Spengler, Sylvia J.
There is a well-known story about the blind man examining the elephant: the part of the elephant examined determines his perception of the whole beast. Perhaps bioinformatics--the shotgun marriage between biology and mathematics, computer science, and engineering--is like an elephant that occupies a large chair in the scientific living room. Given the demand for and shortage of researchers with the computer skills to handle large volumes of biological data, where exactly does the bioinformatics elephant sit? There are probably many biologists who feel that a major product of this bioinformatics elephant is large piles of waste material. If you have tried to plow through Web sites and software packages in search of a specific tool for analyzing and collating large amounts of research data, you may well feel the same way. But there has been progress with major initiatives to develop more computing power, educate biologists about computers, increase funding, and set standards. For our purposes, bioinformatics is not simply a biologically inclined rehash of information theory (1) nor is it a hodgepodge of computer science techniques for building, updating, and accessing biological data. Rather bioinformatics incorporates both of these capabilities into a broad interdisciplinary science that involves both conceptual and practical tools for the understanding, generation, processing, and propagation of biological information. As such, bioinformatics is the sine qua non of 21st-century biology. Analyzing gene expression using cDNA microarrays immobilized on slides or other solid supports (gene chips) is set to revolutionize biology and medicine and, in so doing, generate vast quantities of data that have to be accurately interpreted (Fig. 1). As discussed at a meeting a few months ago (Microarray Algorithms and Statistical Analysis: Methods and Standards; Tahoe City, California; 9-12 November 1999), experiments with cDNA arrays must be subjected to quality control
Harris, Nomi L; Cock, Peter J A; Chapman, Brad; Fields, Christopher J; Hokamp, Karsten; Lapp, Hilmar; Muñoz-Torres, Monica; Wiencko, Heather
Message from the ISCB: The Bioinformatics Open Source Conference (BOSC) is a yearly meeting organized by the Open Bioinformatics Foundation (OBF), a non-profit group dedicated to promoting the practice and philosophy of Open Source software development and Open Science within the biological research community. BOSC has been run since 2000 as a two-day Special Interest Group (SIG) before the annual ISMB conference. The 17th annual BOSC ( http://www.open-bio.org/wiki/BOSC_2016) took place in Orlando, Florida in July 2016. As in previous years, the conference was preceded by a two-day collaborative coding event open to the bioinformatics community. The conference brought together nearly 100 bioinformatics researchers, developers and users of open source software to interact and share ideas about standards, bioinformatics software development, and open and reproducible science.
Nomi L Harris
Full Text Available The Bioinformatics Open Source Conference (BOSC is organized by the Open Bioinformatics Foundation (OBF, a nonprofit group dedicated to promoting the practice and philosophy of open source software development and open science within the biological research community. Since its inception in 2000, BOSC has provided bioinformatics developers with a forum for communicating the results of their latest efforts to the wider research community. BOSC offers a focused environment for developers and users to interact and share ideas about standards; software development practices; practical techniques for solving bioinformatics problems; and approaches that promote open science and sharing of data, results, and software. BOSC is run as a two-day special interest group (SIG before the annual Intelligent Systems in Molecular Biology (ISMB conference. BOSC 2015 took place in Dublin, Ireland, and was attended by over 125 people, about half of whom were first-time attendees. Session topics included "Data Science;" "Standards and Interoperability;" "Open Science and Reproducibility;" "Translational Bioinformatics;" "Visualization;" and "Bioinformatics Open Source Project Updates". In addition to two keynote talks and dozens of shorter talks chosen from submitted abstracts, BOSC 2015 included a panel, titled "Open Source, Open Door: Increasing Diversity in the Bioinformatics Open Source Community," that provided an opportunity for open discussion about ways to increase the diversity of participants in BOSC in particular, and in open source bioinformatics in general. The complete program of BOSC 2015 is available online at http://www.open-bio.org/wiki/BOSC_2015_Schedule.
Harris, Nomi L; Cock, Peter J A; Lapp, Hilmar; Chapman, Brad; Davey, Rob; Fields, Christopher; Hokamp, Karsten; Munoz-Torres, Monica
The Bioinformatics Open Source Conference (BOSC) is organized by the Open Bioinformatics Foundation (OBF), a nonprofit group dedicated to promoting the practice and philosophy of open source software development and open science within the biological research community. Since its inception in 2000, BOSC has provided bioinformatics developers with a forum for communicating the results of their latest efforts to the wider research community. BOSC offers a focused environment for developers and users to interact and share ideas about standards; software development practices; practical techniques for solving bioinformatics problems; and approaches that promote open science and sharing of data, results, and software. BOSC is run as a two-day special interest group (SIG) before the annual Intelligent Systems in Molecular Biology (ISMB) conference. BOSC 2015 took place in Dublin, Ireland, and was attended by over 125 people, about half of whom were first-time attendees. Session topics included "Data Science;" "Standards and Interoperability;" "Open Science and Reproducibility;" "Translational Bioinformatics;" "Visualization;" and "Bioinformatics Open Source Project Updates". In addition to two keynote talks and dozens of shorter talks chosen from submitted abstracts, BOSC 2015 included a panel, titled "Open Source, Open Door: Increasing Diversity in the Bioinformatics Open Source Community," that provided an opportunity for open discussion about ways to increase the diversity of participants in BOSC in particular, and in open source bioinformatics in general. The complete program of BOSC 2015 is available online at http://www.open-bio.org/wiki/BOSC_2015_Schedule.
Baldi, Pierre; Brunak, Søren
, and medicine will be particularly affected by the new results and the increased understanding of life at the molecular level. Bioinformatics is the development and application of computer methods for analysis, interpretation, and prediction, as well as for the design of experiments. It has emerged...
Full Text Available Abstract Background There is a need for software applications that provide users with a complete and extensible toolkit for chemo- and bioinformatics accessible from a single workbench. Commercial packages are expensive and closed source, hence they do not allow end users to modify algorithms and add custom functionality. Existing open source projects are more focused on providing a framework for integrating existing, separately installed bioinformatics packages, rather than providing user-friendly interfaces. No open source chemoinformatics workbench has previously been published, and no sucessful attempts have been made to integrate chemo- and bioinformatics into a single framework. Results Bioclipse is an advanced workbench for resources in chemo- and bioinformatics, such as molecules, proteins, sequences, spectra, and scripts. It provides 2D-editing, 3D-visualization, file format conversion, calculation of chemical properties, and much more; all fully integrated into a user-friendly desktop application. Editing supports standard functions such as cut and paste, drag and drop, and undo/redo. Bioclipse is written in Java and based on the Eclipse Rich Client Platform with a state-of-the-art plugin architecture. This gives Bioclipse an advantage over other systems as it can easily be extended with functionality in any desired direction. Conclusion Bioclipse is a powerful workbench for bio- and chemoinformatics as well as an advanced integration platform. The rich functionality, intuitive user interface, and powerful plugin architecture make Bioclipse the most advanced and user-friendly open source workbench for chemo- and bioinformatics. Bioclipse is released under Eclipse Public License (EPL, an open source license which sets no constraints on external plugin licensing; it is totally open for both open source plugins as well as commercial ones. Bioclipse is freely available at http://www.bioclipse.net.
Tao, Ying; Liu, Yang; Friedman, Carol
Information visualization techniques, which take advantage of the bandwidth of human vision, are powerful tools for organizing and analyzing a large amount of data. In the postgenomic era, information visualization tools are indispensable for biomedical research. This paper aims to present an overview of current applications of information visualization techniques in bioinformatics for visualizing different types of biological data, such as from genomics, proteomics, expression profiling and structural studies. Finally, we discuss the challenges of information visualization in bioinformatics related to dealing with more complex biological information in the emerging fields of systems biology and systems medicine. PMID:20976032
Hancock, Robert E W
While scientific methods have dominated research approaches in biology over the past decades, it is increasingly recognized that the complexity of biological systems must be addressed by a different approach, namely unbiased research involving the collection of large amounts of genome-wide information. To enable analysis of this information we and others are developing a variety of computational tools that allow bioinformaticists and wet laboratory biologists to extract novel patterns of data from these results and generate novel biological insights while generating new hypotheses for testing in the laboratory. There are two types of critical tools, databases to collate all information on biomolecules, especially interactions, and tools that reorganize information in a supervised (e.g. pathway analysis or gene ontology) or unsupervised (nonhierarchical clustering and network analysis) manner. Here we describe some of the tools we have developed and how we have used these to gain new ideas in the general area of infection and innate immunity/inflammation. In particular, it is illustrated how such analyses enable novel hypotheses about mechanisms associated with diseases and the mechanisms of action of immunomodulatory and other interventions, the definition of mechanism-based biomarkers/diagnostics, and prospective new interventions based on drug repurposing. © 2016 Nestec Ltd., Vevey/S. Karger AG, Basel.
Kanterakis, Alexandros; Kuiper, Joël; Potamias, George; Swertz, Morris A
Today researchers can choose from many bioinformatics protocols for all types of life sciences research, computational environments and coding languages. Although the majority of these are open source, few of them possess all virtues to maximize reuse and promote reproducible science. Wikipedia has proven a great tool to disseminate information and enhance collaboration between users with varying expertise and background to author qualitative content via crowdsourcing. However, it remains an open question whether the wiki paradigm can be applied to bioinformatics protocols. We piloted PyPedia, a wiki where each article is both implementation and documentation of a bioinformatics computational protocol in the python language. Hyperlinks within the wiki can be used to compose complex workflows and induce reuse. A RESTful API enables code execution outside the wiki. Initial content of PyPedia contains articles for population statistics, bioinformatics format conversions and genotype imputation. Use of the easy to learn wiki syntax effectively lowers the barriers to bring expert programmers and less computer savvy researchers on the same page. PyPedia demonstrates how wiki can provide a collaborative development, sharing and even execution environment for biologists and bioinformaticians that complement existing resources, useful for local and multi-center research teams. PyPedia is available online at: http://www.pypedia.com. The source code and installation instructions are available at: https://github.com/kantale/PyPedia_server. The PyPedia python library is available at: https://github.com/kantale/pypedia. PyPedia is open-source, available under the BSD 2-Clause License.
Accardi, L.; Freudenberg, Wolfgang; Ohya, Masanori
/ H. Kamimura -- Massive collection of full-length complementary DNA clones and microarray analyses: keys to rice transcriptome analysis / S. Kikuchi -- Changes of influenza A(H5) viruses by means of entropic chaos degree / K. Sato and M. Ohya -- Basics of genome sequence analysis in bioinformatics - its fundamental ideas and problems / T. Suzuki and S. Miyazaki -- A basic introduction to gene expression studies using microarray expression data analysis / D. Wanke and J. Kilian -- Integrating biological perspectives: a quantum leap for microarray expression analysis / D. Wanke ... [et al.].
Freudenberg, W; Ohya, M
The purpose of this volume is examine bio-informatics and quantum information, which are growing rapidly at present, and to attempt to connect the two, with a view to enumerating and solving the many fundamental problems they entail. To this end, we look for interdisciplinary bridges in mathematics, physics, and information and life sciences. In particular, research into a new paradigm for information science and life science on the basis of quantum theory is emphasized. Sample Chapter(s). Markov Fields on Graphs (599 KB). Contents: Markov Fields on Graphs (L Accardi & H Ohno); Some Aspects of
Bhunia, Gouri Sankar; Dikhit, Manas Ranjan; Kesari, Shreekant; Sahoo, Ganesh Chandra; Das, Pradeep
Visceral leishmaniasis or kala-azar is a potent parasitic infection causing death of thousands of people each year. Medicinal compounds currently available for the treatment of kala-azar have serious side effects and decreased efficacy owing to the emergence of resistant strains. The type of immune reaction is also to be considered in patients infected with Leishmania donovani (L. donovani). For complete eradication of this disease, a high level modern research is currently being applied both at the molecular level as well as at the field level. The computational approaches like remote sensing, geographical information system (GIS) and bioinformatics are the key resources for the detection and distribution of vectors, patterns, ecological and environmental factors and genomic and proteomic analysis. Novel approaches like GIS and bioinformatics have been more appropriately utilized in determining the cause of visearal leishmaniasis and in designing strategies for preventing the disease from spreading from one region to another.
Full Text Available The assessment of information transfer in the global economic network helps to understand the current environment and the outlook of an economy. Most approaches on global networks extract information transfer based mainly on a single variable. This paper establishes an entirely new bioinformatics-inspired approach to integrating information transfer derived from multiple variables and develops an international economic network accordingly. In the proposed methodology, we first construct the transfer entropies (TEs between various intra- and inter-country pairs of economic time series variables, test their significances, and then use a weighted sum approach to aggregate information captured in each TE. Through a simulation study, the new method is shown to deliver better information integration compared to existing integration methods in that it can be applied even when intra-country variables are correlated. Empirical investigation with the real world data reveals that Western countries are more influential in the global economic network and that Japan has become less influential following the Asian currency crisis.
Kim, Jinkyu; Kim, Gunn; An, Sungbae; Kwon, Young-Kyun; Yoon, Sungroh
The assessment of information transfer in the global economic network helps to understand the current environment and the outlook of an economy. Most approaches on global networks extract information transfer based mainly on a single variable. This paper establishes an entirely new bioinformatics-inspired approach to integrating information transfer derived from multiple variables and develops an international economic network accordingly. In the proposed methodology, we first construct the transfer entropies (TEs) between various intra- and inter-country pairs of economic time series variables, test their significances, and then use a weighted sum approach to aggregate information captured in each TE. Through a simulation study, the new method is shown to deliver better information integration compared to existing integration methods in that it can be applied even when intra-country variables are correlated. Empirical investigation with the real world data reveals that Western countries are more influential in the global economic network and that Japan has become less influential following the Asian currency crisis.
Egea, Jose A; Henriques, David; Cokelaer, Thomas; Villaverde, Alejandro F; MacNamara, Aidan; Danciu, Diana-Patricia; Banga, Julio R; Saez-Rodriguez, Julio
Optimization is the key to solving many problems in computational biology. Global optimization methods, which provide a robust methodology, and metaheuristics in particular have proven to be the most efficient methods for many applications. Despite their utility, there is a limited availability of metaheuristic tools. We present MEIGO, an R and Matlab optimization toolbox (also available in Python via a wrapper of the R version), that implements metaheuristics capable of solving diverse problems arising in systems biology and bioinformatics. The toolbox includes the enhanced scatter search method (eSS) for continuous nonlinear programming (cNLP) and mixed-integer programming (MINLP) problems, and variable neighborhood search (VNS) for Integer Programming (IP) problems. Additionally, the R version includes BayesFit for parameter estimation by Bayesian inference. The eSS and VNS methods can be run on a single-thread or in parallel using a cooperative strategy. The code is supplied under GPLv3 and is available at http://www.iim.csic.es/~gingproc/meigo.html. Documentation and examples are included. The R package has been submitted to BioConductor. We evaluate MEIGO against optimization benchmarks, and illustrate its applicability to a series of case studies in bioinformatics and systems biology where it outperforms other state-of-the-art methods. MEIGO provides a free, open-source platform for optimization that can be applied to multiple domains of systems biology and bioinformatics. It includes efficient state of the art metaheuristics, and its open and modular structure allows the addition of further methods.
Agha Faisal Habib Pathan
Full Text Available This paper addresses the significance of traveller information sources including mono-modal and multimodal websites for travel decisions. The research follows a decision paradigm developed earlier, involving an information acquisition process for travel choices, and identifies the abstract characteristics of new information sources that deserve further investigation (e.g. by incorporating these in models and studying their significance in model estimation. A Stated Preference experiment is developed and the utility functions are formulated by expanding the travellers' choice set to include different combinations of sources of information. In order to study the underlying choice mechanisms, the resulting variables are examined in models based on different behavioural strategies, including utility maximisation and minimising the regret associated with the foregone alternatives. This research confirmed that RRM (Random Regret Minimisation Theory can fruitfully be used and can provide important insights for behavioural studies. The study also analyses the properties of travel planning websites and establishes a link between travel choices and the content, provenance, design, presence of advertisements, and presentation of information. The results indicate that travellers give particular credence to governmentowned sources and put more importance on their own previous experiences than on any other single source of information. Information from multimodal websites is more influential than that on train-only websites. This in turn is more influential than information from friends, while information from coachonly websites is the least influential. A website with less search time, specific information on users' own criteria, and real time information is regarded as most attractive
Vercruysse, L.; Smagghe, G.; Bent, van der A.; Amerongen, van A.; Ongenaert, M.; Camp, van J.
A bioinformatics analysis to screen for high-potential sources of angiotensin converting enzyme (ACE) inhibitory peptides was conducted in the area of insect muscle proteins. Vertebrate muscle proteins are reported as good sources of ACE inhibitory peptides, while the research on invertebrate muscle
The article briefly presents and discusses 12 different approaches to the evaluation of information sources (for example a Wikipedia entry or a journal article): (1) the checklist approach; (2) classical peer review; (3) modified peer review; (4) evaluation based on examining the coverage...
Fenwick, Matthew; Sesanker, Colbert; Schiller, Martin R; Ellis, Heidi Jc; Hinman, M Lee; Vyas, Jay; Gryk, Michael R
Scientists are continually faced with the need to express complex mathematical notions in code. The renaissance of functional languages such as LISP and Haskell is often credited to their ability to implement complex data operations and mathematical constructs in an expressive and natural idiom. The slow adoption of functional computing in the scientific community does not, however, reflect the congeniality of these fields. Unfortunately, the learning curve for adoption of functional programming techniques is steeper than that for more traditional languages in the scientific community, such as Python and Java, and this is partially due to the relative sparseness of available learning resources. To fill this gap, we demonstrate and provide applied, scientifically substantial examples of functional programming, We present a multi-language source-code repository for software integration and algorithm development, which generally focuses on the fields of machine learning, data processing, bioinformatics. We encourage scientists who are interested in learning the basics of functional programming to adopt, reuse, and learn from these examples. The source code is available at: https://github.com/CONNJUR/CONNJUR-Sandbox (see also http://www.connjur.org).
Vera, Roberto; Perez-Riverol, Yasset; Perez, Sonia; Ligeti, Balázs; Kertész-Farkas, Attila; Pongor, Sándor
The Java BioWareHouse (JBioWH) project is an open-source platform-independent programming framework that allows a user to build his/her own integrated database from the most popular data sources. JBioWH can be used for intensive querying of multiple data sources and the creation of streamlined task-specific data sets on local PCs. JBioWH is based on a MySQL relational database scheme and includes JAVA API parser functions for retrieving data from 20 public databases (e.g. NCBI, KEGG, etc.). It also includes a client desktop application for (non-programmer) users to query data. In addition, JBioWH can be tailored for use in specific circumstances, including the handling of massive queries for high-throughput analyses or CPU intensive calculations. The framework is provided with complete documentation and application examples and it can be downloaded from the Project Web site at http://code.google.com/p/jbiowh. A MySQL server is available for demonstration purposes at hydrax.icgeb.trieste.it:3307. Database URL: http://code.google.com/p/jbiowh.
Tenenbaum, Jessica D; Bhuvaneshwar, Krithika; Gagliardi, Jane P; Fultz Hollis, Kate; Jia, Peilin; Ma, Liang; Nagarajan, Radhakrishnan; Rakesh, Gopalkumar; Subbian, Vignesh; Visweswaran, Shyam; Zhao, Zhongming; Rozenblit, Leon
Mental illness is increasingly recognized as both a significant cost to society and a significant area of opportunity for biological breakthrough. As -omics and imaging technologies enable researchers to probe molecular and physiological underpinnings of multiple diseases, opportunities arise to explore the biological basis for behavioral health and disease. From individual investigators to large international consortia, researchers have generated rich data sets in the area of mental health, including genomic, transcriptomic, metabolomic, proteomic, clinical and imaging resources. General data repositories such as the Gene Expression Omnibus (GEO) and Database of Genotypes and Phenotypes (dbGaP) and mental health (MH)-specific initiatives, such as the Psychiatric Genomics Consortium, MH Research Network and PsychENCODE represent a wealth of information yet to be gleaned. At the same time, novel approaches to integrate and analyze data sets are enabling important discoveries in the area of mental and behavioral health. This review will discuss and catalog into an organizing framework the increasingly diverse set of MH data resources available, using schizophrenia as a focus area, and will describe novel and integrative approaches to molecular biomarker discovery that make use of mental health data. © The Author 2017. Published by Oxford University Press.
Andrew B. Kinghorn
Full Text Available Aptamers are short nucleic acid sequences capable of specific, high-affinity molecular binding. They are isolated via SELEX (Systematic Evolution of Ligands by Exponential Enrichment, an evolutionary process that involves iterative rounds of selection and amplification before sequencing and aptamer characterization. As aptamers are genetic in nature, bioinformatic approaches have been used to improve both aptamers and their selection. This review will discuss the advancements made in several enclaves of aptamer bioinformatics, including simulation of aptamer selection, fragment-based aptamer design, patterning of libraries, identification of lead aptamers from high-throughput sequencing (HTS data and in silico aptamer optimization.
Robert L. Wiegel
Full Text Available I have expanded substantially my list of information sources on: tsunami generation (sources, impulsive mechanisms, propagation, effects of nearshore bathymetry, and wave run-up on shore - including physical (hydraulic modeling and numerical modeling. This expanded list includes the subjects of field investigations of tsunamis soon after an event; damage effects in harbors on boats, ships, and facilities; tsunami wave-induced forces; damage by tsunami waves to structures on shore; scour/erosion; hazard mitigation; land use planning; zoning; siting, design, construction and maintenance of structures and infrastructure; public awareness and education; distant and local sources; tsunami warning and evacuation programs; tsunami probability and risk criteria. A few references are on "sedimentary signatures" useful in the study of historic and prehistoric tsunamis (paleo-tsunamis. In addition to references specifically on tsunamis, there are references on long water wave and solitary wave theory; wave refraction, diffraction, and reflection; shelf and basin free and forced oscillations (bay and harbor response; seiches; edge waves; Mach- reflection of long water waves ("stem waves"; wave run-up on shore; energy dissipation. All are important in understanding tsunamis, and in hazard mitigation. References are given on subaerial and submarine landslide (and rockfall generated waves in reservoirs, fjords, bays, and ocean; volcano explosive eruptions/collapse; underwater and surface explosions; asteroid impact. This report is in two parts: 1 Bibliographies, books and pamphlets, catalogs, collections, journals and newsletters, maps, organizations, proceedings, videos and photos; 2 Articles, papers, reports listed alphabetically by author.Many papers on the Indian Ocean (Sumatra tsunami of 26 December 2004, were given at the 22nd IUGG International Tsunami Symposium, Chania, Crete, 27-29 June 2005, but had not been published at the date of this report. For
Kortsarts, Yana; Morris, Robert W.; Utell, Janine M.
Bioinformatics is a relatively new interdisciplinary field that integrates computer science, mathematics, biology, and information technology to manage, analyze, and understand biological, biochemical and biophysical information. We present our experience in teaching an interdisciplinary course, Introduction to Bioinformatics, which was developed…
Based on the example of economic research, the method outlined permits the drawing up of a typology of Social Science information sources. Resources are grouped in four categories: organizational framework, reference sources, periodicals, and information services. (Author/JAB)
Mihalas, George I; Tudor, Anca; Paralescu, Sorin; Andor, Minodora; Stoicu-Tivadar, Lacramioara
The paper refers to our methodology and experience in establishing the content of the course in bioinformatics introduced to the school of "Information Systems in Healthcare" (SIIS), master level. The syllabi of both lectures and laboratory works are presented and discussed.
Qureshi, Pir Abdul Rasool; Memon, Nasrullah; Wiil, Uffe Kock
The abundance of information regarding any topic makes the Internet a very good resource. Even though searching the Internet is very easy, what remains difficult is to automate the process of information extraction from the available online information due to the lack of structure and the diversity...... in the sharing methods. Most of the times, information is stored in different proprietary formats, complying with different standards and protocols which makes tasks like data mining and information harvesting very difficult. In this paper, an information harvesting tool (heteroHarvest) is presented...... with objectives to address these problems by filtering the useful information and then normalizing the information in a singular non hypertext format. We also discuss state of the art tools along with the shortcomings and present the results of an analysis carried out over different heterogeneous formats along...
Baty, Samuel R. [Los Alamos National Lab. (LANL), Los Alamos, NM (United States). Intelligence and Systems Analysis
These are a set of slides on the efficient utilization of open source information. Open source information consists of a vast set of information from a variety of sources. Not only does the quantity of open source information pose a problem, the quality of such information can hinder efforts. To show this, two case studies are mentioned: Iran and North Korea, in order to see how open source information can be utilized. The huge breadth and depth of open source information can complicate an analysis, especially because open information has no guarantee of accuracy. Open source information can provide key insights either directly or indirectly: looking at supporting factors (flow of scientists, products and waste from mines, government budgets, etc.); direct factors (statements, tests, deployments). Fundamentally, it is the independent verification of information that allows for a more complete picture to be formed. Overlapping sources allow for more precise bounds on times, weights, temperatures, yields or other issues of interest in order to determine capability. Ultimately, a "good" answer almost never comes from an individual, but rather requires the utilization of a wide range of skill sets held by a team of people.
Johnson, Kathy A.
For the purpose of this paper, bioinformatics is defined as the application of computer technology to the management of biological information. It can be thought of as the science of developing computer databases and algorithms to facilitate and expedite biological research. This is a crosscutting capability that supports nearly all human health areas ranging from computational modeling, to pharmacodynamics research projects, to decision support systems within autonomous medical care. Bioinformatics serves to increase the efficiency and effectiveness of the life sciences research program. It provides data, information, and knowledge capture which further supports management of the bioastronautics research roadmap - identifying gaps that still remain and enabling the determination of which risks have been addressed.
Wei, Dongqing; Zhao, Tangzhen; Dai, Hao
This text examines in detail mathematical and physical modeling, computational methods and systems for obtaining and analyzing biological structures, using pioneering research cases as examples. As such, it emphasizes programming and problem-solving skills. It provides information on structure bioinformatics at various levels, with individual chapters covering introductory to advanced aspects, from fundamental methods and guidelines on acquiring and analyzing genomics and proteomics sequences, the structures of protein, DNA and RNA, to the basics of physical simulations and methods for conform
Apr 28, 1990 ... Credit Services. Internal Audit Services. Any other management duties. Total. 38. 36. 35. 30. 34. 32. 205. 18.5. 17.6. 17.1. 19.6. 16.6. 15.6. 100. Source: Field Data, 2002. Level of Accessibility of Information Sources. In order to elicit responses on the accessibility of information required, respondents were.
This work which focused on the policy-makers/administrators as information users was carried out using hundred (100) questionnaire in order to ascertain the information needs, sources and information seeking behaviour of the administrators. The barrier to information flow to them was also identified. The study adopted a ...
Margie A. Nolasco; Jonathan Dela Cruz
Tourism has benefits not just for travelers, but also to the local economy. Since, Bicol Region has natural and cultural attractions; it is a potential travel destination in the country. Technology in delivering information sources played vital role for the success of the tourism industry in the Region. This allows travel enthusiasts to get more information about various tourist attractions. This paper analyzes the effectiveness of delivering information sources such as web advert...
they buying information materials on the assumption that their are adequately qualified did not need to look for any more information. Lack of and/or limited financial resources in addition limited private service providers' access to most information sources notably internet as most of them reported that it was unaffordable.
Zhang, Zhang; Cheung, Kei-Hoi; Townsend, Jeffrey P
Enabling deft data integration from numerous, voluminous and heterogeneous data sources is a major bioinformatic challenge. Several approaches have been proposed to address this challenge, including data warehousing and federated databasing. Yet despite the rise of these approaches, integration of data from multiple sources remains problematic and toilsome. These two approaches follow a user-to-computer communication model for data exchange, and do not facilitate a broader concept of data sharing or collaboration among users. In this report, we discuss the potential of Web 2.0 technologies to transcend this model and enhance bioinformatics research. We propose a Web 2.0-based Scientific Social Community (SSC) model for the implementation of these technologies. By establishing a social, collective and collaborative platform for data creation, sharing and integration, we promote a web services-based pipeline featuring web services for computer-to-computer data exchange as users add value. This pipeline aims to simplify data integration and creation, to realize automatic analysis, and to facilitate reuse and sharing of data. SSC can foster collaboration and harness collective intelligence to create and discover new knowledge. In addition to its research potential, we also describe its potential role as an e-learning platform in education. We discuss lessons from information technology, predict the next generation of Web (Web 3.0), and describe its potential impact on the future of bioinformatics studies.
Wood, Craig [Sandia National Lab. (SNL-NM), Albuquerque, NM (United States); Halpern, Jonathan [Sandia National Lab. (SNL-NM), Albuquerque, NM (United States); Wrons, Ralph [Sandia National Lab. (SNL-NM), Albuquerque, NM (United States); Reiser, Anita [Sandia National Lab. (SNL-NM), Albuquerque, NM (United States); Mond, Michael du [Sandia National Lab. (SNL-NM), Albuquerque, NM (United States); Shain, Matthew [Sandia National Lab. (SNL-NM), Albuquerque, NM (United States)
This Supplemental Information Source Document for Waste Management was prepared in support of future analyses including those that may be performed as part of the Sandia National Laboratories, New Mexico (SNL/NM) Site-Wide Environmental Impact Statement. This document presents information about waste management practices at SNL/NM, including definitions, inventory data, and an overview of current activities.
Extension of integrated pest management (IPM) as a component of sustainable agricultural development, involves empowering farmers. Facilitating the information accessibility of farmer groups seems as empowerment strategy. This strategy is based on identification of related patterns, including information sources and ...
Sopna M Choudhury
Full Text Available Qatar is experiencing rapid population expansion with increasing demands on healthcare services for both acute and chronic conditions. Sourcing accurate information about health conditions is crucial, yet the methods used for sourcing health information in Qatar are currently unknown. Gaining a better understanding of the sources the Qatari population use to recognize and manage health and/or disease will help to develop strategies to educate individuals about existing and emerging health problems.To investigate the methods used by the Qatari population to source health information. We hypothesized that the Internet would be a key service used to access health information by the Qatari population.A researcher-led questionnaire was used to collect information from Qatari adults, aged 18-85 years. Participants were approached in shopping centers and public places in Doha, the capital city of Qatar. The questionnaire was used to ascertain information concerning demographics, health status, and utilization of health care services during the past year as well as sources of health information used.Data from a total of 394 eligible participants were included. The Internet was widely used for seeking health information among the Qatari population (71.1%. A greater proportion of Qatari females (78.7% reported searching for health-related information using the Internet compared to Qatari males (60.8%. Other commonly used sources were family and friends (37.8% and Primary Health Care Centers (31.2%. Google was the most commonly used search engine (94.8%. Gender, age and education levels were all significant predictors of Internet use for heath information (P<0.001 for all predictors. Females were 2.9 times more likely than males (P<0.001 and people educated to university or college level were 3.03 times more likely (P<0.001 to use the Internet for heath information.The Internet is a widely used source to obtain health-related information by the Qatari
Ravichandra Rao, I.K.
With the rapid development in IT and the emergence of Internet, a multitude of information sources are now available on electronic media. They include e-journals and other electronic publications - online databases, reference documents, newspapers, magazines, etc. In addition to these online sources, there are thousands of CD-ROM databases. The CD-ROM databases and the online sources are collectively referred to as electronic sources of information. Libraries in no part of the world can afford to ignore these sources. Emergence of these new sources has resulted into a change in the traditional library functions including collection development, acquisitions, cataloguing, user instructions, etc. It is inevitable that in the next five to ten years, special libraries may have to allocate considerable amount towards subscription of e-journals and other e-publications. The papers in this seminar volume discuss several aspects related the theme of the seminar and cover e-journals, different sources available in the Net, classification of electronic sources, online public access catalogues, and different aspects of Internet. Papers relevant to INIS are indexed separately
Derczynski, Leon; Field, Camilla Vilhelmsen; Bøgh, Kenneth Sejdenfaden
Danish is a major Scandinavian language spoken daily by around six million people. However, it lacks a unified, open set of NLP tools. This demonstration will introduce DKIE, an extensible open-source toolkit for processing Danish text. We implement an information extraction architecture for Danish...
Nizamani, Sarwat; Memon, Nasrullah; Shah, Azhar Ali
In this paper, we present a method of crime analysis from open source information. We employed un-supervised methods of data mining to explore the facts regarding the crimes of an area of interest. The analysis is based on well known clustering and association techniques. The results show...
, and software are also key parts of flow cytometry bioinformatics. Data standards include the widely adopted Flow Cytometry Standard (FCS defining how data from cytometers should be stored, but also several new standards under development by the International Society for Advancement of Cytometry (ISAC to aid in storing more detailed information about experimental design and analytical steps. Open data is slowly growing with the opening of the CytoBank database in 2010 and FlowRepository in 2012, both of which allow users to freely distribute their data, and the latter of which has been recommended as the preferred repository for MIFlowCyt-compliant data by ISAC. Open software is most widely available in the form of a suite of Bioconductor packages, but is also available for web execution on the GenePattern platform.
Christopher L Williams
Full Text Available Objective: Within the information technology (IT industry, best practices and standards are constantly evolving and being refined. In contrast, computer technology utilized within the healthcare industry often evolves at a glacial pace, with reduced opportunities for justified innovation. Although the use of timely technology refreshes within an enterprise′s overall technology stack can be costly, thoughtful adoption of select technologies with a demonstrated return on investment can be very effective in increasing productivity and at the same time, reducing the burden of maintenance often associated with older and legacy systems. In this brief technical communication, we introduce the concept of microservices as applied to the ecosystem of data analysis pipelines. Microservice architecture is a framework for dividing complex systems into easily managed parts. Each individual service is limited in functional scope, thereby conferring a higher measure of functional isolation and reliability to the collective solution. Moreover, maintenance challenges are greatly simplified by virtue of the reduced architectural complexity of each constitutive module. This fact notwithstanding, rendered overall solutions utilizing a microservices-based approach provide equal or greater levels of functionality as compared to conventional programming approaches. Bioinformatics, with its ever-increasing demand for performance and new testing algorithms, is the perfect use-case for such a solution. Moreover, if promulgated within the greater development community as an open-source solution, such an approach holds potential to be transformative to current bioinformatics software development. Context: Bioinformatics relies on nimble IT framework which can adapt to changing requirements. Aims: To present a well-established software design and deployment strategy as a solution for current challenges within bioinformatics Conclusions: Use of the microservices framework
Bioinformatics is a scientific discipline that applies computer science and information technology to help understand biological processes. The NIH provides a list of free online bioinformatics tutorials, either generated by the NIH Library or other institutes, which includes introductory lectures and "how to" videos on using various tools.
Maloney, Mark; Parker, Jeffrey; LeBlanc, Mark; Woodard, Craig T.; Glackin, Mary; Hanrahan, Michael
Recent advances involving high-throughput techniques for data generation and analysis have made familiarity with basic bioinformatics concepts and programs a necessity in the biological sciences. Undergraduate students increasingly need training in methods related to finding and retrieving information stored in vast databases. The rapid rise of…
Margie A. Nolasco
Full Text Available Tourism has benefits not just for travelers, but also to the local economy. Since, Bicol Region has natural and cultural attractions; it is a potential travel destination in the country. Technology in delivering information sources played vital role for the success of the tourism industry in the Region. This allows travel enthusiasts to get more information about various tourist attractions. This paper analyzes the effectiveness of delivering information sources such as web advertisement and desktop publishing for tourist promotion in the Bicol Region. Specifically, it determined the status of tourism, and identified common forms of promotions for tourism development. The study adopted mixed method of research. This method was utilized to confirm and validate findings. Interviews and focus group discussions were used to gather data from the respondents of the selected Local Government Units, Department of Tourism, Travel Agencies and Hotel Agents in the Region. Based on the findings, of the total foreign visitors in the country, only 9.14% visited Bicol Region in 2014. That is why, domestic tourist showed high percentage against foreign visitors with 25.7%. Brochures with EZ maps as most commonly used desktop publishing materials and websites and social media for web advertisement. Thus, there is a need to reevaluate promotional activities by the DOT and other agencies. Adoption suggestive features for creative desktop publishing materials and web services should be considered to increase tourist visitors in the Region.
Dai, Lin; Gao, Xin; Guo, Yan; Xiao, Jingfa; Zhang, Zhang
As advances in life sciences and information technology bring profound influences on bioinformatics due to its interdisciplinary nature, bioinformatics is experiencing a new leap-forward from in-house computing infrastructure into utility-supplied cloud computing delivered over the Internet, in order to handle the vast quantities of biological data generated by high-throughput experimental technologies. Albeit relatively new, cloud computing promises to address big data storage and analysis issues in the bioinformatics field. Here we review extant cloud-based services in bioinformatics, classify them into Data as a Service (DaaS), Software as a Service (SaaS), Platform as a Service (PaaS), and Infrastructure as a Service (IaaS), and present our perspectives on the adoption of cloud computing in bioinformatics. This article was reviewed by Frank Eisenhaber, Igor Zhulin, and Sandor Pongor.
Full Text Available Abstract As advances in life sciences and information technology bring profound influences on bioinformatics due to its interdisciplinary nature, bioinformatics is experiencing a new leap-forward from in-house computing infrastructure into utility-supplied cloud computing delivered over the Internet, in order to handle the vast quantities of biological data generated by high-throughput experimental technologies. Albeit relatively new, cloud computing promises to address big data storage and analysis issues in the bioinformatics field. Here we review extant cloud-based services in bioinformatics, classify them into Data as a Service (DaaS, Software as a Service (SaaS, Platform as a Service (PaaS, and Infrastructure as a Service (IaaS, and present our perspectives on the adoption of cloud computing in bioinformatics. Reviewers This article was reviewed by Frank Eisenhaber, Igor Zhulin, and Sandor Pongor.
Abstract As advances in life sciences and information technology bring profound influences on bioinformatics due to its interdisciplinary nature, bioinformatics is experiencing a new leap-forward from in-house computing infrastructure into utility-supplied cloud computing delivered over the Internet, in order to handle the vast quantities of biological data generated by high-throughput experimental technologies. Albeit relatively new, cloud computing promises to address big data storage and analysis issues in the bioinformatics field. Here we review extant cloud-based services in bioinformatics, classify them into Data as a Service (DaaS), Software as a Service (SaaS), Platform as a Service (PaaS), and Infrastructure as a Service (IaaS), and present our perspectives on the adoption of cloud computing in bioinformatics. Reviewers This article was reviewed by Frank Eisenhaber, Igor Zhulin, and Sandor Pongor. PMID:23190475
As advances in life sciences and information technology bring profound influences on bioinformatics due to its interdisciplinary nature, bioinformatics is experiencing a new leap-forward from in-house computing infrastructure into utility-supplied cloud computing delivered over the Internet, in order to handle the vast quantities of biological data generated by high-throughput experimental technologies. Albeit relatively new, cloud computing promises to address big data storage and analysis issues in the bioinformatics field. Here we review extant cloud-based services in bioinformatics, classify them into Data as a Service (DaaS), Software as a Service (SaaS), Platform as a Service (PaaS), and Infrastructure as a Service (IaaS), and present our perspectives on the adoption of cloud computing in bioinformatics.This article was reviewed by Frank Eisenhaber, Igor Zhulin, and Sandor Pongor. 2012 Dai et al.; licensee BioMed Central Ltd.
Fuller, Jonathan C; Khoueiry, Pierre; Dinkel, Holger; Forslund, Kristoffer; Stamatakis, Alexandros; Barry, Joseph; Budd, Aidan; Soldatos, Theodoros G; Linssen, Katja; Rajput, Abdul Mateen
The third Heidelberg Unseminars in Bioinformatics (HUB) was held on 18th October 2012, at Heidelberg University, Germany. HUB brought together around 40 bioinformaticians from academia and industry to discuss the 'Biggest Challenges in Bioinformatics' in a 'World Café' style event.
Fuller, Jonathan C; Khoueiry, Pierre; Dinkel, Holger; Forslund, Kristoffer; Stamatakis, Alexandros; Barry, Joseph; Budd, Aidan; Soldatos, Theodoros G; Linssen, Katja; Rajput, Abdul Mateen
The third Heidelberg Unseminars in Bioinformatics (HUB) was held in October at Heidelberg University in Germany. HUB brought together around 40 bioinformaticians from academia and industry to discuss the ‘Biggest Challenges in Bioinformatics' in a ‘World Café' style event.
Mohling, R. A.; Hufferd, W. L.; Marquardt, E. D.
It is commonly known that cryogenic data, technology, and information are applied across many military, National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA), and civilian product lines. Before 1950, however, there was no centralized US source of cryogenic technology data. The Cryogenic Data Center of the National Bureau of Standards (NBS) maintained a database of cryogenic technical documents that served the national need well from the mid 1950s to the early 1980s. The database, maintained on a mainframe computer, was a highly specific bibliography of cryogenic literature and thermophysical properties that covered over 100 years of data. In 1983, however, the Cryogenic Data Center was discontinued when NBS's mission and scope were redefined. In 1998, NASA contracted with the Chemical Propulsion Information Agency (CPIA) and Technology Applications, Inc. (TAI) to reconstitute and update Cryogenic Data Center information and establish a self-sufficient entity to provide technical services for the cryogenic community. The Cryogenic Information Center (CIC) provided this service until 2004, when it was discontinued due to a lack of market interest. The CIC technical assets were distributed to NASA Marshall Space Flight Center and the National Institute of Standards and Technology. Plans are under way in 2006 for CPIA to launch an e-commerce cryogenic website to offer bibliography data with capability to download cryogenic documents.
Pallen, Mark J
Microbial bioinformatics in 2020 will remain a vibrant, creative discipline, adding value to the ever-growing flood of new sequence data, while embracing novel technologies and fresh approaches. Databases and search strategies will struggle to cope and manual curation will not be sustainable during the scale-up to the million-microbial-genome era. Microbial taxonomy will have to adapt to a situation in which most microorganisms are discovered and characterised through the analysis of sequences. Genome sequencing will become a routine approach in clinical and research laboratories, with fresh demands for interpretable user-friendly outputs. The "internet of things" will penetrate healthcare systems, so that even a piece of hospital plumbing might have its own IP address that can be integrated with pathogen genome sequences. Microbiome mania will continue, but the tide will turn from molecular barcoding towards metagenomics. Crowd-sourced analyses will collide with cloud computing, but eternal vigilance will be the price of preventing the misinterpretation and overselling of microbial sequence data. Output from hand-held sequencers will be analysed on mobile devices. Open-source training materials will address the need for the development of a skilled labour force. As we boldly go into the third decade of the twenty-first century, microbial sequence space will remain the final frontier! © 2016 The Author. Microbial Biotechnology published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd and Society for Applied Microbiology.
Ashley, W. R., III
share crucial investigative information across jurisdictional bounds by establishing a communications infrastructure for all of its law enforcement jurisdictions. The Criminal Justice Network (CJ-Net) is a statewide TCP/IP network, dedicated to the sharing of law enforcement information. CJ-Net is managed and maintained by the Florida Department of Law Enforcement (FDLE) and provides open access and privileges to any criminal justice agency, including the state court and penitentiary systems. In addition to Florida, other states, such as North Carolina, are also beginning to implement common protocol communication infrastructures and architectures in order to link local jurisdictions together throughout the state. The law enforcement domain in an optimum situation for information-sharing technologies. Communication infrastructures are continually established, and as such, action is required to effectively use these networks to their full potential. Information technologies that are best suited for the law enforcement domain, must be evaluated and implemented in a cost-effective manner. Unlike the Defense Department and other large federal agencies, individual jurisdictions at both the local and state level cannot afford to expend limited resources on research and development of prototype systems. Therefore, we must identify enabling technologies that have matured in related domains and transition them into law enforcement at a minimum cost. Crucial to this measure, is the selection of the appropriate levels of information-sharing technologies to be inserted. Information-sharing technologies that are unproven or have extensive recurring costs are not suitable for this domain. Information-sharing technologies traditionally exist between two distinct polar bounds: the data warehousing approach and mediation across distributed heterogeneous data sources. These two ends of the spectrum represent extremely different philosophies in accomplishing the same goal. In the
To communicate information on chemical pollution health risks effectively, policy makers must know population source of information and the confidence level in ... sources of information about health risks posed by chemicals pollution, confidence in these information sources, responsibility for public health risk protection ...
Researchers take on challenges and opportunities to mine "Big Data" for answers to complex biological questions. Learn how bioinformatics uses advanced computing, mathematics, and technological platforms to store, manage, analyze, and understand data.
Fatumo, Segun A.; Adoga, Moses P.; Ojo, Opeolu O.; Oluwagbemi, Olugbenga; Adeoye, Tolulope; Ewejobi, Itunuoluwa; Adebiyi, Marion; Adebiyi, Ezekiel; Bewaji, Clement; Nashiru, Oyekanmi
Over the past few decades, major advances in the field of molecular biology, coupled with advances in genomic technologies, have led to an explosive growth in the biological data generated by the scientific community. The critical need to process and analyze such a deluge of data and turn it into useful knowledge has caused bioinformatics to gain prominence and importance. Bioinformatics is an interdisciplinary research area that applies techniques, methodologies, and tools in computer and information science to solve biological problems. In Nigeria, bioinformatics has recently played a vital role in the advancement of biological sciences. As a developing country, the importance of bioinformatics is rapidly gaining acceptance, and bioinformatics groups comprised of biologists, computer scientists, and computer engineers are being constituted at Nigerian universities and research institutes. In this article, we present an overview of bioinformatics education and research in Nigeria. We also discuss professional societies and academic and research institutions that play central roles in advancing the discipline in Nigeria. Finally, we propose strategies that can bolster bioinformatics education and support from policy makers in Nigeria, with potential positive implications for other developing countries. PMID:24763310
Segun A Fatumo
Full Text Available Over the past few decades, major advances in the field of molecular biology, coupled with advances in genomic technologies, have led to an explosive growth in the biological data generated by the scientific community. The critical need to process and analyze such a deluge of data and turn it into useful knowledge has caused bioinformatics to gain prominence and importance. Bioinformatics is an interdisciplinary research area that applies techniques, methodologies, and tools in computer and information science to solve biological problems. In Nigeria, bioinformatics has recently played a vital role in the advancement of biological sciences. As a developing country, the importance of bioinformatics is rapidly gaining acceptance, and bioinformatics groups comprised of biologists, computer scientists, and computer engineers are being constituted at Nigerian universities and research institutes. In this article, we present an overview of bioinformatics education and research in Nigeria. We also discuss professional societies and academic and research institutions that play central roles in advancing the discipline in Nigeria. Finally, we propose strategies that can bolster bioinformatics education and support from policy makers in Nigeria, with potential positive implications for other developing countries.
Fatumo, Segun A; Adoga, Moses P; Ojo, Opeolu O; Oluwagbemi, Olugbenga; Adeoye, Tolulope; Ewejobi, Itunuoluwa; Adebiyi, Marion; Adebiyi, Ezekiel; Bewaji, Clement; Nashiru, Oyekanmi
Over the past few decades, major advances in the field of molecular biology, coupled with advances in genomic technologies, have led to an explosive growth in the biological data generated by the scientific community. The critical need to process and analyze such a deluge of data and turn it into useful knowledge has caused bioinformatics to gain prominence and importance. Bioinformatics is an interdisciplinary research area that applies techniques, methodologies, and tools in computer and information science to solve biological problems. In Nigeria, bioinformatics has recently played a vital role in the advancement of biological sciences. As a developing country, the importance of bioinformatics is rapidly gaining acceptance, and bioinformatics groups comprised of biologists, computer scientists, and computer engineers are being constituted at Nigerian universities and research institutes. In this article, we present an overview of bioinformatics education and research in Nigeria. We also discuss professional societies and academic and research institutions that play central roles in advancing the discipline in Nigeria. Finally, we propose strategies that can bolster bioinformatics education and support from policy makers in Nigeria, with potential positive implications for other developing countries.
Min, Seonwoo; Lee, Byunghan; Yoon, Sungroh
In the era of big data, transformation of biomedical big data into valuable knowledge has been one of the most important challenges in bioinformatics. Deep learning has advanced rapidly since the early 2000s and now demonstrates state-of-the-art performance in various fields. Accordingly, application of deep learning in bioinformatics to gain insight from data has been emphasized in both academia and industry. Here, we review deep learning in bioinformatics, presenting examples of current research. To provide a useful and comprehensive perspective, we categorize research both by the bioinformatics domain (i.e. omics, biomedical imaging, biomedical signal processing) and deep learning architecture (i.e. deep neural networks, convolutional neural networks, recurrent neural networks, emergent architectures) and present brief descriptions of each study. Additionally, we discuss theoretical and practical issues of deep learning in bioinformatics and suggest future research directions. We believe that this review will provide valuable insights and serve as a starting point for researchers to apply deep learning approaches in their bioinformatics studies. © The Author 2016. Published by Oxford University Press. All rights reserved. For Permissions, please email: email@example.com.
Pierce, John C.; And Others
Examines environmental information source reliance among American and Japanese citizens. Finds that the Japanese are inclined to rely on non-mass media sources, whereas Americans exhibit greater differentiation among sources. (RS)
Alaoui, Adil; Ingeholm, Mary Lou; Padh, Shilpa; Dorobantu, Mihai; Desai, Mihir; Cleary, Kevin; Mun, Seong K.
The Information Management Toolkit (ImTK) Consortium is an open source initiative to develop robust, freely available tools related to the information management needs of basic, clinical, and translational research. An open source framework and agile programming methodology can enable distributed software development while an open architecture will encourage interoperability across different environments. The ISIS Center has conceptualized a prototype data sharing network that simulates a multi-center environment based on a federated data access model. This model includes the development of software tools to enable efficient exchange, sharing, management, and analysis of multimedia medical information such as clinical information, images, and bioinformatics data from multiple data sources. The envisioned ImTK data environment will include an open architecture and data model implementation that complies with existing standards such as Digital Imaging and Communications (DICOM), Health Level 7 (HL7), and the technical framework and workflow defined by the Integrating the Healthcare Enterprise (IHE) Information Technology Infrastructure initiative, mainly the Cross Enterprise Document Sharing (XDS) specifications.
The data were analyzed using both the descriptive and inferential statistics. Results revealed that the customer source was the most used of all the information sources. The personal sources were also preferred to the impersonal sources while information accessibility had a positive relationship with the banks' business ...
Maitra, N; Baxi, R K; Hazra, M
A survey of 959 young females (ages 10-21 years) from India highlighted the importance of educational attainment to fertility-related behaviors. Respondents represented a spectrum of educational levels: school drop-outs (32%), primary and secondary school attendees (41%), and college students (27%). The mean age at menarche was 13.6 years. School drop-outs were most likely to have obtained information about sexuality from films and other mass media, while students cited friends and neighbors as primary sources. There was an positive association between educational level and both preferred age at marriage and intended interval from marriage to first birth. 42% of adolescents with a secondary or college education planned to marry after 23 years of age and 84% wanted to defer childbearing for at least two years after marriage. The desire for formal sex education was strong in all educational subgroups (about 62%), however. It has been estimated that postponement of the marriage age from 16 years to 20-21 years would result in a 20-30% decrease in the annual number of births in India. School-based sex education represents a feasible mechanism for helping to achieve this goal.
DeAngelis, Karen J.
A variety of sources can help school business managers find the information and data they need to make informed decisions. The purpose of this article is to increase one's awareness of sources that one might use to access desired educational information. The author aims to introduce sources that can help alleviate some of the costs associated with…
Schoenmakers, Berry; Tjoelker, Jilles; Tuyls, Pim; Verbitskiy, Evgeny
We investigate the recently introduced notion of smooth Rényi entropy for the case of ergodic information sources, thereby generalizing previous work which concentrated mainly on i.i.d. information sources. We will actually consider ergodic quantum information sources, of which ergodic classical
Taylor, Arthur; Dalal, Heather A.
Information literacy studies have shown that college students use a variety of information sources to perform research and commonly choose Internet sources over traditional library sources. Studies have also shown that students do not appear to understand the information quality issues concerning Internet information sources and may lack the…
Rebholz-Schuhman, Dietrich; Cameron, Graham; Clark, Dominic; van Mulligen, Erik; Coatrieux, Jean-Louis; Del Hoyo Barbolla, Eva; Martin-Sanchez, Fernando; Milanesi, Luciano; Porro, Ivan; Beltrame, Francesco; Tollis, Ioannis; Van der Lei, Johan
Background The SYMBIOmatics Specific Support Action (SSA) is "an information gathering and dissemination activity" that seeks "to identify synergies between the bioinformatics and the medical informatics" domain to improve collaborative progress between both domains (ref. to ). As part of the project experts in both research fields will be identified and approached through a survey. To provide input to the survey, the scientific literature was analysed to extract topics relevant to both medical informatics and bioinformatics. Results This paper presents results of a systematic analysis of the scientific literature from medical informatics research and bioinformatics research. In the analysis pairs of words (bigrams) from the leading bioinformatics and medical informatics journals have been used as indication of existing and emerging technologies and topics over the period 2000–2005 ("recent") and 1990–1990 ("past"). We identified emerging topics that were equally important to bioinformatics and medical informatics in recent years such as microarray experiments, ontologies, open source, text mining and support vector machines. Emerging topics that evolved only in bioinformatics were system biology, protein interaction networks and statistical methods for microarray analyses, whereas emerging topics in medical informatics were grid technology and tissue microarrays. Conclusion We conclude that although both fields have their own specific domains of interest, they share common technological developments that tend to be initiated by new developments in biotechnology and computer science. PMID:17430562
date and readily accessible medicines information. There are several studies on availability and access to medicines information sources, but have been conducted only in high-income countries. Objective: To assess medicines information ...
Luscombe, N M; Greenbaum, D; Gerstein, M
The recent flood of data from genome sequences and functional genomics has given rise to new field, bioinformatics, which combines elements of biology and computer science. Here we propose a definition for this new field and review some of the research that is being pursued, particularly in relation to transcriptional regulatory systems. Our definition is as follows: Bioinformatics is conceptualizing biology in terms of macromolecules (in the sense of physical-chemistry) and then applying "informatics" techniques (derived from disciplines such as applied maths, computer science, and statistics) to understand and organize the information associated with these molecules, on a large-scale. Analyses in bioinformatics predominantly focus on three types of large datasets available in molecular biology: macromolecular structures, genome sequences, and the results of functional genomics experiments (e.g. expression data). Additional information includes the text of scientific papers and "relationship data" from metabolic pathways, taxonomy trees, and protein-protein interaction networks. Bioinformatics employs a wide range of computational techniques including sequence and structural alignment, database design and data mining, macromolecular geometry, phylogenetic tree construction, prediction of protein structure and function, gene finding, and expression data clustering. The emphasis is on approaches integrating a variety of computational methods and heterogeneous data sources. Finally, bioinformatics is a practical discipline. We survey some representative applications, such as finding homologues, designing drugs, and performing large-scale censuses. Additional information pertinent to the review is available over the web at http://bioinfo.mbb.yale.edu/what-is-it.
This paper identifies various sources of information used by farmers in Umuahia Zone in Abia State of Nigeria, and the extent to which they use the information sources. It also looks at the relationship between some selected socio economic characteristics of these farmers and their use of the most common sources. A major ...
Tobgay, Sonam; Olsen, Rasmus Løvenstein; Prasad, Ramjee
information source selection and management framework and presents an algorithm which selects the information source based on the information mismatch probability . The sampling rate for every access is decided as per the maximum allowable power consumption limit. Index Terms-wireless sensor network...... applications. Different properties and characteristics like sensitivity, response time etc., of these different sensors will result in generating information at difl'erent rates. When these different types of sensors are deployed to collect same information, the users have choice to select from different...... information sources based on their preferences and requirement. In addition, the user can also switch from one information source to another when the current information source either becomes unavailable or the users requirement changes. In this paper, based on above argument, we develop a reliable...
Open source techniques are an increasingly important tool for in safeguards. From social networking sites, such as Linkedin, to B2B portals like Alibaba, there are large open source databases that touch all aspects of the nuclear fuel cycle, from goods to scientists. This is in addition to the wealth of more traditional open source tools such as search engines. In this paper we focus on the potential of B2B sites to provide dual use goods for use in the nuclear fuel cycle. We will discuss the availability of these items as well as the frequency and content of tenders. As many of the largest sites—by traffic and content—are in Asia we will examine the potential of these sites to provide goods used in the nuclear fuel cycle. (author)
M. Senthilkumar (Newgen Imaging) 1461 1996 Oct 15 13:05:22
Multi-Source Multi-Sensor Information Fusion. FOREWORD. The human brain routinely carries out information processing and fusion. The objective is to collect observations from various similar or dissimilar sources and sensors, extract the required information (inferences) and combine/fuse these with a view to obtaining ...
This description of the types of linguistic information obtainable from online databases generally used to acquire technical information includes examples of equivalent words, English usage, and statistical linguistic data. The implications of online databases as substitutes for dictionaries and as corpora for linguistic survey are considered.…
Part of the problem appears to be that the police do not have sufficient crime intelligence about house robbers. This article focuses on the value of incarcerated offenders of house robberies as an additional source of crime intelligence to the police on the basis of research conducted by the author in Gauteng in 2007.
Batik, Albert; Hale, Eleanor
Among the data described are infrared indexes, mass spectral data, chromatographic data, X-ray emmission data, odor and taste threshold data, and thermodynamics data. This paper provides the chemical documentarian a complete reference source to a wide variety of analytical data. (Author/NH)
A Survey of 202 final year students (114 females, 88 males) of Ambrose Alli University, Ekpoma was conducted to determine gender-specific differences in their knowledge of sexually transmitted diseases (STDs), sources of knowledge and sexual behaviours. Random sampling procedures were used to select students from ...
Simmons, Leigh Ann; Wu, Qishan; Yang, Nancy; Bush, Heather M; Crofford, Leslie J
To identify sources of general and mental health information for rural women to inform the development of public health nursing interventions that consider preferences for obtaining information. One thousand women (mean age = 57 years; 96.9% White) living in primarily nonmetropolitan areas of Western Kentucky participated via a random-digit-dial survey. Data were collected on demographics, sources of health information, depression, and stigma. Most participants preferred anonymous versus interpersonal sources for both general (68.1%) and mental health (69.4%) information. All participants reported at least one source of general health information, but 20.8% indicated not seeking or not knowing where to seek mental health information. The Internet was the most preferred anonymous source. Few women cited health professionals as the primary information source for general (11.4%) or mental (9.9%) health. Public stigma was associated with preferring anonymous sources and not seeking information. Public health nurses should understand the high utilization of anonymous sources, particularly for mental health information, and focus efforts on helping individuals to navigate resources to ensure they obtain accurate information about symptoms, effective treatments, and obtaining care. Reducing stigma should remain a central focus of prevention and education in rural areas. © 2014 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.
Boyle, John A.
Bioinformatics has emerged as an important research tool in recent years. The ability to mine large databases for relevant information has become increasingly central to many different aspects of biochemistry and molecular biology. It is important that undergraduates be introduced to the available information and methodologies. We present a…
Computational workflows in bioinformatics are becoming increasingly important in the achievement of scientific advances. These workflows typically require the integrated use of multiple, distributed data sources and analytic tools. The BioExtract Server (http://bioextract.org) is a distributed servi...
More than 6,000 instruments and systems in the Oak Ridge Y-12 Plant undergo routine recalibration at certain intervals. The work is performed by teams of instrument mechanics that perform the work at the field locations where the instruments are situated or at the laboratory if the instrument is returned. The Instrumentation Control Manual provides adequate information needed to properly check these instruments on site or in the laboratory. Published in five volumes, the Manual lists all of the instrumentation in the calibration program; the locations of the instruments, their accuracies, the procedures governing calibration techniques, and other information needed. The Manual provides specific information on location of the instruments or instrument systems; identification of the instruments or systems by function; applicable procedures governing calibration; accuracy tolerances; input and output ranges; gross error information; ranges requiring calibration; calibration period in weeks; and Relation of Standards Laboratory instrumentation to the National Bureau of Standards. Each copy of the Manual lists the procedures that govern in-place calibrations, and the procedures used in the Standards Laboratory. Administrative procedures for the operation of the Instrumentation Control Program are included
The study investigated the adequacy of pharmaceutical scientists' information environment in feeding their occupational activities. Data was collected through observation and through questionnaire administration to all the twenty-seven scientists in two large pharmaceutical companies in Lagos, Nigeria. Findings revealed ...
Kwiatkowski, L.; Verhoef, C.
IT has become a production means for many organizations and an important element of business strategy. Even though its effective management is a must, reality shows that this area still remains in its infancy. IT management relies profoundly on relevant information which enables risk mitigation or
Full Text Available Allergies and/or food intolerances are a growing problem of the modern world. Diffi culties associated with the correct diagnosis of food allergies result in the need to classify the factors causing allergies and allergens themselves. Therefore, internet databases and other bioinformatic tools play a special role in deepening knowledge of biologically-important compounds. Internet repositories, as a source of information on different chemical compounds, including those related to allergy and intolerance, are increasingly being used by scientists. Bioinformatic methods play a signifi cant role in biological and medical sciences, and their importance in food science is increasing. This study aimed at presenting selected databases and tools of bioinformatic analysis useful in research on food allergies, allergens (11 databases, epitopes (7 databases, and haptens (2 databases. It also presents examples of the application of computer methods in studies related to allergies.
Barnes, Laura L. B.; Khojasteh, Jam J.; Wheeler, Denna
Objective: This study aimed to identify predominant search patterns in a recent search for health information and a potential search for strongly needed cancer information, to identify the commonly scanned sources of information that may represent stable elements of the information fields characteristic of these patterns, and to evaluate whether…
Fourment, Mathieu; Gillings, Michael R
The performance of different programming languages has previously been benchmarked using abstract mathematical algorithms, but not using standard bioinformatics algorithms. We compared the memory usage and speed of execution for three standard bioinformatics methods, implemented in programs using one of six different programming languages. Programs for the Sellers algorithm, the Neighbor-Joining tree construction algorithm and an algorithm for parsing BLAST file outputs were implemented in C, C++, C#, Java, Perl and Python. Implementations in C and C++ were fastest and used the least memory. Programs in these languages generally contained more lines of code. Java and C# appeared to be a compromise between the flexibility of Perl and Python and the fast performance of C and C++. The relative performance of the tested languages did not change from Windows to Linux and no clear evidence of a faster operating system was found. Source code and additional information are available from http://www.bioinformatics.org/benchmark/. This benchmark provides a comparison of six commonly used programming languages under two different operating systems. The overall comparison shows that a developer should choose an appropriate language carefully, taking into account the performance expected and the library availability for each language.
Babalhavaeji, Fahimeh; Farhadpoor, Mohammad Reza
Purpose: This article examines characteristics of the external environment of library and information centres of Islamic Azad University in Iran, focusing on perceived environmental uncertainty and perceived source accessibility and quality, and their impacts on the amount of scanning and the frequency of information source use. Methods: This…
The paper concludes that, though there are a number of sources through which young people may be receiving sexual health information, the majority of them are not satisfied with the quality of information they get from many of such sources. Key words: Parents, health workers, teachers, students, sexuality education, rural ...
Background: Access to and use of electronic information sources for clinical decision is the key to the attainment of health related sustainable goals. Therefore, this study was to assess Electronic Information Sources (EIS) access and use for healthcare service among hospitals of Western Oromia, Ethiopia, 2013. Materials ...
Sources of extension information available to farmers are diverse and numerous. Generally, extension information is sourced through extension worker, the mass media (i.e. radio and television in particular), printed publications (e.g. newspapers, magazines, bulletins, newsletters, fliers, journals, handbills) and other human ...
Funkhouser, Ellen; Agee, Bonita S; Gordan, Valeria V
OBJECTIVE: Estimate the proportion of dental practitioners who use online sources of information for practice guidance. METHODS: From a survey of 657 dental practitioners in The Dental Practice-Based Research Network, four indicators of online use for practice guidance were calculated: read...... journals online, obtained continuing education (CDE) through online sources, rated an online source as most influential, and reported frequently using an online source for guidance. Demographics, journals read, and use of various sources of information for practice guidance in terms of frequency...... percent, n = 34) read journals online, fewer (3 percent, n = 17) obtained CDE through online sources. Use of online information sources varied considerably by region and practice characteristics. In general, the four indicators represented practitioners with as many differences as similarities to each...
Burr, Tom L [Los Alamos National Laboratory
Genetic data is often used to infer evolutionary relationships among a collection of viruses, bacteria, animal or plant species, or other operational taxonomic units (OTU). A phylogenetic tree depicts such relationships and provides a visual representation of the estimated branching order of the OTUs. Tree estimation is unique for several reasons, including: the types of data used to represent each OTU; the use ofprobabilistic nucleotide substitution models; the inference goals involving both tree topology and branch length, and the huge number of possible trees for a given sample of a very modest number of OTUs, which implies that fmding the best tree(s) to describe the genetic data for each OTU is computationally demanding. Bioinformatics is too large a field to review here. We focus on that aspect of bioinformatics that includes study of similarities in genetic data from multiple OTUs. Although research questions are diverse, a common underlying challenge is to estimate the evolutionary history of the OTUs. Therefore, this paper reviews the role of phylogenetic tree estimation in bioinformatics, available methods and software, and identifies areas for additional research and development.
Good, Benjamin M; Su, Andrew I
Bioinformatics is faced with a variety of problems that require human involvement. Tasks like genome annotation, image analysis, knowledge-base population and protein structure determination all benefit from human input. In some cases, people are needed in vast quantities, whereas in others, we need just a few with rare abilities. Crowdsourcing encompasses an emerging collection of approaches for harnessing such distributed human intelligence. Recently, the bioinformatics community has begun to apply crowdsourcing in a variety of contexts, yet few resources are available that describe how these human-powered systems work and how to use them effectively in scientific domains. Here, we provide a framework for understanding and applying several different types of crowdsourcing. The framework considers two broad classes: systems for solving large-volume 'microtasks' and systems for solving high-difficulty 'megatasks'. Within these classes, we discuss system types, including volunteer labor, games with a purpose, microtask markets and open innovation contests. We illustrate each system type with successful examples in bioinformatics and conclude with a guide for matching problems to crowdsourcing solutions that highlights the positives and negatives of different approaches.
Y.H. Farzin; J.D. Kaplan
We analyze the efficient management of nonpoint source pollution (NPS) under a limited pollution control budget and incomplete information. We focus on the tradeoff between data collection and pollution abatement efforts by incorporating information acquisition into a NPS pollution control model. Comparative static results show conditions under which (i) a favorable change in the abatement costs at one source may lead to an increase in the treatment level at all sources, and vice versa, (ii) ...
Lawson, Rob; Forbes, Sarah; Williams, John
To understand the different patterns of trust that exist regarding different sources of information about health issues. Data from a large national health lifestyles survey of New Zealanders was examined using a factor analysis of trust toward 24 health information sources (HIS). Differences in trust are compared across a range of demographic variables. Factor analysis identified six different groupings of health information. Variations in trust in sources for health information are identified by age, employment status, level of education, income, sex and ethnic group. Systematic variations exist in the trust that people report with respect to different sources of health information. Understanding these variations may assist policymakers and other agencies which are responsible for planning the dissemination of health information.
Walraven, Amber; Brand-Gruwel, Saskia; Boshuizen, Henny P. A.
The World Wide Web (WWW) has become the biggest information source for students while solving information problems for school projects. Since anyone can post anything on the WWW, information is often unreliable or incomplete, and it is important to evaluate sources and information before using them. Earlier research has shown that students have…
Probabilistic topic models have been developed for applications in various domains such as text mining, information retrieval and computer vision and bioinformatics domain. In this thesis, we focus on developing novel probabilistic topic models for image mining and bioinformatics studies. Specifically, a probabilistic topic-connection (PTC) model…
Gómez, Jaime; Salazar, Idana; Vargas, Pilar
In this paper we use a panel of manufacturing firms in Spain to examine the extent to which they use internal and external sources of information (customers, suppliers, competitors, consultants and universities) to generate product and process innovation. Our results show that, although internal sources are influential, external sources of information are key to achieve innovation performance. These results are in line with the open innovation literature because they show that firms that are opening up their innovation process and that use different information sources have a greater capacity to generate innovations. We also find that the importance of external sources of information varies depending on the type of innovation (product or process) considered. To generate process innovation, firms mainly rely on suppliers while, to generate product innovation, the main contribution is from customers. The potential simultaneity between product and process innovation is also taken into consideration. We find that the generation of both types of innovation is not independent.
Doak, J.; Howell, J.A.
This work was initially performed for the International Atomic Energy Agency (IAEA) to help with the Open Source Task of the 93 + 2 Initiative; however, the information should be of interest to anyone working with open sources. The authors cover all aspects of an open source information system (OSIS) including, for example, identifying relevant sources, understanding copyright issues, and making information available to analysts. They foresee this document as a reference point that implementors of a system could augment for their particular needs. The primary organization of this document focuses on specific aspects, or components, of an OSIS; they describe each component and often make specific recommendations for its implementation. This document also contains a section discussing the process of collecting open source data and a section containing miscellaneous information. The appendix contains a listing of various providers, producers, and databases that the authors have come across in their research.
In this paper we use a panel of manufacturing firms in Spain to examine the extent to which they use internal and external sources of information (customers, suppliers, competitors, consultants and universities) to generate product and process innovation. Our results show that, although internal sources are influential, external sources of information are key to achieve innovation performance. These results are in line with the open innovation literature because they show that firms that are opening up their innovation process and that use different information sources have a greater capacity to generate innovations. We also find that the importance of external sources of information varies depending on the type of innovation (product or process) considered. To generate process innovation, firms mainly rely on suppliers while, to generate product innovation, the main contribution is from customers. The potential simultaneity between product and process innovation is also taken into consideration. We find that the generation of both types of innovation is not independent. PMID:27035456
Biological databases are having a growth spurt. Much of this results from research in genetics and biodiversity, coupled with fast-paced developments in information technology. The revolution in bioinformatics, defined by Sugden and Pennisi (2000) as the "tools and techniques for...
Ruggeri, Azzurra; Lombrozo, Tania; Griffiths, Thomas L.; Xu, Fei
Children are active learners: they learn not only from the information people offer and the evidence they happen to observe, but by actively seeking information. However, children's information search strategies are typically less efficient than those of adults. In two studies, we isolate potential sources of developmental change in how children…
Effect of information sources on production of improved crop varieties among farmers in River State. DO Onu. Abstract. The importance of information to agricultural development cannot be overemphasized. Without the right information there cannot be meaningful agricultural development. This study investigated the effect of ...
OSINT has become a developing information collection agency throughout the modern world of intelligence. Intelligence bodies and individuals keep expanding their use of information, profiting from the various technological security and civil applications now available in cyberspace. Professional collaborations are recommended, as they would significantly enhance the filtering and processing of open-source information in this age of metadata.
Jones, Rachel K.; Biddlecom, Ann E.; Hebert, Luciana; Mellor, Ruth
Based on semistructured interviews with a racially and ethnically diverse sample of 58 U.S. high school students, this study examines teens' exposure to contraceptive information from a range of sources and the extent to which they trust this information. Teens report exposure to contraceptive information from many individuals and places, most…
Thomm, Eva; Bromme, Rainer
When laypeople read controversial scientific information in order to make a personally relevant decision, information on the source is a valuable resource with which to evaluate multiple, competing claims. Due to their bounded understanding, laypeople rely on the expertise of others and need to identify whether sources are credible. The present…
Alexander, Jeffrey A; Hearld, Larry R; Hasnain-Wynia, Romana; Christianson, Jon B; Martsolf, Grant R
Trust in the source of information about physician quality is likely to be an important factor in how consumers use that information in encounters with their doctor or in decisions about choice of provider. In this article, the authors use survey data from a nationally representative sample of 8,140 individuals with chronic illness to examine variation in consumer trust in different sources of physician quality information and how market segmentation factors explain such variation. The authors find that consumers place greater trust in physicians and hospitals relative to institutional sources and personal sources. The level of trust, however, varies considerably across consumers as a function of demographic, socioeconomic, behavioral/lifestyle factors but is not related to measures of context. These results suggest that the sources of public reports comparing physician quality may be a barrier to the use of quality data by consumers in the ways envisioned by supporters of greater quality transparency.
Olivia A. Wackowski
Conclusions: Future research should explore the content of e-cigarette information sources, their potential impact, and ways they might be strengthened or changed through regulatory and/or educational efforts.
Amir Alishahi Tabriz
Conclusion : Although during 8 years of study radio and television remained as main source of health information but there is an increasing tendency to use internet especially in men. Policymakers should revise their broadcasting strategies based on people demand.
Muusses, L.D.; Weert, J.C.M. van; Dulmen, S. van; Jansen, J.
Objective: Fulfilling patients' information needs can help them cope with illness and improve their well-being. Little research has been conducted on the characteristics of patients using different information sources. This study aims to get insight into which information sources patients receiving
Muusses, L.D.; van Weert, J.C.M.; van Dulmen, S.; Jansen, J.
Objective: Fulfilling patients’ information needs can help them cope with illness and improve their well‐being. Little research has been conducted on the characteristics of patients using different information sources. This study aims to get insight into which information sources patients receiving
Diana, Rachel A.; Van den Boom, Wijnand; Yonelinas, Andrew P.; Ranganath, Charan
Source memory tests typically require subjects to make decisions about the context in which an item was encoded and are thought to depend on recollection of details from the study episode. Although it is generally believed that familiarity does not contribute to source memory, recent behavioral studies have suggested that familiarity may also support source recognition when item and source information are integrated, or “unitized”, during study (Diana, Yonelinas, and Ranganath 2008). However,...
An Informal Workshop on Intense Polarized Ion Sources was held on March 6, 1980, at the O'Hare Hilton Hotel, Chicago, Illinois. The purpose of the Workshop was to discuss problems in developing higher-intensity polarized proton sources, particularly the optically-pumped source recently proposed by L.W. Anderson of the University of Wisconsin. A summary of the discussions is reported
It is argued that to evaluate an information source (e.g., a Wikipedia article), it is necessary to relate the content of that source to an interpretation of the state of knowledge at the research front (which is typically developing dynamically). In the research literature, there is a controversy...
A subject screening list was developed which would be used by acquisitions specialists as a guide to the orientation of pertinent literature. The subject screening list was derived primarily from the geothermal subset of the ERDA Energy Thesaurus and from the ERDA Energy Information Data Base Subject Categories (TID-4584). The subject screening list is included. Subsequent to preparation of the subject screening list, a core list of serial publications containing geothermal energy information was generated by SIS library scientists. This list was corelated with the ERDA-TIC serial publications list. Included in both lists is an estimate of the annual geothermal information yield of the serial sources. A listing of sources of geothermal energy information other than serial publications and the conclusions, including methods of acquisitioning to be utilized and the estimated annual volume of information from all sources are presented.
Population in Nigeria is turning into an issue that needs public alertness. Informing men on family planning services and contraceptives is extremely necessary. For this will promote more favorable attitudes and increase their involvement. This study aimed at investigating the source of family planning information for married ...
Abstracted by: EBSCOhost, Electronic Journals Service (EJS),. Vol. ..... accessed agricultural information sources are Conferences (x̅ = 1.33) and Trade Fair (x̅ ... Local Government. Family members. Video. Farmer's cooperatives. State ministry of agriculture. Conferences. Trade fair. Utilization of agricultural information ...
This study examined how retirement planning information search was related to retirement savings of working women. By controlling for sociodemographic variables, the study further explored factors associated with individual information sources for retirement planning. An online survey was developed to collect data from a national population,…
The need for information by farmers in this era of climate change is very crucial to their production. The study therefore examines the various sources of information available to farmers on climate change and their level of awareness. Multi stage sampling procedure was used to select 123 respondents out of the total number ...
Factors influencing information-seeking strategies and sources used by oil palm scientists in Nigeria. L Obasuyi. Abstract. No Abstract. African Journal of Library Archives and Information Science Vol. 17 (2) 2007: pp. 79-97. Full Text: EMAIL FULL TEXT EMAIL FULL TEXT · DOWNLOAD FULL TEXT DOWNLOAD FULL TEXT.
Local Government Area, Cross River State saw radio (41.81%) as major source of information for new technologies in cassava production. The television (30%), extension agent (12.73%), friends/ neighbours (8.18%) and information communication technologies (ICTs)(7.27%) were ranked second, third, fourth and fifth ...
Sources of coaching efficacy information significantly ( P<.05) contributed to coaching efficacy of Nigerian coaches. Past experience, coaching preparation, prior success, perceived ability of athletes' skill and perceived social support of parents, school and community has provided information that will promote further studies ...
... report and shall set forth what efforts it has made to obtain the information. ... 10 Energy 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Access to sources of information. 4.33 Section 4.33 Energy... FEDERAL FINANCIAL ASSISTANCE FROM THE COMMISSION Regulations Implementing Title VI of the Civil Rights Act...
Alan D. Bright; Andrew W. Don Carlos; Jerry J. Vaske; James D. Absher
Understanding how residents of the wildlandurban interface (WUI) react to information about firewise behavior can enhance efforts to communicate safety information to the public. This study explored the multiple roles of source credibility on the elaboration and impact of messages about conducting firewise behaviors in the WUI. A mail-back survey to residents of the...
What is the impact of introducing an automated management information system within a microfinance institution or savings and credit cooperative on the employees, the clients and the business processes? The project will involve deployment of an open source management information system (Mifos Vanilla) in two ...
Magalhães, Wagner C S; Rodrigues, Maíra R; Silva, Donnys; Soares-Souza, Giordano; Iannini, Márcia L; Cerqueira, Gustavo C; Faria-Campos, Alessandra C; Tarazona-Santos, Eduardo
Large-scale genomics initiatives such as the HapMap project and the 1000-genomes rely on powerful bioinformatics support to assist data production and analysis. Contrastingly, few bioinformatics platforms oriented to smaller research groups exist to store, handle, share, and integrate data from different sources, as well as to assist these scientists to perform their analyses efficiently. We developed such a bioinformatics platform, DIVERGENOME, to assist population genetics and genetic epidemiology studies performed by small- to medium-sized research groups. The platform is composed of two integrated components, a relational database (DIVERGENOMEdb), and a set of tools to convert data formats as required by popular software in population genetics and genetic epidemiology (DIVERGENOMEtools). In DIVERGENOMEdb, information on genotypes, polymorphism, laboratory protocols, individuals, populations, and phenotypes is organized in projects. These can be queried according to permissions. Here, we validated DIVERGENOME through a use case regarding the analysis of SLC2A4 genetic diversity in human populations. DIVERGENOME, with its intuitive Web interface and automatic data loading capability, facilitates its use by individuals without bioinformatics background, allowing complex queries to be easily interrogated and straightforward data format conversions (not available in similar platforms). DIVERGENOME is open source, freely available, and can be accessed online (pggenetica.icb.ufmg.br/divergenome) or hosted locally. © 2012 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.
Diana, Rachel A; Van den Boom, Wijnand; Yonelinas, Andrew P; Ranganath, Charan
Source memory tests typically require subjects to make decisions about the context in which an item was encoded and are thought to depend on recollection of details from the study episode. Although it is generally believed that familiarity does not contribute to source memory, recent behavioral studies have suggested that familiarity may also support source recognition when item and source information are integrated, or "unitized," during study (Diana, Yonelinas, and Ranganath, 2008). However, an alternative explanation of these behavioral findings is that unitization affects the manner in which recollection contributes to performance, rather than increasing familiarity-based source memory. To discriminate between these possibilities, we conducted an event-related potential (ERP) study testing the hypothesis that unitization increases the contribution of familiarity to source recognition. Participants studied associations between words and background colors using tasks that either encouraged or discouraged unitization. ERPs were recorded during a source memory test for background color. The results revealed two distinct neural correlates of source recognition: a frontally distributed positivity that was associated with familiarity-based source memory in the high-unitization condition only and a parietally distributed positivity that was associated with recollection-based source memory in both the high- and low-unitization conditions. The ERP and behavioral findings provide converging evidence for the idea that familiarity can contribute to source recognition, particularly when source information is encoded as an item detail. Copyright © 2010 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.
Emergent Computation is concerned with recent applications of Mathematical Linguistics or Automata Theory. This subject has a primary focus upon "Bioinformatics" (the Genome and arising interest in the Proteome), but the closing chapter also examines applications in Biology, Medicine, Anthropology, etc. The book is composed of an organized examination of DNA, RNA, and the assembly of amino acids into proteins. Rather than examine these areas from a purely mathematical viewpoint (that excludes much of the biochemical reality), the author uses scientific papers written mostly by biochemists based upon their laboratory observations. Thus while DNA may exist in its double stranded form, triple stranded forms are not excluded. Similarly, while bases exist in Watson-Crick complements, mismatched bases and abasic pairs are not excluded, nor are Hoogsteen bonds. Just as there are four bases naturally found in DNA, the existence of additional bases is not ignored, nor amino acids in addition to the usual complement of...
Cantacessi, C; Campbell, B E; Jex, A R; Young, N D; Hall, R S; Ranganathan, S; Gasser, R B
The advent and integration of high-throughput '-omics' technologies (e.g. genomics, transcriptomics, proteomics, metabolomics, glycomics and lipidomics) are revolutionizing the way biology is done, allowing the systems biology of organisms to be explored. These technologies are now providing unique opportunities for global, molecular investigations of parasites. For example, studies of a transcriptome (all transcripts in an organism, tissue or cell) have become instrumental in providing insights into aspects of gene expression, regulation and function in a parasite, which is a major step to understanding its biology. The purpose of this article was to review recent applications of next-generation sequencing technologies and bioinformatic tools to large-scale investigations of the transcriptomes of parasitic nematodes of socio-economic significance (particularly key species of the order Strongylida) and to indicate the prospects and implications of these explorations for developing novel methods of parasite intervention. © 2011 Blackwell Publishing Ltd.
Bobić, Branko; Štajner, Tijana; Nikolić, Aleksandra; Klun, Ivana; Srbljanović, Jelena; Djurković-Djaković, Olgica
Health education of women of childbearing age has been shown to be an acceptable approach to the prevention of toxoplasmosis, the most frequent congenitally transmitted parasitic infection. The aim of this study was to evaluate the Internet as a source of health education on toxoplasmosis in pregnancy. A group of 100 pregnant women examined in the National Reference Laboratory for Toxoplasmosis was surveyed by a questionnaire on the source of their information on toxoplasmosis. We also analyzed information offered by websites in the Serbian and Croatian languages through the Google search engine, using "toxoplasmosis" as a keyword. The 23 top websites were evaluated for comprehensiveness and accuracy of information on the impact of toxoplasmosis on the course of pregnancy, diagnosis and prevention. Having knowledge on toxoplasmosis was confirmed by 64 (64.0%) examined women, 40.6% (26/64) of whom learned about toxoplasmosis through the Internet, 48.4% from physicians, and 10.9% from friends. Increase in the degree of education was found to be associated with the probability that pregnant women would be informed via the Internet (RR=3.15, 95% CI=1.27-7.82, p=0.013). Analysis of four interactive websites (allowing users to ask questions) showed that routes of infection were the most common concern, particularly the risk presented by pet cats and dogs, followed by the diagnosis of infection (who and when should be tested, and how should the results be interpreted). Of 20 sites containing educational articles, only seven were authorized and two listed sources. Evaluation confirmed that information relevant to pregnant women was significantly more accurate than comprehensive, but no site gave both comprehensive and completely accurate information. Only four sites (20%) were good sources of information for pregnant women. Internet has proved itself as an important source of information. However, despite numerous websites, only a few offer reliable information to the
Ekanem, Enefiok P.; Muhammad, Safdar; Tegegne, Fisseha; Singh, Surendra P.
Although much has been written on consumer attitudes toward genetically modified foods, not much is known about how or where consumers get the information for the decisions they make about genetically modified foods. This paper reports on the media used by consumers in acquiring information about biotech food and nutrition issues, and examines how much trust consumers put in selected information sources. The paper also discusses how socio-economic variables affect level of trust in selected s...
Joshua L Kalla
Full Text Available The Internet has dramatically expanded citizens' access to and ability to engage with political information. On many websites, any user can contribute and edit "crowd-sourced" information about important political figures. One of the most prominent examples of crowd-sourced information on the Internet is Wikipedia, a free and open encyclopedia created and edited entirely by users, and one of the world's most accessed websites. While previous studies of crowd-sourced information platforms have found them to be accurate, few have considered biases in what kinds of information are included. We report the results of four randomized field experiments that sought to explore what biases exist in the political articles of this collaborative website. By randomly assigning factually true but either positive or negative and cited or uncited information to the Wikipedia pages of U.S. senators, we uncover substantial evidence of an editorial bias toward positivity on Wikipedia: Negative facts are 36% more likely to be removed by Wikipedia editors than positive facts within 12 hours and 29% more likely within 3 days. Although citations substantially increase an edit's survival time, the editorial bias toward positivity is not eliminated by inclusion of a citation. We replicate this study on the Wikipedia pages of deceased as well as recently retired but living senators and find no evidence of an editorial bias in either. Our results demonstrate that crowd-sourced information is subject to an editorial bias that favors the politically active.
Kalla, Joshua L; Aronow, Peter M
The Internet has dramatically expanded citizens' access to and ability to engage with political information. On many websites, any user can contribute and edit "crowd-sourced" information about important political figures. One of the most prominent examples of crowd-sourced information on the Internet is Wikipedia, a free and open encyclopedia created and edited entirely by users, and one of the world's most accessed websites. While previous studies of crowd-sourced information platforms have found them to be accurate, few have considered biases in what kinds of information are included. We report the results of four randomized field experiments that sought to explore what biases exist in the political articles of this collaborative website. By randomly assigning factually true but either positive or negative and cited or uncited information to the Wikipedia pages of U.S. senators, we uncover substantial evidence of an editorial bias toward positivity on Wikipedia: Negative facts are 36% more likely to be removed by Wikipedia editors than positive facts within 12 hours and 29% more likely within 3 days. Although citations substantially increase an edit's survival time, the editorial bias toward positivity is not eliminated by inclusion of a citation. We replicate this study on the Wikipedia pages of deceased as well as recently retired but living senators and find no evidence of an editorial bias in either. Our results demonstrate that crowd-sourced information is subject to an editorial bias that favors the politically active.
Tolvanen, Martti; Vihinen, Mauno
Distance learning as a computer-aided concept allows students to take courses from anywhere at any time. In bioinformatics, computers are needed to collect, store, process, and analyze massive amounts of biological and biomedical data. We have applied the concept of distance learning in virtual bioinformatics to provide university course material…
When bioinformatics education is considered, several issues are addressed. At the undergraduate level, the main issue revolves around conveying information from two main and different fields: biology and computer science. At the graduate level, the main issue is bridging the gap between biology students and computer science students. However, there is an educational component that is rarely addressed within the context of bioinformatics education: the ethics component. Here, a different perspective is provided on bioinformatics education, and the current status of ethics is analyzed within the existing bioinformatics programs. Analysis of the existing undergraduate and graduate programs, in both Europe and the United States, reveals the minimal attention given to ethics within bioinformatics education. Given that bioinformaticians speedily and effectively shape the biomedical sciences and hence their implications for society, here redesigning of the bioinformatics curricula is suggested in order to integrate the necessary ethics education. Unique ethical problems awaiting bioinformaticians and bioinformatics ethics as a separate field of study are discussed. In addition, a template for an "Ethics in Bioinformatics" course is provided.
Luo, Jianjun; Cong, Zhen; Liang, Daan
Taking proper protective action upon receiving tornado warnings is critical to reducing casualties. With more warning information sources becoming available, how the number of such information sources affects decision making should be quantitatively investigated. To examine how the number of warning information sources affected individuals' decisions to take protective action during tornadoes. A telephone survey using random sampling was conducted in 2012 with residents in Tuscaloosa AL and Joplin MO, resulting in a working sample of 782 respondents. Both cities were struck by violent tornadoes (Enhanced Fujita Scale [EF]4 and EF5) in 2011. The analysis was conducted in 2013. Logistic regression analysis showed that relative to having only one warning information source, having two and three or more warning information sources significantly increased the odds of taking protective action in Joplin but not in Tuscaloosa; having three or more sources had a significantly stronger effect on taking protective action in Joplin than in Tuscaloosa. Having an emergency preparation plan in both cities and being white in Tuscaloosa significantly increased the odds of taking protective action, whereas being divorced in Joplin reduced these odds. Receiving warnings from more warning information sources might be more beneficial in places with less previous exposure to tornadoes and for populations with lower awareness of a potential tornado and higher probability of receiving no warnings. Emergency management agencies and public health officials should give priority to these places and populations when formulating disaster mitigation decisions and policies. Copyright © 2015 American Journal of Preventive Medicine. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
Kammerer, Yvonne; Kalbfell, Eva; Gerjets, Peter
In two experiments we systematically examined whether contradictions between two web pages--of which one was commercially biased as stated in an "about us" section--stimulated university students' consideration of source information both during and after reading. In Experiment 1 "about us" information of the web pages was…
Diaz Acosta, B.
The Microsoft Biology Initiative (MBI) is an effort in Microsoft Research to bring new technology and tools to the area of bioinformatics and biology. This initiative is comprised of two primary components, the Microsoft Biology Foundation (MBF) and the Microsoft Biology Tools (MBT). MBF is a language-neutral bioinformatics toolkit built as an extension to the Microsoft .NET Framework—initially aimed at the area of Genomics research. Currently, it implements a range of parsers for common bioinformatics file formats; a range of algorithms for manipulating DNA, RNA, and protein sequences; and a set of connectors to biological web services such as NCBI BLAST. MBF is available under an open source license, and executables, source code, demo applications, documentation and training materials are freely downloadable from http://research.microsoft.com/bio. MBT is a collection of tools that enable biology and bioinformatics researchers to be more productive in making scientific discoveries.
Potančok, Martin; Voříšek, Jiří
Healthcare facilities use a number of information system/information and communication technologies. Each healthcare facility faces a need to choose sourcing strategies most suitable to ensure provision of information system/information and communication technology services, processes and resources. Currently, it is possible to observe an expansion of sourcing possibilities in healthcare informatics, which creates new requirements for sourcing strategies. Thus, the aim of this article is to identify factors influencing information system/information and communication technology sourcing strategies in healthcare facilities. The identification was based on qualitative research, namely, a case study. This study provides a set of internal and external factors with their impact levels. The findings also show that not enough attention is paid to these factors during decision-making. © The Author(s) 2015.
Full Text Available The complexity of information is issued from interacting information sources (IS, and could be better exploited with respect to relevance of information. In distributed IS system, relevant information has a content that is in connection with other contents in information network, and is used for a certain purpose. The highlighting point of the proposed model is to contribute to information system agility according to a three-dimensional view involving the content, the use and the structure. This reflects the relevance of information complexity and effective methodologies through self organized principle to manage the complexity. This contribution is primarily focused on presenting some factors that lead and trigger for self organization in a Service Oriented Architecture (SOA and how it can be possible to integrate self organization mechanism in the same.
Vance, Karl; Howe, William; Dellavalle, Robert P
Social media websites, such as YouTube, Facebook, MySpace, Twitter, and Second Life are rapidly emerging as popular sources of health information especially for teens and young adults. Social media marketing carries the advantages of low cost, rapid transmission through a wide community, and user interaction. Disadvantages include blind authorship, lack of source citation, and presentation of opinion as fact. Dermatologists and other health care providers should recognize the importance of social media websites and their potential usefulness for disseminating health information.
Bass, Ellen J; DeVoge, Justin Michael; Waggoner-Fountain, Linda A; Borowitz, Stephen M
To characterize question types that residents received on overnight shifts and what information sources were used to answer them. Across 30 overnight shifts, questions asked of on-call senior residents, question askers' roles, and residents' responses were documented. External sources were noted. 158 of 397 questions (39.8%) related to the plan of care, 53 (13.4%) to medical knowledge, 48 (12.1%) to taskwork knowledge, and 44 (11.1%) to the current condition of patients. For 351 (88.4%) questions residents provided specific, direct answers or visited the patient. For 16 of these, residents modeled or completed the task. For 216 questions, residents used previous knowledge or their own clinical judgment. Residents solicited external information sources for 118 questions and only a single source for 77 (65.3%) of them. For the 118, most questions concerned either the plan of care or the patient's current condition and were asked by interns and nurses (those with direct patient care responsibilities). Resident physicians serve as an information system and they often specifically answer the question using previous knowledge or their own clinical judgment, suggesting that askers are contacting an appropriately knowledgeable person. However, they do need to access patient information such as the plan of care. They also serve an educator role and answer many knowledge-related questions. As synchronous verbal communications continue to be important pathways for information flow, informaticians need to consider the relationship between such communications and workflow in the development of healthcare support tools.
Recognition of the improvements in patient safety, quality of patient care, and efficiency that health care information systems have the potential to bring has led to significant investment. Globally the sale of health care information systems now represents a multibillion dollar industry. As policy makers, health care professionals, and patients, we have a responsibility to maximize the return on this investment. To this end we analyze alternative licensing and software development models, as well as the role of standards. We describe how licensing affects development. We argue for the superiority of open source licensing to promote safer, more effective health care information systems. We claim that open source licensing in health care information systems is essential to rational procurement strategy. PMID:21447469
Magana, Alejandra J.; Taleyarkhan, Manaz; Alvarado, Daniela Rivera; Kane, Michael; Springer, John; Clase, Kari
Bioinformatics education can be broadly defined as the teaching and learning of the use of computer and information technology, along with mathematical and statistical analysis for gathering, storing, analyzing, interpreting, and integrating data to solve biological problems. The recent surge of genomics, proteomics, and structural biology in the…
Full Text Available One of the important factors that contribute to agricultural development is information. As such agricultural extension workers that link agricultural agencies to the farmers must have adequate and up-to-date information about agricultural practices before they could inform, educate and train the farmers in method and techniques of farming. This study aims to determine the types of information needed by agricultural extension workers; to determine the sources of information used by the agricultural extension workers; and to determine the comparison between types of information with information sources used by agricultural extension workers. The present study was a descriptive study using a survey design and conducted at Daerah Istimewa Yogyakarta (DIY Province. The populations of the study consists 181 agricultural extension workers divisible in the district level, namely Sleman, Kulon Progo, Gunung Kidul dan Bantul. Sampling procedure in this study used cluster sampling. The method for gathering data from the respondents is based on a structured questionnaire. Descriptive statistics was to describe the characteristics of the respondents and the dependent variables of the study. As a result, most of agricultural extension workers strongly needed the innovation information in seeking information followed by extension service information and extension role information. The result of information sources used by agricultural extension worker for extension service information, innovation information and extension role information indicates that agricultural extension workers used interpersonal source. Most of them never sought information use Internet, they use radio more frequently than television and video, agricultural extension worker also used mass media as information source.
Shea-Budgell, M A; Kostaras, X; Myhill, K P; Hagen, N A
Now more than ever, cancer patients want health information. Little has been published to characterize the information needs and preferred sources of that information for patients who have completed cancer treatment. We used a nationally validated instrument to prospectively survey patients attending a cancer clinic for a post-treatment follow-up visit. All patients who came to the designated clinics between December 2011 and June 2012 were approached (N = 648), and information was collected only from those who agreed to proceed. The 411 patients who completed the instrument included individuals with a wide range of primary malignancies. Their doctor or health professional was overwhelmingly the most trusted source of cancer information, followed by the Internet, family, and friends. The least trusted sources of information included radio, newspaper, and television. Patients most preferred to receive personalized written information from their health care provider. Cancer survivors are keenly interested in receiving information about cancer, despite having undergone or finished active therapy. The data indicate that, for patients, their health care provider is the most trusted source of cancer information. Cancer providers should ask patients about the information they want and should direct them to trusted sources.
Blazek, Ron; Aversa, Elizabeth
This book provides a guide to humanities information sources for teachers and students in schools of library and information science, reference librarians, collection development officers in libraries, humanities scholars, and others who have information needs in the broad discipline. This fifth edition represents a more comprehensive and updated…
Full Text Available As a focal point of biotechnology, bioinformatics integrates knowledge from biology, mathematics, physics, chemistry, computer science and information science. It generally deals with genome informatics, protein structure and drug design. However, the data or information thus acquired from the main areas of bioinformatics may not be effective. Some researchers combined bioinformatics with wireless sensor network (WSN into biosensor and other tools, and applied them to such areas as fermentation, environmental monitoring, food engineering, clinical medicine and military. In the combination, the WSN is used to collect data and information. The reliability of the WSN in bioinformatics is the prerequisite to effective utilization of information. It is greatly influenced by factors like quality, benefits, service, timeliness and stability, some of them are qualitative and some are quantitative. Hence, it is necessary to develop a method that can handle both qualitative and quantitative assessment of information. A viable option is the fuzzy linguistic method, especially 2-tuple linguistic model, which has been extensively used to cope with such issues. As a result, this paper introduces 2-tuple linguistic representation to assist experts in giving their opinions on different WSNs in bioinformatics that involve multiple factors. Moreover, the author proposes a novel way to determine attribute weights and uses the method to weigh the relative importance of different influencing factors which can be considered as attributes in the assessment of the WSN in bioinformatics. Finally, an illustrative example is given to provide a reasonable solution for the assessment.
This is a detailed comparative analysis of electronic information sources (EIS) utilized by pharmacy lecturers in South-South universities in Nigeria. The purpose of this study is to analyze the extent to which EIS are utilized among pharmacy lecturers in South-South Nigeria. The aim is to explore the emerging pattern of ...
Wackowski, Olivia A; Bover Manderski, Michelle T; Delnevo, Cristine D
Few studies have explored sources of e-cigarette awareness and peoples' e-cigarette information needs, interests or behaviors. This study contributes to both domains of e-cigarette research. Results are based on a 2014 e-cigarette focused survey of 519 current smokers from a nationally representative research panel. Smokers most frequently reported seeing e-cigarettes in stores (86.4%) and used in person (83%). Many (73%) had also heard about e-cigarettes from known users, broadcast media ads (68%), other (print, online) advertisements (71.5%), and/or from the news (60.9%); sources of awareness varied by e-cigarette experience. Most smokers (59.9%) believed e-cigarettes are less harmful than regular cigarettes, a belief attributed to "common sense" (76.4%), the news (39.2%) and advertisements (37.2%). However, 79.5% felt e-cigarette safety information was important. Over one-third said they would turn to a doctor first for e-cigarette safety information, though almost a quarter said they would turn to the Internet or product packaging first. Most (59.6%) ranked doctors as the most trustworthy risk source, and 6.8% had asked a health professional about e-cigarettes. Future research should explore the content of e-cigarette information sources, their potential impact, and ways they might be strengthened or changed through regulatory and/or educational efforts.
Sources of Information and Awareness of Government Programmes on Climate Change among Rural Households in the Niger Delta Region of Nigeria. ... The study therefore points to the need to strengthen communities' capacity to manage their resources, raise awareness of climate change problems among the populace ...
Adoption levels and information sources of "brood and sell" poultry operators. MO Onu, MC Madukwe. Abstract. No Abstract. Agro-Science Vol. 3(1) 2002: 63-67. Full Text: EMAIL FREE FULL TEXT EMAIL FREE FULL TEXT · DOWNLOAD FULL TEXT DOWNLOAD FULL TEXT · http://dx.doi.org/10.4314/as.v3i1.1505.
Influence of information sources on farmers knowledge of poultry drugs in Delta State, Nigeria: implication for rural community development. ... The primary data used in this study were obtained from field surveyed through the use of structured questionnaire administered to 100 respondents. Data were analyzed using ...
Background: While burns take seconds to occur, injuries incurred result in pain and undesirable long term effects that might take a lifetime to overcome. The study was carried out to determine the measures of first aid delivered by caregivers after a burn injury and sources of the information. Methods: A cross- sectional study ...
New survey data from 12-14 year olds in Burkina Faso, Ghana, Malawi and Uganda are used to describe their sexual activity, knowledge about HIV, STIs and pregnancy prevention, and sources of sexual and reproductive health information, including sex education in schools. Results show that very young adolescents are ...
The instruments used for data collection were close ended questionnaires which was categorised into two (for users and staff).The study revealed that online information sources provisions such as online databases and electronic alert were not adequately provided and therefore are not commonly used. The study therefore ...
Three research questions and one hypothesis were formulated and tested with respect to types of Scholarly Information Sources (SIS) available, accessed and used by the Faculty Members (FM) and Postgraduate (PG) Students of Ahmadu Bello University, (A.B.U.), Zaria, Nigeria, in this study. A number of 868 samples ...
study investigated the Saudis ratings of different sources of information about health risks posed by ... impact of chemical pollution on health, and this has been ... pollution. Environmental pollution health risks involve technical understanding of health risk, public perceptions, and the public influence. Public perception of ...
This study was carried out to examine the effectiveness of information sources on livelihood of artisanal fisherfolk in inland fishing communities in Delta State, Nigeria. Data were collected from 169 respondents randomly selected through face to face interview with semi-structured questionnaire. Collected data were ...
It is also a critical resource that affects individual as well as organization. Senior managers shoulder the responsibility of formulating policies that organization needs for the smooth running of their individuals establishments. The quality of decision made is also dependent on how current the sources of information utilized to ...
The study was design to discern the information sources or channels of the academic staff and students of Social Work Department in University of Nigeria, Nsukka. Descriptive survey study based on questionnaire distribution and interview was adopted. The study was conducted during the second semester period of ...
Kim, Kyung-Sun; Sin, Sei-Ching Joanna; Yoo-Lee, Eun Young
Social media have become increasingly popular among different user groups. Although used for social purposes, some social media platforms (such as Wikipedia) have been emerging as important information sources. Focusing on undergraduate students, a survey was conducted to investigate the following: (1) which social media platforms are used as…
Horak, K.; Bleakly, D.; McDaniel, M.
Great advances have been made in the application of open-source information for Safeguards. However, the open-source 'ecosystem' is rapidly evolving. Recently, the combination of powerful smart-phones and the World Wide Web have led to novel developments for mapping the impact of natural and man-made disasters. Researchers are learning to harness online volunteers as citizen scientists. Online social media such as Facebook, LinkedIn, and Twitter are becoming accepted channels of credible information. Geo-spatially-aware applications (augmented reality applications) are capable of overlaying data upon a smart-phone's view screen. The authors review available open-source tools and technologies. These and other developments will have a significant effect on the collection, evaluation, structuring, analysis, and dissemination of safeguards-relevant information. In addition, the modern, open Internet is posing new security threats.not just viruses and their ilk, but threats based on digital traces left by browsing the open Web. The authors present a case study of the disastrous toxic flood near Devecser, Hungary in October 2010 for which we get 621,000 results for everything related to search terms, 68,000 blog posts on the topic, 43,300 images available and then give recommendations for the future use of open-source information and software tools. (authors)
This paper exposes security vulnerabilities of the web based Open Source Information Systems (OSIS) from both system angle and human perspectives.It shows the extent of risk that can likely hinder adopting organization from attaning full intended benefits of using OSIS software. To undertake this study, a case study ...
Forestry-related technologies (FRTs) are practices to mitigate and ameliorate effects of environmental degradation resulting from agricultural production practices. However, inadequate sources of information on FRTs among farmers limit and hinder farmers' awareness of such technologies. This study investigated the ...
Fu, Zhiyan; Lin, Jing
The rapidly increasing number of characterized allergens has created huge demands for advanced information storage, retrieval, and analysis. Bioinformatics and machine learning approaches provide useful tools for the study of allergens and epitopes prediction, which greatly complement traditional laboratory techniques. The specific applications mainly include identification of B- and T-cell epitopes, and assessment of allergenicity and cross-reactivity. In order to facilitate the work of clinical and basic researchers who are not familiar with bioinformatics, we review in this chapter the most important databases, bioinformatic tools, and methods with relevance to the study of allergens.
Racz, William J.; Ecobichon, Donald J.; Baril, Marc
This paper will provide an overview of the on-line resources available in toxicology in Canada. It will describe a brief history of The Society of Toxicology of Canada, with reference to other societies and also provide information on education, research and other resources related to toxicology. Toxicology in Canada emerged as a distinct and vibrant discipline following the thalidomide tragedy of the 1960s. In the pharmaceutical industry and government, toxicology was readily established as an essential component of drug development and safety, and as the need for toxicologists expanded, training programs were established, usually in collaboration with departments of pharmacology. In the last two to three decades other disciplines, environmental biology, analytical chemistry and epidemiology joined the ranks of toxicology. The on-line sources of toxicology information are rapidly expanding. This article describes those sources considered by the authors to be important from a national and international perspective. The majority of these sources are professional organizations and government agencies
Lawlor, Brendan; Walsh, Paul
There is a lack of software engineering skills in bioinformatic contexts. We discuss the consequences of this lack, examine existing explanations and remedies to the problem, point out their shortcomings, and propose alternatives. Previous analyses of the problem have tended to treat the use of software in scientific contexts as categorically different from the general application of software engineering in commercial settings. In contrast, we describe bioinformatic software engineering as a specialization of general software engineering, and examine how it should be practiced. Specifically, we highlight the difference between programming and software engineering, list elements of the latter and present the results of a survey of bioinformatic practitioners which quantifies the extent to which those elements are employed in bioinformatics. We propose that the ideal way to bring engineering values into research projects is to bring engineers themselves. We identify the role of Bioinformatic Engineer and describe how such a role would work within bioinformatic research teams. We conclude by recommending an educational emphasis on cross-training software engineers into life sciences, and propose research on Domain Specific Languages to facilitate collaboration between engineers and bioinformaticians.
Shepstone, Sven Ewan; Lee, Kong Aik; Li, Haizhou
An i-vector is a low-dimensional fixed-length representation of a variable-length speech utterance, and is defined as the posterior mean of a latent variable conditioned on the observed feature sequence of an utterance. The assumption is that the prior for the latent variable is non......-informative, since for homogeneous datasets there is no gain in generality in using an informative prior. This work shows that extracting i-vectors for a heterogeneous dataset, containing speech samples recorded from multiple sources, using informative priors instead is applicable, and leads to favorable results...
Nguyen, Anh B; Robinson, Joelle; O'Brien, Erin Keely; Zhao, Xiaoquan
This article describes sources of health information, types of tobacco information sought, and trust in sources of tobacco information among U.S. racial/ethnic groups (Whites, Blacks, Hispanics, Asian and Pacific Islanders, and Other). Cross-sectional data (N = 3,788) from a nationally representative survey, HINTS-FDA 2015, were analyzed to examine unadjusted and adjusted associations between race/ethnicity and (a) first source of health information, (b) tobacco information seeking, and (c) trust in sources of tobacco information. Adjusted associations controlled for current tobacco product use and sociodemographic variables. Findings indicated that the Internet was the most common first source of health information while health care providers were the second most common source for all racial/ethnic groups. Tobacco-related health information seeking was more prevalent than other tobacco product information seeking. Unadjusted analyses indicated that a higher proportion of Whites sought other tobacco product information compared to Asians and Pacific Islanders. Trust was rated highest for doctors while trust for health organizations was rated second highest. Asians and Pacific Islanders had higher trust in the government compared to all other groups. Blacks had higher trust in religious organizations compared to all other groups besides Hispanics. Blacks had higher trust for tobacco companies compared to Whites and Other. Many of these differences were attenuated in adjusted analyses. This research has implications for tobacco control practice and policymaking by identifying potential dissemination strategies.
Kamali, Amir Hossein; Giannoulatou, Eleni; Chen, Tsong Yueh; Charleston, Michael A; McEwan, Alistair L; Ho, Joshua W K
Bioinformatics is the application of computational, mathematical and statistical techniques to solve problems in biology and medicine. Bioinformatics programs developed for computational simulation and large-scale data analysis are widely used in almost all areas of biophysics. The appropriate choice of algorithms and correct implementation of these algorithms are critical for obtaining reliable computational results. Nonetheless, it is often very difficult to systematically test these programs as it is often hard to verify the correctness of the output, and to effectively generate failure-revealing test cases. Software testing is an important process of verification and validation of scientific software, but very few studies have directly dealt with the issues of bioinformatics software testing. In this work, we review important concepts and state-of-the-art methods in the field of software testing. We also discuss recent reports on adapting and implementing software testing methodologies in the bioinformatics field, with specific examples drawn from systems biology and genomic medicine.
Bruhn, Russel Elton; Burton, Philip John
Data interchange bioinformatics databases will, in the future, most likely take place using extensible markup language (XML). The document structure will be described by an XML Schema rather than a document type definition (DTD). To ensure flexibility, the XML Schema must incorporate aspects of Object-Oriented Modeling. This impinges on the choice of the data model, which, in turn, is based on the organization of bioinformatics data by biologists. Thus, there is a need for the general bioinformatics community to be aware of the design issues relating to XML Schema. This paper, which is aimed at a general bioinformatics audience, uses examples to describe the differences between a DTD and an XML Schema and indicates how Unified Modeling Language diagrams may be used to incorporate Object-Oriented Modeling in the design of schema.
de Jong, Anne; van Heel, Auke J.; Kuipers, Oscar P.
Bioinformatic tools can greatly improve the efficiency of bacteriocin screening efforts by limiting the amount of strains. Different classes of bacteriocins can be detected in genomes by looking at different features. Finding small bacteriocins can be especially challenging due to low homology and because small open reading frames (ORFs) are often omitted from annotations. In this chapter, several bioinformatic tools/strategies to identify bacteriocins in genomes are discussed.
Wang, Yijun; Lu, Wenjie; Deng, Dexiang
Diverse bioinformatic resources have been developed for plant transcription factor (TF) research. This review presents the bioinformatic resources and methodologies for the elucidation of plant TF-mediated biological events. Such information is helpful to dissect the transcriptional regulatory systems in the three reference plants Arabidopsis , rice, and maize and translation to other plants. Transcription factors (TFs) orchestrate diverse biological programs by the modulation of spatiotemporal patterns of gene expression via binding cis-regulatory elements. Advanced sequencing platforms accompanied by emerging bioinformatic tools revolutionize the scope and extent of TF research. The system-level integration of bioinformatic resources is beneficial to the decoding of TF-involved networks. Herein, we first briefly introduce general and specialized databases for TF research in three reference plants Arabidopsis, rice, and maize. Then, as proof of concept, we identified and characterized heat shock transcription factor (HSF) members through the TF databases. Finally, we present how the integration of bioinformatic resources at -omics layers can aid the dissection of TF-mediated pathways. We also suggest ways forward to improve the bioinformatic resources of plant TFs. Leveraging these bioinformatic resources and methodologies opens new avenues for the elucidation of transcriptional regulatory systems in the three model systems and translation to other plants.
Revote, Jerico; Watson-Haigh, Nathan S.; Quenette, Steve; Bethwaite, Blair; McGrath, Annette
Abstract The Bioinformatics Training Platform (BTP) has been developed to provide access to the computational infrastructure required to deliver sophisticated hands-on bioinformatics training courses. The BTP is a cloud-based solution that is in active use for delivering next-generation sequencing training to Australian researchers at geographically dispersed locations. The BTP was built to provide an easy, accessible, consistent and cost-effective approach to delivering workshops at host universities and organizations with a high demand for bioinformatics training but lacking the dedicated bioinformatics training suites required. To support broad uptake of the BTP, the platform has been made compatible with multiple cloud infrastructures. The BTP is an open-source and open-access resource. To date, 20 training workshops have been delivered to over 700 trainees at over 10 venues across Australia using the BTP. PMID:27084333
Clarke, J. T.; Moos, H. W.
The spatial properties of large aperture exposures of diffuse emission can be used both to investigate spatial variations in the emission and to filter out camera noise in exposures of weak emission sources. Spatial imaging can be accomplished both parallel and perpendicular to dispersion with a resolution of 5-6 arc sec, and a narrow median filter running perpendicular to dispersion across a diffuse image selectively filters out point source features, such as reseaux marks and fast particle hits. Spatial information derived from observations of solar system objects is presented.
Gorodkin, Jan; Hofacker, Ivo L.; Ruzzo, Walter L.
RNA bioinformatics and computational RNA biology have emerged from implementing methods for predicting the secondary structure of single sequences. The field has evolved to exploit multiple sequences to take evolutionary information into account, such as compensating (and structure preserving) base...... changes. These methods have been developed further and applied for computational screens of genomic sequence. Furthermore, a number of additional directions have emerged. These include methods to search for RNA 3D structure, RNA-RNA interactions, and design of interfering RNAs (RNAi) as well as methods...... for interactions between RNA and proteins.Here, we introduce the basic concepts of predicting RNA secondary structure relevant to the further analyses of RNA sequences. We also provide pointers to methods addressing various aspects of RNA bioinformatics and computational RNA biology....
Mbondji, Peter Ebongue; Kebede, Derege; Soumbey-Alley, Edoh William; Zielinski, Chris; Kouvividila, Wenceslas; Lusamba-Dikassa, Paul-Samson
To identify key data sources of health information and describe their availability in countries of the World Health Organization (WHO) African Region. An analytical review on the availability and quality of health information data sources in countries; from experience, observations, literature and contributions from countries. Forty-six Member States of the WHO African Region. No participants. The state of data sources, including censuses, surveys, vital registration and health care facility-based sources. In almost all countries of the Region, there is a heavy reliance on household surveys for most indicators, with more than 121 household surveys having been conducted in the Region since 2000. Few countries have civil registration systems that permit adequate and regular tracking of mortality and causes of death. Demographic surveillance sites function in several countries, but the data generated are not integrated into the national health information system because of concerns about representativeness. Health management information systems generate considerable data, but the information is rarely used because of concerns about bias, quality and timeliness. To date, 43 countries in the Region have initiated Integrated Disease Surveillance and Response. A multitude of data sources are used to track progress towards health-related goals in the Region, with heavy reliance on household surveys for most indicators. Countries need to develop comprehensive national plans for health information that address the full range of data needs and data sources and that include provision for building national capacities for data generation, analysis, dissemination and use. © The Royal Society of Medicine.
Yuen Macaire MS
Full Text Available Abstract Background We present a biological data warehouse called Atlas that locally stores and integrates biological sequences, molecular interactions, homology information, functional annotations of genes, and biological ontologies. The goal of the system is to provide data, as well as a software infrastructure for bioinformatics research and development. Description The Atlas system is based on relational data models that we developed for each of the source data types. Data stored within these relational models are managed through Structured Query Language (SQL calls that are implemented in a set of Application Programming Interfaces (APIs. The APIs include three languages: C++, Java, and Perl. The methods in these API libraries are used to construct a set of loader applications, which parse and load the source datasets into the Atlas database, and a set of toolbox applications which facilitate data retrieval. Atlas stores and integrates local instances of GenBank, RefSeq, UniProt, Human Protein Reference Database (HPRD, Biomolecular Interaction Network Database (BIND, Database of Interacting Proteins (DIP, Molecular Interactions Database (MINT, IntAct, NCBI Taxonomy, Gene Ontology (GO, Online Mendelian Inheritance in Man (OMIM, LocusLink, Entrez Gene and HomoloGene. The retrieval APIs and toolbox applications are critical components that offer end-users flexible, easy, integrated access to this data. We present use cases that use Atlas to integrate these sources for genome annotation, inference of molecular interactions across species, and gene-disease associations. Conclusion The Atlas biological data warehouse serves as data infrastructure for bioinformatics research and development. It forms the backbone of the research activities in our laboratory and facilitates the integration of disparate, heterogeneous biological sources of data enabling new scientific inferences. Atlas achieves integration of diverse data sets at two levels. First
Jespersen, Kristina Risom
/exploration search behavior of decision-makers. In addition, overexploitation and overexploration in new product development decision-making is investigated through mediating effects of perceived information usefulness and applied performance criteria by decision-makers at gates. To this end a conceptual model...... of gate decision-making and information sources was developed across five generic stages (idea, concept, design, test, and commercialization). Our data was generated with a participatory agent-based simulation of NPD gate decision-points in the development process. The sample consists of 134 managers from...
Supplemental Aviation Weather Reporting Station (SAWRS). In that case, personnel of a fixed base operator ( FBO ) or an airline, at an airport without full-time...Clear Air Turbulence CWA Center Weather Advisory FA Area Forecast FAA Federal Aviation Administration FAR Federal Aviation Regulations FBO Fixed Base...Sources and Air Carrier Use Doo-NwSo 911 of Aviation Weather Information DOT/FAA/FS-91/1 Flight Standards Service . Washington, D.C. 20591 AD-A238
Résumé Une étude execute pour identifier les plusieurs sources de l'information sexuelle par les adolescents au Nigéria et leur influence sur leurs conduits sexuelles, en utilisant: a. le rapport sexuel avant le marriage (pré-sexuel avant le marriage) b. l'attente avec le premier rapport sexuel et c. d'être libre de discuter avec.
Powers, T L; Swan, J E; Taylor, J A; Bendall, D
The referral process is an important means of obtaining patients and it is necessary to determine ways of influencing the referral process to increase the patient base. This article reports research based on a survey of the referral habits of 806 primary care physicians. The results are examined in the context of physician receptivity to marketer-controlled versus health services sources of referral information.
The article briefly presents and discusses 12 different approaches to the evaluation of information sources (for example a Wikipedia entry or a journal article): (1) the checklist approach; (2) classical peer review; (3) modified peer review; (4) evaluation based on examining the coverage of controversial views; (5) evidence-based evaluation; (6) comparative studies; (7) author credentials; (8) publisher reputation; (9) journal impact factor; (10) sponsoring: tracing the influence of economic...
Ratynski, N; Cioni, G; Franck, L; Blanchard, Y; Sizun, J
The neonatal behavioral observation is an important source of medical information in three domains: 1) assessment of development which can be done with the Assessment of Preterm Infant Behavior, 2) assessment of pain with the analysis of facial expression using validated pain scales such as the Neonatal Facial Coding System, 3) assessment of brain injuries with the Quality Assessment of General Movements. Such a behavioral observation of the newborn using validated tools is a useful complement of the neuro-imaging techniques.
Stevenson, Mark; Guo, Yikun; Gaizauskas, Robert; Martinez, David
Like text in other domains, biomedical documents contain a range of terms with more than one possible meaning. These ambiguities form a significant obstacle to the automatic processing of biomedical texts. Previous approaches to resolving this problem have made use of various sources of information including linguistic features of the context in which the ambiguous term is used and domain-specific resources, such as UMLS. We compare various sources of information including ones which have been previously used and a novel one: MeSH terms. Evaluation is carried out using a standard test set (the NLM-WSD corpus). The best performance is obtained using a combination of linguistic features and MeSH terms. Performance of our system exceeds previously published results for systems evaluated using the same data set. Disambiguation of biomedical terms benefits from the use of information from a variety of sources. In particular, MeSH terms have proved to be useful and should be used if available.
Matziou, V; Perdikaris, P; Petsios, K; Gymnopoulou, E; Galanis, P; Brokalaki, H
Human sexuality is a complex part of life and is considered a multidimensional phenomenon. Therefore there is an increased need for adequate and comprehensive sex education, especially for teenagers and young adults. The main aim of the study was to evaluate the level of students' sexual knowledge, as well as to identify their sources of information regarding sexual life and reproduction. A cross-sectional study using a designed self-report questionnaire was performed. The study population consisted of 936 students who were attending 10 high schools and four medical schools in Attica. Data were collected after obtaining permission from the Pedagogic Institute of the Greek Ministry of Education. The main sources of students' sexual information about reproduction were friends (29.1%) and parents (24.0%), whereas school was reported by 14.3% of them. The preferred sources of information, according to students' perceptions, were sex education specialists (65.6%), followed by school (39.1%), parents (32.2%) and friends (27.7%). The importance of school, peer and parent support upon adolescents' sexual life was revealed by the results of the study. Students' knowledge level on sex topics is not satisfactory and therefore there is a need for sex education specialists and special courses regarding sex education in Greek schools.
Ranganathan, Shoba; Hsu, Wen-Lian; Yang, Ueng-Cheng; Tan, Tin Wee
The 2008 annual conference of the Asia Pacific Bioinformatics Network (APBioNet), Asia's oldest bioinformatics organisation set up in 1998, was organized as the 7th International Conference on Bioinformatics (InCoB), jointly with the Bioinformatics and Systems Biology in Taiwan (BIT 2008) Conference, Oct. 20?23, 2008 at Taipei, Taiwan. Besides bringing together scientists from the field of bioinformatics in this region, InCoB is actively involving researchers from the area of systems biology,...
I H, Monrad Aas
Global Assessment of Functioning (GAF) is an assessment instrument that is known worldwide. It is widely used for rating the severity of illness. Results from evaluations in psychiatry should characterize the patients. Rating of GAF is based on collected information. The aim of the study is to identify the factors involved in collecting information that is relevant for rating GAF, and gaps in knowledge where it is likely that further development would play a role for improved scoring. A literature search was conducted with a combination of thorough hand search and search in the bibliographic databases PubMed, PsycINFO, Google Scholar, and Campbell Collaboration Library of Systematic Reviews. Collection of information for rating GAF depends on two fundamental factors: the sources of information and the methods for information collection. Sources of information are patients, informants, health personnel, medical records, letters of referral and police records about violence and substance abuse. Methods for information collection include the many different types of interview - unstructured, semi-structured, structured, interviews for Axis I and II disorders, semistructured interviews for rating GAF, and interviews of informants - as well as instruments for rating symptoms and functioning, and observation. The different sources of information, and methods for collection, frequently result in inconsistencies in the information collected. The variation in collected information, and lack of a generally accepted algorithm for combining collected information, is likely to be important for rated GAF values, but there is a fundamental lack of knowledge about the degree of importance. Research to improve GAF has not reached a high level. Rated GAF values are likely to be influenced by both the sources of information used and the methods employed for information collection, but the lack of research-based information about these influences is fundamental. Further development of
Greene, Anna C.; Giffin, Kristine A.; Greene, Casey S.
Modern technologies are capable of generating enormous amounts of data that measure complex biological systems. Computational biologists and bioinformatics scientists are increasingly being asked to use these data to reveal key systems-level properties. We review the extent to which curricula are changing in the era of big data. We identify key competencies that scientists dealing with big data are expected to possess across fields, and we use this information to propose courses to meet these growing needs. While bioinformatics programs have traditionally trained students in data-intensive science, we identify areas of particular biological, computational and statistical emphasis important for this era that can be incorporated into existing curricula. For each area, we propose a course structured around these topics, which can be adapted in whole or in parts into existing curricula. In summary, specific challenges associated with big data provide an important opportunity to update existing curricula, but we do not foresee a wholesale redesign of bioinformatics training programs. PMID:25829469
Camila Leoni Nascimento
Full Text Available The social networks have caused changes in the consumption habits and in the ways of relationship among companies and consumers, emerging a more demanding and informed consumer. In this paper it is aimed to assess the social networks as a source of information for the purchase of goods or services. In the study it was applied a research of exploratory nature through the survey method, conducted through personal interviews using a questionnaire with closed-ended questions. The sample of non-probabilistic type was comprised of 200 individuals from a higher education institution of São Paulo State hinterland. The survey data were analyzed descriptively. Overall, the results showed the use of social networks as a source of information search, in which the main motive is the practicality. The results corroborate the studies of Kotler and Keller (2006 when they state that the consumer seeks information on social networks to help him in the purchase, as Edelman and Hirshberg (2006 when approaching the user confidence in their friends’ opinion. For future works it is recommended to check what strategies and in what ways the companies could work in order to provide more detailed data to Internet users, aiming to support them in the decision
van Kampen, Antoine H C; Moerland, Perry D
Systems medicine promotes a range of approaches and strategies to study human health and disease at a systems level with the aim of improving the overall well-being of (healthy) individuals, and preventing, diagnosing, or curing disease. In this chapter we discuss how bioinformatics critically contributes to systems medicine. First, we explain the role of bioinformatics in the management and analysis of data. In particular we show the importance of publicly available biological and clinical repositories to support systems medicine studies. Second, we discuss how the integration and analysis of multiple types of omics data through integrative bioinformatics may facilitate the determination of more predictive and robust disease signatures, lead to a better understanding of (patho)physiological molecular mechanisms, and facilitate personalized medicine. Third, we focus on network analysis and discuss how gene networks can be constructed from omics data and how these networks can be decomposed into smaller modules. We discuss how the resulting modules can be used to generate experimentally testable hypotheses, provide insight into disease mechanisms, and lead to predictive models. Throughout, we provide several examples demonstrating how bioinformatics contributes to systems medicine and discuss future challenges in bioinformatics that need to be addressed to enable the advancement of systems medicine.
Hamada, Michiaki; Kiryu, Hisanori; Iwasaki, Wataru; Asai, Kiyoshi
In a number of estimation problems in bioinformatics, accuracy measures of the target problem are usually given, and it is important to design estimators that are suitable to those accuracy measures. However, there is often a discrepancy between an employed estimator and a given accuracy measure of the problem. In this study, we introduce a general class of efficient estimators for estimation problems on high-dimensional binary spaces, which represent many fundamental problems in bioinformatics. Theoretical analysis reveals that the proposed estimators generally fit with commonly-used accuracy measures (e.g. sensitivity, PPV, MCC and F-score) as well as it can be computed efficiently in many cases, and cover a wide range of problems in bioinformatics from the viewpoint of the principle of maximum expected accuracy (MEA). It is also shown that some important algorithms in bioinformatics can be interpreted in a unified manner. Not only the concept presented in this paper gives a useful framework to design MEA-based estimators but also it is highly extendable and sheds new light on many problems in bioinformatics. PMID:21365017
With the development of the Internet and the growth of online resources, bioinformatics training for wet-lab biologists became necessary as a part of their education. This article describes a one-semester course 'Applied Bioinformatics Course' (ABC, http://abc.cbi.pku.edu.cn/) that the author has been teaching to biological graduate students at the Peking University and the Chinese Academy of Agricultural Sciences for the past 13 years. ABC is a hands-on practical course to teach students to use online bioinformatics resources to solve biological problems related to their ongoing research projects in molecular biology. With a brief introduction to the background of the course, detailed information about the teaching strategies of the course are outlined in the 'How to teach' section. The contents of the course are briefly described in the 'What to teach' section with some real examples. The author wishes to share his teaching experiences and the online teaching materials with colleagues working in bioinformatics education both in local and international universities. © The Author 2013. Published by Oxford University Press.
Parker, Steven A.
The purpose of this article is to share a list of useful organizations that provide reliable information on new and emerging energy-efficient technologies based on research and experience. Experienced energy managers may use the information provided by these organizations to enhance their knowledge and understanding, thereby improving their energy management programs. The scope is limited to publicly-available and open-membership organizations that deal with new and emerging, energy-efficient technologies, strategies, and products. The sources identified should not be considered exhaustive but rather a first step “go to” list suggested by the author when searching for useful information on new and emerging energy-efficient technologies.
Wunderlich, Shahla; Gatto, Kelsey A
Genetically modified organisms (GMOs) have been available for commercial purchase since the 1990s, allowing producers to increase crop yields through bioengineering that creates herbicide-resistant and insect-resistant varieties. However, consumer knowledge about GMOs has not increased at the same rate as the adoption of GMO crops. Consumers worldwide are displaying limited understanding, misconceptions, and even unfamiliarity with GMO food products. Many consumers report that they receive information about GMO food products from the media, Internet, and other news sources. These sources may be less reliable than scientific experts whom consumers trust more to present the facts. Although many in the United States support mandatory GMO labeling (similar to current European standards), consumer awareness of current GMO labeling is low. A distinction must also be made between GMO familiarity and scientific understanding, because those who are more familiar with it tend to be more resistant to bioengineering, whereas those with higher scientific knowledge scores tend to have less negative attitudes toward GMOs. This brings to question the relation between scientific literacy, sources of information, and overall consumer knowledge and perception of GMO foods. © 2015 American Society for Nutrition.
Full Text Available Abstract Background Recent advances in experimental and computational technologies have fueled the development of many sophisticated bioinformatics programs. The correctness of such programs is crucial as incorrectly computed results may lead to wrong biological conclusion or misguide downstream experimentation. Common software testing procedures involve executing the target program with a set of test inputs and then verifying the correctness of the test outputs. However, due to the complexity of many bioinformatics programs, it is often difficult to verify the correctness of the test outputs. Therefore our ability to perform systematic software testing is greatly hindered. Results We propose to use a novel software testing technique, metamorphic testing (MT, to test a range of bioinformatics programs. Instead of requiring a mechanism to verify whether an individual test output is correct, the MT technique verifies whether a pair of test outputs conform to a set of domain specific properties, called metamorphic relations (MRs, thus greatly increases the number and variety of test cases that can be applied. To demonstrate how MT is used in practice, we applied MT to test two open-source bioinformatics programs, namely GNLab and SeqMap. In particular we show that MT is simple to implement, and is effective in detecting faults in a real-life program and some artificially fault-seeded programs. Further, we discuss how MT can be applied to test programs from various domains of bioinformatics. Conclusion This paper describes the application of a simple, effective and automated technique to systematically test a range of bioinformatics programs. We show how MT can be implemented in practice through two real-life case studies. Since many bioinformatics programs, particularly those for large scale simulation and data analysis, are hard to test systematically, their developers may benefit from using MT as part of the testing strategy. Therefore our work
Wang, Liwei; Ruan, Xiaoyang; Yang, Ping; Liu, Hongfang
The primary aim was to compare independent and joint performance of retrieving smoking status through different sources, including narrative text processed by natural language processing (NLP), patient-provided information (PPI), and diagnosis codes (ie, International Classification of Diseases, Ninth Revision [ICD-9]). We also compared the performance of retrieving smoking strength information (ie, heavy/light smoker) from narrative text and PPI. Our study leveraged an existing lung cancer cohort for smoking status, amount, and strength information, which was manually chart-reviewed. On the NLP side, smoking-related electronic medical record (EMR) data were retrieved first. A pattern-based smoking information extraction module was then implemented to extract smoking-related information. After that, heuristic rules were used to obtain smoking status-related information. Smoking information was also obtained from structured data sources based on diagnosis codes and PPI. Sensitivity, specificity, and accuracy were measured using patients with coverage (ie, the proportion of patients whose smoking status/strength can be effectively determined). NLP alone has the best overall performance for smoking status extraction (patient coverage: 0.88; sensitivity: 0.97; specificity: 0.70; accuracy: 0.88); combining PPI with NLP further improved patient coverage to 0.96. ICD-9 does not provide additional improvement to NLP and its combination with PPI. For smoking strength, combining NLP with PPI has slight improvement over NLP alone. These findings suggest that narrative text could serve as a more reliable and comprehensive source for obtaining smoking-related information than structured data sources. PPI, the readily available structured data, could be used as a complementary source for more comprehensive patient coverage.
Wooller, Sarah K; Benstead-Hume, Graeme; Chen, Xiangrong; Ali, Yusuf; Pearl, Frances M G
Bioinformatics approaches are becoming ever more essential in translational drug discovery both in academia and within the pharmaceutical industry. Computational exploitation of the increasing volumes of data generated during all phases of drug discovery is enabling key challenges of the process to be addressed. Here, we highlight some of the areas in which bioinformatics resources and methods are being developed to support the drug discovery pipeline. These include the creation of large data warehouses, bioinformatics algorithms to analyse 'big data' that identify novel drug targets and/or biomarkers, programs to assess the tractability of targets, and prediction of repositioning opportunities that use licensed drugs to treat additional indications. © 2017 The Author(s).
Melentieva, Anastasiya; Kucheryavskiy, Sergey; Bogomolov, Andrey
at the data analysis stage. The region of visible (Vis) light (400-800 nm) is economically attractive, because it offers a range of inexpensive light sources, optics and detectors. At present, however, it is commonly considered useless, because of the light scatter by fat globules (1-10 μm) and protein......VISIBLE LIGHT SCATTER AS A QUANTITATIVE INFORMATION SOURCE ON MILK CONSTITUENTS A. Melenteva 1, S. Kucheryavski 2, A. Bogomolov 1,31Samara State Technical University, Molodogvardeyskaya Street 244, 443100 Samara, Russia. 2Aalborg University, campus Esbjerg, Niels Bohrs vej 8, 6700 Esbjerg, Denmark....... 3J&M Analytik AG, Willy-Messerschmitt-Strasse 8, 73457 Essingen, Germany. firstname.lastname@example.org Fat and protein are two major milk nutrients that are routinely analyzed in the dairy industry. Growing food quality requirements promote the dissemination of spectroscopic analysis, enabling real...
Park, SoHyun; Oh, Heung-Kwon; Park, Gibeom; Suh, Bongwon; Bae, Woo Kyung; Kim, Jin Won; Yoon, Hyuk; Kim, Duck-Woo; Kang, Sung-Bum
Despite the rapid penetration of social media in modern life, there has been limited research conducted on whether social media serves as a credible source of health information. In this study, we propose to identify colorectal cancer information on Twitter and assess its informational credibility. We collected Twitter messages containing colorectal cancer-related keywords, over a 3-month period. A review of sample tweets yielded content and user categorization schemes. The results of the sample analysis were applied to classify all collected tweets and users, using a machine learning technique. The credibility of the information in the sampled tweets was evaluated. A total of 76,119 tweets were analyzed. Individual users authored the majority of tweets (n = 68,982, 90.6%). They mostly tweeted about news articles/research (n = 16,761, 22.0%) and risk/prevention (n = 14,767, 19.4%). Medical professional users generated only 2.0% of total tweets (n = 1509), and medical institutions rarely tweeted (n = 417, 0.6%). Organizations tended to tweet more about information than did individuals (85.2% vs 63.1%; P users. Coupled with the Internet's potential to increase social support, Twitter may contribute to enhancing public health and empowering users, when used with proper caution.
Weber, Tilmann; Kim, Hyun Uk
. In this context, this review gives a summary of tools and databases that currently are available to mine, identify and characterize natural product biosynthesis pathways and their producers based on ‘omics data. A web portal called Secondary Metabolite Bioinformatics Portal (SMBP at http......://www.secondarymetabolites.org) is introduced to provide a one-stop catalog and links to these bioinformatics resources. In addition, an outlook is presented how the existing tools and those to be developed will influence synthetic biology approaches in the natural products field....
Luca, Massimiliano Di
Offers a unique multidisciplinary overview of how humans interact with soft objects and how multiple sensory signals are used to perceive material properties, with an emphasis on object deformability. The authors describe a range of setups that have been employed to study and exploit sensory signals involved in interactions with compliant objects as well as techniques to simulate and modulate softness - including a psychophysical perspective of the field. Multisensory Softness focuses on the cognitive mechanisms underlying the use of multiple sources of information in softness perception. D
Full Text Available The pervasive use of new mobile devices has allowed a better characterization in space and time of human concentrations and mobility in general. Besides its theoretical interest, describing mobility is of great importance for a number of practical applications ranging from the forecast of disease spreading to the design of new spaces in urban environments. While classical data sources, such as surveys or census, have a limited level of geographical resolution (e.g., districts, municipalities, counties are typically used or are restricted to generic workdays or weekends, the data coming from mobile devices can be precisely located both in time and space. Most previous works have used a single data source to study human mobility patterns. Here we perform instead a cross-check analysis by comparing results obtained with data collected from three different sources: Twitter, census, and cell phones. The analysis is focused on the urban areas of Barcelona and Madrid, for which data of the three types is available. We assess the correlation between the datasets on different aspects: the spatial distribution of people concentration, the temporal evolution of people density, and the mobility patterns of individuals. Our results show that the three data sources are providing comparable information. Even though the representativeness of Twitter geolocated data is lower than that of mobile phone and census data, the correlations between the population density profiles and mobility patterns detected by the three datasets are close to one in a grid with cells of 2×2 and 1×1 square kilometers. This level of correlation supports the feasibility of interchanging the three data sources at the spatio-temporal scales considered.
Full Text Available The goal of the article is to determine the place and role of opinion giving services in consumer behaviours. The discussion is conducted around the thesis saying that in the information society, opinion giving services constitute an important source of information for consumers in the process of selecting and purchasing both products and services. In the article the research approach based on the theoretical and empirical examinations was presented. The discussion starts with presenting a defi nition and types of opinion giving services which constitute the base for the characteristics of activities and usefulness of web portals collecting consumers opinions. The use of opinion giving services provided in the purchase process was evaluated. An essential interest in other consumers opinions, placed in Internet, was observed together with perceiving them as credible. Positive assessment of the functionality of opinion giving services was noticed.
Litvinenko, E.I; Astakhov, Yu.A.; Akishina, E.P.; Semenov, R.N.; Smol'kov, I.S.
The work on the creation of the hypertext information system has been performed on the basis of the web-server of the Frank Laboratory of Neutron Physics, JINR. The initial project proposed the creation of HTML information resources and did not consider the usage of any database for the information management. During the project implementation it became obvious that the system should have well defined structured informational model and it might be helpful to imply the relational database as a part of the system. The ORACLE server at the Laboratory of Computing Techniques and Automation (LCTA) of the JINR has been used for this task. Now we have a set of ORACLE tables designed using CASE tools for the informational model of the system, structured information about neutron sources, neutron instruments, printed publications and URL addresses. We have also the web interface to these tables using free ware gateway ORALINK installed on our Pentium PC with Windows NT and some tools to administer database and view pictures stored in the tables. We took into account NeXuS specifications while tried to design the informational model of the system, and we continue to work on its creation
Krawetz, Stephen A
..., requires an unprecedented level of development to collect, manage and mine the data for interesting associations. To begin to understand this information we now rely on statistical analysis to aid in our selection of the fruit from the tree. However, this often takes us on a journey into a new field for which we are not yet prepared. Samuel Joh...
from a subject that suffered from periodontal disease. The rationale for including these two samples was to identify the differences and similarities...collection of information if it does not display a currently valid OMB control number. PLEASE DO NOT RETURN YOUR FORM TO THE ABOVE ADDRESS. 1
Kastin, S; Wexler, J
During the past 30 years, there has been an explosion in the volume of published medical information. As this volume has increased, so has the need for efficient methods for searching the data. MEDLINE, the primary medical database, is currently limited to abstracts of the medical literature. MEDLINE searches use AND/OR/NOT logical searching for keywords that have been assigned to each article and for textwords included in article abstracts. Recently, the complete text of some scientific journals, including figures and tables, has become accessible electronically. Keyword and textword searches can provide an overwhelming number of results. Search engines that use phrase searching, or searches that limit the number of words between two finds, improve the precision of search engines. The development of the Internet as a vehicle for worldwide communication, and the emergence of the World Wide Web (WWW) as a common vehicle for communication have made instantaneous access to much of the entire body of medical information an exciting possibility. There is more than one way to search the WWW for information. At the present time, two broad strategies have emerged for cataloging the WWW: directories and search engines. These allow more efficient searching of the WWW. Directories catalog WWW information by creating categories and subcategories of information and then publishing pointers to information within the category listings. Directories are analogous to yellow pages of the phone book. Search engines make no attempt to categorize information. They automatically scour the WWW looking for words and then automatically create an index of those words. When a specific search engine is used, its index is searched for a particular word. Usually, search engines are nonspecific and produce voluminous results. Use of AND/OR/NOT and "near" and "adjacent" search refinements greatly improve the results of a search. Search engines that limit their scope to specific sites, and
This environmental information handbook was prepared to assist both the non-technical reader (i.e., homeowner) and technical persons (such as researchers, policy analysts, and builders/designers) in understanding the current state of knowledge regarding combustion sources of indoor air pollution. Quantitative and descriptive data addressing the emissions, indoor concentrations, factors influencing indoor concentrations, and health effects of combustion-generated pollutants are provided. In addition, a review of the models, controls, and standards applicable to indoor air pollution from combustion sources is presented. The emphasis is on the residential environment. The data presented here have been compiled from government and privately-funded research results, conference proceedings, technical journals, and recent publications. It is intended to provide the technical reader with a comprehensive overview and reference source on the major indoor air quality aspects relating to indoor combustion activities, including tobacco smoking. In addition, techniques for determining potential concentrations of pollutants in residential settings are presented. This is an update of a 1985 study documenting the state of knowledge of combustion-generated pollutants in the indoor environment. 191 refs., 51 figs., 71 tabs.
Cong, Zhen; Luo, Jianjun; Liang, Daan; Nejat, Ali
People may receive tornado warnings from multiple information sources, but little is known about factors that affect the number of warning information sources (WISs). This study examined predictors for the number of WISs with a telephone survey on randomly sampled residents in Tuscaloosa, Alabama, and Joplin, Missouri, approximately 1 year after both cities were struck by violent tornadoes (EF4 and EF5) in 2011. The survey included 1006 finished interviews and the working sample included 903 respondents. Poisson regression and Zero-Inflated Poisson regression showed that older age and having an emergency plan predicted more WISs in both cities. Education, marital status, and gender affected the possibilities of receiving warnings and the number of WISs either in Joplin or in Tuscaloosa. The findings suggest that social disparity affects the access to warnings not only with respect to the likelihood of receiving any warnings but also with respect to the number of WISs. In addition, historical and social contexts are important for examining predictors for the number of WISs. We recommend that the number of WISs should be regarded as an important measure to evaluate access to warnings in addition to the likelihood of receiving warnings. (Disaster Med Public Health Preparedness. 2017;11:168-172).
van Kampen, Antoine H. C.; Moerland, Perry D.
Systems medicine promotes a range of approaches and strategies to study human health and disease at a systems level with the aim of improving the overall well-being of (healthy) individuals, and preventing, diagnosing, or curing disease. In this chapter we discuss how bioinformatics critically
This book chapter describes the current Big Data problem in Bioinformatics and the resulting issues with performing reproducible computational research. The core of the chapter provides guidelines and summaries of current tools/techniques that a noncomputational researcher would need to learn to pe...
Vesth, Tammi Camilla; Rasmussen, Jane Lind Nybo; Theobald, Sebastian
with the Joint Genome Institute. The Aspergillus Mine is not intended as a genomic data sharing service but instead focuses on creating an environment where the results of bioinformatic analysis is made available for inspection. The data and code is public upon request and figures can be obtained directly from...
Vaez Barzani, Ahmad
In this thesis we present an overview of bioinformatics-based approaches for genomic association mapping, with emphasis on human quantitative traits and their contribution to complex diseases. We aim to provide a comprehensive walk-through of the classic steps of genomic association mapping
Hassanien, Aboul Ella; Al-Shammari, Eiman Tamah; Ghali, Neveen I
Computational intelligence (CI) is a well-established paradigm with current systems having many of the characteristics of biological computers and capable of performing a variety of tasks that are difficult to do using conventional techniques. It is a methodology involving adaptive mechanisms and/or an ability to learn that facilitate intelligent behavior in complex and changing environments, such that the system is perceived to possess one or more attributes of reason, such as generalization, discovery, association and abstraction. The objective of this article is to present to the CI and bioinformatics research communities some of the state-of-the-art in CI applications to bioinformatics and motivate research in new trend-setting directions. In this article, we present an overview of the CI techniques in bioinformatics. We will show how CI techniques including neural networks, restricted Boltzmann machine, deep belief network, fuzzy logic, rough sets, evolutionary algorithms (EA), genetic algorithms (GA), swarm intelligence, artificial immune systems and support vector machines, could be successfully employed to tackle various problems such as gene expression clustering and classification, protein sequence classification, gene selection, DNA fragment assembly, multiple sequence alignment, and protein function prediction and its structure. We discuss some representative methods to provide inspiring examples to illustrate how CI can be utilized to address these problems and how bioinformatics data can be characterized by CI. Challenges to be addressed and future directions of research are also presented and an extensive bibliography is included. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
Li, JianQiang; Yang, Ji-Jiang; Liu, Chunchen; Zhao, Yu; Liu, Bo; Shi, Yuliang
The vision of the Semantic Web is to build a global Web of machine-readable data to be consumed by intelligent applications. As the first step to make this vision come true, the initiative of linked open data has fostered many novel applications aimed at improving data accessibility in the public Web. Comparably, the enterprise environment is so different from the public Web that most potentially usable business information originates in an unstructured form (typically in free text), which poses a challenge for the adoption of semantic technologies in the enterprise environment. Considering that the business information in a company is highly specific and centred around a set of commonly used concepts, this paper describes a pilot study to migrate the concept of linked data into the development of a domain-specific application, i.e. the vehicle repair support system. The set of commonly used concepts, including the part name of a car and the phenomenon term on the car repairing, are employed to build the linkage between data and documents distributed among different sources, leading to the fusion of documents and data across source boundaries. Then, we describe the approaches of semantic information retrieval to consume these linkages for value creation for companies. The experiments on two real-world data sets show that the proposed approaches outperform the best baseline 6.3-10.8% and 6.4-11.1% in terms of top five and top 10 precisions, respectively. We believe that our pilot study can serve as an important reference for the development of similar semantic applications in an enterprise environment.
"The overall aim of "EURASIP Journal on Bioinformatics and Systems Biology" is to publish research results related to signal processing and bioinformatics theories and techniques relevant to a wide...
CERN. Geneva; Deutsch, Sam; Michielin, Olivier; Thomas, Arthur; Descombes, Patrick
Extracting the fundamental genomic sequence from the DNA From Genome to Sequence : Biology in the early 21st century has been radically transformed by the availability of the full genome sequences of an ever increasing number of life forms, from bacteria to major crop plants and to humans. The lecture will concentrate on the computational challenges associated with the production, storage and analysis of genome sequence data, with an emphasis on mammalian genomes. The quality and usability of genome sequences is increasingly conditioned by the careful integration of strategies for data collection and computational analysis, from the construction of maps and libraries to the assembly of raw data into sequence contigs and chromosome-sized scaffolds. Once the sequence is assembled, a major challenge is the mapping of biologically relevant information onto this sequence: promoters, introns and exons of protein-encoding genes, regulatory elements, functional RNAs, pseudogenes, transposons, etc. The methodological ...
Feenstra, K. Anton; Abeln, Sanne
While many good textbooks are available on Protein Structure, Molecular Simulations, Thermodynamics and Bioinformatics methods in general, there is no good introductory level book for the field of Structural Bioinformatics. This book aims to give an introduction into Structural Bioinformatics, which
Lucassen, T.; Schraagen, J.M.C.
The use of Wikipedia as an information source is becoming increasingly popular. Several studies have shown that its information quality is high. Normally, when considering information trust, the source of information is an important factor. However, because of the open-source nature of Wikipedia
Lucassen, T.; Schraagen, Johannes Martinus Cornelis
The use of Wikipedia as an information source is becoming increasingly popular. Several studies have shown that its information quality is high. Normally, when considering information trust, the source of information is an important factor. However, because of the open-source nature of Wikipedia
Khudair, Ahmad A.; Cooke, Louise
ICT has enabled a wide dissemination of information and a sharp increase in the magnitude of electronic information sources. The use of e-information sources by healthcare personnel within Saudi Arabia has received little research attention. This paper discusses the use of e-information sources by healthcare personnel in the kingdom. A…
The automatic classification of GPCRs by bioinformatics methodology can provide functional information for new GPCRs in the whole 'GPCR proteome' and this information is important for the development of novel drugs. Since GPCR proteome is classified hierarchically, general ways for GPCR function prediction are based on hierarchical classification. Various computational tools have been developed to predict GPCR functions; those tools use not simple sequence searches but more powerful methods, such as alignment-free methods, statistical model methods, and machine learning methods used in protein sequence analysis, based on learning datasets. The first stage of hierarchical function prediction involves the discrimination of GPCRs from non-GPCRs and the second stage involves the classification of the predicted GPCR candidates into family, subfamily, and sub-subfamily levels. Then, further classification is performed according to their protein-protein interaction type: binding G-protein type, oligomerized partner type, etc. Those methods have achieved predictive accuracies of around 90 %. Finally, I described the future subject of research of the bioinformatics technique about functional prediction of GPCR.
ACADEMIC TRAINING LECTURE SERIES 27, 28 February 1, 2, 3 March 2006 from 11:00 to 12:00 - Auditorium, bldg. 500 Decoding the Genome A special series of 5 lectures on: Recent extraordinary advances in the life sciences arising through new detection technologies and bioinformatics The past five years have seen an extraordinary change in the information and tools available in the life sciences. The sequencing of the human genome, the discovery that we possess far fewer genes than foreseen, the measurement of the tiny changes in the genomes that differentiate us, the sequencing of the genomes of many pathogens that lead to diseases such as malaria are all examples of completely new information that is now available in the quest for improved healthcare. New tools have allowed similar strides in the discovery of the associated protein structures, providing invaluable information for those searching for new drugs. New DNA microarray chips permit simultaneous measurement of the state of expression of tens...
Zou, Quan; Li, Xu-Bin; Jiang, Wen-Rui; Lin, Zi-Yu; Li, Gui-Lin; Chen, Ke
Bioinformatics is challenged by the fact that traditional analysis tools have difficulty in processing large-scale data from high-throughput sequencing. The open source Apache Hadoop project, which adopts the MapReduce framework and a distributed file system, has recently given bioinformatics researchers an opportunity to achieve scalable, efficient and reliable computing performance on Linux clusters and on cloud computing services. In this article, we present MapReduce frame-based applications that can be employed in the next-generation sequencing and other biological domains. In addition, we discuss the challenges faced by this field as well as the future works on parallel computing in bioinformatics. © The Author 2013. Published by Oxford University Press. For Permissions, please email: email@example.com.
Gront, Dominik; Kolinski, Andrzej
In this Note we present a new software library for structural bioinformatics. The library contains programs, computing sequence- and profile-based alignments and a variety of structural calculations with user-friendly handling of various data formats. The software organization is very flexible. Algorithms are written in Java language and may be used by Java programs. Moreover the modules can be accessed from Jython (Python scripting language implemented in Java) scripts. Finally, the new version of BioShell delivers several utility programs that can do typical bioinformatics task from a command-line level. Availability The software is available for download free of charge from its website: http://bioshell.chem.uw.edu.pl. This website provides also numerous examples, code snippets and API documentation.
Schweighofer, Karl; Pohorille, Andrew
Building on an existing prototype, we have fielded a facility with bioinformatics technologies that will help NASA meet its unique requirements for biological research. This facility consists of a cluster of computers capable of performing computationally intensive tasks, software tools, databases and knowledge management systems. Novel computational technologies for analyzing and integrating new biological data and already existing knowledge have been developed. With continued development and support, the facility will fulfill strategic NASA s bioinformatics needs in astrobiology and space exploration. . As a demonstration of these capabilities, we will present a detailed analysis of how spaceflight factors impact gene expression in the liver and kidney for mice flown aboard shuttle flight STS-108. We have found that many genes involved in signal transduction, cell cycle, and development respond to changes in microgravity, but that most metabolic pathways appear unchanged.
Nagler, Rebekah H; Romantan, Anca; Kelly, Bridget J; Stevens, Robin S; Gray, Stacy W; Hull, Shawnika J; Ramirez, A Susana; Hornik, Robert C
Little is known about how patients move among information sources to fulfill unmet needs. We interviewed 43 breast, prostate, and colorectal cancer patients. Using a grounded theory approach, we identified patterns and motivations for movement among information sources. Overall, patients reported using one source (e.g., newspaper) followed by the use of another source (e.g., Internet), and five key motivations for such cross-source movement emerged. Patients' social networks often played a central role in this movement. Understanding how patients navigate an increasingly complex information environment may help clinicians and educators to guide patients to appropriate, high-quality sources.
Orozco, Allan; Morera, Jessica; Jiménez, Sergio; Boza, Ricardo
Today, Bioinformatics has become a scientific discipline with great relevance for the Molecular Biosciences and for the Omics sciences in general. Although developed countries have progressed with large strides in Bioinformatics education and research, in other regions, such as Central America, the advances have occurred in a gradual way and with little support from the Academia, either at the undergraduate or graduate level. To address this problem, the University of Costa Rica's Medical School, a regional leader in Bioinformatics in Central America, has been conducting a series of Bioinformatics workshops, seminars and courses, leading to the creation of the region's first Bioinformatics Master's Degree. The recent creation of the Central American Bioinformatics Network (BioCANET), associated to the deployment of a supporting computational infrastructure (HPC Cluster) devoted to provide computing support for Molecular Biology in the region, is providing a foundational stone for the development of Bioinformatics in the area. Central American bioinformaticians have participated in the creation of as well as co-founded the Iberoamerican Bioinformatics Society (SOIBIO). In this article, we review the most recent activities in education and research in Bioinformatics from several regional institutions. These activities have resulted in further advances for Molecular Medicine, Agriculture and Biodiversity research in Costa Rica and the rest of the Central American countries. Finally, we provide summary information on the first Central America Bioinformatics International Congress, as well as the creation of the first Bioinformatics company (Indromics Bioinformatics), spin-off the Academy in Central America and the Caribbean.
Floraino, Wely B.
This article discusses the challenges that bioinformatics education is facing and describes a bioinformatics course that is successfully taught at the California State Polytechnic University, Pomona, to the fourth year undergraduate students in biological sciences, chemistry, and computer science. Information on lecture and computer practice…
Grisham, William; Schottler, Natalie A.; Valli-Marill, Joanne; Beck, Lisa; Beatty, Jackson
This completely computer-based module's purpose is to introduce students to bioinformatics resources. We present an easy-to-adopt module that weaves together several important bioinformatic tools so students can grasp how these tools are used in answering research questions. Students integrate information gathered from websites dealing with…
Peters, Lee; Mortensen, Jonathan; Nguyen, Thang; Bodenreider, Olivier
Our objective was to enable an end-user to create complex queries to drug information sources through functional composition, by creating sequences of functions from application program interfaces (API) to drug terminologies. The development of a functional composition model seeks to link functions from two distinct APIs. An ontology was developed using Protégé to model the functions of the RxNorm and NDF-RT APIs by describing the semantics of their input and output. A set of rules were developed to define the interoperable conditions for functional composition. The operational definition of interoperability between function pairs is established by executing the rules on the ontology. We illustrate that the functional composition model supports common use cases, including checking interactions for RxNorm drugs and deploying allergy lists defined in reference to drug properties in NDF-RT. This model supports the RxMix application (http://mor.nlm.nih.gov/RxMix/), an application we developed for enabling complex queries to the RxNorm and NDF-RT APIs.
Home; Journals; Resonance – Journal of Science Education; Volume 19; Issue 2. Science Academies' Refresher Course on Bioinformatics in Modern Biology. Information and Announcements Volume 19 Issue 2 February 2014 pp 192-192. Fulltext. Click here to view fulltext PDF. Permanent link:
Oliver, Jeffrey C
Health sciences research is increasingly focusing on big data applications, such as genomic technologies and precision medicine, to address key issues in human health. These approaches rely on biological data repositories and bioinformatic analyses, both of which are growing rapidly in size and scope. Libraries play a key role in supporting researchers in navigating these and other information resources. With the goal of supporting bioinformatics research in the health sciences, the University of Arizona Health Sciences Library established a Bioinformation program. To shape the support provided by the library, I developed and administered a needs assessment survey to the University of Arizona Health Sciences campus in Tucson, Arizona. The survey was designed to identify the training topics of interest to health sciences researchers and the preferred modes of training. Survey respondents expressed an interest in a broad array of potential training topics, including "traditional" information seeking as well as interest in analytical training. Of particular interest were training in transcriptomic tools and the use of databases linking genotypes and phenotypes. Staff were most interested in bioinformatics training topics, while faculty were the least interested. Hands-on workshops were significantly preferred over any other mode of training. The University of Arizona Health Sciences Library is meeting those needs through internal programming and external partnerships. The results of the survey demonstrate a keen interest in a variety of bioinformatic resources; the challenge to the library is how to address those training needs. The mode of support depends largely on library staff expertise in the numerous subject-specific databases and tools. Librarian-led bioinformatic training sessions provide opportunities for engagement with researchers at multiple points of the research life cycle. When training needs exceed library capacity, partnering with intramural and
Schneider, Maria V; Walter, Peter; Blatter, Marie-Claude; Watson, James; Brazas, Michelle D; Rother, Kristian; Budd, Aidan; Via, Allegra; van Gelder, Celia W G; Jacob, Joachim; Fernandes, Pedro; Nyrönen, Tommi H; De Las Rivas, Javier; Blicher, Thomas; Jimenez, Rafael C; Loveland, Jane; McDowall, Jennifer; Jones, Phil; Vaughan, Brendan W; Lopez, Rodrigo; Attwood, Teresa K; Brooksbank, Catherine
Funding bodies are increasingly recognizing the need to provide graduates and researchers with access to short intensive courses in a variety of disciplines, in order both to improve the general skills base and to provide solid foundations on which researchers may build their careers. In response to the development of 'high-throughput biology', the need for training in the field of bioinformatics, in particular, is seeing a resurgence: it has been defined as a key priority by many Institutions and research programmes and is now an important component of many grant proposals. Nevertheless, when it comes to planning and preparing to meet such training needs, tension arises between the reward structures that predominate in the scientific community which compel individuals to publish or perish, and the time that must be devoted to the design, delivery and maintenance of high-quality training materials. Conversely, there is much relevant teaching material and training expertise available worldwide that, were it properly organized, could be exploited by anyone who needs to provide training or needs to set up a new course. To do this, however, the materials would have to be centralized in a database and clearly tagged in relation to target audiences, learning objectives, etc. Ideally, they would also be peer reviewed, and easily and efficiently accessible for downloading. Here, we present the Bioinformatics Training Network (BTN), a new enterprise that has been initiated to address these needs and review it, respectively, to similar initiatives and collections.
Cock, Peter J A; Antao, Tiago; Chang, Jeffrey T
SUMMARY: The Biopython project is a mature open source international collaboration of volunteer developers, providing Python libraries for a wide range of bioinformatics problems. Biopython includes modules for reading and writing different sequence file formats and multiple sequence alignments...
Turner, Adrienne; Kabashi, Arta; Guthrie, Hannah; Burket, Roger; Turner, Philip
With Web 2.0, the variety of information sources for parents of paediatric psychiatric patients has increased dramatically. Information use theory suggests newer sources supplement rather than supplant traditional sources of health information. This study sought to determine the use and value of traditional and emerging sources of information and whether the subjects had access to highly valued sources of information. One hundred parents indicated the use and value of six sources of information on the child's symptoms, diagnoses and treatment. The data were analyzed to determine if significant relationships existed between type of source and the use and value of the information sources. Ninety-four percent of the subjects had access to the Internet and almost half of those reported using the Social Web. Eighty-five percent had at least one high-value information source. The psychiatrist in the clinic, the Internet and the primary care physician were the most highly used and valued sources. Use of digital information sources was greater than found in other studies of similar populations. This use appears to complement rather than supplant more traditional sources. Further studies are needed to see if the negative impact of lack of Internet access is replicated. © 2011 The authors. Health Information and Libraries Journal © 2011 Health Libraries Group.
Taha, Jessica; Sharit, Joseph; Czaja, Sara
Purpose: Older adults generally have an increased need for health care information. Whereas some use the Internet to look for this information, others use more traditional sources. This study gathered data from older adults to determine their health information needs, the perceived usefulness of sources of health information, and if there are…
Secor-Turner, Molly; Sieving, Renee E.; Eisenberg, Marla E.; Skay, Carol
The objective of this study was to describe prevalent informal sources of information about sex and examine associations between informal sources of information about sex and sexual risk outcomes among sexually experienced adolescents. Work involved the secondary analysis of data from the Minnesota Student Survey, a statewide survey to monitor…
Wen, Yufeng; Wang, Huadong; Chen, Baifeng; Chen, Yujuan; Zhang, Tiejun; Xu, Tan; Sun, Wenjie
To investigate the association between the number of available information sources on HIV/AIDS and HIV/AIDS-related knowledge in a rural population in China. We performed a cross-sectional survey on the number and types of sources of HIV/AIDS information available to rural residents of China and assessed HIV/AIDS-related knowledge in this population. We collected information from 5,355 Chinese rural residents and then correlated the results of the scores on knowledge to the numbers of information sources, and adjusted for age, sex, education and occupation. The sources of HIV/AIDs information reported by subjects included television, radio, newspapers, periodicals, discussions with neighbors and friends. There were significant differences in sources of information based on gender, occupation, educational level and age. The average number of information sources was 3.01 ± 1.74. The average score on the AIDS related knowledge questionnaire was 8.21 ± 4.23. Subjects who reported 6 sources of HIV/AIDS information had an average score of 11.67 ± 3.0 on the HIV/AIDS knowledge questionnaire. Subjects who reported between 3-7 sources of HIV/AIDS information had significantly higher scores than those who had 1,2 or 8 sources of information. There is an association between HIV/AIDS knowledge and the number of available information sources. By increasing the sources, one could not always make more people curious or interested in HIV/AIDS knowledge.
Thomas K Karikari
Full Text Available Until recently, bioinformatics, an important discipline in the biological sciences, was largely limited to countries with advanced scientific resources. Nonetheless, several developing countries have lately been making progress in bioinformatics training and applications. In Africa, leading countries in the discipline include South Africa, Nigeria, and Kenya. However, one country that is less known when it comes to bioinformatics is Ghana. Here, I provide a first description of the development of bioinformatics activities in Ghana and how these activities contribute to the overall development of the discipline in Africa. Over the past decade, scientists in Ghana have been involved in publications incorporating bioinformatics analyses, aimed at addressing research questions in biomedical science and agriculture. Scarce research funding and inadequate training opportunities are some of the challenges that need to be addressed for Ghanaian scientists to continue developing their expertise in bioinformatics.
Karikari, Thomas K
Until recently, bioinformatics, an important discipline in the biological sciences, was largely limited to countries with advanced scientific resources. Nonetheless, several developing countries have lately been making progress in bioinformatics training and applications. In Africa, leading countries in the discipline include South Africa, Nigeria, and Kenya. However, one country that is less known when it comes to bioinformatics is Ghana. Here, I provide a first description of the development of bioinformatics activities in Ghana and how these activities contribute to the overall development of the discipline in Africa. Over the past decade, scientists in Ghana have been involved in publications incorporating bioinformatics analyses, aimed at addressing research questions in biomedical science and agriculture. Scarce research funding and inadequate training opportunities are some of the challenges that need to be addressed for Ghanaian scientists to continue developing their expertise in bioinformatics.
This paper discusses the sources of radiation in the narrow perspective of radioactivity and the even narrow perspective of those sources that concern environmental management and restoration activities at DOE facilities, as well as a few related sources. Sources of irritation, Sources of inflammatory jingoism, and Sources of information. First, the sources of irritation fall into three categories: No reliable scientific ombudsman to speak without bias and prejudice for the public good, Technical jargon with unclear definitions exists within the radioactive nomenclature, and Scientific community keeps a low-profile with regard to public information. The next area of personal concern are the sources of inflammation. This include such things as: Plutonium being described as the most dangerous substance known to man, The amount of plutonium required to make a bomb, Talk of transuranic waste containing plutonium and its health affects, TMI-2 and Chernobyl being described as Siamese twins, Inadequate information on low-level disposal sites and current regulatory requirements under 10 CFR 61, Enhanced engineered waste disposal not being presented to the public accurately. Numerous sources of disinformation regarding low level radiation high-level radiation, Elusive nature of the scientific community, The Federal and State Health Agencies resources to address comparative risk, and Regulatory agencies speaking out without the support of the scientific community
Oakley, Mark T; Barthel, Daniel; Bykov, Yuri; Garibaldi, Jonathan M; Burke, Edmund K; Krasnogor, Natalio; Hirst, Jonathan D
Optimisation problems pervade structural bioinformatics. In this review, we describe recent work addressing a selection of bioinformatics challenges. We begin with a discussion of research into protein structure comparison, and highlight the utility of Kolmogorov complexity as a measure of structural similarity. We then turn to research into de novo protein structure prediction, in which structures are generated from first principles. In this endeavour, there is a compromise between the detail of the model and the extent to which the conformational space of the protein can be sampled. We discuss some developments in this area, including off-lattice structure prediction using the great deluge algorithm. One strategy to reduce the size of the search space is to restrict the protein chain to sites on a regular lattice. In this context, we highlight the use of memetic algorithms, which combine genetic algorithms with local optimisation, to the study of simple protein models on the two-dimensional square lattice and the face-centred cubic lattice.
Yukinawa, N; Ishii, S; Takenouchi, T; Oba, S
Multi-class classification is one of the fundamental tasks in bioinformatics and typically arises in cancer diagnosis studies by gene expression profiling. This article reviews two recent approaches to multi-class classification by combining multiple binary classifiers, which are formulated based on a unified framework of error-correcting output coding (ECOC). The first approach is to construct a multi-class classifier in which each binary classifier to be aggregated has a weight value to be optimally tuned based on the observed data. In the second approach, misclassification of each binary classifier is formulated as a bit inversion error with a probabilistic model by making an analogy to the context of information transmission theory. Experimental studies using various real-world datasets including cancer classification problems reveal that both of the new methods are superior or comparable to other multi-class classification methods
Qureshi, Pir Abdul Rasool; Memon, Nasrullah; Wiil, Uffe Kock
The abundance of information regarding any topic makes the Internet a very good resource. Even though searching the Internet is very easy, what remains difficult is to automate the process of information extraction from the available online information due to the lack of structure and the diversity...... in the sharing methods. Most of the times, information is stored in different proprietary formats, complying with different standards and protocols which makes tasks like data mining and information harvesting very difficult. In this paper, an information harvesting tool (heteroHarvest) is presented...... with objectives to address these problems by filtering the useful information and then normalizing the information in a singular non hypertext format. Finally we describe the results of experimental evaluation. The results are found promising with an overall error rate equal to 6.5% across heterogeneous formats....
Ranganathan, Shoba; Hsu, Wen-Lian; Yang, Ueng-Cheng; Tan, Tin Wee
The 2008 annual conference of the Asia Pacific Bioinformatics Network (APBioNet), Asia's oldest bioinformatics organisation set up in 1998, was organized as the 7th International Conference on Bioinformatics (InCoB), jointly with the Bioinformatics and Systems Biology in Taiwan (BIT 2008) Conference, Oct. 20-23, 2008 at Taipei, Taiwan. Besides bringing together scientists from the field of bioinformatics in this region, InCoB is actively involving researchers from the area of systems biology, to facilitate greater synergy between these two groups. Marking the 10th Anniversary of APBioNet, this InCoB 2008 meeting followed on from a series of successful annual events in Bangkok (Thailand), Penang (Malaysia), Auckland (New Zealand), Busan (South Korea), New Delhi (India) and Hong Kong. Additionally, tutorials and the Workshop on Education in Bioinformatics and Computational Biology (WEBCB) immediately prior to the 20th Federation of Asian and Oceanian Biochemists and Molecular Biologists (FAOBMB) Taipei Conference provided ample opportunity for inducting mainstream biochemists and molecular biologists from the region into a greater level of awareness of the importance of bioinformatics in their craft. In this editorial, we provide a brief overview of the peer-reviewed manuscripts accepted for publication herein, grouped into thematic areas. As the regional research expertise in bioinformatics matures, the papers fall into thematic areas, illustrating the specific contributions made by APBioNet to global bioinformatics efforts.
Schneider, Maria V.; Walter, Peter; Blatter, Marie-Claude
Funding bodies are increasingly recognizing the need to provide graduates and researchers with access to short intensive courses in a variety of disciplines, in order both to improve the general skills base and to provide solid foundations on which researchers may build their careers. In response...... to the development of ‘high-throughput biology’, the need for training in the field of bioinformatics, in particular, is seeing a resurgence: it has been defined as a key priority by many Institutions and research programmes and is now an important component of many grant proposals. Nevertheless, when it comes...... to planning and preparing to meet such training needs, tension arises between the reward structures that predominate in the scientific community which compel individuals to publish or perish, and the time that must be devoted to the design, delivery and maintenance of high-quality training materials...
Fowler, Kendra; Bridges, Eileen
Among the proficiencies that marketing students should acquire, information literacy, the ability to gather and apply pertinent information to aid in decision making, is commonly overlooked. In this article, information literacy is explored along four complementary dimensions: instrumental, conceptual, reflective, and symbolic. Furthermore, the…
Stringer-Calvert David WJ
Full Text Available Abstract Background This article addresses the problem of interoperation of heterogeneous bioinformatics databases. Results We introduce BioWarehouse, an open source toolkit for constructing bioinformatics database warehouses using the MySQL and Oracle relational database managers. BioWarehouse integrates its component databases into a common representational framework within a single database management system, thus enabling multi-database queries using the Structured Query Language (SQL but also facilitating a variety of database integration tasks such as comparative analysis and data mining. BioWarehouse currently supports the integration of a pathway-centric set of databases including ENZYME, KEGG, and BioCyc, and in addition the UniProt, GenBank, NCBI Taxonomy, and CMR databases, and the Gene Ontology. Loader tools, written in the C and JAVA languages, parse and load these databases into a relational database schema. The loaders also apply a degree of semantic normalization to their respective source data, decreasing semantic heterogeneity. The schema supports the following bioinformatics datatypes: chemical compounds, biochemical reactions, metabolic pathways, proteins, genes, nucleic acid sequences, features on protein and nucleic-acid sequences, organisms, organism taxonomies, and controlled vocabularies. As an application example, we applied BioWarehouse to determine the fraction of biochemically characterized enzyme activities for which no sequences exist in the public sequence databases. The answer is that no sequence exists for 36% of enzyme activities for which EC numbers have been assigned. These gaps in sequence data significantly limit the accuracy of genome annotation and metabolic pathway prediction, and are a barrier for metabolic engineering. Complex queries of this type provide examples of the value of the data warehousing approach to bioinformatics research. Conclusion BioWarehouse embodies significant progress on the
Full Text Available The article explores the process of starting and developing regular diplomatic relations between the Ottoman and Russian empires by the example of the notes of Count P. A. Tolstoy – the first Russian ambassador in Turkey. Showing sources of knowledge about Turkey and Turkish society in Russia, provides a brief list of the main diplomatic sources on Russian-Turkish relations in the Foreign Policy Archive of the Russian Empire.
Geoffrey H. Donovan; David L. Nicholls; Joseph. Roos
Survey data from home shows in Seattle, Washington and Anchorage, Alaska were used to determine the sources of product information used by consumers when buying kitchen cabinets. Results show that in-store sales staff are the most common source of product information, and that consumers' favorite wood species, age, and gender can influence the source of product...
Rosen, Brittany L; Shew, Marcia L; Zimet, Gregory D; Ding, Lili; Mullins, Tanya L K; Kahn, Jessica A
Understanding where adolescents obtain information about human papillomavirus (HPV) vaccines may be helpful in designing public health interventions promoting HPV vaccination. This study assessed the following: (1) exposure to specific sources of information about HPV vaccines, (2) self-reported helpfulness of these sources of information, and (3) whether the specific source of information was associated with knowledge and perceptions about HPV vaccines among adolescent girls. There were 339 adolescent girls (mean age = 16.8 years) recruited into the study. Television advertisements, the Internet, doctors/nurses, and mothers were the most frequently reported sources of vaccine information; more than 90% of participants who received information from these sources reported they were helpful. Adolescents who received information about HPV vaccines from television advertisements, the Internet, clinicians, and mothers had higher knowledge about HPV vaccines and more positive perceptions. Assuring the accuracy of messages from these sources will be essential, given their importance in influencing adolescents' knowledge and perceptions about HPV vaccines.
Hyde, Melissa K; Chambers, Suzanne K
Knowledge is linked consistently with organ donation attitudes, willingness, and consent. Negative information about donation and the recipients of donation can affect public opinion and donation willingness. However, it is unclear which information sources are most important in forming knowledge, particularly in Australia where little prior research exists. To identify information sources that may inform Australians' organ donation knowledge and attitudes toward transplant recipients. 1487 Australian residents aged 18 years or older who completed an online survey. Self-reported knowledge, information sources, and attitudes toward transplant recipients. Participants felt fairly well informed about organ donation, particularly if they registered donation wishes, were female, and were older. More than half reported their driver's license, television news, and discussion with family/friends as donation information sources. However, information sources contributing to knowledge were personal experience, online, hospital, government campaign, discussion with family/friends, Medicare, doctor's surgery, and the newspaper. Differences based on registration status, sex, and age, were found. Discussion with family/friends and movies or television shows, as well as not having seen information in a newspaper or doctor's surgery, contributed to positive attitudes toward recipients, although the variance explained was small. People felt more informed by personal, medical, and government information sources than by mass media. Family discussion was not only a common information source but also contributed significantly and positively to both donation knowledge and attitudes toward recipients. Further exploration of information sources contributing to donation knowledge and community attitudes toward transplant recipients among young men is needed.
Golder, Su; Loke, Yoon K
The aim of this study is to determine the relative value and contribution of searching different sources to identify adverse effects data. The process of updating a systematic review and meta-analysis of thiazolidinedione-related fractures in patients with type 2 diabetes mellitus was used as a case study. For each source searched, a record was made for each relevant reference included in the review noting whether it was retrieved with the search strategy used and whether it was available but not retrieved. The sensitivity, precision, and number needed to read from searching each source and from different combinations of sources were also calculated. There were 58 relevant references which presented sufficient numerical data to be included in a meta-analysis of fractures and bone mineral density. The highest number of relevant references were retrieved from Science Citation Index (SCI) (35), followed by BIOSIS Previews (27) and EMBASE (24). The precision of the searches varied from 0.88% (Scirus) to 41.67% (CENTRAL). With the search strategies used, the minimum combination of sources required to retrieve all the relevant references was; the GlaxoSmithKline (GSK) website, Science Citation Index (SCI), EMBASE, BIOSIS Previews, British Library Direct, Medscape DrugInfo, handsearching and reference checking, AHFS First, and Thomson Reuters Integrity or Conference Papers Index (CPI). In order to identify all the relevant references for this case study a number of different sources needed to be searched. The minimum combination of sources required to identify all the relevant references did not include MEDLINE.
Ariana Anamaria CORDOȘ; Sorana D. BOLBOACĂ; Tudor C. DRUGAN
Introduction: The scope of the research was a more detailed understanding of the influence of social media and the importance of student’s usage of social media context in relation to medical information. The research aimed to increase the understanding of social media and the impact on medical information use, informing policy and practice while highlighting gaps in the literature and areas for further research. Methods: The search of PubMed database was performed in October 2015, using term...
Bansal, Aasthaa; Koepl, Lisel M; Fedorenko, Catherine R; Li, Chunyu; Smith, Judith Lee; Hall, Ingrid J; Penson, David F; Ramsey, Scott D
Information sources about prostate cancer treatment and outcomes are typically designed for patients. Little is known about the availability and utility of information for partners. The objectives of our study were to evaluate information sources used by partners to understand prostate cancer management options, their perceived usefulness, and the relationship between sources used and satisfaction with treatment experience. A longitudinal survey of female partners of men newly diagnosed with local-stage prostate cancer was conducted in three different geographic regions. Partners and associated patients were surveyed at baseline (after patient diagnosis but prior to receiving therapy) and at 12 months following diagnosis. Information sources included provider, literature, friends or family members, Internet websites, books, traditional media, and support groups. Utility of an information source was defined as whether the partner would recommend it to caregivers of other patients with local-stage prostate cancer. Our study cohort included 179 partner-patient pairs. At diagnosis, partners consulted an average of 4.6 information sources. Non-Hispanic white partners were more likely than others to use friends and family as an information source (OR = 2.44, 95% CI (1.04, 5.56)). More educated partners were less likely to use support groups (OR = 0.31, 95% CI (0.14, 0.71)). At 12-month follow-up, partners were less likely to recommend books (OR = 0.23, 95% CI (0.11, 0.49)) compared to baseline. Partners consulted a large number of information sources in researching treatment options for local-stage prostate cancer and the types of sources accessed varied by race/ethnicity and educational attainment. Additional resources to promote selection of high-quality non-provider information sources are warranted to enable partners to better aid patients in their treatment decision-making process.
Eversole, Jillian S.; Berglas, Nancy F.; Deardorff, Julianna; Constantine, Norman A.
Adolescence is a common time for sexual initiation and information seeking about sexual health, yet little is known about how adolescents' sources of information about sex influence their sexual beliefs and behaviors. This is particularly true for Latino adolescents, whose sources of sex information and sexual behaviors are vastly understudied. A…
Introduction: The internet is a useful tool which could provide quality drug information if well applied. Its utilization as a source of drug information by junior doctors in Nigeria is not well documented. Objective: To assess the use of the internet by junior doctors as a source of objective drug information in Nigeria. Methods: The ...
Edge, Brittani; Velandia, Margarita; Lambert, Dayton M.; Roberts, Roland K.; Larson, James A.; English, Burton C.; Boyer, Christopher; Rejesus, Roderick; Mishra, Ashok
Using information from precision farmer surveys conducted in the southern United States in 2005 and 2013, we evaluated changes in the use of precision farming information sources among cotton producers. Although Extension remains an important source for producers interested in precision farming information, the percentage of cotton producers using…
Muusses, L.D.; van Weert, J.C.M.; van Dulmen, S; Jansen, extern
Objective Fulfilling patients' information needs can help them cope with illness and improve their well-being. Little research has been conducted on the characteristics of patients using different information sources. This study aims to get insight into which information sources patients receiving
This study investigates the extent at which librarians and other information professionals in sub-Saharan African countries utiliise Internet facilities as research tools in their scholarly publications. It used African Journal of Library, Archives and Information Science (AJLAIS) as a case study. All the references cited by ...
Daneback, Kristian; Mansson, Sven-Axel; Ross, Michael W.; Markham, Christine M.
To use the Internet for sex educational purposes and for sex information has been recognised by prior research as benefits of the technological development and important areas to investigate, but few empirical studies have so far been conducted. The purpose of this study was to identify those who use the Internet to seek information about sexual…
Chudyk, C.; Müller, H.; Uhler, M.; Würriehausen, F.
Since 2010, the state of Rhineland-Palatinate in Germany has developed a cultural landscape information system as a process to secure and further enrich aggregate data about its cultural assets. In an open dialogue between governing authorities and citizens, the intention of the project is an active cooperation of public and private actors. A cultural landscape information system called KuLIS was designed as a web platform, combining semantic wiki software with a geographic information system. Based on data sets from public administrations, the information about cultural assets can be extended and enhanced by interested participants. The developed infrastructure facilitates local information accumulation through a crowdsourcing approach. This capability offers new possibilities for e-governance and open data developments. The collaborative approach allows governing authorities to manage and supervise official data, while public participation enables affordable information acquisition. Gathered cultural heritage information can provide incentives for touristic valorisation of communities or concepts for strengthening regional identification. It can also influence political decisions in defining significant cultural regions worth of protecting from industrial influences. The presented cultural landscape information allows citizens to influence the statewide development of cultural landscapes in a democratic way.
Furthermore, there was statistically significant association between use of EIS and perceived electronic information retrieval skills AOR = 3.271, CI (1.942, 4.051), perceived quality of electronic information content retrieved AOR= 2.069, CI (1.051, 3.925) and limited access to computer and internet connection AOR = 5.072, ...
Background: Pharmaceutical drug promotion is a means of informing health professionals about new drugs. The approach is often times unethical and inappropriate and may promote irrational prescribing. Dearth of information on impact of pharmaceutical drug promotion on prescribing behaviour of doctors in developing ...
Full Text Available The purpose of this paper is to present a general view of the current applications of fuzzy logic in medicine and bioinformatics. We particularly review the medical literature using fuzzy logic. We then recall the geometrical interpretation of fuzzy sets as points in a fuzzy hypercube and present two concrete illustrations in medicine (drug addictions and in bioinformatics (comparison of genomes.
This article describes a new approach to teaching bioinformatics using "Arabidopsis" genetic sequences. Several open-ended and inquiry-based laboratory exercises have been designed to help students grasp key concepts and gain practical skills in bioinformatics, using "Arabidopsis" leucine-rich repeat receptor-like kinase (LRR…
Heyer, Laurie J.
This article describes the sequence alignment problem in bioinformatics. Through examples, we formulate sequence alignment as an optimization problem and show how to compute the optimal alignment with dynamic programming. The examples and sample exercises have been used by the author in a specialized course in bioinformatics, but could be adapted…
Cochrane, Guy; Apweiler, Rolf; Birney, Ewan
Abstract The European Bioinformatics Institute (EMBL-EBI) supports life-science research throughout the world by providing open data, open-source software and analytical tools, and technical infrastructure (https://www.ebi.ac.uk). We accommodate an increasingly diverse range of data types and integrate them, so that biologists in all disciplines can explore life in ever-increasing detail. We maintain over 40 data resources, many of which are run collaboratively with partners in 16 countries (https://www.ebi.ac.uk/services). Submissions continue to increase exponentially: our data storage has doubled in less than two years to 120 petabytes. Recent advances in cellular imaging and single-cell sequencing techniques are generating a vast amount of high-dimensional data, bringing to light new cell types and new perspectives on anatomy. Accordingly, one of our main focus areas is integrating high-quality information from bioimaging, biobanking and other types of molecular data. This is reflected in our deep involvement in Open Targets, stewarding of plant phenotyping standards (MIAPPE) and partnership in the Human Cell Atlas data coordination platform, as well as the 2017 launch of the Omics Discovery Index. This update gives a birds-eye view of EMBL-EBI’s approach to data integration and service development as genomics begins to enter the clinic. PMID:29186510
Ryan, Edward Francis
Faced with significant budget constraints, state governments and local municipalities have been reducing the financial support they provide to public colleges and universities. To deal with these funding shortfalls, community colleges have begun searching for alternate sources of funding. Rather than raise tuition, which would limit access for…
Justesen, Jørn; Shtarkov, Y. M.
We consider discrete random fields which have simple descriptions of rows and columns. We present constructions which combine high entropy with simple means of generating the fields and analyzing the probability distribution. Hidden state Markov sources are an essential tool in the construction...
Salem, Johannes; Paffenholz, Pia; Bolenz, Christian; von Brandenstein, Melanie; Cebulla, Angelika; Haferkamp, Axel; Kuru, Timur; Lee, Cheryl T; Pfister, David; Tsaur, Igor; Borgmann, Hendrik; Heidenreich, Axel
A growing number of patients search for health information online. An early investigation of websites about bladder cancer (BCa) revealed mostly incomplete and particularly inaccurate information. We analyzed the quality, readability, and popularity of the most frequented websites on BCa. An Internet search on www.google.com was performed for the term "bladder cancer." After selecting the most frequented websites for patient information, HONcode quality certification, Alexa popularity rank, and readability scores (according to US grade levels) were investigated. A 36-point checklist was used to assess the content according to the EAU guidelines on BCa, which was categorized into seven topics. The popularity of the 49 websites analyzed was average, with a median Alexa popularity rank of 41,698 (interquartile range [IQR] 7-4,671,246). The readability was rated difficult with 11 years of school education needed to understand the information. Thirteen (27%) websites were HONcode certified. Out of 343 topics (seven EAU guideline topics each on 49 websites), 79% were mentioned on the websites. Of these, 10% contained incorrect information, mostly outdated or biased, and 34% contained incomplete information. Publically provided websites mentioned more topics per website (median [IQR] 7 [5.5-7] vs. 5.5 [3.3-7]; p = 0.022) and showed less incorrect information (median [IQR] 0 [0-1] vs. 1 [0-1]; p = 0.039) than physician-provided websites. Our study revealed mostly correct but partially incomplete information on BCa websites for patients. Physicians and public organizations should strive to keep their website information up-to-date and unbiased to optimize patients' health literacy.
Full Text Available Accounting information system is a complex system of registration and processing of goods movement, the reflection of the rights and obligations with economic value; it is necessary and indispensable to the economy. Through its own system of concepts and procedures, accounting is the only discipline that can provide information that form the basis of the assessment of an organization by a wide category of users. Those in need of information for the purpose of making accounting decisions on allocating economic resources efficiently and effectively.
Ranganathan, Shoba; Eisenhaber, Frank; Tong, Joo Chuan; Tan, Tin Wee
The 2009 annual conference of the Asia Pacific Bioinformatics Network (APBioNet), Asia's oldest bioinformatics organisation dating back to 1998, was organized as the 8th International Conference on Bioinformatics (InCoB), Sept. 7-11, 2009 at Biopolis, Singapore. Besides bringing together scientists from the field of bioinformatics in this region, InCoB has actively engaged clinicians and researchers from the area of systems biology, to facilitate greater synergy between these two groups. InCoB2009 followed on from a series of successful annual events in Bangkok (Thailand), Penang (Malaysia), Auckland (New Zealand), Busan (South Korea), New Delhi (India), Hong Kong and Taipei (Taiwan), with InCoB2010 scheduled to be held in Tokyo, Japan, Sept. 26-28, 2010. The Workshop on Education in Bioinformatics and Computational Biology (WEBCB) and symposia on Clinical Bioinformatics (CBAS), the Singapore Symposium on Computational Biology (SYMBIO) and training tutorials were scheduled prior to the scientific meeting, and provided ample opportunity for in-depth learning and special interest meetings for educators, clinicians and students. We provide a brief overview of the peer-reviewed bioinformatics manuscripts accepted for publication in this supplement, grouped into thematic areas. In order to facilitate scientific reproducibility and accountability, we have, for the first time, introduced minimum information criteria for our pubilcations, including compliance to a Minimum Information about a Bioinformatics Investigation (MIABi). As the regional research expertise in bioinformatics matures, we have delineated a minimum set of bioinformatics skills required for addressing the computational challenges of the "-omics" era.
Chakraborty, Chiranjib; George Priya Doss, C; Zhu, Hailong; Agoramoorthy, Govindasamy
Hong Kong's bioinformatics sector is attaining new heights in combination with its economic boom and the predominance of the working-age group in its population. Factors such as a knowledge-based and free-market economy have contributed towards a prominent position on the world map of bioinformatics. In this review, we have considered the educational measures, landmark research activities and the achievements of bioinformatics companies and the role of the Hong Kong government in the establishment of bioinformatics as strength. However, several hurdles remain. New government policies will assist computational biologists to overcome these hurdles and further raise the profile of the field. There is a high expectation that bioinformatics in Hong Kong will be a promising area for the next generation.
The best for an efficient communication is to stimulate the teachers' demand for information about nuclear energy. CEA, seen as the best information source for teachers, tries to apply this method (books, exhibitions, conferences, workshops). It is necessary to communicate following its legitimacy, to take into account the various sources of information, to communicate to these various sources and finally to help the citizen to detect the exaggerations of all kinds. In brief, inspire confidence
Xie, Bo; Su, Zhaohui; Liu, Yihao; Wang, Mo; Zhang, Ming
Little is known about the information sources of Chinese patients with cancer and their family caregivers, yet this knowledge is critical for providing patient-centred care. To assess and compare the information sources used by Chinese patients with cancer and their family caregivers. The validated Health Information Wants Questionnaire (HIWQ) was translated and administered in March 2014. The oncology department of a general hospital in south-west China. A convenience sample of 198 individuals, including 79 patients with cancer (mean age=55.24, SD=13.80) and 119 family caregivers (mean age=46.83, SD=14.61). Ratings on the HIWQ items assessing information sources for different types of information. The interaction between information source and group was significant (F 3,576 =6.32, Pinformation than patients from the Internet. Caregivers and patients did not differ in the amount of information they obtained from doctors/nurses, interpersonal contacts or mass media. The interaction between information type and information source was significant (F 18,3456 =6.38, Pinformation of all types from doctors/nurses than from the other three sources and obtained more information from interpersonal contacts than from mass media or the Internet. The information sources of Chinese patients with cancer and their family caregivers were similar, with an important difference that caregivers obtained more online information than patients. These findings have important implications for patient care and education in China where the family typically plays a major role in the care and decision making. © 2016 The Authors. Health Expectations Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.
Scientific research in bio-informatics is often data-driven and supported by numerous biological databases. A biological database contains factual information collected from scientific experiments and computational analyses about areas including genomics, proteomics, metabolomics, microarray gene
Whereas a vast amount of new information on bioinformatics is made available to the public through patents, only a small set of patents are cited in academic papers. A detailed analysis of registered bioinformatics patents, using the existing patent search system, can provide valuable information links between science and technology. However, it is extremely difficult to select keywords to capture bioinformatics patents, reflecting the convergence of several underlying technologies. No single word or even several words are sufficient to identify such patents. The analysis of patent subclasses can provide valuable information. In this paper, I did a preliminary study of the current status of bioinformatics patents and their International Patent Classification (IPC) groups registered in the Korea Intellectual Property Rights Information Service (KIPRIS) database.
Ditty, Jayna L.; Kvaal, Christopher A.; Goodner, Brad; Freyermuth, Sharyn K.; Bailey, Cheryl; Britton, Robert A.; Gordon, Stuart G.; Heinhorst, Sabine; Reed, Kelynne; Xu, Zhaohui; Sanders-Lorenz, Erin R.; Axen, Seth; Kim, Edwin; Johns, Mitrick; Scott, Kathleen; Kerfeld, Cheryl A.
Undergraduate life sciences education needs an overhaul, as clearly described in the National Research Council of the National Academies publication BIO 2010: Transforming Undergraduate Education for Future Research Biologists. Among BIO 2010's top recommendations is the need to involve students in working with real data and tools that reflect the nature of life sciences research in the 21st century. Education research studies support the importance of utilizing primary literature, designing and implementing experiments, and analyzing results in the context of a bona fide scientific question in cultivating the analytical skills necessary to become a scientist. Incorporating these basic scientific methodologies in undergraduate education leads to increased undergraduate and post-graduate retention in the sciences. Toward this end, many undergraduate teaching organizations offer training and suggestions for faculty to update and improve their teaching approaches to help students learn as scientists, through design and discovery (e.g., Council of Undergraduate Research [www.cur.org] and Project Kaleidoscope [www.pkal.org]). With the advent of genome sequencing and bioinformatics, many scientists now formulate biological questions and interpret research results in the context of genomic information. Just as the use of bioinformatic tools and databases changed the way scientists investigate problems, it must change how scientists teach to create new opportunities for students to gain experiences reflecting the influence of genomics, proteomics, and bioinformatics on modern life sciences research. Educators have responded by incorporating bioinformatics into diverse life science curricula. While these published exercises in, and guidelines for, bioinformatics curricula are helpful and inspirational, faculty new to the area of bioinformatics inevitably need training in the theoretical underpinnings of the algorithms. Moreover, effectively integrating bioinformatics
According to the Hungarian legislation safety assessment is required in the preparation-, establishment-, operational-, closure-licensing phase of repository development and during the operation of the repository the safety assessment should be reviewed and updated regularly. It means that the safety assessment will be made many times during the repository developing process, between two consecutive safety assessments more decades may elapse and between the first and the last safety assessment more than one century will elapse. The assessment of long-term safety is based partly upon geo-scientific information. Will the information originated from many decades or 100 years old research be really used as the basis of the new safety case? Does the geo-scientific information age? Does the confidence in information or quality of information remain on the same level during several decades? If not, what are the causes and consequences of this confidence-level decrease, what can we do to prevent or to postpone this confidence-level decrease? When does an information become too old to use it in a safety assessment? Are each part of the assessment capability touched by the decrease of confidence in the same extent? (authors)
Aleixandre, R; Giménez Sánchez, J V; Terrada Ferrandis, M L; López Piñero, J M
To contribute to improving the understanding of the information bases of Spanish scientific production in the primary care field; to aid international contacts and the diffusion of information among doctors in our country. A bibliometric analysis of the bibliographic references of the studies published in the journal Atención Primaria during 1991. A data base, managed by dBASE IV, was created. The Unit of Documental Analysis and Bibliometry of the Institute of Documental and Historical Studies in Science (University of Valencia-CSIC). 2,615 bibliographic references in 205 studies contained in volume 8 of Atención Primaria. References from journal articles (68%) and books (26%) predominated. There were a large number of references from Spanish publications (45%) as against Northamerican (27%) and British (15%). There were few references from other European countries or Latin America. Information was quickly out of date (4 year semiperiod; Price index 50%). High proportion of self-quotations from the journal. The major role of the journal Atención Primaria in communicating information in the primary care field was underlined. The small amount of information from Latin America and E.U. countries (except Great Britain) highlights the isolation of Spain from these countries, which can be explained by the limits of the primary care field itself. There was also little use of information to which access was more difficult for primary care doctors, such as doctoral theses, congress papers or reports. Moreover this is a field with a high percentage of recent literature and rapidly out-of-date information.
Baheiraei, Azam; Khoori, Elham; Foroushani, Abbas Rahimi; Ahmadi, Fazlollah; Ybarra, Michele L
Adolescents are developmentally normatively interested in information about sexuality and other health-related issues. In the absence of available health programming, identifying the sources of information that youth are currently accessing will help adolescent health researchers understand where youth 'are,' thereby informing where and how future interventions can be targeted. This is particularly important in resource-limited settings, such as Iran, where funding for public health programming is scant. This study aimed to examine primary and preferred sources of adolescents' health information queries and identify health topics in which they are most interested. In 2011, a random sample of 915 adolescents, aged 14-18 years, completed anonymous, self-administered questionnaires. Mothers (51.11%) and same-sex friends (40.11%) were both the primary as well as the preferred source of health information for adolescents. More than one in three adolescents identified media information sources, including books (39.6%) and the Internet (37.9%), as their primary and preferred sources. The most common topic adolescents sought information about was sexuality issues. Younger adolescents preferred receiving information from parents, whereas older adolescents preferred friends as sources for information [X2=9.3, p=0.009]. No age differences were noted in using media sources (p>0.05). These findings indicate future interventions should integrate some if not all of these sources [both people (mothers, same-sex friends) and media (books, the Internet)] to deliver evidenced-based health information.
Syn, Sue Yeon; Kim, Sung Un
College students tend to lack access to health information. Because social networking sites (SNSs) are popularly adopted by college students, SNSs are considered to be good media channels for college students to obtain health-related information. This study examines the factors that influence college students' health information-seeking and -sharing activities on Facebook. An online survey was distributed to college students between the ages of 18 and 29 to determine intentions pertaining to health information activities according to the factors identified for the study. The factors included both contextual factors (such as health topic sensitivity and health information sources) as well as user factors (such as demographics). Our findings showed that college students are willing to read and post health-related information on Facebook when the health topic is not sensitive. In addition, there are clear differences in preferences between professional sources and personal sources as health information sources. It was found that most user factors, except gender, have no influence on health information activities. The impacts of SNS contexts, awareness of information sources, types of interlocutors, and privacy concerns are further discussed.
Among its many activities to improve the safety and security of sealed sources, the IAEA has been investigating the root causes of major accidents and incidents since the 1980's and publishes findings so that others can learn from them. There are growing concerns today about the possibility that an improperly stored source could be stolen and used for malicious purposes. To improve both safety and security, information needs to be in the hands of those whose actions and decisions can prevent a source from being lost or stolen in the first place. The IAEA developed this booklet to help improve communication with key groups about hazards that may result from the loss of control over sealed radioactive sources and measures that should be implemented to prevent such loss of control. Many people may benefit from the information contained in this booklet, particularly those working with sources and those likely to be involved if control over a source is lost; especially: officials in government agencies, first responders, medical users, industrial users and the metal recycling industry. The general public may also benefit from an understanding of the fundamentals of radiation safety. This booklet is comprised of several stand-alone chapters intended to communicate with these key groups. Various accidents that are described and information that is provided are relevant to more than one key group and therefore, some information is repeated throughout the booklet. This booklet seeks to raise awareness of the importance of the safety and security of sealed radioactive sources. However, it is not intended to be a comprehensive 'how to' guide for implementing safety and security measures for sealed radioactive sources. For more information on these measures, readers are encouraged to consult the key IAEA safety and security-related publications identified in this booklet
Wright, Victoria Ann; Vaughan, Brendan W; Laurent, Thomas; Lopez, Rodrigo; Brooksbank, Cath; Schneider, Maria Victoria
Today's molecular life scientists are well educated in the emerging experimental tools of their trade, but when it comes to training on the myriad of resources and tools for dealing with biological data, a less ideal situation emerges. Often bioinformatics users receive no formal training on how to make the most of the bioinformatics resources and tools available in the public domain. The European Bioinformatics Institute, which is part of the European Molecular Biology Laboratory (EMBL-EBI), holds the world's most comprehensive collection of molecular data, and training the research community to exploit this information is embedded in the EBI's mission. We have evaluated eLearning, in parallel with face-to-face courses, as a means of training users of our data resources and tools. We anticipate that eLearning will become an increasingly important vehicle for delivering training to our growing user base, so we have undertaken an extensive review of Learning Content Management Systems (LCMSs). Here, we describe the process that we used, which considered the requirements of trainees, trainers and systems administrators, as well as taking into account our organizational values and needs. This review describes the literature survey, user discussions and scripted platform testing that we performed to narrow down our choice of platform from 36 to a single platform. We hope that it will serve as guidance for others who are seeking to incorporate eLearning into their bioinformatics training programmes.
benefit, some pertinent questions became imperative. These are. -. Should extension services be information dissemination or knowledge enhancing? -. Should the determination of farmers need and solutions to them remain that of the external agency, the government, the farmer themselves or a joint venture of all the.
processing involves automating the analysis of human languages (e.g., English and Spanish ). This study analyzes the textual content of Web pages...8 1. Information Extraction (IE)................................................................8 2. Morphology ...It can change the defensive posture of an actor, and can be destabilizing between actors with regional, political, or military ties. Actors in
Adequate information about sexuality is an important factor that affect attitude towards reproductive health practices. However, female adolescents with hearing impairment have problems of normal adolescents to contend with in addition to the problems occasioned by their hearing disability and unlike their normal ...
Furthermore, findings revealed that the respondents utilized extension information, to a great extent on the following technologies/recommendations; improved maize, seed rate, seed dressing, plant spacing, fertilizer application, post-harvest processing, and storage. Recommendations on herbicides and pesticides were ...
Full Text Available Financial analysis is an essential part of the financial management of the company, as it acts as a feedback information, where the business is in different areas of the financial management, in which areas of the company the targets have been achieved and, conversely, in which areas the business is lagging behind the expectations.
Uganda Journal of Agricultural Sciences, 2004, 9:693- 700. Printed in Uganda. All rights reserved ... Foodnet, International Institute of Tropical Agriculture, Bandali Rise, Bugolobi, Kampala, Uganda. Abstract. A baseline study was one of the first ..... c). more reliable and precise information, d). coverage of more markets, and.
The Humanist Institute for Co-operation with Developing Countries (HIVOS), a Dutch nongovernmental organization (NGO), has built up considerable experience in the area of microfinance since the 1970s. HIVOS is implementing a program (STAR) to put information and communication technology (ICT) to the service of ...
The presence of toxic chemicals in the environment has drawn increasing concern in Saudi Arabia in recent years. Public health officials recognize a direct link between health problems and exposure to these chemicals. To communicate information on chemical pollution health risks effectively, policy makers must know ...
utility of information as metrics within a multi-genre network to determine the quality of information of its available sources . This paper proposes a...Intelligence operations in highly dynamic and constrained networked environments require a prudent strategies to query information sources . We...consider the performance of this process based on metrics relating to quality of information: accuracy, timeliness, completeness and reliability. These
Levchuk, Georgiy M.; Lea, Djuana; Pattipati, Krishna R.
To successfully predict the actions of an adversary and develop effective counteractions, knowledge of the enemy's mission and organization are needed. In this paper, we present new models and algorithms to identify behaviors of adversaries based on probabilistic inference of two main signatures of behavior: plans (what the enemy wants to do) and organizations (how the enemy is organized and who is responsible for what). The technology allows extraction, classification, and temporal tracking of behavior signatures using multi-source data, as well as prescribes intelligence collection plans to reduce the ambiguity in current predictions.
Ariana Anamaria CORDOȘ
Full Text Available Introduction: The scope of the research was a more detailed understanding of the influence of social media and the importance of student’s usage of social media context in relation to medical information. The research aimed to increase the understanding of social media and the impact on medical information use, informing policy and practice while highlighting gaps in the literature and areas for further research. Methods: The search of PubMed database was performed in October 2015, using terms to identify peer-reviewed research in which social media technologies were an important feature for health occupations, premedical, pharmacy, nursing or medical students. A systematic approach was used to retrieve papers and extract relevant data. Results: There were initially identified 435 studies involving social media, healthcare information and medical students subject headings (MeSH terminology. After filtering for free full text articles, and exclusion of not students or social media specific ones, 33 articles were reviewed. The majority of the studies were interventional studies that either assessed the outcomes of online discussion groups or teaching methods through social media. The majority of studies focused on the use of social media as a teaching tool, how students use it and the implications upon their education. The largest number of original papers was published in 2013. Facebook, Podcasts, Multiplayer virtual worlds, Blogs, and Twitter were identified as being used by medical students. Conclusion: Social media is used as a tool of information for students mainly as the means for engaging and communicating with students.
Americana ( New York, Grolier), World Book Encyclopedia (Chicago, Field Enterprises), American Academic Encyclopedia (Danbury, CT, Grolier) and New ...Almanac and Book of Facts ( New York, Funk & Wagnalls ) and Time Almanac ( New York, Little, Brown) are two annual publications with sections on countries...Statesman’s Year-Book ( New York, St. Martin’s Press) contains similar information in a more abbreviated form. General encyclopedias , such as Encyclopedia
Gibson, Amelia N; Kaplan, Samantha; Vardell, Emily
For parents of children with an Autism spectrum disorder (ASD), high quality, easily accessible information and a strong peer network can be the key to raising a happy, healthy child, and maintaining family well-being and emotional resilience. This article reports the findings of an anonymous survey examining the information source preferences for 935 parents of individuals with ASDs in North Carolina. Data indicates that parents show similar information seeking patterns across the age spectrum, that availability of information (as indicated by overall information source selection) decrease as children age. It also shows that parents rely heavily on local sources of information, preferring them to nonlocal sources (such as the internet) for many types of information.
Accident release estimates have been used in the regulatory process for more than two decades. Many parts of the process are based upon release assumptions contained in the 1962 document 'Calculation of Distance Factors for Power and Test Reactor Sites', which forms the basis for 10 CSFR 100, as well as those based upon the more recent 1975 'Reactor Safety Study' risk estimates. Examples of regulatory used of TID-14844 include containment performance, environmental qualification of equipment, air filtration and other fission product mitigation systems, accident monitoring onsite and offsite and siting. Examples of regulatory uses of WASH-1400 release estimates include emergency planning, evaluating offsite impacts and risks for such uses as Environmental Impact Statements, assessing offsite contamination and recovery, evaluating standard plant designs, and investigating new regulatory requirements. In carrying out the Severe Accident Policy Implementation Program, the U. S. NRC staff expects to propose a number of changes to rules as well as other changes in regulatory practice. These changes could arise from research regarding radioactivity releases under severe accident conditions, as well as other insights expected to be gained through the evaluation of severe accidents. A number of changes in rules and regulatory practices can be expected from our improved understanding arising from the extensive conditions. The implementation of such changes may require a capability to perform source term calculations, selection of a regulatory principle, or framework, in connection with evaluation of plants beyond the current design basis, development of new forms of source terms, and revision of the affected rules and other regulatory practices
Woudstra, L.A.L.; van den Hooff, B.J.; Schouten, A.P.
Previous studies have not fully investigated the role of source accessibility versus source quality in the selection of information sources. It remains unclear what their (relative) importance is. Three different models have been identified: (a) an exclusively accessibility-driven model, (b) a
Woudstra, L.; van den Hooff, B.; Schouten, Alexander
Previous studies have not fully investigated the role of source accessibility versus source quality in the selection of information sources. It remains unclear what their (relative) importance is. Three different models have been identified: (a) an exclusively accessibility-driven model, (b) a
At the end of January I travelled to the States to speak at and attend the first O'Reilly Bioinformatics Technology Conference. It was a large, well-organized and diverse meeting with an interesting history. Although the meeting was not a typical academic conference, its style will, I am sure, become more typical of meetings in both biological and computational sciences.Speakers at the event included prominent bioinformatics researchers such as Ewan Birney, Terry Gaasterland and Lincoln Stein; authors and leaders in the open source programming community like Damian Conway and Nat Torkington; and representatives from several publishing companies including the Nature Publishing Group, Current Science Group and the President of O'Reilly himself, Tim O'Reilly. There were presentations, tutorials, debates, quizzes and even a 'jam session' for musical bioinformaticists.
...-Nondiscrimination in Programs Receiving Federal Financial Assistance § 101-6.209-3 Access to sources of information... 41 Public Contracts and Property Management 2 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 true Access to sources of information. 101-6.209-3 Section 101-6.209-3 Public Contracts and Property Management Federal Property...
This paper investigated the perception of librarians as sources of information on HIV/AIDS by hotel patrons in Katsina metropolis. Questionnaire was used to obtain information from 750 respondents in 10 selected hotels in the study area. The study showed that respondents had low perception of librarians as sources of ...
reported similar findings at Yaba College of. Technology, Lagos. However, in a ... values. In other words, current information sources resulted in the use of the library. Jam (1992) identified lack of relevant information sources to be one of the problems facing library users and has ... Bachelor's degree holders. That those with.
Zhou, Shuigeng; Liao, Ruiqi; Guan, Jihong
In the past decades, with the rapid development of high-throughput technologies, biology research has generated an unprecedented amount of data. In order to store and process such a great amount of data, cloud computing and MapReduce were applied to many fields of bioinformatics. In this paper, we first introduce the basic concepts of cloud computing and MapReduce, and their applications in bioinformatics. We then highlight some problems challenging the applications of cloud computing and MapReduce to bioinformatics. Finally, we give a brief guideline for using cloud computing in biology research.
Hämeen-Anttila, Katri; Nordeng, Hedvig; Kokki, Esa; Jyrkkä, Johanna; Lupattelli, Angela; Vainio, Kirsti; Enlund, Hannes
A wide variety of information sources on medicines is available for pregnant women. When using multiple information sources, there is the risk that information will vary or even conflict. The objective of this multinational study was to analyze the extent to which pregnant women use multiple information sources and the consequences of conflicting information, and to investigate which maternal sociodemographic, lifestyle, and medical factors were associated with these objectives. An anonymous Internet-based questionnaire was made accessible during a period of 2 months, on 1 to 4 Internet websites used by pregnant women in 5 regions (Eastern Europe, Western Europe, Northern Europe, Americas, Australia). A total of 7092 responses were obtained (n=5090 pregnant women; n=2002 women with a child younger than 25 weeks). Descriptive statistics and logistic regression analysis were used. Of the respondents who stated that they needed information, 16.16% (655/4054) used one information source and 83.69% (3393/4054) used multiple information sources. Of respondents who used more than one information source, 22.62% (759/3355) stated that the information was conflicted. According to multivariate logistic regression analysis, factors significantly associated with experiencing conflict in medicine information included being a mother (OR 1.32, 95% CI 1.11-1.58), having university (OR 1.33, 95% CI 1.09-1.63) or other education (OR 1.49, 95% CI 1.09-2.03), residing in Eastern Europe (OR 1.52, 95% CI 1.22-1.89) or Australia (OR 2.28, 95% CI 1.42-3.67), use of 3 (OR 1.29, 95% CI 1.04-1.60) or >4 information sources (OR 1.82, 95% CI 1.49-2.23), and having ≥2 chronic diseases (OR 1.49, 95% CI 1.18-1.89). Because of conflicting information, 43.61% (331/759) decided not to use medication during pregnancy, 30.30% (230/759) sought a new information source, 32.67% (248/759) chose to rely on one source and ignore the conflicting one, 25.03% (190/759) became anxious, and 2.64% (20/759) did
Melentiyeva, Anastasiya; Kucheryavskiy, Sergey; Bogomolov, Andrey
and protein, respectively, have been obtained. PLS components were interpreted in terms of captured information. The results obtained provide a basis for the replacement of traditional spectroscopy by custom optical analyzers, optimized for the purpose of milk analysis. Preliminary achievements in this new...... designed set of raw milk samples with simultaneously varying fat, total protein and particle size distribution has been analyzed in the Vis spectral region. The feasibility of raw milk analysis by PLS regression on spectral data has been proved. The root mean-square errors below 0.10% and 0.04% for fat...
Dillen, van S.M.E.; Hiddink, G.J.; Koelen, M.A.; Graaf, de C.; Woerkum, van C.M.J.
Objective: For more effective nutrition communication, it is crucial to identify sources from which consumers seek information. Our purpose was to assess perceived relevance and information needs regarding food topics, and preferred information sources by means of quantitative consumer research.
Nan, Xiaoli; Verrill, Linda; Kim, Jarim
This research examines the sources from which U.S. consumers obtain their food safety information. It seeks to determine differences in the types of information sources used by U.S. consumers of different sociodemographic background, as well as the relationships between the types of information sources used and food safety risk perceptions. Analyzing the 2010 Food Safety Survey (N = 4,568) conducted by the U.S. Food and Drug Administration, we found that age, gender, education, and race predicted the use of different sources for food safety information. Additionally, use of several information sources predicted perceived susceptibility to foodborne illnesses and severity of food contamination. Implications of the findings for food safety risk communication are discussed.
Carlin, Caroline S; Kralewski, John; Savage, Megan
We explored the process of physician selection, focusing on selection of surgeons for knee and hip replacement to increase the probability of a new relationship, making cost and quality scorecard information more relevant. We collected data using a mailed survey sent to patients with knee or hip replacement surgery shortly after March 1, 2010. This time period followed a period of publicity about the new cost and quality scorecard. We used multivariate probit models to predict awareness of the scorecard and willingness to switch providers. Multinomial logit methods were used to predict the primary factor influencing the choice of surgeon (physician referral, family or friend referral, surgeon location, previous experience with the surgeon, or other). Internet access and higher neighborhood incomes are associated with an increased probability of being aware of the scorecards. Male patients and patients with Internet access or in highly educated neighborhoods are more likely to be willing to switch providers for a reduced copay. Urban residents are more likely to rely on physician referrals, and rural patients on family/friend referrals when selecting a surgeon; Internet access reduces importance of surgeon location. Additional research is needed to determine whether Internet access is causal in improved responsiveness to market information and incentives, or a proxy for other factors. In addition, we see evidence that efforts to improve healthcare quality and costs through market forces should be tailored to the patient's place of residence.
Full Text Available Geophysical measurements are an integral part of engineering-geological investigation where theypresent a wide range of useful information about the tested geological medium and about its geotechnicalqualities. Lately, repeated geophysical measurements in different time intervals have been used to judgethe changes occurring in the rock massif. These measurements bear the characteristics of total monitoring.This total monitoring contains series of repeated measurements and further an integrated spectrum of linkedactivities including evaluation, comparison with the warning state and making a decision about takingprecautions. From the range of geophysical methods and methodologies used for monitoring in full sensewe may mention, for example, continuous seismoacoustic measurements in mining constructions; (whichmay result even in recalling of the personnel, and further, also seismic measurements in the surroundingsof atomic power stations and measurements considering the protection against radioactive elements and their decay components.As a full monitoring we may also classify measurements in dumping sites with the aid of repeated geoelectrical measurements in the system of fixed electrodes under impermeable foils.These measurements are mostly carried out from time to time followed by taking immediate action when the foil is found damaged. In practice the term monitoring is used, although not very correctly, for all periodically repeated measurements, which do not result in taking action or interference, but supply a wide range of information about the rock massif behavior in time.
Sanders, Ruth A; Crozier, Kenda
Women approach birth using various methods of preparation drawing from conventional healthcare providers alongside informal information sources (IIS) outside the professional healthcare context. An investigation of the forms in which these informal information sources are accessed and negotiated by women, and how these disconnected and often conflicting elements influence women's decision-making process for birth have yet to be evaluated. The level of antenatal preparedness women feel can have significant and long lasting implications on their birth experience and transition into motherhood and beyond. The aim of this study was to provide a deeper understanding of how informal information sources influence women's preparation for birth. Seven electronic databases were searched with predetermined search terms. No limitations were imposed for year of publication. English language studies using qualitative methods exploring women's experiences of informal information sources and their impact upon women's birth preparation were included, subject to a quality appraisal framework. Searches were initiated in February 2016 and completed by March 2016. Studies were synthesised using an interpretive meta-ethnographic approach. Fourteen studies were included for the final synthesis from Great Britain, Australia, Canada and the United States. Four main themes were identified: Menu Birth; Information Heaven/Hell; Spheres of Support; and Trust. It is evident that women do not enter pregnancy as empty vessels devoid of a conceptual framework, but rather have a pre-constructed embodied knowledge base upon which other information is superimposed. Allied to this, it is clear that informal information was sought to mitigate against the widespread experience of discordant information provided by maternity professionals. Women's access to the deluge of informal information sources in mainstream media during pregnancy have significant impact on decision making for birth. These informal
Akwar, Holy; Kloeze, Harold; Mukhi, Shamir
To validate the utility and effectiveness of a standardized tool for prioritization of information sources for early detection of diseases. The tool was developed with input from diverse public health experts garnered through survey. Ten raters used the tool to evaluate ten information sources and reliability among raters was computed. The Proc mixed procedure with random effect statement and SAS Macros were used to compute multiple raters' Fleiss Kappa agreement and Kendall's Coefficient of Concordance. Ten disparate information sources evaluated obtained the following composite scores: ProMed 91%; WAHID 90%; Eurosurv 87%; MediSys 85%; SciDaily 84%; EurekAl 83%; CSHB 78%; GermTrax 75%; Google 74%; and CBC 70%. A Fleiss Kappa agreement of 50.7% was obtained for ten information sources and 72.5% for a sub-set of five sources rated, which is substantial agreement validating the utility and effectiveness of the tool. This study validated the utility and effectiveness of a standardized criteria tool developed to prioritize information sources. The new tool was used to identify five information sources suited for use by the KIWI system in the CEZD-IIR project to improve surveillance of infectious diseases. The tool can be generalized to situations when prioritization of numerous information sources is necessary.
Reavley, N J; Mackinnon, A J; Morgan, A J; Alvarez-Jimenez, M; Hetrick, S E; Killackey, E; Nelson, B; Purcell, R; Yap, M B H; Jorm, A F
Although mental health information on the internet is often of poor quality, relatively little is known about the quality of websites, such as Wikipedia, that involve participatory information sharing. The aim of this paper was to explore the quality of user-contributed mental health-related information on Wikipedia and compare this with centrally controlled information sources. Content on 10 mental health-related topics was extracted from 14 frequently accessed websites (including Wikipedia) providing information about depression and schizophrenia, Encyclopaedia Britannica, and a psychiatry textbook. The content was rated by experts according to the following criteria: accuracy, up-to-dateness, breadth of coverage, referencing and readability. Ratings varied significantly between resources according to topic. Across all topics, Wikipedia was the most highly rated in all domains except readability. The quality of information on depression and schizophrenia on Wikipedia is generally as good as, or better than, that provided by centrally controlled websites, Encyclopaedia Britannica and a psychiatry textbook.
Full Text Available The drastic increase in the number of coronaviruses discovered and coronavirus genomes being sequenced have given us an unprecedented opportunity to perform genomics and bioinformatics analysis on this family of viruses. Coronaviruses possess the largest genomes (26.4 to 31.7 kb among all known RNA viruses, with G + C contents varying from 32% to 43%. Variable numbers of small ORFs are present between the various conserved genes (ORF1ab, spike, envelope, membrane and nucleocapsid and downstream to nucleocapsid gene in different coronavirus lineages. Phylogenetically, three genera, Alphacoronavirus, Betacoronavirus and Gammacoronavirus, with Betacoronavirus consisting of subgroups A, B, C and D, exist. A fourth genus, Deltacoronavirus, which includes bulbul coronavirus HKU11, thrush coronavirus HKU12 and munia coronavirus HKU13, is emerging. Molecular clock analysis using various gene loci revealed that the time of most recent common ancestor of human/civet SARS related coronavirus to be 1999-2002, with estimated substitution rate of 4´10-4 to 2´10-2 substitutions per site per year. Recombination in coronaviruses was most notable between different strains of murine hepatitis virus (MHV, between different strains of infectious bronchitis virus, between MHV and bovine coronavirus, between feline coronavirus (FCoV type I and canine coronavirus generating FCoV type II, and between the three genotypes of human coronavirus HKU1 (HCoV-HKU1. Codon usage bias in coronaviruses were observed, with HCoV-HKU1 showing the most extreme bias, and cytosine deamination and selection of CpG suppressed clones are the two major independent biological forces that shape such codon usage bias in coronaviruses.
Melero, Juan L; Andrades, Sergi; Arola, Lluís; Romeu, Antoni
Psoriasis is an immune-mediated, inflammatory and hyperproliferative disease of the skin and joints. The cause of psoriasis is still unknown. The fundamental feature of the disease is the hyperproliferation of keratinocytes and the recruitment of cells from the immune system in the region of the affected skin, which leads to deregulation of many well-known gene expressions. Based on data mining and bioinformatic scripting, here we show a new dimension of the effect of psoriasis at the genomic level. Using our own pipeline of scripts in Perl and MySql and based on the freely available NCBI Gene Expression Omnibus (GEO) database: DataSet Record GDS4602 (Series GSE13355), we explore the extent of the effect of psoriasis on gene expression in the affected tissue. We give greater insight into the effects of psoriasis on the up-regulation of some genes in the cell cycle (CCNB1, CCNA2, CCNE2, CDK1) or the dynamin system (GBPs, MXs, MFN1), as well as the down-regulation of typical antioxidant genes (catalase, CAT; superoxide dismutases, SOD1-3; and glutathione reductase, GSR). We also provide a complete list of the human genes and how they respond in a state of psoriasis. Our results show that psoriasis affects all chromosomes and many biological functions. If we further consider the stable and mitotically inheritable character of the psoriasis phenotype, and the influence of environmental factors, then it seems that psoriasis has an epigenetic origin. This fit well with the strong hereditary character of the disease as well as its complex genetic background. Copyright © 2017 Japanese Society for Investigative Dermatology. Published by Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.
Singh, Gautam B
This book offers comprehensive coverage of all the core topics of bioinformatics, and includes practical examples completed using the MATLAB bioinformatics toolbox™. It is primarily intended as a textbook for engineering and computer science students attending advanced undergraduate and graduate courses in bioinformatics and computational biology. The book develops bioinformatics concepts from the ground up, starting with an introductory chapter on molecular biology and genetics. This chapter will enable physical science students to fully understand and appreciate the ultimate goals of applying the principles of information technology to challenges in biological data management, sequence analysis, and systems biology. The first part of the book also includes a survey of existing biological databases, tools that have become essential in today’s biotechnology research. The second part of the book covers methodologies for retrieving biological information, including fundamental algorithms for sequence compar...
Ferguson, Matthew; Norman, Claude
All source information analysis enables proactive implementation of in-field verification activities, supports the State Evaluation process, and is essential to the IAEA's strengthened safeguards system. Information sources include State-declared nuclear material accounting and facility design information; voluntarily supplied information such as nuclear procurement data; commercial satellite imagery; open source information and information/results from design information verifications (DIVs), inspections and complementary accesses (CAs). The analysis of disparate information sources directly supports inspections, design information verifications and complementary access, and enables both more reliable cross-examination for consistency and completeness as well as in-depth investigation of possible safeguards compliance issues. Comparison of State-declared information against information on illicit nuclear procurement networks, possible trafficking in nuclear materials, and scientific and technical information on nuclear-related research and development programmes, provides complementary measures for monitoring nuclear developments and increases Agency capabilities to detect possible undeclared nuclear activities. Likewise, expert analysis of commercial satellite imagery plays a critical role for monitoring un-safeguarded sites and facilities. In sum, the combination of these measures provides early identification of possible undeclared nuclear material or activities, thus enhancing deterrence of safeguards system that is fully information driven, and increasing confidence in Safeguards conclusions. By increasing confidence that nuclear materials and technologies in States under Safeguards are used solely for peaceful purposes, information-driven safeguards will strengthen the nuclear non-proliferation system. Key assets for Agency collection, processing, expert analysis, and integration of these information sources are the Information Collection and Analysis
Olsen, Lars Rønn; Campos, Benito; Barnkob, Mike Stein
cancer immunotherapies has yet to be fulfilled. The insufficient efficacy of existing treatments can be attributed to a number of biological and technical issues. In this review, we detail the current limitations of immunotherapy target selection and design, and review computational methods to streamline...... therapy target discovery in a bioinformatics analysis pipeline. We describe specialized bioinformatics tools and databases for three main bottlenecks in immunotherapy target discovery: the cataloging of potentially antigenic proteins, the identification of potential HLA binders, and the selection epitopes...
Naurzbaev, Mukhtar M.; Hughes, Malcolm K.; Vaganov, Eugene A.
Regional growth curves (RGCs) have been recently used to provide a new basis for removing nonclimatic trend from tree-ring data. Here we propose a different use for RGCs and explore their properties along two transects, one meridional and the other elevational. RGCs consisting of mean ring width plotted against cambial age were developed for larch samples from 34 sites along a meridional transect (55-72°N) in central Siberia, and for 24 sites on an elevational gradient (1120 and 2350 m a.s.l.) in Tuva and neighboring Mongolia at approximately 51°N. There are systematic gradients of the parameters of the RGCs, such as I0-maximum tree-ring width near pith, and Imin, the asymptotic value of tree-ring width in old trees. They are smaller at higher latitude and elevation. Annual mean temperature and mean May-September temperature are highly correlated with latitude here, and hence RGC parameters are correlated with these climatic variables. Correlations with precipitation are more complex, and contradictory between meridional and elevational transects. The presence of a similar gradient in the elevational transect is consistent with temperature being the causal factor for both gradients, rather than, for example, latitude-dependent patterns of seasonal photoperiod change. Taking ring measurements from collections of relict and subfossil wood, the RGC-latitude and RGC-temperature relationships are used to estimate paleo-temperatures on centennial time scales. These estimates are consistent with earlier "traditional" dendroclimatic approaches, and with independent information on the northern extent of forest growth in the early mid-Holocene. It may be possible to use this same approach to make estimates of century-scale paleo-temperatures in other regions where abundant relict wood is present.
Wefer, Stephen H.
analyzed in relation to their experience in learning a bioinformatics mini-unit. There were distinct individual differences among the participants, especially in the way they processed information and integrated procedural and analytical thought during bioinformatics learning. These differences may provide insights into some of the specific needs of students that educators and curriculum designers should consider when designing bioinformatics learning experiences. Implications for teacher education and curriculum design are presented in addition to some suggestions for further research.
Cristancho, Marco; Isaza, Gustavo; Pinzón, Andrés; Rodríguez, Juan
This volume compiles accepted contributions for the 2nd Edition of the Colombian Computational Biology and Bioinformatics Congress CCBCOL, after a rigorous review process in which 54 papers were accepted for publication from 119 submitted contributions. Bioinformatics and Computational Biology are areas of knowledge that have emerged due to advances that have taken place in the Biological Sciences and its integration with Information Sciences. The expansion of projects involving the study of genomes has led the way in the production of vast amounts of sequence data which needs to be organized, analyzed and stored to understand phenomena associated with living organisms related to their evolution, behavior in different ecosystems, and the development of applications that can be derived from this analysis. .
Overby, Casey Lynnette; Tarczy-Hornoch, Peter
Personalized medicine can be defined broadly as a model of healthcare that is predictive, personalized, preventive and participatory. Two US President's Council of Advisors on Science and Technology reports illustrate challenges in personalized medicine (in a 2008 report) and in use of health information technology (in a 2010 report). Translational bioinformatics is a field that can help address these challenges and is defined by the American Medical Informatics Association as "the development of storage, analytic and interpretive methods to optimize the transformation of increasing voluminous biomedical data into proactive, predictive, preventative and participatory health." This article discusses barriers to implementing genomics applications and current progress toward overcoming barriers, describes lessons learned from early experiences of institutions engaged in personalized medicine and provides example areas for translational bioinformatics research inquiry.
Huda Jalil Dikhil; Mohammad Shkoukani; Suhail Sami Owais
The continuous growth of data, mainly the medical data at laboratories becomes very complex to use and to manage by using traditional ways. So, the researchers start studying genetic information field which increased in the past thirty years in bioinformatics domain (the computer science field, genetic biology field, and DNA). This growth of data becomes known as big bioinformatics data. Thus, efficient algorithms such as Genetic Algorithms are needed to deal with this big and vast amount of ...
Winner D. Chawinga
Full Text Available Background: The Centre for Open and Distance Learning at Mzuzu University was established in 2006 with the aim to increase and broaden access to higher education to most Malawians who despite meeting entry requirements into higher education were not selected because of shortage of space on campus and other learning and teaching resources. Although Open and Distance Learning (ODL is hyped as a practical option for making higher education available to many people as widely reported in the literature, universities need to address several issues for it to hold its ground. Objectives: The study set out to investigate information needs and barriers to information sources by ODL students by addressing three objectives, namely information needs of ODL students, information sources of ODL students and challenges that ODL students face when seeking information for their courses of study. Method: A survey questionnaire with a mix of closed-ended and open-ended questions was distributed to 350 students to find out the information sources and challenges that the ODL students face when searching for information to accomplish their academic activities. Results: According to the findings, all 258 (100% students who answered the questionnaire need information to prepare for the end-of-semester examinations. Information sources that are used most by students include lecture notes, Internet and library books with scores of 238 (92.6%, 207 (80.5% and 199 (77.4%, respectively. Conclusion: ODL students have limited access to information materials for accomplishing their academic activities and Mzuzu University can resolve this challenge by introducing satellite information centres in the three geographical regions of Malawi.
Khurana, Atika; Bleakley, Amy
Sexual information sources used by young adults can influence their contraceptive knowledge and behaviors, yet little is known about sources most frequently used by young adults, especially by groups with histories of sexual risk involvement. Nationally representative data from 1800 unmarried young adults, aged 18-29 years, were analyzed to (1) examine the sources of contraceptive information most frequently used by young adults and (2) assess variations (if any) in source use based on demographic characteristics and sexual risk history (determined based on past sexual behaviors). "Doctors/nurses" was the most frequently used contraceptive information source reported by young adults. Significant variations existed in source use based on demographic characteristics and sexual risk history. Females were more likely to obtain contraceptive information from health care professionals, whereas males were more likely to report friends, partners, internet and television/radio as their frequently used source. Young adults with a sexual risk history were more likely to rely on doctors/nurses and less likely to report friends and internet as their frequently used source than those without a sexual risk history. Receiving contraceptive information from doctors/nurses was associated with greater accuracy in knowledge about contraceptive use and efficacy as compared to all other sources. Young adults' use of specific contraceptive information sources can vary based on their demographic characteristics and sexual risk involvement. Future research should identify better strategies to connect young adults, especially young males, with sexual risk histories to more reliable sources of information. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
Basyuni, M.; Wasilah, M.; Sumardi
This study describes the bioinformatics methods to analyze eight actin genes from mangrove plants on DDBJ/EMBL/GenBank as well as predicted the structure, composition, subcellular localization, similarity, and phylogenetic. The physical and chemical properties of eight mangroves showed variation among the genes. The percentage of the secondary structure of eight mangrove actin genes followed the order of a helix > random coil > extended chain structure for BgActl, KcActl, RsActl, and A. corniculatum Act. In contrast to this observation, the remaining actin genes were random coil > extended chain structure > a helix. This study, therefore, shown the prediction of secondary structure was performed for necessary structural information. The values of chloroplast or signal peptide or mitochondrial target were too small, indicated that no chloroplast or mitochondrial transit peptide or signal peptide of secretion pathway in mangrove actin genes. These results suggested the importance of understanding the diversity and functional of properties of the different amino acids in mangrove actin genes. To clarify the relationship among the mangrove actin gene, a phylogenetic tree was constructed. Three groups of mangrove actin genes were formed, the first group contains B. gymnorrhiza BgAct and R. stylosa RsActl. The second cluster which consists of 5 actin genes the largest group, and the last branch consist of one gene, B. sexagula Act. The present study, therefore, supported the previous results that plant actin genes form distinct clusters in the tree.
For designers and managers of information services it is important to have some understanding of the factors that influence the probability that an information need will arise in the mind of some individual, that this individual will be sufficiently motivated to seek the needed information, and that he or she will select a particular information source. While our knowledge of these matters is still very far from complete, the many hundreds of ''user studies'' that have been performed have at least shed some light on them. Factors affecting the selection of a particular information source (e.g., information center or library) will include some user factors (e.g., previous experience with a source) and many source-related factors, including currency, cost, accessibility, reputation, dissemination and marketing efforts, and the format and content of the information available. Accessibility will be a major factor influencing use of an information source but this goes far beyond physical accessibility; intellectual and psychological accessibility must also be considered. This paper combines these various factors into a ''model'' of information-seeking behaviour and from this attempts to draw conclusions that may be useful in the design of future information services. 61 refs, 1 fig
Hong, Jung Eun; Jo, Injeong
Offering up-to-date information and diverse perspectives on issues, online information can be a valuable resource that supplements traditional course materials like textbooks. In this paper, the source types that students' use for a course assignment and the criteria they apply to determine usefulness of the online information are examined.…
Grigas, Vincas; Juzeniene, Simona; Velickaite, Jone
Introduction: Recent developments in the field of scientific information resource provision lead us to the key research question, namely,what is the coverage of freely available information sources when writing doctoral theses, and whether the academic library can assume the leading role as a direct intermediator for information users. Method:…
Fuxman, Shai; De Los Santos, Sabrina; Finkelstein, Daniel; Landon, Mary Kay; O'Donnell, Lydia
The study examined the relationship between young adolescents' sources of information on sex and precursors to sexual activity. Surveys were conducted with 3,940 Latino sixth grade students. According to results, girls who received information from their parents were less likely to engage in sex precursors. For boys, getting information from other…
Kibirige, Harry M.; DePalo, Lisa
Discussion of information available on the Internet focuses on two pilot studies that investigated how academic users perceive search engines and subject-oriented databases as sources of topical information. Highlights include information seeking behavior of academic users; undergraduate users; graduate users; faculty; and implications for…
Full Text Available This article discusses the use and the ways of assessment of the internet as a source of information due to the agility that this way has been providing to the Marketing Information System, which also shows to be fragile in terms of reliability of the available information The study consists of an exploratory research, which includes literature review and multiple case studies, and presents as its objective the understanding of how the internet is used in the processes of data source definition and evaluation in a company, from the user’s point of view. The results indicate that the internet is an important source of information, but there is little systematization in the information collection and the sources evaluation is based only on the users’ individual and practical knowledge
Hanratty, Timothy; Richardson, John; Mittrick, Mark; Dumer, John; Heilman, Eric; Roy, Heather; Kase, Sue
This paper presents the concept development and demonstration of the Human Terrain Exploitation Suite (HTES) under development at the U.S. Army Research Laboratory's Tactical Information Fusion Branch. The HTES is an amalgamation of four complementary visual analytic capabilities that target the exploitation of open source information. Open source information, specifically news feeds, blogs and other social media, provide a unique opportunity to collect and examine salient topics and trends. Analysis of open source information provides valuable insights into determining opinions, values, cultural nuances and other socio-political aspects within a military area of interest. The early results of the HTES field study indicate that the tools greatly increased the analysts' ability to exploit open source information, but improvement through greater cross-tool integration and correlation of their results is necessary for further advances.
Ettlie, J. E.
Two dimensions (personal-impersonal and internal-external) are used to characterize information sources as they become important during the interorganizational transfer of production innovations. The results of three studies are reviewed for the purpose of deriving a model of the timing and importance of different information sources and the utilization of new technology. Based on the findings of two retrospective studies, it was concluded that the pattern of information seeking behavior in user organizations during the awareness stage of adoption is not a reliable predictor of the eventual utilization rate. Using the additional findings of a real-time study, an empirical model of the relative importance of information sources for successful user organizations is presented. These results are extended and integrated into a theoretical model consisting of a time-profile of successful implementations and the relative importance of four types of information sources during seven stages of the adoption-implementation process.
Díaz-Del-Pino, Sergio; Falgueras, Juan; Perez-Wohlfeil, Esteban; Trelles, Oswaldo
Nearly 10 years have passed since the first mobile apps appeared. Given the fact that bioinformatics is a web-based world and that mobile devices are endowed with web-browsers, it seemed natural that bioinformatics would transit from personal computers to mobile devices but nothing could be further from the truth. The transition demands new paradigms, designs and novel implementations. Throughout an in-depth analysis of requirements of existing bioinformatics applications we designed and deployed an easy-to-use web-based lightweight mobile client. Such client is able to browse, select, compose automatically interface parameters, invoke services and monitor the execution of Web Services using the service's metadata stored in catalogs or repositories. mORCA is available at http://bitlab-es.com/morca/app as a web-app. It is also available in the App store by Apple and Play Store by Google. The software will be available for at least 2 years. firstname.lastname@example.org. Source code, final web-app, training material and documentation is available at http://bitlab-es.com/morca. © The Author(s) 2017. Published by Oxford University Press.
Geana, Mugur V; Kimminau, Kim S; Greiner, K Allen
The Latino population is the fastest growing minority in the country, and is expected to reach about 30% of the total U.S. population by 2050. Historically, primary care practitioners are not the preferred source of health information for Latinos living in the United States. Latinos are known to rely more on media, family, and friends to get answers to health-related questions. Choosing the appropriate information source is an important component of health information-seeking behavior; it also represents a major challenge for health communicators trying to deliver information to their target audience. This study explores how ethnicity influences health information source selection among Latinos and White non-Latinos living together in an underserved, multiethnic urban community with poor health status and underlying socioeconomic characteristics. The results suggest that this community manifests a high degree of homogeneity in their usage of health information sources. Nevertheless, there are significant differences between ethnic groups and age groups on perceived usefulness of the health information retrieved from common sources. Our results suggest that health information sources that are interactive, native to the community (e.g., the local pharmacist), and promote active engagement are the most useful in delivering health messages that will be listened to by those living in this underserved, multiethnic urban community.
Ivana Loraine LINDEMANN
Full Text Available ABSTRACT Objective: To investigate reception of nutrition information (outcome, associated factors, and types of sources. Methods: This cross-sectional study, conducted in 2013, included 1,246 adult and older adult users of the Primary Healthcare network of Pelotas, Rio Grande do Sul, Brazil. The sample was characterized by reception of nutrition information, its sources, and demographic, socioeconomic, health, knowledge, and life habit variables. Prevalence ratios and their respective 95% confidence intervals investigated associations between reception of nutrition information and independent variables. Results: More than one-third of the sample (37.6% received nutrition information (95%CI=34.9-40.3. Older adults, individuals with positive self-perceived diet, those who received health information, and those who were physically active were more likely to receive nutrition information, and normal weight individuals were less likely. The outcome differed by income strata, being highest in the highest quintile. There was a linear trend for education level and for following the Ten Steps to Healthy Eating: the outcome was more likely in individuals with at least higher education and those who followed at least four steps. The most cited sources of nutrition information were television shows (56.2%, other (46.2%, physician (41.2%, Internet (25.1%, and family members (20.9%, which did not differ by sex. Conclusion: Primary healthcare users received little nutrition information, and television could be a useful tool for the institutions responsible for the sector to disseminate the official nutritional recommendations.
Magin, Parker; Morgan, Simon; Wearne, Susan; Tapley, Amanda; Henderson, Kim; Oldmeadow, Chris; Ball, Jean; Scott, John; Spike, Neil; McArthur, Lawrie; van Driel, Mieke
Answering clinical questions arising from patient care can improve that care and offers an opportunity for adult learning. It is also a vital component in practising evidence-based medicine. GPs' sources of in-consultation information can be human or non-human (either hard copy or electronic). To establish the prevalence and associations of GP trainees' in-consultation information-seeking, and to establish the prevalence of use of different sources of information (human, hard copy and electronic) and the associations of choosing particular sources. A cross-sectional analysis of data (2010-13) from an ongoing cohort study of Australian GP trainees' consultations. Once each 6-month training term, trainees record detailed data of 60 consecutive consultations. The primary outcome was whether the trainee sought in-consultation information for a problem/diagnosis. Secondary outcomes were whether information-seeking was from a human (GP, other specialist or other health professional) or from a non-human source (electronic or hard copy), and whether a non-human source was electronic or hard copy. Six hundred forty-five trainees (response rate 94.3%) contributed data for 84,723 consultations including 131,583 problems/diagnoses. In-consultation information was sought for 15.4% (95% confidence interval=15.3-15.6) of problems/diagnoses. Sources were: GP in 6.9% of problems/diagnoses, other specialists 0.9%, other health professionals 0.6%, electronic sources 6.5% and hard-copy sources 1.5%. Associations of information-seeking included younger patient age, trainee full-time status and earlier training stage, longer consultation duration, referring the patient, organizing follow-up and generating learning goals. Associations of choosing human information sources (over non-human sources) were similar, but also included the trainee's training organization. Associations of electronic rather than hard-copy information-seeking included the trainee being younger, the training
Hughett, Paul William [Univ. of California, Berkeley, CA (United States). Dept. of Electrical Engineering and Computer Sciences
This dissertation derives a new method for estimating current source amplitudes in the brain and heart from external magnetic field measurements and prior knowledge about the probable source positions and amplitudes. The minimum mean square error estimator for the linear inverse problem with statistical prior information was derived and is called the optimal constrained linear inverse method (OCLIM). OCLIM includes as special cases the Shim-Cho weighted pseudoinverse and Wiener estimators but allows more general priors and thus reduces the reconstruction error. Efficient algorithms were developed to compute the OCLIM estimate for instantaneous or time series data. The method was tested in a simulated neuromagnetic imaging problem with five simultaneously active sources on a grid of 387 possible source locations; all five sources were resolved, even though the true sources were not exactly at the modeled source positions and the true source statistics differed from the assumed statistics.
Mulenga, Philippe Cilundika; Kazadi, Alex Bukasa
Penis size is a huge topic of anxiety for a lot of men. Some of them are unhappy with their penis size as shown in the study conducted by Tiggemann in 2008. There are relatively few studies on erect penis size. This may reflect cultural taboos of researchers or doctors interacting with men who are in a state of sexual arousal. On the other hand, it is important for people who announce details on penis size to give the average penis size first and then sizes suggested by the researchers. We performed a cross-sectional survey in the two major urban centres of the Democratic Republic of Congo namely Kinshasa and Lubumbashi over a period of two years from May 2014 to May 2016. A total of 21 information sources constituted our sample, 8 in Kinshasa and 13 in Lubumbashi. We found it sufficient because in our culture discussing about sexual matter is rare. The parameters studied were: the nature of the source, the accuracy of the measurement method, the presence of bibliographical reference, the announced penis size. The majority of information sources used were radio or television broadcastings (23,8%); this can be explained by the fact that there are an increasing number of radio and television stations in our country and especially in large cities. With regard to accuracy of information about penis measurement method when sharing the message about penis size, our study showed that the majority of information sources did not indicate it when they announced penis size to the public (85,7%). Several sources did not report bibliographical references (57,1%). Announced data analysis on penis size showed that the average penis size was: 14 cm (28,6%), 15 cm (23,8%) and 15-20 cm (19%). All these results are intended to offer a warning to all players responsible for diffusing information on sexual health (penis size): scientific rigor consists in seeking information from reliable sources.
Tsai, Meng-Che; Chou, Yen-Yin; Lin, Shio-Jean; Lin, Sheng-Hsiang
To identify health needs, preferred sources of health information and associated factors in Taiwanese adolescents. Cross-sectional questionnaire-based survey conducted in Taiwanese adolescents aged 12-18 years in 2010. Adolescents were queried about their health needs, healthcare service utilisation and preferred sources of health information. We compared differences in reported health needs and available sources among gender groups and grade levels. Demographic correlates of adolescent health needs were further examined using multiple ordinal logistic regression analysis. Participants (n=5018) needed weight and height information most, followed by dietary health advice. Academic stress was emphasised more than behavioural issues. Perceived needs for health information varied by age and gender. General high school programme, suburban location and chronic illness were associated with higher need. Only a small proportion (4.3%) of adolescents used healthcare services for mental and emotional concerns. Parents were the primary sources of health information, although students also turned to teachers, particularly for sensitive issues. Moreover, the mass media and internet were increasingly popular sources of information. To achieve continuous care from childhood through adolescence to adulthood, paediatricians should understand adolescents' diverse views of health needs and preferred sources of health information. Several demographic variables were shown to influence their health needs, reflecting the East Asian cultural context. Anticipatory guidance on body image, dietary health and academic stress should be emphasised while caring for these adolescents. We therefore advocate the development and effective delivery of culturally relevant adolescent-friendly health services.
Regis R. Marie Modeste
Full Text Available Background: It has been reported that South Africa has the highest number of people living with HIV worldwide, with more women being infected than men. Women living with HIV have been documented as experiencing various symptoms related to HIV and use various strategies to manage these symptoms. Objective: The objective of this study was to explore the sources and types of information regarding self-care symptom management strategies received by women living with HIV. Method: The study was conducted at an HIV clinic in an urban area of KwaZulu-Natal. Individual in-depth interviews were completed with 11 women who were living with HIV,exploring the sources of information received on how they manage the HIV- (and/or AIDS- related symptoms they experienced as well as the types of information received. The collecteddata were analysed using qualitative content analysis. Results: The participants identified various sources, which mainly included groups of people who provided them with information on how to manage their HIV-related symptoms, namely healthcare providers, their personal networks and the community. The different sources offered different types of information, including the use of medication, complementary treatments and self-comforting activities. Conclusion: The study highlights that participants used multiple sources to get information about how to manage the experienced symptoms related to HIV, namely, healthcare providers, family and friends as well as themselves. It is to be noted that each source provided a preferred type of information.
Marton, Christine; Choo, Chun Wei
Presents preliminary results from a survey of how women in information technology professions use information sources. Investigates the effects of perceived source accessibility and perceived source quality on the selection and use of information sources. Discusses results of correlation analysis and regression analysis that also examined…
Brazas, Michelle D.; Ouellette, B. F. Francis
With the advent of YouTube channels in bioinformatics, open platforms for problem solving in bioinformatics, active web forums in computing analyses and online resources for learning to code or use a bioinformatics tool, the more traditional continuing education bioinformatics training programs have had to adapt. Bioinformatics training programs that solely rely on traditional didactic methods are being superseded by these newer resources. Yet such face-to-face instruction is still invaluable...
Mott, Jared; Shellhaas, Renée A; Joshi, Sucheta M
We conducted an online survey of elementary school teachers in Washtenaw County, Michigan, regarding their confidence in their knowledge of epilepsy and their preferred media or sources of information about epilepsy. Eighty-three teachers (9.3%) responded. One quarter expressed a lack of confidence in their ability to teach students with epilepsy or to respond appropriately to a seizure. Teachers most frequently (68%) cited the Internet as their primary source of information about epilepsy, with the school nurse and parents/guardians also frequently mentioned (55% and 48%, respectively). In contrast, most respondents prefer that their information come from the school nurse (74%) or a physician (73%), while only 25% cited the Internet as a preferred source. Teachers most frequently indicated EpilepsyFoundation.org (70.5%) as a trusted source of information. Future collaborative education efforts between school nurses and physicians, especially through use of the Internet, could improve teachers' knowledge of epilepsy.
To identify the accessibility of sources of pre-admission medication (PAM) information, to quantify agreement between the PAM list and the \\'gold-standard\\' PAM list (GS-PAML) and to categorise disagreements.
Demidova, Elena; Ternier, Stefaan; Olmedilla, Daniel; Duval, Erik; Dicerto, Michele; Stefanov, Krassen; Sacristán, Naiara
Demidova, E., Ternier, S., Olmedilla, D., Duval, E., Dicerto, M., Stefanov, K., et al. (2007). Integration of Heterogeneous Information Sources into a Knowledge Resource Management System for Lifelong. TENCompetence Workshop on Service Oriented Approaches and Lifelong Competence Development
Kamali, Sudabeh; Ahmadian, Leila; Khajouei, Reza; Bahaadinbeigy, Kambiz
Pregnant women should be provided with relevant and useful information to manage this specific period of their lives. Assessing information needs of this group is a prerequisite for providing this information. The aim of this study was to assess the information needs of pregnant women during their pregnancy and childbirth. This descriptive study was conducted on the pregnant women who attended antenatal clinics and obstetricians/gynaecologists' offices in Kerman, Iran, in 2015. Data were collected using a self-administered, valid and reliable questionnaire. A total of 400 women participated in the study. Most pregnant women needed information about care of the foetus (n = 344, 86%), physical and psychological complications after delivery (n = 333, 83%), development and growth of the foetus (n = 330, 82.5%), pregnancy nutrition (n = 327, 82%) and special tests during pregnancy (n = 326, 81.5%). They mostly (n = 195, 49%) looked for information when they were suffering from a disease or pregnancy complications. As pregnant women need extensive information to be able to take care of themselves and their babies, their information needs should be identified and taken into consideration when planning educational programmes for this group of women. © 2017 Health Libraries Group.
Eversole, Jillian S; Berglas, Nancy F; Deardorff, Julianna; Constantine, Norman A
Adolescence is a common time for sexual initiation and information seeking about sexual health, yet little is known about how adolescents' sources of information about sex influence their sexual beliefs and behaviors. This is particularly true for Latino adolescents, whose sources of sex information and sexual behaviors are vastly understudied. A survey of ninth-grade Latino adolescents ( N = 1,186) was employed to examine the relationship between adolescents' primary source of sex information and their intention to use condoms. The study also examined the potential influences of demographics (age, gender), sociodemographics (socioeconomic status, parent education, and linguistic acculturation), and sexual experience on condom use intention. Among Latino youth, the most commonly reported source of sex information was parents (37.8%), followed by another relative (17.1%), school (13.4%), and friends (11.4%). Hierarchical regression analyses showed that after controlling for other factors, primary source of sex information was significantly associated with condom use intention ( p = .042). Hierarchical regression results stratified by gender showed that this relationship remained significant for males ( p = .004) but not for females ( p = .242). Males who reported friends (odds ratio [ OR] = 0.44, p = .003) or the media/Internet ( OR = 0.44, p = .008) as their primary sources of sex information, as compared to parents as their primary source, reported significantly lower intention to use condoms. These findings suggest it may be important for Latino adolescents, particularly males, to have additional or other sources for sex information in order to promote healthy sexual behaviors. Alternatively, interventions targeting parents or other family members to improve sexual health communication with adolescent boys may prove essential.
arriving cue ( primacy ), sometimes in favor of the last ( recency ), and sometimes in favor of both, with cues arriving in the middle of a sequence...INFORMATION SOURCES OF VARYING WEIGHTS: THE EFFECT OF DISPLAY FEATURES AND ATTENTION CUEING Christopher D. Wickens, Heather L. Pringle, and James Merlo...SUBTITLE Integration of Information Sources of Varying Weights: The Effect of Display Features and Attention Cueing 5a. CONTRACT NUMBER 5b. GRANT
Evolution is based on natural selection of existing biological phenotypic traits. Natural selection can only eliminate traits. It cannot create new ones, requiring a theory to explain the origin of new genetic information. The theory of pangenesis was a major attempt to explain the source of new genetic information required to produce phenotypic variety. This theory, advocated by Darwin as the main source of genetic variety, has now been empirically disproved. It is currently a theory mainly of interest to science historians.
Richard Cabe; Joseph A. Herriges
This paper discusses the rose of information structure (i.e., information cost, reliability, and distribution among agents) in the design of a regulatory mechanism for controlling non-point source pollution. An ambient concentration tax mechanism is examined for non-point source pollution with spatial transport among multiple zones. Imposition of the tax requires costly measurement of ambient concentrations in selected zones, and the selection of zones for measurement must be undertaken witho...
Woudstra, L.S.E.; van den Hooff, B.J.; Schouten, A.P.
This study focuses on how the accessibility and quality of co-workers in organizations affect their use as information source. Prior research has produced inconsistent findings concerning these factors' respective influence on source selection. In this article, we argue that one potential reason for
Goldman, Ronald J.; Goldman, Juliette D. G.
Interviews regarding physical and sexual development were conducted with 838 children ages five through 15 in Australia, England, North America, and Sweden. Children identified the people whom they asked sex-related questions and indicated their major sources of information. Mothers, school, and the media were the most frequently cited sources.…
... centerline or filament tolerance box to the bulb base centerline or reference plane. D. For a light source... 49 Transportation 6 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Information To Be Submitted for Replaceable Light...) NATIONAL HIGHWAY TRAFFIC SAFETY ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION REPLACEABLE LIGHT SOURCE...
Sarbaz, Masoumeh; Naderi, Hamid Reza; Aelami, Mohammad Hassan; Eslami, Saeid
Background: Physicians continually need to update their knowledge to ensure appropriate decision making about patient care. Objectives: We aimed to identify and compare information sources used by specialists and residents, their reasons for choosing these sources, and the level of their confidence
Mayfield, Jacqueline; Mayfield, Milton; Kohl, John
The World Wide Web presents many opportunities for improving the instructional quality of international business communication related classes by providing access to a large variety of information sources. These sources can be used as supplements to traditional texts, as the basis for specific program assignments, or even as the main focus of a…
Luong, Huynh Van; Seiler, Jürgen; Kaup, André
This work considers reconstructing a target signal in a context ofdistributed sparse sources. We propose an efficient reconstruction algorithmwith the aid of other given sources as multiple side information (SI). Theproposed algorithm takes advantage of compressive sensing (CS) with SI andadaptive...
Fagan, Jody Condit; Keach, Jennifer A.
When improving a web presence, today's libraries have a choice: using a free Web 2.0 application, opting for open source, buying a product, or building a web application. This article discusses how to make an informed decision for one's library. The authors stress that deciding whether to use a free Web 2.0 application, to choose open source, to…
This report documents the findings related to a review of power sources for six off-grid Road Weather Information Systems (RWIS) in : Alaska. Various power sources were reviewed as a means of reliably operating the off-grid RWIS sites throughout the ...
Mulder, Nicola J; Adebiyi, Ezekiel; Adebiyi, Marion; Adeyemi, Seun; Ahmed, Azza; Ahmed, Rehab; Akanle, Bola; Alibi, Mohamed; Armstrong, Don L; Aron, Shaun; Ashano, Efejiro; Baichoo, Shakuntala; Benkahla, Alia; Brown, David K; Chimusa, Emile R; Fadlelmola, Faisal M; Falola, Dare; Fatumo, Segun; Ghedira, Kais; Ghouila, Amel; Hazelhurst, Scott; Isewon, Itunuoluwa; Jung, Segun; Kassim, Samar Kamal; Kayondo, Jonathan K; Mbiyavanga, Mamana; Meintjes, Ayton; Mohammed, Somia; Mosaku, Abayomi; Moussa, Ahmed; Muhammd, Mustafa; Mungloo-Dilmohamud, Zahra; Nashiru, Oyekanmi; Odia, Trust; Okafor, Adaobi; Oladipo, Olaleye; Osamor, Victor; Oyelade, Jellili; Sadki, Khalid; Salifu, Samson Pandam; Soyemi, Jumoke; Panji, Sumir; Radouani, Fouzia; Souiai, Oussama; Tastan Bishop, Özlem
Although pockets of bioinformatics excellence have developed in Africa, generally, large-scale genomic data analysis has been limited by the availability of expertise and infrastructure. H3ABioNet, a pan-African bioinformatics network, was established to build capacity specifically to enable H3Africa (Human Heredity and Health in Africa) researchers to analyze their data in Africa. Since the inception of the H3Africa initiative, H3ABioNet's role has evolved in response to changing needs from the consortium and the African bioinformatics community. H3ABioNet set out to develop core bioinformatics infrastructure and capacity for genomics research in various aspects of data collection, transfer, storage, and analysis. Various resources have been developed to address genomic data management and analysis needs of H3Africa researchers and other scientific communities on the continent. NetMap was developed and used to build an accurate picture of network performance within Africa and between Africa and the rest of the world, and Globus Online has been rolled out to facilitate data transfer. A participant recruitment database was developed to monitor participant enrollment, and data is being harmonized through the use of ontologies and controlled vocabularies. The standardized metadata will be integrated to provide a search facility for H3Africa data and biospecimens. Because H3Africa projects are generating large-scale genomic data, facilities for analysis and interpretation are critical. H3ABioNet is implementing several data analysis platforms that provide a large range of bioinformatics tools or workflows, such as Galaxy, the Job Management System, and eBiokits. A set of reproducible, portable, and cloud-scalable pipelines to support the multiple H3Africa data types are also being developed and dockerized to enable execution on multiple computing infrastructures. In addition, new tools have been developed for analysis of the uniquely divergent African data and for
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Miranda, Giovanna F; Vercellesi, Luisa; Bruno, Flavia
Throughout the world the public is showing increasing interest in medical and scientific subjects and journalists largely spread this information, with an important impact on knowledge and health. Clearly, therefore, the relationship between the journalist and his sources is delicate: freedom and independence of information depend on the independence and truthfulness of the sources. The new "precision journalism" holds that scientific methods should be applied to journalism, so authoritative sources are a common need for journalists and scientists. We therefore compared the individual classifications and methods of assessing of sources in biomedical science and medical journalism to try to extrapolate scientific methods of evaluation to journalism. In journalism and science terms used to classify sources of information show some similarities, but their meanings are different. In science primary and secondary classes of information, for instance, refer to the levels of processing, but in journalism to the official nature of the source itself. Scientists and journalists must both always consult as many sources as possible and check their authoritativeness, reliability, completeness, up-to-dateness and balance. In journalism, however, there are some important differences and limits: too many sources can sometimes diminish the quality of the information. The sources serve a first filter between the event and the journalist, who is not providing the reader with the fact, but with its projection. Journalists have time constraints and lack the objective criteria for searching, the specific background knowledge, and the expertise to fully assess sources. To assist in understanding the wealth of sources of information in journalism, we have prepared a checklist of items and questions. There are at least four fundamental points that a good journalist, like any scientist, should know: how to find the latest information (the sources), how to assess it (the quality and
Sistani, M M Naghibi; Yazdani, R; Virtanen, J; Pakdaman, A; Murtomaa, H
To assess oral health literacy level and oral health information of Iranian adults in Tehran, and to determine the factors related to oral health literacy. A cross-sectional population study. A random sample of 1,031 adults in Tehran, Iran. Oral health literacy was measured using an oral health adult literacy questionnaire (OHL-AQ). Variation in use of information sources by socio-economic and demographic background was estimated by odds ratios. A multiple linear regression model served to determine predictor factors of OHL-AQ scores controlling for characteristics of the subjects and number of information sources. The mean OHL-AQ score was 10.5 (sd 3.0). Women (p information were dentists (52.6%), and TV/Radio (49.5%). According to the regression model, females (p = 0.001), high educational level (p information sources (two sources p = 0.01, three sources or more p = 0.002) were the main predictor factors of OHL-AQ scores. The average oral health literacy level of Iranian adults was low. Disseminating evidence-based oral health care information from multiple sources including TV/radio, dentists, and other health professionals in different settings should improve public oral health literacy.
BASIC QUALIFICATIONS To be considered for this position, you must minimally meet the knowledge, skills, and abilities listed below: Bachelor’s degree in life science/bioinformatics/math/physics/computer related field from an accredited college or university according to the Council for Higher Education Accreditation (CHEA). (Additional qualifying experience may be substituted for the required education). Foreign degrees must be evaluated for U.S. equivalency. In addition to the educational requirements, a minimum of five (5) years of progressively responsible relevant experience. Must be able to obtain and maintain a security clearance. PREFERRED QUALIFICATIONS Candidates with these desired skills will be given preferential consideration: A Masters’ or PhD degree in any quantitative science is preferred. Commitment to solving biological problems and communicating these solutions. Ability to multi-task across projects. Experience in submitting data sets to public repositories. Management of large genomic data sets including integration with data available from public sources. Prior customer-facing role. Record of scientific achievements including journal publications and conference presentations. Expected Competencies: Deep understanding of and experience in processing high throughput biomedical data: data cleaning, normalization, analysis, interpretation and visualization. Ability to understand and analyze data from complex experimental designs. Proficiency in at least two of the following programming languages: Perl, Python, R, Java and C/C++. Experience in at least two of the following areas: metagenomics, ChIPSeq, RNASeq, ExomeSeq, DHS-Seq, microarray analysis. Familiarity with public databases: NCBI, Ensembl, TCGA, cBioPortal, Broad FireHose. Knowledge of working in a cluster environment.
Barletta, M.; Zarimpas, N.; Zarucki, R.
Acquisition and analysis of open source information plays an increasingly important role in the IAEA strengthened safeguards system. The Agency's focal point for open source information collection and analysis is the Division of Safeguards Information Management (SGIM) within the IAEA Department of Safeguards. In parallel with the approval of the Model Additional Protocol in 1997, a new centre of information acquisition and analysis expertise was created within SGIM. By acquiring software, developing databases, retraining existing staff and hiring new staff with diverse analytical skills, SGIM is pro actively contributing to the future implementation of information-driven safeguards in collaboration with other Divisions within the Department of Safeguards. Open source information support is now fully integrated with core safeguards processes and activities, and has become an effective tool in the work of the Department of Safeguards. This provides and overview of progress realized through the acquisition and use of open source information in several thematic areas: evaluation of additional protocol declarations; support to the State Evaluation process; in-depth investigation of safeguards issues, including assisting inspections and complementary access; research on illicit nuclear procurement networks and trafficking; and monitoring nuclear developments. Demands for open source information have steadily grown and are likely to continue to grow in the future. Coupled with the enormous growth and accessibility in the volume and sources of information, new challenges are presented, both technical and analytical. This paper discusses actions taken and future plans for multi-source and multi-disciplinary analytic integration to strengthen confidence in safeguards conclusions - especially regarding the absence of undeclared nuclear materials and activities. (Author)
Barletta, M.; Zarimpas, N.; Zarucki, R., E-mail: M.Barletta@iaea.or [IAEA, Wagramerstrasse 5, P.O. Box 100, 1400 Vienna (Austria)
Acquisition and analysis of open source information plays an increasingly important role in the IAEA strengthened safeguards system. The Agency's focal point for open source information collection and analysis is the Division of Safeguards Information Management (SGIM) within the IAEA Department of Safeguards. In parallel with the approval of the Model Additional Protocol in 1997, a new centre of information acquisition and analysis expertise was created within SGIM. By acquiring software, developing databases, retraining existing staff and hiring new staff with diverse analytical skills, SGIM is pro actively contributing to the future implementation of information-driven safeguards in collaboration with other Divisions within the Department of Safeguards. Open source information support is now fully integrated with core safeguards processes and activities, and has become an effective tool in the work of the Department of Safeguards. This provides and overview of progress realized through the acquisition and use of open source information in several thematic areas: evaluation of additional protocol declarations; support to the State Evaluation process; in-depth investigation of safeguards issues, including assisting inspections and complementary access; research on illicit nuclear procurement networks and trafficking; and monitoring nuclear developments. Demands for open source information have steadily grown and are likely to continue to grow in the future. Coupled with the enormous growth and accessibility in the volume and sources of information, new challenges are presented, both technical and analytical. This paper discusses actions taken and future plans for multi-source and multi-disciplinary analytic integration to strengthen confidence in safeguards conclusions - especially regarding the absence of undeclared nuclear materials and activities. (Author)
Tabacchi, Garden; Costantino, Claudio; Cracchiolo, Manuela; Ferro, Antonio; Marchese, Valentina; Napoli, Giuseppe; Palmeri, Sara; Raia, Daniele; Restivo, Vincenzo; Siddu, Andrea; Vitale, Francesco; Casuccio, Alessandra
Vaccine knowledge of the general population is shaped by different information sources and strongly influences vaccination attitudes and uptake. The CCM-Italian Ministry of Health ESCULAPIO project attempted to identify the role of such information sources, in order to address adequate strategies to improve information on vaccines and vaccine preventable diseases. In the present study, data on 632 adults from Southern Italy regarding information sources were collected, and their perceived and actual knowledge on vaccinations were compared and analyzed in relation to socio-demographic characteristics and information sources. The main reported reference sources were general practitioners (GPs) (42.5%) and pediatricians (33.1%), followed by mass media (24.1%) and the Internet (17.6%). A total of 45.4% reported they believed to be informed (45.4%), while those estimated to be truly informed were 43.8%. However, as showed in the multivariate logistic regression, people having the perception to be correctly informed ascribed their good knowledge to their profession in the health sector (Adj OR 2.28, CI 1.09-4.77, p informed population thought the responsibility had to be attributed to mass media (AdjOR 0.45, CI 0.22-0.92, p information, instead, were younger (AdjOR 1.64, CI 1.04-2.59, p information about vaccination should be addressed to fortifying healthcare workers knowledge in order to make them public health opinion leaders. General population should be provided with correct indications on trustworthy websites on vaccines to contrast false information supplied by anti-vaccinists on their own websites or social networks pages and on the mass media.
Al-Sane, Mona; Bourisly, Nibal; Almulla, Taghreed; Andersson, Lars
When planning nationwide information campaigns on the emergency management of tooth avulsion, the populations' preference to different modes of information delivery should be taken into consideration. We currently lack information on that. The aim of this study was, therefore, to assess laypeoples' preferred sources of information on the emergency management of tooth avulsion. This was a joint study undertaken by experts in media and experts in dental traumatology. Interview-assisted questionnaires were conducted on a sample of 579 adults from Kuwait. Subjects were asked to choose their three preferred sources of information on the emergency management of tooth avulsion. Subjects' responses and sociodemographic data were registered. The data were descriptively analyzed, and a chi-square test was used to assess the relation of the subjects' preferences to their registered demographics. The Internet, health care professionals, and TV were the three most preferred sources of information on the emergency management of tooth avulsion across all groups, regardless of the sociodemographic characteristics. Younger adults, singles and subjects with higher education significantly preferred the Internet. Older adults preferred TV. Family was a preferred source in geographic districts populated with extended families, while friends were a preferred source in geographic districts populated by expatriates. Younger people and those with higher education can be effectively targeted through the Internet, while it is more effective to target older people through TV. Information, on tooth avulsion management, given by health care professionals is preferred across all population segments. © 2011 John Wiley & Sons A/S.
Anthony, L. J.
This book provides a comprehensive survey of the principal national and international organizations which are sources of information on atomic and nuclear energy and of the published literature in this field. Organizations in all the major nuclear countries such as the United States, Britain, the Soviet Union, France, and Japan are described, and…
Sirintrapun, S Joseph; Zehir, Ahmet; Syed, Aijazuddin; Gao, JianJiong; Schultz, Nikolaus; Cheng, Donavan T
Translational bioinformatics and clinical research (biomedical) informatics are the primary domains related to informatics activities that support translational research. Translational bioinformatics focuses on computational techniques in genetics, molecular biology, and systems biology. Clinical research (biomedical) informatics involves the use of informatics in discovery and management of new knowledge relating to health and disease. This article details 3 projects that are hybrid applications of translational bioinformatics and clinical research (biomedical) informatics: The Cancer Genome Atlas, the cBioPortal for Cancer Genomics, and the Memorial Sloan Kettering Cancer Center clinical variants and results database, all designed to facilitate insights into cancer biology and clinical/therapeutic correlations. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
Full Text Available Purposes: The main goal of the paper is to determine the signifcance of selected sources of strategic information, used by Polish farmers in decision making. In addition, an attempt was made to determine the factors impacting the evaluation of those sources among the traits of the farmer and his farm. Methodology: Data was gathered using the questionnaire method and analysed with standard tools of descriptive statistics. Findings: The farmers deemed personalised sources of strategic information the most important, especially agricultural advisers, input suppliers and buyers of agricultural products. From among institutional (non-personalised sources, local government and the chamber of agriculture were signifcant. Business information agencies and survey companies are the least important sources for farmers. The characteristics of the surroundings of the farm – specifcally, its geographic location and the size of settlement where it is located proved to have the widest impact on the evaluation of the sources included in the study. From among the organisational factors, only farm size has a signifcant impact. Research limitations/implications: The study was confned to a representative group of farmers in Poland. A closed list of sources of strategic information was used. Originality/value: The study results contribute to the knowledge on the functioning of Polish agriculture and may also be used in comparative studies, characterising this sector’s diversity within Europe. They can in turn contribute to properly focusing on supporting the policy of balanced agriculture development in the EU.
Chen, Xiaoling; Chang, Jeffrey T
Bioinformatic analyses are becoming formidably more complex due to the increasing number of steps required to process the data, as well as the proliferation of methods that can be used in each step. To alleviate this difficulty, pipelines are commonly employed. However, pipelines are typically implemented to automate a specific analysis, and thus are difficult to use for exploratory analyses requiring systematic changes to the software or parameters used. To automate the development of pipelines, we have investigated expert systems. We created the Bioinformatics ExperT SYstem (BETSY) that includes a knowledge base where the capabilities of bioinformatics software is explicitly and formally encoded. BETSY is a backwards-chaining rule-based expert system comprised of a data model that can capture the richness of biological data, and an inference engine that reasons on the knowledge base to produce workflows. Currently, the knowledge base is populated with rules to analyze microarray and next generation sequencing data. We evaluated BETSY and found that it could generate workflows that reproduce and go beyond previously published bioinformatics results. Finally, a meta-investigation of the workflows generated from the knowledge base produced a quantitative measure of the technical burden imposed by each step of bioinformatics analyses, revealing the large number of steps devoted to the pre-processing of data. In sum, an expert system approach can facilitate exploratory bioinformatic analysis by automating the development of workflows, a task that requires significant domain expertise. https://github.com/jefftc/changlab. email@example.com. © The Author 2017. Published by Oxford University Press. All rights reserved. For Permissions, please e-mail: firstname.lastname@example.org
Chen, Xiaoling; Chang, Jeffrey T.
Abstract Motivation: Bioinformatic analyses are becoming formidably more complex due to the increasing number of steps required to process the data, as well as the proliferation of methods that can be used in each step. To alleviate this difficulty, pipelines are commonly employed. However, pipelines are typically implemented to automate a specific analysis, and thus are difficult to use for exploratory analyses requiring systematic changes to the software or parameters used. Results: To automate the development of pipelines, we have investigated expert systems. We created the Bioinformatics ExperT SYstem (BETSY) that includes a knowledge base where the capabilities of bioinformatics software is explicitly and formally encoded. BETSY is a backwards-chaining rule-based expert system comprised of a data model that can capture the richness of biological data, and an inference engine that reasons on the knowledge base to produce workflows. Currently, the knowledge base is populated with rules to analyze microarray and next generation sequencing data. We evaluated BETSY and found that it could generate workflows that reproduce and go beyond previously published bioinformatics results. Finally, a meta-investigation of the workflows generated from the knowledge base produced a quantitative measure of the technical burden imposed by each step of bioinformatics analyses, revealing the large number of steps devoted to the pre-processing of data. In sum, an expert system approach can facilitate exploratory bioinformatic analysis by automating the development of workflows, a task that requires significant domain expertise. Availability and Implementation: https://github.com/jefftc/changlab Contact: email@example.com PMID:28052928
Rodgers, R. P. Channing
Describes the National Library of Medicine's (NLM) experimental Sourcerer project which is developing software to accept a user query, automatically identifying appropriate information resources, and facilitating connection to those sources for information retrieval. Discusses the use of the World Wide Web and the Unified Medical Language System.…
Lesta, Stalo; Lazarus, Jeffrey V.; Essen, Birgitta
Introduction: In the absence of standardised sex education and because schools usually limit their teaching to the "health" aspects of sexuality, young people in Cyprus rely on their peers and the media for information on sexuality. This study examines the sources and adequacy of the information received by young people from various…
Miller, P L; Frawley, S J; Wright, L; Roderer, N K; Powsner, S M
OBJECTIVE: To explore the software design issues involved in implementing an operational information sources map (ISM) knowledge base (KB) and system of navigational tools that can help medical users access network-based information sources relevant to a biomedical question. DESIGN: A pilot biomedical ISM KB and associated client-server software (ISM/Explorer) have been developed to help students, clinicians, researchers, and staff access network-based information sources, as part of the National Library of Medicine's (NLM) multi-institutional Unified Medical Language System (UMLS) project. The system allows the user to specify and constrain a search for a biomedical question of interest. The system then returns a list of sources matching the search. At this point the user may request 1) further information about a source, 2) that the list of sources be regrouped by different criteria to allow the user to get a better overall appreciation of the set of retrieved sources as a whole, or 3) automatic connection to a source. RESULTS: The pilot system operates in client-server mode and currently contains coded information for 121 sources. It is in routine use from approximately 40 workstations at the Yale School of Medicine. The lessons that have been learned are that: 1) it is important to make access to different versions of a source as seamless as possible, 2) achieving seamless, cross-platform access to heterogeneous sources is difficult, 3) significant differences exist between coding the subject content of an electronic information resource versus that of an article or a book, 4) customizing the ISM to multiple institutions entails significant complexities, and 5) there are many design trade-offs between specifying searches and viewing sets of retrieved sources that must be taken into consideration. CONCLUSION: An ISM KB and navigational tools have been constructed. In the process, much has been learned about the complexities of development and evaluation in this
Britigan, Denise H; Murnan, Judy; Rojas-Guyler, Liliana
The purpose of this study was to determine the health information sources used by Latinos in southwest Ohio, identify individual Latino residents' functional health literacy levels, and identify any access barriers to those sources of health information. Results show almost two-thirds had low acculturation levels to US culture. Overall, the major source of health information is a medical setting, followed by media technology (which included the Internet). However, when it comes to being ill, the primary source becomes a media choice, then medical. The barriers to accessing health information included language and lack of confidence/knowledge. Participants reported moderate satisfaction with the sources of health information available, and had an 'adequate' health literacy level in Spanish. This study was important because it filled an existing information gap for the Latino community, a racial ethnic minority population in the southwest Ohio area. With the results of this study, health educators and other health care practitioners might be better able to understand the health care needs of the Latino community and could essentially create improved and culturally competent health communications.
Deng, J; Fu, M R; Armer, J M; Cormier, J N; Radina, E; Thiadens, S R J; Dietrich, M S; Weiss, J; Tuppo, C M; Ridner, S H
Currently, a limited number of studies have been conducted that examine sources of information and knowledge level in individuals with lymphedema. This study aimed (1) to examine self-reported information sources and perceived lymphedema knowledge among individuals with lymphedema; and (2) to examine differences in self-reported information sources and perceived lymphedema knowledge among individuals with primary or secondary lymphedema; and with upper or lower extremity lymphedema. The National Lymphedema Network (NLN) conducted a survey to collect self-report data from March 2006 to January 2010. Overall, participants preferred a variety of sources of information. Participants reported low levels of knowledge about the types of lymphedema, treatment approaches and methods, and self-administrated therapies. In comparison to participants with secondary or upper extremity lymphedema, participants with primary or lower extremity lymphedema reported lower knowledge level regarding causes of lymphedema, risks for and complications of lymphedema, treatment approaches and methods for lymphedema, and self-administered therapies. Opportunities exist to expand lymphedema information sources. Healthcare professionals should focus on delivering high quality information about treatment and self-care management to individuals with lymphedema.
Mueller, Kimberly A; Sanchez, Gabriela Jimenez Zeron; Sievert, Lynnette Leidy
The purpose of this study was to determine the sources of information and hormone replacement therapy (HRT) prescribing practices of gynecologists in the capital city of Puebla, Mexico. Practicing gynecologists (n=44) in 29 colonias (neighborhoods) in the city of Puebla completed a self-administered standardized questionnaire. Survey topics included primary sources of information about HRT, discussion of patient health practices, awareness of alternative medicines, and HRT prescribing practices. Medical journals, hospital presentations, and textbook manuals were rated as the primary sources of information about HRT by 69-73% of physicians. Patients were rated as a primary source of information by 25% of physicians, and pharmaceutical representatives by 16% of physicians. Almost all physicians reported a willingness to discuss diet, smoking habits and other health issues with their patients. Natural and herbal medications were recommended by 25% of physicians. Contrary to studies in the US, more male than female physicians reported recommending hormones to 90-100% of their menopausal patients (60 vs. 33%, n.s.). This study revealed that physicians utilize a wide range of information about HRT, including patients and pharmaceutical representatives. Physicians' willingness to list patients as a source of information about HRT indicates the degree to which patients are involved in the medicalization of menopause. Reasons given for prescribing HRT (e.g. prevention of osteoporosis) were similar to those identified in studies in the US and Canada. Some variation in physician attitudes and practices related to HRT was apparent within the city of Puebla, Mexico.
Ariffin, Izyana; Solemon, Badariah; Anwar, Rina Md; Din, Marina Md; Azmi, Nor Nashrah
The advancement of technologies nowadays enables participation by nonprofessionals, known as volunteers to participate in producing, sharing and consuming geographic information. Such information, termed as volunteered geographic Information (VGI) has created a new approach of gathering geographic information. This paper discusses the traditional way of acquiring geographic information and potentials of VGI as an information source in GIS applications. We also review four commonly cited applications which rely on volunteers for their geographic information based on five criteria; the geometry type available in the applications, availability of user profile, average number of attributes used in the applications, data type of the information (raster or vector) and the domain the application belongs to. This review serves as a preliminarv study in designing a GIS application used for asset management which aims at exploiting volunteers to produce geographic information related to assets
Befort, Christie A; Nazir, Niaman; Engelman, Kimberly; Choi, Won
Fatalistic beliefs about cancer prevention can be a significant deterrent to one's likelihood of engaging in cancer prevention behaviors. Lower education and less access to cancer information among rural residents may influence their level of cancer fatalism. The purpose of this study was to examine rural-urban differences in fatalistic beliefs about cancer prevention and cancer information sources using data from the 2007 Health Information National Trends Survey (n = 1,482 rural and 6,192 urban residents). Results showed that rural residents were more likely to endorse multiple fatalistic beliefs about cancer prevention than urban residents even after controlling for other significant demographic correlates. Urban residents were more likely to use the internet as their primary cancer information source, whereas rural residents were more likely to rely on print material and healthcare providers. Future educational work to communicate relevant and accurate cancer prevention information to rural residents should consider not only information access but also rural culture and fatalistic perspectives.
Mwangosi, Ibrahim E A T; Mwakatobe, Kisa M; Astrom, Anne N K
To determine the various major sources of Oral Health Education (OHE) for primary school teachers in Rungwe District, Mbeya Region, Tanzania. Cross-sectional study using a self-administered close-ended questionnaire. 232 rural and urban in-service primary school teachers and 195 final-year-teacher trainees at college. Socio-demographic factors, common teachers' OHE sources, common sources of OHE teaching aides, and teachers' previous OHE training opportunity. Textbooks and a dental clinic were found to be the most common sources of OHE for a large proportion of in-service and trainee teachers, while neighbours and a teachers' college were reported by a smaller proportion. The District Dental Officer was the only significant source of oral health education teaching materials in this study. While primary schoolteachers' sources for oral health education information was mainly textbooks and from a dental clinic, the source of teaching materials was largely a District Dental Officer. Details on the particular sources were not sought and further studies are therefore required. However, the findings highlight a need for standardised and equally distributed oral health material sources both for valid information and for teaching in schools.
Kim, H. T.; Park, S. S.; Park, W. S.; Choi, Y. M.
The open source information relevant to the nuclear control is regularly collected, analyzed, and published to the three web sites by the Technology Center for Nuclear Control (TCNC) of the Korea Atomic Energy Research Institute (KAERI). These web sites are world-wide, KAERI-wide, and TCNC-wide, respectively. We are to upgrade the KAERI-wide website to the access-controlled world-wide web site with some additional functionality. In this research, the current status of the three nuclear control related open source information websites managed by the TCNC was introduced and methods for upgrading the KAERI-wide open source information website and associated information security technology were reviewed
Brenkert-Smith, Hannah; Dickinson, Katherine L; Champ, Patricia A; Flores, Nicholas
Wildfire is a persistent and growing threat across much of the western United States. Understanding how people living in fire-prone areas perceive this threat is essential to the design of effective risk management policies. Drawing on the social amplification of risk framework, we develop a conceptual model of wildfire risk perceptions that incorporates the social processes that likely shape how individuals in fire-prone areas come to understand this risk, highlighting the role of information sources and social interactions. We classify information sources as expert or nonexpert, and group social interactions according to two dimensions: formal versus informal, and generic versus fire-specific. Using survey data from two Colorado counties, we empirically examine how information sources and social interactions relate to the perceived probability and perceived consequences of a wildfire. Our results suggest that social amplification processes play a role in shaping how individuals in this area perceive wildfire risk. A key finding is that both "vertical" (i.e., expert information sources and formal social interactions) and "horizontal" (i.e., nonexpert information and informal interactions) interactions are associated with perceived risk of experiencing a wildfire. We also find evidence of perceived "risk interdependency"--that is, homeowners' perceptions of risk are higher when vegetation on neighboring properties is perceived to be dense. Incorporating social amplification processes into community-based wildfire education programs and evaluating these programs' effectiveness constitutes an area for future inquiry. © 2012 Society for Risk Analysis.
Gould, D J; Drey, N S; Millar, M; Wilks, M; Chamney, M
Statutory bodies provide information about healthcare-associated infection (HCAI) in the UK. Information is also available on National Health Service trust websites. Opinion polls demonstrate that fear of developing HCAI, especially methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus, is the single greatest concern of people contemplating healthcare. We undertook a literature review to determine lay knowledge of HCAI, sources of information and perceptions of the risks. Twenty-two studies met the inclusion criteria. Of these, nine explored knowledge and perceptions as the primary research aim. The remainder consisted of a heterogeneous assortment of works comparing the knowledge and perceptions of different groups, their experiences of being infected or colonised and/or isolated. In all accounts, lay people expressed anxiety about the risks and consequences of HCAI. The most frequently reported source was the media, which has been blamed for sensationalist and inaccurate accounts. Lay people do not appear to access credible sources of information, or, if they do access them, are unable to understand their messages. Organisations that provide patient-focused information about HCAI are generic in scope, so that obtaining specific information may take time and effort to locate. Research is necessary to explore the acceptability, comprehensibility and accessibility of lay sources of information about HCAI and to find ways of readjusting risk perceptions to realistic levels in order to provide sensible levels of reassurance to those about to undergo healthcare.
Abbey M. Jones
Full Text Available In recent years, use of the Internet to obtain vaccine information has increased. Historical data are necessary to evaluate current vaccine information seeking trends in context. Between 2002 and 2003, surveys were mailed to 1,630 parents of fully vaccinated children and 815 parents of children with at least one vaccine exemption; 56.1% responded. Respondents were asked about their vaccine information sources, perceptions of these sources accuracy, and their beliefs about vaccination. Parents who did not view their child’s healthcare provider as a reliable vaccine information source were more likely to obtain vaccine information using the Internet. Parents who were younger, more highly educated, and opposed to school immunization requirements were more likely than their counterparts to use the Internet for vaccine information. Compared to parents who did not use the Internet for vaccine information, those who sought vaccine information on the Internet were more likely to have lower perceptions of vaccine safety (adjusted odds ratio (aOR, 1.66; 95% CI, 1.18–2.35, vaccine effectiveness (aOR, 1.83; 95% CI, 1.32–2.53, and disease susceptibility (aOR, 2.08; 95% CI, 1.49–2.90 and were more likely to have a child with a nonmedical exemption (aOR 3.53, 95% CI, 2.61–4.76. These findings provide context to interpret recent vaccine information seeking research.
Bode, Nikolai W F; Kemloh Wagoum, Armel U; Codling, Edward A
The evacuation of crowds from buildings or vehicles is one example that highlights the importance of understanding how individual-level interactions and decision-making combine and lead to the overall behaviour of crowds. In particular, to make evacuations safer, we need to understand how individuals make movement decisions in crowds. Here, we present an evacuation experiment with over 500 participants testing individual behaviour in an interactive virtual environment. Participants had to choose between different exit routes under the influence of three different types of directional information: static information (signs), dynamic information (movement of simulated crowd) and memorized information, as well as the combined effect of these different sources of directional information. In contrast to signs, crowd movement and memorized information did not have a significant effect on human exit route choice in isolation. However, when we combined the latter two treatments with additional directly conflicting sources of directional information, for example signs, they showed a clear effect by reducing the number of participants that followed the opposing directional information. This suggests that the signals participants observe more closely in isolation do not simply overrule alternative sources of directional information. Age and gender did not consistently explain differences in behaviour in our experiments.
Taylor, Ronald C.
Bioinformatics researchers are increasingly confronted with analysis of ultra large-scale data sets, a problem that will only increase at an alarming rate in coming years. Recent developments in open source software, that is, the Hadoop project and associated software, provide a foundation for scaling to petabyte scale data warehouses on Linux clusters, providing fault-tolerant parallelized analysis on such data using a programming style named MapReduce. An overview is given of the current usage within the bioinformatics community of Hadoop, a top-level Apache Software Foundation project, and of associated open source software projects. The concepts behind Hadoop and the associated HBase project are defined, and current bioinformatics software that employ Hadoop is described. The focus is on next-generation sequencing, as the leading application area to date.
Goto Masataka; Itoyama Katsutoshi; Komatani Kazunori; Ogata Tetsuya; Okuno HiroshiG
We describe a novel query-by-example (QBE) approach in music information retrieval that allows a user to customize query examples by directly modifying the volume of different instrument parts. The underlying hypothesis of this approach is that the musical mood of retrieved results changes in relation to the volume balance of different instruments. On the basis of this hypothesis, we aim to clarify the relationship between the change in the volume balance of a query and the genre of the retr...
Information services provided by the Nuclear Information Centre (NIC) as the sector information centre for the Czechoslovak nuclear programme proceed primarily from its membership of INIS. From INIS Atomindex tapes are computer-processed SDI searches, their price for one query is 3,948 Czechoslovak crowns per year. The user can at any time put forward a request for tuning or for a change of the initially requested query formulation. A copy of SDI searches is provided for 1,200 Czechoslovak crowns per annum to other interested persons or institutions who cannot, however, influence the query formulation. Since 1979, the NIC has been processing retrospective searches by direct online access to the INIS data base. The price of these searches ranges between 1,000 and 1,500 Czechoslovak crowns. Under the same conditions the NIC also provides retrospective searches from AGRIS. Since 1986, the NIC has extended its services by providing data from the UVTEI-UTZ data base centre in Prague. Retrospective searches can since 1985 be processed directly at the workplace of those interested, this through mobile terminals. All said services are followed up by services provided by the NIC library which contains more than 215,000 microfiches with full texts of nonconventional documents incorporated in INIS. (Z.M.)
Schnall, Rebecca; Liu, Jianfang; Iribarren, Sarah
A number of studies have been conducted to identify the self-care strategies that are used by persons living with chronic illnesses to manage their symptoms, but little work has been done to identify the primary information source for these self-care strategies. We conducted an anonymous online survey with 1373 persons living with HIV to identify the self-care strategies they use to manage 28 commonly experienced symptoms. Following their report of their symptoms and self-care strategies, we asked an open-ended question to identify where the participant obtained the information. We applied iterative content analysis of the narrative data and multi-nominal regression to identify which demographic factors were significantly related to each information source category. Respondents reported a total of 8539 information sources for their self-care strategies categorized as follows: Common sense/Self-experience, Healthcare professional, Internet, Literature, Multiple Sources, Social Support, and TV ads. We found that respondents with no college education were significantly more likely to report the use of the Internet as the information source for their self-care strategies. On the other hand, males as compared to females were significantly less likely to use the Internet and significantly more likely to use TV ads. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.
Boughtwood, Desiree; Shanley, Christopher; Adams, Jon; Santalucia, Yvonne; Kyriazopoulos, Helena; Pond, Dimity; Rowland, Jeffrey
Providing information about dementia has been shown to produce immense benefits for people living with dementia and their carers. The dementia information needs of culturally and linguistically diverse (CALD) families have not been comprehensively investigated. Addressing this research gap, the current study examines the perspectives of a range of stakeholders - CALD family caregivers (Arabic, Chinese, Italian and Spanish speaking), bilingual and bicultural workers, bilingual general practitioners and geriatricians - about dementia-related information. The study focussed on sources of information, issues of access and considerations for improving information provision. The main findings that are relevant for improving policy and practice are: the need for a more strategic and coordinated approach to dissemination structures and processes, a greater emphasis on supporting and enhancing the interpersonal aspects of information provision, the need for a greater range of information for CALD communities and the need to ensure information resources and processes reflect the circumstances and needs of these communities.
Information requirements for plant-aging and life-extension research are discussed. Various information sources that have been used in plant-aging studies and reliability assessments are described. Data-base searches and analyses were performed for a specific system using several data bases and plant sources. Comments are provided on the results using the various information sources
Cojazzi, Giacomo G.M.; Van Der Goot, Erik; Verile, Marco; Wolfart, Erik; Rutan Fowler, Marcy; Feldman, Yana; Hammond, William; Schweighardt, John; Ferguson, Mattew
Acquisition and analysis of open source information plays an increasingly important role in the IAEA’s move towards safeguards implementation based on all safeguards relevant information known about a State. The growing volume of open source information requires the development of technology and tools capable of effectively collecting relevant information, filtering out “noise”, organizing valuable information in a clear and accessible manner, and assessing its relevance. In this context, the IAEA’s Division of Information Management (SGIM) and the EC’s Joint Research Centre (JRC) are currently implementing a joint project to advance the effectiveness and efficiency of the IAEA’s workflow for open source information collection and analysis. The objective is to provide tools to support SGIM in the production of the SGIM Open Source Highlights, which is a daily news brief consisting of the most pertinent news stories relevant to safeguards and non-proliferation. The process involves the review and selection of hundreds of articles from a wide array of specifically selected sources. The joint activity exploits the JRC’s Europe Media Monitor (EMM) and NewsDesk applications: EMM automatically collects and analyses news articles from a pre-defined list of web sites, and NewsDesk allows an analyst to manually select the most relevant articles from the EMM stream for further processing. The paper discusses the IAEA’s workflow for the production of SGIM Open Source Highlights and describes the capabilities of EMM and NewsDesk. It then provides an overview of the joint activities since the project started in 2011, which were focused i) on setting up a separate EMM installation dedicated to the nuclear safeguards and security domain (Nuclear Security Media Monitor, NSMM) and ii) on evaluating the NSMM/NewsDesk for meeting the IAEA’s needs. Finally, it presents the current use NSMM/NewsDesk at the IAEA and proposes options for further integration with the
The thesis focuses on two bioinformatics research topics: the development of tools for an efficient and reliable identification of single nucleotides polymorphisms (SNPs) and polymorphic simple sequence repeats (SSRs) from expressed sequence tags (ESTs) (Chapter 2, 3 and 4), and the subsequent
An integrative bioinformatics pipeline for the genomewide identification of novel porcine microRNA genes. Wei Fang, Na Zhou, Dengyun Li, Zhigang Chen, Pengfei Jiang and Deli Zhang. J. Genet. 92,587 593. Figure 1. Primary sequence of the predicted SSc-mir-2053 precursor and locations of some terms in the secondary ...
Lelieveld, S.H.; Veltman, J.A.; Gilissen, C.F.
With the widespread adoption of next generation sequencing technologies by the genetics community and the rapid decrease in costs per base, exome sequencing has become a standard within the repertoire of genetic experiments for both research and diagnostics. Although bioinformatics now offers
Dec 6, 2013 ... The majority of miRNAs in pig (Sus scrofa), an impor- tant domestic animal, remain unknown. From this perspec- tive, we attempted the genomewide identification of novel porcine miRNAs. Here, we propose a novel integrative bioinformatics pipeline to identify conservative and non- conservative novel ...
Thus, there is the need for appropriate strategies of introducing the basic components of this emerging scientific field to part of the African populace through the development of an online distance education learning tool. This study involved the design of a bioinformatics online distance educative tool an implementation of ...
reaction (PCR), oligo hybridization and DNA sequencing. Proper primer design is actually one of the most important factors/steps in successful DNA sequencing. Various bioinformatics programs are available for selection of primer pairs from a template sequence. The plethora programs for PCR primer design reflects the.
Kelley, Scott; Alger, Christianna; Deutschman, Douglas
The importance of Bioinformatics tools and methodology in modern biological research underscores the need for robust and effective courses at the college level. This paper describes such a course designed on the principles of cooperative learning based on a computer software industry production model called "Extreme Programming" (EP).…
Nielsen, Henrik; Sperotto, Maria Maddalena
)-based bioinformatics approach. The ANN was trained to recognize feature-based patterns in proteins that are considered to be associated with lipid rafts. The trained ANN was then used to predict protein raftophilicity. We found that, in the case of α-helical membrane proteins, their hydrophobic length does not affect...
Ondrej, Vladan; Dvorak, Petr
Bioinformatics, biological databases, and the worldwide use of computers have accelerated biological research in many fields, such as evolutionary biology. Here, we describe a primer of nucleotide sequence management and the construction of a phylogenetic tree with two examples; the two selected are from completely different groups of organisms:…
In recent years, new bioinformatics technologies, such as gene expression microarray, genome-wide association study, proteomics, and metabolomics, have been widely used to simultaneously identify a huge number of human genomic/genetic biomarkers, generate a tremendously large amount of data, and dramatically increase the knowledge on human…
In this thesis, I detail my 4-year efforts in developing bioinformatics tools and algorithms to address the growing demands of current proteomics endeavors, covering a range of facets such as large-scale protein expression profiling, charting post-translation modifications as well as
Wiwanitkit, Somsri; Wiwanitkit, Viroj
The role of microRNA in the pathogenesis of pulmonary tuberculosis is the interesting topic in chest medicine at present. Recently, it was proposed that the microRNA can be a useful biomarker for monitoring of pulmonary tuberculosis and might be the important part in pathogenesis of disease. Here, the authors perform a bioinformatics study to assess the microRNA within known tuberculosis RNA. The microRNA part can be detected and this can be important key information in further study of the p...
Aas, I. H. Monrad
Introduction: Global Assessment of Functioning (GAF) is an assessment instrument that is known worldwide. It is widely used for rating the severity of illness. Results from evaluations in psychiatry should characterize the patients. Rating of GAF is based on collected information. The aim of the study is to identify the factors involved in collecting information that is relevant for rating GAF, and gaps in knowledge where it is likely that further development would play a role for improved sc...
Savoia, Elena; Lin, Leesa; Viswanath, Kasisomayajula
On January 9, 2014, a faulty storage tank leaked 10,000 gallons of an industrial coal-processing liquid into the Elk River in West Virginia, contaminating the drinking water of 9 counties collectively known as the Kanawha Valley. In the context of this event, we explored the relationship between social determinants and (1) the timeliness with which residents learned about the crisis, (2) the source of information, (3) opinions on the source of information, (4) information-seeking behaviors, and (5) knowledge acquired. Between February 7 and 26, 2014, we conducted a survey of 690 adult residents of West Virginia. Descriptive statistics and multivariable statistical models were performed. Information about water contamination spread quickly, with 88% of respondents from the affected counties hearing about the incident on the same day it occurred. Most people received the information from local television news (73%); social media users had 120% increased odds of knowing about the recommended behaviors. People who had a favorable opinion of the source of information demonstrated better knowledge of recommended behaviors. The use of local television news during a crisis is important for timely dissemination of information. Information exposure across segments of the population differed on the basis of the population's background characteristics. (Disaster Med Public Health Preparedness. 2017;11:196-206).
Douzery Emmanuel JP
Full Text Available Abstract Background Supertree methods combine phylogenies with overlapping sets of taxa into a larger one. Topological conflicts frequently arise among source trees for methodological or biological reasons, such as long branch attraction, lateral gene transfers, gene duplication/loss or deep gene coalescence. When topological conflicts occur among source trees, liberal methods infer supertrees containing the most frequent alternative, while veto methods infer supertrees not contradicting any source tree, i.e. discard all conflicting resolutions. When the source trees host a significant number of topological conflicts or have a small taxon overlap, supertree methods of both kinds can propose poorly resolved, hence uninformative, supertrees. Results To overcome this problem, we propose to infer non-plenary supertrees, i.e. supertrees that do not necessarily contain all the taxa present in the source trees, discarding those whose position greatly differs among source trees or for which insufficient information is provided. We detail a variant of the PhySIC veto method called PhySIC_IST that can infer non-plenary supertrees. PhySIC_IST aims at inferring supertrees that satisfy the same appealing theoretical properties as with PhySIC, while being as informative as possible under this constraint. The informativeness of a supertree is estimated using a variation of the CIC (Cladistic Information Content criterion, that takes into account both the presence of multifurcations and the absence of some taxa. Additionally, we propose a statistical preprocessing step called STC (Source Trees Correction to correct the source trees prior to the supertree inference. STC is a liberal step that removes the parts of each source tree that significantly conflict with other source trees. Combining STC with a veto method allows an explicit trade-off between veto and liberal approaches, tuned by a single parameter. Performing large-scale simulations, we observe that STC
Scornavacca, Celine; Berry, Vincent; Lefort, Vincent; Douzery, Emmanuel J P; Ranwez, Vincent
Supertree methods combine phylogenies with overlapping sets of taxa into a larger one. Topological conflicts frequently arise among source trees for methodological or biological reasons, such as long branch attraction, lateral gene transfers, gene duplication/loss or deep gene coalescence. When topological conflicts occur among source trees, liberal methods infer supertrees containing the most frequent alternative, while veto methods infer supertrees not contradicting any source tree, i.e. discard all conflicting resolutions. When the source trees host a significant number of topological conflicts or have a small taxon overlap, supertree methods of both kinds can propose poorly resolved, hence uninformative, supertrees. To overcome this problem, we propose to infer non-plenary supertrees, i.e. supertrees that do not necessarily contain all the taxa present in the source trees, discarding those whose position greatly differs among source trees or for which insufficient information is provided. We detail a variant of the PhySIC veto method called PhySIC_IST that can infer non-plenary supertrees. PhySIC_IST aims at inferring supertrees that satisfy the same appealing theoretical properties as with PhySIC, while being as informative as possible under this constraint. The informativeness of a supertree is estimated using a variation of the CIC (Cladistic Information Content) criterion, that takes into account both the presence of multifurcations and the absence of some taxa. Additionally, we propose a statistical preprocessing step called STC (Source Trees Correction) to correct the source trees prior to the supertree inference. STC is a liberal step that removes the parts of each source tree that significantly conflict with other source trees. Combining STC with a veto method allows an explicit trade-off between veto and liberal approaches, tuned by a single parameter.Performing large-scale simulations, we observe that STC+PhySIC_IST infers much more informative
Glaenzel, W.; Chi, P.S.; Gumpenberger, C.; Gorraiz, J.
Journal citation measures, if properly used, provide important information on the author’s publication strategy. In this explorative study, which is part of a larger project, we attempt to shed light on to what extent publication strategies are adequately reflected by the impact generated in the respective scientific community in the context of academic research assessment at micro level.In this paper we present three cases based on the research output of researchers active in three different fields: chemistry, medicine and economics. In each individual case, the lists of journals, in which the author in question has published along with the journals in the reference lists and those where the citing papers have been published, are analysed according to two aspects, the congruence of the three resulting lists and the overlap by journal quartiles based on field-normalised impact. Similarity measures are then introduced at both levels.The results reveal important aspects of the authors’ publication strategy and their position in the information flow enabling the identification of different scenarios, which are discussed in detail in order to be correctly applied for bibliometric individual assessment. (Author)
Full Text Available Abstract Background SeqHound has been developed as an integrated biological sequence, taxonomy, annotation and 3-D structure database system. It provides a high-performance server platform for bioinformatics research in a locally-hosted environment. Results SeqHound is based on the National Center for Biotechnology Information data model and programming tools. It offers daily updated contents of all Entrez sequence databases in addition to 3-D structural data and information about sequence redundancies, sequence neighbours, taxonomy, complete genomes, functional annotation including Gene Ontology terms and literature links to PubMed. SeqHound is accessible via a web server through a Perl, C or C++ remote API or an optimized local API. It provides functionality necessary to retrieve specialized subsets of sequences, structures and structural domains. Sequences may be retrieved in FASTA, GenBank, ASN.1 and XML formats. Structures are available in ASN.1, XML and PDB formats. Emphasis has been placed on complete genomes, taxonomy, domain and functional annotation as well as 3-D structural functionality in the API, while fielded text indexing functionality remains under development. SeqHound also offers a streamlined WWW interface for simple web-user queries. Conclusions The system has proven useful in several published bioinformatics projects such as the BIND database and offers a cost-effective infrastructure for research. SeqHound will continue to develop and be provided as a service of the Blueprint Initiative at the Samuel Lunenfeld Research Institute. The source code and examples are available under the terms of the GNU public license at the Sourceforge site http://sourceforge.net/projects/slritools/ in the SLRI Toolkit.
Mishima, Hiroyuki; Sasaki, Kensaku; Tanaka, Masahiro; Tatebe, Osamu; Yoshiura, Koh-Ichiro
In bioinformatics projects, scientific workflow systems are widely used to manage computational procedures. Full-featured workflow systems have been proposed to fulfil the demand for workflow management. However, such systems tend to be over-weighted for actual bioinformatics practices. We realize that quick deployment of cutting-edge software implementing advanced algorithms and data formats, and continuous adaptation to changes in computational resources and the environment are often prioritized in scientific workflow management. These features have a greater affinity with the agile software development method through iterative development phases after trial and error.Here, we show the application of a scientific workflow system Pwrake to bioinformatics workflows. Pwrake is a parallel workflow extension of Ruby's standard build tool Rake, the flexibility of which has been demonstrated in the astronomy domain. Therefore, we hypothesize that Pwrake also has advantages in actual bioinformatics workflows. We implemented the Pwrake workflows to process next generation sequencing data using the Genomic Analysis Toolkit (GATK) and Dindel. GATK and Dindel workflows are typical examples of sequential and parallel workflows, respectively. We found that in practice, actual scientific workflow development iterates over two phases, the workflow definition phase and the parameter adjustment phase. We introduced separate workflow definitions to help focus on each of the two developmental phases, as well as helper methods to simplify the descriptions. This approach increased iterative development efficiency. Moreover, we implemented combined workflows to demonstrate modularity of the GATK and Dindel workflows. Pwrake enables agile management of scientific workflows in the bioinformatics domain. The internal domain specific language design built on Ruby gives the flexibility of rakefiles for writing scientific workflows. Furthermore, readability and maintainability of rakefiles
Background In bioinformatics projects, scientific workflow systems are widely used to manage computational procedures. Full-featured workflow systems have been proposed to fulfil the demand for workflow management. However, such systems tend to be over-weighted for actual bioinformatics practices. We realize that quick deployment of cutting-edge software implementing advanced algorithms and data formats, and continuous adaptation to changes in computational resources and the environment are often prioritized in scientific workflow management. These features have a greater affinity with the agile software development method through iterative development phases after trial and error. Here, we show the application of a scientific workflow system Pwrake to bioinformatics workflows. Pwrake is a parallel workflow extension of Ruby's standard build tool Rake, the flexibility of which has been demonstrated in the astronomy domain. Therefore, we hypothesize that Pwrake also has advantages in actual bioinformatics workflows. Findings We implemented the Pwrake workflows to process next generation sequencing data using the Genomic Analysis Toolkit (GATK) and Dindel. GATK and Dindel workflows are typical examples of sequential and parallel workflows, respectively. We found that in practice, actual scientific workflow development iterates over two phases, the workflow definition phase and the parameter adjustment phase. We introduced separate workflow definitions to help focus on each of the two developmental phases, as well as helper methods to simplify the descriptions. This approach increased iterative development efficiency. Moreover, we implemented combined workflows to demonstrate modularity of the GATK and Dindel workflows. Conclusions Pwrake enables agile management of scientific workflows in the bioinformatics domain. The internal domain specific language design built on Ruby gives the flexibility of rakefiles for writing scientific workflows. Furthermore, readability
Full Text Available Abstract This paper presents the design and development of an open source web-based Geographical Information System allowing users to visualise, customise and interact with spatial data within their web browser. The developed application shows that by using solely Open Source software it was possible to develop a customisable web based GIS application that provides functions necessary to convey health and environmental data to experts and non-experts alike without the requirement of proprietary software.
Evans, Barry; Sabel, Clive E
This paper presents the design and development of an open source web-based Geographical Information System allowing users to visualise, customise and interact with spatial data within their web browser. The developed application shows that by using solely Open Source software it was possible...... to develop a customisable web based GIS application that provides functions necessary to convey health and environmental data to experts and non-experts alike without the requirement of proprietary software....
Almeida-Santos, Teresa; Melo, Cláudia; Macedo, Ana; Moura-Ramos, Mariana
The postponement of parenthood may increase the number of couples experiencing infertility and prolonged time to pregnancy. Previous research has revealed that childless people are not well informed regarding fertility, which may threat their childbearing intentions. This study aimed to examine fertility knowledge and childbearing intentions held by Portuguese people and their use and perceived usefulness of information sources on fertility. Participants were recruited using a random-route domiciliary approach. A total of 2404 individuals aged 18-45 were asked to complete a structured questionnaire evaluating socio-demographic characteristics, childbearing intentions, fertility knowledge and information-gathering sources regarding fertility. In total, 95.5% of the participants indicated the desire to have children in the future, and 61.7% reported that having children would contribute to life satisfaction. Most of the participants expressed the desire to have two children in the future. The discrepancy between the numbers of planned and desired children was higher in men, in participants with lower education levels, in professionally active participants and in the unemployed participants. Relationship stability seemed to be more important in influencing childbearing decisions than financial stability or family support. Participants' knowledge regarding fertility was poor. Women, the participants who were older than 25, the participants with longer education and the participants with higher income exhibited the greatest levels of knowledge of fertility, although this knowledge was only slightly enhanced in these subgroups. Also, the participants overestimated both the chances of spontaneous pregnancy and the success rates of assisted reproduction techniques. Finally, the results revealed that websites were the main information sources used by the participants and only 18.0% of the participants had previously discussed fertility issues with their doctors. Although
Grisham, William; Schottler, Natalie A; Valli-Marill, Joanne; Beck, Lisa; Beatty, Jackson
This completely computer-based module's purpose is to introduce students to bioinformatics resources. We present an easy-to-adopt module that weaves together several important bioinformatic tools so students can grasp how these tools are used in answering research questions. Students integrate information gathered from websites dealing with anatomy (Mouse Brain Library), quantitative trait locus analysis (WebQTL from GeneNetwork), bioinformatics and gene expression analyses (University of California, Santa Cruz Genome Browser, National Center for Biotechnology Information's Entrez Gene, and the Allen Brain Atlas), and information resources (PubMed). Instructors can use these various websites in concert to teach genetics from the phenotypic level to the molecular level, aspects of neuroanatomy and histology, statistics, quantitative trait locus analysis, and molecular biology (including in situ hybridization and microarray analysis), and to introduce bioinformatic resources. Students use these resources to discover 1) the region(s) of chromosome(s) influencing the phenotypic trait, 2) a list of candidate genes-narrowed by expression data, 3) the in situ pattern of a given gene in the region of interest, 4) the nucleotide sequence of the candidate gene, and 5) articles describing the gene. Teaching materials such as a detailed student/instructor's manual, PowerPoints, sample exams, and links to free Web resources can be found at http://mdcune.psych.ucla.edu/modules/bioinformatics.
Gray, Nicola J; Boardman, Helen F; Symonds, B Sue
Parents are exposed to many different information sources about children's medicines, including recommendations from other people, the media, and their own previous experience. The aim of this paper is to explore the influence of different information sources upon their non-prescription medicine purchases for children aged 0-4 years. The setting was thirty-nine community pharmacies across four Primary Care Trusts in England. We explored the type and range of information sources used by parents in purchasing non-prescription medicines. Methods A self-completion survey and a subset of semi-structured telephone interviews were undertaken with parents/carers buying oral medicines for children aged 0-4 years. One hundred and thirty-four surveys and thirty-eight interviews were completed: most participants were 25-44 year-old women. Recommendations from other people, both from health professionals and family members, were most often cited as influencing parents' and carers' choice of medicine. Advertising, and well-known brands of children's medicines, were also influential. The Internet and other media were less often cited as sources. Medicines leaflets and packaging were found to be useful: a significant minority admitted difficulty in understanding all the information therein. This study explored the information sources reported at the point of a specific medicine purchase, thus reflecting actual behaviour rather than general perceptions of useful sources. Parents and carers of pre-school children reported a number of professional and lay influences on their medicine purchase choices. Pharmacists and staff should consider these influences when advising children's medicine purchasers. A combination of spoken advice and written reminder information would meet the preferences of most purchasers.
Warren-Findlow, Jan; Price, Anna E; Hochhalter, Angela K; Laditka, James N
In most countries, physicians and other health-care providers play key roles in promoting health. Accumulating scientific evidence suggests that providers may soon want to include cognitive health among the areas they promote. Cognitive health is the maintenance of cognitive abilities that enable social connectedness, foster a sense of purpose, promote independent living, allow recovery from illness or injury and promote effective coping with functional deficits. The US Centers for Disease Control and Prevention has established health promotion about cognitive health as a policy priority, with health providers included as one key group to participate in this effort. This study presents results from focus groups and interviews with primary care physicians (n = 28) and midlevel health-care providers (physician assistants and nurse practitioners, n = 21) in three states of the US. Providers were asked about their sources of information on cognitive health and for their ideas on how best to communicate with primary care providers about research on cognitive health. In results, providers cited online sources, popular media and continuing medical education as their most common sources of information about cognitive health. Popular media sources were used both proactively and reactively to respond to patient inquiries. Differences in sources of information were noted for physicians as compared with midlevel providers, and for rural and urban providers. Several potential ways to disseminate information about cognitive health were identified. Effective messaging is likely to require multiple strategies to reach diverse groups of primary care providers, and to include continuing medical education.
Bicalho, Millena Drumond; Soares, Danielly Botelho; Botoni, Fernando Antonio; Reis, Adriano Max Moreira; Martins, Maria Auxiliadora Parreiras
Hospitalized patients require the use of a variety of drugs, many of which individually or in combination have the potential to cause kidney damage. The use of potentially nephrotoxic drugs is often unavoidable, and the need for dose adjustment should be evaluated. This study is aimed at assessing concordance in information on drug-induced nephrotoxicity and dose adjustment recommendations by comparing four drug information sources (DRUGDEX®, UpToDate®, Medscape® and the Brazilian Therapeutic Formulary) using the formulary of a Brazilian public hospital. A total of 218 drugs were investigated. The global Fleiss’ kappa coefficient was 0.265 for nephrotoxicity (p < 0.001; CI 95%, 0.211–0.319) and 0.346 for recommendations (p < 0.001; CI 95%, 0.292–0.401), indicating fair concordance among the sources. Anti-infectives and anti-hypertensives were the main drugs cited as nephrotoxic by the different sources. There were no clear definitions for qualitative data or quantitative values for dose adjustments among the four information sources. There was no advice for dosing for a large number of the drugs in the international databases. The National Therapeutic Formulary offered imprecise dose adjustment recommendations for many nephrotoxic drugs. Discrepancies among information sources may have a clinical impact on patient care and contribute to drug-related morbidity and mortality. PMID:26371029
Sinky, Tassnym H; Faith, Jennifer; Lindly, Olivia; Thorburn, Sheryl
Cancer fatalism is associated with lower participation in cancer screening, nonadherence to cancer screening guidelines, and avoidance of medical care. Few studies, however, have examined the relationship between cancer fatalism and health information seeking. The purpose of this study was to examine the relationship between endorsement of fatalistic beliefs regarding cancer and preferred sources of cancer information. We analyzed data from the Health Information National Trends Survey 4 Cycle 2, which were collected in late 2012 and early 2013 (N = 3630). When weighted, the data are representative of the non-institutionalized US population aged 18 or older. In bivariate and multivariate analyses, we assessed three cancer fatalism beliefs as predictors of preferred use of healthcare provider versus preferred use of the Internet for cancer information. Results indicate the majority of US adults endorse one or more fatalistic beliefs about cancer. Unadjusted results indicate endorsing the fatalistic belief that "there's not much you can do to lower your chances of getting cancer" was significantly associated with lower odds of preferring the Internet (versus healthcare providers) as the source of cancer information (OR: 0.70; CI: 0.50, 0.98). In the adjusted model, however, none of the three cancer fatalism measures were significantly associated with preferred source of cancer information. In conclusion, fatalistic beliefs about cancer are common, and further research is warranted to understand cancer fatalism and whether and how it may impact health information-seeking behaviors.
Brazas, Michelle D; Ouellette, B F Francis
With the advent of YouTube channels in bioinformatics, open platforms for problem solving in bioinformatics, active web forums in computing analyses and online resources for learning to code or use a bioinformatics tool, the more traditional continuing education bioinformatics training programs have had to adapt. Bioinformatics training programs that solely rely on traditional didactic methods are being superseded by these newer resources. Yet such face-to-face instruction is still invaluable in the learning continuum. Bioinformatics.ca, which hosts the Canadian Bioinformatics Workshops, has blended more traditional learning styles with current online and social learning styles. Here we share our growing experiences over the past 12 years and look toward what the future holds for bioinformatics training programs.
Garrett, Kyla P; Widman, Laura; Francis, Diane B; Noar, Seth M
Emergency contraception (EC) can prevent pregnancy for up to 5 days after unprotected sex. Although EC has become increasingly available, little is known about perceptions of young adults regarding access to EC or whether information sources about EC relate to perceived access among young adults. Over a 1-week period in November 2013, a self-report survey was administered to 352 college students (67% women) at the student union of a large, public university in the southeastern United States. The survey assessed three aspects of EC: perceived access, information sources, and prior use. Twenty-one percent of participants had used EC. Participants reported relatively high perceptions of access to EC, with females reporting higher perceptions of access than males. Prior to the study, 7.4% of students had never heard of EC; the remaining students had heard of EC from an average of four sources. Among women, hearing of EC from media, interpersonal, or health education sources was significantly associated with greater perceived access (ps sources were associated with perceived access (ps > .10). Future EC awareness efforts for women should leverage all three of these sources, while future research should examine specific sources to focus on the content, quality, and frequency of messages.
Pommer, Bernhard; Zechner, Werner; Watzak, Georg; Ulm, Christian; Watzek, Georg; Tepper, Gabor
Little is known about the level of information on implant dentistry in the public. A representative opinion poll on dental implants in the Austrian population was published in 2003 (Clinical Oral Implants Research 14:621-642). Seven years later, the poll was rerun to assess the up-to-date information level and evaluate recent progress and trends in patients' mindset on dental implants. One thousand adults--representative for the Austrian population--were presented with a total of 19 questionnaire items regarding the level and the sources of information about dental implants as well as the subjective and objective need for patient information. Compared with the survey of 2003, the subjective level of patient information about implant dentistry has significantly increased in the Austrian population. The patients' implant awareness rate was 79%. The objective level of general knowledge about dental implants was still all but satisfactory revealing unrealistic patient expectations. Three-quarters trusted their dentists for information about dental implants, while one-quarter turned to the media. The patients' wish for high-quality implant restorations was significantly higher than in 2003, yet the majority felt that only specialists should perform implant dentistry. This representative survey reveals that dentists are still the main source of patient information, but throws doubt on the quality of their public relations work. Dentists must improve communication strategies to provide their patients with comprehensible, legally tenable information on dental implants and bridge information gaps in the future. © 2010 John Wiley & Sons A/S.
Full Text Available We describe a novel query-by-example (QBE approach in music information retrieval that allows a user to customize query examples by directly modifying the volume of different instrument parts. The underlying hypothesis of this approach is that the musical mood of retrieved results changes in relation to the volume balance of different instruments. On the basis of this hypothesis, we aim to clarify the relationship between the change in the volume balance of a query and the genre of the retrieved pieces, called genre classification shift. Such an understanding would allow us to instruct users in how to generate alternative queries without finding other appropriate pieces. Our QBE system first separates all instrument parts from the audio signal of a piece with the help of its musical score, and then it allows users remix these parts to change the acoustic features that represent the musical mood of the piece. Experimental results showed that the genre classification shift was actually caused by the volume change in the vocal, guitar, and drum parts.
Hiew, Hong Liang; Bellgard, Matthew
Life Science research faces the constant challenge of how to effectively handle an ever-growing body of bioinformatics software and online resources. The users and developers of bioinformatics resources have a diverse set of competing demands on how these resources need to be developed and organised. Unfortunately, there does not exist an adequate community-wide framework to integrate such competing demands. The problems that arise from this include unstructured standards development, the emergence of tools that do not meet specific needs of researchers, and often times a communications gap between those who use the tools and those who supply them. This paper presents an overview of the different functions and needs of bioinformatics stakeholders to determine what may be required in a community-wide framework. A Bioinformatics Reference Model is proposed as a basis for such a framework. The reference model outlines the functional relationship between research usage and technical aspects of bioinformatics resources. It separates important functions into multiple structured layers, clarifies how they relate to each other, and highlights the gaps that need to be addressed for progress towards a diverse, manageable, and sustainable body of resources. The relevance of this reference model to the bioscience research community, and its implications in progress for organising our bioinformatics resources, are discussed.
Quality situation assessment and decision making require access to multiple sources of data and information. Insufficient accessibility to data exists for many large corporations and Government agencies. By utilizing current advances in computer technology, today's situation analyst's have a wealth of information at their disposal. There are many potential solutions to the information accessibility problem using today's technology. The United States Department of Energy (US-DOE) faced this problem when dealing with one class of problem in the US. The result of their efforts has been the creation of the Tank Waste Information Network System -- TWINS. The TWINS solution combines many technologies to address problems in several areas such as User Interfaces, Transparent Access to Multiple Data Sources, and Integrated Data Access. Data related to the complex is currently distributed throughout several US-DOE installations. Over time, each installation has adopted their own set of standards as related to information management. Heterogeneous hardware and software platforms exist both across the complex and within a single installation. Standards for information management vary between US-DOE mission areas within installations. These factors contribute to the complexity of accessing information in a manner that enhances the performance and decision making process of the analysts. This paper presents one approach taken by the DOE to resolve the problem of distributed, heterogeneous, multi-media information management for the HLW Tank complex. The information system architecture developed for the DOE by the TWINS effort is one that is adaptable to other problem domains and uses
... Competency, reviewing subcontracting plans, or awarding contracts under the 8(a) program; (10) Personnel in..., and marking of contractor bid or proposal information and source selection information. 1403.104-4... marking of contractor bid or proposal information and source selection information. (a) The following...
Full Text Available We present information theoretic search strategies for single and multi-robot teams to localize the source of biochemical contaminants in turbulent flows. The robots synthesize the information provided by sporadic and intermittent sensor readings to optimize their exploration strategy. By leveraging the spatio-temporal sensing capabilities of a mobile sensing network, our strategies result in control actions that maximize the information gained by the team while minimizing the time spent localizing the biochemical source. By leveraging the team’s ability to obtain simultaneous measurements at different locations, we show how a multi-robot team is able to speed up the search process resulting in a collaborative information theoretic search strategy. We validate our proposed strategies in both simulations and experiments.
Pollard, Christina Mary; Pulker, Claire Elizabeth; Meng, Xingqiong; Kerr, Deborah Anne; Scott, Jane Anne
The Internet contains a plethora of nutrition information. Health organizations are increasingly using the Internet to deliver population-wide health information and interventions. Effective interventions identify their target population and their needs; however, little is known about use of the Internet as a source of nutrition information. The aim was to assess the change in prevalence and demographic characteristics of Western Australian adults accessing the Internet as a source of nutrition information and identify specific information needs. Data were pooled from the Western Australian Department of Health's 3-yearly Nutrition Monitoring Survey Series telephone survey between 1995 and 2012 of 7044 participants aged 18 to 64 years. Outcome variables were the main sources of nutrition information used in the last year and yes/no responses to 4 suggestions to what would make it easier to eat a healthy diet. Sociodemographic variables were collected. The proportion of respondents using the Internet for nutrition information increased from Internet for this information increased significantly in 2009 (OR 2.84, 95% CI 2.07-3.88) and 2012 (OR 5.20, 95% CI 3.86-7.02, PInternet as a source were more likely to be female (OR 1.30, 95% CI 1.05-1.60, P=.02), live in a metropolitan area (OR 1.26, 95% CI 1.03-1.54, P=.03), born in countries other than Australia/UK/Ireland (OR 1.41, 95% CI 1.07-1.85, P=.02), more educated (university: OR 2.46, 95% CI 1.77-3.42, PInternet for nutrition information were more likely than nonusers to want to know quicker ways to prepare healthy foods (83.0% vs 78.1%, P=.005) and information on choosing healthy foods (76.3% vs 67.3%, PUse of the Internet as a main source of nutrition information has grown rapidly since 2004; one-third of Western Australian adults reported using the Internet for this purpose in 2012. Information on preparing healthy foods (ideas, quicker ways), choosing ingredients, and knowing more about cooking would make it
Cojazzi, G.G.M.; Versino, C.; Wolfart, E.; Renda, G.; Janssens, W.A.M.; )
The new state level approach being proposed by IAEA envisions an objective based and information driven safeguards approach utilizing all relevant information to improve the effectiveness and efficiency of safeguards. To this goal the IAEA makes also use of open source information, here broadly defined as any information that is neither classified nor proprietary. It includes, but is not limited to: media sources, government and non-governmental reports and analyzes, commercial data, and scientific/technical literature, including trade data. Within the EC support programme to IAEA, JRC has surveyed and catalogued open sources on import-export customs trade data and developed tools for supporting the use of the related databases in safeguards. The JRC software The Big Table, (TBT), supports i.a.: a) the search through a collection of reference documents relevant to trade analysis (legal/regulatory documents, technical handbooks); b) the selection of items of interests to specific verifications and c) the mapping of these items to customs commodities searchable in trade databases. In the field of open source monitoring, JRC is developing and operating a ''Nuclear Security Media Monitor'' (NSMM), which is a web-based multilingual news aggregation system that automatically collects news articles from pre-defined web sites. NSMM is a domain specific version of the general JRC-Europe Media Monitor (EMM). NSMM has been established within the EC support programme with the aim, i.e., to streamline IAEA's process of open source information monitoring. In the first part, the paper will recall the trade data sources relevant for non-proliferation and will then illustrate the main features of TBT, recently coupled with the IAEA Physical Model, and new visualization techniques applied to trade data. In the second part it will present the main aspects of the NSMM also by illustrating some of uses done at JRC. (author)
Hämeen-Anttila, K; Pietilä, K; Pylkkänen, L; Pohjanoksa-Mäntylä, M
The internet is widely and increasingly used to search for health information. Previous studies have focused mainly on health information on the internet and not specifically on medicines information (MI). The aim of this study was to explore the internet as a source of MI compared to other sources of MI; to identify those who use the internet as a source of MI; and to describe patterns of use of the internet as a source of MI. A cross-sectional design employed a web-based questionnaire posted by patients' and other organizations as well as pharmacies on their websites during six weeks in the beginning of 2014. Logistic regression analysis was used to assess associations of background variables to the use of different MI sources. The most frequently used MI sources among respondents (n = 2489) were package leaflets (90%), pharmacists (83%), physicians (72%), and the internet (68%). According to a multivariate analysis, internet use for MI was associated with female gender, age internet, and continuous use of vitamins or herbals. MI was most commonly searched from a Finnish health portal (56%) and websites of pharmacies (41%). Of the respondents, nearly half (43%) used search engines to find information from the internet. The names of the medicinal product, symptom or disease were the most commonly used search terms. Well-educated, young women tend to search MI on the internet. Health care professionals should discuss reliable MI websites and tools that can help patients evaluate the reliability of information. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
Talarczyk, Joanna; Hauke, Jan; Poniewaz, Marta; Serdyńska-Szuster, Monika; Pawelczyk, Leszek; Jedrzejczak, Piotr
Around one million couples in Poland suffer from infertility People in reproductive age are most active Internet users. The aim of the study was to assess Internet habits of infertile patients. We checked to what extent infertile patients seek information about infertility on-line and what is their approach to the information found. 85 female patients treated for infertility for at least one year were surveyed. The anonymous questionnaire was designed by the authors of the publication. It consisted of questions related to medical history of the patients and sources of information about infertility they used. It also checked Internet activity of the patients and contained Beck's Depression Inventory (BDI). Chi-square test and Spearman's correlation test were used to evaluate the results. The majority of patients used Internet to find information about infertility (93%); 46% of the respondent declared Internet forums to be their main source of information about it. Patients used on-line sources of information more often than stricte medical sources. Internet influenced their relation with the physician. 64% of patients verified on-line information and treatment proposed by their doctor before using them. One third of the surveyed women claimed their knowledge about infertility comes more from the Internet than the specialist who treated them. There was a positive correlation between patients who checked diagnostic or therapeutic methods proposed by their physician with depression in BDI. Considering the great impact of Internet forums and web pages on patient approach to diagnostics and treatment of infertility there seems to be a need to create a professional Polish website and forum to provide the patients with reliable information about the disease.
Lippmann, Marcelo J.; Antunez, Emilio u.
In order to remain competitive it is necessary to stay informed and use the most advanced technologies available. Recent developments in communication, like the Internet and the World Wide Web, enormously facilitate worldwide data and technology transfer. A compilation of the most important sources of data on renewable energies, especially geothermal, as well as lists of relevant technology transfer programs are presented. Information on how to gain access to, and learn more about them is also given.
Lippmann, M.J.; Antunez, E.
In order to remain competitive, it is necessary to stay informed and use the most advanced technologies available. Recent developments in communication, like the Internet and the World Wide Web, enormously facilitate worldwide data and technology transfer. A compilation of the most important sources of data on renewable energies, especially geothermal, as well as lists of relevant technology transfer programs are presented. Information on how to gain access to, and learn more about them, is also given.
Goto, Naohisa; Prins, Pjotr; Nakao, Mitsuteru; Bonnal, Raoul; Aerts, Jan; Katayama, Toshiaki
The BioRuby software toolkit contains a comprehensive set of free development tools and libraries for bioinformatics and molecular biology, written in the Ruby programming language. BioRuby has components for sequence analysis, pathway analysis, protein modelling and phylogenetic analysis; it supports many widely used data formats and provides easy access to databases, external programs and public web services, including BLAST, KEGG, GenBank, MEDLINE and GO. BioRuby comes with a tutorial, documentation and an interactive environment, which can be used in the shell, and in the web browser. BioRuby is free and open source software, made available under the Ruby license. BioRuby runs on all platforms that support Ruby, including Linux, Mac OS X and Windows. And, with JRuby, BioRuby runs on the Java Virtual Machine. The source code is available from http://www.bioruby.org/. firstname.lastname@example.org
The aim of this review is to discuss the importance of bioinformatics and emphasize the need to acquire bioinformatics training and skills so as to maximize its potentials for improved delivery of animal health. In this review, bioinformatics is introduced, challenges to effective animal disease diagnosis, prevention and control, ...
Poe, D.; Venkatraman, N.; Hansen, C.; Singh, G.
There is an increasing need for an effective method of teaching bioinformatics. Increased progress and availability of computer-based tools for educating students have led to the implementation of a computer-based system for teaching bioinformatics as described in this paper. Bioinformatics is a recent, hybrid field of study combining elements of…
Skoeld, T.; Feldman, Y.
The IAEA Department of Safeguards aims to provide credible assurances to the international community that States are fulfiling their safeguards obligations in that all nuclear material remains in peaceful use. In order to draw a soundly-based safeguards conclusion for a State that has a safeguards agreement in force with the IAEA, the Department establishes a knowledge base of the State's nuclear-related infrastructure and activities against which a State's declarations are evaluated for correctness and completeness. Open source information is one stream of data that is used in the evaluation of nuclear fuel cycle activities in the State. The Department is continuously working to ensure that it has access to the most up-to-date, accurate, relevant and credible open source information available, and has begun to examine the use of social media as a new source of information. The use of social networking sites has increased exponentially in the last decade. In fact, social media has emerged as the key vehicle for delivering and acquiring information in near real-time. Therefore, it has become necessary for the open source analyst to consider social media as an essential element in the broader concept of open source information. Characteristics, such as ''immediacy'', ''recency'', ''interractiveness'', which set social networks apart from the ''traditional media'', are also the same attributes that present a challenge for using social media as an efficient information-delivery platform and a credible source of information. New tools and technologies for social media analytics have begun to emerge to help systematically monitor and mine this large body of data. The paper will survey the social media landscape in an effort to identify platforms that could be of value for safeguards verification purposes. It will explore how a number of social networking sites, such as Twitter
Full Text Available Simultaneous identification of the source location and release history in aquifers is complicated and time-consuming if the release of groundwater contaminant source varies in time. This paper presents an approach called SATSO-GWT to solve complicated source release problems which contain the unknowns of three location coordinates and several irregular release periods and concentrations. The SATSO-GWT combines with ordinal optimization algorithm (OOA, roulette wheel approach, and a source identification algorithm called SATS-GWT. The SATS-GWT was developed based on simulated annealing, tabu search, and three-dimensional groundwater flow and solute transport model MD2K-GWT. The OOA and roulette wheel method are utilized mainly to reduce the size of feasible solution domain and accelerate the identification of the source information. A hypothetic site with one contaminant source location and two release periods is designed to assess the applicability of the present approach. The results indicate that the performance of SATSO-GWT is superior to that of SATS-GWT. In addition, the present approach works very effectively in dealing with the cases which have different initial guesses of source location and measurement errors in the monitoring points as well as problems with large suspicious areas and several source release periods and concentrations.
Lee, Annisa Lai
This study tracks the changes of the effects of 4 information sources for direct-to-consumer drug advertising on patients' requests for prescription drugs from physicians since the inception of the "Guidance for Industry about Consumer-directed Broadcast Advertisements." The Guidance advises pharmaceuticals to use four information sources for consumers to seek further information to supplement broadcast drug advertisements: small-print information, the Internet, a toll-free number, and health-care providers (nurses, doctors, and pharmacists). Logistic models were created by using survey data collected by the Food and Drug Administration in 1999 and 2002. Results show that throughout the years, health-care providers remain the most used and strongest means associated with patients' direct requests for nonspecific and specific prescription drugs from doctors. The small-print information source gains power and changes from an indirect means associated with patients' discussing drugs with health-care providers to a direct means associated with patients' asking about nonspecific and specific drugs from their doctors. The Internet is not directly related to drug requests, but the effect of its association with patients seeking information from health-care providers grew 11-fold over the course of the study. The toll-free number lost its power altogether for both direct request for a prescription drug and further discussion with health-care providers. Patient demographics will be considered for specific policy implications.
Brounéus, Fredrik; Macleod, Greg; Maclennan, Karyn; Parkin, Lianne; Paul, Charlotte
To make informed choices about medical treatment options, patients and consumers need knowledge about the benefits and the risks of drugs. Little is known about levels of drug safety knowledge or preferred sources of drug safety information in general population samples. To explore drug safety knowledge, experience of adverse drug reactions (ADRs), and preferred sources for drug safety information in the New Zealand public. We undertook a telephone survey of a random sample of adults (N=87) in the Dunedin area of New Zealand. Although 47% of those currently or recently using prescription or over-the-counter drugs (N=83) were unable to recall any safety information at all about the medicine they were taking, 84% felt confident they could use these medicines in a safe way. The experience of at least one ADR during the last five years was reported by 40%. The five most preferred sources for drug safety information among all participants were: doctor (92%), pharmacist (76%), information on/inside the medicine package (66%), nurse (57%), and the internet (41%). Our results add to findings from specific patient groups to show that there is a low level of drug safety knowledge in the general population. Primary health care practitioners have a recognised and vital part to play in promoting drug safety awareness.
McKendree, M G S; Croney, C C; Widmar, N J O
As consumers have become more interested in understanding how their food is produced, scrutiny and criticism have increased regarding intensified food animal production methods. Resolution of public concerns about animal agricultural practices depends on understanding the myriad factors that provide the basis for concerns. An online survey of 798 U.S. households was conducted to investigate relationships between household characteristics (demographics, geographic location, and experiences) and level of concern for animal welfare as well as sources used to obtain information on the subject. Because recent media attention has focused on animal care practices used in the U.S. swine industry, respondents were also asked specific questions pertaining to their perceptions of pig management practices and welfare issues and their corresponding pork purchasing behavior. Respondents reporting higher levels of concern about animal welfare were more frequently female, younger, and self-reported members of the Democratic Party. Fourteen percent of respondents reported reduction in pork consumption because of animal welfare concerns with an average reduction of 56%. Over half of the respondents (56%) did not have a primary source for animal welfare information; those who identified a primary information source most commonly used information provided by animal protection organizations, the Humane Society of the United States (HSUS), and People for the Ethical Treatment of Animals (PETA). Midwest participants were significantly, at the 5% significance level, less concerned about domestic livestock animal welfare and more frequently reported not having a source for animal welfare information than those from other regions of the United States. Overall, the U.S. livestock and poultry industries and other organizations affiliated with animal agriculture appear to be less used public sources of information on animal welfare than popular animal protection organizations. Improved
Full Text Available Abstract Background One of the crucial aspects of day-to-day laboratory information management is collection, storage and retrieval of information about research subjects and biomedical samples. An efficient link between sample data and experiment results is absolutely imperative for a successful outcome of a biomedical study. Currently available software solutions are largely limited to large-scale, expensive commercial Laboratory Information Management Systems (LIMS. Acquiring such LIMS indeed can bring laboratory information management to a higher level, but often implies sufficient investment of time, effort and funds, which are not always available. There is a clear need for lightweight open source systems for patient and sample information management. Results We present a web-based tool for submission, management and retrieval of sample and research subject data. The system secures confidentiality by separating anonymized sample information from individuals' records. It is simple and generic, and can be customised for various biomedical studies. Information can be both entered and accessed using the same web interface. User groups and their privileges can be defined. The system is open-source and is supplied with an on-line tutorial and necessary documentation. It has proven to be successful in a large international collaborative project. Conclusion The presented system closes the gap between the need and the availability of lightweight software solutions for managing information in biomedical studies involving human research subjects.
Chen, Minjun; Martin, Jackson; Fang, Hong; Isukapalli, Sastry; Georgopoulos, Panos G; Welsh, William J; Tong, Weida
ebTrack is being developed as an integrated bioinformatics system for environmental research and analysis by addressing the issues of integration, curation, management, first level analysis and interpretation of environmental and toxicological data from diverse sources. It is based on enhancements to the US FDA developed ArrayTrack system through additional analysis modules for gene expression data as well as through incorporation and linkages to modules for analysis of proteomic and metabonomic datasets that include tandem mass spectra. ebTrack uses a client-server architecture with the free and open source PostgreSQL as its database engine, and java tools for user interface, analysis, visualization, and web-based deployment. Several predictive tools that are critical for environmental health research are currently supported in ebTrack, including Significance Analysis of Microarray (SAM). Furthermore, new tools are under continuous integration, and interfaces to environmental health risk analysis tools are being developed in order to make ebTrack widely usable. These health risk analysis tools include the Modeling ENvironment for TOtal Risk studies (MENTOR) for source-to-dose exposure modeling and the DOse Response Information ANalysis system (DORIAN) for health outcome modeling. The design of ebTrack is presented in detail and steps involved in its application are summarized through an illustrative application.
Kuper, Jan; Saggion, H.; Cunningham, H.; Declerck, T.; de Jong, Franciska M.G.; Reidsma, Dennis; Wilks, Y.; Wittenburg, P.
This paper reports work on automated meta-data creation for multimedia content. The approach results in the generation of a conceptual index of the content which may then be searched via semantic categories instead of keywords. The novelty of the work is to exploit multiple sources of information
Ahn, Hyun Seon; Usher, Ellen L.; Butz, Amanda; Bong, Mimi
Background: The potential role of culture in the development and operation of self-efficacy has been acknowledged by researchers. Clearer understanding of this cultural impact will benefit from research that shows how the same efficacy information is evaluated across cultures. Aims: We tested whether two sources of self-efficacy information…
Dimmick, Ross [Sandia National Lab. (SNL-NM), Albuquerque, NM (United States)
This document contains updates to the Supplemental Information Sandia National Laboratories/New Mexico Site-Wide Environmental Impact Statement Source Documents that were developed in 2010. In general, this addendum provides calendar year 2010 data, along with changes or additions to text in the original documents.
Pieniak, Zuzanna; Verbeke, Wim; Scholderer, Joachim
This paper focuses on identifying segments of consumers based on their use of and trust in information sources about fish. Cross-sectional data were collected through the SEAFOODplus pan-European consumer survey (n = 4786) with samples representative for age and region in Belgium, the Netherlands...
Cutilli, Carolyn Crane; Simko, Lynn C; Colbert, Alison M; Bennett, Ian M
Low health literacy in older adults has been associated with poor health outcomes (i.e., mortality, decreased physical and cognitive functioning, and less preventive care utilization). Many factors associated with low health literacy are also associated with health disparities. Interaction with healthcare providers and sources of health information are influenced by an individual's health literacy and can impact health outcomes. This study examined the relationships between health literacy, sources of health information, and demographic/background characteristics in older adults (aged 65 years and older) related to health literacy and disparities. This descriptive, correlational study is a secondary analysis of the 2003 National Assessment of Adult Literacy, a large-scale national assessment. Older adults with lower health literacy have less income and education, rate their health as poor or fair, have visual or auditory difficulties, need help filling out forms, reading newspaper, or writing notes, and use each source of health information less (print and nonprint). Many of these characteristics and skills are predictive of health literacy and associated with health disparities. The results expand our knowledge of characteristics associated with health literacy and sources of health information used by older adults. Interventions to improve health outcomes including health disparities can focus on recognizing and meeting the health literacy demands of older adults.
Urbanus, Brittany L; Schmidt, Shelly J; Lee, Soo-Yeun
Beet sugar contains an off-aroma, which was hypothesized to generate expectations on the acceptability of a product made with beet sugar. Thus, the objective of this study was to assess the impact of information about the sugar source (beet vs. cane) on the overall liking of an orange-flavored beverage. One hundred panelists evaluated an orange-flavored powdered beverage mix and beverage made with beet and cane sugars using a 5-phase testing protocol involving a tetrad test and hedonic ratings performed under blind and informed conditions. Tetrad test results indicated that there was a significant difference (P beet sugar and cane sugar; however, no difference was found between the beverage made with beet sugar and cane sugar. Hedonic ratings revealed the significance of information conditions on the panelists evaluation of sugar (F = 24.67, P sugar source information in a beverage product. Based on concerns with the use of beet sugar expressed in the popular press, there may be a subgroup of the population that has a preconceived bias about sugar sources due to their prior experiences and knowledge and, thus, would be influenced by labels indicating the sugar source used in a product. © 2014 Institute of Food Technologists®
Ahn, Hyun Seon; Usher, Ellen L; Butz, Amanda; Bong, Mimi
The potential role of culture in the development and operation of self-efficacy has been acknowledged by researchers. Clearer understanding of this cultural impact will benefit from research that shows how the same efficacy information is evaluated across cultures. We tested whether two sources of self-efficacy information delivered by multiple social agents (i.e., vicarious experience and social persuasion) were weighed differently by adolescents in different cultures. Of 2,893 middle school students in Korea (n = 416), the Philippines (n = 522), and the United States (n = 1,955) who completed the survey, 400 students were randomly pooled from each country. Invariance of the measurement and of the latent means for self-efficacy and self-efficacy sources across the groups was tested by multigroup confirmatory factor analysis. Predictive utility of the self-efficacy sources was compared by multigroup structural equation modelling. Compared to the students in the two collectivistic countries, the US students reported significantly higher mathematics self-efficacy. Whereas the efficacy beliefs of the Korean and the US students were predicted equally well by the vicarious experience from their teachers and the social persuasion by their family and peers, those of the Filipino adolescents were best predicted by the social persuasion from their peers. This study provided empirical evidence that socially conveyed sources of self-efficacy information are construed and evaluated differently across cultures, depending on who delivered the efficacy-relevant information. © 2015 The British Psychological Society.
Using data on Swedish adolescents, this study examines (1) perceptions of the addictiveness and mortality risk of smoking, (2) the effects of these perceptions on smoking behaviour, and (3) the role of various smoking risk information sources. The average respondent believed that 46 out of 100
teaching, research, conservation, transmission and advancement of knowledge and public service. The tripartite functions of any university is to conserve knowledge, transmit or disseminate knowledge through teaching, conferences ... Jam (1992) identified lack of relevant information sources to be one of the problems.
Harada, Kazuhiro; Shibata, Ai; Lee, Euna; Oka, Koichiro; Nakamura, Yoshio
The promotion of strength training is now recognized as an important component of public health initiatives for older adults. To develop successful communication strategies to increase strength-training behavior among older adults, the identification of effective communication channels to reach older adults is necessary. This study aimed to identify the information sources about strength training that were associated with strength-training behaviors among Japanese older adults. The participants were 1144 adults (60-74 years old) randomly sampled from the registry of residential addresses. A cross-sectional questionnaire survey was conducted. The independent variables were sources of strength-training information (healthcare providers, friends, families, radio, television, newspapers, newsletters, posters, books, magazines, booklets, the Internet, lectures, other sources), and the dependent variable was regular strength-training behavior. Logistic regression analysis was used to identify potential relationships. After adjusting for demographic factors and all other information sources, strength-training information from healthcare providers, friends, books and the Internet were positively related to regular strength-training behavior. The findings of the present study contribute to a better understanding of strength-training behavior and the means of successful communication directed at increasing strength training among older adults. The results suggest that healthcare providers, friends, books and the Internet are effective methods of communication for increasing strength-training behaviors among older adults. © The Author 2014. Published by Oxford University Press. All rights reserved. For Permissions, please email: email@example.com.
This study examined the use of radio and television as sources of agricultural information among poultry farmers in Egbeda Local Government area of Oyo State. Sixty farmers from 4 villages namely: Egbeda, Erunmu, Olode and Owobale were selected for this study. Primary data were collected from the respondents by ...
Cook, Elizabeth A; Farris, Karen B; Chrischilles, Elizabeth; Aquilino, Mary
To describe the relationship between the availability and accessibility of contraceptives in Iowa pharmacies and the extent to which pharmacists act as an information source regarding contraceptives. Descriptive, exploratory, nonexperimental study. Iowa in fall 2008. 282 pharmacists at Iowa community pharmacies. Cross-sectional survey. Contraceptive availability score, contraceptive accessibility score, and total access score. Regression analyses tested the relationships between the pharmacist information source score and the contraceptive availability, accessibility, and total access scores, controlling for geography, ownership, staff size, and average number of prescriptions per day. Significant positive relationships between the pharmacist information source score and product accessibility, product availability, and total access were observed. The relationship appeared to be driven primarily by product availability, and all were significantly influenced by pharmacy type. Significant negative relationships were found between product accessibility and independent/small chain pharmacies and mass merchandiser/grocery store pharmacies relative to large chain pharmacies. A significant negative relationship was found between independent/small chain pharmacies and the product availability score. Significant relationships were found between pharmacists' ability to act as sources of information for contraceptive products and the availability, accessibility, and overall access to contraceptives in the pharmacy.
Yoo, Hyera; Lee, Sun Hae; Kwon, Bo Eun; Chung, Sulki; Kim, Sanghee
To examine HIV/AIDS knowledge, attitudes, related behaviors, and sources of HIV/AIDS information among high school-aged students in South Korea. One thousand and seventy-seven students (586 females and 491 males) from 5 high schools from 5 representative school districts participated in the survey. A self-administered questionnaire measuring knowledge (19 true-false items), attitudes (4 items, 5-point Likert-type scale), sources of information (6 items, yes/no), and sexual behaviors (8 items, yes/no) was utilized. The level of HIV/AIDS knowledge among Korean adolescents was moderate, with the mean scores of 13.93 out of 19 for males and 13.35 for females (p TV (52.5%) and school classes (32.1%) as the two major sources of information on HIV/AIDS. Only a few pointed to their parents (1.3%) as a source of information. This preliminary study summarizes the current status of prevention education on HIV/AIDS available in Korea and can provide implications for developing more differentiated intervention strategies specific to culture, age, and gender.
This article discusses how we can ensure that various senior citizens (women and men, living alone or together, full of vitality or in fragile health, coming from different cultural backgrounds) can identify with images representing themselves so they continue to have access to information sources
Mimura, Yoko; Koonce, Joan; Plunkett, Scott W.; Pleskus, Lindsey
Using cross-sectional data, we examined the financial information sources, financial knowledge, and financial practices of young adults, many of whom are first generation college students, ethnic minorities, and immigrants or children of immigrants. Participants (n = 1,249) were undergraduate students at a large regional comprehensive university.…
Full Text Available Tax legislation system in the Republic of Slovenia as well as that of the European Union does not keep pace with the rapid technological development. A lot of problems arise in the field of purchasing and providing access to electronic information sources, namely electronic journals which are very important to disseminate research results. Problems arising from the application of the EC Directive 2006/112 in the Slovenian legislation system are described. The goal that the Value Added Tax (VAT would not affect the international competitiveness of the EU Member states was not met. Different levels of general and reduced tax rates and even different levels of taxation of electronic information sources put Member States in unequal positions. Tax regimes in Member States and their responses to the problem of VAT are discussed. The article shows the complexity of electronic information sources which can partly be taxed as services and party as goods in electronic form. A simulation of expenditure on electronic information sources at different tax rates and possible changes of tax legislation are presented.
Gbadamosi, Belau Olatunde
The paper examines demographic information sources and utilization as determinants of educational policy making in South West Nigeria. Using validated and structured questionnaire, the study population of 398 officers in the ministries of education in the affected states were enumerated. The study establishes population census, vital registration,…
Amari-Omaka, Lois Nnenna; Obande-Ogbuinya, Nkiru Edith
The purpose of this study was to determine sources of malaria information among pregnant women in Ebonyi state and implications for malaria education. The cross sectional research design was adopted and stratified sampling technique was used to select a total of five hundred and four (504) pregnant women from 12 hospitals in the state. A self…
Schönbach, Christian; Verma, Chandra; Bond, Peter J; Ranganathan, Shoba
The International Conference on Bioinformatics (InCoB) has been publishing peer-reviewed conference papers in BMC Bioinformatics since 2006. Of the 44 articles accepted for publication in supplement issues of BMC Bioinformatics, BMC Genomics, BMC Medical Genomics and BMC Systems Biology, 24 articles with a bioinformatics or systems biology focus are reviewed in this editorial. InCoB2017 is scheduled to be held in Shenzen, China, September 20-22, 2017.
Lin, Sabrina; Fonteno, Shawn; Satish, Shruthi; Bhanu, Bir; Talbot, Prue
Because video data are complex and are comprised of many images, mining information from video material is difficult to do without the aid of computer software. Video bioinformatics is a powerful quantitative approach for extracting spatio-temporal data from video images using computer software to perform dating mining and analysis. In this article, we introduce a video bioinformatics method for quantifying the growth of human embryonic stem cells (hESC) by analyzing time-lapse videos collected in a Nikon BioStation CT incubator equipped with a camera for video imaging. In our experiments, hESC colonies that were attached to Matrigel were filmed for 48 hours in the BioStation CT. To determine the rate of growth of these colonies, recipes were developed using CL-Quant software which enables users to extract various types of data from video images. To accurately evaluate colony growth, three recipes were created. The first segmented the image into the colony and background, the second enhanced the image to define colonies throughout the video sequence accurately, and the third measured the number of pixels in the colony over time. The three recipes were run in sequence on video data collected in a BioStation CT to analyze the rate of growth of individual hESC colonies over 48 hours. To verify the truthfulness of the CL-Quant recipes, the same data were analyzed manually using Adobe Photoshop software. When the data obtained using the CL-Quant recipes and Photoshop were compared, results were virtually identical, indicating the CL-Quant recipes were truthful. The method described here could be applied to any video data to measure growth rates of hESC or other cells that grow in colonies. In addition, other video bioinformatics recipes can be developed in the future for other cell processes such as migration, apoptosis, and cell adhesion. PMID:20495527
Brakel, Thecla M; Dijkstra, Arie; Buunk, Abraham P
Life, following curative treatment, can be a struggle for former cancer patients. In this phase of their illness, social comparison information may help to improve a patient's quality of life (QOL). The objective of this study was to determine whether the effects of this information depend on the following two variables: (1) the individual's physical health and (2) the individual's sensitivity to social comparison. In the current study, the effects on a patient's QOL were tested that occur when they are listening to a psychological oncological expert talking about cancer patients' experiences. Three different recorded interviews with experts were compared (on negative emotions, effective coping, or both), and individual differences were tested as moderators. In addition, the expert source conditions were compared with a condition in which the source was not an expert but a former patient. In a randomized field experiment, 154 Dutch former cancer patients (M(age) = 55 years; 68% women) were assigned to one of the four conditions (three expert source and one former patient source condition). QOL was assessed after 2 months. The effects of the expert source conditions on QOL depended on the participants' physical health (good vs. poor) and on the participants' sensitivity to social comparison (whether the recipient reacts with contrast or identification), as indicated by significant three-way interactions (p source conditions was at least as effective as the former patient source condition. The results show that desired and undesired effects are found when individual differences relevant to the processing of intervention information are examined. ©2012 The British Psychological Society.
Morales, Hernán F; Giovambattista, Guillermo
We have developed BioSmalltalk, a new environment system for pure object-oriented bioinformatics programming. Adaptive end-user programming systems tend to become more important for discovering biological knowledge, as is demonstrated by the emergence of open-source programming toolkits for bioinformatics in the past years. Our software is intended to bridge the gap between bioscientists and rapid software prototyping while preserving the possibility of scaling to whole-system biology applications. BioSmalltalk performs better in terms of execution time and memory usage than Biopython and BioPerl for some classical situations. BioSmalltalk is cross-platform and freely available (MIT license) through the Google Project Hosting at http://code.google.com/p/biosmalltalk firstname.lastname@example.org Supplementary data are available at Bioinformatics online.
Full Text Available The human microbiome has received much attention because many studies have reported that the human gut microbiome is associated with several diseases. The very large datasets that are produced by these kinds of studies means that bioinformatics approaches are crucial for their analysis. Here, we systematically reviewed bioinformatics tools that are commonly used in microbiome research, including a typical pipeline and software for sequence alignment, abundance profiling, enterotype determination, taxonomic diversity, identifying differentially abundant species/genes, gene cataloging, and functional analyses. We also summarized the algorithms and methods used to define metagenomic species and co-abundance gene groups to expand our understanding of unclassified and poorly understood gut microbes that are undocumented in the current genome databases. Additionally, we examined the methods used to identify metagenomic biomarkers based on the gut microbiome, which might help to expand the knowledge and approaches for disease detection and monitoring.
Accardi, Luigi; Freudenberg, Wolfgang; Ohya, Masanori
The QP-DYN algorithms / L. Accardi, M. Regoli and M. Ohya -- Study of transcriptional regulatory network based on Cis module database / S. Akasaka ... [et al.] -- On Lie group-Lie algebra correspondences of unitary groups in finite von Neumann algebras / H. Ando, I. Ojima and Y. Matsuzawa -- On a general form of time operators of a Hamiltonian with purely discrete spectrum / A. Arai -- Quantum uncertainty and decision-making in game theory / M. Asano ... [et al.] -- New types of quantum entropies and additive information capacities / V. P. Belavkin -- Non-Markovian dynamics of quantum systems / D. Chruscinski and A. Kossakowski -- Self-collapses of quantum systems and brain activities / K.-H. Fichtner ... [et al.] -- Statistical analysis of random number generators / L. Accardi and M. Gabler -- Entangled effects of two consecutive pairs in residues and its use in alignment / T. Ham, K. Sato and M. Ohya -- The passage from digital to analogue in white noise analysis and applications / T. Hida -- Remarks on the degree of entanglement / D. Chruscinski ... [et al.] -- A completely discrete particle model derived from a stochastic partial differential equation by point systems / K.-H. Fichtner, K. Inoue and M. Ohya -- On quantum algorithm for exptime problem / S. Iriyama and M. Ohya -- On sufficient algebraic conditions for identification of quantum states / A. Jamiolkowski -- Concurrence and its estimations by entanglement witnesses / J. Jurkowski -- Classical wave model of quantum-like processing in brain / A. Khrennikov -- Entanglement mapping vs. quantum conditional probability operator / D. Chruscinski ... [et al.] -- Constructing multipartite entanglement witnesses / M. Michalski -- On Kadison-Schwarz property of quantum quadratic operators on M[symbol](C) / F. Mukhamedov and A. Abduganiev -- On phase transitions in quantum Markov chains on Cayley Tree / L. Accardi, F. Mukhamedov and M. Saburov -- Space(-time) emergence as symmetry breaking effect / I. Ojima
Fang, Wai-Chi; Lue, Jaw-Chyng
A system comprising very-large-scale integrated (VLSI) circuits is being developed as a means of bioinformatics-oriented analysis and recognition of patterns of fluorescence generated in a microarray in an advanced, highly miniaturized, portable genetic-expression-assay instrument. Such an instrument implements an on-chip combination of polymerase chain reactions and electrochemical transduction for amplification and detection of deoxyribonucleic acid (DNA).
Stiglic, Gregor; Kocbek, Simon; Pernek, Igor; Kokol, Peter
Classification is an important and widely used machine learning technique in bioinformatics. Researchers and other end-users of machine learning software often prefer to work with comprehensible models where knowledge extraction and explanation of reasoning behind the classification model are possible. This paper presents an extension to an existing machine learning environment and a study on visual tuning of decision tree classifiers. The motivation for this research comes from the need to build effective and easily interpretable decision tree models by so called one-button data mining approach where no parameter tuning is needed. To avoid bias in classification, no classification performance measure is used during the tuning of the model that is constrained exclusively by the dimensions of the produced decision tree. The proposed visual tuning of decision trees was evaluated on 40 datasets containing classical machine learning problems and 31 datasets from the field of bioinformatics. Although we did not expected significant differences in classification performance, the results demonstrate a significant increase of accuracy in less complex visually tuned decision trees. In contrast to classical machine learning benchmarking datasets, we observe higher accuracy gains in bioinformatics datasets. Additionally, a user study was carried out to confirm the assumption that the tree tuning times are significantly lower for the proposed method in comparison to manual tuning of the decision tree. The empirical results demonstrate that by building simple models constrained by predefined visual boundaries, one not only achieves good comprehensibility, but also very good classification performance that does not differ from usually more complex models built using default settings of the classical decision tree algorithm. In addition, our study demonstrates the suitability of visually tuned decision trees for datasets with binary class attributes and a high number of possibly
Full Text Available PURPOSE: Classification is an important and widely used machine learning technique in bioinformatics. Researchers and other end-users of machine learning software often prefer to work with comprehensible models where knowledge extraction and explanation of reasoning behind the classification model are possible. METHODS: This paper presents an extension to an existing machine learning environment and a study on visual tuning of decision tree classifiers. The motivation for this research comes from the need to build effective and easily interpretable decision tree models by so called one-button data mining approach where no parameter tuning is needed. To avoid bias in classification, no classification performance measure is used during the tuning of the model that is constrained exclusively by the dimensions of the produced decision tree. RESULTS: The proposed visual tuning of decision trees was evaluated on 40 datasets containing classical machine learning problems and 31 datasets from the field of bioinformatics. Although we did not expected significant differences in classification performance, the results demonstrate a significant increase of accuracy in less complex visually tuned decision trees. In contrast to classical machine learning benchmarking datasets, we observe higher accuracy gains in bioinformatics datasets. Additionally, a user study was carried out to confirm the assumption that the tree tuning times are significantly lower for the proposed method in comparison to manual tuning of the decision tree. CONCLUSIONS: The empirical results demonstrate that by building simple models constrained by predefined visual boundaries, one not only achieves good comprehensibility, but also very good classification performance that does not differ from usually more complex models built using default settings of the classical decision tree algorithm. In addition, our study demonstrates the suitability of visually tuned decision trees for datasets
Hildebrandt, Anna Katharina; Stöckel, Daniel; Fischer, Nina M; de la Garza, Luis; Krüger, Jens; Nickels, Stefan; Röttig, Marc; Schärfe, Charlotta; Schumann, Marcel; Thiel, Philipp; Lenhof, Hans-Peter; Kohlbacher, Oliver; Hildebrandt, Andreas
Web-based workflow systems have gained considerable momentum in sequence-oriented bioinformatics. In structural bioinformatics, however, such systems are still relatively rare; while commercial stand-alone workflow applications are common in the pharmaceutical industry, academic researchers often still rely on command-line scripting to glue individual tools together. In this work, we address the problem of building a web-based system for workflows in structural bioinformatics. For the underlying molecular modelling engine, we opted for the BALL framework because of its extensive and well-tested functionality in the field of structural bioinformatics. The large number of molecular data structures and algorithms implemented in BALL allows for elegant and sophisticated development of new approaches in the field. We hence connected the versatile BALL library and its visualization and editing front end BALLView with the Galaxy workflow framework. The result, which we call ballaxy, enables the user to simply and intuitively create sophisticated pipelines for applications in structure-based computational biology, integrated into a standard tool for molecular modelling. ballaxy consists of three parts: some minor modifications to the Galaxy system, a collection of tools and an integration into the BALL framework and the BALLView application for molecular modelling. Modifications to Galaxy will be submitted to the Galaxy project, and the BALL and BALLView integrations will be integrated in the next major BALL release. After acceptance of the modifications into the Galaxy project, we will publish all ballaxy tools via the Galaxy toolshed. In the meantime, all three components are available from http://www.ball-project.org/ballaxy. Also, docker images for ballaxy are available at https://registry.hub.docker.com/u/anhi/ballaxy/dockerfile/. ballaxy is licensed under the terms of the GPL. © The Author 2014. Published by Oxford University Press. All rights reserved. For
Full Text Available Information fusion has been a hot topic currently, how to make information fusion for intelligent decision is a challenge. Although the applications of random set theory attract many researchers, the probability function distribution is still imprecise. In this paper, we give a new definition of probability distribution function (PDF of random set theory, and propose an integration methodology for urban flood risk assessment by fusing multi-source information (e. g., remote sensing images, Digital Elevation Model (DEM and rainstorm data based on random set theory. The methodology analyzes and fuses the multi-source information, which overcomes the uncertainty of the decision makers of flood risk and generates precise estimates of the probability of flood risk. In our experiments, we take Wuhan city in China and three kinds of data sources information as an example to assess flood risk level. The experiments indicate that our algorithm not only provide precise estimates of the probability of flood risk but also give the bound of probability.
Gerbing, Kim-Kristin; Thiel, Ansgar
Medical care in sport comprises a variety of treatments, from scientifically proven biomedicine to complementary and alternative medicine. Information and knowledge about these diverse treatment options is spread by different sources. Thus, athletes encounter information of varying content, quality and background. This exploratory pilot study addresses athletes' medical opinions, their health-related information seeking behaviour and the knowledge sources they utilise. Questionnaires were used to examine n = 110 German athletes (n(male) = 69, n(female) = 41; mean(age) = 24.28 ± 4.97 years) at high performance levels (national team and/or European championship and/or World championship n = 22; first national league and/or German championship n = 51, second national league and/or State championship n = 37) from various Olympic sports. A cluster analysis regarding the athletes' attitudes towards sport medicine exhibited four different types of athletes: 'the autonomous athlete', 'the open-minded athlete', 'the functionalistic athlete' and 'the conservative athlete'. In general, our findings show that the most used and trusted information sources are physicians and physiotherapists. However, medical information is trusted the most if it is experience- and field-tested, and comes from the athletes' sport-specific network. Our findings also suggest that professional medical knowledge management in competitive sport is needed.
Põlluste, Kaja; Kallikorm, Riina; Lember, Margus
The objective of this paper was to find out how many patients with rheumatoid arthritis (RA) know about several aspects of disease, to explain the associations between the level of self-rated knowledge and patients' background and health status and to compare the importance of the main sources of information. A random sample (n = 1,259) of adult Estonian RA patients was selected from the Estonian Health Insurance Fund Database. The patients completed a self-administered questionnaire, which included information about their socio-demographic and disease characteristics, use of health services, information about the disease, and sources of information. Regression analysis was used to calculate the associations between the independent variables and level of self-rated knowledge about several aspects of RA. The results of the study indicated that the self-reported ratings of knowledge about the disease in Estonian RA patients were rather low. Health professionals were mentioned as the primary sources of information, but the longer disease history and more frequent use of health services as considerable predictors of higher ratings of knowledge refer to role of personal experience in obtaining knowledge about the disease as well.
Hamilton, Sarah Nicole; Scali, Elena P; Yu, Irene; Gusnowski, Eva; Ingledew, Paris-Ann
This study describes how melanoma patients used the Internet as a melanoma information source and how it impacted their clinical encounter and treatment decision. From 2010 to 2013, melanoma patients were invited to complete a 23-question paper survey with open- and close-ended questions. Thirty-one of the 62 patients approached completed the survey. The majority (90 %) of respondents used the Internet as a melanoma information source. Most (90 %) had used the search engine Google. The most commonly searched topics were melanoma treatment (96 %), screening (64 %), and prevention (64 %). While most respondents (85 %) found the Internet was a useful melanoma information source, over half (54 %) found melanoma websites at least somewhat difficult to understand. Many (78 %) believed it increased their understanding of their diagnosis, 71 % thought it influenced their treatment decision, and 59 % felt it impacted their specialist consultation. This study informs health care professionals that many melanoma patients search the Internet for information regarding their diagnosis and that it may impact their disease understanding and treatment decisions.
Rideout, Jai Ram; Chase, John H; Bolyen, Evan; Ackermann, Gail; González, Antonio; Knight, Rob; Caporaso, J Gregory
Bioinformatics software often requires human-generated tabular text files as input and has specific requirements for how those data are formatted. Users frequently manage these data in spreadsheet programs, which is convenient for researchers who are compiling the requisite information because the spreadsheet programs can easily be used on different platforms including laptops and tablets, and because they provide a familiar interface. It is increasingly common for many different researchers to be involved in compiling these data, including study coordinators, clinicians, lab technicians and bioinformaticians. As a result, many research groups are shifting toward using cloud-based spreadsheet programs, such as Google Sheets, which support the concurrent editing of a single spreadsheet by different users working on different platforms. Most of the researchers who enter data are not familiar with the formatting requirements of the bioinformatics programs that will be used, so validating and correcting file formats is often a bottleneck prior to beginning bioinformatics analysis. We present Keemei, a Google Sheets Add-on, for validating tabular files used in bioinformatics analyses. Keemei is available free of charge from Google's Chrome Web Store. Keemei can be installed and run on any web browser supported by Google Sheets. Keemei currently supports the validation of two widely used tabular bioinformatics formats, the Quantitative Insights into Microbial Ecology (QIIME) sample metadata mapping file format and the Spatially Referenced Genetic Data (SRGD) format, but is designed to easily support the addition of others. Keemei will save researchers time and frustration by providing a convenient interface for tabular bioinformatics file format validation. By allowing everyone involved with data entry for a project to easily validate their data, it will reduce the validation and formatting bottlenecks that are commonly encountered when human-generated data files are
Volunteered geographic Information (VGI), citizens as sensors, crowd-sourcing and 'Wikipedia' of maps have been used to describe activity facilitated by the Internet and the dynamic Web 2.0 environment to collect geographic information (GI). Legal concerns raised in the creation, assembly and dissemination of GI by produsers include: quality, ownership and liability. In detail, accuracy and authoritativeness of the crowd-sourced GI; the ownership and moral rights to the information, and contractual and tort liability are key concerns. A legal framework and governance structure may be necessary whereby technology, networked governance and provision of legal protections may be combined to mitigate geo-liability as a 'chilling' factor in VGI development
Kroneisen, Meike; Bell, Raoul
The present study examines memory for social-exchange-relevant information. In Experiment 1 male and female faces were shown together with behaviour descriptions of cheating, altruistic, and neutral behaviour. Previous results have led to the hypothesis that people preferentially remember schema-atypical information. Given the common gender stereotype that women are kinder and less egoistic than men, this atypicality account would predict that source memory (that is, memory for the type of context to which a face was associated) should be enhanced for female cheaters in comparison to male cheaters. The results of Experiment 1 confirmed this hypothesis. Experiment 2 reveals that source memory for female faces associated with disgusting behaviours is enhanced in comparison to male faces associated with disgusting behaviours. Thus the atypicality effect generalises beyond social-exchange-relevant information, a result which is inconsistent with the assumption that the findings can be ascribed to a highly specific cheater detection module.
Croitor-Sava, A R; Laudadio, T; Sima, D M; Van Huffel, S; Martinez-Bisbal, M C; Celda, B; Piquer, J; Heerschap, A
In this study we classify short echo-time brain magnetic resonance spectroscopic imaging (MRSI) data by applying a model-based canonical correlation analyses algorithm and by using, as prior knowledge, multimodal sources of information coming from high-resolution magic angle spinning (HR-MAS), MRSI and magnetic resonance imaging. The potential and limitations of fusing in vivo and ex vivo nuclear magnetic resonance sources to detect brain tumors is investigated. We present various modalities for multimodal data fusion, study the effect and the impact of using multimodal information for classifying MRSI brain glial tumors data and analyze which parameters influence the classification results by means of extensive simulation and in vivo studies. Special attention is drawn to the possibility of considering HR-MAS data as a complementary dataset when dealing with a lack of MRSI data needed to build a classifier. Results show that HR-MAS information can have added value in the process of classifying MRSI data
Sackett, Dana K.; Pow, Crystal Lee; Rubino, Matthew J.; Aday, D.D.; Cope, W. Gregory; Kullman, Seth W.; Rice, J.A.; Kwak, Thomas J.; Law, L.M.
The presence of endocrine-disrupting compounds (EDCs), particularly estrogenic compounds, in the environment has drawn public attention across the globe, yet a clear understanding of the extent and distribution of estrogenic EDCs in surface waters and their relationship to potential sources is lacking. The objective of the present study was to identify and examine the potential input of estrogenic EDC sources in North Carolina water bodies using a geographic information system (GIS) mapping and analysis approach. Existing data from state and federal agencies were used to create point and nonpoint source maps depicting the cumulative contribution of potential sources of estrogenic EDCs to North Carolina surface waters. Water was collected from 33 sites (12 associated with potential point sources, 12 associated with potential nonpoint sources, and 9 reference), to validate the predictive results of the GIS analysis. Estrogenicity (measured as 17β-estradiol equivalence) ranged from 0.06 ng/L to 56.9 ng/L. However, the majority of sites (88%) had water 17β-estradiol concentrations below 1 ng/L. Sites associated with point and nonpoint sources had significantly higher 17β-estradiol levels than reference sites. The results suggested that water 17β-estradiol was reflective of GIS predictions, confirming the relevance of landscape-level influences on water quality and validating the GIS approach to characterize such relationships.
Hugh P Shanahan
Full Text Available We discuss the applicability of the Microsoft cloud computing platform, Azure, for bioinformatics. We focus on the usability of the resource rather than its performance. We provide an example of how R can be used on Azure to analyse a large amount of microarray expression data deposited at the public database ArrayExpress. We provide a walk through to demonstrate explicitly how Azure can be used to perform these analyses in Appendix S1 and we offer a comparison with a local computation. We note that the use of the Platform as a Service (PaaS offering of Azure can represent a steep learning curve for bioinformatics developers who will usually have a Linux and scripting language background. On the other hand, the presence of an additional set of libraries makes it easier to deploy software in a parallel (scalable fashion and explicitly manage such a production run with only a few hundred lines of code, most of which can be incorporated from a template. We propose that this environment is best suited for running stable bioinformatics software by users not involved with its development.
Shanahan, Hugh P; Owen, Anne M; Harrison, Andrew P
We discuss the applicability of the Microsoft cloud computing platform, Azure, for bioinformatics. We focus on the usability of the resource rather than its performance. We provide an example of how R can be used on Azure to analyse a large amount of microarray expression data deposited at the public database ArrayExpress. We provide a walk through to demonstrate explicitly how Azure can be used to perform these analyses in Appendix S1 and we offer a comparison with a local computation. We note that the use of the Platform as a Service (PaaS) offering of Azure can represent a steep learning curve for bioinformatics developers who will usually have a Linux and scripting language background. On the other hand, the presence of an additional set of libraries makes it easier to deploy software in a parallel (scalable) fashion and explicitly manage such a production run with only a few hundred lines of code, most of which can be incorporated from a template. We propose that this environment is best suited for running stable bioinformatics software by users not involved with its development.
Cohen, K Bretonnel; Hunter, Lawrence E
Text mining for translational bioinformatics is a new field with tremendous research potential. It is a subfield of biomedical natural language processing that concerns itself directly with the problem of relating basic biomedical research to clinical practice, and vice versa. Applications of text mining fall both into the category of T1 translational research-translating basic science results into new interventions-and T2 translational research, or translational research for public health. Potential use cases include better phenotyping of research subjects, and pharmacogenomic research. A variety of methods for evaluating text mining applications exist, including corpora, structured test suites, and post hoc judging. Two basic principles of linguistic structure are relevant for building text mining applications. One is that linguistic structure consists of multiple levels. The other is that every level of linguistic structure is characterized by ambiguity. There are two basic approaches to text mining: rule-based, also known as knowledge-based; and machine-learning-based, also known as statistical. Many systems are hybrids of the two approaches. Shared tasks have had a strong effect on the direction of the field. Like all translational bioinformatics software, text mining software for translational bioinformatics can be considered health-critical and should be subject to the strictest standards of quality assurance and software testing.
Schneider, Maria Victoria; Watson, James; Attwood, Teresa; Rother, Kristian; Budd, Aidan; McDowall, Jennifer; Via, Allegra; Fernandes, Pedro; Nyronen, Tommy; Blicher, Thomas; Jones, Phil; Blatter, Marie-Claude; De Las Rivas, Javier; Judge, David Phillip; van der Gool, Wouter; Brooksbank, Cath
As bioinformatics becomes increasingly central to research in the molecular life sciences, the need to train non-bioinformaticians to make the most of bioinformatics resources is growing. Here, we review the key challenges and pitfalls to providing effective training for users of bioinformatics services, and discuss successful training strategies shared by a diverse set of bioinformatics trainers. We also identify steps that trainers in bioinformatics could take together to advance the state of the art in current training practices. The ideas presented in this article derive from the first Trainer Networking Session held under the auspices of the EU-funded SLING Integrating Activity, which took place in November 2009.
Schneider, M.V.; Watson, J.; Attwood, T.
As bioinformatics becomes increasingly central to research in the molecular life sciences, the need to train non-bioinformaticians to make the most of bioinformatics resources is growing. Here, we review the key challenges and pitfalls to providing effective training for users of bioinformatics...... services, and discuss successful training strategies shared by a diverse set of bioinformatics trainers. We also identify steps that trainers in bioinformatics could take together to advance the state of the art in current training practices. The ideas presented in this article derive from the first...
Martínez-Alarcón, L; Ríos, A; Ramis, G; López-Navas, A; Febrero, B; Ramírez, P; Parrilla, P
Journalists and the information they disseminate are essential to promote health and organ donation and transplantation (ODT). The attitude of journalism students toward ODT could influence public opinion and help promote this treatment option. The aim of this study was to determine the media through which journalism students receive information on ODT and to analyze the association between the sources of information and psychosocial variables. We surveyed journalism students (n = 129) recruited in compulsory classes. A validated psychosocial questionnaire (self-administered, anonymous) about ODT was used. Student t test and χ(2) test were applied. Questionnaire completion rate was 98% (n = 126). The medium with the greatest incidence on students was television (TV), followed by press and magazines/books. In the factor analysis to determine the impact of the information by its source, the first factor was talks with friends and family; the second was shared by hoardings/publicity posters, health professionals, and college/school; and the third was TV and radio. In the factor analysis between information sources and psychosocial variables, the associations were between information about organ donation transmitted by friends and family and having spoken about ODT with them; by TV, radio, and hoardings and not having spoken in the family; and by TV/radio and the father's and mother's opinion about ODT. The medium with the greatest incidence on students is TV, and the medium with the greatest impact on broadcasting information was conversations with friends, family, and health professionals. This could be useful for society, because they should be provided with clear and concise information. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
Olvera-Lobo, María-Dolores; Gutiérrez-Artacho, Juncal
Question-answering systems (or QA Systems) stand as a new alternative for Information Retrieval Systems. Most users frequently need to retrieve specific information about a factual question to obtain a whole document. The study evaluates the efficiency of QA systems as terminological sources for physicians, specialised translators and users in general. It assesses the performance of one open-domain QA system, START, and one restricted-domain QA system, MedQA. The study collected two hundred definitional questions (What is…?), either general or specialised, from the health website WebMD. Sources used by the open-domain QA system, START, and the restricted-domain QA system, MedQA, were studied to retrieve answers, and later a range of evaluation measures (precision, Mean Reciprocal Rank, Total Reciprocal Rank, First Hit Success) were applied to mark the quality of answers. It was established that both systems are useful in the retrieval of valid definitional healthcare information, with an acceptable degree of coherent and precise responses from both. The answers supplied by MedQA were more reliable that those of START in the sense that they came from specialised clinical or academic sources, most of them showing links to further research articles. Results obtained show the potential of this type of tool in the more general realm of information access, and the retrieval of health information. They may be considered a good, reliable and reasonably precise alternative in alleviating the information overload. Both QA systems can help professionals and users can obtain healthcare information. © 2010 The authors. Health Information and Libraries Journal © 2010 Health Libraries Group.
Buxner, S.; Romine, J.; Impey, C.; Nieberding, M.
Building on a 25 year study of undergraduate students' science literacy, we have been investigating where students report getting information about science. In this study, we investigated the relationship between students' basic science knowledge, responses about studying something scientifically, and where they report gaining information about science. Data for this study was collected through an online survey of astronomy courses during 2014. Responses were collected from a total of 400 students through online surveys. Most survey respondents were non-science majors in the first two years of college who had taken 3 or fewer college science courses. Our results show a relationship between students who report online searches and Wikipedia as reliable sources of information and lower science literacy scores, although there was no relationship between science knowledge and where students report getting information about science. Our results suggest that information literacy is an important component to overall science literacy.