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Sample records for bioindicador vegetal na

  1. A Tradescantia como bioindicador vegetal na monitoração dos efeitos clastogênicos das radiações ionizantes Use of Tradescantia to monitor the clastogenic effects of ionizing radiation

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    Heloisa de Andrade Carvalho

    2005-12-01

    Full Text Available A influência de agentes químicos e físicos (em especial a radiação sobre a freqüência de mutações tem sido amplamente estudada por meio da análise de alterações observadas na Tradescantia, uma planta utilizada como bioindicador dessas alterações. A avaliação das alterações genéticas da Tradescantia pode ser feita tanto pela detecção de mutações somáticas quanto de aberrações cromossômicas induzidas por mutágenos presentes no ar, solo e água. Os resultados apresentados por diversos estudos estimulam o uso da Tradescantia na avaliação dos efeitos das radiações ionizantes. Estudos futuros de mutagenicidade e aberrações cromossômicas também podem ser feitos, por meio da comparação com os efeitos produzidos por outros tipos de radiações, avaliação do efeito da associação da radiação com drogas ou outros agentes químicos, além da biomonitoração de ambientes de alto risco.The influence of chemical and physical agents (specially radiation on the frequency of mutations has been widely studied by means of the analysis of changes observed in Tradescantia, a plant used as a bioindicator. The evaluation of these genetic changes may be performed both by detection of somatic mutations or chromosome abnormalities induced by mutagens that are present in the air, soil, or water. The results obtained from several studies support the use of Tradescantia for monitoring the effects of ionizing radiation. Studies of mutagenicity and chromosomal abnormalities may be carried out in future to compare the effects of other types of radiation, evaluation of the effects of the combined use of radiation and drugs or other chemical agents, and to monitor high risk environments.

  2. Methodology for bioremediation monitoring of oil wastes contaminated soils by using vegetal bio indicators; Metodologia para monitoramento de biorremediacao de solos contaminados com residuos oleosos com bioindicadores vegetais

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nascimento Neto, Durval; Carvalho, Francisco Jose Pereira de Campos [Parana Univ., Curitiba, PR (Brazil). Curso de Pos-Graduacao em Ciencia do Solo]. E-mail: fjcampos@cce.ufpr.br

    1998-07-01

    This work studies the development of a methodology for the evaluation of the bioremediation status of oil waste contaminated soils, by using vegetal bioindicators for the bioremediation process monitoring, and evaluation of the environmental impacts on the contaminated areas.

  3. COMPARACIÓN DE MANEJOS PRATENSES DEL CENTRO-SUR DE CHILE UTILIZANDO VALORES BIOINDICADORES DE ELLENBERG

    OpenAIRE

    San Martín, Cristina; Villagra, Johana; Novoa, Carla

    2009-01-01

    Se compararon dos manejos pratenses: pastoreo con vacunos y pastoreo con ovejas, en un suelo volcánico, del centro-sur de Chile, con los valores bioindicadores de Ellenberg establecidos para malezas europeas, que forman esas praderas. Se comprobó que el pastoreo con ovinos degrada el suelo y la cubierta vegetal mucho más que el pastoreo con bovinos, lo que se corresponde con las diferencias vegetacionales y edáficas establecidas por un estudio anterior mediante análisis edáficos y fitosocioló...

  4. Comunidades liquénicas como bioindicadores de calidad del aire del Valle de Aburrá

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    Jaramillo Ciro1 Margarita María

    2011-11-01

    Full Text Available Los líquenes han sido propuestos como bioindicadores de la calidad del aire por su alta sensibilidad a los cambios que afectan su abundancia, biomasa y vitalidad. Para evaluar las afectaciones que los líquenes manifiestan como consecuencia de la contaminación atmosférica, se seleccionaron dos áreas de muestreo en los alrededores de dos estaciones de la red de monitoreo de calidad del aire RedAire: el edificio Miguel de Aguinaga con alta contaminación y la Universidad de Medellín con baja contaminación. El monitoreo se realizó sobre las cortezas de 4 especies arbóreas como forofitos: Terminalia catappa Linneaus, Eritrina fusca Loureiro, Mangifera indica Linneaus y Fraxinus chinensis Roxb. Para los análisis se consideraron las variables cobertura liquénica por especie, vitalidad y fructificación del talo. Finalmente los datos de cobertura fueron utilizados para determinar el índice de pureza atmosférica (IPA y el factor Q. Los resultados evidenciaron que de las 8 especies de líquenes encontradas, Canoparmelia sp. y Parmotrema austrosinensis (Zahlbr Hale. son las más sensibles y apropiadas para estudios de calidad del aire en el Valle de Aburrá. Los análisis estadísticos realizados a los valores de abundancia relativa por forofito mostraron que Fraxinus chinensis Roxb es la especie vegetal portante más apropiada para estudios de líquenes bioindicadores en el Valle de Aburrá.

  5. Arthropod bioindicators of environmental quality = Artrópodes bioindicadores de qualidade ambiental

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    Márcia Soares Spiller

    2018-03-01

    de insetos que ocupam diversos ambientes. Alguns grupos, entretanto, apresentam relação estreita com o habitat que ocupam, respondendo de forma significativa às modificações no ambiente, o que acaba indicando o nível de alteração desse mesmo ambiente através de sua presença ou ausência. O presente estudo objetivou demonstrar a importância da fauna edáfica como bioindicadora de qualidade ambiental. Trata-se de uma revisão bibliográfica baseada em consulta especializada de artigos científicos nos bancos de dados Google Acadêmico, SciELO-Scientific Eletronic Library e ResearchGate. Os trabalhos encontrados apontaram que a qualidade ambiental pode ser mensurada a partir da diversidade e abundância de artrópodes que vivem e desempenham suas funções no solo. A macrofauna influencia importantes processos químicos e físicos do solo como a ciclagem de nutrientes, estruturação e homogeneização, aumento da produtividade, dentre outros. Já a mesofauna, além de atuar sobre as propriedades edáficas, atua na regulação de populações microbianas e é sensível às alterações, respondendo prontamente. Os grupos Acari, Collembola, Coleoptera, Hymenoptera e Araneae são indicados em diversos estudos como potenciais bioindicadores por serem comumente amostrados em diferentes ambientes. Os fatores apontados como condicionantes da presença desses grupos são a heterogeneidade ambiental, tipo de cobertura vegetal, disponibilidade de serapilheira, sistema de manejo aplicado, sazonalidade, características edáficas, atividades antrópicas, dentre outros. Em suma, por responderem de forma rápida às alterações são considerados eficientes indicadores biológicos, logo, conhecer a diversidade de espécies e seu grau de interação com o ambiente permite analisar os efeitos das modificações antrópicas sob os ecossistemas.

  6. MUSGOS COMO BIOINDICADORES DE METAIS PESADOS NO AMBIENTE

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    Eliane Ferreira de SOUZA

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available Recentemente, inúmeras pesquisas envolvendo degradação ambiental oriunda das poluições atmosférica, terrestre e aquática, tem como foco o uso de animais ou vegetais, que apresentem respostas no sentido de controlar e indicar o nível de deterioração nos ambientes afetados por ações antrópicas. Dentre os organismos indicadores denominados biomonitores, estão os musgos do Filo Bryophyta responsáveis por respostas significativas frente aos impactos gerados pelo descarte indevido de substâncias, que contêm em sua composição metais pesados. Os metais pesados são considerados um dos principais poluentes que afetam os recursos naturais. Geralmente, os mesmos são oriundos de técnicas agrícolas ou mecanismos urbanos que produzem resíduos. Nesta linha, o presente estudo de revisão visa relacionar, principalmente, os efeitos da poluição dos recursos naturais a partir do uso de musgos como bioindicadores de traços metálicos no ambiente.

  7. Coliform accumulation in Amphibalanus amphitrite (Darwin, 1854 (Cirripedia and its use as an organic pollution bioindicator in the estuarine area of Recife, Pernambuco, Brazil Acumulação de coliformes em Amphibalanus amphitrite (Darwin, 1854 (Cirripedia e seu uso como bioindicador de poluição orgânica na área estuarina do Recife, Pernambuco, Brazil

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    CMR Farrapeira

    2010-05-01

    Full Text Available Samples of water and barnacles Amphibalanus amphitrite were collected from Recife, Brazil, to assess if it accumulates total (TC and thermotolerant coliforms (TTC related with sewage pollution. The Most Probable Number (MPN values and the standard procedures for examination of shellfish were used. Comparatively with the water samples, the highest coliform values came from the barnacles, with TC values ranging from 2.4 × 10(6 MPN.g-1, and TTC ranging from > 2.4 × 10³ to 2.9 × 10(5 MPN.g-1. Barnacles accumulate the TC Ewingella americana, and the TTC Escherichia coli, Enterobacter gergoviae, Enterobacter aerogenes, and Enterobacter sakazakii. The results provided an indication of the level of organic contamination at the sampling locations and that this species could be a good organic pollution bioindicator.Amostras de água e cirrípedes Amphibalanus amphitrite foram coletados em Recife, Brasil, para avaliar se estes acumulam coliformes totais (CT e termo-tolerantes (TTC relacionados à poluição por esgoto doméstico. Foram utilizados os valores de Números Mais Prováveis (NMP e os procedimentos padrões para exame de bivalves. Comparativamente às amostras de água, os valores mais altos de coliformes foram dos cirrípedes, com valores de TC variando de 2,4 × 10(6 NMP.g-1, e TTC variando de > 2,4 × 10³ a 2,9 × 10(5 NMP.g-1. Os cirrípedes acumularam TC Ewingella americana e TTC Escherichia coli, Enterobacter gergoviae, Enterobacter aerogenes e Enterobacter sakazakii. Os resultados proveram uma indicação de que há contaminação orgânica nas localidades de amostras e que esta espécie pode ser um bioindicador bom de poluição orgânica.

  8. Cinza vegetal na germinação e no desenvolvimento da alface

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    Marcelo Alves Terra

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available O objetivo deste trabalho foi avaliar o efeito da cinza vegetal na germinação e no desenvolvimento da alface da variedade Lucy Brown, tipo americana. O tipo escolhido foi semeado em bandejas de isopor com cento e vinte oito células. As bandejas continham os seguintes substratos: cinza vegetal, esterco bovino, casca arroz crua, casca de arroz carbonizada, serragem, misturados com solo na proporção de 1:1, além de substrato comercial, solo com adubação de NPK e solo sem adubação. Após o início da germinação, as plântulas foram contadas de três em três dias. Mudas de alface da mesma variedade com três folhas verdadeiras foram transplantadas para caixas de leite com os mesmos substratos. Trinta e três dias após o transplante, a alface foi colhida, as folhas foram contadas, a biomassa verde e a biomassa seca foram determinadas e os caules e as raízes foram contados. O substrato que proporcionou a maior germinação foi a mistura de solo com esterco. Depois, vieram o substrato comercial, o solo com casca de arroz carbonizada, o solo puro, o solo com casca de arroz crua, o solo com NPK, o solo com serragem e o solo com cinza vegetal. Neste último, germinaram apenas de 7,83% das sementes. No momento da colheita, verificou-se, para todos os parâmetros avaliados, com exceção do peso seco da raiz, que o substrato que proporcionou o melhor desenvolvimento foi o solo com esterco bovino, que se diferenciou estatisticamente dos demais substratos avaliados. A cinza vegetal influenciou negativamente tanto na germinação quanto no desenvolvimento das plantas de alface.

  9. Bioindicadores zoológicos, innovación y proyección profesional

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    Redondo-Villa, Alberto

    2012-01-01

    La propuesta presenta la organización del alumnado de la asignatura Bioindicadores Zoológicos de la Licenciatura en Ciencias Ambientales como empresas para que generen ideas de negocio para el autoempleo y solucionar, además, problemas ambientales. El resultado ha sido el desarrollo de más de una veintena de proyectos empresariales, un contrato internacional y ha logrado despertar el interés de instituciones públicas como el Ministerio de Agricultura, la Junta de Casti...

  10. O uso de minhocas como bioindicadores de contaminaçao de solos

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    ANDRÉA, Mara Mercedes de

    2010-01-01

    O nicho ecológico das minhocas as caracteriza como organismos muito importantes no solo e como bioindicadores ambientais. Suas características, especialmente das espécies Eisenia fétida (Savigny, 1826) e E. andrei Bouché, 1972, as qualificaram para testes de toxicidade para fins de registro de agrotóxicos, junto aos órgãos regulamentadores de diversos países. Além da relativa facilidade de criação de E. fetida e E. andrei, as condições desses testes são internacionalmente aceitas e permitem p...

  11. O USO DA MICROANÁLISE EM OTÓLITOS DE BAGRES BIOINDICADORES EM ESTUDOS DE BIOMONITORAMENTO AMBIENTAL

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    Igor Souza de Morais

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available O presente estudo tem por objetivos aprimorar os conhecimentos acerca da determinação da idade/longevidade a partir da análise dos anéis etários nos otólitos de peixes bioindicadores com potencial uso em programas de monitoramento ambiental, considerando uma abordagem regional, nacional e internacional. Neste sentido, propõe-se como ferramenta adicional, a determinação de metais traço com potencial tóxico a partir da aplicação de técnicas analíticas voltadas a microanálise em estruturas calcificadas como os otólitos. Embora na última década alguns representantes da família Ariidae tenham sido validados e utilizados como espécies bioindicadoras ao longo da costa brasileira, a análise integrada quanto aos processos de exposição e respostas crônicas, com conhecimentos acerca da idade dos indivíduos ainda não é considerado. Em conjunto, a análise integrada dos fatores abióticos e bióticos, como caracterização física e química do meio aquático, determinação dos teores de metais nas diferentes matrizes ambientais, assim como a utilização de biomarcadores em associação com a estimativa da idade/longevidade nas espécies bioindicadoras poderão auxiliar na compreensão quanto aos processos de exposição a contaminantes orgânicos e inorgânicos aos quais a biota está exposta, auxiliando os gestores ambientais na tomada de decisões. Palavras chave: Indicador ambiental, estruturas calcificadas, metais traço, peixes, poluição.

  12. Vegetation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Epstein, H.E.; Walker, D.A.; Bhatt, U.S.

    2012-01-01

    increased 20-26%. • Increasing shrub growth and range extension throughout the Low Arctic are related to winter and early growing season temperature increases. Growth of other tundra plant types, including graminoids and forbs, is increasing, while growth of mosses and lichens is decreasing. • Increases...... in vegetation (including shrub tundra expansion) and thunderstorm activity, each a result of Arctic warming, have created conditions that favor a more active Arctic fire regime....

  13. Bioindicadores ambientais: insetos como um instrumento desta avaliação

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    Marco Antonio de Oliveira

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available Atividades agrícolas, florestais e do setor imobiliário vêm, ao longo do tempo, modificando ambientes ecologicamente estruturados. As consequências são drásticas e, por isso, faz-se necessária a busca por ferramentas e instrumentos para diagnosticar e monitorar a diversidade biológica desses locais. Os insetos têm-se destacado como potenciais organismos bioindicadores e isso se deve ao fato de apresentarem grande capacidade perceptiva, no que se refere a alterações do meio ambiente, principalmente por seu apurado sistema sensorial, que lhes permite qualificar condições ambientais em determinadas situações e, ainda, quantificar danos causados ao meio. Um dos problemas que podem ser associados a este setor é a falta de padronização e definição de protocolos de coleta e avaliação da biodiversidade, para que esses resultados possam ser analisados e extrapolados para diferentes ambientes antropizados. Neste trabalho, é contextualizada a importância da entomofauna como bioindicadora, em ecossistemas.

  14. Comunidades liquénicas como bioindicadores de calidad del aire del Valle de Aburrá

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    Jaramillo Ciro, Margarita María; Botero Botero, Liliana Rocío

    2010-01-01

    Los líquenes han sido propuestos como bioindicadores de la calidad del aire por su alta sensibilidad a los cambios que afectan su abundancia, biomasa y vitalidad. Para evaluar las afectaciones que los líquenes manifiestan como consecuencia de la contaminación atmosférica, se seleccionaron dos áreas de muestreo en los alrededores de dos estaciones de la red de monitoreo de calidad del aire RedAire: el edificio Miguel de Aguinaga con alta contaminación y la Universidad de Medellín ...

  15. Comunidades liquénicas como bioindicadores de calidad del aire del Valle de Aburrá

    OpenAIRE

    Jaramillo Ciro, Margarita María; Botero Botero, Liliana Rocío

    2010-01-01

    Los líquenes han sido propuestos como bioindicadores de la calidad del aire por su alta sensibilidad a los cambios que afectan su abundancia, biomasa y vitalidad. Para evaluar las afectaciones que los líquenes manifiestan como consecuencia de la contaminación atmosférica, se seleccionaron dos áreas de muestreo en los alrededores de dos estaciones de la red de monitoreo de calidad del aire RedAire: el edificio Miguel de Aguinaga con alta contaminación y la Universidad de Medellín con baja cont...

  16. Formigas como bioindicadores da qualidade do solo em sistema integrado lavoura-pecuária

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    Rafael Aparecido Crepaldi

    2014-05-01

    Full Text Available O objetivo deste trabalho foi avaliar a comunidade de formigas em sistemas envolvendo a rotação entre lavoura e pecuária, sob plantio direto, comparado a outros sistemas de manejo e com sistemas naturais da região. O estudo foi conduzido no Município de Dourados, MS, sob Argissolo Vermelho distroférrico típico, num sistema integrado lavoura-pecuária, em plantio direto, rotacionado a cada dois anos. Outros sistemas de manejo avaliados, para comparação, incluíram o sistema convencional (aração e gradagem, sistema plantio direto e pastagem cultivada continuamente com Brachiaria decumbens, além de dois fragmentos de vegetação nativa, nos biomas Cerrado e Floresta Semidecídua. A coleta de solo foi realizada no período chuvoso (safra 2009/2010, sendo as amostragens de serapilheira realizadas com a utilização de extratores do tipo mini-Winkler, seguindo o protocolo ALL (Ants of the Leaf Litter. Os resultados indicaram morfoespécies de Strumygenys sp. e Hypoponera sp. como potencial bioindicadores de qualidade do solo. O estudo demonstrou que a importância da manutenção de fragmentos florestais (Cerrado e Floresta Semidecídua e implementação de sistemas integrados, tais como lavoura-pecuária, são menos impactantes para a mesofauna de solo e contribuem para a conservação da diversidade de formigas e manutenção da qualidade do solo.

  17. Propolis and vegetable wax in the conservation of Hass avocadoPrópolis e cera vegetal na conservação de abacate Hass

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    Ricardo de Oliveira Orsi

    2012-08-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this work was to evaluate the quality of Hass avocado submitted to application of propolis and vegetable wax. The selected fruits were submitted to the treatments (1 without wax and without propolis, (2 with vegetable wax, (3 propolis alcoholic extract 100%, (4 wax and etanol 70%, (5 propolis alcoholic extract 2% and wax, (6 propolis alcoholic extract 4% and wax, (7 propolis alcoholic extract 6% and wax, (8 propolis alcoholic extract 8% and wax, and (9 propolis alcoholic extract 10% and wax. The fruits were maintained under refrigeration (10 ± 1 ºC and 90 ± 5% relative humidity, being appraised every three days for 15 days and more 3 days of commercialization simulation at room temperature (23± 1 ºC and 18% relative humidity.The evaluation parameters were the weight loss, respiratory activity, pH, firmness, tritable acidity (AT, soluble solids (SS, and ratio. The results of weigth loss, respiratory activity and firmness were the most significant to show the difference among the treatments. ‘Hass’ avocado fruits submitted the application of propolis associated the vegetable wax present smaller weight loss, CO2 production and firmness in relation to the control fruits. The fruits of the treatment with propolis alcoholic extract 2% and wax presented the most promising results. Objetivou-se neste trabalho avaliar a aplicação de própolis e cera vegetal na qualidade pós-colheita do abacate ‘Hass’. Os frutos selecionados foram submetidos aos tratamentos (1 sem cera e sem própolis, (2 com cera vegetal, (3 extrato alcoólico de própolis 100%, (4 cera e etanol 70%, (5 extrato alcoólico de própolis 2% e cera, (6 extrato alcoólico de própolis 4% e cera, (7 extrato alcoólico de própolis 6% e cera, (8 extrato alcoólico de própolis 8% e cera e (9 extrato alcoólico de própolis 10% e cera. Os frutos foram mantidos sob refrigeração (10 ± 1 ºC e 90 ± 5% umidade relativa, sendo avaliados a cada três dias durante 15 dias

  18. Aplicabilidade do modelo MClone na síntese de padrões visuais do reino vegetal

    OpenAIRE

    Ricardo Luís Binsfeld

    2013-01-01

    Um dos objetivos permanentes da Computação Gráfica é a representação fiel, e por consequência realista, da aparência de objetos e cenas sintetizadas. Para objetos e cenas do Reino Vegetal pode-se dizer que houve um grande avanço nos métodos para modelagem da forma e propriedades de reflexão de elementos individuais, como folhas, e de coleções de elementos, como árvores, vegetação em geral e florestas. Por outro lado, as técnicas para modelagem de padrões visuais presentes em muitos objetos na...

  19. Cobertura vegetal e uso da terra na região Araripe Pernambucana.

    OpenAIRE

    SÁ, I. I. S.; GALVÍNCIO, J. D.; MOURA, M. S. B. de; SA, I. B.

    2010-01-01

    Este estudio desarrolla los municipios de Araripina, Bodocó, Ipubi, Ouricuri y Trinidad. Estos distritos forman el eje de Araripe y se encuentran en el extremo oeste de Pernambuco. Esta región sufre intensos cambios en el paisaje mediante la eliminación de la cubierta vegetal para el uso de leña en la calcinación de la región, así como para las prácticas agrícolas tradicionales. El objetivo de este estudio es analizar la vegetación de esta región, basado en la clasifi cación no supervisada de...

  20. Vegetative growth performance of five medicinal plants under NaCl salt stress

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Muhammad, Z; Hussain, F [University of Peshawar (Pakistan). Dept. of Botany

    2010-02-15

    Seeds of Lepidium sativum L., Linum usitatissimum L., Nigella sativa L., Plantago ovata Forssk, and Trigonella foenum-graecum L. were grown in pots containing loamy soil with 0.21(Control) 5.0, 7.5, 10.0, 12.5, or 15.0 dS/m concentration of NaCl to see their salinity tolerance. Various concentrations of salt had a highly significant effect upon the survival %age, plant height, number of branches, shoot fresh and dry weight, root fresh and dry weight and root moisture contents. Number of leaves also varied significantly. However, leaf length and shoot moisture contents exhibited non-significant differences. Differences among the test species for all the parameters under consideration were also highly significant. The findings suggest that the test species are tolerant to moderate salinity i.e., 7.5 dS/m and might be tried on saline soils to obtain some biomass. (author)

  1. vegetative growth performance of five medicinal plants under NaCl salt stress

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Muhammad, Z.; Hussain, F.

    2010-01-01

    Seeds of Lepidium sativum L., Linum usitatissimum L., Nigella sativa L., Plantago ovata Forssk, and Trigonella foenum-graecum L. were grown in pots containing loamy soil with 0.21(Control) 5.0, 7.5, 10.0, 12.5, or 15.0 dS/m concentration of NaCl to see their salinity tolerance. Various concentrations of salt had a highly significant effect upon the survival %age, plant height, number of branches, shoot fresh and dry weight, root fresh and dry weight and root moisture contents. Number of leaves also varied significantly. However, leaf length and shoot moisture contents exhibited non-significant differences. Differences among the test species for all the parameters under consideration were also highly significant. The findings suggest that the test species are tolerant to moderate salinity i.e., 7.5 dS/m and might be tried on saline soils to obtain some biomass. (author)

  2. COBERTURA VEGETAL E USO DA TERRA NA REGIÃO ARARIPE PERNAMBUCANA

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    Ivan Ighour Silva Sá

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Este estudio desarrolla los municipios de Araripina, Bodocó, Ipubi, Ouricuri y Trinidad. Estos distritos forman el eje de Araripe y se encuentran en el extremo oeste de Pernambuco. Esta región sufre intensos cambios en el paisaje mediante la eliminación de la cubierta vegetal para el uso de leña en la calcinación de la región, así como para las prácticas agrícolas tradicionales. El objetivo de este estudio es analizar la vegetación de esta región, basado en la clasifi cación no supervisada de NDVI y encuestas sobre el terreno. En la región son las caras Savana facies Estépica en sus bosques y cubierta de árboles que se encuentran en la Unidad de Paisaje Depresión país, las áreas de contacto de tipo de vegetación Savana, Savana Estépica y el bosque de hoja caduca que se encuentran en la Araripe y áreas donde estas caras están en la regeneración y en áreas de la agricultura.

  3. Substâncias de origem vegetal potencialmente úteis na terapia da asma

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maria Fernanda P. Corrêa

    Full Text Available A asma é uma doença inflamatória crônica, que representa um problema de saúde pública com altos números de óbitos e elevado impacto socioeconômico. A patologia é caracterizada pela fase imediata, mediada pela resposta aguda de células inflamatórias, e a tardia, que é responsável pela resposta com envolvimento de células específicas do sistema imunológico. Atualmente, os principais tipos de fármacos utilizados no tratamento da asma são os broncodilatadores e agentes antiinflamatórios, que aliviam os sintomas de broncoespasmo e diminuem a inflamação das vias aéreas. Entretanto, terapias com esses medicamentos não são totalmente eficazes e provocam efeitos adversos. A escassez de fármacos seguros e o baixo acesso da população carente aos tratamentos utilizados estimulam a busca de novas substâncias potencialmente úteis no tratamento da asma. Produtos naturais de origem vegetal representam um grande potencial farmacológico contra asma, uma vez que podem fornecer moléculas diversas com mecanismos específicos para tratamento e controle da patologia. A busca por terapias mais eficientes e específicas para o processo asmático mostra que a procura nos produtos naturais é promissora e possui um papel importante para a descoberta de novas terapias contra a asma.

  4. Fauna do Solo como Indicadora em Fragmentos Florestais na Encosta de Morrotes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rafael Nogueira Scoriza

    Full Text Available RESUMO A diferença sucessional entre os fragmentos florestais reflete-se na comunidade da fauna do solo, mostrando-se um bioindicador eficiente. A não diferenciação entre terços indica que a degradação antrópica ocorre de forma homogênea em toda a extensão da encosta florestal.

  5. Larvicultura de Rhamdia quelen (Pisces, Pimelodidae con proteína vegetal y animal, suplementadas con plancton

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Germán Castañeda A.

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available Objetivo. Determinar el efecto de dietas con diferentes proporciones de fuentes proteicas animales y vegetales suplementadas con plancton sobre el crecimiento y sobrevivencia en larvas de Rhamdia quelen. Materiales y métodos. Fueron formuladas dos dietas experimentales, dieta-1 con 70% de proteína de origen vegetal (torta de soya y dieta-2 con 70% de proteína proveniente de animales (corazón bovino yharina de pescado; se utilizaron cuatro protocolos de alimentación (cinco réplicas por tratamiento: dieta-1 + plancton filtrado en tamiz de 50-200 micras (T1, dieta-2 + plancton filtrado en tamiz de 50-200 micras (T2, dieta-1 (T3, dieta-2 (T4. Las larvas fueron manejadas a una densidad de 20 animales L-1 suministrando alimentohasta aparente saciedad diariamente a las 07:00, 11:00, 16:00 y 21:00 horas; la suplementación con plancton se realizó a las 11:00 y 21:00 horas. Resultados. Entre T1 y T2 no se observaron diferencias estadísticas (p>0.05 en peso final (21.89 ± 15.17mg vs 20.37 ± 10.37mg, longitud total (13.41±2.34mm vs 13.39±1.99 mm, factor de condición (K (0.80±0.13 vs 0.78±0.13 y sobrevivencia (46.6±2.68% vs36.0±7.41%; las diferencias entre T3 y T4 tampoco fueron significativas (3.35±1.40 mg vs 2.98±1.48 mg; 7.54±0.91mm vs 7.33±0.96mm; 0.75±0.13 vs 0.71±0.12; 33.6±9.07% vs 24.8±6.76%, respectivamente; hubo diferencias significativas (p<0.05 entre los grupos suplementados con plancton y los alimentados solo con ración. Conclusiones. La suplementación con plancton fue más efectiva que elofrecimiento solo de ración. La inclusión del 62.9% de torta de soya en la formulación (T1, aparentemente no afectó el crecimiento ni la sobrevivencia.

  6. O PAPEL DA COBERTURA VEGETAL NOS AMBIENTES URBANOS E SUA INFLUÊNCIA NA QUALIDADE DE VIDA NAS CIDADES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Taíse Ernestina Prestes Duarte

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available HE ROLE OF VEGETATION IN URBAN ENVIRONMENTS AND THEIR INFLUENCE ON QUALITY OF LIFE IN CITIES This study aimed to understand the benefits of the vegetation cover for the quality of urban life, setting as this quality is measured and, reflecting on the handling of the native vegetation in the process of formation and expansion of urban spaces. This study also sought, address aspects of urban vegetation in Rondonópolis – MT, while a medium-sized municipality, which experiences a process of accelerated growth from the 1970s to understand the influence of vegetation on the quality of life in cities and its function in urban environments, this study proposes a critical reflection on the role of vegetation in urban ecosystems, through a narrative review based on scientific articles, books, theses and dissertations on the subject. This narrative review addressed the urban ecosystems against the intense urban growth and its consequent deterioration of environmental quality provided the urban population. Thus, this narrative review has allowed a better understanding of the influence of vegetation on the quality of life in cities, establishing the vegetation exerts specific ecosystem functions, which in large part, are completely ignored by urban planning. Still, the analysis of local studies on the vegetation cover in Rondonópolis allowed understand how this city booming, organizes and maintains the vegetation in its urban space.

  7. Remoção de metais pesados tóxicos cádmio, chumbo e cromo em biofertilizante suíno utilizando macrófita aquática (Eichornia crassipes como bioindicador - DOI: 10.4025/actascitechnol.v30i1.3179

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Affonso Celso Gonçalves Júnior

    2008-05-01

    Full Text Available Este trabalho objetivou avaliar a eficiência da macrófita aquática (Eichornia crassipes como bioindicador e alternativa na remoção dos metais pesados tóxicos Cd, Pb e Cr em biofertilizante de origem suína. Foi utilizado o esquema fatorial 2x4, sendo os fatores representados pelas partes da planta (aérea e raiz, e pelos quatro tratamentos. Na instalação do experimento coletou-se uma alíquota da solução de cada tratamento para determinar as concentrações iniciais dos metais e, após 30 dias de cultivo, as plantas foram retiradas, coletando-se novamente uma alíquota da solução de cada tratamento. As plantas foram separadas em parte aérea e raiz, secas e trituradas. A macrófita apresentou-se eficiente na remoção dos metais pesados, observou-se que o sistema radicular da macrófita apresentou maiores concentrações de Cd, Pb e Cr. Com este trabalho, conclui-se que a macrófita aquática (Eichornia crassipes pode ser uma alternativa para o tratamento de biofertilizante e dejetos provenientes da suinocultura

  8. Estudio metalo-metabolómico de bioindicadores de áreas costeras y estuarinas del suroeste de la Península Ibérica

    OpenAIRE

    Gago Tinoco, Amanda

    2016-01-01

    Los invertebrados acuáticos son muy buenos bioindicadores que resultan particularmente útiles para evaluar la calidad de los ecosistemas acuáticos; las especies indicadoras deben reunir una serie de características como poseer una amplia distribución y una gran abundancia; además presentar una relación entre el contenido de contaminante en sus tejidos y la concentración de éste en el ambiente. Por otro lado, son adaptables a estudios de laboratorio. Estos organismos han sido empleados en nume...

  9. Mutagenic study of the diesel oil combustion through vegetal bioindicator; Estudo mutagenico da combustao de oleo diesel atraves de bioindicador vegetal

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Oliveira, Deuzuita dos Santos [Universidade de Sao Paulo (USP), Sao Carlos, SP (Brazil). Escola de Engenharia. Nucleo de Engenharia Termica e Fluidos (NETeF); Paula Manoel Crnkovic [Universidade de Sao Paulo (USP), Sao Carlos, SP (Brazil). Escola de Engenharia. Dept. de Engenharia Mecanica; Josmar Davilson Pagliuso [Universidade de Sao Paulo (USP), Sao Carlos, SP (Brazil). Escola de Engenharia. Dept. de Hidraulica e Saneamento]. E-mail: deuzuita@sc.usp.br

    2006-07-01

    This work evaluates the mutagenic potential of the exhaustion from a diesel engine, by using the bioassay Trad-SH, used as bioindicator of the air polluted. In the experiments, the diesel exhausted air have been diluted in order to reach the typical urban polluted atmosphere (50, 100 and 150 ppm of CO)

  10. Análisis de bioindicadores dietarios en poblaciones prehispánicas del centro de Argentina durante el holoceno

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fabra, Mariana

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available La información arqueológica acerca de las poblaciones prehispánicas que ocuparon la región austral de las Sierras Pampeanas sugiere, desde inicios del Holoceno hasta la llegada de los españoles, la existencia de diversas estrategias de adaptación. El objetivo de este trabajo es analizar la diversidad temporal y espacial de la dieta de las poblaciones asentadas en esta región, analizando bioindicadores como caries e información isotópica -δC13 y δN15-. Como hipótesis de trabajo, es de esperar cambios tanto en la frecuencia de caries como en los valores isotópicos entre poblaciones de cazadores-recolectores y aquellas que han incorporado la agricultura. El registro de caries se realizó sobre un total de 50 individuos adultos de ambos sexos, y el análisis isotópico se efectuó sobre 9 muestras de colágeno óseo, cuyos fechados radiocarbónicos las ubican desde fines del Holoceno Medio al Holoceno tardío final (4500-300 a.P.. Se aplicó el test de X² para evaluar la significación estadística de las diferencias observadas. Los resultados isotópicos y bioantropológicos serían coincidentes con información arqueológica previa, y permitirían interpretar la introducción de los cultígenos a la dieta de estas poblaciones como un proceso paulatino, que no supuso un cambio radical en la dieta de estas poblaciones.

  11. A marked animal-vegetal polarity in the localization of Na(+),K(+) -ATPase activity and its down-regulation following progesterone-induced maturation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mohanty, Basant Kumar; Gupta, Brij L

    2012-02-01

    The stage-VI Xenopus oocyte has a very distinct animal-vegetal polarity with structural and functional asymmetry. In this study, we show the expression and distribution pattern of Na(+),K(+) -ATPase in stage-VI oocytes, and its changes following progesterone-induced maturation. Using enzyme-specific electron microscopy phosphatase histochemistry, [(3) H]-ouabain autoradiography, and immunofluorescence cytochemistry at light microscopic level, we find that Na(+),K(+) -ATPase activity is mainly confined to the animal hemisphere. Electron microscopy histochemical results also suggest that polarized distribution of Na(+),K(+) -ATPase activity persists following progesterone-induced maturation, and it becomes gradually more polarized towards the animal pole. The time course following progesterone-induced maturation suggests that there is an initial up-regulation and then gradual down-regulation of Na(+),K(+) -ATPase activity leading to germinal vesicle breakdown (GVBD). By GVBD, the Na(+),K(+) -ATPase activity is completely down-regulated due to endocytotic removal of pump molecules from the plasma membrane into the sub-cortical region of the oocyte. This study provides the first direct evidence for a marked asymmetric localization of Na(+),K(+) -ATPase activity in any vertebrate oocyte. Here, we propose that such asymmetry in Na(+),K(+) -ATPase activity in stage-VI oocytes, and their down-regulation following progesterone-induced maturation, is likely to have a role in the active state of the germinal vesicle in stage-VI oocytes and chromosomal condensation after GVBD. Copyright © 2011 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  12. Análise espaço-temporal da cobertura vegetal e uso da terra na Interbacia do Rio Paraguai Médio-MT, Brasil

    OpenAIRE

    Pessoa,Seyla Poliana Miranda; Galvanin,Edinéia Aparecida dos Santos; Kreitlow,Jesã Pereira; Neves,Sandra Mara Alves da Silva; Nunes,Josué Ribeiro da Silva; Zago,Bruno Wagner

    2013-01-01

    O objetivo deste estudo foi realizar uma análise espaço-temporal da cobertura vegetal e do uso da terra na Interbacia do Rio Paraguai Médio-MT, Brasil, pelo geoprocessamento de imagens Landsat TM, dos anos 1991, 2001 e 2011. As imagens foram georreferenciadas, classificadas e processadas no software Spring e as classes temáticas, quantificadas e editadas no software ArcGis. Foram mapeadas sete classes, sendo as mais expressivas a vegetação nativa, a pastagem e a cana-de-açúcar. Os resultados ...

  13. O uso de peixes como bioindicador ambiental em áreas de várzea da bacia amazônica

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carlos Edwar C. Freitas

    2009-08-01

    Full Text Available O uso de bioindicadores pode constituir uma importante ferramenta para monitoramento ambiental, e para ecossistemas aquáticos o uso de espécies de peixes é bastante eficiente, pois são componentes comuns e de fácil amostragem, bem como podem apresentar diferentes estilos de vida e habitats durante seu ciclo de vida. Neste artigo utilizamos como critérios para a seleção das espécies indicadoras, as seguintes características: ser taxonomicamente bem definido e facilmente reconhecível por não-especialistas, apresentar distribuição geográfica ampla, ser abundante ou de fácil coleta, preferencialmente possuir tamanho médio/grande, apresentar baixa mobilidade e longo ciclo de vida, dispor de características ecológicas conhecidas e ter possibilidade de uso em estudos em laboratório. Desta forma, indicamos oito espécies de peixes típicos das várzeas amazônicas: Pellona castelneana, Potamorhina altamazonica, Prochilodus nigricans, Mylossoma duriventre, Pygocentrus nattereri, Serrasalmus rhombeus, Triportheus angulatus e liposarcus pardalis, para uso como bioindicadores em programas de monitoramento ou de avaliação de alterações ambientais.

  14. Fruit and vegetable intake by Brazilian adults, 2003 Consumo de frutas e hortaliças na população adulta brasileira, 2003

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Patrícia Constante Jaime

    2005-01-01

    Full Text Available This study estimated indicators of fruit and vegetable intake by Brazilian adults and examined the influence of demographic and socioeconomic variables on the consumption of these foods. We used the following indicators: daily fruit intake, daily vegetable intake, and daily consumption of five or more servings of fruits and vegetables per day. Only 41.0% of adults reported daily fruit intake, while 30.0% reported daily vegetable intake. Fruit and vegetable intake was more common in urban as compared to rural areas and increased in both genders with age, schooling, and number of household goods. We conclude that initiatives to promote fruit and vegetable consumption are necessary for the country as a whole, but special attention should be given to younger individuals, males, rural communities, and groups with less schooling and lower income.O presente estudo estimou a freqüência e a distribuição do consumo de frutas e hortaliças e analisou a influência de variáveis demográficas e sócio-econômicas na determinação do padrão de consumo desses alimentos na população adulta do Brasil. Os indicadores do consumo alimentar foram: consumo diário de frutas, de hortaliças, consumo diário de frutas e hortaliças e consumo diário de cinco ou mais porções de frutas e hortaliças. Menos da metade (41,0% dos indivíduos adultos refere o consumo diário de frutas enquanto menos de um terço (30,0% refere o consumo diário de hortaliças. O consumo de frutas e hortaliças é maior nas áreas urbanas do que nas áreas rurais e aumenta com a idade e escolaridade dos indivíduos, e com o número de bens no domicílio, em ambos os sexos. Concluímos que iniciativas de promoção do consumo de frutas e hortaliças devem atender a população como um todo, mas que especial atenção deve ser dada a indivíduos jovens, ao sexo masculino, a áreas rurais e aos estratos populacionais com insuficiente escolaridade e baixa renda.

  15. Aplicação de reguladores vegetais na cultura de arroz de terras altas = Effect of vegetal regulators on sprinkler-irrigated highland rice

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rita de Cássia Félix Alvarez

    2007-04-01

    Full Text Available O objetivo deste trabalho foi identificar o regulador vegetal e dose mais adequada visando à redução da altura da planta e acamamento e a interferência destes nos componentes da produção e produtividade de grãos de arroz de terras altas irrigado por aspersão. Os tratamentos foram constituídos de três reguladores vegetais e quatro doses. Ocloreto de mepiquat (PIX e o etil-trinexapac (Moddus foram aplicados nas doses 0, 2000, 4000 e 8000 mg L-1 e o paclobutrazol (Paclobutrazol ou Cultar foi aplicado nas doses 0, 1000, 2000 e 4000 mg L-1, do produto comercial. Os reguladores vegetais foram aplicadosno estádio de perfilhamento, utilizando o cultivar Primavera. Constatou-se que a aplicação do etil-trinexapac reduziu a altura da planta e influenciou negativamente os componentes da produção e produtividade de grãos. Não foi identificada uma dose “ideal” que reduzisse a altura da planta e proporcionasse aumento na produtividade de grãos.The present work aims to identify the vegetal regulators and optimum dose to reduce plant height and layering and their influence on production and productivity components in sprinkler-irrigated highland rice grains. Treatments consisted of three vegetal regulators and four doses. Mepiquat chloride (Pix and ethyl-trinexapac (Moddus were applied at doses of 0, 2000, 4000 and 8000 mg L-1, while paclobutrazol (Paclobutrazol was applied at 0, 1000,2000 and 4000 mg L-1, commercial product. The vegetal regulators were applied during the profiling state, utilizing Primavera cultivar. Results showed that ethyl-trinexapac reduced the plant height and influenced negatively grain production and productivity components.No optimum dose was identified to reduce plant height and increase grain productivity.

  16. Fisiologia vegetal do estômato na prática - relato de experiência

    OpenAIRE

    Marek, Renan; Schoeninger, Fernanda Patrícia; Santos, Denise Fontana dos; Silva, Everton Ricardi Lozano da

    2014-01-01

    Anais do II Seminário Seminário Estadual PIBID do Paraná: tecendo saberes / organizado por Dulcyene Maria Ribeiro e Catarina Costa Fernandes — Foz do Iguaçu: Unioeste; Unila, 2014 Uma das maiores dificuldades encontradas na educação básica de ensino consiste em desenvolver atividades práticas que despertem a curiosidade dos alunos. O PIBID Ciências Biológicas desenvolve uma série de atividades nas escolas públicas de Dois vizinhos, entre as quais se destaca o auxílio na execução e...

  17. EFICIÊNCIA DE ESPÉCIES VEGETAIS NA PURIFICAÇÃO DE ESGOTO SANITÁRIO VEGETAL SPECIES EFFICIENCY ON WASTEWATER TREATMENT

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Luiz Fernando Coutinho Oliveira

    2007-09-01

    Full Text Available

    O presente estudo objetivou avaliar a eficiência de substratos e de espécies vegetais no tratamento de esgoto sanitário, num sistema do tipo zona de raízes com fluxo subsuperficial descendente, após decantação. O experimento foi conduzido no campus Samambaia, da Universidade Federal de Goiás, em Goiânia, Goiás, Brasil. As espécies avaliadas foram taboa (Typha angustifolia L., lírio do brejo (Hedychium coronarium J. König, conta-de-lágrima (Coix lacryma-jobi L. e capim Angola (Urochloa mutica (Forssk. T.Q. Nguyen. O sistema mostrou-se eficiente na remoção de poluentes do esgoto, atendendo aos padrões estabelecidos pela legislação brasileira vigente, exceto para o nitrogênio amoniacal. A taboa e o lírio-do-brejo mostraram-se mais eficientes na redução da DBO, na oxigenação do substrato, na remoção do nitrogênio amoniacal e na remoção de coliformes. A taboa foi mais eficiente na remoção de fosfatos. A eficiência na remoção de coliformes atingiu níveis próximos à totalidade. Dentre os substratos avaliados, a casca de coco foi o menos eficiente na redução da DBO e da DQO e na remoção do nitrogênio amoniacal e dos coliformes.

    PALAVRAS-CHAVE: Tratamento de esgotos; alagados.

    The objective of this study was to evaluate the efficiency of substrates and vegetal species to treat sanitary wastewater, in a subsurface downward flow root zone system, after previous decantation. The experiment was carried out at Samambaia Campus, Federal University of Goiás, Goiânia, Goiás State, Brazil. The vegetal species were narrow-leaf cattail (Typha angustifolia L., white ginger (Hedychium coronarium J. König, Job's tears (Coix lacryma-jobi L., and para grass (Urochloa mutica (Forssk. T.Q. Nguyen. The system revealed to be efficient on wastewater

  18. Caracterização atual do uso da terra e da cobertura vegetal na região da Terra Indígena Sangradouro/Volta Grande-Mato Grosso, Brasil

    OpenAIRE

    Kawakubo, Fernando Shinji; Morato, Rúbia Gomes; Correia Junior, Paulo Almeida; Luchiari, Ailton

    2004-01-01

    O objetivo desta pesquisa foi realizar o mapeamento do uso e cobertura vegetal na Terra Indígena Sangradouro/Volta Grande-MT (Brasil). As técnicas utilizadas consistem na aplicação do Modelo Linear de Mistura Espectral seguidas pela segmentação das imagens sintéticas e classificação supervisionada dos componentes segmentados. O cálculo das áreas correspondentes as classes de uso e cobertura vegetal permitiu avaliar a situação atual da Terra Indígena no contexto ambiental. El objeto de este...

  19. A busca de si numa religião hoasqueira: oralidade, memória e conhecimento na União do Vegetal (UDV)

    OpenAIRE

    RIBEIRO, Dilma Lopes da Silva

    2009-01-01

    O presente trabalho apresenta os resultados da pesquisa etnográfica (baseada na perspectiva da participação observante) realizada junto à religião denominada União do Vegetal (UDV), tendo como locus a Região Metropolitana de Belém (PA). Uma religião de origem amazônica, a UDV está classificada como uma das três principais Linhas das Religiões da Ayahuasca, as quais, entre outras similaridades, têm em comum o uso do chá enteógeno derivado da decocção de duas espécies vegetais: o...

  20. Superfamilia Scarabaeoidea (Insecta: Coleoptera como elemento bioindicador de perturbación antropogénica en un parque nacional amazónico

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Samuel Eduardo Otavo

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available Diferentes grupos de insectos se consideran importantes elementos bioindicadores de la calidad de los ecosistemas, los coleópteros son hoy en día uno de los grupos más reconocidos y utilizados para el monitoreo y establecimiento de áreas protegidas. Se evaluó el uso de la superfamilia Scarabaeoidea como bioindicador del grado de perturbación antropogénica de los bosques húmedos amazónicos. En tres niveles de perturbación (alta, media y baja se establecieron 12 transectos, utilizando tres trampas de interceptación, dos trampas de luz, tres trampas de caída, cuatro trampas de botella y captura manual. Se capturaron 593 individuos, 92 especies, 44 géneros y 7 familias. Las familias con el mayor número de individuos y especies fueron Scarabaeidae (n=232, 27 spp. y Dynastidae (n=161, 26 spp.. Las especies más abundantes fueron: Ateuchus sp., Cyclocephala verticalis, Ceratocanthus amazonicus y Chaetodus asuai. El número de especies e individuos fue mayor a medida que el gradiente de perturbación aumentó. Dynastidae presenta el mayor número de especies exclusivas mientras Scarabaeidae comparte la mayoría. Diez especies fueron registradas en los tres bosques, 26 en dos y 56 en solo uno. De las especies más abundantes C. asuai muestra una reducción significativa del número de individuos con el aumento de la perturbación, mientras se observa una relación inversa para C. verticalis. Se discute la utilización de la riqueza y la diversidad como indicadores de perturbación, mientras se ratifica la abundancia de ciertos táxones como una mejor variable a medir.

  1. Atuação dos aleloquímicos no organismo vegetal e formas de utilização da alelopatia na agronomia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Paulo Sérgio Siberti da Silva

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available http://dx.doi.org/10.5007/2175-7925.2012v25n3p65   No reino vegetal, tanto em florestas quanto em agrossistemas, ocorre a alelopatia, que é o efeito benéfico ou maléfico de uma planta sobre a outra, mediante liberação de compostos secundários. O fenômeno é determinante no processo de formação das comunidades vegetais, servindo, também, como importante ferramenta para a agronomia, pois seu uso pode promover o combate de plantas indesejáveis, manter as culturas sadias e solucionar casos de insucessos dos cultivares. Além disso, os bioensaios alelopáticos contribuem para a identificação de possíveis fontes botânicas de compostos com ação biocida para combate de pragas e doenças. Logo esse fenômeno pode proporcionar ao pequeno produtor a mudança na sua maneira de se relacionar com a terra e diminuir ou até mesmo abolir o uso de defensivos químicos em suas propriedades. O atual trabalho se trata de uma revisão de literatura sobre algumas formas de atuação dos aleloquímicos no organismo vegetal e maneiras de utilização da alelopatia no manejo e cultivo de plantas.

  2. Análise espaço-temporal da cobertura vegetal e uso da terra na Interbacia do Rio Paraguai Médio-MT, Brasil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Seyla Poliana Miranda Pessoa

    2013-02-01

    Full Text Available O objetivo deste estudo foi realizar uma análise espaço-temporal da cobertura vegetal e do uso da terra na Interbacia do Rio Paraguai Médio-MT, Brasil, pelo geoprocessamento de imagens Landsat TM, dos anos 1991, 2001 e 2011. As imagens foram georreferenciadas, classificadas e processadas no software Spring e as classes temáticas, quantificadas e editadas no software ArcGis. Foram mapeadas sete classes, sendo as mais expressivas a vegetação nativa, a pastagem e a cana-de-açúcar. Os resultados indicaram alterações em todas as classes durante os últimos 20 anos, com a diminuição de 22,89% da vegetação nativa, relacionada com o aumento de 58,42% da pastagem e 490,26% de monocultura de cana-de-açúcar. Foi verificado o conflito de uso da terra, principalmente em áreas de mata ciliar, fato que pode influenciar negativamente na conservação da interbacia e, consequentemente, do pantanal mato-grossense.

  3. INFLUÊNCIA DO MÉTODO DE SAPONIFICAÇÃO DE ÓLEO VEGETAL AMAZÔNICO NA FLOTABILIDADE DA APATITA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Priscila Silva de Oliveira

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available Pesquisas demonstram a viabilidade técnica da utilização de sais de ácidos graxos, obtidos a partir da hidrólise alcalina de óleos provenientes de espécies vegetais amazônicas como coletores em flotação de minérios fosfáticos. No entanto, a necessidade de torná-los solúveis em água através da reação de saponificação, que é feita em alta temperatura e tempo elevado de reação, dificulta a sua aplicação a nível industrial. Nesse sentido, o objetivo principal deste trabalho é avaliar diferentes métodos de saponificação do óleo vegetal extraído da polpa de buriti (Mauritia flexuosa, oriundo da floresta amazônica, analisando a influência do método na flotabilidade da apatita. Nas reações de saponificação variou-se o tempo e a temperatura de reação, a proporção água/álcool e proporção óleo/NaOH. O critério de flotabilidade utilizado foi a microflotação em tubo de Hallimond modificado, com emprego de extensor da altura do aparato para evitar o arraste hidrodinâmico. Os resultados de flotabilidade obtidos apontam como as melhores condições: tempo máximo de reação de 20 minutos, proporção óleo/NaOH de 1:0,3, proporção álcool/água de 1:0 e temperatura de reação de 55 °C.

  4. Variação na cobertura vegetal nativa em São Paulo: um panorama do conhecimento atual

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    Juliana Sampaio Farinaci

    2012-08-01

    Full Text Available Estudos em diversos países têm evidenciado a ocorrência de transição florestal, fenômeno em que o aumento da cobertura florestal supera as perdas por desflorestamento. No Brasil, embora o desflorestamento ocorra em maior grau que a expansão das florestas, é possível que em certas regiões essa relação seja inversa. Levantamentos recentes sugerem a tendência do Estado de São Paulo em direção à transição florestal. Com os objetivos de analisar as evidências dessa transição e facilitar o uso da informação já existente, fez-se uma revisão de quatro fontes de dados sobre a variação da cobertura vegetal nativa em São Paulo (Instituto Florestal, SOS Mata Atlântica/INPE, IBGE e CATI/IEA. Os resultados indicaram que as discrepâncias entre esses levantamentos podem, ao menos em parte, ser atribuídas a diferenças metodológicas e de objetivos. Ressaltam-se seus pontos de concordância e discutem-se possibilidades de harmonização dessas informações.

  5. Tensão superficial estática de soluções aquosas com óleos minerais e vegetais utilizados na agricultura Surface tension of mineral oils and vegetable oils

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    Cristina G. de Mendonça

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available O trabalho teve como objetivo avaliar a tensão superficial estática de soluções aquosas com formulações de óleos minerais e vegetais emulsionáveis utilizados como adjuvantes na agricultura. Os óleos minerais e vegetais, quando adicionados aos produtos fitossanitários, podem imprimir características desejáveis à calda de pulverização, como reduzir a tensão superficial em soluções aquosas, possibilitar maior contato da calda com a superfície vegetal ou reduzir o potencial de deriva durante as pulverizações. Foram testados os seguintes produtos comerciais: óleos minerais (Assist, Attach, Dytrol, Iharol, Mineral Oil, Spinner, Sunspray-E e Triona e óleos vegetais (Agrex'oil Vegetal, Crop Oil, Natur'l Óleo, Óleo Vegetal Nortox e Veget Oil, todos com registro de uso na agricultura. A tensão superficial das soluções aquosas foi avaliada em 11 concentrações para cada produto (0,025; 0,05; 0,1; 0,25; 0,5; 0,75; 1,0; 1,5; 2,0; 2,5 e 3,0% v/v. Essa propriedade dos óleos minerais e dos óleos vegetais foi estimada medindo-se a massa das gotas formadas na extremidade de uma bureta. Ao conjunto de dados obtidos para cada produto, na avaliação da tensão superficial, foram determinadas as análises de variância e de regressão, ajustando-se os dados ao Modelo de Mitscherlich. Entre os óleos minerais, destacaram-se os produtos: Assist, Dytrol, Iharol e Mineral Oil por apresentarem as menores tensões superficiais mínimas estimadas pelo Modelo, respectivamente, 29,255; 28,442; 26,097 e 28,584 mN m-1. Os óleos vegetais que apresentaram os menores valores de tensão superficial mínima estimados pelo Modelo, foram: Agrex' oil Vegetal (27,716 mN m-1, Natur'l óleo (28,216 mN m-1, Veget Oil (27,308 mN m-1 e Crop Oil (29,964 mN m-1.The aim of this work was to evaluate the surface tension of water emulsion with mineral oils and vegetable oils used as adjuvant. The mineral and vegetable oils when added to the agrochemicals can

  6. Impactos das mudanças de cobertura vegetal nos processos de superfície na região semiárida do Brasil

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    Ana Paula Martins do Amaral Cunha

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available A cobertura vegetal da superfície continental tem sido consideravelmente alterada pelas atividades humanas, principalmente através da conversão em grande escala da vegetação natural por áreas de cultivos e pastagens. Essas mudanças na cobertura da superfície podem alterar o clima regional e global por meio de processos biofísicos e biogeoquímicos. Assim, o presente trabalho avaliou como a substituição da vegetação natural da caatinga por agropecuária, bem como a degradação da caatinga, podem causar modificações nos processos de superfície na região semiárida do Nordeste do Brasil (NEB, a qual é uma das mais vulneráveis do Brasil, do ponto de vista social, à mudança de clima. Para isto, foram realizados experimentos numéricos de conversão da cobertura da superfície utilizando-se o modelo Integrated Biosphere Simulator - IBIS. Por meio da conversão da cobertura vegetal, as características morfológicas e biofísicas da vegetação foram modificadas e por isso, causaram alterações nas componentes dos balanços de energia, de água e de carbono. O balanço de energia foi mais afetado pelo aumento do albedo decorrente da alteração da vegetação caatinga para agropecuária e para caatinga degradada. Além disso, as alterações do comprimento de rugosidade e das propriedades estomáticas da vegetação corroboraram para as alterações ocorridas nas trocas turbulentas entre a superfície e a atmosfera. Com relação às componentes do balanço de carbono, durante a estação chuvosa com a conversão da caatinga natural para agropecuária, houve um aumento da assimilação de CO2 (NEE e com isso maior Produtividade Primária Líquida do ecossistema (NPP. O contrário ocorreu com a conversão para caatinga degradada, na qual a assimilação se manteve próxima de zero durante as horas do dia e NPP foi reduzida, o que pode ter ocorrido em função das alterações ocorridas no Índice de Área Foliar (IAF, tanto para a

  7. A vegetação secundária em um fragmento florestal urbano: influência de exóticas invasoras na comunidade vegetal. Secondary vegetation in a urban forest remnant: alien species influence on plant community

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    Silvana Cristina Pereira Muniz de SOUZA

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available O crescimento urbano desordenado da região metropolitana de São Paulo resultou na supressão da maior parte da vegetação natural, restando apenas os remanescentes protegidos em Unidades de Conservação de Proteção Integral, entre eles o Parque Estadual Alberto Löfgren – PEAL. Este estudo teve como objetivos detectar o estágio sucessional da vegetação secundária do PEAL e verificar a interferência de espécies exóticas no processo sucessional. Para isto, foi realizado um levantamento fitossociológico em um trecho contínuo de 4,8 ha, onde foram alocadas de modo aleatório 30 parcelas de 20 x 20 m e amostrados todos os indivíduos arbóreos e arbustivos com PAP ≥ 15 cm. Foram registradas 121 espécies (35 exóticas, pertencentes a 102 gêneros e 44 famílias, sendo as nativas clasificadas como 23% pioneiras, 54% secundárias, 16% clímax de dossel e 7% clímax de subosque. A síndrome de dispersão predominante foi a zoocoria, com 60% das espécies amostradas. Onze espécies foram consideradas ameaçadas de extinção. A densidade total obtida foi de 1.400 ind.ha-1, o índice de Shannon (H’ foi de 3,38 e a equabilidade 0,70. Entre as doze espécies de maior valor de importância, metade foi exótica. Concluiu-se que o PEAL permanece na condição de estágio inicial de sucessão e apresenta alto grau de colonização por espécies invasoras, o que compromete o avanço sucessional da área. A fim de evitar o agravamento desse processo, com a propagação das espécies exóticas para o interior das florestas naturais da Serra da Cantareira, recomenda-se a adoção de um programa integrado, que contemple o controle das exóticas e o enriquecimento com espécies nativas regionais. Neste estudo, são feitas sugestões indicando as espécies exóticas que devem ter o manejo priorizado para viabilizar o retorno dos processos de sucessão ecológica. Most of the natural vegetation of São Paulo municipality was lost due to the

  8. Análise Espacial da Produtividade de Óleo Vegetal para Produção de Biodiesel na Zona da Mata Mineira

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    Rudolph Fabiano Alves Pedroza Teixeira

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available Since the late 1990’s vegetable oils have been conquering an increasing importance in the world.In virtue of reducing the CO2 emissions and promoting regional development, the biodieselemerges as a viable alternative. Hence this articleappraises the productivity of vegetable oil forthe production of biodiesel in the Zona da Mata Mineira over the period 2005/2006, using theexploratory spatial data analysis. In order to measure the productive potential of vegetable oil atthe regional level, one calculates the content of oil for each vegetable and these contents aresummed up to obtain the total of vegetable oil. Clusters were identified for the production ofvegetables both the high efficiency and low efficiency. The finding reveal the possibility ofgenerating jobs in most regions within Zona da MataMineira. Hence one observes the plantation ofvegetables for the production of biodiesel is highly viable in the Zona da Mata Mineira

  9. Estudi de la contaminació atmosférica de la plana del Camp de Tarragona (Catalunya prenent els líquens com a bioindicadors

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    Giralt, Mireia

    1997-12-01

    Full Text Available [es] Se evalúa la contaminación atmosférica de la llanura litoral del Camp de Tarragona (Cataluña tomando como bioindicadores los líquenes epífitos del algarrobo (Ceratonia siliqua . Se caracterizan ochenta y cinco estaciones según diversos parámetros: índice de pureza atmosférica (IPA, recubrimiento medio global (RMG y nombre de especies. La combinación de los datos obtenidos permite dividir el área estudiada en seis zonas de isocontaminación . Por otra parte, se clasifican 15 especies de líquenes y el alga Pleurococcus en función de su resistencia a la contaminación atmosférica. [fr] La pollution atmosphérique d'une partie du littoral méditerranéen Catalan (Camp de Tarragona, Catalogne, Espagne a été estimée en utilisant les lichens épiphytes corticoles du caroubier (Ceratonia siliqua comme bioindicateurs. Quatre-vingt cinq stations on été étudiées el caractérisées par le calcul de divers paramètres. En combinant les données fournies par I'lndex de Pureté de l'Air (lPA, le recouvrement moyen global (RMG et le nombre d'espèces. l'aire étudiée est divisée en six zones d' isopollution. Par ailleurs, 15 espèces de lichens et une algue (Pleurococcus sont classées en fonction de leur résistance a la pollution atmosphérique.

  10. Citotoxicidad y genotoxicidad de las aguas de los ríos Jequetepeque y Moche mediante el bioindicador ambiental Vicia faba L.

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    Raúl Antonio Beltrán Orbegoso

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available La evaluación de la toxicidad de las aguas de los ríos como método complementario al análisis físico, químico y biológico proporciona una información integral de la calidad del agua, por tanto, el objetivo del estudio fue determinar los niveles de citotoxicidad y genotoxicidad de las aguas de las cuencas alta, media y baja de los ríos Moche y Jequetepeque, usando el bioindicador ambiental Vicia faba L. “haba” (2n = 12. Se germinaron semillas de V. faba L.; luego las raicillas emergentes se expusieron, durante tres horas, a siete tratamientos: T1 (100 ml de agua destilada, T2 (1 ml agua de río Jequetepeque / 99 ml de agua destilada, T3 (5 ml agua de río Jequetepeque/ 95 ml de agua destilada, T4 (10 ml agua de río Jequetepeque/ 90 ml de agua destilada, T5 (1 ml agua de río Moche/ 99 ml de agua destilada, T6 (5 ml agua de río Moche/ 95 ml de agua destilada y T7 (10 ml agua de río Moche/ 90 ml de agua destilada. Los ápices de las raicillas fueron sometidos a la técnica de Tjio y Levan. El agua de la cuenca media del río Moche del T7, presenta una alta citotoxicidad (índice mitótico de 5,4 % y alteraciones de los índices de fases y un alto efecto genotóxico; las aguas del río Jequetepeque no evidencian efecto citotóxico ni genotóxico de importancia.

  11. Evolução das disparidades da extração vegetal e da silvicultura na Amazônia Legal: uma aplicação da cadeia de Markov The development of differences in vegetal extraction and silviculture production in the legal amazon: an application of Markov chains

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    Ricardo Bruno Nascimento dos Santos

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available O artigo analisa a convergência municipal da produtividade vegetal (extração vegetal e silvicultura na região da Amazônia Legal entre os anos de 1996 e 2006. Para analisar a convergência, optou-se pela metodologia da matriz de transição de Markov (Processo Estacionário de Primeira Ordem de Markov. Os resultados mostram a existência de 13 classes de convergência da produtividade vegetal. No longo prazo, a hipótese de convergência absoluta não se mantém, visto que 68,23% dos municípios encontram-se numa classe inferior à média municipal, 33,54% em uma classe intermediária acima da média e 13,41% em uma classe superior acima da média.This paper analyzes the convergence of the municipalities vegetable productivity in the Legal Amazon region between 1996 and 2006. The convergence analyses use the Markov transition matrix methodology (First Order Stationary Markov Process. The results show that existence of 13 classes of vegetable productivity convergence. In the long run, the hypothesis of absolute convergence is not maintained, whereas 68.23% of the municipalities are in a class lower than the municipal average, 33.54% in an intermediate class above average and 13.41% in a class higher than average.

  12. Remoção de metais pesados tóxicos cádmio, chumbo e cromo em biofertilizante suíno utilizando macrófita aquática (Eichornia crassipes como bioindicador = Removal of toxic heavy metals cadmium, lead and chromium from swine biofertilizer, using an aquatic macrophyte (Eichornia crassipes as a bioindicator

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    Affonso Celso Gonçalves Júnior

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available Este trabalho objetivou avaliar a eficiência da macrófita aquática (Eichornia crassipes como bioindicador e alternativa na remoção dos metais pesados tóxicos Cd, Pb e Cr em biofertilizante de origem suína. Foi utilizado o esquema fatorial 2x4, sendo os fatoresrepresentados pelas partes da planta (aérea e raiz, e pelos quatro tratamentos. Na instalação do experimento coletou-se uma alíquota da solução de cada tratamento para determinar as concentrações iniciais dos metais e, após 30 dias de cultivo, as plantas foram retiradas,coletando-se novamente uma alíquota da solução de cada tratamento. As plantas foram separadas em parte aérea e raiz, secas e trituradas. A macrófita apresentou-se eficiente na remoção dos metais pesados, observou-se que o sistema radicular da macrófita apresentoumaiores concentrações de Cd, Pb e Cr. Com este trabalho, conclui-se que a macrófita aquática (Eichornia crassipes pode ser uma alternativa para o tratamento de biofertilizante e dejetos provenientes da suinocultura.The objective of this work was to evaluate the efficiency of an aquatic macrophyte (Eichornia crassipes as a bioindicator and as an alternative sorbent for the removal of toxic heavy metals Cd, Pb and Cr from swine biofertilizer. A 2x4 factorial design was used, with the factors represented by plant parts (leaves and roots and the fourtreatments. The metal concentrations were determined at the beginning of the experiment and after 30 days. The macrophyte showed good efficiency in the removal of toxic heavy metals from swine biofertilizer. It was observed that its radicular system presented larger amounts of Cd, Pb and Cr than did the leaves. Our results show that Eichornia crassipes could be an alternative treatment for biofertilizer and waste from swine culture.

  13. Okoljevarstvena problematika zaseznih zelenjavnih vrtov na vodovarstvenih območjih Ljubljane = Environmental protection: Private vegetable gardens on water protected areas in Ljubljana

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    Sara Strajnar

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available The areas of allotment gardens and private vegetable gardens are two types of ‘small-scaleagriculture’ on water protected areas in Ljubljana and surroundings. From the environmentalprotection point of view, these gardens are important for the intensity of production andlarge number of gardeners. In author’s graduation thesis the gardening habits have beeninvestigated in detail. We combined data from field work with numerous measurements ofphytopharmaceutical products and nutrients in soil and vegetables.

  14. Organismos edáficos como bioindicadores da recuperação de solos degradados por arenização no Bioma Pampa Edaphic organisms as bioindicators of restoration of degraded soils by arenização on the Bioma Pampa

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    Ana Paula Moreira Rovedder

    2009-07-01

    Full Text Available Os organismos edáficos, por sua sensibilidade a alterações no meio, têm sido utilizados como indicadores de modificações nos níveis de qualidade do solo, as quais podem ser promovidas por degradação ou agradação. Em Alegrete, Rio Grande do Sul, foram caracterizadas populações de organismos edáficos como bioindicadores dos efeitos da degradação por arenização e da recuperação por revegetação com Lupinus albescens Hook. & Arn., fabácea natural do Bioma Pampa. Os tratamentos constituíram-se de solo com cobertura natural de Lupinus albescens (TN, área arenizada que recebeu revegetação com Lupinus albescens há um ano (T1, área arenizada que recebeu revegetação com Lupinus albescens há três anos (T3, solo arenizado (SA e campo nativo (CN. As coletas foram feitas em fevereiro e maio de 2006, com armadilhas PROVID. Foram determinados os parâmetros: abundância de organismos em nível de Ordem, riqueza de organismos e índices de diversidade e igualdade de Shannon. A arenização reduziu o desenvolvimento das populações edáficas, enquanto a estratégia de revegetação mostrou efeitos positivos na recolonização da área. O grupo Collembola destacou-se como bioindicador dos efeitos dos processos de degradação e recuperação. O índice de diversidade de Shannon não foi adequado para a avaliação dos efeitos da arenização quando analisado isoladamente.Edaphic organisms are sensible to environment alterations and have been used as indicators of soil quality changes. These modifications can be promoted by degradation or agradation events. The study area is located in Alegrete, Rio Grande do Sul. It was analyzed the role of epigeic soil fauna as bioindicator of soil degradation by arenização and its restoration by revegetation with Lupinus albescens Hook. & Arn., a native fabaceous of Bioma Pampa. The treatments were constituted of soil under natural covering with Lupinus albescens, degraded area recovered with

  15. Disolución de sílice biogénica en sedimentos de lagos utilizados como bioindicadores de calidad del agua

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    Hermes U. Ramírez S.

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available El objetivo de este trabajo es mostrar que la disoluci n de s lice amorfa de origen biog nico (diatomeas y fitolitos es un bioindicador de calidad del agua de lagos, valid ndose con la determinaci n de par metros f sico-qu micos. La determinaci n de diatomeas y fitolitos se realiz sobre n cleos de sedimentos del Lago Chapala, M xico. Las diatomeas y fitolitos fueron separados, depositados en laminillas y observados con microscop a de luz polarizada y electr nica de barrido. En forma paralela se analiz la calidad del agua del lago durante la d cada de 1990-2000 monitoreando 38 par metros f sicoqu micos en 25 estaciones. El estudio de diatomeas evidenci que la mayor a de ellos presentan fr stulas no preservadas, alto grado de disoluci n, fitolitos fragmentados y/o disueltos y una importante cantidad de debris de s lice. La determinaci n de fitolitos fue deficiente, con m s diatomeas en estado de disoluci n y debris de s lice opalino que fitolitos. Los resultados del an lisis f sico-qu mico del agua muestran valores de pH de 7,20-9,45, altas concentraciones de: nitr geno org nico (1,57 mg/l, nitr geno amoniacal (0,48 mg/l, nitratos (0,18 mg/l, f sforo org nico (0,16 mg/l, ortofosfatos (0,40 mg/l, f sforo total (0,57 mg/l y conductividad (867,53 S/cm lo que refleja altas concentraciones de sales, sobresaturaci n de CaCO3 con dureza total y c lcica de 221,35 y 142,67 mg/l respectivamente; alcalinidad total y c lcica de 307,29 y 29,90 mg/l respectivamente; todos factores que influyen en la disoluci n de diatomeas y fitolitos en los lechos del lago. Los resultados del estudio micropaleontol gico del Lago de Chapala han evidenciado disoluci n de diatomeas, fitolitos y la presencia de gran cantidad de debris de s lice amorfo y baja calidad de sus aguas, lo cual ha sido verificado con los par metros fisicoqu micos de la ultima d cada. Los fen menos de disoluci n de diatomeas y fitolitos por el momento son asociados a valores de pH>9, a condiciones eutr

  16. Enraizamento de miniestaca caulinar e foliar na propagação vegetativa de cedro-rosa (Cedrela fissilis Vell. Rooting of stem and leaf minicuttings in the vegetative propagation of cedro-rosa (Cedrela fissilis Vell.

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    Aloisio Xavier

    2003-06-01

    Full Text Available No presente trabalho objetivou-se avaliar o enraizamento de cinco diferentes tipos de miniestaca (caulinar, caulinar apical, caulinar intermediária, caulinar apical desfolhada e foliar, na propagação vegetativa de cedro-rosa (Cedrela fissilis por miniestaquia, a partir de material seminal. Os resultados obtidos quanto ao enraizamento indicaram o melhor desempenho da miniestaca caulinar, com 84% de sobrevivência das mudas aos 90 dias de idade, demonstrando o potencial da miniestaquia como alternativa na produção de mudas de cedro-rosa.This work aimed to evaluate the rooting of five different types of minicuttings (stem, apical stem, intermediate stem, apical stem with removed leaves and leaf, in the vegetative propagation of cedro-rosa (Cedrela fissilis, by applying the minicutting technique, using seedlings material. The results showed that stem cutting was the most efficient technique for the vegetative propagation of this species, with up to 84% survival at 90 days of age. Thus, this technique can be used as an alternative in the production of minicuttings of this species, throughout the year.

  17. Utilização de compostos orgânicos como substratos na produção de mudas de hortaliças Utilization of organic compost as substrate for vegetable seedling production

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    Marco Antonio de A Leal

    2007-09-01

    Full Text Available Visando determinar a viabilidade da utilização de compostos orgânicos obtidos com palhada de Crotalaria juncea L. e capim Napier (Pennisetum purpureum Schum. como substratos na produção de mudas de hortaliças, realizaram-se experimentos com alface (folhosa, beterraba (raiz e tomate (hortaliça de fruto. Estudou-se a eficiência de compostos produzidos a partir dos materiais: 100% de Crotalária Júncea; 66% de Crotalária Júncea + 33% de Napier; 33% de Crotalária Júncea + 66% de Napier; 100% de Napier; 33% de Crotalária Júncea + 66% de Napier, inoculado com 5% da massa com esterco bovino; 33% de Crotalária Júncea + 66% de Napier, inoculado com 100 L de Agrobio diluído a 5%; 100% de Napier, inoculado com 100 litros de Agrobio diluído a 5%. Como controle utilizou-se o substrato comercial Plantmax HT®. Avaliou-se altura da parte aérea, número de folhas, produção de massa fresca na parte aérea e produção de massa seca na parte aérea. O composto produzido com a mistura de 66% de Crotalária Júncea e 33% de Napier mostrou-se superior aos demais tratamentos para produção de mudas de alface, beterraba e tomate.The viability of the organic compost utilization as a substrate for vegetable seedlings production, obtained from Crotalaria juncea L. and Napier grass (Pennisetum purpureum Schum., was determined. The research was developed with lettuce (leaf vegetable, beetroot (root vegetable and tomato (fruit vegetable. The organic composts were produced from: 100% Crotalaria Juncea; 66% Crotalaria Juncea + 33% Napier; 33% Crotalaria Juncea + 66% Napier; 100% Napier; 33% Crotalaria Juncea + 66% Napier, inoculated with 5% of the mass with cattle manure; 33% Crotalaria Juncea + 66% Napier, inoculated with 100 L of 5% diluted Agrobio; 100% Napier, inoculated with 100 L of 5% diluted Agrobio. We evaluated the height, leaf number, aerial green weight and aerial dry weight. A commercial substrate Plantmax HT® was used as control. The

  18. Efeito da cobertura vegetal sobre a pérola-da-terra (Hemiptera: Margarodidae na cultura da videira = Effect of cover crops on brazilian ground pearl (Hemiptera: Margarodidae in vineyards

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    Marcos Botton

    2010-10-01

    Full Text Available O uso da cobertura vegetal em vinhedos é uma prática empregada paraminimizar a erosão e melhorar as qualidades químicas e físicas do solo. Neste trabalho, foi avaliado o efeito de coberturas vegetais sobre a população da pérola-da-terra Eurhizococcus brasiliensis (Hemiptera: Margarodidae na cultura da videira. No primeiro experimento, o vinhedo foi mantido sem cobertura vegetal por meio da aplicação trimestral do herbicida glifosato comparado com o uso de vegetação espontânea, durante o ano, de vegetação espontânea, no verão, e de aveia preta no inverno. No segundo experimento foi avaliado o efeito da mucuna-preta (Stizolobium aterrimum cultivada no vinhedo durante o verão comparado com a vegetação espontânea. No primeiro experimento, a população da pérolada-terra nas raízes de plantas de videira foi maior em áreas mantidas sem cobertura vegetal emostrou-se semelhante em áreas onde se manteve a vegetação espontânea, ao longo do ano, e com aveia preta no inverno e vegetação espontânea no verão. A infestação das plantas de videira em áreas onde foi empregada a mucuna-preta durante o verão foi equivalente à da vegetação espontânea. S. aterrimum foi registrada pela primeira vez como hospedeira de E. brasiliensis. The use of cover crops is an important strategy to reduce erosion and improve chemical and physical soil properties. In this work, we evaluate the effect of cover crops to reduce Brazilian ground pearl Eurhizococcus brasiliensis (Hemiptera: Margarodidae infestation in vineyards. In the first experiment, glyphosate was sprayed each three months to avoid cover crops. This treatment was compared with naturally occurring vegetation during the year and the use of Avena sativa in the winter. In a second experiment, Stizolobium aterrimum was cultivated during the summer compared with naturally occurringvegetation. Brazilian ground pearl population was higher in glyphosate sprayed areas than where cover

  19. Estimativa de área de vegetação secundária na Amazônia Legal Brasileira Estimation of secondary vegetation area in the Brazilian Legal Amazon

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cláudio Aparecido Almeida

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available A vegetação secundária tem funções relevantes para os ecossistemas, tais como a fixação de carbono atmosférico, a manutenção da biodiversidade, o estabelecimento da conectividade entre remanescentes florestais, manutenção dos regime hidrológico e a recuperação da fertilidade do solo. O objetivo deste trabalho é, através de uma abordagem amostral, estimar a área ocupada por vegetação secundária na Amazônia Legal Brasileira (AML em 2006. A amostragem se baseia em uma abordagem estratificada pelo grau de desflorestamento das cenas LANDSAT-TM que recobrem a AML. Foram selecionadas 26 cenas para o ano de 2006, distribuídas em sete estratos conforme o percentual de desflorestamento, nas quais foram mapeadas as áreas de vegetação secundária a partir de técnicas de classificação de imagens. Foi desenvolvido um modelo multivariado de regressão para estimar a área de vegetação secundária utilizando como variáveis independentes a área de desflorestamento, a área de hidrografia, a estrutura agrária, e área das unidades de conservação. A análise de regressão encontrou um R2 ajustado de 0,84 , e coeficientes positivos para a proporção de hidrografia na imagem (2,055 e para a estrutura agrária (0,197, e coeficientes negativos para o grau de desflorestamento na imagem (-0,232 e para a proporção de Unidades de Conservação na imagem (-0,262. O modelo de regressão estimou uma área de 131.873 km² de vegetação secundária para o ano de 2006. Aplicando uma simulação Monte Carlo foi estimada uma incerteza de aproximadamente 12.445 km² para a área.Secondary vegetation has many relevant functions to the ecosystems such as atmospheric carbon fixation , maintenance of biodiversity, establishment of connectivity among forest remnants, maintenance of hydrological regime, and restoration of soil fertility. The objective of this work is to estimate the area occupied by secondary vegetation in the Brazilian Legal

  20. Análise espaço-temporal da cobertura vegetal e uso da terra na Interbacia do Rio Paraguai Médio-MT, Brasil Spatio-temporal analysis of vegetation cover and land use in the middle Paraguay River Interbasin-MT, Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Seyla Poliana Miranda Pessoa

    2013-02-01

    Full Text Available O objetivo deste estudo foi realizar uma análise espaço-temporal da cobertura vegetal e do uso da terra na Interbacia do Rio Paraguai Médio-MT, Brasil, pelo geoprocessamento de imagens Landsat TM, dos anos 1991, 2001 e 2011. As imagens foram georreferenciadas, classificadas e processadas no software Spring e as classes temáticas, quantificadas e editadas no software ArcGis. Foram mapeadas sete classes, sendo as mais expressivas a vegetação nativa, a pastagem e a cana-de-açúcar. Os resultados indicaram alterações em todas as classes durante os últimos 20 anos, com a diminuição de 22,89% da vegetação nativa, relacionada com o aumento de 58,42% da pastagem e 490,26% de monocultura de cana-de-açúcar. Foi verificado o conflito de uso da terra, principalmente em áreas de mata ciliar, fato que pode influenciar negativamente na conservação da interbacia e, consequentemente, do pantanal mato-grossense.This study analyzed spatial and temporal land use changes in the Middle Paraguay River Interbasin-MT, Brazil using Landsat images from 1991, 2001 and 2011. Images were geo-referenced, classified and processed using Spring software, and thematic classes were edited and quantified using ArcGis software. Seven map classes were identified, and native vegetation, pasture and sugarcane were the most significant ones. The results showed changes in all classes during the past 20 years, primarily a 22.89% decrease of native vegetation, a 58.42% increase in pasture and 490.26% increase of sugarcane monoculture. We verified land use conflicts, mostly in riparian areas, which may negatively influence Interbasin and, consequently, Pantanal conservation in the State of Mato Grosso, Brazil.

  1. Heavy metal extraction from produced water in the petroleum industry utilizing vegetal oil derivatives as the extractant; Extracao de metais pesados a partir de aguas produzidas na industria do petroleo utilizando derivados de oleo vegetal como extratante

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Santana, Dulcineia de Castro [Centro Federal de Educacao Tecnologica de Goias (CEFET/GO), Goiania (Brazil). Coordenacao de Mineracao], e-mail: dcs@cefetgo.br, e-mail: dcs@eq.ufrn.br; Paulo, Joao Bosco de Araujo [Universidade Federal do Rio Grande do Norte (UFRN), Natal (Brazil). Centro de Tecnologia. Dept. de Engenharia Quimica], e-mail: jbosco@eq.ufrn.br; Lima, Raquel Franco de Souza [Universidade Federal do Rio Grande do Norte (UFRN), Natal (Brazil). Centro de Ciencias Exatas e da Terra. Dept. de Geologia], e-mail: raquel@geologia.ufrn.br; Brandao, Paulo Roberto Gomes [Universidade Federal de Minas Gerais (UFMG), Belo Horizonte, MG (Brazil). Escola de Engenharia], e-mail: pbrandao@demin.ufmg.br; Fernandes Junior, Wilaci Eutropio [PETROBRAS, RN/CE (Brazil). Unidade de Negocio de Exploracao e Producao do Rio Grande do Norte e Ceara. Gerencia de Desenvolvimento da Producao], e-mail: wilaci@petrobras.com.br

    2007-12-15

    It is well known today that, although being a renewable resource, potable water could also be finite. In the environmental context, very often due to operational costs, the development of new water recycling techniques become significant when faced with the simple adaptation of effluent treatment before final disposal. Produced water comes from exploration operations and/or the production of oil and gas and is generally treated. Following the treatment, part of the produced water is recycled in secondary re-injection operations or steam generation. The remainder, which is the biggest amount, is expelled into the sea through underwater outlets. Millions of liters of water are expelled per day, containing heavy metals such as lead (Pb), cadmium (Cd) and nickel (Ni) in low concentrations. Some of this volume could be recycled for use in the irrigation of oleaginous cultures after this water has been given a suitable post-treatment. This treatment being specified in agreement with Class 3, of CONAMA Resolution No 357 (Brazil, 2005), which establishes the contents as <0,033 mg/L for Pb, <0,01 mg/L for Cd and <0,025 mg/L for Ni. Liquid-liquid extraction is a well known technology for the recovery of metals in aqueous mediums. This work studies the extraction of Pb, Cd, and Ni from a synthetic solution, using QAV solvent (aviation kerosene); and vegetal oil derivatives as the extractant. It is well known that vegetal oil derivatives have a strong complexation power on metals. A bench test basic investigation was made with the objective of studying the selectivity of coconut oil derivatives in the extraction of metals from synthetic solutions. The determination of the heavy metal concentrations in a complex matrix was made by using the atomic absorption spectrometry technique (AAS). The results of the preliminary experiments were promising. (author)

  2. Use of the photogrammetric data for vegetation inventory on urban areas. (Polish Title: Wykorzystanie danych fotogrametrycznych do inwentaryzacji zieleni na terenach zurbanizowanych)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kubalska, J. L.; Preuss, R.

    2014-12-01

    This paper discusses the methodology of the implementation of an inventory of vegetation in an urban area using photogrammetric data in the form of color NIR "true - orthophotomap" (true - ortho) and the digital surface model (DSM) created with data from airborne laser scanning, or alternatively, with an automatic correlation of images. The vegetation inventory was conducted by classification on the basis of the characteristics contained in pixels of georeferenced true - ortho while taking into account the elevation data in the form of gridded DSM. To carry out the classification Erdas Imagine software was used. The correct classification process was preceded by the creation of the input data for this task. This data was obtained from the processing of digital aerial photos taken by a Vexcel UltraCam camera with the ground resolution GSD = 10cm and point clouds acquired from ALS. This processing included the generation of digital terrain model in the SCOP++ environment and the digital surface model in an Opals and Inpho environment. The Comparison of DSM created from two different sources of data showed the overall consistency and uniformity and the ability to use both models to generate a true - ortho product from digital aerial photographs. The work was performed on an INPHO photogrammetric workstation. "True - ortho" was generated from both the black and white NIR images and colour images. The classification carried out with the Erdas Imagine software proved that this software is suitable for classification based on the features extracted from the pixels with the simultaneous analysis of elevation data. Simultaneous use of data both from airborne laser scanning and colour infrared images made it possible to make an exact classification of vegetation on very difficult terrain, like built up urban areas. The results of the classification accuracy were evaluated by the visual verification in Google Street View application. At a time when airborne platforms are

  3. USO DE GEOTECNOLOGIAS PARA AVALIAÇÃO DE MUDANÇAS NA COBERTURA VEGETAL DO ENTORNO DA ILHA DA LUZ

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    Caroline Tavares Firmino

    2017-04-01

    Full Text Available Os impactos decorrentes da ação antrópica podem ser vistos no solo, nas águas, na flora e na fauna. Como meio de monitorar esses impactos tem sido utilizada técnicas por meio do geoprocessamento, as quais são de suma importância, por fornecerem a possibilidade de monitorar as questões ambientais através de imagens obtidas via sensores orbitais. Objetivou-se analisar as mudanças ocorridas na formação vegetacional do entorno da Ilha da Luz em Cachoeiro de Itapemirim a partir da apreciação de duas imagens do Google Earth. Para a realização da análise temporal as imagens orbitais selecionadas foram importadas do Google Earth para o Autocad, onde foram realizadas as demarcações e medições das formações vegetacionais do entorno da Ilha. Constatou-se um aumento de 1127.0002m² da área vegetacional da Ilha da Luz entre as duas imagens, decorrente da agregação de fragmentos, demonstrando que as ferramentas computacionais são relevantes para avaliação de impactos ambientais.

  4. Comprimento da estaca e tipo de substrato na propagação vegetativa de atroveran Shoot cutting length and substrate types on vegetative propagation of atroveran

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    Larissa Corrêa do Bomfim Costa

    2007-08-01

    Full Text Available A propagação vegetativa de espécies medicinais vem despertando interesse das pesquisas agronômicas, uma vez que se constitui no ponto de partida e em ferramenta básica para qualquer cultivo em escala comercial. Este trabalho objetivou determinar o comprimento de estaca e o tipo de substrato mais adequados para a propagação vegetativa de atroveran. Em condições de casa de vegetação sob nebulização intermitente, foram testados dois comprimentos de estacas (10 e 20cm e três substratos (areia lavada, casca de arroz carbonizada e substrato comercial Plantmax®, em delineamento experimental em blocos casualizados, com quatro repetições e cinco estacas por parcela. Aos trinta e cinco dias, foram avaliados a porcentagem de enraizamento, o comprimento da maior raiz (cm e a biomassa seca das folhas e das raízes (mg. Os resultados indicaram que a propagação vegetativa de atroveran por meio de estaquia é viável, uma vez que o seu enraizamento médio ficou acima de 70%. As mudas de atroveran obtidas de estacas com 20cm apresentaram maior biomassa seca das folhas e das raízes, apesar de o comprimento da estaca não ter afetado a porcentagem de enraizamento e o comprimento da raiz. Os tipos de substrato não proporcionaram efeito sobre o desenvolvimento das estacas de atroveran. Recomenda-se a produção de mudas de atroveran com estacas de 20cm de comprimento, utilizando-se qualquer um dos três substratos testados.The vegetative propagation of medicinal species is in increasing agronomic interest because it is the starting point and a basic tool for any cultivation in commercial scale. The objective of this work was to determine the best shoot cutting length and the best substrate for vegetative propagation of Ocimum selloi. Cuttings were placed in greenhouse conditions under intermittent mist. Two cutting sizes (10 and 20cm and three substrate types (washed sand, carbonized rice hulls and commercial substrate Plantmax® were tested

  5. El tarwi o chocho: una de las principales fuentes de proteína vegetal de las comunidades indígenas de los Andes Centrales

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Planchuelo, Ana M.

    2005-01-01

    Full Text Available El lupino andino (Lupinus mutabilis Sweet conocido también como tarwi o chocho, es una especie de leguminosa nativa de los Andes Centrales. Su domesticación se remonta a los principios de la cultura Nazca y desde ese entonces hasta la actualidad el cultivo está ampliamente difundido en las laderas montañosas y en los altos valles de Ecuador, Perú y Bolivia. La importancia del lupino para las comunidades andinas prehispánicas quedo documentada en pinturas de cerámicas y en tributos encontrados en tumbas de 100-150 años AC. Diversas técnicas de lavado y de mejoramiento vegetal fueron aplicadas desde la antigüedad para eliminar los alcaloides tóxicos que le confieren el sabor amargo a la planta y los granos. El tarwi, el maíz. los frijoles, los pseudocereales, quinoa y amaranto y la papa junto a otras raíces y tubérculos constituyen la comida básica de muchas culturas andinas. El objetivo de este trabajo fue determinar los componentes nutricionales de los granos del lupino andino para compararlos con los otros constituyentes de la dieta de las comunidades campesinas. Se analizaron por medio de técnicas fitoquímicas distintas variedades de tarwi. Se determinaron los contenidos de proteínas y grasas y los patrones de ácidos grasos. Los resultados muestran que la ingesta de lupinos, que provee un buen balance de proteínas y grasas en combinación con el maíz y los tubérculos, que aportan los hidratos de carbono, forman una dieta balanceada y de alto valor nutricional.

  6. Associations between fish assemblage and riparian vegetation in the Corumbataí River Basin (SP Associações entre assembléia de peixes e a mata ciliar na bacia do rio Corumbataí (SP

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. Cetra

    2007-05-01

    Full Text Available This work intends to examine if there are associations between fish species and the state of conservation of the riparian forest in the Corumbataí River Basin. Four main rivers were chosen for this study with three sites on each. Collections were carried out from March to June and from September to December 2001. Multivariate techniques were applied to determine the correlation between species richness and the order of the rivers, preservation level of the riparian forest, shade level, presence or absence of Eucalyptus, sugar cane and pastures, and surrounding declivity stability of the sites. Species richness was highest at locations with greater vegetation cover and preserved riparian forest.Este trabalho teve o objetivo de examinar se existem associações entre as espécies de peixes e o estado de conservação das matas ciliares na bacia do rio Corumbataí. Foram escolhidos 4 rios principais com 3 pontos de coleta em cada um. Foram realizadas coletas nos períodos de março a junho e de setembro a dezembro de 2001. Técnicas multivariadas foram aplicadas para determinar a correlação entre a riqueza de espécies e a ordem dos rios, estado de preservação da mata ciliar, sombreamento, presença ou ausência de Eucalyptus, cana-de-açúcar e pastagens, e nível de estabilidade do barranco ao redor dos pontos de coleta. A riqueza de espécies foi maior em locais com maior cobertura vegetal e mata ciliar preservada.

  7. Relações da erosão em entressulcos com o tipo e com a quantidade de resíduo vegetal na superfície do solo

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    J. A. Braida

    1999-09-01

    Full Text Available Os resíduos vegetais na superfície do solo são muito efetivos em dissipar a energia de impacto das gotas de chuva, além de constituírem barreira física ao livre escoamento superficial da água. A presença desses resíduos em contato direto com a superfície do solo pode influenciar, decisivamente, a erosão em entressulcos. Este estudo objetivou avaliar as relações da erosão em entressulcos com a quantidade de resíduo vegetal em cobertura e verificar as diferenças nessas relações para palha de milho e palha de trigo. Um experimento de campo foi instalado no Centro de Pesquisa de Florestas e Conservação do Solo da FEPAGRO, em Santa Maria, RS, em Podzólico Vermelho-Escuro franco-arenoso. As parcelas experimentais mediam 0,50 x 0,75 m, com a maior dimensão no sentido do declive do terreno, que era de 0,17 m m-1, arranjadas em quatro blocos completos ao acaso. Palhas de milho e de trigo, picadas em fragmentos de 7,5 cm, foram distribuídas, nas parcelas, sobre solo recentemente preparado, em quantidades de 0,00, 0,05, 0,10, 0,20, 0,40 e 0,80 kg m-2. Em seguida, foi aplicada uma chuva simulada de intensidade média de 67 mm h-1 e duração de 90 min. As taxas de perdas de solo e água por erosão em entressulcos variaram ao longo da chuva, dependendo da quantidade de resíduo vegetal existente na superfície do solo, porém não foram observadas variações significativas em relação ao tipo de palha. A relação da erosão em entressulcos com a fração do solo coberto (dada em função da quantidade de palha pode ser expressa por meio de uma equação exponencial. Por ser um modelo simples, com medidas de fácil obtenção, sugere-se esse modelo para estimar o subfator cobertura do solo em entressulcos por resíduos em contato direto com a superfície.

  8. Kuchler Vegetation

    Data.gov (United States)

    California Natural Resource Agency — Digital version of potential natural plant communites as compiled and published on 'Map of the Natural Vegetation of California' by A. W. Kuchler, 1976. Source map...

  9. Wieslander Vegetation

    Data.gov (United States)

    California Natural Resource Agency — Digital version of the 1945 California Vegetation Type Maps by A. E. Wieslander of the U.S. Forest Service. Source scale of maps are 1:100,000. These compiled maps...

  10. VEGETATION MAPPING IN WETLANDS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    F. PEDROTTI

    2004-01-01

    Full Text Available The current work examines the main aspects of wetland vegetation mapping, which can be summarized as analysis of the ecological-vegetational (ecotone gradients; vegetation complexes; relationships between vegetation distribution and geomorphology; vegetation of the hydrographic basin lo which the wetland in question belongs; vegetation monitoring with help of four vegetation maps: phytosociological map of the real and potential vegetation, map of vegetation dynamical tendencies, map of vegetation series.

  11. Cu e Zn na cultura do sorgo cultivado em três classes de solos: I. Crescimento vegetativo e produção Cu and Zn in sorghum cultivated in three soil classes: I. Vegetative growth and yield

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hemmannuella C. Santos

    2009-04-01

    Full Text Available Os micronutrientes Cu e Zn são importantes para o bom desenvolvimento vegetativo e para a formação de grãos em cereais. Com o objetivo de avaliar o efeito da aplicação de Cu e Zn nos atributos de crescimento e na produção da cultura do sorgo realizou-se um experimento em ambiente protegido, no qual o delineamento foi em blocos casualizados, com a combinação de cinco doses de cobre (0, 0,26, 0,90, 1,54 e 1,80 mg kg-1 e cinco doses de zinco (0, 0,32, 1,1, 1,88 e 2,2 mg kg-1, combinadas na matriz Composto Central de Box, perfazendo 9 tratamentos, que foram aplicados em três classes de solo (Latossolo, Luvissolo e Neossolo, com 3 repetições. Avaliaram-se, aos 96 dias após a semeadura, os atributos de crescimento e a produção da cultura. A aplicação de cobre resultou em incrementos na área foliar, diâmetro do colmo, comprimento e diâmetro da panícula, matéria seca e na produção, o mesmo não ocorrendo para o zinco. As concentrações foliares de zinco indicaram interação negativa entre as doses aplicadas, enquanto entre os solos o Luvissolo foi o mais responsivo à aplicação dos nutrientes.The micronutrients copper and zinc are important for good vegetative growth and for grain formation in cereals. An experiment was carried out aiming to evaluate the effect of copper and zinc application upon growth attributes of sorghum and upon its grain yield. A randomized block experimental design was used, with a combination of five doses of copper (0, 0.26, 0.90, 1.54 and 1.80 mg kg-1 and five doses of zinc (0, 0.32, 1.1, 1.88 and 2.2 mg kg-1 combined by Box Central Composite design, resulting in nine treatments which were applied in three soil classes (Latosol, Alfisol and Entisol, with three replications. Ninety six days after sowing, growth attributes and sorghum yield were determined. The copper application increased leaf area, stem diameter, panicle length and diameter, dry matter yield and grain yield, however the same

  12. Vegetative regeneration

    Science.gov (United States)

    George A. Schier; John R. Jones; Robert P. Winokur

    1985-01-01

    Aspen is noted for its ability to regenerate vegetatively by adventitious shoots or suckers that arise on its long lateral roots. It also produces sprouts from stumps and root collars; but they are not common. In a survey of regeneration after clearcutting mature aspen in Utah. Baker (1918b) found that 92% of the shoots originated from roots, 7% from root collars, and...

  13. Understory vegetation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Steve Sutherland; Todd F. Hutchinson; Jennifer L. Windus

    2003-01-01

    This chapter documents patterns of species composition and diversity within the understory vegetation layer and provides a species list for the four study areas in southern Ohio. Within each of 108 plots, we recorded the frequency of all vascular plant species in sixteen 2-m² quadrats. We recorded 297 species, including 187 forbs (176 perennials, 9 annuals, 2...

  14. Concentrações de ácido indolbutírico e tipos de substrato na propagação vegetativa de lichia Concentrations of indolebutyric acid and kinds of substrates in the vegetative propagation of litchi

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ronny Clayton Smarsi

    2008-03-01

    Full Text Available Objetivou-se, no presente trabalho, avaliar o efeito da aplicação de AIB e diferentes tipos de substratos na propagação vegetativa de lichia via técnica de alporquia. Os alporques foram realizados em ramos semilenhosos, sadios e vigorosos da cultivar Bengal, com 12 anos de idade. Os ramos foram anelados com 1,5 cm de largura, tratados com diferentes concentrações de AIB (0; 1.000; 2.000; 3.000 e 4.000 mg.L-1, distribuídos em solução com auxílio de pincel e cobertos com três diferentes tipos de substratos (plantmax®, húmus e esfagno umedecidos. Em seguida, foram envolvidos com plástico transparente e amarrados nas duas extremidades, para criar um ambiente úmido ao redor da lesão, favorável ao desenvolvimento de raízes, para a produção dos alporques. Após 84 dias, avaliaram-se o comprimento de raiz (cm, o número de raízes, expresso em notas de 0 a 5, e a porcentagem de calejamento e de enraizamento. Maior sucesso na propagação vegetativa de lichia, cultivar Bengal, via técnica de alporquia, foi obtido utilizando como substrato o plantmax® AIB entre 2.166 e 2.430 mg.L-1. A utilização de húmus combinado com concentrações entre 2.175 e 2.250 mg.L-1 de AIB também proporcionou bons resultados no desenvolvimento dos alporques. Por outro lado, menor sucesso no desenvolvimento dos alporques de lichia, cultivar Bengal, independentemente da concentração de AIB utilizada, foi obtido com esfagno.The objective of the present research was to evaluate the effect of the IBA application and different kinds of substrates in the vegetative propagation of litchi by air layering technique. The air layering had been done in semi-hardwood, healthy and vigorous branches of cultivar Bengal, in stock plants of 12 years old. The branches had been ring-girdled, 1,5 cm of width, and the exposed wound treated with different IBA concentrations (0, 1000, 2000, 3000 and 4000 mg.L-1, enclosed with three moistened substrates (plantmax®, humus

  15. Colémbolos (Hexapoda como bioindicadores de la calidad de suelos contaminados con hidrocarburos en el sureste de México Collembola (Hexapoda as quality bioindicators of the hydrocarburans polluted soils in Southestern Mexico

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Raúl Uribe-Hernández

    2010-04-01

    Full Text Available Se evaluaron invertebrados del suelo, en particular los colémbolos, como bioindicadores de la calidad de suelos contaminados con hidrocarburos en el sureste de México. Se realizaron 2 muestreos en verano-otoño del 2004, en 4 parcelas de 2 hectáreas, denominadas zona 1, 2, 3 y control. De cada unidad se tomaron 8 muestras que fueron procesadas por medio del embudo de Berlese-Tullgren y 4 por el método de flotación. Para colémbolos se determinaron los siguientes índices ecológicos: abundancia, riqueza, índice de Shannon (H', dominancia (λ, equidad(J' e índice de similitud (S. Se realizaron análisis fisicoquímicos del suelo: hidrocarburos totales del petróleo (HTP e hidrocarburos aromáticos policíclicos (HAP, porosidad, pH, CE, MO, N, P, K, CIC y textura. Los HTP, en las zonas contaminadas, sobrepasan los límites de las normas mexicanas ambientales. En todas las zonas de estudio se observaron colémbolos, ácaros y larvas de dípteros, por lo que su abundancia y diversidad pueden ser utilizadas como bioindicadores del grado de contaminación y calidad del suelo. En las zonas contaminadas se registraron abundancias muy bajas de Crustacea, Formicidae, Araneae, Diptera, Pseudoscorpionida, y Diplopoda. Las familias de los colémbolos más ampliamente distribuidas fueron Sminthurididae e Isotomidae. De acuerdo con el análisis de correlación, su diversidad de colémbolos es afectada por la presencia de HAP (flouranteno, naftaleno, pireno, criseno y fenantrenoWe evaluated invertebrates, with an emphasis on Collembola, as bioindicators of soil quality in hydrocarbon-contaminated soils in southeastern Mexico. We carried out 2 sampling periods in summer-fall of 2004 in 4 parcels of 2 hectares each. From each parcel we processed 8 samples using the Berlese-Tullgren funnel technique and 4 using the flotation method. For Collembola we calculated the following ecological indices: abundance, richness, the Shannon index (H', dominance (

  16. Enhanced Vegetation Index (EVI na análise da dinâmica da vegetação da reserva biológica de Sooretama, ES Use of Enhanced Vegetation Index (EVI in the analysis os vegetation dynamics of the Sooretama biological reservation, ES

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    André Quintão de Almeida

    2008-12-01

    Full Text Available Técnicas de análises de séries temporais são utilizadas para caracterizar o comportamento de fenômenos naturais no domínio do tempo. Neste artigo, segundo a metodologia proposta por Box et al. (1994, 125 observações do Enhanced Vegetation Index (EVI foram analisadas. Os valores modelados correspondem às variações temporais ocorridas no dossel florestal da reserva biológica de Sooretama, localizada ao Norte do Estado do Espírito Santo, no Município de Linhares. Os resultados indicaram que a metodologia foi adequada. Os resíduos do modelo ajustado são não correlacionados com distribuição normal, média zero e variância s². Com o menor valor do Critério de Informação de Akaike (AIC -570,51, o modelo ajustado foi o Sazonal Auto-Regressivo Integrado de Médias Móveis (1,0,1(1,0,112.Temporal series analysis techniques are used to characterize the behavior of natural phenomenon in time domain. In this paper, 125 Enhanced Vegetation Index (EVI observations were analyzed according to the methodology proposed by Box et al.(1994. The values modeled correspond to the temporal variations that occurred in the forest canopy of the Sooretama Biological Reserve, in northern Espírito Santo, in the district of Linhares. The results indicated that such methodology was adequate. The residues of the adjusted model are not correlated with normal distribution, zero average and s² variance. At the lowest value of the Akaike Information Criteria (AIC -570. 51, the model adjusted was the Mobile Average Integrated Self-Regressive Seasonal model (1, 0, 1 (1, 0, 1-12.

  17. componente vegetal

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    Fabio Moscovich

    2005-01-01

    Full Text Available In order to determine environmental impact, indicators based on vegetation characteristics that would generate the forestry monoculture with the adjacent native forest, 32 sample unit were installed in an area of LIPSIA private enterprise, Esperanza Department, Misiones with those characteristics. The plots of 100 m2 were distributed systematically every 25 meters. The vegetation was divided in stratum: superior (DBH ≥ 10 cm, middle (1,6 cm ≤ DBH > 10 cm and inferior (DBH< cm. There were installed 10 plots in a logged native forest, 10 plots in a 18 years old Pinus elliottii Engelm. with approximately 400 trees/ha., 6 plots in a 10 – 25 years old Araucaria angustifolia (Bertd. Kuntze limiting area with approximately 900 trees/ha., and 6 plots located in this plantation. In the studied area were identified 150 vegetation species. In the inferior stratum there were found differences as function of various floristic diversity indexes. In all the cases the native forest showed larger diversity than plantations, followed by Pinus elliottii, Araucaria plantation and Araucaria limiting area. All the studied forest fitted to a logarithmical series of species distributions, that would indicate the incidence of a environmental factor in this distribution.

  18. Ácido indolbutírico em diferentes diâmetros na estaquia de Luehea divaricata Indolbutyric acid in different diameters on the vegetative propagation of Luehea divaricata

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    Jardel Pizzatto Pacheco

    2008-09-01

    Full Text Available Luehea divaricata Mart. é uma árvore de porte médio com madeira resistente e de grande flexibilidade, características que a qualificam como matéria-prima na fabricação de móveis vergados. Devido à relevância desta espécie em indústrias de base florestal, o objetivo deste trabalho foi avaliar o efeito do ácido indolbutírico e do diâmetro da estaca como subsídio à produção de matrizes adequadas ao uso comercial. Foram utilizadas estacas com 20cm de comprimento, coletadas de matrizes com aproximadamente dez anos de idade. Os tratamentos consistiram na combinação entre estacas com três classes de diâmetro: finas (0,4-0,8cm, médias (0,9-1,4cm, grossas (1,5-2,6cm e dois níveis de solução de ácido indolbutírico (0; 5000mg L-1. O delineamento experimental foi inteiramente casualizado, consistindo de 12 unidades experimentais por repetição e cinco repetições por tratamento. Aos 90 dias após a implantação do experimento, foram avaliadas as variáveis: sobrevivência, enraizamento, número e comprimento radicial. Estacas médias e grossas imersas em 5000mg L-1 de solução hidroalcoólica de IBA são indicadas na estaquia de Luehea divaricata.Luehea divaricata Mart. is a medium-sized-tree of a resistent wood and great flexibility, characteristics which qualify it as raw material in the manufacture of furniture. Due to the relevance of this species to the forest based industry the project was conducted in order to investigate the indolbutyric acid and the diameter of the stem cuttings as a subsidy for the production of matrices adequate for comercial use. Stem cuttings of 20cm of length taken from matrices of approximately ten years of age were used. The treatments consisted of the combination between stem cuttings of three classes of diameter: fine (0.4-0.8cm, medium (0.9-1.4cm and thick (1.5-2.6cm and two levels of solution IBA (0, 5000mg L-1. A completely randomized experimental design was used and consisted of

  19. Studies on methodology for vegetal bio indicators in bioremediation areas contaminated with petroleum wastes; Estudos sobre metodologia para bioindicadores vegetais em areas de biorremediacao contaminadas com residuos de petroleo

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nascimento Neto, Durval; Castro, Rodrigo Azevedo; Krenczynski, Michele Cristine; Goncalves, Claudia Martins; Souza, Sergio Luiz de [Universidade Federal do Parana (UFPR), Curitiba (Brazil). Curso de Pos-Graduacao em Ciencia do Solo; Carvalho, Francisco Jose Pereira de Campos [Universidade Federal do Parana (UFPR), Curitiba (Brazil). Dept. de Solos; Grube, Karl; Coelho, Jorge Ibirajara Evangelista [PETROBRAS, PR (Brazil). REPAR

    1998-07-01

    The present work has as it main objective the development of bioindicator methodology for use of soil biorremediation criteria and environmental assessment evaluation upon the actual soil biorremediation status quantification. In order to do so morphophysiological aspects of Avena sativa and Barbarea verna, were determinated under greenhouse conditions for a dilution series of contaminated soil with the non contaminated one. A quantification scale model was proposed report the based on the statistical analysis for the defined morphophisyological parameters. Therefore, it has possible to quantigicate phytoxicity and construct phytotoxicity curves for the contaminated soil dilution series. It was possible to conclude that the developed methodology can be used as a criteria of soil actual biorremediation status. (author)

  20. Qualidade parasitológica e condições higiênico-sanitárias de hortaliças comercializadas na cidade de Florianópolis, Santa Catarina, Brasil Parasitological quality and hygienic-sanitary conditions of vegetables sold in the city of Florianópolis, Santa Catarina, Brazil

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    Bolivar Soares

    2005-12-01

    Full Text Available Embora as hortaliças sejam amplamente comercializadas e consumidas no Brasil, o consumo de verduras cruas constitui importante meio de transmissão de parasitas intestinais. Neste estudo, avaliou-se a presença de formas transmissíveis de três tipos de hortaliças (rúcula, agrião e alface-crespa comercializadas em cinco principais pontos de venda aos consumidores (dois supermercados, dois "sacolões" e em uma feira livre, na cidade de Florianópolis, Santa Catarina, Brasil, no período de junho 2003 a maio 2004. As hortaliças in natura foram lavadas com água e esta foi submetida ao método de sedimentação, durante um período de 24 horas. Concomitante à pesquisa laboratorial, foram avaliadas as condições de cultivo e manipulação de diferentes produtores agrícolas, os quais forneciam as hortaliças que eram posteriormente comercializadas em Florianópolis. A análise parasitológica mostrou alta freqüência de parasitas intestinais na maioria das amostras analisadas (40% a 76%. Entre os fatores envolvidos na contaminação das verduras, destacaram-se a origem das águas de irrigação, o acondicionamento, o transporte e a manipulação destas durante a coleta. Conclui-se que as hortaliças comercializadas nesta região têm relevante papel na transmissão de enfermidades intestinais, havendo necessidade de medidas específicas que evitem a contaminação desses vegetais.Although vegetables are widely sold and consumed in Brazil, the ingestion of raw vegetables is an important way of transmission of intestinal parasites. In this study, the presence of transmissible forms of intestinal parasites in three vegetable species commercially available in five very busy locations (two supermarkets, two "kilo markets" and a street market located in the city of Florianópolis, Santa Catarina, Brazil, within the period between June 2003 and May 2004 was evaluated. The in natura vegetables were washed with water and the washing water was

  1. Índice de vegetação do sensor MODIS na estimativa da produtividade agrícola da cana-de-açúcar Vegetation index from MODIS sensor to estimate sugarcane yield

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    Michelle Cristina Araujo Picoli

    2009-09-01

    Full Text Available A participação da cultura da cana-de-açúcar no fornecimento de matéria prima para produção de açúcar e também de álcool, como fonte alternativa de energia, tem sido relevante para o crescimento econômico do Brasil. Consequentemente, a disponibilidade de informações precisas sobre a produção agrícola dessa cultura é importante para auxiliar no planejamento e na tomada de decisões em toda a cadeia produtiva. O presente trabalho teve como objetivo estimar a produtividade agrícola de talhões de cana-de-açúcar para as safras 2004/2005 e 2005/2006, a partir de um modelo agronômico ajustado com dados orbitais. A inovação deste modelo consiste no uso do índice de área foliar (IAF estimado a partir do produto índice de vegetação NDVI (Normalized Difference Vegetation Index do sensor MODIS (Moderate Resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer a bordo do satélite Terra da NASA (National Aeronautics Space Administration. O modelo agronômico explicou 31% e 25% da variação da produtividade observada entre talhões nos anos safra 2004/2005 e 2005/2006, respectivamente, o que se deve fundamentalmente ao uso das imagens NDVI do MODIS. O resultado do modelo pode ser usado para auxiliar e aprimorar a previsão da estimativa da produtividade feita in loco.The contribution of sugarcane crop to provide raw material to produce sugar and also alcohol as an alternative energy source has been relevant to the economic growth of Brazil. Therefore, the availability of precise agricultural production information about this crop is important for planning and decision-making in the entire productive chain. The present work has the objective to estimate sugarcane yield in crop fields during the crop years 2004/2005 and 2005/2006, based on an agronomic model fit with orbital data. The innovation of this model consists in the use of the leaf area index (LAI estimated from the NDVI (Normalized Difference Vegetation Index produced by the MODIS sensor

  2. Influência da cobertura vegetal do solo na qualidade dos frutos de videira 'Niagara Rosada' Influence of soil cover with grass and leguminous plants on fruit characteristics of table grape variety Niagara Rosada

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    Elaine Bahia Wutke

    2005-12-01

    Full Text Available Devido ao aumento no custo de produção com a utilização de cobertura morta com capim nas ruas da videira 'Niagara Rosada' e à dificuldade para sua aquisição, objetivou-se a possibilidade de substituí-la por plantas de cobertura intercalares. Em experimentos realizados em Indaiatuba e Jundiaí-SP, de 1999-2000 a 2003-2004, instalaram-se seis tratamentos nas entrelinhas, em blocos ao acaso e quatro repetições, constando de área no limpo; vegetação espontânea roçada; cobertura com capim seco de Brachiaria decumbens; cobertura verde de aveia preta (Avena strigosa; cobertura verde de chícharo (Lathyrus sativus; cobertura verde de tremoço (Lupinus albus, de março a outubro, seguidas de cobertura verde de mucuna anã (Mucuna deeringiana de outubro a março. Determinaram-se massa, comprimento e largura do cacho, engaço e bagas, número total de bagas por cacho e diâmetro do pedicelo de bagas, comparando-se os valores médios pelo teste de Duncan ao nível de 5%. Na média dos anos, os resultados com a cobertura verde foram similares ou mais favoráveis que os da cobertura com braquiária seca, podendo-se substituí-la por coberturas vegetais intercalares com gramínea e leguminosas, o ano todo, sem interferência negativa na qualidade comercial dos frutos.Grape vineyard in Southern Brazil utilize a large amount of mulch during autumn-winter season demanding extra efforts and costs, being its acquisition very difficult nowadays. In order to evaluate the possibility of replacing the tradicionally mulch by green cover species in the inter-row strip, two experiments were carried out in Indaiatuba and Jundiaí, SP, Brazil, from 1999/00 to 2003/04, with the table variety Niagara Rosada. The experimental design was a randomized block with four replications and six treatments: 1 no weeded area; 2 cut spontaneous local vegetation; 3 mulch of Brachiaria decumbens; 4 green cover of Avena strigosa from March to October followed by green cover of

  3. Valor nutricional e energético de espécies vegetais importantes na alimentação do Tambaqui Nutritional and energy value from important vegetal species in tambaqui feeding

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    Jorge Antonio Moreira da Silva

    2003-12-01

    Full Text Available Analisou-se o valor nutricional e energético de alguns frutos e sementes das florestas de várzea e igapó, próximas à região de Manaus-AM, importantes na alimentação do tambaqui (Colossoma macropomum Cuvier, 1818. Para o levantamento das espécies e os tipos de frutos consumidos por esta espécie foram utilizadas informações da literatura, complementadas com os resultados de análises de conteúdo dos tratos digestivos coletados através de capturas de animais e no principal porto de desembarque e comercialização de peixes em Manaus, a feira da Panair. Foram realizadas, semanalmente, na feira, coleta de 15 tratos digestivos, durante nove meses. Após a evisceração, os tratos digestivos foram acondionados em sacos plásticos, armazenados em isopor com gelo e transportados até o laboratório onde permaneceram em freezer (-20ºC. As análises de conteúdo dos tratos digestivos consistiram na coleta dos frutos e sementes para identificação, após serem preservados em álcool a 70% constituindo uma coleção de referência. Após identificação, as espécies de frutos e sementes foram coletadas nas áreas de ocorrência na várzea e igapó para as análises bromatológicas, seguindo metodologia da A.O.A.C (1995 e a energia bruta (kJ/g através de bomba calorimétrica. Identificou-se 46 espécies vegetais, distribuídas em 21 famílias e classificados nove tipos de frutos. De acordo com os dados atuais, a alimentação do tambaqui engloba, pelo menos, 133 espécies, entre frutos e sementes, distribuídas em 38 famílias e 15 tipos de frutos. O consumo destes itens variou entre inteiros e/ou triturados. A composição bromatológica de 14 espécies de sementes e 40 de frutos demostrou que estes itens são mais energéticos do que protéicos.Nutritional and energy value of some fruits and seeds from the flooded forests, next to Manaus-AM, important in tambaqui (Colossoma macropomum Cuvier, 1818 feeding were analyzed. For the species

  4. Briófitas: estado do conhecimento e vulnerabilidade na Floresta Atlântica Nordestina

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    Mercia Patricia Pereira Silva

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available Com ênfase na Floresta Atlântica Nordestina, é fornecido um diagnóstico do estado da arte do conhecimento sobre a brioflora e, para os últimos dez anos, uma análise por área temática da briologia, estado da região, Instituição executora dos autores e gargalos de conhecimento. No período analisado, foram publicados 60 artigos em periódicos nacionais e internacionais, sendo que a maioria enfoca a linha de pesquisa Florística e Taxonomia, com destaque para o estado da Bahia que apresenta mais de 50% da produção desta linha. A consolidação deste conhecimento pode ser atribuída, em grande parte, à existência de pesquisadores e de Programas de Pós-graduação atuantes na região. A brioflora regional é composta por 788 spp., correspondendo a 58% do total conhecido para o Domínio Floresta Atlântica, onde novas espécies têm sido descritas e táxons vulneráveis, de distribuição rara e bioindicadores evidenciados. A Bahia é o estado de maior riqueza brioflorística, com 483 spp., seguida por Pernambuco, 323 spp. A vulnerabilidade da brioflora regional é acessada mediante endemismo, raridade de distribuição e caráter bioindicador de qualidade ambiental dos táxons. Modelos de distribuição potencial produzidos para vários desses táxons contribuem ao evidenciar novas áreas de exploração, a necessidade de proteção mais eficiente de habitats específicos e a criação de Unidades de Conservação. Para dirimir as lacunas ainda existentes no conhecimento fazem-se necessárias a continuidade de estudos, a intensificação na formação de recursos humanos e nas cooperações científicas.

  5. Efeitos da purificação e do enriquecimento do creosoto vegetal na preservação da madeira de Eucalyptus grandis, após 48 meses de instalação do ensaio de campo

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    Paes,Juarez Benigno; Vital,Benedito Rocha; Della Lucia,Ricardo Marius; Della Lucia,Terezinha Maria Castro

    2002-01-01

    O objetivo deste trabalho foi avaliar a eficiência da purificação e do enriquecimento do creosoto vegetal contra xilófagos, após 48 meses de instalação do ensaio de campo. Por destilação do alcatrão vegetal, obteve-se o creosoto vegetal bruto (creosoto 1), recuperado à temperatura de 110-255 °C. Uma fração dos destilados foi lavada com solução a 9% de bicarbonato de sódio, para obter o creosoto vegetal purificado (creosoto 2). Os creosotos 1 e 2 foram enriquecidos com 3% de naftenato de cobre...

  6. Relação do padrão sazonal da vegetação com a precipitação na região de cerrado da Amazônia Legal, usando índices espectrais de vegetação Relationship between vegetation seasonal pattern and precipitation in the cerrado region by spectral vegetation indexes

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    Jorge Alberto Bustamante Becerra

    2009-06-01

    Full Text Available A precipitação é um dos principais fatores que determina a dinâmica sazonal da vegetação na região de savanas tropicais, como é o caso do cerrado brasileiro. Neste trabalho foram analisadas as relações da precipitação sazonal, com o comportamento sazonal das classes de uso e cobertura da terra (UCT, principalmente as fisionomias de cerrado do Estado de Tocantins. Foi analisada a dinâmica sazonal do cerrado, incluindo áreas florestadas e não florestadas, a partir da análise de imagens do MODIS/TERRA IV (Índices de Vegetação de janeiro a dezembro de 2004, bem como dados diários de precipitação de 2004 e uma série de precipitação diária do período de 1969 a 2005. Os resultados da análise de precipitação mostram que a área de estudo apresentou uma alta sazonalidade, com estação seca de maio a setembro. As análises dos IV mostram que a dinâmica sazonal das formações de cerrado é similar àquela das áreas convertidas para outros usos. O padrão sazonal das classes de UCT segue os padrões da precipitação, cujos menores valores foram registrados no mês de agosto de 2004, mês este que apresentou os menores valores dos IV. Diferentemente das demais classes de UCT, a formação florestal não se ajustou ao padrão de precipitação, apresentando valores de IV similares ao longo do ano com leve decréscimo no mês de setembro de 2004.Precipitation is one of the main factors that determine the seasonal dynamics of the vegetation in tropical savanna areas, as the Brazilian cerrado. In this work the relationship of the seasonal precipitation with the seasonal behavior of the land use and land cover (LULC types, mainly savannah physiognomies of the Tocantins State, was investigated. We analyzed the savanna seasonal dynamics, including forest and converted areas, with MODIS/TERRA VI (vegetation indexes satellite measurements from January to December 2004 and daily precipitation of 2004 and daily precipitation series

  7. Potential universal applicability of soil bioindicators: evaluation in three temperate ecosystems Aplicación potencial universal de bioindicadores del suelo: su evaluación en tres ecosistemas templados

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    Mirta G González

    2007-12-01

    Full Text Available Three selected soils from three countries with temperate climates have been analyzed. Two of the soils are silty loams (Buenos Aires, Argentina, and Salamanca, Spain and the third one is a sandy loam (Peccioli, Italy. Soil samples representing three agricultural managements were obtained from the top layer (0-10 cm, i.e. intensively cultivated, cultivated and undisturbed native soils. Soil organic carbon (SOC, total nitrogen (Nt, ATP, urease, protease, phosphatase, b-glucosidase, dehydrogenase (DHA, and arginine ammonification (ARA were determined and compared. SOC and Nt were significantly higher (P Se compararon las actividades enzimáticas de distintos ecosistemas con diferentes características de uso de suelo para utilizarlas como bioindicadores. Se analizaron suelos de tres países de climas templados. Dos de los suelos presentan textura franco limosa (Buenos Aires, Argentina y Salamanca, España y el tercero franco arenosa (Peccioli, Italia. Se obtuvieron muestras de 10 cm de profundidad provenientes de tres manejos diferentes en cada uno de ellos: agricultura intensiva, rotación cultivo-pastura y suelo nativo. En todos los sitios se determinaron y compararon el Carbono orgánico(SOC, Nitrógeno total(Nt, contenido de ATP, acividad enzimática de la ureasa, proteasa, fosfatasa, b-glucosidasa, deshidrogenasa (DHA y arginina(ARA. Se encontró una buena correlación (p < 0,05 entre ATP, DHA, ARA con el SOC y Nt, indicando que estos parámetros del suelo están relacionados con las propiedades biológicas y la actividad bioquímica. No se encontró correlación entre DHA con el SOC, con el Nt , ni con la actividad de la proteasa en suelos de agricultura intensiva, indicando que en ecosistemas de bajos contenidos de sustratos exógenos para metabolizar, los microorganismos están en un nivel bajo de actividad. La similitud de los resultados obtenidos de los suelos de tres diferentes países confirman la utilidad de las variables bioqu

  8. A study on elemental composition in epiphytic lichen samples used as bioindicator of air pollution in Sao Paulo city; Estudo sobre a composicao elementar nas amostras de liquen epifitico utilizado como bioindicador da poluicao aerea na cidade de Sao Paulo

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Montezani, Edmila

    2010-07-01

    Studies on air pollution have intensified in recent years, due to the diversity of emissions and the effect caused to the health of populations. Consequently, several techniques have been investigated for air pollution evaluation and among them one that has gained considerable attention is that of biomonitoring. In this study chemical elemental levels in the atmosphere of Sao Paulo city were evaluated, by means of passive biomonitoring, using epiphytic Canoparmelia texana species, in order to compare between the results obtained in samples from different sites of Sao Paulo city and in a reference site of Ubatuba city, SP. Neutron activation analysis (NAA) procedure applied in the analyses consisted of irradiating aliquots of samples along with synthetic standards of elements in the nuclear reactor IEA-R1 for 16 hours under a thermal neutron flux of about 5.0 x 10{sup 12} n cm{sup -2} s{sup -1}, followed by gamma ray spectrometry for the determination of As, Br, Ca, Co, Cr, Cs, Fe, K, La, Rb, Sc, Se and Zn. Results obtained in the analyses of lichens samples in replicates presented good reproducibility indicating homogeneity of the prepared samples. The precision and accuracy of the results were evaluated by the analyses of certified reference materials IAEA-336 Lichen and INCT-TL-1 Tea Leaves. Results obtained in the reference materials presented, in general, good precision, with relative standard deviations between 0.4 and 14.8% and good accuracy with relative errors between 0.2 and 8.7%. In Sao Paulo city, the lichens were collected in the following sites: Parque Dom Pedro II, Congonhas, Cidade Universitaria, Lapa, Mooca, Morumbi, Nossa Senhora do O, Parque Ibirapuera, Pinheiros, Santana, Santo Amaro and Taboao da Serra. Element concentrations found in lichens indicated a great variability depending on the sites where the samples were collected. The results obtained in the lichens submitted to the cluster analysis indicated three groups of sampling sites according to the chemical similarity obtained in lichens. Lichen collected in the reference site of Ubatuba indicated that most of element concentrations are lower or at the same order of magnitude when compared with those obtained in lichens collected in Sao Paulo city. The highest element concentrations in the sample from Ubatuba were obtained for Br, K and Zn. Results obtained in this study indicated that the origins of elements present in the atmosphere of Sao Paulo city are due to mainly vehicular emissions followed industrial emissions and from soil. Elements named vehicular emission markers (Br, Co, Sb and Zn), industrial markers (Cr, Co and Fe) and from soil (Sb, Se, Rb e La) were determined in the lichens. (author)

  9. Analysis of variance of primary data on plant growth analysis Análise de variância dos dados primários na análise de crescimento vegetal

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    Adelson Paulo Araújo

    2003-01-01

    Full Text Available Plant growth analysis presents difficulties related to statistical comparison of growth rates, and the analysis of variance of primary data could guide the interpretation of results. The objective of this work was to evaluate the analysis of variance of data from distinct harvests of an experiment, focusing especially on the homogeneity of variances and the choice of an adequate ANOVA model. Data from five experiments covering different crops and growth conditions were used. From the total number of variables, 19% were originally homoscedastic, 60% became homoscedastic after logarithmic transformation, and 21% remained heteroscedastic after transformation. Data transformation did not affect the F test in one experiment, whereas in the other experiments transformation modified the F test usually reducing the number of significant effects. Even when transformation has not altered the F test, mean comparisons led to divergent interpretations. The mixed ANOVA model, considering harvest as a random effect, reduced the number of significant effects of every factor which had the F test modified by this model. Examples illustrated that analysis of variance of primary variables provides a tool for identifying significant differences in growth rates. The analysis of variance imposes restrictions to experimental design thereby eliminating some advantages of the functional growth analysis.A análise de crescimento vegetal apresenta dificuldades relacionadas à comparação estatística das curvas de crescimento, e a análise de variância dos dados primários pode orientar a interpretação dos resultados. Este trabalho objetivou avaliar a análise de variância de dados de distintas coletas de um experimento, abordando particularmente a homogeneidade das variâncias e a escolha do modelo adequado de ANOVA. Foram utilizados dados de cinco experimentos com diferentes culturas e condições de crescimento. Do total de variáveis, 19% foram originalmente

  10. Citotoxicidade e genotoxicidade da água do rio Subaé (Humildes, Bahia, Brasil usando Allium cepa L. como bioindicador

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jacqueline Ramos Machado Braga

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Ao longo dos anos, o rio Subaé na Bahia tem sido impactado por atividade industrial pelo lançamento de efluentes tóxicos em suas águas. O presente estudo analisou os efeitos citotóxicos e genotóxicos provocados pela água do trecho deste rio que banha o município de Humildes-BA, utilizando o teste do Allium cepa. Amostras de água foram obtidas em três pontos de coleta (PI, PII e PIII para as análises de parâmetros fisico-químicos. Bulbos de A. cepa foram colocados por 72 h para germinação nas amostras de água em triplicata. As radículas foram submetidas por 12-h a 4 oC, fixadas em Carnoy por 12-h e coradas com técnica de Feulgen. Foram analisadas 6.500 células/tratamento. A citotoxicidade foi avaliada pelo índice mitótico (IM e a genotoxicidade, por anormalidades cromossômicas (AC. Os testes fisico-químicos revelaram que PI e PIII apresentavam valores de OD, DBO5 e DQO alterados. O teste de toxicidade indicou que houve inibição do crescimento das raízes nos pontos PI (10,3 % e PII (10,6 %, quando comparados ao controle negativo (11,9 %. No PI, foram encontrados 6,2 % de ACs, 6 % em PII e 5,4 % em PIII, valores acima do controle positivo (3 %, evidenciando o efeito genotóxico nos pontos estudados. A partir dos resultados, pode-se inferir que as águas do Rio Subaé podem conter substâncias que provavelmente estão afetando o ciclo celular do A. cepa, sendo importante que outras análises sejam realizadas em diferentes estações do ano, para melhor monitoramento das condições ambientais locais.

  11. Superfamilia Scarabaeoidea (Insecta: Coleoptera como elemento bioindicador de perturbación antropogénica en un parque nacional amazónico Scarabaeoidea superfamily (Insecta: Coleoptera as a bioindicator element of anthropogenic disturbance in an amazon national park

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    Samuel Eduardo Otavo

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available Diferentes grupos de insectos se consideran importantes elementos bioindicadores de la calidad de los ecosistemas, los coleópteros son hoy en día uno de los grupos más reconocidos y utilizados para el monitoreo y establecimiento de áreas protegidas. Se evaluó el uso de la superfamilia Scarabaeoidea como bioindicador del grado de perturbación antropogénica de los bosques húmedos amazónicos. En tres niveles de perturbación (alta, media y baja se establecieron 12 transectos, utilizando tres trampas de interceptación, dos trampas de luz, tres trampas de caída, cuatro trampas de botella y captura manual. Se capturaron 593 individuos, 92 especies, 44 géneros y 7 familias. Las familias con el mayor número de individuos y especies fueron Scarabaeidae (n=232, 27 spp. y Dynastidae (n=161, 26 spp.. Las especies más abundantes fueron: Ateuchus sp., Cyclocephala verticalis, Ceratocanthus amazonicus y Chaetodus asuai. El número de especies e individuos fue mayor a medida que el gradiente de perturbación aumentó. Dynastidae presenta el mayor número de especies exclusivas mientras Scarabaeidae comparte la mayoría. Diez especies fueron registradas en los tres bosques, 26 en dos y 56 en solo uno. De las especies más abundantes C. asuai muestra una reducción significativa del número de individuos con el aumento de la perturbación, mientras se observa una relación inversa para C. verticalis. Se discute la utilización de la riqueza y la diversidad como indicadores de perturbación, mientras se ratifica la abundancia de ciertos táxones como una mejor variable a medir.Insects have been recognized to be important indicators of the quality elements of ecosystems, among others, because of their rapid response to environmental variability and ease cost-effective capture. In this work we evaluated whether beetles of the Scarabaeoidea superfamily may be used as bioindicators of anthropogenic disturbance of Amazonian terra firme rain forests, in

  12. Lake Bathymetric Aquatic Vegetation

    Data.gov (United States)

    Minnesota Department of Natural Resources — Aquatic vegetation represented as polygon features, coded with vegetation type (emergent, submergent, etc.) and field survey date. Polygons were digitized from...

  13. Caracterização atual do uso da terra e da cobertura vegetal na região da Terra Indígena Sangradouro/Volta Grande-Mato Grosso, Brasil

    OpenAIRE

    Fernando Shinji Kawakubo; Rúbia Gomes Morato; Paulo Almeida Correia Junior; Ailton Luchiari

    2004-01-01

    El objeto de este trabajo fue el mapear el uso y cobertura vegetal en la tierra indígena Sangradouro/Volta Grande-MT (Brasil). Para ello se emplearon técnicas de Modelo Lineal de Mezcla Espectral acompañadas por la segmentación de las imágenes sintéticas y clasificación supervisada de los componentes divididos. El cálculo de las áreas correspondientes a las clases de uso del suelo y cobertura vegetal, permitió estimar el estado actual de la tierra en el contexto ambiental.

  14. Sustitución de lardo por grasa vegetal en salchichas: incorporación de pasta de aguacate. Efecto de la inhibición del oscurecimiento enzimático sobre el color Substituição do toucinho por gordura vegetal em salsichas: adição da pasta de abacate. Efeito da inibição do escurecimiento enzimatico na cor

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    Ubaldo Rueda-Lugo

    2006-06-01

    Full Text Available La sustitución de grasa animal es importante para mejorar la calidad nutricional de los alimentos de origen animal. Tradicionalmente, los embutidos contienen cantidades relativamente altas de grasas insaturadas, por lo que se ha buscado la sustitución parcial o total de estas con grasas o aceites de origen vegetal. El aprovechamiento del aguacate como fuente de grasa vegetal es una alternativa para este tipo de productos. La oxidación de este fruto es uno de los principales problemas durante la industrialización. En este trabajo se han añadido dos inhibidores del oscurecimiento enzimático, ácido ascórbico y eritorbato de sodio, para determinar el efecto de éstos sobre el color de salchichas de cerdo. Se han encontrado diferencias en la luminosidad de las muestras con respecto al tratamiento control, además de que este mismo parámetro se ha reducido con el tiempo de almacenamiento. No ha habido efecto significativo de los antioxidantes sobre las otras componentes del color. El uso de eritorbato de sodio en la elaboración de pasta de aguacate ha reducido el oscurecimiento de la pasta durante su congelación, sin afectar mayormente otros parámetros de color del producto terminado. La aceptación del producto por un grupo de consumidores ha sido aceptable.A substituição da gordura animal ou toucinho é importante para melhorar a qualidade nutricional dos alimentos de origem animal. Tradicionalmente, os embutidos contêm quantidades relativamente elevadas de gorduras insaturadas, e a substituição parcial ou total com gordura vegetal ou óleo é desejável. O abacate é fonte de gordura vegetal como uma alternativa para este tipo de produto. A oxidação desta fruta é um dos problemas principais durante a industrialização. Neste trabalho foram adicionados dois inibidores de escurecimento enzimatico, ácido ascórbico e eritorbato do sódio, para determinar o efeito destes na cor das salsichas. As diferenças na luminosidade das

  15. Análise fitossociológica de um remanescente de vegetação na microbacia do Córrego Criminoso (Bacia do Rio Taquari, Coxim, MS, Brasil: subsídios para a recomposição da vegetação Phytosociological analysis of a vegetation remnant in the Córrego Criminoso Basin (Taquari River Basin, Coxim District, Mato Grosso do Sul, Brazil: data for vegetation recovery studies

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    Adriana Maria Güntzel

    2011-09-01

    Full Text Available O objetivo deste estudo foi realizar a análise florística e fitossociológica preliminar em um remanescente de vegetação na área de entorno do Córrego Criminoso, visando subsidiar futuros projetos de recomposição da vegetação. A área total do remanescente foi determinada com o auxílio de GPS e dos programas Pathfinder e Autocad. Amostragens de indivíduos com CAP maior ou igual a 20 cm foram realizadas em 20 parcelas de 300 m² distribuídas na área. Foram encontradas 26 famílias botânicas contendo 36 gêneros e 49 espécies. A família Leguminosae foi a mais rica em espécies, seguida da família Annonaceae. A espécie Xylopia aromatica foi a mais freqüente, apresentando valores de IVI e IVC de 99,77 e 85,73, respectivamente. Observou-se que mais de 50% das espécies presentes na área são pioneiras ou secundárias, sendo cinco consideradas típicas de matas ciliares: Tapirira guianenses, Cecropia pachystachya, Terminalia argentea, Ocotea pulchellae e Luehea grandiflora. O remanescente de vegetação do entorno do Córrego Criminoso encontra-se fortemente degradado, necessitando de ações de manejo específicos nos fragmentos vegetados e nas áreas destituídas de vegetação, cujas recomendações são propostas.The aim of this study was to complete a preliminary, floristic, phytosociological analyses of a vegetation remnant in the Criminoso Stream Basin, in order to provide data for future projects focusing on vegetation recovery. The total area of the remnant was determined using a GPS and the software Pathfinder and Autocad. Samples of individuals larger or equal to 20 cm CBH were made in 20 quadrats that were 300 m². Thirty-six genera and 49 species, within 26 botanical families, were found. The family Leguminosae was the richest in species, followed by the Annonaceae. Xylopia aromatica was the most frequent species, presenting values of IVI and IVC of 99.77 and 85.73, respectively. More than 50% of the species present

  16. Estudo da ocorrência de enteroparasitas em hortaliças comercializadas na região metropolitana de São Paulo, SP, Brasil: I - Pesquisa de helmintos Study on the occurrence of intestinal parasites on vegetables commercially traded in the metropolitan area of S.Paulo, SP, Brazil: I - Search for helminths

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    Carlos Augusto Fernandes de Oliveira

    1992-08-01

    Full Text Available Hortaliças in natura, comercializadas na região metropolitana de São Paulo, SP (Brasil, foram analisadas através de metodologia própria, visando à pesquisa e à identificação de formas de transmissão de helmintos intestinais de interesse médico. As hortaliças examinadas, constituídas de 50 amostras de cada variedade, foram de: alface (Lactuca sativa, variedades lisa e crespa, escarola (Chichorium sp e agrião (Nasturtium officinale. Os resultados evidenciaram elevados percentuais de contaminação em todas as variedades analisadas, porém, as freqüências de helmintos foram maiores no agrião. A escarola apresentou valores médios, geralmente situados entre as alfaces e o agrião. Os números médios de ovos e larvas por 100 gramas de amostra, embora elevados, não apresentaram diferenças estatisticamente significantes entre as quatro variedades de hortaliças estudadas. Uma grande variedade de helmintos, de ocorrência freqüente na população residente na Região Metropolitana de São Paulo, foi observada nas amostras. Os mais freqüentes, no entanto, foram: ancilostomídeos e Ascaris sp. Recuperaram-se também ovos de Toxocara sp, Fasciola sp e de tricostrongilídeos, comprovando a ocorrência de contaminação das hortaliças por fezes de animais domésticos. Considerando-se os resultados obtidos, ressalta-se a importância das hortaliças na transmissão de helmintíases intestinais, bem como a necessidade de medidas que propiciem uma melhoria na qualidade higiênico-sanitária destes alimentos.Vegetables in natura, commercially traded in the metropolitan area of S. Paulo, were analysed by the appropriate methodology with a view to discovering an identifying the paths of transmission of enteroparasites of medical interest. The vegetables under study consisted of 50 samples of each variety listed below: lettuce (Lactuca sativa -oily leaves and crisphead varieties, endive (Chicorium sp and water-cress (Nasturtium Officinale

  17. Detecção de estruturas parasitárias em hortaliças comercializadas na cidade de Florianópolis, SC, Brasil Detection of parasitic structures in vegetables commercialized in the city of Florianópolis, SC, Brazil

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    Bolivar Soares

    2006-09-01

    Full Text Available Analisou-se a presença de formas transmissíveis de enteroparasitas em hortaliças consumidas cruas na cidade de Florianópolis,SC, no período de junho de 2003 a maio de 2004. Foram estudadas amostras alface (Lactuca sativa, agrião (Nasturtium officinale e rúcula (Chicarium sp, num total de 750, provenientes do comércio ("sacolões", supermercados e feiras livres. Tais amostras foram lavadas e submetidas ao método de sedimentação espontânea em água por 24 horas. Todas as variedades de hortaliças examinadas apresentaram elevados percentuais de contaminação, porém com maior freqüência no agrião. Observou-se uma grande variedade de protozoários, responsáveis pela transmissão elevada de enfermidades intestinais, na população da região metropolitana de Florianópolis. Ressalta-se a importância das hortaliças na transmissão de enfermidades intestinais, havendo conseqüentemente necessidade de medidas que propiciem uma melhoria na qualidade higiênico-sanitária destas.The presence of transmissible forms of enteroparasites in vegetables consumed raw in Florianópolis city was evaluated in the period concerned between June 2003 and May 2004. A total of 750 samples, including lettuce (Lactuva sativa, watercress (Nasturtium officinale and of rocket (Chicarium sp, commercially available from street markets and supermarkets, were analyzed. All samples were washed and submitted to the sedimentation method. Elevated degrees of contamination were found in all samples analyzed, with higher frequencies being found in the watercress samples. A large variety of protozoans were detected, the levels of which are compatible with the elevated frequency of occurrence in the population of the metropolitan region of the city of Florianópolis. Therefore, the importance of the vegetables in the transmission of intestinal diseases is emphasized, which requires adequate measurements to be taken in order to provide an improvement in the hygienic

  18. Purchase policies to fresh fruit and vegetables in supermarkets in Campo Grande, Brazil Formas de compra e procedência de hortaliças na rede de supermercados em Campo Grande (MS

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    Dario de O Lima-Filho

    2012-03-01

    Full Text Available This study aims to analyze purchase policies to fruits and vegetables in supermarkets in Campo Grande, Brazilian Midwest. Thirteen interviews were conducted with representatives from supermarkets, small, medium and large, responsible for purchasing fresh vegetables. By analyzing the responses obtained through interviews, we can observe that producers make almost the entire supply of fruits and vegetables in large supermarkets from other states, and the small and medium establishments usually buy more with the local producer. For retailers, the fruits and vegetables represent an important factor to create internal circulation of customers in stores and a factor of attraction of clients too, in addition, this products offer high profitability. For the supermarket, the fruits and vegetables locally produced are fresher and have lower comparative cost. However, supply regularity, the volume and variety offered by local producers are considered unsatisfactory.O presente estudo objetiva analisar as formas de compra dos supermercados para o abastecimento de hortaliças em Campo Grande. Foram realizadas treze entrevistas com representantes de supermercados de pequeno, médio e grande porte, responsáveis pelas compras destes produtos. Os resultados revelam que praticamente todo o fornecimento de hortaliças nos grandes supermercados é feito por produtores de outros estados, sendo que os estabelecimentos de pequeno e médio porte ainda conseguem abastecer-se satisfatoriamente com os produtores locais. Para os varejistas, o setor de hortaliças representa importante espaço de geração de tráfego interno de clientes nas lojas, sendo um fator de atração. Pode-se verificar, ainda, que as hortaliças produzidas localmente atendem ao requisito "frescor" e também possuem menor custo comparativo, porém, a regularidade no fornecimento, o volume e a variedade oferecida pelos produtores locais são considerados insatisfatórios.

  19. Cultivation of Hylocerus sp. focusing on vegetative propagation, shading and mineral fertiliser=Cultivo de Hylocereus sp. com enfoque na propagação vegetativa, sombreamento e adubação mineral

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Edmilson Igor Bernardo Almeida

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available The red pitahaya is a semi-epiphytic cactaceous plant, whose cultivation has attracted great interest in recent years as a result of the growing demand for the fruit, characterised by an exotic appearance and the significant price acquired in the market. However, studies and information on this crop are still rare, especially for the conditions of soil and climate found in Brazil. Currently there are areas in Brazil for the commercial cultivation of red pitahaya, which are based on information adapted from such countries as Colombia, Israel, Mexico and Vietnam, pioneers with greater experience in the cultivation of this fruit. Information generated in the state of São Paulo is also used for other producing regions of Brazil; however it is basic and insufficient for achieving maximum potential productivity. Basic information regarding vegetative propagation, shading and mineral nutrition has not been scientifically defined, and acts as a limitation to crop development and production in the country, particularly in the Northeast. The aim therefore, was to make a brief presentation of the red pitahaya crop and gather relevant scientific results, so that they can contribute to improve exploitation of the crop in Brazil. Studies of Hylocereus sp. in the state of Ceará and other producing regions of Brazil point to the excellent adaptation of this species to environmental conditions in Brazil, and indicate its high productive potential. Some characteristics, such as the easy rooting of cuttings, acclimatisation to cultivation in full sunlight, positive response to mineral fertilizer, and precocity, make Hylocereus sp. a potential option for the diversification of irrigated fruit production in Brazil. = A pitaia vermelha é uma cactácea semi-epífita, cujo cultivo vem despertando grande interesse nos últimos anos em função da crescente demanda pelos seus frutos, caracterizados pela aparência exótica e pelos preços expressivos que adquirem no

  20. Erosão hídrica influenciada por condições físicas de superfície e subsuperfície do solo resultantes do seu manejo, na ausência de cobertura vegetal Water erosion influenced by surface and subsurface soil physical conditions resulting from its management, in the absence of vegetal cover

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    L. B. S. Volk

    2004-08-01

    Full Text Available Práticas diferenciadas de manejo resultam em condições físicas de superfície e subsuperfície do solo distintas, as quais, por sua vez, resultam em níveis de erosão hídrica variados. Com isto em mente, realizou-se um estudo a campo com o objetivo de avaliar o efeito de formas de preparo e cultivo do solo e de manejo dos resíduos culturais em algumas de suas condições físicas de superfície e subsuperfície, em relação à erosão hídrica, durante 5,5 anos. Para tal, utilizou-se chuva simulada sobre um Argissolo Vermelho distrófico típico, bastante degradado pelo manejo anterior, com declividade de 0,08 m m-1. Os tratamentos consistiram dos cultivos de milho e aveia preta, em semeadura direta e em preparo convencional de solo (este com incorporação e com remoção dos resíduos culturais, e do sem cultivo, em preparo convencional de solo (testemunha. Tais tratamentos encontravam-se na condição de solo recém-mobilizado, ou consolidado, e desprovido de cobertura vegetal por ocasião dos testes de erosão com chuva simulada. Estes, em número de dez, foram realizados com o simulador de chuva de braços rotativos, na intensidade de 64 mm h-1 e duração de 90 min, logo após a colheita de uma cultura e o preparo do solo, ou não, para o estabelecimento da cultura seguinte. A incorporação sistemática dos resíduos culturais ao solo recuperou sua estrutura e diminuiu a perda de solo praticamente em 3/4, comparada a sua remoção, resultando também na menor perda de solo no estudo. Devido à recém-criada rugosidade superficial do solo, os tratamentos com preparo convencional apresentaram as maiores capacidades de retenção e infiltração de água, resultando em retardamento da enxurrada e, logo, baixa perda de água, comparados à semeadura direta, independentemente do cultivo e da incorporação ou remoção dos resíduos culturais. O preparo convencional sem cultivo, apesar de apresentar rugosidade superficial similar ao

  1. Videografia digital a?rea: proposta de um sistema e aplica??o no estudo de uso do solo, cobertura vegetal e silvicultura urbana na Amaz?nia Central, munic?pio de Manaus, AM

    OpenAIRE

    Bittencourt, Francisco Fernando Bessa

    2010-01-01

    Tendo em vista a necessidade de planejamento, controle e monitoramento do espa?o urbano e de ?reas verdes, a ?rea de geotecnologias tem desenvolvido m?todos e t?cnicas, bem como softwares especializados que auxiliam na realiza??o destas atividades, buscando solucionar problemas de uso e ocupa??o desordenada da terra. Dentre os m?todos e t?cnicas destaca-se a Videografia Digital A?rea Multiespectral de Alta Resolu??o. Admitindo-se como premissa a possibilidade do uso de imagens a?reas na ident...

  2. Metabolizable energy and amino acids relationships with the soluble fractions of protein and fiber of vegetable feed ingredients Energia metabolizável e relações de aminoácidos com as frações solúveis de proteína e fibra de ingredientes vegetais

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Claudio Bellaver

    2004-12-01

    Full Text Available To estimate nutrient and energy digestion with animal from in vitro variables it is necessary to control factors that may interfere on digestion such as: source and concentration of digestor substance, as well as the origin and processing of test ingredients. In this study there were performed five laboratory assays, two with poultry and finally regression equations were established based on variables generated with twelve vegetable ingredients. The results showed that there is greater solubility of proteins with NaOH than with KOH. On average, both alkali produced better discrimination of soluble protein with concentration of 0.02% (range of 68.61% in relation to a concentration of 0.2% (range of 37.97%. Considering interaction between alkali and concentration, the best discrimination on protein solubility was reached with NaOH at 0.02%. The methods of protein or fiber solubilization together with the chemical analysis showed significant results variation among ingredients and when they were used to estimate in vivo variables they produced good estimates. It was concluded that reliable digestion estimates for energy or amino acids from vegetable feed ingredients could be obtained from in vitro variables, when considering solubilities of protein and fiber with chemical analysis.Para estimar a digestão de nutrientes e de energia dos animais a partir de variáveis in vitro, é necessário controlar os fatores que interferem na digestão - origem e concentração da substância digestora - e ter conhecimento da fonte e do processo que envolve o ingrediente em teste. Neste trabalho, foram conduzidos cinco ensaios laboratoriais, dois com animais e, por fim, estabelecidas equações de regressão a partir das variáveis geradas com a utilização de 12 ingredientes vegetais. Os resultados mostraram que há maior solubilidade das proteínas com o NaOH que com o KOH e que, na média de ambos os álcalis, a concentração de 0,02% permite maior

  3. Gênese e micromorfologia de solos sob vegetação xeromórfica (caatinga na região dos Lagos (RJ Genesis and micromorphology of soils under xeric vegetation in the Lakes region, State of Rio de Janeiro (Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. M. Ibraimo

    2004-08-01

    úmicas, observou-se uma tendência à formação e migração de complexos orgânicos por soluções ricas em sódio, como fulvatos e humatos de sódio, conforme mostram as altas e significativas correlações entre o Na trocável e as frações fúlvicas e húmicas.In the Lakes Region of Rio de Janeiro State, the occurrence of a drier climate creates a peculiar environment where there is a trend of salinization and presence of xeric vegetation. Physical, chemical, mineralogical and micromorphological properties were studied in selected soil transects. The soils are eutrophic as result of nutrient cycling, low weathering degree, and presence of primary minerals with nutrient reserves in their composition. The occurrence of well developed eutrophic soils (Oxisols under caatinga (xeromorphic vegetation on the flat tops all over the region is evidence of a paleo-weathering under wetter conditions. These Oxisols (P2 and P7 pedons are kaolinitic and have a microgranular structure, while the Ki index, Fe o/Fe d ratio, Fe levels, and micromorphological and submicroscopic features are typical for this soil class. In the clay fraction they also contain gibbsite, illite, and goethite. The presence of illite, the K reserve, and the intergrade character indicate a low degree of weathering, contrasting with other typical Oxisols of more humid areas of Southeastern Brazil. All studied soils are pedogenetically polycyclic, revealing a current acidification trend at the surface, suggesting the occurrence of a more seasonal climate in a recent past. This trend of acidification induces the destabilization and breakdown of expansible 2:1 clays in subsurface and release of structural Mg and Al to more soluble fractions. This causes a Ca:Mg imbalance in B horizon. There is a marked influence of Na and/or Na + Mg on clay dispersion, causing a textural gradient and higher amount of dispersed clay in the soils. The high Na and K exchangeable amounts were ascribed to marine lagoon sprays to the soil

  4. Vegetation dynamics and dynamic vegetation science

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Van der Maarel, E

    1996-01-01

    his contribution presents a review of the development of the study of vegetation dynamics since 1979, in the framework of a jubilee meeting on progress in the study of vegetation. However, an exhaustive review is both impossible and unnecessary. It is impossible within the few pages available

  5. Utilização de biomarcadores de genotoxicidade e expressão gênica na avaliação de trabalhadores de postos de combustíveis expostos a vapores de gasolina

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Daniel Valente

    Full Text Available Resumo Introdução: a avaliação de uma exposição mensura sua intensidade, frequência e duração, podendo detectar danos precoces que, se ignorados, podem evoluir para um quadro nocivo. Nos campos da saúde ambiental e ocupacional, os biomarcadores de genotoxicidade tem sido largamente utilizados para essa avaliação. Objetivo: identificar, descrever e discutir os principais bioindicadores de genotoxicidade e seu uso conjunto com técnicas de avaliação de expressão gênica em estudos de exposição ocupacional ao benzeno em postos de revenda de combustíveis (PRC. Métodos: revisão bibliográfica de trabalhos publicados entre 1995 e 2015. Resultados: as técnicas identificadas foram: ensaio cometa, estresse oxidativo, micronúcleos, aberrações cromossômicas, polimorfismos, adutos de DNA e proteínas, fatores epigenéticos e expressão gênica. Foi observado que testes de danos genéticos e epigenéticos são utilizados em frentistas de PRC que participam de programas de saúde do trabalhador ou de pesquisas, embora um baixo número de publicações sobre o tema tenha sido identificado. Esse fato talvez possa ser explicado pelos poucos países onde a profissão persiste e pelas limitações para o desenvolvimento de pesquisas nesses países. Conclusão: os bioindicadores de genotoxicidade e as técnicas de expressão gênica são úteis na detecção de dano precoce desta exposição ocupacional e devem ser avaliados em conjunto.

  6. Occurrence of helminth eggs on vegetables sold in the city of Apucarana (PR Ocorrência de ovos de helmintos em hortaliças comercializadas na cidade de Apucarana (PR

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Heloísa de Camargo Tozato

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available The vegetable diseases transmitted represents a major public health problem, because it is estimated that millions of people worldwide are affected by parasites. This study aimed to quantify and identify the rate of contamination by helminth eggs on vegetables like watercress and endive marketed in four major supermarkets of Apucarana (PR. Were analyzed 128 sample of vegetables being: 64 of chicory and 64 of watercress, which were trimmer, weighed and washed in a tryptose lauryl sulfate 1% solution. There was a high rate of contamination in both varieties studied, with higher prevalence of chicory. Were found eggs of Ancylostoma sp., Ascaris sp. Diphilobotrium sp. Dipylidium sp. Hymenolepis sp. Taenia sp. and Enterobius sp. Considering these results, we stress the urgent need for official oversight and regulation by the competent local authorities in order to improve the hygienic quality of vegetables offered to the population, and minimize the rates of parasitic infections in adults and children (the most affected.As doenças veiculadas por hortaliças representam um importante problema de saúde pública, pois estima-se que milhões de pessoas de todo o mundo estejam acometidas por parasitoses. O presente estudo teve por objetivo quantificar e identificar o índice de contaminação por ovos de helmintos em hortaliças do tipo agrião e almeirão comercializadas em quatro grandes supermercados da cidade de Apucarana (PR. Foram analisadas 128 amostras de hortaliças sendo 64 de almeirão e 64 de agrião. As hortaliças foram desfolhadas, pesadas e lavadas em solução lauril sulfato triptose a 1%. Observou-se um índice elevado de contaminação nas duas variedades estudadas, com maior prevalência no almeirão. Foram encontrados ovos de Ancylostoma sp., Ascaris sp., Diphilobotrium sp., Dipylidium sp., Hymenolepis sp., Taenia sp. e Enterobius sp. Considerando esses resultados, salienta-se a necessidade urgente de fiscalização e regulamenta

  7. Fruits and vegetables (image)

    Science.gov (United States)

    A healthy diet includes adding vegetables and fruit every day. Vegetables like broccoli, green beans, leafy greens, zucchini, cauliflower, cabbage, carrots, and tomatoes are low in calories and high in fiber, vitamins, and minerals. ...

  8. Vegetable Production System (Veggie)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — The Vegetable Production System (Veggie) was developed to be a simple, easily stowed, high growth volume, low resource facility capable of producing fresh vegetables...

  9. Etnobotânica nordestina: estudo comparativo da relação entre comunidades e vegetação na Zona do Litoral - Mata do Estado de Pernambuco, Brasil Northeast Ethnobotany: links between communities and vegetation of the Coast Zone of the Mata Region in Pernambuco State, Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alberto Jorge da Rocha Silva

    2005-03-01

    Full Text Available O trabalho visa determinar as relações entre comunidades e vegetação na Zona da Mata de Pernambuco. A comunidade da Usina São José (Igarassu - Ig é formada por vilas rurais, vizinhas da Reserva Ecológica da Mata da Usina São José. Jaguarana (Paulista-Pa é uma comunidade urbana, próxima à Reserva Ecológica da Mata de Jaguarana. Levantou-se as plantas úteis para estas comunidades por meio de 38 entrevistas não-estruturadas, enquadrando-as nas categorias de uso alimentação, comércio, construção, mágico, medicinal, tecnológico e outros. Foram registradas 334 espécies, nativas e cultivadas. Comparou-se as comunidades, através do Quociente de Similaridade de Sørensen (Qs, obtendo-se maiores índices para plantas alimentícias (QsIgPa= 0,71, predominantemente cultivadas, e medicinais (QsIgPa= 0,56, 45,1% delas nativas, predominantemente herbáceas. A vegetação nativa constitui uma fonte importante de recursos medicinais mas é subutilizada como fonte de alimento e tem pouca relevância na visão cosmológica das comunidades. Os vegetais não têm relevância na atividade de comércio, servindo como complemento de renda para as famílias (QsIgPa= 0,30. Na categoria construção enquadram-se, majoritariamente, espécies nativas (87,8% e arbóreas (92,7%. Em tecnologia têm maior representatividade espécies nativas (85,7% e arbóreo/arbustivas (84,1%. As comunidades utilizam diferentes fontes vegetais para as categorias construção, mágica, tecnologia e outros, decorrentes tanto das principais atividades que nelas exercem seus moradores, como dos recursos naturais à sua disposição.The objective of this work is to determine the social behaviour concerning the consumption of vegetal species by local communities. The involved localities are: the Usina São José (Igarassu - Ig, which involves rural communities in the surroundings of the Ecological Reserve of the Usina São José and the Jaguarana (Paulista - PE, an urban

  10. Fertilization types and times of evaluation in health and viability of seeds of vegetable soybeans=Tipos de adubação e épocas de avaliação na sanidade e viabilidade de sementes de soja-hortaliça

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    Juliana Maria Espíndola Lima

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available The seeds of vegetable soybeans (Glycine max (L. Merrill, the same species as the common soybean, have some special characteristics, such as: flavor, texture differentiated for use as vegetable, being consumed when the seeds are still immature at the R6 stage. The objective of this study was to evaluate the effect of five types of fertilization and evaluation times in the health and viability of seeds of vegetable soybeans cultivar BRS 258, and lineage BR 9452273. The experimental design was a randomized block, 5 x 2 factorial design with four replications. The factors consisted of five types of fertilizer and two evaluation periods (after harvest and the twelve months of storage. For treatments with twelve months of storage, the seeds of vegetable soybeans of both genotypes were stored in polyethylene bottles terephthalate (Pet. Seeds were subjected to stringent health and germination tests. The average reduction in seed quality during storage was 4% for BRS 258 and 23% for BR 9452273. The reduction in seed quality of the two genotypes was not affected by the fertilization method used, nor by pathogens and bacteria saprophytes, but by the storage in polyethylene terephthalate bottles for 12 months=As sementes de soja-hortaliça, mesma espécie da soja comum, possuem características especiais, tais como: sabor, textura diferenciada para utilização na alimentação humana como hortaliça, quando as sementes estão imaturas, no estádio R6. Objetivou-se com este trabalho avaliar o efeito de cinco tipos de adubação e duas épocas de avaliação na sanidade e a viabilidade de sementes de soja-hortaliça, cultivar BRS 258 e linhagem BR 9452273. O delineamento experimental utilizado foi de blocos ao acaso, em esquema fatorial (5 x 2, com quatro repetições. Os fatores consistiram de cinco tipos de adubação e duas épocas de avaliação (após a colheita e aos doze meses de armazenamento. Para os tratamentos com doze meses de armazenamento, as

  11. European Vegetation Archive (EVA)

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Chytrý, Milan; Hennekens, S.M.; Jiménez-Alfaro, Borja; Schaminée, J.H.J.; Haveman, Rense; Janssen, J.A.M.

    2016-01-01

    The European Vegetation Archive (EVA) is a centralized database of European vegetation plots developed by the IAVS Working Group European Vegetation Survey. It has been in development since 2012 and first made available for use in research projects in 2014. It stores copies of national and

  12. Estudo da ocorrência de enteroparasitas em hortaliças comercializadas na região metropolitana de São Paulo - SP, Brasil: II - Pesquisa de protozoários intestinais Study of the occurrence of intestinal parasites os vegetables comercially traded in the metropolitan area of S.Paulo, SP - Brazil: II - Research into protozoan cysts

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carlos Augusto Fernandes de Oliveira

    1992-10-01

    Full Text Available Foram analisadas hortaliças "in natura", comercializadas na Região Metropolitana de São Paulo, SP-Brasil, visando à pesquisa e à identificação de cistos de protozoários de interesse médico. As hortaliças, constituídas de 50 amostras de cada variedade, consistiram em: alface (Lactuca sativa, variedades lisa e crespa, escarola (Chichorium sp e agrião (Nasturtium officinale. Os resultados evidenciaram elevados percentuais de contaminação em todas as variedades de hortaliças analisadas, porém as freqüências de protozoários foram maiores no agrião. As amostras de alfaces apresentaram os menores percentuais de contaminação, enquanto que a escarola apresentou valores geralmente situados entre o agrião e as alfaces. Observou-se uma grande variedade de protozoários, cujas freqüências de ocorrência na população residente na Região Metropolitana de São Paulo são igualmente elevadas. Os mais freqüentes foram Entamoeba sp (com 4 e 8 núcleos e Giardia sp. Foram também isolados cistos de Iodamoeba sp, Endolimax sp e Chilomastix sp. Os elevados níveis de contaminação fecal encontrados nas amostras analisadas apontam para a importância dos alimentos na transmissão de protozoários intestinais.Vegetables in natura , commercially traded in the metropolitan area of S.Paulo, Brazil, were analised by means of the appropriate methodology with a view to discovering and identifying protozoan cysts of medical interest. The vegetables under study consisted of 50 samples of each of the variaties listed bel ow: lettuce (Lactuca sativa - oily leaves and crisphead varieties, endive (Chicorium sp and water-cress (Nasturtium officinale. Results showed high rates of contamination in all the varieties of vegetable analysed. However, the water-cress was the one which presented the highest frequencies of enteroparasites. Both the oily leafes and crisphead varieties of lettuce presented the lowest rates of contamination, whereas endive

  13. Reguladores de crescimento vegetal na concentração de macronutrientes em videira Itália Plant growth regulators on macronutrients in Itália grapes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Teresinha Costa Silveira de Albuquerque

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available Em clima tropical semi-árido, o uso de reguladores vegetais em fruteiras permite o manejo do crescimento vegetativo, tão necessário ao escalonamento da produção e ao aumento da fertilidade das gemas. Estas substâncias influenciam vários fenômenos fisiológicos relacionados com a absorção mineral, como a condutância de membrana e utilização metabólica de íons. O objetivo deste trabalho foi avaliar o crescimento vegetativo, produção de matéria seca dos ramos, concentração e quantidade acumulada de N, P, K, Ca e Mg nos ramos e nos pecíolos e produção de panículas florais em resposta ao uso de reguladores vegetais, em plantas de videira da cultivar Itália. No experimento foram avaliados três ciclos vegetativos e cinco tratamentos (controle, chlormequat - 1500 mg L-1; daminozide - 3000 mg L-1; uniconazole - 30 mg L-1 e cloreto de mepiquat - 300 mg L-1, aplicados nas plantas em pulverizações aos 35 e 70 dias após a poda. Com o chlormequat e o uniconazole ocorreu efeito cumulativo nas plantas, quando aplicados em ciclos sucessivos da cultura, favorecendo o acúmulo de nutrientes e a diferenciação de gemas férteis em comparação com as plantas controle das videiras 'Itália'. Embora o daminozide tenha inibido significativamente o crescimento das plantas, não resultou em maior acúmulo de nutrientes e emissão de panículas florais nas plantas tratadas.In semi-arid tropical climate, the use of plant growth regulators in fruit trees allows the vegetative growth control, so necessary to the assignment of the production and the increase of the fertility of the buds. These substances influence several physiological processes related to the mineral absorption, for example: membrane condutance and metabolic use of ions. The objective of this work was to evaluate vegetative growth, stem dry mater, N, P, K, Ca and Mg content in the stem and petiole and panicle production in response to plant growth regulators in grape "It

  14. Influências de Atta spp. (Hymenoptera: Formicidae na recuperação da vegetação pós-fogo em floresta de transição amazônica Influences of leafcutter ant Atta spp. (Hymenoptera: Formicidae on vegetation recovery after fire in Amazonian transitional forest

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Karine Santana Carvalho

    2012-03-01

    Full Text Available Este estudo investigou o papel das saúvas na recuperação da vegetação pós-fogo. Foi hipotetizado que a perturbação do fogo aumenta a abundância de ninhos de saúva (1 e as atividades de remoção de sementes (2 e desfolha (3, especialmente no ambiente de borda. Os ninhos de saúva foram inventariados e mapeados e após 17 meses, checados para o registro de sua atividade e de novas colônias emergindo na área. Realizou-se experimentos comparativos de remoção de sementes e desfolha de plântulas em duas parcelas de 50 ha, uma submetida a fogo anual (tratamento e outra sem fogo (controle. A abundância de ninhos de saúva foi maior na parcela tratamento que na parcela controle, especialmente na borda da floresta. As espécies encontradas foram: Atta cephalotes, A. laevigata e A. sexdens , sendo esta última a espécie mais abundante e que mostrou aumento em número de colônias ativas após 17 meses. O aumento na abundância de ninhos na parcela tratamento foi acompanhado por um aumento na atividade dessas formigas. Enquanto mais de duas folhas foram arrancadas por plântula nessa parcela, menos de uma foi registrada na parcela controle. Também a abundância média de galhos desfolhados e de sementes removidas por saúvas foi maior na parcela tratamento que na parcela controle. As saúvas tanto podem diminuir ou retardar o processo de regeneração florestal pós-fogo, quanto acelerá-lo, devido à elevada predação seletiva que favorece as espécies menos palatáveis. Desta forma, suas atividades podem modificador apenas a composição da vegetação recuperando-se do fogo.In this study we investigated the role of leaf-cutting ants in the post-fire vegetation recovery. We hypothesized that a forest plot submitted to annual fire presents: (1 higher abundance of leaf-cutting ant nests; (2 higher removal of seeds; and (3 higher herbivory rates of leaf-cutting ants, when compared to the forest plots without fire (control. The leaf

  15. Irradiation of dehydrated vegetables

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Esterhuyse, A; Esterhuizen, T.

    1985-01-01

    The reason for radurization was to decreased the microbial count of dehydrated vegetables. The average absorbed irradiation dose range between 2kGy and 15kGy. The product catagories include a) Green vegetables b) White vegetables c) Powders of a) and b). The microbiological aspects were: Declining curves for the different products of T.P.C., Coliforms, E. Coli, Stap. areus, Yeast + Mold at different doses. The organoleptical aspects were: change in taste, flavour, texture, colour and moisture. The aim is the marketing of irradiated dehydrated vegetables national and international basis

  16. Vegetable species for phytoextraction of boron, copper, lead, manganese and zinc from contaminated soil Espécies vegetais na fitoextração de boro, cobre, chumbo, manganês e zinco de solo contaminado

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    Gláucia Cecília Gabrielli dos Santos

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available Phytoremediation is an attractive option to remove metal from contaminated soil since it is a simple, low-cost, and environmentally friendly procedure. To better examine the phytoremediation potential of kenaf (Hybiscus canabinnus, mustard (Brassica juncea, turnip (Raphunus sativus and amaranth (Amaranthus crentus plants, a greenhouse experiment was performed in which these species were grown on a soil contaminated with Zn, Cu, Mn, Pb and B. The translocation, the bioconcentration and the removal index, the transference factor and the time to reach 50% of element removal from soil, among other indicators, were used in order to identify a hyperaccumulator. Kenaf plants were more tolerant to the conditions tested, with the highest dry matter production and no visual toxicity symptoms. Amaranth would be the species chosen to remediate the soil under field conditions as it presented the higher indexes for decontamination of Zn and Mn and was also able to remove B. Turnip showed the best results for Pb removal. All species tested were able to remove B from soil. In spite, none of the plant species tested could be characterized as a hyperaccumulator.A fitorremediação é uma opção atraente na remoção de solos contaminados com metais por ser uma técnica simples, de baixo custo e ambientalmente aceitável. O potencial de fitorremediação da kenaf (Hybiscus canabinnus, mostarda (Brassica juncea, rabanete (Raphunus sativus and amaranto (Amaranthus crentus foram examinadas num experimento usando solo contaminado por Zn, Cu, Mn, Pb e B. O experimento foi conduzido em vasos, cultivando as quatro espécies até o florescimento. Os índices de translocação, bioconcentração e remoção, o fator de transferência e o tempo necessário para atingir a remoção de 50% do elemento do solo, entre outros indicadores, foram empregados na tentativa de identificar uma espécie hiperacumuladora. A kenaf foi a espécie mais tolerante nas condições empregadas

  17. Hortaliças in natura ou minimamente processadas em unidades de alimentação e nutrição: quais aspectos devem ser considerados na sua aquisição? Fresh or minimally processed vegetables in foodservices: what aspects should be considered when purchasing them?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gabriel Carvalho Degiovanni

    2010-10-01

    Full Text Available Objetivo O objetivo do estudo foi avaliar as perdas ocorridas no processamento de hortaliças in natura, comparar o custo da aquisição de hortaliças in natura e das minimamente processadas e discutir as vantagens e desvantagens da utilização destas últimas. Métodos Foram calculados fatores de correção de sete hortaliças por meio da determinação do peso bruto e do peso líquido em triplicata e o peso aferido por balança digital. Foram calculados média, desvio-padrão e coeficiente de variação. Os custos do peso bruto, considerando a correção pelo seu rendimento líquido, foram comparados aos custos das hortaliças minimamente processadas fornecidos pelo fabricante em dois períodos. Resultados Os valores da abobrinha, cenoura, chuchu e mandioquinha minimamente processados foram, respectivamente, 8,6%, 14,1%, 4,6% e 13,5% menores em relação ao custo do alimento bruto no tempo 1, mas isso não se repetiu no tempo 2, quando os alimentos in natura apresentavam menor custo. Conclusão Conclui-se que inúmeros fatores inerentes ou externos aos alimentos influenciam diretamente na magnitude das perdas durante o processamento. Os métodos de trabalho e objetivos finais de cada unidade produtora é que devem definir qual produto é o mais vantajoso, considerando que os custos são variáveis, uma vez que a produção pode ser comprometida pela sazonalidade e pela oferta e procura dos alimentos, com repercussão na gestão de qualidade da unidade.Objective The objective of the present study was to assess the losses that occur when fresh vegetables are processed, to compare the cost of purchasing fresh and minimally processed vegetables, and to discuss the advantages and disadvantages of using minimally processed food items. Methods Correction factors for seven food items were calculated by determining their gross and net weights in triplicate with a digital scale. Mean, standard deviation and variation coefficient were calculated. The

  18. Métodos e estratégias em proteômica e suas aplicações na área vegetal Methods and strategies in proteomics and their applications in plants

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fernanda Salvato

    2010-03-01

    Full Text Available A implementação da espectrometria de massa (MS para as análises de peptídeos (MS e de aminoácidos (MS em tandem ou MS/MS tornou possível a identificação de centenas de proteínas em experimentos únicos. Uma grande variedade de estratégias está disponível atualmente para o fracionamento e a purificação de amostras, a identificação de proteínas, a quantificação, a análise de modificações pós-traducionais (MPT's e os estudos de interação. Dessa forma, a proteômica abre novas perspectivas na biologia de plantas com ênfase nos estudos de variabilidade genética, estresses fisiológicos e desenvolvimento de plantas.The implementation of mass spectrometry (MS for peptides (MS and amino acids (tandem MS or MS/MS analysis allowed the identification of hundreds of proteins in single experiments. A number of different strategies are current available for sample fractioning and purification, proteins identification, quantification, post-translational modifications (PTM and interaction analyses. In this way, the proteomics open up new perspectives in plant biology with emphasis on studies of genetic variability, physiological stresses and plant development.

  19. Volatilization of iodine from vegetation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Amiro, B.D.; Johnston, F.L.

    1989-01-01

    Gaseous emissions of iodine were measured from bean plant foliage. A gamma-emitting iodine tracer, Na 125 I, was taken up by the plants from a hydroponic growth medium and released to a cuvette atmosphere. The dynamics of the flux were studied using a flow-through gamma detector. The relationship between leaf radioactive tracer activity and growth-medium activity was linear, as was the relationship between the iodine flux and both leaf and growth-medium activity. Iodine flux and leaf conductance to water responded similarly to changes in light levels, suggesting that the stomata may partially control the flux. The flux was inhibited by aeration of the hydroponic growth media, and we postulate that methylation causes the iodine flux. Iodine emissions from living vegetation probably contribute < 0.1% to the stable iodine concentration in the atmosphere above terrestrial areas. However, this pathway may be a direct route for radioactive iodine transport from contaminated soils to the atmosphere. (author)

  20. Balkan Vegetation Database

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Vassilev, Kiril; Pedashenko, Hristo; Alexandrova, Alexandra; Tashev, Alexandar; Ganeva, Anna; Gavrilova, Anna; Gradevska, Asya; Assenov, Assen; Vitkova, Antonina; Grigorov, Borislav; Gussev, Chavdar; Filipova, Eva; Aneva, Ina; Knollová, Ilona; Nikolov, Ivaylo; Georgiev, Georgi; Gogushev, Georgi; Tinchev, Georgi; Pachedjieva, Kalina; Koev, Koycho; Lyubenova, Mariyana; Dimitrov, Marius; Apostolova-Stoyanova, Nadezhda; Velev, Nikolay; Zhelev, Petar; Glogov, Plamen; Natcheva, Rayna; Tzonev, Rossen; Boch, Steffen; Hennekens, Stephan M.; Georgiev, Stoyan; Stoyanov, Stoyan; Karakiev, Todor; Kalníková, Veronika; Shivarov, Veselin; Russakova, Veska; Vulchev, Vladimir

    2016-01-01

    The Balkan Vegetation Database (BVD; GIVD ID: EU-00-019; http://www.givd.info/ID/EU-00- 019) is a regional database that consists of phytosociological relevés from different vegetation types from six countries on the Balkan Peninsula (Albania, Bosnia and Herzegovina, Bulgaria, Kosovo, Montenegro

  1. Soil and vegetation surveillance

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Antonio, E.J.

    1995-06-01

    Soil sampling and analysis evaluates long-term contamination trends and monitors environmental radionuclide inventories. This section of the 1994 Hanford Site Environmental Report summarizes the soil and vegetation surveillance programs which were conducted during 1994. Vegetation surveillance is conducted offsite to monitor atmospheric deposition of radioactive materials in areas not under cultivation and onsite at locations adjacent to potential sources of radioactivity.

  2. Escoamento superficial na interação: cobertura vegetal e práticas de controle de erosão Erosion losses from runoff: interaction of soil cover and erosion control practice

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marco A. R. de Carvalho

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available O escoamento da água oriunda das terras agricultadas é o principal fator poluente dos mananciais hídricos nas áreas rurais. Devido a esse fato, faz-se necessário o desenvolvimento e a aplicação de tecnologias que venham a reduzir descargas de resíduos indesejáveis. Nesse sentido, conduziu-se um experimento na área experimental do Departamento de Engenharia Rural - ESALQ/USP, Piracicaba - SP, com o objetivo de avaliar o efeito de diferentes condições de solo, (feijão, gramínea e solo nu e diferentes práticas de controle de erosão (sulco de infiltração, terraço de infiltração e sem práticas de controle de erosão, buscando-se estimar o escoamento superficial. O delineamento estatístico adotado foi o em blocos aleatorizados, em esquema fatorial 3x3, perfazendo 9 tratamentos com 3 repetições. O período de coleta de dados pluviométricos foi de 06 de dezembro de 2007 a 11 de abril de 2008; para isto, utilizou-se de um pluviômetro, com 21,1 cm de diâmetro, instalado na área experimental. Observando-se as perdas de água, em relação às estruturas, tem-se em ordem decrescente de eficiência: Terraço, Sulco e Rampa; e com relação às coberturas, tem-se em ordem decrescente de eficiência: Feijão, Capim e Solo Nu.The flow of sediment from cropped land is the main pollutant of water sources in rural areas. Due to this fact, it is necessary to develop and implement technologies that will reduce water and sediment discharges. Accordingly, an experiment was conducted in the Department of Biosystems Engineering - ESALQ / USP, Piracicaba - SP with the objective to evaluate the effect of different soil cover (bean, grass and bare ground and erosion control practices (wide base terraces and infiltration furrows in slopes (no practices to control erosion while measuring water losses in runoff. The statistical design adopted was randomized blocks in a 3x3 factorial scheme resulting in 9 treatments with 3 replicates (blocks. The

  3. Plant density and levels of NPK on the production components of vegetable soybean in the Savannah of the state of Roraima=Densidade de plantas e doses de NPK nos componentes de produção de soja-hortaliça na Savana de Roraima

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alynny Neftaly Lopes Monteiro

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this study was to evaluate the effect of two sowing densities and levels of NPK (02-24- 12 on the production components of the JLM 08 strain of vegetable soybean, in the Savannah of Boa Vista, in the state of Roraima, Brazil. The experiment was carried out from November 2013 to March 2014 in the experimental area of the Centre for Agrarian Sciences at the Cauamé Campus of the Federal University of Roraima in Boa Vista. The experimental design was of randomised blocks in a factorial scheme (2 x 5 with three replications. The two densities (40,000 and 80,000 plants per hectare comprised the first factor, while five levels of NPK (02-24-12 made up the second (0, 200, 400, 600 and 800 kg ha-1. The following were evaluated: height of insertion of the first and last pod; stem diameter; number of pods per plant having 1, 2, and 3 grains; total number of pods per plant; 100 grain weight and estimated grain yield. The height of insertion of the first and last pod in the JLM 08 genotype of the vegetable soybean is not influenced by the planting densities or levels of formulated fertiliser. At a density of 80,000 plants per hectare, the number of pods per plant is influenced by the levels of fertiliser, demonstrating a positive quadratic response. The level of fertiliser with the maximum technical efficiency (492.86 kg ha-1 gives an 18% increase in grain yield at the highest planting density. = Objetivou-se com este trabalho avaliar o efeito de duas densidades de semeadura e doses de NPK (02-24-12 nos componentes de produção da soja hortaliça linhagem JLM 08, na Savana de Boa Vista, Roraima. O experimento foi conduzido no período de novembro de 2013 a março de 2014, na área experimental do Centro de Ciências Agrária da Universidade Federal de Roraima, Campus Cauamé, em Boa Vista, Roraima. O delineamento experimental adotado foi em blocos ao acaso, em esquema fatorial (2 x 5, com três repetições. O primeiro fator correspondeu a duas

  4. Method of producing vegetable puree

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    2004-01-01

    A process for producing a vegetable puree, comprising the sequential steps of: a)crushing, chopping or slicing the vegetable into pieces of 1 to 30 mm; b) blanching the vegetable pieces at a temperature of 60 to 90°C; c) contacted the blanched vegetable pieces with a macerating enzyme activity; d......) blending the macerated vegetable pieces and obtaining a puree....

  5. Concentração de fluoreto na vegetação próxima do pólo de fertilizantes de Cubatão, São Paulo, Brasil Fluoride concentration in the adjacent vegetation next to fertilizer industries of Cubatão, São Paulo State, Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Priscilla Torres Tagawa

    2009-12-01

    Full Text Available O objetivo deste trabalho foi avaliar se a poluição por fluoreto observada em 1996 em Cubatão (SP, utilizando a vegetação como biomarcador, teve alterações nos últimos dez anos. Folhas de Terminalia cattappa (chapéu do sol, localizadas na região das indústrias de fertilizantes e na área urbana municipal, foram coletadas em 1996 e 2006. As folhas foram desidratadas, pulverizadas e fluoreto extraído com água foi analisado com eletrodo específico. A concentração de fluoreto encontrada nas folhas das árvores localizadas ao redor do pólo de fertilizantes foi doze vezes maior do que a naquelas da área urbana, tanto em 1996 como 2006. Sugere-se que a poluição ambiental por fluoreto em Cubatão não apresentou melhoria em dez anos.The aim of this study was to evaluate if fluoride pollution found in 1996 in Cubatão, SP, Brazil, using the vegetation as biomarker, changed in the last ten years. Leaves of Terminalia cattappa located at the industrial area around the industries of fertilizers and in the urban area of the city were collected in 1996 and 2006. They were dried, powdered and fluoride water soluble extracted was analyzes with specific electrode. The fluoride concentration in the leaves around fertilizer industries was 12 times greater than that found in the urban area, either in 1996 or 2006, respectively. The data suggest that in the last ten years the environmental pollution by fluoride in Cubatão has not improved.

  6. Vegetation survey: a new focus for Applied Vegetation Science

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Chytry, M.; Schaminee, J.H.J.; Schwabe, A.

    2011-01-01

    Vegetation survey is an important research agenda in vegetation science. It defines vegetation types and helps understand differences among them, which is essential for both basic ecological research and applications in biodiversity conservation and environmental monitoring. In this editorial, we

  7. Modelo sistêmico de ocorrência de ações coletivas: um estudo multicaso na comercialização de frutas, legumes e verduras Cooperation in marketing channels: a multicase study on fresh fruit and vegetable marketing

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andrea Lago da Silva

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available A cooperação desempenha um papel de grande relevância para a participação competitiva de indivíduos e empresas na atividade econômica, especialmente nas condições de um ambiente dinâmico e cercado de incertezas, como é o caso do setor de FLV. Assim, o principal objetivo dessa pesquisa foi elaborar um modelo sistêmico capaz de demonstrar as relações causais (interdependências entre as variáveis de ocorrência da cooperação. Com base na confrontação teoria-pesquisa empírica, foram analisados os relacionamentos interorganizacionais horizontais e verticais a partir da análise de dez estudos de caso realizados em cinco regiões brasileiras. A partir dessa análise, foi possível elaborar um modelo sistêmico que demonstrava a existência de relações causais entre as variáveis de ocorrências da cooperação. Sob o ponto de vista sistêmico, na medida em que as variáveis estão inter-relacionadas, interferências externas ou decisões dos agentes resultam em ajustes em todo o sistema. Assim, há uma importante oportunidade para ações de políticas públicas e estratégias privadas visando à utilização de sistemas de comercialização inovadores.Cooperation plays an important role in the competitive participation of individuals and firms in the economic activity, especially in dynamic and uncertain environments such as the Fresh Fruit and Vegetable (FFV market in Brazil. Therefore, the main objective of this research was to develop a systemic model able to demonstrate causal interdependencies between cooperation occurrence variables. The systemic model revealed several collective action occurrence variables as well their interdependencies, identified in the literature and in the empirical study. From a systemic point of view, depending on how they are interrelated, changes in the variables or in the agents behaviour can lead to adjustments in the system. Thus, since the variables are dynamic, external interferences or

  8. Efeito da aplicação de extratos aquosos em couve na alimentação de largatas de Ascia monuste orseis Effect of aqueous vegetal extratcts application on larva feeding behavior of Ascia monuste orseis at kale

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cesar Augusto Manfré Medeiros

    2005-01-01

    Full Text Available Os efeitos de extratos aquosos de amêndoas de Azadirachta indica e frutos de Sapindus saponaria, aplicados em discos de folhas de couve (Brassica oleracea var. acephala nas concentrações de 0,0117% e 1,0342% (p/v, respectivamente, foram estudados sobre a alimentação das lagartas de Ascia monuste orseis. Avaliou-se a atratividade e o consumo de área foliar de lagartas de primeiro e terceiro ínstar durante 24 horas, em condições de laboratório (T = 25 ± 2ºC, UR = 60 ± 10% e fotofase = 12 horas. Nos testes com e sem chance de escolha, para lagartas de primeiro ínstar e teste sem chance de escolha para lagartas de terceiro ínstar, não houve diferença quanto à atratividade das lagartas. No teste com chance de escolha para lagartas de terceiro ínstar, houve menor atratividade das lagartas pelos discos de folhas tratadas com S. saponaria, diferindo da testemunha. No decorrer de 24 horas de avaliações, pode-se observar 58,3% de lagartas atraídas na testemunha, não diferindo de A. indica e diferindo de S. saponaria, com 39,3% e 2,4% das lagartas atraídas, respectivamente. Quanto ao consumo de área foliar, o extrato de S. saponaria diminuiu o consumo de lagartas, em todos os testes realizados. Quando não tinham opção de escolha para se alimentar de folhas sem os extratos, as lagartas consumiram as folhas tratadas nas concentrações testadas, porém em menor quantidade. Os extratos testados neste experimento demonstram ter efeitos sobre a alimentação das lagartas de A. monuste orseis, possivelmente com propriedades deterrentes e/ou supressoras de alimentação.The effects of aqueous extracts of Azadirachta indica almonds and of Sapindus saponaria fruits, applied on disks of kale leaves (Brassica oleracea var. acephala at concentrations of 0.0117% and 1.0342% (w/v, respectively, were studied on larval feeding behavior of Ascia monuste orseis. Data on leaves attractiveness and consumption at first and third larval instar were

  9. The role of behavior in the survival of Biomphalaria glabrata in biossays with the plant molluscicide Phytolacca dodecandra O papel do comportamento na sobrevivência de Biomphalaria glabrata submetida a bioensaios com o moluscicida vegetal Phytolacca dodecandra

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    P. Jurberg

    1988-03-01

    Full Text Available This work examines the role of behavior in the survival of Biomphalaria glabrata exposed to 25, 50 75 and 100 mgl-1 of Phytolacca dodecandra. Time-lapse cinematography was used to quantify accurately the following parameters: (a frequency of exits from the solution, (b time spent out of the solution and (c time elapsed until the first exit from the solution. These behavior patterns were statistically compared between surviving snails and those which later died. The proportion of surviving snails leaving the liquid medium was significantly higher than that of dying snails. In addition, the surviving group spent significantly more time out of the solution than the group which died, except for the 100 mgl-1 concentration. However, no significant difference was detected in the time elapsed until the first exit from the solution. It can be concluded that both the tendency to leave the P. dodecandra solutions, and the time spent out of them, contributed significantly to snail survival. Molluscicide bioassays should take into account the possibility that some behavior patterns of planorbids might contribute to the protection of the snails.Este trabalho investiga o papel do comportamento na sobrevivência de Biomphalaria glabarta exposta a 25, 50, 75 e 100 mgI-1 de Phytolacca dodecandra. Foi utilizada a técnica de cinematografia com lapso de tempo para quantificar acuradamente os seguintes parâmetros (a freqüência de saídas da solução, (b tempo de permanência fora da solução e (e tempo decorrido até a primeira saída da soluçao. Estes padrões comportamentais foram estatisticamente comparados no que se refere aos caramujos sobreviventes e aos que vieram a morrer. Dentre os camundongos que abandonaram o meio líquido, a proporção de sobreviventes foi significativamente maior que a de mortos. Além disso, um tempo significativamente maior de permanência fora da solução foi observado no grupo que sobreviveu, em relação ao grupo que veio

  10. Vegetation Identification With LIDAR

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Helt, Michael F

    2005-01-01

    .... The specific terrain element of interest is vegetation, and in particular, tree type. Data taken on April 12th, 2005, were taken over a 10 km 20 km region which is mixed use agriculture and wetlands...

  11. Levantamento florístico do componente arbustivo-arbóreo da vegetação ciliar na bacia do rio Taperoá, PB, Brasil Floristic survey of components of shrub-tree riparian vegetation in the Taperoá river basin, Paraíba State, Brasil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alecksandra Vieira de Lacerda

    2005-09-01

    Full Text Available Considerando o papel relevante e o nível de degradação presente nas áreas ciliares, a pesquisa objetivou estudar a composição florística do componente arbustivo-arbóreo da vegetação ciliar em diferentes ambientes hídricos do semi-árido paraibano na bacia do rio Taperoá. O levantamento florístico foi realizado no período de junho/2002 a fevereiro/2003 e abrangeu nove pontos distribuídos ao longo de rios, riachos, lagoa e açude. A definição das atividades apoiou-se em análise de cartas e mapas da vegetação em escala de 1:100.000 e caminhadas aleatórias que permitiram a realização de coleta de material vegetal, utilizado para identificação por meio de consultas a especialistas e de morfologia comparada, usando bibliografia especializada e análise das exsicatas depositadas no herbário Lauro Pires Xavier - JPB (UFPB, João Pessoa, PB. A vegetação arbustivo-arbórea da mata ciliar nos nove pontos amostrados foi representada por 43 espécies, das quais 41 são pertencentes a 19 famílias, e duas espécies permaneceram indeterminadas. As famílias que apresentaram o maior número de espécies foram Mimosaceae (sete, Caesalpiniaceae (cinco e Euphorbiaceae (cinco. Os resultados da análise de agrupamento indicaram que as áreas ciliares apresentaram certa particularização em termos de composição florística, o que se refletiu nos baixos índices de similaridades entre o conjunto de áreas amostradas.Considering the relevant role and the current level of degradation of riparian areas, this work aimed to study the floristic composition of shrub-tree riparian vegetation at different hydric environments in the Taperoá river basin, in the semi-arid region of the Paraíba State, Northeast Brazil. The survey was performed from June 2002 to February 2003. Nine sampling sites were distributed along rivers and streams, and around lagoon, and dam. The definition of activities was based on the analysis of charts and vegetation maps

  12. Vegetation and soils

    Science.gov (United States)

    Burke, M.K.; King, S.L.; Eisenbies, M.H.; Gartner, D.

    2000-01-01

    Intro paragraph: Characterization of bottomland hardwood vegetation in relatively undisturbed forests can provide critical information for developing effective wetland creation and restoration techniques and for assessing the impacts of management and development. Classification is a useful technique in characterizing vegetation because it summarizes complex data sets, assists in hypothesis generation about factors influencing community variation, and helps refine models of community structure. Hierarchical classification of communities is particularly useful for showing relationships among samples (Gauche 1982).

  13. Avaliação da redução de potássio em hortaliças submetidas a diferentes métodos de cocção para possível utilização na dietoterapia renal Evaluation of potassium in vegetables submitted to different cooking methods and their possible use in renal diet

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cristiane Copetti

    2010-10-01

    Full Text Available Objetivo Julgou-se relevante avaliar a concentração de potássio em vegetais crus submetidos ao remolho e cozidos sob diferentes formas - ebulição, micro-ondas e sob pressão - a fim de verificar se o remolho e as técnicas de cocção têm eficácia na redução da concentração desse mineral. Métodos O experimento foi realizado em delineamento casualizado, com esquema fatorial 3x5 (3 vegetais x 5 proce-dimentos e 3 repetições nas análises. As hortaliças - batata, cenoura e brócolis - foram submetidas à análise dos teores de potássio por fotometria de chama IL, e compararam-se os tratamentos: cru, remolho em água, cocção em ebulição, micro-ondas e sob pressão. Resultados Nas amostras analisadas, para a batata o método remolho (232,2mg/g, ebulição (197,3mg/g, micro-ondas (170,3mg/g e pressão (187,2mg/g não diferiram de forma estatisticamente significativa entre si, da mesma forma para a cenoura, que obteve os valores de redução de 315,0mg/g, 309,9mg/g, 243,3mg/g e 210,6mg/g, respectivamente para remolho, ebulição, micro-ondas e pressão. Entretanto, para os brócolis, pode-se observar que os métodos de preparo em micro-ondas (280,1mg/g e pressão (167,3mg/gdiferiram estatisticamente em relação aos outros métodos, mostrando-se mais eficazes na redução dos teores de potássio dessa hortaliça. Conclusão O remolho e os métodos de cocção mostraram-se eficazes na redução dos teores de potássio nas hortaliças, no entanto fatores como tempo, temperatura, recipiente, potência e frequência das ondas eletromagnéticas do micro-ondas podem influenciar os diferentes tipos de cocção.Objective This study assessed the concentration of potassium in raw and macerated raw vegetables and vegetables cooked by different methods - boiling, microwave and pressure-cooking - to verify if maceration and different cooking methods can effectively reduce the concentration of this mineral. Methods This experiment had a random 3x

  14. Effect of pork backfat replacement for vegetal oils in the quality characteristics, oxidative stability and microstructure of mortadellaEfeito da substituição da gordura suína por óleos vegetais nas características de qualidade, estabilidade oxidativa e microestrutura de mortadela

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    João Felipe Ferraz Yunes

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available This study was developed with the aim to evaluate the use of different vegetable oils as a replacer for pork backfat. For this, there were used canola, linseed, olive and soybean oils at two levels of replacement (50 and 100%. There were evaluated the physico-chemical characteristics (proximate composition, pH and water activity, instrumental color, microbiological characteristics, lipid oxidation (TBARS and microstructure during storage at room temperature for 60 days. The products had the quality parameters required by the Brazilian legislation. There was a pH decrease during storage due to the growth of lactic acid bacteria. Products containing vegetable oils showed higher levels of lightness (L* and yellowness (b* and lower levels of redness (a*. TBARS values remained under the perceptible threshold by the consumers and microstructure characteristics were similar to those observed in other kinds of cooked meat sausages. Thus, the use of canola, linseed, olive or soybean oils is a viable alternative as a substitute for pork backfat in elaboration of mortadella.Este trabalho foi desenvolvido com o objetivo de avaliar o uso de diferentes óleos vegetais como substituto da gordura animal em mortadela. Para isso, foram utilizados os óleos de canola, linhaça, oliva e soja em dois níveis de substituição (50 e 100%. Foram avaliadas as características físico-químicas (composição centesimal, pH e Atividade de água, cor instrumental, características microbiológicas, oxidação lipídica (TBARS e microestrutura durante armazenamento em temperatura ambiente por 60 dias. Os produtos apresentaram os parâmetros de qualidade exigidos pela legislação brasileira. Houve uma queda nos valores de pH durante o armazenamento devido ao crescimento de bactérias láticas. Os produtos contendo óleos vegetais apresentaram teores de luminosidade (L* e amarelo (b* superiores e teor de vermelho (a* inferior ao controle. Os valores de TBARS mantiveram

  15. INAA and flame AAS of various vegetable reference materials

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Djingova, R.; Arpadjan, S.; Kuleff, I.

    1991-01-01

    INAA and flame AAS have been used for the analysis of a large number of vegetable reference materials. Out of all determined elements (28 by INAA and 11 by AAS) nine are common for both methods (Ca, Cd, Co, Cu, Fe, Mg, Mn, Na, Zn) and for these the possibilities of the two methods have been compared. (orig.)

  16. Folhas, talos, cascas e sementes de vegetais: composição nutricional, aproveitamento na alimentação e análise sensorial de preparações Leaves, stalk, pell and seeds of vegetables: nutritional composition, utilization and sensory analysis in food preparations

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cátia Regina Storck

    2013-03-01

    Full Text Available O objetivo deste estudo foi avaliar a composição de folhas, talos, cascas e sementes de vegetais, elaborar preparações utilizando essas partes e verificar a sua aceitabilidade. Foram selecionadas algumas frutas e hortaliças das quais foram separadas as folhas, talos, cascas e sementes. Foi analisada a composição centesimal e o teor de fenóis totais. Após, foram desenvolvidas preparações utilizando as folhas, talos, cascas e sementes, as quais foram avaliadas sensorialmente através do teste afetivo de aceitação. O teor de lipídios variou de 0,03% (talo de espinafre e talo de beterraba a 2,27% (semente de moranga. O teor de proteínas variou de 0,51% (casca de banana a 9,56% (semente de melão. A maioria das amostras apresentou em torno de 1% de cinzas e o teor de fibras variou de 0,72% a 16,02%. O teor mais elevado de polifenóis foi encontrado na casca da laranja (631,25mg 100g-1. Os resultados da análise sensorial demonstraram que 77% das preparações obtiveram notas acima de 5 (gostei. Conclui-se que, através da identificação da composição nutricional das partes dos alimentos, usualmente descartadas, pode-se direcionar melhor seu uso na preparação de várias receitas.The objective of this study was to evaluate the composition of leaves, stems, bark and seeds of vegetables, prepare recipes using these parts and to verify the acceptability of them. It was selected some fruits and vegetables which were separated from leaves, stems, bark and seeds. It was analyzed the nutritional composition and total phenols. After recipes were developed using the leaves, stalks, husks and seeds, which were evaluated by sensory analysis. The fat content ranged from 0.03% (stalk of spinach and beet to 2.27% (pumpkin seed. The protein content ranged from 0.51% (banana husk to 9.56% (melon seed. Most samples had about 1% ash and fiber content ranged from 0.72% to 16.02%. The higher content of polyphenols was found in orange husk (631.25mg and

  17. Diâmetro de estacas e substratos na propagação vegetativa de maniçoba, Manihot glaziovii Muell. Arg Diameter of cuttings and substrates in the vegetative propagation of maniçoba Manihot glaziovii Muell. Arg

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Leonardo Elias Ferreira

    2010-09-01

    Full Text Available Objetivou-se com este trabalho estudar a influência do diâmetro das estacas e dos substratos na propagação vegetativa de maniçoba, Manihot glaziovii Muell. Arg. Utilizou-se o delineamento em blocos casualizados em esquema fatorial 10 x 3, sendo 10 substratos e 3 diâmetros de estacas, totalizando 30 tratamentos, oriundos das combinações entre substratos e diâmetros de estacas, com 4 repetições e 8 estacas por parcela. Os diâmetros das estacas corresponderam a: 0,5 a 1,0 cm (D1; 1,1 a 2,0 cm (D2 e 2,1 a 3,0 cm (D3. Foram utilizados 10 substratos: terra (S1; areia (S2; terra+areia: 1:1 (S3; terra+areia: 2:1 (S4; terra+areia: 1:2 (S5; terra+esterco: 1:1 (S6; areia+esterco: 1:1 (S7; terra+esterco: 2:1 (S8; areia+esterco: 2:1 (S9 e terra+areia+esterco: 1:1:1 (S10. As estacas lenhosas foram retiradas de plantas matrizes em repouso vegetativo, com comprimento de 25 cm e base cortada em bisel. Avaliou-se: percentual de estacas enraizadas; número de raízes; número de brotações; diâmetro e comprimento das brotações; número de folhas; massa seca das brotações e massa seca das raízes, obtidos aos 70 dias após instalação do experimento. Os melhores resultados para todas as variáveis estudadas foram obtidos com estacas de diâmetros entre 1,1 a 2,0 cm e entre 2,1 a 3,0 cm, com substratos que incluíram areia + esterco na sua composição. Tais tratamentos proporcionaram percentagens de enraizamento da ordem de 70 a 80%.This study aims to evaluate substrates and cuttings diameter influence in the vegetative propagation of Manihot glaziovii Muell.Arg. A design in randomized blocks using a 10 x 3 factorial scheme was used, being 10 substrates and 3 cuttings diameter, totaling 30 treatments, from the combinations between substrates and cuttings diameter, with 4 replications and 8 cuttings per plot. Diameters corresponded: 0.5 to 1.0 cm (D1; 1.1 to 2.0 cm (D2 and 2.1 to 3.0 cm (D3. Substrates used were: soil (S1; sand (S2; soil + sand: 1

  18. The Vegetables Turned:

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Carter, Dale

    2009-01-01

    in the relationship between creative artists and the Anglo-American popular music industry in the mid-1960s. Finally, and in retrospect, the figure of the vegetable cast into relief the counter-culture's utopian and dystopian dynamics as manifested in these song-writers' personal lives, now rendered as contemporary...... lyricist Van Dyke Parks, the incongruous, semantically complex figure of the vegetable came to illuminate aspects of psychedelic consciousness and - part by design, part by accident - the link between LSD and Anglo-American popular music. It threw light, too, on the scope and limits of changes...

  19. Simulations of Vegetation Impacts on Arctic Climate

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bonfils, C.; Phillips, T. J.; Riley, W. J.; Post, W. M.; Torn, M. S.

    2009-12-01

    Because global warming disproportionately influences high-latitude climate, changes in arctic vegetation are in progress. These land-cover changes include redistribution of local vegetation types as well as northward migration of lower-latitude species in response to the increasing warming. The resulting displacement of low-lying tundra vegetation by shrubs and trees darkens the surface, thus accelerating regional warming. As participants in the U.S. Department of Energy IMPACTS Project, we are investigating the potential for abrupt arctic climatic change resulting from such variations in vegetation, among other mechanisms. To estimate the relative magnitudes of effects to be expected from changes in high-latitude land cover, we are conducting several numerical experiments with the Community Climate System Model (CCSM). These experiments include: 1) A “present-day-climate” control experiment with current atmospheric greenhouse-gas concentrations and climatological monthly sea surface temperatures and sea ice extents prescribed, and with “standard” CLM plant functional types (PFTs) specified; 2) A “changed-vegetation-type” experiment that is the same as 1), except that the “standard” PFTs are augmented by additional vegetation types (forbs, sedges, shrubs, mosses, and lichens) that are not presently represented in CLM. This experiment will require information on the location, fractional cover, and physiological parameterizations of these new PFTs. 3) A “changed-vegetation-extent experiment” that is the same as 2), except that the spatial extents of selected PFTs (e.g. shrubs or boreal forest PFTs) are shifted northward from their present locations in the CLM. We will report on the atmospheric climate and land-surface feedbacks associated with these vegetation changes, with emphasis on local and regional surface energy and moisture fluxes and near-surface temperature, humidity, and clouds. Acknowledgments This work was performed under the auspices

  20. Especies arbóreas como bioindicadores de la variación de la composición florísticas de otras formas de crecimiento: Estudio de caso en la amazonía colombiana.

    OpenAIRE

    Barreto Sánchez, Luis Hernán

    2011-01-01

    En este estudio, se investigó la magnitud a la cual el componente arborescente leñoso del bosque explica la variación del patrón de composición de la comunidad vegetal de otras formas de crecimiento, tales como hierbas, lianas, epífitas vasculares y briofitas terrestres en 40 parcelas de 0.1-ha en cuatro paisajes de la Amazonía colombiana. El área de estudio está situada en el Medio Caquetá a lo largo de los ríos Caquetá, Mesay y Cuñaré en la Amazonía Colombiana. Para el análisis de los patro...

  1. Biomassa microbiana e atividade enzimática em solos sob vegetação nativa e sistemas agrícolas anuais e perenes na região de Primavera do Leste (MT Microbial biomass and enzyme activities in soils under native vegetation and under annual and perennial cropping systems at the Primavera do Leste region - Mato Grosso State

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. Matsuoka

    2003-06-01

    Full Text Available Primavera do Leste é um dos pólos de produção de grãos e fibras do Mato Grosso, com lavouras altamente tecnificadas. Este estudo foi realizado num Latossolo Vermelho-Amarelo da região de Primavera, com objetivo de avaliar a biomassa e a atividade microbiana de solos sob vegetação nativa e sistemas agrícolas anuais e perenes. As amostras de solo foram coletadas em duas profundidades (0-5 e 5-20 cm, no início da estação chuvosa, em áreas sob cultivo de videira (Vitis vinifera, entrelinha e linha, cultivos anuais (soja e em uma área de vegetação nativa de Cerradão. Foram avaliados o carbono da biomassa microbiana (CBM, carbono prontamente mineralizável e as atividades das enzimas beta-glucosidase, fosfatase ácida e arilsulfatase. Nas duas profundidades avaliadas, os sistemas de uso do solo com culturas perenes e anuais apresentaram reduções médias de 70 % no CBM, em relação à área sob vegetação nativa. O manejo diferenciado na entrelinha do parreiral e a utilização do capim-pé-de-galinha (Eleusine indica, como cobertura viva, proporcionaram aumentos no C mineralizável e na atividade das enzimas beta-glucosidase e arilsulfatase nas duas profundidades. Os níveis médios de P no solo sob Cerradão resultaram em valores de atividade da fosfatase ácida inferiores aos dos observados em outros locais do Cerrado. Mesmo assim, na profundidade de 0-5 cm, a atividade da fosfatase ácida no Cerradão foi superior à da entrelinha do parreiral (VE e à da área com culturas anuais, demonstrando a sua importância na mineralização do fósforo orgânico em áreas sob vegetação nativa. Os resultados obtidos confirmaram a sensibilidade dos parâmetros microbiológicos e bioquímicos para identificar alterações no solo de acordo com os diferentes sistemas de uso da terra.Primavera do Leste is one of the most important farming areas of Mato Grosso State. This study was carried out in a Red-Yellow Latosol to evaluate the

  2. leafy vegetable, Gnetum africanum

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    A prerequisite for successful in vitro culture is the establishment of an aseptic technique, thus the experiment was to investigate suitable sterilization regimes for the leaf explants of Gnetum africanum, an endangered green leafy vegetable. Three sterilization regimes were tested to establish the best regime using three to four ...

  3. Volatilization of iodine from vegetation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Amiro, B D; Johnston, F L [Atomic Energy of Canada Ltd., Pinawa, MB (Canada). Whiteshell Nuclear Research Establishment

    1989-01-01

    Gaseous emissions of iodine were measured from bean plant foliage. A gamma-emitting iodine tracer, Na {sup 125}I, was taken up by the plants from a hydroponic growth medium and released to a cuvette atmosphere. The dynamics of the flux were studied using a flow-through gamma detector. The relationship between leaf radioactive tracer activity and growth-medium activity was linear, as was the relationship between the iodine flux and both leaf and growth-medium activity. Iodine flux and leaf conductance to water responded similarly to changes in light levels, suggesting that the stomata may partially control the flux. The flux was inhibited by aeration of the hydroponic growth media, and we postulate that methylation causes the iodine flux. Iodine emissions from living vegetation probably contribute < 0.1% to the stable iodine concentration in the atmosphere above terrestrial areas. However, this pathway may be a direct route for radioactive iodine transport from contaminated soils to the atmosphere. (author).

  4. Canopy Modeling of Aquatic Vegetation: Construction of Submerged Vegetation Index

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ma, Z.; Zhou, G.

    2018-04-01

    The unique spectral characteristics of submerged vegetation in wetlands determine that the conventional terrestrial vegetation index cannot be directly employed to species identification and parameter inversion of submerged vegetation. Based on the Aquatic Vegetation Radiative Transfer model (AVRT), this paper attempts to construct an index suitable for submerged vegetation, the model simulated data and a scene of Sentinel-2A image in Taihu Lake, China are utilized for assessing the performance of the newly constructed indices and the existent vegetation indices. The results show that the angle index composed by 525 nm, 555 nm and 670 nm can resist the effects of water columns and is more sensitive to vegetation parameters such as LAI. Furthermore, it makes a well discrimination between submerged vegetation and water bodies in the satellite data. We hope that the new index will provide a theoretical basis for future research.

  5. Mini sensor Irrigas® na determinação da curva de retenção de água em substratos para hortaliças Mini Irrigas® sensor in determining the curve of water retention in substrates for vegetables

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ronaldo S de Liz

    2008-12-01

    Full Text Available No Brasil, ainda não existe um método padrão, confiável, para a determinação da curva de retenção de água em todos os tipos de substratos existentes para o cultivo de hortaliças, principalmente para substratos à base de fibras longas e curtas, como é o caso do substrato de coco verde. Assim, neste trabalho, o objetivo foi obter a curva de retenção de água em substratos para o cultivo de hortaliças, utilizando-se um mini sensor Irrigas®. Foram utilizados os substratos de coco verde, sem compostagem, compostado durante 45; 90; 135 e 180 dias e o substrato Plantmax®, utilizado como controle. O delineamento experimental foi de blocos ao acaso no esquema fatorial 6 x 11 (substrato x tensão com três repetições. Para o substrato S0; S45; S90; S135 e S180 as médias obtidas foram porosidade total: 85%; espaço de aeração: 72%; água facilmente disponível: 4%; água disponível: 9%; água tamponante: 5% e, água remanescente: 4%. O espaço de aeração (72%, foi indicativo de que é conveniente melhorar a distribuição do tamanho de partículas desse substrato, de modo a reduzir o espaço de aeração e aumentar a capacidade de retenção de água. O aumento da tensão de água foi obtido de forma natural, pela evaporação da água das amostras. A utilização do sensor Irrigas® permitiu rapidez na obtenção dos resultados e possibilitou a medição da tensão da água, de maneira contínua e paralela, entre tensões de 0 e 11 kPa, simultaneamente, em três amostras de substrato. Estes resultados tornaram evidente a possibilidade de uso do mini sensor Irrigas® na determinação de curvas de retenção de água em substratos para hortaliças, gerando inclusive perspectivas para a realização de estudos futuros de comparação com outros métodos.In Brazil, no reliable standard method exists to determine the water retention curve in all available types of substrates for the cultivation of vegetables, mainly for substrates

  6. Review of Vegetable Market Development in China

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Chaoping; LUO; Yuandong; NI; Qiong; ZHAI

    2013-01-01

    This paper has reviewed vegetable market development from vegetable circulation system, the develop history of the liberalize vegetable market and the growth of the vegetable wholesale market in China. From the development of vegetables market in China and its characteristics: the development of vegetable market in China is related to vegetable market system, the change of institution, some technology development and infrastructure. this paper has put forward some related measures to perfect the vegetable market and improve the vegetable circulation efficiency in China.

  7. Cruciferous Vegetables and Cancer Prevention

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... case-control studies have found that people who ate greater amounts of cruciferous vegetables had a lower ... Professionals’ Follow-up Study—showed that women who ate more than 5 servings of cruciferous vegetables per ...

  8. Comparison of vegetation roughness descriptions

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Augustijn, Dionysius C.M.; Huthoff, Freek; van Velzen, E.H.; Altinakar, M.S.; Kokpinar, M.A.; Aydin, I.; Cokgor, S.; Kirkgoz, S.

    2008-01-01

    Vegetation roughness is an important parameter in describing flow through river systems. Vegetation impedes the flow, which affects the stage-discharge curve and may increase flood risks. Roughness is often used as a calibration parameter in river models, however when vegetation is allowed to

  9. Mangrove vegetation in Amazonia: a review of studies from the coast of Pará and Maranhão States, north Brazil Vegetação de manguezais na Amazônia: uma revisão dos estudos da costa dos Estados Pará e Maranhão, norte do Brasil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Moirah Paula Machado de Menezes

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available The present study is a compilation of the literature about vegetation of mangrove forest of the north coast of Brazil. It synthesizes the knowledge about this important ecosystem and lists the currently available literature. The study focuses on the coast of Pará and Maranhão states, which are covered by a continuous belt of mangroves. The mangrove flora comprises six mangrove tree species and several associated species. Mangrove tree height and stem diameter vary as a function of abiotic local stand parameters. Seasonal variation in rainfall and salinity affect the species' phenology and litter fall. Local population use products derived from mangrove plants for different purposes (e.g. fuel; medicinal; rural construction. The increase in the coastal population has given rise to conflicts, which impact on mangrove forest.O presente estudo apresenta uma compilação da literatura sobre a vegetação dos manguezais da costa norte do Brasil, apresentando uma síntese do conhecimento e listando a literatura disponível. O estudo se concentra na costa dos estados do Pará e Maranhão que formam um cinturão contínuo de manguezais . Foram contabilizadas seis espécies arbóreas exclusivas de mangue e várias outras associadas. A altura e o diâmetro das árvores de mangue variam em função de parâmetros abióticos locais. As variações sazonais do regime de chuvas e da salinidade afetam a fenologia das espécies e a produção de serapilheira. A população costeira utiliza a flora do manguezal para diferentes fins (ex: combustível, medicinal, construção rural. O aumento da ocupação costeira inicia um processo de impacto para as florestas de mangue e a disponibilidade de seus recursos.

  10. Načrtovan porod na domu

    OpenAIRE

    Todorović, Tamara; Takač, Iztok

    2017-01-01

    Izhodišča: Porod na domu je sicer star toliko kot človeštvo, pa vendar v veliki večini srednje in visoko razvitih držav prevladuje mnenje, da so zaradi nepredvidljivosti zapletov porodnišnice najbolj varno okolje za rojevanje. Kljub temu obstaja peščica držav, v katerih je porod na domu integriran v sistem zdravstvenega varstva (npr. Nizozemska, Velika Britanija, Kanada). Pri porodih na domu ločimo nenačrtovane in načrtovane porode na domu, slednje pa lahko nadalje razdelimo še na porode s sp...

  11. Composição e distribuição da vegetação herbácea em três áreas com fisionomias distintas na Praia do Peró, Cabo Frio, RJ, Brasil Composition and distribution of herbaceous vegetation in three areas of different aspect in Praia do Peró, Cabo Frio, Rio de Janeiro State, Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sandra Zorat Cordeiro

    2005-12-01

    Full Text Available A composição e a distribuição da vegetação herbácea da Praia do Peró foram caracterizadas em três áreas com topografias e fisionomias distintas, pelo método de parcelas. As três áreas são ocupadas pela comunidade psamófila-reptante, visualmente dividida em duas regiões: frontal, com espécies estoloníferas e suculentas, e posterior, com predomínio de espécies graminóides. Foram amostradas 38 espécies, das quais Paspalum maritimum Trim, Ipomoea imperati (Vahl. Griseb, Ipomoea pes-caprae (L. Sweet, Sporobolus virginicus (L. Kunth e Panicum racemosum (Beauv. Spreng. alcançaram os maiores valores de importância (VI. A topografia do ambiente, intimamente relacionada com a dinâmica de ondas de maré e tempestades, com aporte de areia oriunda dos ventos e das marés e com a ação antrópica, não influencia a distribuição das espécies vegetais encontradas, sendo considerada apenas como um componente influente na paisagem, estabelecido em conjunto com a comunidade vegetal, sendo esta última fortemente determinada pela distância em que se encontra em relação ao mar.The composition and the distribution of herbaceous vegetation of Praia do Peró were characterized in three areas with different topographic and aspect, by using the method of quadrats. The three areas are occupied by the creeping-psamophyte community, being visually divided into two regions: frontal, with stolonipherae and succulent species, and posterior, with predominance of grass species. Thirty-eight species were sampled, from which Paspalum maritimum Trim, Ipomoea imperati (Vahl. Griseb, Ipomoea pes-caprae (L. Sweet, Sporobolus virginicus (L. Kunth and Panicum racemosum (Beauv. Spreng. attained the highest values of importance (VI. The topography, intimately related with the dynamics of tidal waves and storms, with the deposit of sand brought by the winds and tides, and with the human action, doesn't influence the distribution of the vegetal species found

  12. Phenolation of vegetable oils

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    ZORAN S. PETROVIĆ

    2011-04-01

    Full Text Available Novel bio-based compounds containing phenols suitable for the syn­thesis of polyurethanes were prepared. The direct alkylation of phenols with different vegetable oils in the presence of superacids (HBF4, triflic acid as ca­talysts was studied. The reaction kinetics was followed by monitoring the de­crease of the double bond content (iodine value with time. In order to under­stand the mechanism of the reaction, phenol was alkylated with model com­pounds. The model compounds containing one internal double bond were 9-oc­tadecene and methyl oleate and those with three double bonds were triolein and high oleic safflower oil (82 % oleic acid. It was shown that the best structures for phenol alkylation are fatty acids with only one double bond (oleic acid. Fatty acids with two double bonds (linoleic acid and three double bonds (lino­lenic acid lead to polymerized oils by a Diels–Alder reaction, and to a lesser extent to phenol alkylated products. The reaction product of direct alkylation of phenol with vegetable oils is a complex mixture of phenol alkylated with poly­merized oil (30–60 %, phenyl esters formed by transesterification of phenol with triglyceride ester bonds (<10 % and unreacted oil (30 %. The phenolated vegetable oils are new aromatic–aliphatic bio-based raw materials suitable for the preparation of polyols (by propoxylation, ethoxylation, Mannich reactions for the preparation of polyurethanes, as intermediates for phenolic resins or as bio-based antioxidants.

  13. Essential and trace elements in differential pulses, spices and vegetables

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chowdhury, M.Z.A.

    2004-01-01

    The amounts of bio-chemically important elements for human bodies such as Na, K, Ca, P, Mg, Fe and Cu in some widely used pulses and spices in Chittagong were determined by using flame photometry and UV-Visible spectrophotometry. Similarly, the amounts of Mg, Fe and Cu in some leafy and non-leafy vegetable in Chittagong were determined by the UV-Visible spectrophotometric method. The essential elements such as Na, K, Ca and P were found in mg/kg levels. The amounts of trace metal such as Mg, Fe and Cu in pulses and species were just within the range of human necessity. However, the amounts of Mg, Fe and Cu in leafy and non-leafy vegetables were so negligible that they can not be considered as adequate for health, except their food-values constituted by the higher contents of starch. (author)

  14. Effects of metals on vegetation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Press, N P

    1972-01-01

    Prospectors have long known that abnormal concentrations of metals in the soil overlying an ore deposit can affect the vegetation rooting in this soil; mineral deposits have even been discovered because of such vegetation changes. Recently, many people have become interested in the possibility of remote sensing such vegetation changes, and perhaps using the results in conjunction with airborne geophysics and photogeological interpretation in integrated prospecting programs.

  15. Vegetation and acidification, Chapter 5

    Science.gov (United States)

    David R. DeWalle; James N. Kochenderfer; Mary Beth Adams; Gary W. Miller

    2006-01-01

    In this chapter, the impact of watershed acidification treatments on WS3 at the Fernow Experimental Forest (FEF) and at WS9 on vegetation is presented and summarized in a comprehensive way for the first time. WS7 is used as a vegetative reference basin for WS3, while untreated plots within WS9 are used as a vegetative reference for WS9. Bioindicators of acidification...

  16. Relishes: The new pickled vegetables

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tepić Aleksandra N.

    2006-01-01

    Full Text Available There have been an increasing interest of consumers for a ide variety of pickled vegetable products worldwide. Regarding the regional vegetable supplies and relatively poor assortment of ready-to-use products, the need to broaden the offer of domestic pickled vegetables at the market came out. In this work recipes for different vegetables, spices and condiments were developed. The best graded samples were analyzed for their main chemical composition (dry matter, proteins, oils and fats, total acidity, total sugars, sucrose, starch, cellulose, pH and energy- values.

  17. Crestridge Vegetation Map [ds211

    Data.gov (United States)

    California Natural Resource Agency — This layer represents vegetation communities in the Department of Fish and Game's Crestridge Ecological Reserve. The County of San Diego, the Conservation Biology...

  18. Encouraging children to eat vegetables

    OpenAIRE

    Buh, Alenka

    2014-01-01

    It is important for children to maintain a healthy and balanced diet throughout their childhood and youth. Children tend to skip vegetables in their meals as they are not much liked; the tastes of vegetables are also highly specific and each individual has to get used to them by repeated tasting. The aim of this undergraduate thesis was to analyse how often children eat vegetables, which types of vegetables they like and which they do not, to determine if the executed method of pedagogica...

  19. A vegetal Geiger counter

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anon.

    1999-01-01

    In order to study the Chernobyl accident impact on ecosystems, Ukrainian and Swiss scientists have used a plant: the Arabidopsis thaliana. They have introduced in its genome a gene coding an enzyme called β-glucuronidase. This substance, when it is expressed, colours vegetal cells blue. In fact the introduced gene is divided between 2 paired chromosomes. When the plant is placed on a nuclear contaminated soil, radiation damaged chromosomes exchange fragments and the 2 parts of the enzyme gene may recombine, the enzyme can then be expressed. For low and medium contamination ( 2 ) biologists have found a correlation between the number of blue spots on the plant and the irradiation rate. (A.C.)

  20. Genetic improvement of vegetables

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jaramillo Vasquez, J.G.

    2001-01-01

    Some genetic bases of the improvement of vegetables are given. The objectives of the genetic improvement and the fundamental stages of this process are done. The sources of genetic variation are indicated and they are related the reproduction systems of the main horticultural species. It is analyzed the concept of genetic inheritance like base to determine the procedures more appropriate of improvement. The approaches are discussed, has more than enough phenotypic value, genetic action and genotypic variance; Equally the heredability concepts and value of improvement. The conventional methods of improvement are described, like they are: the introduction of species or varieties, the selection, the pure line, the pedigree method, the selection for families, the recurrent selection, the selection for unique seed, the haploids method, the selection for heterosis and the synthetic varieties

  1. Fruits and vegetables dehydration

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    De Ita, A; Flores, G; Franco, F

    2015-01-01

    Dehydration diagrams were determined by means of Differential Thermal Analysis, DTA, and Thermo Gravimetric Analysis, TGA, curves of several simultaneous fruits and vegetables, all under the same conditions. The greater mass loss is associated with water containing in the structure of the investigated materials at low temperature. In poblano chile water is lost in a single step. The banana shows a very sharply two stages, while jicama can be observed although with a little difficulty three stages. The major mass loss occurs in the poblano chile and the lower in banana. The velocity and temperature of dehydration vary within a small range for most materials investigated, except for banana and cactus how are very different

  2. Fruits and vegetables dehydration

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Ita, A.; Flores, G.; Franco, F.

    2015-01-01

    Dehydration diagrams were determined by means of Differential Thermal Analysis, DTA, and Thermo Gravimetric Analysis, TGA, curves of several simultaneous fruits and vegetables, all under the same conditions. The greater mass loss is associated with water containing in the structure of the investigated materials at low temperature. In poblano chile water is lost in a single step. The banana shows a very sharply two stages, while jicama can be observed although with a little difficulty three stages. The major mass loss occurs in the poblano chile and the lower in banana. The velocity and temperature of dehydration vary within a small range for most materials investigated, except for banana and cactus how are very different.

  3. Heavy metals in green vegetables and soils from vegetable gardens ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Edible portions of five varieties of green vegetables, namely amaranth, chinese cabbage, cowpea leaves, leafy cabbage and pumpkin leaves, collected from several areas in Dar es Salaam, were analyzed for lead, cadmium, chromium, zinc, nickel and copper. Except for zinc, the levels of heavy metals in the vegetables ...

  4. Vegetable Genetic Resources in China

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Haiping WANG

    2018-03-01

    Full Text Available China is recognized as an important region for plant biodiversity based on its vast and historical collection of vegetable germplasm. The aim of this review is to describe the exploration status of vegetable genetic resources in China, including their collection, preservation, evaluation, and utilization. China has established a number of national-level vegetable genetic resources preservation units, including the National Mid-term Genebank for Vegetable Germplasm Resources, the National Germplasm Repository for Vegetatively-Propagated Vegetables, and the National Germplasm Repository for Aquatic Vegetables. In 2015, at least 36 000 accessions were collected and preserved in these units. In the past decade, 44 descriptors and data standards for different species have been published, and most accessions have been evaluated for screening the germplasms for specific important traits such as morphological characteristics, disease resistance, pest resistance, and stress tolerance. Moreover, the genetic diversity and evolution of some vegetable germplasms have been evaluated at the molecular level. Recently, more than 1 000 accessions were distributed to researchers and breeders each year by various means for vegetable research and production. However, additional wild-relative and abroad germplasms from other regions need to be collected and preserved in the units to expand genetic diversity. Furthermore, there is a need to utilize advanced techniques to better understand the background and genetic diversity of a wide range of vegetable genetic resources. This review will provide agricultural scientists’ insights into the genetic diversity in China and provide information on the distribution and potential utilization of these valuable genetic resources. Keywords: vegetable, genetic resource, preservation, evaluation, utilization

  5. Ethnobotanical study and nutrient content of indigenous vegetables consumed in Central Kalimantan, Indonesia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    SUSI KRESNATITA

    2013-10-01

    Full Text Available Abstract. Chotimah HENC, Kresnatita S, Miranda Y. 2013. Ethnobotanical study and nutrient content of indigenous vegetables consumed in Central Kalimantan, Indonesia. Biodiversitas 14: 106-111. People in Central Kalimantan consume vegetables that collected from the wild or traditionally cultivated. Documentation effort of them is very important because of the diversity of local vegetable are threatened with extinction due to the conversion of peat land and forest fires. This study aims to determine the diversity of indigenous vegetables in Central Kalimantan, its use as a vegetable and nutrient content some vegetables. The method used was the exploration and interviews. Exploration carried out in three districts namely Palangkaraya, Pulang Pisau, and Seruyan. Sampling of plants was randomly and selectively. Data analysis was performed descriptively. The results showed that we recorded 42 plant species belonging to 30 families. There were many vegetables processing: stir-fry, clear soup, a light coconut milk soup, acidic soup, or just consumed as fresh vegetables. The result of nutritional value analyzed, Helminthostachys zeylanica (L. Hook had a potential to further develop whether as vegetables or medicinal plant. It had the highest protein, carbohydrate and mineral P, Fe, Na and K content among the vegetables analyzed.

  6. Inorganic matter characterization in vegetable biomass feedstocks

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Suarez-Garcia, F.; Martinez-Alonso, A.; Fernandez Llorenta, M.; Tascon, J.M.D. [Instituto Nacional del Carbon, CSIC, Oviedo (Spain)

    2002-06-01

    A combination of techniques was used to characterize the inorganic constituents of four types of vegetable biomass: apple pulp, olive cake, olive tree pruning and thistle. Two methods were used to selectively eliminate organic matter: low-temperature oxidation in an oxygen plasma, and medium-temperature oxidation in air. Inorganic species present in the residues were identified by X-ray diffraction and FT-IR spectroscopy. The combination of these techniques allowed one to detect SiO{sub 2}, CaCO{sub 3} and various other Ca-, Mg-, Na- and K-containing phases as inorganic constituents of the studied biomass residues. It is concluded that the oxygen plasma treatment produces sulphates and nitrates that were not present in the starting material. Medium-temperature oxidation does not produce these artificial species but induces some thermal transformations in the mineral constituents of biomass, so that each technique has its own advantages and disadvantages. 27 refs., 6 figs., 3 tabs.

  7. Toxicología Vegetal

    OpenAIRE

    García Fernández, Antonio Juan

    2010-01-01

    Presentaciones de clase de los temas de Toxicología Vegetal de la licenciatura de Veterinaria de la Universidad de Murcia del curso 2011/12. Presentaciones de Toxicología Vegetal de la asignatura de Toxicología de la Licenciatura de Veterinaria del curso 2011/12

  8. Composição faunística de insetos predadores em fragmento florestal e em área de hortaliças na região de Jaboticabal, Estado de São Paulo - DOI: 10.4025/actascibiolsci.v25i2.2015 Faunal composition of predator insects in forest fragment and area of vegetables in Jaboticabal region, state of São Paulo, Brazil - DOI: 10.4025/actascibiolsci.v25i2.2015

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Luciano Kenji Sakemi

    2003-04-01

    Full Text Available Efetuou-se um levantamento populacional em área de fragmento florestal e em área de hortaliças, entre novembro de 1996 a fevereiro/1998, visando determinar as espécies de insetos predadores e a influência de fatores abióticos. A amostragem foi efetuada semanalmente por meio de armadilha luminosa, aplicando-se aos resultados análise faunística e correlação simples com temperatura, umidade relativa e precipitação. No fragmento florestal foi observado maior semelhança na abundância de espécies do que na área de hortaliças, mas neste hábitat capturou-se maior número de indivíduos (95%. As espécies Metius sp., Polpochila impressifrons (Dej., Eulissus sp. e Doru sp. foram predominantes nas duas áreas, evidenciando a importância dessas espécies como predadoras de pragas de hortaliças. Arthrostictus speciosus (Dej. e Leptotrachelus sp. predominaram no fragmento florestal, o mesmo ocorrendo com Paederus sp. na área de hortaliças. Esta espécie deve preferir locais abertos e quentes, enquanto A. speciosus e Leptotrachelus sp. podem estar melhor adaptadas para locais escuros e úmidos de florestasA population survey was carried out in a forest fragment and in an area of vegetables, from November/1996 to February/1998, aiming to determine the predator insect species and the influence of abiotic factors. The samples were taken weekly by light traps. The results were evaluated using faunistic analysis and simple correlation with temperature, relative humidity and rainfall. In the forest fragment higher similarity in the abundance of species was observed comparing to the area of vegetables, but the largest number of captured individuals (95% occurred in this last habitat. Metius sp., Polpochila impressifrons (Dej., Eulissus sp. and Doru sp. were predominant species in both areas, evidencing they may play an important role as pest predators in areas of vegetables. Arthrostictus speciosus (Dej. and Leptotrachelus sp. predominated in

  9. Special study on vegetative covers

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1988-11-01

    This report describes the findings of a special study on the use of vegetative covers to stabilize tailings piles for the Uranium Mill Tailings Remedial Action (UMTRA) Project. The principal rationale for using plants would be to establish a dynamic system for controlling water balance. Specifically, vegetation would be used to intercept and transpire precipitation to the atmosphere, rather than allowing water to drain into the tailings and mobilize contaminants. This would facilitate compliance with groundwater standards proposed for the UMTRA Project by the Environmental Protection Agency. The goals of the study were to evaluate the feasibility of using vegetative covers on UMTRA Project piles, define the advantages and disadvantages of vegetative covers, and develop general guidelines for their use when such use seems reasonable. The principal method for the study was to analyze and apply to the UMTRA Project the results of research programs on vegetative covers at other US Department of Energy (DOE) waste management facilities. The study also relied upon observations made of existing stabilized piles at UMTRA Project sites where natural vegetation is growing on the rock-covered surfaces. Water balance and erosion models were also used to quantify the long-term performance of vegetative covers planned for the topslopes of stabilized piles at Grand Junction and Durango, Colorado, two UMTRA Project sites where the decision was made during the course of this special study to use vegetative covers. Elements in the design and construction of the vegetative covers at these two sites are discussed in the report, with explanations of the differing features that reflect differing environmental conditions. 28 refs., 18 figs., 9 tabs

  10. Radiation and the vegetable industry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Roberts, P.B.

    1984-01-01

    The possible uses of irradiation in the vegetable industry are considered. Interest has been increasing because of possible bans on chemical fumigants and clearance of irradiation as an acceptable process, up to certain dose limits, by Codex Alimentarius and the US FDA. Inhibition of sprouting in potatoes and onions would be one possibility for exploitation. However, the main incentive for vegetable irradiation would be as a quarantine treatment for exported products. The shelf-life of a few vegetables could also be increased by combining radiation with heat treatments. Costs in New Zealand and consumer attitudes are briefly considered

  11. Produtos e subprodutos da medicina popular comercializados na cidade de Boa Vista, Roraima

    OpenAIRE

    PINTO, Angélica Auxiliadora da Costa; MADURO, Cice Batalha

    2003-01-01

    O objetivo deste estudo foi identificar produtos e subprodutos de origem animal e vegetal utilizados na medicina popular que são comercializados na cidade de Boa Vista, Estado de Roraima, traçando um perfil preliminar de sua forma de comercialização. Foram identificados 117 produtos : 100 (85,5 %) de origem vegetal e 17 (14,5 %) de origem animal. Os produtos de origem vegetal de maior destaque foram o Jatobá (Hymenaea courbaril), o Barbatimão (Stryphnodendron adstrinfens), a Sucuba (Himatanth...

  12. Produtos e subprodutos da medicina popular comercializados na cidade de Boa Vista, Roraima

    OpenAIRE

    PINTO,Angélica Auxiliadora da Costa; MADURO,Cice Batalha

    2003-01-01

    O objetivo deste estudo foi identificar produtos e subprodutos de origem animal e vegetal utilizados na medicina popular que são comercializados na cidade de Boa Vista, Estado de Roraima, traçando um perfil preliminar de sua forma de comercialização. Foram identificados 117 produtos : 100 (85,5 %) de origem vegetal e 17 (14,5 %) de origem animal. Os produtos de origem vegetal de maior destaque foram o Jatobá (Hymenaea courbaril), o Barbatimão (Stryphnodendron ads...

  13. Vegetation - McKenzie Preserve [ds703

    Data.gov (United States)

    California Natural Resource Agency — The California Native Plant Society (CNPS) Vegetation Program produced a vegetation map and classification for approximately 11,600 acres primarily within Millerton...

  14. Vegetation - Lassen Foothills [ds564

    Data.gov (United States)

    California Natural Resource Agency — In 2007 Aerial Information Systems, Inc. (AIS) was contracted by the California Native Plant Society (CNPS) to produce a vegetation map for approximately 100,000...

  15. in Leafy Vegetable and Pharmaceutical

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Bheema

    successfully employed for the determination of copper (II) in leafy vegetable and pharmaceutical samples. ... Our previous studies of transition metal ions such as zinc, cobalt and ..... A new method for extractive photometric determination of.

  16. Buffers and vegetative filter strips

    Science.gov (United States)

    Matthew J. Helmers; Thomas M. Isenhart; Michael G. Dosskey; Seth M. Dabney

    2008-01-01

    This chapter describes the use of buffers and vegetative filter strips relative to water quality. In particular, we primarily discuss the herbaceous components of the following NRCS Conservation Practice Standards.

  17. Detecção de formas transmissíveis de enteroparasitas na água e nas hortaliças consumidas em comunidades escolares de Sorocaba, São Paulo, Brasil Detection enteroparasites transmissible forms in water and raw vegetables consumed in pre-schools from Sorocaba, São Paulo state, Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lina Maria De Petrini da Silva Coelho

    2001-10-01

    Full Text Available Avaliou-se a presença de formas transmissíveis de enteroparasitas em água e em hortaliças consumidas cruas, no período de agosto de 1997 a julho de 1998. A água foi submetida à filtração em membranas de celulose. A água da lavagem destas membranas foi submetido ao método de Faust. As hortaliças in natura e lavada foram lavadas e a água submetida ao método de sedimentação. Uma escola não apresentou contaminação; duas tiveram todos os materiais contaminados; quatro, 2 materiais contaminados e três, 1 material contaminado. A água apresentou índice de 0,7% de contaminação (Hymenolepis diminuta, Strongyloides stercoralis e ancilostomídeos; a hortaliça in natura, 3,9% (Strongyloides stercoralis, ancilostomídeos, Ascaris lumbricoides e Giardia lamblia e a lavada, 1,3% (Strongyloides stercoralis, Ascaris lumbricoides e Giardia lamblia. As hortaliças e a água são veiculadoras de enteroparasitas. A forma larval foi a mais presente. A hortaliça in naturaapresentou maior contaminação que a lavada. A lavagem não garantiu a ausência dessas formas em hortaliças.Water and raw vegetables consumed in ten nursery schools were evaluated for the presence of transmissible forms of enteroparasites. The water was submitted to filtration through membranes. The washed membrane water was submitted to the Faust method. The in natura and washed vegetables were washed and the water analyzed by the sedimentation method. Contamination was not detected in one school; in two schools, all the materials were contaminated; in four schools, two items were contaminated and in three, one material presented contamination. The water presented a contamination index of 0.7% contamination (Hymenolepis diminuta, Strongyloides stercoralis and Ancylostomatidae; the vegetables in natura, 3.9% (Strongyloides stercoralis, Ancylostomatidae, Ascaris lumbricoides and Giardia lamblia and the washed samples 1.3% (Strongyloides stercoralis, Ascaris lumbricoides and

  18. Handling Procedures of Vegetable Crops

    Science.gov (United States)

    Perchonok, Michele; French, Stephen J.

    2004-01-01

    The National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA) is working towards future long duration manned space flights beyond low earth orbit. The duration of these missions may be as long as 2.5 years and will likely include a stay on a lunar or planetary surface. The primary goal of the Advanced Food System in these long duration exploratory missions is to provide the crew with a palatable, nutritious, and safe food system while minimizing volume, mass, and waste. Vegetable crops can provide the crew with added nutrition and variety. These crops do not require any cooking or food processing prior to consumption. The vegetable crops, unlike prepackaged foods, will provide bright colors, textures (crispy), and fresh aromas. Ten vegetable crops have been identified for possible use in long duration missions. They are lettuce, spinach, carrot, tomato, green onion, radish, bell pepper, strawberries, fresh herbs, and cabbage. Whether these crops are grown on a transit vehicle (e.g., International Space Station) or on the lunar or planetary surface, it will be necessary to determine how to safely handle the vegetables while maintaining acceptability. Since hydrogen peroxide degrades into water and oxygen and is generally recognized as safe (GRAS), hydrogen peroxide has been recommended as the sanitizer. The objective of th is research is to determine the required effective concentration of hydrogen peroxide. In addition, it will be determined whether the use of hydrogen peroxide, although a viable sanitizer, adversely affects the quality of the vegetables. Vegetables will be dipped in 1 % hydrogen peroxide, 3% hydrogen peroxide, or 5% hydrogen peroxide. Treated produce and controls will be stored in plastic bags at 5 C for up to 14 days. Sensory, color, texture, and total plate count will be measured. The effect on several vegetables including lettuce, radish, tomato and strawberries has been completed. Although each vegetable reacts to hydrogen peroxide differently, the

  19. East African Cenozoic vegetation history.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Linder, Hans Peter

    2017-11-01

    The modern vegetation of East Africa is a complex mosaic of rainforest patches; small islands of tropic-alpine vegetation; extensive savannas, ranging from almost pure grassland to wooded savannas; thickets; and montane grassland and forest. Here I trace the evolution of these vegetation types through the Cenozoic. Paleogene East Africa was most likely geomorphologically subdued and, as the few Eocene fossil sites suggest, a woodland in a seasonal climate. Woodland rather than rainforest may well have been the regional vegetation. Mountain building started with the Oligocene trap lava flows in Ethiopia, on which rainforest developed, with little evidence of grass and none of montane forests. The uplift of the East African Plateau took place during the middle Miocene. Fossil sites indicate the presence of rainforest, montane forest and thicket, and wooded grassland, often in close juxtaposition, from 17 to 10 Ma. By 10 Ma, marine deposits indicate extensive grassland in the region and isotope analysis indicates that this was a C 3 grassland. In the later Miocene rifting, first of the western Albertine Rift and then of the eastern Gregory Rift, added to the complexity of the environment. The building of the high strato-volcanos during the later Mio-Pliocene added environments suitable for tropic-alpine vegetation. During this time, the C 3 grassland was replaced by C 4 savannas, although overall the extent of grassland was reduced from the mid-Miocene high to the current low level. Lake-level fluctuations during the Quaternary indicate substantial variation in rainfall, presumably as a result of movements in the intertropical convergence zone and the Congo air boundary, but the impact of these fluctuations on the vegetation is still speculative. I argue that, overall, there was an increase in the complexity of East African vegetation complexity during the Neogene, largely as a result of orogeny. The impact of Quaternary climatic fluctuation is still poorly understood

  20. Chapter 3: Status and trends of vegetation

    Science.gov (United States)

    James M. Guldin; Frank R. Thompson; Lynda L. Richards; Kyra C. Harper

    1999-01-01

    This chapter provides information about the vegetation cover of the Assessment area. The types and areal extent of vegetation in the Highlands are of interest for many reasons. Vegetation cover largely determines the availability of habitat for terrestrial animals, plants, and other organisms. Vegetation cover strongly influences what uses {e.g., timber, forage,...

  1. Vegetables and other core food groups

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Poelman, Astrid A.M.; Delahunty, Conor M.; Graaf, de Kees

    2017-01-01

    Vegetables are the food category least liked by children. This research investigated the sensory properties of vegetables vis-a-vis other core foods that comprise children's diets, to determine to what degree low acceptance of vegetables can be attributed to sensory properties. Vegetables (n =

  2. 18 CFR 1304.203 - Vegetation management.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 18 Conservation of Power and Water Resources 2 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Vegetation management...-Owned Residential Access Shoreland § 1304.203 Vegetation management. No vegetation management shall be approved on TVA-owned Residential Access Shoreland until a Vegetation Management Plan meeting the...

  3. Parametri za procena na kvalitetot na polietilenska i na polipropilenska ambalaza i na gumeni zatvoraci nameneti za farmacevtski preparati

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Liljana Ugrinova

    2002-03-01

    Full Text Available Napraven e pregled na parametrite za procena na kvalitetot na polietilenska i na polipropilenska ambalaza i na gumeni zatvoraci nameneti za farmacevtski preparati. Za procena na kvalitetot na ispituvaniot materijal bea izvrseni fizicki, hemiski i bioloski ispituvanja spored postapkite dadeni vo Ph. Eur., DIN i spored DIN ISO standardite. Baranjata za kvalitet na ovoj vid ambalaza propisani spored Ph. Eur., DIN i DIN ISO standardite se razlikuvaat vo odnos na predvidenite parametri za fizicki, za hemiski i za bioloski ispituvanja. Isto taka, propisani se i razlicni granici na dozvoleno otstapuvanje na oddelni parametri.

  4. Activation analysis of selenium in odorous vegetable foods

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Suzuki, Shogo; Hirai, Shoji; Noda, Katsuhiko.

    1981-01-01

    The selenium in odorous vegetables was analyzed by nondestructive neutron activation analysis using 75 Se, by the γ-ray coincidence method with a Ge(Li) and a NaI(Tl) detectors of definite energy ranges. By means of the coincidence counting, the background spectrum in 75 Se in the vicinity of 265 KeV was able to be reduced to about 1/20 of that by the former detector alone, so that the 75 Se detection sensitivity was raised over fourfold. Thus the selenium in odorous vegetables was able to be determined down to the content as low as 0.02 μg/g. The selenium content in garlic bulbs was 0.02 - 0.31 μg/g, and in onion bulbs 0.02 - 0.05 μg/g, both of which agreed well with those by fluorometry. In other odorous vegetables, the selenium content was as little as 0.1 μg/g or lower. It has been said that the selenium content is relatively large along with sulfur because of the same group, but it was found to be fairly small in the odorous vegetables. (Mori, K.)

  5. Mutation breeding in vegetable crops

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yamaguchi, Takashi

    1984-03-01

    Vegetables breed by seeds and vegetative organs. In main vegetables, the differentiation of clopping types, the adoption of monoculture and year-round production and shipment are carried out, adapting to various socio-economic and cultivation conditions. Protected agriculture has advanced mainly for fruit vegetables, and the seeds for sale have become almost hybrid varieties. Reflecting this situation, the demand for breeding is diversified and characteristic. The present status of mutation breeding of vegetables is not yet well under way, but reports of about 40 raised varieties have been published in the world. The characters introduced by induced mutation and irradiation are compact form, harvesting aptitude, the forms and properties of stems and leaves, anti-lodging property, the size, form and uniformity of fruits, male sterility and so on. The radiation sources used were mostly gamma ray or X-ray, but sometimes, combined irradiation was used. Results obtained in Japan include: burdocks as an example to gamma ray irradiation of seeds; tomatoes as an example of inducing compound resistance against disease injury; and lettuce as an example of internal beta irradiation. (Kako, I.).

  6. Mutation breeding in vegetable crops

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yamaguchi, Takashi

    1984-01-01

    Vegetables breed by seeds and vegetative organs. In main vegetables, the differentiation of clopping types, the adoption of monoculture and year-round production and shipment are carried out, adapting to various socio-economic and cultivation conditions. Protected agriculture has advanced mainly for fruit vegetables, and the seeds for sale have become almost hybrid varieties. Reflecting the situation like this, the demand for breeding is diversified and characteristic, and the case of applying mutation breeding seems to be many. The present status of the mutation breeding of vegetables is not yet well under way, but about 40 raised varieties have been published in the world. The characters introduced by induced mutation and irradiation were compact form, harvesting aptitude, the forms and properties of stems and leaves, anti-lodging property, the size, form and uniformity of fruits, male sterility and so on. The radiation sources used were mostly gamma ray or X-ray, but sometimes, combined irradiation was used. As the results obtained in Japan, burdocks as an example of gamma ray irradiation to seeds, tomatoes as an example of inducing the compound resistance against disease injury and lettuces as an example of internal beta irradiation are reported. (Kako, I.)

  7. Quality evaluation of packaged acidified vegetables subjected to continuous microwave pasteurization

    Science.gov (United States)

    The study evaluated the use of 915 MHz continuous microwave processing with a rotation apparatus for pasteurization of acidified vegetable packages. Broccoli florets, and 1.2 cm cubes of broccoli stems, red bell pepper, and sweetpotato were pre-equilibrated to 1 g/100 g NaCl and 0.38 g/100 mL citric...

  8. Temporal reflectance changes in vegetables

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Dissing, Bjørn Skovlund; Clemmensen, Line Katrine Harder; Ersbøll, Bjarne Kjær

    2009-01-01

    Quality control in the food industry is often performed by measuring various chemical compounds of the food involved. We propose an imaging concept for acquiring high quality multispectral images to evaluate changes of carrots and celeriac over a period of 14 days. Properties originating...... in the surface chemistry of vegetables may be captured in an integrating sphere illumination which enables the creation of detailed surface chemistry maps with a good combination of spectral and spatial resolutions. Prior to multispectral image recording, the vegetables were prefried and frozen at -30Â......°C for four months. During the 14 days of image recording, the vegetables were kept at +5°C in refrigeration. In this period, surface changes and thereby reflectance properties were very subtle. To describe this small variation we employed advanced statistical techniques to search a large featurespace...

  9. ROOT VEGETABLES, BREEDING TRENDS, RESULTS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. I. Fedorova

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available The main advantage of root vegetables is their unique specificity and high economic importance. The benefits and medicinal properties of root vegetables being highly demanded by the market requirements to the commodity are highlighted in the article. The main directions of breeding program for root vegetable crops, including species of Apiaceae family with carrot, parsnips; Chenopodioideae family with red beet; Brassicaceae family with radish, Daikon, Raphanus sativus L. var. lobo Sazonova & Stank, turnip and rutabaga. Initial breeding accessions of carrot, red beet, radish, Daikon, Raphanus sativus L. var. lobo Sazonova & Stank, turnip and rutabaga have been selected out to be used for breeding program for heterosis. The mf and ms breeding lines were developed, and with the use of them the new gene pool was created. Variety supporting breeding program and methods were also proposed. 

  10. Local vegetables in Cameroon: Corchorus species used as a vegetable.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Westphal-Stevels, J.M.C.

    1986-01-01

    An agro-botanical study of local vegetables in Cameroon is in preparation, including the taxonomy, identity, morphology, agronomy and nutritional value of about 70 species. Corchorus olitorius L. and other edible species of the genus Corchorus L. (Tiliaceae) are part of this study. The wide

  11. Vegetables, Coctails & Reflections / Marco Laimre

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Laimre, Marko, 1968-

    2006-01-01

    Pealkirja "Vegetables, Coctails & Reflections" kandis Tallinna Kunstihoones 8.04.-28.05.2006 avatud Elin Kardi, Marko Mäetamme, Marco Laimre ja Andres Tali ühisnäitusel "Vägivald ja propaganda" Marco Laimre installatsioon. Marco Laimre esinemine raadiosaates "kunst.er" Klassikaraadios 16.04.2006

  12. Vegetable Crop Pests. MEP 311.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kantzes, James G.; And Others

    As part of a cooperative extension service series by the University of Maryland, this publication introduces the identification and control of common agricultural pests of vegetable crops. The first of the five sections defines "pest" and "weed" and generally introduces different kinds of pests in the categories of insects,…

  13. Self-crafting vegetable snacks

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Raghoebar, Sanne; Kleef, van Ellen; Vet, de Emely

    2017-01-01

    Purpose: The purpose of this paper is to test whether the IKEA-effect (Norton et al., 2012) – better liking for self-crafted products than for identical products crafted by others – can be exploited to increase liking and consumption of vegetable snacks in children. Design/methodology/approach: A

  14. Flavour release from dried vegetables

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Ruth, van S.M.

    1995-01-01

    The research described in this thesis was focused on the development of an in vitro model system for isolation of volatile compounds from dried vegetables under mouth conditions, such as volume of the mouth, temperature, salivation and mastication. Instrumental analysis of these

  15. HORTALIÇAS ACIDIFICADAS ACIDIFY VEGETABLES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Clícia Maria de Jesus BENEVIDES

    1998-08-01

    Full Text Available Objetivou-se no presente trabalho, elaborar um produto à base de hortaliças acidificadas, avaliando suas características. Foram realizadas análises físico-químicas, microbiológicas e o teste de preferência. Pelos resultados apresentados, verificou-se uma variação na acidez total e pH, ausência de contaminação microbiológica e uma aceitabilidade de 78,6% no teste de aceitação após o período de 120 dias à temp. ambiente.The objective in the present work was the preparation of a product " acidify vegetables" evaluating its characteristics. It was made physical-chemical, microbiological analyses and test of preference. From results, it was noticed a variation in the total acidity and pH , absence of microbiological contamination, and an approval of 78,6% in the test of acceptability after the period of 120 days at room temperature.

  16. Serving vegetables first: A strategy to increase vegetable consumption in elementary school cafeterias.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Elsbernd, S L; Reicks, M M; Mann, T L; Redden, J P; Mykerezi, E; Vickers, Z M

    2016-01-01

    Vegetable consumption in the United States is low despite the wealth of evidence that vegetables play an important role in reducing risk of various chronic diseases. Because eating patterns developed in childhood continue through adulthood, we need to form healthy eating habits in children. The objective of this study was to determine if offering vegetables before other meal components would increase the overall consumption of vegetables at school lunch. We served kindergarten through fifth-grade students a small portion (26-33 g) of a raw vegetable (red and yellow bell peppers) while they waited in line to receive the rest of their lunch meal. They then had the options to take more of the bell peppers, a different vegetable, or no vegetable from the lunch line. We measured the amount of each vegetable consumed by each child. Serving vegetables first greatly increased the number of students eating vegetables. On intervention days most of the vegetables consumed came from the vegetables-first portions. Total vegetable intake per student eating lunch was low because most students chose to not eat vegetables, but the intervention significantly increased this value. Serving vegetables first is a viable strategy to increase vegetable consumption in elementary schools. Long-term implementation of this strategy may have an important impact on healthy eating habits, vegetable consumption, and the health consequences of vegetable intake. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  17. Evaluation of efficiency of equipment used in the conservation of fruits and vegetables in the terminal Warehouse of Sao Paulo - CEAGESP; Avaliacao da eficiencia no uso dos equipamentos de refrigeracao utilizados na conservacao de frutas e hortalicas no entreposto terminal de Sao Paulo (CEAGESP-Companhia de Entrepostos e Armazens Gerais de Sao Paulo)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ferreira Neto, Josue; Ferreira, Marcos David [Universidade Estadual de Campinas (UNICAMP), SP (Brazil). Faculdade de Engenharia Agricola (FEAGRI); Neves Filho, Lincoln de Camargo [Universidade Estadual de Campinas (UNICAMP), SP (Brazil). Dept. de Engenharia de Alimentos; Gutierrez, Anita de Souza Dias [CEAGESP, Sao Paulo, SP (Brazil). Centro de Qualidade em Horticultura

    2004-07-01

    The shelf life of fruits and vegetables can be directly related to store temperature. At determined temperature and humidity a better conservation of the product can be achieve. The cold chain delays the aging, having its conservation guaranteed until the consumer. It was carried through in the Terminal Warehouse of Sao Paulo- CEAGESP, a research for evaluation of the condition of the cold chambers used. The cold storage equipment evaluation was measured using the follow parameters: temperature, humidity, isolation, type of equipment used, etc. It was analyzed, chambers used for cold storage, using thermal load calculation. Apple and pears were the most stored commodities in CEAGESP, 50 % and bananas the second one (31,4%). Based in the average volume of commercialization, it was observed that 57% of the motors were over dimensioned. (author)

  18. A FRACTIONATION STUDY OF MINERAL ELEMENTS IN RAW AND COOKED LEAF VEGETABLES CONSUMED IN SOUTHERN BRAZIL

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Luciane Mie KAWASHIMA

    2009-07-01

    Full Text Available

    Five samplings of leaf vegetables widely consumed in Southern Brazil (lettuce, rucola, watercress, kale, chicory, Chinese cabbage, and cabbage were taken during the period of a year in food markets of the city of Campinas, Brazil. A selective extraction of potassium, sodium, calcium, magnesium, iron, manganese, copper, and zinc was conducted on the raw vegetables and four of the vegetables (kale, chicory, Chinese cabbage, and cabbage were also cooked briefly under dry heat for three minutes and submitted to the selective extraction. The extraction separated the minerals into fractions containing mineral elements bound to soluble complexes, bound to ligands solubilized by mild acidic oxidizing conditions, and bound to insoluble ligands under mild acidic oxidizing conditions. The minerals concentrations in each fraction were determined by flame atomic absorption spectrometry. The amount of K, Na, Ca, and Mg extractable at pH 7.0 (soluble fraction from raw vegetables varied between 22 to 75 % of the total content of the mineral present. The soluble fractions of minor elements such as Mn, Zn, and Fe varied from 0 to 100% in the raw vegetables. The brief cooking used besides causing negligible losses of the minerals also increased the solubility of the minerals by 44% to 200%. KEYWORDS: Leaf vegetables; soluble mineral elements in vegetables.

  19. Biologically active matters in soy vegetative mass

    OpenAIRE

    GNOEVYY I.V.

    2013-01-01

    Maintenance of row of bioactive matters of phenic nature in particular, isoflavonoids is investigational at to soy-bean cakes to vegetative mass of soy in the phases of vegetation of 8 the most widespread sorts of soy in Ukraine.

  20. Vegetation - San Felipe Valley [ds172

    Data.gov (United States)

    California Natural Resource Agency — This Vegetation Map of the San Felipe Valley Wildlife Area in San Diego County, California is based on vegetation samples collected in the field in 2002 and 2005 and...

  1. Biota - 2009 Vegetation Inventory - Lake Ashtabula, ND

    Data.gov (United States)

    Army Corps of Engineers, Department of the Army, Department of Defense — 2009 Vegetation Classification for Lake Ashtabula, ND Vegetation Project Report, OMBIL Environmental Stewardship - Level 1 Inventory, U.S. Army Corps of Engineers...

  2. Ecosystems past: prehistory of California vegetation

    Science.gov (United States)

    C.I. Millar; W.B. Woolfenden

    2016-01-01

    The history of California's vegetation, from origins in the Mesozoic through Quaternary is outlined. Climatic and geologic history and the processes driving changes in vegetation over time are also described. 

  3. Marketing African Leafy Vegetables: Challenges and Opportunities ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Marketing African Leafy Vegetables: Challenges and Opportunities in the Kenyan Context. ... The market share of ALVs vis-à-vis other vegetable species, particularly kales, cabbages and ... EMAIL FREE FULL TEXT EMAIL FREE FULL TEXT

  4. Biota - 2011 Vegetation Inventory - Marsh Lake, MN

    Data.gov (United States)

    Army Corps of Engineers, Department of the Army, Department of Defense — 2011 Vegetation Classification for Marsh Lake, MN Vegetation Project Report, OMBIL Environmental Stewardship - Level 1 Inventory. Marsh Lake is located on the...

  5. A Comparison of Treating Metabolic Acidosis in CKD Stage 4 Hypertensive Kidney Disease with Fruits and Vegetables or Sodium Bicarbonate

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goraya, Nimrit; Simoni, Jan; Jo, Chan-Hee

    2013-01-01

    Summary Background and objectives Current guidelines recommend Na+-based alkali for CKD with metabolic acidosis and plasma total CO2 (PTCO2) fruits and vegetables with oral NaHCO3 (HCO3) regarding the primary outcome of follow-up estimated GFR (eGFR) and secondary outcomes of improved metabolic acidosis and reduced urine indices of kidney injury. Design, setting, participants, & measurements Individuals with stage 4 (eGFR, 15–29 ml/min per 1.73 m2) CKD due to hypertensive nephropathy, had a PTCO2 level fruits and vegetables dosed to reduce dietary acid by half (n=36). Results Plasma cystatin C–calculated eGFR did not differ at baseline and 1 year between groups. One-year PTCO2 was higher than baseline in the HCO3 group (21.2±1.3 versus 19.5±1.5 mM; Pfruits and vegetables group (19.9±1.7 versus 19.3±1.9 mM; Pfruits and vegetable group (Pfruits and vegetables or NaHCO3 in individuals with stage 4 CKD yielded eGFR that was not different, was associated with higher-than-baseline PTCO2, and was associated with lower-than-baseline urine indices of kidney injury. The data indicate that fruits and vegetables improve metabolic acidosis and reduce kidney injury in stage 4 CKD without producing hyperkalemia. PMID:23393104

  6. Regeneração e riqueza da formação arbustiva de Palmae em uma cronoseqüência pós-fogo na Restinga da Marambaia, Rio de Janeiro, RJ, Brasil The structure and diversity of three areas of shrubby restinga vegetation were analyzed 3, 12 and 84 months after fire in the Marambaia Restinga, Rio de Janeiro State, Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Luis Fernando Tavares de Menezes

    2004-12-01

    Full Text Available A estrutura e a riqueza da formação arbustiva de Palmae foram analisadas em três sítios numa cronoseqüência de regeneração (3, 12 e 84 meses após a última queimada na Restinga da Marambaia, registrando-se a presença de 29, 41 e 64 táxons, respectivamente. No sítio com maior tempo de regeneração, Allagoptera arenaria (Gomes Kuntze representou 79% da dominância relativa (DoR, seguida das nanofanerófitas Inga maritima Benth. e Manilkara subsericea (Mart. Dubard. Na área queimada há 12 meses, A. arenaria representou 88% da DoR, seguida de Inga maritima, Setaria setosa (Sw. P. Beauv. e Paspalum arenarium Schrad. No sítio com três meses de regeneração, a DoR de A. arenaria foi de 82%, acompanhada de Clitoria sp., Inga maritima e Portulaca mucronata Link. Nos três sítios estudados, a forma de vida mais importante foi geófita rizomatosa, devido à dominância de A. arenaria. Caméfita herbácea escaposa foi a forma de vida que apresentou maior número de espécies nos sítios com três e 12 meses de regeneração e no sítio queimado há 84 meses, as nanofanerófitas acompanharam as caméfitas herbáceas escaposas em número de espécies. Das 29 espécies registradas no sítio com três meses de regeneração, só Portulaca mucronata e Sebastiania corniculata (Vahl Müll. Arg. originaramse a partir de sementes, sendo que as demais rebrotaram ou se regeneraram. Sete dias após a queimada A. arenaria apresentou, em média, 8cm de sua parte vegetativa regenerada e com 180 dias apresentou as primeiras inflorescências.A total of 29, 41 and 64 taxa, respectively, were found. In the area sampled 84 months after fire, relative dominance of Allagoptera arenaria (Gomes Kuntze was 79%, followed by the nanophanerophytes Inga maritima Benth. and Manilkara subsericea (Mart. Dubard. In the area sampled 12 months after fire, relative dominance of A. arenaria was 88%, followed by Inga maritima, Setaria setosa (Sw. P. Beauv and Paspalum

  7. Curtimento de peles de peixe com taninos vegetal e sintético = Tanning fish skins using vegetable and synthetic tannins

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ariana Martins Vieira

    2008-07-01

    Full Text Available No presente experimento objetivou-se avaliar a resistência das peles de peixes submetidas ao curtimento com taninos vegetal e sintético. As peles foram distribuídas em um delineamento inteiramente casualizado, com seis tratamentos aplicados na etapa decurtimento (T1 = 10% tanino vegetal; T2=10% tanino sintético; T3 = 5% tanino vegetal + 5% sintético; T4 = 12% tanino vegetal; T5 = 12% tanino sintético; T6 = 6% tanino vegetal + 6% sintético e dez repetições por tratamento, sendo o couro a unidade experimental.Para os testes de resistência à tração, alongamento e rasgamento, foi utilizado o dinamômetro EMIC. O curtimento com tanino vegetal, sintético e/ou sua combinação, assim como os níveis utilizados dentro de cada técnica de curtimento, interferiu no teste de tração, no entanto não influenciou No teste de alongamento e rasgamento progressivo. Portanto, a técnica de curtimento interfere na resistência dos couros de peixes. As peles de tilápia, quando curtidas e recurtidas apenas com tanino sintético, independentemente da concentração (10 ou 12%, apresentaram pior resistência à tração. Quando comparados com os que receberam 10% de taninos (vegetal e a combinação dos taninos, esses couros não apresentaram diferença na resistência.The objective of the present experiment was to evaluate the resistance of fish skins submitted to tanning using vegetable and synthetic tannins. Skins were distributed in a completelyrandomized design, with six treatments applied in the tanning stage (T1 = 10% vegetable tannin; T2 = 10% synthetic tannin; T3 = 5% vegetable tannin + 5% synthetic tannin; T4 = 12% vegetable tannin; T5 = 12% synthetic tannin; T6 = 6% vegetable tannin + 6% synthetic. Ten repetitions per treatment were conducted, and the leather was theexperimental unit. For the tests of tensile strength, lengthening and progressive tearing resistance, an EMIC dynamometer was used. Tanning with vegetable tannin, synthetic

  8. Irradiation of fruit and vegetables

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    O'Beirne, David

    1987-01-01

    There is likely to be less economic incentive to irradiate fruits and vegetables compared with applications which increase the safety of foods such as elimination of Salmonella or decontamination of food ingredients. Of the fruit and vegetable applications, irradiation of mushrooms may offer the clearest economic benefits in North-Western Europe. The least likely application appears to be sprout inhibition in potatoes and onions, because of the greater efficiency and flexibility of chemical sprout inhibitors. In the longer-term, combinations between irradiation/MAP/other technologies will probably be important. Research in this area is at an early stage. Consumer attitudes to food irradiation remain uncertain. This will be a crucial factor in the commercial application of the technology and in the determining the balance between utilisation of irradiation and of technologies which compete with irradiation. (author)

  9. Hyperspectral remote sensing of vegetation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thenkabail, Prasad S.; Lyon, John G.; Huete, Alfredo

    2011-01-01

    Hyperspectral narrow-band (or imaging spectroscopy) spectral data are fast emerging as practical solutions in modeling and mapping vegetation. Recent research has demonstrated the advances in and merit of hyperspectral data in a range of applications including quantifying agricultural crops, modeling forest canopy biochemical properties, detecting crop stress and disease, mapping leaf chlorophyll content as it influences crop production, identifying plants affected by contaminants such as arsenic, demonstrating sensitivity to plant nitrogen content, classifying vegetation species and type, characterizing wetlands, and mapping invasive species. The need for significant improvements in quantifying, modeling, and mapping plant chemical, physical, and water properties is more critical than ever before to reduce uncertainties in our understanding of the Earth and to better sustain it. There is also a need for a synthesis of the vast knowledge spread throughout the literature from more than 40 years of research.

  10. Phenolic Compounds in Brassica Vegetables

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pablo Velasco

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available Phenolic compounds are a large group of phytochemicals widespread in the plant kingdom. Depending on their structure they can be classified into simple phenols, phenolic acids, hydroxycinnamic acid derivatives and flavonoids. Phenolic compounds have received considerable attention for being potentially protective factors against cancer and heart diseases, in part because of their potent antioxidative properties and their ubiquity in a wide range of commonly consumed foods of plant origin. The Brassicaceae family includes a wide range of horticultural crops, some of them with economic significance and extensively used in the diet throughout the world. The phenolic composition of Brassica vegetables has been recently investigated and, nowadays, the profile of different Brassica species is well established. Here, we review the significance of phenolic compounds as a source of beneficial compounds for human health and the influence of environmental conditions and processing mechanisms on the phenolic composition of Brassica vegetables.

  11. Clearing and vegetation management issues

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anon.

    1994-01-01

    Clearing and continued management of incompatible plant species is critical to maintaining safe and reliable transmission and distribution lines at British Columbia Hydro. As part of a general review of policies regarding rights-of-way, the clearing of BC Hydro rights-of-way was studied by a task team in order to formulate a set of recommended policies and procedures to guide employees in all rights-of-way decisions, and to provide clear direction for resolution of all rights-of-way issues in a cost-effective manner. Issues reviewed were: clearing standards and line security standardization for transmission circuits; clearing rights for removal of trees or management of vegetation beyond the statutory right-of-way; clearing and vegetation management procedures; tree replacement; arboricultural techniques; periodic reviewing of clearing practices; compensation for tree removal; herbicide use; and heritage and wildlife trees. Justification for the recommendation is provided along with alternate options and costs of compliance

  12. Efeitos da purificação e do enriquecimento do creosoto vegetal na preservação da madeira de Eucalyptus grandis, após 48 meses de instalação do ensaio de campo Effects of the purification and enrichment of wood tar creosote on preservation of Eucalyptus grandis wood, after 48 months of field testing

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Juarez Benigno Paes

    2002-08-01

    Full Text Available O objetivo deste trabalho foi avaliar a eficiência da purificação e do enriquecimento do creosoto vegetal contra xilófagos, após 48 meses de instalação do ensaio de campo. Por destilação do alcatrão vegetal, obteve-se o creosoto vegetal bruto (creosoto 1, recuperado à temperatura de 110-255 °C. Uma fração dos destilados foi lavada com solução a 9% de bicarbonato de sódio, para obter o creosoto vegetal purificado (creosoto 2. Os creosotos 1 e 2 foram enriquecidos com 3% de naftenato de cobre; 3% de naftenato de zinco; 3% de naftenato de cobalto; 2% de TBTO; 2% de tribromofenato de tributil-estanho; 2% de pentaclorofenol; ou 0,4% de trióxido de arsênico. Estacas obtidas do alburno de Eucalyptus grandis foram tratadas pelo processo de célula cheia. A eficiência das soluções de creosoto vegetal foi comparada com a do creosoto mineral. O ensaio foi instalado em três localidades (Viçosa, Ponte Nova e Leopoldina. Os resultados indicam que o creosoto 2 + pentaclorofenol foi superior aos creosotos 1 e 2 + TBTO, aos creosotos 1 e 2 + naftenato de zinco e ao creosoto 1 puro, sendo semelhante ao creosoto mineral. O creosoto 2 foi superior ao creosoto 1 apenas para a localidade de Leopoldina. De modo geral, a vida média da madeira não-tratada ficou entre 12 e 24 meses, a da madeira tratada com o creosoto 1 + TBTO entre 24 e 37 meses e a da tratada com o creosoto 1 + naftenato de zinco entre 37 e 48 meses e a com o creosoto 1 + naftenato de cobalto, creosoto 2 puro e creosoto 2 + naftenato de zinco ou TBTO foi de 48 meses. No atual estágio da pesquisa, não é possível estimar a vida média da madeira tratada com as demais soluções preservativas testadas, pois ainda não atingiram os 60% das estacas quebradas.The objective of this work was to evaluate the efficiency of purifying and enriching wood tar creosote against wood decay after 48 months in field testing. By distillation of wood tar, the crude wood tar (creosote 1 was

  13. Waste vegetable oil survey report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    MacLeod, R. [Science enterprise Algoma seA, Sault Ste. Marie, ON (Canada)

    2009-02-06

    This study was conducted to estimate potential sources of feedstock waste oils for biodiesel production in the Sault Ste. Marie region of Ontario. Two feedstocks were investigated over a period of several months, notably cooking oil and waste vegetable oil. The study was conducted to examine oil throughput, collection practices, and to gauge interest in local initiatives. A distribution list of commercial restaurant listings was developed, and surveys were conducted with members of private enterprises, city government, and non-profit stakeholders in the region. Average volumes of waste vegetable oil were presented for different types of restaurants. The various types of oil used in the restaurants were also quantified. Results of the study showed a positive public response to the idea of a local biodiesel initiative. Steak house, fast food, and Italian establishments generated the largest portion of waste vegetable oil amongst survey respondents. However, the highest response rates came from establishments with little or no oil consumption. Many franchise fast food restaurants are already in contracts with waste oil removal companies. 3 tabs., 3 figs.

  14. RESFRIAMENTO ARTIFICIAL EM FORNOS RETANGULARES PARA A PRODUÇÃO DE CARVÃO VEGETAL

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Aylson Costa Oliveira

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available RESUMOUm importante aspecto a ser considerado na produção de carvão vegetal é o longo período de resfriamento dos fornos de alvenaria, acarretando na baixa produtividade e exigindo maior número de fornos para suprir a demanda de produção. Pesquisas têm sido desenvolvidas para a redução do tempo de resfriamento dos fornos retangulares, utilizando trocadores de calor. Dessa forma, o objetivo deste trabalho foi avaliar três modelos de trocadores de calor que promovam a redução significativa do tempo de resfriamento. A pesquisa foi realizada na unidade produtora de carvão vegetal Buritis, da Empresa Arcelor Mittal Bioflorestas, localizada na cidade de Martinho Campos, MG. Foram avaliados três diferentes trocadores de calor (Modelos 1, 2 e 3, determinando o tempo, em dias, que os fornos retangulares levavam para atingir a temperatura de 50 ºC em relação ao resfriamento natural. O Modelo 1 apresentou ganho real no tempo de resfriamento de 12,5%; o Modelo 2, ganho real de 38%; e o Modelo 3, com fluxo de gás convencional, apresentou ganho médio de 32%, enquanto no fluxo de gás invertido o ganho foi de 43%. Conclui-se que os trocadores de calor avaliados foram eficientes na redução do tempo de resfriamento dos fornos retangulares para produção de carvão vegetal, elevando, assim, a produtividade dos fornos. O trocador de calor Modelo 3, com fluxo de gás invertido, apresentou o maior ganho real no tempo de resfriamento, além do menor número de focos de incêndio durante o descarregamento do carvão vegetal.

  15. At NA2

    CERN Multimedia

    1977-01-01

    One of the NA2 calorimeter sections is moved in. The NA2 calorimeter was divided in two halves, to the left and the right of the beam, each half consisting of sheets of passive high Z material interleaved with blades of plastic scintillators. The photo shows on the right, the upstream 'electron' module with eleven lead plates for a total radiation length of 20.

  16. Health Benefits of Fruits and Vegetables1

    Science.gov (United States)

    Slavin, Joanne L.; Lloyd, Beate

    2012-01-01

    Fruits and vegetables are universally promoted as healthy. The Dietary Guidelines for Americans 2010 recommend you make one-half of your plate fruits and vegetables. Myplate.gov also supports that one-half the plate should be fruits and vegetables. Fruits and vegetables include a diverse group of plant foods that vary greatly in content of energy and nutrients. Additionally, fruits and vegetables supply dietary fiber, and fiber intake is linked to lower incidence of cardiovascular disease and obesity. Fruits and vegetables also supply vitamins and minerals to the diet and are sources of phytochemicals that function as antioxidants, phytoestrogens, and antiinflammatory agents and through other protective mechanisms. In this review, we describe the existing dietary guidance on intake of fruits and vegetables. We also review attempts to characterize fruits and vegetables into groups based on similar chemical structures and functions. Differences among fruits and vegetables in nutrient composition are detailed. We summarize the epidemiological and clinical studies on the health benefits of fruits and vegetables. Finally, we discuss the role of fiber in fruits and vegetables in disease prevention. PMID:22797986

  17. Microbiological Spoilage of Fruits and Vegetables

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barth, Margaret; Hankinson, Thomas R.; Zhuang, Hong; Breidt, Frederick

    Consumption of fruit and vegetable products has dramatically increased in the United States by more than 30% during the past few decades. It is also estimated that about 20% of all fruits and vegetables produced is lost each year due to spoilage. The focus of this chapter is to provide a general background on microbiological spoilage of fruit and vegetable products that are organized in three categories: fresh whole fruits and vegetables, fresh-cut fruits and vegetables, and fermented or acidified vegetable products. This chapter will address characteristics of spoilage microorganisms associated with each of these fruit and vegetable categories including spoilage mechanisms, spoilage defects, prevention and control of spoilage, and methods for detecting spoilage microorganisms.

  18. Composição mineral de diversas hortaliças Mineral composition of several vegetable crops

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. M. C. Furlani

    1978-01-01

    Full Text Available Objetivou-se conhecer, na época normal de colheita, as quantidades de matéria seca acumuladas, as concentrações dos elementos essenciais às plantas, mais as de cobalto, alumínio e sódio na matéria fresca e seca de 50 cultivares de hortaliças num total de 35 espécies. As amostras, normalmente constituídas de produtos da colheita, foram na sua maioria procedentes da região de Campinas, Estado de São Paulo e separadas em: melancia - em casca + polpa branca, polpa vermelha e semente; melão - em casca + polpa e semente; ervilha - em vagem e grão; berinjela - em fruto e pedúnculo; couve-flor - em folha e inflorescência; beterraba, cenoura, nabo e rabanete - em folha e raiz; alcachofra - em folha + caule e inflorescência. Das demais hortaliças foram utilizados o fruto todo, as folhas ou os bulbos sem separação. Verificou-se que as leguminosas extraíram maiores quantidades de N, P, K, Mg, Cu, Mo, Zn e Co; as tuberosas, de Cl, Fe e Mn; as amarilidáceas, de S, B e Al; as folhosas, de Ca e Na. As cucurbitáceas extraíram menores quantidades da maioria dos nutrientes.This work reports the dry matter accumulation, the nutrient, Co, Al and Na - concentrations, and the removal of nutrients and Co, Al and Na per metric ton of fresh material of 35 species of vegetables by the harvest. The samples mostly came from the region of Campinas, State of São Paulo and consisted of the products removed from the field, fractioned in their several parts: watermelon in epicarp + white pulp, red pulp and seeds; eggplant in fruit and stalk; melon in epicarp + pulp and seeds; pea in shell and seeds; cauliflower in leaf and inflorescence; sugar beet, carrot, turnip and radish in leaf and root; artichoke in leaf + stalk and inflorescence. The whole fruit was utilized in the case of edible fruit bearing vegetables; the leaves in the case of the leafy vegetables; and the bulbous root in the case of the iffy-like vegetables. In general, the leguminous

  19. Estimating vegetation dryness to optimize fire risk assessment with spot vegetation satellite data in savanna ecosystems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Verbesselt, J.; Somers, B.; Lhermitte, S.; van Aardt, J.; Jonckheere, I.; Coppin, P.

    2005-10-01

    The lack of information on vegetation dryness prior to the use of fire as a management tool often leads to a significant deterioration of the savanna ecosystem. This paper therefore evaluated the capacity of SPOT VEGETATION time-series to monitor the vegetation dryness (i.e., vegetation moisture content per vegetation amount) in order to optimize fire risk assessment in the savanna ecosystem of Kruger National Park in South Africa. The integrated Relative Vegetation Index approach (iRVI) to quantify the amount of herbaceous biomass at the end of the rain season and the Accumulated Relative Normalized Difference vegetation index decrement (ARND) related to vegetation moisture content were selected. The iRVI and ARND related to vegetation amount and moisture content, respectively, were combined in order to monitor vegetation dryness and optimize fire risk assessment in the savanna ecosystems. In situ fire activity data was used to evaluate the significance of the iRVI and ARND to monitor vegetation dryness for fire risk assessment. Results from the binary logistic regression analysis confirmed that the assessment of fire risk was optimized by integration of both the vegetation quantity (iRVI) and vegetation moisture content (ARND) as statistically significant explanatory variables. Consequently, the integrated use of both iRVI and ARND to monitor vegetation dryness provides a more suitable tool for fire management and suppression compared to other traditional satellite-based fire risk assessment methods, only related to vegetation moisture content.

  20. Polarization dependence of Na* + Na* associative ionization revisited

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Meijer, H.A.J.; Meulen, H.P. v.d.; Morgenstern, R.; Hertel, I.V.; Meyer, E.; Witte, R.

    1986-01-01

    The dependence of the associative ionization process Na 3 2P3/2 + Na 3 2P3/2 → Na2+ + e- on the polarization of the laser light used for Na excitation was independently investigated in Utrecht and Berlin. The purpose of this paper is to clarify discrepancies between two other earlier experimental

  1. Efeito dos óleos vegetais de andiroba (Carapa sp. e Copaíba (Copaifera sp. sobre forídeo, pragas de colméias, (Diptera: Phoridae na Amazônia Central Effect of andiroba (Carapa sp. and copaiba's (Copaifera sp. vegetable oils on phorides, hives's prague (Diptera: Phoridae in Central Amazonia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Delci da Costa Brito Freire

    2006-01-01

    Full Text Available O conhecimento de substâncias repelentes para forídeos é um passo importante para a meliponicultura brasileira, pois esses insetos podem causar sérios danos às colméias de abelhas nativas. Os óleos de copaíba e andiroba, naturalmente encontrados na região amazônica, são muito utilizados pelos povos tradicionais da região como repelentes de insetos. Foi observado o efeito de dois óleos vegetais (andiroba e copaíba sobre a postura de ovos por fêmeas de forídeos em condições de laboratório. A postura das fêmeas foi realizada preferencialmente no substrato pólen e diferiu estatisticamente dos substratos contendo óleo de andiroba ou copaíba, nos quais houve considerável diminuição (até nenhuma postura, e do substrato contendo mel. Esses óleos são uma boa alternativa no controle preventivo e curativo dessa praga em colônias de Meliponineos, devido ao seu efeito repelente, ao baixo custo e disponibilidade na Região Amazônica.The knowlegment of repellants substances to phoride flies is an important step to the Brazilian stinglessbee beekeeping due to the serious damage to the native bee hives they can do. The copaiba and andiroba oils, found commonly in the Amazon region, are very employed by the traditional people as insects' repellants. We observed the effect of these oils over the phoride's laying in laboratory conditions. The female phoride's eggs occurred preferentially in the pollen substrate and statistically differed from those containing andiroba and copaiba oils, which was strongly reduced (until none eggs were laid, and from the substrate containing honey. These oils showed to be quite good alternative for this plague's preventive and curative control in stingless bee hives due to its repellant effect, low cost, and availability to get it in the region.

  2. Application of the microbiological method DEFT/APC and DNA comet assay to detect ionizing radiation processing of minimally processed vegetables; Aplicacao do metodo microbiologico DEFT/APC e do teste do cometa na deteccao do tratamento com radiacao ionizante de hortalicas minimamente processadas

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Araujo, Michel Mozeika

    2008-07-01

    Marketing of minimally processed vegetables (MPV) are gaining impetus due to its convenience, freshness and apparent healthy. However, minimal processing does not reduce pathogenic microorganisms to safe levels. Food irradiation is used to extend the shelf life and inactivation of food-borne pathogens, Its combination with minimal processing could improve the safety and quality of MPV. Two different food irradiation detection methods, a biological, the DEFT/APC, and another biochemical, the DNA Comet Assay were applied to MPV in order to test its applicability to detect irradiation treatment. DEFT/APC is a microbiological screening method based on the use of the direct epi fluorescent filter technique (DEFT) and the aerobic plate count (APC). DNA Comet Assay detects DNA damage due to ionizing radiation. Samples of lettuce, chard, watercress, dandelion, kale, chicory, spinach, cabbage from retail market were irradiated O.5 kGy and 1.0 kGy using a {sup 60} Co facility. Irradiation treatment guaranteed at least 2 log cycle reduction for aerobic and psychotropic microorganisms. In general, with increasing radiation doses, DEFT counts remained similar independent of irradiation processing while APC counts decreased gradually. The difference of the two counts gradually increased with dose increment in all samples. It could be suggested that a DEFT/APC difference over 2.0 log would be a criteria to judge if a MPV was treated by irradiation. DNA Comet Assay allowed distinguishing non-irradiated samples from irradiated ones, which showed different types of comets owing to DNA fragmentation. Both DEFT/APC method and DNA Comet Assay would be satisfactorily used as a screening method for indicating irradiation processing. (author)

  3. Vegetation fire proneness in Europe

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pereira, Mário; Aranha, José; Amraoui, Malik

    2015-04-01

    Fire selectivity has been studied for vegetation classes in terms of fire frequency and fire size in a few European regions. This analysis is often performed along with other landscape variables such as topography, distance to roads and towns. These studies aims to assess the landscape sensitivity to forest fires in peri-urban areas and land cover changes, to define landscape management guidelines and policies based on the relationships between landscape and fires in the Mediterranean region. Therefore, the objectives of this study includes the: (i) analysis of the spatial and temporal variability statistics within Europe; and, (ii) the identification and characterization of the vegetated land cover classes affected by fires; and, (iii) to propose a fire proneness index. The datasets used in the present study comprises: Corine Land Cover (CLC) maps for 2000 and 2006 (CLC2000, CLC2006) and burned area (BA) perimeters, from 2000 to 2013 in Europe, provided by the European Forest Fire Information System (EFFIS). The CLC is a part of the European Commission programme to COoRdinate INformation on the Environment (Corine) and it provides consistent, reliable and comparable information on land cover across Europe. Both the CLC and EFFIS datasets were combined using geostatistics and Geographical Information System (GIS) techniques to access the spatial and temporal evolution of the types of shrubs and forest affected by fires. Obtained results confirms the usefulness and efficiency of the land cover classification scheme and fire proneness index which allows to quantify and to compare the propensity of vegetation classes and countries to fire. As expected, differences between northern and southern Europe are notorious in what concern to land cover distribution, fire incidence and fire proneness of vegetation cover classes. This work was supported by national funds by FCT - Portuguese Foundation for Science and Technology, under the project PEst-OE/AGR/UI4033/2014 and by

  4. Vegetative propagation of Bambusa vulgaris

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rafael Malfitano Braga

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available Bamboo is an important source of raw material of multiple uses. The development of simple techniques for its propagation is a practical way to enable its implementation in ownership of low technology. The present work had the objective of evaluating artisanal propagation methods for Bambusa vulgaris. Two types of propagules were tested, with buds budded or not, and three relative positions to the removal of vegetative material on the culm. The best propagule was with only one node, extracted from the lower thirds of the stem, presenting 72% of rooting. This result demonstrates its potential for seedling production of this species under low tech.

  5. Vegetable oils as diesel fuel

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fedeli, E.; Girelli, A.

    2001-01-01

    During the seventies, one of the recurring fuels crisis gave rise to research on alternative sources and among them to the idea of utilizing vegetable oils. The research work made clear that the oils cannot be utilized as such but they must be transformed in simple esters, eliminating the problems arising from the presence of the glycerine. The Experiment Stations of the Industry, Commerce and Handicraft Department of the Italian Government, by request of the last one, in the '70/'80 has done a successful experimentation that is presented in the paper [it

  6. Acid precipitation and forest vegetation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tamm, C O; Cowling, E B

    1977-04-01

    Effects of acidic precipitation on forest vegetation may be classified as being either direct or indirect. Among the most important direct effects are damage to protective cuticular layers, interference with normal functioning of guard cells, poisoning of plant cells after diffusion of acidic substances through stomata or cuticle and interference with reproductive processes. Indirect effects include accelerated leaching of substances from foliar organs, increased susceptibility to drought and other environmental stress factors, and alteration of symbiotic associations and host-parasite interactions. The potential importance of nutrient uptake through foliage and the need to understand atmosphere-plant-soil interactions are stressed.

  7. Recycling of Na in advanced life support: strategies based on crop production systems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guntur, S V; Mackowiak, C; Wheeler, R M

    1999-01-01

    Sodium is an essential dietary requirement in human nutrition, but seldom holds much importance as a nutritional element for crop plants. In Advanced Life Support (ALS) systems, recycling of gases, nutrients, and water loops is required to improve system closure. If plants are to play a significant role in recycling of human wastes, Na will need to accumulate in edible tissues for return to the crew diet. If crops fail to accumulate the incoming Na into edible tissues, Na could become a threat to the hydroponic food production system by increasing the nutrient solution salinity. Vegetable crops of Chenopodiaceae such as spinach, table beet, and chard may have a high potential to supply Na to the human diet, as Na can substitute for K to a large extent in metabolic processes of these crops. Various strategies are outlined that include both genetic and environmental management aspects to optimize the Na recovery from waste streams and their resupply through the human diet in ALS.

  8. The Hydromechanics of Vegetation for Slope Stabilization

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mulyono, A.; Subardja, A.; Ekasari, I.; Lailati, M.; Sudirja, R.; Ningrum, W.

    2018-02-01

    Vegetation is one of the alternative technologies in the prevention of shallow landslide prevention that occurs mostly during the rainy season. The application of plant for slope stabilization is known as bioengineering. Knowledge of the vegetative contribution that can be considered in bioengineering was the hydrological and mechanical aspects (hydromechanical). Hydrological effect of the plant on slope stability is to reduce soil water content through transpiration, interception, and evapotranspiration. The mechanical impact of vegetation on slope stability is to stabilize the slope with mechanical reinforcement of soils through roots. Vegetation water consumption varies depending on the age and density, rainfall factors and soil types. Vegetation with high ability to absorb water from the soil and release into the atmosphere through a transpiration process will reduce the pore water stress and increase slope stability, and vegetation with deep root anchoring and strong root binding was potentially more significant to maintain the stability of the slope.

  9. NAKUPOVANJE NA SPLETU

    OpenAIRE

    Visenjak, Monika

    2013-01-01

    Nakupovanje na spletu je prihodnost poslovanja. Za podjetja pomeni manjše stroške, lažje prilagajanje tržnim pogojem. Hitreje lahko razvijajo odnose in analizirajo uporabnike, saj jim je dan dostop o nakupnih podatkih uporabnika. Za potrošnike je nakupovanje na spletu možnost hitrega, preprostega in učinkovitega nakupovanja od doma ali pisarne. Pomembno je, da se seznanijo z vsemi informacijami in pogoji spletnih trgovin, saj se lahko le tako izognejo nezadovoljstvu ob nakupu v spletni trgovi...

  10. Wetland vegetation establishment in L-Lake

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kroeger, S.R.

    1990-07-01

    Wetland vegetation was transplanted from PAR Pond to L-Lake between January and August, 1987. Approximately 100,000 individual plants representing over 40 species were transplanted along the southern shoreline. Three zones of vegetation were created: (1) submersed/floating-leaved, (2) emergent, (3) upper emergent/shrub. During the summers of 1987, 1988, 1989, the Savannah River Ecology Laboratory sampled the vegetation in 54 permanent transects located in planted (N=32) and unplanted areas (N=22). The 1989 vegetation data from L-Lake were compared to 1985 data from PAR Pond

  11. The marsh vegetation of Kleinmond Lagoon

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. O'Callaghan

    1994-10-01

    Full Text Available The vegetation of Kleinmond Lagoon suggests that this system is in transition from an estuary to a coastal lake. Two major types of vegetation were recognized, one which is subjected to soil and water conditions of marine origin and the other which is subjected to conditions of terrestrial origin. These vegetation types are discussed and compared to the vegetation of other estuarine systems. Artificial manipulations of the mouth seem to have resulted in sediment deposition and a freshening of the system. These unseasonable manipulations also threaten the continued existence of a number of species in the system.

  12. Submersed Aquatic Vegetation Modeling Output Online

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Yin, Yao; Rogala, Jim; Sullivan, John; Rohweder, Jason

    2005-01-01

    .... Predictions for distribution of submerged aquatic vegetation beds can potentially increase hunter observance of voluntary avoidance zones where foraging birds are left alone to feed undisturbed...

  13. Fish sauce, soy sauce, and vegetable oil fortification in Cambodia: where do we stand to date?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Theary, Chan; Panagides, Dora; Laillou, Arnaud; Vonthanak, Saphoon; Kanarath, Chheng; Chhorvann, Chhea; Sambath, Pol; Sowath, Sol; Moench-Pfanner, Regina

    2013-06-01

    The prevalence of micronutrient deficiencies in Cambodia is among the highest in Southeast Asia. Fortification of staple foods and condiments is considered to be one of the most cost-effective strategies for addressing micronutrient deficiencies at the population level. The Government of Cambodia has recognized the importance of food fortification as one strategy for improving the nutrition security of its population. This paper describes efforts under way in Cambodia for the fortification of fish sauce, soy sauce, and vegetable oil. Data were compiled from a stability test of Cambodian fish sauces fortified with sodium iron ethylenediaminetetraacetate (NaFeEDTA); analysis of fortified vegetable oils in the Cambodian market; a Knowledge, Attitudes, and Practices (KAP) study of fortified products; and food fortification program monitoring documents. At different levels of fortification of fish sauce with NaFeEDTA, sedimentation and precipitation were observed. This was taken into consideration in the government-issued standards for the fortification of fish sauce. All major brands of vegetable oil found in markets at the village and provincial levels are imported, and most are nonfortified. Fish sauce, soy sauce, and vegetable oil are widely consumed throughout Cambodia and are readily available in provincial and village markets. Together with an effective regulatory monitoring system, the government can guarantee that these commodities, whether locally produced or imported, are adequately fortified. A communications campaign would be worthwhile, once fortified commodities are available, as the KAP study found that Cambodians had a positive perception of fortified sauces.

  14. Vegetable oil basestocks for lubricants

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Garcés, Rafael

    2011-03-01

    Full Text Available The use of vegetable biodegradable basestocks for lubricant oils present several advantages over the much more extended mineral bases. These advantages refer to biodegradability, a renewable feedstock of local production, lubricant and viscosity index and lower costs than synthetic lubricant bases. Despite these benefits, their use in industry and motor vehicles is not yet extensive due their lower stability and higher pour points. Vegetable oils are esters of fatty acids and glycerol, and their physicochemical properties rely mainly on the composition of their acyl moieties. Thus, to assure the maximum levels of stability while maintaining acceptable behavior at low temperatures, monounsaturated fatty acids are preferred for this purpose. The presence of natural antioxidants also improves the properties of these vegetable based stocks as lubricants. These oils usually require additives to improve their viscosity value, oxidative stability and properties at low temperatures. In the present work, the different sources of vegetable oils appropriate for biolubricant production were reviewed. Their properties and the future improvement of the oil bases, oil based stock production, uses and additives are discussed.

    El uso de bases vegetales biodegradables para aceites lubricantes presenta varias ventajas sobre las mucho más extendidas bases minerales. Estas ventajas se centran sobre todo en su biodegradabilidad, en ser un recurso renovable de producción local, en su lubricidad y en su índice de viscosidad, presentando además costes más bajos que las bases sintéticas. Sin embargo, estas ventajas no han extendido el uso de bases vegetales ni en industria ni en automoción debido a su menor estabilidad y sus mayores puntos críticos de fluidez. Los aceites vegetales son ésteres de ácidos grasos y glicerol y sus propiedades físico-químicas dependen principalmente de su composición acílica. Así, para asegurar los máximos niveles de

  15. Temporal Changes in Coupled Vegetation Phenology and Productivity are Biome-Specific in the Northern Hemisphere

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lanhui Wang

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available Global warming has greatly stimulated vegetation growth through both extending the growing season and promoting photosynthesis in the Northern Hemisphere (NH. Analyzing the combined dynamics of such trends can potentially improve our current understanding on changes in vegetation functioning and the complex relationship between anthropogenic and climatic drivers. This study aims to analyze the relationships (long-term trends and correlations of length of vegetation growing season (LOS and vegetation productivity assessed by the growing season NDVI integral (GSI in the NH (>30°N to study any dependency of major biomes that are characterized by different imprint from anthropogenic influence. Spatial patterns of converging/diverging trends in LOS and GSI and temporal changes in the coupling between LOS and GSI are analyzed for major biomes at hemispheric and continental scales from the third generation Global Inventory Monitoring and Modeling Studies (GIMMS Normalized Difference Vegetation Index (NDVI dataset for a 32-year period (1982–2013. A quarter area of the NH is covered by converging trends (consistent significant trends in LOS and GSI, whereas diverging trends (opposing significant trends in LOS and GSI cover about 6% of the region. Diverging trends are observed mainly in high latitudes and arid/semi-arid areas of non-forest biomes (shrublands, savannas, and grasslands, whereas forest biomes and croplands are primarily characterized by converging trends. The study shows spatially-distinct and biome-specific patterns between the continental land masses of Eurasia (EA and North America (NA. Finally, areas of high positive correlation between LOS and GSI showed to increase during the period of analysis, with areas of significant positive trends in correlation being more widespread in NA as compared to EA. The temporal changes in the coupled vegetation phenology and productivity suggest complex relationships and interactions that are induced

  16. Riso na epilepsia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Edymar Jardim

    1967-06-01

    Full Text Available São estudados três casos de síndrome convulsiva temporal, com manifestações concomitantes de riso na sua fase inicial. As características principais foram a imotivação e á incoercibilidade do riso. Esses sintomas desapareceram com o uso de anticonvulsivantes.

  17. Projected future changes in vegetation in western North America in the 21st century

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xiaoyan, Jiang; Rauscher, Sara A.; Ringler, Todd D.; Lawrence, David M.; Williams, A. Park; Allen, Craig D.; Steiner, Allison L.; Cai, D. Michael; McDowell, Nate G.

    2013-01-01

    Rapid and broad-scale forest mortality associated with recent droughts, rising temperature, and insect outbreaks has been observed over western North America (NA). Climate models project additional future warming and increasing drought and water stress for this region. To assess future potential changes in vegetation distributions in western NA, the Community Earth System Model (CESM) coupled with its Dynamic Global Vegetation Model (DGVM) was used under the future A2 emissions scenario. To better span uncertainties in future climate, eight sea surface temperature (SST) projections provided by phase 3 of the Coupled Model Intercomparison Project (CMIP3) were employed as boundary conditions. There is a broad consensus among the simulations, despite differences in the simulated climate trajectories across the ensemble, that about half of the needleleaf evergreen tree coverage (from 24% to 11%) will disappear, coincident with a 14% (from 11% to 25%) increase in shrubs and grasses by the end of the twenty-first century in western NA, with most of the change occurring over the latter half of the twenty-first century. The net impact is a ~6 GtC or about 50% decrease in projected ecosystem carbon storage in this region. The findings suggest a potential for a widespread shift from tree-dominated landscapes to shrub and grass-dominated landscapes in western NA because of future warming and consequent increases in water deficits. These results highlight the need for improved process-based understanding of vegetation dynamics, particularly including mortality and the subsequent incorporation of these mechanisms into earth system models to better quantify the vulnerability of western NA forests under climate change.

  18. Children and vegetables: strategies to increase children’s liking and intake of vegetables

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Wild, de V.W.T.

    2015-01-01

    Background and aim

    Children’s vegetable intake is far below that recommended. Despite increased awareness of the importance of vegetable consumption for health, it remains challenging to improve children’s vegetable intake. Since food preferences are central to

  19. Add More Vegetables to Your Day: 10 Tips to Help You Eat More Vegetables

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... sip on some vegetable soup Heat it and eat it. Try tomato, butternut squash, or garden vegetable soup. Look for reduced- or low-sodium soups. Make your own soups with a low-sodium broth and your favorite vegetables. 8 while you’re out If dinner is away from home, no need to worry. ...

  20. Repelência e deterrência na oviposição de Bemisia tabaci biótipo B pelo uso de extratos vegetais em Cucurbita pepo L Repellence and deterrence on oviposition of Bemisia tabaci biotype B by the use of vegetal extracts in Cucurbita pepo L

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J.P.G.F. Silva

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Bemisia tabaci biótipo B é um dos principais insetos-praga na cultura da abobrinha (Cucurbita pepo L.. O manejo dessa mosca-branca tornou-se grande desafio aos agricultores, uma vez que esta apresenta rápida capacidade de desenvolver resistência a diferentes classes de inseticidas. Como alternativa vem sendo investigado o uso de extratos vegetais com atividades inseticida e/ou insetistática, os quais têm revelado resultados promissores no combate a inseto. O presente trabalho teve por objetivo avaliar os possíveis efeitos de sete extratos provenientes de cinco espécies vegetais, Ruta graveolens L. (folhas, Azadirachta indica A. Juss. (folhas + ramos, Trichilia pallida Swartz (ramos, T. pallida (folhas, A. indica (amêndoas, Chenopodium ambrosioides L. (inflorescências + ramos+ folhas e Mentha pulegium L. (folhas, sobre Bemisia tabaci biótipo B em abobrinha, por meio de testes de repelência e deterrência para oviposição. Em teste com chance de escolha, avaliou-se a atratividade e determinou-se o índice de repelência após 6, 24 e 48 horas da aplicação dos extratos. A oviposição foi verificada após a terceira contagem do número de adultos. O extrato à base de folhas de M. pulegium mostrou repelência e deterrência à oviposição de B. tabaci biótipo B, podendo ser recomendado como alternativa para o manejo do inseto.Bemisia tabaci biotype B is one of the main pests in squash (Cucurbita pepo L.. The management of this whitefly has become a major challenge to growers, since they have the ability to quickly develop resistance to different classes of insecticides. Alternatively, the use of plant extracts with insecticide and/or insectistatic activities has been investigated, showing promising results for the whitefly control. The present study evaluated the possible effects of seven extracts from five plant species, Ruta graveolens L. (leaves, Azadirachta indica A. Juss. (leaves + branches, Trichilia pallida Swartz (branches

  1. Effects of Telecoupling on Global Vegetation Dynamics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Viña, A.; Liu, J.

    2016-12-01

    With the ever increasing trend in telecoupling processes, such as international trade, all countries around the world are becoming more interdependent. However, the effects of this growing interdependence on vegetation (e.g., shifts in the geographic extent and distribution) remain unknown even though vegetation dynamics are crucially important for food production, carbon sequestration, provision of other ecosystem services, and biodiversity conservation. In this study we evaluate the effects of international trade on the spatio-temporal trajectories of vegetation at national and global scales, using vegetation index imagery collected over more than three decades by the Advanced Very High Resolution Radiometer (AVHRR) satellite sensor series together with concurrent national and international data on international trade (and its associated movement of people, goods, services and information). The spatio-temporal trajectories of vegetation are obtained using the scale of fluctuation technique, which is based on the decomposition of the AVHRR image time series to obtain information on its spatial dependence structure over time. Similar to the correlation length, the scale of fluctuation corresponds to the range over which fluctuations in the vegetation index are spatially correlated. Results indicate that global vegetation has changed drastically over the last three decades. These changes are not uniform across space, with hotspots in active trading countries. This study not only has direct implications for understanding global vegetation dynamics, but also sheds important insights on the complexity of human-nature interactions across telecoupled systems.

  2. Spectrophotometric Determination of Nitrate in Vegetables Using ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    DR. MIKE HORSFALL

    ABSTRACT: A rapid and sensitive spectrophotometric method for the determination of nitrate in vegetables is described. The method is based on the measurement of the absorbance of yellow sodium nitrophenoxide formed via the reaction of phenol with the vegetable-based nitrate in presence of sulphuric acid.

  3. Man-influenced vegetation of North Korea

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Kolbek, Jiří; Jarolímek, I.

    2008-01-01

    Roč. 40, č. 1 (2008), s. 381-404 ISSN 0253-116X R&D Projects: GA ČR(CZ) GA206/05/0119 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z60050516 Keywords : vegetation classification * weed communities * man-depending vegetation Subject RIV: EF - Botanics

  4. Technical efficiency of irrigated vegetable production among ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    This study was carried out to analyse the technical efficiency of irrigated vegetable production among smallholder farmers in the guinea savannah, Nigeria, and determine the cost and returns on irrigated vegetable production. Two-stage sampling technique was used, purposive selection of two states and three Local ...

  5. Measurement Of Technical Efficiency In Irrigated Vegetable ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    This study measured technical efficiency and identified its determinants in irrigated vegetable production in Nasarawa State of Nigeria using a stochastic frontier model. A complete enumeration of 193 NADP-registered vegetable farmers was done. The predicted farm technical efficiency ranges from 25.94 to 96.24 per cent ...

  6. Gelation and interfacial behaviour of vegetable proteins

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Vliet, T. van; Martin, A.H.; Bos, M.A.

    2002-01-01

    Recent studies on gelation and interfacial properties of vegetable protiens are reviewed. Attention is focused on legume proteins, mainly soy proteins, and on wheat proteins. The rheological properteis of vegetable protein gels as a function of heating time or temperature is discussed as well as the

  7. Gelation and interfacial behaviour of vegetable proteins

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Vliet, van T.; Martin, A.H.; Bos, M.A.

    2002-01-01

    Recent studies on gelation and interfacial properties of vegetable proteins are reviewed. Attention is focused on legume proteins, mainly soy proteins, and on wheat proteins. The rheological properties of vegetable protein gels as a function of heating time or temperature is discussed as well as the

  8. Food design strategies to increase vegetable intake

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Oliviero, Teresa; Fogliano, Vincenzo

    2016-01-01

    Background: Public campaigns promoting consumption of fruits and vegetables had limited results as consumers habits are difficult to modify. The incorporation of fruits and vegetables into regularly eaten products is a food design strategy that leads to several advantages. Pasta is a staple food

  9. STOVE: Seed treatments for organic vegetable production

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Schmitt, A.; Jahn, M.; Kromphardt, C.; Krauthausen, H.J.; Roberts, S.J.; Wright, S.A.I.; Amein, T.; Forsberg, G.; Tinivella, F.; Gullino, M.L.; Wikström, M.; Wolf, van der J.M.; Groot, S.P.C.; Werner, S.; Koch, E.

    2008-01-01

    The aim of the EU-financed research project „STOVE“ (Seed Treatments for Organic Vegetable Production) is to evaluate different methods potentially suited for seed treatment of vegetables in organic farming regarding their efficacy, to optimise these methods, and where feasible to combine them with

  10. Natural Vegetation of the Flora area

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sebsebe, Demissew; Friis, Ib

    2009-01-01

    A review article summarising the recent ideas about the natural vegetation in the area covered by the Flora of Ethiopia and Eritrea......A review article summarising the recent ideas about the natural vegetation in the area covered by the Flora of Ethiopia and Eritrea...

  11. Atlas of the potential vegetation of Ethiopia

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Friis, Ib; Demissew, Sebsebe; van Breugel, Paulo

    Based on many years of field work by the two senior authors (Ib Friis and Sebsebe Demissew) and with the application of GIS analyses (by P. van Breugel) 15 major vegetation types in Ethiopia are described and mapped. The book descibes the structure and floristic composition of the vegetation types...

  12. Use of Plastic Mulch for Vegetable Production

    OpenAIRE

    Maughan, Tiffany; Drost, Dan

    2016-01-01

    Plastic mulches are used commercially for both vegetables and small fruit crops. Vegetable crops well suited for production with plastic mulch are typically high value row crops. This fact sheet describes the advantages, disadvantages, installation, and planting considerations. It includes sources for plastic and equipment.

  13. Classification and mapping of rangeland vegetation physiognomic ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Plot vegetation species growth form, cover and height data were collected from 450 sampling sites based on eight spectral strata generated using unsupervised image classification. Field data were grouped at four levels of seven, six, three and two vegetation physiognomic classes which were subjected to both ML and ...

  14. Effects of aquatic vegetation type on denitrification

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Veraart, A.J.; Bruijne, de W.J.J.; Peeters, E.T.H.M.; Klein, de J.J.M.; Scheffer, M.

    2011-01-01

    In a microcosm 15N enrichment experiment we tested the effect of floating vegetation (Lemna sp.) and submerged vegetation (Elodea nuttallii) on denitrification rates, and compared it to systems without macrophytes. Oxygen concentration, and thus photosynthesis, plays an important role in regulating

  15. Role of vegetation on river bank accretion

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Vargas Luna, A.

    2016-01-01

    There is rising awareness of the need to include the effects of vegetation in studies dealing with the morphological response of rivers. Vegetation growth on river banks and floodplains alters the river bed topography, reduces the bank erosion rates and enhances the development of new floodplains

  16. Weed Identification and Control in Vegetable Crops.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ferretti, Peter A., Comp.

    This agriculture extension service publication from Pennsylvania State University examines weed control and identification in vegetable crops. Contents include: (1) Types of weeds; (2) Reducing losses caused by weeds, general control methods and home garden weed control; (3) How herbicides are used; (4) Specific weeds in vegetable plantings; and…

  17. Radiation processing of foods: fruits and vegetables

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Thomas, Paul

    1990-01-01

    Post-harvest irradiation of fruits and vegetables improves their shelf-life by: (1) delaying ripening and senescence of fruits, (2) controlling fungal diseases, (3) inhibiting sprouting, and (4) disinfestation. Nutritional and quality aspects of irradiated fruits and vegetables are discussed. Commercial prospects are briefly described. (M.G.B.)

  18. Semi-arid vegetation response to antecedent climate and water balance windows

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thoma, David P.; Munson, Seth M.; Irvine, Kathryn M.; Witwicki, Dana L.; Bunting, Erin

    2016-01-01

    Questions Can we improve understanding of vegetation response to water availability on monthly time scales in semi-arid environments using remote sensing methods? What climatic or water balance variables and antecedent windows of time associated with these variables best relate to the condition of vegetation? Can we develop credible near-term forecasts from climate data that can be used to prepare for future climate change effects on vegetation? Location Semi-arid grasslands in Capitol Reef National Park, Utah, USA. Methods We built vegetation response models by relating the normalized difference vegetation index (NDVI) from MODIS imagery in Mar–Nov 2000–2013 to antecedent climate and water balance variables preceding the monthly NDVI observations. We compared how climate and water balance variables explained vegetation greenness and then used a multi-model ensemble of climate and water balance models to forecast monthly NDVI for three holdout years. Results Water balance variables explained vegetation greenness to a greater degree than climate variables for most growing season months. Seasonally important variables included measures of antecedent water input and storage in spring, switching to indicators of drought, input or use in summer, followed by antecedent moisture availability in autumn. In spite of similar climates, there was evidence the grazed grassland showed a response to drying conditions 1 mo sooner than the ungrazed grassland. Lead times were generally short early in the growing season and antecedent window durations increased from 3 mo early in the growing season to 1 yr or more as the growing season progressed. Forecast accuracy for three holdout years using a multi-model ensemble of climate and water balance variables outperformed forecasts made with a naïve NDVI climatology. Conclusions We determined the influence of climate and water balance on vegetation at a fine temporal scale, which presents an opportunity to forecast vegetation

  19. Radionuclide interception and loss processes in vegetation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Proehl, G.; Hoffman, F.O.

    1996-01-01

    Data available since the Chernobyl accident have strengthened the view that the transfer of radionuclides from air to vegetation is a primary area of uncertainty in the estimation of the contamination of food chains leading to human exposure. The processes affecting the overall transfer from air to vegetation involve wet and dry deposition, interception and initial retention, and post-deposition retention of radioactive substances by vegetation. During the growing season, the time-integrated concentrations of radionuclides on vegetation in the first few months after initial deposition are dominated by the direct foliar interception of deposited material. Chapter 2 contains a review of data for modelling the direct foliar interception and initial retention of radioactivity deposited by dry and wet processes, together with data on the factors affecting post-deposition retention of radioactivity on the vegetation. 82 refs, 9 figs, 11 tabs

  20. Post Fire Vegetation Recovery in Portugal

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gouveia, Celia; Bastos, Ana; DaCamara, Carlos; Trigo, Ricardo M.

    2011-01-01

    Fires in Portugal, as in the Mediterranean ecosystems, have a complex effect on vegetation regeneration due to the different responses of vegetation to the variety of fire regimes and to the complexity of landscape structures. A thorough evaluation of vegetation recovery after fire events becomes therefore crucial in land management. In 2005, Portugal suffered a strong damage from forest fires that damaged an area of 300 000 ha of forest and shrub. This year are particularly interesting because it is associated the severe drought of 2005. The aim of the present study is to identify large burnt scars in Portugal during the 2005 fire seasons and monitoring vegetation behaviour throughout the pre and the post fire periods. The mono-parametric model developed by Gouveia et al. (2010), based on monthly values of NDVI, at the 1km×1km spatial scale, as obtained from the VEGETATION-SPOT5 instrument, from 1999 to 2009, was used.

  1. Vegetable oil spills : oil properties and behaviour

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fingas, M.; Fieldhouse, B.; Jokuty, P.

    2001-01-01

    In 1997, the United States Environmental Protection Agency conducted a thorough review of the issue regarding vegetable oil spills. Recent attention has refocused on this issue as a result of an incident where 20 tons of canola oil was spilled in the Vancouver Harbour in 2000. In the past, vegetable oils were suggested to be a useful test material because they were thought to be innocuous. It was even suggested they be used to remove petroleum oil residues from beaches. However, recent studies have shown that spills of vegetable oils can have major environmental consequences, equivalent to those of petroleum oil spills. The spills have devastating effects on birds and intertidal organisms. This paper presented a summary of historical vegetable spills from around the world. In this study, specific behaviour tests were examined for several oils including canola, soy bean, olive, castor and corn oils. Evaporation, water-in-oil emulsification and chemical dispersion were measured and were found to be nearly zero, suggesting that vegetable oil spills are not very soluble in water. The aquatic toxicity of vegetable oil is low, but their fate is quite different from petroleum. Vegetable oils do not evaporate to a significant degree, they do not form water-in-oil emulsions, nor do they disperse in water. The physical properties of vegetable oils were also measured, including density and viscosity. This paper presented the aquatic toxicity of several vegetable oils along with other environmental data including the degradation rates noted in the literature. Most environmental damage reported in the literature is by contact with birds feathers resulting in hypothermia and secondly by smothering of intertidal organisms. The effect of vegetable oil on fish has not been well studied, but it is expected that there will be little destructive effect except where smothering can occur. 35 refs., 3 tabs

  2. Vegetable oil spills : oil properties and behaviour

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fingas, M.; Fieldhouse, B.; Jokuty, P. [Environment Canada, Ottawa, ON (Canada). Emergencies Science Div

    2001-07-01

    In 1997, the United States Environmental Protection Agency conducted a thorough review of the issue regarding vegetable oil spills. Recent attention has refocused on this issue as a result of an incident where 20 tons of canola oil was spilled in the Vancouver Harbour in 2000. In the past, vegetable oils were suggested to be a useful test material because they were thought to be innocuous. It was even suggested they be used to remove petroleum oil residues from beaches. However, recent studies have shown that spills of vegetable oils can have major environmental consequences, equivalent to those of petroleum oil spills. The spills have devastating effects on birds and intertidal organisms. This paper presented a summary of historical vegetable spills from around the world. In this study, specific behaviour tests were examined for several oils including canola, soy bean, olive, castor and corn oils. Evaporation, water-in-oil emulsification and chemical dispersion were measured and were found to be nearly zero, suggesting that vegetable oil spills are not very soluble in water. The aquatic toxicity of vegetable oil is low, but their fate is quite different from petroleum. Vegetable oils do not evaporate to a significant degree, they do not form water-in-oil emulsions, nor do they disperse in water. The physical properties of vegetable oils were also measured, including density and viscosity. This paper presented the aquatic toxicity of several vegetable oils along with other environmental data including the degradation rates noted in the literature. Most environmental damage reported in the literature is by contact with birds feathers resulting in hypothermia and secondly by smothering of intertidal organisms. The effect of vegetable oil on fish has not been well studied, but it is expected that there will be little destructive effect except where smothering can occur. 35 refs., 3 tabs.

  3. Vegetation response to soil salinity and waterlogging in three saltmarsh hydrosequences through macronutrients distribution

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ferronato, Chiara; Speranza, Maria; Ferroni, Lucia; Buscaroli, Alessandro; Vianello, Gilmo; Vittori Antisari, Livia

    2018-01-01

    Saltmarshes consist of soil hydrosequences, where the complex interactions between water tide fluctuations, soil physicochemical properties and plant colonization contribute to the triggering of the pedogenetic processes and consequently to the stability of the saltmarsh edges. In this study, the composition and richness of the vegetation cover were investigated along soil transects in three different saltmarshes. With the aim to investigate the response of the vegetation to the soil hydroperiod and its influence on the availability of soil nutrients, plant and soil samples were collected in four representative sites on each saltmarsh transect (hydrosequence). Among the different species of saltmarshes, L. vulgare and S. europaea colonized intertidal areas, where an accumulation of nutrients (Ca, K, P, S and Na) and organic C and total N (OC and TN, respectively) was found. These intertidal areas are the "critical transition zones", which drive the transition between the terrestrial and the aquatic systems along the increase of soil salinity and water saturation. Among the different element cycles analysed in the soil-plant system, the analysis of the Na and S dynamic, through both bioconcentration and translocation indexes, explains the different adaptation mechanisms to different salinity and waterlogging stressors. The limiting of the species areal was generally associated firstly with a decrease in their Na and S bioconcentration factor and, to a lesser extent, with the increase in their Na and S translocation.

  4. Atletismo na escola : realidade?

    OpenAIRE

    Sampaio, Alessandro Oliveira de

    2012-01-01

    O correr, saltar, lançar e arremessar são elementos básicos do atletismo, sendo fundamentais para o ser humano, devido ao favorecimento do desenvolvimento físico e motor. Sendo um dos conteúdos principais do desporto e da educação física escolar, foi realizado um estudo relacionado à prática do atletismo na escola, na qual o objetivo desta pesquisa foi verificar se entre os professores de educação física da rede pública de ensino fundamental de 5ª a 8ª séries, da cidade satélite de Samambaia ...

  5. Preparing for NA4

    CERN Multimedia

    CERN PhotoLab

    1977-01-01

    Here, in one of the EF workshop, Albert Duchêne works on a pretty piece of mechanics. A few others await to be attended on the left. There are indications that the pipes were meant to house the carbon target (subdivided in eight sections) to be installed inside the toroid magnet of the NA4 experiment. The external strips were designed to possibly correct the magnetic field (???).

  6. Formation of banded vegetation patterns resulted from interactions between sediment deposition and vegetation growth.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huang, Tousheng; Zhang, Huayong; Dai, Liming; Cong, Xuebing; Ma, Shengnan

    2018-03-01

    This research investigates the formation of banded vegetation patterns on hillslopes affected by interactions between sediment deposition and vegetation growth. The following two perspectives in the formation of these patterns are taken into consideration: (a) increased sediment deposition from plant interception, and (b) reduced plant biomass caused by sediment accumulation. A spatial model is proposed to describe how the interactions between sediment deposition and vegetation growth promote self-organization of banded vegetation patterns. Based on theoretical and numerical analyses of the proposed spatial model, vegetation bands can result from a Turing instability mechanism. The banded vegetation patterns obtained in this research resemble patterns reported in the literature. Moreover, measured by sediment dynamics, the variation of hillslope landform can be described. The model predicts how treads on hillslopes evolve with the banded patterns. Thus, we provide a quantitative interpretation for coevolution of vegetation patterns and landforms under effects of sediment redistribution. Copyright © 2018. Published by Elsevier Masson SAS.

  7. Stable carbon isotope analysis of fluvial sediment fluxes over two contrasting C(4) -C(3) semi-arid vegetation transitions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Puttock, Alan; Dungait, Jennifer A J; Bol, Roland; Dixon, Elizabeth R; Macleod, Christopher J A; Brazier, Richard E

    2012-10-30

    Globally, many drylands are experiencing the encroachment of woody vegetation into grasslands. These changes in ecosystem structure and processes can result in increased sediment and nutrient fluxes due to fluvial erosion. As these changes are often accompanied by a shift from C(4) to C(3) vegetation with characteristic δ(13) C values, stable isotope analysis provides a promising mechanism for tracing these fluxes. Input vegetation, surface sediment and fluvially eroded sediment samples were collected across two contrasting C(4) -C(3) dryland vegetation transitions in New Mexico, USA. Isotope ratio mass spectrometric analyses were performed using a Carlo Erba NA2000 analyser interfaced to a SerCon 20-22 isotope ratio mass spectrometer to determine bulk δ(13) C values. Stable isotope analyses of contemporary input vegetation and surface sediments over the monitored transitions showed significant differences (p fluvially eroded sediment from each of the sites, with no significant variation between surface sediment and eroded sediment values. The significant differences in bulk δ(13) C values between sites were dependent on vegetation input. Importantly, these values were robustly expressed in fluvially eroded sediments, suggesting that stable isotope analysis is suitable for tracing sediment fluxes. Due to the prevalent nature of these dryland vegetation transitions in the USA and globally, further development of stable isotope ratio mass spectrometry has provided a valuable tool for enhanced understanding of functional changes in these ecosystems. Copyright © 2012 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  8. Transfer of 137Cs to wild vegetables

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ito, Nobuhiko; Natsuhori, Masahiro; Mezawa, Akane; Kawakami, Akira

    1998-01-01

    For the evaluation of internal radiation dose, it is needed to estimate the amount of radionuclide incorporated to human body using a simulation model. 137 Cesium (Cs) is easily transferred associating with food intake as well as potassium and so, Cs is an important nuclide for evaluation of internal radiation. 137 Cs concentrations in wild vegetables are higher than those of cultured vegetables and milk. Therefore, the transfer coefficients of 137 Cs from soil to wild vegetables were estimated in this study. Wild vegetables and soils of their farms were collected in the Hakkoda Mountain range of Aomori Prefecture. The levels of 137 Cs in wild vegetables were 0.42-18.35 (Bq/kg), whereas those in cabbage and spinach were 0.08 and 0.01 (Bq/kg), respectively, indicating that the Cs level is dozens to several hundreds times higher in wild vegetables than cultured ones. And the transfer coefficient was estimated as 0.003-0.94 for the former and 0.001-0.8 for the latter. On the other hand, 1 37 Cs levels of the soils on which wild vegetables grew was 28.0 Bq/kg and it was 3.9 Bq/kg for the farm soil. Furthermore, the effects of water content and pH of the soil on the transfer coefficient were studied. (M.N.)

  9. Dyes adsorption blue vegetable and blue watercolor by natural zeolites modified with surfactants;Adsorcion de colorantes azul vegetal y azul acuarela por zeolitas naturales modificadas con surfactantes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jardon S, C. C.; Olguin G, M. T. [ININ, Departamento de Quimica, Carretera Mexico-Toluca s/n, 52750 Ocoyoacac, Estado de Mexico (Mexico); Diaz N, M. C., E-mail: teresa.olguin@inin.gob.m [Instituto Tecnologico de Toluca, Av. Instituto Tecnologico s/n, Ex-Rancho la Virgen, 52140 Metepec, Estado de Mexico (Mexico)

    2009-07-01

    In this work was carried out the dyes removal blue vegetable and blue watercolor of aqueous solutions, to 20 C, at different times and using a zeolite mineral of Parral (Chihuahua, Mexico) modified with hexadecyl trimethyl ammonium bromide or dodecyl trimethyl ammonium bromide. The zeolite was characterized before and after of its adaptation with NaCl and later with HDTMABr and DTMABr. For the materials characterization were used the scanning electron microscopy of high vacuum; elementary microanalysis by X-ray spectroscopy of dispersed energy and X-ray diffraction techniques. It was found that the surfactant type absorbed in the zeolite material influences on the adsorption process of the blue dye. Likewise, the chemical structure between the vegetable blue dye and the blue watercolor, determines the efficiency of the color removal of the water, by the zeolites modified with the surfactants. (Author)

  10. Karoo biome: a preliminary synthesis. Part 2 - vegetation and history

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Cowling, RM

    1987-01-01

    Full Text Available and soil erosion. The focus of this volume is vegetation and its history. Included are chapters on vegetation physiognomy, plant growth, vegetation change, phytogeography, palaeo-ecology, palaeontology and archaeology...

  11. Nigerian women reap benefits from indigenous vegetables | IDRC ...

    International Development Research Centre (IDRC) Digital Library (Canada)

    2016-06-06

    Jun 6, 2016 ... Demand for fresh indigenous vegetables in Nigeria has increased ... greater returns from indigenous vegetables compared to conventional vegetables. ... In Kolli Hills, Tamil Nadu, monocropping of a single, non-edible variety ...

  12. Formalized classification of European fen vegetation at the alliance level

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Peterka, Tomáš; Hájek, Michal; Jiroušek, Martin

    2017-01-01

    Aims Phytosociological classification of fen vegetation (Scheuchzerio palustris-Caricetea fuscae class) differs among European countries. Here we propose a unified vegetation classification of European fens at the alliance level, provide unequivocal assignment rules for individual vegetation plot...

  13. A possible NaCl pathway in the bioregenerative human life support system

    Science.gov (United States)

    Polonskiy, V. I.; Gribovskaya, I. V.

    One of the ways to involve NaCl in the mass exchange of the bioregenerative human life support system (BLSS) is to grow some vegetables and leafy greens that can accumulate sodium chloride at high concentrations in their edible biomass. Lettuce, celery cabbage, chard, dill and radish plants were grown hydroponically in Knop's nutrient solution. In the first series of experiments, at the end of the growth period the plants were grown on solutions containing 2-14 g/L of NaCl for 1-5 days. It was found that the amount of sodium in edible biomass of the plants increased with NaCl concentration in the solution and with the time plants were irrigated with that solution. The content of NaCl in the biomass of leaves and edible roots was considerable—up to 10% dry matter. At the same time, the amount of water in the leaves decreased and productivity of the treatment plants was 14-28% lower than that of the control ones, grown on Knop's solution. The treatment plants contained less than half of the amount of nitrates recorded in the control ones. Expert evaluation showed that the taste of the vegetables and leafy greens of the treatment group were not inferior to the taste of the control plants. In the second series of experiments, prior to being grown on the NaCl solution, the plants were irrigated with water for 2, 4 or 6 days. It was found that lower salt status of the plants was not favorable for increased salt accumulation in their biomass. If a human consumes 30 g salad vegetables and follows a low-sodium diet (3 g/d of table salt), it may be feasible to recycle NaCl in the BLSS using vegetables and leafy greens.

  14. The CERES / NA45 experiment

    CERN Multimedia

    Laurent Guiraud

    2000-01-01

    Ceres is one of the second generation heavy ion experiments at CERN's SPS. It is dedicated to the study of electron-positron pairs in relativistic nuclear collisions. NA45 is one of the seven experiments (NA44, NA45, NA49, NA50, NA52, WA97/NA57 and WA98) involved in CERN's Heavy Ion programme which provided evidence for the existence of a new state of matter, the quark-gluon plasma. In this state, quarks, instead of being bound up into more complex particles such as protons and neutrons, are liberated and roam freely. Theory predicts that this state must have existed at about 10 microseconds after the Big Bang, before the formation of matter as we know it today.

  15. Determination of zinc contents in vegetables

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Salah-ud-Din; Salariya, A.M.; Yasin, M.

    1996-01-01

    Zinc content of three groups of vegetables (roots and tuber, leaves and fruits) collected from local markets was determined and are reported here. The determination was made by Atomic Absorption Spectrophotometer. The results obtained show that the zinc content of different vegetables ranged from 6.26-36.80 ppm, 8.80-70-70 ppm and 7.20-35.10 ppm for roots and tubers, fruits of vegetables respectively on dry weight basis. Generally, the values obtained in majority are not above, the maximum permissible limits. (author)

  16. [Allelopathy of Andrographis paniculata vegetative].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Ming; Zhou, Xiao-Yan; Lu, Zhan-Hong

    2010-12-01

    Andrographis paniculata at vegetative stage were analyzed for the allelopathic effect on cabbage (Brassica chinensis), Radis (Raphanus sativus), and Desmodium styracifolium, and provided the theory reference for their application of compounding planting pattern in practice. Water extracts of Andrographis paniculata root, stem and leaf were used to dispose Brassica chinensis, Raphanus sativus and Desmodium styracifolium seeds, young seedlings. There were allelopathic effect of water extracts of Andrographis paniculata on seed germination of Brassica chinensis, Raphanus sativus and Desmodium styracifolium, but there were difference on allelopathic effect. The suppression effects of roots on seed germination rates of Brassica chinensis showed more significantly, the stems and leaves of Andrographis paniculata on the allelopathic effects on Brassica chinensis seed germination rate index was also significantly higher than the other two receptors plants. Under the treating condition of root, stem and leaf aqueous extracts of Andrographis paniculata, the root growth of receptors seeding mostly showed inhibition effect. Under low concentrations treated. The effects on the seedlings height of Raphanus sativus and Desmodium styracifolium showed the results in which low concentration promoted and high concentration inhibited, and with increasing concentration increased the promotion or inhibition effects. But in the measured concentration range, the effects on the seedlings height of Brassica chinensis were showed promote effect. Within the testing concentration range, water extracts of Andrographis paniculata on allelopathic effects of cabbage (Brassica chinensis), Radis (Raphanus sativus) and Desmodium styracifolium showed allelopathic effect, and roughly showed inhibiti effect. However, showed different effect in which high concentration inhibitied and low concentration promoted to different receptor.

  17. Studying Vegetation Salinity: From the Field View to a Satellite-Based Perspective

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rachel Lugassi

    2017-02-01

    Full Text Available Salinization of irrigated lands in the semi-arid Jezreel Valley, Northern Israel results in soil-structure deterioration and crop damage. We formulated a generic rule for estimating salinity of different vegetation types by studying the relationship between Cl/Na and different spectral slopes in the visible–near infrared–shortwave infrared (VIS–NIR–SWIR spectral range using both field measurements and satellite imagery (Sentinel-2. For the field study, the slope-based model was integrated with conventional partial least squares (PLS analyses. Differences in 14 spectral ranges, indicating changes in salinity levels, were identified across the VIS–NIR–SWIR region (350–2500 nm. Next, two different models were run using PLS regression: (i using spectral slope data across these ranges; and (ii using preprocessed spectral reflectance. The best model for predicting Cl content was based on continuum removal reflectance (R2 = 0.84. Satisfactory correlations were obtained using the slope-based PLS model (R2 = 0.77 for Cl and R2 = 0.63 for Na. Thus, salinity contents in fresh plants could be estimated, despite masking of some spectral regions by water absorbance. Finally, we estimated the most sensitive spectral channels for monitoring vegetation salinity from a satellite perspective. We evaluated the recently available Sentinel-2 imagery’s ability to distinguish variability in vegetation salinity levels. The best estimate of a Sentinel-2-based vegetation salinity index was generated based on a ratio between calculated slopes: the 490–665 nm and 705–1610 nm. This index was denoted as the Sentinel-2-based vegetation salinity index (SVSI (band 4 − band 2/(band 5 + band 11.

  18. Determination of macro and micronutrients and nutritional prospects of six vegetable species of Mardan, Pakistan

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sami, F.; Shinwari, Z.K.

    2011-01-01

    This study was carried out to assess the nutritional an d mineral composition of selected vegetables, which are commonly used as food in Pakistan. Abel moschus esculentus, Solanum melongena , Cucurbita moschata, Allium sativum, Momordica charantia and Portulaca oleracea were collected form Mardan (Pakistan) and subjected to nutrient analysis. Nutrient analysis (total proteins, fats, carbohydrates, ash, energy value and moisture contents) of vegetable species were determined according to AOAC methods. Macro viz. calcium (Ca), magnesium (Mg), potassium (K), sodium (Na), and phosphorus (P) and micro viz. iron (Fe), zinc (Zn), manganese (Mn), copper (Cu), nickel (Ni) and selenium (Se) elements were analyzed using Atomic Absorption Spectrometric method. The moisture (wet and dry basis), ash, fats, fibers, proteins, energy value (305.9 - 382.6 Kcal/100 g) and carbohydrates of these vegetable species were found in the range of 62.9 - 92.7, 5.4-7.7, 3.1 - 23.1, 0.3-8.3, 10.2-22.5, 7.7 - 16.9, and 51.3 - 80.2% respectively. The micronutrients including Fe, Zn, Mn, and Cu were found to be in the range, 6.2-24.1, 0.2-11.7, 0.6-16.7, and 0.1-70 ppm respectively. The results of macronutrients obtained having values of Ca (90-1850 ppm), Mg (94-571 ppm), K (2078-4010 ppm), Na (2-170 ppm), and P (250-1532 ppm) respectively. The quantity of Ni and Se were found negligible in these vegetables. The results indicate that all these vegetables have the potential to provide essential nutrients to the human beings. Momordica charantia and Allium sativum were found to be a good source of proteins, fats, carbohydrates, hence capable of providing energy to the consumer. Both these species were found significantly useful in terms of minerals sources, particularly Ni, K, P, Zn, Cu, and Mn. (author)

  19. Use of Different Vegetable Products to Increase Preschool-Aged Children's Preference for and Intake of a Target Vegetable

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Wild, de Victoire W.T.; Graaf, de Kees; Jager, Gerry

    2017-01-01

    Background: Children's low vegetable consumption requires effective strategies to enhance preference for and intake of vegetables. Objective: The study compared three preparation practices for a target vegetable (spinach) on their effectiveness in increasing preschool-aged children's preference

  20. Golden Gate National Recreation Area Vegetation Inventory Project

    Data.gov (United States)

    California Natural Resource Agency — High resolution vegetation polygons mapped by the National Park Service. The vegetation units of this map were determined through stereoscopic interpretation of...

  1. Vegetation - Napa County and Blue Ridge Berryessa [ds201

    Data.gov (United States)

    California Department of Resources — In 1995, the Manual of California Vegetation (MCV) introduced a quantitatively based method for classifying and mapping vegetation in California. In 2002 Department...

  2. Vegetation - Napa County and Blue Ridge Berryessa [ds201

    Data.gov (United States)

    California Natural Resource Agency — In 1995, the Manual of California Vegetation (MCV) introduced a quantitatively based method for classifying and mapping vegetation in California. In 2002 Department...

  3. Central American Vegetation/Land Cover Classification and Conservation Status

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — The Central American Vegetation/Land Cover Classification and Conservation Status data set consists of GIS coverages of vegetation classes (forests, woodlands,...

  4. Envolvimento pulmonar na polimiosite

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Direndra Hasmucrai

    2010-07-01

    Full Text Available Resumo: Introdução: A polimiosite (PM e a dermatomiosite são classificadas como miopatias inflamatórias idiopáticas. O envolvimento pulmonar por PM é pouco frequente, estando descrito na literatura em cerca de 10% de casos.Os autores apresentam um caso de uma mulher de 75 anos, com queixas de febre, perda ponderal, artralgias, mialgias e diminuição simétrica e proximal da força muscular com impotência funcional dos membros superiores e inferiores, com início um mês antes do internamento. Apresentava infiltrados pulmonares na telerradiografia de tórax. Após estudo exaustivo estabeleceu-se o diagnóstico de envolvimento pulmonar na forma de pneumonia organizativa por PM. Efectuou-se corticoterapia e terapêutica com micofenolato com melhoria clínica, analítica e radiológica. Conclusão: Neste caso, foi a alteração na telerradiografia de tórax numa doente sem sintomatologia respiratória que levou ao estudo exaustivo até ao diagnóstico de PM, realçando mais uma vez a importância da telerradiografia no rastreio de patologias de outros foros. Abstract: Introduction: Polymyositis and dermatomyositis are classified as idiopathic inflammatory myopathies. Interstitial lung disease is rare and is described in the literature in about 10% of cases.The authors describes a case of 75 year old woman presenting with one month evolution of fever, weight loss, arthralgia, myalgia and symmetric and proximal muscle weakness of upper and lower limbs. Nonspecific interstitial changes was found in chest X-ray. After exhaustive study, the diagnosis of pulmonary envolvement in the form of organizing pneumonia by polymyositis, was established. Glucocorticoids and mycophenolate were prescribed with good clinical, analytical and radiological outcome. Conclusion: In this case, it was the changes in the chest X-ray in a patient without respiratory symptomatology, that conducted to exhaustive study to polymyositis diagnosis, enhancing once again the

  5. Avaliação da comunidade de macroinvertebrados aquáticos como ferramenta para o monitoramento de um reservatório na bacia do rio Pitangui, Paraná, Brasil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ivana F Barbola

    2011-06-01

    Full Text Available Os macroinvertebrados bentônicos e nectônicos representam elementos importantes na estrutura e funcionamento dos ecossistemas aquáticos e sua distribuição é influenciada pela natureza química do substrato, composição da vegetação e profundidade da lâmina d'água. O conhecimento desta fauna contribui para a avaliação da qualidade da água e a elaboração de ações visando à conservação da biodiversidade. No presente estudo foram avaliadas diferentes medidas bióticas da comunidade de invertebrados da represa de Alagados, importante manancial da cidade de Ponta Grossa, no Paraná. Em cinco diferentes pontos de amostragem, foram coletados 18.473 exemplares de macroinvertebrados aquáticos ou semi-aquáticos, pertencentes a 46 táxons dos filos Annelida (Hirudinea e Oligochaeta, Mollusca (Gastropoda, Platyhelminthes (Turbellaria, Nematoda e Arthropoda (Arachnida, Crustacea e Insecta. Esta comunidade foi constituída predominantemente por organismos predadores (45,7% dos táxons amostrados, seguidos de coletores e/ou filtradores (23,9%; raspadores (15,2%, fragmentadores (13% e detritívoros (2,2%. De modo geral, os índices de diversidade (H' e equitabilidade (J foram significativamente baixos para os cinco locais investigados, com H' variando de 0,3301 a 1,0396. Quanto à tolerância dos organismos à poluição orgânica, alguns táxons mais sensíveis foram muito raros (Plecoptera ou em baixa frequência (Trichoptera e Ephemeroptera. Entre os grupos mais resistentes a ambientes poluídos estão os Chironomidae e os Hirudinea, ambos bastante comuns nas amostras de Alagados. Este estudo reforça a importância da análise de bioindicadores na avaliação da qualidade de água para consumo humano e também para a conservação de ecossistemas, considerando que um programa de monitoramento ambiental deve integrar medidas físicas, químicas e biológicas.

  6. Exploring vegetation in the fourth dimension.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mitchell, Fraser J G

    2011-01-01

    Much ecological research focuses on changes in vegetation on spatial scales from stands to landscapes; however, capturing data on vegetation change over relevant timescales remains a challenge. Pollen analysis offers unrivalled access to data with global coverage over long timescales. Robust techniques have now been developed that enable pollen data to be converted into vegetation data in terms of individual taxa, plant communities or biomes, with the possibility of deriving from those data a range of plant attributes and ecological indicators. In this review, I discuss how coupling pollen with macrofossil, charcoal and genetic data opens up the extensive pollen databases to investigation of the drivers of vegetation change over time and also provides extensive data sets for testing hypotheses with wide ecological relevance. © 2010 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  7. Innovative Remote Sensing techniques for vegetation monitoring

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Borfecchia, F.; De Cecco, L.; Della Rocca, A.B.; Farneti, A.; La Porta, L.; Martini, S.; Giordano, L.; Trotta, C.; Marcoccia, S.

    2008-01-01

    This paper describes methods developed for using ASPIS (Advanced Spectroscopic Imaging System) to monitor biophysical parameters in studying the effects of climatic change, desertification and land degradation on semi-natural and agricultural vegetation in the Mediterranean region [it

  8. Bonneville - Hood River Vegetation Management Environmental Assessment

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    N/A

    1998-08-01

    To maintain the reliability of its electrical system, BPA, in cooperation with the U.S. Forest Service, needs to expand the range of vegetation management options used to clear unwanted vegetation on about 20 miles of BPA transmission line right-of-way between Bonneville Dam and Hood River; Oregon, within the Columbia Gorge National Scenic Area (NSA). We propose to continue controlling undesirable vegetation using a program of Integrated Vegetation Management (IVM) which includes manual, biological and chemical treatment methods. BPA has prepared an Environmental Assessment (EA) (DOE/EA-1257) evaluating the proposed project. Based on the analysis in the EA, BPA has determined that the proposed action is not a major Federal action significantly affecting the quality of the human environment, within the meaning of the National Environmental Policy Act (NEPA) of 1969. Therefore, the preparation of an Environmental Impact Statement (EIS) is not required and BPA is issuing this FONSI.

  9. relationships between vegetation composition and environmental

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Preferred Customer

    Borana region, studies on the plant-environment interactions are scanty .... The ordination methods used for the vegetation ..... adaptation, rangeland restoration and also for identifying places ... mangrove forests in Kenya and Sri Lanka. Plant.

  10. African indigenous and traditional vegetables in Tanzania ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Indigenous and traditional African vegetables (AITVs) are important sources of ... and (iii) marketing: retail markup, price variation by season, year and region, ... size and cost, retailer storage, remainders, processing and less common AITVs.

  11. ISLSCP II Potential Natural Vegetation Cover

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — ABSTRACT: This data set was developed to describe the state of the global land cover in terms of 15 major vegetation types, plus water, before alteration by humans....

  12. Hydrolyzed Vegetable Protein Containing Products Recalls

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Department of Health & Human Services — This list includes products subject to recall in the United States since February 2010 related to hydrolyzed vegetable protein (HVP) paste and powder distributed by...

  13. Sustainable landscaping practices for enhancing vegetation establishment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2016-02-01

    Soil compaction can severely limit the success of vegetation establishment. Current grading and landscaping : practices commonly produce compacted soils of varied textures and profiles within SHA medians and roadsides, : resulting in limited capacity...

  14. Soil-vegetation-atmosphere transfer modeling

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ikonen, J.P.; Sucksdorff, Y. [Finnish Environment Agency, Helsinki (Finland)

    1996-12-31

    In this study the soil/vegetation/atmosphere-model based on the formulation of Deardorff was refined to hour basis and applied to a field in Vihti. The effect of model parameters on model results (energy fluxes, temperatures) was also studied as well as the effect of atmospheric conditions. The estimation of atmospheric conditions on the soil-vegetation system as well as an estimation of the effect of vegetation parameters on the atmospheric climate was estimated. Areal surface fluxes, temperatures and moistures were also modelled for some river basins in southern Finland. Land-use and soil parameterisation was developed to include properties and yearly variation of all vegetation and soil types. One classification was selected to describe the hydrothermal properties of the soils. Evapotranspiration was verified against the water balance method

  15. Vegetation patterns and environmental gradients in Benin

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Adomou, A.

    2005-01-01

    Key words: West Africa, Benin, vegetation patterns, floristic areas, phytogeography, chorology, floristic gradients, climatic factors, water availability, Dahomey Gap, threatened plants, biodiversity, conservation.Understanding plant species distribution patterns and the underlying factors is a

  16. African leafy vegetables in South Africa

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    some of them grow as weeds, has a long history that has been intimately linked to women and their ..... African smallholders has been rapidly spreading from Vhembe ..... vegetables in household food security: a preliminary case study in.

  17. ISLSCP II C4 Vegetation Percentage

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — The photosynthetic composition (C3 or C4) of vegetation on the land surface is essential for accurate simulations of biosphere-atmosphere exchanges of carbon, water,...

  18. ISLSCP II C4 Vegetation Percentage

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — ABSTRACT: The photosynthetic composition (C3 or C4) of vegetation on the land surface is essential for accurate simulations of biosphere-atmosphere exchanges of...

  19. Delta Vegetation and Land Use [ds292

    Data.gov (United States)

    California Natural Resource Agency — Vegetation and land use are mapped for the approximately 725,000 acres constituting the Legal Delta portion of the Sacramento and San Joaquin River Delta area....

  20. Soil-vegetation-atmosphere transfer modeling

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ikonen, J P; Sucksdorff, Y [Finnish Environment Agency, Helsinki (Finland)

    1997-12-31

    In this study the soil/vegetation/atmosphere-model based on the formulation of Deardorff was refined to hour basis and applied to a field in Vihti. The effect of model parameters on model results (energy fluxes, temperatures) was also studied as well as the effect of atmospheric conditions. The estimation of atmospheric conditions on the soil-vegetation system as well as an estimation of the effect of vegetation parameters on the atmospheric climate was estimated. Areal surface fluxes, temperatures and moistures were also modelled for some river basins in southern Finland. Land-use and soil parameterisation was developed to include properties and yearly variation of all vegetation and soil types. One classification was selected to describe the hydrothermal properties of the soils. Evapotranspiration was verified against the water balance method

  1. Vegetation - Suisun Marsh 2000 [ds161

    Data.gov (United States)

    California Natural Resource Agency — This vegetation mapping project of Suisun Marsh blends ground-based classification, aerial photo interpretation, and GIS editing and processing. The method is based...

  2. Vegetation - Suisun Marsh 1999 [ds160

    Data.gov (United States)

    California Natural Resource Agency — This vegetation mapping project of Suisun Marsh blends ground-based classification, aerial photo interpretation, and GIS editing and processing. The method is based...

  3. Review article: Vegetative growth, reproduction, browse production ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Vegetative growth, reproduction, browse production and response to tree clearing of ... water stress, soil nutrient availability, carbohydrate reserves, plant hormones, ... animal-plant interactions) of woody plants in various savanna ecosystems.

  4. Vegetation - Suisun Marsh 2003 [ds162

    Data.gov (United States)

    California Natural Resource Agency — This vegetation mapping project of Suisun Marsh blends ground-based classification, aerial photo interpretation, and GIS editing and processing. The method is based...

  5. Vegetation composition and structure influences bird species ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Vegetation composition and structure influences bird species community ... variables on bird species diversity and richness of respective foraging guilds, and ... of the species assessed: (1) increasing closed cover due to woody plant density, ...

  6. Monitoring of vegetation dynamics and assessing vegetation response to drought in the Iberian Peninsula

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Garcia-Haro, F. J.; Moreno, A.; Perez-Hoyos, A.; Gilabert, M. A.; Melia, J.; Belda, F.; Poquet, D.; Martinez, B.; Verger, A.

    2009-07-01

    Monitoring the vegetation activity over long time-scales is necessary to discern ecosystem response to climate variability. Spatial and temporally consistent estimates of the biophysical variables such as fractional vegetation cover (FVC) and leaf area index (LAI) have been obtained in the context of DULCINEA Project. We used long-term monthly climate statistics to build simple climatic indices (SPI, moisture index) at different time scales. From these indices, we estimated that the climatic disturbances affected both the growing season and the total amount of vegetation. This implies that the anomaly of vegetation cover is a good indicator of moisture condition and can be an important data source when used for detecting an monitoring drought in the Iberian Peninsula. The impact of climate variability on the vegetation dynamics has shown not to be the same for every region. We concluded that the relationships between vegetation anomaly and moisture availability are significant for the arid and semiarid areas. (Author) 6 refs.

  7. Monitoring of vegetation dynamics and assessing vegetation response to drought in the Iberian Peninsula

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Garcia-Haro, F. J.; Moreno, A.; Perez-Hoyos, A.; Gilabert, M. A.; Melia, J.; Belda, F.; Poquet, D.; Martinez, B.; Verger, A.

    2009-01-01

    Monitoring the vegetation activity over long time-scales is necessary to discern ecosystem response to climate variability. Spatial and temporally consistent estimates of the biophysical variables such as fractional vegetation cover (FVC) and leaf area index (LAI) have been obtained in the context of DULCINEA Project. We used long-term monthly climate statistics to build simple climatic indices (SPI, moisture index) at different time scales. From these indices, we estimated that the climatic disturbances affected both the growing season and the total amount of vegetation. This implies that the anomaly of vegetation cover is a good indicator of moisture condition and can be an important data source when used for detecting an monitoring drought in the Iberian Peninsula. The impact of climate variability on the vegetation dynamics has shown not to be the same for every region. We concluded that the relationships between vegetation anomaly and moisture availability are significant for the arid and semiarid areas. (Author) 6 refs.

  8. Becquerel in raw fruit and vegetables?

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Heilgeist, M.

    1989-01-01

    After a general introduction and definition of the basic terms, the quantity of radionuclides of natural and artificial origin in our environment is shown. The specific activity of Cs-134 and Cs-137 in fruit and vegetables before and after the accident in Chernobyl is demonstrated. Finally, the quantity of the radioactivity consumed by the human being with fruit and vegetable is compared with the values of the total food consumption. (orig./HP) [de

  9. Recent Vegetation Fire Incidence in Russia

    OpenAIRE

    Hayasaka, Hiroshi

    2011-01-01

    MODIS hotspot data from NASA have now become a standard means of evaluating vegetation fires worldwide. Remote sensing is the most effective tool for large countries like Russia because it is hard to obtain exact, detailed forest fire data. Accumulated MODIS hotspot data of the nine years from 2002 to 2010 may allow us to assess recent changes in the vegetation fire incidence in Russia. This kind of analysis using various satellites is useful in estimating fire intensity and sever...

  10. CONSIDERATIONS ON ROMANIA’S VEGETABLE MARKET

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Agatha POPESCU

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available The paper aimed to present the situation of Romania’s vegetable market in the period 2007-2011 based on the statistical data regarding the main vegetables: tomatoes, onion, garlic, cabbage, green peppers and melons. The vegetable production increased by 33.99 from 3,166.8 tons in 2007 to 4,176.3 tons in 2011.This was due to the yield gain as follows: 58.55 % for melons, 27.62 % for green peppers, 27.05 % for tomatoes, 25.99 % for dry garlic, 24.96 % for dry onion, 12.61 % for white cabbage. In 2011, the contribution of various categories of vegetables to production was: 24.55 % white cabbage, 21.81 % tomatoes, 15.45 % melons, 9.44 % onion, 6.06 % green pepper, 1.59 % garlic and 21.1 % other vegetables. The contribution of the micro regions to vegetable production in 2011 was: 19.46 % South Muntenia, 18.95 % South East Romania, 17.30 % South West Oltenia, 15.92 % North East Romania, 10.43 % West Romania, 8.47 % North West Romania, 6.54 % Central Romania, 2.93 % Bucharest Ilfov. Vegetable production per inhabitant is higher in Romania compared to the average production per capita in the EU. The average consumption increased as a postive aspect reflecting the obtained production and import. Vegetable production should increase in order to cover much better the doestic market needs and support export to the EU market.

  11. Comparison of Pasture Vegetation in LFA Areas

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Klára Kecseiová

    2012-05-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this study was to compare pasture vegetation in LFA areas located in two different altitudes. Pasture vegetation sampling was performed 1 month on two different farms (Těšov, Vlčí Jámy. The selected places were marked by three representative places at 10 m2. Dried samples were weighed and chemically analyzed by standard methods ÚKZÚZ.

  12. Phytosociological characteristics of forest vegetation NPR Dubnik

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hrabovsky, A.; Balkovic, J.; Kollar, J.

    2010-01-01

    National Wildlife (NPR) Dubnik represents a unique fragment of natural forest vegetation in the region of Nitra loess upland. Status of oak and oak-hornbeam forests in this book was last documented in 1965. The aim of the contribution is to assess the current status of forest vegetation in the NPR Dubnik by modern methods of phytosociology in accordance with current thinking on the classification of oak and oak-hornbeam forests.

  13. Radar for Measuring Soil Moisture Under Vegetation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moghaddam, Mahta; Moller, Delwyn; Rodriguez, Ernesto; Rahmat-Samii, Yahya

    2004-01-01

    A two-frequency, polarimetric, spaceborne synthetic-aperture radar (SAR) system has been proposed for measuring the moisture content of soil as a function of depth, even in the presence of overlying vegetation. These measurements are needed because data on soil moisture under vegetation canopies are not available now and are necessary for completing mathematical models of global energy and water balance with major implications for global variations in weather and climate.

  14. Compositional Changes in Selected Minimally Processed Vegetables

    OpenAIRE

    O'Reilly, Emer, (Thesis)

    2000-01-01

    Compositional, physiological and microbiological changes in selected minimally processed vegetables packaged under a modified atmosphere of 2% oxygen and 5% carbon dioxide were monitored over a ten day storage period at 40 C and 80 C. The analysis targeted specific changes in the nutritional, chemical and physiological make up of the vegetables as well as the changes in the microbial levels. In addition the changes in the gas atmospheres within the packs were monitored. It has been widely acc...

  15. Hydraulic Aspects of Vegetation Maintanence in Streams

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Larsen, Torben; Vestergaard, Kristian

    1991-01-01

    This paper describes the importance of the underwater vegetation on Danish streams and some of the consequences of vegetation maintenance. the influence of the weed on the hydraulic conditions is studied through experiments in a smaller stream and the effect of cutting channels through the weed...... is measured. A method for predicting the Manning's n as a function of the discharge conditions is suggested, and also a working hypothesis for predictions of the effect of channel cutting is presented....

  16. Assessing the Ability of Vegetation Indices to Identify Shallow Subsurface Water Flow Pathways from Hyperspectral Imagery Using Machine Learning: Application

    Science.gov (United States)

    Doctor, K.; Byers, J. M.

    2017-12-01

    Shallow underground water flow pathways expressed as slight depressions are common in the land surface. Under conditions of saturated overland flow, such as during heavy rain or snow melt, these areas of preferential flow might appear on the surface as very shallow flowing streams. When there is no water flowing in these ephemeral channels it can be difficult to identify them. It is especially difficult to discern the slight depressions above the subsurface water flow pathways (SWFP) when the area is covered by vegetation. Since the soil moisture content in these SWFP is often greater than the surrounding area, the vegetation growing on top of these channels shows different vigor and moisture content than the vegetation growing above the non-SWFP area. Vegetation indices (VI) are used in visible and near infrared (VNIR) hyperspectral imagery to enhance biophysical properties of vegetation, and so the brightness values between vegetation atop SWFP and the surrounding vegetation were highlighted. We performed supervised machine learning using ground-truth class labels to determine the conditional probability of a SWFP at a given pixel given either the spectral distribution or VI at that pixel. The training data estimates the probability distributions to a determined finite sampling accuracy for a binary Naïve Bayes classifier between SWFP and non-SWFP. The ground-truth data provides a test bed for understanding the ability to build SWFP classifiers using hyperspectral imagery. SWFP were distinguishable in the imagery within corn and grass fields and in areas with low-lying vegetation. However, the training data is limited to particular types of terrain and vegetation cover in the Shenandoah Valley, Virginia and this would limit the resulting classifier. Further training data could extend its use to other environments.

  17. Comprometimento pulmonar na leptospirose

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jorge Eduardo Manhães de Carvalho

    1992-03-01

    Full Text Available Em 23 pacientes com leptospirose apresentando comprometimento pulmonar, internados no Hospital Universitário Antônio Pedro da XJFF, Niterói, hemoptise e hemoptóicos foram observados em 21,7% e 30,4%, respectivajnente. Gasometria arterial revelou hipoxemia e hipocapnia na maioria dos casos. Radiografia de tórax em 15 pacientes mostrou comprometimento alveolar em 60%, comprometimento intersticial-reticular em 6%, padrão misto (alveolar e intersticial em20%e ausência de alterações radiológicas em 14%. A necrópsiade 13 pacientes mostrou edema, congestão e hemorragia nos pulmões em 100% dos casos. A hemorragia foi focal em 46% e difusa em 54% dos casos. Houve formação de membrana hialina em 30% e trombos de fibrina em 46% dos pulmões estudados, o que estabelece o diagnóstico da coagulação intravascular disseminada e a ocorrência da síndrome de angústia respiratória na leptospirose.

  18. Fruits, vegetables, 100% juices, and cognitive function.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lamport, Daniel J; Saunders, Caroline; Butler, Laurie T; Spencer, Jeremy Pe

    2014-12-01

    Although reviews of the association between polyphenol intake and cognition exist, research examining the cognitive effects of fruit, vegetable, and juice consumption across epidemiological and intervention studies has not been previously examined. For the present review, critical inclusion criteria were human participants, a measure of fruit, vegetable, or 100% juice consumption, an objective measure of cognitive function, and a clinical diagnosis of neuropsychological disease. Studies were excluded if consumption of fruits, vegetables, or juice was not assessed in isolation from other food groups, or if there was no statistical control for education or IQ. Seventeen of 19 epidemiological studies and 3 of 6 intervention studies reported significant benefits of fruit, vegetable, or juice consumption for cognitive performance. The data suggest that chronic consumption of fruits, vegetables, and juices is beneficial for cognition in healthy older adults. The limited data from acute interventions indicate that consumption of fruit juices can have immediate benefits for memory function in adults with mild cognitive impairment; however, as of yet, acute benefits have not been observed in healthy adults. Conclusions regarding an optimum dietary intake for fruits, vegetables, and juices are difficult to quantify because of substantial heterogeneity in the categorization of consumption of these foods. © 2014 International Life Sciences Institute.

  19. Fruit and vegetable consumption: benefits and barriers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maclellan, Debbie L; Gottschall-Pass, Katherine; Larsen, Roberta

    2004-01-01

    Few people on Prince Edward Island meet the goal of consuming five or more servings of vegetables and fruit a day. The main objective of this qualitative study was to explore the perceptions of the nutritional benefits and barriers to vegetable and fruit intake among adult women in Prince Edward Island. Participants were 40 women aged 20-49, with or without children at home, who were or were not currently meeting the objective of eating five or more fruit and vegetable servings a day. In-home, one-on-one interviews were used for data collection. Thematic analysis was conducted on the transcribed interviews. Data were examined for trustworthiness in the context of credibility, transferability, and dependability. Most participants identified one or more benefits of eating fruit and vegetables; however, comments tended to be non-specific. The main barriers that participants identified were effort, lack of knowledge, sociopsychological and socioenvironmental factors, and availability. Internal influences, life events, and food rules were identified as encouraging women to include vegetables and fruit in their diets. Given the challenges of effecting meaningful dietary change, dietitians must look for broader dietary behavioural interventions that are sensitive to women's perceptions of benefits and barriers to fruit and vegetable intake.

  20. Radiocesium cycling in vegetation and soil

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dahlman, R.C.; Francis, C.W.; Tamura, T.

    1975-01-01

    Data on cesium dynamics in vegetation and soils are reviewed. Special emphasis is placed on typical environments in the southeastern United States. Clay minerals of soil, especially micaceous types, effectively fix cesium and remove it from biotic components of ecosystems. Fallout 137 Cs enters food chains principally by direct deposition on vegetation; uptake by the root pathway is usually less than direct contamination of plant foliage. Cesium-137 levels in vegetation of the southeastern U. S. Coastal Plain are estimated on the basis of direct deposition from the atmosphere and root uptake from soil. Estimated concentrations, based on current concepts of 137 Cs dynamics in vegetation and fixation in soil, are in good agreement with observed values of 137 Cs in vegetation collected in 1969 and 1970. Mechanisms of direct deposition and of increased uptake by roots due to the absence of micaceous clays adequately explain the higher levels of 137 Cs in vegetation of the Coastal Plain and thus are responsible for the elevated 137 Cs reported for milk of the Tampa, Fla., milkshed

  1. Seasonally asymmetric enhancement of northern vegetation productivity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Park, T.; Myneni, R.

    2017-12-01

    Multiple evidences of widespread greening and increasing terrestrial carbon uptake have been documented. In particular, enhanced gross productivity of northern vegetation has been a critical role leading to observed carbon uptake trend. However, seasonal photosynthetic activity and its contribution to observed annual carbon uptake trend and interannual variability are not well understood. Here, we introduce a multiple-source of datasets including ground, atmospheric and satellite observations, and multiple process-based global vegetation models to understand how seasonal variation of land surface vegetation controls a large-scale carbon exchange. Our analysis clearly shows a seasonally asymmetric enhancement of northern vegetation productivity in growing season during last decades. Particularly, increasing gross productivity in late spring and early summer is obvious and dominant driver explaining observed trend and variability. We observe more asymmetric productivity enhancement in warmer region and this spatially varying asymmetricity in northern vegetation are likely explained by canopy development rate, thermal and light availability. These results imply that continued warming may facilitate amplifying asymmetric vegetation activity and cause these trends to become more pervasive, in turn warming induced regime shift in northern land.

  2. Vegetation index anomaly response to varying lengths of drought across vegetation and climatic gradients in Hawaii

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lucas, M.; Miura, T.; Trauernicht, C.; Frazier, A. G.

    2017-12-01

    A drought which results in prolonged and extended deficit in naturally available water supply and creates multiple stresses across ecosystems is classified as an ecological drought. Detecting and understanding the dynamics and response of such droughts in tropical systems, specifically across various vegetation and climatic gradients is fairly undetermined, yet increasingly important for better understandings of the ecological effects of drought. To understanding the link between what lengths and intensities of known meteorological drought triggers detectable ecological vegetation responses, a landscape scale regression analysis evaluating the response (slope) and relationship strength (R-squared) of several cumulative SPI (standard precipitation index) lengths(1, 3, 6, 12, 18, 24, 36, 48, and 60 month), to various satellite derived monthly vegetation indices anomalies (NDVI, EVI, EVI2, and LSWI) was performed across a matrix of dominant vegetation covers (grassland, shrubland, and forest) and climatic moisture zones (arid, dry, mesic, and wet). The nine different SPI lags across these climactic and vegetation gradients was suggest that stronger relationships and steeper slopes were found in dryer climates (across all vegetation covers) and finer vegetation types (across all moisture zones). Overall NDVI, EVI and EVI2 showed the best utility in these dryer climatic zones across all vegetation types. Within arid and dry areas "best" fits showed increasing lengths of cumulative SPI were with increasing vegetation coarseness respectively. Overall these findings suggest that rainfall driven drought may have a stronger impact on the ecological condition of vegetation in water limited systems with finer vegetation types ecologically responding more rapidly to meteorological drought events than coarser woody vegetation systems. These results suggest that previously and newly documented trends of decreasing rainfall and increasing drought in Hawaiian drylands may have

  3. Measurement of exchangeable sodium: 22Na or 24Na

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Smith, T.; Edmonds, C.J.

    1987-01-01

    A case is made for the use of 22 Na in low activities in preference to 24 Na for routine diagnostic estimation of exchangeable sodium, and is based chiefly on considerations of availability, cost and radiation dosimetry. A method in which only 37 kBq (1 μCi) 22 Na is administered orally is shown to be sufficiently accurate and to possess distinct advantages in terms of cost and convenience with a committed radiation dose no greater than that for a measurement using 24 Na. (author)

  4. Assessing the Ability of Vegetation Indices to Identify Shallow Subsurface Water Flow Pathways from Hyperspectral Imagery Using Machine Learning: Methodology

    Science.gov (United States)

    Byers, J. M.; Doctor, K.

    2017-12-01

    A common application of the satellite and airborne acquired hyperspectral imagery in the visible and NIR spectrum is the assessment of vegetation. Various absorption features of plants related to both water and chlorophyll content can be used to measure the vigor and access to underlying water sources of the vegetation. The typical strategy is to form hand-crafted features from the hyperspectral data cube by selecting two wavelengths to form difference or ratio images in the pixel space. The new image attempts to provide greater contrast for some feature of the vegetation. The Normalized Difference Vegetation Index (NDVI) is a widely used example formed from the ratio of differences and sums at two different wavelengths. There are dozens of these indices that are ostensibly formed using insights about the underlying physics of the spectral absorption with claims to efficacy in representing various properties of vegetation. In the language of machine learning these vegetation indices are features that can be used as a useful data representation within an algorithm. In this work we use a powerful approach from machine learning, probabilistic graphical models (PGM), to balance the competing needs of using existing hydrological classifications of terrain while finding statistically reliable features within hyperspectral data for identifying the generative process of the data. The algorithm in its simplest form is called a Naïve Bayes (NB) classifier and can be constructed in a data-driven estimation procedure of the conditional probability distributions that form the PGM. The Naïve Bayes model assumes that all vegetation indices (VI) are independent of one another given the hydrological class label. We seek to test its validity in a pilot study of detecting subsurface water flow pathways from VI. A more sophisticated PGM will also be explored called a tree-augmented NB that accounts for the probabilistic dependence between VI features. This methodology provides a

  5. Development of indicators of vegetation recovery based on time series analysis of SPOT Vegetation data

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lhermitte, S.; Tips, M.; Verbesselt, J.; Jonckheere, I.; Van Aardt, J.; Coppin, Pol

    2005-10-01

    Large-scale wild fires have direct impacts on natural ecosystems and play a major role in the vegetation ecology and carbon budget. Accurate methods for describing post-fire development of vegetation are therefore essential for the understanding and monitoring of terrestrial ecosystems. Time series analysis of satellite imagery offers the potential to quantify these parameters with spatial and temporal accuracy. Current research focuses on the potential of time series analysis of SPOT Vegetation S10 data (1999-2001) to quantify the vegetation recovery of large-scale burns detected in the framework of GBA2000. The objective of this study was to provide quantitative estimates of the spatio-temporal variation of vegetation recovery based on remote sensing indicators. Southern Africa was used as a pilot study area, given the availability of ground and satellite data. An automated technique was developed to extract consistent indicators of vegetation recovery from the SPOT-VGT time series. Reference areas were used to quantify the vegetation regrowth by means of Regeneration Indices (RI). Two kinds of recovery indicators (time and value- based) were tested for RI's of NDVI, SR, SAVI, NDWI, and pure band information. The effects of vegetation structure and temporal fire regime features on the recovery indicators were subsequently analyzed. Statistical analyses were conducted to assess whether the recovery indicators were different for different vegetation types and dependent on timing of the burning season. Results highlighted the importance of appropriate reference areas and the importance of correct normalization of the SPOT-VGT data.

  6. Inactivation of Bacillus cereus by Na-chlorophyllin-based photosensitization on the surface of packaging.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Luksiene, Z; Buchovec, I; Paskeviciute, E

    2010-11-01

    This study was focused on the possibility to inactivate food-borne pathogen Bacillus cereus by Na-chlorophyllin (Na-Chl)-based photosensitization in vitro and after attachment to the surface of packaging material. Bacillus cereus in vitro or attached to the packaging was incubated with Na-Chl (7·5×10(-8) to 7·5×10(-5) mol l(-1) ) for 2-60min in phosphate buffer saline. Photosensitization was performed by illuminating cells under a light with a λ of 400nm and an energy density of 20mW cm(-2) . The illumination time varied 0-5min and subsequently the total energy dose was 0-6J cm(-2) . The results show that B. cereus vegetative cells in vitro or attached to the surface of packaging after incubation with 7·5×10(-7) mol l(-1) Na-Chl and following illumination were inactivated by 7log. The photoinactivation of B. cereus spores in vitro by 4log required higher (7·5×10(-6) mol l(-1) ) Na-Chl concentration. Decontamination of packaging material from attached spores by photosensitization reached 5log at 7·5×10(-5) mol l(-1) Na-Chl concentration. Comparative analysis of different packaging decontamination treatments indicates that washing with water can diminish pathogen population on the surface by packaging material. Spores are more resistant than vegetative cells to photosensitization-based inactivation. Comparison of different surface decontamination treatments indicates that Na-Chl-based photosensitization is much more effective antibacterial tool than washing with water or 200ppm Na-hypochlorite. Our data support the idea that Na-Chl-based photosensitization has great potential for future application as an environment-friendly, nonthermal surface decontamination technique. © 2010 The Authors. Journal of Applied Microbiology © 2010 The Society for Applied Microbiology.

  7. Cadeias produtivas do carvão vegetal na agricultura familiar no sul do Brasil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marina Carrieri-Souza

    2014-08-01

    Full Text Available The charcoal production is an important income generating activity for family farmers in the south of Brazil, but this relevance is not officially recognized. Much of the charcoal found in retail establishments is produced clandestinely. In the market, the coal produced in a socially and environmentally responsible way can be confused with the coal produced in undesirable contexts. We seek to understand the conditions of charcoal production in family farms and how this production comes to the final consumer, based on the concept of supply chains. We conducted a study of three representative cases in southern Brazil, in the cities of Biguaçu, SC, Santa Rosa de Lima, SC and Bituruna, PR. The tools for data collection were questionnaires, interviews and informal conversations with actors of all links of the production chain and with technicians from environmental agencies and rural extension, as well as direct observation in communities. In the municipality of Biguaçu, we identified long, short face-to-face, short with spatial proximity and short spatially extended chains. In the municipalities of Bituruna and Santa Rosa de Lima, we identify only the long chains. We discuss about the several implicit norms that guide the behavior of social actors, identifying the marketing of coal in short chains as a way of creating strategies for entering the market and add value, based on the identification of the quality characteristics of the product, with emphasis on the compliance with the requirements of environmental production obtained in family farming.

  8. Mineral elements of some green vegetables

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Khan, A.S.; Tabassum, R.; Yousaf, M.

    1998-01-01

    Some of the mineral components of Allium porrum Linn, Brassica rapa and Medicago denticulata were studied. Extraction of minerals was carried out in three different ways (I) Ash solution was prepared and used for the determination of Na, K, Ca, P, Fe and Mg. (II) Perchloric acid extraction was employed for Na, K, Fe, Mg, Cu and Zinc. (III) Solvent extraction was used for Na and K. Determination of calcium was done titrimetrically, Na and K. Flame photometrically, P, Fe and Mg Spectrophotometrically, Cu and Zinc Atomic Absorption Spectrophotometrically. Allium porrum Linn was rich in Ca, K and Zinc, in Brassica rapa Fe, Mg and Na in Medicago denticalata P contents were greater. (author)

  9. Mineral elements of some green vegetables

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Khan, A S; Tabassum, R; Yousaf, M [University of Peshawar (Pakistan). Dept. of Chemistry

    1998-07-01

    Some of the mineral components of Allium porrum Linn, Brassica rapa and Medicago denticulata were studied. Extraction of minerals was carried out in three different ways (I) Ash solution was prepared and used for the determination of Na, K, Ca, P, Fe and Mg. (II) Perchloric acid extraction was employed for Na, K, Fe, Mg, Cu and Zinc. (III) Solvent extraction was used for Na and K. Determination of calcium was done titrimetrically, Na and K. Flame photometrically, P, Fe and Mg Spectrophotometrically, Cu and Zinc Atomic Absorption Spectrophotometrically. Allium porrum Linn was rich in Ca, K and Zinc, in Brassica rapa Fe, Mg and Na in Medicago denticalata P contents were greater. (author)

  10. The NA27 trigger

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bizzarri, R.; Di Capua, E.; Falciano, S.; Iori, M.; Marel, G.; Piredda, G.; Zanello, L.; Haupt, L.; Hellman, S.; Holmgren, S.O.; Johansson, K.E.

    1985-05-01

    We have designed and implemented a minimum bias trigger together with a fiducial volume trigger for the experiment NA27, performed at the CERN SPS. A total of more than 3 million bubble chamber pictures have been taken with a triggered cross section smaller than 75% of the total inelastic cross section. Events containing charm particles were triggered with an efficiency of 98 +2 sub(-3)%. With the fiducial volume trigger, the probability for a picture to contain an interaction in the visible hydrogen increased from 47.3% to 59.5%, reducing film cost and processing effort with about 20%. The improvement in data taking rate is shown to be negligible. (author)

  11. Na Cauda do Cometa

    Science.gov (United States)

    Voelzke, M. R.

    2009-01-01

    Quando viam um cometa, os antigos gregos imaginavam uma estrela com uma vasta cabeleira. Não à toa, a palavra deriva do termo koma, que significa cabelo. Constituídos por fragmentos de gelo e gases, os cometas possuem um núcleo sólido, que pode ter vários quilômetros de diâmetro, e uma cauda que sempre aponta na direção contrária ao Sol, devido aos ventos solares. Graças à aparência de pontos luminosos em movimento (ao contrário de outros astros, que parecem estáticos), esses corpos celestes foram interpretados por diferentes povos com muito misticismo, inspirando mitos tanto de boas-novas como de maus presságios. Conheça algumas dessas histórias:

  12. NA48 prototype calorimeter

    CERN Multimedia

    1990-01-01

    This is a calorimeter, a detector which measures the energy of particles. When in use, it is filled with liquid krypton at -152°C. Electrons and photons passing through interact with the krypton, creating a shower of charged particles which are collected on the copper ribbons. The ribbons are aligned to an accuracy of a tenth of a millimetre. The folding at each end allows them to be kept absolutely flat. Each shower of particles also creates a signal in scintillating material embedded in the support disks. These flashes of light are transmitted to electronics by the optical fibres along the side of the detector. They give the time at which the interaction occurred. The photo shows the calorimeter at NA48, a CERN experiment which is trying to understand the lack of anti-matter in the Universe today.

  13. Post-fire vegetation recovery in Portugal based ewline on spot/vegetation data

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    C. Gouveia

    2010-04-01

    Full Text Available A procedure is presented that allows identifying large burned scars and the monitoring of vegetation recovery in the years following major fire episodes. The procedure relies on 10-day fields of Maximum Value Composites of Normalized Difference Vegetation Index (MVC-NDVI, with a 1 km×1 km spatial resolution obtained from the VEGETATION instrument. The identification of fire scars during the extremely severe 2003 fire season is performed based on cluster analysis of NDVI anomalies that persist during the vegetative cycle of the year following the fire event. Two regions containing very large burned scars were selected, located in Central and Southwestern Portugal, respectively, and time series of MVC-NDVI analysed before the fire events took place and throughout the post-fire period. It is shown that post-fire vegetation dynamics in the two selected regions may be characterised based on maps of recovery rates as estimated by fitting a monoparametric model of vegetation recovery to MVC-NDVI data over each burned scar. Results indicated that the recovery process in the region located in Central Portugal is mostly related to fire damage rather than to vegetation density before 2003, whereas the latter seems to have a more prominent role than vegetation conditions after the fire episode, e.g. in the case of the region in Southwestern Portugal. These differences are consistent with the respective predominant types of vegetation. The burned area located in Central Portugal is dominated by Pinus Pinaster whose natural regeneration crucially depends on the destruction of seeds present on the soil surface during the fire, whereas the burned scar in Southwestern Portugal was populated by Eucalyptus that may quickly re-sprout from buds after fire. Besides its simplicity, the monoparametric model of vegetation recovery has the advantage of being easily adapted to other low-resolution satellite data, as well as to other types of vegetation

  14. Post-fire vegetation recovery in Portugal based on spot/vegetation data

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gouveia, C.; Dacamara, C. C.; Trigo, R. M.

    2010-04-01

    A procedure is presented that allows identifying large burned scars and the monitoring of vegetation recovery in the years following major fire episodes. The procedure relies on 10-day fields of Maximum Value Composites of Normalized Difference Vegetation Index (MVC-NDVI), with a 1 km×1 km spatial resolution obtained from the VEGETATION instrument. The identification of fire scars during the extremely severe 2003 fire season is performed based on cluster analysis of NDVI anomalies that persist during the vegetative cycle of the year following the fire event. Two regions containing very large burned scars were selected, located in Central and Southwestern Portugal, respectively, and time series of MVC-NDVI analysed before the fire events took place and throughout the post-fire period. It is shown that post-fire vegetation dynamics in the two selected regions may be characterised based on maps of recovery rates as estimated by fitting a monoparametric model of vegetation recovery to MVC-NDVI data over each burned scar. Results indicated that the recovery process in the region located in Central Portugal is mostly related to fire damage rather than to vegetation density before 2003, whereas the latter seems to have a more prominent role than vegetation conditions after the fire episode, e.g. in the case of the region in Southwestern Portugal. These differences are consistent with the respective predominant types of vegetation. The burned area located in Central Portugal is dominated by Pinus Pinaster whose natural regeneration crucially depends on the destruction of seeds present on the soil surface during the fire, whereas the burned scar in Southwestern Portugal was populated by Eucalyptus that may quickly re-sprout from buds after fire. Besides its simplicity, the monoparametric model of vegetation recovery has the advantage of being easily adapted to other low-resolution satellite data, as well as to other types of vegetation indices.

  15. Quantitative indicators of fruit and vegetable consumption

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dagmar Kozelová

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available The quantitative research of the market is often based on surveys and questionnaires which are finding out the behavior of customers in observed areas. Before purchasing process consumers consider where they will buy fruit and vegetables, what kind to choose and in what quantity of goods. Consumers' behavior is affected by the factors as: regional gastronomic traditions, price, product appearance, aroma, place of buying, own experience and knowledge, taste preferences as well as specific health issues of consumers and others. The consumption of fruit and vegetables brings into the human body biological active substances that favorably affect the health of consumers. In the presented research study we were interested in differences of consumers' behavior in the consumption of fruit and vegetables according to the place of residence and gender. In the survey 200 respondents has participated; their place of residence was city or village. The existence of dependences and statistical significance were examined by selected statistical testing methods. Firstly we analyzed the responses via statistical F-test whether observed random samples have the same variance. Then we applied two-sample unpaired t-test with equal variance and χ2-test of statistical independence. The statistical significance was tested by corresponding p values. Correlations were proved by the Cramer's V coefficient. We found that place of residence has no impact on the respondents' consumption of fruit. The gender of respondents does not affect their consumption of fruit. Equally, the gender does not affect the respondents' consumption of vegetables. Only in one observed case the significant differences proved that the place of respondent residence has impact on the consumption of vegetables. Higher consumption of vegetables is due to the fact that the majority of citizens, who live in villages, have a possibility to grow their own vegetables and, thus, the demand for it in village

  16. Market basket survey of essential elements in some core vegetables in Accra, Ghana

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Adotey, D.K.; Serfor-Armah, Y.; Yeboah, P.O.; Fianko, J.R.

    2005-01-01

    The concentrations of essential trace elements of nutritional and toxicological significance in 5 vegetables that constitute an essential part of Ghanaian diet have been studied, using Instrumental Neutron Activation Analysis (INAA). The results of the study revealed that the elements As, Ca, Co, K, Mg, Mn and Na were present in all 5 vegetables analyzed. Elements of nutritional importance detected in very high concentrations are K, Ca and Mg whilst only trace levels of Mn, Na and Co were detected. Onions were found to have adequate amounts of As, Br, Ca, Cl, Mg and Mn and therefore a good source of these trace elements. Garden eggs have high concentration of K whiles Carrot is a good source of Co, Na and V. The precision and accuracy of the methods were tested with standard reference material, IAEA-359 (cabbage). The results obtained were within 5% of the certified values in all cases. The precision of the methods were calculated as percentage relative standard deviation. (au)

  17. Assessment of vegetable production practices in Qwaqwa within ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    In this study, the information such as biographical information of the vegetable farmers, information about the vegetable gardens or farms, the current vegetable farming practices, irrigation practices on the vegetable soil and the farmers' physical and financial records were assessed. The assessment was conducted through ...

  18. Assessment of human impacts on landuse and vegetation cover ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    This paper is an assessment of the impact of man's activities on the landuse and vegetation cover of Mubi region. Landsat MSS Landuse/vegetation image of 1978 and Spot XS landuse/vegetation image of 1995 were used to study the landuse/vegetation cover changes of the region between 1978 and 1995 – a period of 17 ...

  19. A ENGENHARIA NA ESCOLA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Valéria Pelizzer Casara

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available Este projeto teve por objetivo principal mostrar às jovens do ensino médio, como as áreas de exatas e de engenharia podem estar inseridas em situações rotineiras por elas vivenciadas e incentivá-las para ingressarem nessas áreas. O projeto foi executado na escola de ensino Médio Nelson Horostecki na cidade de Chapecó, Santa Catarina. Mostrou-se de forma simples que as áreas de exatas e de engenharia têm aplicações práticas nas nossas vidas. No desenvolvimento do projeto, realizaram-se oficinas na escola cujo tema principal abordado foi o processo de fabricação do chocolate, visto que o mesmo é um produto muito apreciado pelas adolescentes. Dentro dessa temática, foram trabalhadas as questões que envolvem conhecimentos das áreas de exatas e de engenharia, mais especificamente a Engenharia Ambiental. O projeto auxiliou na formação cidadã e também na escolha profissional das meninas. Muitas das alunas participantes nunca haviam tido contato direto com alunos graduandos de cursos na área das exatas. Mais ainda, este projeto oportunizou a aproximação da universidade com a comunidade externa. Palavras-chave: Extensão Universitária, Ciências Exatas e Engenharia, Chocolate, Oficinas.   Engineering in the school Abstract: The main objective of this project was to show high school female students how the exact sciences and engineering can be included in their routine situations encouraging them to entering in these areas. The project was carried out at the Nelson Horostecki High School in Chapecó, Santa Catarina State, Brazil. It was showed in a simple manner how exact sciences and engineering have practical applications in our lives. Workshops were conducted in the school during the execution of the project in which the main subject was the chocolate manufacturing process, since chocolate is a product greatly appreciated by the young female people. Within this matter, the activities were performed using the knowledge of

  20. Ecogeomorphology of Sand Dunes Shaped by Vegetation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tsoar, H.

    2014-12-01

    Two dune types associated with vegetation are known: Parabolic and Vegetated Linear Dunes (VLDs), the latters are the dominant dune type in the world deserts. Parabolic dunes are formed in humid, sub-humid and semi-arid environments (rather than arid) where vegetation is nearby. VLDs are known today in semiarid and arid lands where the average yearly rainfall is ≥100 mm, enough to support sparse cover of vegetation. These two dune types are formed by unidirectional winds although they demonstrate a different form and have a distinct dynamics. Conceptual and mathematical models of dunes mobility and stability, based on three control parameters: wind power (DP), average annual precipitation (p), and the human impact parameter (μ) show that where human impact is negligible the effect of wind power (DP) on vegetative cover is substantial. The average yearly rainfall of 60-80 mm is the threshold of annual average rainfall for vegetation growth on dune sand. The model is shown to follow a hysteresis path, which explains the bistability of active and stabilized dunes under the same climatic conditions with respect to wind power. We have discerned formation of parabolic dunes from barchans and transverse dunes in the coastal plain of Israel where a decrease in human activity during the second half of the 20th century caused establishment of vegetation on the crest of the dunes, a process that changed the dynamics of these barchans and transverse dunes and led to a change in the shape of the windward slope from convex to concave. These dunes gradually became parabolic. It seems that VLDs in Australia or the Kalahari have always been vegetated to some degree, though the shrubs were sparser in colder periods when the aeolian erosion was sizeable. Those ancient conditions are characterized by higher wind power and lower rainfall that can reduce, but not completely destroy, the vegetation cover, leading to the formation of lee (shadow) dunes behind each shrub. Formation of

  1. SPINIFICI-SCAEVOLETEA SERICEAE, A NEW VEGETATION CLASS FOR PSAMMOPHYTIC DUNE VEGETATION IN THAILAND

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S. PIGNATII

    1996-04-01

    Full Text Available This is a short account on the coastal dune vegetation of the Gulf of Siam in Thailand. Vegetation is mainly composed by succulent creeping plants with herbaceous habit as to Canavalia maritima (Papilionaceae and Iponwea pes-caprae (Convolvulaceae and the robust stoloniferous grass Spinijex littoreus, the last having an important function for the fonnation of coastal dunes.

  2. SPINIFICI-SCAEVOLETEA SERICEAE, A NEW VEGETATION CLASS FOR PSAMMOPHYTIC DUNE VEGETATION IN THAILAND

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S. PIGNATII

    1996-01-01

    Full Text Available This is a short account on the coastal dune vegetation of the Gulf of Siam in Thailand. Vegetation is mainly composed by succulent creeping plants with herbaceous habit as to Canavalia maritima (Papilionaceae and Iponwea pes-caprae (Convolvulaceae and the robust stoloniferous grass Spinijex littoreus, the last having an important function for the fonnation of coastal dunes.

  3. Forest Vegetation Simulator translocation techniques with the Bureau of Land Management's Forest Vegetation Information system database

    Science.gov (United States)

    Timothy A. Bottomley

    2008-01-01

    The BLM uses a database, called the Forest Vegetation Information System (FORVIS), to store, retrieve, and analyze forest resource information on a majority of their forested lands. FORVIS also has the capability of easily transferring appropriate data electronically into Forest Vegetation Simulator (FVS) for simulation runs. Only minor additional data inputs or...

  4. Microscale vegetation-soil feedback boosts hysteresis in a regional vegetation-climate system

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Janssen, R.H.H.; Meinders, M.B.J.; Nes, van E.H.; Scheffer, M.

    2008-01-01

    It has been hypothesized that a positive feedback between vegetation cover and monsoon circulation may lead to the existence of two alternative stable states in the Sahara region: a vegetated state with moderate precipitation and a desert state with low precipitation. This could explain the sudden

  5. 9 CFR 319.311 - Chow mein vegetables with meat, and chop suey vegetables with meat.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 9 Animals and Animal Products 2 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Chow mein vegetables with meat, and chop suey vegetables with meat. 319.311 Section 319.311 Animals and Animal Products FOOD SAFETY AND INSPECTION SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE AGENCY ORGANIZATION AND TERMINOLOGY; MANDATORY MEAT AND POULTRY...

  6. Vegetative buffer strips for reducing herbicide transport in runoff: effects of buffer width, vegetation, and season

    Science.gov (United States)

    The effect of vegetative buffer strip (VBS) width, vegetation, and season of the year on herbicide transport in runoff has not been well documented for runoff prone soils. A multi-year replicated plot-scale study was conducted on an eroded claypan soil with the following objectives: 1) assess the ef...

  7. Formalized classification of species-poor vegetation: a proposal of a consistent protocol for aquatic vegetation

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Landucci, F.; Tichý, L.; Šumberová, Kateřina; Chytrý, M.

    2015-01-01

    Roč. 26, č. 4 (2015), s. 791-803 ISSN 1100-9233 R&D Projects: GA ČR GB14-36079G Institutional support: RVO:67985939 Keywords : vegetation classification * vegetation database * Coctail method Subject RIV: EF - Botanics Impact factor: 3.151, year: 2015

  8. Investigation on U - O - Na, Pu - O - Na and U,Pu - O - Na phase diagrams

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pillon, S.

    1989-03-01

    The thermochemical interaction between the nuclear fuel (uranium and plutonium mixed oxides) and the sodium has been investigated and particularly the three phase diagrams: U - O - Na; Pu - O - Na; U,Pu - O - Na. High temperature neutron diffraction, microcalorimetry and powder X-ray diffraction were used for the characterization of the compounds synthetized. This study allowed to complete the knowledge about each of these diagrams and to measure some physical and thermal properties on the compounds. The limits on the modelization of the fuel-sodium interaction are discussed from the results of the UO 2 - Na reaction [fr

  9. The Impact of the Rise in Vegetable Prices on Vegetable Producer Behavior–Based on the survey of vegetable producers in Jiayu, Hubei Province

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Liu Pan

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available In order to study the impact of the rise in prices of vegetables on vegetable producers, and to increase the revenue of vegetable producers, this paper does a survey by anonymous sampling questionnaire. Results shows that: most vegetable growers think that vegetable prices should rise and would continue to rise, and that vegetable prices would increase their revenue, thus in the coming year they would expand the planting scale of vegetable variety whose increase rate is the largest in this year. But because of the increase of logistics costs and production costs, some farmers benefit very little from the rising trend of vegetable prices. Most farmers expect too much in the trend estimation of the prices of vegetables and also lack of planning and forward-looking in production, thus the planting area of single variety is often decided by the market of previous year. According to analysis of the impact of the rise in vegetable prices on vegetable producer behavior, this paper gives the following suggestions to increase revenue of vegetable producers: change the mode of thinking, improve rural information platform, and increase capital investment for vegetable production base.

  10. New Approaches to Irrigation Scheduling of Vegetables

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Michael D. Cahn

    2017-04-01

    Full Text Available Using evapotranspiration (ET data for scheduling irrigations on vegetable farms is challenging due to imprecise crop coefficients, time consuming computations, and the need to simultaneously manage many fields. Meanwhile, the adoption of soil moisture monitoring in vegetables has historically been limited by sensor accuracy and cost, as well as labor required for installation, removal, and collection of readings. With recent improvements in sensor technology, public weather-station networks, satellite and aerial imaging, wireless communications, and cloud computing, many of the difficulties in using ET data and soil moisture sensors for irrigation scheduling of vegetables can now be addressed. Web and smartphone applications have been developed that automate many of the calculations involved in ET-based irrigation scheduling. Soil moisture sensor data can be collected through wireless networks and accessed using web browser or smartphone apps. Energy balance methods of crop ET estimation, such as eddy covariance and Bowen ratio, provide research options for further developing and evaluating crop coefficient guidelines of vegetables, while recent advancements in surface renewal instrumentation have led to a relatively low-cost tool for monitoring crop water requirement in commercial farms. Remote sensing of crops using satellite, manned aircraft, and UAV platforms may also provide useful tools for vegetable growers to evaluate crop development, plant stress, water consumption, and irrigation system performance.

  11. On peculiarities of distribution of some elements in vegetation samples

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bakiev, S.A.; Rakhmanov, J.; Khakimov, Z.M.; Turayev, S.

    2005-01-01

    This work is devoted to the neutron-activation analysis of medicines of vegetation origin and some herbs, vegetables, fruits and cereals, which are used in oriental medicine, in order to reveal peculiarities of distribution of studied elements in them and possible relations between this distribution and parameters of oriental medicine. The sampling involving 85 species and their preparation for analysis, as well as complex of necessary methodological studies were performed and the method of sample analysis for 14 macro- and microelements (Na, Al, Cl, K, Sc, Mn, Fe, Co, Cu, Zn, Br, J, La, Au) was developed. The studies carried out have enabled one to obtain data on concentrations of these elements and to reveal peculiarities of their distribution in the samples under interest. It was revealed herbs, fruits and cereals with pronounced higher concentrations (with respect to the mean values) of one or another element, which are perhaps concentrators of those elements, as well as samples with lower concentrations of elements (see table). It is indicative that in all herbs only enhanced concentrations of elements are observed, but in fruits and cereals-only lowered concentrations of elements. These results can be of interest for geochemical ecology, dietology, therapy, as well as for activities on correction of elemental content of ecosystems, including soils, and alive organisms It is suggested to continue studies with extension of range of object types and analysed elements. Mathematical analysis of the obtained results was performed with comparison of concentrations of a number of elements in the different objects with classifying parameters ('cold-hot' and 'dry-wet') of these objects according to oriental medicine. In the current stage of studies no relation between these parameters and concentrations has been found. It does not mean that there are not such relations at all, they may be revealed with extension and development of our' studies.

  12. Território e Rede da União do Vegetal

    OpenAIRE

    Morales Arteaga, Pamela Elizabeth

    2016-01-01

    Esta pesquisa trata do território e das redes geográficas da religião ayahusaqueira União do Vegetal, em Brasília. Busca-se interpretar os objetivos da pesquisa que foram; a construção do território da União do Vegetal, diferençando elementos relevantes do território; debatendo a hierarquização do grupo na sua atuação territorial e relacionando as percepções dos adeptos com suas práticas territoriais em rede. As hipóteses que nortearam o trabalho foram; A construção do território sagrado da U...

  13. Dyes adsorption blue vegetable and blue watercolor by natural zeolites modified with surfactants

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jardon S, C. C.; Olguin G, M. T.; Diaz N, M. C.

    2009-01-01

    In this work was carried out the dyes removal blue vegetable and blue watercolor of aqueous solutions, to 20 C, at different times and using a zeolite mineral of Parral (Chihuahua, Mexico) modified with hexadecyl trimethyl ammonium bromide or dodecyl trimethyl ammonium bromide. The zeolite was characterized before and after of its adaptation with NaCl and later with HDTMABr and DTMABr. For the materials characterization were used the scanning electron microscopy of high vacuum; elementary microanalysis by X-ray spectroscopy of dispersed energy and X-ray diffraction techniques. It was found that the surfactant type absorbed in the zeolite material influences on the adsorption process of the blue dye. Likewise, the chemical structure between the vegetable blue dye and the blue watercolor, determines the efficiency of the color removal of the water, by the zeolites modified with the surfactants. (Author)

  14. European Vegetation Archive (EVA): an integrated database of European vegetation plots

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Chytrý, M; Hennekens, S M; Jiménez-Alfaro, B

    2015-01-01

    vegetation- plot databases on a single software platform. Data storage in EVA does not affect on-going independent development of the contributing databases, which remain the property of the data contributors. EVA uses a prototype of the database management software TURBOVEG 3 developed for joint management......The European Vegetation Archive (EVA) is a centralized database of European vegetation plots developed by the IAVS Working Group European Vegetation Survey. It has been in development since 2012 and first made available for use in research projects in 2014. It stores copies of national and regional...... data source for large-scale analyses of European vegetation diversity both for fundamental research and nature conservation applications. Updated information on EVA is available online at http://euroveg.org/eva-database....

  15. Vegetation extraction from high-resolution satellite imagery using the Normalized Difference Vegetation Index (NDVI)

    Science.gov (United States)

    AlShamsi, Meera R.

    2016-10-01

    Over the past years, there has been various urban development all over the UAE. Dubai is one of the cities that experienced rapid growth in both development and population. That growth can have a negative effect on the surrounding environment. Hence, there has been a necessity to protect the environment from these fast pace changes. One of the major impacts this growth can have is on vegetation. As technology is evolving day by day, there is a possibility to monitor changes that are happening on different areas in the world using satellite imagery. The data from these imageries can be utilized to identify vegetation in different areas of an image through a process called vegetation detection. Being able to detect and monitor vegetation is very beneficial for municipal planning and management, and environment authorities. Through this, analysts can monitor vegetation growth in various areas and analyze these changes. By utilizing satellite imagery with the necessary data, different types of vegetation can be studied and analyzed, such as parks, farms, and artificial grass in sports fields. In this paper, vegetation features are detected and extracted through SAFIY system (i.e. the Smart Application for Feature extraction and 3D modeling using high resolution satellite ImagerY) by using high-resolution satellite imagery from DubaiSat-2 and DEIMOS-2 satellites, which provide panchromatic images of 1m resolution and spectral bands (red, green, blue and near infrared) of 4m resolution. SAFIY system is a joint collaboration between MBRSC and DEIMOS Space UK. It uses image-processing algorithms to extract different features (roads, water, vegetation, and buildings) to generate vector maps data. The process to extract green areas (vegetation) utilize spectral information (such as, the red and near infrared bands) from the satellite images. These detected vegetation features will be extracted as vector data in SAFIY system and can be updated and edited by end-users, such as

  16. Hidden vegetables: an effective strategy to reduce energy intake and increase vegetable intake in adults.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Blatt, Alexandria D; Roe, Liane S; Rolls, Barbara J

    2011-04-01

    The overconsumption of energy-dense foods leads to excessive energy intakes. The substitution of low-energy-dense vegetables for foods higher in energy density can help decrease energy intakes but may be difficult to implement if individuals dislike the taste of vegetables. We investigated whether incorporating puréed vegetables to decrease the energy density of entrées at multiple meals reduced daily energy intakes and increased daily vegetable intakes. In this crossover study, 20 men and 21 women ate ad libitum breakfast, lunch, and dinner in the laboratory once a week for 3 wk. Across conditions, entrées at meals varied in energy density from standard versions (100% condition) to reduced versions (85% and 75% conditions) by the covert incorporation of 3 or 4.5 times the amount of puréed vegetables. Entrées were accompanied by unmanipulated side dishes. Participants rated their hunger and fullness before and after meals. Subjects consumed a consistent weight of foods across conditions of energy density; thus, the daily energy intake significantly decreased by 202 ± 60 kcal in the 85% condition (P kcal in the 75% condition (P Daily vegetable consumption significantly increased from 270 ± 17 g of vegetables in the 100% condition to 487 ± 25 g of vegetables in the 75% condition (P < 0.0001). Despite the decreased energy intake, ratings of hunger and fullness did not significantly differ across conditions. Entrées were rated as similar in palatability across conditions. Large amounts of puréed vegetables can be incorporated into various foods to decrease the energy density. This strategy can lead to substantial reductions in energy intakes and increases in vegetable intakes. This trial was registered at clinicaltrials.gov as NCT01165086.

  17. Comparação de procedimentos de quantificação de nitrato em tecido vegetal Comparison of procedures for nitrate determination in vegetable tissue

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    José Ricardo Mantovani

    2005-01-01

    Full Text Available O teor de nitrato é um importante índice da qualidade dos alimentos, mas existem problemas na sua quantificação. O objetivo deste trabalho foi comparar procedimentos de quantificação de nitrato em tecido vegetal. Em amostras de matéria seca da parte aérea de três cultivares de alface adubadas com cinco doses de nitrogênio, provenientes de experimento realizado em casa de vegetação, foi feita extração de nitrato com água desionizada e quantificação, utilizando os procedimentos da coluna redutora contendo cádmio, da destilação, do ácido salicílico e da mistura redutora contendo zinco. Os procedimentos do ácido salicílico e da mistura redutora contendo zinco superestimam os teores de nitrato na matéria seca de alface, pois são mais sujeitos à presença de interferentes e ao efeito da cor do extrato. Os procedimentos da coluna redutora contendo cádmio e o da destilação são os mais adequados na quantificação de nitrato em tecido vegetal. Contudo, a simplicidade e o menor custo da destilação em relação à coluna redutora indicam que a destilação deve ser recomendada.Nitrate content determination is important for food quality evaluation, but its determination is affected by interferences. The objective of this work was to compare nitrate determination procedures for vegetable tissues. In dry matter samples from three lettuce cultivars that received five levels of nitrogen in a greenhouse experiment, nitrate was extracted with deionized water and its determination was made by the cadmium column method, the distillation method, the salicylic acid method, and the method using the reductive mixture with zinc. The salicylic acid method and that of reductive mixture with zinc overestimated the nitrate content in lettuce dry matter, because they were influenced by the color of dry matter extracts and other interferences. The cadmium column and the distillation methods are the best for nitrate determination in vegetable

  18. Australian consumer awareness of health benefits associated with vegetable consumption.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rekhy, Reetica; Khan, Aila; Eason, Jocelyn; Mactavish-West, Hazel; Lister, Carolyn; Mcconchie, Robyn

    2017-04-01

    The present study investigated the perceived health benefits of specific vegetable consumption to guide the use of nutrition and health claims on vegetable marketing collateral. Free elicitation and consumer ranking data were collected through an online survey of 1000 adults from across Australia and analysed for the perceived importance of vegetables in the daily diet, number of serves consumed per day, knowledge about health-related benefits of specific vegetables and perceived health benefits of vegetable consumption. The importance of vegetables in the diet and daily vegetable consumption was higher in people from an English-speaking background, females, people aged 45 years and over and people living in non-metropolitan areas. Digestion was selected as the major health benefit from consumption of specific vegetables. However, understanding of the health benefits of specific vegetable consumption was relatively low among consumers. Half of the respondents were not sure of the health benefits associated with specific vegetables, except for carrots and spinach. Some respondents volunteered nutrient content or other information. There was no clear indication that consumers understand the specific health benefits conferred by consumption of vegetables. Nutrient and health benefit labelling therefore has the capacity to enhance knowledge of vegetable consumers. It is recommended that health benefit labelling be tailored to promote greater consumption of vegetables in those demographic groups where vegetable consumption was lower. The present study assists the Australian vegetable industry in helping consumers make more informed consumption choices. © 2016 Dietitians Association of Australia.

  19. Measuring 226Ra and 232Th activity in soil and vegetation samples using a method of double γ-coincidences

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Antovic, N.M.; Antovic, I.

    2010-01-01

    A coincidence method for measuring radium and thorium activity has been developed using the PRIPYAT-2M gamma-ray coincidence spectrometer, with six NaI(Tl) detectors and registration geometry close to 4π. It was tested by measuring soil samples from the Northern region of Montenegro, as well as vegetation samples from the same region. The results showed a good agreement with ones obtained by the HPGe spectrometer. (author)

  20. Instantaneous Characterization Of Vegetable Oils Via Tag And Ffa Profiles By Easy Ambient Sonic-spray Ionization Mass Spectrometry.

    OpenAIRE

    Simas, Rosineide C; Catharino, Rodrigo R; Cunha, Ildenize B S; Cabral, Elaine C; Barrera-Arellano, Daniel; Eberlin, Marcos N; Alberici, Rosana M

    2015-01-01

    A fast and reliable method is presented for the analysis of vegetable oils. Easy ambient sonic-spray ionization mass spectrometry (EASI-MS) is shown to efficiently desorb and ionize the main oil constituents from an inert surface under ambient conditions and to provide comprehensive triacylglyceride (TAG) and free fatty acid (FFA) profiles detected mainly as either [TAG + Na](+) or [FFA-H](-) ions. EASI(+/-)-MS analysis is simple, easily implemented, requires just a tiny droplet of the oil an...

  1. Flavonoids as fruit and vegetable intake biomarkers

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Krogholm, Kirstine Suszkiewicz

    of fruit and vegetable intakes. In Paper I, the urinary recovery of the 7 flavonoids in morning spot urine (i.e. all urine voids from midnight including the first morning void) was also found to respond to moderate increases in the intake of fruits and vegetables. However, the association was somewhat...... weaker than in 24h urine samples, indicating that the 24h urinary recovery of the 7 flavonoids is a stronger biomarker of the intake of fruit and vegetables than the urinary recovery of the 7 flavonoids in morning spot urine. In Paper II, the biokinetic profiles of some of the most important dietary......-individual variation in the absorption and urinary recovery of the flavonoids, and this makes it very difficult to separate individuals according to intake by use of the flavonoid biomarker in urine. The intra-individual variation was on the contrary low, and Paper II therefore supports the assumption, that 24h...

  2. Flavonoids as fruit and vegetable intake biomarkers

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Krogholm, Kirstine Suszkiewicz

    calculation of the bivariate correlation coefficients is the common approach when using only one reference method. Back in 2002, a strictly controlled dietary intervention study indicated that the sum of 7 different flavonoid aglycones excreted in 24h urine samples potentially could be used as a biomarker...... and cohort studies. The Ph.D. thesis contains four scientific papers. Paper I provides evidence that the sum of 7 flavonoids in 24h urine respond in a linear and sensitive manner to moderate increases in the intake of fruits and vegetables, and thus consolidates that the flavonoids are a valid biomarker...... of fruit and vegetable intakes. In Paper I, the urinary recovery of the 7 flavonoids in morning spot urine (i.e. all urine voids from midnight including the first morning void) was also found to respond to moderate increases in the intake of fruits and vegetables. However, the association was somewhat...

  3. The impact of spices on vegetable consumption

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Li, Zhaoping; Krak, Michael; Zerlin, Alona

    2015-01-01

    This pilot study was conducted to evaluate the impact of spices added to broccoli, cauliflower, and spinach on amount and rate of vegetable consumption. Twenty overweight subjects who routinely ate less than three daily servings of vegetables were recruited. On six occasions, subjects were assigned...... in random order to eat broccoli, cauliflower, or spinach with or without added spices. Dishes were placed on a modified Universal Eating Monitor (UEM) that recorded rate of eating (g/sec), duration of eating (min) and total amount consumed (g). Total intake and duration of eating were increased...... significantly for broccoli with spices compared to plain broccoli, but there was no significant difference for cauliflower or spinach. No significant differences were noted in any of the visual analog scale (VAS) responses. This study suggests that adding spices may increase vegetable intake, but more studies...

  4. Valores na escola

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Menin Maria Suzana De Stefano

    2002-01-01

    Full Text Available Neste texto pretende-se discorrer sobre valores morais na escola e suas implicações para a formação de professores. Para tanto discutir-se-á, em primeiro lugar, e brevemente, o que são valores morais, ou éticos, e como a escola pode situar-se em relação a eles. Em seguida, serão relatadas algumas observações a respeito de valores de professores e práticas daí decorrentes. São comentados resultados de pesquisa que ilustram a transmissão de valores de forma doutrinal e a educação moral e cívica tal como realizada na ditadura militar, e, por outro lado, a posição relativista e/ou de laissez-faire que certas escolas podem adotar, metodologicamente, sobre a educação em valores. Finalmente, defender-se-á a idéia de que é necessária uma discussão sobre valores pelos diversos membros da escola e uma opção por uma metodologia para ensiná-los, seja os professores, em sua formação inicial e continuada, seja os alunos. A teoria de desenvolvimento moral de Jean Piaget será apresentada como uma referência possível para a educação em valores. Exemplos de situações escolares de conflito de valores entre direção, pais e alunos são discutidas para ilustrar como uma escola pode adotar um procedimento democrático de educação em valores, que se apresenta como um terceiro caminho possível de educação moral nas escolas, além das posições doutrinárias ou relativistas.

  5. Heavy metal pollution in vegetables grown in the vicinity of a multi-metal mining area in Gejiu, China: total concentrations, speciation analysis, and health risk.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Yanyan; Wang, Hongbin; Wang, Haijuan; Yin, Fei; Yang, Xiaoyan; Hu, Yongjun

    2014-11-01

    A field survey was conducted to investigate the present situation and health risk of arsenic (As), lead (Pb), cadmium (Cd), copper (Cu), and zinc (Zn) in soils and vegetables in a multi-metal mining area, Gejiu, China. Furthermore, three vegetables (water spinach, potato, and summer squash) containing high metal concentrations were selected to further analyze metal speciation. The results showed that the average concentrations of five metals in soil exceeded the limiting values, and their bioavailable concentrations were significantly positively correlated to the total ones. Heavy metals in the edible parts of vegetables also exceeded the corresponding standards. The leaves of pakchoi, peppermint, and coriander had a strong metal-accumulative ability and they were not suitable for planting. Except the residue forms, the main forms of metals in the edible parts of three selected vegetables were ethanol-, NaCl-, and HAc-extractable fractions for As, Pb, and Cd, respectively; however, Cu was mainly presented as NaCl-extractable and Zn as HAc-extractable fractions. A high proportion of ethanol-extractable As showed that As bioactivity and toxic effects were the highest. Although the total and bioavailable Cd were high in soil, its speciation in vegetables was mainly presented as HAc-extractable fraction, which has a relatively low bioactivity. Lead and arsenic were imposing a serious threat on the local residents via vegetable consumption.

  6. Encontro de Aedes (Stegomyia albopictus (Skuse em Bromeliaceae na periferia de São Paulo, SP, Brasil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Delsio Natal

    1997-10-01

    Full Text Available Foram coletadas larvas de Aedes albopictus em uma planta da família Bromeliaceae, na periferia da cidade de São Paulo, SP, Brasil. Esse encontro abre perspectivas de estudo para avaliação do potencial desse vegetal como criadouro desse mosquito no País.

  7. Encontro de Aedes (Stegomyia albopictus (Skuse em Bromeliaceae na periferia de São Paulo, SP, Brasil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Natal Delsio

    1997-01-01

    Full Text Available Foram coletadas larvas de Aedes albopictus em uma planta da família Bromeliaceae, na periferia da cidade de São Paulo, SP, Brasil. Esse encontro abre perspectivas de estudo para avaliação do potencial desse vegetal como criadouro desse mosquito no País.

  8. Biological effects of fruit and vegetables.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dragsted, Lars O; Krath, Britta; Ravn-Haren, Gitte; Vogel, Ulla B; Vinggaard, Anne Marie; Bo Jensen, Per; Loft, Steffen; Rasmussen, Salka E; Sandstrom, The late BrittMarie; Pedersen, Anette

    2006-02-01

    A strong and persistent effect of plant-derived foods on the prevention of lifestyle diseases has emerged from observational studies. Several groups of constituents in plants have been identified as potentially health promoting in animal studies, including cholesterol-lowering factors, antioxidants, enzyme inducers, apoptosis inducers etc. In human intervention studies the dose levels achieved tend to be lower than the levels found to be effective in animals and sampling from target organs is often not possible. A controlled dietary human intervention study was performed with forty-three volunteers, providing 600 g fruit and vegetables/d or in the controls a carbohydrate-rich drink to balance energy intake. Surrogate markers of oxidative damage to DNA, protein and lipids, enzymic defence and lipid metabolism were determined in blood and urine. It was found that a high intake of fruit and vegetables tends to increase the stability of lipids towards oxidative damage. Markers of oxidative enzymes indicate a steady increase in glutathione peroxidase (GPX1) activity in erythrocytes during intervention with fruit and vegetables but there is no effect on GPX1 transcription levels in leucocytes. No change occurs in glutathione-conjugating or -reducing enzyme activities in erythrocytes or plasma, and there are no effects on the transcription of genes involved in phase 2 enzyme induction or DNA repair in leucocytes. Fruit and vegetable intake decreases the level of total cholesterol and LDL-cholesterol, but does not affect sex hormones. In conclusion, it has been shown that total cholesterol and LDL-cholesterol, markers of peripheral lipid oxidation, and erythrocyte GPX1 activity are affected by high intakes of fruit and vegetables. This finding provides support for a protective role of dietary fruit and vegetables against CVD.

  9. Riparian Vegetation Mapping Along the Hanford Reach

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    FOGWELL, T.W.

    2003-01-01

    During the biological survey and inventory of the Hanford Site conducted in the mid-1990s (1995 and 1996), preliminary surveys of the riparian vegetation were conducted along the Hanford Reach. These preliminary data were reported to The Nature Conservancy (TNC), but were not included in any TNC reports to DOE or stakeholders. During the latter part of FY2001, PNNL contracted with SEE Botanical, the parties that performed the original surveys in the mid 1990s, to complete the data summaries and mapping associated with the earlier survey data. Those data sets were delivered to PNNL and the riparian mapping by vegetation type for the Hanford Reach is being digitized during the first quarter of FY2002. These mapping efforts provide the information necessary to create subsequent spatial data layers to describe the riparian zone according to plant functional types (trees, shrubs, grasses, sedges, forbs). Quantification of the riparian zone by vegetation types is important to a number of DOE'S priority issues including modeling contaminant transport and uptake in the near-riverine environment and the determination of ecological risk. This work included the identification of vegetative zones along the Reach by changes in dominant plant species covering the shoreline from just to the north of the 300 Area to China Bar near Vernita. Dominant and indicator species included Agropyron dasytachyudA. smithii, Apocynum cannabinum, Aristida longiseta, Artemisia campestris ssp. borealis var scouleriana, Artemisa dracunculus, Artemisia lindleyana, Artemisia tridentata, Bromus tectorum, Chrysothamnus nauseosus, Coreopsis atkinsoniana. Eleocharis palustris, Elymus cinereus, Equisetum hyemale, Eriogonum compositum, Juniperus trichocarpa, Phalaris arundinacea, Poa compressa. Salk exigua, Scirpus acutus, Solidago occidentalis, Sporobolus asper,and Sporobolus cryptandrus. This letter report documents the data received, the processing by PNNL staff, and additional data gathered in FY2002

  10. Radionuclide accumulation peculiarities demonstrated by vegetable varieties

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kruk, A.V.; Goncharenko, G.G.; Kilchevsky, A.V.

    2004-01-01

    This study focused on ecological and genetic aspects of radionuclide accumulation demonstrated by a number of vegetable varieties. The researches resulted in determining the cabbage varieties which were characterised by the minimal level of radionuclide accumulation. It was shown that the above varieties manifested the relation between radionuclide accumulation and morphobiological characteristics such as vegetation period duration and yield criteria. The study specified the genotypes with high ecological stability as regards to radionuclide accumulation: 'Beloruskaya 85' cabbage and 'Dokhodny' tomato showed the best response to Cs 137, while 'Beloruskaya 85', 'Rusinovka', 'Amager 611' cabbage varieties and 'Sprint' tomato showed the minimal level of Sr 90 accumulation. (authors)

  11. A vegetation map for eastern Africa

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lillesø, Jens-Peter Barnekow; van Breugel, Paulo; Graudal, Lars

    2015-01-01

    The potential natural vegetation (PNV) map of eastern and southern Africa covers the countries Burundi, Ethiopia, Kenya, Uganda, Rwanda, Tanzania, and Zambia. The first version of the map was developed by various partners in East Africa and Europe in 2010 and has now reached version 2. The map...... is available in different formats and is accompanied by an extensive documentation of the floristic, physiognomic and other characteristics of the different vegetation types and useful woody species in the 8 countries. It is complemented by a species selection tool, which can be used to 'find the right tree...

  12. Ultrasonic characterization of vegetable oil product

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sidek Hj Abd Aziz; Chow Sai Pew; Abdul Halim Shaari; Nor Azizah Shaari

    1992-01-01

    The ultrasonic wave velocity and attenuation of a number vegetable oil products were measured using an ultrasonic pulse echo overlap technique from room temperature up to 90 0 C. Among the liquid samples studied were refined bleach deodorized (RED) palm oil, palm olein, coconut oil, corn oil and soya bean oil. The velocity of sound in vegetable oil products varies from about 1200 to 200 ms-1 and decrease linearly as the temperature increases. The ultrasonic properties of the oil are much dependent on their viscosity, density, relaxation effect and vibrational anharmonicity

  13. Pre-sowing irradiation of vegetable seeds

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Stoyanov, S

    1975-01-01

    Results are reported of trials with radiation stimulation of vegetable crops conducted under farm conditions in different regions. They were based on exact tests accomplished at the IGHB. Pre-sowing irradiation of seed increased the greenhouse yield of Extase tomato variety by 15%; it increased the yield of Triumph tomato variety under field conditions as well. The pepper variety Kourtovska Kapiya and eggplant variety Bulgarski 12, both grown from irradiated seed in open field produced 18% and 5.5% higher yields, respectively. Irradiation of vegetable seeds finds a large application in the farm practice.

  14. Risk elements in selected types of vegetables

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ľuboš Harangozo

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available Vegetable has an important role in human nutrition. Various parts of the plants have been part of the human diet since the beginning. Vegetables have a number of properties that make its consumption very healthful. It not only is a good source of vitamins, minerals and fiber but also contains protective components so called phytonutrients, has an antioxidant and antimicrobial effects. Daily intake of vegetables offers many health benefits, helps to improve health for example the function of digestive and immune system, reduces the risk of various diseases and so we should take care to its regular consumption. It is widely used, except that it is the basic raw material for the preparation of foods and is also an important raw material for the processing industry. Nowadays has become environmental pollution by heavy metals as a big problem. The contamination of water, soil as well as air pollution by heavy metals negatively affects agricultural production and production of non-harmful to health, safe and quality food, which may be adverse effects on human health. Therefore, it is important that we devote this issue more attention. The aim of this work was to identify and determine content of heavy metals in selected vegetables. Defined objectives have been achieved by analyzing of selected species samples of root from brassica vegetables: carrot (Daucus carota L. ssp. sativus, parsley (Petroselinum hortesne HOFFM conv. radicosum, kohlrabi (Brassica oleracea L. var. gongylodes, celery (Apium graveolens L. var. rapaceum and beetroot (Beta vulgaris L. var. conditiva ssp. vulgaris. The crops were bought in local market. The obtained results were compared with the results obtained from analyzes of vegetables that were grown in home conditions respectively from markets of local growers. All crops were grown in Slovak Republic. By using Varian AA 240FS and AAS method were analyzed the contents of risk metals in selected vegetables. It was confirmed that

  15. Fruit and Vegetable Consumption and Mortality

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Leenders, Max; Sluijs, Ivonne; Ros, Martine M

    2013-01-01

    % CI: 0.70, 1.54), and with a preventable proportion of 2.95%. This association was driven mainly by cardiovascular disease mortality (for the highest quartile, hazard ratio = 0.85, 95% CI: 0.77, 0.93). Stronger inverse associations were observed for participants with high alcohol consumption or high...... body mass index and suggested in smokers. Inverse associations were stronger for raw than for cooked vegetable consumption. These results support the evidence that fruit and vegetable consumption is associated with a lower risk of death....

  16. Straight Vegetable Oil as a Diesel Fuel?

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    None

    2014-01-01

    Biodiesel, a renewable fuel produced from animal fats or vegetable oils, is popular among many vehicle owners and fleet managers seeking to reduce emissions and support U.S. energy security. Questions sometimes arise about the viability of fueling vehicles with straight vegetable oil (SVO), or waste oils from cooking and other processes, without intermediate processing. But SVO and waste oils differ from biodiesel (and conventional diesel) in some important ways and are generally not considered acceptable vehicle fuels for large-scale or long-term use.

  17. Pre-sowing irradiation of vegetable seeds

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Stoyanov, S.

    1975-01-01

    Results are reported of trials with radiation stimulation of vegetable crops conducted under farm conditions in different regions. They were based on exact tests accomplished at the IGHB. Pre-sowing irradiation of seed increased the greenhouse yield of Extase tomato variety by 15%; it increased the yield of Triumph tomato variety under field conditions as well. The pepper variety Kourtovska Kapiya and eggplant variety Bulgarski 12, both grown from irradiated seed in open field produced 18% and 5.5% higher yields, respectively. Irradiation of vegetable seeds finds a large application in the farm practice. (author)

  18. Multispectral Imaging of Wok-Fried Vegetables

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Clemmensen, Line Katrine Harder; Dissing, Bjørn Skovlund; Hyldig, Grethe

    2012-01-01

    Quality control in the food industry is often performed by measuring various chemical compounds in the food involved. The authors propose an imaging concept for acquiring high-quality multispectral images to evaluate optical reflection changes in carrots and celeriac over a period of 14 days....... For comparison, sensory analysis was performed on the same samples. Prior to multispectral image recording, the vegetables were prefried and frozen at -30 °C for 4 months. During the 14 days of image recording, the vegetables were kept at +5 °C. In this period, surface changes and thereby reflectance properties...

  19. Nutrición vegetal (III).

    OpenAIRE

    Moyeja Santana, Juan de Jesús

    2007-01-01

    Editorial. Suniaga Q., José La codorniz fuente proteica para consumo humano. Díaz Cuellar, Doraida R. y González, Diomary Diagnóstico de parásitos gastrointestinales en bovinos y su importancia en la productividad de los sistemas ganaderos. Castillo O., Mayela; Hernández, Javier A.; Betancourt, Arquímedes y Suniaga Q., José Nutrición vegetal (II). Moyeja Santana, Juan de Jesús Nutrición vegetal (III). Moyeja Santana, Juan de Jesús Plagas chupadoras de las cítrica...

  20. Nutrición vegetal (II).

    OpenAIRE

    Moyeja Santana, Juan de Jesús

    2007-01-01

    Editorial. Suniaga Q., José La codorniz fuente proteica para consumo humano. Díaz Cuellar, Doraida R. y González, Diomary Diagnóstico de parásitos gastrointestinales en bovinos y su importancia en la productividad de los sistemas ganaderos. Castillo O., Mayela; Hernández, Javier A.; Betancourt, Arquímedes y Suniaga Q., José Nutrición vegetal (II). Moyeja Santana, Juan de Jesús Nutrición vegetal (III). Moyeja Santana, Juan de Jesús Plagas chupadoras de las cítrica...

  1. A aposta na filosofia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Márcio Suzuki

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available Para Hume, filosofar é uma atividade semelhante às demais ocupações humanas. A decisão que leva à atividade filosófica é menos resultado de uma argumentação teórica do que fruto de um cálculo prático, que é entendido como uma caça ou um jogo. O objetivo deste trabalho será o de mostrar que no jogo filosófico perde quem joga sério demais. A aposta na filosofia tem que passar pelo bom humor e pela diversão: uma resposta a Pascal?For Hume, philosophy is in itself neither more nor less important than other human activities. On the contrary, it can be explained from its resemblance with game and hunting. If one chooses to dedicate himself to philosophy, his decision is not the consequence of logical reasoning, but depends on practical evaluation, which has something to do with gambling. The following text tries to show that in philosophy, like in other games, the loser will be the one who plays too earnestly. The philosophical game requires good humour and some relaxation: Is this a good answer to Pascal's pari?

  2. Application of Spectroscopic Techniques for the Determination of Trace Element Concentrations in some Sudanese vegetables and fruits

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ahmed, A. N.; Ali, A. H.; Eltayeb, M. A. H.; Othman, M. M.; Taha, K. K.

    2004-01-01

    The objectives of this study were to determine the levels of the mineral nutrients, especially of trace elements, in some food items commonly consumed in Sudan and to compare the results of this work with local and international data. Food samples of fruits and vegetables were collected from different localities in Sudan. The samples were then prepared and their Br, Ca, Co, Cu, Fe, Mg, Mn, P, Pb, Na, Rb, Sr, and Zn content were determined using Atomic absorption spectroscopy (AAS), X-ray fluorescence spectroscopy (XRF), flame photometry and colorimetry. Verified standards TDD-1D and Hay-9 (supplied by the IAEA) were measured using the techniques mentioned above for accuracy. The Sudanese food items analyzed were found to contain considerable ranges of nutrients as follows: - Concentration levels for some of these elements Ca, Cu and Fe show higher values in fruits (4709, 21, and 633 ppm, respectively), and lower in vegetables (4094, 13, and 255 ppm , respectively). Pb and Mn were higher in vegetables (2 and 32 ppm, respectively) and lower in fruits (1 and 18 ppm) respectively). Na and Zn were higher in vegetables (3149 and 26 ppm, respectively) and lower in fruits (269 and 13 ppm, respectively). The values obtained agree, in general, with data available from other countries. Variations were observed among certain varieties of food. (Authors)

  3. Methyl Ester (Bio diesel) Production from Waste Cooking Vegetable Oil by Microwave Irradiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Khatun, M.S.; Khatun, M.A.; Khan, M.Z.H.; Debnath, M.

    2014-01-01

    In this study we tried to develop, test and optimize a batch microwave system using waste cooking vegetable oil (WCVO) that was used as bio diesel feedstock. Two catalysts, sodium hydroxide (NaOH) and potassium hydroxide (KOH) were tested in this study. Transesterification reactions between oil and methanol were carried out in presence of microwaves. It was observed that by using of microwaves, the reaction times were drastically reduced. As high as 99.5 % conversions could be achieved for 0.5% KOH concentration. Moreover, quality analysis of bio diesels according to international standards was performed and the samples were found to meet the necessary specifications. (author)

  4. Contamination of crop vegetation with trace elements from a fertilizer plant. An INAA study

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pantelica, A.; Oprea, C.; Frontasyeva, M.; Georgescu, I.I.; Pincovschi, E.; Catana, L.

    2004-01-01

    Instrumental neutron activation analysis (INAA) was used to determine various trace elements in crop vegetation (potato, carrot and maize) grown around a phosphate fertilizer plant in Romania. INAA using long-lived radionuclides was applied at NIPNE in Bucharest, and based on short-lived radionuclides at JINR in Dubna. The results for Na, Mg, Cl, K, Ca, Mn, Fe, Zn, As, and Hg were compared with Romanian norms for the alimentary products, as well as with literature data. Concentration ratios to control samples for both soil and crop as well as concentration factors of crop to host soil were assessed. (author)

  5. Effects of vegetation structure on biomass accumulation in a Balanced Optimality Structure Vegetation Model (BOSVM v1.0

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Z. Yin

    2014-05-01

    Full Text Available A myriad of interactions exist between vegetation and local climate for arid and semi-arid regions. Vegetation function, structure and individual behavior have large impacts on carbon–water–energy balances, which consequently influence local climate variability that, in turn, feeds back to the vegetation. In this study, a conceptual vegetation structure scheme is formulated and tested in the new Balanced Optimality Structure Vegetation Model (BOSVM to explore the importance of vegetation structure and vegetation adaptation to water stress on equilibrium biomass states. Surface energy, water and carbon fluxes are simulated for a range of vegetation structures across a precipitation gradient in West Africa and optimal vegetation structures that maximize biomass for each precipitation regime are determined. Two different strategies of vegetation adaptation to water stress are included. Under dry conditions vegetation tries to maximize the water use efficiency and leaf area index as it tries to maximize carbon gain. However, a negative feedback mechanism in the vegetation–soil water system is found as the vegetation also tries to minimize its cover to optimize the surrounding bare ground area from which water can be extracted, thereby forming patches of vertical vegetation. Under larger precipitation, a positive feedback mechanism is found in which vegetation tries to maximize its cover as it then can reduce water loss from bare soil while having maximum carbon gain due to a large leaf area index. The competition between vegetation and bare soil determines a transition between a "survival" state to a "growing" state.

  6. Estimating fractional vegetation cover and the vegetation index of bare soil and highly dense vegetation with a physically based method

    Science.gov (United States)

    Song, Wanjuan; Mu, Xihan; Ruan, Gaiyan; Gao, Zhan; Li, Linyuan; Yan, Guangjian

    2017-06-01

    Normalized difference vegetation index (NDVI) of highly dense vegetation (NDVIv) and bare soil (NDVIs), identified as the key parameters for Fractional Vegetation Cover (FVC) estimation, are usually obtained with empirical statistical methods However, it is often difficult to obtain reasonable values of NDVIv and NDVIs at a coarse resolution (e.g., 1 km), or in arid, semiarid, and evergreen areas. The uncertainty of estimated NDVIs and NDVIv can cause substantial errors in FVC estimations when a simple linear mixture model is used. To address this problem, this paper proposes a physically based method. The leaf area index (LAI) and directional NDVI are introduced in a gap fraction model and a linear mixture model for FVC estimation to calculate NDVIv and NDVIs. The model incorporates the Moderate Resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer (MODIS) Bidirectional Reflectance Distribution Function (BRDF) model parameters product (MCD43B1) and LAI product, which are convenient to acquire. Two types of evaluation experiments are designed 1) with data simulated by a canopy radiative transfer model and 2) with satellite observations. The root-mean-square deviation (RMSD) for simulated data is less than 0.117, depending on the type of noise added on the data. In the real data experiment, the RMSD for cropland is 0.127, for grassland is 0.075, and for forest is 0.107. The experimental areas respectively lack fully vegetated and non-vegetated pixels at 1 km resolution. Consequently, a relatively large uncertainty is found while using the statistical methods and the RMSD ranges from 0.110 to 0.363 based on the real data. The proposed method is convenient to produce NDVIv and NDVIs maps for FVC estimation on regional and global scales.

  7. [Effects of road construction on regional vegetation types].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Shi-Liang; Liu, Qi; Wang, Cong; Yang, Jue-Jie; Deng, Li

    2013-05-01

    As a regional artificial disturbance component, road exerts great effects on vegetation types, and plays a substantial role in defining vegetation distribution to a certain extent. Aiming at the tropical rainforest degradation and artificial forest expansion in Yunnan Province of Southwest China, this paper analyzed the effects of road network extension on regional vegetation types. In the Province, different classes of roads had different effects on the vegetation types, but no obvious regularity was observed in the effects on the patch areas of different vegetation types due to the great variations of road length and affected distance. However, the vegetation patch number was more affected by lower class roads because of their wide distribution. As for different vegetation types, the vegetations on cultivated land were most affected by roads, followed by Castanopsis hystrix and Schima wallichii forests. Road network formation contributed most to the vegetation fragmentation, and there existed significant correlations between the human disturbance factors including village- and road distributions.

  8. Heavy Metals Accumulation Characteristics of Vegetables in Hangzhou City, China

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    GU Yan-qing

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available A field survey of heavy metal concentrations in soils and vegetables grown in 30 vegetable farmlands of Hangzhou City were carried out. Through calculating the bioconcentration factor(BCFand transfer factor(TFfor different heavy metals(Cu, Zn, Cd, Cr and Pbin 27 kinds of different vegetables which belong to leafy vegetables, root vegetables or eggplant fruit vegetables, assessing their accumulation characteristics of heavy metals according to the differences of the bio-concentration factor, the reasonable proposals were put forward to optimize the planting structure of vegetables in mild and middle-level heavy metal contamination soils. The experimental results were as follows: In soils with mild and middle-level heavy metal contamination, leafy vegetables, such as crown daisy, cabbage, celery and Chinese long cabbage, had relatively low enrichment ability of heavy metals, so as the root and fruit vegetables like white radish, carrot, tomatoes, hence these vegetables could be planted preferentially. In contrast, some kinds of vegetables, including white amaranth, red amaranth, tatsoi, broccoli, gynura, brassica juncea and lettuce of leafy vegetables, lactuca sativa, taro, red radish and cherry radish of rhizome vegetables and sweet pepper of fruit vegetables, had relatively high accumulation ability of heavy metal, which should be avoided to be planted in soils with mild and middle-level heavy metal contamination.

  9. Consumer Acceptance Comparison Between Seasoned and Unseasoned Vegetables.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Feng, Yiming; Albiol Tapia, Marta; Okada, Kyle; Castaneda Lazo, Nuria Blanca; Chapman-Novakofski, Karen; Phillips, Carter; Lee, Soo-Yeun

    2018-02-01

    Recent findings show that approximately 87% of the U.S. population fail to meet the vegetable intake recommendations, with unpleasant taste of vegetables being listed as the primary reason for this shortfall. In this study, spice and herb seasoning was used to enhance palatability of vegetables, in order to increase consumer acceptance. In total, 749 panelists were screened and recruited as specific vegetable likers of the vegetable being tested or general vegetable likers. Four sessions were designed to evaluate the effect of seasoning within each type of vegetable, including broccoli, cauliflower, carrot, and green bean. Each panelist was only allowed to participate in one test session to evaluate only one vegetable type, so as to mitigate potential learning effect. Overall, the results showed that seasoned vegetables were significantly preferred over unseasoned vegetables (P trend of seasoned vegetable being preferred remained. The findings from this study demonstrate the effect of seasoning in enhancing consumer liking of vegetables, which may lead to increased consumption to be assessed in future studies. To improve the sensory properties of vegetables, masking the bitter taste of vegetables using spice and herb seasoning are gaining increasing attention. Our findings suggest that the overall liking of vegetables could be improved by incorporating spice and herb seasonings that are specifically formulated for each vegetable. Ultimately, developing and commercializing spice and herb seasonings may aid to increase vegetable consumption, as well as expanding the vegetable seasoning market. © 2018 The Authors Journal of Food Science published by Wiley Periodicals, Inc. on behalf of Institute of Food Technologists.

  10. VPLIV OSEBNOSTI NA STILE VODENJA

    OpenAIRE

    Vučak, Petra

    2009-01-01

    Nekatere naše vrline krasijo zlate lastnosti, druge pa kvarijo sivi odtenki. Če bi ljudje razumeli in spoznali svojo osebnost, ter osebnostne tipe drugih ljudi, bi se problemi pri komunikaciji občutno zmanjšali. Takrat bi namreč lažje uvideli, zakaj je nekdo reagiral na način, kot je ali zakaj je nekdo dejal to, kar je. Smisel tega je, da spoznamo svoje dobre lastnosti, ki jih lahko še bolj razvijemo, slabe pa poskušamo nadzorovati in tako zmanjšati njihov vpliv. Iskanje uspešnih in učink...

  11. SPOLNO NADLEGOVANJE NA DELOVNEM MESTU

    OpenAIRE

    Rubič, Gašper

    2016-01-01

    V diplomskem delu smo v uvodu predstavili problem spolnega nadlegovanja na delovnem mestu in predstavili podjetje TEKSTIL d.d. V nadaljevanju smo z anketo raziskali, ali problem spolnega nadlegovanja na delovnem mestu v obravnavanem podjetju obstaja in če, kako se nanj odziva okolje. V teoretičnem delu smo nadaljevali in predstavili definicijo spolnega nadlegovanja, ki je kakršna koli oblika nezaželenega verbalnega in neverbalnega ali fizičnega ravnanja spolne narave z učinkom ali nameno...

  12. Araneofauna captured in the forest and adjacent area, in the north of Paraná, Brazil Araneofauna capturada na mata e área aberta adjacente, no norte do Paraná, Brasil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lizandra Lucy Catelli

    2008-10-01

    Full Text Available Arachnids make up an exclusive predator group. Eating habit makes the arthropods to move around in search for hunting or building traps with silk threads. In order to know the araneofauna of the Godoy’s Forest State Park, pitfall-like traps were installed inside the forest, edge and adjacent area predominantly grassy. Collections were carried out fortnightly, in the period of a year, separating what was collected during the day and during the night. One hundred and twenty-one individuals were collected, belonging to 18 families where Lycosidae and Theridiidae were the most abundant, although Lyniphiidae family has prevailed in the forest area. Young individuals prevailed. It is concluded that the highest frequency and abundance of young individuals may be directly related to its dispersal and spiders belonging to the Lycosidae, Zoridae and Theridiidae families, being able to be used as bioindicators. Os aracnídeos compõem um grupo exclusivamente predador. O hábito alimentar faz com que o artropoda locomova-se em busca da caça ou construa armadilhas com fios de seda. Buscando conhecer a araneofauna do Parque Estadual Mata dos Godoy, foram instaladas armadilhas tipo ptiffal dentro da mata, borda e área adjacente, com vegetação predominantemente formada por gramíneas. As coletas eram realizadas quinzenalmente, no período de um ano, separando o coletado em diurno e noturno. Foram coletados 121 indivíduos, pertencentes a 18 famílias, das quais as famílias Lycosidae e Theridiidae foram as mais abundantes, embora a família Lyniphiidae tenha predominado na área de mata. Houve maior freqüência de indivíduos jovens. Conclui-se que a maior freqüência e abundância de indivíduos jovens pode estar diretamente relacionada a sua dispersão e, além disso, as aranhas pertencentes as famílias Lycosidae, Zoridae e Theridiidae, podem ser utilizadas como bioindicadores.

  13. Influence of uranium and lead upon vegetation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Stoklasa, M J

    1913-01-01

    Experiments were performed to determine the effects of radioactive waters on the growth and production of vegetables. Results show that small amounts of radioactive uranium, lead, and radium have a beneficial effect upon the germination and growth of plants. Although uranium is the strongest source of energy, it had less effect than radium.

  14. Nigerian women reap benefits from indigenous vegetables

    International Development Research Centre (IDRC) Digital Library (Canada)

    Working in four administrative states in south- western Nigeria, the Sustainable Production and Utilization of Underutilized Nigerian. Vegetables to Enhance Rural .... children's school fees and health care needs of the family. This will continue to sustain their use of improved production and cultivation once the project has ...

  15. A MODIS-based vegetation index climatology

    Science.gov (United States)

    Our motivation here is to provide information for the NASA Soil Moisture Active Passive (SMAP) satellite soil moisture retrieval algorithms (launch in 2014). Vegetation attenuates the signal and the algorithms must correct for this effect. One approach is to use data that describes the canopy water ...

  16. Vegetables, Soups, Sauces, Gravies and Beverages.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marine Corps Inst., Washington, DC.

    Developed as part of the Marine Corps Institute (MCI) correspondence training program, this course on vegetables, soups, sauces, gravies, and beverages is designed to increase Marine Corps cooks' effectiveness as food handlers, using the proper techniques in the preparation of these items. Introductory materials include specific information for…

  17. Building the United States National Vegetation Classification

    Science.gov (United States)

    Franklin, S.B.; Faber-Langendoen, D.; Jennings, M.; Keeler-Wolf, T.; Loucks, O.; Peet, R.; Roberts, D.; McKerrow, A.

    2012-01-01

    The Federal Geographic Data Committee (FGDC) Vegetation Subcommittee, the Ecological Society of America Panel on Vegetation Classification, and NatureServe have worked together to develop the United States National Vegetation Classification (USNVC). The current standard was accepted in 2008 and fosters consistency across Federal agencies and non-federal partners for the description of each vegetation concept and its hierarchical classification. The USNVC is structured as a dynamic standard, where changes to types at any level may be proposed at any time as new information comes in. But, because much information already exists from previous work, the NVC partners first established methods for screening existing types to determine their acceptability with respect to the 2008 standard. Current efforts include a screening process to assign confidence to Association and Group level descriptions, and a review of the upper three levels of the classification. For the upper levels especially, the expectation is that the review process includes international scientists. Immediate future efforts include the review of remaining levels and the development of a proposal review process.

  18. Vegetable Consumption patterns in Yaounde, Cameroon | Kamga ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    A survey was conducted in August and September 2008 in Yaoundé, Cameroon to assess vegetable consumption attitudes, constraints and factors that stimulate households' consumption. Stratified sample based on district size, socioeconomic status and ethnics groups were used. Three hundred households were ...

  19. Health promoting compounds in vegetables and fruits:

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Brandt, K.; Christensen, L.P.; Hansen-Møller, J.

    2004-01-01

    Vegetables contain unknown compounds with important health promoting effect. The described project defined and tested a two-step screening procedure for identification of such compounds. Step 1 is initial screening according to three criteria: 1.1, chemically reactive functional groups; 1...

  20. 8518 CONSUMPTION OF LEAFY VEGETABLES IN RURAL ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Michael

    2014-03-01

    Mar 1, 2014 ... The head of the household was interviewed and question items ... crops which include alfalfa, wheat and barley with edible leaves are known [5]. .... vegetables for minimum loss of water-soluble nutrients, in spite of the high ...

  1. METHANE PHYTOREMEDIATION BY VEGETATIVE LANDFILL COVER SYSTEMS

    Science.gov (United States)

    Landfill gas, consisting of methane and other gases, is produced from organic compounds degrading in landfills, contributes to global climate change, is toxic to various types of vegetation, and may pose a combustion hazard at higher concentrations. New landfills are required to ...

  2. Continuous wok-frying of vegetables:

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Adler-Nissen, Jens

    2007-01-01

    of loosely bound water from the vegetables allows the products to be frozen and re-heated without drip loss, and it is also an advantage when using them as ingredients in composite foods, such as pâtés. Examples developed by a professional chef indicate that he saved up to half of the cooking time compared...

  3. Fruit and vegetable films and uses thereof

    Science.gov (United States)

    The present invention is directed to monolayer, bilayer, and multilayer films made from fruit, vegetable or a combination thereof, which films have the thinness, strength, flexibility and crispness to serve as alternates or substitutes for seaweed-based films such as nori, while providing nutrition ...

  4. SOLID BIOFUEL UTILIZATION IN VEGETABLE OIL PRODUCTION

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Slusarenko V.

    2016-08-01

    Full Text Available The paper deals with questions of creating at JSC “Alimentarmash "in the last 20 years the technological equipment for the production of vegetable oils from oilseeds: from the press for the final spin to mini oilfactory, using as an energy source for heating the liquid coolant (Thermal oil "Arian" of solid biofuels - husk of sunflower seeds.

  5. Regional vegetation management standards for commercial pine ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Although the understanding gained from these trials allowed for the development of vegetation management standards, their operational and economic viability need to be tested on a commercial basis. Four pine trials were thus initiated to test the applicability of these standards when utilised on a commercial scale. Two of ...

  6. Willow vegetation filters: Principles, results and economy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Perttu, K.

    1996-01-01

    During recent years, it has become obvious that it is both environmentally and economically appropriate to use vegetation filters of different short rotation willows (Salix spp.) to purify water and soil. Swedish experiences of vegetation filter efficiencies have been demonstrated in several laboratory, field lysimeter, and full-scale experiments. However, there are still many questions to be answered, for example, how the uptake and allocation mechanisms of heavy metals and recalcitrant organic constituents function, or which maximum doses are possible in a particular situation without any risk of leachate losses. As far as plant nutrition is concerned, the past two decades of integrated research in Sweden have demonstrated that the willows have capacity for efficient uptake both of macro and micro nutrients, which is reflected in their high productivity. The purpose of this paper is to present some results on how vegetation filter stands of willow, irrigated with municipal wastewater, can function as purification plants, while at the same time producing fuelwood. This twofold utilization benefits both the environment and the economy. Treatment plants for wastewater purification using various types of vegetation filters have been tried in Sweden. The experiences consider both the nutrient and heavy metal uptake, and the whole process chain from establishment, cultivation and harvesting of the wastewater irrigated willow stands, to the utilization of the wood in heating plants. 33 refs, 5 tabs

  7. Remote sensing of vegetation dynamics in drylands

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Tian, Feng; Brandt, Martin Stefan; Liu, Yi Y.

    2016-01-01

    Monitoring long-term biomass dynamics in drylands is of great importance for many environmental applications including land degradation and global carbon cycle modeling. Biomass has extensively been estimated based on the normalized difference vegetation index (NDVI) as a measure of the vegetatio...

  8. Sustainable Production of Underutilized Vegetables to Enhance ...

    International Development Research Centre (IDRC) Digital Library (Canada)

    ... Research Fund (CIFSRF), a joint program of IDRC and the Canadian International Development Agency (CIDA) - aims to increase the food security and economic empowerment of resource-poor rural women farmers in Nigeria through the cultivation, processing, consumption and marketing of underutilized vegetables.

  9. Weeds as important vegetables for farmers

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Cruz Garcia, G.S.; Price, L.L.

    2012-01-01

    The objective of this study was to investigate the multiple uses and cognitive importance of edible weeds in Northeast Thailand. Research methods included focus group discussions and freelistings. A total of 43 weeds consumed as vegetable were reported, including economic, naturalized, agricultural

  10. Vegetable oils as lube basestocks: A review

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    anjanas

    2013-02-27

    Feb 27, 2013 ... widespread use of natural oils and fats. Vegetable oils are promising candidates as base ... Synthetic esters form a large group of products, which can be either from petrochemical or oleo chemical ... In order to combine the environmental behavior and the technical properties of lubricants, a lot of countries ...

  11. Infection potential of vegetative incompatible Ganoderma boninense ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    LiP), manganese peroxidase (MnP) and laccase to degrade the lignin composition in plant cell walls. The present study aimed to evaluate the infection potential of vegetative incompatible isolates of G. boninense in causing Basal Stem Rot ...

  12. Mathematical Modeling of Flow Through Vegetated Regions

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-08-01

    of Illinois at Urbana - Champaign, 1996. [24] M.J. Dwyer, E.G. Patton, and R.H. Shaw. Turbulent kinetic energy budgets from a large-eddy simulation of...retardance in vegetated channels. Journal of the Irrigation and Drainage Division, ASCE, 96:351–357, 1970. [33] W.H. Graf and S.C. Ko. Tests on cylinders

  13. The market for vegetables in North Vietnam

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Wijk, S.; Everaarts, A.P.

    2007-01-01

    The purpose of this project is first to develop the technical oppertunities for vegetable cultivation in the Hoa Binh highlands, and later to establish the ways and means for marketing of the product. To get some first insights in the marketing possibilities, a desk study was carried out of the

  14. Optimization of lamp spectrum for vegetable growth

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Prikupets, L.B.; Tikhomirov, A.A. [Institute of Biophysics, Krasnoyarsk (Russian Federation)

    1994-12-31

    Commmercial light sources were evaluated as to the optimum conditions for the production of tomatoes and cucumbers. Data is presented which corresponds to the maximum productivity and optimal spectral ratios. It is suggested that the commercial light sources evaluated were not efficient for the growing of the vegetables.

  15. Coatings for minimally processed fruits and vegetables

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fresh-cut fruit and vegetables are gaining increasing popularity and market share. Techniques to enhance stability of fresh cut produce are reviewed. Among these techniques, edibles coatings can provide protection against dehydration, microbial decay and decrease events related to physiological sene...

  16. Minimally processed vegetable salads: microbial quality evaluation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fröder, Hans; Martins, Cecília Geraldes; De Souza, Katia Leani Oliveira; Landgraf, Mariza; Franco, Bernadette D G M; Destro, Maria Teresa

    2007-05-01

    The increasing demand for fresh fruits and vegetables and for convenience foods is causing an expansion of the market share for minimally processed vegetables. Among the more common pathogenic microorganisms that can be transmitted to humans by these products are Listeria monocytogenes, Escherichia coli O157:H7, and Salmonella. The aim of this study was to evaluate the microbial quality of a selection of minimally processed vegetables. A total of 181 samples of minimally processed leafy salads were collected from retailers in the city of Sao Paulo, Brazil. Counts of total coliforms, fecal coliforms, Enterobacteriaceae, psychrotrophic microorganisms, and Salmonella were conducted for 133 samples. L. monocytogenes was assessed in 181 samples using the BAX System and by plating the enrichment broth onto Palcam and Oxford agars. Suspected Listeria colonies were submitted to classical biochemical tests. Populations of psychrotrophic microorganisms >10(6) CFU/g were found in 51% of the 133 samples, and Enterobacteriaceae populations between 10(5) and 106 CFU/g were found in 42% of the samples. Fecal coliform concentrations higher than 10(2) CFU/g (Brazilian standard) were found in 97 (73%) of the samples, and Salmonella was detected in 4 (3%) of the samples. Two of the Salmonella-positive samples had minimally processed vegetables had poor microbiological quality, and these products could be a vehicle for pathogens such as Salmonella and L. monocytogenes.

  17. Zur Flora und Vegetation des Jeschkenkammes

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Petřík, Petr; Višňák, R.

    2006-01-01

    Roč. 14, - (2006), s. 127-140 ISSN 0941-0627 R&D Projects: GA AV ČR IAA6005202 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z60050516 Keywords : phytogeography * potential natural vegetation * nature conservation Subject RIV: EF - Botanics

  18. Multispectral imaging of wok fried vegetables

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Løje, Hanne; Dissing, Bjørn Skovlund; Clemmensen, Line Katrine Harder

    2011-01-01

    This paper shows how multispectral images can be used to assess color change over time in wok fried vegetables. We present results where feature selection was performed with sparse methods from the multispectral images to detect the color changes of wok fried carrots and celeriac stored at +5°C...

  19. Phytostabilization of metals by indigenous riparian vegetation ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    When measured against an ideal hypothetical buffer zone, the buffer zones under investigation varied between intact and severely compromised. Intact riparian zones showed elevated metal concentrations in the soil, yet significantly lower concentrations in the river water compared to areas with insufficient vegetative cover ...

  20. Vermicomposting of Vegetable Wastes Using Cow Dung

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    K. Muthukumaravel

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available Municipal solid wastes are mainly from domestic and commercial areas containing recyclable toxic substances, compostable organic matter and others. With rapid increase in population, the generation of municipal solid wastes has increased several folds during last few years. Disposal of solid wastes can be done by methods like land filling, incineration, recycling, conversion into biogas, disposal into sea and composting. Vermicomposting is one of the recycling technologies which will improve the quality of the products. The present study aims to find out the possibility of utilization of vegetable wastes for vermiculture. Earthworm Megascolex mauritii cultured in plastic trays (45 x 30 x 30 cm containing soil alone (control (T1, soil + cow dung (T2, soil + vegetable waste (T3 and soil + vegetable waste + cow dung (T4 for 60 days. Nutrient values were determined from the compost and compared with that of the control. From these results, it was found that NPK values were maximum in compost obtained from vegetable waste with the use of cow dung.

  1. Remote sensing applications for monitoring rangeland vegetation ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Remote sensing techniques hold considerable promise for the inventory and monitoring of natural resources on rangelands. A significant lack of information concerning basic spectral characteristics of range vegetation and soils has resulted in a lack of rangeland applications. The parameters of interest for range condition ...

  2. High pressure effects on fruits and vegetables

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Timmermans, R.A.H.; Matser, A.M.

    2016-01-01

    The chapter provides an overview on different high pressure based treatments (high pressure pasteurization, blanching, pressure-assisted thermal processing, pressure-shift freezing and thawing) available for the preservation of fruits and vegetable products and extending their shelf life. Pressure

  3. Recycling of uranium by a perennial vegetation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Thiry, Y.

    2005-01-01

    At sites of large scale mining and processing of uranium ore, tailings and waste rock piles are today the most visible relics of the uranium extractive industry. These mining relics are constantly subjected to weathering and leaching processes causing the dissemination of radioactive and toxic elements and sometimes requiring remedial operations. The in situ remediation of waste rock piles usually includes their revegetation for minimizing the water infiltration and for increasing surface soil stability. Thanks to its biomass density and longevity, the perennial vegetation plays an important role in stabilisation of the water cycling. The buffer role of forest vegetation can reduce water export from watersheds as well as erosion and hydrological losses of chemicals including radionuclides from contaminated sites. If long term reduction of contaminant dispersion at revegetated uranium mining sites is to be fully appreciated, then the extent of radioactive contaminant availability to forest vegetation and ecosystem cycling as well as the possible economic valorisation of the woody products must be considered. Concerned study focused on a Scots pine plantation established 35 years ago on a uranium waste rock pile (Wismuth GmbH) situated near Schlema (Germany). This investigation aimed at quantifying the mobility of uranium in the mining debris and its transport to the different tree compartments with emphasis on the processes involved. The influence of pine vegetation on uranium cycling dynamics was further assessed in terms of annual fluxes)

  4. Genetic characterization of two traditional leafy vegetables ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Genetic characterization of two traditional leafy vegetables (Sesamum radiatum Thonn. ex Hornem and Ceratotheca sesamoides Endl.) of Benin, using flow cytometry and amplified fragment length polymorphism (AFLP) markers. K Adéoti, A Rival, A Dansi, S Santoni, S Brown, T Beule, A Nato, Y Henry, R Vodouhe, L Loko, ...

  5. Vermicomposting of vegetable waste: A biophysicochemical process ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    some cities, the organic waste (market, municipal, household) are dumped indiscriminately or littered on the streets causing environmental deterioration. Biological processes such as composting followed by vermicomposting to convert vegetables waste (as valuable nutrient source) in agriculturally useful organic fertilizer ...

  6. Variation of MODIS reflectance and vegetation indices with viewing geometry and soybean development

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fábio M. Breunig

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available Directional effects introduce a variability in reflectance and vegetation index determination, especially when large field-of-view sensors are used (e.g., Moderate Resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer - MODIS. In this study, we evaluated directional effects on MODIS reflectance and four vegetation indices (Normalized Difference Vegetation Index - NDVI; Enhanced Vegetation Index - EVI; Normalized Difference Water Index - NDWI1640 and NDWI2120 with the soybean development in two growing seasons (2004-2005 and 2005-2006. To keep the reproductive stage for a given cultivar as a constant factor while varying viewing geometry, pairs of images obtained in close dates and opposite view angles were analyzed. By using a non-parametric statistics with bootstrapping and by normalizing these indices for angular differences among viewing directions, their sensitivities to directional effects were studied. Results showed that the variation in MODIS reflectance between consecutive phenological stages was generally smaller than that resultant from viewing geometry for closed canopies. The contrary was observed for incomplete canopies. The reflectance of the first seven MODIS bands was higher in the backscattering. Except for the EVI, the other vegetation indices had larger values in the forward scattering direction. Directional effects decreased with canopy closure. The NDVI was lesser affected by directional effects than the other indices, presenting the smallest differences between viewing directions for fixed phenological stages.Efeitos direcionais introduzem variabilidade na reflectância e na determinação de índices de vegetação, especialmente quando sensores de amplo campo de visada são usados (p.ex., Moderate Resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer - MODIS. Neste estudo, nós avaliamos os efeitos direcionais sobre a reflectância e quatro índices de vegetação (Normalized Difference Vegetation Index - NDVI; Enhanced Vegetation Index - EVI; Normalized

  7. Active transport of Na+ by reconstituted Na,K-ATPase

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Boldyrev, A.A.; Svinukhova, I.A.

    1987-01-01

    The ability of ATP, CTP, ITP, GTP, and UTP to support ouabain-sensitive accumulation of Na + by proteoliposomes with a reconstituted Na/K-pump was investigated. At a low [Na + ]/[K + ] ratio in the medium (20 mM/50 mM), a correlation is observed between the proton-accepting capacity of the nucleotide and its effectiveness as a substrate of active transport. To test the hypothesis of the importance of the presence of a negative charge in the 1-position of the purine (3-pyrimidine) base of the nucleotide for mutual transitions between the Na- and K-conformations of Na,K-ATPase they used two analogs of ATP: N 1 -hydroxy-ATP, possessing proton acceptor capacity, and N 1 -methoxy-ATP, in the molecule of which the negative charge is quenched by a methyl group. The first substrate supports active accumulation of Na + in proteoliposomes at the same rate as ATP, whereas the second substrate is relatively ineffective

  8. Mineral Element Concentrations in Vegetables Cultivated in Acidic Compared to Alkaline Areas of South Sweden

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ingegerd Rosborg

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available A study in 1997, on mineral levels in acidic compared to alkaline well waters, and in women’s hair, revealed higher concentrations of a number of mineral elements like Ca, Mo and Se in alkaline waters and hair. Thus, median Ca levels were six times higher in well water and five times higher in hair from the alkaline area compared to the acidic area. This finding raised the probability of similar differences in vegetables from these areas. Thus, in the year 2006, 60 women who had participated in the study in 1997 were asked to cultivate parsley, lettuce, carrot and chive. During the spring of 2006, the women from the water and hair study of 1997, 30 of them from the acidic area and 30 women from the alkaline district cultivated vegetables: carrot (Daucus carota L, parsley (Petroselinum crispum, chive (Allium schoenoprasum and lettuce (Eruca sativa. The vegetables were harvested, and rinsed in tap water from the kitchens of the participating women in August. The concentrations of about 35 elements and ions were determined by ICP OES and ICP-MS predominantly. In addition, soil samples from the different cultivators were also analyzed for a number of elements. Lettuce and parsley showed the highest concentrations of mineral elements per gram dry weight. Only Mo concentrations were significantly higher in all the different vegetables from the alkaline district compared to vegetables from the acidic areas. On the other hand, the concentrations of Ba, Br, Mn, Rb and Zn were higher in all the different vegetables from the acidic area. In the soil, only pH and exchangeable Ca from the alkaline area were higher than from the acidic area, while exchangeable Fe, Mn and Na concentrations were higher in soils from the acidic area. Soil elements like Al, Fe, Li, Ni, Pb, Si, Ti, V, Zn and Zr were found in higher concentrations in lettuce and parsley, which were attributed to soil particles being splashed on the plants by the rain and absorbed by the leaves

  9. Production of Biodiesel from Waste Vegetable Oil via KM Micromixer

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. F. Elkady

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available The production of biodiesel from waste vegetable oils through its pretreatment followed by transesterification process in presence of methanol was investigated using a KM micromixer reactor. The parameters affecting biodiesel production process such as alcohol to oil molar ratio, catalyst concentration, the presence of tetrahydrofuran (THF as a cosolvent, and the volumetric flow rates of inlet fluids were optimized. The properties of the produced biodiesel were compared with its parent waste oil through different characterization techniques. The presence of methyl ester groups at the produced biodiesel was confirmed using both the gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (GC-MS and the infrared spectroscopy (FT-IR. Moreover, the thermal analysis of the produced biodiesel and the comparable waste oil indicated that the product after the transesterification process began to vaporize at 120°C which makes it lighter than its parent oil which started to vaporize at around 300°C. The maximum biodiesel production yield of 97% was recorded using 12 : 1 methanol to oil molar ratio in presence of both 1% NaOH and THF/methanol volume ratio 0.3 at 60 mL/h flow rate.

  10. Semi-Dried Fruits and Vegetables

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gamze Uysal Seçkin

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Since ancient times, the preservation of fruit and vegetables is an ancient method of drying. Sun drying method has been used more widely. In general, consumer-ready products are dried fruits, while the dried vegetables are the foods subjected to the rehydration processes such as boiling, heating and baking before consumption. In recent years, new products with high eating quality have been attempted to achieve without losing characteristic of raw material. With the improving of food technology, using developed methods (pH reduction with reducing aw, slight heating, preservatives use etc. as protective agent, and using a combination of a low rate as an alternative to traditional food preservation process, products have been obtained without changing original characteristics of food. ‘Semi-dried 'or 'medium moist 'products with little difference between the taste and texture of the product with a damp have gained importance in recent years in terms of consumer preferences. Vegetables or fruits, which have water activity levels between 0.50 and 0.95 and the moisture content of between 26% and 60%, are called 'medium moist fruit or vegetables'. Two different manufacturing process to obtain a semi-dried or intermediate moisture products are applied. First, fully dried fruits and vegetables to be rehydrated with water are brought to the desired level of their moisture content. Second, in the first drying process, when the product moisture content is reduced to the desired level, the drying process is finished. The semi-dried products are preferred by consumers because they have a softer texture in terms of eating quality and like fresh products texture.

  11. Dry deposition of radionuclides on leafy vegetables

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Heuberger, H.; Tschiersch, J.; Shinonaga, T.; Bunzl, K.; Pliml, A.; Dietl, F.; Keusch, M.

    2004-01-01

    The dry deposition of gaseous elemental radio-iodine and particulate radio-caesium on mature leafy vegetable was studied in chamber experiments. The simultaneous exposition of endive, head lettuce, red oak leaf lettuce and spinach (spring leafy vegetable) rsp. curly kale, white cabbage and spinach (summer leafy vegetable) was performed under homogeneous and controlled conditions. The sample collective of each species was such large that for the expected variation of the results a statistically firm analysis was possible. Significant differences were observed for the 131 I deposition on spring vegetable: the deposition on spinach was roughly 3times that on leaf lettuce, 4times that on endive and 9times that on head lettuce. For 134 Cs, there was no significant difference between spinach and leaf lettuce, about twice the amount was deposited on both species as on endive and 3times as on head lettuce. All summer vegetables showed differences in deposition. For lodine, the deposition on spinach was roughly 3times (6times) that on curly kale and 35times (100times) that on white cabbage in the 2 experiments. For caesium, the deposition to curly kale was highest, about twice that on spinach and 35times (80times) that on white cabbage. The deposition velocity could be estimated, in average it was about 8times higher for 131 I than for 134 Cs. The influence of the particle size on the deposition velocity was small in the considered size range. Washing could reduce the contamination by about 10% for 131 I and 45% for 134 Cs. (orig.)

  12. Impacts of vegetation change on groundwater recharge

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bond, W. J.; Verburg, K.; Smith, C. J.

    2003-12-01

    Vegetation change is the accepted cause of increasing river salt concentrations and the salinisation of millions of hectares of farm land in Australia. Replacement of perennial native vegetation by annual crops and pastures following European settlement has altered the water balance causing increased groundwater recharge and mobilising the naturally saline groundwater. The Redesigning Agriculture for Australian Landscapes Program, of which the work described here is a part, was established to develop agricultural practices that are more attuned to the delicate water balance described above. Results of field measurements will be presented that contrast the water balance characteristics of native vegetation with those of conventional agricultural plants, and indicate the functional characteristics required of new agricultural practices to reduce recharge. New agricultural practices may comprise different management of current crops and pastures, or may involve introducing totally new species. In either case, long-term testing is required to examine their impact on recharge over a long enough climate record to encompass the natural variability of rainfall that is characteristic of most Australian farming regions. Field experimentation therefore needs to be complemented and extended by computer simulation. This requires a modelling approach that is more robust than conventional crop modelling because (a) it needs to be sensitive enough to predict small changes in the residual recharge term, (b) it needs to be able to simulate a variety of vegetation in different sequences, (c) it needs to be able to simulate continuously for several decades of input data, and (d) it therefore needs to be able to simulate the period between crops, which often has a critical impact on recharge. The APSIM simulation framework will be used to illustrate these issues and to explore the effect of different vegetation combinations on recharge.

  13. Beam monitoring at NA2

    CERN Multimedia

    1978-01-01

    Claus Goessling working on the beam Cerenkov counter of NA2. The muon beam enters from left the hall EHN2 and the last element of the beam transport. On background is the access door on the Jura side.

  14. A comparison of treating metabolic acidosis in CKD stage 4 hypertensive kidney disease with fruits and vegetables or sodium bicarbonate.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goraya, Nimrit; Simoni, Jan; Jo, Chan-Hee; Wesson, Donald E

    2013-03-01

    Current guidelines recommend Na(+)-based alkali for CKD with metabolic acidosis and plasma total CO2 (PTCO2) < 22 mM. Because diets in industrialized societies are typically acid-producing, we compared base-producing fruits and vegetables with oral NaHCO3 (HCO3) regarding the primary outcome of follow-up estimated GFR (eGFR) and secondary outcomes of improved metabolic acidosis and reduced urine indices of kidney injury. Individuals with stage 4 (eGFR, 15-29 ml/min per 1.73 m(2)) CKD due to hypertensive nephropathy, had a PTCO2 level < 22 mM, and were receiving angiotensin-converting enzyme inhibition were randomly assigned to 1 year of daily oral NaHCO3 at 1.0 mEq/kg per day (n=35) or fruits and vegetables dosed to reduce dietary acid by half (n=36). Plasma cystatin C-calculated eGFR did not differ at baseline and 1 year between groups. One-year PTCO2 was higher than baseline in the HCO3 group (21.2±1.3 versus 19.5±1.5 mM; P<0.01) and the fruits and vegetables group (19.9±1.7 versus 19.3±1.9 mM; P<0.01), consistent with improved metabolic acidosis, and was higher in the HCO3 than the fruits and vegetable group (P<0.001). One-year urine indices of kidney injury were lower than baseline in both groups. Plasma [K(+)] did not increase in either group. One year of fruits and vegetables or NaHCO3 in individuals with stage 4 CKD yielded eGFR that was not different, was associated with higher-than-baseline PTCO2, and was associated with lower-than-baseline urine indices of kidney injury. The data indicate that fruits and vegetables improve metabolic acidosis and reduce kidney injury in stage 4 CKD without producing hyperkalemia.

  15. Vegetation Index and Phenology (VIP) Vegetation Indices Monthly Global 0.05Deg CMG V004

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — The NASA Making Earth System Data Records for Use in Research Environments (MEaSUREs) Vegetation Index and Phenology (VIP) global datasets were created using...

  16. Investigation on the Patterns of Global Vegetation Change Using a Satellite-Sensed Vegetation Index

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ainong Li

    2010-06-01

    Full Text Available The pattern of vegetation change in response to global change still remains a controversial issue. A Normalized Difference Vegetation Index (NDVI dataset compiled by the Global Inventory Modeling and Mapping Studies (GIMMS was used for analysis. For the period 1982–2006, GIMMS-NDVI analysis indicated that monthly NDVI changes show homogenous trends in middle and high latitude areas in the northern hemisphere and within, or near, the Tropic of Cancer and Capricorn; with obvious spatio-temporal heterogeneity on a global scale over the past two decades. The former areas featured increasing vegetation activity during growth seasons, and the latter areas experienced an even greater amplitude in places where precipitation is adequate. The discussion suggests that one should be cautious of using the NDVI time-series to analyze local vegetation dynamics because of its coarse resolution and uncertainties.

  17. Sensory determinants of stated liking for vegetable names and actual liking for canned vegetables

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Dinnella, Caterina; Morizet, David; Masi, Camilla

    2016-01-01

    tastes (sweet, umami), delicate flavour and bright appealing colour. A second group of highly disliked vegetables consists of cauliflowers and broccoli, characterized by disliked sensations such as bitter taste and objectionable flavour. Internal Preference Maps from actual liking scores indicate...

  18. Risbjerg: Historisk stemmeskred med NA

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Thomsen, Søren Risbjerg

    2007-01-01

    ANALYSE: NA flytter 12,3 pct. af stemmerne i majs meningsmålinger - historisk mange vælgere på en måned, skriver professor Risbjerg. Udgivelsesdato: 3. juni 2007......ANALYSE: NA flytter 12,3 pct. af stemmerne i majs meningsmålinger - historisk mange vælgere på en måned, skriver professor Risbjerg. Udgivelsesdato: 3. juni 2007...

  19. Na via do Behemoth

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gérard Rabinovitch

    2008-06-01

    Full Text Available O momento nazista permanece um enigma impensado de que a cultura contemporânea continua cativa. O autor levanta a hipótese de que a persistência desse enigma e seus estragos duráveis se devem à insistência dos pensamentos político, sociológico e filosófico em construírem o nazismo à luz da metáfora hobbesiana do Leviatã. Propõe retomar a questão do nazismo sob a perspectiva do Behemoth, antônimo do Leviatã. Para tanto, sugere a necessidade de retornar a Freud e à psicanálise, balizas de um possível novo pensamento do político que escrutine a destrutividade nazista. Propõe ainda sondar as homologias entre nazismo, corjas e máfias, com base na figura da " heroicização da violência" que lhes seria comum. E avança um modelo " econômico" : a quimera, suscetível de capturar o caráter heterotópico e heterocrônico de sua construção criminosa.The paths of Behemoth. The Nazi moment remains as the thoughtless enigma of which contemporary culture is still captive. The author raises the hypothesis where the persistency of this enigma and its durable damages are due to the insistence of the political, social and philosophical thoughts in building the Nazism at the view of the Hobbesian metaphor of Leviathan. It is here proposed to resume the Nazism matter under Behemoth's perspective, antonym to Leviathan. For such, it is suggested a necessity to look back at Freud and the psychoanalysis, structured by a possible new political thought which scrutinizes the destructivity of the Nazism. It is also here proposed to gaze at the homologies between Nazism, mafias and gangs, with a base in the figure of " violence as a heroically act" that are their common ground. The author also advances an economical model: the chimera susceptible to capture the heterotopic and heterochronic character of its criminal construction.

  20. Vegetable Grafting: The Implications of a Growing Agronomic Imperative for Vegetable Fruit Quality and Nutritive Value

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marios C. Kyriacou

    2017-05-01

    Full Text Available Grafting has become an imperative for intensive vegetable production since chlorofluorocarbon-based soil fumigants were banned from use on grounds of environmental protection. Compelled by this development, research into rootstock–scion interaction has broadened the potential applications of grafting in the vegetable industry beyond aspects of soil phytopathology. Grafting has been increasingly tapped for cultivation under adverse environs posing abiotic and biotic stresses to vegetable crops, thus enabling expansion of commercial production onto otherwise under-exploited land. Vigorous rootstocks have been employed not only in the open field but also under protected cultivation where increase in productivity improves distribution of infrastructural and energy costs. Applications of grafting have expanded mainly in two families: the Cucurbitaceae and the Solanaceae, both of which comprise major vegetable crops. As the main drives behind the expansion of vegetable grafting have been the resistance to soilborne pathogens, tolerance to abiotic stresses and increase in yields, rootstock selection and breeding have accordingly conformed to the prevailing demand for improving productivity, arguably at the expense of fruit quality. It is, however, compelling to assess the qualitative implications of this growing agronomic practice for human nutrition. Problems of impaired vegetable fruit quality have not infrequently been associated with the practice of grafting. Accordingly, the aim of the current review is to reassess how the practice of grafting and the prevalence of particular types of commercial rootstocks influence vegetable fruit quality and, partly, storability. Physical, sensorial and bioactive aspects of quality are examined with respect to grafting for watermelon, melon, cucumber, tomato, eggplant, and pepper. The physiological mechanisms at play which mediate rootstock effects on scion performance are discussed in interpreting the

  1. Radionuclide Concentrations in Soils and Vegetation at Low-Level Radioactive Waste Disposal Area G during the 1997 Growing Season

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    L. Naranjo, Jr.; P. R. Fresquez; R. J. Wechsler

    1998-08-01

    Soil and overstory and understory vegetation (washed and unwashed) collected at eight locations within and around Area G-a low-level radioactive solid-waste disposal facility at Los Alamos National Laboratory-were analyzed for 3H, 238Pu, 239Pu, 137CS, 234U, 235U, 228AC, Be, 214Bi, 60Co, 40& 54Mn, 22Na, 214Pb and 208Tl. In general, most radionuclide concentrations, with the exception of 3Ef and ~9Pu, in soils and overstory and understory vegetation collected from within and around Area G were within upper (95'%) level background concentrations. Although 3H concentrations in vegetation from most sites were significantly higher than background (>2 pCi mL-l), concentrations decreased markedly in comparison to last year's results. The highest `H concentration in vegetation was detected from a juniper tree that was growing over tritium shaft /+150; it contained 530,000 pCi 3H mL-l. Also, as in the pas~ the transuranic waste pad area contained the highest levels of 239Pu in soils and in understory vegetation as compared to other areas at Area G.

  2. Radionuclide concentrations in soils and vegetation at radioactive-waste disposal Area G during the 1996 growing season. Progress report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fresquez, P.R.; Vold, E.L.; Naranjo, L. Jr.

    1997-07-01

    Soil and overstory and understory vegetation (washed and unwashed) collected at eight locations within and around Area G--a low-level radioactive solid-waste disposal facility at Los Alamos National laboratory--were analyzed for 3 H, 90 Sr, 238 Pu, 239 Pu, 137 Cs, 234 U, 235 U, 238 U, tot U, 228 Ac, 214 Bi, 60 Co, 40 K, 54 Mn, 22 Na, 214 Pb, and 208 Tl. Also, heavy metals (Ag, As, Ba, Be, Cd, Cr, Hg, Ni, Pb, Sb, Se, and Tl) in soil and vegetation were determined. In general, most radionuclide concentrations, with the exception of 3 H and 239 Pu, in soils and washed and unwashed overstory and understory vegetation collected from within and around Area G were within upper limit background concentrations. Tritium was detected as high as 14,744 pCi mL -1 in understory vegetation collected from transuranic (TRU) waste pad number-sign 4, and the TRU waste pad area contained the highest levels of 239 Pu in soils and in understory vegetation as compared to other areas at Area G

  3. Post-fire vegetation dynamics in Portugal

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gouveia, C.; Dacamara, C. C.; Trigo, R. M.

    2009-04-01

    The number of fires and the extent of the burned surface in Mediterranean Europe have increased significantly during the last three decades. This may be due either to modifications in land-use (e.g. land abandonment and fuel accumulation) or to climatic changes (e.g. reduction of fuel humidity), both factors leading to an increase of fire risk and fire spread. As in the Mediterranean ecosystems, fires in Portugal have an intricate effect on vegetation regeneration due to the complexity of landscape structures as well as to the different responses of vegetation to the variety of fire regimes. A thorough evaluation of vegetation recovery after fire events becomes therefore crucial in land management. In the above mentioned context remote sensing plays an important role because of its ability to monitor and characterise post-fire vegetation dynamics. A number of fire recovery studies, based on remote sensing, have been conducted in regions characterised by Mediterranean climates and the use of NDVI to monitor plant regeneration after fire events was successfully tested (Díaz-Delgado et al., 1998). In particular, several studies have shown that rapid regeneration occurs within the first 2 years after the fire occurrences, with distinct recovery rates according to the geographical facing of the slopes (Pausas and Vallejo, 1999). In 2003 Portugal was hit by the most devastating sequence of large fires, responsible by a total burnt area of 450 000 ha (including 280 000 ha of forest), representing about 5% of the Portuguese mainland (Trigo et al., 2006). The aim of the present work is to assess and monitor the vegetation behaviour over Portugal following the 2003 fire episodes. For this purpose we have used the regional fields of the Normalized Difference Vegetation Index (NDVI) as obtained from the VEGETATION-SPOT5 instrument, from 1999 to 2008. We developed a methodology to identify large burnt scars in Portugal for the 2003 fire season. The vegetation dynamics was then

  4. Riparian Vegetation Mapping Along the Hanford Reach

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    FOGWELL, T.W.

    2003-07-11

    During the biological survey and inventory of the Hanford Site conducted in the mid-1990s (1995 and 1996), preliminary surveys of the riparian vegetation were conducted along the Hanford Reach. These preliminary data were reported to The Nature Conservancy (TNC), but were not included in any TNC reports to DOE or stakeholders. During the latter part of FY2001, PNNL contracted with SEE Botanical, the parties that performed the original surveys in the mid 1990s, to complete the data summaries and mapping associated with the earlier survey data. Those data sets were delivered to PNNL and the riparian mapping by vegetation type for the Hanford Reach is being digitized during the first quarter of FY2002. These mapping efforts provide the information necessary to create subsequent spatial data layers to describe the riparian zone according to plant functional types (trees, shrubs, grasses, sedges, forbs). Quantification of the riparian zone by vegetation types is important to a number of DOE'S priority issues including modeling contaminant transport and uptake in the near-riverine environment and the determination of ecological risk. This work included the identification of vegetative zones along the Reach by changes in dominant plant species covering the shoreline from just to the north of the 300 Area to China Bar near Vernita. Dominant and indicator species included Agropyron dasytachyudA. smithii, Apocynum cannabinum, Aristida longiseta, Artemisia campestris ssp. borealis var scouleriana, Artemisa dracunculus, Artemisia lindleyana, Artemisia tridentata, Bromus tectorum, Chrysothamnus nauseosus, Coreopsis atkinsoniana. Eleocharis palustris, Elymus cinereus, Equisetum hyemale, Eriogonum compositum, Juniperus trichocarpa, Phalaris arundinacea, Poa compressa. Salk exigua, Scirpus acutus, Solidago occidentalis, Sporobolus asper,and Sporobolus cryptandrus. This letter report documents the data received, the processing by PNNL staff, and additional data gathered in FY

  5. Vegetation (MCV / NVCS) Mapping Projects - California [ds515

    Data.gov (United States)

    California Natural Resource Agency — This metadata layer shows the footprint of vegetation mapping projects completed in California that have used the Manual California of Vegetation ( MCV 1st edition)...

  6. Assessing the vegetation canopy influences on wind flow using wind ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Artificial plastic vegetations with different porosity and canopy shape were introduced as ... Wind erosion is the Aeolian process by which soil particles are detached from ..... the stabilizing role of vegetation on wind erosion. And therefore, for ...

  7. Prevalence of Parasitic Contamination of Salad Vegetables in Ilorin ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    EBUBE AMAECHICHARLES

    Keywords: Parasitic, Salad vegetables, Contamination, Ilorin, Nigeria. 1. ... domestic animal origin as fertilizer, and the habit of eating vegetables raw or undercooked are ..... for cleaning the farm products before they are offered for sale.

  8. Genetically engineered plants with increased vegetative oil content

    Science.gov (United States)

    Benning, Christoph

    2017-05-23

    The invention relates to genetically modified agricultural plants with increased oil content in vegetative tissues, as well as to expression systems, plant cells, seeds and vegetative tissues related thereto.

  9. Advances on Modelling Riparian Vegetation-Hydromorphology Interactions

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Solari, L.; Van Oorschot, M.; Belletti, B.; Hendriks, D.; Rinaldi, M.; Vargas-Luna, A.

    2016-01-01

    Riparian vegetation actively interacts with fluvial systems affecting river hydrodynamics, morphodynamics and groundwater. These interactions can be coupled because both vegetation and hydromorphology (i.e. the combined scientific study of hydrology and fluvial geomorphology) involve dynamic

  10. Vegetation - Anza-Borrego Desert State Park [ds165

    Data.gov (United States)

    California Natural Resource Agency — The Anza Borrego Desert State Park (ABDSP) Vegetation Map depicts vegetation within the Park and its surrounding environment. The map was prepared by the Department...

  11. Terrestrial transect study on driving mechanism of vegetation changes

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2008-01-01

    In terms of Chinese climate-vegetation model based on the classification of plant functional types, to- gether with climatic data from 1951 to 1980 and two future climatic scenarios (SRES-A2 and SRES-B2) in China from the highest and the lowest emission scenarios of greenhouse gases, the distribution patterns of vegetation types and their changes along the Northeast China Transect (NECT) and the North-South Transect of Eastern China (NSTEC) were simulated in order to understand the driving mechanisms of vegetation changes under climatic change. The results indicated that the vegetation distribution patterns would change significantly under future climate, and the major factors driving the vegetation changes were water and heat. However, the responses of various vegetation types to the changes in water and heat factors were obviously different. The vegetation changes were more sensi- tive to heat factors than to water factors. Thus, in the future climate warming will significantly affect vegetation distribution patterns.

  12. Remote sensing application for delineating coastal vegetation - A case study

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    Kunte, P.D.; Wagle, B.G.

    Remote sensing data has been used for mapping coastal vegetation along the Goa Coast, India. The study envisages the use of digital image processing techniques for delineating geomorphic features and associated vegetation, including mangrove, along...

  13. Effect of variety mixtures on cowpea (Vigna unguiculata) vegetable ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    jokonya

    AN EVALUATION OF SIX COWPEA VARIETIES GROWN ... provide cheap sources of protein, micronutrients and mineral elements that can ... traditional vegetables is that, these leafy vegetables are present in most home ..... REFERENCES. 1.

  14. Vegetation damage and recovery after Chiginagak Volcano Crater drainage event

    Data.gov (United States)

    Department of the Interior — From August 20 — 23, 2006, I revisited Chiginigak volcano to document vegetation recovery after the crater drainage event that severely damaged vegetation in May of...

  15. Metals in leafy vegetables grown in Addis Ababa and toxicological ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Metals in leafy vegetables grown in Addis Ababa and toxicological implications. ... the leafy vegetables is attributed to plant differences in tolerance to heavy metals. ... Treatment of industrial effluents and phyto-extraction of excess metals from ...

  16. Landscape level assessment of critically endangered vegetation of ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    techniques. Littoral vegetation is the only natural vegetation type of Lakshadweep islands. Altogether ... is the best method to analyse patch size, shape ..... qualitative levels. .... 285, USDA Forest Service, Pacific North West Research. Station ...

  17. Assessing the accuracy of remote sensing techniques in vegetation ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Assessing the accuracy of remote sensing techniques in vegetation fractions estimation. ... This study aimed at exploring different remote sensing (RS) techniques for quantitatively measuring vegetation and bare soil ... HOW TO USE AJOL.

  18. Evaluation of land and vegetation degradation indicators in Kiang ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Evaluation of land and vegetation degradation indicators in Kiang'ombe ... land and vegetation degradation risk and analyzing the effectiveness of various ... The methods used included; Focus Group Discussions (FGD), key informant ...

  19. Biota - 2011 Vegetation Inventory - Mud Lake, MN/SD

    Data.gov (United States)

    Army Corps of Engineers, Department of the Army, Department of Defense — 2011 Vegetation Classification for Mud Lake, MN/SD Vegetation Project Report, OMBIL Environmental Stewardship - Level 1 Inventory. Mud Lake, located on the Minnesota...

  20. Identification of Distribution Channels to Create Sustainable Vegetable Prices

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Aflit Nuryulia Praswati

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available The price of vegetables has a role as a contributor to the rate of inflation. Currently the number of vegetable production in Boyolali region can no longer meet the needs of local communities. The limited amount of vegetable production and the inhibition of the vegetable distribution channel creates a scarcity of vegetables that result in price increases. This study aims to identify the distribution channel and the formation of vegetable prices derived from Boyolali area. The method used in this research is quantitative and qualitative. Respondents from this study consisted of farmers, wholesalers, small trader and end consumers. The type of distribution channel prevailing in Boyolali area are traditional and modern distribution channels. Intermediate distribution channels play a greater role in determining vegetable prices. If farmers want to improve their economic condition, it needs innovation and creativity in the process of planting, harvesting, packaging and marketing vegetable products.

  1. Predicting gender differences in liking for vegetables and preference for a variety of vegetables among 11-year-old children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lehto, Elviira; Ray, Carola; Haukkala, Ari; Yngve, Agneta; Thorsdottir, Inga; Roos, Eva

    2015-12-01

    We studied the factors that predict liking for vegetables and preference for a variety of vegetables among schoolchildren. Additionally, we examined if there were gender differences in the predictors that explain the hypothesized higher scores in liking vegetables and preferences among girls. The data from the PRO GREENS project included 424 Finnish children (response rate 77%) aged 11 to 12. The children completed validated measures about social and environmental factors related to their liking for vegetables and preferences both at baseline 2009 and follow-up 2010. The associations were examined with regression and mediation analyses. The strongest predictors of both girls' and boys' liking and preferences were higher levels of eating vegetables together with the family, previous vegetable intake and a lower level of perceived barriers. Liking was additionally predicted by a lower level of parental demand that their child should eat vegetables. Girls reported higher levels of liking and preferences in the follow-up. This gender difference was mainly explained by girls' lower level of perceived barriers related to vegetable intake and girls' higher previous vegetable intake. Interventions that aim to increase the low vegetable intake among boys by increasing their liking for vegetables and preference for a variety of vegetables could benefit from targeting perceived barriers, namely boys' perception and values concerning the consumption of vegetables. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  2. How Much Do Americans Pay for Fruits and Vegetables?

    OpenAIRE

    Reed, Jane; Frazao, Elizabeth; Itskowitz, Rachel

    2004-01-01

    Many Americans do not consume the recommended amount of fruits and vegetables. Almost half of Americans think eating more fruits and vegetables would make their diets healthier, so why don't they? One argument is that fruits and vegetables are expensive, especially when purchased fresh. According to an ERS study, a consumer can meet the recommendation of three servings of fruits and four servings of vegetables daily for 64 cents.

  3. Determinants of fruit and vegetable consumption among children and adolescents

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rasmussen, Mette; Krølner, Rikke; Klepp, Knut-Inge

    2006-01-01

    In order to more effectively promote fruit and vegetable intake among children and adolescents, insight into determinants of intake is necessary. We conducted a review of the literature for potential determinants of fruit and vegetable intake in children and adolescents.......In order to more effectively promote fruit and vegetable intake among children and adolescents, insight into determinants of intake is necessary. We conducted a review of the literature for potential determinants of fruit and vegetable intake in children and adolescents....

  4. Price Trends Are Similar for Fruits, Vegetables, and Snack Foods

    OpenAIRE

    Kuchler, Fred; Stewart, Hayden

    2008-01-01

    An increase in the price of fruits and vegetables relative to less healthy foods could reduce consumers’ incentives to purchase fruits and vegetables and result in less healthy diets. Whether such a change in relative prices and incentives has occurred in the United States is difficult to prove because of substantial quality improvements in many fresh fruits and vegetables. For commonly consumed fresh fruits and vegetables for which quality has remained fairly constant, analysis of price tren...

  5. Function of the vegetative elements in contemporaneous interpretation of the architectonic work

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Markéta Krejčí

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available The creative process during which a vegetation element finds itself in the position of a fundamental part of material design of the building can be found in the field of modern architectural production. Along with other building materials, it has its own task to participate in the composition of architectural space. This represents an authentic approach of the current production where the do­mi­na­ting position of the vegetation material determines the unique character of the final work. In these exis­ting factors of practice, the vegetation material is treated, according to the three branches of purposefulness after Friedrich Schinkel, as fundamental part of structural composition of the architectural work. In considered cases, when the vegetation material is removed, the building loses its functional qualities or basic value of expression. Studied cases have proved the existing application of vegetation motives and their combinations the garden art has worked with for centuries. However, mo­dern architectural production adapts them to fields of application that are completely new. It develops these original sources of inspiration that lead modern architecture to totally inventive and new results. The above-mentioned factors are the subject of this paper the purpose of which is to provide basic determination of real applicability of the green mass in the materials applied in the building construction and give examples of current leading finished examples. On the one hand, ar­chi­tec­tu­ral objects restore, with the application of vegetation elements, natural form of greenery in urban interior on the individual level of human dimension. On the other hand, with their help, when siting a project in open space you can also prevent building of a totalitarian wall in the form of a building mass. Thus contextuality of the executed project is achieved in relation to its surroundings. In the presented architectural initiatives the vegetation

  6. Comparative statistical analysis of chrome and vegetable tanning effluents and their effects on related soil

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tariq, Saadia R.; Shah, Munir H.; Shaheen, Nazia

    2009-01-01

    Two tanning units of Pakistan, namely, Kasur and Mian Channun were investigated with respect to the tanning processes (chrome and vegetable, respectively) and the effects of the tanning agents on the quality of soil in vicinity of tanneries were evaluated. The effluent and soil samples from 16 tanneries each of Kasur and Mian Channun were collected. The levels of selected metals (Na, K, Ca, Mg, Fe, Cr, Mn, Co, Cd, Ni, Pb and Zn) were determined by using flame atomic absorption spectrophotometer under optimum analytical conditions. The data thus obtained were subjected to univariate and multivariate statistical analyses. Most of the metals exhibited considerably higher concentrations in the effluents and soils of Kasur compared with those of Mian Channun. It was observed that the soil of Kasur was highly contaminated by Na, K, Ca and Mg emanating from various processes of leather manufacture. Furthermore, the levels of Cr were also present at much enhanced levels than its background concentration due to the adoption of chrome tanning. The levels of Cr determined in soil samples collected from the vicinity of Mian Channun tanneries were almost comparable to the background levels. The soil of this city was found to have contaminated only by the metals originating from pre-tanning processes. The apportionment of selected metals in the effluent and soil samples was determined by a multivariate cluster analysis, which revealed significant differences in chrome and vegetable tanning processes.

  7. Comparative statistical analysis of chrome and vegetable tanning effluents and their effects on related soil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tariq, Saadia R; Shah, Munir H; Shaheen, Nazia

    2009-09-30

    Two tanning units of Pakistan, namely, Kasur and Mian Channun were investigated with respect to the tanning processes (chrome and vegetable, respectively) and the effects of the tanning agents on the quality of soil in vicinity of tanneries were evaluated. The effluent and soil samples from 16 tanneries each of Kasur and Mian Channun were collected. The levels of selected metals (Na, K, Ca, Mg, Fe, Cr, Mn, Co, Cd, Ni, Pb and Zn) were determined by using flame atomic absorption spectrophotometer under optimum analytical conditions. The data thus obtained were subjected to univariate and multivariate statistical analyses. Most of the metals exhibited considerably higher concentrations in the effluents and soils of Kasur compared with those of Mian Channun. It was observed that the soil of Kasur was highly contaminated by Na, K, Ca and Mg emanating from various processes of leather manufacture. Furthermore, the levels of Cr were also present at much enhanced levels than its background concentration due to the adoption of chrome tanning. The levels of Cr determined in soil samples collected from the vicinity of Mian Channun tanneries were almost comparable to the background levels. The soil of this city was found to have contaminated only by the metals originating from pre-tanning processes. The apportionment of selected metals in the effluent and soil samples was determined by a multivariate cluster analysis, which revealed significant differences in chrome and vegetable tanning processes.

  8. Comparative statistical analysis of chrome and vegetable tanning effluents and their effects on related soil

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tariq, Saadia R. [Department of Chemistry, Lahore College for Women University, Lahore (Pakistan); Shah, Munir H., E-mail: munir_qau@yahoo.com [Department of Chemistry, Quaid-i-Azam University, Islamabad 45320 (Pakistan); Shaheen, Nazia [Department of Chemistry, Quaid-i-Azam University, Islamabad 45320 (Pakistan)

    2009-09-30

    Two tanning units of Pakistan, namely, Kasur and Mian Channun were investigated with respect to the tanning processes (chrome and vegetable, respectively) and the effects of the tanning agents on the quality of soil in vicinity of tanneries were evaluated. The effluent and soil samples from 16 tanneries each of Kasur and Mian Channun were collected. The levels of selected metals (Na, K, Ca, Mg, Fe, Cr, Mn, Co, Cd, Ni, Pb and Zn) were determined by using flame atomic absorption spectrophotometer under optimum analytical conditions. The data thus obtained were subjected to univariate and multivariate statistical analyses. Most of the metals exhibited considerably higher concentrations in the effluents and soils of Kasur compared with those of Mian Channun. It was observed that the soil of Kasur was highly contaminated by Na, K, Ca and Mg emanating from various processes of leather manufacture. Furthermore, the levels of Cr were also present at much enhanced levels than its background concentration due to the adoption of chrome tanning. The levels of Cr determined in soil samples collected from the vicinity of Mian Channun tanneries were almost comparable to the background levels. The soil of this city was found to have contaminated only by the metals originating from pre-tanning processes. The apportionment of selected metals in the effluent and soil samples was determined by a multivariate cluster analysis, which revealed significant differences in chrome and vegetable tanning processes.

  9. NEW GREENHOUSE TECHNOLOGIES FOR VEGETABLE PRODUCTION

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S. M. Sirota

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available First decade of XXI century is characterized by significant augmentation in vegetable world’s production. Average annual vegetable production has been 346 million tons, and it has exceeded the average annual potato production (318 million tons. It has occurred due to the use of up-to-date technologies for vegetable production and, particularly, in greenhouses. In Russian Federation, the total production of vegetables was 5 275.6 thousand tons in 2015 that was 13.3% more than in 2014. But the total vegetable production in greenhouses was only 722.8 thousand tons, that was 0.7% less than in 2014 (728.1 thousand tons. It can be explained that the old technologies have been used for many greenhouses around Russia. Up-to-date technologies for greenhouses are described in the article. Small-volume hydroponics. Plants are grown in mineral wadding, packed up in the special chutes. Mineral nutrition and water are supplied through special pipe with many branch pipes toward each plant. Advantage: pH and nutrition are maintained, consumption of water and mineral nutrition are optimized, and that improves plants grow control. Expenditures of labor decreased, quality of fruit became better and the yield increased significantly by 45-50 kg/m2 comparing with growing on the soil (25-30 kg/m2. Hydroponics with flowing water (salad production lines. Conveyor for salad and vegetable growing on horizontal moving chutes with flowing water and nutrition was developed. Advantage: high level of automation and mechanization of all processes of growing increased the effectiveness of the use of greenhouse areas (we can place 30% plants more at the same area. Seedling production lines. Production lines for seedlings enable to grow vegetables and leafy vegetables on stationary benches, being furnished with periodical nutrition and water supply at times. Advantage: 700 seedlings additionally on each m2 a year. Future technologies are

  10. Water dynamics of vegetable using radiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nakanishi, Tomoko

    2000-01-01

    Neutral ray is specifically adsorbed and scattered by hydrogen, which is construction element of water. We applied nondestructive visualization of water dynamics in vegetable using neutral ray. The neutron ray was produced by JRR-3M of JAERI. Water dynamics of epigeal part of vegetable, tree, seed, root and soil near root were observed. The distribution and behavior of water were seen by image. For examples, the dry process of cedar, water adsorption process of seed of broad beam, corn, morning glory, rice and wheat. The growing process of root in the soil was analyzed by CT images that constructed three-dimensional image. Water image of root-soil system made clear water dynamics of the optional site near root. The distribution of water in the cut carnation was observed before and after dry treatment. The change of distribution of water was observed. (S.Y.)

  11. Mathematical Modeling of Vegetable-Oil Crystallization

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hjorth, Jeppe Lindegaard

    be desirable to enhance specific properties such as shelf life, viscosity, texture, sensory aspects and physical appearance. Vegetable oils and fats constitute a considerable part of many food products such as chocolate, margarine, bread, spreads and ice cream. Several attractive properties found......In recent years the food sector has experienced a great boost in demand for tailor-made fats and oils to produce so-called functional foods, where ingredients have been carefully modified to yield products with specific, valuable properties. Depending on market segment and product, it may...... in these products, including flavor release, melting profile and appearance, are governed by the oils and fats added. Consequently, altering the fat phase may lead to enhanced properties of the products. The primary focus of the present work is vegetable oils and fats originating from different sources covering...

  12. Vegetation survey of PEN Branch wetlands

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1991-01-01

    A survey was conducted of vegetation along Pen Branch Creek at Savannah River Site (SRS) in support of K-Reactor restart. Plants were identified to species by overstory, understory, shrub, and groundcover strata. Abundance was also characterized and richness and diversity calculated. Based on woody species basal area, the Pen Branch delta was the most impacted, followed by the sections between the reactor and the delta. Species richness for shrub and groundcover strata were also lowest in the delta. No endangered plant species were found. Three upland pine areas were also sampled. In support of K Reactor restart, this report summarizes a study of the wetland vegetation along Pen Branch. Reactor effluent enters Indian Grove Branch and then flows into Pen Branch and the Pen Branch Delta.

  13. Radioactivity in Scottish soils and grassy vegetation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Miller, G.R.; Horrill, A.D.; Thomson, A.J.; Howson, G.

    1989-05-01

    In June 1987, soil and graminoid vegetation samples were collected from 159 randomly selected Scottish sites and analysed for radioactivity due to potassium-40, caesium-134 and caesium-137. Activity due to plutonium-238 and plutonium-239/240 was also measured in soils from 47 of the sites. The main aims of this survey were to determine: (a) the geographic distribution of radiocaesium activity due to fallout from the Chernobyl reactor disaster, (b) the pattern of radiation due to the naturally occurring isotope potassium-40, (c) the activity attributable to caesium-137 fallout from nuclear weapons testing prior to the Chernobyl deposition, (d) the uptake of caesium-137 by vegetation from different soil types. (author)

  14. Antimicrobial Effect of Extracts of Cruciferous Vegetables

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shu-Hui Hu

    2004-12-01

    Full Text Available The cruciferous vegetables cauliflower, broccoli, cabbage, Chinese radish, Chinese kale, and Chinese kitam were used in this study to prepare water-soluble and methanol-water extracts. Crude protein extracts were also obtained by diethylaminoethyl (DEAE anion exchange chromatography. Water-soluble polysaccharides were prepared by ethanol precipitation followed by ultrafiltration. The antimicrobial effects of all these extracts were evaluated against Gram-positive bacteria, Gram-negative bacteria, and yeast. Crude protein extracts exhibited the greatest antimicrobial activity in monoculture experiments. The antimicrobial effects of cruciferous vegetables were also studied by steeping beef, carrot, and celery in chlorine (10 ppm or citric acid solution (1% containing the crude protein extract (500 ppm for different time periods. Total aerobic plate counts and coliform counts on these foods decreased significantly after 10 minutes in all steeping solutions (p < 0.05.

  15. Vegetation attached to the elephant trunk.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tanaka, Akiko; Sakamoto, Toshihito; Okada, Kenji; Okita, Yutaka

    2013-09-01

    The elephant trunk technique is used as a standard method in the approach to staged repair of extensive thoracic aneurysms. Here, we present a rare case of a graft infection, in which vegetation was attached to the distal end of the elephant trunk. A 36-year old male who had undergone total arch replacement with elephant trunk installation for type A aortic dissection was readmitted for high-grade fever. At the time of admission, Osler's nodules were present and brain magnetic resonance imaging showed multiple small emboli and haemorrhages. Transoesophageal echocardiography could not locate any sign of infection within the cardiac chambers, but disclosed vegetation attached to the elephant trunk. He underwent successful emergent graft replacement of the lesion, and no recurrence of the infection has been observed.

  16. Availability and consumption of fruits and vegetables in nine regions ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Bernt Lindtjorn

    children studied did not eat vegetable and fruit in the week preceding the survey, respectively. .... refer to households who never saw a single fruit/ vegetable, even once ..... did not eat vegetables even once, let alone three times in a week is.

  17. Parasitic contamination of leafy vegetables: a function of the leaf ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    A survey was undertaken to determine the degree of contamination of some stable vegetables and their surrounding soils by parasites in Uyo, Nigeria. Out of the 780 leaves from six vegetables and 50 soil samples screened, 498 (63.9%) of vegetables and 36 (72%) of the soil samples were positive for parasite ova, larvae ...

  18. Nutritional potentials of some tropical vegetable leaf meals ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Three tropical vegetable species (Talium triangulare, Amaranthus cruentus and Telfairia occidentalis) were selected based on their availability and agronomic desirability. The freshly harvested vegetable leaves were subjected to 2 processing techniques (shredding and sundrying) before milling into the vegetable leaf ...

  19. Comparative study of trace element levels in some local vegetable ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The level of heavy metals in two varieties of vegetables harvested during the dry and wet seasons from seven different locations in Ilorin, Nigeria, were determined. The correlation between the level of metals in the vegetables and the irrigation water was also studied. Vegetables harvested during the dry season were found ...

  20. Field vegetable production in the Lake Zone of Tanzania

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Everaarts, A.P.; Putter, de H.; Maerere, A.P.; Amon, W.

    2014-01-01

    In November 2012 and in August 2014 surveys were carried out in field vegetable producing areas in the Lake Zone of Tanzania. The aim of the surveys was to learn the conditions for field vegetable production and marketing in these areas. Recommendations for the development of vegetable production

  1. Proximate analysis of some dry season vegetables in Anyigba, Kogi ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    STORAGESEVER

    2008-05-16

    May 16, 2008 ... Key words: Sensory evaluation, dry season vegetable, available, Anyigba, Nigeria. INTRODUCTION. Dry season vegetables are shrubs or herbaceous annuals or biennial plants. In Nigeria, most of the com- monly eaten vegetables are the succulent leaves of plants; they are eaten as supplementary foods, ...

  2. Assessment of nutritional quality of cooked Swazi leafy vegetables ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Brassica oleracea and Spinacia oleracea were also analysed and compared with other vegetables. Sampled vegetables were divided into two categories. All vegetables in category one were cooked without any additives. In category two Hibiscus escolentus and Corchorius olitorus were cooked with bicarbonate of soda ...

  3. Conveyance estimation in channels with emergent bank vegetation ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Emergent vegetation along the banks of a river channel influences its conveyance considerably. The total channel discharge can be estimated as the sum of the discharges of the vegetated and clear channel zones calculated separately. The vegetated zone discharge is often negligible, but can be estimated using ...

  4. Taste intensities of ten vegetables commonly consumed in the Netherlands

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Stokkom, van V.L.; Teo, P.S.; Mars, M.; Graaf, de Kees; Kooten, van O.; Stieger, M.

    2016-01-01

    Bitterness has been suggested to be the main reason for the limited palatability of several vegetables. Vegetable acceptance has been associated with preparation method. However, the taste intensity of a variety of vegetables prepared by different methods has not been studied yet. The objective

  5. Preliminary study on sterilization effect of irradiation on dry vegetable

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhai Jianqing; Bao Jianzhong; Cao Hong; Wang Jinrong; Chen Xiulan

    2004-01-01

    The number of surviving germs relationship to irradiation dose for several species dry vegetable was studied, and the original value D 10 of the dry vegetable was given. The value will provide a theoretical reference to ascertain the appropriate irradiation dose in the irradiation process of the dry vegetable

  6. Integrating Vegetation Classification, Mapping, and Strategic Inventory for Forest Management

    Science.gov (United States)

    C. K. Brewer; R. Bush; D. Berglund; J. A. Barber; S. R. Brown

    2006-01-01

    Many of the analyses needed to address multiple resource issues are focused on vegetation pattern and process relationships and most rely on the data models produced from vegetation classification, mapping, and/or inventory. The Northern Region Vegetation Mapping Project (R1-VMP) data models are based on these three integrally related, yet separate processes. This...

  7. Spatial relationship between climatologies and changes in global vegetation activity

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Jong, de R.; Schaepman, M.E.; Furrer, R.; Bruin, de S.; Verburg, P.H.

    2013-01-01

    Vegetation forms a main component of the terrestrial biosphere and plays a crucial role in land-cover and climate-related studies. Activity of vegetation systems is commonly quantified using remotely sensed vegetation indices (VI). Extensive reports on temporal trends over the past decades in time

  8. Vegetation Change in Blue Oak Woodlands in California

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barbara A. Holzman; Barbara H. Allen-Diaz

    1991-01-01

    A preliminary report of a statewide project investigating vegetation change in blue oak (Quercus douglasii) woodlands in California is presented. Vegetation plots taken in the 1930s, as part of a statewide vegetation mapping project, were relocated and surveyed. Species composition, cover and tree stand structure data from the earlier study were...

  9. Phytochemical profile of some green leafy vegetables in South East ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The potential of eight common green leafy vegetables (GLV) in the raw and cooked forms as natural source of phytochemicals was assessed. The vegetables studied were the common ones found in southeast Nigeria and they included Ugu, Nchanwu, Okazi, Utazi, Oha, Nturukpa, Ahihara, and Onugbo. The vegetables ...

  10. Understanding and changing children’s sensory acceptance for vegetables

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Poelman, A.A.M.

    2016-01-01

    Vegetable intake of children is well below recommendations in Australia and in most other western countries. Vegetables are the food category least liked by children. As acceptance is a key driver of intake, strategies are needed to increase children’s acceptance of vegetables. The present thesis

  11. Discharge/Stage Relations in Vegetated Danish Streams

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Larsen, Torben; Frier, Jens-Ole; Vestergaard, Kristian

    1990-01-01

    This paper describes how the friction in danish streams varies as function of the vegetation. The major species of vegetation are represented. A series of laboratory and field experiments are described, and a hypothesis for the influence of the vegetation on the Manning's n is discussed....

  12. Analysis of Post-Fire Vegetation Recovery in the Mediterranean Basin using MODIS Derived Vegetation Indices

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hawtree, Daniel; San Miguel, Jesus; Sedano, Fernando; Kempeneers, Pieter

    2010-05-01

    The Mediterranean basin region is highly susceptible to wildfire, with approximately 60,000 individual fires and half a million ha of natural vegetation burnt per year. Of particular concern in this region is the impact of repeated wildfires on the ability of natural lands to return to a pre-fire state, and of the possibility of desertification of semi-arid areas. Given these concerns, understanding the temporal patterns of vegetation recovery is important for the management of environmental resources in the region. A valuable tool for evaluating these recovery patterns are vegetation indices derived from remote sensing data. Previous research on post-fire vegetation recovery conducted in this region has found significant variability in recovery times across different study sites. It is unclear what the primary variables are affecting the differences in the rates of recovery, and if any geographic patterns of behavior exist across the Mediterranean basin. This research has primarily been conducted using indices derived from Landsat imagery. However, no extensive analysis of vegetation regeneration for large regions has been published, and assessment of vegetation recovery on the basis of medium-spatial resolution imagery such as that of MODIS has not yet been analyzed. This study examines the temporal pattern of vegetation recovery in a number of fire sites in the Mediterranean basin, using data derived from MODIS 16 -day composite vegetation indices. The intent is to develop a more complete picture of the temporal sequence of vegetation recovery, and to evaluate what additional factors impact variations in the recovery sequence. In addition, this study evaluates the utility of using MODIS derived vegetation indices for regeneration studies, and compares the findings to earlier studies which rely on Landsat data. Wildfires occurring between the years 2000 and 2004 were considered as potential study sites for this research. Using the EFFIS dataset, all wildfires

  13. Monitoring leafy vegetables through packaging films with

    OpenAIRE

    Diezma Iglesias, Belen; Lara, M.A.; Molina, Marta; Lleó García, Lourdes; Ruiz-Altisent, Margarita; Artés Hernández, Francisco; Roger, Jean-Michel

    2012-01-01

    Fresh-cut or minimally processed fruit and vegetables have been physically modified from its original form (by peeling, trimming, washing and cutting) to obtain a 100% edible product that is subsequently packaged (usually under modified atmosphere packaging –MAP) and kept in refrigerated storage. In fresh-cut products, physiological activity and microbiological spoilage, determine their deterioration and shelf-life. The major preservation techniques applied to delay spoilage are chilling s...

  14. How to deal with radiologically contaminated vegetation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wilde, E.W.; Murphy, C.E.; Lamar, R.T.; Larson, M.J.

    1996-01-01

    This report describes the findings from a literature review conducted as part of a Department of Energy, Office of Technology Development Biomass Remediation Task. The principal objective of this project is to develop a process or group of processes to treat radiologically contaminated vegetation in a manner that minimizes handling, processing, and treatment costs. Contaminated, woody vegetation growing on waste sites at SRS poses a problem to waste site closure technologies that are being considered for these sites. It is feared that large sections of woody vegetation (logs) can not be buried in waste sites where isolation of waste is accomplished by capping the site. Logs or large piles of woody debris have the potential of decaying and leaving voids under the cap. This could lead to cap failure and entrance of water into the waste. Large solid objects could also interfere with treatments like in situ mixing of soil with grout or other materials to encapsulate the contaminated sediments and soils in the waste sites. Optimal disposal of the wood includes considerations of volume reduction, treatment of the radioactive residue resulting from volume reduction, or confinement without volume reduction. Volume reduction consists primarily of removing the carbon, oxygen, and hydrogen in the wood, leaving an ash that would contain most of the contamination. The only contaminant that would be released by volume reduction would by small amounts of the radioactive isotope of hydrogen, tritium. The following sections will describe the waste sites at SRS which contain contaminated vegetation and are potential candidates for the technology developed under this proposal. The description will provide a context for the magnitude of the problem and the logistics of the alternative solutions that are evaluated later in the review. 76 refs

  15. Quantitative indicators of fruit and vegetable consumption

    OpenAIRE

    Dagmar Kozelová; Dana Országhová; Milan Fiľa; Zuzana Čmiková

    2015-01-01

    The quantitative research of the market is often based on surveys and questionnaires which are finding out the behavior of customers in observed areas. Before purchasing process consumers consider where they will buy fruit and vegetables, what kind to choose and in what quantity of goods. Consumers' behavior is affected by the factors as: regional gastronomic traditions, price, product appearance, aroma, place of buying, own experience and knowledge, taste preferences as well as specific heal...

  16. Extrusion Cooking Systems and Textured Vegetable Proteins

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    2015-02-01

    Full Text Available Many fabricated foods are cooked industrially and are given desired textures, shapes, density and rehydration characteristics by an extrusion cooking process. This relatively new process is used in the preparation of “engineered” convenience foods: textured vegetable proteins, breakfast cereals, snacks, infant foods, dry soup mixes, breading, poultry stuffing, croutons, pasta products, beverage powders, hot breakfast gruels, and in the gelatinization of starch or the starchy component of foods.

  17. Quality determinants of fruit and vegetables productions

    OpenAIRE

    Bruno Mezzetti; Cherubino Leonardi

    2009-01-01

    Nowadays, the main goal for modern horticultural production is the increase of quality. Furthermore, in consideration of the new consumer demand, always more attracted by a diet based on a larger consumption of fruit and vegetables without risks of pesticides residues and with increased nutritional value, new important features in addition to the traditional quality attributes are now requested. For a program of qualification and valorisation of modern horticultural productions, it is fundame...

  18. Rapid Vegetative Propagation Method for Carob

    OpenAIRE

    Hamide GUBBUK; Esma GUNES; Tomas AYALA-SILVA; Sezai ERCISLI

    2011-01-01

    Most of fruit species are propagated by vegetative methods such as budding, grafting, cutting, suckering, layering etc. to avoid heterozygocity. Carob trees (Ceratonia siliqua L.) are of highly economical value and are among the most difficult to propagate fruit species. In the study, air-layering propagation method was investigated first time to compare wild and cultivated (�Sisam�) carob types. In the experiment, one year old carob limbs were air-layered on coco peat medium by wrapping with...

  19. High pressure effects on fruits and vegetables

    OpenAIRE

    Timmermans, R.A.H.; Matser, A.M.

    2016-01-01

    The chapter provides an overview on different high pressure based treatments (high pressure pasteurization, blanching, pressure-assisted thermal processing, pressure-shift freezing and thawing) available for the preservation of fruits and vegetable products and extending their shelf life. Pressure treatment can be used for product modification through pressure gelatinization of starch and pressure denaturation of proteins. Key pressure–thermal treatment effects on vitamin, enzymes, flavor, co...

  20. How to deal with radiologically contaminated vegetation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wilde, E.W.; Murphy, C.E.; Lamar, R.T.; Larson, M.J.

    1996-12-31

    This report describes the findings from a literature review conducted as part of a Department of Energy, Office of Technology Development Biomass Remediation Task. The principal objective of this project is to develop a process or group of processes to treat radiologically contaminated vegetation in a manner that minimizes handling, processing, and treatment costs. Contaminated, woody vegetation growing on waste sites at SRS poses a problem to waste site closure technologies that are being considered for these sites. It is feared that large sections of woody vegetation (logs) can not be buried in waste sites where isolation of waste is accomplished by capping the site. Logs or large piles of woody debris have the potential of decaying and leaving voids under the cap. This could lead to cap failure and entrance of water into the waste. Large solid objects could also interfere with treatments like in situ mixing of soil with grout or other materials to encapsulate the contaminated sediments and soils in the waste sites. Optimal disposal of the wood includes considerations of volume reduction, treatment of the radioactive residue resulting from volume reduction, or confinement without volume reduction. Volume reduction consists primarily of removing the carbon, oxygen, and hydrogen in the wood, leaving an ash that would contain most of the contamination. The only contaminant that would be released by volume reduction would by small amounts of the radioactive isotope of hydrogen, tritium. The following sections will describe the waste sites at SRS which contain contaminated vegetation and are potential candidates for the technology developed under this proposal. The description will provide a context for the magnitude of the problem and the logistics of the alternative solutions that are evaluated later in the review. 76 refs.