WorldWideScience

Sample records for biogeocenoses

  1. Main peculiarities of 90Sr and 137Cs redistribution in 'soil - pines' system of the forest biogeocenoses in the Chernobyl exclusion zone

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The scientific researches were carried out at nine experimental plots represented by the pine forests. The redistribution of radioactive nuclides of 90Sr and 137Cs in main components of biogeocenoses was analyzed and vertical migration intensity of 90Sr and 137Cs was determined. Also, intensity of the radionuclides accumulation in the main forest species - pine tree in the Exclusion zone was investigated. It is identified that cumulative inventory of 90Sr is significant for the perennial parts of wood species (first of all for - timber). The highest concentration of 90Sr is found in the photosynthetic parts of the pine tree - needles, and the lowest concentration is found in wood. In this concern, according to the obtained results bark has an intermediate position. The same characteristics refer to 137Cs

  2. Catalase activity in the soil of the wood biogeocenoses in the Samara-river region

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. F. Kulik

    2009-11-01

    Full Text Available Research of catalase activity changes in connection with the free-radical oxidation is soil of natural and artificial ecosystems is conducted. The catalase is a plants’ enzyme of antioxidative protection. The catalase activity is a marker of variety and improvement of soils. It is important for the problems solutions in applied soil science. The aberrations of catalase, peroxidase and polyphenol oxidase activities characterise not only the metabolizing of plants, microorganisms and soils, but the level of the environmental pollution. The general activity of enzymatic systems allows ascertaining their role in the forming of biota components’ resistance to the exogenous influence. The seasonal dynamics of the soils’ catalase activity subject to the type of a biogeocenosis is disclosed.

  3. Long-term forecast of Sr 90 migration in forest ecosystems of different types

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mathematical model of Sr 90 migration in forest ecosystems is described and forecast of its content in forest components is calculated for several types of biogeocenoses. Results of modeling are satisfactorily agreeable to the experimental data. (authors)

  4. Analysis of litter mesofauna of Poltava region forest ecosystems

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    O. S. Komarov

    2007-08-01

    Full Text Available On the basis of research of litter mesofauna of 48 forest biogeocenoses the regularities of invertebrate communities formation on the species and families levels are determined. The degree of similarity of test plots are analysed by taxonomic structure of the communities. The factors of the litter invertebrate communities formation in forest ecosystems of the Poltava region are revealed.

  5. The biological activity of chernozems in the Central Caucasus Mountains (Terskii variant of altitudinal zonality), Kabardino-Balkaria

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gedgafova, F. V.; Uligova, T. S.; Gorobtsova, O. N.; Tembotov, R. Kh.

    2015-12-01

    Some parameters of the biological activity (humus content; activity of hydrolytic enzymes invertase, phosphatase, urease; and the intensity of carbon dioxide emission) were studied in the chernozems of agrocenoses and native biogeocenoses in the foothills of the Caucasus Mountains representing the Terskii variant of the altitudinal zonality. The statistically significant differences were revealed between the relevant characteristics of the soils of the agrocenoses and of the native biogeocenoses. The integral index of the ecological-biological state of the soils was used to estimate changes in the biological activity of the arable chernozems. The 40-60% decrease of this index in the cultivated chernozems testified to their degradation with a decrease in fertility and the disturbance of ecological functions as compared to these characteristics in the virgin chernozems.

  6. Biogeochemistry of radionuclides in ecosystems (historical aspect)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The paper presents the most important results of the study on the radionuclides' behaviour in natural and model biogeocenoses(ecosystems) obtained by N.W.Timofeev-Ressovskij and co-workers during the period 1947-1968. As early as at that period, radionuclides were classified according to the types of distribution, accumulation and migration within the surface and freshwater ecosystems, and the methods of biological purification of radioactive sewage were proposed

  7. A basis for the forest economy conception in the condition of the radioactive contamination

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    On the basis of data on radiation conditions in fores biogeocenoses, the radionuclide migration and the radionuclide content in forest economy products and the dose commitments to various catego rives the forest economy workers, the main theses are presented to keep it in conditions of the radioactive contamination. The base for the theses are done: about radionuclide migration (Cs-137, Ru-106, Cr-144) through the main components of the forest biogeocinoses; about the Cs-137 distribution of the zoofund lands; about the zone radionuclide contamination; about radionuclide content in the forest economy production about a wood plant radiosensitivity. 8 refs.; 6 tabs

  8. Hierarchic levels of a system classification of radiation-contaminated landscapes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Five hierarchic levels of the systematic organization of natural landscapes are determined: substantial-phase, soil-profile, biogeocenotic, landscape, and geosystematic. Systems and subsystems of compounds of chemical elements and natural and man-caused factors that characterized properties and mechanisms of ecological self-organization of biogeocenoses are brought into accordance with each level. A scheme of hierarchic subordination of systems, subsystems, and processes is worked out. Leading links of transformation and migration of radionuclides that define the contamination of tropic chains are determined

  9. Agricultural radioecology

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The problem of radioactive pollution of ecosystems is discussed. The total deposition of 90Sr and 137Cs after the nuclear experiments in 1945-1963 and the contamination rate of main foodstuffs are assessed. Data about radionuclide dynamics in soil, raw materials, forage, milk, milk products and wheat after the Chernobyl accident are presented for various regions of Bulgaria and are compared with the total fallout contamination. The trends in milk and forage contamination for some regions are discussed. Quantitative radiochemical methods for determination of 90Sr and 137Cs are discussed. Migration of 135Cs, 90Sr and 131J is followed in soil, forage, animal organism and human food chains respectively and ways of decontamination are discussed. Radiation effects on biogeocenoses are described. The problem of agriculture management under the conditions of durable soil contamination after nuclear accidents is considered. Recommendations for monitoring and protection of agricultural personnel are presented. 53 refs., 31 tabs., 93 figs

  10. Responses of the soil decomposer community to the radioactive contamination

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The knowledge about biodiversity and about reasons and laws of dynamics of decomposer invertebrates has exclusively important (rather applied, or theoretical) significance for soil science. Earthworms and millipedes are probably the most important members of the soil biota and major contributors to total zoo-mass. Their activities are such that they are extremely important in maintaining soil fertility in a variety of ways. They play an important part in the redistribution of radionuclides accumulated in the natural biogeocenoses and accumulation of radionuclides in their bodies depends on their concentration in the habitat. Since radionuclides can limit biological activity, studies to estimate the tolerance of decomposer community to potentially toxic radiators are needed. The effect of radioactive contamination on the soil invertebrates and decomposition processes in the different biogeocenoses we intensively studied during 17 years after Chernobyl accident. The soil invertebrates were collected according to generally accepted method by M. Ghilyarov. Soil samples were 0,25 m2 and animals were extracted from samples by hand sorting. Usually decomposition was affected by the presence of decomposer fauna. Considerable differences were found in the species number. The species composition of sites differed clearly. The study showed that the fauna was poorer under increasing levels of radioactive contamination. The higher radionuclide content was found to result in suppression of decomposer community. The results showed a vertical migration of earthworms to deeper soil layers with increasing of radioactive contamination. With the absence of decomposer fauna due to migration to the deeper layer and mortality, the layer of litter increased. The results show that the earthworms were of small size. Cocoon production decreased. Radioactive contamination altered the process of reproduction and age structure of decomposer fauna. The invertebrates collected from the

  11. Geochemical barriers of manganese distribution in edaphotopes of Dnieper Prysamarye

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    N. N. Tsvetkova

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Microelement composition is an important condition of edaphotopes as the major, summarizing parts of any biogeocenosis. Microelements in ultra-microquantity are necessary for vital functions of all organisms, but their anthropogenic accumulation and transformation in soil environment represents a real threat for living organisms’ health and stability of the biosphere as a whole. Geochemical barriers are local zones where the conditions of elemental migration are significantly different, resulting in accumulation of some chemical elements. The relevance of geochemical barriers’ study consists in the prospective possibility of artificial limitation of the migration of polluting elements in the environment. The aim of this research is to determine the role of geochemical barriers in distribution and migration of manganese in edaphotopes of Dnieper Prysamarye. Content of manganese in soils, regularity of its distribution and relationship between a number of physical and chemical properties of soils were considered in the course of investigation. Besides, this paper summarizes the main features and regularities of the different geochemical barriers’ formation. Manganese content in soils was analyzed by atomic absorption spectrophotometry. The objects of the research are edaphotopes of the biogeocenoses of Dnieper Prisamarye situated in steppe zone of Ukraine, subzone of forb-fescue-stipa steppe. According to our data, the average concentrations of manganese in the horizons of 0–50 cm of ordinary chernozem, alkaline-saline meadow-forest soil, floodplain meadow-forest and sod upland soils are 495 ± 24, 610 ± 223, 810 ± 220, 51 ± 11 mg/kg of ovendry weight soil, respectively. Furthermore, the authors investigated the correlation between the content of manganese and absorption capacity, humus content, composition of exchange cations, pH and dry residue of soils under study. The results obtained demonstrate that specific soil horizons can be

  12. Specific features of the dynamics of epiphytic and soil yeast communities in the thickets of Indian balsam on mucky gley soil

    Science.gov (United States)

    Glushakova, A. M.; Kachalkin, A. V.; Chernov, I. Yu.

    2011-08-01

    The annual dynamics of the number and taxonomic composition of yeast communities were studied in the phyllosphere, on the flowers, and on the roots of Indian balsam ( Impatiens glandulifera Royle) and in the mucky gley soil under the thickets of this plant. It was shown that typical phyllosphere yeast communities with a predominance of the red-pigmented species Rhodotorula mucilaginosa and Rhodotorula glutinis and the typical epiphyte Cryptococcus magnus are formed on the leaves of this annual hygrophyte. However, yeast groups with a predominance of the ascosporous species Saccharomyces paradoxus, Kazachstania barnettii, and Torulaspora delbrueckii, which are not typical of soils at all, were found in the mucky gley soil under the thickets of Indian balsam. Thus, the epiphytic and soil yeast complexes under the thickets of Indian balsam are represented by two entirely discrete communities without common species. In other biogeocenoses of the forest zone, the rearrangement of the structure of yeast communities in passing from the aboveground substrates to the soil proceeds gradually, and most of the species can be isolated both from the aboveground parts of plants and from the soil. The strong difference between the yeast communities in the phyllosphere of Indian balsam and in the soil under its thickets is apparently related to the fact that the annual hygrophytes are decomposed very quickly (during several days after the first frosts). Because of this, an intermediate layer between the phyllosphere and the soil (the litter layer), in which epiphytic microorganisms can develop, is not formed under these plants.

  13. Estudos sôbre reservatórios e vetores silvestres do Trypanosoma cruzi. XXII. Modificações dos focos naturais da tripanossomose americana e suas conseqüências

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mauro Pereira Barreto

    1967-08-01

    Full Text Available Os focos naturais da tripanossomose americana, como tôda biogeocenose, podem. permanecer relativamente estáveis, sendo esta estabilidade necessária para a própria existência dêsses focos. Mas o balanço ecológico pode ser alterado, sendo muito importante aquelas alterações devidas à interferência direta ou indireta do homem ao exercer atividades ligadas ao desbravamento e à colonização. Entre as conseqüências podemos citar: 1 redução ou desaparição dos focos naturais; 2 concentração de hospedeiros e vectores em áreas favoráveis limitadas; 3 deslocamento de hospedeiros e vectores para outras áreas; 4 invasão das habitações humanas e anexos, com a instalação do ciclo doméstico da infecção. Estas possibilidades são analisadas e ilustradas com exemplos.

  14. Utilization following of bioremediation attributes using oyster mushrooms - Pleurotus ostreatus

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The mushrooms are not only rich food products, but also a specific component of forest biogeocenoses playing an important role in their functioning, including radionuclide migration. The reason why fungi work as such good indicators for radioactivity and pollution in general is connected to their structure. Using absorption to obtain their nutrition, fungi lack water-conducting organs like stems and roots. They absorb moisture and nutrients from the soil background through surface cells. Dissolved or airborne materials, which include pollutants, move freely through the compartments of hyphae. What is more, radiation released during nuclear testing or accidents is absorbed, especially in areas where it rained heavily shortly after the incident. The present work is devoted to an estimation of the transfer coefficient between reared oyster mushrooms and their support die, which was injected with known activity of 241Am and 242Pu. After 2 months when we get the reared mushrooms of cane oyster mushrooms were dried and prepared by liquid extraction with Aliquat 336. The samples were measured by alpha-spectrometry. The results of activity 241Am and 242Pu in the mushrooms body and residual activity in the support was detected and calculated (authors)

  15. Risk of alpha radionuclides presence in cultivating substrate of oyster mushrooms - Pleurotus ostreatus

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The mushrooms are not only rich food products, but also a specific component of forest biogeocenoses playing an important role in their functioning, including radionuclide migration. The reason why fungi work as such good indicators for radioactivity and pollution in general is connected to their structure. Using absorption to obtain their nutrition, fungi lack water-conducting organs like stems and roots. They absorb moisture and nutrients from the soil background through surface cells. Dissolved or airborne materials, which include pollutants, move freely through the compartments of hyphae. What is more, radiation released during nuclear testing or accidents is absorbed, especially in areas where it rained heavily shortly after the incident. The present work is devoted to an estimation of the transfer coefficient between reared oyster mushrooms and their support die, which was injected with known activity of 241Am and 242Pu. After 2 months when we get the reared mushrooms of cane oyster mushrooms were dried and prepared by liquid extraction with Aliquat 336. The samples were measured by ? -spectrometry. The results of activity 241Am and 242Pu in the mushrooms body and residual activity in the support was detected and calculated. (author)

  16. Concerning evaluation of eco-geochemical background in remediation strategy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Korobova, Elena; Romanov, Sergey

    2015-04-01

    The geochemical concept of biosphere developed by V.I. Vernadsky states the geological role of the living organisms in the course of their active chemical interaction with the inert matter (Vernadsky, 1926, 1960). Basing on this theory it is reasonable to suggest that coevolution of living organisms and their environment led to development of the dynamically stable biogeocenoses precisely adequate to their geochemical environment. Soil cover was treated by V.I. Vernadsky as a balanced bio-inert matter resulting from this interaction. Appearance of human mind and then a civilization led to global expansion of human beings, first able to survive in unfavorable geochemical conditions and then starting chemical transformation of the environment to satisfy the growing demands of mankind in food and energy. The residence in unfavorable environment and local contamination was followed by appearance of endemic diseases of plants, animals and man. Therefore zonal, regional and local chemical composition of the soil cover formed in natural conditions may be used for estimation of the optimum geochemical background, most adequate for the corresponding zonal biogeocenoses and species. Moreover, the natural geochemical background and technogenic fields have unequal spatial structure and this facilitates their identification that may be relatively easy realized in remediation strategy. On the assumption of the foregoing, the adequate methodical approach to remediation of technogenically affected areas should account of the interaction of the existing natural and the newly formed technogenic geochemical fields and include the following steps: 1) the study and mapping of geochemical structure of the natural geochemical background basing on soil maps; 2) the study of contaminants and mapping spatial distribution of technogenic releases; 3) construction of risk maps for the target risk groups with due regard to natural ecological threshold concentration in context of risk degree for

  17. The radioecological consequences of the Kyshtym and Chernobyl radiation accidents for forest ecosystems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Following the Urals and Chernobyl accidents 60 to 90% of the radioactive fallout was retained by the above-ground part of forest stands. In the Urals the period for semi-removal of contamination from crowns ranged from 6 to 8 months, compared to around one month in the Chernobyl region - due to different seasonal conditions during the fallout period. The bulk of the dose burden in woody plants' critical organs built up over one to six months. The minimum lethal dose for pine tree needles in the Urals was around 50 Gy, and 25 Gy for the apical meristem; the corresponding figures for Chernobyl were 100 Gy and 25-30 Gy. At lower doses we observed morphological disturbances, reduced growth and suppressed reproductive capability in pines. The resistance to radioactive contamination of deciduous forest was 10-20 times greater than that of conifers. We studied the irradiation doses of the different groups of organisms living in the various forest storeys, and the effects of irradiation (changes in species composition, prevalence and productivity) in communities of herbaceous plants and soil invertebrates. Specific examples are given to highlight the secondary changes in these communities stemming from radiation damage in species sensitive to radioactive contamination. We studied the dynamics of dispersion and migration of the long-lived radionuclides 90Sr and 137Cs in the various components of the biogeocenoses and in the network of geochemically interconnected forest landscapes, and their content in forestry produce. Some six to ten years after the deposition of radioactive fallout in forest ecosystems the radionuclides were more or less evenly spread throughout the soil-woody plant system. Thus, overall 90Sr content in the arboreal storey amounts to 1-2% in coniferous forests, and 5-10% in deciduous forests (Urals accident), while the corresponding figures for 137Cs (Chernobyl accident) are 2 to 3 times higher. (author)

  18. 南滚河国家级自然保护区的动物多样性%Animal Diversity in the Nangunhe National-level Nature Reserve of Yunnan in China

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    刘宁

    2005-01-01

    Based on the systematic research on investigation and taxonomy of Botany and Zoology as well as application of the indigenous knowledge to utilization and conservation of biodiversity, the families and species of mammals, distribution types and habitat distribution of birds, and faunas of amphibian and reptiles, types and characteristics of the fish in the area were investigated and analyzed. The terraneous and aquatic animals, the characteristic of animal ecological system, and the characteristic of animal diversity in the nature reserve were discussed. Results indicated that the area is very rich in animal diversity. There are 98 species of mammals in the area belonging to 10 orders, 30 families and 75 genera,which account for 16.14% of 607 species of mammals in China and 32. 23% of Yunnans 304 species of mammals. There are 145 species of birds in the area belonging to 13 orders and 36 families, which account for 17.4% of 824 species of birds in Yunnan. There are 26 species and subspecies of amphibians in the area. There are 39 species and subspecies of reptiles in the area. Fish in the area were divided into 3,2 and 3 types according to the different habitats, the type of water flows and feeding habits respectively and the characteristics of the fish in the area were introduced. The characteristics of the Biogeocenose diversity in the area were analyzed. The main problems of management in the reserve were found. The long-term development targets for the nature reserve were set. Some suggestions for future management were made.%基于系统的植物学和动物学调查和分类学研究,以及乡土知识在生物多样性的利用和保护方面的应用,对分布于保护区的哺乳动物的科和种、鸟类的分布类型和生境分布、两栖和爬行动物的区系、鱼类的类型和特点作了调查分析,讨论了分布于保护区的陆生和水生动物、动物的生态系统和多样性特征.结果表明:保护区的

  19. Instrumental neutron-activation analysis applications in the assessment of Al, Ca, Dy, K, Mg, Na, Ti, and V contents in soils of the adjacent Khamar-Daban mountain range

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Full text: With consideration of predominating winds in the region, the Baikal Pulp and Paper Complex (BPPC) is likely to be a key source of industrial air emissions on the southern shore of the Baikal Lake to the North-East of the Baikalsk city. About thirty years ago on-going drying of dark coniferous forests growing on the North- Western slopes of the Khamar-Daban Range to the North-East of the Complex was revealed. Numerous biogeocenoses surveys of impaired and drying forests allowed to concluding on the primary impact of BPPC air emissions. The presence of toxic chemicals is reasoned by solid fuel combustion at the BPPC heat and power plant (HPP). Solid fuel burning is known to release a wide range of chemicals, including heavy metals, into the atmospheric air. Their excessive concentrations are also likely to produce negative impact on various ecosystems, including land-based. Indirect retrospective assessment of the regional pollution level is achievable through a survey focused on environment objects that accumulate both major, minor, and trace elements present in industrial air emissions. Topsoil is a more appropriate subject for such surveys. Contaminants are retained in soil for significantly longer time than in other biosphere components - most likely eternally. Soil serves as a mighty absorber of many chemical elements. It retains them in topsoil, which is the most fertile soil layer. As research subjects were used topsoil samples taken on the Khamar-Daban mounts to the North-East of BPPC at a height of about 1200 - 1500 m above sea level in two areas located 11 and 84 km away, respectively. For chemical element content analysis soil samples were taken from topsoil 4 cm thick as an average mixed sample. Mass fractions of 9 chemical elements (Al, Ca, Dy, K, Mg, Mn, Na, Ti and V) were measured by the instrumental neutron activation analysis using short-lived radionuclides. Ampoules with soil samples were irradiated in the thermal column of the IRT