Sample records for biogeocenoses

  1. Quantitative characteristics of collembolan communities in the natural and artificial forest biogeocenoses


    Ye. V. Beskrovnaya; M. V. Tarashchuk


    Springtail populations in four forest biogeocenoses (one population – in the Polissya, two – in the Forest-Steppe, one artificial – in the Steppe) have been studied. Similar nature in seasonal dynamics of springtail populations and general tendencies of changing correlations of life forms during different seasons have been ascertained.

  2. Quantitative characteristics of collembolan communities in the natural and artificial forest biogeocenoses

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    Ye. V. Beskrovnaya


    Full Text Available Springtail populations in four forest biogeocenoses (one population – in the Polissya, two – in the Forest-Steppe, one artificial – in the Steppe have been studied. Similar nature in seasonal dynamics of springtail populations and general tendencies of changing correlations of life forms during different seasons have been ascertained.

  3. Ecological features and bioindicative significance of the testate amoebas (Testacea, Rhizopoda in natural and anthropogenically disturbed biogeocenoses

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    V. V. Red’ko


    Full Text Available The literature data on physiology and ecology characteristics of testate amoebas Testacea, Rhizopoda were reviewed. The testate amoebas can be used as the bioindicators of the different soil conditions in natural biogeocenoses. The data of using the superclass Rhizopoda members as indicators of anthropogenic influences on soil are given.

  4. Main peculiarities of 90Sr and 137Cs redistribution in 'soil - pines' system of the forest biogeocenoses in the Chernobyl exclusion zone

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The scientific researches were carried out at nine experimental plots represented by the pine forests. The redistribution of radioactive nuclides of 90Sr and 137Cs in main components of biogeocenoses was analyzed and vertical migration intensity of 90Sr and 137Cs was determined. Also, intensity of the radionuclides accumulation in the main forest species - pine tree in the Exclusion zone was investigated. It is identified that cumulative inventory of 90Sr is significant for the perennial parts of wood species (first of all for - timber). The highest concentration of 90Sr is found in the photosynthetic parts of the pine tree - needles, and the lowest concentration is found in wood. In this concern, according to the obtained results bark has an intermediate position. The same characteristics refer to 137Cs

  5. Catalase activity in the soil of the wood biogeocenoses in the Samara-river region

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    A. F. Kulik


    Full Text Available Research of catalase activity changes in connection with the free-radical oxidation is soil of natural and artificial ecosystems is conducted. The catalase is a plants’ enzyme of antioxidative protection. The catalase activity is a marker of variety and improvement of soils. It is important for the problems solutions in applied soil science. The aberrations of catalase, peroxidase and polyphenol oxidase activities characterise not only the metabolizing of plants, microorganisms and soils, but the level of the environmental pollution. The general activity of enzymatic systems allows ascertaining their role in the forming of biota components’ resistance to the exogenous influence. The seasonal dynamics of the soils’ catalase activity subject to the type of a biogeocenosis is disclosed.

  6. Features of heavy metals accumulation in small mammals’ organs and tisius in biogeocenoses of different level contamination

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    О. А. Zemliany


    concentrators are spleen, heart and gonads. They have primary accumulation of heavy metals. Organs–deconcentrators are those which have active extraction of microelements (liver, kidneysand and intestine. Tendency to the decline of microelements accumulation intensity in animals from strongly transformed biogeocoenosis are stated. Formation of the special barriers of accumulation and excretion from organism by organs–deconcentrators testifies to making an adaptive mechanism at the level of physiology-biochemical processes and, first of all, the metabolism intensification.

  7. Long-term forecast of Sr 90 migration in forest ecosystems of different types

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mathematical model of Sr 90 migration in forest ecosystems is described and forecast of its content in forest components is calculated for several types of biogeocenoses. Results of modeling are satisfactorily agreeable to the experimental data. (authors)

  8. Analysis of litter mesofauna of Poltava region forest ecosystems

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    O. S. Komarov


    Full Text Available On the basis of research of litter mesofauna of 48 forest biogeocenoses the regularities of invertebrate communities formation on the species and families levels are determined. The degree of similarity of test plots are analysed by taxonomic structure of the communities. The factors of the litter invertebrate communities formation in forest ecosystems of the Poltava region are revealed.

  9. The biological activity of chernozems in the Central Caucasus Mountains (Terskii variant of altitudinal zonality), Kabardino-Balkaria (United States)

    Gedgafova, F. V.; Uligova, T. S.; Gorobtsova, O. N.; Tembotov, R. Kh.


    Some parameters of the biological activity (humus content; activity of hydrolytic enzymes invertase, phosphatase, urease; and the intensity of carbon dioxide emission) were studied in the chernozems of agrocenoses and native biogeocenoses in the foothills of the Caucasus Mountains representing the Terskii variant of the altitudinal zonality. The statistically significant differences were revealed between the relevant characteristics of the soils of the agrocenoses and of the native biogeocenoses. The integral index of the ecological-biological state of the soils was used to estimate changes in the biological activity of the arable chernozems. The 40-60% decrease of this index in the cultivated chernozems testified to their degradation with a decrease in fertility and the disturbance of ecological functions as compared to these characteristics in the virgin chernozems.

  10. A basis for the forest economy conception in the condition of the radioactive contamination

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    On the basis of data on radiation conditions in fores biogeocenoses, the radionuclide migration and the radionuclide content in forest economy products and the dose commitments to various catego rives the forest economy workers, the main theses are presented to keep it in conditions of the radioactive contamination. The base for the theses are done: about radionuclide migration (Cs-137, Ru-106, Cr-144) through the main components of the forest biogeocinoses; about the Cs-137 distribution of the zoofund lands; about the zone radionuclide contamination; about radionuclide content in the forest economy production about a wood plant radiosensitivity. 8 refs.; 6 tabs

  11. [The forecasting of vertical distribution of 37Cs and 90Sr in the forest soils of the Republic of Belarus]. (United States)

    Perevolotskiĭ, A N; Perevolotskaia, T V


    The study analyzes the distribution of 137Cs and 90Sr in the vertical profile of soil of forest biogeocenoses with different modes of moisture and species composition of woody vegetation on the "long" trail of radioactive fallout in the Republic of Belarus. The parameters of radionuclide migration are calculated for the two component quasi-diffusion equation, also based on this equation, pollution of root zone soil layers is predicted, as well as semi-refined periods and the contribution of migration in this process are defined. The intensity of radionuclide migration in the vertical profile of forest soils is found to increase with the change of the soil moisture regime from automorphic to hydromorphic.

  12. Specific features of the dynamics of epiphytic and soil yeast communities in the thickets of Indian balsam on mucky gley soil (United States)

    Glushakova, A. M.; Kachalkin, A. V.; Chernov, I. Yu.


    The annual dynamics of the number and taxonomic composition of yeast communities were studied in the phyllosphere, on the flowers, and on the roots of Indian balsam ( Impatiens glandulifera Royle) and in the mucky gley soil under the thickets of this plant. It was shown that typical phyllosphere yeast communities with a predominance of the red-pigmented species Rhodotorula mucilaginosa and Rhodotorula glutinis and the typical epiphyte Cryptococcus magnus are formed on the leaves of this annual hygrophyte. However, yeast groups with a predominance of the ascosporous species Saccharomyces paradoxus, Kazachstania barnettii, and Torulaspora delbrueckii, which are not typical of soils at all, were found in the mucky gley soil under the thickets of Indian balsam. Thus, the epiphytic and soil yeast complexes under the thickets of Indian balsam are represented by two entirely discrete communities without common species. In other biogeocenoses of the forest zone, the rearrangement of the structure of yeast communities in passing from the aboveground substrates to the soil proceeds gradually, and most of the species can be isolated both from the aboveground parts of plants and from the soil. The strong difference between the yeast communities in the phyllosphere of Indian balsam and in the soil under its thickets is apparently related to the fact that the annual hygrophytes are decomposed very quickly (during several days after the first frosts). Because of this, an intermediate layer between the phyllosphere and the soil (the litter layer), in which epiphytic microorganisms can develop, is not formed under these plants.

  13. Estudos sôbre reservatórios e vetores silvestres do Trypanosoma cruzi. XXII. Modificações dos focos naturais da tripanossomose americana e suas conseqüências

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    Mauro Pereira Barreto


    Full Text Available Os focos naturais da tripanossomose americana, como tôda biogeocenose, podem. permanecer relativamente estáveis, sendo esta estabilidade necessária para a própria existência dêsses focos. Mas o balanço ecológico pode ser alterado, sendo muito importante aquelas alterações devidas à interferência direta ou indireta do homem ao exercer atividades ligadas ao desbravamento e à colonização. Entre as conseqüências podemos citar: 1 redução ou desaparição dos focos naturais; 2 concentração de hospedeiros e vectores em áreas favoráveis limitadas; 3 deslocamento de hospedeiros e vectores para outras áreas; 4 invasão das habitações humanas e anexos, com a instalação do ciclo doméstico da infecção. Estas possibilidades são analisadas e ilustradas com exemplos.

  14. Concerning evaluation of eco-geochemical background in remediation strategy (United States)

    Korobova, Elena; Romanov, Sergey


    The geochemical concept of biosphere developed by V.I. Vernadsky states the geological role of the living organisms in the course of their active chemical interaction with the inert matter (Vernadsky, 1926, 1960). Basing on this theory it is reasonable to suggest that coevolution of living organisms and their environment led to development of the dynamically stable biogeocenoses precisely adequate to their geochemical environment. Soil cover was treated by V.I. Vernadsky as a balanced bio-inert matter resulting from this interaction. Appearance of human mind and then a civilization led to global expansion of human beings, first able to survive in unfavorable geochemical conditions and then starting chemical transformation of the environment to satisfy the growing demands of mankind in food and energy. The residence in unfavorable environment and local contamination was followed by appearance of endemic diseases of plants, animals and man. Therefore zonal, regional and local chemical composition of the soil cover formed in natural conditions may be used for estimation of the optimum geochemical background, most adequate for the corresponding zonal biogeocenoses and species. Moreover, the natural geochemical background and technogenic fields have unequal spatial structure and this facilitates their identification that may be relatively easy realized in remediation strategy. On the assumption of the foregoing, the adequate methodical approach to remediation of technogenically affected areas should account of the interaction of the existing natural and the newly formed technogenic geochemical fields and include the following steps: 1) the study and mapping of geochemical structure of the natural geochemical background basing on soil maps; 2) the study of contaminants and mapping spatial distribution of technogenic releases; 3) construction of risk maps for the target risk groups with due regard to natural ecological threshold concentration in context of risk degree for

  15. 南滚河国家级自然保护区的动物多样性%Animal Diversity in the Nangunhe National-level Nature Reserve of Yunnan in China

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)



    Based on the systematic research on investigation and taxonomy of Botany and Zoology as well as application of the indigenous knowledge to utilization and conservation of biodiversity, the families and species of mammals, distribution types and habitat distribution of birds, and faunas of amphibian and reptiles, types and characteristics of the fish in the area were investigated and analyzed. The terraneous and aquatic animals, the characteristic of animal ecological system, and the characteristic of animal diversity in the nature reserve were discussed. Results indicated that the area is very rich in animal diversity. There are 98 species of mammals in the area belonging to 10 orders, 30 families and 75 genera,which account for 16.14% of 607 species of mammals in China and 32. 23% of Yunnans 304 species of mammals. There are 145 species of birds in the area belonging to 13 orders and 36 families, which account for 17.4% of 824 species of birds in Yunnan. There are 26 species and subspecies of amphibians in the area. There are 39 species and subspecies of reptiles in the area. Fish in the area were divided into 3,2 and 3 types according to the different habitats, the type of water flows and feeding habits respectively and the characteristics of the fish in the area were introduced. The characteristics of the Biogeocenose diversity in the area were analyzed. The main problems of management in the reserve were found. The long-term development targets for the nature reserve were set. Some suggestions for future management were made.%基于系统的植物学和动物学调查和分类学研究,以及乡土知识在生物多样性的利用和保护方面的应用,对分布于保护区的哺乳动物的科和种、鸟类的分布类型和生境分布、两栖和爬行动物的区系、鱼类的类型和特点作了调查分析,讨论了分布于保护区的陆生和水生动物、动物的生态系统和多样性特征.结果表明:保护区的

  16. Instrumental neutron-activation analysis applications in the assessment of Al, Ca, Dy, K, Mg, Na, Ti, and V contents in soils of the adjacent Khamar-Daban mountain range

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Full text: With consideration of predominating winds in the region, the Baikal Pulp and Paper Complex (BPPC) is likely to be a key source of industrial air emissions on the southern shore of the Baikal Lake to the North-East of the Baikalsk city. About thirty years ago on-going drying of dark coniferous forests growing on the North- Western slopes of the Khamar-Daban Range to the North-East of the Complex was revealed. Numerous biogeocenoses surveys of impaired and drying forests allowed to concluding on the primary impact of BPPC air emissions. The presence of toxic chemicals is reasoned by solid fuel combustion at the BPPC heat and power plant (HPP). Solid fuel burning is known to release a wide range of chemicals, including heavy metals, into the atmospheric air. Their excessive concentrations are also likely to produce negative impact on various ecosystems, including land-based. Indirect retrospective assessment of the regional pollution level is achievable through a survey focused on environment objects that accumulate both major, minor, and trace elements present in industrial air emissions. Topsoil is a more appropriate subject for such surveys. Contaminants are retained in soil for significantly longer time than in other biosphere components - most likely eternally. Soil serves as a mighty absorber of many chemical elements. It retains them in topsoil, which is the most fertile soil layer. As research subjects were used topsoil samples taken on the Khamar-Daban mounts to the North-East of BPPC at a height of about 1200 - 1500 m above sea level in two areas located 11 and 84 km away, respectively. For chemical element content analysis soil samples were taken from topsoil 4 cm thick as an average mixed sample. Mass fractions of 9 chemical elements (Al, Ca, Dy, K, Mg, Mn, Na, Ti and V) were measured by the instrumental neutron activation analysis using short-lived radionuclides. Ampoules with soil samples were irradiated in the thermal column of the IRT

  17. Ecological Role of Soils upon Radioactive Contamination (United States)

    Tsvetnov, Evgeny; Shcheglov, Alexei; Tsvenova, Olga


    The ecological role of soils upon radioactive contamination is clearly manifested in the system of notions about ecosystems services, i.e., benefits gained by humans from ecosystems and their components, including soils (Millennium Ecosystem Assessment, 2005). For the soils, these services are considered on the basis of soil functions in the biosphere that belong to the protective ecosystem functions within the group of soil functions known under the names of "Buffer and protective biogeocenotic shield" (at the level of particular biogeocenoses) and "Protective shield of the biosphere" (at the global biospheric level) (according to Dobrovol'skii & Nikitin, 2005). With respect to radionuclides, this group includes (1) the depositing function, i.e., the accumulation and long-term sequestration of radioactive substances by the soil after atmospheric fallout; (2) the geochemical function, i.e., the regulation of horizontal and vertical fluxes of radionuclides in the system of geochemically conjugated landscapes and in the soil-groundwater and soil-plant systems; and (3) the dose-forming function that is manifested by the shielding capacity of the soil with respect to the external ionizing radiation (lowering of the dose from external radiation) and by the regulation of the migration of radionuclides in the trophic chain (lowering of the dose from internal radiation). The depositing and geochemical functions of the soils are interrelated, which is seen from quantitative estimates of the dynamics of the fluxes of radionuclides in the considered systems (soil-plant, soil-groundwater, etc.). The downward migration of radionuclides into the lower soil layers proceeds very slowly: for decades, more than 90% of the pool of radionuclides is stored in the topmost 10 cm of the soil profile. In the first 3-5 years after the fallout, the downward migration of radionuclides with infiltrating water flows decreases from several percent to decimals and hundredths of percent from the