomaterials using green techniques and their properties and applications. This book also: Maximizes reader insights into the design and fabrication of bioinspired nanomaterials and the design of complex bio-nanohybrids Covers many different applications for nanomaterials, bioinspired nanom...

  6. Polymer based interfaces as bioinspired 'smart skins'.

    Science.gov (United States)

    De Rossi, Danilo; Carpi, Federico; Scilingo, Enzo Pasquale

    2005-11-30

    This work reports on already achieved results and ongoing research on the development of complex interfaces between humans and external environment, based on organic synthetic materials and used as smart 'artificial skins'. They are conceived as wearable and flexible systems with multifunctional characteristics. Their features are designed to mimic or augment a broad-spectrum of properties shown by biological skins of humans and/or animals. The discussion is here limited to those properties whose mimicry/augmentation is achievable with currently available technologies based on polymers and oligomers. Such properties include tactile sensing, thermal sensing/regulation, environmental energy harvesting, chromatic mimetism, ultra-violet protection, adhesion and surface mediation of mobility. Accordingly, bioinspired devices and structures, proposed as suitable functional analogous of natural architectures, are analysed. They consist of organic piezoelectric sensors, thermoelectric and pyroelectric sensors and generators, photoelectric generators, thermal and ultra-violet protection systems, electro-, photo- and thermo-chromic devices, as well as structures for improved adhesion and reduced fluid-dynamic friction.

  7. Bioinspired sensory systems for local flow characterization

    Science.gov (United States)

    Colvert, Brendan; Chen, Kevin; Kanso, Eva

    2016-11-01

    Empirical evidence suggests that many aquatic organisms sense differential hydrodynamic signals.This sensory information is decoded to extract relevant flow properties. This task is challenging because it relies on local and partial measurements, whereas classical flow characterization methods depend on an external observer to reconstruct global flow fields. Here, we introduce a mathematical model in which a bioinspired sensory array measuring differences in local flow velocities characterizes the flow type and intensity. We linearize the flow field around the sensory array and express the velocity gradient tensor in terms of frame-independent parameters. We develop decoding algorithms that allow the sensory system to characterize the local flow and discuss the conditions under which this is possible. We apply this framework to the canonical problem of a circular cylinder in uniform flow, finding excellent agreement between sensed and actual properties. Our results imply that combining suitable velocity sensors with physics-based methods for decoding sensory measurements leads to a powerful approach for understanding and developing underwater sensory systems.

  8. Enhancing dropwise condensation through bioinspired wettability patterning.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ghosh, Aritra; Beaini, Sara; Zhang, Bong June; Ganguly, Ranjan; Megaridis, Constantine M

    2014-11-01

    Dropwise condensation (DWC) heat transfer depends strongly on the maximum diameter (Dmax) of condensate droplets departing from the condenser surface. This study presents a facile technique implemented to gain control of Dmax in DWC within vapor/air atmospheres. We demonstrate how this approach can enhance the corresponding heat transfer rate by harnessing the capillary forces in the removal of the condensate from the surface. We examine various hydrophilic-superhydrophilic patterns, which, respectively, sustain and combine DWC and filmwise condensation on the substrate. The material system uses laser-patterned masking and chemical etching to achieve the desired wettability contrast and does not employ any hydrophobizing agent. By applying alternating straight parallel strips of hydrophilic (contact angle ∼78°) mirror-finish aluminum and superhydrophilic regions (etched aluminum) on the condensing surface, we show that the average maximum droplet size on the less-wettable domains is nearly 42% of the width of the corresponding strips. An overall improvement in the condensate collection rate, up to 19% (as compared to the control case of DWC on mirror-finish aluminum) was achieved by using an interdigitated superhydrophilic track pattern (on the mirror-finish hydrophilic surface) inspired by the vein network of plant leaves. The bioinspired interdigitated pattern is found to outperform the straight hydrophilic-superhydrophilic pattern design, particularly under higher humidity conditions in the presence of noncondensable gases (NCG), a condition that is more challenging for maintaining sustained DWC.

  9. Bio-inspired self-shaping ceramics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bargardi, Fabio L.; Le Ferrand, Hortense; Libanori, Rafael; Studart, André R.

    2016-01-01

    Shaping ceramics into complex and intricate geometries using cost-effective processes is desirable in many applications but still remains an open challenge. Inspired by plant seed dispersal units that self-fold on differential swelling, we demonstrate that self-shaping can be implemented in ceramics by programming the material's microstructure to undergo local anisotropic shrinkage during heat treatment. Such microstructural design is achieved by magnetically aligning functionalized ceramic platelets in a liquid ceramic suspension, subsequently consolidated through an established enzyme-catalysed reaction. By fabricating alumina compacts exhibiting bio-inspired bilayer architectures, we achieve deliberate control over shape change during the sintering step. Bending, twisting or combinations of these two basic movements can be successfully programmed to obtain a myriad of complex shapes. The simplicity and the universality of such a bottom-up shaping method makes it attractive for applications that would benefit from low-waste ceramic fabrication, temperature-resistant interlocking structures or unusual geometries not accessible using conventional top–down manufacturing. PMID:28008930

  10. Self-Organization of Bioinspired Fibrous Surfaces

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kang, Sung Hoon

    Nature uses fibrous surfaces for a wide range of functions such as sensing, adhesion, structural color, and self-cleaning. However, little is known about how fiber properties enable them to self-organize into diverse and complex functional forms. Using polymeric micro/nanofiber arrays with tunable properties as model systems, we demonstrate how the combination of mechanical and surface properties can be harnessed to transform an array of anchored nanofibers into a variety of complex, hierarchically organized dynamic functional surfaces. We show that the delicate balance between fiber elasticity and surface adhesion plays a critical role in determining the shape, chirality, and hierarchy of the assembled structures. We further report a strategy for controlling the long-range order of fiber assemblies by manipulating the shape and movement of the liquid-vapor interface. Our study provides fundamental understanding of the pattern formation by self-organization of bioinspired fibrous surfaces. Moreover, our new strategies offer a foundation for designing a vast assortment of functional surfaces with adhesive, optical, water-repellent, capture and release, and many more capabilities with the structural and dynamic sophistication of their biological counterparts.

  11. Bio-inspired self-shaping ceramics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bargardi, Fabio L.; Le Ferrand, Hortense; Libanori, Rafael; Studart, André R.

    2016-12-01

    Shaping ceramics into complex and intricate geometries using cost-effective processes is desirable in many applications but still remains an open challenge. Inspired by plant seed dispersal units that self-fold on differential swelling, we demonstrate that self-shaping can be implemented in ceramics by programming the material's microstructure to undergo local anisotropic shrinkage during heat treatment. Such microstructural design is achieved by magnetically aligning functionalized ceramic platelets in a liquid ceramic suspension, subsequently consolidated through an established enzyme-catalysed reaction. By fabricating alumina compacts exhibiting bio-inspired bilayer architectures, we achieve deliberate control over shape change during the sintering step. Bending, twisting or combinations of these two basic movements can be successfully programmed to obtain a myriad of complex shapes. The simplicity and the universality of such a bottom-up shaping method makes it attractive for applications that would benefit from low-waste ceramic fabrication, temperature-resistant interlocking structures or unusual geometries not accessible using conventional top-down manufacturing.

  12. Bioinspired surfaces for turbulent drag reduction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Golovin, Kevin B; Gose, James W; Perlin, Marc; Ceccio, Steven L; Tuteja, Anish

    2016-08-06

    In this review, we discuss how superhydrophobic surfaces (SHSs) can provide friction drag reduction in turbulent flow. Whereas biomimetic SHSs are known to reduce drag in laminar flow, turbulence adds many new challenges. We first provide an overview on designing SHSs, and how these surfaces can cause slip in the laminar regime. We then discuss recent studies evaluating drag on SHSs in turbulent flow, both computationally and experimentally. The effects of streamwise and spanwise slip for canonical, structured surfaces are well characterized by direct numerical simulations, and several experimental studies have validated these results. However, the complex and hierarchical textures of scalable SHSs that can be applied over large areas generate additional complications. Many studies on such surfaces have measured no drag reduction, or even a drag increase in turbulent flow. We discuss how surface wettability, roughness effects and some newly found scaling laws can help explain these varied results. Overall, we discuss how, to effectively reduce drag in turbulent flow, an SHS should have: preferentially streamwise-aligned features to enhance favourable slip, a capillary resistance of the order of megapascals, and a roughness no larger than 0.5, when non-dimensionalized by the viscous length scale.This article is part of the themed issue 'Bioinspired hierarchically structured surfaces for green science'.

  13. Enhanced adhesion of bioinspired nanopatterned elastomets via colloidal surface assembly

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Akerboom, S.; Appel, J.; Labonte, D.; Federle, W.; Sprakel, J.H.B.; Kamperman, M.M.G.

    2015-01-01

    We describe a scalable method to fabricate nanopatterned bioinspired dry adhesives using colloidal lithography. Close-packed monolayers of polystyrene particles were formed at the air/water interface, on which polydimethylsiloxane (PDMS) was applied. The order of the colloidal monolayer and the imme

  14. Exploring Creativity in the Bio-Inspired Design Process

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Anggakara, K.; Aksdal, T.; Onarheim, Balder

    2015-01-01

    The growing interest in the of field bio-inspired design has been driven by the acknowledgement that inspiration from nature can serve as a valuable source of innovation. As an emerging approach, there has been a focus on building a principled methodology to address the challenges that arise...

  15. Bioinspired Composite Coating with Extreme Underwater Superoleophobicity and Good Stability for Wax Prevention in the Petroleum Industry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liang, Weitao; Zhu, Liqun; Li, Weiping; Yang, Xin; Xu, Chang; Liu, Huicong

    2015-10-13

    Wax deposition is a detrimental problem that happens during crude oil production and transportation, which greatly reduces transport efficiency and causes huge economic losses. To avoid wax deposition, a bioinspired composite coating with excellent wax prevention and anticorrosion properties is developed in this study. The prepared coating is composed of three films, including an electrodeposited Zn film for improving corrosion resistance, a phosphating film for constructing fish-scale morphology, and a silicon dioxide film modified by a simple spin-coating method for endowing the surface with superhydrophilicity. Good wax prevention performance has been investigated in a wax deposition test. The surface morphology, composition, wetting behaviors, and stability are systematically studied, and a wax prevention mechanism is proposed, which can be calculated from water film theory. This composite coating strategy which shows excellent properties in both wax prevention and stability is expected to be widely applied in the petroleum industry.

  16. Sensitivity Analysis of a Bioinspired Refractive Index Based Gas Sensor

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Yang Gao; Qi Xia; Guanglan Liao; Tielin Shi

    2011-01-01

    It was found out that the change of refractive index of ambient gas can lead to obvious change of the color of Morpho butterfly's wing. Such phenomenon has been employed as a sensing principle for detecting gas. In the present study, Rigorous Coupled-Wave Analysis (RCWA) was described briefly, and the partial derivative of optical reflection efficiency with respect to the refractive index of ambient gas, i.e., sensitivity of the sensor, was derived based on RCWA. A bioinspired grating model was constructed by mimicking the nanostructure on the ground scale of Morpho didius butterfly's wing. The analytical sensitivity was verified and the effect of the grating shape on the reflection spectra and its sensitivity were discussed. The results show that by tuning shape parameters of the grating, we can obtain desired reflection spectra and sensitivity, which can be applied to the design of the bioinspired refractive index based gas sensor.

  17. Bioinspired silica as drug delivery systems and their biocompatibility

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Steven, Christopher R.; Busby, Grahame A.; Mather, Craig

    2014-01-01

    Silica nanoparticles have been shown to have great potential as drug delivery systems (DDS), however, their fabrication often involves harsh chemicals and energy intensive laborious methods. This work details the employment of a bioinspired "green" method for the controlled synthesis of silica, use...... allowing a one step and one pot method for simultaneous silica synthesis and drug loading. We established that the drug release profile can be modulated by synthetic parameters, which can allow design of tailored DDS. A systematic investigation using a two level factorial design was adopted in order...... of the products to entrap and release drug molecules and their cytotoxicity in order to develop novel DDS. Bioinspired silica synthesis occurs at pH 7, room temperature and in less than 5 minutes, resulting in a rapid, cheaper and greener route. Drugs were loaded into silica during the silica formation, thus...

  18. Mechatronics and Bioinspiration in Actuator Design and Control

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J. L. Pons

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available Actuators are components of motion control systems in which mechatronics plays a crucial role. They can be regarded as a paradigmatic case in which this mechatronic approach is required. Furthermore, actuator technologies can get new sources of inspiration from nature (bioinspiration. Biological systems are the result of an evolutionary process and show excellent levels of performance. In this paper, we analyse the actuator as a bioinspired mechatronic system through analogies between mechatronics and biological actuating mechanisms that include hierarchical control of actuators, switched control of power flow and some transduction principles. Firstly, some biological models are introduced as a source of inspiration for setting up both actuation principles and control technologies. Secondly, a particular actuator technology, the travelling wave ultrasonic motor, is taken to illustrate this approach. Eventually, the last section draws some conclusions and points out future directions.

  19. (YIP 10) - Bio-Inspired Interfaces for Hybrid Structures

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-07-01

    Robotics, IEEE Transactions on, 2008. 24(2): p. 341-347. 43. Hu, D.L., et al., Water - walking devices. Experiments in Fluids, 2007. 43(5): p. 769-778...is one of the most effective adhesion systems found in nature, giving gecko lizards the ability to efficiently climb on both smooth and rough...investigations are discussed below and in more details in the following sections: Bioinspired surfaces: The foot of many of insects and lizards is covered by

  20. Switchable Adhesion in Vacuum Using Bio-Inspired Dry Adhesives

    OpenAIRE

    Purtov, Julia; Frensemeier, Mareike; Kroner, Elmar

    2015-01-01

    Suction based attachment systems for pick and place handling of fragile objects like glass plates or optical lenses are energy-consuming and noisy and fail at reduced air pressure, which is essential, e.g., in chemical and physical vapor deposition processes. Recently, an alternative approach toward reversible adhesion of sensitive objects based on bioinspired dry adhesive structures has emerged. There, the switching in adhesion is achieved by a reversible buckling of adhesive pillar structur...

  1. A bio-inspired software for segmenting digital images.

    OpenAIRE

    Díaz Pernil, Daniel; Molina Abril, Helena; Real Jurado, Pedro; Gutiérrez Naranjo, Miguel Ángel

    2010-01-01

    Segmentation in computer vision refers to the process of partitioning a digital image into multiple segments (sets of pixels). It has several features which make it suitable for techniques inspired by nature. It can be parallelized, locally solved and the input data can be easily encoded by bio-inspired representations. In this paper, we present a new software for performing a segmentation of 2D digital images based on Membrane Computing techniques.

  2. Classification of biological cells using bio-inspired descriptors

    OpenAIRE

    Bel Haj Ali, Wafa; Giampaglia, Dario; Barlaud, Michel; Piro, Paolo; Nock, Richard; Pourcher, Thierry

    2012-01-01

    International audience; This paper proposes a novel automated approach for the categorization of cells in fluorescence microscopy images. Our supervised classification method aims at recognizing patterns of unlabeled cells based on an annotated dataset. First, the cell images need to be indexed by encoding them in a feature space. For this purpose, we propose tailored bio-inspired features relying on the distribution of contrast information. Then, a supervised learning algorithm is proposed f...

  3. Phosphate homeostasis and disorders.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Manghat, P; Sodi, R; Swaminathan, R

    2014-11-01

    Recent studies of inherited disorders of phosphate metabolism have shed new light on the understanding of phosphate metabolism. Phosphate has important functions in the body and several mechanisms have evolved to regulate phosphate balance including vitamin D, parathyroid hormone and phosphatonins such as fibroblast growth factor-23 (FGF23). Disorders of phosphate homeostasis leading to hypo- and hyperphosphataemia are common and have clinical and biochemical consequences. Notably, recent studies have linked hyperphosphataemia with an increased risk of cardiovascular disease. This review outlines the recent advances in the understanding of phosphate homeostasis and describes the causes, investigation and management of hypo- and hyperphosphataemia.

  4. Biomimetic and bioinspired silica: recent developments and applications.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Patwardhan, Siddharth V

    2011-07-21

    In a previous review of biological and bioinspired silica formation (S. V. Patwardhan et al., Chem. Commun., 2005, 1113 [ref. 1]), we have identified and discussed the roles that organic molecules (additives) play in silica formation in vitro. Tremendous progress has been made in this field since and this review attempts to capture, with selected examples from the literature, the key advances in synthesising and controlling properties of silica-based materials using bioinspired approaches, i.e. conditions of near-neutral pH, all aqueous environments and room temperature. One important reason to investigate biosilicifying systems is to be able to develop novel materials and/or technologies suitable for a wide range of applications. Therefore, this review will also focus on applications arising from research on biological and bioinspired silica. A range of applications such as in the areas of sensors, coatings, hybrid materials, catalysis and biocatalysis and drug delivery have started appearing. Furthermore, scale-up of this technology suitable for large-scale manufacturing has proven the potential of biologically inspired synthesis.

  5. Oriented attachment explains cobalt ferrite nanoparticle growth in bioinspired syntheses

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Annalena Wolff

    2014-02-01

    Full Text Available Oriented attachment has created a great debate about the description of crystal growth throughout the last decade. This aggregation-based model has successfully described biomineralization processes as well as forms of inorganic crystal growth, which could not be explained by classical crystal growth theory. Understanding the nanoparticle growth is essential since physical properties, such as the magnetic behavior, are highly dependent on the microstructure, morphology and composition of the inorganic crystals. In this work, the underlying nanoparticle growth of cobalt ferrite nanoparticles in a bioinspired synthesis was studied. Bioinspired syntheses have sparked great interest in recent years due to their ability to influence and alter inorganic crystal growth and therefore tailor properties of nanoparticles. In this synthesis, a short synthetic version of the protein MMS6, involved in nanoparticle formation within magnetotactic bacteria, was used to alter the growth of cobalt ferrite. We demonstrate that the bioinspired nanoparticle growth can be described by the oriented attachment model. The intermediate stages proposed in the theoretical model, including primary-building-block-like substructures as well as mesocrystal-like structures, were observed in HRTEM measurements. These structures display regions of substantial orientation and possess the same shape and size as the resulting discs. An increase in orientation with time was observed in electron diffraction measurements. The change of particle diameter with time agrees with the recently proposed kinetic model for oriented attachment.

  6. Autonomous UAV persistent surveillance using bio-inspired strategies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Burman, Jerry; Hespanha, Joao; Madhow, Upamanyu; Isaacs, Jason; Venkateswaran, Sriram; Pham, Tien

    2012-06-01

    A team consisting of Teledyne Scientific Company, the University of California at Santa Barbara, the Army Research Laboratory, the Engineer Research and Development Center, and IBM UK is developing technologies in support of automated data exfiltration from heterogeneous battlefield sensor networks to enhance situational awareness for dismounts and command echelons. Unmanned aerial vehicles (UAV) provide an effective means to autonomously collect data from a sparse network of unattended ground sensors (UGSs) that cannot communicate with each other. UAVs are used to reduce the system reaction time by generating autonomous collection routes that are data-driven. Bioinspired techniques for autonomous search provide a novel strategy to detect, capture and fuse data from heterogeneous sensor networks. The bio-inspired algorithm is based on chemotaxis or the motion of bacteria seeking nutrients in their environment. Field tests of a bio-inspired system that routed UAVs were conducted in June 2011 at Camp Roberts, CA. The field test results showed that such a system can autonomously detect and locate the source of terrestrial events with very high accuracy and visually verify the event. In June 2011, field tests of the system were completed and include the use of multiple autonomously controlled UAVs, detection and disambiguation of multiple acoustic events occurring in short time frames, optimal sensor placement based on local phenomenology and the use of the International Technology Alliance (ITA) Sensor Network Fabric. The system demonstrated TRL 6 performance in the field at Camp Roberts.

  7. Switchable Adhesion in Vacuum Using Bio-Inspired Dry Adhesives.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Purtov, Julia; Frensemeier, Mareike; Kroner, Elmar

    2015-11-01

    Suction based attachment systems for pick and place handling of fragile objects like glass plates or optical lenses are energy-consuming and noisy and fail at reduced air pressure, which is essential, e.g., in chemical and physical vapor deposition processes. Recently, an alternative approach toward reversible adhesion of sensitive objects based on bioinspired dry adhesive structures has emerged. There, the switching in adhesion is achieved by a reversible buckling of adhesive pillar structures. In this study, we demonstrate that these adhesives are capable of switching adhesion not only in ambient air conditions but also in vacuum. Our bioinspired patterned adhesive with an area of 1 cm(2) provided an adhesion force of 2.6 N ± 0.2 N in air, which was reduced to 1.9 N ± 0.2 N if measured in vacuum. Detachment was induced by buckling of the structures due to a high compressive preload and occurred, independent of air pressure, at approximately 0.9 N ± 0.1 N. The switch in adhesion was observed at a compressive preload between 5.6 and 6.0 N and was independent of air pressure. The difference between maximum adhesion force and adhesion force after buckling gives a reasonable window of operation for pick and place processes. High reversibility of the switching behavior is shown over 50 cycles in air and in vacuum, making the bioinspired switchable adhesive applicable for handling operations of fragile objects.

  8. Bio-inspired nanomaterials and their applications as antimicrobial agents

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Smita Sachin Zinjarde

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available In the recent decades, the interdisciplinary field of nanotechnology has expanded extensively. A variety of nanoparticles (NPs have been used for a number of specialized applications. In this era facing a major problem of microorganisms developing antibiotic resistance, NPs are a lucrative option. Most physical and chemical processes of NP synthesis are associated with drawbacks and bio-inspired NPs have now become popular. This review summarizes the recent developments on the biosynthesis, characterization, and applications of NPs with particular reference to their use as antimicrobial agents. Reviewed here is the synthesis of gold and silver NPs (AgNPs by a variety of biological forms and biomolecules as well as their effectiveness toward different fungal and bacterial pathogens. The use of gold NPs (bio-inspired by plants, fungi, and bacteria and AgNPs, synthesized by carbohydrates (of plant, animal, and microbial origin, plant parts (bark, callus, leaves, peels, and tubers, fungi, and bacteria have been highlighted. In addition, the use of zinc oxide NPs (although not bio-inspired as novel antimicrobial agents have also been discussed.

  9. Glucose-6-phosphate dehydrogenase

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... medlineplus.gov/ency/article/003671.htm Glucose-6-phosphate dehydrogenase test To use the sharing features on this page, please enable JavaScript. Glucose-6-phosphate dehydrogenase (G6PD) is a protein that helps red ...

  10. Chloroquine Phosphate Oral

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chloroquine phosphate is in a class of drugs called antimalarials and amebicides. It is used to prevent and treat ... Chloroquine phosphate comes as a tablet to take by mouth. For prevention of malaria in adults, one dose is ...

  11. Potentiation of the cytotoxic activity of copper by polyphosphate on biofilm-producing bacteria: a bioinspired approach.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Müller, Werner E G; Wang, Xiaohong; Guo, Yue-Wei; Schröder, Heinz C

    2012-10-25

    Adhesion and accumulation of organic molecules represent an ecologically and economically massive problem. Adhesion of organic molecules is followed by microorganisms, unicellular organisms and plants together with their secreted soluble and structure-associated byproducts, which damage unprotected surfaces of submerged marine structures, including ship hulls and heat exchangers of power plants. This is termed biofouling. The search for less toxic anti-biofilm strategies has intensified since the ban of efficient and cost-effective anti-fouling paints, enriched with the organotin compound tributyltin, not least because of our finding of the ubiquitous toxic/pro-apoptotic effects displayed by this compound. Our proposed bio-inspired approach for controlling, suppressing and interfluencing the dynamic biofouling complex uses copper as one component in an alternative anti-fouling system. In order to avoid and overcome the potential resistance against copper acquired by microorganisms we are using the biopolymer polyphosphate (polyP) as a further component. Prior to being functionally active, polyP has to be hydrolyzed to ortho-phosphate which in turn can bind to copper and export the toxic compound out of the cell. It is shown here that inhibition of the hydrolysis of polyP by the bisphosphonate DMDP strongly increases the toxic effect of copper towards the biofilm-producing Streptococcus mutans in a synergistic manner. This bisphosphonate not only increases the copper-caused inhibition of cell growth but also of biofilm production by the bacteria. The defensin-related ASABF, a marine toxin produced by the sponge Suberites domuncula, caused only an additive inhibitory effect in combination with copper. We conclude that the new strategy, described here, has a superior anti-biofilm potential and can be considered as a novel principle for developing bio-inspired antifouling compounds, or cocktails of different compounds, in the future.

  12. Potentiation of the Cytotoxic Activity of Copper by Polyphosphate on Biofilm-Producing Bacteria: A Bioinspired Approach

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Heinz C. Schröder

    2012-10-01

    Full Text Available Adhesion and accumulation of organic molecules represent an ecologically and economically massive problem. Adhesion of organic molecules is followed by microorganisms, unicellular organisms and plants together with their secreted soluble and structure-associated byproducts, which damage unprotected surfaces of submerged marine structures, including ship hulls and heat exchangers of power plants. This is termed biofouling. The search for less toxic anti-biofilm strategies has intensified since the ban of efficient and cost-effective anti-fouling paints, enriched with the organotin compound tributyltin, not least because of our finding of the ubiquitous toxic/pro-apoptotic effects displayed by this compound [1]. Our proposed bio-inspired approach for controlling, suppressing and interfluencing the dynamic biofouling complex uses copper as one component in an alternative anti-fouling system. In order to avoid and overcome the potential resistance against copper acquired by microorganisms we are using the biopolymer polyphosphate (polyP as a further component. Prior to being functionally active, polyP has to be hydrolyzed to ortho-phosphate which in turn can bind to copper and export the toxic compound out of the cell. It is shown here that inhibition of the hydrolysis of polyP by the bisphosphonate DMDP strongly increases the toxic effect of copper towards the biofilm-producing Streptococcus mutans in a synergistic manner. This bisphosphonate not only increases the copper-caused inhibition of cell growth but also of biofilm production by the bacteria. The defensin-related ASABF, a marine toxin produced by the sponge Suberites domuncula, caused only an additive inhibitory effect in combination with copper. We conclude that the new strategy, described here, has a superior anti-biofilm potential and can be considered as a novel principle for developing bio-inspired antifouling compounds, or cocktails of different compounds, in the future.

  13. Why nature chose phosphates.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Westheimer, F H

    1987-03-06

    Phosphate esters and anhydrides dominate the living world but are seldom used as intermediates by organic chemists. Phosphoric acid is specially adapted for its role in nucleic acids because it can link two nucleotides and still ionize; the resulting negative charge serves both to stabilize the diesters against hydrolysis and to retain the molecules within a lipid membrane. A similar explanation for stability and retention also holds for phosphates that are intermediary metabolites and for phosphates that serve as energy sources. Phosphates with multiple negative charges can react by way of the monomeric metaphosphate ion PO3- as an intermediate. No other residue appears to fulfill the multiple roles of phosphate in biochemistry. Stable, negatively charged phosphates react under catalysis by enzymes; organic chemists, who can only rarely use enzymatic catalysis for their reactions, need more highly reactive intermediates than phosphates.

  14. Bioinspired Design of Building Materials for Blast and Ballistic Protection

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yu-Yan Sun

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Nacre in abalone shell exhibits high toughness despite the brittle nature of its major constituent (i.e., aragonite. Its specific structure is a major contributor to the energy absorption capacity of nacre. This paper reviews the mechanisms behind the performance of nacre under shear, uniaxial tension, compression, and bending conditions. The remarkable combination of stiffness and toughness on nacre can motivate the development of bioinspired building materials for impact resistance applications, and the possible toughness designs of cement-based and clay-based composite materials with a layered and staggered structure were discussed.

  15. Bio-Inspired Meta-Heuristics for Emergency Transportation Problems

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Min-Xia Zhang

    2014-02-01

    Full Text Available Emergency transportation plays a vital role in the success of disaster rescue and relief operations, but its planning and scheduling often involve complex objectives and search spaces. In this paper, we conduct a survey of recent advances in bio-inspired meta-heuristics, including genetic algorithms (GA, particle swarm optimization (PSO, ant colony optimization (ACO, etc., for solving emergency transportation problems. We then propose a new hybrid biogeography-based optimization (BBO algorithm, which outperforms some state-of-the-art heuristics on a typical transportation planning problem.

  16. Discussion about magnesium phosphating

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    P. Pokorny

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available The paper describes results from recently published research focused on production of non-conventional magnesium phosphate Mg3(PO42・4H2O – bobierrite, or MgHPO4・3H2O – newberyite coating for both magnesium alloys and/or mild steel. This new kind of coating is categorized in the context of current state of phosphating technology and its potential advantages and crystal structure is discussed. At the same time, the suitable comparison techniques for magnesium phosphate coating and conventional zinc phosphate coating are discussed.

  17. Water-Soluble Cellulose Derivatives Are Sustainable Additives for Biomimetic Calcium Phosphate Mineralization

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andreas Taubert

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available The effect of cellulose-based polyelectrolytes on biomimetic calcium phosphate mineralization is described. Three cellulose derivatives, a polyanion, a polycation, and a polyzwitterion were used as additives. Scanning electron microscopy, X-ray diffraction, IR and Raman spectroscopy show that, depending on the composition of the starting solution, hydroxyapatite or brushite precipitates form. Infrared and Raman spectroscopy also show that significant amounts of nitrate ions are incorporated in the precipitates. Energy dispersive X-ray spectroscopy shows that the Ca/P ratio varies throughout the samples and resembles that of other bioinspired calcium phosphate hybrid materials. Elemental analysis shows that the carbon (i.e., polymer contents reach 10% in some samples, clearly illustrating the formation of a true hybrid material. Overall, the data indicate that a higher polymer concentration in the reaction mixture favors the formation of polymer-enriched materials, while lower polymer concentrations or high precursor concentrations favor the formation of products that are closely related to the control samples precipitated in the absence of polymer. The results thus highlight the potential of (water-soluble cellulose derivatives for the synthesis and design of bioinspired and bio-based hybrid materials.

  18. Spontaneous water filtration of bio-inspired membrane

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Kiwoong; Kim, Hyejeong; Lee, Sang Joon

    2016-11-01

    Water is one of the most important elements for plants, because it is essential for various metabolic activities. Thus, water management systems of vascular plants, such as water collection and water filtration have been optimized through a long history. In this view point, bio-inspired technologies can be developed by mimicking the nature's strategies for the survival of the fittest. However, most of the underlying biophysical features of the optimized water management systems remain unsolved In this study, the biophysical characteristics of water filtration phenomena in the roots of mangrove are experimentally investigated. To understand water-filtration features of the mangrove, the morphological structures of its roots are analyzed. The electrokinetic properties of the root surface are also examined. Based on the quantitatively analyzed information, filtration of sodium ions in the roots are visualized. Motivated by this mechanism, spontaneous desalination mechanism in the root of mangrove is proposed by combining the electrokinetics and hydrodynamic transportation of ions. This study would be helpful for understanding the water-filtration mechanism of the roots of mangrove and developing a new bio-inspired desalination technology. This research was financially supported by the National Research Foundation (NRF) of Korea (Contract Grant Number: 2008-0061991).

  19. Self-shaping composites with programmable bioinspired microstructures

    Science.gov (United States)

    Erb, Randall M.; Sander, Jonathan S.; Grisch, Roman; Studart, André R.

    2013-04-01

    Shape change is a prevalent function apparent in a diverse set of natural structures, including seed dispersal units, climbing plants and carnivorous plants. Many of these natural materials change shape by using cellulose microfibrils at specific orientations to anisotropically restrict the swelling/shrinkage of their organic matrices upon external stimuli. This is in contrast to the material-specific mechanisms found in synthetic shape-memory systems. Here we propose a robust and universal method to replicate this unusual shape-changing mechanism of natural systems in artificial bioinspired composites. The technique is based upon the remote control of the orientation of reinforcing inorganic particles within the composite using a weak external magnetic field. Combining this reinforcement orientational control with swellable/shrinkable polymer matrices enables the creation of composites whose shape change can be programmed into the material’s microstructure rather than externally imposed. Such bioinspired approach can generate composites with unusual reversibility, twisting effects and site-specific programmable shape changes.

  20. Heterogeneous sensor networks: a bio-inspired overlay architecture

    Science.gov (United States)

    Burman, Jerry; Hespanha, Joao; Madhow, Upamanyu; Klein, Daniel; Isaacs, Jason; Venkateswaran, Sriram; Pham, Tien

    2010-04-01

    Teledyne Scientific Company, the University of California at Santa Barbara (UCSB) and the Army Research Lab are developing technologies for automated data exfiltration from heterogeneous sensor networks through the Institute for Collaborative Biotechnologies (ICB). Unmanned air vehicles (UAV) provide an effective means to autonomously collect data from unattended ground sensors (UGSs) that cannot communicate with each other. UAVs are used to reduce the system reaction time by generating autonomous data-driven collection routes. Bio-inspired techniques for search provide a novel strategy to detect, capture and fuse data across heterogeneous sensors. A fast and accurate method has been developed for routing UAVs and localizing an event by fusing data from a sparse number of UGSs; it leverages a bio-inspired technique based on chemotaxis or the motion of bacteria seeking nutrients in their environment. The system was implemented and successfully tested using a high level simulation environment using a flight simulator to emulate a UAV. A field test was also conducted in November 2009 at Camp Roberts, CA using a UAV provided by AeroMech Engineering. The field test results showed that the system can detect and locate the source of an acoustic event with an accuracy of about 3 meters average circular error.

  1. Biomimetic and Bioinspired Synthesis of Nanomaterials/Nanostructures.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zan, Guangtao; Wu, Qingsheng

    2016-03-16

    In recent years, due to its unparalleled advantages, the biomimetic and bioinspired synthesis of nanomaterials/nanostructures has drawn increasing interest and attention. Generally, biomimetic synthesis can be conducted either by mimicking the functions of natural materials/structures or by mimicking the biological processes that organisms employ to produce substances or materials. Biomimetic synthesis is therefore divided here into "functional biomimetic synthesis" and "process biomimetic synthesis". Process biomimetic synthesis is the focus of this review. First, the above two terms are defined and their relationship is discussed. Next different levels of biological processes that can be used for process biomimetic synthesis are compiled. Then the current progress of process biomimetic synthesis is systematically summarized and reviewed from the following five perspectives: i) elementary biomimetic system via biomass templates, ii) high-level biomimetic system via soft/hard-combined films, iii) intelligent biomimetic systems via liquid membranes, iv) living-organism biomimetic systems, and v) macromolecular bioinspired systems. Moreover, for these five biomimetic systems, the synthesis procedures, basic principles, and relationships are discussed, and the challenges that are encountered and directions for further development are considered.

  2. Confined swimming of bio-inspired microrobots in rectangular channels.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Temel, Fatma Zeynep; Yesilyurt, Serhat

    2015-02-02

    Controlled swimming of bio-inspired microrobots in confined spaces needs to be understood well for potential use in medical applications in conduits and vessels inside the body. In this study, experimental and computational studies are performed for analysis of swimming modes of a bio-inspired microrobot in rectangular channels at low Reynolds number. Experiments are performed on smooth and rough surfaces using a magnetic helical swimmer (MHS), having 0.5 mm diameter and 2 mm length, with left-handed helical tail and radially polarized magnetic head within rotating magnetic field obtained by two electromagnetic coil pairs. Experiments indicate three motion modes of the MHS with respect to the rotation frequency: (i) lateral motion under the effect of a perpendicular force such as gravity and the surface traction at low frequencies, (ii) lateral motion under the effect of fluid forces and gravity at transition frequencies, and (iii) circular motion under the effect of fluid forces at high frequencies. Observed modes of motion for the MHS are investigated with computational fluid dynamics simulations by calculating translational and angular velocities and studying the induced flow fields for different radial positions inside the channel. Results indicate the importance of rotation frequency, surface roughness and flow field on the swimming modes and behaviour of the MHS inside the rectangular channel.

  3. Bioinspired assembly of small molecules in cell milieu.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Huaimin; Feng, Zhaoqianqi; Xu, Bing

    2017-03-30

    Self-assembly, the autonomous organization of components to form patterns or structures, is a prevalent process in nature at all scales. Particularly, biological systems offer remarkable examples of diverse structures (as well as building blocks) and processes resulting from self-assembly. The exploration of bioinspired assemblies not only allows for mimicking the structures of living systems, but it also leads to functions for applications in different fields that benefit humans. In the last several decades, efforts on understanding and controlling self-assembly of small molecules have produced a large library of candidates for developing the biomedical applications of assemblies of small molecules. Moreover, recent findings in biology have provided new insights on the assemblies of small molecules to modulate essential cellular processes (such as apoptosis). These observations indicate that the self-assembly of small molecules, as multifaceted entities and processes to interact with multiple proteins, can have profound biological impacts on cells. In this review, we illustrate that the generation of assemblies of small molecules in cell milieu with their interactions with multiple cellular proteins for regulating cellular processes can result in primary phenotypes, thus providing a fundamentally new molecular approach for controlling cell behavior. By discussing the correlation between molecular assemblies in nature and the assemblies of small molecules in cell milieu, illustrating the functions of the assemblies of small molecules, and summarizing some guiding principles, we hope this review will stimulate more molecular scientists to explore the bioinspired self-assembly of small molecules in cell milieu.

  4. Robust, Self-Contained and Bio-Inspired Shear Sensor Array Project

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — The proposed innovation is a robust, bio-inspired, and self-contained sensor array for the measurement of shear stress. The proposed system uses commercially...

  5. 4th International Conference on Innovations in Bio-Inspired Computing and Applications

    CERN Document Server

    Krömer, Pavel; Snášel, Václav

    2014-01-01

    This volume of Advances in Intelligent Systems and Computing contains accepted papers presented at IBICA2013, the 4th International Conference on Innovations in Bio-inspired Computing and Applications. The aim of IBICA 2013 was to provide a platform for world research leaders and practitioners, to discuss the full spectrum of current theoretical developments, emerging technologies, and innovative applications of Bio-inspired Computing. Bio-inspired Computing is currently one of the most exciting research areas, and it is continuously demonstrating exceptional strength in solving complex real life problems. The main driving force of the conference is to further explore the intriguing potential of Bio-inspired Computing. IBICA 2013 was held in Ostrava, Czech Republic and hosted by the VSB - Technical University of Ostrava.

  6. 2012 BIOINSPIRED MATERIALS GORDON RESEARCH CONFERENCE, JUNE 24-29, 2012

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chilkoti, Ashutosh

    2013-06-29

    The emerging, interdisciplinary field of Bioinspired Materials focuses on developing a fundamental understanding of the synthesis, directed self-assembly and hierarchical organization of natural occurring materials, and uses this understanding to engineer new bioinspired artificial materials for diverse applications. The inaugural 2012 Gordon Conference on Bioinspired Materials seeks to capture the excitement of this burgeoning field by a cutting-edge scientific program and roster of distinguished invited speakers and discussion leaders who will address the key issues in the field. The Conference will feature a wide range of topics, such as materials and devices from DNA, reprogramming the genetic code for design of new materials, peptide, protein and carbohydrate based materials, biomimetic systems, complexity in self-assembly, and biomedical applications of bioinspired materials.

  7. Compressive Sensing Based Bio-Inspired Shape Feature Detection CMOS Imager

    Science.gov (United States)

    Duong, Tuan A. (Inventor)

    2015-01-01

    A CMOS imager integrated circuit using compressive sensing and bio-inspired detection is presented which integrates novel functions and algorithms within a novel hardware architecture enabling efficient on-chip implementation.

  8. Bio-Inspired Autonomous Communications Systems with Anomaly Detection Monitoring Project

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — We propose to develop and demonstrate BioComm, a bio-inspired autonomous communications system (ACS) aimed at dynamically reconfiguring and redeploying autonomous...

  9. Bio-Inspired Clustering of Complex Products Structure based on DSM

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fan Yang

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available Clustering plays an important role in the decomposition of complex products structure. Different clustering algorithms may achieve different effects of the decomposition. This paper aims to proposes a bio-inspired genetic algorithm that is implemented based on its reliable fitness function and design structure matrix (DSM for clustering analysis of complex products. This new bio-inspired genetic algorithm captures the features of DSM, which is base on the biological evolution theory. Examples of these products include motorcycle engines that are presented for clustering. The five cluster alternatives are obtained from the regular clustering algorithm and the bio-inspired genetic algorithm, while the best cluster alternative comes from the bio-inspired genetic algorithm. The results show that this algorithm is well adaptable, especially when the product elements have complicated and asymmetric connections.

  10. Fifth International Conference on Innovations in Bio-Inspired Computing and Applications

    CERN Document Server

    Abraham, Ajith; Snášel, Václav

    2014-01-01

    This volume of Advances in Intelligent Systems and Computing contains accepted papers presented at IBICA2014, the 5th International Conference on Innovations in Bio-inspired Computing and Applications. The aim of IBICA 2014 was to provide a platform for world research leaders and practitioners, to discuss the full spectrum of current theoretical developments, emerging technologies, and innovative applications of Bio-inspired Computing. Bio-inspired Computing remains to be one of the most exciting research areas, and it is continuously demonstrating exceptional strength in solving complex real life problems. The main driving force of the conference was to further explore the intriguing potential of Bio-inspired Computing. IBICA 2014 was held in Ostrava, Czech Republic and hosted by the VSB - Technical University of Ostrava.

  11. A bio-inspired test system for bionic above-knee prosthetic knees

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Dai-Hua; Xu, Lei; Fu, Qiang; Yuan, Gang

    2013-04-01

    Recently, prosthetic knees in the developing stage are usually tested by installing them on amputees' stumps directly or on above-knee prostheses (AKPs) test platforms. Although amputees can fully provide the actual motion state of the thigh, immature prosthetic knees may hurt amputees. For AKPs test platforms, it just can partly simulate the actual motion state of the thigh with limitation of the motion curve of the thigh, the merits or demerits of newly developed bionic above-knee prosthetic knees cannot be accessed thoroughly. Aiming at the defects of two testing methods, this paper presents a bio-inspired AKPs test system for bionic above-knee prosthetic knees. The proposed bio-inspired AKPs test system is composed of a AKPs test platform, a control system, and a bio-inspired system. The AKPs test platform generates the motion of the thigh simulation mechanism (TSM) via two screw pairs with servo motors. The bio-inspired system includes the tester and the bio-inspired sensor wore by the tester. The control system, which is inspired by the bio-inspired system, generates the control command signal to move the TSM of the AKPs test platform. The bio-inspired AKPs test system is developed and experimentally tested with a commercially available prosthetic knee. The research results show that the bio-inspired AKPs test system can not only ensure the safety of the testers, but also track all kinds of the actual motion state of the thigh of the testers in real time.

  12. A new bio-inspired decision chain for UAV sense-and-avoid applications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fallavollita, P.; Cimini, F.; Balsi, M.; Esposito, S.; Jankowski, S.

    This work, after a preliminary feasibility study using a Matlab environment simulation, defines the design and the real hardware testing of a new bio-inspired decision chain for UAV sense-and-avoid applications. Relying on a single and cheap visible camera sensor, computer vision, bio-inspired and automatic decision algorithms have been adopted and implemented on a specific ARM embedded platform through C++/OpenCV coding. A first data set processing, really captured on flight, has been presented.

  13. Editorial:Mechanics of biological and bio-inspired materials%Editorial: Mechanics of biological and bio-inspired materials

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Baohua Jia

    2012-01-01

    The field of mechanics of biological and bio-inspired materials underwent an exciting development over the past several years,which made it stand at the cutting edge of both engineering mechanics and biomechanics.As an intriguing interdisciplinary research field,it aims at elucidating the fundamental principles in nature's design of strong,multi-functional and smart Materials by focusing on the assembly,deformation,stability and failure of the materials.These principles should have wide applications in not only material sciences and mechanical engineering but also biomedical engineering.For instance,the knowledge in Mechanical principles of biological materials is very helpful for addressing some major challenges in material sciences and engineering.They also have the potential to provide quantitative understanding about how forces and deformation affect human being's health,diseases and treatment at tissue,cellular and molecular levels.This special subject on "mechanics of biological and bio-inspired materials" collects a few studies on recent development by leading scientists in this field.The biological materials or systems in these studies include cell,cytoskeleton (e.g.,microtubulus,intermediate filaments),lipid molecules and composite system of lipid and nanoparticle,tissue,and biological attachment systems,etc.

  14. Radioactivity of phosphate mineral products

    OpenAIRE

    Mitrović Branislava; Vitorović Gordana; Stojanović Mirjana; Vitorović Duško

    2011-01-01

    The phosphate industry is one of the biggest polluters of the environment with uranium. Different products are derived after processing phosphoric ore, such as mineral and phosphate fertilizers and phosphate mineral supplements (dicalcium-and monocalcium phosphate) for animal feeding. Phosphate mineral additives used in animal food may contain a high activity of uranium. Research in this study should provide an answer to the extent in which phosphate minera...

  15. Bioinspired design and interfacial failure of biomedical systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rahbar, Nima

    The deformation mechanism of nacre as a model biological material is studied in this project. A numerical model is presented which consists of tensile pillars, shear pillars, asperities and aragonite platelets. It has been shown that the tensile pillars are the main elements that control the global stiffness of the nacre structure. Meanwhile, ultimate strength of the nacre structure is controlled by asperities and their behavior and the ratio of L/2D which is itself a function of the geometry of the platelets. Protein/shear pillars provide the glue which holds the assembly of entire system together, particularly in the direction normal to the platelets main axis. This dissertation also presents the results of a combined theoretical/computational and experimental effort to develop crack resistant dental multilayers that are inspired by the functionally graded dento-enamel junction (DEJ) structure that occurs between dentin and enamel in natural teeth. The complex structures of natural teeth and ceramic crowns are idealized using at layered configurations. The potential effects of occlusal contact are then modeled using finite element simulations of Hertzian contact. The resulting stress distributions are compared for a range of possible bioinspired, functionally graded architecture. The computed stress distributions show that the highest stress concentrations in the top ceramic layer of crown structures are reduced significantly by the use of bioinspired functionally graded architectures. The reduced stresses are shown to be associated with significant improvements (30%) in the pop-in loads over a wide range of clinically-relevant loading rates. The implications of the results are discussed for the design of bioinspired dental ceramic crown structures. The results of a combined experimental and computational study of mixed mode fracture in glass/cement and zirconia/cement interfaces that are relevant to dental restorations is also presented. The interfacial fracture

  16. Performance of a bio-inspired spider web

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zheng, Lingyue; Behrooz, Majid; Li, Rui; Wang, Xiaojie; Gordaninejad, Faramarz

    2014-04-01

    The goal of this study is to investigate dynamic properties and the total energy change of a bio-inspired spider web. To better understand performance, the effects of preload, radial and spiral string stiffness and damping ratio on the natural frequency and total energy of the web are theoretically examined. Different types of web materials and configurations, such as damaged webs are investigated. It is demonstrated that the pretension, stiffness and damping ratio of the web's strings can significantly affect the natural frequency and total energy of the full and damaged webs. In addition, it is shown that by increasing the pretension in the radial strings one can compensate for the damaged strings and increase the capability of the damaged web to reach that of the full web.

  17. Bioinspired Knee Joint for a Power-Assist Suit

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Takehito Kikuchi

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Movement of the knee joint of a human includes rolling and sliding. There also exist rotations in the frontal and horizontal planes. To assist the standing movement of a human, we developed a bioinspired knee joint and torque adjustment mechanism. We evaluated the motion, torque characteristics, and stress of the developed mechanism. This joint allows deep flexion of the knee with small resistance for both the user and the device. In addition, in spite of 33% error in deep flexion, the measured torque over less than 120 degrees fits the designed torque curve. We conducted evaluation tests for a human subject. The electromyogram (EMG of musculus rectus femoris was measured during standing with or without the assistance. The result shows 30% and 63% reduction with the assistance from 100-degree and 80-degree knee angles, respectively. In addition, the proposed device reduced up to 80% of stress in the frontal plane during standing.

  18. Bio-inspired artificial iriodphores based on capillary origami

    Science.gov (United States)

    Manakasettharn, Supone; Taylor, J. Ashley; Krupenkin, Tom

    2011-03-01

    Many marine organisms have evolved complex optical mechanisms of dynamic skin color control that allow them to drastically change their visual appearance. In particular, cephalopods have developed especially effective dynamic color control mechanism based on the mechanical actuation of the micro-scale optical structures, which produce either variable degrees of area coverage by a given color (chromatophores) or variations in spatial orientation of the reflective and diffractive surfaces (iridophores). In this work we describe bio-inspired artificial iridophores based on electrowetting-controlled capillary origami. We describe the developed microfabrication approach, characterize mechanical and optical properties of the obtained microstructures and discuss their electrowetting-based actuation. The obtained experimental results are in good agreement with a simple theoretical model based on electrocapillarity and elasticity theory. The results of the work can enable a broad range of novel optical devices.

  19. A bioinspired approach for a multizone temperature control system

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pantoja, A; Quijano, N [Departamento de IngenierIa Electrica y Electronica, Universidad de los Andes, Bogota (Colombia); Leirens, S, E-mail: ad.pantoja24@uniandes.edu.c, E-mail: nquijano@uniandes.edu.c, E-mail: sylvain.leirens@orange.fr [La Pillayre, 63160 Montmorin (France)

    2011-03-15

    Bioinspired design approaches seek to exploit nature in order to construct optimal solutions for engineering problems as uniform temperature control in multizone systems. The ideal free distribution (IFD) is a concept from behavioural ecology, which describes the arrangement of individuals in different habitats such that at equilibrium, all habitats are equally suitable. Here, we relax the IFD's main assumptions using the standing-crop idea to introduce dynamics into the supplies of each habitat. Then, we make an analogy with a multizone thermal system to propose a controller based on the replicator dynamics model, in order to obtain a maximum uniform temperature subject to constant power injection. Besides, we analytically show that the equilibrium point of the controlled system is asymptotically stable. Finally, some practical results obtained with a testbed and comparisons with the theoretical results are presented.

  20. Fast nastic motion of plants and bio-inspired structures

    CERN Document Server

    Guo, Qiaohang; Han, Xiaomin; Xie, Stephen; Chao, Eric; Chen, Zi

    2015-01-01

    The capability to sense and respond to external mechanical stimuli at various timescales is essential to many physiological aspects in plants, including self-protection, intake of nutrients, and reproduction. Remarkably, some plants have evolved the ability to react to mechanical stimuli within a few seconds despite a lack of muscles and nerves. The fast movements of plants in response to mechanical stimuli have long captured the curiosity of scientists and engineers, but the mechanisms behind these rapid thigmonastic movements still are not understood completely. In this article, we provide an overview of such thigmonastic movements in several representative plants, including Dionaea, Utricularia, Aldrovanda, Drosera, and Mimosa. In addition, we review a series of studies that present biomimetic structures inspired by fast moving plants. We hope that this article will shed light on the current status of research on the fast movements of plants and bioinspired structures and also promote interdisciplinary stu...

  1. Visual Flight Control of a Quadrotor Using Bioinspired Motion Detector

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lei Zhang

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Motion detection in the fly is extremely fast with low computational requirements. Inspired from the fly's vision system, we focus on a real-time flight control on a miniquadrotor with fast visual feedback. In this work, an elaborated elementary motion detector (EMD is utilized to detect local optical flow. Combined with novel receptive field templates, the yaw rate of the quadrotor is estimated through a lookup table established with this bioinspired visual sensor. A closed-loop control system with the feedback of yaw rate estimated by EMD is designed. With the motion of the other degrees of freedom stabilized by a camera tracking system, the yaw-rate of the quadrotor during hovering is controlled based on EMD feedback under real-world scenario. The control performance of the proposed approach is compared with that of conventional approach. The experimental results demonstrate the effectiveness of utilizing EMD for quadrotor control.

  2. Bio-Inspired Optimization of Sustainable Energy Systems: A Review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yu-Jun Zheng

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Sustainable energy development always involves complex optimization problems of design, planning, and control, which are often computationally difficult for conventional optimization methods. Fortunately, the continuous advances in artificial intelligence have resulted in an increasing number of heuristic optimization methods for effectively handling those complicated problems. Particularly, algorithms that are inspired by the principles of natural biological evolution and/or collective behavior of social colonies have shown a promising performance and are becoming more and more popular nowadays. In this paper we summarize the recent advances in bio-inspired optimization methods, including artificial neural networks, evolutionary algorithms, swarm intelligence, and their hybridizations, which are applied to the field of sustainable energy development. Literature reviewed in this paper shows the current state of the art and discusses the potential future research trends.

  3. An introduction to bio-inspired artificial neural network architectures.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fasel, B

    2003-03-01

    In this introduction to artificial neural networks we attempt to give an overview of the most important types of neural networks employed in engineering and explain shortly how they operate and also how they relate to biological neural networks. The focus will mainly be on bio-inspired artificial neural network architectures and specifically to neo-perceptions. The latter belong to the family of convolutional neural networks. Their topology is somewhat similar to the one of the human visual cortex and they are based on receptive fields that allow, in combination with sub-sampling layers, for an improved robustness with regard to local spatial distortions. We demonstrate the application of artificial neural networks to face analysis--a domain we human beings are particularly good at, yet which poses great difficulties for digital computers running deterministic software programs.

  4. Optimal Design of a Bio-Inspired Anthropocentric Shoulder Rehabilitator

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S. K. Mustafa

    2006-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper presents the design of a bio-inspired anthropocentric 7-DOF wearable robotic arm for the purpose of stroke rehabilitation. The proposed arm rehabilitator synergistically utilizes the human arm structure with non-invasive kinematically under-deterministic cable-driven mechanisms to form a completely deterministic structure. It offers the advantages of being lightweight and having high dexterity. Adopting an anthropocentric design concept also allows it to conform to the human anatomical structure. The focus of this paper is on the analysis and design of the 3-DOF-shoulder module, called the shoulder rehabilitator. The design methodology is divided into three main steps: (1 performance evaluation of the cable-driven shoulder rehabilitator, (2 performance requirements of the shoulder joint based on its physiological characteristics and (3 design optimization of the shoulder rehabilitator based on shoulder joint physiological limitations. The aim is to determine a suitable configuration for the development of a shoulder rehabilitator prototype.

  5. Copper removal using bio-inspired polydopamine coated natural zeolites

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yu, Yang; Shapter, Joseph G. [Flinders Centre for Nanoscale Science and Technology, School of Chemical and Physical Sciences, Flinders University, Sturt Road, Bedford Park, Adelaide 5042, SA (Australia); Popelka-Filcoff, Rachel [School of Chemical and Physical Sciences, Flinders University, Sturt Road, Bedford Park, Adelaide 5042, SA (Australia); Bennett, John W. [Centre for Nuclear Applications, Australian Nuclear Science and Technology Organisation, Lucas Heights 2234, NSW (Australia); Ellis, Amanda V., E-mail: Amanda.Ellis@flinders.edu.au [Flinders Centre for Nanoscale Science and Technology, School of Chemical and Physical Sciences, Flinders University, Sturt Road, Bedford Park, Adelaide 5042, SA (Australia)

    2014-05-01

    Highlights: • Natural zeolites were modified with bio-inspired polydopamine. • A 91.4% increase in Cu(II) ion adsorption capacity was observed. • Atomic absorption and neutron activation analysis gave corroborative results. • Neutron activation analysis was used to provide accurate information on 30+ elements. • Approximately 90% of the adsorbed copper could be recovered by 0.1 M HCl treatment. - Abstract: Herein, for the first time, natural clinoptilolite-rich zeolite powders modified with a bio-inspired adhesive, polydopamine (PDA), have been systematically studied as an adsorbent for copper cations (Cu(II)) from aqueous solution. Fourier transform infrared (FTIR) spectroscopy, X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS) and thermogravimetric analysis (TGA) revealed successful grafting of PDA onto the zeolite surface. The effects of pH (2–5.5), PDA treatment time (3–24 h), contact time (0 to 24 h) and initial Cu(II) ion concentrations (1 to 500 mg dm{sup −3}) on the adsorption of Cu(II) ions were studied using atomic absorption spectroscopy (AAS) and neutron activation analysis (NAA). The adsorption behavior was fitted to a Langmuir isotherm and shown to follow a pseudo-second-order reaction model. The maximum adsorption capacities of Cu(II) were shown to be 14.93 mg g{sup −1} for pristine natural zeolite and 28.58 mg g{sup −1} for PDA treated zeolite powders. This impressive 91.4% increase in Cu(II) ion adsorption capacity is attributed to the chelating ability of the PDA on the zeolite surface. Furthermore studies of recyclability using NAA showed that over 50% of the adsorbed copper could be removed in mild concentrations (0.01 M or 0.1 M) of either acid or base.

  6. Bio-inspired Autonomic Structures: a middleware for Telecommunications Ecosystems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Manzalini, Antonio; Minerva, Roberto; Moiso, Corrado

    Today, people are making use of several devices for communications, for accessing multi-media content services, for data/information retrieving, for processing, computing, etc.: examples are laptops, PDAs, mobile phones, digital cameras, mp3 players, smart cards and smart appliances. One of the most attracting service scenarios for future Telecommunications and Internet is the one where people will be able to browse any object in the environment they live: communications, sensing and processing of data and services will be highly pervasive. In this vision, people, machines, artifacts and the surrounding space will create a kind of computational environment and, at the same time, the interfaces to the network resources. A challenging technological issue will be interconnection and management of heterogeneous systems and a huge amount of small devices tied together in networks of networks. Moreover, future network and service infrastructures should be able to provide Users and Application Developers (at different levels, e.g., residential Users but also SMEs, LEs, ASPs/Web2.0 Service roviders, ISPs, Content Providers, etc.) with the most appropriate "environment" according to their context and specific needs. Operators must be ready to manage such level of complication enabling their latforms with technological advanced allowing network and services self-supervision and self-adaptation capabilities. Autonomic software solutions, enhanced with innovative bio-inspired mechanisms and algorithms, are promising areas of long term research to face such challenges. This chapter proposes a bio-inspired autonomic middleware capable of leveraging the assets of the underlying network infrastructure whilst, at the same time, supporting the development of future Telecommunications and Internet Ecosystems.

  7. Carbon nanotube and graphene-based bioinspired electrochemical actuators.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kong, Lirong; Chen, Wei

    2014-02-01

    Bio-inspired actuation materials, also called artificial muscles, have attracted great attention in recent decades for their potential application in intelligent robots, biomedical devices, and micro-electro-mechanical systems. Among them, ionic polymer metal composite (IPMC) actuator has been intensively studied for their impressive high-strain under low voltage stimulation and air-working capability. A typical IPMC actuator is composed of one ion-conductive electrolyte membrane laminated by two electron-conductive metal electrode membranes, which can bend back and forth due to the electrode expansion and contraction induced by ion motion under alternating applied voltage. As its actuation performance is mainly dominated by electrochemical and electromechanical process of the electrode layer, the electrode material and structure become to be more crucial to higher performance. The recent discovery of one dimensional carbon nanotube and two dimensional graphene has created a revolution in functional nanomaterials. Their unique structures render them intriguing electrical and mechanical properties, which makes them ideal flexible electrode materials for IPMC actuators in stead of conventional metal electrodes. Currently although the detailed effect caused by those carbon nanomaterial electrodes is not very clear, the presented outstanding actuation performance gives us tremendous motivation to meet the challenge in understanding the mechanism and thus developing more advanced actuator materials. Therefore, in this review IPMC actuators prepared with different kinds of carbon nanomaterials based electrodes or electrolytes are addressed. Key parameters which may generate important influence on actuation process are discussed in order to shed light on possible future research and application of the novel carbon nanomateials based bio-inspired electrochemical actuators.

  8. Metal-phosphate binders

    Science.gov (United States)

    Howe, Beth Ann [Lewistown, IL; Chaps-Cabrera, Jesus Guadalupe [Coahuila, MX

    2009-05-12

    A metal-phosphate binder is provided. The binder may include an aqueous phosphoric acid solution, a metal-cation donor including a metal other than aluminum, an aluminum-cation donor, and a non-carbohydrate electron donor.

  9. Phosphate control in dialysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cupisti, Adamasco; Gallieni, Maurizio; Rizzo, Maria Antonietta; Caria, Stefania; Meola, Mario; Bolasco, Piergiorgio

    2013-10-04

    Prevention and correction of hyperphosphatemia is a major goal of chronic kidney disease-mineral and bone disorder (CKD-MBD) management, achievable through avoidance of a positive phosphate balance. To this aim, optimal dialysis removal, careful use of phosphate binders, and dietary phosphate control are needed to optimize the control of phosphate balance in well-nourished patients on a standard three-times-a-week hemodialysis schedule. Using a mixed diffusive-convective hemodialysis tecniques, and increasing the number and/or the duration of dialysis tecniques are all measures able to enhance phosphorus (P) mass removal through dialysis. However, dialytic removal does not equal the high P intake linked to the high dietary protein requirement of dialysis patients; hence, the use of intestinal P binders is mandatory to reduce P net intestinal absorption. Unfortunately, even a large dose of P binders is able to bind approximately 200-300 mg of P on a daily basis, so it is evident that their efficacy is limited in the case of an uncontrolled dietary P load. Hence, limitation of dietary P intake is needed to reach the goal of neutral phosphate balance in dialysis, coupled to an adequate protein intake. To this aim, patients should be informed and educated to avoid foods that are naturally rich in phosphate and also processed food with P-containing preservatives. In addition, patients should preferentially choose food with a low P-to-protein ratio. For example, patients could choose egg white or protein from a vegetable source. Finally, boiling should be the preferred cooking procedure, because it induces food demineralization, including phosphate loss. The integrated approach outlined in this article should be actively adapted as a therapeutic alliance by clinicians, dieticians, and patients for an effective control of phosphate balance in dialysis patients.

  10. Chemical, modulus and cell attachment studies of reactive calcium phosphate filler-containing fast photo-curing, surface-degrading, polymeric bone adhesives.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abou Neel, E A; Palmer, G; Knowles, J C; Salih, V; Young, A M

    2010-07-01

    The initial structure, setting and degradation processes of a poly(lactide-co-propylene glycol-co-lactide) dimethacrylate adhesive filled with 50, 60 or 70 wt.% reactive calcium phosphates (monocalcium phosphate monohydrate (MCPM)/beta-tricalcium phosphate (beta-TCP)) have been assessed using nuclear magnetic resonance, Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy, Raman, X-ray powder diffraction and gravimetric studies. Filler incorporation reduced the rapid light-activated monomer polymerization rates slightly, but not the final levels. Upon immersion in water for 24h, the set composite mass and volume increased due to water sorption. This promoted initial soluble MCPM loss from the composite surfaces, but also its reaction and monetite precipitation within the specimen bulk. After 48 h, composite gravimetric and chemical studies were consistent with surface erosion of polymer with reacted/remaining filler. The filled formulations exhibited more rapid early water sorption and subsequent surface erosion than the unfilled polymer. Calcium and phosphate release profiles and solution pH measurements confirmed early loss of surface MCPM with protons from polymer degradation products. At later times, the slower release of monetite/beta-TCP buffered composite storage solutions at approximately 5 instead of 3.2 for the unfilled polymer. Incorporation of filler increased both the early and later time material modulus. At intermediate times this effect was lost, presumably as a result of enhanced water sorption. The early modulus values obtained fell within the range reported for cancellous bone. Despite surface degradation, initial human mesenchymal cell attachment to both composites and polymer could be comparable with a non-degrading positive Thermanox control. These studies indicate that the filled formulations may be good candidates for bone repair. Release of calcium and phosphate ions provides components essential for such repair.

  11. A Protocol for Bioinspired Design: A Ground Sampler Based on Sea Urchin Jaws.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Frank, Michael B; Naleway, Steven E; Wirth, Taylor S; Jung, Jae-Young; Cheung, Charlene L; Loera, Faviola B; Medina, Sandra; Sato, Kirk N; Taylor, Jennifer R A; McKittrick, Joanna

    2016-01-01

    Bioinspired design is an emerging field that takes inspiration from nature to develop high-performance materials and devices. The sea urchin mouthpiece, known as the Aristotle's lantern, is a compelling source of bioinspiration with an intricate network of musculature and calcareous teeth that can scrape, cut, chew food and bore holes into rocky substrates. We describe the bioinspiration process as including animal observation, specimen characterization, device fabrication and mechanism bioexploration. The last step of bioexploration allows for a deeper understanding of the initial biology. The design architecture of the Aristotle's lantern is analyzed with micro-computed tomography and individual teeth are examined with scanning electron microscopy to identify the microstructure. Bioinspired designs are fabricated with a 3D printer, assembled and tested to determine the most efficient lantern opening and closing mechanism. Teeth from the bioinspired lantern design are bioexplored via finite element analysis to explain from a mechanical perspective why keeled tooth structures evolved in the modern sea urchins we observed. This circular approach allows for new conclusions to be drawn from biology and nature.

  12. Phosphate control in dialysis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cupisti A

    2013-10-01

    Full Text Available Adamasco Cupisti,1 Maurizio Gallieni,2 Maria Antonietta Rizzo,2 Stefania Caria,3 Mario Meola,4 Piergiorgio Bolasco31Department of Clinical and Experimental Medicine, University of Pisa, Pisa, Italy; 2Nephrology and Dialysis Unit, San Carlo Borromeo Hospital, Milan, Italy; 3Territorial Department of Nephrology and Dialysis, ASL Cagliari, Italy; 4Sant'Anna School of Advanced Studies, University of Pisa, Pisa, ItalyAbstract: Prevention and correction of hyperphosphatemia is a major goal of chronic kidney disease–mineral and bone disorder (CKD–MBD management, achievable through avoidance of a positive phosphate balance. To this aim, optimal dialysis removal, careful use of phosphate binders, and dietary phosphate control are needed to optimize the control of phosphate balance in well-nourished patients on a standard three-times-a-week hemodialysis schedule. Using a mixed diffusive–convective hemodialysis tecniques, and increasing the number and/or the duration of dialysis tecniques are all measures able to enhance phosphorus (P mass removal through dialysis. However, dialytic removal does not equal the high P intake linked to the high dietary protein requirement of dialysis patients; hence, the use of intestinal P binders is mandatory to reduce P net intestinal absorption. Unfortunately, even a large dose of P binders is able to bind approximately 200–300 mg of P on a daily basis, so it is evident that their efficacy is limited in the case of an uncontrolled dietary P load. Hence, limitation of dietary P intake is needed to reach the goal of neutral phosphate balance in dialysis, coupled to an adequate protein intake. To this aim, patients should be informed and educated to avoid foods that are naturally rich in phosphate and also processed food with P-containing preservatives. In addition, patients should preferentially choose food with a low P-to-protein ratio. For example, patients could choose egg white or protein from a vegetable source

  13. Biofouling behavior and performance of forward osmosis membranes with bioinspired surface modification in osmotic membrane bioreactor.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Fang; Cheng, Qianxun; Tian, Qing; Yang, Bo; Chen, Qianyuan

    2016-07-01

    Forward osmosis (FO) has received considerable interest for water and energy related applications in recent years. Biofouling behavior and performance of cellulose triacetate (CTA) forward osmosis membranes with bioinspired surface modification via polydopamine (PD) coating and poly (ethylene glycol) (PEG) grafting (PD-g-PEG) in a submerged osmotic membrane bioreactor (OMBR) were investigated in this work. The modified membranes exhibited lower flux decline than the pristine one in OMBR, confirming that the bioinspired surface modification improved the antifouling ability of the CTA FO membrane. The result showed that the decline of membrane flux related to the increase of the salinity and MLSS concentration of the mixed liquid. It was concluded that the antifouling ability of modified membranes ascribed to the change of surface morphology in addition to the improvement of membrane hydrophilicity. The bioinspired surface modifications might improve the anti-adhesion for the biopolymers and biocake.

  14. Phosphate Mines, Jordan

    Science.gov (United States)

    2008-01-01

    Jordan's leading industry and export commodities are phosphate and potash, ranked in the top three in the world. These are used to make fertilizer. The Jordan Phosphate Mines Company is the sole producer, having started operations in 1935. In addition to mining activities, the company produces phosphoric acid (for fertilizers, detergents, pharmaceuticals), diammonium phosphate (for fertilizer), sulphuric acid (many uses), and aluminum fluoride (a catalyst to make aluminum and magnesium). The image covers an area of 27.5 x 49.4 km, was acquired on September 17, 2005, and is located near 30.8 degrees north latitude, 36.1 degrees east longitude. The U.S. science team is located at NASA's Jet Propulsion Laboratory, Pasadena, Calif. The Terra mission is part of NASA's Science Mission Directorate.

  15. Bio-inspired routes for synthesizing efficient nanoscale platinum electrocatalysts

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cha, Jennifer N. [Univ. of California, San Diego, CA (United States); Wang, Joseph [Univ. of California, San Diego, CA (United States)

    2014-08-31

    The overall objective of the proposed research is to use fundamental advances in bionanotechnology to design powerful platinum nanocrystal electrocatalysts for fuel cell applications. The new economically-viable, environmentally-friendly, bottom-up biochemical synthetic strategy will produce platinum nanocrystals with tailored size, shape and crystal orientation, hence leading to a maximum electrochemical reactivity. There are five specific aims to the proposed bio-inspired strategy for synthesizing efficient electrocatalytic platinum nanocrystals: (1) isolate peptides that both selectively bind particular crystal faces of platinum and promote the nucleation and growth of particular nanocrystal morphologies, (2) pattern nanoscale 2-dimensional arrays of platinum nucleating peptides from DNA scaffolds, (3) investigate the combined use of substrate patterned peptides and soluble peptides on nanocrystal morphology and growth (4) synthesize platinum crystals on planar and large-area carbon electrode supports, and (5) perform detailed characterization of the electrocatalytic behavior as a function of catalyst size, shape and morphology. Project Description and Impact: This bio-inspired collaborative research effort will address key challenges in designing powerful electrocatalysts for fuel cell applications by employing nucleic acid scaffolds in combination with peptides to perform specific, environmentally-friendly, simultaneous bottom-up biochemical synthesis and patterned assembly of highly uniform and efficient platinum nanocrystal catalysts. Bulk synthesis of nanoparticles usually produces a range of sizes, accessible catalytic sites, crystal morphologies, and orientations, all of which lead to inconsistent catalytic activities. In contrast, biological systems routinely demonstrate exquisite control over inorganic syntheses at neutral pH and ambient temperature and pressures. Because the orientation and arrangement of the templating biomolecules can be precisely

  16. Bio-inspired solutions in design for manufacturing of micro fuel cell

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Omidvarnia, Farzaneh; Hansen, Hans Nørgaard

    2014-01-01

    In this paper the application of biomimetic principles in design for micro manufacturing is investigated. A micro direct methanol fuel cell (μDMFC) for power generation in hearing aid devices is considered as the case study in which the bioinspired functions are replicated. The focus in design of μ......DMFC is mainly on solving the problem of fuel delivery to the anode in the fuel chamber. Two different biological phenomena are suggested, and based on them different bioinspired solutions are proposed and modeled in CAD software. Considering the manufacturing constraints and design specifications...

  17. Bioinspired decision architectures containing host and microbiome processing units.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Heyde, K C; Gallagher, P W; Ruder, W C

    2016-09-27

    Biomimetic robots have been used to explore and explain natural phenomena ranging from the coordination of ants to the locomotion of lizards. Here, we developed a series of decision architectures inspired by the information exchange between a host organism and its microbiome. We first modeled the biochemical exchanges of a population of synthetically engineered E. coli. We then built a physical, differential drive robot that contained an integrated, onboard computer vision system. A relay was established between the simulated population of cells and the robot's microcontroller. By placing the robot within a target-containing a two-dimensional arena, we explored how different aspects of the simulated cells and the robot's microcontroller could be integrated to form hybrid decision architectures. We found that distinct decision architectures allow for us to develop models of computation with specific strengths such as runtime efficiency or minimal memory allocation. Taken together, our hybrid decision architectures provide a new strategy for developing bioinspired control systems that integrate both living and nonliving components.

  18. A bio-inspired image coder with temporal scalability

    CERN Document Server

    Masmoudi, Khaled; Kornprobst, Pierre

    2011-01-01

    We present a novel bio-inspired and dynamic coding scheme for static images. Our coder aims at reproducing the main steps of the visual stimulus processing in the mammalians retina taking into account its time behavior. The main novelty of this work is to show how to exploit the time behavior of the retina cells to ensure, in a simple way, scalability and bit allocation. To do so, our main source of inspiration will be the biologically plausible retina model called Virtual Retina. Following a similar structure, our model has two stages. The first stage is an image transform which is performed by the outer layers in the retina. Here it is modelled by filtering the image with a bank of difference of Gaussians with time-delays. The second stage is a time-dependent analog-to-digital conversion which is performed by the inner layers in the retina. Thanks to its conception, our coder enables scalability and bit allocation across time. Also, compared to the JPEG standards, our decoded images do not show annoying art...

  19. Copper removal using bio-inspired polydopamine coated natural zeolites.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yu, Yang; Shapter, Joseph G; Popelka-Filcoff, Rachel; Bennett, John W; Ellis, Amanda V

    2014-05-30

    Herein, for the first time, natural clinoptilolite-rich zeolite powders modified with a bio-inspired adhesive, polydopamine (PDA), have been systematically studied as an adsorbent for copper cations (Cu(II)) from aqueous solution. Fourier transform infrared (FTIR) spectroscopy, X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS) and thermogravimetric analysis (TGA) revealed successful grafting of PDA onto the zeolite surface. The effects of pH (2-5.5), PDA treatment time (3-24h), contact time (0 to 24h) and initial Cu(II) ion concentrations (1 to 500mgdm(-3)) on the adsorption of Cu(II) ions were studied using atomic absorption spectroscopy (AAS) and neutron activation analysis (NAA). The adsorption behavior was fitted to a Langmuir isotherm and shown to follow a pseudo-second-order reaction model. The maximum adsorption capacities of Cu(II) were shown to be 14.93mgg(-1) for pristine natural zeolite and 28.58mgg(-1) for PDA treated zeolite powders. This impressive 91.4% increase in Cu(II) ion adsorption capacity is attributed to the chelating ability of the PDA on the zeolite surface. Furthermore studies of recyclability using NAA showed that over 50% of the adsorbed copper could be removed in mild concentrations (0.01M or 0.1M) of either acid or base.

  20. A Bio-Inspired Herbal Tea Flavour Assessment Technique

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nur Zawatil Isqi Zakaria

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available Herbal-based products are becoming a widespread production trend among manufacturers for the domestic and international markets. As the production increases to meet the market demand, it is very crucial for the manufacturer to ensure that their products have met specific criteria and fulfil the intended quality determined by the quality controller. One famous herbal-based product is herbal tea. This paper investigates bio-inspired flavour assessments in a data fusion framework involving an e-nose and e-tongue. The objectives are to attain good classification of different types and brands of herbal tea, classification of different flavour masking effects and finally classification of different concentrations of herbal tea. Two data fusion levels were employed in this research, low level data fusion and intermediate level data fusion. Four classification approaches; LDA, SVM, KNN and PNN were examined in search of the best classifier to achieve the research objectives. In order to evaluate the classifiers’ performance, an error estimator based on k-fold cross validation and leave-one-out were applied. Classification based on GC-MS TIC data was also included as a comparison to the classification performance using fusion approaches. Generally, KNN outperformed the other classification techniques for the three flavour assessments in the low level data fusion and intermediate level data fusion. However, the classification results based on GC-MS TIC data are varied.

  1. A bioinspired collision detection algorithm for VLSI implementation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cuadri, J.; Linan, G.; Stafford, R.; Keil, M. S.; Roca, E.

    2005-06-01

    In this paper a bioinspired algorithm for collision detection is proposed, based on previous models of the locust (Locusta migratoria) visual system reported by F.C. Rind and her group, in the University of Newcastle-upon-Tyne. The algorithm is suitable for VLSI implementation in standard CMOS technologies as a system-on-chip for automotive applications. The working principle of the algorithm is to process a video stream that represents the current scenario, and to fire an alarm whenever an object approaches on a collision course. Moreover, it establishes a scale of warning states, from no danger to collision alarm, depending on the activity detected in the current scenario. In the worst case, the minimum time before collision at which the model fires the collision alarm is 40 msec (1 frame before, at 25 frames per second). Since the average time to successfully fire an airbag system is 2 msec, even in the worst case, this algorithm would be very helpful to more efficiently arm the airbag system, or even take some kind of collision avoidance countermeasures. Furthermore, two additional modules have been included: a "Topological Feature Estimator" and an "Attention Focusing Algorithm". The former takes into account the shape of the approaching object to decide whether it is a person, a road line or a car. This helps to take more adequate countermeasures and to filter false alarms. The latter centres the processing power into the most active zones of the input frame, thus saving memory and processing time resources.

  2. Vorticella: A Protozoan for Bio-Inspired Engineering

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sangjin Ryu

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available In this review, we introduce Vorticella as a model biological micromachine for microscale engineering systems. Vorticella has two motile organelles: the oral cilia of the zooid and the contractile spasmoneme in the stalk. The oral cilia beat periodically, generating a water flow that translates food particles toward the animal at speeds in the order of 0.1–1 mm/s. The ciliary flow of Vorticella has been characterized by experimental measurement and theoretical modeling, and tested for flow control and mixing in microfluidic systems. The spasmoneme contracts in a few milliseconds, coiling the stalk and moving the zooid at 15–90 mm/s. Because the spasmoneme generates tension in the order of 10–100 nN, powered by calcium ion binding, it serves as a model system for biomimetic actuators in microscale engineering systems. The spasmonemal contraction of Vorticella has been characterized by experimental measurement of its dynamics and energetics, and both live and extracted Vorticellae have been tested for moving microscale objects. We describe past work to elucidate the contraction mechanism of the spasmoneme, recognizing that past and continuing efforts will increase the possibilities of using the spasmoneme as a microscale actuator as well as leading towards bioinspired actuators mimicking the spasmoneme.

  3. An elastic model for bioinspired design of carbon nanotube bundles

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sun, Xiaoyu; Zhang, Zuoqi; Xu, Yuanjie; Zhang, Yongwei

    2015-04-01

    Collagen fibers provide a good example of making strong micro- or mesoscale fibers from nanoscale tropocollagen molecules through a staggered and cross-linked organization in a bottom-up manner. Mimicking the architectural features of collagen fibers has been shown to be a promising approach to develop carbon nanotube (CNT) fibers of high performance. In the present work, an elastic model is developed to describe the load transfer and failure propagation within the bioinspired CNT bundles, and to establish the relations of the mechanical properties of the bundles with a number of geometrical and physical parameters such as the CNT aspect ratio and longitudinal gap, interface cross-link density, and the functionalization-induced degradation in CNTs, etc. With the model, the stress distributions along the CNT-CNT interface as well as in every individual CNT are well captured, and the failure propagation along the interface and its effects on the mechanical properties of the CNT bundles are predicted. The work may provide useful guidelines for the design of novel CNT fibers in practice.

  4. Optical properties of bio-inspired peptide nanotubes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Handelman, Amir; Apter, Boris; Rosenman, Gil

    2016-04-01

    Supramolecular self-assembled bio-inspired peptide nanostructures are favorable to be implemented in diverse nanophotonics applications due to their superior physical properties such as wideband optical transparency, high second-order nonlinear response, waveguiding properties and more. Here, we focus on the optical properties found in di-phenylalanine peptide nano-architectures, with special emphasize on their linear and nonlinear optical waveguiding effects. Using both simulation and experiments, we show their ability to passively guide light at both fundamental and second-harmonic frequencies. In addition, we show that at elevated temperatures, 140-180°C, these native supramolecular structures undergo irreversible thermally induced transformation via re-assembling into completely new thermodynamically stable phase having nanofiber morphology similar to those of amyloid fibrils. In this new phase, the peptide nanofibers lose their second-order nonlinear response, while exhibit profound modification of optoelectronic properties followed by the appearance of visible (blue and green) photoluminescence (PL). Our study propose a new generation of multifunctional optical waveguides with variety of characteristics, which self-assembled into 1D-elongated nanostructures and could be used as building blocks of many integrated photonic devices.

  5. SABRE: a bio-inspired fault-tolerant electronic architecture.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bremner, P; Liu, Y; Samie, M; Dragffy, G; Pipe, A G; Tempesti, G; Timmis, J; Tyrrell, A M

    2013-03-01

    As electronic devices become increasingly complex, ensuring their reliable, fault-free operation is becoming correspondingly more challenging. It can be observed that, in spite of their complexity, biological systems are highly reliable and fault tolerant. Hence, we are motivated to take inspiration for biological systems in the design of electronic ones. In SABRE (self-healing cellular architectures for biologically inspired highly reliable electronic systems), we have designed a bio-inspired fault-tolerant hierarchical architecture for this purpose. As in biology, the foundation for the whole system is cellular in nature, with each cell able to detect faults in its operation and trigger intra-cellular or extra-cellular repair as required. At the next level in the hierarchy, arrays of cells are configured and controlled as function units in a transport triggered architecture (TTA), which is able to perform partial-dynamic reconfiguration to rectify problems that cannot be solved at the cellular level. Each TTA is, in turn, part of a larger multi-processor system which employs coarser grain reconfiguration to tolerate faults that cause a processor to fail. In this paper, we describe the details of operation of each layer of the SABRE hierarchy, and how these layers interact to provide a high systemic level of fault tolerance.

  6. Bio-inspired fluidic lens surgical camera for MIS.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tsai, Frank S; Johnson, Daniel; Cho, Sung Hwan; Qiao, Wen; Arianpour, Ashkan; Lo, Yu-Hwa

    2009-01-01

    We report a new type of surgical camera that will greatly improve minimally invasive surgery (MIS). The key enabling technology for this camera is a unique type of lens-bio-inspired fluidic lens, which is a bio-mimetic lens that can change its curvature, just like the way human crystalline lens can accommodate. Because of its curvature changing capability, it is now possible to design a new regime of optical systems where auto-focusing and optical zoom can be performed without moving the lens positions, as is done in typical cameras. Hence, miniaturized imaging system with high functionality can be achieved with such technology. MIS is a surgical technique where small incisions are made on the abdominal wall as opposed to a large cut in open surgery. This type of surgery ensures faster patient recovery. The key tool for MIS is its surgical camera, or laparoscope. Traditional laparoscope is long and rigid and limits the field of view. To further advance MIS technology, we utilized bio-inspired fluidic lens to design a highly versatile imager that is small, can change its field of view or zoom optically, works in low light conditions, and varies the viewing angles. The surgical camera prototype is small (total track<17 mm), possesses 3X optical zoom, operates with light emitting diode (LED) lighting, among many other unique features.

  7. Bio-Inspired Stretchable Absolute Pressure Sensor Network.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guo, Yue; Li, Yu-Hung; Guo, Zhiqiang; Kim, Kyunglok; Chang, Fu-Kuo; Wang, Shan X

    2016-01-02

    A bio-inspired absolute pressure sensor network has been developed. Absolute pressure sensors, distributed on multiple silicon islands, are connected as a network by stretchable polyimide wires. This sensor network, made on a 4'' wafer, has 77 nodes and can be mounted on various curved surfaces to cover an area up to 0.64 m × 0.64 m, which is 100 times larger than its original size. Due to Micro Electro-Mechanical system (MEMS) surface micromachining technology, ultrathin sensing nodes can be realized with thicknesses of less than 100 µm. Additionally, good linearity and high sensitivity (~14 mV/V/bar) have been achieved. Since the MEMS sensor process has also been well integrated with a flexible polymer substrate process, the entire sensor network can be fabricated in a time-efficient and cost-effective manner. Moreover, an accurate pressure contour can be obtained from the sensor network. Therefore, this absolute pressure sensor network holds significant promise for smart vehicle applications, especially for unmanned aerial vehicles.

  8. Synthesis of Bioinspired Carbohydrate Amphiphiles that Promote and Inhibit Biofilms.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dane, Eric L; Ballok, Alicia E; O'Toole, George A; Grinstaff, Mark W

    2014-02-01

    The synthesis and characterization of a new class of bioinspired carbohydrate amphiphiles that modulate Pseudomonas aeruginosa biofilm formation are reported. The carbohydrate head is an enantiopure poly-amido-saccharide (PAS) prepared by a controlled anionic polymerization of β-lactam monomers derived from either glucose or galactose. The supramolecular assemblies formed by PAS amphiphiles are investigated in solution using fluorescence assays and dynamic light scattering. Dried samples are investigated using X-ray, infrared spectroscopy, and transmission electron microscopy. Additionally, the amphiphiles are evaluated for their ability to modulate biofilm formation by the Gram-negative bacterium Pseudomonas aeruginosa. Remarkably, from a library of eight amphiphiles, we identify a structure that promotes biofilm formation and two structures that inhibit biofilm formation. Using biological assays and electron microscopy, we relate the chemical structure of the amphiphiles to the observed activity. Materials that modulate the formation of biofilms by bacteria are important both as research tools for microbiologists to study the process of biofilm formation and for their potential to provide new drug candidates for treating biofilm-associated infections.

  9. Electrowetting-controlled bio-inspired artificial iridophores

    Science.gov (United States)

    Manakasettharn, Supone; Taylor, J. Ashley; Krupenkin, Tom

    2011-10-01

    Many marine organisms have evolved complex optical mechanisms of dynamic skin color control that allow them to drastically change their visual appearance. In particular, cephalopods have developed especially effective dynamic color control mechanism based on the mechanical actuation of the micro-scale optical structures, which produce either variable degrees of area coverage by a given color (chromatophores) or variations in spatial orientation of the reflective and diffractive surfaces (iridophores). In this work we describe the design, fabrication and characterization of electrowetting-controlled bio-inspired artificial iridophores. The developed iridophores geometrically resemble microflowers with flexible reflective petals. The microflowers are fabricated on a silicon substrate using surface micromachining techniques. After fabrication a small droplet of conductive liquid is deposited at the center of each microflower. This causes the flower petals to partially wrap around the droplet forming a structure similar to capillary origami. The dynamic control over the degree of wrapping is achieved by applying a voltage differential between the conductive core of the petals and the droplet. The applied voltage causes dynamic contact angle change between the droplet and each of the petals due to the electrowetting effect. We have characterized mechanical and optical properties of the microstructures and discuss their electrowetting-based actuation. These experimental results are in good agreement with a 3D theoretical model based on electrocapillarity and elasticity theory. This work forms the basis for a broad range of novel optical devices.

  10. Bioinspired molecular adhesive for water-resistant oxygen indicator films.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vu, Chau Hai Thai; Won, Keehoon

    2013-01-01

    Mussels can attach themselves to nearly all types of hard surfaces in wet environments. Such attractive adhesive ability of mussels is believed to rely on the amino acid composition of proteins found near the plaque-substrate interface. Dopamine (DA) is identified as a simplified mimic of mussel proteins, which are rich in 3,4-dihydroxy-L-phenylalanine and lysine, because it contains both catechol and amine functional groups. In this work, we have first applied this bioinspired adhesive to tackle a dye leaching problem of colorimetric oxygen indicator films, which are widely used to ensure the absence of oxygen inside the package of oxygen-sensitive materials. Simple immersion of packaging films into a DA solution resulted in poly(DA) deposition, decreasing the water contact angle of the films from 105° to 65°. The poly(DA) coating could reduce the thionine leakage of the UV-activated oxygen indicator film. The effects of poly(DA) coating were found to be dependent on the DA solution pH, the coating time, and the DA concentration. The film resistant to dye leaching lost its dye color by 5 min UVB irradiation and regained the color in the presence of oxygen, demonstrating that it functioned successfully as UV-activated oxygen indicators.

  11. Bio-inspired Self-Adaptive Agents in Distributed Systems

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ichiro SATOH

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available Normal 0 21 false false false EN-US JA X-NONE /* Style Definitions */ table.MsoNormalTable {mso-style-name:"Tabla normal"; mso-tstyle-rowband-size:0; mso-tstyle-colband-size:0; mso-style-noshow:yes; mso-style-priority:99; mso-style-parent:""; mso-padding-alt:0cm 5.4pt 0cm 5.4pt; mso-para-margin:0cm; mso-para-margin-bottom:.0001pt; mso-pagination:widow-orphan; font-size:12.0pt; font-family:Cambria; mso-ascii-font-family:Cambria; mso-ascii-theme-font:minor-latin; mso-hansi-font-family:Cambria; mso-hansi-theme-font:minor-latin; mso-ansi-language:EN-US;} This paper proposes a bio-inspired middleware for selfadaptive software agents on distributed systems. It is unique to other existing approaches for software adaptation because it introduces the notions of differentiation, dedifferentiation, and cellular division in cellular slime molds, e.g., dictyostelium discoideum, into real distributed systems. When an agent delegates a function to another agent coordinating with it, if the former has the function, this function becomes lessdeveloped and the latter’s function becomes welldeveloped.

  12. Bio-inspired color sketch for eco-friendly printing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Safonov, Ilia V.; Tolstaya, Ekaterina V.; Rychagov, Michael N.; Lee, Hokeun; Kim, Sang Ho; Choi, Donchul

    2012-01-01

    Saving of toner/ink consumption is an important task in modern printing devices. It has a positive ecological and social impact. We propose technique for converting print-job pictures to a recognizable and pleasant color sketches. Drawing a "pencil sketch" from a photo relates to a special area in image processing and computer graphics - non-photorealistic rendering. We describe a new approach for automatic sketch generation which allows to create well-recognizable sketches and to preserve partly colors of the initial picture. Our sketches contain significantly less color dots then initial images and this helps to save toner/ink. Our bio-inspired approach is based on sophisticated edge detection technique for a mask creation and multiplication of source image with increased contrast by this mask. To construct the mask we use DoG edge detection, which is a result of blending of initial image with its blurred copy through the alpha-channel, which is created from Saliency Map according to Pre-attentive Human Vision model. Measurement of percentage of saved toner and user study proves effectiveness of proposed technique for toner saving in eco-friendly printing mode.

  13. Bio-inspired Self-Adaptive Agents in Distributed Systems

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ichiro SATOH

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available Normal 0 21 false false false EN-US JA X-NONE /* Style Definitions */ table.MsoNormalTable {mso-style-name:"Tabla normal"; mso-tstyle-rowband-size:0; mso-tstyle-colband-size:0; mso-style-noshow:yes; mso-style-priority:99; mso-style-parent:""; mso-padding-alt:0cm 5.4pt 0cm 5.4pt; mso-para-margin:0cm; mso-para-margin-bottom:.0001pt; mso-pagination:widow-orphan; font-size:12.0pt; font-family:Cambria; mso-ascii-font-family:Cambria; mso-ascii-theme-font:minor-latin; mso-hansi-font-family:Cambria; mso-hansi-theme-font:minor-latin; mso-ansi-language:EN-US;} This paper proposes a bio-inspired middleware for selfadaptive software agents on distributed systems. It is unique to other existing approaches for software adaptation because it introduces the notions of differentiation, dedifferentiation, and cellular division in cellular slime molds, e.g., dictyostelium discoideum, into real distributed systems. When an agent delegates a function to another agent coordinating with it, if the former has the function, this function becomes lessdeveloped and the latter’s function becomes welldeveloped.

  14. Glucose-6-phosphate dehydrogenase deficiency

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... medlineplus.gov/ency/article/000528.htm Glucose-6-phosphate dehydrogenase deficiency To use the sharing features on this page, please enable JavaScript. Glucose-6-phosphate dehydrogenase (G6PD) deficiency is a condition in which ...

  15. Research on Uncrystallized Phosphating Film

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    TANG En-jun; XING Ze-kuan

    2004-01-01

    This article excogitated a kind of uncrystallized phosphating film bears wearing capacity goodly by adding Ca2 + in normal phosphating solution. This technology is very useful to protect steel parts working in oil from abrasion.

  16. Practical application of phosphate treatment

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Caravaggio, Mike [Integrated Chemistry Solutions Pte. Ltd., Singapore (Singapore)

    2011-05-15

    Phosphate treatment has been applied to subcritical fossil power boilers for well over half a century, as well as being used frequently in heat recovery steam generators. The use of this treatment has evolved over the decades, with the operating sodium to phosphate ratio being the defining factor for the evolution of the treatment. The evolving prescribed sodium to phosphate ratios have been based on the scientific research results and operating experience available at the time, and in the latest EPRI Guidelines issued in 2004 are set at a minimum sodium to phosphate ratio of 3:1, with provision to add up to 1 mg . L{sup -1} of additional free caustic. The ratio limitation has always been set in an effort to minimize the potential for corrosion caused by the potential misapplication of the treatment. Typically, the operating ranges for phosphate treatments are depicted on an x-y plot with the x-axis the phosphate concentration and the y-axis the corrected pH value based on the maximum sodium to phosphate ratio allowed for by the treatment. These operating range plots define the theoretical operating range of a phosphate treatment. This paper briefly discusses the origin of the current phosphate control limits in the EPRI Guidelines, discusses phosphate chemistry, outlines the limitations involved when applying a phosphate treatment and provides additional practical guidance for overcoming these limitations and minimizing the potential for corrosion induced by the incorrect application of a phosphate treatment. (orig.)

  17. Bio-Inspired Intelligent Sensing Materials for Fly-by-Feel Autonomous Vehicle

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-08-01

    Method of Approach Ni nanoparticles • Magnetoelectric composite induces strain in Ni nanoparticles • E=0 produces superparamagnetic behavior • E...AFOSR-MURI Bio-inspired Sensory Network current strain Change in resistance and gauge factor K under uniaxial tensile strain . Measured...Effects Ambient temperature, humidity . moisture….. State field distribution -Temperature -Pressure - Air-flow - Strain - Structural damage

  18. Stability of hard plates on soft substrates and application to the design of bioinspired segmented armor

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martini, R.; Barthelat, F.

    2016-07-01

    Flexible natural armors from fish, alligators or armadillo are attracting an increasing amount of attention from their unique and attractive combinations of hardness, flexibility and light weight. In particular, the extreme contrast of stiffness between hard plates and surrounding soft tissues give rise to unusual and attractive mechanisms, which now serve as model for the design of bio-inspired armors. Despite a growing interest in bio-inspired flexible protection, there is little guidelines as to the choice of materials, optimum thickness, size, shape and arrangement for the protective plates. In this work, we focus on a failure mode we recently observed on natural and bio-inspired scaled armors: the unstable tilting of individual scales subjected to off-centered point forces. We first present a series of experiments on this system, followed by a model based on contact mechanics and friction. We condense the result into a single stability diagram which capture the key parameters that govern the onset of plate tilting from a localized force. We found that the stability of individual plates is governed by the location of the point force on the plate, by the friction at the surface of the plate, by the size of the plate and by the stiffness of the substrate. We finally discuss how some of these parameters can be optimized at the design stage to produce bio-inspired protective systems with desired combination of surface hardness, stability and flexural compliance.

  19. Bio-Inspired Energy-Aware Protocol Design for Cooperative Wireless Networks

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Perrucci, Gian Paolo; Anggraeni, Puri Novelti; Wardana, Satya Ardhy;

    2011-01-01

    In this work, bio-inspired cooperation rules are applied to wireless communication networks. The main goal is to derive cooperative behaviour rules to improve the energy consumption of each mobile device. A medium access control (MAC) protocol particularly designed for peer-to-peer communication ...

  20. Bioinspired total synthesis of katsumadain A by organocatalytic enantioselective 1,4-conjugate addition

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yongguang Wang

    2013-08-01

    Full Text Available Katsumadain A, a naturally occurring influenza virus neuraminidase (NA inhibitor, was synthesized by using a bioinspired, organocatalytic enantioselective 1,4-conjugate addition of styryl-2-pyranone with cinnamaldehyde, followed by a tandem Horner–Wadsworth–Emmons/oxa Michael addition.

  1. Calcium Phosphate Biomaterials: An Update

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2005-01-01

    Current calcium phosphate (CaP) biomaterials for bone repair, substitution, augmentation and regeneration include hydroxyapatite ( HA ) from synthetic or biologic origin, beta-tricalcium phosphate ( β-TCP ) , biphasic calcium phosphate (BCP), and are available as granules, porous blocks, components of composites (CaP/polymer) cements, and as coatings on orthopedic and dental implants. Experimental calcium phosphate biomaterials include CO3- and F-substituted apatites, Mg-and Zn-substituted β-TCP, calcium phosphate glasses. This paper is a brief review of the different types of CaP biomaterials and their properties such as bioactivity, osteoconductivity, osteoinductivity.

  2. Biomediated continuous release phosphate fertilizer

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goldstein, Alan H.; Rogers, Robert D.

    1999-01-01

    A composition is disclosed for providing phosphate fertilizer to the root zone of plants. The composition comprises a microorganism capable of producing and secreting a solubilization agent, a carbon source for providing raw material for the microorganism to convert into the solubilization agent, and rock phosphate ore for providing a source of insoluble phosphate that is solubilized by the solubilization agent and released as soluble phosphate. The composition is provided in a physical form, such as a granule, that retains the microorganism, carbon source, and rock phosphate ore, but permits water and soluble phosphate to diffuse into the soil. A method of using the composition for providing phosphate fertilizer to plants is also disclosed.

  3. Principle of bio-inspired insect wing rotational hinge design

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fei, Fan

    A principle for designing and fabricating bio-inspired miniature artificial insect flapping wing using flexure rotational hinge design is presented. A systematic approach of selecting rotational hinge stiffness value is proposed. Based on the understanding of flapping wing aerodynamics, a dynamic simulation is constructed using the established quasi-steady model and the wing design. Simulations were performed to gain insight on how different parameters affect the wing rotational response. Based on system resonance a model to predict the optimal rotational hinge stiffness based on given wing parameter and flapping wing kinematic is proposed. By varying different wing parameters, the proposed method is shown to be applicable to a wide range of wing designs with different sizes and shapes. With the selected hinge stiffness value, aspects of the rotational joint design is discussed and an integrated wing-hinge structure design using laminated carbon fiber and polymer film is presented. Manufacturing process of such composite structure is developed to achieve high accuracy and repeatability. The yielded hinge stiffness is verified by measurements. To validate the proposed model, flapping wing experiments were conducted. A flapping actuation set up is built using DC motor and a controller is implemented on a microcontroller to track desired wing stroke kinematic. Wing stroke and rotation kinematic were extracted using a high speed camera and the lift generation is evaluated. A total of 49 flapping experiments were presented, experimental data shows good correlation with the model's prediction. With the wing rotational hinge stiffness designed so that the rotational resonant frequency is twice as the stroke frequency, the resulting wing rotation generates near optimal lift. With further simulation, the proposed model shows low sensitivity to wing parameter variation. As a result, giving a design parameter of a flapping wing robot platform, the proposed principle can

  4. Correction: Synergism between genome sequencing, tandem mass spectrometry and bio-inspired synthesis reveals insights into nocardioazine B biogenesis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alqahtani, Norah; Porwal, Suheel K; James, Elle D; Bis, Dana M; Karty, Jonathan A; Lane, Amy L; Viswanathan, Rajesh

    2015-09-21

    Correction for 'Synergism between genome sequencing, tandem mass spectrometry and bio-inspired synthesis reveals insights into nocardioazine B biogenesis' by Norah Alqahtani et al., Org. Biomol. Chem., 2015, 13, 7177-7192.

  5. Bio-inspired motion estimation – From modelling to evaluation, can biology be a source of inspiration?

    OpenAIRE

    Tlapale, Émilien; Kornprobst, Pierre; Masson, Guillaume; Faugeras, Olivier; Bouecke, Jan,; Neumann, Heiko

    2010-01-01

    We propose a bio-inspired approach to motion estimation based on recent neuroscience findings concerning the motion pathway. Our goal is to identify the key biological features in order to reach a good compromise between bio-inspiration and computational efficiency. Here we choose the neural field formalism which provides a sound mathematical framework to describe the model at a macroscopic scale. Within this framework we define the cortical activity as coupled integro-differential equations ...

  6. Pyridoxal phosphate-dependent neonatal epileptic encephalopathy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bagci, S; Zschocke, J; Hoffmann, G F; Bast, T; Klepper, J; Müller, A; Heep, A; Bartmann, P; Franz, A R

    2008-03-01

    Pyridox(am)ine-5'-phosphate oxidase converts pyridoxine phosphate and pyridoxamine phosphate to pyridoxal phosphate, a cofactor in many metabolic reactions, including neurotransmitter synthesis. A family with a mutation in the pyridox(am)ine-5'-phosphate oxidase gene presenting with neonatal seizures unresponsive to pyridoxine and anticonvulsant treatment but responsive to pyridoxal phosphate is described. Pyridoxal phosphate should be considered in neonatal epileptic encephalopathy unresponsive to pyridoxine.

  7. Pyridoxal phosphate-dependent neonatal epileptic encephalopathy

    OpenAIRE

    2009-01-01

    Pyridox(am)ine-5′-phosphate oxidase converts pyridoxine phosphate and pyridoxamine phosphate to pyridoxal phosphate, a cofactor in many metabolic reactions, including neurotransmitter synthesis. A family with a mutation in the pyridox(am)ine-5′-phosphate oxidase gene presenting with neonatal seizures unresponsive to pyridoxine and anticonvulsant treatment but responsive to pyridoxal phosphate is described. Pyridoxal phosphate should be considered in neonatal epileptic encephalopathy unrespons...

  8. Bio-inspired Nanomaterials for Biosensing and Cell Response

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stevens, Molly

    2012-02-01

    This talk will provide an overview of our recent developments in bio-inspired nanomaterials for tissue regeneration and sensing. Bio-responsive nanomaterials are of growing importance with potential applications including drug delivery, diagnostics and tissue engineering [1]. DNA-, protein- or peptide-functionalised nanoparticle (NP) aggregates are particularly useful systems since triggered changes in their aggregation states may be readily monitored. Our recent simple conceptually novel approaches to real-time monitoring of protease, lipase and kinase enzyme action using modular peptide functionalized NPs will be presented [2,3,4]. The highly interdisciplinary field of Tissue Engineering (TE) can also benefit from advances in the design of bio-responsive nanomaterials. TE involves the development of artificial scaffold structures on which new cells are encouraged to grow. The ability to control topography and chemistry at the nanoscale offers exciting possibilities for stimulating growth of new tissue through the development of novel nanostructured scaffolds that mimic the nanostructure of the tissues in the body [1,5,6]. Recent developments in this context will be discussed as well as novel approaches to in vivo tissue regeneration of large volumes of highly vascularised and hierarchically organized tissue [7,8,9]. [4pt] [1] MM Stevens, J George. Science 310:1135-1138 (2005)[0pt] [2] A Laromaine, L Koh, M Murugesan, RV Ulijn, MM Stevens. Journal of the American Chemical Society 129:4156-4157 (2007)[0pt] [3] J Ghadiali, MM Stevens. Advanced Materials 20: 4359-4363 (2008); J Ghadiali et al, ACS Nano 4:4915-4919 (2010)[0pt] [4] D Aili, M Mager, D Roche, MM Stevens. Nano Letters 11:1401-1405 (2011) [0pt] [5] E Place, ND Evans, MM Stevens. Nature Materials 8:457-470 (2009)[0pt] [6] MD Mager, V LaPointe, MM Stevens. Nature Chemistry 3:582-589 (2011)[0pt] [7] MM Stevens et. al. Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. USA 102:11450-11455 (2005)[0pt] [8] E Gentleman et al. Nature

  9. Bio-inspired citrate-functionalized apatite thin films crystallized on Ti-6Al-4V implants pre-coated with corrosion resistant layers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Delgado-López, José Manuel; Iafisco, Michele; Rodríguez-Ruiz, Isaac; Gómez-Morales, Jaime

    2013-10-01

    In this paper the crystallization of a bioinspired citrate-functionalized apatite (cit-Ap) thin film (thickness about 2μm) on Ti-6Al-4V supports pre-coated with bioactive and corrosion resistant buffer layer of silicon nitride (Si3N4), silicon carbide (SiC) or titanium nitride (TiN) is reported. The apatitic coatings were produced by a new coating technique based on the induction heating of the implants immersed in a flowing calcium-citrate-phosphate solution at pH11. The influence of the buffer layers and the surface roughness of the substrate on the chemical-physical features and adhesion of the cit-Ap films were investigated. The best plasticity, compactness and adherence properties have been found in the Ap layer grown on Si3N4, followed by the Ap grown on SiC and TiN, respectively. The adhesion property was likely related to the roughness of the buffered substrates, whereas the compactness and plasticity were closely related to the operating conditions during the Ap crystallization (flow rate of the solution and increase of temperature) rather than to the nature of the buffer layer.

  10. Triphenyl phosphate allergy from spectacle frames

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Carlsen, L; Andersen, K E; Egsgaard, Helge

    1986-01-01

    A case of triphenyl phosphate allergy from spectacle frames is reported. Patch tests with analytical grade triphenyl phosphate, tri-m-cresyl phosphate, and tri-p-cresyl phosphate in the concentrations 5%, 0.5% and 0.05% pet. showed positive reactions to 0.05% triphenyl phosphate and 0.5% tri-m-cr...

  11. Silicification and biosilicification: The role of macromolecules in bioinspired silica synthesis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Patwardhan, Siddharth Vijay

    Diatoms, sponges and grasses are all known to produce ornate biogenic silica structures under ambient conditions. Some aspects of the molecular mechanism controlling biosilicification have recently been elucidated. The entrapment of the catalyzing/templating/scaffolding biomacromolecules enables them to be recovered by selective dissolution of biosilica. The proteins extracted from the diatom Cylindrotheca fusiformis (silaffins) and the sponge Tethya aurantia (silicateins) have been shown to precipitate silica from silica precursors in vitro. The identification of synthetic macromolecules that can act as catalysts/templates/scaffolds for silica formation gives exciting possibilities for bioinspired silica synthesis. Herein, the role of various synthetic (bio)macromolecules in silicification is studied. Attempts have also been made to understand the mechanism(s) governing (bio)macromolecule mediated (bio)silicification. Furthermore, the results and the understanding gained from various synthetic systems are used to demonstrate the potential of such bioinspired routes to develop new materials.

  12. 6th International Conference on Innovations in Bio-Inspired Computing and Applications

    CERN Document Server

    Abraham, Ajith; Krömer, Pavel; Pant, Millie; Muda, Azah

    2016-01-01

    This Volume contains the papers presented during the 6th International Conference on Innovations in Bio-Inspired Computing and Applications IBICA 2015 which was held in Kochi, India during December 16-18, 2015. The 51 papers presented in this Volume were carefully reviewed and selected. The 6th International Conference IBICA 2015 has been organized to discuss the state-of-the-art as well as to address various issues in the growing research field of Bio-inspired Computing which is currently one of the most exciting research areas, and is continuously demonstrating exceptional strength in solving complex real life problems. The Volume will be a valuable reference to researchers, students and practitioners in the computational intelligence field.

  13. INVESTIGATING PECTORAL SHAPES AND LOCOMOTIVE STRATEGIES FOR CONCEPTUAL DESIGNING BIO-INSPIRED ROBOTIC FISH

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. I. MAINONG

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper describes the performance analysis of a conceptual bio-inspired robotic fish design, which is based on the morphology similar to the boxfish (Ostracion melagris. The robotic fish prototype is driven by three micro servos; two on the pectoral fins, and one on the caudal fin. Two electronic rapid prototyping boards were employed; one for the movement of robotic fish, and one for the force sensors measurements. The robotic fish were built using fused deposition modeling (FDM, more popularly known as the 3D printing method. Several designs of pectoral fins (rectangular, triangular and quarter-ellipse with unchanging the value of aspect ratio (AR employed to measure the performance of the prototype robotic fish in terms of hydrodynamics, thrust and maneuvering characteristics. The analysis of the unmanned robotic system performance is made experimentally and the results show that the proposed bioinspired robotic prototype opens up the possibility of design optimization research for future work.

  14. Overcoming the brittleness of glass through bio-inspiration and micro-architecture

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mirkhalaf, M.; Dastjerdi, A. Khayer; Barthelat, F.

    2014-01-01

    Highly mineralized natural materials such as teeth or mollusk shells boast unusual combinations of stiffness, strength and toughness currently unmatched by engineering materials. While high mineral contents provide stiffness and hardness, these materials also contain weaker interfaces with intricate architectures, which can channel propagating cracks into toughening configurations. Here we report the implementation of these features into glass, using a laser engraving technique. Three-dimensional arrays of laser-generated microcracks can deflect and guide larger incoming cracks, following the concept of ‘stamp holes’. Jigsaw-like interfaces, infiltrated with polyurethane, furthermore channel cracks into interlocking configurations and pullout mechanisms, significantly enhancing energy dissipation and toughness. Compared with standard glass, which has no microstructure and is brittle, our bio-inspired glass displays built-in mechanisms that make it more deformable and 200 times tougher. This bio-inspired approach, based on carefully architectured interfaces, provides a new pathway to toughening glasses, ceramics or other hard and brittle materials.

  15. Biophysics and Thermodynamics: The Scientific Building Blocks of Bio-inspired Drug Delivery Nano Systems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Demetzos, Costas

    2015-06-01

    Biophysics and thermodynamics are considered as the scientific milestones for investigating the properties of materials. The relationship between the changes of temperature with the biophysical variables of biomaterials is important in the process of the development of drug delivery systems. Biophysics is a challenge sector of physics and should be used complementary with the biochemistry in order to discover new and promising technological platforms (i.e., drug delivery systems) and to disclose the 'silence functionality' of bio-inspired biological and artificial membranes. Thermal analysis and biophysical approaches in pharmaceuticals present reliable and versatile tools for their characterization and for the successful development of pharmaceutical products. The metastable phases of self-assembled nanostructures such as liposomes should be taken into consideration because they represent the thermal events can affect the functionality of advanced drug delivery nano systems. In conclusion, biophysics and thermodynamics are characterized as the building blocks for design and development of bio-inspired drug delivery systems.

  16. A bio-inspired apposition compound eye machine vision sensor system.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Davis, J D; Barrett, S F; Wright, C H G; Wilcox, M

    2009-12-01

    The Wyoming Information, Signal Processing, and Robotics Laboratory is developing a wide variety of bio-inspired vision sensors. We are interested in exploring the vision system of various insects and adapting some of their features toward the development of specialized vision sensors. We do not attempt to supplant traditional digital imaging techniques but rather develop sensor systems tailor made for the application at hand. We envision that many applications may require a hybrid approach using conventional digital imaging techniques enhanced with bio-inspired analogue sensors. In this specific project, we investigated the apposition compound eye and its characteristics commonly found in diurnal insects and certain species of arthropods. We developed and characterized an array of apposition compound eye-type sensors and tested them on an autonomous robotic vehicle. The robot exhibits the ability to follow a pre-defined target and avoid specified obstacles using a simple control algorithm.

  17. A bio-inspired apposition compound eye machine vision sensor system

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Davis, J D [Applied Research Laboratories, University of Texas, 10000 Burnet Rd, Austin, TX 78757 (United States); Barrett, S F; Wright, C H G [Electrical and Computer Engineering, University of Wyoming, Dept 3295 1000 E. University Ave, Laramie, WY 82071 (United States); Wilcox, M, E-mail: steveb@uwyo.ed [Department of Biology, United States Air Force Academy, CO 80840 (United States)

    2009-12-15

    The Wyoming Information, Signal Processing, and Robotics Laboratory is developing a wide variety of bio-inspired vision sensors. We are interested in exploring the vision system of various insects and adapting some of their features toward the development of specialized vision sensors. We do not attempt to supplant traditional digital imaging techniques but rather develop sensor systems tailor made for the application at hand. We envision that many applications may require a hybrid approach using conventional digital imaging techniques enhanced with bio-inspired analogue sensors. In this specific project, we investigated the apposition compound eye and its characteristics commonly found in diurnal insects and certain species of arthropods. We developed and characterized an array of apposition compound eye-type sensors and tested them on an autonomous robotic vehicle. The robot exhibits the ability to follow a pre-defined target and avoid specified obstacles using a simple control algorithm.

  18. Multibody system dynamics for bio-inspired locomotion: from geometric structures to computational aspects.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boyer, Frédéric; Porez, Mathieu

    2015-03-26

    This article presents a set of generic tools for multibody system dynamics devoted to the study of bio-inspired locomotion in robotics. First, archetypal examples from the field of bio-inspired robot locomotion are presented to prepare the ground for further discussion. The general problem of locomotion is then stated. In considering this problem, we progressively draw a unified geometric picture of locomotion dynamics. For that purpose, we start from the model of discrete mobile multibody systems (MMSs) that we progressively extend to the case of continuous and finally soft systems. Beyond these theoretical aspects, we address the practical problem of the efficient computation of these models by proposing a Newton-Euler-based approach to efficient locomotion dynamics with a few illustrations of creeping, swimming, and flying.

  19. A Bioinspired Multifunctional Heterogeneous Membrane with Ultrahigh Ionic Rectification and Highly Efficient Selective Ionic Gating.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Zhen; Kong, Xiang-Yu; Xiao, Kai; Xie, Ganhua; Liu, Qian; Tian, Ye; Zhang, Huacheng; Ma, Jie; Wen, Liping; Jiang, Lei

    2016-01-06

    A bioinspired multifunctional heterogeneous membrane composed of a block copolymer (PS-b-P4VP) membrane and a porous anodic alumina membrane is fabricated. The ionic rectification is so strong that the maximum ratio is ≈489, and the chemical actuation of the anion or cation gate from the "OFF" to the "ON" state promotes a 98.5% increase in the channel conductance.

  20. Protocols for Bio-Inspired Resource Discovery and Erasure Coded Replication in P2P Networks

    CERN Document Server

    Thampi, Sabu M

    2010-01-01

    Efficient resource discovery and availability improvement are very important issues in unstructured P2P networks. In this paper, a bio-inspired resource discovery scheme inspired by the principle of elephants migration is proposed. A replication scheme based on Q-learning and erasure codes is also introduced. Simulation results show that the proposed schemes significantly increases query success rate and availability, and reduces the network traffic as the resources are effectively distributed to well-performing nodes.

  1. Optic flow estimation on trajectories generated by bio-inspired closed-loop flight.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shoemaker, Patrick A; Hyslop, Andrew M; Humbert, J Sean

    2011-05-01

    We generated panoramic imagery by simulating a fly-like robot carrying an imaging sensor, moving in free flight through a virtual arena bounded by walls, and containing obstructions. Flight was conducted under closed-loop control by a bio-inspired algorithm for visual guidance with feedback signals corresponding to the true optic flow that would be induced on an imager (computed by known kinematics and position of the robot relative to the environment). The robot had dynamics representative of a housefly-sized organism, although simplified to two-degree-of-freedom flight to generate uniaxial (azimuthal) optic flow on the retina in the plane of travel. Surfaces in the environment contained images of natural and man-made scenes that were captured by the moving sensor. Two bio-inspired motion detection algorithms and two computational optic flow estimation algorithms were applied to sequences of image data, and their performance as optic flow estimators was evaluated by estimating the mutual information between outputs and true optic flow in an equatorial section of the visual field. Mutual information for individual estimators at particular locations within the visual field was surprisingly low (less than 1 bit in all cases) and considerably poorer for the bio-inspired algorithms that the man-made computational algorithms. However, mutual information between weighted sums of these signals and comparable sums of the true optic flow showed significant increases for the bio-inspired algorithms, whereas such improvement did not occur for the computational algorithms. Such summation is representative of the spatial integration performed by wide-field motion-sensitive neurons in the third optic ganglia of flies.

  2. An experimental study on adhesive or antiadhesiveand strong bio-inspired nanomaterials

    OpenAIRE

    Lepore, Emiliano

    2012-01-01

    This experimental PhD thesis presents the results of research performed in five different facilities: in the Laboratory of Bio-inspired Nanomechanics "Giuseppe Maria Pugno" at the Politecnico of Torino, the "Nanofacility Piemonte" at the INRIM Institute in Torino, the Division of Dental Sciences and Biomaterials of the Department of Biomedicine at the University of Trieste, the Physics Department of the Politecnico of Torino, the Toscano- Buono Veterinary Surgery in Torino and the Department ...

  3. Bioinspired Nanosucker Array for Enhancing Bioelectricity Generation in Microbial Fuel Cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Wei; You, Shijie; Gong, Xiaobo; Qi, Dianpeng; Chandran, Bevita K; Bi, Lanpo; Cui, Fuyi; Chen, Xiaodong

    2016-01-13

    A bioinspired active anode with a suction effect is demonstrated for microbial fuel cells by constructing polypyrrole (PPy) nanotubular arrays on carbon textiles. The oxygen in the inner space of the nanosucker can be depleted by micro-organisms with the capability of facul-tative respiration, forming a vacuum, which then activates the electrode to draw the microorganism by suction and thus improve the bioelectricity generation.

  4. Feasibility Study of a Bio-inspired Artificial Pancreas in Adults with Type 1 Diabetes

    OpenAIRE

    Reddy, Monika; Herrero, Pau; El Sharkawy, Mohamed; Pesl, Peter; Jugnee, Narvada; Thomson, Hazel; Pavitt, Darrell; Toumazou, Christofer; Johnston, Desmond; Georgiou, Pantelis; Oliver, Nick

    2014-01-01

    Background: This study assesses proof of concept and safety of a novel bio-inspired artificial pancreas (BiAP) system in adults with type 1 diabetes during fasting, overnight, and postprandial conditions. In contrast to existing glucose controllers in artificial pancreas systems, the BiAP uses a control algorithm based on a mathematical model of β-cell physiology. The algorithm is implemented on a miniature silicon microchip within a portable hand-held device that interfaces the components of...

  5. Programmable thermal emissivity structures based on bioinspired self-shape materials

    OpenAIRE

    Athanasopoulos, N.; N. J. Siakavellas

    2015-01-01

    Programmable thermal emissivity structures based on the bioinspired self-shape anisotropic materials were developed at macro-scale, and further studied theoretically at smaller scale. We study a novel concept, incorporating materials that are capable of transforming their shape via microstructural rearrangements under temperature stimuli, while avoiding the use of exotic shape memory materials or complex micro-mechanisms. Thus, programmed thermal emissivity behaviour of a surface is achievabl...

  6. Limited Bandwidth Recognition of Collective Behaviors in Bio-Inspired Swarms

    Science.gov (United States)

    2014-05-09

    UAV path planning and applies to some constant-speed, non-holonomic ground robots [5]. Similar to the Couzin model of biological swarms [3] and the...BEHAVIORS IN BIO-INSPIRED SWARMS 5a. CONTRACT NUMBER IN-HOUSE 5b. GRANT NUMBER 5c. PROGRAM ELEMENT NUMBER 62788F 6. AUTHOR(S) Daniel S. Brown (AFRL... swarming and modes of controlling them are numerous; however, to date swarm researchers have mostly ignored a fundamental problem that impedes

  7. Bio-inspired optimization algorithms for optical parameter extraction of dielectric materials: A comparative study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ghulam Saber, Md; Arif Shahriar, Kh; Ahmed, Ashik; Hasan Sagor, Rakibul

    2016-10-01

    Particle swarm optimization (PSO) and invasive weed optimization (IWO) algorithms are used for extracting the modeling parameters of materials useful for optics and photonics research community. These two bio-inspired algorithms are used here for the first time in this particular field to the best of our knowledge. The algorithms are used for modeling graphene oxide and the performances of the two are compared. Two objective functions are used for different boundary values. Root mean square (RMS) deviation is determined and compared.

  8. Bio-Inspired Controller on an FPGA Applied to Closed-Loop Diaphragmatic Stimulation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zbrzeski, Adeline; Bornat, Yannick; Hillen, Brian; Siu, Ricardo; Abbas, James; Jung, Ranu; Renaud, Sylvie

    2016-01-01

    Cervical spinal cord injury can disrupt connections between the brain respiratory network and the respiratory muscles which can lead to partial or complete loss of ventilatory control and require ventilatory assistance. Unlike current open-loop technology, a closed-loop diaphragmatic pacing system could overcome the drawbacks of manual titration as well as respond to changing ventilation requirements. We present an original bio-inspired assistive technology for real-time ventilation assistance, implemented in a digital configurable Field Programmable Gate Array (FPGA). The bio-inspired controller, which is a spiking neural network (SNN) inspired by the medullary respiratory network, is as robust as a classic controller while having a flexible, low-power and low-cost hardware design. The system was simulated in MATLAB with FPGA-specific constraints and tested with a computational model of rat breathing; the model reproduced experimentally collected respiratory data in eupneic animals. The open-loop version of the bio-inspired controller was implemented on the FPGA. Electrical test bench characterizations confirmed the system functionality. Open and closed-loop paradigm simulations were simulated to test the FPGA system real-time behavior using the rat computational model. The closed-loop system monitors breathing and changes in respiratory demands to drive diaphragmatic stimulation. The simulated results inform future acute animal experiments and constitute the first step toward the development of a neuromorphic, adaptive, compact, low-power, implantable device. The bio-inspired hardware design optimizes the FPGA resource and time costs while harnessing the computational power of spike-based neuromorphic hardware. Its real-time feature makes it suitable for in vivo applications.

  9. Distributed Synchronization Technique for OFDMA-Based Wireless Mesh Networks Using a Bio-Inspired Algorithm

    OpenAIRE

    Mi Jeong Kim; Sung Joon Maeng; Yong Soo Cho

    2015-01-01

    In this paper, a distributed synchronization technique based on a bio-inspired algorithm is proposed for an orthogonal frequency division multiple access (OFDMA)-based wireless mesh network (WMN) with a time difference of arrival. The proposed time- and frequency-synchronization technique uses only the signals received from the neighbor nodes, by considering the effect of the propagation delay between the nodes. It achieves a fast synchronization with a relatively low computational complexity...

  10. 7th International Conference on Bio-Inspired Computing : Theories and Applications

    CERN Document Server

    Singh, Pramod; Deep, Kusum; Pant, Millie; Nagar, Atulya

    2013-01-01

    The book is a collection of high quality peer reviewed research papers presented in Seventh International Conference on Bio-Inspired Computing (BIC-TA 2012) held at ABV-IIITM Gwalior, India. These research papers provide the latest developments in the broad area of "Computational Intelligence". The book discusses wide variety of industrial, engineering and scientific applications of nature/bio-inspired computing and presents invited papers from the inventors/originators of novel computational techniques.

  11. Bioinspired engineering of exploration systems for NASA and DoD

    OpenAIRE

    Thakoor, Sarita; Chahl, Javaan; Srinivasan, M. V.; Young, L.; Werblin, Frank; Hine, Butler; Zornetzer, Steven

    2002-01-01

    A new approach called bioinspired engineering of exploration systems (BEES) and its value for solving pressing NASA and DoD needs are described. Insects (for example honeybees and dragonflies) cope remarkably well with their world, despite possessing a brain containing less than 0.01% as many neurons as the human brain. Although most insects have immobile eyes with fixed focus optics and lack stereo vision, they use a number of ingenious, computationally simple strategies for perceiving their...

  12. Light weight phosphate cements

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wagh, Arun S.; Natarajan, Ramkumar,; Kahn, David

    2010-03-09

    A sealant having a specific gravity in the range of from about 0.7 to about 1.6 for heavy oil and/or coal bed methane fields is disclosed. The sealant has a binder including an oxide or hydroxide of Al or of Fe and a phosphoric acid solution. The binder may have MgO or an oxide of Fe and/or an acid phosphate. The binder is present from about 20 to about 50% by weight of the sealant with a lightweight additive present in the range of from about 1 to about 10% by weight of said sealant, a filler, and water sufficient to provide chemically bound water present in the range of from about 9 to about 36% by weight of the sealant when set. A porous ceramic is also disclosed.

  13. New development thoughts on the bio-inspired intelligence based control for unmanned combat aerial vehicle

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2010-01-01

    Bio-inspired intelligence is in the spotlight in the field of international artificial intelligence,and unmanned combat aerial vehicle(UCAV),owing to its potential to perform dangerous,repetitive tasks in remote and hazardous,is very promising for the technological leadership of the nation and essential for improving the security of society.On the basis of introduction of bioinspired intelligence and UCAV,a series of new development thoughts on UCAV control are proposed,including artificial brain based high-level autonomous control for UCAV,swarm intelligence based cooperative control for multiple UCAVs,hy-brid swarm intelligence and Bayesian network based situation assessment under complicated combating environments, bio-inspired hardware based high-level autonomous control for UCAV,and meta-heuristic intelligence based heterogeneous cooperative control for multiple UCAVs and unmanned combat ground vehicles(UCGVs).The exact realization of the proposed new development thoughts can enhance the effectiveness of combat,while provide a series of novel breakthroughs for the intelligence,integration and advancement of future UCAV systems.

  14. Cochlear outer hair cell bio-inspired metamaterial with negative effective parameters

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ma, Fuyin; Wu, Jiu Hui; Huang, Meng; Zhang, Siwen

    2016-05-01

    Inspired by periodical outer hair cells (OHCs) and stereocilia clusters of mammalian cochlear, a type of bio-inspired metamaterial with negative effective parameters based on the OHC structure is proposed. With the structural parameters modified and some common engineering materials adopted, the bio-inspired structure design with length scales of millimeter and lightweight is presented, and then, a bending wave bandgap in a favorable low-frequency with width of 55 Hz during the interval 21-76 or 116 Hz during the interval 57-173 Hz is obtained, i.e., the excellent low-frequency acoustic performance turns up. Compared with the local resonance unit in previous literatures, both the size and weight are greatly reduced in our bio-inspired structure. In addition, the lower edge of low-frequency bandgap is reduced by an order of magnitude, almost to the lower limit frequency of the hearing threshold as well, which achieves an important breakthrough on the aspect of low-frequency and great significance on the noise and vibration reduction in low-frequency range.

  15. How flexibility and dynamic ground effect could improve bio-inspired propulsion

    Science.gov (United States)

    Quinn, Daniel

    2016-11-01

    Swimming animals use complex fin motions to reach remarkable levels of efficiency, maneuverability, and stealth. Propulsion systems inspired by these motions could usher in a new generation of advanced underwater vehicles. Two aspects of bio-inspired propulsion are discussed here: flexibility and near-boundary swimming. Experimental work on flexible propulsors shows that swimming efficiency depends on wake vortex timing and boundary layer attachment, but also on fluid-structure resonance. As a result, flexible vehicles or animals could potentially improve their performance by tracking their resonance properties. Bio-inspired propulsors were also found to produce more thrust with no loss in efficiency when swimming near a solid boundary. Higher lift-to-drag ratios for near-ground fixed-wing gliders is commonly known as ground effect. This newly observed "dynamic ground effect" suggests that bio-inspired vehicles and animals could save energy by harnessing the performance gains associated with near-boundary swimming. This work was supported by the Office of Naval Research (MURI N00014-08-1-0642, Program Director Dr. Bob Brizzolara) and the National Science Foundation (DBI-1062052, PI Lisa Fauci; EFRI-0938043, PI George Lauder).

  16. Bio-inspired polymeric patterns with enhanced wear durability for microsystem applications

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Singh, R. Arvind; Siyuan, L.; Satyanarayana, N. [Department of Mechanical Engineering, National University of Singapore, 9 Engineering Drive 1, Singapore 117576 (Singapore); Kustandi, T.S. [Institute of Materials Research and Engineering, A-STAR, 3 Research Link, Singapore 117602 (Singapore); Sinha, Sujeet K., E-mail: mpesks@nus.edu.sg [Department of Mechanical Engineering, National University of Singapore, 9 Engineering Drive 1, Singapore 117576 (Singapore)

    2011-10-10

    At micro/nano-scale, friction force dominates at the interface between bodies moving in relative motion and severely affects their smooth operation. This effect limits the performance of microsystem devices such as micro-electro-mechanical systems (MEMS). In addition, friction force also leads to material removal or wear and thereby reduces the durability i.e. the useful operating life of the devices. In this work, we fabricated bio-inspired polymeric patterns for tribological applications. Inspired by the surface features on lotus leaves namely, the protuberances and wax, SU-8 polymeric films spin-coated on silicon wafers were topographically and chemically modified. For topographical modification, micro-scale patterns were fabricated using nanoimprint lithography and for chemical modification, the micro-patterns were coated with perfluoropolyether nanolubricant. Tribological investigation of the bio-inspired patterns revealed that the friction coefficients reduced significantly and the wear durability increased by several orders. In order to enhance the wear durability much further, the micro-patterns were exposed to argon/oxygen plasma and were subsequently coated with the perfluoropolyether nanolubricant. Bio-inspired patterns with enhanced wear durability, such as the ones investigated in the current work, have potential tribological applications in MEMS/Bio-MEMS actuator-based devices. Highlights: {yields}Bio-inspired polymeric patterns for tribological applications in microsystems. {yields}Novel surface modification for the patterns to enhance tribological properties. {yields}Patterns show low friction properties and extremely high wear durability.

  17. Bio-inspired dental multilayers: effects of layer architecture on the contact-induced deformation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Du, J; Niu, X; Rahbar, N; Soboyejo, W

    2013-02-01

    The ceramic crown structures under occlusal contact are idealized as flat multilayered structures that are deformed under Hertzian contact loading. Those multilayers consist of a crown-like ceramic top layer, an adhesive layer and the dentin-like substrate. Bio-inspired design of the adhesive layer proposed functionally graded multilayers (FGM) that mimic the dentin-enamel junction in natural teeth. This paper examines the effects of FGM layer architecture on the contact-induced deformation of bio-inspired dental multilayers. Finite element modeling was used to explore the effects of thickness and architecture on the contact-induced stresses that are induced in bio-inspired dental multilayers. A layered nanocomposite structure was then fabricated by the sequential rolling of micro-scale nanocomposite materials with local moduli that increase from the side near the soft dentin-like polymer composite foundation to the side near the top ceramic layer. The loading rate dependence of the critical failure loads is shown to be well predicted by a slow crack growth model, which integrates the actual mechanical properties that are obtained from nanoindentation experiments.

  18. A Bio-Inspired QoS-Oriented Handover Model in Heterogeneous Wireless Networks

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Daxin Tian

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available We propose a bio-inspired model for making handover decision in heterogeneous wireless networks. It is based on an extended attractor selection model, which is biologically inspired by the self-adaptability and robustness of cellular response to the changes in dynamic environments. The goal of the proposed model is to guarantee multiple terminals’ satisfaction by meeting the QoS requirements of those terminals’ applications, and this model also attempts to ensure the fairness of network resources allocation, in the meanwhile, to enable the QoS-oriented handover decision adaptive to dynamic wireless environments. Some numerical simulations are preformed to validate our proposed bio-inspired model in terms of adaptive attractor selection in different noisy environments. And the results of some other simulations prove that the proposed handover scheme can adapt terminals’ network selection to the varying wireless environment and benefits the QoS of multiple terminal applications simultaneously and automatically. Furthermore, the comparative analysis also shows that the bio-inspired model outperforms the utility function based handover decision scheme in terms of ensuring a better QoS satisfaction and a better fairness of network resources allocation in dynamic heterogeneous wireless networks.

  19. Vision-based bio-inspired guidance law for small aerial vehicle

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Wang Zhengjie; Huang Weilin; Yan Yonghong

    2015-01-01

    During predation, a flying insect can form a stealth flight path. This behavior is called motion camouflage. Based on the study results of this behavior, the perception and neurology of flying insects, a novel bio-inspired guidance law is proposed for the terminal guidance for small aer-ial vehicle with charge-coupled device imaging seekers. The kinematics relationship between a small aerial vehicle and target is analyzed, and a two-dimensional guidance law model is established by using artificial neural networks. To compare with the proportional guidance law, the numerical sim-ulations are carried out in the vertical plane and in the horizontal plane respectively. The simulation results show that the ballistic of the small aerial vehicle is straighter and the normal acceleration is smaller by using the bio-inspired guidance law than by using the proportional guidance law. That is to say, the bio-inspired guidance law just uses the information of the target from the imaging seeker, but the performance of it can be better than that of the proportional guidance law.

  20. Vision-based bio-inspired guidance law for small aerial vehicle

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wang Zhengjie

    2015-02-01

    Full Text Available During predation, a flying insect can form a stealth flight path. This behavior is called motion camouflage. Based on the study results of this behavior, the perception and neurology of flying insects, a novel bio-inspired guidance law is proposed for the terminal guidance for small aerial vehicle with charge-coupled device imaging seekers. The kinematics relationship between a small aerial vehicle and target is analyzed, and a two-dimensional guidance law model is established by using artificial neural networks. To compare with the proportional guidance law, the numerical simulations are carried out in the vertical plane and in the horizontal plane respectively. The simulation results show that the ballistic of the small aerial vehicle is straighter and the normal acceleration is smaller by using the bio-inspired guidance law than by using the proportional guidance law. That is to say, the bio-inspired guidance law just uses the information of the target from the imaging seeker, but the performance of it can be better than that of the proportional guidance law.

  1. Bio-inspired approaches to sensing for defence and security applications.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Biggins, Peter D E; Kusterbeck, Anne; Hiltz, John A

    2008-05-01

    Interdisciplinary research in biotechnology and related scientific areas has increased tremendously over the past decade. This rapid pace, in conjunction with advances in microfabricated systems, computer hardware, bioengineering and the availability of low-powered miniature components, has now made it feasible to design bio-inspired materials, sensors and systems with tremendous potential for defence and security applications. To realize the full potential of biotechnology and bio-inspiration, there is a need to define specific requirements to meet the challenges of the changing world and its threats. One approach to assisting the defence and security communities in defining their requirements is through the use of a conceptual model. The distributed or intelligent autonomous sensing (DIAS) system is one such model. The DIAS model is not necessarily aimed at a single component, for instance a sensor, but can include a system, or even a system of systems in the same way that a single organism, a multi-cellular organism or group of organisms is configured. This paper provides an overview of the challenges to and opportunities for bio-inspired sensors and systems together with examples of how they are being implemented. Examples focus on both learning new things from biological organisms that have application to the defence and security forces and adapting known discoveries in biology and biochemistry for practical use by these communities.

  2. Crystallo-chemical analyses of calcium phosphates

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sakae, Toshiro; Hayakawa, Tohru; Maruyama, Fumiaki; Nemoto, Kimiya; Kozawa, Yukishige [Nihon Univ., Matsudo, Chiba (Japan). School of Dentistry

    1997-12-01

    Several analytical techniques, methodology and their practical data processing were briefly described to investigate the crystallographic properties of calcium phosphates which are encountered in the field of dental sciences. The applied analytical techniques were X-ray fluorescence spectrometry (XFS), energy dispersive spectrometry (EDS), Fourier transform infrared spectrometry (FT-IR) and X-ray diffraction (XRD). The used materials were tetracalcium phosphate, hydroxyapatite, fluorapatite, {alpha}-tricalcium phosphate, {beta}-tricalcium phosphate, octacalcium phosphate, monetite, brushite and monocalcium phosphate monohydrate. (author)

  3. Bioinspired matrices assembled by polysaccharide-protein interactions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Le

    Bioinspired matrices assembled on the basis of noncovalent interactions between proteins and polysaccharides have been proved suitable to deliver therapeutically relevant proteins or DNAs. Our initial efforts were dedicated to the relationship between mechanical properties of hydrogels assembled based on specific interactions between low molecular weight heparin (LMWH) and heparin binding peptides (HBPs) such as HIP, ATIII, and PF4ZIP peptides. The measured differences in affinity and kinetics for LMWH-HBP binding likely lead to observed differences in the phase separation behavior of the poly (ethylene glycol) (PEG)-LMWH/PEG-HIP hydrogels versus the PEG-LMWH/PEG-ATIII hydrogels. More attention has been given to the PF4ZIP peptide employed for the noncovalent assembly of heparinized hydrogels. Multifunctional star PEG-PF4ZIP bioconjugates complexed with star PEG-LMWH form hydrogels that exhibit increasing elastic moduli with increasing mole ratio of PEG-PF4ZIP. The viscoelastic properties of the hydrogels can be controlled via alterations in the ratio between LMWH and PF4ZIP peptide, and comparisons with other PEG-LMWH/PEG-HBP hydrogels suggest the importance of both LMWH/HBP binding kinetics and the binding capacity of LMWH in determining rheological properties in these hydrogels. Characterization of the PEG-LMWH/PEG-PF4ZIP hydrogels suggests that useful moduli for soft tissue engineering applications are obtained at physiological temperatures and after applying high shear. Furthermore, in the basic fibroblast growth factor (bFGF) release, bFGF/vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF) co-release, and hydrogel erosion results, the combination of growth factor (GF) release profiles and hydrogel erosion profiles suggests that GF delivery from the assembled hydrogels is mainly an erosion-controlled process that may permit co-release of GF with PEG-LMWH and may therefore also improve the bioactivity of GF delivered from these matrices. Hydrogels with such engineered

  4. Triphenyl phosphate allergy from spectacle frames

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Carlsen, Lars; Andersen, Klaus E.; Egsgaard, Helge

    1986-01-01

    A case of triphenyl phosphate allergy from spectacle frames is reported. Patch tests with analytical grade triphenyl phosphate, tri-m-cresyl phosphate, and tri-p-cresyl phosphate in the concentrations 5%, 0.5% and 0.05% pet. showed positive reactions to 0.05% triphenyl phosphate and 0.5% tri......-m-cresyl phosphate, but no reaction to tri-p-cresyl phosphate. Gas chromatography of the tricresyl phosphate 5% pet. patch test material supplied from Trolab showed that it contained a mixture of a wide range of triaryl phosphates, including 0.08% triphenyl phosphate which is above the threshold for detecting...... triphenyl phosphate allergy in our patient....

  5. Distinct failure modes in bio-inspired 3D-printed staggered composites under non-aligned loadings

    Science.gov (United States)

    Slesarenko, Viacheslav; Kazarinov, Nikita; Rudykh, Stephan

    2017-03-01

    The superior mechanical properties of biological materials originate in their complex hierarchical microstructures, combining stiff and soft constituents at different length scales. In this work, we employ a three-dimensional multi-materials printing to fabricate the bio-inspired staggered composites, and study their mechanical properties and failure mechanisms. We observe that bio-inspired staggered composites with inclined stiff tablets are able to undergo two different failure modes, depending on the inclination angle. We find that such artificial structure demonstrates high toughness only under loading applied at relatively small angle to the tablets stacking direction, while for higher angles the composites fail catastrophically. This aspect of the failure behavior was captured experimentally as well as by means of the finite element analysis. We show that even a relatively simple failure model with a strain energy limiter, can be utilized to qualitatively distinguish these two different modes of failure, occurring in the artificial bio-inspired composites.

  6. Recent advances in phosphate biosensors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Upadhyay, Lata Sheo Bachan; Verma, Nishant

    2015-07-01

    A number of biosensors have been developed for phosphate analysis particularly, concerning its negative impact within the environmental and biological systems. Enzymatic biosensors comprising either a single or multiple enzymatic system have been extensively used for the direct and indirect analysis of phosphate ions. Furthermore, some non-enzymatic biosensors, such as affinity-based biosensors, provide an alternative analytical approach with a higher selectivity. This article reviews the recent advances in the field of biosensor developed for phosphate estimation in clinical and environmental samples, concerning the techniques involved, and the sensitivity toward phosphate ions. The biosensors have been classified and discussed on the basis of the number of enzymes used to develop the analytical system, and a comparative analysis has been performed.

  7. Development of a bio-inspired UAV perching system

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xie, Pu

    of animals and human arms approaching to a fixed or moving target for grasping or capturing. The autonomous flight control was also implemented through a PID controller. Autonomous flight performance was proved through simulation in SimMechanics. Finally, the prototyping of our designs were conducted in different generations of our bio-inspired UAV perching system, which include the leg prototype, gripper prototype, and system prototype. Both the machined prototype and 3D printed prototype were tried. The performance of these prototypes was tested through experiments.

  8. 21 CFR 573.320 - Diammonium phosphate.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 6 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Diammonium phosphate. 573.320 Section 573.320 Food... Additive Listing § 573.320 Diammonium phosphate. The food additive diammonium phosphate may be safely used... crude protein from diammonium phosphate, adequate directions for use and a prominent statement,...

  9. 21 CFR 184.1434 - Magnesium phosphate.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... solution of magnesite with phosphoric acid. (b) Magnesium phosphate, dibasic, meets the specifications of... 21 Food and Drugs 3 2010-04-01 2009-04-01 true Magnesium phosphate. 184.1434 Section 184.1434 Food... Specific Substances Affirmed as GRAS § 184.1434 Magnesium phosphate. (a) Magnesium phosphate includes...

  10. Characterization of Ca-phosphate biological materials by scanning transmission X-ray microscopy (STXM) at the Ca L2,3-, P L2,3- and C K-edges.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cosmidis, Julie; Benzerara, Karim; Nassif, Nadine; Tyliszczak, Tolek; Bourdelle, Franck

    2015-01-01

    Several naturally occurring biological materials, including bones and teeth, pathological calcifications, microbial mineral deposits formed in marine phosphogenesis areas, as well as bio-inspired cements used for bone and tooth repair are composed of Ca-phosphates. These materials are usually identified and characterized using bulk-scale analytical tools such as X-ray diffraction, Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy or nuclear magnetic resonance. However, there is a need for imaging techniques that provide information on the spatial distribution and chemical composition of the Ca-phosphate phases at the micrometer- and nanometer scales. Such analyses provide insightful indications on how the materials may have formed, e.g. through transient precursor phases that eventually remain spatially separated from the mature phase. Here, we present scanning transmission X-ray microscopy (STXM) analyses of Ca-phosphate reference compounds, showing the feasibility of fingerprinting Ca-phosphate-based materials. We calibrate methods to determine important parameters of Ca-phosphate phases, such as their Ca/P ratio and carbonate content at the ∼25nm scale, using X-ray absorption near-edge spectra at the C K-, Ca L2,3- and P L2,3-edges. As an illustrative case study, we also perform STXM analyses on hydroxyapatite precipitates formed in a dense fibrillar collagen matrix. This study paves the way for future research on Ca-phosphate biomineralization processes down to the scale of a few tens of nanometers.

  11. Bio-inspired UAV routing, source localization, and acoustic signature classification for persistent surveillance

    Science.gov (United States)

    Burman, Jerry; Hespanha, Joao; Madhow, Upamanyu; Pham, Tien

    2011-06-01

    A team consisting of Teledyne Scientific Company, the University of California at Santa Barbara and the Army Research Laboratory* is developing technologies in support of automated data exfiltration from heterogeneous battlefield sensor networks to enhance situational awareness for dismounts and command echelons. Unmanned aerial vehicles (UAV) provide an effective means to autonomously collect data from a sparse network of unattended ground sensors (UGSs) that cannot communicate with each other. UAVs are used to reduce the system reaction time by generating autonomous collection routes that are data-driven. Bio-inspired techniques for search provide a novel strategy to detect, capture and fuse data. A fast and accurate method has been developed to localize an event by fusing data from a sparse number of UGSs. This technique uses a bio-inspired algorithm based on chemotaxis or the motion of bacteria seeking nutrients in their environment. A unique acoustic event classification algorithm was also developed based on using swarm optimization. Additional studies addressed the problem of routing multiple UAVs, optimally placing sensors in the field and locating the source of gunfire at helicopters. A field test was conducted in November of 2009 at Camp Roberts, CA. The field test results showed that a system controlled by bio-inspired software algorithms can autonomously detect and locate the source of an acoustic event with very high accuracy and visually verify the event. In nine independent test runs of a UAV, the system autonomously located the position of an explosion nine times with an average accuracy of 3 meters. The time required to perform source localization using the UAV was on the order of a few minutes based on UAV flight times. In June 2011, additional field tests of the system will be performed and will include multiple acoustic events, optimal sensor placement based on acoustic phenomenology and the use of the International Technology Alliance (ITA

  12. [Total synthesis of biologically active alkaloids using bio-inspired indole oxidation].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ishikawa, Hayato

    2015-01-01

    Many tryptophan-based dimeric diketopiperazine (DKP) alkaloids including WIN 64821 and ditryptophenaline, which exhibit fascinating biological activities, have been isolated from fungi. These alkaloids possess a unique architecture; therefore several total syntheses of these compounds have been accomplished via bio-inspired reactions. Despite these elegant strategies, we were convinced that a more direct bio-inspired solution for the preparation of tryptophan-based DKP alkaloids was possible because in a true biosynthesis, direct dimerization of tryptophan occurs in aqueous media without incorporation of a protecting group on the substrates. Thus we developed direct bio-inspired dimerization reactions in aqueous, acidic media, along with a novel biomimetic pathway, to provide C2-symmetric and non-symmetric dimeric compounds from commercially available amine-free tryptophan derivatives using Mn(OAc)3, VOF3, and V2O5 as one-electron oxidants. In addition, concise two-pot or three-step syntheses of the naturally occurring dimeric DKP alkaloids (+)-WIN 64821, (-)-ditryptophenaline, and (+)-naseseazine B were accomplished with total yields of 20%, 13%, and 20%, respectively. The present synthesis has several noteworthy features: 1) the tryptophan-based C2-symmetric and non-symmetric dimeric key intermediates can be prepared on a multigram scale in one step; 2) the developed oxidation reaction was carried out in aqueous, acidic solution without deactivation of the metal oxidants; 3) protection of the primary amine can be avoided by salt formation in aqueous acid; 4) for the total two-pot operation, the reaction media are environmentally friendly water and ethanol; 5) satisfactory total yields are obtained compared with previously reported syntheses.

  13. Quantum design of photosynthesis for bio-inspired solar-energy conversion.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Romero, Elisabet; Novoderezhkin, Vladimir I; van Grondelle, Rienk

    2017-03-15

    Photosynthesis is the natural process that converts solar photons into energy-rich products that are needed to drive the biochemistry of life. Two ultrafast processes form the basis of photosynthesis: excitation energy transfer and charge separation. Under optimal conditions, every photon that is absorbed is used by the photosynthetic organism. Fundamental quantum mechanics phenomena, including delocalization, underlie the speed, efficiency and directionality of the charge-separation process. At least four design principles are active in natural photosynthesis, and these can be applied practically to stimulate the development of bio-inspired, human-made energy conversion systems.

  14. Interface failure modes explain non-monotonic size-dependent mechanical properties in bioinspired nanolaminates

    Science.gov (United States)

    Song, Z. Q.; Ni, Y.; Peng, L. M.; Liang, H. Y.; He, L. H.

    2016-03-01

    Bioinspired discontinuous nanolaminate design becomes an efficient way to mitigate the strength-ductility tradeoff in brittle materials via arresting the crack at the interface followed by controllable interface failure. The analytical solution and numerical simulation based on the nonlinear shear-lag model indicates that propagation of the interface failure can be unstable or stable when the interfacial shear stress between laminae is uniform or highly localized, respectively. A dimensionless key parameter defined by the ratio of two characteristic lengths governs the transition between the two interface-failure modes, which can explain the non-monotonic size-dependent mechanical properties observed in various laminate composites.

  15. UMD Workshop on Distributed Sensing, Actuation, and Control for Bio-Inspired Soft Robotics

    Science.gov (United States)

    2014-10-01

    engineering with soft robotics ); ethics (public opinion, policy); engineering (control aspects,                      mobility, sensors, fluid dynamics...SECURITY CLASSIFICATION OF: The UMD Workshop on Distributed Sensing, Actuation, and Control for Bio­inspired Soft Robotics was held at the...and Control for Bio-inspired Soft Robotics The views, opinions and/or findings contained in this report are those of the author(s) and should not

  16. Tunable structural color in organisms and photonic materials for design of bioinspired materials.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fudouzi, Hiroshi

    2011-12-01

    In this paper, the key topics of tunable structural color in biology and material science are overviewed. Color in biology is considered for selected groups of tropical fish, octopus, squid and beetle. It is caused by nanoplates in iridophores and varies with their spacing, tilting angle and refractive index. These examples may provide valuable hints for the bioinspired design of photonic materials. 1D multilayer films and 3D colloidal crystals with tunable structural color are overviewed from the viewpoint of advanced materials. The tunability of structural color by swelling and strain is demonstrated on an example of opal composites.

  17. The Framework for Simulation of Bioinspired Security Mechanisms against Network Infrastructure Attacks

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andrey Shorov

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available The paper outlines a bioinspired approach named “network nervous system" and methods of simulation of infrastructure attacks and protection mechanisms based on this approach. The protection mechanisms based on this approach consist of distributed prosedures of information collection and processing, which coordinate the activities of the main devices of a computer network, identify attacks, and determine nessesary countermeasures. Attacks and protection mechanisms are specified as structural models using a set-theoretic approach. An environment for simulation of protection mechanisms based on the biological metaphor is considered; the experiments demonstrating the effectiveness of the protection mechanisms are described.

  18. Mechanical implications of the arthropod exoskeleton microstructures and the mechanical behavior of the bioinspired composites

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cheng, Liang

    investigated exoskeletons, the helicoidal structure, was incorporated in the design and manufacture of the subsequent bio-inspired laminated composites. The mechanical performance of the resulted composites was evaluated and significant improvement over the traditional man-made structures was observed. This original research work encompassed a full cycle for a particular bioinspired material development, starting from the bio-material structure observation, the corresponding mechanical modeling and analysis, and the final bio-inspired composite design, manufacture and evaluation. Important knowledge on the microstructures of the investigated exoskeletons was established or clarified, and their mechanical implications were revealed for the first time based on appropriate modeling and simulation. The resulted bio-inspired composites demonstrate superior mechanical performance over the traditional composite structure widely used in industry, thus possess the potential for future practical application.

  19. Bio-inspiring cyber security and cloud services trends and innovations

    CERN Document Server

    Kim, Tai-Hoon; Kacprzyk, Janusz; Awad, Ali

    2014-01-01

    This volume presents recent research in cyber security, and reports how organizations can gain competitive advantages by applying the different security techniques in real-world scenarios. The volume provides reviews of cutting–edge technologies, algorithms, applications and insights for bio-inspiring cyber security-based systems. The book will be a valuable companion and comprehensive reference for both postgraduate and senior undergraduate students who are taking a course in cyber security. The volume is organized in self-contained chapters to provide greatest reading flexibility.  

  20. Tunable structural color in organisms and photonic materials for design of bioinspired materials

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hiroshi Fudouzi

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available In this paper, the key topics of tunable structural color in biology and material science are overviewed. Color in biology is considered for selected groups of tropical fish, octopus, squid and beetle. It is caused by nanoplates in iridophores and varies with their spacing, tilting angle and refractive index. These examples may provide valuable hints for the bioinspired design of photonic materials. 1D multilayer films and 3D colloidal crystals with tunable structural color are overviewed from the viewpoint of advanced materials. The tunability of structural color by swelling and strain is demonstrated on an example of opal composites.

  1. Bio-inspired tactile sensor with arrayed structures based on electroactive polymers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Jin; Sato, Hiroshi; Taya, Minoru

    2009-03-01

    We reported some work on flexible tactile sensors based on Flemion ionic polymer metal composites previously. In this work, we compared the signals in both voltage and current with the signals obtained from a giant nerve fiber reported previously by other researchers. We found some similarities between the artificial tactile sensor and the nerve fiber, in both of which ionic movement play a very important role. This bio-inspired Flemion based ionic polymer metal composites would be a good candidate for bio-related sensors especially for prosthetic limb socket interface applications.

  2. Quantum design of photosynthesis for bio-inspired solar-energy conversion

    Science.gov (United States)

    Romero, Elisabet; Novoderezhkin, Vladimir I.; van Grondelle, Rienk

    2017-03-01

    Photosynthesis is the natural process that converts solar photons into energy-rich products that are needed to drive the biochemistry of life. Two ultrafast processes form the basis of photosynthesis: excitation energy transfer and charge separation. Under optimal conditions, every photon that is absorbed is used by the photosynthetic organism. Fundamental quantum mechanics phenomena, including delocalization, underlie the speed, efficiency and directionality of the charge-separation process. At least four design principles are active in natural photosynthesis, and these can be applied practically to stimulate the development of bio-inspired, human-made energy conversion systems.

  3. THz Discrimination of materials: demonstration of a bioinspired apparatus based on metasurfaces selective filters

    CERN Document Server

    Carelli1, P; Torrioli, G; Castellano, M G

    2016-01-01

    We present an apparatus for terahertz fingerprint discrimination of materials designed to be fast, simple, compact and economical in order to be suitable for preliminary on-field analysis. The system working principles, bioinspired by the human vision of colors, are based on the use of microfabricated metamaterials selective filters and of a very compact optics based on metallic ellipsoidal mirrors in air. We experimentally demonstrate the operation of the apparatus in discriminating simple substances such as salt, staple foods and grease in an accurate and reproducible manner. We present the system and the obtained results and discuss issues and possible developments.

  4. Autonomic networking-on-chip bio-inspired specification, development, and verification

    CERN Document Server

    Cong-Vinh, Phan

    2011-01-01

    Despite the growing mainstream importance and unique advantages of autonomic networking-on-chip (ANoC) technology, Autonomic Networking-On-Chip: Bio-Inspired Specification, Development, and Verification is among the first books to evaluate research results on formalizing this emerging NoC paradigm, which was inspired by the human nervous system. The FIRST Book to Assess Research Results, Opportunities, & Trends in ""BioChipNets"" The third book in the Embedded Multi-Core Systems series from CRC Press, this is an advanced technical guide and reference composed of contributions from prominent re

  5. The framework for simulation of bioinspired security mechanisms against network infrastructure attacks.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shorov, Andrey; Kotenko, Igor

    2014-01-01

    The paper outlines a bioinspired approach named "network nervous system" and methods of simulation of infrastructure attacks and protection mechanisms based on this approach. The protection mechanisms based on this approach consist of distributed procedures of information collection and processing, which coordinate the activities of the main devices of a computer network, identify attacks, and determine necessary countermeasures. Attacks and protection mechanisms are specified as structural models using a set-theoretic approach. An environment for simulation of protection mechanisms based on the biological metaphor is considered; the experiments demonstrating the effectiveness of the protection mechanisms are described.

  6. Bio-inspired artificial iridophores based on capillary origami: Fabrication and device characterization

    Science.gov (United States)

    Manakasettharn, Supone; Ashley Taylor, J.; Krupenkin, Tom N.

    2011-10-01

    Cephalopods have evolved complex optical mechanisms of dynamic skin color control based on mechanical actuation of micro-scale optical structures such as iridophores and chromatophores. In this work, we describe the design, fabrication, and characterization of bio-inspired artificial iridophores, which resemble microflowers with flexible reflective petals, based on capillary origami microstructures. Two methods of petal actuation have been demonstrated—one based on the electrowetting process and the other by volume change of the liquid droplet. These results were in good agreement with a model derived to characterize the actuation dynamics.

  7. A bio-inspired approach for in situ synthesis of tunable adhesive.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sun, Leming; Yi, Sijia; Wang, Yongzhong; Pan, Kang; Zhong, Qixin; Zhang, Mingjun

    2014-03-01

    Inspired by the strong adhesive produced by English ivy, this paper proposes an in situ synthesis approach for fabricating tunable nanoparticle enhanced adhesives. Special attention was given to tunable features of the adhesive produced by the biological process. Parameters that may be used to tune properties of the adhesive will be proposed. To illustrate and validate the proposed approach, an experimental platform was presented for fabricating tunable chitosan adhesive enhanced by Au nanoparticles synthesized in situ. This study contributes to a bio-inspired approach for in situ synthesis of tunable nanocomposite adhesives by mimicking the natural biological processes of ivy adhesive synthesis.

  8. A Bio-Inspired Method for the Constrained Shortest Path Problem

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hongping Wang

    2014-01-01

    optimization, crew scheduling, network routing and so on. It is an open issue since it is a NP-hard problem. In this paper, we propose an innovative method which is based on the internal mechanism of the adaptive amoeba algorithm. The proposed method is divided into two parts. In the first part, we employ the original amoeba algorithm to solve the shortest path problem in directed networks. In the second part, we combine the Physarum algorithm with a bio-inspired rule to deal with the CSP. Finally, by comparing the results with other method using an examples in DCLC problem, we demonstrate the accuracy of the proposed method.

  9. Guided extracellular matrix formation from fibroblast cells cultured on bio-inspired configurable multiscale substrata

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Won-Gyu Bae

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Engineering complex extracellular matrix (ECM is an important challenge for cell and tissue engineering applications as well as for understanding fundamental cell biology. We developed the methodology for fabrication of precisely controllable multiscale hierarchical structures using capillary force lithography in combination with original wrinkling technique for the generation of well-defined native ECM-like platforms by culturing fibroblast cells on the multiscale substrata [1]. This paper provides information on detailed characteristics of polyethylene glycol-diacrylate multiscale substrata. In addition, a possible model for guided extracellular matrix formation from fibroblast cells cultured on bio-inspired configurable multiscale substrata is proposed.

  10. Formation of phosphatidylinositol 3-phosphate by isomerization from phosphatidylinositol 4-phosphate.

    OpenAIRE

    Walsh, J P; Caldwell, K K; Majerus, P W

    1991-01-01

    We have synthesized phosphatidylinositol 3-phosphate from phosphatidylinositol 4-phosphate by using diisopropylcarbodiimide to promote migration of the 4-phosphate via a cyclic phosphodiester intermediate. The product was isolated by a thin-layer chromatographic method that depends on the ability of phosphatidylinositol 4-phosphate, but not phosphatidylinositol 3-phosphate, to form complexes with boric acid. The final yield of the procedure was 8% phosphatidylinositol 3-phosphate, which was a...

  11. Optimizing the design of bio-inspired functionally graded material (FGM) layer in all-ceramic dental restorations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cui, Chang; Sun, Jian

    2014-01-01

    Due to elastic modulus mismatch between the different layers in all-ceramic dental restorations, high tensile stress concentrates at the interface between the ceramic core and cement. In natural tooth structure, stress concentration is reduced by the functionally graded structure of dentin-enamel junction (DEJ) which interconnects enamel and dentin. Inspired by DEJ, the aim of this study was to explore the optimum design of a bio-inspired functionally graded material (FGM) layer in all-ceramic dental restorations to achieve excellent stress reduction and distribution. Three-dimensional finite element model of a multi-layer structure was developed, which comprised bilayered ceramic, bio-inspired FGM layer, cement, and dentin. Finite element method and first-order optimization technique were used to realize the optimal bio-inspired FGM layer design. The bio-inspired FGM layer significantly reduced stress concentration at the interface between the crown and cement, and stresses were evenly distributed in FGM layer. With the optimal design, an elastic modulus distribution similar to that in DEJ occurred in the FGM layer.

  12. Integrated Ternary Bioinspired Nanocomposites via Synergistic Toughening of Reduced Graphene Oxide and Double-Walled Carbon Nanotubes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gong, Shanshan; Cui, Wei; Zhang, Qi; Cao, Anyuan; Jiang, Lei; Cheng, Qunfeng

    2015-12-22

    With its synergistic toughening effect and hierarchical micro/nanoscale structure, natural nacre sets a "gold standard" for nacre-inspired materials with integrated high strength and toughness. We demonstrated strong and tough ternary bioinspired nanocomposites through synergistic toughening of reduced graphene oxide and double-walled carbon nanotube (DWNT) and covalent bonding. The tensile strength and toughness of this kind of ternary bioinspired nanocomposites reaches 374.1 ± 22.8 MPa and 9.2 ± 0.8 MJ/m(3), which is 2.6 and 3.3 times that of pure reduced graphene oxide film, respectively. Furthermore, this ternary bioinspired nanocomposite has a high conductivity of 394.0 ± 6.8 S/cm and also shows excellent fatigue-resistant properties, which may enable this material to be used in aerospace, flexible energy devices, and artificial muscle. The synergistic building blocks with covalent bonding for constructing ternary bioinspired nanocomposites can serve as the basis of a strategy for the construction of integrated, high-performance, reduced graphene oxide (rGO)-based nanocomposites in the future.

  13. Bio-inspired catechol chemistry: a new way to develop a re-moldable and injectable coacervate hydrogel.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oh, Yeon Jeong; Cho, Il Hwan; Lee, Haeshin; Park, Ki-Jung; Lee, Hyukjin; Park, Sung Young

    2012-12-18

    A new way is demonstrated to develop a bio-inspired coacervate hydrogel by following catechol chemistry showing injectable and re-moldable physical properties. The formed coacervate shows potential long-term stability under water. Depending on pH, formation of the coacervate has been verified which is confirmed by XPS and zeta potential measurements.

  14. [Phosphate metabolism and iron deficiency].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yokoyama, Keitaro

    2016-02-01

    Autosomal dominant hypophosphatemic rickets(ADHR)is caused by gain-of-function mutations in FGF23 that prevent its proteolytic cleavage. Fibroblast growth factor 23(FGF23)is a hormone that inhibits renal phosphate reabsorption and 1,25-dihydroxyvitamin D biosynthesis. Low iron status plays a role in the pathophysiology of ADHR. Iron deficiency is an environmental trigger that stimulates FGF23 expression and hypophosphatemia in ADHR. It was reported that FGF23 elevation in patients with CKD, who are often iron deficient. In patients with nondialysis-dependent CKD, treatment with ferric citrate hydrate resulted in significant reductions in serum phosphate and FGF23.

  15. Phosphorus release from phosphate rock and iron phosphate by low-molecular-weight organic acids

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    XU Ren-kou; ZHU Yong-guan; David Chittleborough

    2004-01-01

    Low-molecular-weight(LMW) organic acids widely exist in soils, particularly in the rhizosphere. A series of batch experiments were carried out to investigate the phosphorus release from rock phosphate and iron phosphate by Iow-molecular-weight organic acids.Results showed that citric acid had the highest capacity to solubilize P from both rock and iron phosphate. P solubilization from rock phosphate and iron phosphate resulted in net proton consumption. P release from rock phosphate was positively correlated with the pKa values. P release from iron phosphate was positively correlated with Fe-organic acid stability constants except for aromatic acids, but was not correlated with PKa. Increase in the concentrations of organic acids enhanced P solubilization from both rock and iron phosphate almost linearrly. Addition of phenolic compounds further increased the P release from iron phosphate. Initial solution pH had much more substantial effect on P release from rock phosphate than from iron phosphate.

  16. Photorelease of phosphates: Mild methods for protecting phosphate derivatives

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sanjeewa N. Senadheera

    2014-08-01

    Full Text Available We have developed a new photoremovable protecting group for caging phosphates in the near UV. Diethyl 2-(4-hydroxy-1-naphthyl-2-oxoethyl phosphate (14a quantitatively releases diethyl phosphate upon irradiation in aq MeOH or aq MeCN at 350 nm, with quantum efficiencies ranging from 0.021 to 0.067 depending on the solvent composition. The deprotection reactions originate from the triplet excited state, are robust under ambient conditions and can be carried on to 100% conversion. Similar results were found with diethyl 2-(4-methoxy-1-naphthyl-2-oxoethyl phosphate (14b, although it was significantly less efficient compared with 14a. A key step in the deprotection reaction in aq MeOH is considered to be a Favorskii rearrangement of the naphthyl ketone motif of 14a,b to naphthylacetate esters 25 and 26. Disruption of the ketone-naphthyl ring conjugation significantly shifts the photoproduct absorption away from the effective incident wavelength for decaging of 14, driving the reaction to completion. The Favorskii rearrangement does not occur in aqueous acetonitrile although diethyl phosphate is released. Other substitution patterns on the naphthyl or quinolin-5-yl core, such as the 2,6-naphthyl 10 or 8-benzyloxyquinolin-5-yl 24 platforms, also do not rearrange by aryl migration upon photolysis and, therefore, do not proceed to completion. The 2,6-naphthyl ketone platform instead remains intact whereas the quinolin-5-yl ketone fragments to a much more complex, highly absorbing reaction mixture that competes for the incident light.

  17. Biomimetic/Bioinspired Design of Enzyme@capsule Nano/Microsystems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shi, J; Jiang, Y; Zhang, S; Yang, D; Jiang, Z

    2016-01-01

    Enzyme@capsule nano/microsystems, which refer to the enzyme-immobilized capsules, have received tremendous interest owing to the combination of the high catalytic activities of encapsulated enzymes and the hierarchical structure of the capsule. The preparation of capsules and simultaneous encapsulation of enzymes is recognized as the core process for the rational design and construction of enzyme@capsule nano/microsystems. The strategy used has three major steps: (a) generation of the templates, (b) surface coating on the templates, and (c) removal of the templates, and it has been proven to be effective and versatile for the construction of enzyme@capsule nano/microsystems. Several conventional methods, including layer-by-layer assembly of polyelectrolytes, liquid crystalline templating method, etc., were used to design and construct enzyme@capsule nano/microsystems, but these have two major drawbacks. One is the low mechanical stability of the systems and the second is the harsh conditions used in the construction process. Learning from nature, several biomimetic/bioinspired methods such as biomineralization, biomimetic/bioinspired adhesion, and their combination have been exploited for the construction of enzyme@capsule nano/microsystems. In this chapter, we will present a general protocol for the construction of enzyme@capsule nano/microsystems using the latter approach. Some suggestions for improved design, construction, and characterization will also be presented with detailed procedures for specific examples.

  18. Integrated antifouling and bactericidal polymer membranes through bioinspired polydopamine/poly(N-vinyl pyrrolidone) coating

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wang, Xianghong [State Key Laboratory of Polymer Physics and Chemistry, Changchun Institute of Applied Chemistry, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Changchun 130022 (China); Ministry of Education Key Laboratory for the Green Preparation and Application of Functional Materials, Hubei Collaborative Innovation Center for Advanced Organic Chemical Materials, Faculty of Materials Science and Engineering, Hubei University, Wuhan 430062 (China); Yuan, Shuaishuai [State Key Laboratory of Polymer Physics and Chemistry, Changchun Institute of Applied Chemistry, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Changchun 130022 (China); Shi, Dean, E-mail: deanshi2012@yahoo.com [Ministry of Education Key Laboratory for the Green Preparation and Application of Functional Materials, Hubei Collaborative Innovation Center for Advanced Organic Chemical Materials, Faculty of Materials Science and Engineering, Hubei University, Wuhan 430062 (China); Yang, Yingkui; Jiang, Tao [Ministry of Education Key Laboratory for the Green Preparation and Application of Functional Materials, Hubei Collaborative Innovation Center for Advanced Organic Chemical Materials, Faculty of Materials Science and Engineering, Hubei University, Wuhan 430062 (China); Yan, Shunjie; Shi, Hengchong [State Key Laboratory of Polymer Physics and Chemistry, Changchun Institute of Applied Chemistry, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Changchun 130022 (China); Luan, Shifang, E-mail: sfluan@ciac.ac.cn [State Key Laboratory of Polymer Physics and Chemistry, Changchun Institute of Applied Chemistry, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Changchun 130022 (China); Yin, Jinghua [State Key Laboratory of Polymer Physics and Chemistry, Changchun Institute of Applied Chemistry, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Changchun 130022 (China)

    2016-07-01

    Graphical abstract: - Highlights: • Antifouling and bactericidal capabilities were facilely integrated into a surface via bioinspired coating. • The modification technique was very facile and universal to different types of substrate materials. • The integrated antifouling and bactericidal surfaces have great potential in wound dressing applications. - Abstract: Polypropylene (PP) non-woven has been widely used as wound dressing; however, the hydrophobic nature of PP can initiate bacterial attachment and subsequent biofilm formation. Herein, we propose a facile approach to functionalize PP non-woven with poly(ethylene glycol) (PEG) and poly(N-vinyl pyrrolidone)-iodine complex (PVP-I). PVP and PEG were successively tethered onto PP non-woven surface via versatile bioinspired dopamine (DA) chemistry, followed by complexing iodine with PVP moieties. It was demonstrated through the field emission scanning electron microscope (SEM) and spread plate method that the as-modified PP non-woven integrated both antifouling property of PEG for suppressing bacterial adhesion, and bactericidal property of PVP-I for killing the few adherent bacteria. Meanwhile, it could greatly resist platelet and red blood cell adhesion. The integrated antifouling and bactericidal PP non-woven surfaces might have great potential in various wound dressing applications.

  19. A Bioinspired Neural Model Based Extended Kalman Filter for Robot SLAM

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jianjun Ni

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Robot simultaneous localization and mapping (SLAM problem is a very important and challenging issue in the robotic field. The main tasks of SLAM include how to reduce the localization error and the estimated error of the landmarks and improve the robustness and accuracy of the algorithms. The extended Kalman filter (EKF based method is one of the most popular methods for SLAM. However, the accuracy of the EKF based SLAM algorithm will be reduced when the noise model is inaccurate. To solve this problem, a novel bioinspired neural model based SLAM approach is proposed in this paper. In the proposed approach, an adaptive EKF based SLAM structure is proposed, and a bioinspired neural model is used to adjust the weights of system noise and observation noise adaptively, which can guarantee the stability of the filter and the accuracy of the SLAM algorithm. The proposed approach can deal with the SLAM problem in various situations, for example, the noise is in abnormal conditions. Finally, some simulation experiments are carried out to validate and demonstrate the efficiency of the proposed approach.

  20. Final Report for Bio-Inspired Approaches to Moving-Target Defense Strategies

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fink, Glenn A.; Oehmen, Christopher S.

    2012-09-01

    This report records the work and contributions of the NITRD-funded Bio-Inspired Approaches to Moving-Target Defense Strategies project performed by Pacific Northwest National Laboratory under the technical guidance of the National Security Agency’s R6 division. The project has incorporated a number of bio-inspired cyber defensive technologies within an elastic framework provided by the Digital Ants. This project has created the first scalable, real-world prototype of the Digital Ants Framework (DAF)[11] and integrated five technologies into this flexible, decentralized framework: (1) Ant-Based Cyber Defense (ABCD), (2) Behavioral Indicators, (3) Bioinformatic Clas- sification, (4) Moving-Target Reconfiguration, and (5) Ambient Collaboration. The DAF can be used operationally to decentralize many such data intensive applications that normally rely on collection of large amounts of data in a central repository. In this work, we have shown how these component applications may be decentralized and may perform analysis at the edge. Operationally, this will enable analytics to scale far beyond current limitations while not suffering from the bandwidth or computational limitations of centralized analysis. This effort has advanced the R6 Cyber Security research program to secure digital infrastructures by developing a dynamic means to adaptively defend complex cyber systems. We hope that this work will benefit both our client’s efforts in system behavior modeling and cyber security to the overall benefit of the nation.

  1. Bio-Inspired Control of an Arm Exoskeleton Joint with Active-Compliant Actuation System

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Michele Folgheraiter

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper presents the methodology followed on the design of a multi-contact point haptic interface that uses a bio-inspired control approach and a novel actuation system. The combination of these components aims at creating a system that increases the operability of the target, and, at the same time, enables an intuitive and safe tele-operation of any complex robotic system of any given morphology. The novelty lies on the combination of a thoughtful kinematic structure driven by an active-compliant actuation system and a bio-inspired paradigm for its regulation. Due to the proposed actuation approach, the final system will achieve the condition of wearable system. On that final solution, each joint will be able to change its stiffness depending on the task to be executed, and on the anatomical features of each individual. Moreover, the system provides a variety of safety mechanisms at different levels to prevent causing any harm to the operator. In future, the system should allow the complete virtual immersion of the user within the working scenario.

  2. Performance Characteristics of Bio-Inspired Metal Nanostructures as Surface-Enhanced Raman Scattered (SERS) Substrates.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Areizaga-Martinez, Hector I; Kravchenko, Ivan; Lavrik, Nickolay V; Sepaniak, Michael J; Hernández-Rivera, Samuel P; De Jesús, Marco A

    2016-09-01

    The fabrication of high-performance plasmonic nanomaterials for bio-sensing and trace chemical detection is a field of intense theoretical and experimental research. The use of metal-silicon nanopillar arrays as analytical sensors has been reported with reasonable results in recent years. The use of bio-inspired nanocomposite structures that follow the Fibonacci numerical architecture offers the opportunity to develop nanostructures with theoretically higher and more reproducible plasmonic fields over extended areas. The work presented here describes the nanofabrication process for a series of 40 µm × 40 µm bio-inspired arrays classified as asymmetric fractals (sunflower seeds and romanesco broccoli), bilaterally symmetric (acacia leaves and honeycombs), and radially symmetric (such as orchids and lily flowers) using electron beam lithography. In addition, analytical capabilities were evaluated using surface-enhanced Raman scattering (SERS). The substrate characterization and SERS performance of the developed substrates as the strategies to assess the design performance are presented and discussed.

  3. A bio-inspired force control for cyclic manipulation of prosthetic hands.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ciancio, A L; Barone, R; Zollo, L; Carpino, G; Davalli, A; Sacchetti, R; Guglielmelli, E

    2015-01-01

    The human hand is considered as the highest example of dexterous system capable of interacting with different objects and adapting its manipulation abilities to them. The control of poliarticulated prosthetic hands represents one important research challenge, typically aiming at replicating the manipulation capabilities of the natural hand. For this reason, this paper wants to propose a bio-inspired learning architecture based on parallel force/position control for prosthetic hands, capable of learning cyclic manipulation capabilities. To this purpose, it is focused on the control of a commercial biomechatronic hand (the IH2 hand) including the main features of recent poliarticulated prosthetic hands. The training phase of the hand was carried out in simulation, the parallel force/position control was tested in simulation whereas preliminary tests were performed on the real IH2 hand. The results obtained in simulation and on the real hand provide an important evidence of the applicability of the bio-inspired neural control to real biomechatronic hand with the typical features of a hand prosthesis.

  4. “Uphill” cation transport: A bioinspired photo-driven ion pump

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Zhen; Kong, Xiang-Yu; Xie, Ganhua; Li, Pei; Xiao, Kai; Wen, Liping; Jiang, Lei

    2016-01-01

    Biological ion pumps with active ionic transport properties lay the foundation for many life processes. However, few analogs have been produced because extra energy is needed to couple to this “uphill” process. We demonstrate a bioinspired artificial photo-driven ion pump based on a single polyethylene terephthalate conical nanochannel. The pumping process behaving as an inversion of zero-volt current can be realized by applying ultraviolet irradiation from the large opening. The light energy can accelerate the dissociation of the benzoic acid derivative dimers existing on the inner surface of nanochannel, which consequently produces more mobile carboxyl groups. Enhanced electrostatic interaction between the ions traversing the nanochannel and the charged groups on the inner wall is the key reason for the uphill cation transport behavior. This system creates an ideal experimental and theoretical platform for further development and design of various stimuli-driven and specific ion–selective bioinspired ion pumps, which anticipates wide potential applications in biosensing, energy conversion, and desalination. PMID:27774511

  5. Gas barrier properties of bio-inspired Laponite-LC polymer hybrid films.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tritschler, Ulrich; Zlotnikov, Igor; Fratzl, Peter; Schlaad, Helmut; Grüner, Simon; Cölfen, Helmut

    2016-05-26

    Bio-inspired Laponite (clay)-liquid crystal (LC) polymer composite materials with high clay fractions (>80%) and a high level of orientation of the clay platelets, i.e. with structural features similar to the ones found in natural nacre, have been shown to exhibit a promising behavior in the context of reduced oxygen transmission. Key characteristics of these bio-inspired composite materials are their high inorganic content, high level of exfoliation and orientation of the clay platelets, and the use of a LC polymer forming the organic matrix in between the Laponite particles. Each single feature may be beneficial to increase the materials gas barrier property rendering this composite a promising system with advantageous barrier capacities. In this detailed study, Laponite/LC polymer composite coatings with different clay loadings were investigated regarding their oxygen transmission rate. The obtained gas barrier performance was linked to the quality, respective Laponite content and the underlying composite micro- and nanostructure of the coatings. Most efficient oxygen barrier properties were observed for composite coatings with 83% Laponite loading that exhibit a structure similar to sheet-like nacre. Further on, advantageous mechanical properties of these Laponite/LC polymer composites reported previously give rise to a multifunctional composite system.

  6. Bioinspired production of magnetic laccase-biotitania particles for the removal of endocrine disrupting chemicals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ardao, Inés; Magnin, Delphine; Agathos, Spiros N

    2015-10-01

    Microbial laccases are powerful enzymes capable of degrading lignin and other recalcitrant compounds including endocrine disrupting chemicals (EDCs). Efficient EDC removal on an industrial scale requires robust, stable, easy to handle and cost-effective immobilized biocatalysts. In this direction, magnetic biocatalysts are attractive due to their easy separation through an external magnetic field. Recently, a bioinspired immobilization technique that mimics the natural biomineralization reactions in diatoms has emerged as a fast and versatile tool for generating robust, cheap, and highly stable (nano) biocatalysts. In this work, bioinspired formation of a biotitania matrix is triggered on the surface of magnetic particles in the presence of laccase in order to produce laccase-biotitania (lac-bioTiO2 ) biocatalysts suitable for environmental applications using a novel, fast and versatile enzyme entrapment technique. Highly active lac-bioTiO2 particles have been produced and the effect of different parameters (enzyme loading, titania precursor concentration, pH, duration of the biotitania formation, and laccase adsorption steps) on the apparent activity yield of these biocatalysts were evaluated, the concentration of the titania precursor being the most influential. The lac-bioTiO2 particles were able to catalyze the removal of bisphenol A, 17α-ethinylestradiol and diclofenac in a mixture of six model EDCs and retained 90% of activity after five reaction cycles and 60% after 10 cycles.

  7. Bio-inspired Trajectory Generation for UAV Perching Movement Based on Tau Theory

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zhen Zhang

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available This paper offers a bio-inspired trajectory generation method for UAV/MAV perching (i.e., the final approach to, and landing on, a target. The method is based on tau theory, which was established based on the study of the natural motion patterns of animals (including humans when they approach a fixed or moving object for perching or capturing prey. In our research, tau theory is applied to the trajectory generation problem of an air vehicle for perching on a target object. Three bio-inspired strategies, namely the tau in the action gap strategy, the tau coupling strategy and the intrinsic tau gravity strategy are studied for perching tasks. A key parameter of the method inspired by biological systems is discussed. Two perching scenarios, one from a flight state (with non-zero initial velocity and one from a hovering state (with zero initial velocity, are studied. Numerical simulations with a rotary vehicle are presented as examples to demonstrate the performance of the proposed approach. The simulation results show that the resulting flight trajectories meet all the desired requirements for the vehicle in perching on an object.

  8. Phosphate Recognition in Structural Biology

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hirsch, Anna K.H.; Fischer, Felix R.; Diederich, François

    2007-01-01

    Drug-discovery research in the past decade has seen an increased selection of targets with phosphate recognition sites, such as protein kinases and phosphatases, in the past decade. This review attempts, with the help of database-mining tools, to give an overview of the most important principles in

  9. Phosphate based oil well cements

    Science.gov (United States)

    Natarajan, Ramkumar

    The main application of the cement in an oil well is to stabilize the steel casing in the borehole and protect it from corrosion. The cement is pumped through the borehole and is pushed upwards through the annulus between the casing and the formation. The cement will be exposed to temperature and pressure gradients of the borehole. Modified Portland cement that is being used presently has several shortcomings for borehole sealant. The setting of the Portland cement in permafrost regions is poor because the water in it will freeze even before the cement sets and because of high porosity and calcium oxide, a major ingredient it gets easily affected by the down hole gases such as carbon dioxide. The concept of phosphate bonded cements was born out of considerable work at Argonne National Laboratory (ANL) on their use in stabilization of radioactive and hazardous wastes. Novel cements were synthesized by an acid base reaction between a metal oxide and acid phosphate solution. The major objective of this research is to develop phosphate based oil well cements. We have used thermodynamics along with solution chemistry principles to select calcined magnesium oxide as candidate metal oxide for temperatures up to 200°F (93.3°C) and alumina for temperatures greater than 200°F (93.3°C). Solution chemistry helped us in selecting mono potassium phosphate as the acid component for temperatures less than 200°F (93.3°C) and phosphoric acid solution greater than 200°F (93.3°C). These phosphate cements have performance superior to common Portland well cements in providing suitable thickening time, better mechanical and physical properties.

  10. Sintering of calcium phosphate bioceramics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Champion, E

    2013-04-01

    Calcium phosphate ceramics have become of prime importance for biological applications in the field of bone tissue engineering. This paper reviews the sintering behaviour of these bioceramics. Conventional pressureless sintering of hydroxyapatite, Ca10(PO4)6(OH)2, a reference compound, has been extensively studied. Its physico-chemistry is detailed. It can be seen as a competition between two thermally activated phenomena that proceed by solid-state diffusion of matter: densification and grain growth. Usually, the objective is to promote the first and prevent the second. Literature data are analysed from sintering maps (i.e. grain growth vs. densification). Sintering trajectories of hydroxyapatite produced by conventional pressureless sintering and non-conventional techniques, including two-step sintering, liquid phase sintering, hot pressing, hot isostatic pressing, ultrahigh pressure, microwave and spark plasma sintering, are presented. Whatever the sintering technique may be, grain growth occurs mainly during the last step of sintering, when the relative bulk density reaches 95% of the maximum value. Though often considered very advantageous, most assisted sintering techniques do not appear very superior to conventional pressureless sintering. Sintering of tricalcium phosphate or biphasic calcium phosphates is also discussed. The chemical composition of calcium phosphate influences the behaviour. Similarly, ionic substitutions in hydroxyapatite or in tricalcium phosphate create lattice defects that modify the sintering rate. Depending on their nature, they can either accelerate or slow down the sintering rate. The thermal stability of compounds at the sintering temperature must also be taken into account. Controlled atmospheres may be required to prevent thermal decomposition, and flash sintering techniques, which allow consolidation at low temperature, can be helpful.

  11. 21 CFR 184.1301 - Ferric phosphate.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 3 2010-04-01 2009-04-01 true Ferric phosphate. 184.1301 Section 184.1301 Food... Specific Substances Affirmed as GRAS § 184.1301 Ferric phosphate. (a) Ferric phosphate (ferric orthophosphate, iron (III) phosphate, FePO4·xH2O, CAS Reg. No. 10045-86-0) is an odorless, yellowish-white...

  12. 21 CFR 582.5217 - Calcium phosphate.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 6 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Calcium phosphate. 582.5217 Section 582.5217 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) ANIMAL... Supplements 1 § 582.5217 Calcium phosphate. (a) Product. Calcium phosphate (mono-, di-, and tribasic)....

  13. 21 CFR 182.8217 - Calcium phosphate.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 3 2010-04-01 2009-04-01 true Calcium phosphate. 182.8217 Section 182.8217 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) FOOD FOR... phosphate. (a) Product. Calcium phosphate (mono-, di-, and tribasic). (b) Conditions of use. This...

  14. 40 CFR 721.5995 - Polyalkyl phosphate.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 30 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Polyalkyl phosphate. 721.5995 Section... Substances § 721.5995 Polyalkyl phosphate. (a) Chemical substance and significant new uses subject to reporting. (1) The chemical substance identified generically as a polyalkyl phosphate (PMN P-95-1772)...

  15. 21 CFR 582.6285 - Dipotassium phosphate.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 6 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Dipotassium phosphate. 582.6285 Section 582.6285 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) ANIMAL... Dipotassium phosphate. (a) Product. Dipotassium phosphate. (b) Conditions of use. This substance is...

  16. 21 CFR 582.1141 - Ammonium phosphate.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 6 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Ammonium phosphate. 582.1141 Section 582.1141 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) ANIMAL... Additives § 582.1141 Ammonium phosphate. (a) Product. Ammonium phosphate (mono- and dibasic). (b)...

  17. 21 CFR 582.1217 - Calcium phosphate.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 6 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Calcium phosphate. 582.1217 Section 582.1217 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) ANIMAL... Additives § 582.1217 Calcium phosphate. (a) Product. Calcium phosphate (mono-, di-, and tribasic)....

  18. 21 CFR 582.6290 - Disodium phosphate.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 6 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Disodium phosphate. 582.6290 Section 582.6290 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) ANIMAL... Disodium phosphate. (a) Product. Disodium phosphate. (b) Conditions of use. This substance is...

  19. 21 CFR 182.1217 - Calcium phosphate.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 3 2010-04-01 2009-04-01 true Calcium phosphate. 182.1217 Section 182.1217 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) FOOD FOR... Substances § 182.1217 Calcium phosphate. (a) Product. Calcium phosphate (mono-, di-, and tribasic)....

  20. 21 CFR 582.5434 - Magnesium phosphate.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 6 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Magnesium phosphate. 582.5434 Section 582.5434 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) ANIMAL... Supplements 1 § 582.5434 Magnesium phosphate. (a) Product. Magnesium phosphate (di- and tribasic)....

  1. 21 CFR 182.6285 - Dipotassium phosphate.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 3 2010-04-01 2009-04-01 true Dipotassium phosphate. 182.6285 Section 182.6285 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) FOOD... Dipotassium phosphate. (a) Product. Dipotassium phosphate. (b) Conditions of use. This substance is...

  2. 21 CFR 182.6290 - Disodium phosphate.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 3 2010-04-01 2009-04-01 true Disodium phosphate. 182.6290 Section 182.6290 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) FOOD FOR... phosphate. (a) Product. Disodium phosphate. (b) Conditions of use. This substance is generally recognized...

  3. 21 CFR 182.1778 - Sodium phosphate.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 3 2010-04-01 2009-04-01 true Sodium phosphate. 182.1778 Section 182.1778 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) FOOD FOR... Substances § 182.1778 Sodium phosphate. (a) Product. Sodium phosphate (mono-, di-, and tribasic)....

  4. 21 CFR 582.5301 - Ferric phosphate.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 6 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Ferric phosphate. 582.5301 Section 582.5301 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) ANIMAL... Supplements 1 § 582.5301 Ferric phosphate. (a) Product. Ferric phosphate. (b) Conditions of use....

  5. 21 CFR 182.8778 - Sodium phosphate.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 3 2010-04-01 2009-04-01 true Sodium phosphate. 182.8778 Section 182.8778 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) FOOD FOR... phosphate. (a) Product. Sodium phosphate (mono-, di-, and tribasic). (b) Conditions of use. This...

  6. 21 CFR 582.6778 - Sodium phosphate.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 6 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Sodium phosphate. 582.6778 Section 582.6778 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) ANIMAL... Sodium phosphate. (a) Product. Sodium phosphate (mono-, di-, and tribasic). (b) Conditions of use....

  7. 21 CFR 582.1778 - Sodium phosphate.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 6 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Sodium phosphate. 582.1778 Section 582.1778 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) ANIMAL... Additives § 582.1778 Sodium phosphate. (a) Product. Sodium phosphate (mono-, di-, and tribasic)....

  8. 21 CFR 582.5778 - Sodium phosphate.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 6 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Sodium phosphate. 582.5778 Section 582.5778 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) ANIMAL... Supplements 1 § 582.5778 Sodium phosphate. (a) Product. Sodium phosphate (mono-, di-, and tribasic)....

  9. 21 CFR 182.6778 - Sodium phosphate.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 3 2010-04-01 2009-04-01 true Sodium phosphate. 182.6778 Section 182.6778 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) FOOD FOR... phosphate. (a) Product. Sodium phosphate (mono-, di-, and tribasic). (b) Conditions of use. This...

  10. Calcium phosphate cements: study of the beta-tricalcium phosphate--monocalcium phosphate system.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mirtchi, A A; Lemaitre, J; Terao, N

    1989-09-01

    The possibility of making cements based on beta-tricalcium phosphate (beta-TCP), a promising bone graft material, was investigated. Upon admixture with water, beta-TCP/monocalcium phosphate monohydrate (MCPM) mixtures were found to set and harden like conventional hydraulic cements. Beta-TCP powders with larger particle size, obtained by sintering at higher temperatures, increased the ultimate strength of the cement. Results show that setting occurs after dissolution of MCPM, as a result of the precipitation of dicalcium phosphate dihydrate (DCPD) in the paste. The ultimate tensile strength of the hardened cement is proportional to the amount of DCPD formed. Upon ageing above 40 degrees C, DCPD transforms progressively into anhydrous dicalcium phosphate (DCP), thereby decreasing the strength. Ageing of the pastes in 100% r.h. results in a decay of the mechanical properties. This can be ascribed to an intergranular dissolution of the beta-TCP aggregates as a result of the pH lowering brought about by the MCPM to DCPD conversion.

  11. Calcium phosphate polymer hybrid materials

    OpenAIRE

    2011-01-01

    Calcium phosphate (CaP) is of strong interest to the medical field because of its potential for bone repair, gene transfection, etc.1-3 Nowadays, the majority of the commercially available materials are fabricated via “classical” materials science approaches, i.e. via high temperature or high pressure approaches, from rather poorly defined slurries, or from organic solvents.3,4 Precipitation of inorganics with (polymeric) additives from aqueous solution on the other hand enables the synthesis...

  12. Segmentation algorithm via Cellular Neural/Nonlinear Network: implementation on Bio-inspired hardware platform

    Science.gov (United States)

    Karabiber, Fethullah; Vecchio, Pietro; Grassi, Giuseppe

    2011-12-01

    The Bio-inspired (Bi-i) Cellular Vision System is a computing platform consisting of sensing, array sensing-processing, and digital signal processing. The platform is based on the Cellular Neural/Nonlinear Network (CNN) paradigm. This article presents the implementation of a novel CNN-based segmentation algorithm onto the Bi-i system. Each part of the algorithm, along with the corresponding implementation on the hardware platform, is carefully described through the article. The experimental results, carried out for Foreman and Car-phone video sequences, highlight the feasibility of the approach, which provides a frame rate of about 26 frames/s. Comparisons with existing CNN-based methods show that the conceived approach is more accurate, thus representing a good trade-off between real-time requirements and accuracy.

  13. Bio-inspired design strategies for central pattern generator control in modular robotics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Herrero-Carrón, F; Rodríguez, F B; Varona, P

    2011-03-01

    New findings in the nervous system of invertebrates have shown how a number of features of central pattern generator (CPG) circuits contribute to the generation of robust flexible rhythms. In this paper we consider recently revealed strategies that living CPGs follow to design CPG control paradigms for modular robots. To illustrate them, we divide the task of designing an example CPG for a modular robot into independent problems. We formulate each problem in a general way and provide a bio-inspired solution for each of them: locomotion information coding, individual module control and inter-module coordination. We analyse the stability of the CPG numerically, and then test it on a real robot. We analyse steady state locomotion and recovery after perturbations. In both cases, the robot is able to autonomously find a stable effective locomotion state. Finally, we discuss how these strategies can result in a more general design approach for CPG-based locomotion.

  14. Bioinspired photonic structures by the reflector layer of firefly lantern for highly efficient chemiluminescence

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Linfeng; Shi, Xiaodi; Li, Mingzhu; Hu, Junping; Sun, Shufeng; Su, Bin; Wen, Yongqiang; Han, Dong; Jiang, Lei; Song, Yanlin

    2015-08-01

    Fireflies have drawn considerable attention for thousands of years due to their highly efficient bioluminescence, which is important for fundamental research and photonic applications. However, there are few reports on the reflector layer (RL) of firefly lantern, which contributes to the bright luminescence. Here we presented the detailed microstructure of the RL consisting of random hollow granules, which had high reflectance in the range from 450 nm to 800 nm. Inspired by the firefly lantern, artificial films with high reflectance in the visible region were fabricated using hollow silica microparticles mimicking the structure of the RL. Additionally, the bioinspired structures provided an efficient RL for the chemiluminescence system and could substantially enhance the initial chemiluminescence intensity. The work not only provides new insight into the bright bioluminescence of fireflies, but also is importance for the design of photonic materials for theranostics, detection, and imaging.

  15. Towards a Bio-inspired Security Framework for Mission-Critical Wireless Sensor Networks

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ren, Wei; Song, Jun; Ma, Zhao; Huang, Shiyong

    Mission-critical wireless sensor networks (WSNs) have been found in numerous promising applications in civil and military fields. However, the functionality of WSNs extensively relies on its security capability for detecting and defending sophisticated adversaries, such as Sybil, worm hole and mobile adversaries. In this paper, we propose a bio-inspired security framework to provide intelligence-enabled security mechanisms. This scheme is composed of a middleware, multiple agents and mobile agents. The agents monitor the network packets, host activities, make decisions and launch corresponding responses. Middleware performs an infrastructure for the communication between various agents and corresponding mobility. Certain cognitive models and intelligent algorithms such as Layered Reference Model of Brain and Self-Organizing Neural Network with Competitive Learning are explored in the context of sensor networks that have resource constraints. The security framework and implementation are also described in details.

  16. Bioinspired molecular co-catalysts bonded to a silicon photocathode for solar hydrogen evolution

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hou, Yidong; Abrams, Billie L.; Vesborg, Peter Christian Kjærgaard

    2011-01-01

    -abundant alternatives are needed for large-scale use. We show that bioinspired molecular clusters based on molybdenum and sulphur evolve hydrogen at rates comparable to that of platinum. The incomplete cubane-like clusters (Mo3S 4) efficiently catalyse the evolution of hydrogen when coupled to a p-type Si semiconductor......The production of fuels from sunlight represents one of the main challenges in the development of a sustainable energy system. Hydrogen is the simplest fuel to produce and although platinum and other noble metals are efficient catalysts for photoelectrochemical hydrogen evolution, earth...... that harvests red photons in the solar spectrum. The current densities at the reversible potential match the requirement of a photoelectrochemical hydrogen production system with a solar-to-hydrogen efficiency in excess of 10% (ref. 16). The experimental observations are supported by density functional theory...

  17. Multi-Locomotion Robotic Systems New Concepts of Bio-inspired Robotics

    CERN Document Server

    Fukuda, Toshio; Sekiyama, Kosuke; Aoyama, Tadayoshi

    2012-01-01

    Nowadays, multiple attention have been paid on a robot working in the human living environment, such as in the field of medical, welfare, entertainment and so on. Various types of researches are being conducted actively in a variety of fields such as artificial intelligence, cognitive engineering, sensor- technology, interfaces and motion control. In the future, it is expected to realize super high functional human-like robot by integrating technologies in various fields including these types of researches. The book represents new developments and advances in the field of bio-inspired robotics research introducing the state of the art, the idea of multi-locomotion robotic system to implement the diversity of animal motion. It covers theoretical and computational aspects of Passive Dynamic Autonomous Control (PDAC), robot motion control, multi legged walking and climbing as well as brachiation focusing concrete robot systems, components and applications. In addition, gorilla type robot systems are described as...

  18. A Bio-inspired Approach for Power and Performance Aware Resource Allocation in Clouds

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kumar Rajesh

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available In order to cope with increasing demand, cloud market players such as Amazon, Microsoft, Google, Gogrid, Flexiant, etc. have set up large sized data centers. Due to monotonically increasing size of data centers and heterogeneity of resources have made resource allocation a challenging task. A large percentage of total energy consumption of the data centers gets wasted because of under-utilization of resources. Thus, there is a need of resource allocation technique that improves the utilization of resources with effecting performance of services being delivered to end users. In this work, a bio-inspired resource allocation approach is proposed with the aim to improve utilization and hence the energy efficiency of the cloud infrastructure. The proposed approach makes use of Cuckoo search for power and performance aware allocation of resources to the services hired by the end users. The proposed approach is implemented in CloudSim. The simulation results have shown approximately 12% saving in energy consumption.

  19. Bio-Inspired Principles Applied to the Guidance, Navigation and Control of UAS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Reuben Strydom

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available This review describes a number of biologically inspired principles that have been applied to the visual guidance, navigation and control of Unmanned Aerial System (UAS. The current limitations of UAS systems are outlined, such as the over-reliance on GPS, the requirement for more self-reliant systems and the need for UAS to have a greater understanding of their environment. It is evident that insects, even with their small brains and limited intelligence, have overcome many of the shortcomings of the current state of the art in autonomous aerial guidance. This has motivated research into bio-inspired systems and algorithms, specifically vision-based navigation, situational awareness and guidance.

  20. Investigation of bioinspired gecko fibers to improve adhesion of HeartLander surgical robot.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tortora, Giuseppe; Glass, Paul; Wood, Nathan; Aksak, Burak; Menciassi, Arianna; Sitti, Metin; Riviere, Cameron

    2012-01-01

    HeartLander is a medical robot proposed for minimally invasive epicardial intervention on the beating heart. To date, all prototypes have used suction to gain traction on the epicardium. Gecko-foot-inspired micro-fibers have been proposed for repeatable adhesion to surfaces. In this paper, a method for improving the traction of HeartLander on biological tissue is presented. The method involves integration of gecko-inspired fibrillar adhesives on the inner surfaces of the suction chambers of HeartLander. Experiments have been carried out on muscle tissue ex vivo assessing the traction performance of the modified HeartLander with bio-inspired adhesive. The adhesive fibers are found to improve traction on muscle tissue by 57.3 %.

  1. Rambutan peels promoted biomimetic synthesis of bioinspired zinc oxide nanochains for biomedical applications.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yuvakkumar, R; Suresh, J; Saravanakumar, B; Joseph Nathanael, A; Hong, Sun Ig; Rajendran, V

    2015-02-25

    A naturally occurring rambutan peel waste was employed to synthesis bioinspired zinc oxide nanochains. Rambutan peels has the ability of ligating zinc ions as a natural ligation agent resulting in zinc oxide nanochains formation due to its extended polyphenolic system over incubation period. Successful formation of zinc oxide nanochains was confirmed employing transmission electron microscopy studies. About 60% and ∼40% cell viability was lost and 50% and 10% morphological change was observed in 7 and 4 days incubated ZnO treated cells compared with control. Moreover, 50% and 55% of cell death was observed at 24 and 48 h incubation with 7 days treated ZnO cells and hence alters and disturbs the growth of cancer cells and could be used for liver cancer cell treatment.

  2. A bio-inspired approach for the reduction of left ventricular workload.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Niema M Pahlevan

    Full Text Available Previous studies have demonstrated the existence of optimization criteria in the design and development of mammalians cardiovascular systems. Similarities in mammalian arterial wave reflection suggest there are certain design criteria for the optimization of arterial wave dynamics. Inspired by these natural optimization criteria, we investigated the feasibility of optimizing the aortic waves by modifying wave reflection sites. A hydraulic model that has physical and dynamical properties similar to a human aorta and left ventricle was used for a series of in-vitro experiments. The results indicate that placing an artificial reflection site (a ring at a specific location along the aorta may create a constructive wave dynamic that could reduce LV pulsatile workload. This simple bio-inspired approach may have important implications for the future of treatment strategies for diseased aorta.

  3. Bioinspired nanodevice based on the folic acid/titanium dioxide system.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gaweda, Sylwia; Stochel, Grazyna; Szaciłowski, Konrad

    2007-05-04

    A new bioinspired nanomaterial has been obtained by chemisorption of folic acid onto nanocrystalline titanium dioxide. The organic chromophore is linked with the semiconductor surface via the glutamate chain and anchored with the carboxylate group. The geometry and electronic structure of the chromophore was studied in detail with DFT. Photoelectrochemical studies revealed photosensitization of the new material towards visible light. The photoelectrodes composed of the folic acid/titanium dioxide hybrid material generated photocurrent over a 300-600-nm window. Moreover, the direction of the photocurrent could be changed from anodic to cathodic and vice versa by application of the appropriate photoelectrode potential. Photoelectrochemical and spectroscopic studies allowed the elucidation of the mechanism of photocurrent switching. Photoelectrodes composed of folate-modified titanium dioxide may serve as a simple model of optoelectronic switches and may constitute the basis for molecular photoelectronic devices.

  4. 8th International Conference on Bio-Inspired Computing : Theories and Applications

    CERN Document Server

    Pan, Linqiang; Fang, Xianwen

    2013-01-01

    International Conference on Bio-Inspired Computing: Theories and Applications (BIC-TA) is one of the flagship conferences on Bio-Computing, bringing together the world’s leading scientists from different areas of Natural Computing. Since 2006, the conferences have taken place at Wuhan (2006), Zhengzhou (2007), Adelaide (2008), Beijing (2009), Liverpool & Changsha (2010), Malaysia (2011) and India (2012). Following the successes of previous events, the 8th conference is organized and hosted by Anhui University of Science and Technology in China. This conference aims to provide a high-level international forum that researchers with different backgrounds and who are working in the related areas can use to present their latest results and exchange ideas. Additionally, the growing trend in Emergent Systems has resulted in the inclusion of two other closely related fields in the BIC-TA 2013 event, namely Complex Systems and Computational Neuroscience. These proceedings are intended for researchers in the fiel...

  5. Bio-inspired design strategies for central pattern generator control in modular robotics

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Herrero-Carron, F; Rodriguez, F B; Varona, P, E-mail: fernando.herrero@uam.es, E-mail: f.rodriguez@uam.es, E-mail: pablo.varona@uam.es [Grupo de Neurocomputacion Biologica (GNB), Departamento de Ingenieria Informatica, Escuela Politecnica Superior, Universidad Autonoma de Madrid, Calle Francisco Tomas y Valiente, 11, 28049 Madrid (Spain)

    2011-03-15

    New findings in the nervous system of invertebrates have shown how a number of features of central pattern generator (CPG) circuits contribute to the generation of robust flexible rhythms. In this paper we consider recently revealed strategies that living CPGs follow to design CPG control paradigms for modular robots. To illustrate them, we divide the task of designing an example CPG for a modular robot into independent problems. We formulate each problem in a general way and provide a bio-inspired solution for each of them: locomotion information coding, individual module control and inter-module coordination. We analyse the stability of the CPG numerically, and then test it on a real robot. We analyse steady state locomotion and recovery after perturbations. In both cases, the robot is able to autonomously find a stable effective locomotion state. Finally, we discuss how these strategies can result in a more general design approach for CPG-based locomotion.

  6. A bioinspired omniphobic surface coating on medical devices prevents thrombosis and biofouling.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leslie, Daniel C; Waterhouse, Anna; Berthet, Julia B; Valentin, Thomas M; Watters, Alexander L; Jain, Abhishek; Kim, Philseok; Hatton, Benjamin D; Nedder, Arthur; Donovan, Kathryn; Super, Elana H; Howell, Caitlin; Johnson, Christopher P; Vu, Thy L; Bolgen, Dana E; Rifai, Sami; Hansen, Anne R; Aizenberg, Michael; Super, Michael; Aizenberg, Joanna; Ingber, Donald E

    2014-11-01

    Thrombosis and biofouling of extracorporeal circuits and indwelling medical devices cause significant morbidity and mortality worldwide. We apply a bioinspired, omniphobic coating to tubing and catheters and show that it completely repels blood and suppresses biofilm formation. The coating is a covalently tethered, flexible molecular layer of perfluorocarbon, which holds a thin liquid film of medical-grade perfluorocarbon on the surface. This coating prevents fibrin attachment, reduces platelet adhesion and activation, suppresses biofilm formation and is stable under blood flow in vitro. Surface-coated medical-grade tubing and catheters, assembled into arteriovenous shunts and implanted in pigs, remain patent for at least 8 h without anticoagulation. This surface-coating technology could reduce the use of anticoagulants in patients and help to prevent thrombotic occlusion and biofouling of medical devices.

  7. Investigation of Bioinspired Gecko Fibers to Improve Adhesion of HeartLander Surgical Robot

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tortora, Giuseppe; Glass, Paul; Wood, Nathan; Aksak, Burak; Menciassi, Arianna; Sitti, Metin; Riviere, Cameron

    2012-01-01

    In this paper, a way for improving adhesion of a mobile robot (HeartLander) on biological tissue is presented, that integrates bioinspired gecko adhesive fibers on the robot surface. HeartLander is a medical robot proposed to perform clinical procedures on a beating heart, overcoming limitations of current cardiac procedures. Biologically inspired gecko fibers have been proposed for adhesion on surfaces. The aim of this work is to assess the advantages of integrating these structures for enhancing the grip between the artificial device and the myocardial tissue. Experimental in vitro tests have been carried out assessing the performance of the HeartLander attached to muscular tissue. The effect of the adhesive fibers on improving the adhesion behavior on a slippery surface has been investigated, obtaining a friction increase of 57.3 %. PMID:23366040

  8. A Bio-Inspired Robust Adaptive Random Search Algorithm for Distributed Beamforming

    CERN Document Server

    Tseng, Chia-Shiang; Lin, Che

    2010-01-01

    A bio-inspired robust adaptive random search algorithm (BioRARSA), designed for distributed beamforming for sensor and relay networks, is proposed in this work. It has been shown via a systematic framework that BioRARSA converges in probability and its convergence time scales linearly with the number of distributed transmitters. More importantly, extensive simulation results demonstrate that the proposed BioRARSA outperforms existing adaptive distributed beamforming schemes by as large as 29.8% on average. This increase in performance results from the fact that BioRARSA can adaptively adjust its sampling stepsize via the "swim" behavior inspired by the bacterial foraging mechanism. Hence, the convergence time of BioRARSA is insensitive to the initial sampling stepsize of the algorithm, which makes it robust against the dynamic nature of distributed wireless networks.

  9. Bio-inspired synthesis and characterization of superparamagnetic particles; Sintese e caracterizacao bioinspirada de particulas superparamagneticas

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Castro, Vinicius F., E-mail: vfc_mg@yahoo.com.br [Universidade Federal de Itajuba (UNIFEI), MG (Brazil); Queiroz, Alvaro A.A. [Universidade Federal de Itajuba (UNIFEI), MG (Brazil). Centro de Estudos e Inovacao em Materiais Biofuncionais Avancados

    2012-08-15

    This paper discusses the bio-inspired synthesis of type YFeAl ferrites encapsulated into polyglycerol dendrimers (PGLD) generation 3. The structure and morphological properties of the system YFeAl/PGLD was characterized by X-ray diffraction (XRD) and transmission electron microscopy (TEM). The magnetic properties were studied through the techniques of Moessbauer spectroscopy and magnetization. The cytotoxicity of the nanoparticles encapsulated in dendrimers PGLD G3 at the cell membrane was studied against mammalian cell line CHO.K1 measuring the amount of lactate dehydrogenase (LDH) released by the cell damage. Microscopy TEM and XRD analysis indicate that spherical nanoparticles were obtained highly crystalline and monodisperse with size 20 nm

  10. Integrated antifouling and bactericidal polymer membranes through bioinspired polydopamine/poly(N-vinyl pyrrolidone) coating

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Xianghong; Yuan, Shuaishuai; Shi, Dean; Yang, Yingkui; Jiang, Tao; Yan, Shunjie; Shi, Hengchong; Luan, Shifang; Yin, Jinghua

    2016-07-01

    Polypropylene (PP) non-woven has been widely used as wound dressing; however, the hydrophobic nature of PP can initiate bacterial attachment and subsequent biofilm formation. Herein, we propose a facile approach to functionalize PP non-woven with poly(ethylene glycol) (PEG) and poly(N-vinyl pyrrolidone)-iodine complex (PVP-I). PVP and PEG were successively tethered onto PP non-woven surface via versatile bioinspired dopamine (DA) chemistry, followed by complexing iodine with PVP moieties. It was demonstrated through the field emission scanning electron microscope (SEM) and spread plate method that the as-modified PP non-woven integrated both antifouling property of PEG for suppressing bacterial adhesion, and bactericidal property of PVP-I for killing the few adherent bacteria. Meanwhile, it could greatly resist platelet and red blood cell adhesion. The integrated antifouling and bactericidal PP non-woven surfaces might have great potential in various wound dressing applications.

  11. Design and Cellular Fate of Bioinspired Au-Ag Nanoshells@Hybrid Silica Nanoparticles.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Soulé, Samantha; Bulteau, Anne-Laure; Faucher, Stéphane; Haye, Bernard; Aimé, Carole; Allouche, Joachim; Dupin, Jean-Charles; Lespes, Gaëtane; Coradin, Thibaud; Martinez, Hervé

    2016-10-04

    Silica-coated gold-silver alloy nanoshells were obtained via a bioinspired approach using gelatin and poly-l-lysine (PLL) as biotemplates for the interfacial condensation of sodium silicate solutions. X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy was used as an efficient tool for the in-depth and complete characterization of the chemical features of nanoparticles during the whole synthetic process. Cytotoxicity assays using HaCaT cells evidenced the detrimental effect of the gelatin nanocoating and significant induction of late apoptosis after silicification. In contrast, PLL-modified nanoparticles had less biological impact that was further improved by the silica layer, and uptake rates of up to 50% of those of the initial particles could be achieved. These results are discussed considering the effect of nanosurface confinement of the biopolymers on their chemical and biological reactivity.

  12. Bioinspired hierarchical nanotubular titania immobilized with platinum nanoparticles for photocatalytic hydrogen production.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Xiaoyan; Li, Jiao; Zhang, Yiming; Huang, Jianguo

    2015-05-11

    A bioinspired nanocomposite composed of platinum nanoparticles and nanotubular titania was fabricated in which the titania matter was templated by natural cellulose substance. The composite possesses three- dimensional hierarchical structures, and ultrafine metallic platinum particles with sizes of ca. 2 nm were immobilized uniformly on the surfaces of the titania nanotubes. Such a nanocomposite with 1.06 wt % of platinum content shows the optimal photocatalytic hydrogen production activity from water splitting of 16.44 mmol h(-1)  g(-1) , and excessive loading of platinum results in poorer photocatalytic performance. The structural integrity of the nanocomposite upon cyclic water-splitting processes results in its sufficient photocatalytic stability.

  13. Bioinspired Smart Actuator Based on Graphene Oxide-Polymer Hybrid Hydrogels.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Tao; Huang, Jiahe; Yang, Yiqing; Zhang, Enzhong; Sun, Weixiang; Tong, Zhen

    2015-10-28

    Rapid response and strong mechanical properties are desired for smart materials used in soft actuators. A bioinspired hybrid hydrogel actuator was designed and prepared by series combination of three trunks of tough polymer-clay hydrogels to accomplish the comprehensive actuation of "extension-grasp-retraction" like a fishing rod. The hydrogels with thermo-creep and thermo-shrinking features were successively irradiated by near-infrared (NIR) to execute extension and retraction, respectively. The GO in the hydrogels absorbed the NIR energy and transformed it into thermo-energy rapidly and effectively. The hydrogel with adhesion or magnetic force was adopted as the "hook" of the hybrid hydrogel actuator for grasping object. The hook of the hybrid hydrogel actuator was replaceable according to applications, even with functional materials other than hydrogels. This study provides an innovative concept to explore new soft actuators through combining response hydrogels and programming the same stimulus.

  14. Bio-inspired Methods for Dynamic Network Analysis in Science Mapping

    CERN Document Server

    Soos, Sandor

    2011-01-01

    We apply bio-inspired methods for the analysis of different dynamic bibliometric networks (linking papers by citation, authors, and keywords, respectively). Biological species are clusters of individuals defined by widely different criteria and in the biological perspective it is natural to (1) use different categorizations on the same entities (2) to compare the different categorizations and to analyze the dissimilarities, especially as they change over time. We employ the same methodology to comparisons of bibliometric classifications. We constructed them as analogs of three species concepts: cladistic or lineage based, similarity based, and "biological species" (based on co-reproductive ability). We use the Rand and Jaccard indexes to compare classifications in different time intervals. The experiment is aimed to address the classic problem of science mapping, as to what extent the various techniques based on different bibliometric indicators, such as citations, keywords or authors are able to detect conve...

  15. Distributed Synchronization Technique for OFDMA-Based Wireless Mesh Networks Using a Bio-Inspired Algorithm.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Mi Jeong; Maeng, Sung Joon; Cho, Yong Soo

    2015-07-28

    In this paper, a distributed synchronization technique based on a bio-inspired algorithm is proposed for an orthogonal frequency division multiple access (OFDMA)-based wireless mesh network (WMN) with a time difference of arrival. The proposed time- and frequency-synchronization technique uses only the signals received from the neighbor nodes, by considering the effect of the propagation delay between the nodes. It achieves a fast synchronization with a relatively low computational complexity because it is operated in a distributed manner, not requiring any feedback channel for the compensation of the propagation delays. In addition, a self-organization scheme that can be effectively used to construct 1-hop neighbor nodes is proposed for an OFDMA-based WMN with a large number of nodes. The performance of the proposed technique is evaluated with regard to the convergence property and synchronization success probability using a computer simulation.

  16. Parallel Processing and Bio-inspired Computing for Biomedical Image Registration

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Silviu Ioan Bejinariu

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available Image Registration (IR is an optimization problem computing optimal parameters of a geometric transform used to overlay one or more source images to a given model by maximizing a similarity measure. In this paper the use of bio-inspired optimization algorithms in image registration is analyzed. Results obtained by means of three different algorithms are compared: Bacterial Foraging Optimization Algorithm (BFOA, Genetic Algorithm (GA and Clonal Selection Algorithm (CSA. Depending on the images type, the registration may be: area based, which is slow but more precise, and features based, which is faster. In this paper a feature based approach based on the Scale Invariant Feature Transform (SIFT is proposed. Finally, results obtained using sequential and parallel implementations on multi-core systems for area based and features based image registration are compared.

  17. Distributed Synchronization Technique for OFDMA-Based Wireless Mesh Networks Using a Bio-Inspired Algorithm

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mi Jeong Kim

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available In this paper, a distributed synchronization technique based on a bio-inspired algorithm is proposed for an orthogonal frequency division multiple access (OFDMA-based wireless mesh network (WMN with a time difference of arrival. The proposed time- and frequency-synchronization technique uses only the signals received from the neighbor nodes, by considering the effect of the propagation delay between the nodes. It achieves a fast synchronization with a relatively low computational complexity because it is operated in a distributed manner, not requiring any feedback channel for the compensation of the propagation delays. In addition, a self-organization scheme that can be effectively used to construct 1-hop neighbor nodes is proposed for an OFDMA-based WMN with a large number of nodes. The performance of the proposed technique is evaluated with regard to the convergence property and synchronization success probability using a computer simulation.

  18. Book Titled Autonomic Networking-on-Chip: Bio-Inspired Specification, Development, and Verification: An Introduction

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Phan Cong Vinh

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available Despite the growing mainstream importance and unique advantages of autonomic networking-onchip (ANoC technology, Autonomic Networking-On-Chip: Bio-Inspired Specification, Development, and Verification is among the first books to evaluate research results on formalizing this emerging NoC paradigm, which was inspired by the human nervous system. The third book in the Embedded Multi-Core Systems series from CRC Press, this is an advanced technical guide and reference composed of contributions from prominent researchers in industry and academia around the world. A response to the critical need for a global information exchange and dialogue, it is written for engineers, scientists, practitioners, and other researchers who have a basic understanding of NoC and are now ready to learn how to specify, develop, and verify ANoC using rigorous approaches.

  19. Multi-AUV Hunting Algorithm Based on Bio-inspired Neural Network in Unknown Environments

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Daqi Zhu

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available The multi-AUV hunting problem is one of the key issues in multi-robot system research. In order to hunt the target efficiently, a new hunting algorithm based on a bio-inspired neural network has been proposed in this paper. Firstly, the AUV’s working environment can be represented, based on the biological-inspired neural network model. There is one-to-one correspondence between each neuron in the neural network and the position of the grid map in the underwater environment. The activity values of biological neurons then guide the AUV’s sailing path and finally the target is surrounded by AUVs. In addition, a method called negotiation is used to solve the AUV’s allocation of hunting points. The simulation results show that the algorithm used in the paper can provide rapid and highly efficient path planning in the unknown environment with obstacles and non-obstacles.

  20. UV-curable nanocasting technique to prepare bioinspired superhydrophobic organic-inorganic composite anticorrosion coatings

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    K. C. Chang

    2015-02-01

    Full Text Available A UV-curing technique was used to develop advanced anticorrosive coatings made of a poly(methyl methacrylate (PMMA/silica composite (PSC with bioinspired Xanthosoma sagittifolium leaf-like superhydrophobic surfaces. First of all, a transparent soft template with negative patterns of xanthosoma sagittifolium leaf can be fabricated by thermally curing the polydimethylsiloxane (PDMS pre-polymer in molds at 60°C for 4 h, followed by detaching PDMS template from the surface of natural leaf. PSC coatings with biomimetic structures can be prepared by performing the UV-radiation process upon casting UV-curable precursor with photo-initiator onto cold-rolled steel (CRS electrode under PDMS template. Subsequently, UV-radiation process was carried out by using light source with light intensity of 100 mW/cm2 with exposing wavelength of 365 nm. Surface morphologies of the as-synthesized hydrophobic PMMA (HP and superhydrophobic PSC (SPSC coatings showed a large number of micro-scaled mastoids, each decorated with many nano-scaled wrinkles that were systematically investigated by using scanning electron microscopy (SEM. The contact angles of water droplets on the sample surfaces can be increased from ~81 and 103° on PMMA and PSC surfaces to ~148 and 163° on HP and SPSC surfaces, respectively. The SPSC coating was found to provide an advanced corrosion protection effect on CRS electrodes compared to that of neat PMMA, PSC, and HP coatings based on a series of electrochemical corrosion measurements in 3.5 wt% NaCl electrolyte. Enhanced corrosion protection of SPSC coatings on CRS electrodes can be illustrated by that the silica nanoparticles on the small papillary hills of the bioinspired structure of the surface further increased the surface roughness, making the surface exhibit superior superhydrophobic, and thus leading to much better anticorrosion performance.

  1. Integration of bio-inspired, control-based visual and olfactory data for the detection of an elusive target

    Science.gov (United States)

    Duong, Tuan A.; Duong, Nghi; Le, Duong

    2017-01-01

    In this paper, we present an integration technique using a bio-inspired, control-based visual and olfactory receptor system to search for elusive targets in practical environments where the targets cannot be seen obviously by either sensory data. Bio-inspired Visual System is based on a modeling of extended visual pathway which consists of saccadic eye movements and visual pathway (vertebrate retina, lateral geniculate nucleus and visual cortex) to enable powerful target detections of noisy, partial, incomplete visual data. Olfactory receptor algorithm, namely spatial invariant independent component analysis, that was developed based on data of old factory receptor-electronic nose (enose) of Caltech, is adopted to enable the odorant target detection in an unknown environment. The integration of two systems is a vital approach and sets up a cornerstone for effective and low-cost of miniaturized UAVs or fly robots for future DOD and NASA missions, as well as for security systems in Internet of Things environments.

  2. Phosphate: are we squandering a scarce commodity?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ferro, Charles J; Ritz, Eberhard; Townend, Jonathan N

    2015-02-01

    Phosphorus is an essential element for life but is a rare element in the universe. On Earth, it occurs mostly in the form of phosphates that are widespread but predominantly at very low concentration. This relative rarity has resulted in a survival advantage, in evolutionary terms, to organisms that conserve phosphate. When phosphate is made available in excess it becomes a cause for disease, perhaps best recognized as a potential cardiovascular and renal risk factor. As a reaction to the emerging public health issue caused by phosphate additives to food items, there have been calls for a public education programme and regulation to bring about a reduction of phosphate additives to food. During the Paleoproterzoic era, an increase in the bioavailability of phosphate is thought to have contributed significantly to the oxygenation of our atmosphere and a dramatic increase in the evolution of new species. Currently, phosphate is used poorly and often wasted with phosphate fertilizers washing this scarce commodity into water bodies causing eutrophication and algal blooms. Ironically, this is leading to the extinction of hundreds of species. The unchecked exploitation of phosphate rock, which is an increasingly rare natural resource, and our dependence on it for agriculture may lead to a strange situation in which phosphate might become a commodity to be fought over whilst at the same time, health and environmental experts are likely to recommend reductions in its use.

  3. Bio-inspired multinuclear copper complexes covalently immobilized on reduced graphene oxide as efficient electrocatalysts for the oxygen reduction reaction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xi, Yue-Ting; Wei, Ping-Jie; Wang, Ru-Chun; Liu, Jin-Gang

    2015-05-01

    Inspired by the multicopper active site of laccase, which efficiently catalyzes the oxygen reduction reaction (ORR), herein we report a novel bio-inspired ORR catalyst composed of a multinuclear copper complex that was immobilized on the surface of reduced graphene oxide (rGO) via the covalently grafted triazole-dipyridine (TADPy) dinucleating ligand. This rGO-TADPyCu catalyst exhibited high ORR activity and superior long-term stability compared to Pt/C in alkaline media.

  4. Functional architectures based on self-assembly of bio-inspired dipeptides: Structure modulation and its photoelectronic applications.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Chengjun; Liu, Kai; Li, Junbai; Yan, Xuehai

    2015-11-01

    Getting inspiration from nature and further developing functional architectures provides an effective way to design innovative materials and systems. Among bio-inspired materials, dipeptides and its self-assembled architectures with functionalities have recently been the subject of intensive studies. However, there is still a great challenge to explore its applications likely due to the lack of effective adaptation of their self-assembled structures as well as a lack of understanding of the self-assembly mechanisms. In this context, taking diphenylalanine (FF, a core recognition motif for molecular self-assembly of the Alzheimer's β-amyloid polypeptides) as a model of bio-inspired dipeptides, recent strategies on modulation of dipeptide-based architectures were introduced with regard to both covalent (architectures modulation by coupling functional groups) and non-covalent ways (controlled architectures by different assembly pathways). Then, applications are highlighted in some newly emerging fields of innovative photoelectronic devices and materials, such as artificial photosynthetic systems for renewable solar energy storage and renewable optical waveguiding materials for optoelectronic devices. At last, the challenges and future perspectives of these bio-inspired dipeptides are also addressed.

  5. Can Phosphate Salts Recovered from Manure Replace Conventional Phosphate Fertilizer?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andrea Ehmann

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Pig farming produces more manure than can reasonably be spread onto surrounding fields, particularly in regions with high livestock densities and limited land availability. Nutrient recycling offers an attractive solution for dealing with manure excesses and is one main objective of the European commission-funded project “BioEcoSIM”. Phosphate salts (“P-Salt” were recovered from the separated liquid manure fraction. The solid fraction was dried and carbonized to biochar. This study compared the fertilizing performance of P-Salt and conventional phosphate fertilizer and determined whether additional biochar application further increased biomass yields. The fertilizers and biochar were tested in pot experiments with spring barley and faba beans using two nutrient-poor soils. The crops were fertilized with P-Salt at three levels and biochar in two concentrations. Biomass yield was determined after six weeks. Plant and soil samples were analysed for nitrogen, phosphorus and potassium contents. The P-Salt had similar or even better effects than mineral fertilizer on growth in both crops and soils. Slow release of nutrients can prevent leaching, rendering P-Salt a particularly suitable fertilizer for light sandy soils. Biochar can enhance its fertilizing effect, but the underlying mechanisms need further investigation. These novel products are concluded to be promising candidates for efficient fertilization strategies.

  6. Insight into biological phosphate recovery from sewage.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ye, Yuanyao; Ngo, Huu Hao; Guo, Wenshan; Liu, Yiwen; Zhang, Xinbo; Guo, Jianbo; Ni, Bing-Jie; Chang, Soon Woong; Nguyen, Dinh Duc

    2016-10-01

    The world's increasing population means that more food production is required. A more sustainable supply of fertilizers mainly consisting of phosphate is needed. Due to the rising consumption of scarce resources and limited natural supply of phosphate, the recovery of phosphate and their re-use has potentially high market value. Sewage has high potential to recover a large amount of phosphate in a circular economy approach. This paper focuses on utilization of biological process integrated with various subsequent processes to concentrate and recycle phosphate which are derived from liquid and sludge phases. The phosphate accumulation and recovery are discussed in terms of mechanism and governing parameters, recovery efficiency, application at plant-scale and economy.

  7. Tetracalcium phosphate: Synthesis, properties and biomedical applications.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moseke, C; Gbureck, U

    2010-10-01

    Monoclinic tetracalcium phosphate (TTCP, Ca(4)(PO(4))(2)O), also known by the mineral name hilgenstockite, is formed in the (CaO-P(2)O(5)) system at temperatures>1300 degrees C. TTCP is the only calcium phosphate with a Ca/P ratio greater than hydroxyapatite (HA). It appears as a by-product in plasma-sprayed HA coatings and shows moderate reactivity and concurrent solubility when combined with acidic calcium phosphates such as dicalcium phosphate anhydrous (DCPA, monetite) or dicalcium phosphate dihydrate (DCPD, brushite). Therefore it is widely used in self-setting calcium phosphate bone cements, which form HA under physiological conditions. This paper aims to review the synthesis and properties of TTCP in biomaterials applications such as cements, sintered ceramics and coatings on implant metals.

  8. Application of Calcium Phosphate Materials in Dentistry

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jabr S. Al-Sanabani

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Calcium phosphate materials are similar to bone in composition and in having bioactive and osteoconductive properties. Calcium phosphate materials in different forms, as cements, composites, and coatings, are used in many medical and dental applications. This paper reviews the applications of these materials in dentistry. It presents a brief history, dental applications, and methods for improving their mechanical properties. Notable research is highlighted regarding (1 application of calcium phosphate into various fields in dentistry; (2 improving mechanical properties of calcium phosphate; (3 biomimetic process and functionally graded materials. This paper deals with most common types of the calcium phosphate materials such as hydroxyapatite and tricalcium phosphate which are currently used in dental and medical fields.

  9. Matrix Extracellular Phosphoglycoprotein Inhibits Phosphate Transport

    OpenAIRE

    Marks, J; Churchill, L J; Debnam, E. S.; Unwin, R J

    2008-01-01

    The role of putative humoral factors, known as phosphatonins, in phosphate homeostasis and the relationship between phosphate handling by the kidney and gastrointestinal tract are incompletely understood. Matrix extracellular phosphoglycoprotein (MEPE), one of several candidate phosphatonins, promotes phosphaturia, but whether it also affects intestinal phosphate absorption is unknown. Here, using the in situ intestinal loop technique, we demonstrated that short-term infusion of MEPE inhibits...

  10. Analytical development of a binuclear oxo-manganese complex bio-inspired on oxidase enzyme for doping control analysis of acetazolamide.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Machini, Wesley B S; Teixeira, Marcos F S

    2016-05-15

    A bio-inspired electrochemical sensor using a binuclear oxo-manganese complex was evaluated and applied in the detection of a substance associated with doping in sports: acetazolamide (ACTZ). Investigation was made of the influence of different experimental variables on the electrocatalytic oxidation of ACTZ by the bio-inspired sensor, such as pH and interfering species. The bio-inspired sensor showed the best response in the range from 5.00×10(-9) to 7.00×10(-8) mol L(-1) ACTZ, with a linear range from 5.00×10(-9) to 2.50×10(-8) mol L(-1) and a detection limit of 4.76×10(-9) mol L(-1). The sensor exhibited characteristics similar to the Michaelis-Menten model of an enzymatic electrode, due to the use of a multinucleated complex of manganese with μ-oxo units, which was able to mimic the properties of enzymes with manganese as a cofactor in their composition, such as Mn-containing oxidase. The determination of ACTZ with the bio-inspired sensor was evaluated using three different synthetic biological fluids (plasma, saliva, and urine), demonstrating its viability for use with real samples. The analysis of ACTZ in real urine samples using the bio-inspired sensor, simulating the method adopted by the World Anti-Doping Agency, which revealed viable, suggesting a new and promising platform to be used in these analysis.

  11. Mineral induced formation of sugar phosphates

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pitsch, S.; Eschenmoser, A.; Gedulin, B.; Hui, S.; Arrhenius, G.

    1995-01-01

    Glycolaldehyde phosphate, sorbed from highly dilute, weakly alkaline solution into the interlayer of common expanding sheet structure metal hydroxide minerals, condenses extensively to racemic aldotetrose-2, 4-diphophates, and aldohexose-2, 4, 6-triphosphates. The reaction proceeds mainly through racemic erythrose-2, 4-phosphate, and terminates with a large fraction of racemic altrose-2, 4, 6-phosphate. In the absence of an inductive mineral phase, no detectable homogeneous reaction takes place in the concentration- and pH range used. The reactant glycolaldehyde phosphate is practically completely sorbed within an hour from solutions with concentrations as low as 50 micron; the half-time for conversion to hexose phosphates is of the order of two days at room temperature and pH 9.5. Total production of sugar phosphates in the mineral interlayer is largely independent of the glycolaldehyde phosphate concentration in the external solution, but is determined by the total amount of GAP offered for sorption up to the capacity of the mineral. In the presence of equimolar amounts of rac-glyceraldehyde-2-phosphate, but under otherwise similar conditions, aldopentose-2, 4, -diphosphates also form, but only as a small fraction of the hexose-2, 4, 6-phosphates.

  12. Preparation of porous lanthanum phosphate with templates

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Onoda, Hiroaki, E-mail: onoda@kpu.ac.jp [Department of Informatics and Environmental Sciences, Faculty of Life and Environmental Sciences, Kyoto Prefectural University, 1-5, Shimogamo Nakaragi-cyo, Sakyo-ku, Kyoto 606-8522 (Japan); Ishima, Yuya [Department of Applied Chemistry, Faculty of Life Sciences, Ritsumeikan University, 1-1-1, Nojihigashi, Kusatsu, Shiga 525-8577 (Japan); Takenaka, Atsushi [Department of Materials Science, Yonago National College of Technology, 4448, Hikona-cho, Yonago, Tottori 683-8502 (Japan); Tanaka, Isao [Department of Materials Science and Engineering, Faculty of Engineering, Kyoto University, Yoshida-Honmachi, Sakyo-ku, Kyoto 606-8501 (Japan)

    2009-08-05

    Malonic acid, propionic acid, glycine, n-butylamine, and urea were added to the preparation of lanthanum phosphate from lanthanum nitrate and phosphoric acid solutions. All additives were taken into lanthanum phosphate particles. The additives that have a basic site were easy to contain in precipitates. The addition of templates improved the specific surface area of lanthanum phosphate. The amount of pore, with radius smaller than 4 nm, increased with the addition of templates. The remained additives had influence on the acidic properties of lanthanum phosphate.

  13. Drug-pyridoxal phosphate interactions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ebadi, M; Gessert, C F; Al-Sayegh, A

    1982-01-01

    phosphate. Some interesting relationships are pointed out between vitamin B6, picolinic acid, and zinc. It is postulated that the intestinal absorption of zinc is facilitated by picolinic acid, a metabolite of tryptophan. The derivation of picolinic acid from tryptophan depends on the action of the enzyme kynureninase, which is dependent on pyridoxal phosphate; therefore, the adequate absorption of zinc is indirectly dependent on an adequate supply of vitamin B6. The formation of pyridoxal phosphate, on the other hand, appears to be indirectly dependent on Zn2++ which activates pyridoxal kinase.(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 400 WORDS)

  14. Electrochemical phosphate recovery from nanofiltration concentrates

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kappel, C.; Yasadi, K.; Temmink, B.G.; Metz, S.J.; Kemperman, A.J.B.; Nijmeijer, K.; Zwijnenburg, A.; Witkamp, G.J.; Rijnaarts, H.

    2013-01-01

    The high total phosphorus content of raw domestic wastewater with its significant eutrophication potential offers an excellent possibility for phosphate recovery. Continuous recirculation of NF concentrate to an MBR and simultaneous phosphate recovery from the NF concentrate can be applied to produc

  15. 21 CFR 520.823 - Erythromycin phosphate.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    .... (a) Specifications. Erythromycin phosphate is the phosphate salt of the antibiotic substance produced by the growth of Streptomyces erythreus or the same antibiotic substance produced by any other means... chickens—(i) Amount. 0.500 gram per gallon. (ii) Indications for use. As an aid in the control of...

  16. Stable Development of Phosphate Fertilizer Sector

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2007-01-01

    @@ The rapid growth of China's economy in recent years gave rise to a sound external environment for the development of the phosphate fertilizer industry. With quite a few state agricultural incentives, the initiative of farmers in grain production is much higher, and consumption of phosphate fertilizers has increased constantly.

  17. Phosphate recycling in the phosphorus industry

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Schipper, W.J.; Klapwijk, A.; Potjer, B.; Rulkens, W.H.; Temmink, B.G.; Kiestra, F.D.G.; Lijmbach, A.C.M.

    2004-01-01

    The article describes the potential and limitations for recovery of phosphate from secondary materials in the production process for white phosphorus. This thermal process involves the feeding of phosphate rock, cokes and pebbles to a furnace. The reducing conditions in the furnace promote the forma

  18. Phosphate recycling in the phosphorus industry

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Schipper, W.J.; Klapwijk, A.; Potjer, A.; Rulkens, W.H.; Temmink, B.G.; Kiestra, F.D.G.; Lijmbach, A.C.M.

    2001-01-01

    The feasibility of phosphate recycling in the white phosphorus production process is discussed. Several types of materials may be recycled, provided they are dry inorganic materials, low in iron, copper and zinc. Sewage sludge ash may be used if no iron is used for phosphate precipitation in the tre

  19. Adsorption of Phosphate on Variable Charge Soils

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    HUGUO-SONG; ZHUZU-XIANG; 等

    1992-01-01

    The study about the adsorption of phosphate on four variable charge soils and some minerals revealed that two stage adsorption appeared in the adsorption isothems of phosphate on 4 soils and there was a maximum adsorption on Al-oxide-typed surfaces between pH 3.5 to pH 5.5 as suspension pH changed from 2 to 9,but the adsorption amount of phosphate decreased continually as pH rose on Fe-oxide typed surfaces.The adsorption amount of phosphate and the maximum phosphate adsorption pH decreased in the order of yellow-red soil> lateritic red soil> red soil> paddy soil,which was coincided with the content order of amorphous Al oxide.The removement of organic matter and Fe oxide made the maximum phosphate adsorption pH rise from 4.0 to 5.0 and 4.5,respectively.The desorption curves with pH of four soils showed that phosphate desorbed least at pH 5.Generally the desorption was contrary to the adsorption with pH changing.There was a good accordance between adsorption or desorption and the concentration of Al in the suspension.The possible mechanisms of phosphate adsorption are discussed.

  20. Viscous-Inviscid Methods in Unsteady Aerodynamic Analysis of Bio-Inspired Morphing Wings

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dhruv, Akash V.

    Flight has been one of the greatest realizations of human imagination, revolutionizing communication and transportation over the years. This has greatly influenced the growth of technology itself, enabling researchers to communicate and share their ideas more effectively, extending the human potential to create more sophisticated systems. While the end product of a sophisticated technology makes our lives easier, its development process presents an array of challenges in itself. In last decade, scientists and engineers have turned towards bio-inspiration to design more efficient and robust aerodynamic systems to enhance the ability of Unmanned Aerial Vehicles (UAVs) to be operated in cluttered environments, where tight maneuverability and controllability are necessary. Effective use of UAVs in domestic airspace will mark the beginning of a new age in communication and transportation. The design of such complex systems necessitates the need for faster and more effective tools to perform preliminary investigations in design, thereby streamlining the design process. This thesis explores the implementation of numerical panel methods for aerodynamic analysis of bio-inspired morphing wings. Numerical panel methods have been one of the earliest forms of computational methods for aerodynamic analysis to be developed. Although the early editions of this method performed only inviscid analysis, the algorithm has matured over the years as a result of contributions made by prominent aerodynamicists. The method discussed in this thesis is influenced by recent advancements in panel methods and incorporates both viscous and inviscid analysis of multi-flap wings. The surface calculation of aerodynamic coefficients makes this method less computationally expensive than traditional Computational Fluid Dynamics (CFD) solvers available, and thus is effective when both speed and accuracy are desired. The morphing wing design, which consists of sequential feather-like flaps installed

  1. Structural analysis of bioinspired nano materials with synchrotron far IR spectroscopy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Seoudi, Rania S; Dowd, Annette; Smith, Brian J; Mechler, Adam

    2016-04-28

    Bioinspired fibres and hierarchical nano-materials are based on the self-assembly of organic building blocks such as polypeptides. Confirming the core structure of such materials is often challenging as they lack the long-range order required by crystallographic methods. Far-IR spectroscopy characterizes the vibrational modes of large molecular units. These vibrational modes are very sensitive to angle strain and second order interactions such as hydrogen bonding. As such, far-IR spectra hold information about the secondary structure and interactions of large biomolecules. Here we analyze the far-IR vibrational spectra of fibrous nano-materials based on three isomeric unnatural tripeptides, Ac-β(3)Leu-β(3)Ile-β(3)Ala, Ac-β(3)Ile-β(3)Ala-β(3)Leu, and Ac-β(3)Ala-β(3)Leu-β(3)Ile. These peptides have well described self-assembly characteristics, forming one-dimensional nanorods that impose tight conformational constraints on the constituent molecules. The synchrotron far-IR spectroscopic results were interpreted by using density functional theory (DFT) modelling based vibrational analysis. The sensitivity of the spectra to peptide conformation was assessed by comparing the experimental spectra with DFT predictions. In high dielectric implicit solvent, intramolecular hydrogen-bonding is inhibited and thus the energy minimized peptide structure remains close to the 14-helix folding characteristic of substituted β(3)-peptides, giving good agreement between the experimental and predicted vibration spectra. In contrast, energy minimization in vacuum alters the peptide conformation leading to intramolecular hydrogen bonds, and hence the predicted vibration spectra do not agree with the experimental data. Therefore, our results demonstrate the ability of far-IR spectroscopy to identify correct structural predictions and thus open the way for using far-IR spectroscopy for the characterization and structural analysis of bioinspired nano-materials and potentially their

  2. Bioinspired super-antiwetting interfaces with special liquid-solid adhesion.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Mingjie; Zheng, Yongmei; Zhai, Jin; Jiang, Lei

    2010-03-16

    Super-antiwetting interfaces, such as superhydrophobic and superamphiphobic surfaces in air and superoleophobic interfaces in water, with special liquid-solid adhesion have recently attracted worldwide attention. Through tuning surface microstructures and compositions to achieve certain solid/liquid contact modes, we can effectively control the liquid-solid adhesion in a super-antiwetting state. In this Account, we review our recent progress in the design and fabrication of these bioinspired super-antiwetting interfaces with special liquid-solid adhesion. Low-adhesion superhydrophobic surfaces are biologically inspired, typically by the lotus leaf. Wettability investigated at micro- and nanoscale reveals that the low adhesion of the lotus surface originates from the composite contact mode, a microdroplet bridging several contacts, within the hierarchical structures. Recently high-adhesion superhydrophobic surfaces have also attracted research attention. These surfaces are inspired by the surfaces of gecko feet and rose petals. Accordingly, we propose two biomimetic approaches for the fabrication of high-adhesion superhydrophobic surfaces. First, to mimic a sticky gecko's foot, we designed structures with nanoscale pores that could trap air isolated from the atmosphere. In this case, the negative pressure induced by the volume change of sealed air as the droplet is pulled away from surface can produce a normal adhesive force. Second, we constructed microstructures with size and topography similar to that of a rose petal. The resulting materials hold air gaps in their nanoscale folds, controlling the superhydrophobicity in a Wenzel state on the microscale. Furthermore, we can tune the liquid-solid adhesion on the same superhydrophobic surface by dynamically controlling the orientations of microstructures without altering the surface composition. The superhydrophobic wings of the butterfly (Morpho aega) show directional adhesion: a droplet easily rolls off the surface

  3. Genetics Home Reference: pyridoxal 5'-phosphate-dependent epilepsy

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... 5'-phosphate-dependent epilepsy pyridoxal 5'-phosphate-dependent epilepsy Enable Javascript to view the expand/collapse boxes. ... All Close All Description Pyridoxal 5'-phosphate-dependent epilepsy is a condition that involves seizures beginning soon ...

  4. Hydrolysis of dicalcium phosphate dihydrate to hydroxyapatite.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fulmer, M T; Brown, P W

    1998-04-01

    Dicalcium phosphate dihydrate (DCPD) was hydrolysed in water and in 1 M Na2HPO4 solution at temperatures from 25-60 degrees C. Hydrolysis was incomplete in water. At 25 degrees C, DCPD partially hydrolysed to hydroxyapatite (HAp). Formation of HAp is indicative of incongruent DCPD dissolution. At the higher temperatures, hydrolysis to HAp was more extensive and was accompanied by the formation of anhydrous dicalcium phosphate (DCP). Both of these processes are endothermic. When hydrolysis was carried out in 1 M Na2HPO4 solution, heat absorption was greater at any given temperature than for hydrolysis in water. Complete hydrolysis to HAp occurred in this solution. The hydrolysis of DCPD to HAp in sodium phosphate solution was also endothermic. The complete conversion of DCPD to HAp in sodium phosphate solution would not be expected if the only effect of this solution was to cause DCPD dissolution to become congruent. Because of the buffering capacity of a dibasic sodium phosphate solution, DCPD hydrolysed completely to HAp. Complete conversion to HAp was accompanied by the conversion of dibasic sodium phosphate to monobasic sodium phosphate. The formation of DCP was not observed indicating that the sodium phosphate solution precluded the DCPD-to-DCP dehydration reaction. In addition to affecting the extent of hydrolysis, reaction in the sodium phosphate solution also caused a morphological change in the HAp which formed. HAp formed by hydrolysis in water was needle-like to globular while that formed in the sodium phosphate solution exhibited a florette-like morphology.

  5. Dominant oceanic bacteria secure phosphate using a large extracellular buffer

    OpenAIRE

    M. V. Zubkov; Martin, A. P.; Hartmann, M.; Grob, C.; Scanlan, D.J.

    2015-01-01

    The ubiquitous SAR11 and Prochlorococcus bacteria manage to maintain a sufficient supply of phosphate in phosphate-poor surface waters of the North Atlantic subtropical gyre. Furthermore, it seems that their phosphate uptake may counter-intuitively be lower in more productive tropical waters, as if their cellular demand for phosphate decreases there. By flow sorting 33P-phosphate-pulsed 32P-phosphate-chased cells, we demonstrate that both Prochlorococcus and SAR11 cells exploit an extracellul...

  6. Application of Potential Phosphate-Solubilizing Bacteria and Organic Acids on Phosphate Solubilization from Phosphate Rock in Aerobic Rice

    OpenAIRE

    Qurban Ali Panhwar; Shamshuddin Jusop; Umme Aminun Naher; Radziah Othman; Mohd Ismail Razi

    2013-01-01

    A study was conducted at Universiti Putra Malaysia to determine the effect of phosphate-solubilizing bacteria (PSB) and organic acids (oxalic & malic) on phosphate (P) solubilization from phosphate rock (PR) and growth of aerobic rice. Four rates of each organic acid (0, 10, 20, and 30 mM), and PSB strain (Bacillus sp.) were applied to aerobic rice. Total bacterial populations, amount of P solubilization, P uptake, soil pH, and root morphology were determined. The results of the study showed ...

  7. Multi-AUV Target Search Based on Bioinspired Neurodynamics Model in 3-D Underwater Environments.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cao, Xiang; Zhu, Daqi; Yang, Simon X

    2016-11-01

    Target search in 3-D underwater environments is a challenge in multiple autonomous underwater vehicles (multi-AUVs) exploration. This paper focuses on an effective strategy for multi-AUV target search in the 3-D underwater environments with obstacles. First, the Dempster-Shafer theory of evidence is applied to extract information of environment from the sonar data to build a grid map of the underwater environments. Second, a topologically organized bioinspired neurodynamics model based on the grid map is constructed to represent the dynamic environment. The target globally attracts the AUVs through the dynamic neural activity landscape of the model, while the obstacles locally push the AUVs away to avoid collision. Finally, the AUVs plan their search path to the targets autonomously by a steepest gradient descent rule. The proposed algorithm deals with various situations, such as static targets search, dynamic targets search, and one or several AUVs break down in the 3-D underwater environments with obstacles. The simulation results show that the proposed algorithm is capable of guiding multi-AUV to achieve search task of multiple targets with higher efficiency and adaptability compared with other algorithms.

  8. An Experimental Investigation on Bio-inspired Icephobic Coatings for Aircraft Icing Mitigation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hu, Hui; Li, Haixing; Waldman, Rye

    2016-11-01

    By leveraging the Icing Research Tunnel available at Iowa State University (ISU-IRT), a series of experimental investigations were conducted to elucidate the underlying physics pertinent to aircraft icing phenomena. A suite of advanced flow diagnostic techniques, which include high-speed photographic imaging, digital image projection (DIP), and infrared (IR) imaging thermometry, were developed and applied to quantify the transient behavior of water droplet impingement, wind-driven surface water runback, unsteady heat transfer and dynamic ice accreting process over the surfaces of airfoil/wing models. The icephobic performance of various bio-inspired superhydrophobic coatings were evaluated quantitatively at different icing conditions. The findings derived from the icing physics studies can be used to improve current icing accretion models for more accurate prediction of ice formation and accretion on aircraft wings and to develop effective anti-/deicing strategies for safer and more efficient operation of aircraft in cold weather. The research work is partially supported by NASA with Grant Number NNX12AC21A and National Science Foundation under Award Numbers of CBET-1064196 and CBET-1435590.

  9. B-iTRS: A Bio-Inspired Trusted Routing Scheme for Wireless Sensor Networks

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mingchuan Zhang

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available In WSNs, routing algorithms need to handle dynamical changes of network topology, extra overhead, energy saving, and other requirements. Therefore, routing in WSNs is an extremely interesting and challenging issue. In this paper, we present a novel bio-inspired trusted routing scheme (B-iTRS based on ant colony optimization (ACO and Physarum autonomic optimization (PAO. For trust assessment, B-iTRS monitors neighbors’ behavior in real time, receives feedback from Sink, and then assesses neighbors’ trusts based on the acquired information. For routing scheme, each node finds routes to the Sink based on ACO and PAO. In the process of path finding, B-iTRS senses the load and trust value of each node and then calculates the link load and link trust of the found routes to support the route selection. Moreover, B-iTRS also assesses the route based on PAO to maintain the route table. Simulation results show how B-iTRS can achieve the effective performance compared to existing state-of-the-art algorithms.

  10. A compact bio-inspired visible/NIR imager for image-guided surgery (Conference Presentation)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gao, Shengkui; Garcia, Missael; Edmiston, Chris; York, Timothy; Marinov, Radoslav; Mondal, Suman B.; Zhu, Nan; Sudlow, Gail P.; Akers, Walter J.; Margenthaler, Julie A.; Liang, Rongguang; Pepino, Marta; Achilefu, Samuel; Gruev, Viktor

    2016-03-01

    Inspired by the visual system of the morpho butterfly, we have designed, fabricated, tested and clinically translated an ultra-sensitive, light weight and compact imaging sensor capable of simultaneously capturing near infrared (NIR) and visible spectrum information. The visual system of the morpho butterfly combines photosensitive cells with spectral filters at the receptor level. The spectral filters are realized by alternating layers of high and low dielectric constant, such as air and cytoplasm. We have successfully mimicked this concept by integrating pixelated spectral filters, realized by alternating silicon dioxide and silicon nitrate layers, with an array of CCD detectors. There are four different types of pixelated spectral filters in the imaging plane: red, green, blue and NIR. The high optical density (OD) of all spectral filters (OD>4) allow for efficient rejections of photons from unwanted bands. The single imaging chip weighs 20 grams with form factor of 5mm by 5mm. The imaging camera is integrated with a goggle display system. A tumor targeted agent, LS301, is used to identify all spontaneous tumors in a transgenic PyMT murine model of breast cancer. The imaging system achieved sensitivity of 98% and selectivity of 95%. We also used our imaging sensor to locate sentinel lymph nodes (SLNs) in patients with breast cancer using indocyanine green tracer. The surgeon was able to identify 100% of SLNs when using our bio-inspired imaging system, compared to 93% when using information from the lymphotropic dye and 96% when using information from the radioactive tracer.

  11. Bioinspired Intelligent Algorithm and Its Applications for Mobile Robot Control: A Survey

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jianjun Ni

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Bioinspired intelligent algorithm (BIA is a kind of intelligent computing method, which is with a more lifelike biological working mechanism than other types. BIAs have made significant progress in both understanding of the neuroscience and biological systems and applying to various fields. Mobile robot control is one of the main application fields of BIAs which has attracted more and more attention, because mobile robots can be used widely and general artificial intelligent algorithms meet a development bottleneck in this field, such as complex computing and the dependence on high-precision sensors. This paper presents a survey of recent research in BIAs, which focuses on the research in the realization of various BIAs based on different working mechanisms and the applications for mobile robot control, to help in understanding BIAs comprehensively and clearly. The survey has four primary parts: a classification of BIAs from the biomimetic mechanism, a summary of several typical BIAs from different levels, an overview of current applications of BIAs in mobile robot control, and a description of some possible future directions for research.

  12. A Bioinspired Molecular Polyoxometalate Catalyst with Two Cobalt(II) Oxide Cores for Photocatalytic Water Oxidation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wei, Jie; Feng, Yingying; Zhou, Panpan; Liu, Yan; Xu, Jingyin; Xiang, Rui; Ding, Yong; Zhao, Chongchao; Fan, Linyuan; Hu, Changwen

    2015-08-24

    To overcome the bottleneck of water splitting, the exploration of efficient, selective, and stable water oxidation catalysts (WOCs) is crucial. We report an all-inorganic, oxidatively and hydrolytically stable WOC based on a polyoxometalate [(A-α-SiW9 O34)2Co8(OH)6(H2O)2(CO3)3](16-) (Co8 POM). As a cobalt(II)-based cubane water oxidation catalyst, Co8POM embeds double Co(II)4O3 cores. The self-assembled catalyst is similar to the oxygen evolving complex (OEC) of photosystem II (PS II). Using [Ru(bpy)3](2+) as a photosensitizer and persulfate as a sacrificial electron acceptor, Co8POM exhibits excellent water oxidation activity with a turnover number (TON) of 1436, currently the highest among bioinspired catalysts with a cubical core, and a high initial turnover frequency (TOF). Investigation by several spectroscopy, spectrometry, and other techniques confirm that Co8POM is a stable and efficient catalyst for visible light-driven water oxidation. The results offer a useful insight into the design of water oxidation catalysts.

  13. Programmable thermal emissivity structures based on bioinspired self-shape materials

    Science.gov (United States)

    Athanasopoulos, N.; Siakavellas, N. J.

    2015-12-01

    Programmable thermal emissivity structures based on the bioinspired self-shape anisotropic materials were developed at macro-scale, and further studied theoretically at smaller scale. We study a novel concept, incorporating materials that are capable of transforming their shape via microstructural rearrangements under temperature stimuli, while avoiding the use of exotic shape memory materials or complex micro-mechanisms. Thus, programmed thermal emissivity behaviour of a surface is achievable. The self-shape structure reacts according to the temperature of the surrounding environment or the radiative heat flux. A surface which incorporates self-shape structures can be designed to quickly absorb radiative heat energy at low temperature levels, but is simultaneously capable of passively controlling its maximum temperature in order to prevent overheating. It resembles a “game” of colours, where two or more materials coexist with different values of thermal emissivity/ absorptivity/ reflectivity. The transformation of the structure conceals or reveals one of the materials, creating a surface with programmable - and therefore, variable- effective thermal emissivity. Variable thermal emissivity surfaces may be developed with a total hemispherical emissivity ratio (ɛEff_H/ɛEff_L) equal to 28.

  14. Artificial Roughness Encoding with a Bio-inspired MEMS-based Tactile Sensor Array

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Calogero Maria Oddo

    2009-04-01

    Full Text Available A compliant 2x2 tactile sensor array was developed and investigated for roughness encoding. State of the art cross shape 3D MEMS sensors were integrated with polymeric packaging providing in total 16 sensitive elements to external mechanical stimuli in an area of about 20 mm2, similarly to the SA1 innervation density in humans. Experimental analysis of the bio-inspired tactile sensor array was performed by using ridged surfaces, with spatial periods from 2.6 mm to 4.1 mm, which were indented with regulated 1N normal force and stroked at constant sliding velocity from 15 mm/s to 48 mm/s. A repeatable and expected frequency shift of the sensor outputs depending on the applied stimulus and on its scanning velocity was observed between 3.66 Hz and 18.46 Hz with an overall maximum error of 1.7%. The tactile sensor could also perform contact imaging during static stimulus indentation. The experiments demonstrated the suitability of this approach for the design of a roughness encoding tactile sensor for an artificial fingerpad.

  15. Bio-inspired patterned networks (BIPS) for development of wearable/disposable biosensors

    Science.gov (United States)

    McLamore, E. S.; Convertino, M.; Hondred, John; Das, Suprem; Claussen, J. C.; Vanegas, D. C.; Gomes, C.

    2016-05-01

    Here we demonstrate a novel approach for fabricating point of care (POC) wearable electrochemical biosensors based on 3D patterning of bionanocomposite networks. To create Bio-Inspired Patterned network (BIPS) electrodes, we first generate fractal network in silico models that optimize transport of network fluxes according to an energy function. Network patterns are then inkjet printed onto flexible substrate using conductive graphene ink. We then deposit fractal nanometal structures onto the graphene to create a 3D nanocomposite network. Finally, we biofunctionalize the surface with biorecognition agents using covalent bonding. In this paper, BIPS are used to develop high efficiency, low cost biosensors for measuring glucose as a proof of concept. Our results on the fundamental performance of BIPS sensors show that the biomimetic nanostructures significantly enhance biosensor sensitivity, accuracy, response time, limit of detection, and hysteresis compared to conventional POC non fractal electrodes (serpentine, interdigitated, and screen printed electrodes). BIPs, in particular Apollonian patterned BIPS, represent a new generation of POC biosensors based on nanoscale and microscale fractal networks that significantly improve electrical connectivity, leading to enhanced sensor performance.

  16. Bio-inspired online variable recruitment control of fluidic artificial muscles

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jenkins, Tyler E.; Chapman, Edward M.; Bryant, Matthew

    2016-12-01

    This paper details the creation of a hybrid variable recruitment control scheme for fluidic artificial muscle (FAM) actuators with an emphasis on maximizing system efficiency and switching control performance. Variable recruitment is the process of altering a system’s active number of actuators, allowing operation in distinct force regimes. Previously, FAM variable recruitment was only quantified with offline, manual valve switching; this study addresses the creation and characterization of novel, on-line FAM switching control algorithms. The bio-inspired algorithms are implemented in conjunction with a PID and model-based controller, and applied to a simulated plant model. Variable recruitment transition effects and chatter rejection are explored via a sensitivity analysis, allowing a system designer to weigh tradeoffs in actuator modeling, algorithm choice, and necessary hardware. Variable recruitment is further developed through simulation of a robotic arm tracking a variety of spline position inputs, requiring several levels of actuator recruitment. Switching controller performance is quantified and compared with baseline systems lacking variable recruitment. The work extends current variable recruitment knowledge by creating novel online variable recruitment control schemes, and exploring how online actuator recruitment affects system efficiency and control performance. Key topics associated with implementing a variable recruitment scheme, including the effects of modeling inaccuracies, hardware considerations, and switching transition concerns are also addressed.

  17. A bioinspired autonomous swimming robot as a tool for studying goal-directed locomotion.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Manfredi, L; Assaf, T; Mintchev, S; Marrazza, S; Capantini, L; Orofino, S; Ascari, L; Grillner, S; Wallén, P; Ekeberg, O; Stefanini, C; Dario, P

    2013-10-01

    The bioinspired approach has been key in combining the disciplines of robotics with neuroscience in an effective and promising fashion. Indeed, certain aspects in the field of neuroscience, such as goal-directed locomotion and behaviour selection, can be validated through robotic artefacts. In particular, swimming is a functionally important behaviour where neuromuscular structures, neural control architecture and operation can be replicated artificially following models from biology and neuroscience. In this article, we present a biomimetic system inspired by the lamprey, an early vertebrate that locomotes using anguilliform swimming. The artefact possesses extra- and proprioceptive sensory receptors, muscle-like actuation, distributed embedded control and a vision system. Experiments on optimised swimming and on goal-directed locomotion are reported, as well as the assessment of the performance of the system, which shows high energy efficiency and adaptive behaviour. While the focus is on providing a robotic platform for testing biological models, the reported system can also be of major relevance for the development of engineering system applications.

  18. Linear and nonlinear optical waveguiding in bio-inspired peptide nanotubes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Handelman, Amir; Apter, Boris; Turko, Nir; Rosenman, Gil

    2016-01-01

    Unique linear and nonlinear optical properties of bioinspired peptide nanostructures such as wideband transparency and high second-order nonlinear optical response, combined with elongated tubular shape of variable size and rapid self-assembly fabrication process, make them promising for diverse bio-nano-photonic applications. This new generation of nanomaterials of biological origin possess physical properties similar to those of biological structures. Here, we focus on new specific functionality of ultrashort peptide nanotubes to guide light at fundamental and second-harmonic generation (SHG) frequency in horizontal and vertical peptide nanotubes configurations. Conducted simulations and experimental data show that these self-assembled linear and nonlinear optical bio-waveguides provide strong optical power confinement factor, demonstrate pronounced directionality of SHG and high conversion efficiency of SHG ∼10(-5). Our study gives new insight on physics of light propagation in nanostructures of biological origin and opens the avenue towards new and unexpected applications of these waveguiding effects in bio-nanomaterials both for biomedical nonlinear microscopy imaging recognition and development of novel integrated nanophotonic devices.

  19. LINEBACKER: LINE-speed Bio-inspired Analysis and Characterization for Event Recognition

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Oehmen, Christopher S.; Bruillard, Paul J.; Matzke, Brett D.; Phillips, Aaron R.; Star, Keith T.; Jensen, Jeffrey L.; Nordwall, Douglas J.; Thompson, Seth R.; Peterson, Elena S.

    2016-08-04

    The cyber world is a complex domain, with digital systems mediating a wide spectrum of human and machine behaviors. While this is enabling a revolution in the way humans interact with each other and data, it also is exposing previously unreachable infrastructure to a worldwide set of actors. Existing solutions for intrusion detection and prevention that are signature-focused typically seek to detect anomalous and/or malicious activity for the sake of preventing or mitigating negative impacts. But a growing interest in behavior-based detection is driving new forms of analysis that move the emphasis from static indicators (e.g. rule-based alarms or tripwires) to behavioral indicators that accommodate a wider contextual perspective. Similar to cyber systems, biosystems have always existed in resource-constrained hostile environments where behaviors are tuned by context. So we look to biosystems as an inspiration for addressing behavior-based cyber challenges. In this paper, we introduce LINEBACKER, a behavior-model based approach to recognizing anomalous events in network traffic and present the design of this approach of bio-inspired and statistical models working in tandem to produce individualized alerting for a collection of systems. Preliminary results of these models operating on historic data are presented along with a plugin to support real-world cyber operations.

  20. Optimization of PID Controller for Brushless DC Motor by using Bio-inspired Algorithms

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sanjay Kr. Singh

    2014-02-01

    Full Text Available This study presents the use and comparison of various bio-inspired algorithms for optimizing the response of a PID controller for a Brushless DC Motor in contrast to the conventional methods of tuning. For the optimization of the PID controllers Genetic Algorithm, Multi-objective Genetic Algorithm and Simulated Annealing have been used. PID controller tuning with soft-computing algorithms comprises of obtaining the best possible outcome for the three PID parameters for improving the steady state characteristics and performance indices like overshoot percentage, rise time and settling time. For the calculation and simulation of the results the Brushless DC Motor model, Maxon EC 45 flat ф 45 mm with Hall Sensors Motor has been used. The results obtained the optimization using Genetic Algorithms, Multi-objective Genetic Algorithm and Simulated Annealing is compared with the ones derived from the Ziegler-Nichols method and the MATLAB SISO Tool. And it is observed that comparatively better results are obtained by optimization using Simulated Annealing offering better steady state response.

  1. Adhesive Contact in Animal: Morphology, Mechanism and Bio-Inspired Application

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Aihong Ji; Longbao Han; Zhendong Dai

    2011-01-01

    Many animals possess adhesive pads on their feet,which are able to attach to various substrates while controlling adhesive forces during locomotion.This review article studies the morphology of adhesive devices in animals,and the physical mechanisms of wet adhesion and dry adhesion.The adhesive pads are either ‘smooth' or densely covered with special adhesive setae.Smooth pads adhere by wet adhesion,which is facilitated by fluid secreted from the pads,whereas hairy pads can adhere by dry adhesion or wet adhesion.Contact area,distance between pad and substrate,viscosity and surface tension of the liquid filling the gap between pad and substrate are the most important factors which determine the wet adhesion.Dry adhesion was found only in hairy pads,which occurs in geckos and spiders.It was demonstrated that van der Waals interaction is the dominant adhesive force in geckos' adhesion.The bio-inspired applications derived from adhesive pads are also reviewed.

  2. Boundary layer drag reduction research hypotheses derived from bio-inspired surface and recent advanced applications.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Luo, Yuehao; Yuan, Lu; Li, Jianhua; Wang, Jianshe

    2015-12-01

    Nature has supplied the inexhaustible resources for mankind, and at the same time, it has also progressively developed into the school for scientists and engineers. Through more than four billions years of rigorous and stringent evolution, different creatures in nature gradually exhibit their own special and fascinating biological functional surfaces. For example, sharkskin has the potential drag-reducing effect in turbulence, lotus leaf possesses the self-cleaning and anti-foiling function, gecko feet have the controllable super-adhesion surfaces, the flexible skin of dolphin can accelerate its swimming velocity. Great profits of applying biological functional surfaces in daily life, industry, transportation and agriculture have been achieved so far, and much attention from all over the world has been attracted and focused on this field. In this overview, the bio-inspired drag-reducing mechanism derived from sharkskin is explained and explored comprehensively from different aspects, and then the main applications in different fluid engineering are demonstrated in brief. This overview will inevitably improve the comprehension of the drag reduction mechanism of sharkskin surface and better understand the recent applications in fluid engineering.

  3. Programmable thermal emissivity structures based on bioinspired self-shape materials.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Athanasopoulos, N; Siakavellas, N J

    2015-01-01

    Programmable thermal emissivity structures based on the bioinspired self-shape anisotropic materials were developed at macro-scale, and further studied theoretically at smaller scale. We study a novel concept, incorporating materials that are capable of transforming their shape via microstructural rearrangements under temperature stimuli, while avoiding the use of exotic shape memory materials or complex micro-mechanisms. Thus, programmed thermal emissivity behaviour of a surface is achievable. The self-shape structure reacts according to the temperature of the surrounding environment or the radiative heat flux. A surface which incorporates self-shape structures can be designed to quickly absorb radiative heat energy at low temperature levels, but is simultaneously capable of passively controlling its maximum temperature in order to prevent overheating. It resembles a "game" of colours, where two or more materials coexist with different values of thermal emissivity/ absorptivity/ reflectivity. The transformation of the structure conceals or reveals one of the materials, creating a surface with programmable - and therefore, variable- effective thermal emissivity. Variable thermal emissivity surfaces may be developed with a total hemispherical emissivity ratio (εEff_H/εEff_L) equal to 28.

  4. Bio-Inspired Vision-Based Leader-Follower Formation Flying in the Presence of Delays

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    John Oyekan

    2016-08-01

    Full Text Available Flocking starlings at dusk are known for the mesmerizing and intricate shapes they generate, as well as how fluid these shapes change. They seem to do this effortlessly. Real-life vision-based flocking has not been achieved in micro-UAVs (micro Unmanned Aerial Vehicles to date. Towards this goal, we make three contributions in this paper: (i we used a computational approach to develop a bio-inspired architecture for vision-based Leader-Follower formation flying on two micro-UAVs. We believe that the minimal computational cost of the resulting algorithm makes it suitable for object detection and tracking during high-speed flocking; (ii we show that provided delays in the control loop of a micro-UAV are below a critical value, Kalman filter-based estimation algorithms are not required to achieve Leader-Follower formation flying; (iii unlike previous approaches, we do not use external observers, such as GPS signals or synchronized communication with flock members. These three contributions could be useful in achieving vision-based flocking in GPS-denied environments on computationally-limited agents.

  5. Molecular Design of Bioinspired Nanostructures for Biomedical Applications: Synthesis, Self-Assembly and Functional Properties

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xu, Hesheng Victor; Zheng, Xin Ting; Mok, Beverly Yin Leng; Ibrahim, Salwa Ali; Yu, Yong; Tan, Yen Nee

    2016-08-01

    Biomolecules are the nanoscale building blocks of cells, which play multifaceted roles in the critical biological processes such as biomineralization in a living organism. In these processes, the biological molecules such as protein and nucleic acids use their exclusive biorecognition properties enabled from their unique chemical composition, shape and function to initiate a cascade of cellular events. The exceptional features of these biomolecules, coupled with the recent advancement in nanotechnology, have led to the emergence of a new research field that focuses on the molecular design of bioinspired nanostructures that inherit the extraordinary function of natural biomaterials. These “bioinspired” nanostructures could be formulated by biomimetic approaches through either self-assembling of biomolecules or acting as a biomolecular template/precursor to direct the synthesis of nanocomposite. In either situation, the resulting nanomaterials exhibit phenomenal biocompatibility, superb aqueous solubility and excellent colloidal stability, branding them exceptionally desirable for both in vitro and in vivo biomedical applications. In this review, we will present the recent developments in the preparation of “bioinspired” nanostructures through biomimetic self-assembly and biotemplating synthesis, as well as highlight their functional properties and potential applications in biomedical diagnostics and therapeutic delivery. Lastly, we will conclude this topic with some personal perspective on the challenges and future outlooks of the “bioinspired” nanostructures for nanomedicine.

  6. The tubercles on humpback whales' flippers: application of bio-inspired technology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fish, Frank E; Weber, Paul W; Murray, Mark M; Howle, Laurens E

    2011-07-01

    The humpback whale (Megaptera novaeangliae) is exceptional among the large baleen whales in its ability to undertake aquabatic maneuvers to catch prey. Humpback whales utilize extremely mobile, wing-like flippers for banking and turning. Large rounded tubercles along the leading edge of the flipper are morphological structures that are unique in nature. The tubercles on the leading edge act as passive-flow control devices that improve performance and maneuverability of the flipper. Experimental analysis of finite wing models has demonstrated that the presence of tubercles produces a delay in the angle of attack until stall, thereby increasing maximum lift and decreasing drag. Possible fluid-dynamic mechanisms for improved performance include delay of stall through generation of a vortex and modification of the boundary layer, and increase in effective span by reduction of both spanwise flow and strength of the tip vortex. The tubercles provide a bio-inspired design that has commercial viability for wing-like structures. Control of passive flow has the advantages of eliminating complex, costly, high-maintenance, and heavy control mechanisms, while improving performance for lifting bodies in air and water. The tubercles on the leading edge can be applied to the design of watercraft, aircraft, ventilation fans, and windmills.

  7. A Dynamic Bioinspired Neural Network Based Real-Time Path Planning Method for Autonomous Underwater Vehicles

    Science.gov (United States)

    2017-01-01

    Real-time path planning for autonomous underwater vehicle (AUV) is a very difficult and challenging task. Bioinspired neural network (BINN) has been used to deal with this problem for its many distinct advantages: that is, no learning process is needed and realization is also easy. However, there are some shortcomings when BINN is applied to AUV path planning in a three-dimensional (3D) unknown environment, including complex computing problem when the environment is very large and repeated path problem when the size of obstacles is bigger than the detection range of sensors. To deal with these problems, an improved dynamic BINN is proposed in this paper. In this proposed method, the AUV is regarded as the core of the BINN and the size of the BINN is based on the detection range of sensors. Then the BINN will move with the AUV and the computing could be reduced. A virtual target is proposed in the path planning method to ensure that the AUV can move to the real target effectively and avoid big-size obstacles automatically. Furthermore, a target attractor concept is introduced to improve the computing efficiency of neural activities. Finally, some experiments are conducted under various 3D underwater environments. The experimental results show that the proposed BINN based method can deal with the real-time path planning problem for AUV efficiently. PMID:28255297

  8. Bio-inspired pulmonary surfactant-modified nanogels: A promising siRNA delivery system.

    Science.gov (United States)

    De Backer, Lynn; Braeckmans, Kevin; Stuart, Marc C A; Demeester, Jo; De Smedt, Stefaan C; Raemdonck, Koen

    2015-05-28

    Inhalation therapy with small interfering RNA (siRNA) is a promising approach in the treatment of pulmonary disorders. However, clinical translation is severely limited by the lack of suitable delivery platforms. In this study, we aim to address this limitation by designing a novel bioinspired hybrid nanoparticle with a core-shell nanoarchitecture, consisting of a siRNA-loaded dextran nanogel (siNG) core and a pulmonary surfactant (Curosurf®) outer shell. The decoration of siNGs with a surfactant shell enhances the colloidal stability and prevents siRNA release in the presence of competing polyanions, which are abundantly present in biofluids. Additionally, the impact of the surfactant shell on the biological efficacy of the siNGs is determined in lung cancer cells. The presence of the surfactants substantially reduces the cellular uptake of siNGs. Remarkably, the lowered intracellular dose does not impede the gene silencing effect, suggesting a crucial role of the pulmonary surfactant in the intracellular processing of the nanoparticles. In order to surmount the observed reduction in cellular dose, folate is incorporated as a targeting ligand in the pulmonary surfactant shell to incite receptor-mediated endocytosis. The latter substantially enhances both cellular uptake and gene silencing potential, achieving efficient knockdown at siRNA concentrations in the low nanomolar range.

  9. Bio-Inspired Aggregation Control of Carbon Nanotubes for Ultra-Strong Composites

    Science.gov (United States)

    Han, Yue; Zhang, Xiaohua; Yu, Xueping; Zhao, Jingna; Li, Shan; Liu, Feng; Gao, Peng; Zhang, Yongyi; Zhao, Tong; Li, Qingwen

    2015-01-01

    High performance nanocomposites require well dispersion and high alignment of the nanometer-sized components, at a high mass or volume fraction as well. However, the road towards such composite structure is severely hindered due to the easy aggregation of these nanometer-sized components. Here we demonstrate a big step to approach the ideal composite structure for carbon nanotube (CNT) where all the CNTs were highly packed, aligned, and unaggregated, with the impregnated polymers acting as interfacial adhesions and mortars to build up the composite structure. The strategy was based on a bio-inspired aggregation control to limit the CNT aggregation to be sub 20–50 nm, a dimension determined by the CNT growth. After being stretched with full structural relaxation in a multi-step way, the CNT/polymer (bismaleimide) composite yielded super-high tensile strengths up to 6.27–6.94 GPa, more than 100% higher than those of carbon fiber/epoxy composites, and toughnesses up to 117–192 MPa. We anticipate that the present study can be generalized for developing multifunctional and smart nanocomposites where all the surfaces of nanometer-sized components can take part in shear transfer of mechanical, thermal, and electrical signals. PMID:26098627

  10. Light Manipulation for Organic Optoelectronics Using Bio-inspired Moth's Eye Nanostructures

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhou, Lei; Ou, Qing-Dong; Chen, Jing-De; Shen, Su; Tang, Jian-Xin; Li, Yan-Qing; Lee, Shuit-Tong

    2014-02-01

    Organic-based optoelectronic devices, including light-emitting diodes (OLEDs) and solar cells (OSCs) hold great promise as low-cost and large-area electro-optical devices and renewable energy sources. However, further improvement in efficiency remains a daunting challenge due to limited light extraction or absorption in conventional device architectures. Here we report a universal method of optical manipulation of light by integrating a dual-side bio-inspired moth's eye nanostructure with broadband anti-reflective and quasi-omnidirectional properties. Light out-coupling efficiency of OLEDs with stacked triple emission units is over 2 times that of a conventional device, resulting in drastic increase in external quantum efficiency and current efficiency to 119.7% and 366 cd A-1 without introducing spectral distortion and directionality. Similarly, the light in-coupling efficiency of OSCs is increased 20%, yielding an enhanced power conversion efficiency of 9.33%. We anticipate this method would offer a convenient and scalable way for inexpensive and high-efficiency organic optoelectronic designs.

  11. Bio-inspired adaptive feedback error learning architecture for motor control.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tolu, Silvia; Vanegas, Mauricio; Luque, Niceto R; Garrido, Jesús A; Ros, Eduardo

    2012-10-01

    This study proposes an adaptive control architecture based on an accurate regression method called Locally Weighted Projection Regression (LWPR) and on a bio-inspired module, such as a cerebellar-like engine. This hybrid architecture takes full advantage of the machine learning module (LWPR kernel) to abstract an optimized representation of the sensorimotor space while the cerebellar component integrates this to generate corrective terms in the framework of a control task. Furthermore, we illustrate how the use of a simple adaptive error feedback term allows to use the proposed architecture even in the absence of an accurate analytic reference model. The presented approach achieves an accurate control with low gain corrective terms (for compliant control schemes). We evaluate the contribution of the different components of the proposed scheme comparing the obtained performance with alternative approaches. Then, we show that the presented architecture can be used for accurate manipulation of different objects when their physical properties are not directly known by the controller. We evaluate how the scheme scales for simulated plants of high Degrees of Freedom (7-DOFs).

  12. A Novel Bioinspired Vision System: A Step toward Real-Time Human-Robot Interactions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Abdul Rahman Hafiz

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Building a human-like robot that could be involved in our daily lives is a dream of many scientists. Achieving a sophisticated robot's vision system, which can enhance the robot's real-time interaction ability with the human, is one of the main keys toward realizing such an autonomous robot. In this work, we are suggesting a bioinspired vision system that helps to develop an advanced human-robot interaction in an autonomous humanoid robot. First, we enhance the robot's vision accuracy online by applying a novel dynamic edge detection algorithm abstracted from the rules that the horizontal cells play in the mammalian retina. Second, in order to support the first algorithm, we improve the robot's tracking ability by designing a variant photoreceptors distribution corresponding to what exists in the human vision system. The experimental results verified the validity of the model. The robot could have a clear vision in real time and build a mental map that assisted it to be aware of the frontal users and to develop a positive interaction with them.

  13. Research Frontiers in Bioinspired Energy: Molecular-Level Learning from Natural Systems: A Workshop

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zolandz, Dorothy

    2012-03-28

    An interactive, multidisciplinary, public workshop, organized by a group of experts in biochemistry, biophysics, chemical and biomolecular engineering, chemistry, microbial metabolism, and protein structure and function, was held on January 6-7, 2011 in Washington, DC. Fundamental insights into the biological energy capture, storage, and transformation processes provided by speakers was featured in this workshop which included topics such as microbes living in extreme environments such as hydrothermal vents or caustic soda lakes (extremophiles) provided a fascinating basis for discussing the exploration and development of new energy systems. Breakout sessions and extended discussions among the multidisciplinary groups of participants in the workshop fostered information sharing and possible collaborations on future bioinspired research. Printed and web-based materials that summarize the committee's assessment of what transpired at the workshop were prepared to advance further understanding of fundamental chemical properties of biological systems within and between the disciplines. In addition, webbased materials (including two animated videos) were developed to make the workshop content more accessible to a broad audience of students and researchers working across disciplinary boundaries. Key workshop discussion topics included: Exploring and identifying novel organisms; Identifying patterns and conserved biological structures in nature; Exploring and identifying fundamental properties and mechanisms of known biological systems; Supporting current, and creating new, opportunities for interdisciplinary education, training, and outreach; and Applying knowledge from biology to create new devices and sustainable technology.

  14. Medical Image Registration by means of a Bio-Inspired Optimization Strategy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hariton Costin

    2012-07-01

    Full Text Available Medical imaging mainly treats and processes missing, ambiguous, complementary, redundant and distorted data. Biomedical image registration is the process of geometric overlaying or alignment of two or more 2D/3D images of the same scene, taken at different time slots, from different angles, and/or by different acquisition systems. In medical practice, it is becoming increasingly important in diagnosis, treatment planning, functional studies, computer-guided therapies, and in biomedical research. Technically, image registration implies a complex optimization of different parameters, performed at local or/and global levels. Local optimization methods frequently fail because functions of the involved metrics with respect to transformation parameters are generally nonconvex and irregular. Therefore, global methods are often required, at least at the beginning of the procedure. In this paper, a new evolutionary and bio-inspired approach -- bacterial foraging optimization -- is adapted for single-slice to 3-D PET and CT multimodal image registration. Preliminary results of optimizing the normalized mutual information similarity metric validated the efficacy of the proposed method by using a freely available medical image database.

  15. Symmetric Kullback-Leibler Metric Based Tracking Behaviors for Bioinspired Robotic Eyes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Hengli; Luo, Jun; Wu, Peng; Xie, Shaorong; Li, Hengyu

    2015-01-01

    A symmetric Kullback-Leibler metric based tracking system, capable of tracking moving targets, is presented for a bionic spherical parallel mechanism to minimize a tracking error function to simulate smooth pursuit of human eyes. More specifically, we propose a real-time moving target tracking algorithm which utilizes spatial histograms taking into account symmetric Kullback-Leibler metric. In the proposed algorithm, the key spatial histograms are extracted and taken into particle filtering framework. Once the target is identified, an image-based control scheme is implemented to drive bionic spherical parallel mechanism such that the identified target is to be tracked at the center of the captured images. Meanwhile, the robot motion information is fed forward to develop an adaptive smooth tracking controller inspired by the Vestibuloocular Reflex mechanism. The proposed tracking system is designed to make the robot track dynamic objects when the robot travels through transmittable terrains, especially bumpy environment. To perform bumpy-resist capability under the condition of violent attitude variation when the robot works in the bumpy environment mentioned, experimental results demonstrate the effectiveness and robustness of our bioinspired tracking system using bionic spherical parallel mechanism inspired by head-eye coordination.

  16. A Bioinspired Adaptive Congestion-Avoidance Routing for Mobile Ad Hoc Networks

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Huang Qiong

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Traditional mobile Ad Hoc network routing protocols are mainly based on the Shortest Path, which possibly results in many congestion nodes that incur routing instability and rerouting. To mitigate the side-efforts, this paper proposed a new bioinspired adaptive routing protocol (ATAR based on a mathematics biology model ARAS. This paper improved the ARAS by reducing the randomness and by introducing a new routing-decision metric “the next-hop fitness” which was denoted as the congestion level of node and the length of routing path. In the route maintenance, the nodes decide to forward the data to next node according to a threshold value of the fitness. In the recovery phase, the node will adopt random manner to select the neighbor as the next hop by calculation of the improved ARAS. With this route mechanism, the ATAR could adaptively circumvent the congestion nodes and the rerouting action is taken in advance. Theoretical analysis and numerical simulation results show that the ATAR protocol outperforms AODV and MARAS in terms of delivery ratio, ETE delay, and the complexity. In particular, ATAR can efficiently mitigate the congestion.

  17. Bio-Inspired Supramolecular Chemistry Provides Highly Concentrated Dispersions of Carbon Nanotubes in Polythiophene

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yen-Ting Lin

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available In this paper we report the first observation, through X-ray diffraction, of noncovalent uracil–uracil (U–U dimeric π-stacking interactions in carbon nanotube (CNT–based supramolecular assemblies. The directionally oriented morphology determined using atomic force microscopy revealed highly organized behavior through π-stacking of U moieties in a U-functionalized CNT derivative (CNT–U. We developed a dispersion system to investigate the bio-inspired interactions between an adenine (A-terminated poly(3-adeninehexyl thiophene (PAT and CNT–U. These hybrid CNT–U/PAT materials interacted through π-stacking and multiple hydrogen bonding between the U moieties of CNT–U and the A moieties of PAT. Most importantly, the U···A multiple hydrogen bonding interactions between CNT–U and PAT enhanced the dispersion of CNT–U in a high-polarity solvent (DMSO. The morphology of these hybrids, determined using transmission electron microscopy, featured grape-like PAT bundles wrapped around the CNT–U surface; this tight connection was responsible for the enhanced dispersion of CNT–U in DMSO.

  18. Bio-inspired annelid robot: a dielectric elastomer actuated soft robot.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xu, Liang; Chen, Han-Qing; Zou, Jiang; Dong, Wan-Ting; Gu, Guo-Ying; Zhu, Li-Min; Zhu, Xiang-Yang

    2017-01-31

    Biologically inspired robots with inherent softness and body compliance increasingly attract attention in the field of robotics. Aimed at solving existing problems with soft robots, regarding actuation technology and biological principles, this paper presents a soft bio-inspired annelid robot driven by dielectric elastomer actuators (DEAs) that can advance on flat rigid surfaces. The DEA, a kind of soft functional actuator, is designed and fabricated to mimic the axial elongation and differential friction of a single annelid body segment. Several (at least three) DEAs are connected together into a movable multi-segment robot. Bristles are attached at the bottom of some DEAs to achieve differential friction for imitating the setae of annelids. The annelid robot is controlled by periodic square waves, propagating from the posterior to the anterior, which imitate the peristaltic waves of annelids. Controlled by these waves, each DEA, one-by-one from tail to head, anchors to the ground by circumferential distention and pushes the front DEAs forward by axial elongation, enabling the robot to advance. Preliminary tests demonstrate that a 3-segment robot can reach an average speed of 5.3 mm s(-1) (1.871 body lengths min(-1)) on flat rigid surfaces and can functionally mimic the locomotion of annelids. Compared to the existing robots that imitate terrestrial annelids our annelid robot shows advantages in terms of speed and bionics.

  19. Interactions of Bio-Inspired Membranes with Peptides and Peptide-Mimetic Nanoparticles

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Michael Sebastiano

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available Via Dissipative Particle Dynamics (DPD and implicit solvent coarse-grained (CG Molecular Dynamics (MD we examine the interaction of an amphiphilic cell-penetrating peptide PMLKE and its synthetic counterpart with a bio-inspired membrane. We use the DPD technique to investigate the interaction of peptide-mimetic nanoparticles, or nanopins, with a three-component membrane. The CG MD approach is used to investigate the interaction of a cell-penetrating peptide PMLKE with single-component membrane. We observe the spontaneous binding and subsequent insertion of peptide and nanopin in the membrane by using CG MD and DPD approaches, respectively. In addition, we find that the insertion of peptide and nanopins is mainly driven by the favorable enthalpic interactions between the hydrophobic components of the peptide, or nanopin, and the membrane. Our study provides insights into the mechanism underlying the interactions of amphiphilic peptide and peptide-mimetic nanoparticles with a membrane. The result of this study can be used to guide the functional integration of peptide and peptide-mimetic nanoparticles with a cell membrane.

  20. A Dynamic Bioinspired Neural Network Based Real-Time Path Planning Method for Autonomous Underwater Vehicles.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ni, Jianjun; Wu, Liuying; Shi, Pengfei; Yang, Simon X

    2017-01-01

    Real-time path planning for autonomous underwater vehicle (AUV) is a very difficult and challenging task. Bioinspired neural network (BINN) has been used to deal with this problem for its many distinct advantages: that is, no learning process is needed and realization is also easy. However, there are some shortcomings when BINN is applied to AUV path planning in a three-dimensional (3D) unknown environment, including complex computing problem when the environment is very large and repeated path problem when the size of obstacles is bigger than the detection range of sensors. To deal with these problems, an improved dynamic BINN is proposed in this paper. In this proposed method, the AUV is regarded as the core of the BINN and the size of the BINN is based on the detection range of sensors. Then the BINN will move with the AUV and the computing could be reduced. A virtual target is proposed in the path planning method to ensure that the AUV can move to the real target effectively and avoid big-size obstacles automatically. Furthermore, a target attractor concept is introduced to improve the computing efficiency of neural activities. Finally, some experiments are conducted under various 3D underwater environments. The experimental results show that the proposed BINN based method can deal with the real-time path planning problem for AUV efficiently.

  1. A Dynamic Bioinspired Neural Network Based Real-Time Path Planning Method for Autonomous Underwater Vehicles

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jianjun Ni

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Real-time path planning for autonomous underwater vehicle (AUV is a very difficult and challenging task. Bioinspired neural network (BINN has been used to deal with this problem for its many distinct advantages: that is, no learning process is needed and realization is also easy. However, there are some shortcomings when BINN is applied to AUV path planning in a three-dimensional (3D unknown environment, including complex computing problem when the environment is very large and repeated path problem when the size of obstacles is bigger than the detection range of sensors. To deal with these problems, an improved dynamic BINN is proposed in this paper. In this proposed method, the AUV is regarded as the core of the BINN and the size of the BINN is based on the detection range of sensors. Then the BINN will move with the AUV and the computing could be reduced. A virtual target is proposed in the path planning method to ensure that the AUV can move to the real target effectively and avoid big-size obstacles automatically. Furthermore, a target attractor concept is introduced to improve the computing efficiency of neural activities. Finally, some experiments are conducted under various 3D underwater environments. The experimental results show that the proposed BINN based method can deal with the real-time path planning problem for AUV efficiently.

  2. Predictive modelling-based design and experiments for synthesis and spinning of bioinspired silk fibres

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lin, Shangchao; Ryu, Seunghwa; Tokareva, Olena; Gronau, Greta; Jacobsen, Matthew M.; Huang, Wenwen; Rizzo, Daniel J.; Li, David; Staii, Cristian; Pugno, Nicola M.; Wong, Joyce Y.; Kaplan, David L.; Buehler, Markus J.

    2015-05-01

    Scalable computational modelling tools are required to guide the rational design of complex hierarchical materials with predictable functions. Here, we utilize mesoscopic modelling, integrated with genetic block copolymer synthesis and bioinspired spinning process, to demonstrate de novo materials design that incorporates chemistry, processing and material characterization. We find that intermediate hydrophobic/hydrophilic block ratios observed in natural spider silks and longer chain lengths lead to outstanding silk fibre formation. This design by nature is based on the optimal combination of protein solubility, self-assembled aggregate size and polymer network topology. The original homogeneous network structure becomes heterogeneous after spinning, enhancing the anisotropic network connectivity along the shear flow direction. Extending beyond the classical polymer theory, with insights from the percolation network model, we illustrate the direct proportionality between network conductance and fibre Young's modulus. This integrated approach provides a general path towards de novo functional network materials with enhanced mechanical properties and beyond (optical, electrical or thermal) as we have experimentally verified.

  3. Novel bio-inspired smart control for hazard mitigation of civil structures

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Yeesock; Kim, Changwon; Langari, Reza

    2010-11-01

    In this paper, a new bio-inspired controller is proposed for vibration mitigation of smart structures subjected to ground disturbances (i.e. earthquakes). The control system is developed through the integration of a brain emotional learning (BEL) algorithm with a proportional-integral-derivative (PID) controller and a semiactive inversion (Inv) algorithm. The BEL algorithm is based on the neurologically inspired computational model of the amygdala and the orbitofrontal cortex. To demonstrate the effectiveness of the proposed hybrid BEL-PID-Inv control algorithm, a seismically excited building structure equipped with a magnetorheological (MR) damper is investigated. The performance of the proposed hybrid BEL-PID-Inv control algorithm is compared with that of passive, PID, linear quadratic Gaussian (LQG), and BEL control systems. In the simulation, the robustness of the hybrid BEL-PID-Inv control algorithm in the presence of modeling uncertainties as well as external disturbances is investigated. It is shown that the proposed hybrid BEL-PID-Inv control algorithm is effective in improving the dynamic responses of seismically excited building structure-MR damper systems.

  4. Bioinspired micro/nano fabrication on dental implant-bone interface

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Feng; Shi, Liang; He, Wen-Xi; Han, Dong; Yan, Yan; Niu, Zhong-Ying; Shi, Sheng-Gen

    2013-01-01

    Pioneering research suggests fabricating a biomimetic interface with multiscaled surfacial architecture can greatly improve biomaterials' function and property. According to this inspiration, we chiefly single out and analyze the natural hierarchical micro/nano structure in rat's alveolar bone. Then, a combined hierarchical structure, i.e. micro-pits interlaced self-assemble TiO2 nanotubes of several tens of nanometers on dental implant's surface is developed. The as-prepared surface showed that hundreds of self-assembled TiO2 nanotubes were tightly arrayed with a diameter range of 30-50 nm, similar to collagen fibers within rat's mandible (60-80 nm). Meanwhile, this hierarchical micro/nano surface can provide a larger surface energy and roughness, a preferable hydrophilicity, a more adaptive mechanical property and adhesion work, a better bioactivity and biocompatibity, a superior attachment and growth of osteoblasts as compared to the smooth and purely micro-treated counterparts. The results indicated that this bioinspired micro/nano fabrication on dental implant-bone interface can be potentially applied in the update of dental implant in patients' clinical therapy and provide a new strategy for fabricating other osteocompatible materials.

  5. Predictive modelling-based design and experiments for synthesis and spinning of bioinspired silk fibres.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lin, Shangchao; Ryu, Seunghwa; Tokareva, Olena; Gronau, Greta; Jacobsen, Matthew M; Huang, Wenwen; Rizzo, Daniel J; Li, David; Staii, Cristian; Pugno, Nicola M; Wong, Joyce Y; Kaplan, David L; Buehler, Markus J

    2015-05-28

    Scalable computational modelling tools are required to guide the rational design of complex hierarchical materials with predictable functions. Here, we utilize mesoscopic modelling, integrated with genetic block copolymer synthesis and bioinspired spinning process, to demonstrate de novo materials design that incorporates chemistry, processing and material characterization. We find that intermediate hydrophobic/hydrophilic block ratios observed in natural spider silks and longer chain lengths lead to outstanding silk fibre formation. This design by nature is based on the optimal combination of protein solubility, self-assembled aggregate size and polymer network topology. The original homogeneous network structure becomes heterogeneous after spinning, enhancing the anisotropic network connectivity along the shear flow direction. Extending beyond the classical polymer theory, with insights from the percolation network model, we illustrate the direct proportionality between network conductance and fibre Young's modulus. This integrated approach provides a general path towards de novo functional network materials with enhanced mechanical properties and beyond (optical, electrical or thermal) as we have experimentally verified.

  6. Production of bioelectricity, bio-hydrogen, high value chemicals and bioinspired nanomaterials by electrochemically active biofilms.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kalathil, Shafeer; Khan, Mohammad Mansoob; Lee, Jintae; Cho, Moo Hwan

    2013-11-01

    Microorganisms naturally form biofilms on solid surfaces for their mutual benefits including protection from environmental stresses caused by contaminants, nutritional depletion or imbalances. The biofilms are normally dangerous to human health due to their inherited robustness. On the other hand, a recent study suggested that electrochemically active biofilms (EABs) generated by electrically active microorganisms have properties that can be used to catalyze or control the electrochemical reactions in a range of fields, such as bioenergy production, bioremediation, chemical/biological synthesis, bio-corrosion mitigation and biosensor development. EABs have attracted considerable attraction in bioelectrochemical systems (BESs), such as microbial fuel cells and microbial electrolysis cells, where they act as living bioanode or biocathode catalysts. Recently, it was reported that EABs can be used to synthesize metal nanoparticles and metal nanocomposites. The EAB-mediated synthesis of metal and metal-semiconductor nanocomposites is expected to provide a new avenue for the greener synthesis of nanomaterials with high efficiency and speed than other synthetic methods. This review covers the general introduction of EABs, as well as the applications of EABs in BESs, and the production of bio-hydrogen, high value chemicals and bio-inspired nanomaterials.

  7. Bio-inspired Miniature Suction Cups Actuated by Shape Memory Alloy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hu Bing-shan

    2010-02-01

    Full Text Available Wall climbing robots using negative pressure suction always employ air pumps which have great noise and large volume. Two prototypes of bio-inspired miniature suction cup actuated by shape memory alloy (SMA are designed based on studying characteristics of biologic suction apparatuses, and the suction cups in this paper can be used as adhesion mechanisms for miniature wall climbing robots without air pumps. The first prototype with a two-way shape memory effect (TWSME extension TiNi spring imitates the piston structure of the stalked sucker; the second one actuated by a one way SMA actuator with a bias has a basic structure of stiff margin, guiding element, leader and elastic element. Analytical model of the second prototype is founded considering the constitutive model of the SMA actuator, the deflection of the thin elastic plate under compound load and the thermo-dynamic model of the sealed air cavity. Experiments are done to test their suction characteristics, and the analytical model of the second prototype is simulated on Matlab/simulink platform and validated by experiments.

  8. Research on one Bio-inspired Jumping Locomotion Robot for Search and Rescue

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dunwen Wei

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available Jumping locomotion is much more effective than other locomotion means in order to tackle the unstructured and complex environment in research and rescue. Here, a bio-inspired jumping robot with a closed-chain mechanism is proposed to achieve the power amplification during taking-off. Through actuating one variable transmission mechanism to change the transmission ratio, the jumping robot reveals biological characteristics in the phase of posture adjustment when adjusting the height and distance of one jump. The kinematics and dynamics of the simplified jumping mechanism model in one jumping cycle sequence are analysed. A compliant contact model considering nonlinear damping is investigated for jumping performance under different terrain characteristics. The numerical simulation algorithm with regard to solving the dynamical equation is described and simulation results are discussed. Finally, one primary prototype and experiment are described. The experimental results show the distance of jumping in the horizontal direction increases with the increasing gear ratio, while the height of jumping decreases in reverse. The jumping robot can enhance the capability to adapt to unknown cluttered environments, such as those encountered in research and rescue, using this strategy.

  9. Bio-inspired benchmark generator for extracellular multi-unit recordings

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mondragón-González, Sirenia Lizbeth; Burguière, Eric

    2017-01-01

    The analysis of multi-unit extracellular recordings of brain activity has led to the development of numerous tools, ranging from signal processing algorithms to electronic devices and applications. Currently, the evaluation and optimisation of these tools are hampered by the lack of ground-truth databases of neural signals. These databases must be parameterisable, easy to generate and bio-inspired, i.e. containing features encountered in real electrophysiological recording sessions. Towards that end, this article introduces an original computational approach to create fully annotated and parameterised benchmark datasets, generated from the summation of three components: neural signals from compartmental models and recorded extracellular spikes, non-stationary slow oscillations, and a variety of different types of artefacts. We present three application examples. (1) We reproduced in-vivo extracellular hippocampal multi-unit recordings from either tetrode or polytrode designs. (2) We simulated recordings in two different experimental conditions: anaesthetised and awake subjects. (3) Last, we also conducted a series of simulations to study the impact of different level of artefacts on extracellular recordings and their influence in the frequency domain. Beyond the results presented here, such a benchmark dataset generator has many applications such as calibration, evaluation and development of both hardware and software architectures. PMID:28233819

  10. Bio-inspired classifier for road extraction from remote sensing imagery

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xu, Jiawei; Wang, Ruisheng; Yue, Shigang

    2014-01-01

    An adaptive approach for road extraction inspired by the mechanism of primary visual cortex (V1) is proposed. The motivation is originated by the characteristics in the receptive field from V1. It has been proved that human or primate visual systems can distinguish useful cues from real scenes effortlessly while traditional computer vision techniques cannot accomplish this task easily. This idea motivates us to design a bio-inspired model for road extraction from remote sensing imagery. The proposed approach is an improved support vector machine (SVM) based on the pooling of feature vectors, using an improved Gaussian radial basis function (RBF) kernel with tuning on synaptic gains. The synaptic gains comprise the feature vectors through an iterative optimization process representing the strength and width of Gaussian RBF kernel. The synaptic gains integrate the excitation and inhibition stimuli based on internal connections from V1. The summation of synaptic gains contributes to pooling of feature vectors. The experimental results verify the correlation between the synaptic gain and classification rules, and then show better performance in comparison with hidden Markov model, SVM, and fuzzy classification approaches. Our contribution is an automatic approach to road extraction without prelabeling and postprocessing work. Another apparent advantage is that our method is robust for images taken even under complex weather conditions such as snowy and foggy weather.

  11. Engineering bioinspired bacteria-adhesive clay nanoparticles with a membrane-disruptive property for the treatment of Helicobacter pylori infection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ping, Yuan; Hu, Xiurong; Yao, Qi; Hu, Qida; Amini, Shahrouz; Miserez, Ali; Tang, Guping

    2016-09-28

    We present a bioinspired design strategy to engineer bacteria-targeting and membrane-disruptive nanoparticles for the effective antibiotic therapy of Helicobacter pylori (H. pylori) infection. Antibacterial nanoparticles were self-assembled from highly exfoliated montmorillonite (eMMT) and cationic linear polyethyleneimine (lPEI) via electrostatic interactions. eMMT functions as a bioinspired 'sticky' building block for anchoring antibacterial nanoparticles onto the bacterial cell surface via bacteria-secreted extracellular polymeric substances (EPS), whereas membrane-disruptive lPEI is able to efficiently lyse the bacterial outer membrane to allow topical transmembrane delivery of antibiotics into the intracellular cytoplasm. As a result, eMMT-lPEI nanoparticles intercalated with the antibiotic metronidazole (MTZ) not only efficiently target bacteria via EPS-mediated adhesion and kill bacteria in vitro, but also can effectively remain in the stomach where H. pylori reside, thereby serving as an efficient drug carrier for the direct on-site release of MTZ into the bacterial cytoplasm. Importantly, MTZ-intercalated eMMT-lPEI nanoparticles were able to efficiently eradicate H. pylori in vivo and to significantly improve H. pylori-associated gastric ulcers and the inflammatory response in a mouse model, and also showed superior therapeutic efficacy as compared to standard triple therapy. Our findings reveal that bacterial adhesion plays a critical role in promoting efficient antimicrobial delivery and also represent an original bioinspired targeting strategy via specific EPS-mediated adsorption. The bacteria-adhesive eMMT-lPEI nanoparticles with membrane-disruptive ability may constitute a promising drug carrier system for the efficacious targeted delivery of antibiotics in the treatment of bacterial infections.

  12. Constrained VPH+: a local path planning algorithm for a bio-inspired crawling robot with customized ultrasonic scanning sensor.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rao, Akshay; Elara, Mohan Rajesh; Elangovan, Karthikeyan

    This paper aims to develop a local path planning algorithm for a bio-inspired, reconfigurable crawling robot. A detailed description of the robotic platform is first provided, and the suitability for deployment of each of the current state-of-the-art local path planners is analyzed after an extensive literature review. The Enhanced Vector Polar Histogram algorithm is described and reformulated to better fit the requirements of the platform. The algorithm is deployed on the robotic platform in crawling configuration and favorably compared with other state-of-the-art local path planning algorithms.

  13. The neuroscience of vision-based grasping: a functional review for computational modeling and bio-inspired robotics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chinellato, Eris; Del Pobil, Angel P

    2009-06-01

    The topic of vision-based grasping is being widely studied in humans and in other primates using various techniques and with different goals. The fundamental related findings are reviewed in this paper, with the aim of providing researchers from different fields, including intelligent robotics and neural computation, a comprehensive but accessible view on the subject. A detailed description of the principal sensorimotor processes and the brain areas involved is provided following a functional perspective, in order to make this survey especially useful for computational modeling and bio-inspired robotic applications.

  14. Multiple Decoupled CPGs with Local Sensory Feedback for Adaptive Locomotion Behaviors of Bio-inspired Walking Robots

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Shaker Barikhan, Subhi; Wörgötter, Florentin; Manoonpong, Poramate

    2014-01-01

    Walking animals show versatile locomotion. They can also adapt their movement according to the changes of their morphology and the environmental conditions. These emergent properties are realized by biomechanics, distributed central pattern generators (CPGs), local sensory feedback, and their int...... of the front legs, to deal with morphological change, and to synchronize its movement with another robot during a collaborative task....... and the environment through local sensory feedback of each leg. Simulation results show that this bio-inspired approach generates self-organizing emergent locomotion allowing the robot to adaptively form regular patterns, to stably walk while pushing an object with its front legs or performing multiple stepping...

  15. First-Row Transition Metal Doping in Calcium Phosphate Bioceramics: A Detailed Crystallographic Study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Guillaume Renaudin

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Doped calcium phosphate bioceramics are promising materials for bone repair surgery because of their chemical resemblance to the mineral constituent of bone. Among these materials, BCP samples composed of hydroxyapatite (Ca10(PO46(OH2 and β-TCP (Ca3(PO42 present a mineral analogy with the nano-multi-substituted hydroxyapatite bio-mineral part of bones. At the same time, doping can be used to tune the biological properties of these ceramics. This paper presents a general overview of the doping mechanisms of BCP samples using cations from the first-row transition metals (from manganese to zinc, with respect to the applied sintering temperature. The results enable the preparation of doped synthetic BCP that can be used to tailor biological properties, in particular by tuning the release amounts upon interaction with biological fluids. Intermediate sintering temperatures stabilize the doping elements in the more soluble β-TCP phase, which favors quick and easy release upon integration in the biological environment, whereas higher sintering temperatures locate the doping elements in the weakly soluble HAp phase, enabling a slow and continuous supply of the bio-inspired properties. An interstitial doping mechanism in the HAp hexagonal channel is observed for the six investigated cations (Mn2+, Fe3+, Co2+, Ni2+, Cu2+ and Zn2+ with specific characteristics involving a shift away from the center of the hexagonal channel (Fe3+, Co2+, cationic oxidation (Mn3+, Co3+, and also cationic reduction (Cu+. The complete crystallochemical study highlights a complex HAp doping mechanism, mainly realized by an interstitial process combined with calcium substitution for the larger cations of the series leading to potentially calcium deficient HAp.

  16. Performance of pineapple slips inoculated with diazotrophic phosphate-solubilizing bacteria and rock phosphate

    OpenAIRE

    Lílian Estrela Borges Baldotto; Marihus Altoé Baldotto; Fábio Lopes Olivares; Adriane Nunes de Souza

    2014-01-01

    Besides fixing N2, some diazotrophic bacteria or diazotrophs, also synthesize organic acids and are able to solubilize rock phosphates, increasing the availability of P for plants. The application of these bacteria to pineapple leaf axils in combination with rock phosphate could increase N and P availability for the crop, due to the bacterial activity of biological nitrogen fixation and phosphate solubilization. The objectives of this study were: (i) to select and characterize diazotrophs abl...

  17. Synthesis of Caged Bicyclic Phosphate Derivatives

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    FANG Xiao-min; OU Yu-xiang; LUO Rui-bin; WANG Yong; LIAN Dan-jun; LI Xin

    2008-01-01

    Seven caged bicyclic phosphate compounds were synthesized by using 1-oxo-4-hydroxymethy1-2,6,7-trioxa-1-pho-sphabicyclo[2.2.2] octane (PEPA) as starting material. Within them were three PEPA derivatives containing single caged bicyclic phosphate structure(1a,2a,3a), another three PEPA deviratives containing two caged bicyclic phosphate structures(1b,2b,3b) and one devirative(1c) containing three caged bicyclic phosphate structures. Structures of the products were characterized by FTIR, 1H NMR, elemental analysis and TG analysis. The reaction conditions were also discussed. Thermal analysis showed they had high thermal stability and excellent char-forming ability. Besides, these compounds had pentaerythritol bone and flame retardant elements of phosphorus, bromine or nitrogen simultaneously in their molecules, endowed them with good fire retardancy, and made them can be used as intumescent flame retardant.

  18. Pyridoxal Phosphate vs Pyridoxine for Intractable Seizures

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J Gordon Millichap

    2005-05-01

    Full Text Available The efficacy of pyridoxal phosphate (PLP compared to pyridoxine (PN in the control of idiopathic intractable epilepsy was studied in 94 children, aged 8 months to 15 years, at the National Taiwan University Hospital, Taipei, Taiwan.

  19. Enzyme activity in dialkyl phosphate ionic liquids

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Thomas, M.F.; Dunn, J.; Li, L.-L.; Handley-Pendleton, J. M.; van der lelie, D.; Wishart, J. F.

    2011-12-01

    The activity of four metagenomic enzymes and an enzyme cloned from the straw mushroom, Volvariellavolvacea were studied in the following ionic liquids, 1,3-dimethylimidazolium dimethyl phosphate, [mmim][dmp], 1-ethyl-3-methylimidazolium dimethyl phosphate, [emim][dmp], 1-ethyl-3-methylimidazolium diethyl phosphate, [emim][dep] and 1-ethyl-3-methylimidazolium acetate, [emim][OAc]. Activity was determined by analyzing the hydrolysis of para-nitrobenzene carbohydrate derivatives. In general, the enzymes were most active in the dimethyl phosphate ionic liquids, followed by acetate. Generally speaking, activity decreased sharply for concentrations of [emim][dep] above 10% v/v, while the other ionic liquids showed less impact on activity up to 20% v/v.

  20. Enzyme activity in dialkyl phosphate ionic liquids.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thomas, Marie F; Li, Luen-Luen; Handley-Pendleton, Jocelyn M; van der Lelie, Daniel; Dunn, John J; Wishart, James F

    2011-12-01

    The activity of four metagenomic enzymes and an enzyme cloned from the straw mushroom, Volvariella volvacea were studied in the following ionic liquids, 1,3-dimethylimidazolium dimethyl phosphate, [mmim][dmp], 1-ethyl-3-methylimidazolium dimethyl phosphate, [emim][dmp], 1-ethyl-3-methylimidazolium diethyl phosphate, [emim][dep] and 1-ethyl-3-methylimidazolium acetate, [emim][OAc]. Activity was determined by analyzing the hydrolysis of para-nitrobenzene carbohydrate derivatives. In general, the enzymes were most active in the dimethyl phosphate ionic liquids, followed by acetate. Generally speaking, activity decreased sharply for concentrations of [emim][dep] above 10% v/v, while the other ionic liquids showed less impact on activity up to 20% v/v.

  1. Bioinspired Synthesis of All-in-One Organic-Inorganic Hybrid Nanoflowers Combined with a Handheld pH Meter for On-Site Detection of Food Pathogen.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ye, Ranfeng; Zhu, Chengzhou; Song, Yang; Lu, Qian; Ge, Xiaoxiao; Yang, Xu; Zhu, Mei-Jun; Du, Dan; Li, He; Lin, Yuehe

    2016-06-01

    With a mild elaborately bioinspired one-pot process, Con A-GOx-CaHPO4 nanoflowers are prepared. Employing the as-prepared all-in-one hybrid nanoflowers as signal tags, a simple but potentially powerful amplification biosensing technology for the detection of food pathogen with excellent simplicity, portability, sensitivity, and adaptability is achieved.

  2. Bioinspired engineering of exploration systems: a horizon sensor/attitude reference system based on the dragonfly Ocelli for Mars exploration applications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thakoor, S.; Zornetzer, S.; Hine, B.; Chahl, J.; Stange, G.

    2002-01-01

    The intent of Bio-inspired Engineering of Exploration Systems (BEES) is to distill the principles found in successful, nature-tested mechanisms of specific crucial functions that are hard to accomplish by conventional methods, but accomplished rather deftly in nature by biological oganisms.

  3. Phosphate solubilizing bacteria around Indian peninsula

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    DeSouza, M.J.B.D.; Nair, S.; Chandramohan, D.

    organic and combined inorganic compounds accumulated outside the cells as soluble reactive phosphorus (SRP), indicating an efficient regeneration of orthophosphate from various phosphorus compounds . The major forms of phosphorus are solubilized... to be the phosphate solubilizers. These solubilizers of inorganic phosphate were further screened for phosphatase production (mineralisa- tion)12 also. About 1 ml of culture suspension (1 cm cell O.D600 a = 0.1) was inoculated into 10 ml of 0.2 ?m filtered...

  4. Physical Properties of Acidic Calcium Phosphate Cements

    OpenAIRE

    2014-01-01

    The gold standard for bone replacement today, autologous bone, suffers from several disadvantages, such as the increased risk of infection due to the need for two surgeries. Degradable synthetic materials with properties similar to bone, such as calcium phosphate cements, are a promising alternative. Calcium phosphate cements are suited for a limited amount of applications and improving their physical properties could extend their use into areas previously not considered possible. For example...

  5. Using phosphate supplementation to reverse hypophosphatemia and phosphate depletion in neurological disease and disturbance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Håglin, Lena

    2016-06-01

    Hypophosphatemia (HP) with or without intracellular depletion of inorganic phosphate (Pi) and adenosine triphosphate has been associated with central and peripheral nervous system complications and can be observed in various diseases and conditions related to respiratory alkalosis, alcoholism (alcohol withdrawal), diabetic ketoacidosis, malnutrition, obesity, and parenteral and enteral nutrition. In addition, HP may explain serious muscular, neurological, and haematological disorders and may cause peripheral neuropathy with paresthesias and metabolic encephalopathy, resulting in confusion and seizures. The neuropathy may be improved quickly after proper phosphate replacement. Phosphate depletion has been corrected using potassium-phosphate infusion, a treatment that can restore consciousness. In severe ataxia and tetra paresis, complete recovery can occur after adequate replacement of phosphate. Patients with multiple risk factors, often with a chronic disease and severe HP that contribute to phosphate depletion, are at risk for neurologic alterations. To predict both risk and optimal phosphate replenishment requires assessing the nutritional status and risk for re-feeding hypophosphatemia. The strategy for correcting HP depends on the severity of the underlying disease and the goal for re-establishing a phosphate balance to limit the consequences of phosphate depletion.

  6. Isolation of phosphate-solubilizing fungus and its application in solubilization of rock phosphates.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, Yingben; He, Yuelin; Yin, Hongmei; Chen, Wei; Wang, Zhen; Xu, Lijuan; Zhang, Aiqun

    2012-12-01

    Microorganisms have been obtained to improve the agronomic value of rock phosphates (RPs), but the phosphorus solubilizing rate by these approaches is very slow. It is important to explore a high-efficient phosphate-solubilizing approach with a kind of microorganisms. This study aimed to isolate a high-efficient level of phosphate-solubilizing fungus from rhizosphere soil samples phosphate mines (Liuyang County, Hunan province, China) and apply it in solubilization of RPs. The experiments were carried out by the conventional methodology for morphological and biochemical fungus characterization and the analysis of 18s rRNA sequence. Then the effects of time, temperature, initial pH, phosphorus (P) sources, RPs concentration, shaking speed and silver ion on the content of soluble P released by this isolate were investigated. The results showed this isolate was identified as Galactomyces geotrichum P14 (P14) in GeneBank and the maximum amount of soluble P was 1252.13 mg L(-1) within 40 h in a modified phosphate growth agar's medium (without agar) where contained tricalcium phosphate (TCP) as sole phosphate source. At the same time, it could release phosphate and solubilize various rock phosphates. The isolated fungus can convert RPs from insoluble form into plant available form and therefore it hold great potential for biofertilizers to enhance soil fertility and promote plant growth.

  7. The evolution of the marine phosphate reservoir.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Planavsky, Noah J; Rouxel, Olivier J; Bekker, Andrey; Lalonde, Stefan V; Konhauser, Kurt O; Reinhard, Christopher T; Lyons, Timothy W

    2010-10-28

    Phosphorus is a biolimiting nutrient that has an important role in regulating the burial of organic matter and the redox state of the ocean-atmosphere system. The ratio of phosphorus to iron in iron-oxide-rich sedimentary rocks can be used to track dissolved phosphate concentrations if the dissolved silica concentration of sea water is estimated. Here we present iron and phosphorus concentration ratios from distal hydrothermal sediments and iron formations through time to study the evolution of the marine phosphate reservoir. The data suggest that phosphate concentrations have been relatively constant over the Phanerozoic eon, the past 542 million years (Myr) of Earth's history. In contrast, phosphate concentrations seem to have been elevated in Precambrian oceans. Specifically, there is a peak in phosphorus-to-iron ratios in Neoproterozoic iron formations dating from ∼750 to ∼635 Myr ago, indicating unusually high dissolved phosphate concentrations in the aftermath of widespread, low-latitude 'snowball Earth' glaciations. An enhanced postglacial phosphate flux would have caused high rates of primary productivity and organic carbon burial and a transition to more oxidizing conditions in the ocean and atmosphere. The snowball Earth glaciations and Neoproterozoic oxidation are both suggested as triggers for the evolution and radiation of metazoans. We propose that these two factors are intimately linked; a glacially induced nutrient surplus could have led to an increase in atmospheric oxygen, paving the way for the rise of metazoan life.

  8. Capturing phosphates with iron enhanced sand filtration.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Erickson, Andrew J; Gulliver, John S; Weiss, Peter T

    2012-06-01

    Most treatment practices for urban runoff capture pollutants such as phosphorus by either settling or filtration while dissolved phosphorus, typically as phosphates, is untreated. Dissolved phosphorus, however, represents an average 45% of total phosphorus in stormwater runoff and can be more than 95%. In this study, a new stormwater treatment technology to capture phosphate, called the Minnesota Filter, is introduced. The filter comprises iron filings mixed with sand and is tested for phosphate removal from synthetic stormwater. Results indicate that sand mixed with 5% iron filings captures an average of 88% phosphate for at least 200 m of treated depth, which is significantly greater than a sand filter without iron filings. Neither incorporation of iron filings into a sand filter nor capture of phosphates onto iron filings in column experiments had a significant effect on the hydraulic conductivity of the filter at mixtures of 5% or less iron by weight. Field applications with up to 10.7% iron were operated over 1 year without detrimental effects upon hydraulic conductivity. A model is applied and fit to column studies to predict the field performance of iron-enhanced sand filters. The model predictions are verified through the predicted performance of the filters in removing phosphates in field applications. Practical applications of the technology, both existing and proposed, are presented so stormwater managers can begin implementation.

  9. Maize endophytic bacteria as mineral phosphate solubilizers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Abreu, C S; Figueiredo, J E F; Oliveira, C A; Dos Santos, V L; Gomes, E A; Ribeiro, V P; Barros, B A; Lana, U G P; Marriel, I E

    2017-02-16

    In the present study, we demonstrated the in vitro activity of endophytic phosphate-solubilizing bacteria (PSB). Fifty-five endophytic PSB that were isolated from sap, leaves, and roots of maize were tested for their ability to solubilize tricalcium phosphate and produce organic acid. Partial sequencing of the 16S rRNA-encoding gene showed that the isolates were from the genus Bacillus and different species of Enterobacteriaceae. The phosphate solubilization index on solid medium and phosphate solubilization in liquid medium varied significantly among the isolates. There was a statistically significant difference (P ≤ 0.05) for both, the values of phosphate-solubilizing activity and pH of the growth medium, among the isolates. Pearson correlation was statistically significant (P ≤ 0.05) between P-solubilization and pH (R = -0.38), and between the gluconic acid production and the lowering of the pH of the liquid medium at 6 (R = 0.28) and 9 days (R = 0.39). Gluconic acid production was prevalent in all the PSB studied, and Bacillus species were most efficient in solubilizing phosphate. This is the first report on the characterization of bacterial endophytes from maize and their use as potential biofertilizers. In addition, this may provide an alternative strategy for improving the phosphorus acquisition efficiency of crop plants in tropical soils.

  10. Effects of inositol phosphates on mineral utilization

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tao, S.H.; Fox, M.R.S.; Phillippy, B.Q.; Fry, B.E. Jr.; Johnson, M.L.; Johnston, M.R.

    1986-03-05

    The present study was designed to compare the effects of inositol tri-, tetra-, and pentaphosphate (IP3, IP4, and IP5) with those of phytic acid (IP6) on growth, development and mineral utilization of young quail. Day-old Japanese quail were fed a purified casein-gelatin control diet containing 20 ppm Zn with 0 or 8.33 mmoles/kg of each inositol phosphate, corresponding to 0.55% of IP6, for a week. As compared with controls, IP6 caused reduced body weight, poor feathering, severe perosis, decreased tibia Zn and ash, and decreased pancreas Zn and liver Mn. IP5 produced all the same adverse effects and tissue mineral changes as those by phytic acid, whereas birds fed IP3 or IP4 were normal. Moreover, IP3 and IP4 caused an increased tibia weight and ash. None of the above effects was produced by feeding inositol or inorganic phosphate. In a second experiment, the inositol phosphates were fed at either 8.33 or 16.66 mmoles/kg diet. Doubling inositol phosphate levels resulted in similar effects as those observed previously. Additionally, IP4 decreased pancreas Zn and IP3 increased tibia Zn. These results indicate that unlike IP6 and IP5, inositol phosphates with 4 or fewer phosphate groups, which can arise from hydrolysis of phytic acid during food processing, have very minor adverse effects but may be beneficial for bone mineralization.

  11. Effect of the calcium to phosphate ratio of tetracalcium phosphate on the properties of calcium phosphate bone cement.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Burguera, Elena F; Guitian, Francisco; Chow, Laurence C

    2008-06-01

    Six different tetracalcium phosphate (TTCP) products were synthesized by solid state reaction at high temperature by varying the overall calcium to phosphate ratio of the synthesis mixture. The objective was to evaluate the effect of the calcium to phosphate ratio on a TTCP-dicalcium phosphate dihydrate (DCPD) cement. The resulting six TTCP-DCPD cement mixtures were characterized using X-ray diffraction analysis, scanning electron microscopy, and pH measurements. Setting times and compressive strength (CS) were also measured. Using the TTCP product with a Ca/P ratio of 2.0 resulted in low strength values (25.61 MPa) when distilled water was used as the setting liquid, even though conversion to hydroxyapatite was not prevented, as confirmed by X-ray diffraction. The suspected CaO presence in this TTCP may have affected the cohesiveness of the cement mixture but not the cement setting reaction, however no direct evidence of CaO presence was found. Lower Ca/P ratio products yielded cements with CS values ranging from 46.7 MPa for Ca/P ratio of 1.90 to 38.32 MPa for Ca/P ratio of 1.85. When a dilute sodium phosphate solution was used as the setting liquid, CS values were 15.3% lower than those obtained with water as the setting liquid. Setting times ranged from 18 to 22 min when water was the cement liquid and from 7 to 8 min when sodium phosphate solution was used, and the calcium to phosphate ratio did not have a marked effect on this property.

  12. Supramolecular Engineering of Hierarchically Self-Assembled, Bioinspired, Cholesteric Nanocomposites Formed by Cellulose Nanocrystals and Polymers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhu, Baolei; Merindol, Remi; Benitez, Alejandro J; Wang, Baochun; Walther, Andreas

    2016-05-04

    Natural composites are hierarchically structured by combination of ordered colloidal and molecular length scales. They inspire future, biomimetic, and lightweight nanocomposites, in which extraordinary mechanical properties are in reach by understanding and mastering hierarchical structure formation as tools to engineer multiscale deformation mechanisms. Here we describe a hierarchically self-assembled, cholesteric nanocomposite with well-defined colloid-based helical structure and supramolecular hydrogen bonds engineered on the molecular level in the polymer matrix. We use reversible addition-fragmentation transfer polymerization to synthesize well-defined hydrophilic, nonionic polymers with a varying functionalization density of 4-fold hydrogen-bonding ureidopyrimidinone (UPy) motifs. We show that these copolymers can be coassembled with cellulose nanocrystals (CNC), a sustainable, stiff, rod-like reinforcement, to give ordered cholesteric phases with characteristic photonic stop bands. The dimensions of the helical pitch are controlled by the ratio of polymer/CNC, confirming a smooth integration into the colloidal structure. With respect to the effect of the supramolecular motifs, we demonstrate that those regulate the swelling when exposing the biomimetic hybrids to water, and they allow engineering the photonic response. Moreover, the amount of hydrogen bonds and the polymer fraction are decisive in defining the mechanical properties. An Ashby plot comparing previous ordered CNC-based nanocomposites with our new hierarchical ones reveals that molecular engineering allows us to span an unprecedented mechanical property range from highest inelastic deformation (strain up to ∼13%) to highest stiffness (E ∼ 15 GPa) and combinations of both. We envisage that further rational design of the molecular interactions will provide efficient tools for enhancing the multifunctional property profiles of such bioinspired nanocomposites.

  13. Launching the AquaMAV: bioinspired design for aerial-aquatic robotic platforms.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Siddall, R; Kovač, M

    2014-09-01

    Current Micro Aerial Vehicles (MAVs) are greatly limited by being able to operate in air only. Designing multimodal MAVs that can fly effectively, dive into the water and retake flight would enable applications of distributed water quality monitoring, search and rescue operations and underwater exploration. While some can land on water, no technologies are available that allow them to both dive and fly, due to dramatic design trade-offs that have to be solved for movement in both air and water and due to the absence of high-power propulsion systems that would allow a transition from underwater to air. In nature, several animals have evolved design solutions that enable them to successfully transition between water and air, and move in both media. Examples include flying fish, flying squid, diving birds and diving insects. In this paper, we review the biological literature on these multimodal animals and abstract their underlying design principles in the perspective of building a robotic equivalent, the Aquatic Micro Air Vehicle (AquaMAV). Building on the inspire-abstract-implement bioinspired design paradigm, we identify key adaptations from nature and designs from robotics. Based on this evaluation we propose key design principles for the design of successful aerial-aquatic robots, i.e. using a plunge diving strategy for water entry, folding wings for diving efficiency, water jet propulsion for water takeoff and hydrophobic surfaces for water shedding and dry flight. Further, we demonstrate the feasibility of the water jet propulsion by building a proof-of-concept water jet propulsion mechanism with a mass of 2.6 g that can propel itself up to 4.8 m high, corresponding to 72 times its size. This propulsion mechanism can be used for AquaMAV but also for other robotic applications where high-power density is of use, such as for jumping and swimming robots.

  14. Bioinspired polydopamine particles-assisted construction of superhydrophobic surfaces for oil/water separation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shang, Bin; Wang, Yanbing; Peng, Bo; Deng, Ziwei

    2016-11-15

    Frequent oil spillages and industrial discharge of oils/organic solvents have induced severe environmental pollution and ecological damage, and a great cost in energy and finance has been consumed to solve the problems raised. Therefore, it is urgent to develop a surface hydrophobic modification that can be applied to materials with desired properties of high separation efficiency, excellent selectivity and stable performance in extreme conditions during the oil/water separation. Herein, with combined bioinspirations from mussel adhesive protein (polydopamine) and superhydrophobic lotus leaf (hierarchical structures), we develop a general way to superhydrophobically modify various commercial materials, aiming for the selective removal of oils/organic solvents from water. In this procedure, immersing commercial materials (e.g. melamine sponge, stainless steel mesh, nylon netting and cotton cloth) into water/ethanol/ammonia mixtures at a low concentration of dopamine (DA, 2mg/mL) allows a polydopamine (PDA) coating with a tunable roughness appearing on the substrate in one step. This is because DA can self-polymerize and form PDA particles with a catalyst of ammonia, attaching to any surfaces due to abundant catechol and amine groups in PDA, and ultimately, resulting in hierarchical structures. The subsequent decoration with 1H, 1H, 2H, 2H-perfluorodecanethiol features the surface superhydrophobic and superoleophilic. This approach is straightforward and economic, and carried out under a mild, environmental-benign circumstance, with nonspecific substrate demands. In addition, the as-prepared superhydrophobic materials exhibit excellent separation performances including high absorption/separation capacity, excellent selectivity, and extraordinary recyclability for collecting various oils/organic solvents from water. These superhydrophobic materials have also verified to be highly chemical resistant, environment stable and mechanically durable. Therefore, this

  15. Bioinspired engineering study of Plantae vascules for self-healing composite structures.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Trask, R S; Bond, I P

    2010-06-06

    This paper presents the first conceptual study into creating a Plantae-inspired vascular network within a fibre-reinforced polymer composite laminate, which provides an ongoing self-healing functionality without incurring a mass penalty. Through the application of a 'lost-wax' technique, orthogonal hollow vascules, inspired by the 'ray cell' structures found in ring porous hardwoods, were successfully introduced within a carbon fibre-reinforced epoxy polymer composite laminate. The influence on fibre architecture and mechanical behaviour of single vascules (located on the laminate centreline) when aligned parallel and transverse to the local host ply was characterized experimentally using a compression-after-impact test methodology. Ultrasonic C-scanning and high-resolution micro-CT X-ray was undertaken to identify the influence of and interaction between the internal vasculature and impact damage. The results clearly show that damage morphology is influenced by vascule orientation and that a 10 J low-velocity impact damage event is sufficient to breach the vasculature; a prerequisite for any subsequent self-healing function. The residual compressive strength after a 10 J impact was found to be dependent upon vascule orientation. In general, residual compressive strength decreased to 70 per cent of undamaged strength when vasculature was aligned parallel to the local host ply and a value of 63 per cent when aligned transverse. This bioinspired engineering study has illustrated the potential that a vasculature concept has to offer in terms of providing a self-healing function with minimum mass penalty, without initiating premature failure within a composite structure.

  16. Bioinspired bioartifical polymer hybrid composites for propolis vaginal delivery II: formulation and characterization

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. Glavas-Dodov

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available In our previous work Box-Behnken experimental design was applied for formulation optimization of the thermoreversible mucoadhesive in situ vaginal hydrogels with propolis and optimized batches were identified. Optimized batches of bioartificial polymer hybrid composites (chitosan, Lutrol® F-127 and Lutrol® F-68 mixture (CP1, CP2, CP3 were prepared using so-called cold method. Formulation P3 (chitosan free was prepared in order to evaluate the effect of chitosan on the physico-chemical and biopharmaceutical properties of the polymer hybrid composites (gels. The pH values of the gels were 4-4.5. The gelation temperature for all formulations was in a range of 29-33 o C. Total flavonoids content was above 95%. Increase in concentration of Lutrol® F-127 and Lutrol® F-68/Lutrol® F-127 ratio lead to a higher viscosity values and slower gel erosion/dissolution. The presence of chitosan increased gel viscosity and hence slow-down erossion/dissoluiton. Propolis release rate was the highest in P3 which released propolis within 5 h, corresponding to time of complete erosion. The same correlation between erosion process and drug release rate was observed in CP1-CP3, where prolonged propolis release for more than 10 h was achieved. Microbiological quality was in accordance with the requirements of Ph. Eur. 7. All formulations demonstrated adequate stability at 5 ± 3 °C during 6 months. Based on overall results it can be anticipated that bioartificial blended bioinspired polymer hybrid composites for propolis vaginal delivery could represent intelligent delivery systems with physicochemical and biopharmaceutical properties in favor or efficacious and safe therapy of vaginal infections.

  17. Bioinspired engineering of exploration systems for NASA and DoD.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thakoor, Sarita; Chahl, Javaan; Srinivasan, M V; Young, L; Werblin, Frank; Hine, Butler; Zornetzer, Steven

    2002-01-01

    A new approach called bioinspired engineering of exploration systems (BEES) and its value for solving pressing NASA and DoD needs are described. Insects (for example honeybees and dragonflies) cope remarkably well with their world, despite possessing a brain containing less than 0.01% as many neurons as the human brain. Although most insects have immobile eyes with fixed focus optics and lack stereo vision, they use a number of ingenious, computationally simple strategies for perceiving their world in three dimensions and navigating successfully within it. We are distilling selected insect-inspired strategies to obtain novel solutions for navigation, hazard avoidance, altitude hold, stable flight, terrain following, and gentle deployment of payload. Such functionality provides potential solutions for future autonomous robotic space and planetary explorers. A BEES approach to developing lightweight low-power autonomous flight systems should be useful for flight control of such biomorphic flyers for both NASA and DoD needs. Recent biological studies of mammalian retinas confirm that representations of multiple features of the visual world are systematically parsed and processed in parallel. Features are mapped to a stack of cellular strata within the retina. Each of these representations can be efficiently modeled in semiconductor cellular nonlinear network (CNN) chips. We describe recent breakthroughs in exploring the feasibility of the unique blending of insect strategies of navigation with mammalian visual search, pattern recognition, and image understanding into hybrid biomorphic flyers for future planetary and terrestrial applications. We describe a few future mission scenarios for Mars exploration, uniquely enabled by these newly developed biomorphic flyers.

  18. Insect attachment on crystalline bioinspired wax surfaces formed by alkanes of varying chain lengths

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Elena Gorb

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available The impeding effect of plant surfaces covered with three-dimensional wax on attachment and locomotion of insects has been shown previously in numerous experimental studies. The aim of this study was to examine the effect of different parameters of crystalline wax coverage on insect attachment. We performed traction experiments with the beetle Coccinella septempunctata and pull-off force measurements with artificial adhesive systems (tacky polydimethylsiloxane semi-spheres on bioinspired wax surfaces formed by four alkanes of varying chain lengths (C36H74, C40H82, C44H90, and C50H102. All these highly hydrophobic coatings were composed of crystals having similar morphologies but differing in size and distribution/density, and exhibited different surface roughness. The crystal size (length and thickness decreased with an increase of the chain length of the alkanes that formed these surfaces, whereas the density of the wax coverage, as well as the surface roughness, showed an opposite relationship. Traction tests demonstrated a significant, up to 30 fold, reduction of insect attachment forces on the wax surfaces when compared with the reference glass sample. Attachment of the beetles to the wax substrates probably relied solely on the performance of adhesive pads. We found no influence of the wax coatings on the subsequent attachment ability of beetles. The obtained data are explained by the reduction of the real contact between the setal tips of the insect adhesive pads and the wax surfaces due to the micro- and nanoscopic roughness introduced by wax crystals. Experiments with polydimethylsiloxane semi-spheres showed much higher forces on wax samples when compared to insect attachment forces measured on these surfaces. We explain these results by the differences in material properties between polydimethylsiloxane probes and tenent setae of C. septempunctata beetles. Among wax surfaces, force experiments showed stronger insect attachment and higher

  19. Load sharing in bioinspired fibrillar adhesives with backing layer interactions and interfacial misalignment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bacca, Mattia; Booth, Jamie A.; Turner, Kimberly L.; McMeeking, Robert M.

    2016-11-01

    Bio-inspired fibrillar adhesives rely on the utilization of short-range intermolecular forces harnessed by intimate contact at fibril tips. The combined adhesive strength of multiple fibrils can only be utilized if equal load sharing (ELS) is obtained at detachment. Previous investigations have highlighted that mechanical coupling of fibrils through a compliant backing layer gives rise to load concentration and the nucleation and propagation of interfacial flaws. However, misalignment of the adhesive and contacting surface has not been considered in theoretical treatments of load sharing with backing layer interactions. Alignment imperfections are difficult to avoid for a flat-on-flat interfacial configuration. In this work we demonstrate that interfacial misalignment can significantly alter load sharing and the kinematics of detachment in a model adhesive system. Load sharing regimes dominated by backing layer interactions and misalignment are revealed, the transition between which is controlled by the misalignment angle, fibril separation, and fibril compliance. In the regime dominated by misalignment, backing layer deformation can counteract misalignment giving rise to improved load sharing when compared to an identical fibrillar array with a rigid backing layer. This result challenges the conventional belief that stiffer (and thinner) backing layers consistently reduce load concentration among fibrils. Finally, we obtain analytically the fibril compliance distribution required to harness backing layer interactions to obtain ELS. Through fibril compliance optimization, ELS can be obtained even with misalignment. However, since misalignment is typically not deterministic, it is of greater practical significance that the array optimized for perfect alignment exhibits load sharing superior to that of a homogeneous array subject to misalignment. These results inform the design of fibrillar arrays with graded compliance capable of exhibiting improved load sharing

  20. Superhydro-oleophobic bio-inspired polydimethylsiloxane micropillared surface via FDTS coating/blending approaches

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pan, Zihe; Shahsavan, Hamed; Zhang, Wei; Yang, Fut K.; Zhao, Boxin

    2015-01-01

    In this work we render superhydro-oleophobic properties to the surface of polydimethylsiloxane (PDMS) elastomer through bio-inspired micropillar surface and chemical modification with a fluorosilane polymer, trichloro(1H,1H,2H,2H-perfluorooctyl)silane (FDTS). Two different chemical modification approaches were applied on both flat and micropillar PDMS: (1) vapor deposition of FDTS on cured PDMS surface, and (2) blending FDTS with the liquid PDMS precursor before curing. Comparative studies of the water and oil contact angles on the neat and FDTS-modified PDMS (both flat and micropillar) indicated that superhydro-oleophobicity was delivered by a combination of FDTS chemistry and micropillar geometry. FDTS-blended PDMS micropillar displayed better oleophobicity with an oil contact angle of ∼141° than FDTS-coated PDMS micropillar (∼115°). In contrast to the smooth surface of FDTS-blended PDMS micropillar, rough surface with some structure defects were found on the FDTS-coated micropillar surface caused by the vapor deposition process; the surface defects might be responsible for the observed low oleophobicity of FDTS-coated PDMS micropillar. Superhydrophobicity of FDTS-blended PDMS micropillar in terms of water contact angles was found to be independent of the quantity of FDTS. However, the oleophobicity of FDTS-blended PDMS micropillar was found to be dependent of the quantity of FDTS; with the increased weight concentration of FDTS in PDMS, the oils contact angle first increased and then leveled out at a finite concentration. FTIR and XPS were applied to analyze surface chemistry information suggesting the blended FDTS segregated from bulk PDMS and enriched at the surface to reduce surface tension so as to make surface super-oleophobic.

  1. Aerodynamics of a bio-inspired flexible flapping-wing micro air vehicle.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nakata, T; Liu, H; Tanaka, Y; Nishihashi, N; Wang, X; Sato, A

    2011-12-01

    MAVs (micro air vehicles) with a maximal dimension of 15 cm and nominal flight speeds of around 10 m s⁻¹, operate in a Reynolds number regime of 10⁵ or lower, in which most natural flyers including insects, bats and birds fly. Furthermore, due to their light weight and low flight speed, the MAVs' flight characteristics are substantially affected by environmental factors such as wind gust. Like natural flyers, the wing structures of MAVs are often flexible and tend to deform during flight. Consequently, the aero/fluid and structural dynamics of these flyers are closely linked to each other, making the entire flight vehicle difficult to analyze. We have recently developed a hummingbird-inspired, flapping flexible wing MAV with a weight of 2.4-3.0 g and a wingspan of 10-12 cm. In this study, we carry out an integrated study of the flexible wing aerodynamics of this flapping MAV by combining an in-house computational fluid dynamic (CFD) method and wind tunnel experiments. A CFD model that has a realistic wing planform and can mimic realistic flexible wing kinematics is established, which provides a quantitative prediction of unsteady aerodynamics of the four-winged MAV in terms of vortex and wake structures and their relationship with aerodynamic force generation. Wind tunnel experiments further confirm the effectiveness of the clap and fling mechanism employed in this bio-inspired MAV as well as the importance of the wing flexibility in designing small flapping-wing MAVs.

  2. Bio-inspired evolutionary oral tract shape modeling for physical modeling vocal synthesis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Howard, David M; Tyrrell, Andy M; Murphy, Damian T; Cooper, Crispin; Mullen, Jack

    2009-01-01

    Physical modeling using digital waveguide mesh (DWM) models is an audio synthesis method that has been shown to produce an acoustic output in music synthesis applications that is often described as being "organic," "warm," or "intimate." This paper describes work that takes its inspiration from physical modeling music synthesis and applies it to speech synthesis through a physical modeling mesh model of the human oral tract. Oral tract shapes are found using a computational technique based on the principles of biological evolution. Essential to successful speech synthesis using this method is accurate measurements of the cross-sectional area of the human oral tract, and these are usually derived from magnetic resonance imaging (MRI). However, such images are nonideal, because of the lengthy exposure time (relative to the time of articulation of speech sounds) required, the local ambient acoustic noise associated with the MRI machine itself and the required supine position for the subject. An alternative method is described where a bio-inspired computing technique that simulates the process of evolution is used to evolve oral tract shapes. This technique is able to produce appropriate oral tract shapes for open vowels using acoustic and excitation data from two adult males and two adult females, but shapes for close vowels that are less appropriate. This technique has none of the drawbacks associated with MRI, because all it requires from the subject is an acoustic and electrolaryngograph (or electroglottograph) recording. Appropriate oral tract shapes do enable the model to produce excellent quality synthetic speech for vowel sounds, and sounds that involve dynamic oral tract shape changes, such as diphthongs, can also be synthesized using an impedance mapped technique. Efforts to improve performance by reducing mesh quantization for close vowels had little effect, and further work is required.

  3. Bio-inspired grasp control in a robotic hand with massive sensorial input.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ascari, Luca; Bertocchi, Ulisse; Corradi, Paolo; Laschi, Cecilia; Dario, Paolo

    2009-02-01

    The capability of grasping and lifting an object in a suitable, stable and controlled way is an outstanding feature for a robot, and thus far, one of the major problems to be solved in robotics. No robotic tools able to perform an advanced control of the grasp as, for instance, the human hand does, have been demonstrated to date. Due to its capital importance in science and in many applications, namely from biomedics to manufacturing, the issue has been matter of deep scientific investigations in both the field of neurophysiology and robotics. While the former is contributing with a profound understanding of the dynamics of real-time control of the slippage and grasp force in the human hand, the latter tries more and more to reproduce, or take inspiration by, the nature's approach, by means of hardware and software technology. On this regard, one of the major constraints robotics has to overcome is the real-time processing of a large amounts of data generated by the tactile sensors while grasping, which poses serious problems to the available computational power. In this paper a bio-inspired approach to tactile data processing has been followed in order to design and test a hardware-software robotic architecture that works on the parallel processing of a large amount of tactile sensing signals. The working principle of the architecture bases on the cellular nonlinear/neural network (CNN) paradigm, while using both hand shape and spatial-temporal features obtained from an array of microfabricated force sensors, in order to control the sensory-motor coordination of the robotic system. Prototypical grasping tasks were selected to measure the system performances applied to a computer-interfaced robotic hand. Successful grasps of several objects, completely unknown to the robot, e.g. soft and deformable objects like plastic bottles, soft balls, and Japanese tofu, have been demonstrated.

  4. A bio-inspired real-time capable artificial lateral line system for freestream flow measurements.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abels, C; Qualtieri, A; De Vittorio, M; Megill, W M; Rizzi, F

    2016-06-03

    To enhance today's artificial flow sensing capabilities in aerial and underwater robotics, future robots could be equipped with a large number of miniaturized sensors distributed over the surface to provide high resolution measurement of the surrounding fluid flow. In this work we show a linear array of closely separated bio-inspired micro-electro-mechanical flow sensors whose sensing mechanism is based on a piezoresistive strain-gauge along a stress-driven cantilever beam, mimicking the biological superficial neuromasts found in the lateral line organ of fishes. Aiming to improve state-of-the-art flow sensing capability in autonomously flying and swimming robots, our artificial lateral line system was designed and developed to feature multi-parameter freestream flow measurements which provide information about (1) local flow velocities as measured by the signal amplitudes from the individual cantilevers as well as (2) propagation velocity, (3) linear forward/backward direction along the cantilever beam orientation and (4) periodicity of pulses or pulse trains determined by cross-correlating sensor signals. A real-time capable cross-correlation procedure was developed which makes it possible to extract freestream flow direction and velocity information from flow fluctuations. The computed flow velocities deviate from a commercial system by 0.09 m s(-1) at 0.5 m s(-1) and 0.15 m s(-1) at 1.0 m s(-1) flow velocity for a sampling rate of 240 Hz and a sensor distance of 38 mm. Although experiments were performed in air, the presented flow sensing system can be applied to underwater vehicles as well, once the sensors are embedded in a waterproof micro-electro-mechanical systems package.

  5. Bioinspired engineering of exploration systems for NASA and DoD

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thakoor, Sarita; Chahl, Javaan; Srinivasan, M. V.; Young, L.; Werblin, Frank; Hine, Butler; Zornetzer, Steven

    2002-01-01

    A new approach called bioinspired engineering of exploration systems (BEES) and its value for solving pressing NASA and DoD needs are described. Insects (for example honeybees and dragonflies) cope remarkably well with their world, despite possessing a brain containing less than 0.01% as many neurons as the human brain. Although most insects have immobile eyes with fixed focus optics and lack stereo vision, they use a number of ingenious, computationally simple strategies for perceiving their world in three dimensions and navigating successfully within it. We are distilling selected insect-inspired strategies to obtain novel solutions for navigation, hazard avoidance, altitude hold, stable flight, terrain following, and gentle deployment of payload. Such functionality provides potential solutions for future autonomous robotic space and planetary explorers. A BEES approach to developing lightweight low-power autonomous flight systems should be useful for flight control of such biomorphic flyers for both NASA and DoD needs. Recent biological studies of mammalian retinas confirm that representations of multiple features of the visual world are systematically parsed and processed in parallel. Features are mapped to a stack of cellular strata within the retina. Each of these representations can be efficiently modeled in semiconductor cellular nonlinear network (CNN) chips. We describe recent breakthroughs in exploring the feasibility of the unique blending of insect strategies of navigation with mammalian visual search, pattern recognition, and image understanding into hybrid biomorphic flyers for future planetary and terrestrial applications. We describe a few future mission scenarios for Mars exploration, uniquely enabled by these newly developed biomorphic flyers.

  6. Simultaneous size control and surface functionalization of titania nanoparticles through bioadhesion-assisted bio-inspired mineralization

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Shi Jiafu; Yang Dong; Jiang Zhongyi, E-mail: zhyjiang@tju.edu.cn [Tianjin University, Key Laboratory for Green Chemical Technology of Ministry of Education, School of Chemical Engineering and Technology (China); Jiang Yanjun [Hebei University of Technology, Department of Bioengineering, School of Chemical Engineering (China); Liang Yanpeng; Zhu Yuanyuan; Wang Xiaoli; Wang Huihui [Tianjin University, Key Laboratory for Green Chemical Technology of Ministry of Education, School of Chemical Engineering and Technology (China)

    2012-09-15

    Simultaneous size control and surface functionalization of inorganic nanoparticles (NPs) are often desired for their efficient applications in (bio)catalysis, drug and/or DNA delivery, and photonics, etc. In this study, a novel strategy 'bioadhesion-assisted bio-inspired mineralization (BABM)' was put forward to prepare titania nanoparticles (TiNPs) with tunable particle size and multiple surface functionality. Specifically, the initial formation and subsequent growth of TiNPs were enabled by arginine via bio-inspired mineralization, while the mineralization process was terminated through the addition of the pre-polymerized dopa (oligodopa). By adjusting the addition time of oligodopa, the size of TiNPs could be facilely tailored from ca. 30-350 nm; meanwhile, the surface of TiNPs could be functionalized by oligodopa through metal-catechol coordination interaction (a typical bioadhesion phenomenon). In other words, oligodopa coating could not only exquisitely control the size of TiNPs, but also render TiNPs surface multifunctional groups for secondary treatment such as conjugating proteins through amine-catechol adduct formation. Hopefully, this BABM approach will construct a versatile platform for green and facile synthesis of inorganic NPs, in particular transition metal oxide NPs.

  7. Carbon-Nanotube-Supported Bio-Inspired Nickel Catalyst and Its Integration in Hybrid Hydrogen/Air Fuel Cells

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gentil, Solène [Univ. Grenoble Alpes, CNRS, DCM UMR 5250, 38000 Grenoble France; Laboratoire de Chimie et Biologie des Métaux, Univ. Grenoble Alpes, CNRS UMR5249, CEA, 38000 Grenoble France; Lalaoui, Noémie [Univ. Grenoble Alpes, CNRS, DCM UMR 5250, 38000 Grenoble France; Dutta, Arnab [Pacific Northwest National Laboratory, Richland WA 99532 USA; Current address: Chemistry Department, IIT Gandhinagar, Gujarat 382355 India; Nedellec, Yannig [Univ. Grenoble Alpes, CNRS, DCM UMR 5250, 38000 Grenoble France; Cosnier, Serge [Univ. Grenoble Alpes, CNRS, DCM UMR 5250, 38000 Grenoble France; Shaw, Wendy J. [Pacific Northwest National Laboratory, Richland WA 99532 USA; Artero, Vincent [Laboratoire de Chimie et Biologie des Métaux, Univ. Grenoble Alpes, CNRS UMR5249, CEA, 38000 Grenoble France; Le Goff, Alan [Univ. Grenoble Alpes, CNRS, DCM UMR 5250, 38000 Grenoble France

    2017-01-12

    A biomimetic nickel bis-diphosphine complex incorporating the amino-acid arginine in the outer coordination sphere, was immobilized on modified single-wall carbon nanotubes (SWCNTs) through electrostatic interactions. The sur-face-confined catalyst is characterized by a reversible 2-electron/2-proton redox process at potentials close to the equibrium potential of the H+/H2 couple. Consequently, the functionalized redox nanomaterial exhibits reversible electrocatalytic activity for the H2/2H+ interconversion over a broad range of pH. This system exhibits catalytic bias, analogous to hydrogenases, resulting in high turnover frequencies at low overpotentials for electrocatalytic H2 oxida-tion between pH 0 and 7. This allowed integrating such bio-inspired nanomaterial together with a multicopper oxi-dase at the cathode side in a hybrid bioinspired/enzymatic hydrogen fuel cell. This device delivers ~2 mW cm–2 with an open-circuit voltage of 1.0 V at room temperature and pH 5, which sets a new efficiency record for a bio-related hydrogen fuel cell with base metal catalysts.

  8. Control of Flow Structure on Non-Slender Delta Wing: Bio-inspired Edge Modifications, Passive Bleeding, and Pulsed Blowing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yavuz, Mehmet Metin; Celik, Alper; Cetin, Cenk

    2016-11-01

    In the present study, different flow control approaches including bio-inspired edge modifications, passive bleeding, and pulsed blowing are introduced and applied for the flow over non-slender delta wing. Experiments are conducted in a low speed wind tunnel for a 45 degree swept delta wing using qualitative and quantitative measurement techniques including laser illuminated smoke visualization, particle image velocimety (PIV), and surface pressure measurements. For the bio-inspired edge modifications, the edges of the wing are modified to dolphin fluke geometry. In addition, the concept of flexion ratio, a ratio depending on the flexible length of animal propulsors such as wings, is introduced. For passive bleeding, directing the free stream air from the pressure side of the planform to the suction side of the wing is applied. For pulsed blowing, periodic air injection through the leading edge of the wing is performed in a square waveform with 25% duty cycle at different excitation frequencies and compared with the steady and no blowing cases. The results indicate that each control approach is quite effective in terms of altering the overall flow structure on the planform. However, the success level, considering the elimination of stall or delaying the vortex breakdown, depends on the parameters in each method.

  9. Single macroscopic pillars as model system for bioinspired adhesives: influence of tip dimension, aspect ratio, and tilt angle.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Micciché, Maurizio; Arzt, Eduard; Kroner, Elmar

    2014-05-28

    The goal of our study is to better understand the design parameters of bioinspired dry adhesives inspired by geckos. For this, we fabricated single macroscopic pillars of 400 μm diameter with different aspect ratios and different tip shapes (i.e., flat tips, spherical tips with different radii, and mushroom tips with different diameters). Tilt-angle-dependent adhesion measurements showed that although the tip shape of the pillars strongly influences the pull-off force, the pull-off strength is similar for flat and mushroom-shaped tips. We found no tilt-angle dependency of adhesion for spherical tip structures and, except for high tilt angle and low preload experiments, no tilt-angle effect for mushroom-tip pillars. For flat-tip pillars, we found a strong influence of tilt angle on adhesion, which decreased linearly with increasing aspect ratio. The experiments show that for the tested aspect ratios between 1 and 5, a linear decrease of tilt-angle dependency is found. The results of our studies will help to design bioinspired adhesives for application on smooth and rough surfaces.

  10. Operant conditioning: a minimal components requirement in artificial spiking neurons designed for bio-inspired robot's controller.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cyr, André; Boukadoum, Mounir; Thériault, Frédéric

    2014-01-01

    In this paper, we investigate the operant conditioning (OC) learning process within a bio-inspired paradigm, using artificial spiking neural networks (ASNN) to act as robot brain controllers. In biological agents, OC results in behavioral changes learned from the consequences of previous actions, based on progressive prediction adjustment from rewarding or punishing signals. In a neurorobotics context, virtual and physical autonomous robots may benefit from a similar learning skill when facing unknown and unsupervised environments. In this work, we demonstrate that a simple invariant micro-circuit can sustain OC in multiple learning scenarios. The motivation for this new OC implementation model stems from the relatively complex alternatives that have been described in the computational literature and recent advances in neurobiology. Our elementary kernel includes only a few crucial neurons, synaptic links and originally from the integration of habituation and spike-timing dependent plasticity as learning rules. Using several tasks of incremental complexity, our results show that a minimal neural component set is sufficient to realize many OC procedures. Hence, with the proposed OC module, designing learning tasks with an ASNN and a bio-inspired robot context leads to simpler neural architectures for achieving complex behaviors.

  11. Translocation of metal phosphate via the phosphate inorganic transport system of Escherichia coli

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van Veen, H.W; Abee, T.; Kortstee, G.J J; Konings, W.N; Zehnder, A.J B

    1994-01-01

    P-i transport via the phosphate inorganic transport system (Pit) of Escherichia coil was studied in natural and artificial membranes. P-i uptake via Pit is dependent on the presence of divalent cations, like Mg2+, Ca2+, Co2+, or Mn2+, which form a soluble, neutral metal phosphate (MeHPO(4)) complex.

  12. Biological Removal of Phosphate Using Phosphate Solubilizing Bacterial Consortium from Synthetic Wastewater: A Laboratory Scale

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dipak Paul

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Biological phosphate removal is an important process having gained worldwide attention and widely used for removing phosphorus from wastewater. The present investigation was aimed to screen the efficient phosphate solubilizing bacterial isolates and used to remove phosphate from synthetic wastewater under shaking flasks conditions. Pseudomonas sp. JPSB12, Enterobacter sp. TPSB20, Flavobacterium sp. TPSB23 and mixed bacterial consortium (Pseudomonas sp. JPSB12+Enterobacter sp. TPSB20+Flavobacterium sp. TPSB23 were used for the removal of phosphate. Among the individual strains, Enterobacter sp. TPSB20 was removed maximum phosphate (61.75% from synthetic wastewater in presence of glucose as a carbon source. The consortium was effectively removed phosphate (74.15-82.50% in the synthetic wastewater when compared to individual strains. The pH changes in culture medium with time and extracellular phosphatase activity (acid and alkaline were also investigated. The efficient removal of phosphate by the consortium may be due to the synergistic activity among the individual strains and phosphatase enzyme activity. The use of bacterial consortium in the remediation of phosphate contaminated aquatic environments has been discussed.

  13. Cloning and characterization of a glucose 6-phosphate/phosphate translocator from Oryza sativa

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    姜华武; 佃蔚敏; 刘非燕; 吴平

    2003-01-01

    Plastids of nongreen tissues import carbon as a source of biosynthetic pathways and energy, and glucose 6-phosphate is the preferred hexose phosphate taken up by nongreen plastids. A cDNA clone encoding glucose 6-phosphate/phosphate translocator (GPT) was isolated from a cDNA library of immature seeds of rice and named as OsGPT. The cDNA has one uninterrupted open reading frame encoding a 42 kDa polypeptide possessing transit peptide consisting of 70 amino acid residues. The OsGPT gene maps on chromosome 8 of rice and is linked to the quantitative trait locus for 1000-grain weight. The expression of OsGPT is mainly restricted to heterotrophic tissues. These results suggest that glucose 6-phosphate imported via GPT can be used for starch biosynthesis in rice nongreen plastids.

  14. Solid state 31NMR studies of the conversion of amorphous tricalcium phosphate to apatitic tricalcium phosphate.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roberts, J E; Heughebaert, M; Heughebaert, J C; Bonar, L C; Glimcher, M J; Griffin, R G

    1991-12-01

    The hydrolytic conversion of a solid amorphous calcium phosphate of empirical formula Ca9 (PO4)6 to a poorly crystalline apatitic phase, under conditions where Ca2+ and PO4(3-) were conserved, was studied by means of solid-state magic-angle sample spinning 31P-NMR (nuclear magnetic resonance). Results showed a gradual decrease in hydrated amorphous calcium phosphate and the formation of two new PO4(3-)-containing components: an apatitic component similar to poorly crystalline hydroxyapatite and a protonated PO4(3-), probably HPO4(2-) in a dicalcium phosphate dihydrate (DCPD) brushite-like configuration. This latter component resembles the brushite-like HPO4(2-) component previously observed by 31P-NMR in apatitic calcium phosphates of biological origin. Results were consistent with previous studies by Heughebaert and Montel [18] of the kinetics of the conversion of amorphous calcium phosphate to hydroxyapatite under the same conditions.

  15. Solvothermal synthesis of strontium phosphate chloride nanowire

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lam, W. M.; Wong, C. T.; Li, Z. Y.; Luk, K. D. K.; Chan, W. K.; Yang, C.; Chiu, K. Y.; Xu, B.; Lu, W. W.

    2007-08-01

    Strontium phosphate chloride nanowire was synthesized via a solvothermal treatment of strontium tri-polyphosphate and Collin salt in 1,4-dioxane at 150 °C. The effects of 1,4-dioxane concentration on particle morphology, crystallinity and phase purity were investigated in this study. The specimen morphology was analyzed by transmission electron microscopy (TEM) and scanning electron microscopy (SEM). When the concentration of 1,4-dioxane was below 10%, micron-sized whisker was the dominant form. At 20-25% concentration of 1,4-dioxane, strontium phosphate chloride single-crystalline nanowire was 31±12 nm in diameter and 1.43±0.6 μm in length with an aspect ratio of 52.28±29.41. X-ray diffraction (XRD) pattern of this nanowire matched with that of strontium phosphate chloride (JCPDS #083-0973). When 1,4-dioxane concentration exceeded 25%, nanorod aggregate was the dominant form instead of nanowire. At 20-25% 1,4-dioxane concentration suitable strontium concentration combine with high chemical potential environment favors the formation of nanowires. By adding 1,4-dioxane impure phase such as β-strontium hydrogen phosphate, nanorod formation was suppressed. This method provides an efficient way to synthesize high aspect ratio strontium phosphate chloride nanowire. It has potential bioactive nanocomposite, high mechanical performance bioactive bone cement filler and fluorescent material applications.

  16. Sodium phosphate as an ergogenic aid.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Buck, Christopher L; Wallman, Karen E; Dawson, Brian; Guelfi, Kym J

    2013-06-01

    Legal nutritional ergogenic aids can offer athletes an additional avenue to enhance their performance beyond what they can achieve through training. Consequently, the investigation of new nutritional ergogenic aids is constantly being undertaken. One emerging nutritional supplement that has shown some positive benefits for sporting performance is sodium phosphate. For ergogenic purposes, sodium phosphate is supplemented orally in capsule form, at a dose of 3-5 g/day for a period of between 3 and 6 days. A number of exercise performance-enhancing alterations have been reported to occur with sodium phosphate supplementation, which include an increased aerobic capacity, increased peak power output, increased anaerobic threshold and improved myocardial and cardiovascular responses to exercise. A range of mechanisms have been posited to account for these ergogenic effects. These include enhancements in 2,3-Diphosphoglycerate (2,3-DPG) concentrations, myocardial efficiency, buffering capacity and adenosine triphosphate/phosphocreatine synthesis. Whilst there is evidence to support the ergogenic benefits of sodium phosphate, many studies researching this substance differ in terms of the administered dose and dosing protocol, the washout period employed and the fitness level of the participants recruited. Additionally, the effect of gender has received very little attention in the literature. Therefore, the purpose of this review is to critically examine the use of sodium phosphate as an ergogenic aid, with a focus on identifying relevant further research.

  17. Sodium ascorbyl phosphate in topical microemulsions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Spiclin, Polona; Homar, Miha; Zupancic-Valant, Andreja; Gasperlin, Mirjana

    2003-04-30

    Sodium ascorbyl phosphate is a hydrophilic derivative of ascorbic acid, which has improved stability arising from its chemical structure. It is used in cosmetic and pharmaceutical preparations since it has many favorable effects in the skin, the most important being antioxidant action. In order to achieve this, it has to be converted into free ascorbic acid by enzymatic degradation in the skin. In the present work, o/w and w/o microemulsions composed of the same ingredients, were selected as carrier systems for topical delivery of sodium ascorbyl phosphate. We showed that sodium ascorbyl phosphate was stable in both types of microemulsion with no significant influence of its location in the carrier system. To obtain liquid microemulsions appropriate for topical application, their viscosity was increased by adding thickening agents. On the basis of rheological characterization, 4.00% (m/m) colloidal silica was chosen as a suitable thickening agent for w/o microemulsions and 0.50% (m/m) xanthan gum for the o/w type. The presence of thickening agent and the location of sodium ascorbyl phosphate in the microemulsion influenced the in vitro drug release profiles. When incorporated in the internal aqueous phase, sustained release profiles were observed. This study confirmed microemulsions as suitable carrier systems for topical application of sodium ascorbyl phosphate.

  18. [Phosphate solubilization of Aureobasidium pullulan F4 and its mechanism].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Dan; Zhan, Jing; Sun, Qing-Ye

    2014-07-01

    The Aureobasidium pullulans F4 was isolated from the rhizosphere of Hippochaete ramosissimum in Tongguanshan mine wasteland in Tongling City, Anhui Province. Liquid culture was conducted with four kinds of phosphorus sources, calcium phosphate, aluminum phosphate, ferric phosphate and rock phosphate to determine the pH, dissolved phosphorus, phosphorus in the bacteria and organic acid in the solution. The results showed that the phosphate solubilization by A. pullulans F4 varied with phosphorus sources, which decreased in order of aluminum phosphate > ferric phosphate, calcium phosphate > rock phosphate. The amounts of dissolved phosphorus in the different treatments were all higher than 200 mg x L(-1). The pH of the medium dropped immediately in 48 h, and the aluminum phosphate and ferric phosphate treatments showed a greater decrease in pH than the calcium phosphate and rock phosphate treatments. The organic acid synthesized by A. pullulans F4 included oxalic acid, citric acid and tartaric acid, and oxalic acid, among which oxalic acid was the dominated component. The phosphate dissolving capacity of A. pullulans F4 showed no significant correlation with organic acid, but significantly correlated with the pH. The available phosphorus was significantly improved with the combined application of A. pullulans F4 and glucose, suggesting A. pullulans F4 was a potent candidate for remediation of copper mine wastelands.

  19. Phosphate Phosphors for Solid-State Lighting

    CERN Document Server

    Shinde, Kartik N; Swart, H C; Park, Kyeongsoon

    2012-01-01

    The idea for this book arose out of the realization that, although excellent surveys and a phosphor handbook are available, there is no single source covering the area of phosphate based phosphors especially for lamp industry. Moreover, as this field gets only limited attention in most general books on luminescence, there is a clear need for a book in which attention is specifically directed toward this rapidly growing field of solid state lighting and its many applications. This book is aimed at providing a sound introduction to the synthesis and optical characterization of phosphate phosphor for undergraduate and graduate students as well as teachers and researchers. The book provides guidance through the multidisciplinary field of solid state lighting specially phosphate phosphors for beginners, scientists and engineers from universities, research organizations, and especially industry. In order to make it useful for a wide audience, both fundamentals and applications are discussed, together.

  20. Computational Design of Biomimetic Phosphate Scavengers

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gruber, Mathias Felix; Wood, Elizabeth Baker; Truelsen, Sigurd Friis

    2015-01-01

    for phosphorus recovery, as well as improving existing techniques, has increased. In this study we apply a hybrid simulation approach of molecular dynamics and quantum mechanics to investigate the binding modes of phosphate anions by a small intrinsically disordered peptide. Our results confirm...... that the conformational ensemble of the peptide is significantly changed, or stabilized, by the binding of phosphate anions and that binding does not take place purely as a result of a stable P-loop binding nest, but rather that multiple binding modes may be involved. Such small synthetic peptides capable of binding...... phosphate could be the starting point of new novel technological approaches toward phosphorus recovery, and they represent an excellent model system for investigating the nature and dynamics of functional de novo designed intrinsically disordered proteins....

  1. Solid state NMR study calcium phosphate ceramics

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Miquel, J.L.; Facchini, L.; Legrand, A.P. (Laboratoire de Physique Quantique, Paris (France). CNRS, URA421, ESPCI); Rey, C. (CNRS, Toulouse (France). ENSC. Laboratoire de Physico-chimie des Solides); Lemaitre, J. (EPF Lausanne (France). Laboratoire de Technologie des Poudres)

    1990-04-01

    High-resolution {sup 31}P and {sup 1}H NMR spectra at 40 and 121 MHz {sup 31}P and 300 MHz {sup 1}H of synthetic and biological samples of calcium phosphates have been obtained by magic angle spinning (MAS) at spinning speeds up to 6.5 kHz, and high power proton decoupling. The samples include crystalline hydroxyapatite, a deficient hydroxyapatite characterized by a Ca/P atomic ratio of 1.5, a poorly crystallized hydroxyapatite, monetite, brushite, octacalcium phosphate, {beta}-tricalcium phosphate and rabbit femoral bone. The interactions between nuclei in unlike structures and the mobility of acid protons are discussed. (author). 11 refs.; 2 figs.; 1 tab.

  2. Dicalcium phosphate cements: brushite and monetite.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tamimi, Faleh; Sheikh, Zeeshan; Barralet, Jake

    2012-02-01

    Dicalcium phosphate cements were developed two decades ago and ever since there has been a substantial growth in research into improving their properties in order to satisfy the requirements needed for several clinical applications. The present paper presents an overview of the rapidly expanding research field of the two main dicalcium phosphate bioceramics: brushite and monetite. This review begins with a summary of all the different formulae developed to prepare dicalcium phosphate cements, and their setting reaction, in order to set the scene for the key cement physical and chemical properties, such as compressive and tensile strength, cohesion, injectability and shelf-life. We address the issue of brushite conversion into either monetite or apatite. Moreover, we discuss the in vivo behavior of the cements, including their ability to promote bone formation, biodegradation and potential clinical applications in drug delivery, orthopedics, craniofacial surgery, cancer therapy and biosensors.

  3. Bioinspired Gold Nanorod Functionalization Strategies for MUC1-Targeted Imaging and Photothermal Therapy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zelasko-Leon, Daria Cecylia

    The majority of cancers diagnosed in 2016 are epithelial in origin, constituting 85% of all new cases and predicted to account for 78% of all cancer deaths this year. Given these statistics, improving patient outcomes by providing personalized, multimodal, and minimally invasive medical interventions is critically needed. Mucin 1 (MUC1), a transmembrane glycoprotein, extends over 100 nm from cell membranes and is a key marker promoting epithelial carcinogenesis. Due to its antenna-like manifestation, MUC1 is a unique yet underexplored candidate for targeted cancer therapy, with overexpression in >64% of epithelial cancers. To overcome the limitations of existing treatment strategies for epithelial cancer, this dissertation describes a novel platform for nanomedicine, highlighting bioinspired modifications of gold nanorod (AuNR) surfaces for diagnostic cancer imaging and photothermal therapy. An ongoing challenge in the field of nanomedicine is the need for simple and effective strategies for simple surface modification of nanoparticles to facilitate targeting and enhance efficacy. Here, biofunctionalization of AuNRs was achieved with polydopamine (PD) and tannic acid (TA), polyphenolic compounds found in the marine mussel and throughout the plant kingdom that exhibit promiscuous interfacial binding properties. AuNR stabilization was achieved via PD or TA coatings followed by secondary modification with the serum protein, bovine serum albumin (BSA), or glycoprotein-mimetic polymers. The resultant constructs demonstrated good biocompatibility, enabled diagnostic imaging, and facilitated MUC1-specific photothermal treatment of breast and oral cancer cells. The in vivo performance of BSA and PD modified AuNRs was evaluated in two orthotopic animal models of breast cancer. Clinically relevant hyperthermia and high response rates with MUC1-targeted formulations were found, with significant enhancement of progression-free survival and several complete tumor regressions

  4. Investigation of Bio-Inspired Hybrid Materials through Polymer Infiltration of Thermal Spray Formed Ceramic Templates

    Science.gov (United States)

    Flynn, Katherine Claire

    certain degree of porosity (up to approximately 20%). Often, porosity is interconnected and is controlled by varying processing parameters. Through the introduction of an appropriate polymer at the porosity interface, it may be possible to achieve synergistic benefits in terms of both strength and toughness of the sprayed material. This dissertation will focus on the fabrication and evaluation of property enhancements of bio-inspired materials based on ceramic thermally sprayed scaffolds through post deposition polymer impregnation.

  5. Bio-Inspired Photon Absorption and Energy Transfer for Next Generation Photovoltaic Devices

    Science.gov (United States)

    Magsi, Komal

    Nature's solar energy harvesting system, photosynthesis, serves as a model for photon absorption, spectra broadening, and energy transfer. Photosynthesis harvests light far differently than photovoltaic cells. These differences offer both engineering opportunity and scientific challenges since not all of the natural photon absorption mechanisms have been understood. In return, solar cells can be a very sensitive probe for the absorption characteristics of molecules capable of transferring charge to a conductive interface. The objective of this scientific work is the advancement of next generation photovoltaics through the development and application of natural photo-energy transfer processes. Two scientific methods were used in the development and application of enhancing photon absorption and transfer. First, a detailed analysis of photovoltaic front surface fluorescent spectral modification and light scattering by hetero-structure was conducted. Phosphor based spectral down-conversion is a well-known laser technology. The theoretical calculations presented here indicate that parasitic losses and light scattering within the spectral range are large enough to offset any expected gains. The second approach for enhancing photon absorption is based on bio-inspired mechanisms. Key to the utilization of these natural processes is the development of a detailed scientific understanding and the application of these processes to cost effective systems and devices. In this work both aspects are investigated. Dye type solar cells were prepared and tested as a function of Chlorophyll (or Sodium-Copper Chlorophyllin) and accessory dyes. Forster has shown that the fluorescence ratio of Chlorophyll is modified and broadened by separate photon absorption (sensitized absorption) through interaction with nearby accessory pigments. This work used the dye type solar cell as a diagnostic tool by which to investigate photon absorption and photon energy transfer. These experiments shed

  6. Bio-Inspired Molecular Catalysts for Hydrogen Oxidation and Hydrogen Production

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ho, Ming-Hsun; Chen, Shentan; Rousseau, Roger J.; Dupuis, Michel; Bullock, R. Morris; Raugei, Simone

    2013-06-03

    Recent advances in Ni-based bio-inspired catalysts obtained in the Center for Molecular Electrocatalysis, an Energy Frontier Research Center (EFRC) at the Pacific Northwest National Laboratory, demonstrated the possibility of cleaving H2 or generating H2 heterolytically with turnover frequencies comparable or superior to those of hydrogenase enzymes. In these catalysts the transformation between H2 and protons proceeds via an interplay between proton, hydride and electron transfer steps and involves the interaction of a dihydrogen molecule with both a Ni(II) center and with pendant amine bases incorporated in a six-membered ring, which act as proton relays. These catalytic platforms are well designed in that when protons are correctly positioned (endo) toward the Raugei-ACS-Books.docxPrinted 12/18/12 2 metal center, catalysis proceeds at very high rates. We will show that the proton removal (for H2 oxidation) and proton delivery (for H2 production) are often the rate determining steps. Furthermore, the presence of multiple protonation sites gives rise to reaction intermediates with protons not correctly positioned (exo relative to the metal center). These isomers are easily accessible kinetically and are detrimental to catalysis because of the slow isomerization processes necessary to convert them to the catalytically competent endo isomers. In this chapter we will review the major findings of our computational investigation on the role of proton relays for H2 chemistry and provide guidelines for the design of new catalysts. This research was carried out in the Center for Molecular Electrocatalysis, an Energy Frontier Research Center funded by the U.S. Department of Energy, Office of Science. Pacific Northwest National Laboratory is operated for the U.S. Department of Energy by Battelle. Computational resources were provided at W. R. Wiley Environmental Molecular Science Laboratory (EMSL), a Raugei-Bio-Inspired Molecular-Catalysts-for-Hydrogen- Oxidation

  7. AER synthetic generation in hardware for bio-inspired spiking systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Linares-Barranco, Alejandro; Linares-Barranco, Bernabe; Jimenez-Moreno, Gabriel; Civit-Balcells, Anton

    2005-06-01

    Address Event Representation (AER) is an emergent neuromorphic interchip communication protocol that allows for real-time virtual massive connectivity between huge number neurons located on different chips. By exploiting high speed digital communication circuits (with nano-seconds timings), synaptic neural connections can be time multiplexed, while neural activity signals (with mili-seconds timings) are sampled at low frequencies. Also, neurons generate 'events' according to their activity levels. More active neurons generate more events per unit time, and access the interchip communication channel more frequently, while neurons with low activity consume less communication bandwidth. When building multi-chip muti-layered AER systems it is absolutely necessary to have a computer interface that allows (a) to read AER interchip traffic into the computer and visualize it on screen, and (b) convert conventional frame-based video stream in the computer into AER and inject it at some point of the AER structure. This is necessary for test and debugging of complex AER systems. This paper addresses the problem of converting, in a computer, a conventional frame-based video stream into the spike event based representation AER. There exist several proposed software methods for synthetic generation of AER for bio-inspired systems. This paper presents a hardware implementation for one method, which is based on Linear-Feedback-Shift-Register (LFSR) pseudo-random number generation. The sequence of events generated by this hardware, which follows a Poisson distribution like a biological neuron, has been reconstructed using two AER integrator cells. The error of reconstruction for a set of images that produces different traffic loads of event in the AER bus is used as evaluation criteria. A VHDL description of the method, that includes the Xilinx PCI Core, has been implemented and tested using a general purpose PCI-AER board. This PCI-AER board has been developed by authors, and uses

  8. Removal of Phosphate from Aqueous Solution with Modified Bentonite

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    唐艳葵; 童张法; 魏光涛; 李仲民; 梁达文

    2006-01-01

    Bentonite combined with sawdust and other metallic compounds was used to remove phosphate from aqueous solutions in this study. The adsorption characteristics of phosphate on the modified bentonite were investigated, including the effects of temperature, adsorbent dosage, initial concentration of phosphate and pH on removal of phosphate by conducting a series of batch adsorption experiments. The results showed that 98% of phosphate removal rate was obtained since sawdust and bentonite used in this investigation were abundantly and locally available. It is concluded that modified bentonite is a relatively efficient, low cost and easily available adsorbent for the removal of phosphate from aqueous solutions.

  9. Phosphate valorization by dry chlorination route

    OpenAIRE

    Kanari N.; Menad N.; Diot F.; Allain E.; Yvon J.

    2016-01-01

    International audience; This work deals with the extraction of phosphorus chlorinated compounds from phosphate materials using chlorination with gaseous chlorine. An industrial sample of dicalcium phosphate dihydrate, after transformation into calcium pyrophosphate (Ca 2 P 2 O 7), is subjected to reactions with Cl 2 +CO+N 2 and Cl 2 +C+N 2 at temperatures ranging from 625 to 950 °C using boat experiments. Gathering results of the thermodynamic predictions and TG/DT analysis with those of SEM ...

  10. Dual mechanism of ion permeation through VDAC revealed with inorganic phosphate ions and phosphate metabolites.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Krammer, Eva-Maria; Vu, Giang Thi; Homblé, Fabrice; Prévost, Martine

    2015-01-01

    In the exchange of metabolites and ions between the mitochondrion and the cytosol, the voltage-dependent anion channel (VDAC) is a key element, as it forms the major transport pathway for these compounds through the mitochondrial outer membrane. Numerous experimental studies have promoted the idea that VDAC acts as a regulator of essential mitochondrial functions. In this study, using a combination of molecular dynamics simulations, free-energy calculations, and electrophysiological measurements, we investigated the transport of ions through VDAC, with a focus on phosphate ions and metabolites. We showed that selectivity of VDAC towards small anions including monovalent phosphates arises from short-lived interactions with positively charged residues scattered throughout the pore. In dramatic contrast, permeation of divalent phosphate ions and phosphate metabolites (AMP and ATP) involves binding sites along a specific translocation pathway. This permeation mechanism offers an explanation for the decrease in VDAC conductance measured in the presence of ATP or AMP at physiological salt concentration. The binding sites occur at similar locations for the divalent phosphate ions, AMP and ATP, and contain identical basic residues. ATP features a marked affinity for a central region of the pore lined by two lysines and one arginine of the N-terminal helix. This cluster of residues together with a few other basic amino acids forms a "charged brush" which facilitates the passage of the anionic metabolites through the pore. All of this reveals that VDAC controls the transport of the inorganic phosphates and phosphate metabolites studied here through two different mechanisms.

  11. Performance of pineapple slips inoculated with diazotrophic phosphate-solubilizing bacteria and rock phosphate

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lílian Estrela Borges Baldotto

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available Besides fixing N2, some diazotrophic bacteria or diazotrophs, also synthesize organic acids and are able to solubilize rock phosphates, increasing the availability of P for plants. The application of these bacteria to pineapple leaf axils in combination with rock phosphate could increase N and P availability for the crop, due to the bacterial activity of biological nitrogen fixation and phosphate solubilization. The objectives of this study were: (i to select and characterize diazotrophs able to solubilize phosphates in vitro and (ii evaluate the initial performance of the pineapple cultivars Imperial and Pérola in response to inoculation with selected bacteria in combination with rock phosphate. The experiments were conducted at Universidade Estadual do Norte Fluminense Darcy Ribeiro, in 2009. In the treatments with bacteria the leaf contents of N, P and K were higher than those of the controls, followed by an increase in plant growth. These results indicate that the combined application of diazotrophic phosphate-solubilizing bacteria Burkholderia together with Araxá rock phosphate can be used to improve the initial performance of pineapple slips.

  12. Evaluation of intestinal phosphate binding to improve the safety profile of oral sodium phosphate bowel cleansing.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Stef Robijn

    Full Text Available Prior to colonoscopy, bowel cleansing is performed for which frequently oral sodium phosphate (OSP is used. OSP results in significant hyperphosphatemia and cases of acute kidney injury (AKI referred to as acute phosphate nephropathy (APN; characterized by nephrocalcinosis are reported after OSP use, which led to a US-FDA warning. To improve the safety profile of OSP, it was evaluated whether the side-effects of OSP could be prevented with intestinal phosphate binders. Hereto a Wistar rat model of APN was developed. OSP administration (2 times 1.2 g phosphate by gavage with a 12h time interval induced bowel cleansing (severe diarrhea and significant hyperphosphatemia (21.79 ± 5.07 mg/dl 6h after the second OSP dose versus 8.44 ± 0.97 mg/dl at baseline. Concomitantly, serum PTH levels increased fivefold and FGF-23 levels showed a threefold increase, while serum calcium levels significantly decreased from 11.29 ± 0.53 mg/dl at baseline to 8.68 ± 0.79 mg/dl after OSP. OSP administration induced weaker NaPi-2a staining along the apical proximal tubular membrane. APN was induced: serum creatinine increased (1.5 times baseline and nephrocalcinosis developed (increased renal calcium and phosphate content and calcium phosphate deposits on Von Kossa stained kidney sections. Intestinal phosphate binding (lanthanum carbonate or aluminum hydroxide was not able to attenuate the OSP induced side-effects. In conclusion, a clinically relevant rat model of APN was developed. Animals showed increased serum phosphate levels similar to those reported in humans and developed APN. No evidence was found for an improved safety profile of OSP by using intestinal phosphate binders.

  13. Implementation of a cellular neural network-based segmentation algorithm on the bio-inspired vision system

    Science.gov (United States)

    Karabiber, Fethullah; Grassi, Giuseppe; Vecchio, Pietro; Arik, Sabri; Yalcin, M. Erhan

    2011-01-01

    Based on the cellular neural network (CNN) paradigm, the bio-inspired (bi-i) cellular vision system is a computing platform consisting of state-of-the-art sensing, cellular sensing-processing and digital signal processing. This paper presents the implementation of a novel CNN-based segmentation algorithm onto the bi-i system. The experimental results, carried out for different benchmark video sequences, highlight the feasibility of the approach, which provides a frame rate of about 26 frame/sec. Comparisons with existing CNN-based methods show that, even though these methods are from two to six times faster than the proposed one, the conceived approach is more accurate and, consequently, represents a satisfying trade-off between real-time requirements and accuracy.

  14. Bioinspired Electronic White Cane Implementation Based on a LIDAR, a Tri-Axial Accelerometer and a Tactile Belt

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jordi Palacin

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available This work proposes the creation of a bioinspired electronic white cane for blind people using the whiskers principle for short-range navigation and exploration. Whiskers are coarse hairs of an animal's face that tells the animal that it has touched something using the nerves of the skin. In this work the raw data acquired from a low-size terrestrial LIDAR and a tri-axial accelerometer is converted into tactile information using several electromagnetic devices configured as a tactile belt. The LIDAR and the accelerometer are attached to the user’s forearm and connected with a wire to the control unit placed on the belt. Early validation experiments carried out in the laboratory are promising in terms of usability and description of the environment.

  15. A new bio-inspired stimulator to suppress hyper-synchronized neural firing in a cortical network.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Amiri, Masoud; Amiri, Mahmood; Nazari, Soheila; Faez, Karim

    2016-12-07

    Hyper-synchronous neural oscillations are the character of several neurological diseases such as epilepsy. On the other hand, glial cells and particularly astrocytes can influence neural synchronization. Therefore, based on the recent researches, a new bio-inspired stimulator is proposed which basically is a dynamical model of the astrocyte biophysical model. The performance of the new stimulator is investigated on a large-scale, cortical network. Both excitatory and inhibitory synapses are also considered in the simulated spiking neural network. The simulation results show that the new stimulator has a good performance and is able to reduce recurrent abnormal excitability which in turn avoids the hyper-synchronous neural firing in the spiking neural network. In this way, the proposed stimulator has a demand controlled characteristic and is a good candidate for deep brain stimulation (DBS) technique to successfully suppress the neural hyper-synchronization.

  16. Bioinspired solar water splitting, sensitized solar cells, and ultraviolet sensor based on semiconductor nanocrystal antenna/graphene nanoassemblies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chang, Haixin; Lv, Xiaojun; Zheng, Zijian; Wu, Hongkai

    2012-02-01

    Graphene, two-dimensional carbon crystal with only one atom thickness, provides a general platform for nanoscale even atomic scale optoelectronics and photonics. Graphene has many advantages for optoelectronics such as high conductivity, high electronic mobility, flexibility and transparency. However, graphene also has disadvantages such as low light absorption which are unfavorable for optoelectronic devices. On the other hand, many natural photonic systems provide wonderful solution to enhance light absorption for solar energy harvesting and conversion, such as chlorophyll in green plants. Herein, learning from nature, we described bioinspired photocatalytic solar-driven water splitting, sensitized solar cells and ultraviolet optoelectronic sensors enabled by introducing photosensitive semiconductor nanocrystal antenna to graphene for constructing a series of graphene/nanocrystal nanoassemblies. We have demonstrated that high performance optoelectronic devices can come true with the introducing of photosensitive nanocrystal antenna elements.

  17. Supramolecular self-assembly of biopolymers with carbon nanotubes for biomimetic and bio-inspired sensing and actuation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lu, Luhua; Chen, Wei

    2011-06-01

    Biopolymers are important natural multifunctional macromolecules for biomimetic and bio-inspired advanced functional material design. They are not only simple dispersants for carbon nanotube stabilization as they have been found to have specific interactions with carbon nanotubes. Their molecular activity, orientation and crystallization are influenced by the CNTs, which endow their composites with a variety of novel sensing and actuation performances. This review focuses on the progress in supramolecular self-assembly of biopolymers with carbon nanotubes, and their advances in sensing and actuation. To promote the development of advanced biopolymer/CNT functional materials, new electromechanical characteristics of biopolymer/CNT composites are discussed in detail based on the relationship between the microscopic biopolymer structures and the macroscopic composite properties.

  18. Architecture for persistent surveillance using mast and UAS-based autonomous sensing with bio-inspired technologies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Burman, Jerry

    2014-06-01

    A sophisticated real time architecture for capturing relevant battlefield information of personnel and terrestrial events from a network of mast based imaging and unmanned aerial systems (UAS) with target detection, tracking, classification and visualization is presented. Persistent surveillance of personnel and vehicles is achieved using a unique spatial and temporally invariant motion detection and tracking algorithm for mast based cameras in combination with aerial remote sensing to autonomously monitor unattended ground based sensor networks. UAS autonomous routing is achieved using bio-inspired algorithms that mimic how bacteria locate nutrients in their environment. Results include field test data, performance and lessons learned. The technology also has application to detecting and tracking low observables (manned and UAS), counter MANPADS, airport bird detection and search and rescue operations.

  19. Characterization of arabinoxylan/cellulose nanocrystals gels to investigate fluorescent probes mobility in bioinspired models of plant secondary cell wall.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Paës, Gabriel; Chabbert, Brigitte

    2012-01-09

    Biomass from lignocellulose (LC) is a highly complex network of cellulose, hemicellulose, and lignin, which is considered to be a sustainable source of fuels, chemicals and materials. To achieve an environmental friendly and efficient LC upgrading, a better understanding of the LC architecture is necessary. We have devised some LC bioinspired model systems, based on arabinoxylan gels, in which mobility of dextrans and BSA grafted with FITC has been studied by FRAP. Our results indicate that the probes diffusion is more influenced by their hydrodynamic radius than by the gel mesh size. The addition of some cellulose nanocrystals (CNCs) decreases polymer chain mobility and has low effect on the probes diffusion, suggesting that the gels are better organized in the presence of CNCs, as shown by rheological measurements and scanning electronic microscopy observations. This demonstrates that the FRAP analysis can be a powerful tool to screen the architecture of LC model systems.

  20. Phenylalanine-Rich Peptide Mediated Binding with Graphene Oxide and Bioinspired Synthesis of Silver Nanoparticles for Electrochemical Sensing

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Li Wang

    2017-02-01

    Full Text Available We demonstrated that a phenylalanine-rich peptide molecule, (FEFEFKFK2, could be used for the biofunctionalization of graphene oxide (GO and the bioinspired synthesis of silver nanoparticles (AgNPs for the creation of functional GO–AgNPs nanohybrids. The successful synthesis of GO–AgNPs nanohybrids was proven by the characterizations of atomic force microscopy, transmission electron microscope, and X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy. The fabricated electrochemical H2O2 sensor based on the synthesized GO–AgNPs nanohybrids showed high performances with a linear detection range 0.02–18 mM and a detection limit of 0.13 μM. The design of graphene-binding peptides is of benefit to the biofunctionalization of graphene-based materials, the synthesis of novel graphene–peptide nanohybrids, and the potential applications of graphene in biomedical fields.

  1. Extensive Investigations on Bio-Inspired Trust and Reputation Model over Hops Coefficient Factor in Distributed Wireless Sensor Networks

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vinod Kumar Verma

    2014-08-01

    Full Text Available Resource utilization requires a substantial consideration for a trust and reputation model to be deployed within a wireless sensor network (WSN. In the evaluation, our attention is focused on the effect of hops coefficient factor estimation on WSN with bio-inspired trust and reputation model (BTRM. We present the state-of-the-art system level evaluation of accuracy and path length of sensor node operations for their current and average scenarios. Additionally, we emphasized over the energy consumption evaluation for static, dynamic and oscillatory modes of BTRM-WSN model. The performance of the hops coefficient factor for our proposed framework is evaluated via analytic bounds and numerical simulations.

  2. A two-dimensional iterative panel method and boundary layer model for bio-inspired multi-body wings

    Science.gov (United States)

    Blower, Christopher J.; Dhruv, Akash; Wickenheiser, Adam M.

    2014-03-01

    The increased use of Unmanned Aerial Vehicles (UAVs) has created a continuous demand for improved flight capabilities and range of use. During the last decade, engineers have turned to bio-inspiration for new and innovative flow control methods for gust alleviation, maneuverability, and stability improvement using morphing aircraft wings. The bio-inspired wing design considered in this study mimics the flow manipulation techniques performed by birds to extend the operating envelope of UAVs through the installation of an array of feather-like panels across the airfoil's upper and lower surfaces while replacing the trailing edge flap. Each flap has the ability to deflect into both the airfoil and the inbound airflow using hinge points with a single degree-of-freedom, situated at 20%, 40%, 60% and 80% of the chord. The installation of the surface flaps offers configurations that enable advantageous maneuvers while alleviating gust disturbances. Due to the number of possible permutations available for the flap configurations, an iterative constant-strength doublet/source panel method has been developed with an integrated boundary layer model to calculate the pressure distribution and viscous drag over the wing's surface. As a result, the lift, drag and moment coefficients for each airfoil configuration can be calculated. The flight coefficients of this numerical method are validated using experimental data from a low speed suction wind tunnel operating at a Reynolds Number 300,000. This method enables the aerodynamic assessment of a morphing wing profile to be performed accurately and efficiently in comparison to Computational Fluid Dynamics methods and experiments as discussed herein.

  3. Bismuth phosphates as intermediate temperature proton conductors

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Huang, Yunjie; Christensen, Erik; Shuai, Qin

    2016-01-01

    Proton conducting electrolyte materials operational in the intermediate temperature range of 200-400 °C are of special interest for applications in fuel cells and water electrolysers. Bismuth phosphates in forms of polycrystalline powders and amorphous glasses are synthesized and investigated...

  4. Superconducting oxides containing sulphate and phosphate groups

    Science.gov (United States)

    Scorzelli, R. B.; Baggio-Saitovitch, E.; Giordanengo, B.; Elmassalami, M.; Dominguez, A. B.; Bustamante Dominguez, A.

    1994-12-01

    The effects of partial substitution of Sr and Ca in Y-Ba-Cu-O related materials containing sulphate and phosphate groups have been investigated. e57Fe Mössbauer measurements were performed on samples doped with lat. % e57Fe and the spectral components related to different Cu sites and oxygen vacancies.

  5. FACTORS INFLUENCING FRICTION OF PHOSPHATE COATINGS,

    Science.gov (United States)

    surface roughness, crystalline structure , and velocity. The coefficients of friction for manganese phosphate coatings did not differ to any practical...The coefficient of friction was independent of the applied load. Velocity during dynamic testing, surface finish, and crystalline structure influenced

  6. Three-dimensionally Perforated Calcium Phosphate Ceramics

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2005-01-01

    Porous calcium phosphate ceramics were produced by compression molding using a special mold followed by sintering. The porous calcium phosphate ceramics have three-dimensional and penetrated open pores380-400μm in diameter spaced at intervals of 200μm. The layers of the linear penetration pores alternately lay perpendicular to pore direction. The porosity was 59%-65% . The Ca/P molar ratios of the porous calcium phosphate ceramics range from 1.5 to 1.85. A binder containing methyl cellulose was most effective for preparing the powder compact among vinyl acetate, polyvinyl alcohol, starch, stearic acid, methyl cellulose and their mixtures. Stainless steel, polystyrene, nylon and bamboo were used as the long columnar male dies for the penetrated open pores. When polystyrene, nylon and bamboo were used as the long columnar male dies, the dies were burned out during the sintering process. Using stainless steel as the male dies with the removal of the dies before heat treatment resulted in a higher level of densification of the calcium phosphate ceramic.

  7. TUCS/phosphate mineralization of actinides

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nash, K.L. [Argonne National Lab., IL (United States)

    1997-10-01

    This program has as its objective the development of a new technology that combines cation exchange and mineralization to reduce the concentration of heavy metals (in particular actinides) in groundwaters. The treatment regimen must be compatible with the groundwater and soil, potentially using groundwater/soil components to aid in the immobilization process. The delivery system (probably a water-soluble chelating agent) should first concentrate the radionuclides then release the precipitating anion, which forms thermodynamically stable mineral phases, either with the target metal ions alone or in combination with matrix cations. This approach should generate thermodynamically stable mineral phases resistant to weathering. The chelating agent should decompose spontaneously with time, release the mineralizing agent, and leave a residue that does not interfere with mineral formation. For the actinides, the ideal compound probably will release phosphate, as actinide phosphate mineral phases are among the least soluble species for these metals. The most promising means of delivering the precipitant would be to use a water-soluble, hydrolytically unstable complexant that functions in the initial stages as a cation exchanger to concentrate the metal ions. As it decomposes, the chelating agent releases phosphate to foster formation of crystalline mineral phases. Because it involves only the application of inexpensive reagents, the method of phosphate mineralization promises to be an economical alternative for in situ immobilization of radionuclides (actinides in particular). The method relies on the inherent (thermodynamic) stability of actinide mineral phases.

  8. Electrosprayed calcium phosphate coatings for biomedical purposes

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Leeuwenburgh, Sander Cornelis Gerardus

    2006-01-01

    In this thesis, the suitability of the Electrostatic Spray Deposition (ESD) technique was studied for biomedical purposes, i.e., deposition of calcium phosphate (CaP) coatings onto titanium substrates. Using ESD, which is a simple and cheap deposition method for inorganic and organic coatings, it wa

  9. MEASURED AND PREFORMED PHOSPHATE IN THE GULF OF MEXICO REGION.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Measured and preformed phosphate-phosphorous versus depth are presented for three recent cruises to the Gulf of Mexico region. Phosphate...are discussed for a hypothetical idealized station in the Gulf of Mexico . (Author)

  10. Effect of aluminium phosphate as admixture on oxychloride cement

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    M P S Chandrawat; R N Yadav

    2000-02-01

    The effect of admixing of aluminium phosphate on oxychloride cement in the matrix has been investigated. It is shown that aluminium phosphate retards the setting process of the cement and improves water-tightness.

  11. Iron phosphate glass containing simulated fast reactor waste: Characterization and comparison with pristine iron phosphate glass

    Science.gov (United States)

    Joseph, Kitheri; Asuvathraman, R.; Venkata Krishnan, R.; Ravindran, T. R.; Govindaraj, R.; Govindan Kutty, K. V.; Vasudeva Rao, P. R.

    2014-09-01

    Detailed characterization was carried out on an iron phosphate glass waste form containing 20 wt.% of a simulated nuclear waste. High temperature viscosity measurement was carried out by the rotating spindle method. The Fe3+/Fe ratio and structure of this waste loaded iron phosphate glass was investigated using Mössbauer and Raman spectroscopy respectively. Specific heat measurement was carried out in the temperature range of 300-700 K using differential scanning calorimeter. Isoconversional kinetic analysis was employed to understand the crystallization behavior of the waste loaded iron phosphate glass. The glass forming ability and glass stability of the waste loaded glass were also evaluated. All the measured properties of the waste loaded glass were compared with the characteristics of pristine iron phosphate glass.

  12. Performance analysis of magnesium phosphate cement mortar containing grinding dust

    OpenAIRE

    2009-01-01

    Magnesium phosphate cement materials are formed by reacting magnesium oxide with water-soluble phosphates such as monoammonium dihydrogen phosphate (ADP), which solidifies at ambient temperature through the formation of hydrated phases in the material. Cylindrical specimens of magnesium phosphate cement were molded and varying amounts (0 to 30% weight) of grinding dust were added to the ceramic matrices. The influence of the addition of grinding dust on the characteristics of the mortars in t...

  13. Novel phosphate-based cements for clinical applications

    OpenAIRE

    2012-01-01

    This Thesis aims at the development of two novel families of inorganic phosphate cements with suitable characteristics for clinical applications in hard tissue regeneration or replacement. It is organized in two distinct parts. The first part focuses at the development of silicon-doped a-tricalcium phosphate and the subsequent preparation of a silicon-doped calcium phosphate cement for bone regeneration applications. For this purpose, silicon-doped a-tricalcium phosphate was synthesized b...

  14. Conversion of Marine Structures to Calcium Phosphate Materials: Mechanisms of Conversion Using Two Different Phosphate Solutions

    OpenAIRE

    Macha, Innocent J.; Grossin, David; Ben-Nissan, Besim

    2016-01-01

    International audience; Marine structure, coralline materials were converted to calcium phosphate using twodifferent phosphate solutions. The aim was to study the conversion mechanisms under acidic andbasic environment at moderate conditions of temperature. Crystal growth and morphology ofconverted corals were characterized by XRD and SEM respectively. The results suggested thatunder acidic conditions (H3PO4), dissolution and precipitation control and direct the crystalformation and morpholog...

  15. Bio-inspired Composites, a de novo Approach to the Conceptualization, Design and Synthesis of Tough Mesoscale Structures with Simple Building Blocks

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-02-01

    H. Song, M. C. Boyce, and C. Ortiz, Materials design principles of ancient fish armour. Nat Mater, 2008, 7, 9. [23] J. D. Currey, Materials science...Polyelectrolytes on Charged Surfaces. Thin Solid Films, 1992, 210, 1-2. [38] W. Tan and T. A. Desai, Layer-by-layer microfluidics for biomimetic three...and architecture. Bioinspir Biomim, 2012, 7, 1. [132] A. W. Lang, P. Motta, P. Hidalgo, and M. Westcott, Bristled shark skin : a microgeometry for

  16. Synthesis, characterization and DFT studies of 1, 1′-Bis(diphenylphosphino)ferrocene substituted diiron complexes: Bioinspired [FeFe] hydrogenase model complexes

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Sandeep Kaur-Ghumaan; A Sreenithya; Raghavan B Sunoj

    2015-03-01

    The reaction of [Fe2(CO)6(-toluene-3, 4-benzenedithiolate)] 1 and bidentate diphosphine, 1, 1′-bis(diphenylphosphino)ferrocene (dppf) has been studied. New complexes obtained have been characterized by various spectroscopic techniques as bioinspired models of the iron hydrogenase active site. The crystal structure of [Fe2(CO)5(1-dppfO)(-toluene-3, 4-benzenedithiolate)] 4 is reported.

  17. Phosphate Rock Fertilizer in Acid Soil:Comparing Phosphate Extraction Methods for Measuring Dissolution

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    T.S.ANSUMANA-KAWA; WANGGUANGHUO

    1998-01-01

    Three phosphate extraction methods were used to investigate the dissolution,availability and transfo-mation of Kunyang phosphate rock(KPR) in two surface acid soils.Dissolution was determined by measuring the increase in the amounts of soluble and adsorbed inorganic phosphate fractions,and did not differ signifi-cantly among the three methods.Significant correlations were obtained among P fractions got by the three extraction methods.Dissolution continued until the end of the 90-day incubation period.At the end of the period,much of the applied phosphate recovered in both soils were in the Al- and Fe-P or in the hydroxide-and bicarbonate-extractable inorganic P fractions.The dissolution of KPR in the two soils was also similar: increased addition of phosphate rock resulted in decreased dissolution.The similarity in the order and extent of dissolution in the two soils was probably due to the similarity in each soil of several factors that are known to influence phosphate rock dissolution,namely low CEC,pH,P level,and base status;and high clay and free iron and aluminum oxide contents.The results suggested that KPR could be an aternative P source in the soils are not limiting.

  18. Phosphate-responsive promoter of a Pichia pastoris sodium phosphate symporter.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ahn, Jungoh; Hong, Jiyeon; Park, Myongsoo; Lee, Hyeokweon; Lee, Eungyo; Kim, Chunsuk; Lee, Joohwan; Choi, Eui-sung; Jung, Joon-ki; Lee, Hongweon

    2009-06-01

    To develop a functional phosphate-regulated promoter in Pichia pastoris, a phosphate-responsive gene, PHO89, which encodes a putative sodium (Na(+))-coupled phosphate symporter, was isolated. Sequencing analyses revealed a 1,731-bp open reading frame encoding a 576-amino-acid polypeptide with 12 putative transmembrane domains. The properties of the PHO89 promoter (P(PHO89)) were investigated using a bacterial lipase gene as a reporter in 5-liter jar fermentation experiments. P(PHO89) was tightly regulated by phosphate and was highly activated when the cells were grown in a phosphate-limited external environment. Compared to translation elongation factor 1alpha and the glyceraldehyde-3-phosphate dehydrogenase promoter, P(PHO89) exhibited strong transcriptional activity with higher specific productivity (amount of lipase produced/cell/h). Furthermore, a cost-effective and simple P(PHO89)-based fermentation process was developed for industrial application. These results demonstrate the potential for efficient use of P(PHO89) for controlled production of recombinant proteins in P. pastoris.

  19. Phosphate-dependent root system architecture responses to salt stress

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kawa, D.; Julkowska, M.M.; Montero Sommerfeld, H.; ter Horst, A.; Haring, M.A.; Testerink, C.

    2016-01-01

    Nutrient availability and salinity of the soil affect growth and development of plant roots. Here, we describe how phosphate availability affects root system architecture (RSA) of Arabidopsis and how phosphate levels modulate responses of the root to salt stress. Phosphate (Pi) starvation reduced ma

  20. 21 CFR 582.1781 - Sodium aluminum phosphate.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 6 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Sodium aluminum phosphate. 582.1781 Section 582.1781 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED... Additives § 582.1781 Sodium aluminum phosphate. (a) Product. Sodium aluminum phosphate. (b) Conditions...

  1. 21 CFR 182.1781 - Sodium aluminum phosphate.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 3 2010-04-01 2009-04-01 true Sodium aluminum phosphate. 182.1781 Section 182.1781 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED... Food Substances § 182.1781 Sodium aluminum phosphate. (a) Product. Sodium aluminum phosphate....

  2. 21 CFR 182.6085 - Sodium acid phosphate.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 3 2010-04-01 2009-04-01 true Sodium acid phosphate. 182.6085 Section 182.6085 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) FOOD... Sodium acid phosphate. (a) Product. Sodium acid phosphate. (b) Conditions of use. This substance...

  3. 21 CFR 582.6215 - Monobasic calcium phosphate.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 6 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Monobasic calcium phosphate. 582.6215 Section 582.6215 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED....6215 Monobasic calcium phosphate. (a) Product. Monobasic calcium phosphate. (b) Conditions of use....

  4. 21 CFR 522.1883 - Prednisolone sodium phosphate.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 6 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Prednisolone sodium phosphate. 522.1883 Section... § 522.1883 Prednisolone sodium phosphate. (a) Specifications. Each milliliter of solution contains 20 milligrams (mg) prednisolone sodium phosphate (equivalent to 14.88 mg of prednisolone). (b) Sponsor. See...

  5. 21 CFR 582.6085 - Sodium acid phosphate.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 6 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Sodium acid phosphate. 582.6085 Section 582.6085 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) ANIMAL... Sodium acid phosphate. (a) Product. Sodium acid phosphate. (b) Conditions of use. This substance...

  6. 21 CFR 184.1141b - Ammonium phosphate, dibasic.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 3 2010-04-01 2009-04-01 true Ammonium phosphate, dibasic. 184.1141b Section 184... Listing of Specific Substances Affirmed as GRAS § 184.1141b Ammonium phosphate, dibasic. (a) Ammonium phosphate, dibasic ((NH4)2HPO4, CAS Reg. No. 7783-28-0) is manufactured by reacting ammonia with...

  7. 21 CFR 182.6215 - Monobasic calcium phosphate.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 3 2010-04-01 2009-04-01 true Monobasic calcium phosphate. 182.6215 Section 182.6215 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED....6215 Monobasic calcium phosphate. (a) Product. Monobasic calcium phosphate. (b) Conditions of use....

  8. 21 CFR 582.5697 - Riboflavin-5-phosphate.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 6 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Riboflavin-5-phosphate. 582.5697 Section 582.5697 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) ANIMAL... Supplements 1 § 582.5697 Riboflavin-5-phosphate. (a) Product. Riboflavin-5-phosphate. (b) Conditions of...

  9. Determination of Phosphates by the Gravimetric Quimociac Technique

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shaver, Lee Alan

    2008-01-01

    The determination of phosphates by the classic quimociac gravimetric technique was used successfully as a laboratory experiment in our undergraduate analytical chemistry course. Phosphate-containing compounds are dissolved in acid and converted to soluble orthophosphate ion (PO[subscript 4][superscript 3-]). The soluble phosphate is easily…

  10. Osteoclastic resorption of biomimetic calcium phosphate coatings in vitro.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Leeuwenburgh, S.C.G.; Layrolle, P.; Barrere, F.; Bruijn, J.G.M. de; Schoonman, J.; Blitterswijk, C.A. van; Groot, K. de

    2001-01-01

    A new biomimetic method for coating metal implants enables the fast formation of dense and homogeneous calcium phosphate coatings. Titanium alloy (Ti6Al4V) disks were coated with a thin, carbonated, amorphous calcium phosphate (ACP) by immersion in a saturated solution of calcium, phosphate, magnesi

  11. Dominant oceanic bacteria secure phosphate using a large extracellular buffer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zubkov, Mikhail V; Martin, Adrian P; Hartmann, Manuela; Grob, Carolina; Scanlan, David J

    2015-07-22

    The ubiquitous SAR11 and Prochlorococcus bacteria manage to maintain a sufficient supply of phosphate in phosphate-poor surface waters of the North Atlantic subtropical gyre. Furthermore, it seems that their phosphate uptake may counter-intuitively be lower in more productive tropical waters, as if their cellular demand for phosphate decreases there. By flow sorting (33)P-phosphate-pulsed (32)P-phosphate-chased cells, we demonstrate that both Prochlorococcus and SAR11 cells exploit an extracellular buffer of labile phosphate up to 5-40 times larger than the amount of phosphate required to replicate their chromosomes. Mathematical modelling is shown to support this conclusion. The fuller the buffer the slower the cellular uptake of phosphate, to the point that in phosphate-replete tropical waters, cells can saturate their buffer and their phosphate uptake becomes marginal. Hence, buffer stocking is a generic, growth-securing adaptation for SAR11 and Prochlorococcus bacteria, which lack internal reserves to reduce their dependency on bioavailable ambient phosphate.

  12. RAPID ASSOCIATION OF UNCONJUGATED BILIRUBIN WITH AMORPHOUS CALCIUM-PHOSPHATE

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    VANDERVEERE, CN; SHOEMAKER, B; VANDERMEER, R; GROEN, AK; JANSEN, PLM; ELFERINK, RPJO

    1995-01-01

    The association of unconjugated bilirubin (UCB) with amorphous calcium phosphate was studied in vitro. To this end UCB, solubilized in different micellar bile salt solutions, was incubated with freshly prepared calcium phosphate precipitate. It was demonstrated that amorphous calcium phosphate (ACP)

  13. 40 CFR 721.3080 - Substituted phosphate ester (generic).

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 30 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Substituted phosphate ester (generic... Substances § 721.3080 Substituted phosphate ester (generic). (a) Chemical substances and significant new uses subject to reporting. (1) The chemical substance identified generically as a substituted phosphate...

  14. 40 CFR 422.60 - Applicability; description of the sodium phosphates subcategory.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... sodium phosphates subcategory. 422.60 Section 422.60 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) EFFLUENT GUIDELINES AND STANDARDS PHOSPHATE MANUFACTURING POINT SOURCE CATEGORY Sodium Phosphates Subcategory § 422.60 Applicability; description of the sodium phosphates subcategory....

  15. Infrared-spectroscopy analysis of zinc phosphate and nickel and manganese modified zinc phosphate coatings on electrogalvanized steel

    OpenAIRE

    Fernandes,Kirlene Salgado; Alvarenga,Evandro de Azevedo; Brandão, Paulo Roberto Gomes; Lins,Vanessa de Freitas Cunha

    2011-01-01

    Hopeite-type phosphate coatings in which zinc is partially replaced by other metals like manganese and nickel are of great interest for the automotive and home appliance industries. Such industries use phosphate conversion coatings on galvanized steels in association with cataphoretic electropainting. Zinc phosphates modified with manganese and nickel are isomorphic with the hopeite, and the phase identification using X-ray diffraction is difficult. In this paper, the phosphate coatings are i...

  16. Cationic dialkylarylphosphates: a new family of bio-inspired cationic lipids for gene delivery.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Le Corre, Stéphanie S; Belmadi, Nawal; Berchel, Mathieu; Le Gall, Tony; Haelters, Jean-Pierre; Lehn, Pierre; Montier, Tristan; Jaffrès, Paul-Alain

    2015-01-28

    In this work that aims to synthesize and evaluate new cationic lipids as vectors for gene delivery, we report the synthesis of a series of cationic lipids in which a phosphate functional group acts as a linker to assemble on a molecular scale, two lipid chains and one cationic polar head. The mono or dicationic moiety is connected to the phosphate group by an aryl spacer. In this work, two synthesis strategies were evaluated. The first used the Atherton-Todd coupling reaction to introduce a phenolic derivative to dioleylphosphite. The second strategy used a sequential addition of lipid alcohol and a phenolic derivative on POCl3. The two methods are efficient, but the latter allows larger yields. Different polar head groups were introduced, thus producing amphiphilic compounds possessing either one permanent (N-methyl-imidazolium, pyridinium, trimethylammonium) or two permanent cationic charges. All these cationic lipids were formulated as liposomal solutions and characterized (size and zeta potential). They formed stable liposomal solutions both in water (at pH 7.0) and in a weakly acidic medium (at pH 5.5). Finally, this new generation of cationic lipids was used to deliver DNA into various human-derived epithelial cells cultured in vitro. Compared with Lipofectamine used as a reference commercial lipofection reagent, some cationic dialkylarylphosphates were able to demonstrate potent gene transfer abilities, and noteworthily, monocationic derivatives were much more efficient than dicationic analogues.

  17. Chlorophyll J-aggregates: from bioinspired dye stacks to nanotubes, liquid crystals, and biosupramolecular electronics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sengupta, Sanchita; Würthner, Frank

    2013-11-19

    Among the natural light-harvesting (LH) systems, those of green sulfur and nonsulfur photosynthetic bacteria are exceptional because they lack the support of a protein matrix. Instead, these so-called chlorosomes are based solely on "pigments". These are self-assembled bacteriochlorophyll c, d, and e derivatives, which consist of a chlorophyll skeleton bearing a 3(1)-hydroxy functional group. Chemists consider the latter as an essential structural unit to direct the formation of light-harvesting self-assembled dye aggregates with J-type excitonic coupling. The intriguing properties of chlorosomal J-type aggregates, particularly narrow red-shifted absorption bands, compared with monomers and their ability to delocalize and migrate excitons, have inspired intense research activities toward synthetic analogues in this field. The ultimate goal of this research field is the development of (opto-)electronic devices based on the architectural principle of chlorosomal LH systems. In this regard, the challenge is to develop small, functional building blocks with appropriate substituents that are preprogrammed to self-assemble across different length scales and to emulate functions of natural LH systems or to realize entirely new functions beyond those found in nature. In this Account, we highlight our achievements in the past decade with semisynthetic zinc chlorins (ZnChls) as model compounds of bacteriochlorophylls obtained from the naturally most abundant chlorin precursor: chlorophyll a. To begin, we explore how supramolecular strategies involving π-stacking, hydrogen bonding, and metal-oxygen coordination can be used to design ZnChl-based molecular stack, tube, and liquid crystalline assemblies conducive to charge and energy transport. Our design principle is based on the bioinspired functionalization of the 3(1)-position of ZnChl with a hydroxy or methoxy group; the former gives rise to tubular assemblies, whereas the latter induces stack assemblies. Functionalization

  18. Bio-inspired, subwavelength surface structures to control reflectivity, transmission, and scattering in the infrared

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lora Gonzalez, Federico

    Controlling the reflection of visible and infrared (IR) light at interfaces is extremely important to increase the power efficiency and performance of optics, electro-optical and (thermo)photovoltaic systems. The eye of the moth has evolved subwavelength protuberances that increase light transmission into the eye tissue and prevent reflection. The subwavelength protuberances effectively grade the refractive index from that of air (n=1) to that of the tissue (n=1.4), making the interface gradual, suppressing reflection. In theory, the moth-eye (ME) structures can be implemented with any material platform to achieve an antireflectance effect by scaling the pitch and size of protuberances for the wavelength range of interest. In this work, a bio-inspired, scalable and substrate-independent surface modification protocol was developed to realize broadband antireflective structures based on the moth-eye principle. Quasi-ordered ME arrays were fabricated in IR relevant materials using a colloidal lithography method to achieve highly efficient, omni-directional transmission of mid and far infrared (IR) radiation. The effect of structure height and aspect ratio on transmittance and scattering is explored, with discussion on experimental techniques and effective medium theory (EMT). The highest aspect ratio structures (AR = 9.4) achieved peak single-side transmittance of 98%, with >85% transmission for lambda = 7--30 microns. A detailed photon balance constructed by transmission, forward scattering, specular reflection and diffuse reflection measurements to quantify optical losses due to near-field effects will be discussed. In addition, angle-dependent transmission measurements showed that moth-eye structures provide superior antireflective properties compared to unstructured interfaces over a wide angular range (0--60° incidence). Finally, subwavelength ME structures are incorporated on a Si substrate to enhance the absorption of near infrared (NIR) light in PtSi films to

  19. Kinetics of phosphate absorption in lactating dairy cows after enteral administration of sodium phosphate or calcium phosphate salts.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grünberg, Walter; Dobbelaar, Paul; Breves, Gerhard

    2013-09-28

    Hypophosphataemia is frequently encountered in dairy cows during early lactation. Although supplementation of P is generally recommended, controversy exists over the suitability of oral P supplementation in animals with decreased or absent rumen motility. Since the effects of transruminal P absorption and the reticular groove reflex on the absorption kinetics of P are not well understood, it is unclear in how far treatment efficacy of oral P supplementation is affected by decreased rumen motility. Phosphate absorption was studied in six phosphate-depleted dairy cows fitted with rumen cannulas and treated with test solutions containing either NaH2PO4 or CaHPO4 with acetaminophen. Each animal was treated orally, intraruminally and intra-abomasally in randomised order. Absorption kinetics of P were studied and compared with the absorption kinetics of acetaminophen, a marker substance only absorbed from the small intestine. Intra-abomasal treatment with NaH2PO4 resulted in the most rapid and highest peaks in plasma inorganic P (Pi) concentration. Oral and intraruminal administration of NaH2PO4 resulted in similar increases in plasma Pi concentration from 4 to 7 h in both groups. Treatment with NaH2PO4 caused more pronounced peaks in plasma Pi concentration compared with CaHPO4. Neither transruminal P absorption nor the reticular groove reflex affected P absorption kinetics as determined by comparing plasma concentration–time curves of P and acetaminophen after administration of 1M-phosphate salt solutions. It is concluded that oral treatment with NaH2PO4 but not CaHPO4 is effective in supplementing P in hypophosphataemic cows with adequate rumen motility. Decreased rumen motility is likely to hamper the efficacy of oral phosphate treatment.

  20. Application of potential phosphate-solubilizing bacteria and organic acids on phosphate solubilization from phosphate rock in aerobic rice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Panhwar, Qurban Ali; Jusop, Shamshuddin; Naher, Umme Aminun; Othman, Radziah; Razi, Mohd Ismail

    2013-01-01

    A study was conducted at Universiti Putra Malaysia to determine the effect of phosphate-solubilizing bacteria (PSB) and organic acids (oxalic & malic) on phosphate (P) solubilization from phosphate rock (PR) and growth of aerobic rice. Four rates of each organic acid (0, 10, 20, and 30 mM), and PSB strain (Bacillus sp.) were applied to aerobic rice. Total bacterial populations, amount of P solubilization, P uptake, soil pH, and root morphology were determined. The results of the study showed significantly high P solubilization in PSB with organic acid treatments. Among the two organic acids, oxalic acid was found more effective compared to malic acid. Application of oxalic acid at 20 mM along with PSB16 significantly increased soluble soil P (28.39 mg kg(-1)), plant P uptake (0.78 P pot(-1)), and plant biomass (33.26 mg). Addition of organic acids with PSB and PR had no influence on soil pH during the planting period. A higher bacterial population was found in rhizosphere (8.78 log10 cfu g(-1)) compared to the nonrhizosphere and endosphere regions. The application of organic acids along with PSB enhanced soluble P in the soil solution, improved root growth, and increased plant biomass of aerobic rice seedlings without affecting soil pH.

  1. Application of Potential Phosphate-Solubilizing Bacteria and Organic Acids on Phosphate Solubilization from Phosphate Rock in Aerobic Rice

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Qurban Ali Panhwar

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available A study was conducted at Universiti Putra Malaysia to determine the effect of phosphate-solubilizing bacteria (PSB and organic acids (oxalic & malic on phosphate (P solubilization from phosphate rock (PR and growth of aerobic rice. Four rates of each organic acid (0, 10, 20, and 30 mM, and PSB strain (Bacillus sp. were applied to aerobic rice. Total bacterial populations, amount of P solubilization, P uptake, soil pH, and root morphology were determined. The results of the study showed significantly high P solubilization in PSB with organic acid treatments. Among the two organic acids, oxalic acid was found more effective compared to malic acid. Application of oxalic acid at 20 mM along with PSB16 significantly increased soluble soil P (28.39 mg kg−1, plant P uptake (0.78 P pot−1, and plant biomass (33.26 mg. Addition of organic acids with PSB and PR had no influence on soil pH during the planting period. A higher bacterial population was found in rhizosphere (8.78 log10 cfu g−1 compared to the nonrhizosphere and endosphere regions. The application of organic acids along with PSB enhanced soluble P in the soil solution, improved root growth, and increased plant biomass of aerobic rice seedlings without affecting soil pH.

  2. The utilization of rock phosphate (natural defluorinated calcium phosphate or NDCP in laying hens diet to replace dicalcium phosphate

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A.P Sinurat

    1996-06-01

    Full Text Available An experimentwas conducted to study the utilization of local rock phosphate or natural defluorinated calcium phosphate (NDCP as phosphorus source for layer chickens by using the imported dicalcium phosphate (DCP as a reference. Eight experimental diets consisted of 2 source of phosphorus (DCP and NDCP and 4 dietary total P levels (0.4, 0.5, 0.6 and 0.7% were formulated. Each diet was fed to 24 pullets (6 replicates with 4 birds each from 20 weeks of age to 14 weeks of egg production. Observations were made on feed consumption, egg production, egg weight, mortality, egg quality, Ca and P retention and ash content of tibial bones . Results showed no significant effect of different source and level of phosphorus tested on egg production (% HD, feed consumption, egg weight and mortality rates . Egg shell thickness was depressed in NDCP diet as compared with DCP, however this only occurred at firstmonth of production. It is concluded that the NDCP can be used in layers diet to replace DCP as phosphorus source. The relative biological value of phosphorus inNDCP is 96% for layers.

  3. Performance analysis of magnesium phosphate cement mortar containing grinding dust

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Daniel Véras Ribeiro

    2009-03-01

    Full Text Available Magnesium phosphate cement materials are formed by reacting magnesium oxide with water-soluble phosphates such as monoammonium dihydrogen phosphate (ADP, which solidifies at ambient temperature through the formation of hydrated phases in the material. Cylindrical specimens of magnesium phosphate cement were molded and varying amounts (0 to 30% weight of grinding dust were added to the ceramic matrices. The influence of the addition of grinding dust on the characteristics of the mortars in terms of microstructure (SEM, mechanical strength and capillary water absorption was verified. The results obtained proved very satisfactory for the use of this waste as an additive in magnesium phosphate mortars.

  4. Seed selections for crystallization of calcium phosphate for phosphorus recovery

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    SONG Yong-hui; Dietfried DONNERT; Ute BERG; Peter G. WEIDLER; Rolf NUEESCH

    2007-01-01

    Seed induces and promotes the crystallization of calcium phosphate, and acts as carrier of the recovered phosphorus (P). In order to select suitable seed for P recovery from wastewater, three seeds including Apatite (AP), Juraperle (JP) and phosphate-modified Juraperle (M-JP) were tested and compared. Batch and fixed-bed column experiments of seeded crystallization of calcium phosphate were undertaken by using synthetic wastewater with 10 mg/L P phosphate. It shows that AP has bad enduring property in the crystallization process, while JP has better performance for multiple uses, and M-JP is a hopeful seed for P recovery by crystallization of calcium phosphate.

  5. Zinc phosphating of 6061-Al alloy using REN as additive

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    ZHANG Shenglin; ZHANG Xiaolin; ZHANG Mingming

    2008-01-01

    Zinc phosphate coating formed on 6061-Al alloy was studied with the help of electrochemical measurements, Fourier Transform Infrared (FTIR), and Scanning Electron Microscopy (SEM), after dipping it in phosphating solutions containing different concentrations of Rare Earth Nitrate (REN). REN, which acted as an accelerator in the phosphating solution, could catalyze the surface reaction and accelerate the phosphating process. REN mainly enabled the P in the phosphate coating to exist in the form of PO43- and promoted the hydrolysis of phosphatic acid in a liquid layer at the cathodes. This resulted in the evolution of H2 at the cathodes, which increased the local pH value and in turn drove the precipitation of the phosphate coating. Additionally, REN was adsorbed on the surface of the aluminum substrates to form a gel during the phosphating process. These gel particles were good crystal seeds, which helped to form phosphate crystal nuclei and possess the function of a nucleation agent that could decrease the phosphate crystal size. The corrosion resistance of the formed zinc phosphate coatings was improved.

  6. Infrared spectroscopy of different phosphates structures.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jastrzębski, W; Sitarz, M; Rokita, M; Bułat, K

    2011-08-15

    Infrared (IR) spectroscopic studies of mineral and synthetic phosphates have been presented. The interpretation of the spectra has been preceded by the isolated [PO(4)](3-) tetrahedron spectra analyse. The K(3)PO(4) saturated aqueous solution was measured in the special cell for liquids. The obtained IR results have been compared with the theoretical number of IR-active modes. The number and positions of the bands due to P-O vibrations have been established. The phase composition of the phosphates has been determined using XRD and IR spectroscopy methods. The influence of non-tetrahedral cations on the shape of the spectra and the positions of bands has been analysed and the crystalline field splitting effect has been discussed.

  7. Preparation and characterization of calcium phosphate biomaterials.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Calafiori, A R; Di Marco, G; Martino, G; Marotta, M

    2007-12-01

    Calcium phosphate cement (CPC) samples have been prepared with a mixture of monocalciumphosphate monohydrate (MCPM) and calcium carbonate (CC) powders, in stechiometric moles ratio 1:2.5 to obtain a Ca/P ratio of about 1.67 typical of hydroxyapatite (HAp), with or without addition of HAp. All specimens are incubated at 30 degrees C in a steam saturated air environment for 3, 6 and 15 days respectively, afterwards dried and stored under nitrogen. The calcium phosphate samples have been characterized by X-ray diffraction (XRD), Vickers hardness test (HV), diametral compression (d.c.), strength compression, and porosity evaluation. MCPM/CC mixture has a 30% HAp final concentration and is characterized by higher porosity (amount 78%) and mechanical properties useful as filler in bone segments without high mechanical stress.

  8. Aluminum phosphate ceramics for waste storage

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wagh, Arun; Maloney, Martin D

    2014-06-03

    The present disclosure describes solid waste forms and methods of processing waste. In one particular implementation, the invention provides a method of processing waste that may be particularly suitable for processing hazardous waste. In this method, a waste component is combined with an aluminum oxide and an acidic phosphate component in a slurry. A molar ratio of aluminum to phosphorus in the slurry is greater than one. Water in the slurry may be evaporated while mixing the slurry at a temperature of about 140-200.degree. C. The mixed slurry may be allowed to cure into a solid waste form. This solid waste form includes an anhydrous aluminum phosphate with at least a residual portion of the waste component bound therein.

  9. Co-adsorption of perfluorooctane sulfonate and phosphate on boehmite: Influence of temperature, phosphate initial concentration and pH.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Qian, Jin; Shen, Mengmeng; Wang, Peifang; Wang, Chao; Hu, Jing; Hou, Jun; Ao, Yanhui; Zheng, Hao; Li, Kun; Liu, Jingjing

    2017-03-01

    The co-presence of perfluorooctane sulfonate (PFOS) and phosphate in wastewater of various industries has been detected. Removing PFOS and phosphate simultaneously before discharging sewage into natural water can decrease effectively the environmental risk caused by the combined pollution of PFOS and phosphate. In this study, laboratory batch experiments were conducted for investigating the co-adsorption of PFOS and phosphate on boehmite and the influences of temperature, phosphate initial concentration and pH on the co-adsorption. The adsorption thermodynamics and kinetics of PFOS and phosphate on boehmite were also investigated completely and systematically. The results showed that lower temperature favored the co-adsorptions of PFOS and phosphate. The adsorption of PFOS and phosphate on boehmite agreed well with the Langmuir isotherm and the adsorption parameters of thermodynamics are ΔH=-16.9 and -20.0kJmol(-1) (PFOS and phosphate), ΔS=-5.69 and -7.63Jmol(-1) K(-1) (PFOS and phosphate) and ΔG adsorption of PFOS and phosphate on boehmite is a spontaneously exothermic process. Moreover, the co-adsorption process can be described well by a pseudo-second-order kinetic model. With increasing phosphate initial concentration, more phosphate could be adsorbed on boehmite, while the adsorption of PFOS decreased at phosphate initial concentration of less than 30mgL(-1) and increased at that of larger than 30mgL(-1). In the co-adsorption process, the adsorption amount of PFOS decreased with pH increasing, but that of phosphate changed little.

  10. BIO-INSPIRED SELF-ADAPTIVE MANUFACTURING SYSTEM CONTROL ARCHITECTURE%类生物化自适应制造系统控制结构

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王雷; 唐敦兵; 万敏; 袁伟东; 许美健

    2009-01-01

    未来的制造系统需要应对多变的不可预测环境的干扰,因此要求制造系统的控制结构具有较好的自适应性、自组织性、敏捷性、智能性和鲁棒性.而具有这些生物行为特征的类生物化制造系统能够很好的满足这一要求.因此,借鉴生物系统的组织结构、控制机理和运行模式,从一个全新角度提出了有机制造单元的概念,并结合基于激素分泌调节的超短反馈机制,建立了类生物化生产系统自适应控制模型;基于神经-内分泌-免疫系统调节机制,建立了类生物化自适应制造系统控制结构模型.最后,通过一个基于信息素通信机制的实例表明:整个系统具有较强的鲁棒性.%Future manufacturing systems need to cope with frequent changes and disturbances, therefore their control architectures require constant adaptability, agility, stability, self-organization, intelligence, and robustness. Bio-inspired manufacturing system can well satisfy these requirements. For this purpose, by referencing the biological organization structure and the mechanism, a bio-inspired manufacturing cell is presented from a novel view, and then a bio-inspired self-adaptive manufacturing model is established based on the ultra-short feedback mechanism of the neuro-endocrine system. A bio-inspired self-adaptive manufacturing system coordinated model is also established based on the neuro-endocrine-immunity system (NEIS). Finally, an example based on pheromone communication mechanism indicates that the robustness of the whole manufacturing system is improved by bio-inspired technologies.

  11. Removal of phosphate from aqueous solution with blast furnace slag.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oguz, Ensar

    2004-10-18

    Blast furnace slag was used to remove phosphate from aqueous solutions. The influence of pH, temperature, agitation rate, and blast furnace slag dosage on phosphate removal was investigated by conducting a series of batch adsorption experiments. In addition, the yield and mechanisms of phosphate removal were explained on the basis of the results of X-ray spectroscopy, measurements of zeta potential of particles, specific surface area, and images of scanning electron microscopy (SEM) of the particles before and after adsorption. The specific surface area of the blast furnace slag was 0.4m(2)g(-1). The removal of phosphate predominantly has taken place by a precipitation mechanism and weak physical interactions between the surface of adsorbent and the metallic salts of phosphate. In this study, phosphate removal in excess of 99% was obtained, and it was concluded that blast furnace slag is an efficient adsorbent for the removal of phosphate from solution.

  12. Phosphate sensing and signalling in Arabidopsis thaliana

    OpenAIRE

    2013-01-01

    Phosphate (Pi) deficiency is a global problem for food production. Plants have evolved complex mechanisms to adapt to low Pi. We focused on the initial aspects of adaptation to low Pi - perception and immediate-early responses to changes in external Pi. To examine whether a labile repressor controls expression of the high affinity Pi transporter, Pht1;1, we performed electrophoretic mobility shift assays (EMSA) but observed only weak protein-DNA binding activity using extrac...

  13. Phosphate adsorption on lanthanum loaded biochar.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Zhanghong; Shen, Dekui; Shen, Fei; Li, Tianyu

    2016-05-01

    To attain a low-cost and high-efficient phosphate adsorbent, lanthanum (La) loaded biochar (La-BC) prepared by a chemical precipitation method was developed. La-BC and its pristine biochar (CK-BC) were comparatively characterized using zeta potential, BET surface area, scanning electron microscopy/energy dispersive spectrometer (SEM-EDS), X-ray diffraction (XRD), X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS) and Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FT-IR). The adsorption ability and the mechanisms during adsorption process for the La-BC samples were also investigated. La loaded on the surface of biochar can be termed as La-composites (such as LaOOH, LaONO3 and La(OH)3), leading to the decrease of negative charge and surface area of biochar. La-BC exhibited the high adsorption capacity to phosphate compared to CK-BC. Adsorption isotherm and adsorption kinetic studies showed that the Langmuir isotherm and second order model could well describe the adsorption process of La-BC, indicating that the adsorption was dominated by a homogeneous and chemical process. The calculated maximum adsorption capacity was as high as 46.37 mg g(-1) (computed in P). Thermodynamic analysis revealed that the adsorption was spontaneous and endothermic. SEM, XRD, XPS and FT-IR analysis suggested that the multi-adsorption mechanisms including precipitation, ligand exchange and complexation interactions can be evidenced during the phosphate adsorption process by La-composites in La-BC.

  14. Frozen delivery of brushite calcium phosphate cements.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grover, Liam M; Hofmann, Michael P; Gbureck, Uwe; Kumarasami, Balamurgan; Barralet, Jake E

    2008-11-01

    Calcium phosphate cements typically harden following the combination of a calcium phosphate powder component with an aqueous solution to form a matrix consisting of hydroxyapatite or brushite. The mixing process can be very important to the mechanical properties exhibited by cement materials and consequently when used clinically, since they are usually hand-mixed their mechanical properties are prone to operator-induced variability. It is possible to reduce this variability by pre-mixing the cement, e.g. by replacing the aqueous liquid component with non-reactive glycerol. Here, for the first time, we report the formation of three different pre-mixed brushite cement formulations formed by freezing the cement pastes following combination of the powder and liquid components. When frozen and stored at -80 degrees C or less, significant degradation in compression strength did not occur for the duration of the study (28 days). Interestingly, in the case of the brushite cement formed from the combination of beta-tricalcium phosphate with 2 M orthophosphoric acid solution, freezing the cement paste had the effect of increasing mean compressive strength fivefold (from 4 to 20 MPa). The increase in compression strength was accompanied by a reduction in the setting rate of the cement. As no differences in porosity or degree of reaction were observed, strength improvement was attributed to a modification of crystal morphology and a reduction in damage caused to the cement matrix during manipulation.

  15. Phosphate phosphors for solid-state lighting

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Shinde, Kartik N. [N.S. Science and Arts College, Bhadrawati (India). Dept. of Physics; Swart, H.C. [University of the Orange Free State, Bloemfontein (South Africa). Dept. of Physics; Dhoble, S.J. [R.T.M. Nagpur Univ. (India). Dept. of Physics; Park, Kyeongsoon [Sejong Univ., Seoul (Korea, Republic of). Faculty of Nanotechnology and Advanced Materials Engineering

    2012-07-01

    Essential information for students in researchers working towards new and more efficient solid-state lighting. Comprehensive survey based on the authors' long experience. Useful both for teaching and reference. The idea for this book arose out of the realization that, although excellent surveys and a phosphor handbook are available, there is no single source covering the area of phosphate based phosphors especially for lamp industry. Moreover, as this field gets only limited attention in most general books on luminescence, there is a clear need for a book in which attention is specifically directed toward this rapidly growing field of solid state lighting and its many applications. This book is aimed at providing a sound introduction to the synthesis and optical characterization of phosphate phosphor for undergraduate and graduate students as well as teachers and researchers. The book provides guidance through the multidisciplinary field of solid state lighting specially phosphate phosphors for beginners, scientists and engineers from universities, research organizations, and especially industry. In order to make it useful for a wide audience, both fundamentals and applications are discussed, together.

  16. Inositol phosphates induce DAPI fluorescence shift.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kolozsvari, Bernadett; Parisi, Federica; Saiardi, Adolfo

    2014-06-15

    The polymer inorganic polyP (polyphosphate) and inositol phosphates, such as IP6 (inositol hexakisphosphate; also known as phytic acid), share many biophysical features. These similarities must be attributed to the phosphate groups present in these molecules. Given the ability of polyP to modify the excitation-emission spectra of DAPI we decided to investigate whether inositol phosphates possess the same property. We discovered that DAPI-IP6 complexes emit at approximately 550 nm when excited with light of wavelength 410-420 nm. IP5 (inositol pentakisphosphate) is also able to induce a similar shift in DAPI fluorescence. Conversely, IP3 (inositol trisphosphate) and IP4 (inositol tetrakisphosphate) are unable to shift DAPI fluorescence. We have employed this newly discovered feature of DAPI to study the enzymatic activity of the inositol polyphosphate multikinase and to monitor phytase phosphatase reactions. Finally, we used DAPI-IP6 fluorescence to determine the amount of IP6 in plant seeds. Using an IP6 standard curve this straight-forward analysis revealed that among the samples tested, borlotti beans possess the highest level of IP6 (9.4 mg/g of dry mass), whereas the Indian urad bean the lowest (3.2 mg/g of dry mass). The newly identified fluorescence properties of the DAPI-IP5 and DAPI-IP6 complexes allow the levels and enzymatic conversion of these two important messengers to be rapidly and reliably monitored.

  17. Phosphate removal from wastewater using red mud.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huang, Weiwei; Wang, Shaobin; Zhu, Zhonghua; Li, Li; Yao, Xiangdong; Rudolph, Victor; Haghseresht, Fouad

    2008-10-01

    Red mud, a waste residue of alumina refinery, has been used to develop effective adsorbents to remove phosphate from aqueous solution. Acid and acid-thermal treatments were employed to treat the raw red mud. The effects of different treatment methods, pH of solution and operating temperature on adsorption have been examined in batch experiments. It was found that all activated red mud samples show higher surface area and total pore volume as well as higher adsorption capacity for phosphate removal. The red mud with HCl treatment shows the highest adsorption capacity among all the red mud samples, giving adsorption capacity of 0.58 mg P/g at pH 5.5 and 40 degrees C. The adsorption capacity of the red mud adsorbents decreases with increase of pH. At pH 2, the red mud with HCl treatment exhibits adsorption of 0.8 mg P/g while the adsorption can be lowered to 0.05 mg P/g at pH 10. However, the adsorption is improved at higher temperature by increasing 25% from 30 to 40 degrees C. The kinetic studies of phosphate adsorption onto red mud indicate that the adsorption mainly follows the parallel first-order kinetics due to the presence of two acidic phosphorus species, H(2)PO(4)(-) and HPO(4)(2-). An analysis of the adsorption data indicates that the Freundlich isotherm provides a better fitting than the Langmuir model.

  18. Method for phosphate-accelerated bioremediation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Looney, Brian B.; Lombard, Kenneth H.; Hazen, Terry C.; Pfiffner, Susan M.; Phelps, Tommy J.; Borthen, James W.

    1996-01-01

    An apparatus and method for supplying a vapor-phase nutrient to contaminated soil for in situ bioremediation. The apparatus includes a housing adapted for containing a quantity of the liquid nutrient, a conduit in fluid communication with the interior of the housing, means for causing a gas to flow through the conduit, and means for contacting the gas with the liquid so that a portion thereof evaporates and mixes with the gas. The mixture of gas and nutrient vapor is delivered to the contaminated site via a system of injection and extraction wells configured to the site. The mixture has a partial pressure of vaporized nutrient that is no greater than the vapor pressure of the liquid. If desired, the nutrient and/or the gas may be heated to increase the vapor pressure and the nutrient concentration of the mixture. Preferably, the nutrient is a volatile, substantially nontoxic and nonflammable organic phosphate that is a liquid at environmental temperatures, such as triethyl phosphate or tributyl phosphate.

  19. Fabrications of zinc-releasing biocement combining zinc calcium phosphate to calcium phosphate cement.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Horiuchi, Shinya; Hiasa, Masahiro; Yasue, Akihiro; Sekine, Kazumitsu; Hamada, Kenichi; Asaoka, Kenzo; Tanaka, Eiji

    2014-01-01

    Recently, zinc-releasing bioceramics have been the focus of much attention owing to their bone-forming ability. Thus, some types of zinc-containing calcium phosphate (e.g., zinc-doped tricalcium phosphate and zinc-substituted hydroxyapatite) are examined and their osteoblastic cell responses determined. In this investigation, we studied the effects of zinc calcium phosphate (ZCP) derived from zinc phosphate incorporated into calcium phosphate cement (CPC) in terms of its setting reaction and MC3T3-E1 osteoblast-like cell responses. Compositional analysis by powder X-ray diffraction analysis revealed that HAP crystals were precipitated in the CPC containing 10 or 30wt% ZCP after successfully hardening. However, the crystal growth observed by scanning electron microscopy was delayed in the presence of additional ZCP. These findings indicate that the additional zinc inhibits crystal growth and the conversion of CPC to the HAP crystals. The proliferation of the cells and alkaline phosphatase (ALP) activity were enhanced when 10wt% ZCP was added to CPC. Taken together, ZCP added CPC at an appropriate fraction has a potent promotional effect on bone substitute biomaterials.

  20. Radiological impact of natural radioactivity in Egyptian phosphate rocks, phosphogypsum and phosphate fertilizers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    El-Bahi, S M; Sroor, A; Mohamed, Gehan Y; El-Gendy, N S

    2017-05-01

    In this study, the activity concentrations of the natural radionuclides in phosphate rocks and its products were measured using a high- purity germanium detector (HPGe). The obtained activity results show remarkable wide variation in the radioactive contents for the different phosphate samples. The average activity concentration of (235)U, (238)U, (226)Ra, (232)Th and (40)K was found as (45, 1031, 786, 85 and 765Bq/kg) for phosphate rocks, (28, 1234, 457, 123 and 819Bq/kg) for phosphate fertilizers, (47, 663, 550, 79 and 870Bq/kg) for phosphogypsum and (25, 543, 409, 54 and 897Bq/kg) for single super phosphate respectively. Based on the measured activities, the radiological parameters (activity concentration index, absorbed gamma dose rate in outdoor and indoor and the corresponding annual effective dose rates and total excess lifetime cancer risk) were estimated to assess the radiological hazards. The total excess lifetime cancer risk (ELCR) has been calculated and found to be high in all samples, which related to high radioactivity, representing radiological risk for the health of the population.

  1. Apatite Formation from Amorphous Calcium Phosphate and Mixed Amorphous Calcium Phosphate/Amorphous Calcium Carbonate.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ibsen, Casper J S; Chernyshov, Dmitry; Birkedal, Henrik

    2016-08-22

    Crystallization from amorphous phases is an emerging pathway for making advanced materials. Biology has made use of amorphous precursor phases for eons and used them to produce structures with remarkable properties. Herein, we show how the design of the amorphous phase greatly influences the nanocrystals formed therefrom. We investigate the transformation of mixed amorphous calcium phosphate/amorphous calcium carbonate phases into bone-like nanocrystalline apatite using in situ synchrotron X-ray diffraction and IR spectroscopy. The speciation of phosphate was controlled by pH to favor HPO4 (2-) . In a carbonate free system, the reaction produces anisotropic apatite crystallites with large aspect ratios. The first formed crystallites are highly calcium deficient and hydrogen phosphate rich, consistent with thin octacalcium phosphate (OCP)-like needles. During growth, the crystallites become increasingly stoichiometric, which indicates that the crystallites grow through addition of near-stoichiometric apatite to the OCP-like initial crystals through a process that involves either crystallite fusion/aggregation or Ostwald ripening. The mixed amorphous phases were found to be more stable against phase transformations, hence, the crystallization was inhibited. The resulting crystallites were smaller and less anisotropic. This is rationalized by the idea that a local phosphate-depletion zone formed around the growing crystal until it was surrounded by amorphous calcium carbonate, which stopped the crystallization.

  2. Concomitant rock phosphate dissolution and lead immobilization by phosphate solubilizing bacteria (Enterobacter sp.).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Park, Jin Hee; Bolan, Nanthi; Megharaj, Mallavarapu; Naidu, Ravi

    2011-04-01

    This paper examines the potential value of phosphate solubilizing bacteria (Enterobacter cloacae) in the dissolution of rock phosphate (RP) and subsequent immobilization of lead (Pb) in both bacterial growth medium and soils. Enterobacter sp. showed resistance to Pb and the bacterium solubilized 17.5% of RP in the growth medium. Enterobacter sp. did not enhance Pb immobilization in solution because of acidification of bacterial medium, thereby inhibiting the formation of P-induced Pb precipitation. However, in the case of soil, Enterobacter sp. increased Pb immobilization by 6.98, 25.6 and 32.0% with the RP level of 200, 800 and 1600 mg P/kg, respectively. The immobilization of Pb in Pb-spiked soils was attributed to pyromorphite formation as indicated by XRD analysis. Inoculation of phosphate solubilizing bacteria with RP in soil can be used as an alternative technique to soluble P compounds which can cause eutrophication of surface water.

  3. Proton transport properties of tin phosphate, chromotropic acid anchored onto tin phosphate and tin phenyl phosphonate

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Chithra Sumej; P P Sharmila; Nisha J Tharayil; S Suma

    2013-02-01

    Tin (IV) phosphates of the class of tetravalent metal acid (TMA) salts have been synthesized by sol–gel method. The functionalized materials of tin (IV) phosphate (SnP) like chromotropic acid anchored tin phosphate (SnPCA) and tin phenyl phosphonate (SnPP) were also synthesized. These materials have been characterized for elemental analysis (ICP–AES), thermal analysis, X-ray analysis and FTIR spectroscopy. Chemical resistivity of these materials has been accessed in acidic, basic and organic solvent media. The proton present in the structural hydroxyl groups indicates good potential for TMA salts to exhibit solid-state proton conduction. The transport properties of these materials have been explored by measuring specific proton conductance at different temperatures. Based on the specific conduction data and Arrhenius plots, a suitable mechanism has been proposed.

  4. Research and engineering assessment of biological solubilization of phosphate

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rogers, R.D.; McIlwain, M.E.; Losinski, S.J.; Taylor, D.D.

    1993-03-01

    This research and engineering assessment examined a microbial phosphate solubilization process as a method of recovering phosphate from phosphorus containing ore compared to the existing wet acid and electric arc methods. A total of 860 microbial isolates, collected from a range of natural environments were tested for their ability to solubilize phosphate from rock phosphate. A bacterium (Pseudomonas cepacia) was selected for extensive characterization and evaluation of the mechanism of phosphate solubilization and of process engineering parameters necessary to recover phosphate from rock phosphate. These studies found that concentration of hydrogen ion and production of organic acids arising from oxidation of the carbon source facilitated microbial solubilization of both pure chemical insoluble phosphate compounds and phosphate rock. Genetic studies found that phosphate solubilization was linked to an enzyme system (glucose dehydrogenase). Process-related studies found that a critical solids density of 1% by weight (ore to liquid) was necessary for optimal solubilization. An engineering analysis evaluated the cost and energy requirements for a 2 million ton per year sized plant, whose size was selected to be comparable to existing wet acid plants.

  5. Phosphates sensing: two polyamino-phenolic zinc receptors able to discriminate and signal phosphates in water.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ambrosi, Gianluca; Formica, Mauro; Fusi, Vieri; Giorgi, Luca; Guerri, Annalisa; Macedi, Eleonora; Micheloni, Mauro; Paoli, Paola; Pontellini, Roberto; Rossi, Patrizia

    2009-07-06

    Two Zn(II)-dinuclear systems were studied as receptors for phosphates; they were obtained by using the two polyamino-phenolic ligands 3,3'-bis[N,N-bis(2-aminoethyl)aminomethyl]-2,2'-dihydroxybiphenyl (L1) and 2,6-bis[N,N-bis(2-aminoethyl)aminomethyl]phenol (L2) in which the difference lies in the spacers between the two dien units, biphenol or phenol in L1 and L2, respectively. The metallo-receptors obtained are able to selectively discriminate phosphate (Pi) from pyrophosphate (PPi) and vice versa in aqueous solution in a wide range of pH (6 phosphate in a bridge disposition, fit in a different way with the different guests. Furthermore, NMR studies supported the model of interaction proposed between guests and receptors, highlighting that they are also able to bind biological phosphates such as G6P and ATP at physiological pH. Fluorescence studies showed that the receptor system based on L1 is able to signal the presence in solution of Pi and PPi at physiological pH; the presence of Pi is detected by a quenching of the emission, that of PPi by an enhancement of it. With the aid of an external colored sensor (PCV), the receptors were then used to produce simple signaling systems for phosphates based on the displacement method; the two chemosensors obtained are able to signal and quantify these anions at physiological pH, preserving the selectivity between phosphate and pyrophosphate and extending it to G6P and ATP.

  6. Effectiveness of a rock phosphate solubilizing fungus to increase soil solution phosphate impaired by the soil phosphate sorption capacity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nelson Walter Osorio Vega

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available Available phosphate (P deficiency in tropical soils has been recognized as a major factor that limits soil quality and plant performance. To overcome this, it is necessary to add high amounts of soluble P-fertilizers; however, this is inefficient and costly. Alternatively, rock phosphates (RP can be used, but their low reactivity limits their use. Phosphate solubilizing microorganisms (PSM can enhance RP dissolution and, thus, improve the RP agronomic effectiveness as fertilizer. Nonetheless, their effectiveness may be impaired by the soil P fixation capacity. An experiment was carried out to assess the in vitro effectiveness of the fungus Mortierella sp. to dissolve RP in an axenic culture medium and, thus, enhance the solution P concentration in the presence of aliquots of soils with contrasting P fixation capacity. The results showed that the fungus was capable of lowering the medium pH from 7.7 to 3.0 and, thus, dissolving the RP. The presence of soil aliquots in the medium controlled the effectiveness of the fungus to increase the concentration of the soluble P. In the presence of soils with a low or medium P sorption capacity, the concentration of the soluble P was high (63.8-146.6 mg L-1 in comparison with the inoculated (soilless treatment (50.0 mg L-1 and the uninoculated control (0.7 mg L-1. By contrast, with very-high P fixing soil aliquots, the concentration of the soluble P was very low (3.6-33.1 mg L-1; in addition, in these soils, the fungus immobilized more P into its mycelia than in soils with a low or medium P fixation capacity. The capacity of a soil to fix P seems to be a good predictor for the effectiveness of this fungus to increase the soluble P concentration via RP dissolution.

  7. Production of bioinspired and rationally designed polymer hydrogels for controlled delivery of therapeutic proteins

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Sung Hye

    Hydrogel systems for controlled delivery therapeutic growth factors have been developed in a wide spectrum of strategies: these systems aim for the release of growth factors via a passive diffusion, electrostatic interaction, degradation of hydrogels, and responsiveness to external stimuli. Heparin, a highly sulfated glycosaminoglycan (GAG), was employed for a targeted delivery system of vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF) to endothelial cells overexpressing a relevant receptor VEGFR-2. Addition of dimeric VEGF to 4-arm star-shaped poly(ethylene glycol) (PEG) immobilized with low-molecular weight heparin (LMWH) afforded a non-covalently assembled hydrogel via interaction between heparin and VEGF, with storage modulus 10 Pa. The release of VEGF and hydrogel erosion reached maximum 100 % at day 4 in the presence of VEGFR-2 overexpressing pocine aortic endothelial cell (PAE/KDR), while those of 80% were achieved via passive release at day 5 in the presence of PAE cell lacking VEGFR-2 or in the absence of cell, indicating that the release of VEGF was in targeted manner toward cell receptor. The proliferation of PAE/KDR in the presence of [PEG-LMWH/VEGF] hydrogel was greater by ca. 30% at day 4 compared to that of PAE, confirming that the release of VEGF was in response to the cellular demand. The phosphorylation fraction of VEGFR-2 on PAE/KDR was greater in the presence of [PEG-LMWH/VEGF] hydrogel, increasing from 0.568 at day 1 to 0.790 at day 4, whereas it was maintained at 0.230 at day 4 in the presence of [PEG-LMWH] hydrogel. This study has proven that this hydrogel, assembled via bio-inspired non-covalent interaction, liberating VEGFon celluar demand to target cell, eroding upon VEGF release, and triggering endothelial cell proliferation, could be used in multiple applications including targeted delivery and angiogenesis. Heparin has been widely exploited in growth factor delivery systems owing to its ability to bind many growth factors through the flexible

  8. Deposition of calcium phosphate coatings using condensed phosphates (P2O7(4-) and P3O10(5-)) as phosphate source through induction heating.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhou, Huan; Hou, Saisai; Zhang, Mingjie; Yang, Mengmeng; Deng, Linhong; Xiong, Xinbo; Ni, Xinye

    2016-12-01

    In present work condensed phosphates (P2O7(4-) and P3O10(5-)) were used as phosphate source in induction heating to deposit calcium phosphate coatings. The phase, morphology, and composition of different phosphate-related coatings were characterized and compared using XRD, FTIR, and SEM analyses. Results showed that P2O7(4-)formed calcium pyrophosphate hydrate coatings with interconnected cuboid-like particles. The as-deposited calcium tripolyphosphate hydrate coating with P3O10(5-) was mainly composed of flower-like particles assembled by plate-like crystals. The bioactivity and cytocompatibility of the coatings were also studied. Moreover, the feasibility of using hybrid phosphate sources for preparing and depositing coatings onto magnesium alloy was investigated.

  9. Activation of pyrophosphate:fructose-6-phosphate 1-phosphotransferase by fructose 2,6-bisphosphate stimulates conversion of hexose phosphates to triose phosphates but does not influence accumulation of carbohydrates in phosphate-deficient tobacco cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fernie, Alisdair R; Roscher, Albrecht; Ratcliffe, R. George; Kruger, Nicholas J

    2002-02-01

    The aim of this work was to investigate the contribution of fructose 2,6-bisphosphate to the regulation of carbohydrate metabolism under phosphate stress. The study exploited heterotrophic tobacco callus lines expressing a modified mammalian 6-phosphofructo-2-kinase/fructose 2,6-bisphosphatase that increased the fructose 2,6-bisphosphate content of the tissue. The phosphate status of two transgenic and one untransformed cell line was perturbed by incubation with 2-deoxyglucose, a phosphate-sequestering agent, and by growth of callus on phosphate-depleted media. 31P-NMR spectroscopy confirmed that both treatments decreased cellular levels of inorganic phosphate and phosphorylated metabolites. Despite large decreases in the amounts of phosphate esters, UDPglucose and adenylates in response to phosphate deficiency, the fructose 2,6-bisphosphate content of each line was unaffected by 2-deoxyglucose and increased during growth on phosphate-limited media. Short-term treatment of callus with 2-deoxyglucose had only minor effects on the carbohydrate status of each line, whereas long-term phosphate deficiency caused an increase in starch and a decrease in soluble sugar content in both transgenic and control lines. There were no consistent differences between the three callus lines in metabolism of [U-14C]glucose in response to incubation with 2-deoxyglucose. In contrast, there was a decrease in partitioning of label into glycolytic products (particularly organic acids) in untransformed callus during growth on phosphate-depleted medium. This decrease was greatly attenuated in the transgenic lines with increased fructose 2,6-bisphosphate content. This suggests that the conversion of hexose phosphates to triose phosphates is constrained under phosphate-deficient conditions, and that this restriction can be relieved by activation of pyrophosphate:fructose-6-phosphate 1-phosphotransferase. However, since the transgenic and control lines did not differ in the extent to which the

  10. Factors determining rock phosphate solubilization by microorganisms isolated from soil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nahas, E

    1996-11-01

    Forty two soil isolates (31 bacteria and 11 fungi) were studied for their ability to solubilize rock phosphate and calcium phosphate in culture medium. Eight bacteria and 8 fungi possessed solubilizing ability. Pseudomonas cepacia and Penicillium purpurogenum showed the highest activity. There was a correlation between final pH value and titratable acidity (r=-0.29 to -0.87) and between titratable acidity and soluble phosphate (r=0.22 to 0.99). Correlation values were functions of insoluble phosphate and of the group of microorganisms considered. A high correlation was observed between final pH and soluble phosphate only for the rock phosphates inoculated with the highest concentration of solubilizing bacteria (r=-0.73 to -0.98).

  11. Phosphate solubilizing bacteria and their role in plant growth promotion.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rodríguez, H; Fraga, R

    1999-10-01

    The use of phosphate solubilizing bacteria as inoculants simultaneously increases P uptake by the plant and crop yield. Strains from the genera Pseudomonas, Bacillus and Rhizobium are among the most powerful phosphate solubilizers. The principal mechanism for mineral phosphate solubilization is the production of organic acids, and acid phosphatases play a major role in the mineralization of organic phosphorous in soil. Several phosphatase-encoding genes have been cloned and characterized and a few genes involved in mineral phosphate solubilization have been isolated. Therefore, genetic manipulation of phosphate-solubilizing bacteria to improve their ability to improve plant growth may include cloning genes involved in both mineral and organic phosphate solubilization, followed by their expression in selected rhizobacterial strains. Chromosomal insertion of these genes under appropriate promoters is an interesting approach.

  12. Topotactic exchange and intercalation of calcium phosphate

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lima, Cicero B. A.; Airoldi, Claudio

    2004-11-01

    The precursor (NH 4) 2Ca(H 2PO 4) 2ṡH 2O (CaAP) compound was obtained by combining a calcium chloride solution with dibasic ammonium phosphate. After submitting it to a thermal treatment, crystalline calcium phosphate, Ca(H 2PO 4) 2ṡH 2O (CaP) was isolated. X-ray diffraction patterns for this compound indicated good crystallinity, with a peak at 2θ=12.8°, to give an interlamellar distance of 697 pm, which changed to 1550 pm, when the reaction employed phenylphosphonic acid, and to 1514 pm when intercalated with methylamine. Phosphorus and calcium analysis from colorimetric and gravimetric methods gave for CaP 24.2 and 15.8%, respectively, to yield a P:Ca molar ratio equal to two. The phosphorus nuclear magnetic resonance presented a peak centered at -1.23 ppm, in agreement with the existence of phosphate groups in protonated form. CaAP showed a mass loss of 21.2% in the 466 to 541 K interval due to ammonia and water elimination to yield Ca(PO 3) 3, and CaP can be dehydrated at 440 K for 6 h. A topotactical exchange occurred when CaP is intercalated with methylamine or reacted with phenylphosphonic acid to yield the phosphonate compound and the infrared spectrum of the resulting compound clearly showed the presence of PO 4 and PO 3 groups. The topotactic exchange was also demonstrated by X-ray diffractometry in following the stages of decomposition from 527 to 973 K.

  13. The pentose phosphate pathway and cancer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Patra, Krushna C; Hay, Nissim

    2014-08-01

    The pentose phosphate pathway (PPP), which branches from glycolysis at the first committed step of glucose metabolism, is required for the synthesis of ribonucleotides and is a major source of NADPH. NADPH is required for and consumed during fatty acid synthesis and the scavenging of reactive oxygen species (ROS). Therefore, the PPP plays a pivotal role in helping glycolytic cancer cells to meet their anabolic demands and combat oxidative stress. Recently, several neoplastic lesions were shown to have evolved to facilitate the flux of glucose into the PPP. This review summarizes the fundamental functions of the PPP, its regulation in cancer cells, and its importance in cancer cell metabolism and survival.

  14. Preparation of Porous Calcium Phosphate Bioceramic

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2005-01-01

    Porous calcium phosphate ceramics were prepared by slip casting and molding method respectively. By these two different methods, different microstructures can be got. By slip casting method, the pore size was 100- 350μm and 20- 80μm; pores were opened, interconnected and ball-like; the grain size was 2- 4 μm.By molding method, the pore size was 100-500 μm and 1-10μm; the grain size was 2-8μm. By slip casting method regular and interconnected pores can be got. By molding method the porosity and strength can be adjusted easily.

  15. Root architecture remodeling induced by phosphate starvation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sato, Aiko; Miura, Kenji

    2011-08-01

    Plants have evolved efficient strategies for utilizing nutrients in the soil in order to survive, grow, and reproduce. Inorganic phosphate (Pi) is a major macroelement source for plant growth; however, the availability and distribution of Pi are varying widely across locations. Thus, plants in many areas experience Pi deficiency. To maintain cellular Pi homeostasis, plants have developed a series of adaptive responses to facilitate external Pi acquisition, limit Pi consumption, and adjust Pi recycling internally under Pi starvation conditions. This review focuses on the molecular regulators that modulate Pi starvation-induced root architectural changes.

  16. Biogenesis of the mitochondrial phosphate carrier

    OpenAIRE

    Zara, Vincenzo; Rassow, Joachim; Wachter, Elmar; Tropschug, Maximilian; Palmieri, Ferdinando; Neupert, Walter; Pfanner, Nikolaus

    1991-01-01

    The mitochondrial phosphate carrier (PiC) is a member of the family of inner-membrane carrier proteins which are generally synthesized without a cleavable presequence. Surprisingly, the cDNA sequences of bovine and rat PiC suggested the existence of an amino-terminal extension sequence in the precursor of PiC. By expressing PiC in vitro, we found that PiC is indeed synthesized as a larger precursor. This precursor was imported and proteolytically processed by mitochondria, whereby the correct...

  17. Enriching vermicompost by nitrogen fixing and phosphate solubilizing bacteria.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kumar, V; Singh, K P

    2001-01-01

    The effect of inoculation of vermicompost with nitrogen-fixing Azotobacter chroococcum strains, Azospirillum lipoferum and the phosphate solubilizing Pseudomonas striata on N and P contents of the vermicompost was assessed. Inoculation of N2 fixing bacteria into vermicompost increased contents of N and P. Enriching vermicompost with rock phosphate improved significantly the available P when inoculated with P. striata. During the incubation period, the inoculated bacterial strains proliferated rapidly, fixed N and solubilized added and native phosphate.

  18. Calcium phosphate precipitation modeling in a pellet reactor

    OpenAIRE

    Montastruc, Ludovic; Azzaro-Pantel, Catherine; Cabassud, Michel; Biscans, Béatrice

    2002-01-01

    The calcium phosphate precipitation in a pellet reactor can be evaluated by two main parameters: the phosphate conversion ratio and the phosphate removal efficiency. The conversion ratio depends mainly on the pH. The pellet reactor efficiency depends not only on pH but also on the hydrodynamical conditions. An efficiency model based on a thermochemical precipitation approach and an orthokinetic aggregation model is presented. In this paper, the results show that optimal conditions for pellet ...

  19. PROCESS FOR THE RECOVERY OF URANIUM FROM PHOSPHATIC ORE

    Science.gov (United States)

    Long, R.L.

    1959-04-14

    A proccss is described for the recovery of uranium from phosphatic products derived from phosphatic ores. It has been discovered that certain alkyl phosphatic, derivatives can be employed in a direct solvent extraction operation to recover uranium from solid products, such as superphosphates, without first dissolving such solids. The organic extractants found suitable include alkyl derivatives of phosphoric, pyrophosphoric, phosof the derivative contains from 4 to 7 carbon atoms. A diluent such as kerosene is also used.

  20. Preparation and Characterization of Porous Calcium Phosphate Bioceramics

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Honglian Dai; Xinyu Wang; Yinchao Han; Xin Jiang; Shipu Li

    2011-01-01

    β-tricalcium phosphate (β-TCP) powder and Na2O-CaO-MgO-P2O5 glass binder were synthesized and mixed, and then the biodegradable porous calcium phosphate ceramics were successfully prepared by foaming and sintering at 850℃. The as-prepared ceramics possess a high porosity with partial three-dimension interconnected macro- and micro-pores. As in vitro experiment testified, the calcium phosphate ceramics (CPCs) has good degradability.