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Sample records for biogenic uraninite produced

  1. Biogenic uraninite precipitation and its reoxidation by iron(III) (hydr)oxides: A reaction modeling approach

    Science.gov (United States)

    Spycher, Nicolas F.; Issarangkun, Montarat; Stewart, Brandy D.; Sevinç Şengör, S.; Belding, Eileen; Ginn, Tim R.; Peyton, Brent M.; Sani, Rajesh K.

    2011-08-01

    One option for immobilizing uranium present in subsurface contaminated groundwater is in situ bioremediation, whereby dissimilatory metal-reducing bacteria and/or sulfate-reducing bacteria are stimulated to catalyze the reduction of soluble U(VI) and precipitate it as uraninite (UO 2). This is typically accomplished by amending groundwater with an organic electron donor. It has been shown, however, that once the electron donor is entirely consumed, Fe(III) (hydr)oxides can reoxidize biogenically produced UO 2, thus potentially impeding cleanup efforts. On the basis of published experiments showing that such reoxidation takes place even under highly reducing conditions (e.g., sulfate-reducing conditions), thermodynamic and kinetic constraints affecting this reoxidation are examined using multicomponent biogeochemical simulations, with particular focus on the role of sulfide and Fe(II) in solution. The solubility of UO 2 and Fe(III) (hydr)oxides are presented, and the effect of nanoscale particle size on stability is discussed. Thermodynamically, sulfide is preferentially oxidized by Fe(III) (hydr)oxides, compared to biogenic UO 2, and for this reason the relative rates of sulfide and UO 2 oxidation play a key role on whether or not UO 2 reoxidizes. The amount of Fe(II) in solution is another important factor, with the precipitation of Fe(II) minerals lowering the Fe +2 activity in solution and increasing the potential for both sulfide and UO 2 reoxidation. The greater (and unintuitive) UO 2 reoxidation by hematite compared to ferrihydrite previously reported in some experiments can be explained by the exhaustion of this mineral from reaction with sulfide. Simulations also confirm previous studies suggesting that carbonate produced by the degradation of organic electron donors used for bioreduction may significantly increase the potential for UO 2 reoxidation through formation of uranyl carbonate aqueous complexes.

  2. Biogenic antimicrobial silver nanoparticles produced by fungi.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rodrigues, Alexandre G; Ping, Liu Yu; Marcato, Priscyla D; Alves, Oswaldo L; Silva, Maria C P; Ruiz, Rita C; Melo, Itamar S; Tasic, Ljubica; De Souza, Ana O

    2013-01-01

    Aspergillus tubingensis and Bionectria ochroleuca showed excellent extracellular ability to synthesize silver nanoparticles (Ag NP), spherical in shape and 35 ± 10 nm in size. Ag NP were characterized by transmission electron microscopy, X-ray diffraction analysis, and photon correlation spectroscopy for particle size and zeta potential. Proteins present in the fungal filtrate and in Ag NP dispersion were analyzed by electrophoresis (sodium dodecyl sulfate polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis). Ag NP showed pronounced antifungal activity against Candida sp, frequently occurring in hospital infections, with minimal inhibitory concentration in the range of 0.11-1.75 μg/mL. Regarding antibacterial activity, nanoparticles produced by A. tubingensis were more effective compared to the other fungus, inhibiting 98.0 % of Pseudomonas. aeruginosa growth at 0.28 μg/mL. A. tubingensis synthesized Ag NP with surprisingly high and positive surface potential, differing greatly from all known fungi. These data open the possibility of obtaining biogenic Ag NP with positive surface potential and new applications.

  3. Oxidation of uraninite

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Janeczek, J.; Ewing, R.C.

    1993-06-01

    Samples of uraninite and pitchblende annealed at 1200 degrees C in H 2 , and untreated pitchblende were sequentially oxidized in air at 180-190 degrees C, 230 degrees C, and 300 degrees C. Uraninite and untreated pitchblende oxidized to the U 4 O 9 -type oxide, and their x-ray symmetry remained isometric up to 300 degrees C. Reduced pitchblende, after oxidation to UO 2+x and U 4 O 9 -type oxides, transformed into α-U 3 O 8 at 300 degrees C. Two major mechanisms control uraninite and untreated pitchblende stability during oxidation: 1. Th and/or lanthanide elements maintain charge balance and block oxygen interstitials near impurity cations; 2. the uraninite structure saturates with respect to excess and radiation-induced oxygen interstitials. Untreated pitchblende during oxidation behaved similarly to irradiated UO 2 in spent nuclear fuel; whereas, reduced pitchblende resembled non-irradiated UO 2 . An analysis of the data in the literature, as well as our own efforts (XRD, EMPA, SEM, AEM) to identify U 3 O 7 in samples form Cigar Lake, Canada, failed to provide conclusive evidence of the natural occurrence of tetragonal αU 3 O 7 . Most probably, reported occurrences of U 3 O 7 are mixtures of isometric uraninites of slightly different compositions, 45 refs

  4. Petrological significance of REE in uraninite

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Feng Mingyue; Li Yuexiang; Xu Zhan.

    1992-01-01

    According to the petrological study of Zhuguangshan and Huanglongmiao granites and REE in uraninite from these granites, it can be concluded that REE contents in uraninite and granites are positively correlative; the partition characteristics of REE in uraninite are related to the acidity of initial rocks; and the fractionation degree of REE in uraninite reflects the differentiation degree of initial rocks

  5. Petrological significance of REE in uraninite

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mingyue, Feng; Yuexiang, Li; Zhan, Xu

    1992-09-01

    According to the petrological study of Zhuguangshan and Huanglongmiao granites and REE in uraninite from these granites, it can be concluded that REE contents in uraninite and granites are positively correlative; the partition characteristics of REE in uraninite are related to the acidity of initial rocks; and the fractionation degree of REE in uraninite reflects the differentiation degree of initial rocks.

  6. Effect of gamma irradiation on the activity of some microorganisms producing biogenic amines in some foods

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    AL-Bassiony, K.R.A

    2009-01-01

    The effect of gamma irradiation on the proximate chemical composition ( moisture content , protein , fat, ash) chemical freshness tests (TBA, TVB-N, TMA, FAN, ph) and microbiological changes (total bacterial count, proteolytic bacteria, Enterobacteriaceae, moulds and yeasts counts) occurred in sardine fish and pastirma during cold storage at (4 ± 1 degree C) were fully investigated. Furthermore, the bacterial activity causing the formation of biogenic amines were also studied. In addition, the determination of biogenic amines in sardine fish and pastirma produced by these bacteria were explored. The effects of irradiation doses (1, 3 and 5 kGy) which were applied as a trial to reduce biogenic amines formation in sardine fish and pastirma were also investigated. In addition, the effect of the tested irradiation doses (1, 3 and 5 kGy) on organoleptic properties of the treated sardine fish and pastirma were determined.

  7. Concentration of Biogenic Amines in ‘Pinot Noir’ Wines Produced in Croatia

    OpenAIRE

    Ana Jeromel; Karin Kovačević Ganić; Stanka Herjavec; Marin Mihaljević; Ana Marija Jagatić Korenika; Ivana Rendulic; Marijana Čolić

    2014-01-01

    The origins of biogenic amines are sound grapes, alcoholic fermentations, malolactic fermentation and microbial activities during wine storage. These biologically produced amines are essential at low concentrations for optimal metabolic and physiological functions in animals, plants and micro-organisms. During alcoholic fermentation the degree of maceration is the first factor that affects the extraction of compounds present in the grape skin, among them aminoacids, precursors of bioge...

  8. Dissolution and alteration of uraninite under reducing conditions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Janeczek, J.; Ewing, R.C.

    1992-01-01

    The behavior of uraninite under hydrothermal, reducung conditions is discussed on the basis of data in the literature and the authors' investigation of samples from two natural analogue sites: Oklo, Gabon and Cigar Lake, Canada. Uraninite under reducing conditions, in the presence of saline hydrothermal solutions may be altered through dissolution, preferential loss of lead and/or Y + HREE, and coffinitization. Textural features indicative of dissolution or uraninite include embayed grain boundaries, corroded relicts of uraninite embedded in a clay matrix, and replacement of uraninite by clays and sulfides. The alteration textures and phase chemistries at Oklo and Cigar Lake are remarkably similar. Dissolution of uraninite at Cigar Lake and Oklo was associated with the precipitation or illite and was probably caused by saline, uraninite moderately acidic solutions at approximately 200deg C. Increased oxygen fugacity may have occured locally due to release of excess oxygen from uraninite during dissolution or by α-radiolysis of the solution. The formation of Pb-rich (up to 18 wt% Pb, uraninite-I) and Pb-depleted (approximately 7-8 wt% Pb, uraninite-II) uraninites at both Oklo and Cigar Lake resulted from the loss of Pb due to predominantly episodic volume diffusion related to regional geologic events. Lead loss was not associated with U mobilization. In addition to uraninite dissolution, coffinitization resulted in U, Pb and REE release. (orig.)

  9. A wide diversity of bacteria from the human gut produces and degrades biogenic amines.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pugin, Benoit; Barcik, Weronika; Westermann, Patrick; Heider, Anja; Wawrzyniak, Marcin; Hellings, Peter; Akdis, Cezmi A; O'Mahony, Liam

    2017-01-01

    Background : Biogenic amines (BAs) are metabolites produced by the decarboxylation of amino acids with significant physiological functions in eukaryotic and prokaryotic cells. BAs can be produced by bacteria in fermented foods, but little is known concerning the potential for microbes within the human gut microbiota to produce or degrade BAs. Objective : To isolate and identify BA-producing and BA-degrading microbes from the human gastrointestinal tract. Design : Fecal samples from human volunteers were screened on multiple growth media, under multiple growth conditions. Bacterial species were identified using 16S rRNA sequencing and BA production or degradation was assessed using ultra-performance liquid chromatography. Results : In total, 74 BA-producing or BA-degrading strains were isolated from the human gut. These isolates belong to the genera Bifidobacterium , Clostridium , Enterococcus , Lactobacillus , Pediococcus , Streptococcus , Enterobacter , Escherichia , Klebsiella , Morganella and Proteus . While differences in production or degradation of specific BAs were observed at the strain level, our results suggest that these metabolic activities are widely spread across different taxa present within the human gut microbiota. Conclusions : The isolation and identification of microbes from the human gut with BA-producing and BA-degrading metabolic activity is an important first step in developing a better understanding of how these metabolites influence health and disease.

  10. Uraninite alteration in an oxidizing environment and its relevance to the disposal of spent nuclear fuel

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Finch, R.; Ewing, R.

    1990-12-01

    Uraninite is a natural analogue for spent nuclear fuel because of similarities in structure and chemistry. Effective assessment of the long-term behavior of spent fuel in a geologic repository requires a knowledge of the corrosion products produced in that environment. Several important natural analogue sites are reviewed, illustrating a wide variety of environments from oxidizing to reducing, including, among others: Cigar Lake, Canada, a uraninite-bearing ore body at depth within a strictly reducing environment; the ore body has 'seen' extensive groundwater interaction with virtually no significant oxidation or mobilization of U apperent. Koongara, Australia is a highly altered uraninite-bearing ore body partially exposed to meteoric water; alteration at depth has resulted from interaction with groundwater having a somewhat reduced Eh compared to the surface. Uraninite, Pb-uranyl oxide hydrates and uranyl silicates control U solubility at depth; uranyl phosphates and U adsorption onto clays and FeMn-oxides control U solubility near the surface. Pocos de Caldas, Brazil displays a redox from moving through uraninite-bearing rocks near the surface and shows local remobilization of U. Oklo, Gabon, a uraninite- and coffinite-bearing ore body, locally affected by intense hydrothermal alteration during fission reactions, demonstrates restricted radionuclide and fission product transport within a reducing environment. A current study being conducted by the authors at Shinkolbwe, Zaire, a uraninite-bearing ore body exposed to highly oxidizing conditions at the surface, provides over 50 species of uranyl phases for detailed study, and illustrates a complex uranyl phase paragenesis over several million years, from earliest-formed uranyl oxide hydrates and uranyl silicates to later-formed uranyl phosphate. (au) (268 refs.)

  11. Biofilm-forming capacity in biogenic amine-producing bacteria isolated from dairy products.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maria eDiaz

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available Biofilms on the surface of food industry equipment are reservoirs of potentially food-contaminating bacteria - both spoilage and pathogenic. However, the capacity of biogenic amine (BA-producers to form biofilms has remained largely unexamined. BAs are low molecular weight, biologically active compounds that in food can reach concentrations high enough to be a toxicological hazard. Fermented foods, especially some types of cheese, accumulate the highest BA concentrations of all. The present work examines the biofilm-forming capacity of 56 BA-producing strains belonging to three genera and 10 species (12 Enterococcus faecalis, 6 Enterococcus faecium, 6 Enterococcus durans, 1 Enterococcus hirae, 12 Lactococcus lactis, 7 Lactobacillus vaginalis, 2 Lactobacillus curvatus, 2 Lactobacillus brevis, 1 Lactobacillus reuteri and 7 Lactobacillus parabuchneri, all isolated from dairy products. Strains of all the tested species - except for L. vaginalis - were able to produce biofilms on polystyrene and adhered to stainless steel. However, the biomass produced in biofilms was strain-dependent. These results suggest that biofilms may provide a route via which fermented foods can become contaminated by BA-producing microorganisms.

  12. Synthesis of Copper Sulfide Nanoparticles Using Biogenic H2S Produced by a Low-pH Sulfidogenic Bioreactor

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    Camila Colipai

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available The application of acidophilic sulfate-reducing bacteria (SRB for the treatment of acidic mine water has been recently developed to integrate mine water remediation and selective biomineralization. The use of biogenic hydrogen sulfide (H2S produced from the dissimilatory reduction of sulfate to fabricate valuable products such as metallic sulfide nanoparticles has potential applications in green chemistry. Here we report on the operation of a low-pH sulfidogenic bioreactor, inoculated with an anaerobic sediment obtained from an acid river in northern Chile, to recover copper via the production of copper sulfide nanoparticles using biogenic H2S. The laboratory-scale system was operated as a continuous flow mode for up to 100 days and the bioreactor pH was maintained by the automatic addition of a pH 2.2 influent liquor to compensate for protons consumed by biosulfidogenesis. The “clean” copper sulfide nanoparticles, produced in a two-step process using bacterially generated sulfide, were examined using transmission electron microscopy, dynamic light scattering, energy dispersive (X-ray spectroscopy and UV-Vis spectroscopy. The results demonstrated a uniform nanoparticle size distribution with an average diameter of less than 50 nm. Overall, we demonstrated the production of biogenic H2S using a system designed for the treatment of acid mine water that holds potential for large-scale abiotic synthesis of copper sulfide nanoparticles.

  13. Genome Sequence Analysis of the Biogenic Amine-Producing Strain Lactococcus lactis subsp. cremoris CECT 8666 (Formerly GE2-14)

    Science.gov (United States)

    del Rio, Beatriz; Linares, Daniel M.; Fernandez, Maria; Mayo, Baltasar; Martin, M. Cruz; Alvarez, Miguel A.

    2014-01-01

    We here report a 2,801,031-bp annotated draft assembly for the Lactococcus lactis subsp. cremoris GE2-14 genome. This dairy strain produces the biogenic amine putrescine. This sequence may help identify the mechanisms regulating putrescine biosynthesis and throw light on ways to reduce its presence in fermented foods. PMID:25342694

  14. Genome Sequence of Lactobacillus saerimneri 30a (Formerly Lactobacillus sp. Strain 30a), a Reference Lactic Acid Bacterium Strain Producing Biogenic Amines

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Romano, Andrea; Trip, Hein; Campbell-Sills, Hugo; Bouchez, Olivier; Sherman, David; Lolkema, Juke S.; Lucas, Patrick M.

    2013-01-01

    Lactobacillus sp. strain 30a (Lactobacillus saerimneri) produces the biogenic amines histamine, putrescine, and cadaverine by decarboxylating their amino acid precursors. We report its draft genome sequence (1,634,278 bases, 42.6% G+C content) and the principal findings from its annotation, which

  15. Sandbox experiments on Uraninite Ore: ERT and SP measurments.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Singh, R. K.

    2015-12-01

    Nuclear energy, considering its own intrinsic merits, would be a leading source for meeting the energy requirement in present and future scenario. Concealed Uranium deposits under sedimentary cover, with poor surface indications calls for reorientation of survey with large inputs involving integrated geophysical approach. Sand Box experiments have been carried out over Uraninite ore. The tank is a glass fish tank (height 39 cm, length 75 cm, width 30 cm). It was filled with sand up to 35 cm high. The sand was saturated from below to minimize the entrapment of the gas bubbles. The average size for sand grains is ~ 0.295mm. The formation factor of the sand is 3.5, with a negligible surface conductivity because of the coarse nature of the sand grains. The dimension of considered Uraninite ore sample is 4cm x 4cm x 4cm. The depth of top of the ore sample is kept at 3cm. In this paper both resistivity and self-potential measurements were carried out for possible detection of Uraninite. The resistivity measurements were made with 64 non-polarizable electrodes using Electrical Resistivity Tomography (ERT) equipment of FlashRes Universal developed by ZZ Resistivity Imaging Pty. Ltd. We have used screws of length 3cm as electrodes. The separation between these electrodes are ~ 1cm. The resistivity tomography results clearly outlines the target Uraninite body. The resistivity tomography results also detects small heterogeneities associated with air bubbles possibly due to unsaturated pore spaces. SP measurements were made using two non-polarizing Pb/PbCl2 electrodes and a Fluke 289 voltmeter (sensitivity 0.001 mV, internal impedance 100 MOhm). The reference electrode was located on the corner of the sandbox. The other electrode was used to scan the electrical potential at the surface of the sand. SP measurements were made with a spacing of 3 cm over the same ERT profile. The SP results also shows a dip (or a low SP anomaly) over the target ore body sample. Thus, both SP and

  16. Mineragraphic study of uraninites in precambrian quartzites of Kulu district, Himachal Pradesh, India

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Parthasarthy, T.N.

    1993-01-01

    Uraninites from the precambrian quartzites at Kandi-Panihar, Giagi-Khalandi, Dharagad-Bandal and Sajwar areas of Kulu district, Himachal Pradesh (Survey of India Sheet 53 E/NW) have been studied under ore-microscope and by X-ray diffraction. Besides uraninite, kasolite has also been identified occurring as oxidation product of the uraninite, and both occur filling up the macro- and micro-shear fractures developed in the quartzites. Uraninites show brecciation and recrystallization in these veins indicating that the mineralisation has been affected by a tectonic event. Two generations of uraninite have been noted in the veins. Later supergene alteration has resulted in the development of kasolite, curite, and wolsendorfite from the uraninite along the joint-planes. The only gangue mineral associated with the uraninite is quartz. Spectrographic data indicates that these uraninites are extremely poor in La and Ce compared to the hydrothermal uraninites reported from Singhbhum area of Bihar, India. In the light of the present studies it is difficult to comment on the genesis of Kulu uraninite at this stage, though X-ray powder data indicate high temperature origin for the early uraninite, with the unit cell size of around 5.4677A. (author). 19 refs., 4 tabs., 9 figs

  17. Biogenic non-crystalline U(IV) revealed as major component in uranium ore deposits

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bhattacharyya, Amrita; Campbell, Kate M.; Kelly, Shelly D.; Roebbert, Yvonne; Weyer, Stefan; Bernier-Latmani, Rizlan; Borch, Thomas

    2017-06-01

    Historically, it is believed that crystalline uraninite, produced via the abiotic reduction of hexavalent uranium (U(VI)) is the dominant reduced U species formed in low-temperature uranium roll-front ore deposits. Here we show that non-crystalline U(IV) generated through biologically mediated U(VI) reduction is the predominant U(IV) species in an undisturbed U roll-front ore deposit in Wyoming, USA. Characterization of U species revealed that the majority (~58-89%) of U is bound as U(IV) to C-containing organic functional groups or inorganic carbonate, while uraninite and U(VI) represent only minor components. The uranium deposit exhibited mostly 238U-enriched isotope signatures, consistent with largely biotic reduction of U(VI) to U(IV). This finding implies that biogenic processes are more important to uranium ore genesis than previously understood. The predominance of a relatively labile form of U(IV) also provides an opportunity for a more economical and environmentally benign mining process, as well as the design of more effective post-mining restoration strategies and human health-risk assessment.

  18. Synchrotron X-ray characterization of mackinawite and uraninite relevant to bio-remediation of groundwater contaminated with uranium

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carpenter, J.; Hyun, S.; Hayes, K. F.

    2010-12-01

    Uranium (U) originating from mining operations for weapon manufacturing and nuclear energy production is a significant radionuclide contaminant in groundwater local to uranium mining, uranium milling, and uranium mill tailing (UMT) storage sites. In the USA, the Department of Energy (DOE) is currently overseeing approximately 24 Uranium Mill Tailing Remediation Action (UMTRA) sites which have collectively processed over 27 million tons of uranium ore1,2. In-Situ microbial bio-reduction of the highly mobile U6+ ion into the dramatically less mobile U4+ ion has been demonstrated as an effective remedial process to inhibit uranium migration in the aqueous phase3. The resistance of this process to oxidization and possible remobilization of U when bioremediation stops (and oxidants such as oxygen from the air or nitrate in water diffuse into the formation) in the long term is not known. UMTRA site studies3 have shown that iron sulfide solids are produced by sulfate reducing bacteria (SRB) during U bioremediation, and some forms of these iron sulfide solids are known to be effective oxidant scavengers, potentially protecting against re-oxidation and thus remobilization of U. This work is investigating the role of iron sulfide solids in the long-term immobilization of reduced U compounds after bioremediation is completed in groundwater local to UMTRA sites. Re-oxidation tests are being performed in packed media columns loaded with both FeS and U solids. High quality mackinawite (FeS), and uraninite (UO2) have been synthesized in our laboratory via a wet chemistry approach. These synthetic materials are expected to mimic the naturally occurring and biogenic materials present in biologically stimulated UMTRA sites. In order to establish the initial conditions of the prepared experimental columns and to compare synthetic and biogenic FeS and UO2, these synthesized materials have been characterized with synchrotron radiation at the Stanford Synchrotron Radiation Lightsource

  19. Effect of γ-Aminobutyric Acid (GABA Producing Bacteria on Rumen Fermentation, Biogenic Amine Production and Anti-oxidation Using Corn Meal as Substrate

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bum Seung Ku

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available The effects and significance of γ-amino butyric acid (GABA producing bacteria (GPB on in vitro rumen fermentation and reduction of biogenic amines (histamine, methylamine, ethylamine, and tyramine using corn meal as a substrate were determined. Ruminal samples collected from ruminally fistulated Holstein cows served as inoculum and corn was used as substrate at 2% dry matter (DM. Different inclusion rates of GPB and GABA were evaluated. After incubation, addition of GPB had no significant effect on in vitro fermentation pH and total gas production, but significantly increased the ammonia nitrogen (NH3-N concentration and reduced the total biogenic amines production (p<0.05. Furthermore, antioxidation activity was improved as indicated by the significantly higher concentration of superoxide dismutase (SOD and glutathione peroxidase (GSH-Px among treated samples when compared to the control (p<0.05. Additionally, 0.2% GPB was established as the optimum inclusion level. Taken together, these results suggest the potential of utilizing GPB as feed additives to improve growth performance in ruminants by reducing biogenic amines and increasing anti-oxidation.

  20. Primary dispersal patterns of uraninite in the Proterozoic Vaal Reef placer deposit, Witwatersrand, South Africa

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Minter, W.E.L.

    1981-01-01

    The Vaal Reef is a strata-bound uranium orebody. Uraninite, together with nodular pyrite and gold, is a detrital heavy-mineral component of the sediment. Consequently, the areal distribution patterns of uranium content match the braided, southeasterly dispersal pattern evident in the Vaal Reef. Deeper channelways contain more uraninite

  1. Comparison of γ-aminobutyric acid and biogenic amine content of different types of ewe’s milk cheese produced in Sardinia, Italy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gavina Manca

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available The bioactive compounds γ-aminobutyric acid (GABA and biogenic amines (BA, together with protein-free amino acids, were measured by high-performance liquid chromatography in ewe’s milk cheeses produced in Sardinia with different technological traits. The study included three types of cheese: Pecorino Sardo PDO, Pecorino and Casu Marzu. Farmhouse Casu Marzu and Pecorino showed GABA content (maximum levels: 1001.3 and 378.1 mg 100 g–1 respectively that had never been found so high in cheese before, suggesting that these types of cheese present ideal conditions to produce GABA. These two types of cheese also showed high levels of BA (their total maximum levels were 1035.7 and 288.0 mg 100 g–1 respectively. Pearson correlation analysis detected significant correlation between GABA and the main BA present in the cheeses (tyramine, cadaverine and putrescine, suggesting that the factors affecting the production of GABA are the same as those influencing BA formation.

  2. Oxidation of uraninite: does tetragonal U3O7 occur in nature?

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Janeczek, J.; Ewing, R.C.; Thomas, L.E.

    1993-01-01

    Samples of uraninite and pitchblende annealed at 1200 C in H 2 , and untreated pitchblende were sequentially oxidized in air at 180-190 C, 230 C, and 300 C. Uraninite and untreated pitchblende oxidized to the U 4 O 9 -type oxide, and their X-ray symmetry remained isometric up to 300 C. Reduced pitchblende after oxidation to UO 2+x and U 4 O 9 -type oxides transformed into α-U 3 O 8 at 300 C. Two major mechanisms control uraninite and untreated pitchblende stability during oxidation: (1) Th and/or REE maintain charge balance and block oxygen interstitials near impurity cations; (2) the uraninite structure saturates with respect to excess oxygen and radiation-induced oxygen interstitials. Untreated pitchblende during oxidation behaved similarly to irradiated UO 2 in spent nuclear fuel; whereas, reduced pitchblende resembled nonirradiated UO 2 . An analysis of the data in the literature, as well as our own efforts to identify U 3 O 7 in samples from Cigar Lake, Canada, failed to provide conclusive evidence of the natural occurrence of tetragonal α-U 3 O 7 . Most probably, reported occurrences of U 3 O 7 are mixtures of isometric uraninites of slightly different compositions. (orig.)

  3. Uraninite and its alternation at Palmottu - A possible natural analogue for spent fuel under reducing conditions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ruskeeniemi, T.; Blomqvist, R.; Ahonen, L.

    1994-01-01

    Uraninite is the major uraniferous mineral in the Precambrian U-Th rich pegmatites at Palmottu. Most euhedral uraninite grains were partially altered by silica-rich hydrothermal solutions during the late stage pegmatitic crystallization. The dominant secondary mineral is uranium silicate, with a chemical composition similar to that of coffinite (USiO 4 * Nh 2 O). The simultaneous formation of galena and other sulfides with the uranium silicate indicates that the alteration took place under reducing conditions. Hence, uranium occurs predominantly in the uranous (U 4+ ) state. Preliminary mass balance calculations imply that significant amounts of U, Th, and Pb were released during the replacement process. As the Palmottu U-Th deposit extends from ground level to distinctly reduced parts of the bedrock, it affords the opportinity of studying the stability and alteration of uraninite as an analogue for spent nuclear fuel under various redox conditions. (orig.) (28 refs., 5 figs., 1 tab.)

  4. U and Pb isotope analysis of uraninite and galena by ion microprobe

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Evins, L.Z.; Sunde, T.; Schoeberg, H. [Swedish Museum of Natural History, Stockholm (Sweden). Laboratory for Isotope Geology; Fayek, M. [Univ. of Tennessee, Knoxville, TN (United States). Dept. of Geological Sciences

    2001-10-01

    Accurate isotopic analysis of minerals by ion microprobe, or SIMS (Secondary Ion Mass Spectrometry) usually requires a standard to correct for instrumental mass bias effects that occur during analysis. We have calibrated two uraninite crystals and one galena crystal to be used as ion probe standards. As part of this study we describe the analytical procedures and problems encountered while trying to establish fractionation factors for U and Pb isotopes measured in galena and uraninite. Only the intra-element isotopic mass fractionation is considered and not the interelement fractionation. Galena and uraninite were analysed with TIMS (Thermal Ionisation Mass Spectrometry) prior to SIMS. One uraninite crystal (P88) comes from Sweden and is ca 900 Ma old, the other from Maine, USA (LAMNH-30222) and is ca 350 Ma old. The galena sample comes from the Paleoproterozoic ore district Bergslagen in Sweden. SIMS analyses were performed at two different laboratories: the NORDSM facility in Stockholm, which has a high resolution Cameca IMS 1270 ion microprobe, and the Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL) in Tennessee, which has a Cameca IMS 4f ion microprobe. The results show that during the analysis of galena, Pb isotopes fractionate in favour of the lighter isotope by as much as 0.5%/amu. A Pb isotope fractionation factor for uraninite was more difficult to calculate, probably due to the formation of hydride interferences encountered during analysis with the Cameca IMS 1270 ion microprobe. However, drying the sample in vacuum prior to analysis, and using high-energy filtering and a cold trap during analysis can minimise these hydride interferences. A large fractionation of U isotopes of ca 1.4%/amu in favour of the lighter isotope was calculated for uraninite.

  5. U and Pb isotope analysis of uraninite and galena by ion microprobe

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Evins, L.Z.; Sunde, T.; Schoeberg, H.; Fayek, M.

    2001-10-01

    Accurate isotopic analysis of minerals by ion microprobe, or SIMS (Secondary Ion Mass Spectrometry) usually requires a standard to correct for instrumental mass bias effects that occur during analysis. We have calibrated two uraninite crystals and one galena crystal to be used as ion probe standards. As part of this study we describe the analytical procedures and problems encountered while trying to establish fractionation factors for U and Pb isotopes measured in galena and uraninite. Only the intra-element isotopic mass fractionation is considered and not the interelement fractionation. Galena and uraninite were analysed with TIMS (Thermal Ionisation Mass Spectrometry) prior to SIMS. One uraninite crystal (P88) comes from Sweden and is ca 900 Ma old, the other from Maine, USA (LAMNH-30222) and is ca 350 Ma old. The galena sample comes from the Paleoproterozoic ore district Bergslagen in Sweden. SIMS analyses were performed at two different laboratories: the NORDSM facility in Stockholm, which has a high resolution Cameca IMS 1270 ion microprobe, and the Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL) in Tennessee, which has a Cameca IMS 4f ion microprobe. The results show that during the analysis of galena, Pb isotopes fractionate in favour of the lighter isotope by as much as 0.5%/amu. A Pb isotope fractionation factor for uraninite was more difficult to calculate, probably due to the formation of hydride interferences encountered during analysis with the Cameca IMS 1270 ion microprobe. However, drying the sample in vacuum prior to analysis, and using high-energy filtering and a cold trap during analysis can minimise these hydride interferences. A large fractionation of U isotopes of ca 1.4%/amu in favour of the lighter isotope was calculated for uraninite

  6. Microprobe analyses of uranium and thorium in uraninite from the Witwatersrand, South Africa, and Blind River, Ontario, Canada

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Grandstaff, D.E.

    1981-01-01

    Microprobe analyses of uranium and thorium in uraninite grains from the Witwatersrand, South Africa, and Blind River, Ontario, reveal that although individual grains are fairly homogeneous, the assemblage of grains is quite heterogeneous. This heterogeneity appears to favor genetic concepts advocating a detrital, placer origin for the uraninite

  7. Oxidation–hydration weathering of uraninite: the current state-of-knowledge

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Plášil, Jakub

    2014-01-01

    Roč. 59, č. 2 (2014), s. 99-114 ISSN 1802-6222 R&D Projects: GA ČR GP13-31276P Institutional support: RVO:68378271 Keywords : weathering of uraninite * paragenetic sequence * bond-valence theory * uranyl–oxide minerals * radiogenic lead * thermodynamics Subject RIV: DB - Geology ; Mineralogy Impact factor: 1.405, year: 2014

  8. Loellingite, uraninite and products of its alteration within pegmatite from Corrego do Urucum (Minas Gerais - Brazil)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cassedanne, Jacques; Cassedanne, Jeannine; Carvalho, H.F. de.

    1986-01-01

    The zoned Corrego do Urucum granitic pegmatite lies in Governador Valadares, in Minas Gerais State - Brazil. Opaque minerals are described: loellingite, bismuth, tennantite, covellite, hematite, pyrite and uraninite, like that products proceeding from arsenate and phosphate alteration. The minerals were characterized by X-ray fluorescence analysis and chemical analysis. (Author) [pt

  9. Chemical composition and geological age of french pitchblendes and uraninite of Ivory Coast; Composition chimique et age geologique de pechblendes francaises et de l'uraninite de Cote d'Ivoire

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chervet, M; Guillemin, M; Hemery, MME; Pellas, M [Commissariat a l' Energie Atomique, Saclay(France). Centre d' Etudes Nucleaires

    1953-07-01

    The determination of the geological age of the uraninite of Ivory Coast in particular, has a very big importance since it permits to date the granito-gneissic basement of this part of Africa and moreover it is one of the most former known uraninites. The emotion caused in some geologists surroundings by the announcement of the date, fixed to close to 2 billions of years for this part of Africa, incited us to make control our assessment by the isotope analysis of lead. Before the concordance really astonishing of the results gotten by two entirely different methods, the publication of our works could not be differed more. The geological age of the uraninite of Coast of Ivory determined to the Laboratory of Mineralogy is of 1933 millions of years: by the calculation given with the help of the logarithmic and based shape on the chemical analysis of the uraninite (precise dosages of U, Pb and Th); by the isotope analysis, this age is about: 1940 {+-} 20 millions of years. We conducted the same operations for several French pitchblendes as the Crousille, Bauzot, Bigay. (M.B.) [French] La determination de l'age geologique de l'uraninite de Cote d'Ivoire en particulier, a une tres grosse importance puisqu'elle permet de dater le socle granito-gneissique de cette partie de l'Afrique et de plus, c'est une des plus anciennes uraninites connues. L'emotion causee dans certains milieux de geologues par l'annonce de la date, fixee a pres de 2 milliards d'annees pour cette partie de l'Afrique, nous a incites a faire controler nos determinations par l'analyse isotopique du plomb. Devant la concordance vraiment etonnante des resultats obtenus par deux methodes entierement differentes, la publication de nos travaux ne pouvait plus etre differee. L'age geologique de l'uraninite de Cote d'Ivoire determine au Laboratoire de Mineralogie est de 1933 millions d'annees: par le calcul donne a l'aide de la forme logarithmique et base sur l'analyse chimique de l'uraninite (dosages precis de U

  10. Biogenic Emission Sources

    Science.gov (United States)

    Biogenic emissions sources come from natural sources and need to accounted for in photochemical grid models. They are computed using a model which utilizes spatial information on vegetation and land use.

  11. Hydropower's Biogenic Carbon Footprint.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Scherer, Laura; Pfister, Stephan

    2016-01-01

    Global warming is accelerating and the world urgently needs a shift to clean and renewable energy. Hydropower is currently the largest renewable source of electricity, but its contribution to climate change mitigation is not yet fully understood. Hydroelectric reservoirs are a source of biogenic greenhouse gases and in individual cases can reach the same emission rates as thermal power plants. Little is known about the severity of their emissions at the global scale. Here we show that the carbon footprint of hydropower is far higher than previously assumed, with a global average of 173 kg CO2 and 2.95 kg CH4 emitted per MWh of electricity produced. This results in a combined average carbon footprint of 273 kg CO2e/MWh when using the global warming potential over a time horizon of 100 years (GWP100). Nonetheless, this is still below that of fossil energy sources without the use of carbon capture and sequestration technologies. We identified the dams most promising for capturing methane for use as alternative energy source. The spread among the ~1500 hydropower plants analysed in this study is large and highlights the importance of case-by-case examinations.

  12. Hydropower's Biogenic Carbon Footprint

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pfister, Stephan

    2016-01-01

    Global warming is accelerating and the world urgently needs a shift to clean and renewable energy. Hydropower is currently the largest renewable source of electricity, but its contribution to climate change mitigation is not yet fully understood. Hydroelectric reservoirs are a source of biogenic greenhouse gases and in individual cases can reach the same emission rates as thermal power plants. Little is known about the severity of their emissions at the global scale. Here we show that the carbon footprint of hydropower is far higher than previously assumed, with a global average of 173 kg CO2 and 2.95 kg CH4 emitted per MWh of electricity produced. This results in a combined average carbon footprint of 273 kg CO2e/MWh when using the global warming potential over a time horizon of 100 years (GWP100). Nonetheless, this is still below that of fossil energy sources without the use of carbon capture and sequestration technologies. We identified the dams most promising for capturing methane for use as alternative energy source. The spread among the ~1500 hydropower plants analysed in this study is large and highlights the importance of case-by-case examinations. PMID:27626943

  13. Uraninite, coffinite and brannerite from shear-zone hosted uranium deposits of the Bohemian Massif (Central European Variscan belt)

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    René, Miloš; Dolníček, Z.

    2017-01-01

    Roč. 7, č. 4 (2017), č. článku 50. ISSN 2075-163X Institutional support: RVO:67985891 Keywords : uranium deposits * mineralogy * uraninite * coffinite * brannerite * Moldanubian Zone * Bohemian Massif Subject RIV: DB - Geology ; Mineralogy OBOR OECD: Geology Impact factor: 2.088, year: 2016 http://www.mdpi.com/2075-163X/7/4/50

  14. The uraninite-pyrite association, a sensitive indicator of changes in fluid chemistry: element gains and losses

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Zachariáš, J.; Adamovič, Jiří; Konečný, P.

    2008-01-01

    Roč. 46, č. 5 (2008), s. 1159-1172 ISSN 0008-4476 R&D Projects: GA AV ČR IAA3013302 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z30130516 Keywords : uraninite * chemical age, * arsenian pyrite * silicification * fluid chemistry Subject RIV: DB - Geology ; Mineralogy Impact factor: 1.136, year: 2008

  15. Synthesis of hydroxyapatite from biogenic wastes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Teerawat Laonapakul

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available Hydroxyapatite (HAp is a major component of human bone, teeth and hard tissue. It is one of only a few bioactive materials. Since HAp is the most widely used ceramic biomaterial, various techniques have been developed to synthesize HAp. In recent years, the use of natural biogenic structures and materials for medical proposes has been motivated by limitations in producing synthetic materials. This article mainly focuses on the use of biogenic wastes to prepare HAp. These include bio-wastes, marine corals, eggshells, seashells and bio-membranes. In the present review, useful information about HAp preparation methodologies has been summarized for further research and development.

  16. The ABAG biogenic emissions inventory project

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carson-Henry, C. (Editor)

    1982-01-01

    The ability to identify the role of biogenic hydrocarbon emissions in contributing to overall ozone production in the Bay Area, and to identify the significance of that role, were investigated in a joint project of the Association of Bay Area Governments (ABAG) and NASA/Ames Research Center. Ozone, which is produced when nitrogen oxides and hydrocarbons combine in the presence of sunlight, is a primary factor in air quality planning. In investigating the role of biogenic emissions, this project employed a pre-existing land cover classification to define areal extent of land cover types. Emission factors were then derived for those cover types. The land cover data and emission factors were integrated into an existing geographic information system, where they were combined to form a Biogenic Hydrocarbon Emissions Inventory. The emissions inventory information was then integrated into an existing photochemical dispersion model.

  17. Geochronology of Hydrothermal Processes Leading to the Formation of the Au–U Mineralization at the Rompas Prospect, Peräpohja Belt, Northern Finland: Application of Paired U–Pb Dating of Uraninite and Re–Os Dating of Molybdenite to the Identification of Multiple Hydrothermal Events in a Metamorphic Terrane

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ferenc Molnár

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available The Peräpohja belt comprises a greenschist to amphibolite facies; multiply-folded supracrustal sequence of quartzites; mafic volcanics; carbonate rocks; black shales; mica schists and greywackes deposited from ca. 2.44 Ga to 1.92 Ga; during protracted rifting of the Archaean basement. Metamorphism and multiple folding of the basin fill occurred during the Svecofennian orogeny (1.92–1.80 Ga. The Rompas Au–U mineralization is hosted within deformed and metamorphosed calcsilicate veins in mafic volcanics. Textural evidence suggests that deposition and periods of uraninite re-mobilization were followed by localized hydrocarbon-bearing fluid flow which produced pyrobitumen crusts around grains of uraninite. Gold precipitated during the latest hydrothermal event at around 1.75 Ga. In situ U–Pb dating of uraninite by laser ablation inductively coupled mass spectroscopy (LA-ICP-MS, and Re–Os dating of molybdenite, indicate that primary hydrothermal uranium mineralization forms two age clusters; about 2.03–2.01 and 1.95–1.94 Ga. Resetting of the U–Pb system and precipitation of new generations of uraninite are associated with major deformation and metamorphic stages of the Svecofennian orogeny at 1.91–1.89 Ga, 1.85 Ga, and 1.80 Ga. Gold deposition was synchronous with the emplacement of the 1.75–1.78 Ga late/post-orogenic granitoids. The gold-producing hydrothermal event is also recorded by Re–Os dating of molybdenite from the gold-bearing Mg-metasomatized metasedimentary and metavolcanic units at the Palokas prospect; a few kilometres from Rompas. Results of this study confirm that some domains in the structure of uraninite may preserve the original crystallization age, despite an overprinting amphibolite facies metamorphic and other hydrothermal events. The study supports the utility of in situ U–Pb dating of uraninite and the ability of Re–Os dating to assist in sorting out different hydrothermal events in areas with complex

  18. Chemical composition of granite uraninites and of quartz-pebble-conglomerates-type uranium deposits: evidences for a placer-type origin for these deposits; Composition chimique des uraninites des granites et des gisements d'uranium de type conglomerats a galets de quartz: evidences pour une origine de type placer de ces gisements

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Duhamel, I.; Cuney, M. [Nancy-Universite, Laboratoire G2R - UMR 7566, CNRS, CREGU, 54 - Vandoeuvre-les-Nancy (France)

    2009-07-01

    The authors report and comment data obtained by geochemical and mineralogical studies performed in several conglomerate-type uranium deposits located in South Africa and in Canada. These data display positive correlations between uranium enriching and that of thorium, rare earth notably. They compare the geochemical signature of uraninites of these conglomerates with that of granitoid uraninites of same age which could be their source. Measurements have been performed with an electronic microprobe for uranium oxide species and a ionic microprobe for rare earth contents. Different types of uranium-bearing minerals are identified which correspond to different mechanisms and origins of formation of uraninites

  19. Structural investigation of biogenic ferrihydrite nanoparticles dispersion

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Balasoiu, M.; Ishchenko, L.A.; Stolyar, S.V.; Iskhakov, R.S.; Rajkher, Yu.L.; Kuklin, A.I.; Solov'ev, D.V.; Arzumanyan, G.M.; Kurkin, T.S.; Aranghel, D.

    2010-01-01

    Structural properties of biogenic ferrihydrite nanoparticles produced by bacteria Klebsiella oxytoca are investigated. Investigations of morphology and size of particles dispersed in water by means of high-resolution transmission electron microscopy and small angle X-ray scattering measurements were performed. By model calculations followed by fitting procedure the structural parameters of a cylinder of radius R = (4.87 ± 0.02) nm and height L = (2.12 ± 0.04) nm are obtained

  20. Biogenic amines degradation by microorganisms isolated from cheese

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Irena Butor

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this study was the isolation and characterization of microorganisms able to degrade biogenic amines and their identification. Individual microorganisms were obtained by isolation from commercially available foodstuffs and food produced in the technological laboratories of Faculty of Technology, Tomas Bata University in Zlín and subsequently identified by MALDI-TOF MS. The results of MALDI-TOF MS identification were verified by 16S rRNA sequenation. In this work was studied the ability of 5 bacterial strains positive to biogenic amines degradation isolated from dairy products to decrease biogenic amines content in vitro and quantified reduction in the concentration of biogenic amines tryptamine, β-phenylethylamine, putrescine, cadaverine, histamine and tyramine. The level of degradation (decrease of biogenic amines was determined on the base of the ability to grow in media with biogenic amines as the sole source carbon and nitrogen. The isolated strains with the ability of degradation of one or more biogenic amines were cultured in medium supplemented with relevant biogenic amines, the media derivatized with dansyl chloride and these amines separated by HPLC at a wavelength of 254 nm. From five tested strains identified as Bacillus subtilis, Bacillus pumilus, Enterobacter cloacae, Rhizobium radiobacter and Acinetobacter pitii, isolated from gouda type cheese, the greatest ability of degradation was observed in Bacillus subtilis, which was capable to degrade almost all amount of histamine, cadaverine and putrescine. Other four strains showed a lower rate of degradation than Bacillus subtilis, but the ability to degrade biogenic amines with these microorganisms was still significant.

  1. Quantifying the Global Marine Biogenic Nitrogen Oxides Emissions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Su, H.; Wang, S.; Lin, J.; Hao, N.; Poeschl, U.; Cheng, Y.

    2017-12-01

    Nitrogen oxides (NOx) are among the most important molecules in atmospheric chemistry and nitrogen cycle. The NOx over the ocean areas are traditionally believed to originate from the continental outflows or the inter-continental shipping emissions. By comparing the satellite observations (OMI) and global chemical transport model simulation (GEOS-Chem), we suggest that the underestimated modeled atmospheric NO2 columns over biogenic active ocean areas can be possibly attributed to the biogenic source. Nitrification and denitrification in the ocean water produces nitrites which can be further reduced to NO through microbiological processes. We further report global distributions of marine biogenic NO emissions. The new added emissions improve the agreement between satellite observations and model simulations over large areas. Our model simulations manifest that the marine biogenic NO emissions increase the atmospheric oxidative capacity and aerosol formation rate, providing a closer link between atmospheric chemistry and ocean microbiology.

  2. Biogenic Emission Inventory System (BEIS)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Biogenic Emission Inventory System (BEIS) estimates volatile organic compound (VOC) emissions from vegetation and nitric oxide (NO) emission from soils. Recent BEIS development has been restricted to the SMOKE system

  3. Biogenic nanomaterials from photosynthetic microorganisms.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jeffryes, Clayton; Agathos, Spiros N; Rorrer, Gregory

    2015-06-01

    The use of algal cell cultures represents a sustainable and environmentally friendly platform for the biogenic production of nanobiomaterials and biocatalysts. For example, advances in the production of biogeneic nanomaterials from algal cell cultures, such as crystalline β-chitin nanofibrils and gold and silver nanoparticles, could enable the 'green' production of biomaterials such as tissue-engineering scaffolds or drug carriers, supercapacitors and optoelectric materials. The in vivo functionalization, as well as newly demonstrated methods of production and modification, of biogenic diatom biosilica have led to the development of organic-inorganic hybrid catalytic systems as well as new biomaterials for drug delivery, biosensors and heavy-metal adsorbents. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  4. Biomass burning - Combustion emissions, satellite imagery, and biogenic emissions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Levine, Joel S.; Cofer, Wesley R., III; Winstead, Edward L.; Rhinehart, Robert P.; Cahoon, Donald R., Jr.; Sebacher, Daniel I.; Sebacher, Shirley; Stocks, Brian J.

    1991-01-01

    After detailing a technique for the estimation of the instantaneous emission of trace gases produced by biomass burning, using satellite imagery, attention is given to the recent discovery that burning results in significant enhancement of biogenic emissions of N2O, NO, and CH4. Biomass burning accordingly has an immediate and long-term impact on the production of atmospheric trace gases. It is presently demonstrated that satellite imagery of fires may be used to estimate combustion emissions, and could be used to estimate long-term postburn biogenic emission of trace gases to the atmosphere.

  5. Development and validation of an LC?MS/MS method for the determination of biogenic amines in wines and beers

    OpenAIRE

    Nalazek-Rudnicka, Katarzyna; Wasik, Andrzej

    2017-01-01

    Abstract Biogenic amines are group of organic, basic, nitrogenous compounds that naturally occur in plant, microorganism, and animal organisms. Biogenic amines are mainly produced through decarboxylation of amino acids. They are formed during manufacturing of some kind of food and beverages such as cheese, wine, or beer. Histamine, cadaverine, agmatine, tyramine, putrescine, and ?-phenylethylamine are the most common biogenic amines found in wines and beers. This group of compounds can be tox...

  6. Characterization of biogenic ferrihydrite nanoparticles by means of SAXS, SRD and IBA methods

    Science.gov (United States)

    Balasoiu, M.; Kichanov, S.; Pantelica, A.; Pantelica, D.; Stolyar, S.; Iskhakov, R.; Aranghel, D.; Ionescu, P.; Badita, C. R.; Kurkin, S.; Orelovich, O.; Tiutiunikov, S.

    2018-03-01

    Investigations of biogenic ferrihydrite nanoparticles produced by bacteria Klebsiella oxytoca by applying small angle X-ray scattering, synchrotron radiation diffraction and ion beam analysis methods are reviewed. Different experimental data processing methods are used and analyzed.

  7. Estimation of biogenic volatile organic compounds emissions in subtropical island--Taiwan.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chang, Ken-Hui; Chen, Tu-Fu; Huang, Ho-Chun

    2005-06-15

    Elevated tropospheric ozone is harmful to human health and plants. It is formed through the photochemical reactions involving volatile organic compounds (VOCs) and nitrogen oxides (NO(x)). The elevated ozone episodes occur mainly in summer months in the United States, while the high-ozone episodes frequently occur during the fall in Taiwan. The unique landscape of Taiwan produces tremendous amounts of biogenic VOCs in the mountain regions that are adjacent to concentrated urban areas. The urban areas, in turn, generate prodigious amounts of anthropogenic emissions. Biogenic VOC emissions have direct influence on tropospheric ozone formation. To explore the air quality problems in Taiwan, this study attempts to develop a biogenic VOC emission model suitable for air quality applications in Taiwan. The emission model is based on the Biogenic Emissions Inventory System Version 2 and coupled with a detailed Taiwan land use database. The 1999 total Taiwan biogenic VOC emissions were estimated at 214,000 metric tons. The emissions of isoprene, monoterpenes, and other VOCs were about 37.2%, 30.4%, and 32.4% of total biogenic VOC emissions, respectively. The annual total biogenic VOC emission per unit area was more than two times the value of that in any European country, implying that detailed emissions estimates in any size of region will benefit the global biogenic emission inventories.

  8. Biogenic amines in dry fermented sausages: a review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Suzzi, Giovanna; Gardini, Fausto

    2003-11-15

    Biogenic amines are compounds commonly present in living organisms in which they are responsible for many essential functions. They can be naturally present in many foods such as fruits and vegetables, meat, fish, chocolate and milk, but they can also be produced in high amounts by microorganisms through the activity of amino acid decarboxylases. Excessive consumption of these amines can be of health concern because their not equilibrate assumption in human organism can generate different degrees of diseases determined by their action on nervous, gastric and intestinal systems and blood pressure. High microbial counts, which characterise fermented foods, often unavoidably lead to considerable accumulation of biogenic amines, especially tyramine, 2-phenylethylamine, tryptamine, cadaverine, putrescine and histamine. However, great fluctuations of amine content are reported in the same type of product. These differences depend on many variables: the quali-quantitative composition of microbial microflora, the chemico-physical variables, the hygienic procedure adopted during production, and the availability of precursors. Dry fermented sausages are worldwide diffused fermented meat products that can be a source of biogenic amines. Even in the absence of specific rules and regulations regarding the presence of these compounds in sausages and other fermented products, an increasing attention is given to biogenic amines, especially in relation to the higher number of consumers with enhanced sensitivity to biogenic amines determined by the inhibition of the action of amino oxidases, the enzymes involved in the detoxification of these substances. The aim of this paper is to give an overview on the presence of these compounds in dry fermented sausages and to discuss the most important factors influencing their accumulation. These include process and implicit factors as well as the role of starter and nonstarter microflora growing in the different steps of sausage production

  9. Biogenic amine formation and bacterial contribution in Natto products.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Bitna; Byun, Bo Young; Mah, Jae-Hyung

    2012-12-01

    Twenty-one Natto products currently distributed in Korea were analysed for biogenic amine contents and tested to determine physicochemical and bacterial contributions to biogenic amine formation. Among them, nine products (about 43%) had β-phenylethylamine or tyramine contents greater than the toxic dose (30mg/kg and 100mg/kg, respectively) of each amine, although no products showed total amounts of biogenic amines above the harmful level (1000mg/kg), which indicates that the amounts of biogenic amines in some Natto products are not within the safe level for human health. From four different Natto products, that contained noticeable levels of β-phenylethylamine and tyramine, 80 bacterial strains were isolated. All the strains were identified to be Bacillus subtilis and highly capable of producing β-phenylethylamine and tyramine. Therefore, it seems likely that the remarkable contents of β-phenylethylamine and tyramine in Natto predominantly resulted from the strains highly capable of producing those amines present in the food. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  10. The recent weathering of uraninite from the Červená vein, Jáchymov (Czech Republic): a fingerprint of the primary mineralization geochemistry onto the alteration association

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Plášil, Jakub; Sejkora, J.; Škoda, R.; Škácha, P.

    2014-01-01

    Roč. 59, č. 3 (2014), s. 223-253 ISSN 1802-6222 R&D Projects: GA ČR GP13-31276P Grant - others:AV ČR(CZ) Praemium Academiae Institutional support: RVO:68378271 Keywords : uraninite * supergene weathering * acid - mine drainage * mine ral data * X-ray diffraction * bond-valence approach Subject RIV: DB - Geology ; Mine ralogy Impact factor: 1.405, year: 2014

  11. Biogenic emissions of isoprenoids and NO in China and comparison to anthropogenic emissions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tie Xuexi; Li Guohui; Ying, Zhuming; Guenther, Alex; Madronich, Sasha

    2006-01-01

    northeastern and southern China, there are relatively large biogenic emissions of isoprenoids, leading to an important impact on the ozone production in these regions. Furthermore, the emissions of isoprenoids are highest during summer and noontime, which correlates to the peak of ozone production period. For example, the ratio between summer and winter for the emissions of isoprenoids is about 15 in China. As a result, the biogenic emissions of isoprenoids are significantly larger than the anthropogenic emissions of VOCs in China during daytime in summer. Biogenic NO emissions are mostly produced by agricultural soils which co-exist with large populations and human activity. As a result, the biogenic emissions of NO are mostly overlapped with the anthropogenic emissions of NO, leading to the enhancement in NO concentrations in the high anthropogenic NO emission regions. Finally, the future emissions of isoprene and monoterpenes over China are estimated. The results show that the future biogenic emissions may increase significantly due to land cover changes in central eastern China, which could have a very important impact on ozone formation in this region. However, these estimates are highly uncertain and are presented as a potential scenario to show the importance of possible changes of biogenic emissions in China

  12. Biogenic emissions of isoprenoids and NO in China and comparison to anthropogenic emissions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tie, Xuexi; Li, Guohui; Ying, Zhuming; Guenther, Alex; Madronich, Sasha

    2006-12-01

    northeastern and southern China, there are relatively large biogenic emissions of isoprenoids, leading to an important impact on the ozone production in these regions. Furthermore, the emissions of isoprenoids are highest during summer and noontime, which correlates to the peak of ozone production period. For example, the ratio between summer and winter for the emissions of isoprenoids is about 15 in China. As a result, the biogenic emissions of isoprenoids are significantly larger than the anthropogenic emissions of VOCs in China during daytime in summer. Biogenic NO emissions are mostly produced by agricultural soils which co-exist with large populations and human activity. As a result, the biogenic emissions of NO are mostly overlapped with the anthropogenic emissions of NO, leading to the enhancement in NO concentrations in the high anthropogenic NO emission regions. Finally, the future emissions of isoprene and monoterpenes over China are estimated. The results show that the future biogenic emissions may increase significantly due to land cover changes in central eastern China, which could have a very important impact on ozone formation in this region. However, these estimates are highly uncertain and are presented as a potential scenario to show the importance of possible changes of biogenic emissions in China.

  13. Biogenic Amines in Insect Antennae

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marianna I. Zhukovskaya

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available Insect antenna is a multisensory organ, each modality of which can be modulated by biogenic amines. Octopamine (OA and its metabolic precursor tyramine (TA affect activity of antennal olfactory receptor neurons. There is some evidence that dopamine (DA modulates gustatory neurons. Serotonin can serve as a neurotransmitter in some afferent mechanosensory neurons and both as a neurotransmitter and neurohormone in efferent fibers targeted at the antennal vessel and mechanosensory organs. As a neurohormone, serotonin affects the generation of the transepithelial potential by sensillar accessory cells. Other possible targets of biogenic amines in insect antennae are hygro- and thermosensory neurons and epithelial cells. We suggest that the insect antenna is partially autonomous in the sense that biologically active substances entering its hemolymph may exert their effects and be cleared from this compartment without affecting other body parts.

  14. An intercomparison of biogenic emissions estimates from BEIS2 and BIOME: Reconciling the differences

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wilkinson, J.G. [Alpine Geophysics, Pittsburgh, PA (United States); Emigh, R.A. [Alpine Geophysics, Boulder, CO (United States); Pierce, T.E. [Atmospheric Characterization and Modeling Division/NOAA, Research Triangle Park, NC (United States)

    1996-12-31

    Biogenic emissions play a critical role in urban and regional air quality. For instance, biogenic emissions contribute upwards of 76% of the daily hydrocarbon emissions in the Atlanta, Georgia airshed. The Biogenic Emissions Inventory System-Version 2.0 (BEIS2) and the Biogenic Model for Emissions (BIOME) are two models that compute biogenic emissions estimates. BEIS2 is a FORTRAN-based system, and BIOME is an ARC/INFO{reg_sign} - and SAS{reg_sign}-based system. Although the technical formulations of the models are similar, the models produce different biogenic emissions estimates for what appear to be essentially the same inputs. The goals of our study are the following: (1) Determine why BIOME and BEIS2 produce different emissions estimates; (2) Attempt to understand the impacts that the differences have on the emissions estimates; (3) Reconcile the differences where possible; and (4) Present a framework for the use of BEIS2 and BIOME. In this study, we used the Coastal Oxidant Assessment for Southeast Texas (COAST) biogenics data which were supplied to us courtesy of the Texas Natural Resource Conservation Commission (TNRCC), and we extracted the BEIS2 data for the same domain. We compared the emissions estimates of the two models using their respective data sets BIOME Using TNRCC data and BEIS2 using BEIS2 data.

  15. Contribution of biogenic emissions to the formation of ozone and particulate matter in the eastern United States.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pun, Betty K; Wu, Shiang-Yuh; Seigneur, Christian

    2002-08-15

    As anthropogenic emissions of ozone (O3) precursors, fine particulate matter (PM2.5), and PM2.5 precursors continue to decrease in the United States, the fraction of O3 and PM2.5 attributable to natural sources may become significant in some locations, reducing the efficacy that can be expected from future controls of anthropogenic sources. Modeling studies were conducted to estimate the contribution of biogenic emissions to the formation of O3 and PM2.5 in Nashville/TN and the northeastern United States. Two approaches were used to bound the estimates. In an anthropogenic simulation, biogenic emissions and their influence at the domain boundaries were eliminated. Contributions of biogenic compounds to the simulated concentrations of O3 and PM2.5 were determined by the deviation of the concentrations in the anthropogenic case from those in the base case. A biogenic simulation was used to assess the amounts of O3 and PM2.5 produced in an environment free from anthropogenic influences in emissions and boundary conditions. In both locations, the contribution of biogenic emissions to O3 was small (production of O3 was much more sensitive to biogenic emissions in urban areas (22-34%). Therefore, the effects of biogenic emissions on O3 manifested mostly via their interaction with anthropogenic emissions of NOx. In the anthropogenic simulations, the average contribution of biogenic and natural sources to PM2.5 was estimated at 9% in Nashville/TN and 12% in the northeast domain. Because of the long atmospheric lifetimes of PM2.5, the contribution of biogenic/natural PM2.5 from the boundary conditions was higher than the contribution of biogenic aerosols produced within the domain. The elimination of biogenic emissions also affected the chemistry of other secondary PM2.5 components. Very little PM2.5 was formed in the biogenic simulations.

  16. Framework for Assessing Biogenic CO2 Emissions from Stationary Sources

    Science.gov (United States)

    This revision of the 2011 report, Accounting Framework for Biogenic CO2 Emissions from Stationary Sources, evaluates biogenic CO2 emissions from stationary sources, including a detailed study of the scientific and technical issues associated with assessing biogenic carbon dioxide...

  17. Formation of Nano-crystalline Todorokite from Biogenic Mn Oxides

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Feng, X.; Zhu, M; Ginder-Vogel, M; Ni, C; Parikh, S; Sparks, D

    2010-01-01

    Todorokite, as one of three main Mn oxide phases present in oceanic Mn nodules and an active MnO{sub 6} octahedral molecular sieve (OMS), has garnered much interest; however, its formation pathway in natural systems is not fully understood. Todorokite is widely considered to form from layer structured Mn oxides with hexagonal symmetry, such as vernadite ({delta}-MnO{sub 2}), which are generally of biogenic origin. However, this geochemical process has not been documented in the environment or demonstrated in the laboratory, except for precursor phases with triclinic symmetry. Here we report on the formation of a nanoscale, todorokite-like phase from biogenic Mn oxides produced by the freshwater bacterium Pseudomonas putida strain GB-1. At long- and short-range structural scales biogenic Mn oxides were transformed to a todorokite-like phase at atmospheric pressure through refluxing. Topotactic transformation was observed during the transformation. Furthermore, the todorokite-like phases formed via refluxing had thin layers along the c* axis and a lack of c* periodicity, making the basal plane undetectable with X-ray diffraction reflection. The proposed pathway of the todorokite-like phase formation is proposed as: hexagonal biogenic Mn oxide {yields} 10-{angstrom} triclinic phyllomanganate {yields} todorokite. These observations provide evidence supporting the possible bio-related origin of natural todorokites and provide important clues for understanding the transformation of biogenic Mn oxides to other Mn oxides in the environment. Additionally this method may be a viable biosynthesis route for porous, nano-crystalline OMS materials for use in practical applications.

  18. Intolerance to dietary biogenic amines: A review

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Jansen, S.C.; Dusseldorp, M. van; Bottema, K.C.; Dubois, A.E.J.

    2003-01-01

    Objective: To evaluate the scientific evidence for purported intolerance to dietary biogenic amines. Data Sources: MEDLINE was searched for articles in the English language published between January 1966 and August 2001. The keyword biogenic amin* was combined with hypersens*, allerg*, intoler*, and

  19. Intolerance to dietary biogenic amines : a review

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Jansen, SC; van Dusseldorp, M; Bottema, KC; Dubois, AEJ

    Objective: To evaluate the scientific evidence for purported intolerance to dietary biogenic amines. Data Sources: MEDLINE was searched for articles in the English language published between January 1966 and August 2001. The keyword biogenic amin* was combined with hypersens*, allergen intoler*, and

  20. Biogenic amines degradation by malolactic bacteria: towards a potential application in wine

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vittorio eCapozzi

    2012-04-01

    Full Text Available Biogenic amines in wine represent a toxicological risk for the health of the consumer, with several trade implications. In this study 26 strains of Lactobacillus plantarum were analysed for their ability to degrade biogenic amines commonly found during wine fermentation. Two strains of L. plantarum were selected in reason of their ability to degrade putrescine and tyramine. The degradation was assessed in vitro, both in presence of the biogenic amines and in presence of the specific chemical precursor and of producer bacteria. The two L. plantarum biotypes were found capable to work synergically. In addition, the survival in wine-like medium and the aptitude to degrade malic acid after alcoholic fermentation of the selected L. plantarum strains was analysed. Our results suggest the potential application of wine L. plantarum strains to design malolactic starter cultures able to degrade biogenic amines in wine.

  1. Biomass burning: Combustion emissions, satellite imagery, and biogenic emissions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Levine, J.S.; Cofer, W.R III; Rhinehart, R.P.; Cahoon, D.R. J.; Winstead, E.L.; Sebacher, S.; Sebacher, D.I.; Stocks, B.J.

    1991-01-01

    This chapter deals with two different, but related, aspects of biomass burning. The first part of the chapter deals with a technique to estimate the instantaneous emissions of trace gases produced by biomass burning using satellite imagery. The second part of the chapter concerns the recent discovery that burning results in significantly enhanced biogenic emissions of N 2 O, NO, and CH 4 . Hence, biomass burning has both an immediate and long-term impact on the production of trace gases to the atmosphere. The objective of this research is to better assess and quantify the role of this research is to better assess and quantify the role and impact of biomass as a driver for global change. It will be demonstrated that satellite imagery of fires may be used to estimate combustion emissions and may in the future be used to estimate the long-term postburn biogenic emissions of trace gases to the atmosphere

  2. Biogenic volatile organic compounds in the Earth system.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Laothawornkitkul, Jullada; Taylor, Jane E; Paul, Nigel D; Hewitt, C Nicholas

    2009-01-01

    Biogenic volatile organic compounds produced by plants are involved in plant growth, development, reproduction and defence. They also function as communication media within plant communities, between plants and between plants and insects. Because of the high chemical reactivity of many of these compounds, coupled with their large mass emission rates from vegetation into the atmosphere, they have significant effects on the chemical composition and physical characteristics of the atmosphere. Hence, biogenic volatile organic compounds mediate the relationship between the biosphere and the atmosphere. Alteration of this relationship by anthropogenically driven changes to the environment, including global climate change, may perturb these interactions and may lead to adverse and hard-to-predict consequences for the Earth system.

  3. Effect of salt-tolerant yeast of Candida versatilis and Zygosaccharomyces rouxii on the production of biogenic amines during soy sauce fermentation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Qi, Wei; Hou, Li-Hua; Guo, Hong-Lian; Wang, Chun-Ling; Fan, Zhen-Chuan; Liu, Jin-Fu; Cao, Xiao-Hong

    2014-06-01

    This study aimed to enhance and improve the quality and safety of soy sauce. In the present work, the change of biogenic amines, such as histamine, tyramine, cadaverine, spermidine, was examined by the treatment of Candida versatilis and Zygosaccharomyces rouxii, and the influence of salt-tolerant yeast on biogenic amines was analysed during the whole fermentation process. The results showed that the content of biogenic amines was elevated after yeast treatment and the content of biogenic amines was influenced by using yeast. The dominating biogenic amine in soy sauce was tyramine. At the end of fermentation, the concentrations of biogenic amines produced by Zygosaccharomyces rouxii and Candida versatilis in the soy mash were 122.71 mg kg(-1) and 69.96 mg kg(-1) . The changes of biogenic amines in high-salt liquid soy mash during fermentation process indicated that a variety of biogenic amines were increased in the fermentation ageing period, which may be due to amino acid decarboxylation to form biogenic amines by yeast decarboxylase. The fermentation period of soy sauce should be longer than 5 months because biogenic amines began to decline after this time period. © 2013 Society of Chemical Industry.

  4. Isolation and characterization of biogenic calcium carbonate ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Biogenic calcium carbonate/phosphate were isolated and characterized from oral bacteria (CPOB). The crystalline nature ... XRD analysis revealed the cubic phase of ... subjected to identify upto genus level according to Bergey's. Manual of ...

  5. An approach for verifying biogenic greenhouse gas emissions inventories with atmospheric CO2 concentration data

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ogle, Stephen M; Davis, Kenneth; Lauvaux, Thomas; Miles, Natasha L; Richardson, Scott; Schuh, Andrew; Cooley, Dan; Breidt, F Jay; West, Tristram O; Heath, Linda S; Smith, James E; McCarty, Jessica L; Gurney, Kevin R; Tans, Pieter; Denning, A Scott

    2015-01-01

    Verifying national greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions inventories is a critical step to ensure that reported emissions data to the United Nations Framework Convention on Climate Change (UNFCCC) are accurate and representative of a country’s contribution to GHG concentrations in the atmosphere. Furthermore, verifying biogenic fluxes provides a check on estimated emissions associated with managing lands for carbon sequestration and other activities, which often have large uncertainties. We report here on the challenges and results associated with a case study using atmospheric measurements of CO 2 concentrations and inverse modeling to verify nationally-reported biogenic CO 2 emissions. The biogenic CO 2 emissions inventory was compiled for the Mid-Continent region of United States based on methods and data used by the US government for reporting to the UNFCCC, along with additional sources and sinks to produce a full carbon balance. The biogenic emissions inventory produced an estimated flux of −408 ± 136 Tg CO 2 for the entire study region, which was not statistically different from the biogenic flux of −478 ± 146 Tg CO 2 that was estimated using the atmospheric CO 2 concentration data. At sub-regional scales, the spatial density of atmospheric observations did not appear sufficient to verify emissions in general. However, a difference between the inventory and inversion results was found in one isolated area of West-central Wisconsin. This part of the region is dominated by forestlands, suggesting that further investigation may be warranted into the forest C stock or harvested wood product data from this portion of the study area. The results suggest that observations of atmospheric CO 2 concentration data and inverse modeling could be used to verify biogenic emissions, and provide more confidence in biogenic GHG emissions reporting to the UNFCCC. (letter)

  6. Observations of oxidation products above a forest imply biogenic emissions of very reactive compounds

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    R. Holzinger

    2005-01-01

    Full Text Available Vertical gradients of mixing ratios of volatile organic compounds have been measured in a Ponderosa pine forest in Central California (38.90° N, 120.63° W, 1315m. These measurements reveal large quantities of previously unreported oxidation products of short lived biogenic precursors. The emission of biogenic precursors must be in the range of 13-66µmol m-2h-1 to produce the observed oxidation products. That is 6-30 times the emissions of total monoterpenes observed above the forest canopy on a molar basis. These reactive precursors constitute a large fraction of biogenic emissions at this site, and are not included in current emission inventories. When oxidized by ozone they should efficiently produce secondary aerosol and hydroxyl radicals.

  7. Oxidative alteration of uraninite at the Nopal I deposit, Mexico: Possible contaminant transport and source term constraints for the proposed repository at Yucca Mountain

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Leslie, B.W.; Pearcy, E.C.; Prikryl, J.D.

    1993-01-01

    The Nopal I uranium deposit at Pena Blanca, Mexico is being studied as a natural analog of the proposed high-level nuclear waste repository at Yucca Mountain. Identification of secondary uranium phases at Nopal I, and the sequence of their formation after uraninite oxidation, provides insight into the source term for uranium, and suggests that uranophane may control uranium release and transport in a silici, tuffaceous, chemically oxidizing, and hydrologically unsaturated environment. Possible constraints on contaminant transport at Nopal I are derived from the spatial distribution of uranium and from measurements of 238 U decay-series isotopes. The analyses indicate that flow of U-bearing fluids was influenced strongly by fracture density, but that the flow of these fluids was not restricted to fractures. Gamma spectroscopic measurements of 238 U decay-series isotopes indicates secular equilibrium, which suggests undetectable U transport under present conditions

  8. BIOGENIC AMINES CONTENT IN DIFFERENT WINE SAMPLES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Attila Kántor

    2015-02-01

    Full Text Available Twenty-five samples of different Slovak wines before and after filtration were analysed in order to determine the content of eight biogenic amines (tryptamine, phenylalanine, putrescine, cadaverine, histamine, tyramine, spermidine and spermine. The method involves extraction of biogenic amines from wine samples with used dansyl chloride. Ultra-high performance liquid chromatography (UHPLC was used for determination of biogenic amines equipped with a Rapid Resolution High Definition (RRHD, DAD detectors and Extend-C18 LC column (50 mm x 3.0 mm ID, 1.8 μm particle size. In this study the highest level of biogenic amine in all wine samples represent tryptamine (TRM with the highest content 170.9±5.3 mg/L in Pinot Blanc wine. Phenylalanine (PHE cadaverine (CAD, histamine (HIS and spermidine (SPD were not detected in all wines; mainly SPD was not detected in 16 wines, HIS not detected in 14 wines, PHE and CAD not detected in 2 wines. Tyramine (TYR, spermine (SPN and putrescine (PUT were detected in all wines, but PUT and SPN in very low concentration. The worst wine samples with high biogenic amine content were Saint Laurent (BF, Pinot Blanc (S and Pinot Noir (AF.

  9. Biogenic amines in Italian Pecorino cheese

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maria eSchirone

    2012-05-01

    Full Text Available The quality of distinctive artisanal cheeses is closely associated with the territory of production and its traditions. Pedoclimatic characteristics, genetic autochthonous variations and anthropic components create an environment so specific that it would be extremely difficult to reproduce elsewhere. Pecorino cheese is included in this sector of the market and is widely diffused in Italy (approximately 53.727t of production. Pecorino is a common name given to indicate Italian cheeses made exclusively from pure ewes' milk characterized by a high content of fat matter and it is mainly produced in the middle and south of Italy by traditional procedures from raw or thermized milk. The microbiota plays a major role in the development of the organoleptic characteristics of the cheese but it can also be responsible for the accumulation of undesirable substances, such as biogenic amines (BA. Several factors can contribute to the qualitative and quantitative profiles of BA’s in Pecorino cheese such as environmental hygienic conditions, pH, salt concentration, aw, fat content, pasteurization of milk, decarboxylase microorganisms, starter cultures, temperature and time of ripening, storage, part of the cheese (core, edge and the presence of cofactor. Generally, the total content of BA’s can range from about 100-2400 mg/kg, with a prevalence of toxicologically important BA’s, tyramine and histamine. The presence of BA in Pecorino cheeses is becoming increasingly important to consumers and cheese-maker alike, due to the potential threats of toxicity to humans and consequent trade implications.

  10. Seasonal trends of biogenic terpene emissions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Helmig, Detlev; Daly, Ryan Woodfin; Milford, Jana; Guenther, Alex

    2013-09-01

    Biogenic volatile organic compound (BVOC) emissions from six coniferous tree species, i.e. Pinus ponderosa (Ponderosa Pine), Picea pungens (Blue Spruce), Pseudotsuga menziesii (Rocky Mountain Douglas Fir) and Pinus longaeva (Bristlecone Pine), as well as from two deciduous species, Quercus gambelii (Gamble Oak) and Betula occidentalis (Western River Birch) were studied over a full annual growing cycle. Monoterpene (MT) and sesquiterpene (SQT) emissions rates were quantified in a total of 1236 individual branch enclosure samples. MT dominated coniferous emissions, producing greater than 95% of BVOC emissions. MT and SQT demonstrated short-term emission dependence with temperature. Two oxygenated MT, 1,8-cineol and piperitone, were both light and temperature dependent. Basal emission rates (BER, normalized to 1000μmolm(-2)s(-1) and 30°C) were generally higher in spring and summer than in winter; MT seasonal BER from the coniferous trees maximized between 1.5 and 6.0μgg(-1)h(-1), while seasonal lows were near 0.1μgg(-1)h(-1). The fractional contribution of individual MT to total emissions was found to fluctuate with season. SQT BER measured from the coniferous trees ranged from emissions modeling, was not found to exhibit discernible growth season trends. A seasonal correction factor proposed by others in previous work to account for a sinusoidal shaped emission pattern was applied to the data. Varying levels of agreement were found between the data and model results for the different plant species seasonal data sets using this correction. Consequently, the analyses on this extensive data set suggest that it is not feasible to apply a universal seasonal correction factor across different vegetation species. A modeling exercise comparing two case scenarios, (1) without and (2) with consideration of the seasonal changes in emission factors illustrated large deviations when emission factors are applied for other seasons than those in which they were experimentally

  11. Biogenic amines and radiosensitivity of solitary cells

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Goncharenko, E.N.

    1978-01-01

    Different stability of cells to ionizing radiation is considered from a position of the ''elevated biochemical radioresistance background'' concept. Experimental evidence presented indicates an important role of endogenic amines (serotonin and histamine) possessing radioprotector properties in the cell radioresistance formation. The concept about their effect as being solely a result of circulatory hypoxia is critically discussed. The experimental results favor the existence of a ''cellular'' component, along with the ''hypoxic'' one, in the mechanism of action of biogenic amines. These compounds can affect the initial stages of peroxide oxidation of lipids, thereby favoring a less intensive oxidation induced by radiation. Biogenic amines can also exert influence on the cyclic nucleotide system

  12. Proportion of biogenic carbon in flue gas by carbon 4 measurement

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lehtomaeki, J.; Antson, O.; Jungner, H.

    2006-01-01

    The rules of EU's emissions trading system promote the decrease of fossile emissions. The usefulness of using waste fuels in emissions trading depends on the proportion of biogenic component. Companies need to verify the amount of renewable energy from produced energy or emissions. It can be estimated that the demand on emission measurement devices and services is large and increasing in EU and later also in the whole world. This project aims to clarify the possibilities and restrictions of C-14 isotope method in determining biogenic and fossile part of recycled fuel. (orig.)

  13. Biogenic, biomass and biofuel sources of trace gases in southern Africa

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Otter, LB

    2001-03-01

    Full Text Available Biogenic processes in southern African savannas are estimated to produce 1.0 Tg NO yr(-1), 44.2-87.8 Tg C yr(-1) as non-methane hydrocarbons (NMHCs) and to consume 0.23 Tg CH4 yr(-1). Floodplains and wetlands in southern Africa are estimated...

  14. Microbiological, physicochemical properties and biogenic amine ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Thirty three strained yoghurt samples were collected from local open markets in different provinces of Turkey (Afyon [AF], Aydın [AY], Burdur [B], Isparta [I] and Muğla [M]). Physicochemical and microbiological properties, as well as biogenic amine content, were examined in each of the samples. The dry matter (17.90 to ...

  15. Intolerance to dietary biogenic amines: a review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jansen, Sophia C; van Dusseldorp, Marijke; Bottema, Kathelijne C; Dubois, Anthony E J

    2003-09-01

    To evaluate the scientific evidence for purported intolerance to dietary biogenic amines. MEDLINE was searched for articles in the English language published between January 1966 and August 2001. The keyword biogenic amin* was combined with hypersens*, allerg*, intoler*, and adverse. Additionally, the keywords histamine, tyramine, and phenylethylamine were combined with headache, migraine, urticaria, oral challenge, and oral provocation. Articles were also selected from references in relevant literature. Only oral challenge studies in susceptible patients were considered. Studies with positive results (ie, studies in which an effect was reported) were only eligible when a randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled design was used. Eligible positive result studies were further evaluated according to a number of scientific criteria. Studies with negative results (ie, studies in which no effect was reported) were examined for factors in their design or methods that could be responsible for a false-negative outcome. Results of methodologically weak or flawed studies were considered inconclusive. A total of 13 oral challenge studies (5 with positive results and 8 with negative results) were found. Three of them (all with positive results) were considered ineligible. By further evaluation of the 10 eligible studies, 6 were considered inconclusive. The 4 conclusive studies all reported negative results. One conclusive study showed no relation between biogenic amines in red wine and wine intolerance. Two conclusive studies found no effect of tyramine on migraine. One conclusive study demonstrated no relation between the amount of phenylethylamine in chocolate and headache attacks in individuals with headache. The current scientific literature shows no relation between the oral ingestion of biogenic amines and food intolerance reactions. There is therefore no scientific basis for dietary recommendations concerning biogenic amines in such patients.

  16. Technological factors affecting biogenic amine content in foods: a review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fausto Gardini

    2016-08-01

    Full Text Available Biogenic amines (BAs are molecules which can be present in foods and, due to their toxicity, can cause adverse effects on the consumers. BAs are generally produced by microbial decarboxylation of amino acids in food products. The most significant BAs occurring in foods are histamine, tyramine, putrescine, cadaverine, tryptamine, 2-phenylethylamine, spermine, spermidine and agmatine. The importance of preventing the excessive accumulation of BAs in food is related to their impact on human health and food quality. Quality criteria in connection with the presence of BAs in food and food products are necessary from a toxicological point of view. This is particularly important in fermented foods in which the massive microbial proliferation required for obtaining specific products is often relater with BA accumulation. In this review, up-to-date information and recent discoveries about technological factors affecting biogenic amine content in foods are reviewed. Specifically, BA forming-microorganism and decarboxylation activity, genetic and metabolic organization of decarboxylases, risk associated to BAs (histamine, tyramine toxicity and other BAs, environmental factors influencing BA formation (temperature, salt concentration, pH. In addition, the technological factors for controlling BA production (use of starter culture, technological additives, effects of packaging, other non-thermal treatments, metabolising BA by microorganisms, effects of pressure treatments on BA formation and antimicrobial substances are addressed.

  17. Estimating the Biogenic Non-Methane Hydrocarbon Emissions over Greece

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ermioni Dimitropoulou

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available Biogenic emissions affect the urban air quality as they are ozone and secondary organic aerosol (SOA precursors and should be taken into account when applying photochemical pollution models. The present study presents an estimation of the magnitude of non-methane volatile organic compounds (BNMVOCs emitted by vegetation over Greece. The methodology is based on computation developed with the aid of a Geographic Information System (GIS and theoretical equations in order to produce an emission inventory on a 6 × 6 km2 spatial resolution, in a temporal resolution of 1 h covering one year (2016. For this purpose, a variety of input data was used: updated satellite land-use data, land-use specific emission potentials, foliar biomass densities, temperature, and solar radiation data. Hourly, daily, and annual isoprene, monoterpenes, and other volatile organic compounds (OVOCs were estimated. In the area under study, the annual biogenic emissions were estimated up to 472 kt, consisting of 46.6% isoprene, 28% monoterpenes, and 25.4% OVOCs. Results delineate an annual cycle with increasing values from March to April, while maximum emissions were observed from May to September, followed by a decrease from October to January.

  18. Development and validation of an LC-MS/MS method for the determination of biogenic amines in wines and beers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nalazek-Rudnicka, Katarzyna; Wasik, Andrzej

    2017-01-01

    Biogenic amines are group of organic, basic, nitrogenous compounds that naturally occur in plant, microorganism, and animal organisms. Biogenic amines are mainly produced through decarboxylation of amino acids. They are formed during manufacturing of some kind of food and beverages such as cheese, wine, or beer. Histamine, cadaverine, agmatine, tyramine, putrescine, and β -phenylethylamine are the most common biogenic amines found in wines and beers. This group of compounds can be toxic at high concentrations; therefore, their control is very important. Analysis of biogenic amines in alcoholic drinks (beers and wines) was carried out by HPLC-MS/MS after their derivatization with p -toluenesulfonyl chloride (tosyl chloride). The developed method has been applied for analysis of seventeen biogenic amines in twenty-eight samples of lager beers and in twelve samples of different homemade wines (white grape, red grape, strawberry, chokeberry, black currant, plum, apple, raspberry, and quince). The developed method is sensitive and repeatable for majority of the analytes. It is versatile and can be used for the determination of biogenic amines in various alcoholic beverages.

  19. Postprandial Differences in the Amino Acid and Biogenic Amines Profiles of Impaired Fasting Glucose Individuals after Intake of Highland Barley

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Liyan Liu

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this study was to measure the postprandial changes in amino acid and biogenic amine profiles in individuals with impaired fasting glucose (IFG and to investigate the changes of postprandial amino acid and biogenic amine profiles after a meal of highland barley (HB. Firstly, 50 IFG and 50 healthy individuals were recruited for the measurement of 2 h postprandial changes of amino acid and biogenic amine profiles after a glucose load. Secondly, IFG individuals received three different loads: Glucose (GL, white rice (WR and HB. Amino acid and biogenic amine profiles, glucose and insulin were assayed at time zero and 30, 60, 90 and 120 min after the test load. The results showed fasting and postprandial amino acid and biogenic amine profiles were different between the IFG group and the controls. The level of most amino acids and their metabolites decreased after an oral glucose tolerance test, while the postprandial level of γ-aminobutyric acid (GABA increased significantly in IFG individuals. After three different test loads, the area under the curve for glucose, insulin, lysine and GABA after a HB load decreased significantly compared to GL and WR loads. Furthermore, the postprandial changes in the level of GABA between time zero and 120 min during a HB load were associated positively with 2 h glucose and fasting insulin secretion in the IFG individuals. Thus, the HB load produced low postprandial glucose and insulin responses, which induced changes in amino acid and biogenic amine profiles and improved insulin sensitivity.

  20. Formation temperatures of thermogenic and biogenic methane

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stolper, D.A.; Lawson, M.; Davis, C.L.; Ferreira, A.A.; Santos Neto, E. V.; Ellis, G.S.; Lewan, M.D.; Martini, Anna M.; Tang, Y.; Schoell, M.; Sessions, A.L.; Eiler, J.M.

    2014-01-01

    Methane is an important greenhouse gas and energy resource generated dominantly by methanogens at low temperatures and through the breakdown of organic molecules at high temperatures. However, methane-formation temperatures in nature are often poorly constrained. We measured formation temperatures of thermogenic and biogenic methane using a “clumped isotope” technique. Thermogenic gases yield formation temperatures between 157° and 221°C, within the nominal gas window, and biogenic gases yield formation temperatures consistent with their comparatively lower-temperature formational environments (<50°C). In systems where gases have migrated and other proxies for gas-generation temperature yield ambiguous results, methane clumped-isotope temperatures distinguish among and allow for independent tests of possible gas-formation models.

  1. Framework for Assessing Biogenic CO2 Emissions from ...

    Science.gov (United States)

    This revision of the 2011 report, Accounting Framework for Biogenic CO2 Emissions from Stationary Sources, evaluates biogenic CO2 emissions from stationary sources, including a detailed study of the scientific and technical issues associated with assessing biogenic carbon dioxide emissions from stationary sources. EPA developed the revised report, Framework for Assessing Biogenic CO2 Emissions from Stationary Sources, to present a methodological framework for assessing the extent to which the production, processing, and use of biogenic material at stationary sources for energy production results in a net atmospheric contribution of biogenic CO2 emissions. Biogenic carbon dioxide emissions are defined as CO2 emissions related to the natural carbon cycle, as well as those resulting from the production, harvest, combustion, digestion, decomposition, and processing of biologically-based materials. The EPA is continuing to refine its technical assessment of biogenic CO2 emissions through another round of targeted peer review of the revised study with the EPA Science Advisory Board (SAB). This study was submitted to the SAB's Biogenic Carbon Emissions Panel in February 2015. http://yosemite.epa.gov/sab/sabproduct.nsf/0/3235dac747c16fe985257da90053f252!OpenDocument&TableRow=2.2#2 The revised report will inform efforts by policymakers, academics, and other stakeholders to evaluate the technical aspects related to assessments of biogenic feedstocks used for energy at s

  2. Cytotoxicity and genotoxicity of biogenic silver nanoparticles

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lima, R; Feitosa, L O; Ballottin, D; Tasic, L; Durán, N; Marcato, P D

    2013-01-01

    Biogenic silver nanoparticles with 40.3 ± 3.5 nm size and negative surface charge (− 40 mV) were prepared with Fusarium oxysporum. The cytotoxicity of 3T3 cell and human lymphocyte were studied by a TaliTM image-based cytometer and the genotoxicity through Allium cepa and comet assay. The results of BioAg-w (washed) and BioAg-nw (unwashed) biogenic silver nanoparticles showed cytotoxicity exceeding 50 μg/mL with no significant differences of response in 5 and 10 μg/mL regarding viability. Results of genotoxicity at concentrations 5.0 and 10.0 ug/mL show some response, but at concentrations 0.5 and 1.0 μg/mL the washed and unwashed silver nanoparticles did not present any effect. This in an important result since in tests with different bacteria species and strains, including resistant, MIC (minimal inhibitory concentration) had good answers at concentrations less than 1.9 μg/mL. This work concludes that biogenic silver nanoparticles may be a promising option for antimicrobial use in the range where no cyto or genotoxic effect were observed. Furthermore, human cells were found to have a greater resistance to the toxic effects of silver nanoparticles in comparison with other cells.

  3. Impact of biogenic emissions on feedbacks in the climate system

    Science.gov (United States)

    Krüger, Olaf

    2017-04-01

    Impact of biogenic emissions on feedbacks in the climate system Bio-geophysical feedback between marine or continental ecosystems and the atmosphere potentially can alter climate change. A prominent feedback loop which is under discussion since 1983 bases on the emission of biologically produced gases - molecular oxygen, sulphur containing compounds and possibly isoprene, supersaturated in oceanic waters - into the marine troposphere. These by-products of phytoplankton metabolism lead to aerosol production and procure sustained influence on climate via modulation of cloud optical properties. In this contribution some findings related to the above mentioned climate processes are presented with special emphasis on marine ecosystems. A comparison of marine and continental ecosystems is made and different processes with major impact on feedbacks in the climate system are discussed.

  4. Ion-induced nucleation of pure biogenic particles

    CERN Document Server

    Kirkby, Jasper; Sengupta, Kamalika; Frege, Carla; Gordon, Hamish; Williamson, Christina; Heinritzi, Martin; Simon, Mario; Yan, Chao; Almeida, João; Tröstl, Jasmin; Nieminen, Tuomo; Ortega, Ismael K; Wagner, Robert; Adamov, Alexey; Amorim, Antonio; Bernhammer, Anne-Kathrin; Bianchi, Federico; Breitenlechner, Martin; Brilke, Sophia; Chen, Xuemeng; Craven, Jill; Dias, antonio; Ehrhart, Sebastian; Flagan, Richard C; Franchin, Alessandro; Fuchs, Claudia; Guida, Roberto; Hakala, Jani; Hoyle, Christopher R; Jokinen, Tuija; Junninen, Heikki; Kangasluoma, Juha; Kim, Jaeseok; Krapf, Manuel; Kürten, andreas; Laaksonen, Ari; Lehtipalo, Katrianne; Makhmutov, Vladimir; Mathot, Serge; Molteni, Ugo; Onnela, antti; Peräkylä, Otso; Piel, Felix; Petäjä, Tuukka; Praplan, Arnaud P; Pringle, Kirsty; Rap, Alexandru; Richards, Nigel A D; Riipinen, Ilona; Rissanen, Matti P; Rondo, Linda; Sarnela, Nina; Schobesberger, Siegfried; Scott, Catherine E; Seinfeld, John H; Sipilä, Mikko; Steiner, Gerhard; Stozhkov, Yuri; Stratmann, Frank; Tomé, Antonio; Virtanen, Annele; Vogel, Alexander L; Wagner, Andrea C; Wagner, Paul E; Weingartner, Ernest; Wimmer, Daniela; Winkler, Paul M; Ye, Penglin; Zhang, Xuan; Hansel, Armin; Dommen, Josef; Donahue, Neil M; Worsnop, Douglas R; Baltensperger, Urs; Kulmala, Markku; Carslaw, Kenneth S; Curtius, Joachim

    2016-01-01

    Atmospheric aerosols and their effect on clouds are thought to be important for anthropogenic radiative forcing of the climate, yet remain poorly understood. Globally, around half of cloud condensation nuclei originate from nucleation of atmospheric vapours. It is thought that sulfuric acid is essential to initiate most particle formation in the atmosphere and that ions have a relatively minor role. Some laboratory studies, however, have reported organic particle formation without the intentional addition of sulfuric acid, although contamination could not be excluded. Here we present evidence for the formation of aerosol particles from highly oxidized biogenic vapours in the absence of sulfuric acid in a large chamber under atmospheric conditions. The highly oxygenated molecules (HOMs) are produced by ozonolysis of $\\alpha$-pinene. We find that ions from Galactic cosmic rays increase the nucleation rate by one to two orders of magnitude compared with neutral nucleation. Our experimental findings are supported...

  5. Inhibitory Effects of Spices on Biogenic Amine Accumulation during Fish Sauce Fermentation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhou, Xuxia; Qiu, Mengting; Zhao, Dandan; Lu, Fei; Ding, Yuting

    2016-04-01

    The presence of high levels of biogenic amines is detrimental to the quality and safety of fish sauce. This study investigated the effects of ethanol extracts of spices, including garlic, ginger, cinnamon, and star anise extracts, in reducing the accumulation of biogenic amines during fish sauce fermentation. The concentrations of biogenic amines, which include histamine, putrescine, tyramine, and spermidine, all increased during fish sauce fermentation. When compared with the samples without spices, the garlic and star anise extracts significantly reduced these increases. The greatest inhibitory effect was observed for the garlic ethanolic extracts. When compared with controls, the histamine, putrescine, tyramine, and spermidine contents and the overall biogenic amine levels of the garlic extract-treated samples were reduced by 30.49%, 17.65%, 26.03%, 37.20%, and 27.17%, respectively. The garlic, cinnamon, and star anise extracts showed significant inhibitory effects on aerobic bacteria counts. Furthermore, the garlic and star anise extracts showed antimicrobial activity against amine producers. These findings may be helpful for enhancing the safety of fish sauce. © 2016 Institute of Food Technologists®

  6. Biogenic VOC Emissions from Tropical Landscapes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guenther, A.; Greenberg, J.; Harley, P.; Otter, L.; Vanni Gatti, L.; Baker, B.

    2003-04-01

    Biogenic VOC have an important role in determining the chemical composition of atmosphere. As a result, these compounds are important for visibility, biogeochemical cycling, climate and radiative forcing, and the health of the biosphere. Tropical landscapes are estimated to release about 80% of total global biogenic VOC emissions but have been investigated to lesser extent than temperate regions. Tropical VOC emissions are particularly important due to the strong vertical transport and the rapid landuse change that is occurring there. This presentation will provide an overview of field measurements of biogenic VOC emissions from tropical landscapes in Amazonia (Large-scale Biosphere-atmosphere experiment in Amazonia, LBA) Central (EXPRESSO) and Southern (SAFARI 2000) Africa, Asia and Central America. Flux measurement methods include leaf-scale (enclosure measurements), canopy-scale (above canopy tower measurements), landscape-scale (tethered balloon), and regional-scale (aircraft measurements) observations. Typical midday isoprene emission rates for different landscapes vary by more than a factor of 20 with the lowest emissions observed from degraded forests. Emissions of alpha-pinene vary by a similar amount with the highest emissions associated with landscapes dominated by light dependent monoterpene emitting plants. Isoprene emissions tend to be higher for neotropical forests (Amazon and Costa Rica) in comparison to Africa and Asian tropical forests but considerable differences are observed within regions. Strong seasonal variations were observed in both the Congo and the Amazon rainforests with peak emissions during the dry seasons. Substantial emissions of light dependent monoterpenes, methanol and acetone are characteristic of at least some tropical landscapes.

  7. Secondary biogeneous radiation of human organism

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kuzin, A.M.; Surkenova, G.N.

    1999-01-01

    When studying samples of three types of tissues of alive healthy human organism (hands, surface of breast, hair) it is shown that hair permanently emit secondary biogeneous radiation (SBR) which may registered with biological detectors. The hypothesis is suggested that natural background radiation permanently exciting biopolymers (proteins, nuclei acids) being present in alive organism in condensed state induces permanently present electromagnetic field of SBR which is vitally important for human organism. The field partly extends beyond the organism, where it is registered with sensitive biological detectors [ru

  8. The Labrador Sea during the Last Glacial Maximum: Calcite dissolution or low biogenic carbonate fluxes?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marshall, Nicole; de Vernal, Anne; Mucci, Alfonso; Filippova, Alexandra; Kienast, Markus

    2017-04-01

    Low concentrations of biogenic carbonate characterize the sediments deposited in the Labrador Sea during the last glaciation. This may reflect poor calcite preservation and/or low biogenic carbonate productivity and fluxes. Regional bottom water ventilation was reduced during the Last Glacial Maximum (LGM), so the calcite lysocline might have been shallower than at present in the deep Labrador Sea making dissolution of calcite shells in the deep Labrador Sea possible. To address the issue, a multi-proxy approach based on micropaleontological counts (coccoliths, foraminifers, palynomorphs) and biogeochemical analyses (alkenones) was applied in the investigation of core HU2008-029-004-PC recovered in the northwestern Labrador Sea. Calcite dissolution indices based on the relative abundance benthic foraminifera shells to their organic linings as well as on fragmentation of planktonic foraminifera shells were used to evaluate changes in calcite dissolution/ preservation since the LGM. In addition, the ratio of the concentrations of coccoliths, specifically of the alkenone-producer Emiliania huxleyi, and alkenones (Emiliania huxleyi: alkenones) was explored as a potential new proxy of calcite dissolution. A sharp increase in coccoliths, foraminifers and organic linings from nearly none to substantial concentrations at 12 ka, reflect a jump to significantly greater biogenic fluxes at the glacial-interglacial transition. Furthermore, conventional dissolution indices (shells/linings of benthic foraminifera and fragmentation of planktic foraminifers) reveal that dissolution is not likely responsible for the lower glacial abundances of coccoliths and foraminifers. Only the low Emiliania huxleyi: alkenones ratios in glacial sediments could be interpreted as evidence of increased dissolution during the LGM. Given the evidence of allochthonous alkenone input into the glacial Labrador Sea, the latter observations must be treated with caution. Overall, the records indicate that

  9. Gigantism in unique biogenic magnetite at the Paleocene-Eocene Thermal Maximum

    OpenAIRE

    Schumann, Dirk; Raub, Timothy D.; Kopp, Robert E.; Guerquin-Kern, Jean-Luc; Wu, Ting-Di; Rouiller, Isabelle; Smirnov, Aleksey V.; Sears, S. Kelly; Lücken, Uwe; Tikoo, Sonia M.; Hesse, Reinhard; Kirschvink, Joseph L.; Vali, Hojatollah

    2008-01-01

    We report the discovery of exceptionally large biogenic magnetite crystals in clay-rich sediments spanning the Paleocene-Eocene Thermal Maximum (PETM) in a borehole at Ancora, New Jersey. Aside from previously-described abundant bacterial magnetofossils, electron microscopy reveals novel spearhead-like and spindle-like magnetite up to 4 μm long and hexaoctahedral prisms up to 1.4 μm long. Similar to magnetite produced by magnetotactic bacteria, these single-crystal particles exhibit chemical...

  10. Methyl chavicol: characterization of its biogenic emission rate

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bouvier-Brown, N.C.; Goldstein, A.H.; Worton, D.R.; Matross, D.M.; Gilman, J.B.; Kuster, W.C.; Welsh-Bon, D.; Warneke, C.; de Gouw, J.A.; Cahill, M.J.; Holzinger, R.

    2009-01-01

    We report measurements of ambient atmospheric mixing ratios for methyl chavicol and determine its biogenic emission rate. Methyl chavicol, a biogenic oxygenated aromatic compound, is abundant within and above Blodgett Forest, a ponderosa pine forest in the Sierra Nevada Mountains of California.

  11. Ice nuclei in marine air: biogenic particles or dust?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S. M. Burrows

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Ice nuclei impact clouds, but their sources and distribution in the atmosphere are still not well known. Particularly little attention has been paid to IN sources in marine environments, although evidence from field studies suggests that IN populations in remote marine regions may be dominated by primary biogenic particles associated with sea spray. In this exploratory model study, we aim to bring attention to this long-neglected topic and identify promising target regions for future field campaigns. We assess the likely global distribution of marine biogenic ice nuclei using a combination of historical observations, satellite data and model output. By comparing simulated marine biogenic immersion IN distributions and dust immersion IN distributions, we predict strong regional differences in the importance of marine biogenic IN relative to dust IN. Our analysis suggests that marine biogenic IN are most likely to play a dominant role in determining IN concentrations in near-surface-air over the Southern Ocean, so future field campaigns aimed at investigating marine biogenic IN should target that region. Climate-related changes in the abundance and emission of biogenic marine IN could affect marine cloud properties, thereby introducing previously unconsidered feedbacks that influence the hydrological cycle and the Earth's energy balance. Furthermore, marine biogenic IN may be an important aspect to consider in proposals for marine cloud brightening by artificial sea spray production.

  12. Dissolution of biogenic silica: Roles of pH, salinity, pressure, electrical charging and reverse weathering. Geologica Ultraiectina (302)

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Loucaides, S.

    2009-01-01

    The recycling of biogenic silica (bSiO2) produced by diatoms is a vital process sustaining a significant fraction of primary production in the oceans. The efficiency with which bSiO2 dissolves controls the availability of nutrient silicon in the water column, and modulates the export of organic

  13. Biogenic gas in the Cambrian-Ordovcian Alum Shale (Denmark and Sweden)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Schulz, H.M.; Wirth, R.; Biermann, S.; Arning, E.T. [Helmholtz-Zentrum Potsdam - Deutsches GeoForschungsZentrum GFZ, Potsdam (Germany); Krueger, M.; Straaten, N. [BGR Hannover (Germany); Bechtel, A. [Montanuniv. Leoben (Austria); Berk, W. van [Technical Univ. of Clausthal (Germany); Schovsbo, N.H. [Geological Survey of Denmark and Greenland - GEUS, Copenhagen (Denmark); Crabtree, Stephen [Gripen Gas (Sweden)

    2013-08-01

    Shale gas is mainly produced from thermally mature black shales. However, biogenic methane also represents a resource which is often underestimated. Today biogenic methane is being produced from the Upper Devonian Antrim Shale in the Michigan Basin which was the most successfully exploited shale gas system during the 1990-2000 decade in the U.S.A. before significant gas production from the Barnett Shale started (Curtis et al., 2008). The Cambro-Ordovician Alum Shale in northern Europe has thermal maturities ranging from overmature in southern areas (Denmark and southern Sweden) to immature conditions (central Sweden). Biogenic methane is recorded during drilling in central Sweden. The immature Alum Shale in central Sweden has total organic carbon (TOC) contents up to 20 wt%. The hydrogen index HI ranges from 380 to 560 mgHC/gTOC at very low oxygen index (OI) values of around 4 mg CO{sub 2}/gTOC, Tmax ranges between 420 - 430 C. The organic matter is highly porous. In general, the Alum Shale is a dense shale with intercalated sandy beds which may be dense due to carbonate cementation. Secondary porosity is created in some sandy beds due to feldspar dissolution and these beds serve as gas conduits. Methane production rates with shale as substrate in the laboratory are dependent on the kind of hydrocarbon-degrading microbial enrichment cultures used in the incubation experiments, ranging from 10-620 nmol/(g*d). In these experiments, the CO{sub 2} production rate was always higher than for methane. Like the northern part of North America, also Northern European has been covered by glaciers during the Pleistocene and similar geological processes may have developed leading to biogenic shale gas formation. For the Antrim Shale one hypothesis suggests that fresh waters, recharged from Pleistocene glaciation and modern precipitation, suppressed basinal brine salinity along the northern margins of the Michigan Basin to greater depths and thereby enhancing methanogenesis

  14. The impacts of temperature, alcoholic degree and amino acids content on biogenic amines and their precursor amino acids content in red wine.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lorenzo, C; Bordiga, M; Pérez-Álvarez, E P; Travaglia, F; Arlorio, M; Salinas, M R; Coïsson, J D; Garde-Cerdán, T

    2017-09-01

    The aim was to study how factors such as temperature, alcoholic degree, and amino acids supplementation are able to influence the content of tyramine, histamine, 2-phenylethylamine, tryptamine and their precursor amino acids in winemaking process. Biogenic amines and amino acids were quantified at the beginning, middle and end of alcoholic fermentation, and at the end of malolactic fermentation. In general, samples produced with amino acid supplementation did not show the highest concentrations of biogenic amines, except for histamine, which content increased with the addition of the four amino acids. The synthesis of tyramine was mainly affected by the temperature and alcoholic degree, the formation of phenylethylamine was largely influenced by alcoholic degree, and tryptamine synthesis principally depended on temperature. Interestingly, there was interaction between these three factors for the biogenic amines studied. In conclusion, winemaking conditions should be established depending on the biogenic amine which synthesis is required to be controlled. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  15. Interaction of biogenic amines with ethanol.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smith, A A

    1975-01-01

    Ethanol through its primary catabolite, acetaldehyde, competitively inhibits oxidation of aldehyde dehydrogenase substrates. As a consequence biogenic amines form increased quantities of alcohols rather than the corresponding acids. During this biotransformation, condensation reactions between deaminated and intact amines may occur which can yield tetrahydropapaverolines. These compounds are closely related to precursors of opioids which is cause to link ethanol abuse to morphine addiction. There is, however, no pharmacological or clinical evidence suggesting similarities between ethanol dependence or opiod addiction. Acetaldehyde plays an additional role in alkaloidal formation in vitro. Biogenic amines may react with acetaldehyde to form isoquinoline or carboline compounds. Some of these substances have significant pharmacological activity. Furthermore, they may enter neural stores and displace the natural neurotransmitter. Thus, they can act as false neurotransmitters. Some investigators believe that chronic ethanol ingestion leads to significant formation of such aberrant compounds which may then upset autonomic nervous system balance. This disturbance may explain the abnormal sympathetic activity seen in withdrawal. While these ideas about the etiology of alcohol abuse have a definite appeal, they are naturally based on in vitro preliminary work. Much study of the quantitative pharmacology of these compounds in animals is required before judgement can be made as to the merits of the proposed hypotheses. In the meantime, pharmacological studies on the ability of ethanol to depress respiration in the mouse has revealed that unlike opioids or barbituates, respiratory depression induced by ethanol requires the presence in brain of serotonin. This neurotransmitter also mediates the respiratory effects of several other alcohols but curiously, not chloral hydrate, yet this compound is purported to alter biogenic amine metabolism much like ethanol. Thus, the response

  16. Total balance of biogenic fuels for thermal uses; Ganzheitliche Bilanzierung verschiedener biogener Festbrennstoffe zur thermischen Nutzung

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Becher, S.; Kaltschmitt, M. [Stuttgart Univ. (Germany). Inst. fuer Energiewirtschaft und Rationelle Energieanwendung (IER)

    1996-12-31

    In this situation of unfavourable energy price levels, the use of biogenic fuels for power supply can be recommended only if it serves to reduce environmental pollution. Against this background and on the basis of a primary energy balance, the authors attempted a total balance of selected enfironmental effects (global heating and acidification potential) of biomass use as compared to fossil fuel combustion. (orig) [Deutsch] ie Nutzung biogener Festbrennstoffe zur Energienachfragedeckung ist bei dem gegenwaertigen unguenstigen Energiepreisniveau nur dann zu rechtfertigen, wenn es durch die Biomassenutzung zu einer Reduzierung der energiebedingten Umwelteffekte kommt. Vor disem Hintergrund werden ausgehend von der Primaerenergiebilanz ausgewaehlte Umwelteffekte (d.h. das Treibhaus- und das Versauerungspotential) einer Biomassenutzung im Vergleich zu einer Nutzung fossiler Energietraeger ganzheitlich bilanziert. Die wesentlichen Ergebnisse werden zusammengefasst und interpretiert. (orig)

  17. Total balance of biogenic fuels for thermal uses; Ganzheitliche Bilanzierung verschiedener biogener Festbrennstoffe zur thermischen Nutzung

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Becher, S; Kaltschmitt, M [Stuttgart Univ. (Germany). Inst. fuer Energiewirtschaft und Rationelle Energieanwendung (IER)

    1997-12-31

    In this situation of unfavourable energy price levels, the use of biogenic fuels for power supply can be recommended only if it serves to reduce environmental pollution. Against this background and on the basis of a primary energy balance, the authors attempted a total balance of selected enfironmental effects (global heating and acidification potential) of biomass use as compared to fossil fuel combustion. (orig) [Deutsch] ie Nutzung biogener Festbrennstoffe zur Energienachfragedeckung ist bei dem gegenwaertigen unguenstigen Energiepreisniveau nur dann zu rechtfertigen, wenn es durch die Biomassenutzung zu einer Reduzierung der energiebedingten Umwelteffekte kommt. Vor disem Hintergrund werden ausgehend von der Primaerenergiebilanz ausgewaehlte Umwelteffekte (d.h. das Treibhaus- und das Versauerungspotential) einer Biomassenutzung im Vergleich zu einer Nutzung fossiler Energietraeger ganzheitlich bilanziert. Die wesentlichen Ergebnisse werden zusammengefasst und interpretiert. (orig)

  18. Climate/chemistry feedbacks and biogenic emissions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pyle, John A; Warwick, Nicola; Yang, Xin; Young, Paul J; Zeng, Guang

    2007-07-15

    The oxidizing capacity of the atmosphere is affected by anthropogenic emissions and is projected to change in the future. Model calculations indicate that the change in surface ozone at some locations could be large and have significant implications for human health. The calculations depend on the precise scenarios used for the anthropogenic emissions and on the details of the feedback processes included in the model. One important factor is how natural biogenic emissions will change in the future. We carry out a sensitivity calculation to address the possible increase in isoprene emissions consequent on increased surface temperature in a future climate. The changes in ozone are significant but depend crucially on the background chemical regime. In these calculations, we find that increased isoprene will increase ozone in the Northern Hemisphere but decrease ozone in the tropics. We also consider the role of bromine compounds in tropospheric chemistry and consider cases where, in a future climate, the impact of bromine could change.

  19. Biogenic Hydroxyapatite: A New Material for the Preservation and Restoration of the Built Environment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Turner, Ronald J; Renshaw, Joanna C; Hamilton, Andrea

    2017-09-20

    Ordinary Portland cement (OPC) is by weight the world's most produced man-made material and is used in a variety of applications in environments ranging from buildings, to nuclear wasteforms, and within the human body. In this paper, we present for the first time the direct deposition of biogenic hydroxyapatite onto the surface of OPC in a synergistic process which uses the composition of the cement substrate. This hydroxyapatite is very similar to that found in nature, having a similar crystallite size, iron and carbonate substitution, and a semi-crystalline structure. Hydroxyapatites with such a structure are known to be mechanically stronger and more biocompatible than synthetic or biomimetic hydroxyapatites. The formation of this biogenic hydroxyapatite coating therefore has significance in a range of contexts. In medicine, hydroxyapatite coatings are linked to improved biocompatibility of ceramic implant materials. In the built environment, hydroxyapatite coatings have been proposed for the consolidation and protection of sculptural materials such as marble and limestone, with biogenic hydroxyapatites having reduced solubility compared to synthetic apatites. Hydroxyapatites have also been established as effective for the adsorption and remediation of environmental contaminants such as radionuclides and heavy metals. We identify that in addition to providing a biofilm scaffold for nucleation, the metabolic activity of Pseudomonas fluorescens increases the pH of the growth medium to a suitable level for hydroxyapatite formation. The generated ammonia reacts with phosphate in the growth medium, producing ammonium phosphates which are a precursor to the formation of hydroxyapatite under conditions of ambient temperature and pressure. Subsequently, this biogenic deposition process takes place in a simple reaction system under mild chemical conditions and is cheap and easy to apply to fragile biological or architectural surfaces.

  20. Emission and role of biogenic volatile organic compounds in biosphere

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Saleem, A.R.

    2013-01-01

    Plants are an essential part of the biosphere. Under the influence of climate change, plants respond in multiple ways within the ecosystem. One such way is the release of assimilated carbon back to the atmosphere in form of biogenic volatile organic compounds (BVOCs), which are produced by plants and are involved in plant growth, reproduction, defense and other . These compounds are emitted from vegetation into the atmosphere under different environmental situations. Plants produce an extensive range of BVOCs, including isoprenoids, sequisterpenes, aldehydes, alcohols and terpenes in different tissues above and below the ground. The emission rates vary with various environmental conditions and the plant growth stage in its life span.BVOCs are released under biotic and abiotic stress changes, like heat, drought, land-use changes, higher atmospheric CO concentrations, increased UV radiation and insect or disease attack. Plants emit BVOCs in atmosphere in order to avoid stress, and adapt to harsh circumstances. These compounds also have a significant role in plant-plant interaction, communication and competition. BVOCs have the ability to alter atmospheric chemistry; they readily react with atmospheric pollutant gases under high temperature and form tropospheric ozone, which is a potent air pollutant for global warming and disease occurrence. BVOCs may be a cause of photochemical smog and increase the stay of other GHGs in the atmosphere. Therefore, further study is required to assess the behavior of BVOCs in the biosphere as well as the atmosphere. (author)

  1. BIOGENIC AMINES CONTENT IN SELECTED WINES DURING WINEMAKING

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Radka Flasarová

    2012-02-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this study was to describe the development of selected biogenic amines (histamine; tyramine; phenylethylamine; putrescine; agmatine; and cadaverine during the winemaking in 10 selected species grown in Central Europe in 2008. The analysis was performed using ion-exchange chromatography by the sodium-citrate buffers with the post-column ninhydrin derivatization and photometric detection. A comparison of the content of biogenic amines in red and wine varieties showed that red wines have higher concentrations of biogenic amines.

  2. Adsorption and Desorption Characteristics of Cd2+ and Pb2+ by Micro and Nano-sized Biogenic CaCO3

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Renlu; Guan, Yong; Chen, Liang; Lian, Bin

    2018-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to elucidate the characteristics and mechanisms of adsorption and desorption for heavy metals by micro and nano-sized biogenic CaCO3 induced by Bacillus subtilis, and the pH effect on adsorption was investigated. The results showed that the adsorption characteristics of Cd2+ and Pb2+ are well described by the Langmuir adsorption isothermal equation, and the maximum adsorption amounts for Cd2+ and Pb2+ were 94.340 and 416.667 mg/g, respectively. The maximum removal efficiencies were 97% for Cd2+, 100% for Pb2+, and the desorption rate was smaller than 3%. Further experiments revealed that the biogenic CaCO3 could maintain its high adsorption capability for heavy metals within wide pH ranges (3–8). The FTIR and XRD results showed that, after the biogenic CaCO3 adsorbed Cd2+ or Pb2+, it did not produce a new phase, which indicated that biogenic CaCO3 and heavy metal ions were governed by a physical adsorption process, and the high adsorptive capacity of biogenic CaCO3 for Cd2+ and Pb2+ were mainly attributed to its large total specific surface area. The findings could improve the state of knowledge about biogenic CaCO3 formation in the environment and its potential roles in the biogeochemical cycles of heavy metals. PMID:29434577

  3. Influence of the modulated two-step synthesis of biogenic hydroxyapatite on biomimetic products' surface

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miculescu, Florin; Mocanu, Aura Cătălina; Stan, George E.; Miculescu, Marian; Maidaniuc, Andreea; Cîmpean, Anisoara; Mitran, Valentina; Voicu, Stefan Ioan; Machedon-Pisu, Teodor; Ciocan, Lucian Toma

    2018-04-01

    Processing calcium-rich natural resources, such as marble and mussel seashells, into biomimetic products could constitute an environmentally-friendly and economically sustainable alternative given their geographical widespread. Hitherto, their value for biomedicine was demonstrated only for seashells, with the technological exploitation approaches still facing challenges with respect to the identification of generic synthesis parameters capable to allow the reproducible and designed synthesis of calcium phosphate at an industrial-ready level. In this study was targeted the optimization of Rathje synthesis method for the fabrication of biogenic calcium phosphates, by conveniently adjusting the chemical composition of employed reagents. It was shown that post-synthesis heat-treatment of compacted powders is the key step for inducing structural transformations suitable to attain biomimetic products for reconstructive orthopedic applications. The sintered materials have been multi-parametricallyevaluated from morpho-compositional, structural, wettability, mechanical and cytocompatibility points of view and the results have been cross-examined and discussed. Convenient and efficient preparation routes to produce biogenic hydroxyapatite have been identified. The functional performances of the as-prepared biogenic ceramics endorse their use as a solid and inexpensive alternative source material for the fabrication of various bone regenerative products and implant coatings.

  4. Biogenic sulfur compounds and the global sulfur cycle

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Aneja, V.P.; Aneja, A.P.; Adams, D.F.

    1982-01-01

    Field measurements of biogenic sulfur compounds shows a great variation in concentrations and emission rates for H 2 S, DMS, CS 2 and COS. Measurements by the chamber method and estimates from micrometeorological sampling are employed to determine the earth-atmosphere flux of these gases. Much of the variation can be attributed to differences of climate and surface conditions, with marshes being a large source of biogenic sulfur (mean contribution 4 x 10 to the 6th ton/year maximum contribution 142 x 10 to the 6th ton/year). Considering that the estimated biogenic contribution needed to balance the global sulfur cycle ranges from 40- 230 x 10 to the 6th tons/year, the mean values are not sufficient to balance this cycle. Further experimental investigations are suggested in order to characterize the biogenic processes adequately

  5. Sub-Antarctic marine aerosol: dominant contributions from biogenic sources

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J. Schmale

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available Biogenic influences on the composition and characteristics of aerosol were investigated on Bird Island (54°00' S, 38°03' W in the South Atlantic during November and December 2010. This remote marine environment is characterised by large seabird and seal colonies. The chemical composition of the submicron particles, measured by an aerosol mass spectrometer (AMS, was 21% non-sea-salt sulfate, 2% nitrate, 8% ammonium, 22% organics and 47% sea salt including sea salt sulfate. A new method to isolate the sea spray signature from the high-resolution AMS data was applied. Generally, the aerosol was found to be less acidic than in other marine environments due to the high availability of ammonia, from local fauna emissions. By positive matrix factorisation five different organic aerosol (OA profiles could be isolated: an amino acid/amine factor (AA-OA, 18% of OA mass, a methanesulfonic acid OA factor (MSA-OA, 25%, a marine oxygenated OA factor (M-OOA, 41%, a sea spray OA fraction (SS-OA, 7% and locally produced hydrocarbon-like OA (HOA, 9%. The AA-OA was dominant during the first two weeks of November and found to be related with the hatching of penguins in a nearby colony. This factor, rich in nitrogen (N : C ratio = 0.13, has implications for the biogeochemical cycling of nitrogen in the area as particulate matter is often transported over longer distances than gaseous N-rich compounds. The MSA-OA was mainly transported from more southerly latitudes where phytoplankton bloomed. The bloom was identified as one of three sources for particulate sulfate on Bird Island, next to sea salt sulfate and sulfate transported from South America. M-OOA was the dominant organic factor and found to be similar to marine OA observed at Mace Head, Ireland. An additional OA factor highly correlated with sea spray aerosol was identified (SS-OA. However, based on the available data the type of mixture, internal or external, could not be determined. Potassium was not

  6. Bounce behavior of freshly nucleated biogenic secondary organic aerosol particles

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. Virtanen

    2011-08-01

    Full Text Available The assessment of the climatic impacts and adverse health effects of atmospheric aerosol particles requires detailed information on particle properties. However, very limited information is available on the morphology and phase state of secondary organic aerosol (SOA particles. The physical state of particles greatly affects particulate-phase chemical reactions, and thus the growth rates of newly formed atmospheric aerosol. Thus verifying the physical phase state of SOA particles gives new and important insight into their formation, subsequent growth, and consequently potential atmospheric impacts. According to our recent study, biogenic SOA particles produced in laboratory chambers from the oxidation of real plant emissions as well as in ambient boreal forest atmospheres can exist in a solid phase in size range >30 nm. In this paper, we extend previously published results to diameters in the range of 17–30 nm. The physical phase of the particles is studied by investigating particle bounce properties utilizing electrical low pressure impactor (ELPI. We also investigate the effect of estimates of particle density on the interpretation of our bounce observations. According to the results presented in this paper, particle bounce clearly decreases with decreasing particle size in sub 30 nm size range. The comparison measurements by ammonium sulphate and investigation of the particle impaction velocities strongly suggest that the decreasing bounce is caused by the differences in composition and phase of large (diameters greater than 30 nm and smaller (diameters between 17 and 30 nm particles.

  7. Production of biogenic amines in "Salamini italiani alla cacciatora PDO".

    Science.gov (United States)

    Coı X0308 Sson, Jean Daniel; Cerutti, Caterina; Travaglia, Fabiano; Arlorio, Marco

    2004-06-01

    Various fermented and seasoned foods such as cheese, sauerkraut, wine, beer and meat products may contain biogenic amines. The aim of this paper was to describe the presence of some biogenic amines (histamine, tyramine, tryptamine, 2-phenylethylamine) in "Salamini italiani alla cacciatora PDO", a typical fermented-ripened dry sausage widely consumed in Italy. Total level of biogenic amines in commercial samples ranged from 71 to 586 mg kg(-1). The amine recovered in higher concentrations was tyramine (372 mg kg(-1)) followed by histamine (165 mg kg(-1)). The second aim of this work was the quality control of the production in order to determine the parameters influencing the presence of biogenic amines in ripened salami. Sausages sampled for analysis during production, manipulation and ripening showed the presence of tyramine (64.4 mg kg(-1)) only after 15 days of fermentation. All investigated biogenic amines were detected in "Salamini" after 21 days of fermentation. We suggest the control of biogenic as important tool to establish the better condition of preservation of "Salamini italiani alla cacciatore PDO" during their shelf-life.

  8. Biogenic volatile emissions from the soil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peñuelas, J; Asensio, D; Tholl, D; Wenke, K; Rosenkranz, M; Piechulla, B; Schnitzler, J P

    2014-08-01

    Volatile compounds are usually associated with an appearance/presence in the atmosphere. Recent advances, however, indicated that the soil is a huge reservoir and source of biogenic volatile organic compounds (bVOCs), which are formed from decomposing litter and dead organic material or are synthesized by underground living organism or organs and tissues of plants. This review summarizes the scarce available data on the exchange of VOCs between soil and atmosphere and the features of the soil and particle structure allowing diffusion of volatiles in the soil, which is the prerequisite for biological VOC-based interactions. In fact, soil may function either as a sink or as a source of bVOCs. Soil VOC emissions to the atmosphere are often 1-2 (0-3) orders of magnitude lower than those from aboveground vegetation. Microorganisms and the plant root system are the major sources for bVOCs. The current methodology to detect belowground volatiles is described as well as the metabolic capabilities resulting in the wealth of microbial and root VOC emissions. Furthermore, VOC profiles are discussed as non-destructive fingerprints for the detection of organisms. In the last chapter, belowground volatile-based bi- and multi-trophic interactions between microorganisms, plants and invertebrates in the soil are discussed. © 2014 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  9. Nitrate radicals and biogenic volatile organic compounds ...

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oxidation of biogenic volatile organic compounds (BVOC) by the nitrate radical (NO3) represents one of the important interactions between anthropogenic emissions related to combustion and natural emissions from the biosphere. This interaction has been recognized for more than 3 decades, during which time a large body of research has emerged from laboratory, field, and modeling studies. NO3-BVOC reactions influence air quality, climate and visibility through regional and global budgets for reactive nitrogen (particularly organic nitrates), ozone, and organic aerosol. Despite its long history of research and the significance of this topic in atmospheric chemistry, a number of important uncertainties remain. These include an incomplete understanding of the rates, mechanisms, and organic aerosol yields for NO3-BVOC reactions, lack of constraints on the role of heterogeneous oxidative processes associated with the NO3 radical, the difficulty of characterizing the spatial distributions of BVOC and NO3 within the poorly mixed nocturnal atmosphere, and the challenge of constructing appropriate boundary layer schemes and non-photochemical mechanisms for use in state-of-the-art chemical transport and chemistry–climate models. This review is the result of a workshop of the same title held at the Georgia Institute of Technology in June 2015. The first half of the review summarizes the current literature on NO3-BVOC chemistry, with a particular focus on recent advances in

  10. Biogenic Carbon on Mars: A Subsurface Chauvinistic Viewpoint

    Science.gov (United States)

    Onstott, T. C.; Lau, C. Y. M.; Magnabosco, C.; Harris, R.; Chen, Y.; Slater, G.; Sherwood Lollar, B.; Kieft, T. L.; van Heerden, E.; Borgonie, G.; Dong, H.

    2015-12-01

    A review of 150 publications on the subsurface microbiology of the continental subsurface provides ~1,400 measurements of cellular abundances down to 4,800 meter depth. These data suggest that the continental subsurface biomass is comprised of ~1016-17 grams of carbon, which is higher than the most recent estimates of ~1015 grams of carbon (1 Gt) for the marine deep biosphere. If life developed early in Martian history and Mars sustained an active hydrological cycle during its first 500 million years, then is it possible that Mars could have developed a subsurface biomass of comparable size to that of Earth? Such a biomass would comprise a much larger fraction of the total known Martian carbon budget than does the subsurface biomass on Earth. More importantly could a remnant of this subsurface biosphere survive to the present day? To determine how sustainable subsurface life could be in isolation from the surface we have been studying subsurface fracture fluids from the Precambrian Shields in South Africa and Canada. In these environments the energetically efficient and deeply rooted acetyl-CoA pathway for carbon fixation plays a central role for chemolithoautotrophic primary producers that form the base of the biomass pyramid. These primary producers appear to be sustained indefinitely by H2 generated through serpentinization and radiolytic reactions. Carbon isotope data suggest that in some subsurface locations a much larger population of secondary consumers are sustained by the primary production of biogenic CH4 from a much smaller population of methanogens. These inverted biomass and energy pyramids sustained by the cycling of CH4 could have been and could still be active on Mars. The C and H isotopic signatures of Martian CH4 remain key tools in identifying potential signatures of an extant Martian biosphere. Based upon our results to date cavity ring-down spectroscopic technologies provide an option for making these measurements on future rover missions.

  11. Particle size dependence of biogenic secondary organic aerosol molecular composition

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tu, Peijun; Johnston, Murray V.

    2017-06-01

    Formation of secondary organic aerosol (SOA) is initiated by the oxidation of volatile organic compounds (VOCs) in the gas phase whose products subsequently partition to the particle phase. Non-volatile molecules have a negligible evaporation rate and grow particles at their condensation rate. Semi-volatile molecules have a significant evaporation rate and grow particles at a much slower rate than their condensation rate. Particle phase chemistry may enhance particle growth if it transforms partitioned semi-volatile molecules into non-volatile products. In principle, changes in molecular composition as a function of particle size allow non-volatile molecules that have condensed from the gas phase (a surface-limited process) to be distinguished from those produced by particle phase reaction (a volume-limited process). In this work, SOA was produced by β-pinene ozonolysis in a flow tube reactor. Aerosol exiting the reactor was size-selected with a differential mobility analyzer, and individual particle sizes between 35 and 110 nm in diameter were characterized by on- and offline mass spectrometry. Both the average oxygen-to-carbon (O / C) ratio and carbon oxidation state (OSc) were found to decrease with increasing particle size, while the relative signal intensity of oligomers increased with increasing particle size. These results are consistent with oligomer formation primarily in the particle phase (accretion reactions, which become more favored as the volume-to-surface-area ratio of the particle increases). Analysis of a series of polydisperse SOA samples showed similar dependencies: as the mass loading increased (and average volume-to-surface-area ratio increased), the average O / C ratio and OSc decreased, while the relative intensity of oligomer ions increased. The results illustrate the potential impact that particle phase chemistry can have on biogenic SOA formation and the particle size range where this chemistry becomes important.

  12. Particle size dependence of biogenic secondary organic aerosol molecular composition

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    P. Tu

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available Formation of secondary organic aerosol (SOA is initiated by the oxidation of volatile organic compounds (VOCs in the gas phase whose products subsequently partition to the particle phase. Non-volatile molecules have a negligible evaporation rate and grow particles at their condensation rate. Semi-volatile molecules have a significant evaporation rate and grow particles at a much slower rate than their condensation rate. Particle phase chemistry may enhance particle growth if it transforms partitioned semi-volatile molecules into non-volatile products. In principle, changes in molecular composition as a function of particle size allow non-volatile molecules that have condensed from the gas phase (a surface-limited process to be distinguished from those produced by particle phase reaction (a volume-limited process. In this work, SOA was produced by β-pinene ozonolysis in a flow tube reactor. Aerosol exiting the reactor was size-selected with a differential mobility analyzer, and individual particle sizes between 35 and 110 nm in diameter were characterized by on- and offline mass spectrometry. Both the average oxygen-to-carbon (O ∕ C ratio and carbon oxidation state (OSc were found to decrease with increasing particle size, while the relative signal intensity of oligomers increased with increasing particle size. These results are consistent with oligomer formation primarily in the particle phase (accretion reactions, which become more favored as the volume-to-surface-area ratio of the particle increases. Analysis of a series of polydisperse SOA samples showed similar dependencies: as the mass loading increased (and average volume-to-surface-area ratio increased, the average O ∕ C ratio and OSc decreased, while the relative intensity of oligomer ions increased. The results illustrate the potential impact that particle phase chemistry can have on biogenic SOA formation and the particle size range where this chemistry becomes

  13. Sensitivity of modeled ozone concentrations to uncertainties in biogenic emissions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Roselle, S.J.

    1992-06-01

    The study examines the sensitivity of regional ozone (O3) modeling to uncertainties in biogenic emissions estimates. The United States Environmental Protection Agency's (EPA) Regional Oxidant Model (ROM) was used to simulate the photochemistry of the northeastern United States for the period July 2-17, 1988. An operational model evaluation showed that ROM had a tendency to underpredict O3 when observed concentrations were above 70-80 ppb and to overpredict O3 when observed values were below this level. On average, the model underpredicted daily maximum O3 by 14 ppb. Spatial patterns of O3, however, were reproduced favorably by the model. Several simulations were performed to analyze the effects of uncertainties in biogenic emissions on predicted O3 and to study the effectiveness of two strategies of controlling anthropogenic emissions for reducing high O3 concentrations. Biogenic hydrocarbon emissions were adjusted by a factor of 3 to account for the existing range of uncertainty in these emissions. The impact of biogenic emission uncertainties on O3 predictions depended upon the availability of NOx. In some extremely NOx-limited areas, increasing the amount of biogenic emissions decreased O3 concentrations. Two control strategies were compared in the simulations: (1) reduced anthropogenic hydrocarbon emissions, and (2) reduced anthropogenic hydrocarbon and NOx emissions. The simulations showed that hydrocarbon emission controls were more beneficial to the New York City area, but that combined NOx and hydrocarbon controls were more beneficial to other areas of the Northeast. Hydrocarbon controls were more effective as biogenic hydrocarbon emissions were reduced, whereas combined NOx and hydrocarbon controls were more effective as biogenic hydrocarbon emissions were increased

  14. Reactivity of biogenic manganese oxide for metal sequestration and photochemistry: Computational solid state physics study

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kwon, K.D.; Sposito, G.

    2010-02-01

    Many microbes, including both bacteria and fungi, produce manganese (Mn) oxides by oxidizing soluble Mn(II) to form insoluble Mn(IV) oxide minerals, a kinetically much faster process than abiotic oxidation. These biogenic Mn oxides drive the Mn cycle, coupling it with diverse biogeochemical cycles and determining the bioavailability of environmental contaminants, mainly through strong adsorption and redox reactions. This mini review introduces recent findings based on quantum mechanical density functional theory that reveal the detailed mechanisms of toxic metal adsorption at Mn oxide surfaces and the remarkable role of Mn vacancies in the photochemistry of these minerals.

  15. Characterization of biogenic secondary organic aerosols using statistical methods; Charakterisierung Biogener Sekundaerer Organischer Aerosole mit Statistischen Methoden

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Spindler, Christian

    2010-07-01

    Atmospheric aerosols have important influence on the radiation balance of the Earth, on visibility and human health. Secondary organic aerosol is formed from gas-to-particle conversion of oxidized volatile organic compounds. A dominant fraction of the gases originates from plant emissions, making biogenic secondary organic aerosol (BSOA) an especially important constituent of the atmosphere. Knowing the chemical composition of BSOA particles is crucial for a thorough understanding of aerosol processes in the environment. In this work, the chemical composition of BSOA particles was measured with aerosol mass spectrometry and analyzed with statistical methods. The experimental part of the work comprises process studies of the formation and aging of biogenic aerosols in simulation chambers. Using a plant chamber, real tree emissions were used to produce particles in a way close to conditions in forest environments. In the outdoor chamber SAPHIR, OH-radicals were produced from the photooxidation of ozone under illumination with natural sunlight. Here, BSOA was produced from defined mixtures of mono- and sesquiterpenes that represent boreal forest emissions. A third kind of experiments was performed in the indoor chamber AIDA. Here, particles were produced from ozonolysis of single monoterpenes and aged by condensing OH-oxidation products. Two aerosol mass spectrometers (AMS) were used to measure the chemical composition of the particles. One of the instruments is equipped with a quadrupole mass spectrometer providing unit mass resolution. The second instrument contains a time-of-flight mass spectrometer and provides mass resolution sufficient to distinguish different fragments with the same nominal mass. Aerosol mass spectra obtained with these instruments are strongly fragmented due to electron impact ionization of the evaporated molecules. In addition, typical BSOA mass spectra are very similar to each other. In order to get a more detailed knowledge about the mass

  16. Accounting for urban biogenic fluxes in regional carbon budgets.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hardiman, Brady S; Wang, Jonathan A; Hutyra, Lucy R; Gately, Conor K; Getson, Jackie M; Friedl, Mark A

    2017-08-15

    Many ecosystem models incorrectly treat urban areas as devoid of vegetation and biogenic carbon (C) fluxes. We sought to improve estimates of urban biomass and biogenic C fluxes using existing, nationally available data products. We characterized biogenic influence on urban C cycling throughout Massachusetts, USA using an ecosystem model that integrates improved representation of urban vegetation, growing conditions associated with urban heat island (UHI), and altered urban phenology. Boston's biomass density is 1/4 that of rural forests, however 87% of Massachusetts' urban landscape is vegetated. Model results suggest that, kilogram-for-kilogram, urban vegetation cycles C twice as fast as rural forests. Urban vegetation releases (R E ) and absorbs (GEE) the equivalent of 11 and 14%, respectively, of anthropogenic emissions in the most urban portions of the state. While urban vegetation in Massachusetts fully sequesters anthropogenic emissions from smaller cities in the region, Boston's UHI reduces annual C storage by >20% such that vegetation offsets only 2% of anthropogenic emissions. Asynchrony between temporal patterns of biogenic and anthropogenic C fluxes further constrains the emissions mitigation potential of urban vegetation. However, neglecting to account for biogenic C fluxes in cities can impair efforts to accurately monitor, report, verify, and reduce anthropogenic emissions. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  17. Influence of biogenic gas production on coalbed methane recovery index

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hongyu Guo

    2017-05-01

    Full Text Available In investigating the effect of biogenic gas production on the recovery of coalbed methane (CBM, coal samples spanning different ranks were applied in the microbial-functioned simulation experiments for biogenic methane production. Based on the biogenic methane yield, testing of pore structures, and the isothermal adsorption data of coals used before and after the simulation experiments, several key parameters related to the recovery of CBM, including recovery rate, gas saturation and ratio of critical desorption pressure to reservoir pressure, etc., were calculated and the corresponding variations were further analyzed. The results show that one of the significant functions of microbial communities on coal is possibly to weaken its affinity for methane gas, especially with the advance of coal ranks; and that by enhancing the pore system of coal, which can be evidenced by the increase of porosity and permeability, the samples collected from Qianqiu (Yima in Henan and Shaqu (Liulin in Shanxi coal mines all see a notable increase in the critical desorption pressure, gas saturation and recovery rate, as compared to the moderate changes of that of Guandi (Xishan in Shanxi coal sample. It is concluded that the significance of enhanced biogenic gas is not only in the increase of CBM resources and the improvement of CBM recoverability, but in serving as an engineering reference for domestic coalbed biogenic gas production.

  18. Hydrocarbon delineation in Muskeg : distinguishing biogenic from petrogenic sources

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Harris, C. [UMA Engineering Ltd., Victoria, BC (Canada)

    2006-07-01

    The quantification of biogenic versus petrogenic hydrocarbons from an emulsion pipeline in a Muskeg setting in northeastern British Columbia was examined. This presentation provided an introduction and discussion of the challenges in Muskeg environments. It introduced the objectives of the study and the analytical approach. Some supporting literature involving studies on the distribution and origin of hydrocarbons in estuary sediments was also cited. Box plots of the physical and chemical characteristics of soil and chromatograms of gas chromatography flame ionization detector (GC-FID) and gas chromatography mass spectrometry (GC-MS) were presented. Last, the approach to establish a true biogenic source and the recommended analytical program and corrections for biogenic input were discussed. The definition of contaminated peat was introduced. tabs., figs.

  19. Biogenic methane potential of marine sediments. Application of chemical thermodynamics

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Arning, E.T.; Schulz, H.M. [Helmholtz Centre Potsdam GFZ, Potsdam (Germany); Berk, W. van [Technical Univ. of Clausthal (Germany). Dept. of Hydrogeology

    2013-08-01

    Accumulations of biogenic methane-dominated gas are widespread and occur in a variety of depositional settings and rock types. However, the potential of biogenic methane remains underexplored. This is mainly due to the fact that quantitative assessments applying numerical modeling techniques for exploration purposes are generally lacking to date. Biogenic methane formation starts in relatively shallow marine sediments below the sulfate reduction zone. When sulfate is exhausted, methanogenesis via the CO{sub 2} reduction pathway is often the dominant biogenic methane formation process in marine sediments (Claypool and Kaplan, 1974). The process can be simplified by the reaction: 2CH{sub 2}O + Ca{sup 2+} + H{sub 2}O {yields} CH{sub 4} + CaCO{sub 3} + 2H{sup +}. The products of early diagenetic reactions initiate coupled equilibrium reactions that induce a new state of chemical equilibrium among minerals, pore water and gas. The driving force of the complex biogeochemical reactions in sedimentary environments during early diagenesis is the irreversible redox-conversion of organic matter. Early diagenetic formation of biogenic methane shortly after deposition ('early diagenesis') was retraced using PHREEQC computer code that is applied to calculate homogenous and heterogeneous mass-action equations in combination with one-dimensional diffusion driven transport (Parkhurst and Appelo, 1999). Our modeling approach incorporates interdependent diagenetic reactions evolving into a diffusive multi-component and multiphase system by means of thermodynamic equilibrium calculations of species distribution (Arning et al., 2011, 2012, 2013). Reaction kinetics of organic carbon conversion is integrated into the set of equilibrium reactions by defining type and amount of converted organic matter in a certain time step. It is the aim (1) to calculate quantitatively thermodynamic equilibrium conditions (composition of pore water, mineral phase and gas phase assemblage) in

  20. Non-enzymatic U(VI) interactions with biogenic mackinawite

    Science.gov (United States)

    Veeramani, H.; Qafoku, N. P.; Kukkadapu, R. K.; Murayama, M.; Hochella, M. F.

    2011-12-01

    Reductive immobilization of hexavalent uranium [U(VI)] by stimulation of dissimilatory metal and/or sulfate reducing bacteria (DMRB or DSRB) has been extensively researched as a remediation strategy for subsurface U(VI) contamination. These bacteria derive energy by reducing oxidized metals as terminal electron acceptors, often utilizing organic substrates as electron donors. Thus, when evaluating the potential for in-situ uranium remediation in heterogeneous subsurface media, it is important to understand how the presence of alternative electron acceptors such as Fe(III) and sulfate affect U(VI) remediation and the long term behavior and reactivity of reduced uranium. Iron, an abundant subsurface element, represents a substantial sink for electrons from DMRB, and the reduction of Fe(III) leads to the formation of dissolved Fe(II) or to reactive biogenic Fe(II)- and mixed Fe(II)/Fe(III)- mineral phases. Consequently, abiotic U(VI) reduction by reactive forms of biogenic Fe(II) minerals could be a potentially important process for uranium immobilization. In our study, the DMRB Shewanella putrefaciens CN32 was used to synthesize a biogenic Fe(II)-bearing sulfide mineral: mackinawite, that has been characterized by XRD, SEM, HRTEM and Mössbauer spectroscopy. Batch experiments involving treated biogenic mackinawite and uranium (50:1 molar ratio) were carried out at room temperature under strict anoxic conditions. Following complete removal of uranium from solution, the biogenic mackinawite was analyzed by a suite of analytical techniques including XAS, HRTEM and Mössbauer spectroscopy to determine the speciation of uranium and investigate concomitant Fe(II)-phase transformation. Determining the speciation of uranium is critical to success of a remediation strategy. The present work elucidates non-enzymatic/abiotic molecular scale redox interactions between biogenic mackinawite and uranium.

  1. Determination of Biogenic Amines in Different Shrimp Species for Export

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Myat Myat Thaw; Oo Aung; Aung Myint; Bisswanger, Hans

    2004-06-01

    This study is part of the project on the ''Quality Assurance of Different Shrimp Species for Export''. Local shrimp samples were collected from Ministry of Livestock and Fisheries and various private enterprises. Contents of biogenic amines were determined by using benzoyl chloride derivatization method with HPLC (reverse phase high performance liquid chromatography). Based on the biogenic amines, quality index of shrimps were correlated with freshness index so that the grade of shrimp samples can be classified as excellent, good, and acceptable. All sizes of shrimps such as extra large, large, medium were found to excceptable respectively

  2. 76 FR 80368 - Notification of Teleconferences of the Science Advisory Board Biogenic Carbon Emissions Panel

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-12-23

    ... Advisory Board Biogenic Carbon Emissions Panel AGENCY: Environmental Protection Agency (EPA). ACTION... Office announces two teleconferences of the SAB Biogenic Carbon Emissions Panel to review EPA's draft... policy, notice is hereby given that the SAB Biogenic Carbon Emissions Panel will hold two public...

  3. Biogenic volatile organic compounds - small is beautiful

    Science.gov (United States)

    Owen, S. M.; Asensio, D.; Li, Q.; Penuelas, J.

    2012-12-01

    While canopy and regional scale flux measurements of biogenic volatile organic compounds (bVOCs) are essential to obtain an integrated picture of total compound reaching the atmosphere, many fascinating and important emission details are waiting to be discovered at smaller scales, in different ecological and functional compartments. We concentrate on bVOCs below ground to plant species, and can be extracted from decaying litter. Naturally occurring monoterpenes in the rhizosphere provide a specialised carbon source for micro-organisms, helping to define the micro-organism community structure, and impacting on nutrient cycles which are partly controlled by microorganisms. Naturally occurring monoterpenes in the soil system could also affect the aboveground structure of ecosystems because of their role in plant defence strategies and as mediating chemicals in allelopathy. A gradient of monoterpene concentration was found in soil around Pinus sylvestris and Pinus halepensis, decreasing with distance from the tree. Some compounds (α-pinene, sabinene, humulene and caryophyllene) in mineral soil were linearly correlated with the total amount of each compound in the overlying litter, indicating that litter might be the dominant source of these compounds. However, α-pinene did not fall within the correlation, indicating a source other than litter, probably root exudates. We also show that rhizosphere bVOCs can be a carbon source for soil microbes. In a horizontal gradient from Populus tremula trees, microbes closest to the tree trunk were better enzymatically equipped to metabolise labeled monoterpene substrate. Monoterpenes can also increase the degradation rate in soil of the persistant organic pollutants, likely acting as analogues for the cometabo-lism of polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) Flowers of a ginger species (Alpinia kwangsiensis) and a fig species (Ficus hispida) showed different bVOC signals pre- and post pollination. For Ficus hispida, there are three

  4. Guar Gum Stimulates Biogenic Sulfide Production at Elevated Pressures: Implications for Shale Gas Extraction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nixon, Sophie L; Walker, Leanne; Streets, Matthew D T; Eden, Bob; Boothman, Christopher; Taylor, Kevin G; Lloyd, Jonathan R

    2017-01-01

    Biogenic sulfide production is a common problem in the oil industry, and can lead to costly hydrocarbon processing and corrosion of extraction infrastructure. The same phenomenon has recently been identified in shale gas extraction by hydraulic fracturing, and organic additives in fracturing fluid have been hypothesized to stimulate this process. Constraining the relative effects of the numerous organic additives on microbial metabolism in situ is, however, extremely challenging. Using a bespoke bioreactor system we sought to assess the potential for guar gum, the most commonly used gelling agent in fracturing fluids, to stimulate biogenic sulfide production by sulfate-reducing microorganisms at elevated pressure. Two pressurized bioreactors were fed with either sulfate-amended freshwater medium, or low-sulfate natural surface water, in addition to guar gum (0.05 w/v%) and an inoculum of sulfate-reducing bacteria for a period of 77 days. Sulfide production was observed in both bioreactors, even when the sulfate concentration was low. Analysis of 16S rRNA gene sequences indicate that heterotrophic bacteria closely associated with the genera Brevundimonas and Acinetobacter became enriched early in the bioreactor experiments, followed by an increase in relative abundance of 16S rRNA genes associated with sulfate-reducing bacteria ( Desulfosporosinus and Desulfobacteraceae) at later time points. Results demonstrate that guar gum can stimulate acid- and sulfide-producing microorganisms at elevated pressure, and may have implications for the potential role in microbially induced corrosion during hydraulic fracturing operations. Key differences between experimental and in situ conditions are discussed, as well as additional sources of carbon and energy for biogenic sulfide production during shale gas extraction. Our laboratory approach can be tailored to better simulate deep subsurface conditions in order to probe the role of other fracturing fluid additives and downhole

  5. Guar Gum Stimulates Biogenic Sulfide Production at Elevated Pressures: Implications for Shale Gas Extraction

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nixon, Sophie L.; Walker, Leanne; Streets, Matthew D. T.; Eden, Bob; Boothman, Christopher; Taylor, Kevin G.; Lloyd, Jonathan R.

    2017-01-01

    Biogenic sulfide production is a common problem in the oil industry, and can lead to costly hydrocarbon processing and corrosion of extraction infrastructure. The same phenomenon has recently been identified in shale gas extraction by hydraulic fracturing, and organic additives in fracturing fluid have been hypothesized to stimulate this process. Constraining the relative effects of the numerous organic additives on microbial metabolism in situ is, however, extremely challenging. Using a bespoke bioreactor system we sought to assess the potential for guar gum, the most commonly used gelling agent in fracturing fluids, to stimulate biogenic sulfide production by sulfate-reducing microorganisms at elevated pressure. Two pressurized bioreactors were fed with either sulfate-amended freshwater medium, or low-sulfate natural surface water, in addition to guar gum (0.05 w/v%) and an inoculum of sulfate-reducing bacteria for a period of 77 days. Sulfide production was observed in both bioreactors, even when the sulfate concentration was low. Analysis of 16S rRNA gene sequences indicate that heterotrophic bacteria closely associated with the genera Brevundimonas and Acinetobacter became enriched early in the bioreactor experiments, followed by an increase in relative abundance of 16S rRNA genes associated with sulfate-reducing bacteria (Desulfosporosinus and Desulfobacteraceae) at later time points. Results demonstrate that guar gum can stimulate acid- and sulfide-producing microorganisms at elevated pressure, and may have implications for the potential role in microbially induced corrosion during hydraulic fracturing operations. Key differences between experimental and in situ conditions are discussed, as well as additional sources of carbon and energy for biogenic sulfide production during shale gas extraction. Our laboratory approach can be tailored to better simulate deep subsurface conditions in order to probe the role of other fracturing fluid additives and downhole

  6. Conditions allowing the formation of biogenic amines in cheese

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Joosten, H.M.L.J.

    1988-01-01

    A study was undertaken to reveal the conditions that allow the formation of biogenic amines in cheese.

    The starters most commonly used in the Dutch cheese industry do not have decarboxylative properties. Only if the milk or curd is contaminated with non-starter bacteria, amine

  7. Biogenic volatile organic compound (VOC) emissions from forests in Finland

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lindfors, V.; Laurila, T.

    2000-01-01

    We present model estimates of biogenic volatile organic compound (VOC) emissions from the forests in Finland. The emissions were calculated for the years 1995-1997 using the measured isoprene and monoterpene emission factors of boreal tree species together with detailed satellite land cover information and meteorological data. The three-year average emission is 319 kilotonnes per annum, which is significantly higher than the estimated annual anthropogenic VOC emissions of 193 kilotonnes. The biogenic emissions of the Finnish forests are dominated by monoterpenes, which contribute approximately 45% of the annual total. The main isoprene emitter is the Norway spruce (Picea abies) due to its high foliar biomass density. Compared to the monoterpenes, however, the total isoprene emissions are very low, contributing only about 7% of the annual forest VOC emissions. The isoprene emissions are more sensitive to the meteorological conditions than the monoterpene emissions, but the progress of the thermal growing season is clearly reflected in all biogenic emission fluxes. The biogenic emission densities in northern Finland are approximately half of the emissions in the southern parts of the country. (orig.)

  8. Azo dye decolorization assisted by chemical and biogenic sulfide

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Prato-Garcia, Dorian [Laboratory for Research on Advanced Processes for Water Treatment, Unidad Académica Juriquilla, Instituto de Ingeniería, Universidad Nacional Autónoma de México, Blvd. Juriquilla 3001, Querétaro 76230 (Mexico); Cervantes, Francisco J. [División de Ciencias Ambientales, Instituto Potosino de Investigación Científica y Tecnológica, Camino a la Presa de San José 2055, San Luis Potosí 78216 (Mexico); Buitrón, Germán, E-mail: gbuitronm@ii.unam.mx [Laboratory for Research on Advanced Processes for Water Treatment, Unidad Académica Juriquilla, Instituto de Ingeniería, Universidad Nacional Autónoma de México, Blvd. Juriquilla 3001, Querétaro 76230 (Mexico)

    2013-04-15

    Highlights: ► Azo dyes were reduced efficiently by chemical and biogenic sulfide. ► Biogenic sulfide was more efficient than chemical sulfide. ► There was no competition between dyes and sulfate for reducing equivalents. ► Aromatic amines barely affected the sulfate-reducing process. -- Abstract: The effectiveness of chemical and biogenic sulfide in decolorizing three sulfonated azo dyes and the robustness of a sulfate-reducing process for simultaneous decolorization and sulfate removal were evaluated. The results demonstrated that decolorization of azo dyes assisted by chemical sulfide and anthraquinone-2,6-disulfonate (AQDS) was effective. In the absence of AQDS, biogenic sulfide was more efficient than chemical sulfide for decolorizing the azo dyes. The performance of sulfate-reducing bacteria in attached-growth sequencing batch reactors suggested the absence of competition between the studied azo dyes and the sulfate-reducing process for the reducing equivalents. Additionally, the presence of chemical reduction by-products had an almost negligible effect on the sulfate removal rate, which was nearly constant (94%) after azo dye injection.

  9. The secondary biogenic radiation of gamma-irradiated human blood

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kuzin, A.M.; Surkenova, G.N.; Budagovskij, A.V.; Gudi, G.A.

    1997-01-01

    The sample of blood freshly taken from healthy men were gamma-irradiated with a dose of 10 Gy. It was shown that after the treatment the blood gained the capacity to emit secondary biogenic radiation. Emission lasted for some hours, passed through quartz-glass curette and was revealed by stimulating influence on biological detector (sprouting seeds)

  10. Use of biogenic sulfide for ZnS precipitation

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Esposito, G.; Veeken, A.; Weijma, J.; Lens, P.N.L.

    2006-01-01

    A 600 ml continuously stirred tank reactor was used to assess the performance of a zinc sulfide precipitation process using a biogenic sulfide solution (the effluent of a sulfate-reducing bioreactor) as sulfide source. In all experiments, a proportional-integral (PI) control algorithm was used to

  11. Biocompatible antimicrobial cotton fibres for healthcare industries: a biogenic approach for synthesis of bio-organic-coated silver nanoparticles.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kashid, Sahebrao B; Lakkakula, Jaya R; Chauhan, Deepak S; Srivastava, Rohit; Raut, Rajesh W

    2017-12-01

    Cotton fibres coated with biogenically fabricated silver nanoparticles (SNPs) are most sought material because of their enhanced activity and biocompatibility. After successful synthesis of SNPs on cotton fibres using leaf extract of Vitex negundo Linn, the fibres were studied using diffuse reflectance spectroscopy, scanning electron microscopy, nanoparticle tracking analysis, energy dispersive X-ray, and inductively coupled plasma atomic emission spectrometry. The characterisation revealed uniformly distributed spherical agglomerates of SNPs having individual particle size around 50 nm with the deposition load of 423 μg of silver per gram of cotton. Antimicrobial assay of cotton-SNPs fibres showed effective performance against pathogenic bacteria and fungi. The method is biogenic, environmentally benign, rapid, and cost-effective, producing highly biocompatible antimicrobial coating required for the healthcare industry.

  12. Can introduction of hydraulic fracturing fluids induce biogenic methanogenesis in the shale reservoirs?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sharma, S.; Wilson, T.; Wrighton, K. C.; Borton, M.; O'Banion, B.

    2017-12-01

    The hydraulic fracturing fluids (HFF) injected into the shale formation are composed primarily of water, proppant and some chemical additives ( 0.5- 2% by volume). The additives contain a lot of organic and inorganic compounds like ammonium sulfate, guar gum, boric acid, hydrochloric acid, citric acid, potassium carbonate, glutaraldehyde, ethylene glycols which serve as friction reducers, gelling agents, crosslinkers, biocides, corrosion/scale inhibitors, etc. The water and additives introduced into the formation ensue a variety of microbiogechmical reactions in the reservoir. For this study produced, water and gas samples were collected from several old and new Marcellus wells in SE Pennsylvania and NE West Virginia to better understand these microbe-water-rock interactions. The carbon isotopic composition of dissolved inorganic carbon (δ13CDIC) in the produced fluids and CO2 in produced gas (δ13CCO2) are highly enriched with values > +10‰ and +14 ‰ V-PDB respectively. The injected hydraulic fracturing fluid had low δ13CDIC values of detectable carbon in them. The drilling mud and carbonate veins had δ13C values of -1.8 and < 2.0 ‰ V-PDB respectively. Therefore, the high δ13CDIC signatures in produced water are possibly due to the microbial utilization of lighter carbon (12C) by microbes or methanogenic bacteria in the reservoir. It is possible that introduction of C containing nutrients like guar, methanol, methylamines, etc. stimulates certain methanogen species in the reservoir to produce biogenic methane. Genomic analysis reveals that methanogen species like Methanohalophilus or Methanolobus could be the possible sources of biogenic methane in these shale reservoirs. The evidence of microbial methanogenesis raises the possibility of enhanced gas recovery from these shales using biological amendments.

  13. The relationship between Al and Si in biogenic silica as determined by PIXE and XAS

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Beck, L.; Gehlen, M.; Flank, A.-M.; Bennekom, A.J. van; Beusekom, J.E.E. van

    2002-01-01

    Biogenic silica, one of the major constituents of marine sediments, is a potentially powerful paleoceanographic tool, revealing information on past productivity. Interpreting the sedimentary records of the biogenic silica requires, however, an understanding of its preservation. Dissolution of biogenic silica is controlled by the presence of trace elements such as Al. The work in this paper focuses on the association of Al and Si in biogenic silica. The composition and the atomic structure of cultured and natural diatoms were determined by using PIXE and XAS techniques. This study provides the first evidence for a structural association of Al and Si in biogenic silica

  14. Is climate influenced by biogenic atmospheric sulfur compounds. Beeinflussen biogene atmosphaerische Schwefelverbindungen das Klima

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Georgii, H W

    1990-01-01

    About 10 years ago, traces of gaseous sulfur compounds were detected in the atmosphere which are of mainly biogenic origin and are formed in large areas in the oceans by phytoplankton. Continental sources, too, are important. These gases - dimethyl sulfide, carbon bisulfide and carbonyl sulfide - provide an important, if not the main, part to the natural sulfur budget of the atmosphere. While dimethyl sulfide and carbon bisulfide are quickly oxidized in the lower atmosphere forming sulfate particles in the process, carbonyl sulfide is an inert gas which is oxidized only after reaching the stratosphere. Lately, the relevance of these trace components to climate is being discussed. Conceivably, they might influence the radiation budget of the earth via the formation of aerosol particles: While, in the case of dimethyl sulfide, these would change the microphysical parameters of maritime clouds, an increase in the production of carbonyl sulfide would entail a strengthening of the stratospheric sulfate particle layer. Both processes might have a stabilizing effect on the climate as they act in opposite direction to the much discussed greenhouse effect. (orig.).

  15. Spatial and Temporal Variability in Biogenic Gas Accumulation and Release in The Greater Everglades at Multiple Scales of Measurement

    Science.gov (United States)

    McClellan, M. D.; Cornett, C.; Schaffer, L.; Comas, X.

    2017-12-01

    Wetlands play a critical role in the carbon (C) cycle by producing and releasing significant amounts of greenhouse biogenic gasses (CO2, CH4) into the atmosphere. Wetlands in tropical and subtropical climates (such as the Florida Everglades) have become of great interest in the past two decades as they account for more than 20% of the global peatland C stock and are located in climates that favor year-round C emissions. Despite the increase in research involving C emission from these types of wetlands, the spatial and temporal variability involving C production, accumulation and release is still highly uncertain, and is the focus of this research at multiple scales of measurement (i.e. lab, field and landscape). Spatial variability in biogenic gas content, build up and release, at both the lab and field scales, was estimated using a series of ground penetrating radar (GPR) surveys constrained with gas traps fitted with time-lapse cameras. Variability in gas content was estimated at the sub-meter scale (lab scale) within two extracted monoliths from different wetland ecosystems at the Disney wilderness Preserve (DWP) and the Blue Cypress Preserve (BCP) using high frequency GPR (1.2 GHz) transects across the monoliths. At the field scale (> 10m) changes in biogenic gas content were estimated using 160 MHz GPR surveys collected within 4 different emergent wetlands at the DWP. Additionally, biogenic gas content from the extracted monoliths was used to developed a landscape comparison of C accumulation and emissions for each different wetland ecosystem. Changes in gas content over time were estimated at the lab scale at high temporal resolution (i.e. sub-hourly) in monoliths from the BCP and Water Conservation Area 1-A. An autonomous rail system was constructed to estimate biogenic gas content variability within the wetland soil matrix using a series of continuous, uninterrupted 1.2 GHz GPR transects along the samples. Measurements were again constrained with an array

  16. Potential of biogenic hydrogen production for hydrogen driven remediation strategies in marine environments.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hosseinkhani, Baharak; Hennebel, Tom; Boon, Nico

    2014-09-25

    Fermentative production of bio-hydrogen (bio-H2) from organic residues has emerged as a promising alternative for providing the required electron source for hydrogen driven remediation strategies. Unlike the widely used production of H2 by bacteria in fresh water systems, few reports are available regarding the generation of biogenic H2 and optimisation processes in marine systems. The present research aims to optimise the capability of an indigenous marine bacterium for the production of bio-H2 in marine environments and subsequently develop this process for hydrogen driven remediation strategies. Fermentative conversion of organics in marine media to H2 using a marine isolate, Pseudoalteromonas sp. BH11, was determined. A Taguchi design of experimental methodology was employed to evaluate the optimal nutritional composition in batch tests to improve bio-H2 yields. Further optimisation experiments showed that alginate-immobilised bacterial cells were able to produce bio-H2 at the same rate as suspended cells over a period of several weeks. Finally, bio-H2 was used as electron donor to successfully dehalogenate trichloroethylene (TCE) using biogenic palladium nanoparticles as a catalyst. Fermentative production of bio-H2 can be a promising technique for concomitant generation of an electron source for hydrogen driven remediation strategies and treatment of organic residue in marine ecosystems. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  17. Risk assessment related to biogenic amines occurrence in ready-to-eat baby foods.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Czajkowska-Mysłek, Anna; Leszczyńska, Joanna

    2017-07-01

    Potential adverse reactions among infants and young children could appear after consumption of food containing small amounts of bioactive amines. This study presents the first assessment of biogenic amines occurrence in ready-to-eat vegetable without/with fish, meat and fruit baby products intended for the youngest consumers. The biogenic amine profiles and quantities of 6 amines were evaluated in 68 commercial baby foods produced by 10 leading manufacturers available in Poland, using HPLC-APCI-MS method. The total amine contents in analyzed products were obtained in the range of 1283-101421 ng/g. The maximum level of histamine (2375 ng/g) was found in the sample with spinach, tyramine (1667 ng/g) in fruit sample with banana, and of di- and polyamines (1263-53416 ng/g) in samples containing green peas. The results of amine analysis in baby foods indicated the presence of food ingredients which may be necessary to remove (tuna, possibly spinach) or reduce the amount added (spinach, green peas), either reduce their use by infants under 12 months of age (beef). Special attention should also be given to control the consumption of fruit baby products containing banana (higher tyramine and putrescine level). On the basis of obtained results a potential %ARfD, and the BAI were also evaluated. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  18. Assessing the potential for using biogenic calcites as dosemeters for luminescence dating

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Duller, G.A.T.; Penkman, K.E.H.; Wintle, A.G.

    2009-01-01

    Calcium carbonate emits an intense thermoluminescence (TL) signal and previous work has explored the potential of using this signal to date both inorganic carbonates such as limestones and stalagmites and biogenic calcite produced by marine organisms. Luminescence analysis of biogenic calcites directly dates the secretion of the mineral by the organism and is therefore not reliant upon exposure of the sample to daylight. A method is outlined for using the TL signals from slug plates, from the Limacidae family, and opercula from the snail Bithynia tentaculata to construct a single-aliquot regenerative-dose growth curve. Analysis of slug plates from a number of Quaternary sites show that the equivalent dose (D e ) of a late Holocene sample is close to zero and that the D e increases with age over the last 500 ka. The TL signal from snail opercula is shown to increase up to doses over 4000 Gy. Replicate measurements from 16 opercula from a site ∼220 ka show a broad distribution. Potential causes of this scatter are discussed along with recommendations about how it could be reduced. The major challenge which remains to be solved before slug plates or snail opercula could be used to calculate ages is to develop methods for calculating the dose rate received during burial.

  19. Sulfur isotope studies of biogenic sulfur emissions at Wallops Island, Virginia

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hitchcock, D.R.; Black, M.S.; Herbst, R.P.

    1978-03-01

    This research attempted to determine whether it is possible to measure the stable sulfur isotope distributions of atmospheric particulate and gaseous sulphur, and to use this information together with measurements of the ambient levels of sulfur gases and particulate sulfate and sodium in testing certain hypotheses. Sulfur dioxide and particulate sulfur samples were collected at a coastal marine location and their delta (34)S values were determined. These data were used together with sodium concentrations to determine the presence of biogenic sulfur and the identity of the biological processes producing it. Excess (non-seasalt) sulfate levels ranged from 2 to 26 micrograms/cu m and SO2 from 1 to 9 ppb. Analyses of air mass origins and lead concentrations indicated that some anthropogenic contaminants were present on all days, but the isotope data revealed that most of the atmospheric sulfur originated locally from the metabolism of bacterial sulfate reducers on all days, and that the atmospheric reactions leading to the production of sulfate from this biogenic sulfur source are extremely rapid. Delta 34 S values of atmospheric sulfur dioxide correlated well with those of excess sulfate, and implied little or no sulfur isotope fractionation during the oxidation of sulfur gases to sulfate

  20. Substantial Seasonal Contribution of Observed Biogenic Sulfate Particles to Cloud Condensation Nuclei.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sanchez, Kevin J; Chen, Chia-Li; Russell, Lynn M; Betha, Raghu; Liu, Jun; Price, Derek J; Massoli, Paola; Ziemba, Luke D; Crosbie, Ewan C; Moore, Richard H; Müller, Markus; Schiller, Sven A; Wisthaler, Armin; Lee, Alex K Y; Quinn, Patricia K; Bates, Timothy S; Porter, Jack; Bell, Thomas G; Saltzman, Eric S; Vaillancourt, Robert D; Behrenfeld, Mike J

    2018-02-19

    Biogenic sources contribute to cloud condensation nuclei (CCN) in the clean marine atmosphere, but few measurements exist to constrain climate model simulations of their importance. The chemical composition of individual atmospheric aerosol particles showed two types of sulfate-containing particles in clean marine air masses in addition to mass-based Estimated Salt particles. Both types of sulfate particles lack combustion tracers and correlate, for some conditions, to atmospheric or seawater dimethyl sulfide (DMS) concentrations, which means their source was largely biogenic. The first type is identified as New Sulfate because their large sulfate mass fraction (63% sulfate) and association with entrainment conditions means they could have formed by nucleation in the free troposphere. The second type is Added Sulfate particles (38% sulfate), because they are preexisting particles onto which additional sulfate condensed. New Sulfate particles accounted for 31% (7 cm -3 ) and 33% (36 cm -3 ) CCN at 0.1% supersaturation in late-autumn and late-spring, respectively, whereas sea spray provided 55% (13 cm -3 ) in late-autumn but only 4% (4 cm -3 ) in late-spring. Our results show a clear seasonal difference in the marine CCN budget, which illustrates how important phytoplankton-produced DMS emissions are for CCN in the North Atlantic.

  1. Nitrogen in biogenic and abiogenic minerals from Paleozoic black shales: an NRA study

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gallien, J.-P.; Orberger, B.; Daudin, L.; Pinti, D.L.; Pasava, J.

    2004-01-01

    Nuclear reaction analyses were performed on feldspars, quartz, abiogenic and biogenic sulfides and phosphates in organic matter-rich black shales. The goal was to study N-fractionation in black shales during diagenesis and contemporaneous hydrothermalism. Light elements (N, C) together with heavier ones (K, Ca, Ni, Fe, Zn) were analyzed by PIXE. Due to the heterogeneous sample composition, a scanning mode was used. Each phase was identified before extracting the corresponding spectra for quantification. Six phases, carrying nitrogen (and C), have been identified. K-feldspars are the richest in N (1.0-2.4 wt.%), followed by organic carbon (0.67 wt.%). Quartz, biogenic and abiogenic sulfides and phosphates contain N in the range of 0.56-1.08 wt.%. The present N-distribution in the black shales is explained by a two-step nitrogen release: (1) organic matter decay produces N, P, S nutriments for the development of a hydrothermal vent fauna and (2) biomineralization of this vent fauna liberates nitrogen to early diagenetic fluids. The extreme N enrichment of feldspars is related to its crystal structure, favoring the potassium substitution by NH 4 + , and the N-uptake during organic matter replacement

  2. In Situ Atomic Force Microscopy Studies on Nucleation and Self-Assembly of Biogenic and Bio-Inspired Materials

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cheng Zeng

    2017-08-01

    Full Text Available Through billions of years of evolution, nature has been able to create highly sophisticated and ordered structures in living systems, including cells, cellular components and viruses. The formation of these structures involves nucleation and self-assembly, which are fundamental physical processes associated with the formation of any ordered structure. It is important to understand how biogenic materials self-assemble into functional and highly ordered structures in order to determine the mechanisms of biological systems, as well as design and produce new classes of materials which are inspired by nature but equipped with better physiochemical properties for our purposes. An ideal tool for the study of nucleation and self-assembly is in situ atomic force microscopy (AFM, which has been widely used in this field and further developed for different applications in recent years. The main aim of this work is to review the latest contributions that have been reported on studies of nucleation and self-assembly of biogenic and bio-inspired materials using in situ AFM. We will address this topic by introducing the background of AFM, and discussing recent in situ AFM studies on nucleation and self-assembly of soft biogenic, soft bioinspired and hard materials.

  3. Evaluation of biogenic amines and microbial counts throughout the ripening of goat cheeses from pasteurized and raw milk.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Novella-Rodríguez, Sonia; Veciana-Nogués, M Teresa; Roig-Sagués, Artur X; Trujillo-Mesa, Antonio J; Vidal-Carou, M Carmen

    2004-05-01

    The effect of the hygienic quality of milk on changes in microbial counts and biogenic amine content was evaluated during ripening of goat cheeses manufactured from pasteurized and raw milks at 1, 14, 30, 60 and 90 d. The original milk, rennet, curd and whey were also included in the study. The pH, salt content and extent of proteolysis in the cheese were also evaluated. Spermidine and spermine were the main amines in raw milk, while they were minor amines in cheeses. Other amines increased markedly during ripening, tyramine being the main amine in cheese made from raw milk and cadaverine and putrescine in those produced from pasteurized milk. Enterobacteriaceae counts decreased during ripening whereas those of lactic acid bacteria increased, especially lactobacilli and enterococci. Cheese made from raw milk showed higher microbial counts during ripening than those made from pasteurized milk, especially for Enterobacteriaceae and enterococci, counts being 2 or 3 log units higher. Raw milk cheese showed remarkably higher biogenic amines compared with pasteurized milk cheeses. Therefore, pasteurization of milk causes a decrease in final biogenic amine content of cheese as a result of the reduction of its microbial counts.

  4. Evaluation of Biogenic and Fire Emissions in a Global Chemistry Model with NOMADSS, DC3 and SEAC4RS observations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Emmons, L. K.; Wiedinmyer, C.; Park, M.; Kaser, L.; Apel, E. C.; Guenther, A. B.

    2014-12-01

    Numerous measurements of compounds produced by biogenic and fire emissions were made during several recent field campaigns in the southeast United States, providing a unique data set for emissions and chemical model evaluation. The NCAR Community Atmosphere Model with Chemistry (CAM-chem) is coupled to the Community Land Model (CLM), which includes the biogenic emissions model MEGAN-v2.1, allowing for online calculation of emissions from vegetation for 150 compounds. Simulations of CAM-chem for summers 2012 and 2013 are evaluated with the aircraft and ground-based observations from DC3, NOMADSS and SEAC4RS. Comparison of directly emitted biogenic species, such as isoprene, terpenes, methanol and acetone, are used to evaluate the MEGAN emissions. Evaluation of oxidation products, including methyl vinyl ketone (MVK), methacrolein, formaldehyde, and other oxygenated VOCs are used to test the model chemistry mechanism. In addition, several biomass burning inventories are used in the model, including FINN, QFED, and FLAMBE, and are compared for their impact on atmospheric composition and ozone production, and evaluated with the aircraft observations.

  5. Stability of biogenic metal(loid) nanomaterials related to the colloidal stabilization theory of chemical nanostructures.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Piacenza, Elena; Presentato, Alessandro; Turner, Raymond J

    2018-02-25

    In the last 15 years, the exploitation of biological systems (i.e. plants, bacteria, mycelial fungi, yeasts, and algae) to produce metal(loid) (Me)-based nanomaterials has been evaluated as eco-friendly and a cost-effective alternative to the chemical synthesis processes. Although the biological mechanisms of biogenic Me-nanomaterial (Bio-Me-nanomaterials) production are not yet completely elucidated, a key advantage of such bio-nanostructures over those chemically synthesized is related to their natural thermodynamic stability, with several studies ascribed to the presence of an organic layer surrounding these Bio-Me-nanostructures. Different macromolecules (e.g. proteins, peptides, lipids, DNA, and polysaccharides) or secondary metabolites (e.g. flavonoids, terpenoids, glycosides, organic acids, and alkaloids) naturally produced by organisms have been indicated as main contributors to the stabilization of Bio-Me-nanostructures. Nevertheless, the chemical-physical mechanisms behind the ability of these molecules in providing stability to Bio-Me-nanomaterials are unknown. In this context, transposing the stabilization theory of chemically synthesized Me-nanomaterials (Ch-Me-nanomaterials) to biogenic materials can be used towards a better comprehension of macromolecules and secondary metabolites role as stabilizing agents of Bio-Me-nanomaterials. According to this theory, nanomaterials are generally featured by high thermodynamic instability in suspension, due to their high surface area and surface energy. This feature leads to the necessity to stabilize chemical nanostructures, even during or directly after their synthesis, through the development of (i) electrostatic, (ii) steric, or (iii) electrosteric interactions occurring between molecules and nanomaterials in suspension. Based on these three mechanisms, this review is focused on parallels between the stabilization of biogenic or chemical nanomaterials, suggesting which chemical-physical mechanisms may be

  6. Modeling Global Biogenic Emission of Isoprene: Exploration of Model Drivers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alexander, Susan E.; Potter, Christopher S.; Coughlan, Joseph C.; Klooster, Steven A.; Lerdau, Manuel T.; Chatfield, Robert B.; Peterson, David L. (Technical Monitor)

    1996-01-01

    Vegetation provides the major source of isoprene emission to the atmosphere. We present a modeling approach to estimate global biogenic isoprene emission. The isoprene flux model is linked to a process-based computer simulation model of biogenic trace-gas fluxes that operates on scales that link regional and global data sets and ecosystem nutrient transformations Isoprene emission estimates are determined from estimates of ecosystem specific biomass, emission factors, and algorithms based on light and temperature. Our approach differs from an existing modeling framework by including the process-based global model for terrestrial ecosystem production, satellite derived ecosystem classification, and isoprene emission measurements from a tropical deciduous forest. We explore the sensitivity of model estimates to input parameters. The resulting emission products from the global 1 degree x 1 degree coverage provided by the satellite datasets and the process model allow flux estimations across large spatial scales and enable direct linkage to atmospheric models of trace-gas transport and transformation.

  7. The effect of preparation of biogenic sorbent on zinc sorption

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jana Jenčárová

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this study is to prepare biogenic sulphides by using bacteria for the removal of zinc cations from their solutions. Theproduction was realized in a bioreactor under anaerobic conditions at 30 °C. Sorbents were prepared by sulphate-reducing bacteria indifferent nutrient medium modifications, under two modes of bacteria cultivation. Created precipitates of iron sulphides were removedfrom the liquid phase of the cultivation medium by filtration, dried and used for the sorption experiments.

  8. On Mineral Retrosynthesis of a Complex Biogenic Scaffold

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ashit Rao

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available Synergistic relations between organic molecules and mineral precursors regulate biogenic mineralization. Given the remarkable material properties of the egg shell as a biogenic ceramic, it serves as an important model to elucidate biomineral growth. With established roles of complex anionic biopolymers and a heterogeneous organic scaffold in egg shell mineralization, the present study explores the regulation over mineralization attained by applying synthetic polymeric counterparts (polyethylene glycol, poly(acrylic acid, poly(aspartic acid and poly(4-styrenesulfonic acid-co-maleic acid as additives during remineralization of decalcified eggshell membranes. By applying Mg2+ ions as a co-additive species, mineral retrosynthesis is achieved in a manner that modulates the polymorph and structure of mineral products. Notable features of the mineralization process include distinct local wettability of the biogenic organic scaffold by mineral precursors and mineralization-induced membrane actuation. Overall, the form, structure and polymorph of the mineralization products are synergistically affected by the additive and the content of Mg2+ ions. We also revisit the physicochemical nature of the biomineral scaffold and demonstrate the distinct spatial distribution of anionic biomolecules associated with the scaffold-mineral interface, as well as highlight the hydrogel-like properties of mammillae-associated macromolecules.

  9. BAECC Biogenic Aerosols - Effects on Clouds and Climate

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Petäjä, Tuukka [Univ. of Helsinki (Finland); Moisseev, Dmitri [Univ. of Helsinki (Finland); Sinclair, Victoria [Univ. of Helsinki (Finland); O' Connor, Ewan J. [Finnish Meteorological Institute, Helsinki (Finland); Manninen, Antti J. [Univ. of Helsinki (Finland); Levula, Janne [Univ. of Helsinki (Finland); Väänänen, Riikka [Univ. of Helsinki (Finland); Heikkinen, Liine [Univ. of Helsinki (Finland); Äijälä, Mikko [Univ. of Helsinki (Finland); Aalto, Juho [Univ. of Helsinki (Finland); Bäck, Jaana [University of Helsinki, Finland

    2015-11-01

    Biogenic Aerosols - Effects on Clouds and Climate (BAECC)”, featured the U.S. Department of Energy’s Atmospheric Radiation Measurement (ARM) Program’s 2nd Mobile Facility (AMF2) in Hyytiälä, Finland. It operated for an 8-month intensive measurement campaign from February to September 2014. The main research goal was to understand the role of biogenic aerosols in cloud formation. One of the reasons to perform BAECC study in Hyytiälä was the fact that it hosts SMEAR-II (Station for Measuring Forest Ecosystem-Atmosphere Relations), which is one of the world’s most comprehensive surface in-situ observation sites in a boreal forest environment. The station has been measuring atmospheric aerosols, biogenic emissions and an extensive suite of parameters relevant to atmosphere-biosphere interactions continuously since 1996. The BAECC enables combining vertical profiles from AMF2 with surface-based in-situ SMEAR-II observations and allows the processes at the surface to be directly related to processes occurring throughout the entire tropospheric column. With the inclusion of extensive surface precipitation measurements, and intensive observation periods involving aircraft flights and novel radiosonde launches, the complementary observations of AMF2 and SMEAR-II provide a unique opportunity for investigating aerosol-cloud interactions, and cloud-to-precipitation processes. The BAECC dataset will initiate new opportunities for evaluating and improving models of aerosol sources and transport, cloud microphysical processes, and boundary-layer structures.

  10. Time Resolved Measurements of Primary Biogenic Aerosol Particles in Amazonia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wollny, A. G.; Garland, R.; Pöschl, U.

    2009-04-01

    Biogenic aerosols are ubiquitous in the Earth's atmosphere and they influence atmospheric chemistry and physics, the biosphere, climate, and public health. They play an important role in the spread of biological organisms and reproductive materials, and they can cause or enhance human, animal, and plant diseases. Moreover, they influence the Earth's energy budget by scattering and absorbing radiation, and they can initiate the formation of clouds and precipitation as cloud condensation and ice nuclei. The composition, abundance, and origin of biogenic aerosol particles and components are, however, still not well understood and poorly quantified. Prominent examples of primary biogenic aerosol particles, which are directly emitted from the biosphere to the atmosphere, are pollen, bacteria, fungal spores, viruses, and fragments of animals and plants. During the Amazonian Aerosol Characterization Experiment (AMAZE-08) a large number of aerosol and gas-phase measurements were taken on a remote site close to Manaus, Brazil, during a period of five weeks in February and March 2008. This presented study is focused on data from an ultraviolet aerodynamic particle sizer (UVAPS, TSI inc.) that has been deployed for the first time in Amazonia. In this instrument, particle counting and aerodynamic sizing over the range of 0.5-20 µm are complemented by the measurement of UV fluorescence at 355 nm (excitation) and 420-575 nm (emission), respectively. Fluorescence at these wavelengths is characteristic for reduced pyridine nucleotides (e.g., NAD(P)H) and for riboflavin, which are specific for living cells. Thus particles exhibiting fluorescence signals can be regarded as "viable aerosols" or "fluorescent bioparticles" (FBAP), and their concentration can be considered as lower limit for the actual abundance of primary biogenic aerosol particles. Data from the UVAPS were averaged over 5 minute time intervals. The presence of bioparticles in the observed size range has been

  11. Rainforest aerosols as biogenic nuclei of clouds and precipitation in the Amazon.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pöschl, U; Martin, S T; Sinha, B; Chen, Q; Gunthe, S S; Huffman, J A; Borrmann, S; Farmer, D K; Garland, R M; Helas, G; Jimenez, J L; King, S M; Manzi, A; Mikhailov, E; Pauliquevis, T; Petters, M D; Prenni, A J; Roldin, P; Rose, D; Schneider, J; Su, H; Zorn, S R; Artaxo, P; Andreae, M O

    2010-09-17

    The Amazon is one of the few continental regions where atmospheric aerosol particles and their effects on climate are not dominated by anthropogenic sources. During the wet season, the ambient conditions approach those of the pristine pre-industrial era. We show that the fine submicrometer particles accounting for most cloud condensation nuclei are predominantly composed of secondary organic material formed by oxidation of gaseous biogenic precursors. Supermicrometer particles, which are relevant as ice nuclei, consist mostly of primary biological material directly released from rainforest biota. The Amazon Basin appears to be a biogeochemical reactor, in which the biosphere and atmospheric photochemistry produce nuclei for clouds and precipitation sustaining the hydrological cycle. The prevailing regime of aerosol-cloud interactions in this natural environment is distinctly different from polluted regions.

  12. Biogenic and pyrogenic emissions from Africa and their impact on the global atmosphere

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Scholes, Mary; Andreae, M.O.

    2000-01-01

    Tropical regions, with their high biological activity, have the potential to emit large amounts of trace gases and aerosols to the atmosphere. This can take the form of trace gas fluxes from soils and vegetation, where gaseous species are produced and consumed by living organisms, or of smoke emissions from vegetation fires. In the last decade, considerable scientific effort has gone into quantifying these fluxes from the African continent. We find that both biogenic and pyrogenic emissions have a powerful impact on regional and global atmospheric chemistry, particularly on photooxidation processes and tropospheric ozone. The emissions of radiatively active gases and aerosols from the African continent are likely to have a significant climatic effect, but presently available data are not sufficient for reliable quantitative estimates of this effect

  13. Evaluation of ELISA screening test for detecting aflatoxin in biogenic dust samples

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Durant, J.T.

    1996-05-01

    Aflatoxin is a carcinogenic chemical that is sometimes produced when agricultural commodities are infested by the fungi Aspergillus flavus and A. Parasiticus. Aflatoxin has been found to be present in air samples taken around persons handling materials likely to be contaminated. The purpose of this investigation was to demonstrate the feasibility of using an Enzyme Linked Immunosorbent Assay (ELISA) test kit that was developed to screen for aflatoxin in bulk agricultural commodities, to an air sample. Samples were taken from two environments likely to be contaminated with aflatoxin, a dairy farm feed mixing operation and a peanut bagging operation. The dust collected from these environments was considered to be biogenic, in that it originated primarily from biological materials.

  14. Gigantism in unique biogenic magnetite at the Paleocene-Eocene Thermal Maximum.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schumann, Dirk; Raub, Timothy D; Kopp, Robert E; Guerquin-Kern, Jean-Luc; Wu, Ting-Di; Rouiller, Isabelle; Smirnov, Aleksey V; Sears, S Kelly; Lücken, Uwe; Tikoo, Sonia M; Hesse, Reinhard; Kirschvink, Joseph L; Vali, Hojatollah

    2008-11-18

    We report the discovery of exceptionally large biogenic magnetite crystals in clay-rich sediments spanning the Paleocene-Eocene Thermal Maximum (PETM) in a borehole at Ancora, NJ. Aside from previously described abundant bacterial magnetofossils, electron microscopy reveals novel spearhead-like and spindle-like magnetite up to 4 microm long and hexaoctahedral prisms up to 1.4 microm long. Similar to magnetite produced by magnetotactic bacteria, these single-crystal particles exhibit chemical composition, lattice perfection, and oxygen isotopes consistent with an aquatic origin. Electron holography indicates single-domain magnetization despite their large crystal size. We suggest that the development of a thick suboxic zone with high iron bioavailability--a product of dramatic changes in weathering and sedimentation patterns driven by severe global warming--drove diversification of magnetite-forming organisms, likely including eukaryotes.

  15. 40K in the Black Sea: a proxy to estimate biogenic sedimentation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gulin, S.B.; Gulina, L.V.; Sidorov, I.G.; Proskurnin, V.Yu.; Duka, M.S.; Moseichenko, I.N.; Rodina, E.A.

    2014-01-01

    An approach to estimate the rate of biogenic sedimentation in the Black Sea using the naturally occurring radionuclide 40 K has been considered. It allows assessment of the contribution of suspended matter of biological origin to the overall sediment accumulation in the Black Sea coastal, shelf and deep-water areas. Based upon this method, a relationship between the biogenic fraction of the seabed sediments and the water depth has been established with a view to differentiating the contributions of allochthonous and autochthonous suspended matter to the sedimentation rate. Overall, 40 K can be considered as an easily applicable proxy to assess sedimentation rate of biogenic fraction of particulate matter in marine environments. - Highlights: • 40 K-based approach was developed to assess biogenic sedimentation in the Black Sea. • 40 K-derived relationship between biogenic sedimentation and water depth was traced. • 40 K is an easily applicable proxy to estimate rate of biogenic sedimentation in sea

  16. Control of Biogenic Amines in Fermented Sausages: Role of Starter Cultures

    Science.gov (United States)

    Latorre-Moratalla, M.L.; Bover-Cid, Sara; Veciana-Nogués, M.T.; Vidal-Carou, M.C.

    2012-01-01

    Biogenic amines show biological activity and exert undesirable physiological effects when absorbed at high concentrations. Biogenic amines are mainly formed by microbial decarboxylation of amino acids and thus are usually present in a wide range of foods, fermented sausages being one of the major biogenic amine sources. The use of selected starter cultures is one of the best technological measures to control aminogenesis during meat fermentation. Although with variable effectiveness, several works show the ability of some starters to render biogenic amine-free sausages. In this paper, the effect of different starter culture is reviewed and the factors determining their performance discussed. PMID:22586423

  17. Control of biogenic amines in fermented sausages: role of starter cultures

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mariluz eLatorre-Moratalla

    2012-05-01

    Full Text Available Biogenic amines show biological activity and exert undesirable physiological effects when absorbed at high concentrations. Biogenic amines are mainly formed by microbial decarboxylation of amino acids and thus are usually present in a wide range of foods, fermented sausages being one of the major biogenic amine sources. The use of selected starter cultures is one of the best technological measures to control aminogenesis during meat fermentation. Although with variable effectiveness, several works show the ability of some starters to render biogenic amine-free sausages. In this paper, the effect of different starter culture is reviewed and the factors determining their performance discussed.

  18. LBA-ECO TG-02 Biogenic VOC Emissions from Brazilian Amazon Forest and Pasture Sites

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — ABSTRACT: This data set reports concentrations of biogenic volatile organic compounds (BVOCs) collected from tethered balloon-sampling platforms above selected...

  19. LBA-ECO TG-02 Biogenic VOC Emissions from Brazilian Amazon Forest and Pasture Sites

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — This data set reports concentrations of biogenic volatile organic compounds (BVOCs) collected from tethered balloon-sampling platforms above selected forest and...

  20. Determination of biogenic component in waste and liquid fuels by the 14C method

    OpenAIRE

    Krajcar Bronić, Ines; Barešić, Jadranka; Horvatinčić, Nada

    2015-01-01

    Intensive use of fossil fuels for energy production and transport during 20th century caused an increase of CO2 concentration in the atmosphere. The increase of CO2 concentration can be slowed down by the use of biogenic materials for energy production and/or transport. One of the method for determination of the fraction of the biogenic component in any type of fuel or waste is the 14C method, which is based on different content of 14C in biogenic and in fossil component: while the biogenic c...

  1. Influence of Thawing Methods and Storage Temperatures on Bacterial Diversity, Growth Kinetics, and Biogenic Amine Development in Atlantic Mackerel

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Onyang, S.; Palmadottir, H.; Tomason, T.

    2016-01-01

    Limited knowledge is currently available on the influence of fish thawing and subsequent storage conditions on bacterial growth kinetics, succession, and diversity alongside the production of biogenic amines. This study aimed to address these factors during the thawing and subsequent storage of m...... amine producing bacteria, with the exception of the genus Proteus, which was 8.6% in fast-thawed mackerel during storage at ambient temperature. This suggests that the decarboxylation potential is dependent on both microbial load and microbial community structure....

  2. Arsenic removal from acidic solutions with biogenic ferric precipitates

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ahoranta, Sarita H., E-mail: sarita.ahoranta@tut.fi [Department of Chemistry and Bioengineering, Tampere University of Technology, P.O. Box 541, FI-33101 Tampere (Finland); Kokko, Marika E., E-mail: marika.kokko@tut.fi [Department of Chemistry and Bioengineering, Tampere University of Technology, P.O. Box 541, FI-33101 Tampere (Finland); Papirio, Stefano, E-mail: stefano.papirio@unicas.it [Department of Chemistry and Bioengineering, Tampere University of Technology, P.O. Box 541, FI-33101 Tampere (Finland); Özkaya, Bestamin, E-mail: bozkaya@yildiz.edu.tr [Department of Chemistry and Bioengineering, Tampere University of Technology, P.O. Box 541, FI-33101 Tampere (Finland); Department of Environmental Engineering, Yildiz Technical University, Davutpasa Campus 34220, Esenler, Istanbul (Turkey); Puhakka, Jaakko A., E-mail: jaakko.puhakka@tut.fi [Department of Chemistry and Bioengineering, Tampere University of Technology, P.O. Box 541, FI-33101 Tampere (Finland)

    2016-04-05

    Highlights: • Continuous and rapid arsenic removal with biogenic jarosite was achieved at pH 3.0. • Arsenic removal was inefficient below pH 2.4 due to reduced Fe–As co-precipitation. • As(V) had better sorption characteristics than As(III). • Biogenic jarosite adsorbed arsenic more effectively than synthetic jarosite. - Abstract: Treatment of acidic solution containing 5 g/L of Fe(II) and 10 mg/L of As(III) was studied in a system consisting of a biological fluidized-bed reactor (FBR) for iron oxidation, and a gravity settler for iron precipitation and separation of the ferric precipitates. At pH 3.0 and FBR retention time of 5.7 h, 96–98% of the added Fe(II) precipitated (99.1% of which was jarosite). The highest iron oxidation and precipitation rates were 1070 and 28 mg/L/h, respectively, and were achieved at pH 3.0. Subsequently, the effect of pH on arsenic removal through sorption and/or co-precipitation was examined by gradually decreasing solution pH from 3.0 to 1.6 (feed pH). At pH 3.0, 2.4 and 1.6, the highest arsenic removal efficiencies obtained were 99.5%, 80.1% and 7.1%, respectively. As the system had ferric precipitates in excess, decreased arsenic removal was likely due to reduced co-precipitation at pH < 2.4. As(III) was partially oxidized to As(V) in the system. In shake flask experiments, As(V) sorbed onto jarosite better than As(III). Moreover, the sorption capacity of biogenic jarosite was significantly higher than that of synthetic jarosite. The developed bioprocess simultaneously and efficiently removes iron and arsenic from acidic solutions, indicating potential for mining wastewater treatment.

  3. Post-speleogenetic biogenic modification of Gomantong Caves, Sabah, Borneo

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lundberg, Joyce; McFarlane, Donald A.

    2012-07-01

    The Gomantong cave system of eastern Sabah, Malaysia, is well-known as an important site for harvesting edible bird-nests and, more recently, as a tourist attraction. Although the biology of the Gomantong system has been repeatedly studied, very little attention has been given to the geomorphology. Here, we report on the impact of geobiological modification in the development of the modern aspect of the cave, an important but little recognized feature of tropical caves. Basic modeling of the metabolic outputs from bats and birds (CO2, H2O, heat) reveals that post-speleogenetic biogenic corrosion can erode bedrock by between ~ 3.0 mm/ka (1 m/~300 ka) and ~ 4.6 mm/ka (1 m/~200 ka). Modeling at high densities of bats yields rates of corrosion of ~ 34 mm/ka (or 1 m/~30 ka). Sub-aerial corrosion creates a previously undescribed speleological feature, the apse-flute, which is semicircular in cross-section and ~ 80 cm wide. It is vertical regardless of rock properties, developing in parallel but apparently completely independently, and often unbroken from roof to floor. They end at a blind hemi-spherical top with no extraneous water source. Half-dome ceiling conch pockets are remnants of previous apse-fluting. Sub-cutaneous corrosion creates the floor-level guano notch formed by organic acid dissolution of bedrock in contact with guano. Speleogenetic assessment suggests that as much as 70-95% of the total volume of the modern cave may have been opened by direct subaerial biogenic dissolution and biogenically-induced collapse, and by sub-cutaneous removal of limestone, over a timescale of 1-2 Ma.

  4. PROSPECTS OF MODIFICATION OF BALNEOLOGICAL REMEDIES WITH BIOGENEOUS METALLS NANOPARTICLES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. B. Mamuchieva

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available The article considers the issues of mineral waters modification with biogeneous metals nanoparticles, since they have extremely important meaning for human's organism and their production in green and biologically compliant form is hard to overestimate. Russian scientists discovered low toxicity of these nanomaterials. So the use of biogeneuos metals in form of nanoparticles allows lowering of their toxicity compared with its use in forms of ions.

  5. Extracellular Proteins Limit the Dispersal of BiogenicNanoparticles

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Moreau, John W.; Weber, Peter K.; Martin, Michael C.; Gilbert,Benjamin; Hutcheon, Ian D.; Banfield, Jillian F.

    2007-04-27

    High spatial-resolution secondaryion microprobespectrometry, synchrotron radiation Fourier-transform infraredspectroscopy and polyacrylamide gel analysis demonstrate the intimateassociation of proteins with spheroidal aggregates of biogenic zincsulfide nanocrystals, an example of extracellular biomineralization.Experiments involving synthetic ZnS nanoparticles and representativeamino acids indicate a driving role for cysteine in rapid nanoparticleaggregation. These findings suggest that microbially-derivedextracellular proteins can limit dispersal of nanoparticulatemetal-bearing phases, such as the mineral products of bioremediation,that may otherwise be transported away from their source by subsurfacefluid flow.

  6. Carbon nanomaterial based electrochemical sensors for biogenic amines

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yang, Xiao; He, Xiulan; Li, Fangping; Fei, Junjie; Feng, Bo; Ding, Yonglan

    2013-01-01

    This review describes recent advances in the use of carbon nanomaterials for electroanalytical detection of biogenic amines (BAs). It starts with a short introduction into carbon nanomaterials such as carbon nanotubes, graphene, nanodiamonds, carbon nanofibers, fullerenes, and their composites. Next, electrochemical sensing schemes are discussed for various BAs including dopamine, serotonin, epinephrine, norepinephrine, tyramine, histamine and putrescine. Examples are then given for methods for simultaneous detection of various BAs. Finally, we discuss the current and future challenges of carbon nanomaterial-based electrochemical sensors for BAs. The review contains 175 references. (author)

  7. Pulmonary extraction of biogenic amines during septic shock

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kerstein, M.D.; Kohler, J.; Gould, S.; Moseley, P.

    1982-01-01

    The effect of live Escherichia coli on the pulmonary extraction of the biogenic amines 14 C 5-hydroxytryptamine, (5-HT) and 3 H-epinephrine was investigated. The labeled isotopes were injected into a central venous catheter and collected from an aortic catheter. One hundred per cent of the labeled epinephrine was recovered in the control and septic state. Only 32.8 +/- 3.6% SEM of the 5-hydroxytryptamine was recovered before sepsis and 42.5 +/- 4.9% SEM after sepsis. During sepsis, mean arterial pressure fell to 58 mm Hg from 121 mm Hg. Pulmonary shunt increased from .7 +/- .05 SEM to .33 +/- .09 SEM

  8. Interfacial photochemistry of biogenic surfactants: a major source of abiotic volatile organic compounds.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brüggemann, Martin; Hayeck, Nathalie; Bonnineau, Chloé; Pesce, Stéphane; Alpert, Peter A; Perrier, Sébastien; Zuth, Christoph; Hoffmann, Thorsten; Chen, Jianmin; George, Christian

    2017-08-24

    Films of biogenic compounds exposed to the atmosphere are ubiquitously found on the surfaces of cloud droplets, aerosol particles, buildings, plants, soils and the ocean. These air/water interfaces host countless amphiphilic compounds concentrated there with respect to in bulk water, leading to a unique chemical environment. Here, photochemical processes at the air/water interface of biofilm-containing solutions were studied, demonstrating abiotic VOC production from authentic biogenic surfactants under ambient conditions. Using a combination of online-APCI-HRMS and PTR-ToF-MS, unsaturated and functionalized VOCs were identified and quantified, giving emission fluxes comparable to previous field and laboratory observations. Interestingly, VOC fluxes increased with the decay of microbial cells in the samples, indicating that cell lysis due to cell death was the main source for surfactants and VOC production. In particular, irradiation of samples containing solely biofilm cells without matrix components exhibited the strongest VOC production upon irradiation. In agreement with previous studies, LC-MS measurements of the liquid phase suggested the presence of fatty acids and known photosensitizers, possibly inducing the observed VOC production via peroxy radical chemistry. Up to now, such VOC emissions were directly accounted to high biological activity in surface waters. However, the results obtained suggest that abiotic photochemistry can lead to similar emissions into the atmosphere, especially in less biologically-active regions. Furthermore, chamber experiments suggest that oxidation (O 3 /OH radicals) of the photochemically-produced VOCs leads to aerosol formation and growth, possibly affecting atmospheric chemistry and climate-related processes, such as cloud formation or the Earth's radiation budget.

  9. Modeling organic aerosols during MILAGRO: importance of biogenic secondary organic aerosols

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. Hodzic

    2009-09-01

    Full Text Available The meso-scale chemistry-transport model CHIMERE is used to assess our understanding of major sources and formation processes leading to a fairly large amount of organic aerosols – OA, including primary OA (POA and secondary OA (SOA – observed in Mexico City during the MILAGRO field project (March 2006. Chemical analyses of submicron aerosols from aerosol mass spectrometers (AMS indicate that organic particles found in the Mexico City basin contain a large fraction of oxygenated organic species (OOA which have strong correspondence with SOA, and that their production actively continues downwind of the city. The SOA formation is modeled here by the one-step oxidation of anthropogenic (i.e. aromatics, alkanes, biogenic (i.e. monoterpenes and isoprene, and biomass-burning SOA precursors and their partitioning into both organic and aqueous phases. Conservative assumptions are made for uncertain parameters to maximize the amount of SOA produced by the model. The near-surface model evaluation shows that predicted OA correlates reasonably well with measurements during the campaign, however it remains a factor of 2 lower than the measured total OA. Fairly good agreement is found between predicted and observed POA within the city suggesting that anthropogenic and biomass burning emissions are reasonably captured. Consistent with previous studies in Mexico City, large discrepancies are encountered for SOA, with a factor of 2–10 model underestimate. When only anthropogenic SOA precursors were considered, the model was able to reproduce within a factor of two the sharp increase in OOA concentrations during the late morning at both urban and near-urban locations but the discrepancy increases rapidly later in the day, consistent with previous results, and is especially obvious when the column-integrated SOA mass is considered instead of the surface concentration. The increase in the missing SOA mass in the afternoon coincides with the sharp drop in POA

  10. Factors Influencing Biogenic Amines Accumulation in Dairy Products

    Science.gov (United States)

    Linares, Daniel M.; del Río, Beatriz; Ladero, Victor; Martínez, Noelia; Fernández, María; Martín, María Cruz; Álvarez, Miguel A.

    2012-01-01

    Fermented foods are among the food products more often complained of having caused episodes of biogenic amines (BA) poisoning. Concerning milk-based fermented foods, cheese is the main product likely to contain potentially harmful levels of BA, specially tyramine, histamine, and putrescine. Prompted by the increasing awareness of the risks related to dietary uptake of high biogenic amine loads, in this review we report all those elaboration and processing technological aspects affecting BA biosynthesis and accumulation in dairy foods. Improved knowledge of the factors involved in the synthesis and accumulation of BA should lead to a reduction in their incidence in milk products. Synthesis of BA is possible only when three conditions converge: (i) availability of the substrate amino acids; (ii) presence of microorganisms with the appropriate catabolic pathway activated; and (iii) environmental conditions favorable to the decarboxylation activity. These conditions depend on several factors such as milk treatment (pasteurization), use of starter cultures, NaCl concentration, time, and temperature of ripening and preservation, pH, temperature, or post-ripening technological processes, which will be discussed in this chapter. PMID:22783233

  11. Comparative study of biogenic and abiotic iron-containing materials

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cherkezova-Zheleva, Z., E-mail: zzhel@ic.bas.bg; Shopska, M., E-mail: shopska@ic.bas.bg; Paneva, D. [Bulgarian Academy of Sciences, Institute of Catalysis (Bulgaria); Kovacheva, D. [Bulgarian Academy of Sciences, Institute of General and Inorganic Chemistry (Bulgaria); Kadinov, G.; Mitov, I. [Bulgarian Academy of Sciences, Institute of Catalysis (Bulgaria)

    2016-12-15

    Series of iron-based biogenic materials prepared by cultivation of Leptothrix group of bacteria in different feeding media (Sphaerotilus-Leptothrix group of bacteria isolation medium, Adler, Lieske and silicon-iron-glucose-peptone) were studied. Control samples were obtained in the same conditions and procedures but the nutrition media were not infected with bacteria, i.e. they were sterile. Room and low temperature Mössbauer spectroscopy, powder X-ray diffraction (XRD), and infrared spectroscopy (IRS) were used to reveal the composition and physicochemical properties of biomass and respective control samples. Comparative analysis showed differences in their composition and dispersity of present phases. Sample composition included different ratio of nanodimensional iron oxyhydroxide and oxide phases. Relaxation phenomena such as superparamagnetism or collective magnetic excitation behaviour were registered for some of them. The experimental data showed that the biogenic materials were enriched in oxyhydroxides of high dispersion. Catalytic behaviour of a selected biomass and abiotic material were studied in the reaction of CO oxidation. In situ diffuse-reflectance (DR) IRS was used to monitor the phase transformations in the biomass and CO conversion.

  12. Biogenic magnetite as a primary remanence carrier in limestone deposits

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chang, Shih-Bin R.; Kirschvink, Joseph L.; Stolz, John F.

    1987-06-01

    Studies on the microbial communities and magnetic phases of samples collected from carbonate oozes at Sugarloaf Key, FL, U.S.A. and calcareous laminated sediments from Laguna Figueroa, Baja California, Mexico have revealed the existence of magnetotactic bacteria and ultrafine-grained single domain magnetite in both environments. Magnetotactic bacteria were identified by light and electron microscopy. The single domain magnetite was detected by coercivity spectra analysis with a SQUID magnetometer and examined under the transmission electron microscope. The similarity, in terms of size and shape, between the single domain magnetite found in these sediments and the magnetite observed in the bacterial magnetosome from enriched cultures indicates the ultrafine-grained magnetite in these two marine environments was biologically formed. These results, combined with the common occurrences of ultrafine-grained magnetite in limestone deposits detected rock magnetically, suggest biogenic magnetite may be present and contribute to the magnetic remanence in these rocks. Several Cambrian limestone samples, separately collected from Siberia, China, and Kazakhstan, were examined for the presence of bacterial magnetite. Samples from the Lower Cambrian Sinskian Formation at Siberia Platform were found to contain both a large amount of apparently bacterial magnetite particles and a very stable primary magnetic component. Post-Cambrian diagenesis does not seem to affect the microgranulometry of these apparently bacterial magnetite crystals or the magnetic remanence carried by them. Assessing the potential role of biogenic magnetite as a primary remanence carrier in other Phanerozoic limestone deposits ought to be further pursued.

  13. Biogenic silica in space and time in sediments of Central Indian Ocean

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    Pattan, J.N.; Gupta, S.M.; Mudholkar, A.V.; Parthiban, G.

    rate averages 2.25 x 10/5 g.cm/2.y/1 and it is contributed from 33 to 50% of the total silica. Higher biogenic silica content of the surface sediment is well correlated with Mn, Cu and Ni concentration of the overlying manganese nodules. Higher biogenic...

  14. DEVELOPMENT OF SEASONAL AND ANNUAL BIOGENIC EMISSIONS INVENTORIES FOR THE U.S. AND CANADA

    Science.gov (United States)

    The report describes the development of a biogenic emissions inventory for the U.S. and Canada, to assess the role of biogenic emissions in ozone formation. Emission inventories were developed at hourly and grid (1/4 x 116 degree) level from input data at the same scales. Emissio...

  15. 78 FR 50135 - Soil Biogenics Ltd., File No. 500-1; Order of Suspension of Trading

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-08-16

    ... SECURITIES AND EXCHANGE COMMISSION Soil Biogenics Ltd., File No. 500-1; Order of Suspension of Trading August 14, 2013. It appears to the Securities and Exchange Commission that there is a lack of current and accurate information concerning the securities of Soil Biogenics Ltd. because it has not filed [[Page 50136

  16. Biogenic amine content, histamine-forming bacteria, and adulteration of pork in tuna sausage products.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kung, Hsien-Feng; Tsai, Yung-Hsiang; Chang, Shih-Chih; Hong, Tang-Yao

    2012-10-01

    Twenty-five tuna sausage products were purchased from retail markets in Taiwan. The rates of occurrence of biogenic amines, histamine-forming bacteria, and adulteration by pork and poultry were determined. The average content of various biogenic amines in all tested samples was less than 2.0 mg/100 g (Makaira nigricans (blue marlin).

  17. Biogenic Carbon Fraction of Biogas and Natural Gas Fuel Mixtures Determined with 14C

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Palstra, Sanne W. L.; Meijer, Harro A. J.

    2014-01-01

    This study investigates the accuracy of the radiocarbon-based calculation of the biogenic carbon fraction for different biogas and biofossil gas mixtures. The focus is on the uncertainty in the C-14 reference values for 100% biogenic carbon and on the C-13-based isotope fractionation correction of

  18. Mastocytosis and adverse reactions to biogenic amines and histamine-releasing foods : what is the evidence?

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Viieg-Boerstra, BJ; van der Heide, S; Elberink, JNGO; Kluin-Nelemans, JC; Dubois, AEJ

    2005-01-01

    Background: It has been suggested that normal concentrations of biogenic amines and 'histamine-releasing foods' may exacerbate symptoms in mastocytosis. The purpose of this study was to look for scientific evidence in the literature on diets restricted in biogenic amines and histamine-releasing

  19. Constraining biogenic silica dissolution in marine sediments: a comparison between diagenetic models and experimental dissolution rates

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Khalil, K.; Rabouille, C.; Gallinari, M.; Soetaert, K.E.R.; DeMaster, D.J.; Ragueneau, O.

    2007-01-01

    The processes controlling preservation and recycling of particulate biogenic silica in sediments must be understood in order to calculate oceanic silica mass balances. The new contribution of this work is the coupled use of advanced models including reprecipitation and different phases of biogenic

  20. 76 FR 61100 - Notification of a Public Meeting of the Science Advisory Board Biogenic Carbon Emissions Panel

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-10-03

    ... demonstrated expertise in forestry, agriculture, measurement and carbon accounting methodologies, land use... draft Accounting Framework for Biogenic CO 2 Emissions from Stationary Sources (September 2011). DATES... review EPA's draft Accounting Framework for Biogenic CO 2 Emissions from Stationary Sources (September...

  1. Hydrothermal solubility of uraninite. Final technical report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Parks, G.A.; Pohl, D.C.

    1985-01-01

    Experimental measurements of the solubility of UO 2 from 100 to 300 0 C under 500 bars H 2 , in NaCl solutions at pH from 1 to 8 do not agree with solubilities calculated using existing thermodynamic databases. For pH 2 (hyd) has precipitated and is controlling solubility. For pH > 8, solubilities at all temperatures are much lower than predicted, suggesting that the U(OH)/sub delta/ - complex is much weaker than predicted. Extrapolated to 25 0 C, high pH solubility agrees within experimental error with the upper limit suggested by Ryan and Rai (1983). In the pH range 2 to 6, solubilities are up to three orders of magnitude lower than predicted for temperatures exceeding 200 0 C and up to two orders higher than predicted at lower temperatures. pH dependence in this region is negligible suggesting that U(OH) 4 (aq) predominates, thus the stability of this species is higher than presently estimated at low temperatures, but the enthalpy of solution is smaller. A low maximum observed near pH approx. =3 is presently unexplained. 40 refs., 16 figs., 12 tabs

  2. Production of extremely low volatile organic compounds from biogenic emissions: Measured yields and atmospheric implications.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jokinen, Tuija; Berndt, Torsten; Makkonen, Risto; Kerminen, Veli-Matti; Junninen, Heikki; Paasonen, Pauli; Stratmann, Frank; Herrmann, Hartmut; Guenther, Alex B; Worsnop, Douglas R; Kulmala, Markku; Ehn, Mikael; Sipilä, Mikko

    2015-06-09

    Oxidation products of monoterpenes and isoprene have a major influence on the global secondary organic aerosol (SOA) burden and the production of atmospheric nanoparticles and cloud condensation nuclei (CCN). Here, we investigate the formation of extremely low volatility organic compounds (ELVOC) from O3 and OH radical oxidation of several monoterpenes and isoprene in a series of laboratory experiments. We show that ELVOC from all precursors are formed within the first minute after the initial attack of an oxidant. We demonstrate that under atmospherically relevant concentrations, species with an endocyclic double bond efficiently produce ELVOC from ozonolysis, whereas the yields from OH radical-initiated reactions are smaller. If the double bond is exocyclic or the compound itself is acyclic, ozonolysis produces less ELVOC and the role of the OH radical-initiated ELVOC formation is increased. Isoprene oxidation produces marginal quantities of ELVOC regardless of the oxidant. Implementing our laboratory findings into a global modeling framework shows that biogenic SOA formation in general, and ELVOC in particular, play crucial roles in atmospheric CCN production. Monoterpene oxidation products enhance atmospheric new particle formation and growth in most continental regions, thereby increasing CCN concentrations, especially at high values of cloud supersaturation. Isoprene-derived SOA tends to suppress atmospheric new particle formation, yet it assists the growth of sub-CCN-size primary particles to CCN. Taking into account compound specific monoterpene emissions has a moderate effect on the modeled global CCN budget.

  3. Methylotrophic methanogenesis governs the biogenic coal bed methane formation in Eastern Ordos Basin, China

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Guo, Hongguang; Yu, Zhisheng; Liu, Ruyin [Graduate Univ. of Chinese Academy of Sciences, Beijing (China). College of Resources and Environment; Zhang, Hongxun [Graduate Univ. of Chinese Academy of Sciences, Beijing (China). College of Resources and Environment; Chinese Academy of Sciences, Beijing (China). Research Center for Eco-Environmental Sciences; Zhong, Qiding; Xiong, Zhenghe [China National Research Institute of Food and Fermentation Industries, Beijing (China). Food Analysis using Isotope Technology Lab

    2012-12-15

    To identify the methanogenic pathways present in a deep coal bed methane (CBM) reservoir associated with Eastern Ordos Basin in China, a series of geochemical and microbiological studies was performed using gas and water samples produced from the Liulin CBM reservoir. The composition and stable isotopic ratios of CBM implied a mixed biogenic and thermogenic origin of the methane. Archaeal 16S rRNA gene analysis revealed the dominance of the methylotrophic methanogen Methanolobus in the water produced. The high potential of methane production by methylotrophic methanogens was found in the enrichments using the water samples amended with methanol and incubated at 25 and 35 C. Methylotrophic methanogens were the dominant archaea in both enrichments as shown by polymerase chain reaction (PCR)-denaturing gradient gel electrophoresis (DGGE). Bacterial 16S rRNA gene analysis revealed that fermentative, sulfate-reducing, and nitrate-reducing bacteria inhabiting the water produced were a factor in coal biodegradation to fuel methanogens. These results suggested that past and ongoing biodegradation of coal by methylotrophic methanogens and syntrophic bacteria, as well as thermogenic CBM production, contributed to the Liulin CBM reserves associated with the Eastern Ordos Basin. (orig.)

  4. Influence of pH, competing ions, and salinity on the sorption of strontium and cobalt onto biogenic hydroxyapatite

    Science.gov (United States)

    Handley-Sidhu, Stephanie; Mullan, Thomas K.; Grail, Quentin; Albadarneh, Malek; Ohnuki, Toshihiko; Macaskie, Lynne E.

    2016-03-01

    Anthropogenic radionuclides contaminate a range of environments as a result of nuclear activities, for example, leakage from waste storage tanks/ponds (e.g. Hanford, USA or Sellafield sites, UK) or as a result of large scale nuclear accidents (e.g. Chernobyl, Ukraine or Fukushima, Japan). One of the most widely applied remediation techniques for contaminated waters is the use of sorbent materials (e.g. zeolites and apatites). However, a key problem at nuclear contaminated sites is the remediation of radionuclides from complex chemical environments. In this study, biogenic hydroxyapatite (BHAP) produced by Serratia sp. bacteria was investigated for its potential to remediate surrogate radionuclides (Sr2+ and Co2+) from environmentally relevant waters by varying pH, salinity and the type and concentration of cations present. The sorption capacity of the BHAP for both Sr2+ and Co2+ was higher than for a synthetically produced hydroxyapatite (HAP) in the solutions tested. BHAP also compared favorably against a natural zeolite (as used in industrial decontamination) for Sr2+ and Co2+ uptake from saline waters. Results confirm that hydroxyapatite minerals of high surface area and amorphous calcium phosphate content, typical for biogenic sources, are suitable restoration or reactive barrier materials for the remediation of complex contaminated environments or wastewaters.

  5. Biogenic and pedogenic controls on Si distributions and cycling in grasslands of the Santa Cruz soil chronosequence, California

    Science.gov (United States)

    White, Art F.; Vivit, Davison V.; Schulz, Marjorie S.; Bullen, Tom D.; Evett, Rand R.; Aagarwal, Jugdeep

    2012-10-01

    Biogenic and pedogenic processes control silica cycling in grasslands growing on a soil chronosequence and dominated by strong seasonal variabilities of a Mediterranean climate. Shallow pore water Si, in spite of significant annual uptake and release by plant growth and dieback, exhibits only moderate seasonal fluctuations reflecting strong buffering from labile biogenic Si, dominated by phytoliths and by secondary pedogenic silicates. Long phytolith residence times (340-900 yrs) reflect the seasonally dry climate and high solute Si concentrations. Water-extractable Si is closely associated with Al, indicating seasonal precipitation and dissolution of a highly labile 1:1 hydroxyaluminosilicate (HAS), probably allophane, which transforms in deeper soil into fine grained, poorly crystalline kaolinite. Shallow plant roots extract greater proportions of biogenic Si and deeper plant roots larger amounts pedogenic Si. High pore water Ge/Si in late winter and spring reflects the reinforcing effects of plant fractionation and concurrent dissolution of Ge-enriched HAS. The same processes produce pore waters with depleted 30Si/28Si. In the summer and fall, Ge/Si declines and 30Si/28Si increases, reflecting the cessation of plant uptake, continued dissolution of soil phytoliths and re-precipitation of less soluble HAS. Si inputs from weathering (2-90 mmol m-2 yr-1) and losses from pore water discharge (18-68 mM m-2 yr-1) are comparable for individual soils, decline with soil age and are significantly less than amounts of Si annual cycled through the vegetation (42-171 mM m-2 yr-1). Mobile Si is generally balanced in the soils with upward bio-pumping by the shallow-rooted grasses efficiently competing against downward leaching and pore water discharge. Small net annual increases in Si in the present day soils could not have been maintained over the time scale represented by the chronosequence (65-225 yrs), implying past changes in environmental conditions.

  6. Subsurface biogenic gas rations associated with hydrocarbon contamination

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Marrin, D.L.

    1991-01-01

    Monitoring the in situ bioreclamation of organic chemicals in soil is usually accomplished by collecting samples from selected points during the remediation process. This technique requires the installation and sampling of soil borings and does not allow for continuous monitoring. The analysis of soil vapor overlying hydrocarbon-contaminated soil and groundwater has been used to detect the presence of nonaqueous phase liquids (NAPL) and to locate low-volatility hydrocarbons that are not directly detected by more conventional soil gas methods. Such soil vapor sampling methods are adaptable to monitoring the in situ bioremediation of soil and groundwater contamination. This paper focuses on the use of biogenic gas ratio in detecting the presence of crude oil and gasoline in the subsurface

  7. Development of biogenic VOC emission inventories for the boreal forest

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tarvainen, V.

    2008-07-01

    The volatile organic compounds (VOCs) emitted by vegetation, especially forests, can affect local and regional atmospheric photochemistry through their reactions with atmospheric oxidants. Their reaction products may also participate in the formation and growth of new particles which affect the radiation balance of the atmosphere, and thus climate, by scattering and absorbing shortwave and longwave radiation and by modifying the radiative properties, amount and lifetime of clouds. Globally, anthropogenic VOC emissions are far surpassed by the biogenic ones, making biogenic emission inventories an integral element in the development of efficient air quality and climate strategies. The inventories are typically constructed based on landcover information, measured emissions of different plants or vegetation types, and empirical dependencies of the emissions on environmental variables such as temperature and light. This thesis is focused on the VOC emissions from the boreal forest, the largest terrestrial biome with characteristic vegetation patterns and strong seasonality. The isoprene, monoterpene and sesquiterpene emissions of the most prevalent boreal tree species in Finland, Scots pine, have been measured and their seasonal variation and dependence on temperature and light have been studied. The measured emission data and other available observations of the emissions of the principal boreal trees have been used in a biogenic emission model developed for the boreal forests in Finland. The model utilizes satellite landcover information, Finnish forest classification and hourly meteorological data to calculate isoprene, monoterpene, sesquiterpene and other VOC emissions over the growing season. The principal compounds emitted by Scots pine are DELTA3-carene and alpha-pinene in the south boreal zone and alpha- and beta-pinene in the north boreal zone. The monoterpene emissions are dependent on temperature and have a clear seasonal cycle with high emissions in spring

  8. Sustainable use of biogenic fuels resources through industrial synergies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Schuech, Andrea; Nelles, Michael; Nassour, Abdallah

    2017-01-01

    The term industrial symbiosis is used when traditionally separate companies and industries work together in a collective approach to physically exchange materials, energy, water and by-products with a mutual competitive advantage. Aim of the European project ''UBIS - Urban Baltic Industrial Symbiosis'' (INTERREG South-Baltic Programme) is to use biogenic resources as well as waste and residues sustainable in industrial symbiosis and to reduce emissions at the same time. Even if a lot has already been achieved in this area, there are still many unused material flows and there are possibilities to use them even more efficiently. In the project existing collaborations will be investigated as well as new ones identified and evaluated. This article introduces the UBIS project and provides an insight into the subject of industrial symbiosis as well examples described.

  9. Emissions of biogenic sulfur gases from northern bogs and fens

    Science.gov (United States)

    Demello, William Zamboni; Hines, Mark E.; Bayley, Suzanne E.

    1992-01-01

    Sulfur gases are important components of the global cycle of S. They contribute to the acidity of precipitation and they influence global radiation balance and climate. The role of terrestrial sources of biogenic S and their effect on atmospheric chemistry remain as major unanswered questions in our understanding of the natural S cycle. The role of northern wetlands as sources and sinks of gaseous S by measuring rates of S gas exchange as a function of season, hydrologic conditions, and gradients in tropic status was investigated. Experiments were conducted in wetlands in New Hampshire, particularly a poor fen, and in Mire 239, a poor fen at the Experimental Lakes Area (ELA) in Ontario. Emissions were determined using Teflon enclosures, gas cryotrapping methods and gas chromatography (GC) with flame photometric detection. Dynamic (sweep flow) and static enclosures were employed which yielded similar results. Dissolved S gases and methane were determined by gas stripping followed by GC.

  10. The influence of biogenic atmospheric sulfur compounds on climate

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Georgii, H -W [University of Frankfurt am Main, Frankfurt am Main (Germany). Dept. of Meteorology and Geophysics

    1993-09-01

    The author reviews research so far into sulphur compounds occurring in the atmosphere, namely dimethylsulfide (DMS) and carbonyl sulphide (COS). He explains how the sulphate particles formed by oxidation of DMS with OH radicals act as cloud condensation nuclei which in turn leads to enhanced formation of precipitation. Increase of cloud droplet density leads also to an increase of cloud albedo. The hypothesis of carbonyl sulphide as a precursor for stratospheric sulphate particles is discussed, along with evidence of model calculations showing that the increase of COS flux in the stratosphere leads to an increase in density of stratospheric aerosols and to slight global cooling, particularly compensating for the warming caused by the greenhouse effect. Although the influence of biogenic sulphur gases on climate is still speculative due to lack of information of the source, strength and global trend of these gases, the author advocates they deserve special attention since they may contribute to the stabilization of our climate. 16 refs., 5 figs.

  11. Emission of Biogenic Volatile Organic Compounds in the Arctic

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lindwall, Frida

    , emitted in order to communicate within and between trophic levels and as protection against biotic and abiotic stresses, or as byproducts. Some BVOCs are very reactive, and when entering the atmosphere they rapidly react with for example hydroxyl radicals and ozone, affecting the oxidative capacity......Emissions of biogenic volatile organic compounds (BVOCs) from arctic ecosystems are scarcely studied and the effect of climate change on BVOC emissions even less so. BVOCs are emitted from all living organisms and play a role for atmospheric chemistry. The major part of BVOCs derives from plants...... in the atmosphere. This may warm the climate due to a prolonged lifetime of the potent greenhouse gas methane in the atmosphere. However, oxidized BVOCs may participate in formation or growth of aerosols, which in turn may mitigate climate warming. Climate change in the Arctic, an area characterized by short...

  12. Hydrogen generation from biogenic and fossil fuels by autothermal reforming

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rampe, Thomas; Heinzel, Angelika; Vogel, Bernhard

    Hydrogen generation for fuel cell systems by reforming technologies from various fuels is one of the main fields of investigation of the Fraunhofer ISE. Suitable fuels are, on the one hand, gaseous hydrocarbons like methane, propane but also, on the other hand, liquid hydrocarbons like gasoline and alcohols, e.g., ethanol as biogenic fuel. The goal is to develop compact systems for generation of hydrogen from fuel being suitable for small-scale membrane fuel cells. The most recent work is related to reforming according to the autothermal principle — fuel, air and steam is supplied to the reactor. Possible applications of such small-scale autothermal reformers are mobile systems and also miniature fuel cell as co-generation plant for decentralised electricity and heat generation. For small stand-alone systems without a connection to the natural gas grid liquid gas, a mixture of propane and butane is an appropriate fuel.

  13. Bacillus megaterium mediated mineralization of calcium carbonate as biogenic surface treatment of green building materials.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dhami, Navdeep Kaur; Reddy, M Sudhakara; Mukherjee, Abhijit

    2013-12-01

    Microbially induced calcium carbonate precipitation is a biomineralization process that has various applications in remediation and restoration of range of building materials. In the present study, calcifying bacteria, Bacillus megaterium SS3 isolated from calcareous soil was applied as biosealant to enhance the durability of low energy, green building materials (soil-cement blocks). This bacterial isolate produced high amounts of urease, carbonic anhydrase, extra polymeric substances and biofilm. The calcium carbonate polymorphs produced by B. megaterium SS3 were analyzed by scanning electron microscopy, confocal laser scanning microscopy, X-ray diffraction and Fourier transmission infra red spectroscopy. These results suggested that calcite is the most predominant carbonate formed by this bacteria followed by vaterite. Application of B. megaterium SS3 as biogenic surface treatment led to 40 % decrease in water absorption, 31 % decrease in porosity and 18 % increase in compressive strength of low energy building materials. From the present investigation, it is clear that surface treatment of building materials by B. megaterium SS3 is very effective and eco friendly way of biodeposition of coherent carbonates that enhances the durability of building materials.

  14. The MUMBA campaign: measurements of urban, marine and biogenic air

    Science.gov (United States)

    Paton-Walsh, Clare; Guérette, Élise-Andrée; Kubistin, Dagmar; Humphries, Ruhi; Wilson, Stephen R.; Dominick, Doreena; Galbally, Ian; Buchholz, Rebecca; Bhujel, Mahendra; Chambers, Scott; Cheng, Min; Cope, Martin; Davy, Perry; Emmerson, Kathryn; Griffith, David W. T.; Griffiths, Alan; Keywood, Melita; Lawson, Sarah; Molloy, Suzie; Rea, Géraldine; Selleck, Paul; Shi, Xue; Simmons, Jack; Velazco, Voltaire

    2017-06-01

    The Measurements of Urban, Marine and Biogenic Air (MUMBA) campaign took place in Wollongong, New South Wales (a small coastal city approximately 80 km south of Sydney, Australia) from 21 December 2012 to 15 February 2013. Like many Australian cities, Wollongong is surrounded by dense eucalyptus forest, so the urban airshed is heavily influenced by biogenic emissions. Instruments were deployed during MUMBA to measure the gaseous and aerosol composition of the atmosphere with the aim of providing a detailed characterisation of the complex environment of the ocean-forest-urban interface that could be used to test the skill of atmospheric models. The gases measured included ozone, oxides of nitrogen, carbon monoxide, carbon dioxide, methane and many of the most abundant volatile organic compounds. The aerosol characterisation included total particle counts above 3 nm, total cloud condensation nuclei counts, mass concentration, number concentration size distribution, aerosol chemical analyses and elemental analysis.The campaign captured varied meteorological conditions, including two extreme heat events, providing a potentially valuable test for models of future air quality in a warmer climate. There was also an episode when the site sampled clean marine air for many hours, providing a useful additional measure of the background concentrations of these trace gases within this poorly sampled region of the globe. In this paper we describe the campaign, the meteorology and the resulting observations of atmospheric composition in general terms in order to equip the reader with a sufficient understanding of the Wollongong regional influences to use the MUMBA datasets as a case study for testing a chemical transport model. The data are available from PANGAEA (pangaea.de/10.1594/PANGAEA.871982" target="_blank">http://doi.pangaea.de/10.1594/PANGAEA.871982).

  15. Emission of the main biogenic volatile organic compounds in France

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Luchetta, L.; Simon, V.; Torres, L.

    2000-01-01

    An estimation of biogenic emissions of the main non-methanic Volatile Organic Compounds (VOCs) due to the forest cover in France has been realized. 32 species representing 98% of French forest have been considered for the estimation. The latter dealt on a net made of 93 irregular spatial grids (Departments) with an average size of 75 km x 75 km. We assigned emission rates and foliar biomass densities specific to each of the 32 species. The environmental variables (temperature, light intensity) have been collected for the whole of French Departments. A special effort was extended so as to use ''Guenther's'' calculation algorithms, and specific emitting factors to species growing in France or in bordering countries. Along the way of the five years (1994-1998) of the study we have calculated the yearly mean of isoprene, mono-terpenes and Other Volatile Organic Compounds (OVOCs) emissions on the scale of the French Departments. At the national level isoprene emission is reckoned at 457 kt yr -1 and represents nearly 49% of the total emission, whereas mono-terpenes with 350 kt yr -1 and OVOCs with 129 kt yr -1 represent respectively 37% and 14% of the total. The yearly biogenic emission of VOCs in France represents virtually half the anthropic source. However in some regions (Mediterranean area) natural emissions can widely exceed anthropic emissions during certain periods. Let's note the whole of our results remains tinged with a great uncertainty because the estimations carried out are presented with correction factors that can reach values comprised between 4 and 7. (author)

  16. Impacts of biogenic emissions of VOC and NOx on tropospheric ozone during summertime in eastern China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Qin'geng; Han, Zhiwei; Wang, Tijian; Zhang, Renjian

    2008-05-20

    This study is intended to understand and quantify the impacts of biogenic emissions of volatile organic compounds (VOC) and nitrogen oxides (NO(x)) on the formation of tropospheric ozone during summertime in eastern China. The model system consists of the non-hydrostatic mesoscale meteorological model (MM5) and a tropospheric chemical and transport model (TCTM) with the updated carbon-bond chemical reaction mechanism (CBM-IV). The spatial resolution of the system domain is 30 km x 30 km. The impacts of biogenic emissions are investigated by performing simulations (36 h) with and without biogenic emissions, while anthropogenic emissions are constant. The results indicate that biogenic emissions have remarkable impacts on surface ozone in eastern China. In big cities and their surrounding areas, surface ozone formation tends to be VOC-limited. The increase in ozone concentration by biogenic VOC is generally 5 ppbv or less, but could be more than 10 ppbv or even 30 ppbv in some local places. The impacts of biogenic NO(x) are different or even contrary in different regions, depending on the relative availability of NO(x) and VOC. The surface ozone concentrations reduced or increased by the biogenic NO(x) could be as much as 10 ppbv or 20 ppbv, respectively. The impacts of biogenic emissions on ozone aloft are generally restricted to the boundary layer and generally more obvious during the daytime than during the nighttime. This study is useful for understanding the role of biogenic emissions and for planning strategies for surface ozone abatement in eastern China. Due to limitations of the emission inventories used and the highly non-linear nature of zone formation, however, some uncertainties remain in the results.

  17. Operation of Marine Diesel Engines on Biogenic Fuels: Modification of Emissions and Resulting Climate Effects

    OpenAIRE

    Petzold, A.; Lauer, P.; Fritsche, U.; Hasselbach, J.; Lichtenstern, M.; Schlager, H.; Fleischer, F.

    2011-01-01

    The modification of emissions of climate-sensitive exhaust compounds such as CO2, NOx, hydrocarbons, and particulate matter from medium-speed marine diesel engines was studied for a set of fossil and biogenic fuels. Applied fossil fuels were the reference heavy fuel oil (HFO) and the low-sulfur marine gas oil (MGO); biogenic fuels were palm oil, soybean oil, sunflower oil, and animal fat. Greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions related to the production of biogenic fuels were treated by means of a fue...

  18. Sustainable use of biogenic fuels resources through industrial synergies; Nachhaltige energetische Nutzung biogener Ressourcen durch industrielle Synergien

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Schuech, Andrea [Rostock Univ. (Germany). Professur Abfall- und Stoffstromwirtschaft; Nelles, Michael [Rostock Univ. (Germany). Agrar- und Umweltwissenschaftliche Fakultaet; Nassour, Abdallah

    2017-08-01

    The term industrial symbiosis is used when traditionally separate companies and industries work together in a collective approach to physically exchange materials, energy, water and by-products with a mutual competitive advantage. Aim of the European project ''UBIS - Urban Baltic Industrial Symbiosis'' (INTERREG South-Baltic Programme) is to use biogenic resources as well as waste and residues sustainable in industrial symbiosis and to reduce emissions at the same time. Even if a lot has already been achieved in this area, there are still many unused material flows and there are possibilities to use them even more efficiently. In the project existing collaborations will be investigated as well as new ones identified and evaluated. This article introduces the UBIS project and provides an insight into the subject of industrial symbiosis as well examples described.

  19. Blood Cockle Shells Waste as Renewable Source for the Production of Biogenic CaCO3 and Its Characterisation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Asmi, D.; Zulfia, A.

    2017-11-01

    The prowess to reuse and recycle of blood cockle shells for raw material in bio-ceramics applications is an attractive component of integrated waste management program. In this paper an attempt is made to introduce a simple process to manufacture biogenic CaCO3 powder from blood cockle shells waste. The biogenic CaCO3 powder was produced from rinsing of blood cockle shells waste using deionised water and oxalic acid for cleaning the dirt and stain on the shells, then drying and grinding followed by heat treatment at 500 and 800 °C for 5 h. The powder obtained was characterised by XRF, DTA/TG, SEM, FTIR, and XRD analysis. The amount of 97.1 % CaO was obtained from XRF result. The thermal decomposition of CaCO3 become CaO due to mass loss was observed in the TG curve. The SEM result shows the needle-like aragonite morphology of blood cockle shells powder transformed to cubic-like calcite after heat treated at 500 °C. These results were consistent with FTIR and XRD results.

  20. A review on biogenic synthesis of ZnO nanoparticles using plant extracts and microbes: A prospect towards green chemistry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ahmed, Shakeel; Annu; Chaudhry, Saif Ali; Ikram, Saiqa

    2017-01-01

    Nanotechnology is emerging as an important area of research with its tremendous applications in all fields of science, engineering, medicine, pharmacy, etc. It involves the materials and their applications having one dimension in the range of 1-100nm. Generally, various techniques are used for syntheses of nanoparticles (NPs) viz. laser ablation, chemical reduction, milling, sputtering, etc. These conventional techniques e.g. chemical reduction method, in which various hazardous chemicals are used for the synthesis of NPs later become liable for innumerable health risks due to their toxicity and endangering serious concerns for environment, while other approaches are expensive, need high energy for the synthesis of NPs. However, biogenic synthesis method to produce NPs is eco-friendly and free of chemical contaminants for biological applications where purity is of concerns. In biological method, different biological entities such as extract, enzymes or proteins of a natural product are used to reduce and stabilised formation of NPs. The nature of these biological entities also influence the structure, shape, size and morphology of synthesized NPs. In this review, biogenic synthesis of zinc oxide (ZnO) NPs, procedures of syntheses, mechanism of formation and their various applications have been discussed. Various entities such as proteins, enzymes, phytochemicals, etc. available in the natural reductants are responsible for synthesis of ZnO NPs. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  1. Microbially-Enhanced Coal Bed Methane: Strategies for Increased Biogenic Production

    Science.gov (United States)

    Davis, K.; Barhart, E. P.; Schweitzer, H. D.; Cunningham, A. B.; Gerlach, R.; Hiebert, R.; Fields, M. W.

    2014-12-01

    Coal is the largest fossil fuel resource in the United States. Most of this coal is deep in the subsurface making it costly and potentially dangerous to extract. However, in many of these deep coal seams, methane, the main component of natural gas, has been discovered and successfully harvested. Coal bed methane (CBM) currently accounts for approximately 7.5% of the natural gas produced in the U.S. Combustion of natural gas produces substantially less CO2 and toxic emissions (e.g. heavy metals) than combustion of coal or oil thereby making it a cleaner energy source. In the large coal seams of the Powder River Basin (PRB) in southeast Montana and northeast Wyoming, CBM is produced almost entirely by biogenic processes. The in situ conversion of coal to CBM by the native microbial community is of particular interest for present and future natural gas sources as it provides the potential to harvest energy from coal seams with lesser environmental impacts than mining and burning coal. Research at Montana State University has shown the potential for enhancing the subsurface microbial processes that produce CBM. Long-term batch enrichments have investigated the methane enhancement potential of yeast extract as well as algal and cyanobacterial biomass additions with increased methane production observed with all three additions when compared to no addition. Future work includes quantification of CBM enhancement and normalization of additions. This presentation addresses the options thus far investigated for increasing CBM production and the next steps for developing the enhanced in situ conversion of coal to CBM.

  2. Monitoring of biogenic amines in cheeses manufactured at small-scale farms and in fermented dairy products in the Czech Republic.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Buňková, Leona; Adamcová, Gabriela; Hudcová, Kateřina; Velichová, Helena; Pachlová, Vendula; Lorencová, Eva; Buňka, František

    2013-11-01

    The aim of the study was the monitoring of six biogenic amines (histamine, tyramine, phenylethylamine, tryptamine, putrescine, and cadaverine) and two polyamines (spermidine and spermine) in 112 samples of dairy products purchased in the Czech Republic, namely in 55 cheeses made in small-scale farms and in 57 fermented dairy products. The products were tested at the end of their shelf-life period. Neither tryptamine nor phenylethylamine was detected in the monitored samples; histamine was found only in four cheese samples containing up to 25mg/kg. The contents of spermine and spermidine were low and did not exceed the values of 35 mg/kg. Significant amounts of tyramine, putrescine, and cadaverine occurred especially in cheeses produced from ewe's milk or in long-term ripened cheeses. In about 10% of the tested cheeses, the total concentration of all the monitored biogenic amines and polyamines exceeded the level of 200mg/kg, which can be considered toxicologically significant. In fermented dairy products, the tested biogenic amines occurred in relatively low amounts (generally up to 30 mg/kg) that are regarded safe for the consumer's health. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  3. A comparison between acoustic properties and heat effects in biogenic (magnetosomes) and abiotic magnetite nanoparticle suspensions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Józefczak, A.; Leszczyński, B.; Skumiel, A.; Hornowski, T.

    2016-01-01

    Magnetic nanoparticles show unique properties and find many applications because of the possibility to control their properties using magnetic field. Magnetic nanoparticles are usually synthesized chemically and modification of the particle surface is necessary. Another source of magnetic nanoparticles are various magnetotactic bacteria. These biogenic nanoparticles (magnetosomes) represent an attractive alternative to chemically synthesized iron oxide particles because of their unique characteristics and a high potential for biotechnological and biomedical applications. This work presents a comparison between acoustic properties of biogenic and abiotic magnetite nanoparticle suspensions. Experimental studies have shown the influence of a biological membrane on the ultrasound properties of magnetosomes suspension. Finally the heat effect in synthetic and biogenic magnetite nanoparticles is also discussed. The experimental study shows that magnetosomes present good heating efficiency. - Highlights: • A biogenic and abiotic magnetite nanoparticle suspensions are investigated. • A comparison between ultrasonic properties and heat effects is presented. • Magnetosomes and abiotic magnetite nanoparticles exhibit good heating efficiency.

  4. Biogenic silica in tidal freshwater marsh sediments and vegetation (Schelde estuary, Belgium)

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Struyf, E.; van Damme, S.; Gribsholt, B.; Middelburg, J.J.; Meire, P.

    2005-01-01

    To date, estuarine ecosystem research has mostly neglected silica cycling in freshwater intertidal marshes. However, tidal marshes can store large amounts of biogenic silica (BSi) in vegetation and sediment. BSi content of the typical freshwater marsh plants Phragmites australis, Impatiens

  5. Biogenic hardparts: Difficult archives of the geological past (Invited)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Immenhauser, A.; Schone, B. R.; Hoffmann, R.; Niedermayr, A.

    2013-12-01

    Biomineralized exo- or endoskeletons of fossil marine invertebrates are widespread and diverse components of the Phanerozoic rock record of Earth's past and present oceans. Exoskeletons serve as protection against environmental pressure or predators, whilst endoskeletons can act as support or serve as an attachment for muscles and ligaments and hence as a mechanism for transmitting muscular forces. Biogenic hard parts represent sophisticated products resulting from the hierarchical interaction of inorganic minerals (95%) and macromolecular organic matrices, forming commonly less than 5%. The significance of many biogenic carbonate archives lies in the time-resolved growth patterns and their ability to record ambient environmental conditions in the form of multiple geochemical properties (multi-proxy archives) that have been widely used to assess past oceanic seawater properties. Here, we compile and review published work dealing with crystallization pathways of skeletal hard parts secreted by mollusks (i.e., bivalves and cephalopods) as well as brachiopods as widely used archives of ancient neritic epeiric settings. Bivalves and cephalopods (e.g., extinct ammonoids and belemnites and extant Sepia, Nautilus and Spirula) all form accretionary calcitic, aragonitic or vateritic skeletal hard parts. Despite the fact that mollusks and brachiopods form part of very different branches of the animal phylogenetic tree, their biomineralization strategies are surprisingly similar. Our main focus lies in a critical assessment of the complex pathways of ions and aquo-complexes from their source (seawater) to the final product (biomineral). We do this as an attempt to critically test the commonly held hypothesis that many fossil hard parts precipitated (under favorable conditions and pending subsequent diagenetic alteration) in equilibrium with seawater. Two main observations stand out: (1) the present knowledge on pathways and mechanisms (e.g., ion channel trans-membrane or

  6. Analysis of Biogenic Amines by GC/FID and GC/MS

    OpenAIRE

    Nakovich, Laura

    2003-01-01

    Low levels of biogenic amines occur naturally, but high levels (FDA sets 50 ppm of histamine in fish as the maximum allowable level) can lead to scombroid poisoning. Amines in general are difficult to analyze by Gas Chromatography (GC) due to their lack of volatility and their interaction with the GC column, often leading to significant tailing and poor reproducibility. Biogenic amines need to be derivatized before both GC and HPLC analyses. The objective of this research was to devel...

  7. Global comparison reveals biogenic weathering as driven by nutrient limitation at ecosystem scale

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boy, Jens; Godoy, Roberto; Dechene, Annika; Shibistova, Olga; Amir, Hamid; Iskandar, Issi; Fogliano, Bruno; Boy, Diana; McCulloch, Robert; Andrino, Alberto; Gschwendtner, Silvia; Marin, Cesar; Sauheitl, Leopold; Dultz, Stefan; Mikutta, Robert; Guggenberger, Georg

    2017-04-01

    A substantial contribution of biogenic weathering in ecosystem nutrition, especially by symbiotic microorganisms, has often been proposed, but large-scale in vivo studies are still missing. Here we compare a set of ecosystems spanning from the Antarctic to tropical forests for their potential biogenic weathering and its drivers. To address biogenic weathering rates, we installed mineral mesocosms only accessible for bacteria and fungi for up to 4 years, which contained freshly broken and defined nutrient-baring minerals in soil A horizons of ecosystems along a gradient of soil development differing in climate and plant species communities. Alterations of the buried minerals were analyzed by grid-intersection, confocal lascer scanning microscopy, energy-dispersive X-ray spectroscopy, and X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy on the surface and on thin sections. On selected sites, carbon fluxes were tracked by 13C labeling, and microbial community was identified by DNA sequencing. In young ecosystems (protosoils) biogenic weathering is almost absent and starts after first carbon accumulation by aeolian (later litter) inputs and is mainly performed by bacteria. With ongoing soil development and appearance of symbiotic (mycorrhized) plants, nutrient availability in soil increasingly drove biogenic weathering, and fungi became the far more important players than bacteria. We found a close relation between fungal biogenic weathering and available potassium across all 16 forested sites in the study, regardless of the dominant mycorrhiza type (AM or EM), climate, and plant-species composition. We conclude that nutrient limitations at ecosystem scale are generally counteracted by adapted fungal biogenic weathering. The close relation between fungal weathering and plant-available nutrients over a large range of severely contrasting ecosystems points towards a direct energetic support of these weathering processes by the photoautotrophic community, making biogenic weathering a

  8. Contribution of flowering trees to urban atmospheric biogenic volatile organic compound emissions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baghi, R.; Helmig, D.; Guenther, A.; Duhl, T.; Daly, R.

    2012-10-01

    Emissions of biogenic volatile organic compounds (BVOC) from urban trees during and after blooming were measured during spring and early summer 2009 in Boulder, Colorado. Air samples were collected onto solid adsorbent cartridges from branch enclosures on the tree species crabapple (Malus sp.), horse chestnut (Aesculus carnea, "Ft. McNair"), honey locust (Gleditsia triacanthos, "Sunburst"), and hawthorn (Crataegus laevigata, "Pauls Scarlet"). These species constitute ~ 65% of the insect-pollinated fraction of the flowering tree canopy (excluding catkin-producing trees) from the street area managed by the City of Boulder. Samples were analyzed for C10-C15 BVOC by thermal desorption and gas chromatography coupled to a flame ionization detector and a mass spectrometer (GC/FID/MS). Identified emissions and emission rates from these four tree species during the flowering phase were found to vary over a wide range. Monoterpene emissions were identified for honey locust, horse chestnut and hawthorn. Sesquiterpene emissions were observed in horse chestnut and hawthorn samples. Crabapple flowers were found to emit significant amounts of benzyl alcohol and benzaldehyde. Floral BVOC emissions increased with temperature, generally exhibiting exponential temperature dependence. Changes in BVOC speciation during and after the flowering period were observed for every tree studied. Emission rates were significantly higher during the blooming compared to the post-blooming state for crabapple and honey locust. The results were scaled to the dry mass of leaves and flowers contained in the enclosure. Only flower dry mass was accounted for crabapple emission rates as leaves appeared at the end of the flowering period. Total normalized (30 °C) monoterpene emissions from honey locust were higher during flowering (5.3 μgC g-1 h-1) than after flowering (1.2 μgC g-1 h-1). The total normalized BVOC emission rate from crabapple (93 μgC g-1 h-1) during the flowering period is of the same

  9. Humidity-dependent phase state of SOA particles from biogenic and anthropogenic precursors

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    E. Saukko

    2012-08-01

    Full Text Available The physical phase state (solid, semi-solid, or liquid of secondary organic aerosol (SOA particles has important implications for a number of atmospheric processes. We report the phase state of SOA particles spanning a wide range of oxygen to carbon ratios (O / C, used here as a surrogate for SOA oxidation level, produced in a flow tube reactor by photo-oxidation of various atmospherically relevant surrogate anthropogenic and biogenic volatile organic compounds (VOCs. The phase state of laboratory-generated SOA was determined by the particle bounce behavior after inertial impaction on a polished steel substrate. The measured bounce fraction was evaluated as a function of relative humidity and SOA oxidation level (O / C measured by an Aerodyne high resolution time of flight aerosol mass spectrometer (HR-ToF AMS.

    The main findings of the study are: (1 biogenic and anthropogenic SOA particles are found to be amorphous solid or semi-solid based on the measured bounced fraction (BF, which was typically higher than 0.6 on a 0 to 1 scale. A decrease in the BF is observed for most systems after the SOA is exposed to relative humidity of at least 80% RH, corresponding to a RH at impaction of 55%. (2 Long-chain alkanes have a low BF (indicating a "liquid-like", less viscous phase particles at low oxidation levels (BF < 0.2 ± 0.05 for O / C = 0.1. However, BF increases substantially upon increasing oxidation. (3 Increasing the concentration of sulphuric acid (H2SO4 in solid SOA particles (here tested for longifolene SOA causes a decrease in BF levels. (4 In the majority of cases the bounce behavior of the various SOA systems did not show correlation with the particle O / C. Rather, the molar mass of the gas-phase VOC precursor showed a positive correlation with the resistance to the RH-induced phase change of the formed SOA particles.

  10. Cation Effects on the Layer Structure of Biogenic Mn-Oxides

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zhu, M.; Ginder-Vogel, M; Parikh, S; Feng, X; Sparks, D

    2010-01-01

    Biologically catalyzed Mn(II) oxidation produces biogenic Mn-oxides (BioMnO{sub x}) and may serve as one of the major formation pathways for layered Mn-oxides in soils and sediments. The structure of Mn octahedral layers in layered Mn-oxides controls its metal sequestration properties, photochemistry, oxidizing ability, and topotactic transformation to tunneled structures. This study investigates the impacts of cations (H{sup +}, Ni(II), Na{sup +}, and Ca{sup 2+}) during biotic Mn(II) oxidation on the structure of Mn octahedral layers of BioMnO{sub x} using solution chemistry and synchrotron X-ray techniques. Results demonstrate that Mn octahedral layer symmetry and composition are sensitive to previous cations during BioMnO{sub x} formation. Specifically, H{sup +} and Ni(II) enhance vacant site formation, whereas Na{sup +} and Ca{sup 2+} favor formation of Mn(III) and its ordered distribution in Mn octahedral layers. This study emphasizes the importance of the abiotic reaction between Mn(II) and BioMnO{sub x} and dependence of the crystal structure of BioMnO{sub x} on solution chemistry.

  11. Using Biogenic Sulfur Gases as Remotely Detectable Biosignatures on Anoxic Planets

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meadows, Victoria S.; Claire, Mark W.; Kasting, James F.

    2011-01-01

    Abstract We used one-dimensional photochemical and radiative transfer models to study the potential of organic sulfur compounds (CS2, OCS, CH3SH, CH3SCH3, and CH3S2CH3) to act as remotely detectable biosignatures in anoxic exoplanetary atmospheres. Concentrations of organic sulfur gases were predicted for various biogenic sulfur fluxes into anoxic atmospheres and were found to increase with decreasing UV fluxes. Dimethyl sulfide (CH3SCH3, or DMS) and dimethyl disulfide (CH3S2CH3, or DMDS) concentrations could increase to remotely detectable levels, but only in cases of extremely low UV fluxes, which may occur in the habitable zone of an inactive M dwarf. The most detectable feature of organic sulfur gases is an indirect one that results from an increase in ethane (C2H6) over that which would be predicted based on the planet's methane (CH4) concentration. Thus, a characterization mission could detect these organic sulfur gases—and therefore the life that produces them—if it could sufficiently quantify the ethane and methane in the exoplanet's atmosphere. Key Words: Exoplanets—Biosignatures—Anoxic atmospheres—Planetary atmospheres—Remote life detection—Photochemistry. Astrobiology 11, 419–441. PMID:21663401

  12. The influences of fish infusion broth on the biogenic amines formation by lactic acid bacteria

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Esmeray Küley

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available The influences of fish infusion decarboxylase broth (IDB on biogenic amines (BA formation by lactic acid bacteria (LAB were investigated. BA productions by single LAB strains were tested in five different fish (anchovy, mackerel, white shark, sardine and gilthead seabream IDB. The result of the study showed that significant differences in ammonia (AMN and BA production were observed among the LAB strains in fish IDB (p < 0.05. The highest AMN and TMA production by LAB strains were observed for white shark IDB. The all tested bacteria had decarboxylation activity in fish IDB. The uppermost accumulated amines by LAB strains were tyramine (TYM, dopamine, serotonin and spermidine. The maximum histamine production was observed in sardine (101.69 mg/L and mackerel (100.84 mg/L IDB by Leuconostoc mesenteroides subsp. cremoris and Pediococcus acidophilus, respectively. Lactobacillus delbrueckii subsp. lactis and Pediococcus acidophilus had a high TYM producing capability (2943 mg/L and 1157 mg/L in sardine IDB.

  13. Transglutaminase-catalyzed amination of pea protein peptides using the biogenic amines histamine and tyramine.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lu, Xinyao; Hrynets, Yuliya; Betti, Mirko

    2017-06-01

    Biogenic amines (BAs) are produced by the enzymatic decarboxylation of amino acids, and are well-known for their toxicity to humans. This study describes a new method using microbial transglutaminase (MTGase) to covalently link BAs such as histamine (HIS) and tyramine (TYR) to the glutamine residues of alcalase-hydrolyzed pea protein (PPH). The incubation of PPH and HIS and TYR in the presence of MTGase at 37 °C led to the formation of conjugates, as determined by liquid chromatography, after derivatization with dansyl chloride. Seventy-six % of HIS and 65% of TYR were covalently incorporated to PPH by MTGase. The incubation of PPH and TYR in the presence of MTGase exhibited a 52% DPPH radical scavenging activity at 10 mg mL -1 . Conjugation via MTGase improved the antioxidant status by reducing lipid peroxidation. This study emphasizes that the application of MTGase can effectively reduce histamine and tyramine content while simultaneously enhancing antioxidative capacity of PPH. © 2016 Society of Chemical Industry. © 2016 Society of Chemical Industry.

  14. The effects of fire on biogenic emissions of methane and nitric oxide from wetlands

    Science.gov (United States)

    Levine, Joel S.; Cofer, Wesley R., III; Sebacher, Daniel I.; Rhinehart, Robert P.; Winstead, Edward L.; Sebacher, Shirley; Hinkle, C. Ross; Schmalzer, Paul A.; Koller, Albert M., Jr.

    1990-01-01

    Enhanced emissions of methane (CH4) and nitric oxide (NO) were measured following three controlled burns in a Florida wetlands in 1987 and 1988. Wetlands are the major global source of methane resulting from metabolic activity of methanogenic bacteria. Methanogens require carbon dioxide, acetate, or formate for their growth and the metabolic production of methane. All three water-soluble compounds are produced in large concentrations during biomass burning. Postfire methane emissions exceeded 0.15 g CH 4/sq m per day. Preburn and postburn measurements of soil nutrients indicate significant postburn increases in soil ammonium, from 8.35 to 13.49 parts per million (ppm) in the upper 5 cm of the Juncus marsh and from 8.83 to 23.75 ppm in the upper 5 cm of the Spartina marsh. Soil nitrate concentrations were found to decrease in both marshes after the fire. These measurements indicate that the combustion products of biomass burning exert an important 'fertilizing' effect on the biosphere and on the biogenic production of environmentally significant atmospheric gases.

  15. Vitis vinifera juice ameliorates depression-like behavior in mice by modulating biogenic amine neurotransmitters

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Muhammad Aslam

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available The advantageous effects of Vitis vinifera juice on depressive model mice were examined utilizing a blend of behavioral evaluations and biogenic amine neurotransmitter estimations. During the behavioral evaluations, immobility time on the forced swimming test and tail suspension test were measured in unstressed and immobilization-induced stressed mice. V. vinifera juice (4 mL/kg and 8 mL/kg and fluoxetine (20 mg/kg produced a significant decrease in immobility time of both unstressed and stressed mice when compared with their respective saline-treated control groups in both paradigms. Neurotransmitters were measured using high-performance liquid chromatography with electrochemical detector. V. vinifera juice raised the levels of both serotonin (p<0.001 and noradrenalin (p<0.001 in brain tissue. These outcomes give significant mechanistic insights into the protective effect of V. vinifera juice against depressive disorders. Our results showed that V. vinifera juice could relieve depressive manifestations in the rodent model of depression.

  16. Using biogenic sulfur gases as remotely detectable biosignatures on anoxic planets.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Domagal-Goldman, Shawn D; Meadows, Victoria S; Claire, Mark W; Kasting, James F

    2011-06-01

    We used one-dimensional photochemical and radiative transfer models to study the potential of organic sulfur compounds (CS(2), OCS, CH(3)SH, CH(3)SCH(3), and CH(3)S(2)CH(3)) to act as remotely detectable biosignatures in anoxic exoplanetary atmospheres. Concentrations of organic sulfur gases were predicted for various biogenic sulfur fluxes into anoxic atmospheres and were found to increase with decreasing UV fluxes. Dimethyl sulfide (CH(3)SCH(3), or DMS) and dimethyl disulfide (CH(3)S(2)CH(3), or DMDS) concentrations could increase to remotely detectable levels, but only in cases of extremely low UV fluxes, which may occur in the habitable zone of an inactive M dwarf. The most detectable feature of organic sulfur gases is an indirect one that results from an increase in ethane (C(2)H(6)) over that which would be predicted based on the planet's methane (CH(4)) concentration. Thus, a characterization mission could detect these organic sulfur gases-and therefore the life that produces them-if it could sufficiently quantify the ethane and methane in the exoplanet's atmosphere.

  17. Analysis of the Global Warming Potential of Biogenic CO2 Emission in Life Cycle Assessments.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Weiguo; Zhang, Zhonghui; Xie, Xinfeng; Yu, Zhen; von Gadow, Klaus; Xu, Junming; Zhao, Shanshan; Yang, Yuchun

    2017-01-03

    Biomass is generally believed to be carbon neutral. However, recent studies have challenged the carbon neutrality hypothesis by introducing metric indicators to assess the global warming potential of biogenic CO 2 (GWP bio ). In this study we calculated the GWP bio factors using a forest growth model and radiative forcing effects with a time horizon of 100 years and applied the factors to five life cycle assessment (LCA) case studies of bioproducts. The forest carbon change was also accounted for in the LCA studies. GWP bio factors ranged from 0.13-0.32, indicating that biomass could be an attractive energy resource when compared with fossil fuels. As expected, short rotation and fast-growing biomass plantations produced low GWP bio . Long-lived wood products also allowed more regrowth of biomass to be accounted as absorption of the CO 2 emission from biomass combustion. The LCA case studies showed that the total life cycle GHG emissions were closely related to GWP bio and energy conversion efficiency. By considering the GWP bio factors and the forest carbon change, the production of ethanol and bio-power appeared to have higher GHG emissions than petroleum-derived diesel at the highest GWP bio .

  18. Analysis of the Global Warming Potential of Biogenic CO2 Emission in Life Cycle Assessments

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Weiguo; Zhang, Zhonghui; Xie, Xinfeng; Yu, Zhen; von Gadow, Klaus; Xu, Junming; Zhao, Shanshan; Yang, Yuchun

    2017-01-01

    Biomass is generally believed to be carbon neutral. However, recent studies have challenged the carbon neutrality hypothesis by introducing metric indicators to assess the global warming potential of biogenic CO2 (GWPbio). In this study we calculated the GWPbio factors using a forest growth model and radiative forcing effects with a time horizon of 100 years and applied the factors to five life cycle assessment (LCA) case studies of bioproducts. The forest carbon change was also accounted for in the LCA studies. GWPbio factors ranged from 0.13–0.32, indicating that biomass could be an attractive energy resource when compared with fossil fuels. As expected, short rotation and fast-growing biomass plantations produced low GWPbio. Long-lived wood products also allowed more regrowth of biomass to be accounted as absorption of the CO2 emission from biomass combustion. The LCA case studies showed that the total life cycle GHG emissions were closely related to GWPbio and energy conversion efficiency. By considering the GWPbio factors and the forest carbon change, the production of ethanol and bio-power appeared to have higher GHG emissions than petroleum-derived diesel at the highest GWPbio. PMID:28045111

  19. [Development of biogenic VOC emissions inventory with high temporal and spatial resolution].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hu, Y; Zhang, Y; Xie, S; Zeng, L

    2001-11-01

    A new method was developed to estimate biogenic VOC emissions with high temporal and spatial resolution by use of Mesoscale Meteorology Modeling System Version5 (MM5). In this method, the isoprene and monoterpene standard emission factors for some types of tree in China were given and the standard VOC emission factors and seasonally average densities of leaf biomass for all types of vegetation were determined. A biogenic VOC emissions inventory in South China was established which could meet the requirement of regional air quality modeling. Total biogenic VOC emissions in a typical summer day were estimated to be 1.12 x 10(4) metric tons in an area of 729 km x 729 km of South China. The results showed the temporal and spatial distributions of biogenic VOC emission rates in this area. The results also showed that the geographical distribution of biogenic VOC emission rates depended on vegetation types and their distributions and the diurnal variation mainly depended on the solar radiation and temperature. The uncertainties of estimating biogenic VOC emissions were also discussed.

  20. Operation of marine diesel engines on biogenic fuels: modification of emissions and resulting climate effects.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Petzold, Andreas; Lauer, Peter; Fritsche, Uwe; Hasselbach, Jan; Lichtenstern, Michael; Schlager, Hans; Fleischer, Fritz

    2011-12-15

    The modification of emissions of climate-sensitive exhaust compounds such as CO(2), NO(x), hydrocarbons, and particulate matter from medium-speed marine diesel engines was studied for a set of fossil and biogenic fuels. Applied fossil fuels were the reference heavy fuel oil (HFO) and the low-sulfur marine gas oil (MGO); biogenic fuels were palm oil, soybean oil, sunflower oil, and animal fat. Greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions related to the production of biogenic fuels were treated by means of a fuel life cycle analysis which included land use changes associated with the growth of energy plants. Emissions of CO(2) and NO(x) per kWh were found to be similar for fossil fuels and biogenic fuels. PM mass emission was reduced to 10-15% of HFO emissions for all low-sulfur fuels including MGO as a fossil fuel. Black carbon emissions were reduced significantly to 13-30% of HFO. Changes in emissions were predominantly related to particulate sulfate, while differences between low-sulfur fossil fuels and low-sulfur biogenic fuels were of minor significance. GHG emissions from the biogenic fuel life cycle (FLC) depend crucially on energy plant production conditions and have the potential of shifting the overall GHG budget from positive to negative compared to fossil fuels.

  1. Biogenic amines in the meat of hunted pheasant and hare during the course of storage

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zdeňka Hutařová

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Venison is becoming more and more interesting for consumers. Although treatment procedures of hunted game differ from slaughtered livestock, the hygienic quality of game meat must still be ensured. Potential indicators of meat hygienic quality include the content of biogenic amines. The aim of the present study was to assess the content and changes of biogenic amines in the muscles of selected kinds of small game (common pheasant and brown hare during storage, and based on the obtained results, to assess the hygienic quality of the meat. Biogenic amines (putrescine, cadaverine, histamine, tyramine, phenylethylamine, and tryptamine in the breast and thigh muscles separated by reverse phase liquid chromatography and consequently were detected using tandem mass spectrometry. Based on the determined content of biogenic amines, both pheasant and hare meats complied with values of high quality meat. The sum of biogenic amines did not exceed the value of 5 mg/kg after 7 days at 0 °C or 7 °C in pheasant meat, and after 21 days at 0 °C or after 14 days at 7 °C in brown hare meat. The biogenic amine content and the speed of their formation in venison can be very helpful for the evaluation of both meat hygienic quality and safety of these foods during storage.

  2. Characterization of a large biogenic secondary organic aerosol event from eastern Canadian forests

    Science.gov (United States)

    Slowik, J. G.; Stroud, C.; Bottenheim, J. W.; Brickell, P. C.; Chang, R. Y.-W.; Liggio, J.; Makar, P. A.; Martin, R. V.; Moran, M. D.; Shantz, N. C.; Sjostedt, S. J.; van Donkelaar, A.; Vlasenko, A.; Wiebe, H. A.; Xia, A. G.; Zhang, J.; Leaitch, W. R.; Abbatt, J. P. D.

    2010-03-01

    Measurements of aerosol composition, volatile organic compounds, and CO are used to determine biogenic secondary organic aerosol (SOA) concentrations at a rural site 70 km north of Toronto. These biogenic SOA levels are many times higher than past observations and occur during a period of increasing temperatures and outflow from Northern Ontario and Quebec forests in early summer. A regional chemical transport model approximately predicts the event timing and accurately predicts the aerosol loading, identifying the precursors as monoterpene emissions from the coniferous forest. The agreement between the measured and modeled biogenic aerosol concentrations contrasts with model underpredictions for polluted regions. Correlations of the oxygenated organic aerosol mass with tracers such as CO support a secondary aerosol source and distinguish biogenic, pollution, and biomass burning periods during the field campaign. Using the Master Chemical Mechanism, it is shown that the levels of CO observed during the biogenic event are consistent with a photochemical source arising from monoterpene oxidation. The biogenic aerosol mass correlates with satellite measurements of regional aerosol optical depth, indicating that the event extends across the eastern Canadian forest. This regional event correlates with increased temperatures, indicating that temperature-dependent forest emissions can significantly affect climate through enhanced direct optical scattering and higher cloud condensation nuclei numbers.

  3. XENOBIOTICS AND BIOGENIC ELEMENTS IN RAW COW'S MILK

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Agnieszka Greń

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available Normal 0 21 false false false SK X-NONE X-NONE This paper presents the concentration some toxic and biogenic elements in milk from Nitra region. The aim of this investigation was to evaluate 30 samples of raw milk with fat contents 3.8% obtained from milk machine in the Nitra region. Samples were analyzed for metal contents using atomic absorption spectrophotometry (AAS. In comparison with maximum acceptable concentration for milk in the food codex of the Slovak republic, the level of contamination with cadmium was exceeded and reached the value 0.221 µg.ml-1. The copper content ranged from 1.201 µg.ml-1 to 5.810 µg.ml-1 and the average concentration reached 3.793 µg.ml-1.  Iron had an average of 1.824 µg.ml-1. Overall in all milk samples high correlations were found. Between positive correlation (0.7019 and negative correlation between of nickel and potassium concentration in raw milk (-0.72 was found. doi:10.5219/246

  4. Analysis of irradiated biogenic amines by computational chemistry and spectroscopy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Oliveira, Jorge L.S.P.; Borges Junior, Itamar; Cardozo, Monique; Souza, Stefania P.; Lima, Antonio L.S.; Lima, Keila S.C.

    2011-01-01

    Biogenic Amines (B A) are nitrogenous compounds able to cause food poisoning. In this work, we studied the tyramine, one of the most common BA present in foods by combining experimental measured IR (Infrared) and GC/MS (Gas Chromatograph / Mass Spectrometry) spectra and computational quantum chemistry. Density Functional Theory (DFT) and the Deformed Atoms in Molecules (DMA) method was used to compute the partition the electronic densities in a chemically-intuitive way and electrostatic potentials of molecule to identify the acid and basic sites. Trading pattern was irradiated using a Cs 137 radiator, and each sample was identified by IR and GC/MS. Calculated and experimental IR spectra were compared. We observed that ionizing gamma irradiation was very effective in decreasing the population of standard amine, resulting in fragments that could be rationalized through the quantum chemistry calculations. In particular, we could locate the acid and basic sites of both molecules and identify possible sites of structural weaknesses, which allowed to propose mechanistic schemes for the breaking of chemical bonds by the irradiation. Moreover, from this work we hope it will be also possible to properly choose the dose of gamma irradiation which should be provided to eliminate each type of contamination. (author)

  5. Emissions of biogenic sulfur gases from Alaskan tundra

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hines, Mark E.; Morrison, Michael C.

    1992-01-01

    Results of sulfur emission measurements made in freshwater and marine wetlands in Alaskan tundra during the Arctic Boundary Layer Expedition 2A (ABLE 3A) in July 1988 are presented. The data indicate that this type of tundra emits very small amounts of gaseous sulfur and, when extrapolated globally, accounts for a very small percentage of the global flux of biogenic sulfur to the atmosphere. Sulfur emissions from marine sites are up to 20-fold greater than fluxes from freshwater habitats and are dominated by dimethyl sulfide (DMS). Highest emissions, with a mean of 6.0 nmol/sq m/h, occurred in water-saturated wet meadow areas. In drier upland tundra sites, highest fluxes occurred in areas inhabited by mixed vegetation and labrador tea at 3.0 nmol/sq m/h and lowest fluxes were from lichen-dominated areas at 0.9 nmol/sq m/h. DMS was the dominant gas emitted from all these sites. Emissions of DMS were highest from intertidal soils inhabited by Carex subspathacea.

  6. PTR-MS in environmental research: biogenic VOCs

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Beauchamp, J.; Grabmer, W.; Graus, M.; Wisthaler, A.; Hansel, A.

    2004-01-01

    Proton-transfer-reaction mass spectrometry (PTR-MS) is a chemical ionization mass spectrometry technique that allows for on-line measurements of volatile organic compounds (VOCs) at pptV levels. This well established analytical tool has been used in a broad variety of research, including the investigation of VOCs in various foods (e.g. for quality control or food degradation studies), as well as being used as a tool for non-invasive medical diagnostics (e.g. human breath analysis). In addition to these fields of study, PTR-MS has been widely used in environmental research, from trace gas analysis in the troposphere to VOC emissions from plants. Participation in two field campaigns (BEWA and ECHO - both part of the German AFO 2000 program) by the Institute of Ion Physics involved a variety of investigations for monitoring biogenic emissions. These included the technique of disjunct eddy covariance for flux measurements above a forest canopy, C-13 carbon labelling experiments to follow carbon use in a plant, and stress-induced VOC emission investigations to gain understanding of how plants react to stress (e.g. ozone exposure). A selection of results from these investigations will be discussed in this presentation. (author)

  7. Photochemistry of biogenic emissions over the Amazon forest

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jacob, Daniel J.; Wofsy, Steven C.

    1988-01-01

    The boundary layer chemistry over the Amazon forest during the dry season is simulated with a photochemical model. Results are in good agreement with measurements of isoprene, NO, ozone, and organic acids. Photochemical reactions of biogenic isoprene and NOx can supply most of the ozone observed in the boundary layer. Production of ozone is very sensitive to the availability of NOx, but is insensitive to the isoprene source strength. High concentrations of total odd nitrogen (NOy) are predicted for the planetary boundary layer, about 1 ppb in the mixed layer and 0.75 ppb in the convective cloud layer. Most of the odd nitrogen is present as PAN-type species, which are removed by dry deposition to the forest. The observed daytime variations of isoprene are explained by a strong dependence of the isoprene emission flux on sun angle. Nighttime losses of isoprene exceed rates of reaction with NO3 and O3 and appear to reflect dry-deposition processes. The 24-hour averaged isoprene emission flux is calculated to be 38 mg/sq m per day. Photooxidation of isoprene could account for a large fraction of the CO enrichment observed in the boundary layer under unpolluted conditions and could constitute an important atmospheric source of formic acid, methacrylic acid, and pyruvic acid.

  8. HOx Radical Behavior in Urban, Biogenic and Mixed Environments

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cantrell, C. A.; Mauldin, L.; Schardt, N.; Mukherjee, A. D.

    2014-12-01

    The importance of HOx radicals in tropospheric chemistry is well-recognized. These roles include control of the lifetimes of a wide variety of trace gases, and control of photochemical ozone formation. The continued advance in understanding comes from laboratory investigations and field observations especially as part of comprehensive measurement campaigns. We participated in two recent observational campaigns aboard the NSF/NCAR C-130 aircraft platform: NOMADSS (Nitrogen, Oxidants, Mercury and Aerosol Distributions, Sources and Sinks) and FRAPPE (Front Range Atmospheric Pollution and Photochemistry Experiment). During these studies, a wide varieties of air masses were sampled ranging from fresh urban to rural both without and without biogenic influence to marine, and including the impacts of emissions from oil and gas extraction and animal production. Among the wide variety of parameters and species related to tropospheric chemistry that were measured, our group made observations of HOx and related species: OH, HO2, HO2+RO2, H2SO4, and stabilized Criegee intermediates (sCIs) using selected ion chemical ionization mass spectrometry. The paper discusses the functional dependence of these species on other measures of the chemical environment (e.g. NO, VOCs, j-values) as well as comparison of model estimates with the observations.

  9. Concentration of floating biogenic material in convergence zones

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dandonneau, Yves; Menkes, Christophe; Duteil, Olaf; Gorgues, Thomas

    Some organisms that live just below the sea surface (the neuston) are known more as a matter of curiosity than as critical players in biogeochemical cycles. The hypothesis of this work is that their existence implies that they receive some food from an upward flux of organic matter. The behaviour of these organisms and of the associated organic matter, hereafter mentioned as floating biogenic material (FBM) is explored using a global physical-biogeochemical coupled model, in which its generation is fixed to 1% of primary production, and decay rate is of the order of 1 month. The model shows that the distribution of FBM should depart rapidly from that of primary production, and be more sensitive to circulation patterns than to the distribution of primary production. It is trapped in convergence areas, where it reaches concentrations larger by a factor 10 than in divergences, thus enhancing and inverting the contrast between high and low primary productivity areas. Attention is called on the need to better understand the biogeochemical processes in the first meter of the ocean, as they may impact the distribution of food for fishes, as well as the conditions for air-sea exchange and for the interpretation of sea color.

  10. Biogenic volatile organic compound emissions from vegetation fires.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ciccioli, Paolo; Centritto, Mauro; Loreto, Francesco

    2014-08-01

    The aim of this paper was to provide an overview of the current state of the art on research into the emission of biogenic volatile organic compounds (BVOCs) from vegetation fires. Significant amounts of VOCs are emitted from vegetation fires, including several reactive compounds, the majority belonging to the isoprenoid family, which rapidly disappear in the plume to yield pollutants such as secondary organic aerosol and ozone. This makes determination of fire-induced BVOC emission difficult, particularly in areas where the ratio between VOCs and anthropogenic NOx is favourable to the production of ozone, such as Mediterranean areas and highly anthropic temperate (and fire-prone) regions of the Earth. Fire emissions affecting relatively pristine areas, such as the Amazon and the African savannah, are representative of emissions of undisturbed plant communities. We also examined expected BVOC emissions at different stages of fire development and combustion, from drying to flaming, and from heatwaves coming into contact with unburned vegetation at the edge of fires. We conclude that forest fires may dramatically change emission factors and the profile of emitted BVOCs, thereby influencing the chemistry and physics of the atmosphere, the physiology of plants and the evolution of plant communities within the ecosystem. © 2014 The Authors. Plant, Cell & Environment published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  11. A marine biogenic source of atmospheric ice-nucleating particles

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wilson, T. W.; Ladino, L. A.; Alpert, Peter A.; Breckels, M. N.; Brooks, I. M.; Browse, J.; Burrows, Susannah M.; Carslaw, K. S.; Huffman, J. A.; Judd, C.; Kilthau, W. P.; Mason, R. H.; McFiggans, Gordon; Miller, L. A.; Najera, J.; Polishchuk, E. A.; Rae, S.; Schiller, C. L.; Si, M.; Vergara Temprado, J.; Whale, Thomas; Wong, J P S; Wurl, O.; Yakobi-Hancock, J. D.; Abbatt, JPD; Aller, Josephine Y.; Bertram, Allan K.; Knopf, Daniel A.; Murray, Benjamin J.

    2015-09-09

    The formation of ice in clouds is facilitated by the presence of airborne ice nucleating particles1,2. Sea spray is one of the major global sources of atmospheric particles, but it is unclear to what extent these particles are capable of nucleating ice3–11. Here we show that material in the sea surface microlayer, which is enriched in surface active organic material representative of that found in sub-micron sea- spray aerosol12–21, nucleates ice under conditions that occur in mixed-phase clouds and high-altitude ice clouds. The ice active material is likely biogenic and is less than ~0.2 ?m in size. We also show that organic material (exudate) released by a common marine diatom nucleates ice when separated from cells and propose that organic material associated with phytoplankton cell exudates are a candidate for the observed ice nucleating ability of the microlayer samples. By combining our measurements with global model simulations of marine organic aerosol, we show that ice nucleating particles of marine origin are dominant in remote marine environments, such as the Southern Ocean, the North Pacific and the North Atlantic.

  12. Leishmanicidal Activity of Biogenic Fe3O4 Nanoparticles

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mehrdad Khatami

    2017-11-01

    Full Text Available Abstract: Due to the multiplicity of useful applications of metal oxide nanoparticles (ONPs in medicine are growing exponentially, in this study, Fe3O4 (iron oxide nanoparticles (IONPs were biosynthesized using Rosemary to evaluate the leishmanicidal efficiency of green synthesized IONPs. This is the first report of the leishmanicidal efficiency of green synthesized IONPs against Leishmania major. The resulting biosynthesized IONPs were characterized by ultraviolet-visible spectroscopy (UV-Vis, X-ray diffraction (XRD, transmission electron microscopy (TEM, and Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FTIR. The leishmanicidal activity of IONPS was studied via 3-4,5-dimethylthiazol-2-yl-2,5-diphenyltetrazolium bromide (MTT assay. The results showed the fabrication of the spherical shape of monodisperse IONPs with a size 4 ± 2 nm. The UV-visible spectrophotometer absorption peak was at 334 nm. The leishmanicidal activity of biogenic iron oxide nanoparticles against Leishmania major (promastigote was also studied. The IC50 of IONPs was 350 µg/mL. In this report, IONPs were synthesized via a green method. IONPs are mainly spherical and homogeneous, with an average size of about 4 nm, and were synthesized here using an eco-friendly, simple, and inexpensive method.

  13. Addressing biogenic greenhouse gas emissions from hydropower in LCA.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hertwich, Edgar G

    2013-09-03

    The ability of hydropower to contribute to climate change mitigation is sometimes questioned, citing emissions of methane and carbon dioxide resulting from the degradation of biogenic carbon in hydropower reservoirs. These emissions are, however, not always addressed in life cycle assessment, leading to a bias in technology comparisons, and often misunderstood. The objective of this paper is to review and analyze the generation of greenhouse gas emissions from reservoirs for the purpose of technology assessment, relating established emission measurements to power generation. A literature review, data collection, and statistical analysis of methane and CO2 emissions are conducted. In a sample of 82 measurements, methane emissions per kWh hydropower generated are log-normally distributed, ranging from micrograms to 10s of kg. A multivariate regression analysis shows that the reservoir area per kWh electricity is the most important explanatory variable. Methane emissions flux per reservoir area are correlated with the natural net primary production of the area, the age of the power plant, and the inclusion of bubbling emissions in the measurement. Even together, these factors fail to explain most of the variation in the methane flux. The global average emissions from hydropower are estimated to be 85 gCO2/kWh and 3 gCH4/kWh, with a multiplicative uncertainty factor of 2. GHG emissions from hydropower can be largely avoided by ceasing to build hydropower plants with high land use per unit of electricity generated.

  14. Fungal spores overwhelm biogenic organic aerosols in a midlatitudinal forest

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    C. Zhu

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available Both primary biological aerosol particles (PBAPs and oxidation products of biogenic volatile organic compounds (BVOCs contribute significantly to organic aerosols (OAs in forested regions. However, little is known about their relative importance in diurnal timescales. Here, we report biomarkers of PBAP and secondary organic aerosols (SOAs for their diurnal variability in a temperate coniferous forest in Wakayama, Japan. Tracers of fungal spores, trehalose, arabitol and mannitol, showed significantly higher levels in nighttime than daytime (p < 0.05, resulting from the nocturnal sporulation under near-saturated relative humidity. On the contrary, BVOC oxidation products showed higher levels in daytime than nighttime, indicating substantial photochemical SOA formation. Using tracer-based methods, we estimated that fungal spores account for 45 % of organic carbon (OC in nighttime and 22 % in daytime, whereas BVOC oxidation products account for 15 and 19 %, respectively. To our knowledge, we present for the first time highly time-resolved results that fungal spores overwhelmed BVOC oxidation products in contributing to OA especially in nighttime. This study emphasizes the importance of both PBAPs and SOAs in forming forest organic aerosols.

  15. Biogenic origin of coalbed gas in the northern Gulf of Mexico Coastal Plain, U.S.A.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Warwick, Peter D.; Hackley, Paul C. [U.S. Geological Survey, 956 National Center, Reston, VA 20192 (United States); Breland, F. Clayton Jr. [Louisiana Department of Natural Resources, 617 North 3rd Street, Baton Rouge, LA 70802 (United States)

    2008-10-02

    coal gases primarily are generated in saline formation water by bacterial reduction of CO{sub 2}. Shallow (< 150 m) Wilcox coal beds containing freshwater have little or no biogenic gas. Molecular and isotopic analyses of gas samples collected from conventional gas and oil wells suggests that both biogenic and thermogenic gases are present in and adjacent to the Wilcox intervals that contain biogenic coal gases. Oil, probably sourced from thermally mature, down-structural-dip parts of the Wilcox Group, is produced from sandstones within the coal-bearing interval. Gas chromatograms of C{sub 10+} saturated hydrocarbons from Wilcox oils show a depletion of n-alkanes probably resulting from biodegradation of the oil. Isotopic composition of the gases associated with the oils is of mixed themogenic and biogenic origin (average {delta}{sup 13}C{sub CH4} = - 44.4 permille VPDB, and average {delta}D{sub CH4} = - 182.4 permille VSMOW). (author)

  16. Biogenic coal-to-methane conversion efficiency decreases after repeated organic amendment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Davis, Katherine J.; Barnhart, Elliott P.; Fields, Matthew W.; Gerlach, Robin

    2018-01-01

    Addition of organic amendments to coal-containing systems can increase the rate and extent of biogenic methane production for 60–80 days before production slows or stops. Understanding the effect of repeated amendment additions on the rate and extent of enhanced coal-dependent methane production is important if biological coal-to-methane conversion is to be enhanced on a commercial scale. Microalgal biomass was added at a concentration of 0.1 g/L to microcosms with and without coal on days 0, 76, and 117. Rates of methane production were enhanced after the initial amendment but coal-containing treatments produced successively decreasing amounts of methane with each amendment. During the first amendment period, 113% of carbon added as amendment was recovered as methane, whereas in the second and third amendment periods, 39% and 32% of carbon added as amendment was recovered as methane, respectively. Additionally, algae-amended coal treatments produced ∼38% more methane than unamended coal treatments and ∼180% more methane than amended coal-free treatments after one amendment. However, a second amendment addition resulted in only an ∼25% increase in methane production for coal versus noncoal treatments and a third amendment addition resulted in similar methane production in both coal and noncoal treatments. Successive amendment additions appeared to result in a shift from coal-to-methane conversion to amendment-to-methane conversion. The reported results indicate that a better understanding is needed of the potential impacts and efficiencies of repeated stimulation for enhanced coal-to-methane conversion.

  17. Impact of biogenic terpene emissions from Brassica napus on tropospheric ozone over Saxony (Germany): numerical investigation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Renner, Eberhard; Münzenberg, Annette

    2003-01-01

    The role of biogenic emissions in tropospheric ozone production is currently under discussion and major aspects are not well understood yet. This study aims towards the estimation of the influence of biogenic emissions on tropospheric ozone concentrations over Saxony in general and of biogenic emissions from brassica napus in special. MODELLING TOOLS: The studies are performed by utilizing a coupled numerical modelling system consisting of the meteorological model METRAS and the chemistry transport model MUSCAT. For the chemical part, the Euro-RADM algorithm is used. EMISSIONS: Anthropogenic and biogenic emissions are taken into account. The anthropogenic emissions are introduced by an emission inventory. Biogenic emissions, VOC and NO, are calculated within the chemical transport model MUSCAT at each time step and in each grid cell depending on land use type and on the temperature. The emissions of hydrocarbons from forest areas as well as biogenic NO especially from agricultural grounds are considered. Also terpene emissions from brassica napus fields are estimated. SIMULATION SETUP AND METEOROLOGICAL CONDITIONS: The simulations were performed over an area with an extension of 160 x 140 km2 which covers the main parts of Saxony and neighboring areas of Brandenburg, Sachsen-Anhalt and Thuringia. Summer smog with high ozone concentrations can be expected during high pressure conditions on hot summer days. Typical meteorological conditions for such cases were introduced in an conceptual way. It is estimated that biogenic emissions change tropospheric ozone concentrations in a noticeable way (up to 15% to 20%) and, therefore, should not be neglected in studies about tropospheric ozone. Emissions from brassica napus do have a moderate potential to enhance tropospheric ozone concentrations, but emissions are still under consideration and, therefore, results vary to a high degree. Summing up, the effect of brassica napus terpene emissions on ozone concentrations is

  18. Effect of storage conditions on the biogenic amine content in wild boar meat

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zdeňka Hutařová

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Hygienic quality of game meat depends on many factors during and after hunting. Freshness of meat is connected with the concentration of biogenic amines which is related to meat spoilage. The aim of this study was to assess changes in concentration of biogenic amines in raw meat of wild boar (n = 20, mean age 1–2 years during storage at different temperatures. Carcases of wild boars hunted in winter 2012 in hunting districts of south Moravia were stored unskinned during 21 days at various temperatures (0, 7 and 15 °C. Concentrations of biogenic amines (putrescine, cadaverine, tyramine, tryptamine, phenylethylamine, histamine, spermine and spermidine were determined in the shoulder and leg muscles by high-performance liquid chromatography in combination with triple quadrupole tandem mass spectrometry. Good hygienic quality was maintained when wild boar carcasses were stored for a maximum of 14 days at 0 °C (content of biogenic amines in 3 meat samples exceed the limit of 5 mg/kg on day 21 of storage or a maximum of 7 days at 7 °C (content of biogenic amines in 4 meat samples exceed the limit of 5 mg/kg on day 14 of storage. The temperature of 15 °C should be considered as unsuitable storage temperature if good hygienic quality of game meat during storage is to be guaranteed (content of biogenic amines in 2 meat samples exceed the limit of 5 mg/kg already on day 7 of storage. The study brings new information about the biogenic amine content and its changes in wild boar meat during the storage period of 21 days.

  19. Stable silicon isotope signatures of marine pore waters - Biogenic opal dissolution versus authigenic clay mineral formation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ehlert, Claudia; Doering, Kristin; Wallmann, Klaus; Scholz, Florian; Sommer, Stefan; Grasse, Patricia; Geilert, Sonja; Frank, Martin

    2016-10-01

    Dissolved silicon isotope compositions have been analysed for the first time in pore waters (δ30SiPW) of three short sediment cores from the Peruvian margin upwelling region with distinctly different biogenic opal content in order to investigate silicon isotope fractionation behaviour during early diagenetic turnover of biogenic opal in marine sediments. The δ30SiPW varies between +1.1‰ and +1.9‰ with the highest values occurring in the uppermost part close to the sediment-water interface. These values are of the same order or higher than the δ30Si of the biogenic opal extracted from the same sediments (+0.3‰ to +1.2‰) and of the overlying bottom waters (+1.1‰ to +1.5‰). Together with dissolved silicic acid concentrations well below biogenic opal saturation, our collective observations are consistent with the formation of authigenic alumino-silicates from the dissolving biogenic opal. Using a numerical transport-reaction model we find that approximately 24% of the dissolving biogenic opal is re-precipitated in the sediments in the form of these authigenic phases at a relatively low precipitation rate of 56 μmol Si cm-2 yr-1. The fractionation factor between the precipitates and the pore waters is estimated at -2.0‰. Dissolved and solid cation concentrations further indicate that off Peru, where biogenic opal concentrations in the sediments are high, the availability of reactive terrigenous material is the limiting factor for the formation of authigenic alumino-silicate phases.

  20. Visual discrimination transfer and modulation by biogenic amines in honeybees.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vieira, Amanda Rodrigues; Salles, Nayara; Borges, Marco; Mota, Theo

    2018-05-10

    For more than a century, visual learning and memory have been studied in the honeybee Apis mellifera using operant appetitive conditioning. Although honeybees show impressive visual learning capacities in this well-established protocol, operant training of free-flying animals cannot be combined with invasive protocols for studying the neurobiological basis of visual learning. In view of this, different attempts have been made to develop new classical conditioning protocols for studying visual learning in harnessed honeybees, though learning performance remains considerably poorer than that for free-flying animals. Here, we investigated the ability of honeybees to use visual information acquired during classical conditioning in a new operant context. We performed differential visual conditioning of the proboscis extension reflex (PER) followed by visual orientation tests in a Y-maze. Classical conditioning and Y-maze retention tests were performed using the same pair of perceptually isoluminant chromatic stimuli, to avoid the influence of phototaxis during free-flying orientation. Visual discrimination transfer was clearly observed, with pre-trained honeybees significantly orienting their flights towards the former positive conditioned stimulus (CS+), thus showing that visual memories acquired by honeybees are resistant to context changes between conditioning and the retention test. We combined this visual discrimination approach with selective pharmacological injections to evaluate the effect of dopamine and octopamine in appetitive visual learning. Both octopaminergic and dopaminergic antagonists impaired visual discrimination performance, suggesting that both these biogenic amines modulate appetitive visual learning in honeybees. Our study brings new insight into cognitive and neurobiological mechanisms underlying visual learning in honeybees. © 2018. Published by The Company of Biologists Ltd.

  1. Hyperspectral observation of anthropogenic and biogenic pollution in coastal zone

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lavrova, Olga; Loupian, Evgeny; Mityagina, Marina; Uvarov, Ivan

    The work presents results of anthropogenic and biogenic pollution detection in coastal zones of the Black and Caspian Seas based on satellite hyperspetral data provided by the Hyperion and HICO instruments. Techniques developed on the basis of the analysis of spectral characteristics calculated in special points were employed to address the following problems: (a) assessment of the blooming intensity of cyanobacteria and their distribution in bays of western Crimea and discrimination between anthropogenic pollutant discharge events and algae bloom; (b) detection of anthropogenic pollution in Crimean lakes utilized as industrial liquid discharge reservoirs; (c) detection of oil pollution in areas of shelf oil production in the Caspian Sea. Information values of different spectral bands and their composites were estimated in connection with the retrieval of the main sea water components: phytoplankton, suspended matter and colored organic matter, and also various anthropogenic pollutants, including oil. Software tools for thematic hyperspectral data processing in application to the investigation of sea coastal zones and internal water bodies were developed on the basis of the See the Sea geoportal created by the Space Research Institute RAS. The geoportal is focused on the study of processes in the world ocean with the emphasis on the advantages of satellite systems of observation. The tools that were introduced into the portal allow joint analysis of quasi-simultaneous satellite data, in particular data from the Hyperion, HICO, OLI Landsat-8, ETM Landsat-7 and TM Landsat-5 instruments. Results of analysis attempts combining data from different sensors are discussed. Their strong and weak points are highlighted. The study was completed with partial financial support from The Russian Foundation for Basic Research grants # 14-05-00520-a and 13-07-12017.

  2. The impact of biogenic VOC emissions on photochemical ozone formation during a high ozone pollution episode in the Iberian Peninsula in the 2003 summer season

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    N. Castell

    2008-04-01

    Full Text Available Throughout Europe the summer of 2003 was exceptionally warm, especially July and August. The European Environment Agency (EEA reported several ozone episodes, mainly in the first half of August. These episodes were exceptionally long-lasting, spatially extensive, and associated to high temperatures. In this paper, the 10$ndash;15 August 2003 ozone pollution event has been analyzed using meteorological and regional air quality modelling. During this period the threshold values of the European Directive 2002/3/EC were exceeded in various areas of the Iberian Peninsula.

    The aim of this paper is to computationally understand and quantify the influence of biogenic volatile organic compound (BVOC emissions in the formation of tropospheric ozone during this high ozone episode. Being able to differentiate how much ozone comes from biogenic emissions alone and how much comes from the interaction between anthropogenic and biogenic emissions would be helpful to develop a feasible and effective ozone control strategy. The impact on ozone formation was also studied in combination with various anthropogenic emission reduction strategies, i.e., when anthropogenic VOC emissions and/or NOx emissions are reduced. The results show a great dependency of the BVOC contribution to ozone formation on the antropoghenic reduction scenario. In rural areas, the impact due to a NOx and/or VOC reduction does not change the BVOC impact. Nevertheless, within big cities or industrial zones, a NOx reduction results in a decrease of the biogenic impact in ozone levels that can reach 85 μg/m3, whereas an Anthropogenic Volatile Organic Compound (AVOC reduction results in a decrease of the BVOC contribution on ozone formation that varies from 0 to 30 μg/m3 with respect to the contribution at the same points in the 2003 base scenario. On the other hand, downwind of the big cities, a decrease in NOx produces

  3. Examination of biogenic selenium-containing nanosystems based on polyelectrolyte complexes by atomic force, Kelvin probe force and electron microscopy methods

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sukhanova, T. E., E-mail: tat-sukhanova@mail.ru; Vylegzhanina, M. E.; Valueva, S. V.; Volkov, A. Ya.; Kutin, A. A. [Institute of Macromolecular Compounds RAS, 199004 Bolshoy Pr., 31, St.-Petersburg (Russian Federation); Temiryazeva, M. P.; Temiryazev, A. G. [Kotel’nikov Institute of Radio Engineering and Electronics (Fryazino Branch) Russian Academy of Sciences, Fryazino, Moscow region, 141190 (Russian Federation)

    2016-06-17

    The morphology and electrical properties of biogenic selenium-containing nanosystems based on polyelectrolyte complexes (PECs) were examined using AFM, Kelvin Probe Force and electron microscopy methods. It has been found, that prepared nanostructures significantly differed in their morphological types and parameters. In particular, multilayers capsules can be produced via varying synthesis conditions, especially, the selenium–PEC mass ratio ν. At the “special point” (ν = 0.1), filled and hollow nano- and microcapsules are formed in the system. The multilayer character of the capsules walls is visible in the phase images. Kelvin Probe Force images showed the inhomogeneity of potential distribution in capsules and outside them.

  4. The behavior of biogenic silica-rich rocks and volcanic tuffs as pozzolanic additives in cement

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fragoulis, Dimitris; Stamatakis, Michael; Anastasatou, Marianthi

    2015-04-01

    late compressive strength, the worst performing cement was the one with the lowest reactive silica content with biogenic opal-A as the only reactive pozzolana constituent. Cements produced with perlites, raw materials consisting mainly of a glassy phase, were characterized by higher strength and a rather ordinary specific surface area. Cements produced with Turkish zeolite tuff and Milos glassy tuff exhibited higher late compressive strength than those mentioned above. The highest strength was achieved by the implementation of Australian diatomite for cement production. Its 28 day strength exceeded that of the control mixture consisting of 95% clinker and 5% gypsum. That could be attributed to both, high specific surface of cement and reactive SiO2 of diatomite. Therefore, a preliminary assessment regarding late strength of pozzolanic cements could be obtained by the consideration of two main parameters, namely: specific surface area of cement and reactive silica content of pozzolana.

  5. Impact of biogenic emissions on ozone formation in the Mediterranean area - a BEMA modelling study

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Thunis, P.; Cuvelier, C.

    2000-01-01

    The aim of this modelling study is to understand and quantify the influence of biogenic volatile organic compound (BVOC) emissions on the formation of tropospheric ozone in the Burriana area (north of Valencia) on the east coast of Spain. The mesoscale modelling system used consists of the meteorology/transport module TVM and the chemical reaction mechanism RACM. The results of the model simulations are validated and compared with the data collected during the biogenic emissions in the mediterranean area (BEMA) field campaign that took place in June 1997. Anthropogenic and biogenic emission inventories have been constructed with an hourly resolution. Averaged (over the land area and over 24 h) emission fluxes for AVOC, anthropogenic NO x , BVOC and biogenic NO x are given by 16.0, 9.9, 6.2, and 0.7 kg km -2 day -1 , respectively. The impact of biogenic emissions is investigated on peak ozone values by performing simulations with and without biogenic emissions; while keeping anthropogenic emissions constant. The impact on ozone formation is also studied in combination with some anthropogenic emissions reduction strategies, i.e. when anthropogenic VOC emissions and/or NO x emissions are reduced. A factor separation technique is applied to isolate the impact due to biogenic emissions from the overall impact due to biogenic and anthropogenic emissions together. The results indicate that the maximum impact of biogenic emissions on ozone formation represents at the most 10 ppb, while maximum ozone values are of the order of 100 ppb. At different locations the maximum impact is reached at different times of the day depending on the arrival time of the sea breeze. It is also shown that this impact does not coincide in time with the maximum simulated ozone concentrations that are reached over the day. By performing different emission reduction scenarios, BVOC impacts are found to be sensitive mainly to NO x , and not to AVOC. Finally, it is shown that amongst the various

  6. Safety assessment of the biogenic amines in fermented soya beans and fermented bean curd.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Juan; Ding, Xiaowen; Qin, Yingrui; Zeng, Yitao

    2014-08-06

    To evaluate the safety of biogenic amines, high performance liquid chromatography (HPLC) was used to evaluate the levels of biogenic amines in fermented soya beans and fermented bean curd. In fermented soya beans, the total biogenic amines content was in a relatively safe range in many samples, although the concentration of histamine, tyramine, and β-phenethylamine was high enough in some samples to cause a possible safety threat, and 8 of the 30 samples were deemed unsafe. In fermented bean curd, the total biogenic amines content was more than 900 mg/kg in 19 white sufu amples, a level that has been determined to pose a safety hazard; putrescine was the only one detected in all samples and also had the highest concentration, which made samples a safety hazard; the content of tryptamine, β-phenethylamine, tyramine, and histamine had reached the level of threat to human health in some white and green sufu samples, and that may imply another potential safety risk; and 25 of the 33 samples were unsafe. In conclusion, the content of biogenic amines in all fermented soya bean products should be studied and appropriate limits determined to ensure the safety of eating these foods.

  7. Cocaine affects foraging behaviour and biogenic amine modulated behavioural reflexes in honey bees

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eirik Søvik

    2014-11-01

    Full Text Available In humans and other mammals, drugs of abuse alter the function of biogenic amine pathways in the brain leading to the subjective experience of reward and euphoria. Biogenic amine pathways are involved in reward processing across diverse animal phyla, however whether cocaine acts on these neurochemical pathways to cause similar rewarding behavioural effects in animal phyla other than mammals is unclear. Previously, it has been shown that bees are more likely to dance (a signal of perceived reward when returning from a sucrose feeder after cocaine treatment. Here we examined more broadly whether cocaine altered reward-related behaviour, and biogenic amine modulated behavioural responses in bees. Bees developed a preference for locations at which they received cocaine, and when foraging at low quality sucrose feeders increase their foraging rate in response to cocaine treatment. Cocaine also increased reflexive proboscis extension to sucrose, and sting extension to electric shock. Both of these simple reflexes are modulated by biogenic amines. This shows that systemic cocaine treatment alters behavioural responses that are modulated by biogenic amines in insects. Since insect reward responses involve both octopamine and dopamine signalling, we conclude that cocaine treatment altered diverse reward-related aspects of behaviour in bees. We discuss the implications of these results for understanding the ecology of cocaine as a plant defence compound. Our findings further validate the honey bee as a model system for understanding the behavioural impacts of cocaine, and potentially other drugs of abuse.

  8. Wound healing applications of biogenic colloidal silver and gold nanoparticles: recent trends and future prospects.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ovais, Muhammad; Ahmad, Irshad; Khalil, Ali Talha; Mukherjee, Sudip; Javed, Rabia; Ayaz, Muhammad; Raza, Abida; Shinwari, Zabta Khan

    2018-05-01

    Nanotechnology has emerged as a prominent scientific discipline in the technological revolution of this millennium. The scientific community has focused on the green synthesis of metal nanoparticles as compared to physical and chemical methods due to its eco-friendly nature and high efficacy. Medicinal plants have been proven as the paramount source of various phytochemicals that can be used for the biogenic synthesis of colloidal silver and gold nanoparticles as compared to other living organisms, e.g., microbes and fungi. According to various scientific reports, the biogenic nanoparticles have shown promising potential as wound healing agents. However, not a single broad review article was present that demonstrates the wound healing application of biogenic silver and gold nanoparticles. Foreseeing the overall literature published, we for the first time intended to discuss the current trends in wound healing via biogenic silver and gold nanoparticles. Furthermore, light has been shed on the mechanistic aspects of wound healing along with futuristic discussion on the faith of biogenic silver and gold nanoparticles as potential wound healing agents.

  9. Draft Genome Sequence of the Putrescine-Producing Strain Lactococcus lactis subsp. lactis 1AA59

    Science.gov (United States)

    del Rio, Beatriz; Linares, Daniel M.; Fernandez, María; Mayo, Baltasar; Martín, M. Cruz

    2015-01-01

    We report here the 2,576,542-bp genome annotated draft assembly sequence of Lactococcus lactis subsp. lactis 1AA59. This strain—isolated from a traditional cheese—produces putrescine, one of the most frequently biogenic amines found in dairy products. PMID:26089428

  10. The Deep-Sea Natural Products, Biogenic Polyphosphate (Bio-PolyP and Biogenic Silica (Bio-Silica, as Biomimetic Scaffolds for Bone Tissue Engineering: Fabrication of a Morphogenetically-Active Polymer

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Florian Draenert

    2013-03-01

    Full Text Available Bone defects in human, caused by fractures/nonunions or trauma, gain increasing impact and have become a medical challenge in the present-day aging population. Frequently, those fractures require surgical intervention which ideally relies on autografts or suboptimally on allografts. Therefore, it is pressing and likewise challenging to develop bone substitution materials to heal bone defects. During the differentiation of osteoblasts from their mesenchymal progenitor/stem cells and of osteoclasts from their hemopoietic precursor cells, a lineage-specific release of growth factors and a trans-lineage homeostatic cross-talk via signaling molecules take place. Hence, the major hurdle is to fabricate a template that is functioning in a way mimicking the morphogenetic, inductive role(s of the native extracellular matrix. In the last few years, two naturally occurring polymers that are produced by deep-sea sponges, the biogenic polyphosphate (bio-polyP and biogenic silica (bio-silica have also been identified as promoting morphogenetic on both osteoblasts and osteoclasts. These polymers elicit cytokines that affect bone mineralization (hydroxyapatite formation. In this manner, bio-silica and bio-polyP cause an increased release of BMP-2, the key mediator activating the anabolic arm of the hydroxyapatite forming cells, and of RANKL. In addition, bio-polyP inhibits the progression of the pre-osteoclasts to functionally active osteoclasts. Based on these findings, new bioinspired strategies for the fabrication of bone biomimetic templates have been developed applying 3D-printing techniques. Finally, a strategy is outlined by which these two morphogenetically active polymers might be used to develop a novel functionally active polymer.

  11. The Deep-Sea Natural Products, Biogenic Polyphosphate (Bio-PolyP) and Biogenic Silica (Bio-Silica), as Biomimetic Scaffolds for Bone Tissue Engineering: Fabrication of a Morphogenetically-Active Polymer

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Xiaohong; Schröder, Heinz C.; Feng, Qingling; Draenert, Florian; Müller, Werner E. G.

    2013-01-01

    Bone defects in human, caused by fractures/nonunions or trauma, gain increasing impact and have become a medical challenge in the present-day aging population. Frequently, those fractures require surgical intervention which ideally relies on autografts or suboptimally on allografts. Therefore, it is pressing and likewise challenging to develop bone substitution materials to heal bone defects. During the differentiation of osteoblasts from their mesenchymal progenitor/stem cells and of osteoclasts from their hemopoietic precursor cells, a lineage-specific release of growth factors and a trans-lineage homeostatic cross-talk via signaling molecules take place. Hence, the major hurdle is to fabricate a template that is functioning in a way mimicking the morphogenetic, inductive role(s) of the native extracellular matrix. In the last few years, two naturally occurring polymers that are produced by deep-sea sponges, the biogenic polyphosphate (bio-polyP) and biogenic silica (bio-silica) have also been identified as promoting morphogenetic on both osteoblasts and osteoclasts. These polymers elicit cytokines that affect bone mineralization (hydroxyapatite formation). In this manner, bio-silica and bio-polyP cause an increased release of BMP-2, the key mediator activating the anabolic arm of the hydroxyapatite forming cells, and of RANKL. In addition, bio-polyP inhibits the progression of the pre-osteoclasts to functionally active osteoclasts. Based on these findings, new bioinspired strategies for the fabrication of bone biomimetic templates have been developed applying 3D-printing techniques. Finally, a strategy is outlined by which these two morphogenetically active polymers might be used to develop a novel functionally active polymer. PMID:23528950

  12. Triple oxygen isotopes in biogenic and sedimentary carbonates

    Science.gov (United States)

    Passey, Benjamin H.; Hu, Huanting; Ji, Haoyuan; Montanari, Shaena; Li, Shuning; Henkes, Gregory A.; Levin, Naomi E.

    2014-09-01

    The 17O anomaly (Δ17O) of natural waters has been shown to be sensitive to evaporation in a way analogous to deuterium excess, with evaporated bodies of water (e.g., leaf waters, lake waters, animal body waters) tending to have lower Δ17O than primary meteoric waters. In animal body water, Δ17O relates to the intake of evaporated waters, evaporative effluxes of water, and the Δ17O value of atmospheric O2, which itself carries signatures of global carbon cycling and photochemical reactions in the stratosphere. Carbonates have the potential to record the triple oxygen isotope compositions of parent waters, allowing reconstruction of past water compositions, but such investigations have awaited development of methods for high-precision measurement of Δ17O of carbonate. We describe optimized methods based on a sequential acid digestion/reduction/fluorination approach that yield Δ17O data with the high precision (∼0.010‰, 1σ) needed to resolve subtle environmental signals. We report the first high-precision Δ17O dataset for terrestrial carbonates, focusing on vertebrate biogenic carbonates and soil carbonates, but also including marine invertebrates and high-temperature carbonates. We determine apparent three-isotope fractionation factors between the O2 analyte derived from carbonate and the parent waters of the carbonate. These in combination with appropriate temperature estimates (from clumped isotope thermometry, or known or estimated body temperatures) are used to calculate the δ18O and Δ17O of parent waters. The clearest pattern to emerge is the strong 17O-depletion in avian, dinosaurian, and mammalian body water (from analyses of eggshell and tooth enamel) relative to meteoric waters, following expected influences of evaporated water (e.g., leaf water) and atmospheric O2 on vertebrate body water. Parent waters of the soil carbonates studied here have Δ17O values that are similar to or slightly lower than global precipitation. Our results suggest

  13. Geological and geochemical characteristics of the secondary biogenic gas in coalbed gases, Huainan coalfield

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Xiaojun, Zhang; Zhenglin, Cao; Mingxin, Tao; Wanchun, Wang; Jinlong, Ma

    2010-09-15

    The research results show that the compositions of coalbed gases in Huainan coalfield have high content methane, low content heavy hydrocarbons and carbon dioxide, and special dry gas. The evolution coal is at the stage of generation of thermogenic gases, but the d13C1 values within the range of biogenic gas (d13C1 values from -56.7{per_thousand} to -67.9{per_thousand}). The d13C2 value of coalbed gases in Huainan coalfield shows not only the features of the thermogenic ethane, but also the mixed features of the biogenic methane and thermogenic ethane. In geological characteristics, Huainan coalfield has favorable conditions of generation of secondary biogenic gas.

  14. Measurements of atmospheric hydrocarbons and biogenic emission fluxes in the Amazon boundary layer

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zimmerman, P. R.; Greenberg, J. P.; Westberg, C. E.

    1988-01-01

    Tropospheric mixing ratios of methane, C2-C10 hydrocarbons, and carbon monoxide were measured over the Amazon tropical forest near Manaus, Amazonas, Brazil, in July and August 1985. The measurements, consisting mostly of altitude profiles of these gases, were all made within the atmospheric boundary layer up to an altitude of 1000 m above ground level. Data characterize the diurnal hydrocarbon composition of the boundary layer. Biogenic emissions of isoprene control hydroxyl radical concentrations over the forest. Biogenic emission fluxes of isoprene and terpenes are estimated to be 25,000 micrograms/sq m per day and 5600 micrograms/sq m per day, respectively. This isoprene emission is equivalent to 2 percent of the net primary productivity of the tropical forest. Atmospheric oxidation of biogenic isoprene and terpenes emissions from the Amazon forest may account for daily increases of 8-13 ppb for carbon monoxide in the planetary boundary layer.

  15. Carbon-14 based determination of the biogenic fraction of industrial CO(2) emissions - application and validation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Palstra, S W L; Meijer, H A J

    2010-05-01

    The (14)C method is a very reliable and sensitive method for industrial plants, emission authorities and emission inventories to verify data estimations of biogenic fractions of CO(2) emissions. The applicability of the method is shown for flue gas CO(2) samples that have been sampled in 1-h intervals at a coal- and wood-fired power plant and a waste incineration plant. Biogenic flue gas CO(2) fractions of 5-10% and 48-50% have been measured at the power plant and the waste incineration plant, respectively. The reliability of the method has been proven by comparison of the power plant results with those based on carbon mass input and output data of the power plant. At industrial plants with relatively low biogenic CO(2) fraction (<10%) the results need to be corrected for sampled (14)CO(2) from atmospheric air. Copyright 2009 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  16. BOREAS TGB-5 Biogenic Soil Emissions of NO and N2O

    Science.gov (United States)

    Levine, J. S.; Winstead, E. L.; Parsons, D. A. B.; Scholes, M. C.; Cofer, W. R.; Cahoon, D. R.; Sebacher, D. I.; Scholes, R. J.; Hall, Forrest G. (Editor); Conrad, Sara K. (Editor)

    2000-01-01

    The BOReal Ecosystem-Atmosphere Study Trace Gas Biogeochemistry (BOREAS TGB)-5 team made several measurements of trace gas concentrations and fluxes at various NSA sites. This data set contains biogenic soil emissions of nitric oxide and nitrous oxide that were measured over a wide range of spatial and temporal site parameters. Since very little is known about biogenic soil emissions of nitric oxide and nitrous oxide from the boreal forest, the goal of the measurements was to characterize the biogenic soil fluxes of nitric oxide and nitrous oxide from black spruce and jack pine areas in the boreal forest. The diurnal variation and monthly variation of the emissions was examined as well as the impact of wetting through natural or artificial means. Temporally, the data cover mid-August 1993, June to August 1994, and mid-July 1995. The data are provided in tabular ASCII files. The data files are available on a CD-ROM (see document number 20010000884).

  17. The Potential for Electrofuels Production in Sweden Utilizing Fossil and Biogenic CO2 Point Sources

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hansson, Julia; Hackl, Roman; Taljegard, Maria; Brynolf, Selma; Grahn, Maria

    2017-01-01

    This paper maps, categorizes, and quantifies all major point sources of carbon dioxide (CO 2 ) emissions from industrial and combustion processes in Sweden. The paper also estimates the Swedish technical potential for electrofuels (power-to-gas/fuels) based on carbon capture and utilization. With our bottom-up approach using European databases, we find that Sweden emits approximately 50 million metric tons of CO 2 per year from different types of point sources, with 65% (or about 32 million tons) from biogenic sources. The major sources are the pulp and paper industry (46%), heat and power production (23%), and waste treatment and incineration (8%). Most of the CO 2 is emitted at low concentrations (<15%) from sources in the southern part of Sweden where power demand generally exceeds in-region supply. The potentially recoverable emissions from all the included point sources amount to 45 million tons. If all the recoverable CO 2 were used to produce electrofuels, the yield would correspond to 2–3 times the current Swedish demand for transportation fuels. The electricity required would correspond to about 3 times the current Swedish electricity supply. The current relatively few emission sources with high concentrations of CO 2 (>90%, biofuel operations) would yield electrofuels corresponding to approximately 2% of the current demand for transportation fuels (corresponding to 1.5–2 TWh/year). In a 2030 scenario with large-scale biofuels operations based on lignocellulosic feedstocks, the potential for electrofuels production from high-concentration sources increases to 8–11 TWh/year. Finally, renewable electricity and production costs, rather than CO 2 supply, limit the potential for production of electrofuels in Sweden.

  18. Evaluation of Biogenic Amines in Organic and Non-Organic Wines by HPLC OPA Derivatization

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ali Üren

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available Organic and non-organic wines, selected on the basis of consumers’ preference towards healthy products, were produced from the grapes of Vitis vinifera varieties Semillon, Colombard, Cabernet Sauvignon, Merlot and Carignan and possible effects of different wine making techniques were considered. Concentrations of histamine, tyramine, putrescine, cadaverine, ethylamine, methylamine, tryptamine, agmatine and β-phenylethylamine were quantified by HPLC fluorescence detection of o-phthaldialdehyde (OPA derivatives. The order of analyzed parameters in all wines from the highest to the lowest quantities was determined as follows: putrescine > histamine > ethylamine > methylamine > agmatine > tyramine > cadaverine > tryptamine. One of the analyzed compounds (β-phenylethylamine was not detected. The highest average values for organic and non-organic wines were found as follows (in mg/L: putrescine 5.55, ethylamine 0.825 and histamine 0.628 in organic wines, and putrescine 3.68, histamine 1.14 and agmatine 0.662 in non-organic wines. Considering the wine type (organic/non-organic, an important difference was determined for putrescine. Putrescine content in organic wines was significantly greater than in non-organic ones (p=0.008. Evaluating colour of wines (white/red, a statistically significant difference was obtained for methylamine (p=0.028. Taking into account only grape varieties, statistically significant differences were found for histamine, methylamine, tyramine and cadaverine (p<0.05. The results of principal component analysis demonstrated close relations between the following biogenic amines and wines: agmatine and non-organic Colombard; tryptamine or cadaverine and both organic and non-organic Cabernet Sauvignon wines.

  19. Urban stress-induced biogenic VOC emissions and SOA-forming potentials in Beijing

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. Ghirardo

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available Trees can significantly impact the urban air chemistry by the uptake and emission of reactive biogenic volatile organic compounds (BVOCs, which are involved in ozone and particle formation. Here we present the emission potentials of "constitutive" (cBVOCs and "stress-induced" BVOCs (sBVOCs from the dominant broadleaf woody plant species in the megacity of Beijing. Based on the municipal tree census and cuvette BVOC measurements on leaf level, we built an inventory of BVOC emissions, and assessed the potential impact of BVOCs on secondary organic aerosol (SOA formation in 2005 and 2010, i.e., before and after realizing the large tree-planting program for the 2008 Olympic Games. We found that sBVOCs, such as fatty acid derivatives, benzenoids, and sesquiterpenes, constituted a significant fraction ( ∼  40 % of the total annual BVOC emissions, and we estimated that the overall annual BVOC budget may have doubled from  ∼  4.8  ×  109 g C year−1 in 2005 to  ∼  10.3  ×  109 g C year−1 in 2010 due to the increase in urban greening, while at the same time the emission of anthropogenic VOCs (AVOCs decreased by 24 %. Based on the BVOC emission assessment, we estimated the biological impact on SOA mass formation potential in Beijing. Constitutive and stress-induced BVOCs might produce similar amounts of secondary aerosol in Beijing. However, the main contributors of SOA-mass formations originated from anthropogenic sources (> 90 %. This study demonstrates the general importance to include sBVOCs when studying BVOC emissions. Although the main problems regarding air quality in Beijing still originate from anthropogenic activities, the present survey suggests that in urban plantation programs, the selection of low-emitting plant species has some potential beneficial effects on urban air quality.

  20. Condensed-phase biogenic-anthropogenic interactions with implications for cold cloud formation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Charnawskas, Joseph C; Alpert, Peter A; Lambe, Andrew T; Berkemeier, Thomas; O'Brien, Rachel E; Massoli, Paola; Onasch, Timothy B; Shiraiwa, Manabu; Moffet, Ryan C; Gilles, Mary K; Davidovits, Paul; Worsnop, Douglas R; Knopf, Daniel A

    2017-08-24

    Anthropogenic and biogenic gas emissions contribute to the formation of secondary organic aerosol (SOA). When present, soot particles from fossil fuel combustion can acquire a coating of SOA. We investigate SOA-soot biogenic-anthropogenic interactions and their impact on ice nucleation in relation to the particles' organic phase state. SOA particles were generated from the OH oxidation of naphthalene, α-pinene, longifolene, or isoprene, with or without the presence of sulfate or soot particles. Corresponding particle glass transition (T g ) and full deliquescence relative humidity (FDRH) were estimated using a numerical diffusion model. Longifolene SOA particles are solid-like and all biogenic SOA sulfate mixtures exhibit a core-shell configuration (i.e. a sulfate-rich core coated with SOA). Biogenic SOA with or without sulfate formed ice at conditions expected for homogeneous ice nucleation, in agreement with respective T g and FDRH. α-pinene SOA coated soot particles nucleated ice above the homogeneous freezing temperature with soot acting as ice nuclei (IN). At lower temperatures the α-pinene SOA coating can be semisolid, inducing ice nucleation. Naphthalene SOA coated soot particles acted as ice nuclei above and below the homogeneous freezing limit, which can be explained by the presence of a highly viscous SOA phase. Our results suggest that biogenic SOA does not play a significant role in mixed-phase cloud formation and the presence of sulfate renders this even less likely. However, anthropogenic SOA may have an enhancing effect on cloud glaciation under mixed-phase and cirrus cloud conditions compared to biogenic SOA that dominate during pre-industrial times or in pristine areas.

  1. Uncertainty in biogenic isoprene emissions and its impacts on tropospheric chemistry in East Asia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Han, K M; Park, R S; Kim, H K; Woo, J H; Kim, J; Song, C H

    2013-10-01

    In this study, the accuracy of biogenic isoprene emission fluxes over East Asia during two summer months (July and August) was examined by comparing two tropospheric HCHO columns (ΩHCHO) obtained from the SCIAMACHY sensor and the Community Multi-scale Air Quality (CMAQ v4.7.1) model simulations, using three available biogenic isoprene emission inventories over East Asia: i) GEIA, ii) MEGAN and iii) MOHYCAN. From this comparative analysis, the tropospheric HCHO columns from the CMAQ model simulations, using the MEGAN and MOHYCAN emission inventories (Ω(CMAQ, MEGAN) and Ω(CMAQ, MOHYCAN)), were found to agree well with the tropospheric HCHO columns from the SCIAMACHY observations (Ω(SCIA)). Secondly, the propagation of such uncertainties in the biogenic isoprene emission fluxes to the levels of atmospheric oxidants (e.g., OH and HO2) and other atmospheric gaseous/particulate species over East Asia during the two summer months was also investigated. As the biogenic isoprene emission fluxes decreased from the GEIA to the MEGAN emission inventories, the levels of OH radicals increased by factors of 1.39 and 1.75 over Central East China (CEC) and South China, respectively. Such increases in the OH radical mixing ratios subsequently influence the partitioning of HO(y) species. For example, the HO2/OH ratios from the CMAQ model simulations with GEIA isoprene emissions were 2.7 times larger than those from the CMAQ model simulations based on MEGAN isoprene emissions. The large HO2/OH ratios from the CMAQ model simulations with the GEIA biogenic emission were possibly due to the overestimation of GEIA biogenic isoprene emissions over East Asia. It was also shown that such large changes in HO(x) radicals created large differences on other tropospheric compounds (e.g., NO(y) chemistry) over East Asia during the summer months. Copyright © 2013 The Authors. Published by Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  2. The impact of anthropogenic and biogenic emissions on surface ozone concentrations in Istanbul.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Im, Ulas; Poupkou, Anastasia; Incecik, Selahattin; Markakis, Konstantinos; Kindap, Tayfun; Unal, Alper; Melas, Dimitros; Yenigun, Orhan; Topcu, Sema; Odman, M Talat; Tayanc, Mete; Guler, Meltem

    2011-03-01

    Surface ozone concentrations at Istanbul during a summer episode in June 2008 were simulated using a high resolution and urban scale modeling system coupling MM5 and CMAQ models with a recently developed anthropogenic emission inventory for the region. Two sets of base runs were performed in order to investigate for the first time the impact of biogenic emissions on ozone concentrations in the Greater Istanbul Area (GIA). The first simulation was performed using only the anthropogenic emissions whereas the second simulation was performed using both anthropogenic and biogenic emissions. Biogenic NMVOC emissions were comparable with anthropogenic NMVOC emissions in terms of magnitude. The inclusion of biogenic emissions significantly improved the performance of the model, particularly in reproducing the low night time values as well as the temporal variation of ozone concentrations. Terpene emissions contributed significantly to the destruction of the ozone during nighttime. Biogenic NMVOCs emissions enhanced ozone concentrations in the downwind regions of GIA up to 25ppb. The VOC/NO(x) ratio almost doubled due to the addition of biogenic NMVOCs. Anthropogenic NO(x) and NMVOCs were perturbed by ±30% in another set of simulations to quantify the sensitivity of ozone concentrations to the precursor emissions in the region. The sensitivity runs, as along with the model-calculated ozone-to-reactive nitrogen ratios, pointed NO(x)-sensitive chemistry, particularly in the downwind areas. On the other hand, urban parts of the city responded more to changes in NO(x) due to very high anthropogenic emissions. Copyright © 2010 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  3. Effects of storage temperature on biogenic amine concentrations in meat of uneviscerated pheasants (Phasianus colchicus

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zdeňka Hutařová

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this study was to determine the hygienic quality of the pheasants reared for high-quality meat production by the biogenic amine concentrations in their meat. The content of biogenic amines was measured in the meat of sixty male pheasants killed by pithing and stored uneviscerated for 21 days under different storage temperatures (0 °C, 7 °C and 15 °C. The samples of breast and thigh muscles of pheasant were tested at weekly intervals. Biogenic amines were analysed by reverse phase liquid chromatography and detected by tandem mass spectrometry. Concentrations of biogenic amines (except spermin and spermidin in thigh muscle were higher than in breast muscle. Highly significant difference (P < 0.01 was found in tyramine (5.80 mg/kg and 1.38 mg/kg for thigh and breast muscle, respectively, cadaverine (40.80 mg/kg and 14.43 mg/kg for thigh and breast muscle, respectively, putrescine (13.42 mg/kg and 3.16 mg/kg for thigh and breast muscle, respectively and histamine (5.51 mg/kg and 1.70 mg/kg for thigh and breast muscle, respectively concentrations after 21 days of storage at 15 °C. This study provides information on the dynamics of biogenic amine formation in pheasant meat during 21 days of storage at different temperatures. Based on our results, we can recommend storing pithed uneviscerated pheasants at 0–7°C for up to 21 days, or at 15 °C for up to 7 days. Concentrations of biogenic amines gained in our study can be helpful in evaluating freshness and hygienic quality of the pheasant game meat.

  4. Effects of Spartina alterniflora invasion on biogenic elements in a subtropical coastal mangrove wetland.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yu, Xiaoqing; Yang, Jun; Liu, Lemian; Tian, Yuan; Yu, Zheng

    2015-02-01

    The invasion by exotic cordgrass (Spartina alterniflora) has become one of the most serious and challenging environmental and ecological problems in coastal China because it can have adverse effects on local native species, thereby changing ecosystem processes, functions, and services. In this study, 300 surface sediments were collected from 15 stations in the Jiulong River Estuary, southeast China, across four different seasons, in order to reveal the spatiotemporal variability of biogenic elements and their influencing factors in the subtropical coastal mangrove wetland. The biogenic elements including carbon, nitrogen, and sulfur (C, N, and S) were determined by an element analyzer, while the phosphorus (P) was determined by a flow injection analyzer. The concentrations of biogenic elements showed no significant differences among four seasons except total phosphorus (TP); however, our ANOVA analyses revealed a distinct spatial pattern which was closely related with the vegetation type and tidal level. Values of total carbon (TC) and total nitrogen (TN) in the surface sediment of mangrove vegetation zones were higher than those in the cordgrass and mudflat zones. The concentrations of TC, TN, TP, and total sulfur (TS) in the high tidal zones were higher than those in the middle and low tidal zones. Redundancy analysis (RDA) revealed that tidal level, vegetation type, and season had some significant influence on the distribution of biogenic elements in the Jiulong River Estuary, by explaining 18.2, 7.7, and 4.9 % of total variation in the four biogenic elements, respectively. In conclusion, S. alterniflora invasion had substantial effects on the distributions of biogenic elements in the subtropical coastal wetland. If regional changes in the Jiulong River Estuary are to persist and much of the mangrove vegetation was to be replaced by cordgrass, there would be significant decreases on the overall storage of C and N in this coastal zone. Therefore, the native

  5. Experimental assessment of the liquefaction resistance of calcareous biogenous sands

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sandoval Eimar

    2012-10-01

    Full Text Available

    ABSTRACT

    Liquefaction is a phenomenon in which soils, typically sands, suddenly loose a substantial amount of their shear strength and stiffness, this often triggered by large-magnitude earthquakes. Most liquefaction research has focused on silicate-based sands and not on other sand types, such as calcareous biogenous sands Calcareous sands are usually composed of skeletal or non-skeletal remains of marine organisms, with unique characteristics in terms of their mineralogy surface roughness, particle shape, crushability, and intraparticle porosity. The unique characteristics of calcareous sands suggest that their geotechnical engineering behaviour can be substantially different compared to that of terrigenous sands, including their behaviour under seismic loading, which have not been very well studied

    This paper presents the results of an experimental programme aimed at studying the cyclic liquefaction resistance of uncemented calcareous biogenous sands retrieved from south-western Puerto Rico Evaluation of liquefaction potential involved a comprehensive set of isotropically consolidated undrained cyclic triaxial tests on reconstituted samples of this calcareous sand. The programme also included tests on Ottawa terrigenous silica sand samples prepared and tested in similar conditions for comparison purposes.

    In general, the experimental results showed that Cabo Rojo calcareous sands had higher liquefaction resistance compared to Ottawa silica sands tested under similar conditions. Important differences between calcareous and silica sands regarding pore pressure generation characteristics and axial strain accumulation were also observed


  6. PC-BEIS: a personal computer version of the biogenic emissions inventory system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pierce, T.E.; Waldruff, P.S.

    1991-01-01

    The US Environmental Protection Agency's Biogenic Emissions Inventory System (BEIS) has been adapted for use on IBM-compatible personal computers (PCs). PC-BEIS estimates hourly emissions of isoprene, α-pinene, other monoterpenes, and unidentified hydrocarbons for any county in the contiguous United States. To run the program, users must provide hourly data on ambient temperature, relative humidity, wind speed, cloud cover, and a code that identifies the particular county. This paper provides an overview of the method used to calculate biogenic emissions, shows an example application, and gives information on how to obtain a copy of the program

  7. Comparison of U and Np uptake on biogenic and abiotic ferrihydrite by XAFS

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Krawczyk-Baersch, Evelyn [Helmholtz-Zentrum Dresden-Rossendorf e.V., Dresden (Germany). Biogeochemistry; Schmeide, Katja [Helmholtz-Zentrum Dresden-Rossendorf e.V., Dresden (Germany). Surface Processes; Kvashnina, Kristina O.; Rossberg, Andre; Scheinost, Andreas C. [Helmholtz-Zentrum Dresden-Rossendorf e.V., Dresden (Germany). Molecular Structures

    2017-06-01

    XAS spectra of U and Np sorption biogenic ferrihydrite samples were compared to abiotic samples. The k{sup 3}-weighted χ-spectrum and its Fourier-transform of the studied biogenic ferrihydrite sample bears close resemblance to the bidentate edge-sharing innersphere sorption {sup 1}E complex, which is the main sorption species on abiotic ferrihydrite. Based on the shell fit analysis, the distances of the coordination shells U-O{sub eq}, U-O{sub ax}, and U-Fe are similar to those determined for abiotic ferrihydrite samples.

  8. Enhanced biogenic emissions of nitric oxide and nitrous oxide following surface biomass burning

    Science.gov (United States)

    Anderson, Iris C.; Levine, Joel S.; Poth, Mark A.; Riggan, Philip J.

    1988-01-01

    Recent measurements indicate significantly enhanced biogenic soil emissions of both nitric oxide (NO) and nitrous oxide (N2O) following surface burning. These enhanced fluxes persisted for at least six months following the burn. Simultaneous measurements indicate enhanced levels of exchangeable ammonium in the soil following the burn. Biomass burning is known to be an instantaneous source of NO and N2O resulting from high-temperature combustion. Now it is found that biomass burning also results in significantly enhanced biogenic emissions of these gases, which persist for months following the burn.

  9. Comparison of U and Np uptake on biogenic and abiotic ferrihydrite by XAFS

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Krawczyk-Baersch, Evelyn; Schmeide, Katja; Kvashnina, Kristina O.; Rossberg, Andre; Scheinost, Andreas C.

    2017-01-01

    XAS spectra of U and Np sorption biogenic ferrihydrite samples were compared to abiotic samples. The k 3 -weighted χ-spectrum and its Fourier-transform of the studied biogenic ferrihydrite sample bears close resemblance to the bidentate edge-sharing innersphere sorption 1 E complex, which is the main sorption species on abiotic ferrihydrite. Based on the shell fit analysis, the distances of the coordination shells U-O eq , U-O ax , and U-Fe are similar to those determined for abiotic ferrihydrite samples.

  10. USER'S GUIDE TO THE PERSONAL COMPUTER VERSION OF THE BIOGENIC EMISSIONS INVENTORY SYSTEM (PC-BEIS2)

    Science.gov (United States)

    The document is a user's guide for an updated Personal Computer version of the Biogenic Emissions Inventory System (PC-BEIS2), allowing users to estimate hourly emissions of biogenic volatile organic compounds (BVOCs) and soil nitrogen oxide emissions for any county in the contig...

  11. Effect of biogenic carbon inventory on the life cycle assessment of bioenergy: challenges to the neutrality assumption

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Wiloso, E.I.; Heijungs, R.; Huppes, G.; Fang, K.

    2016-01-01

    Biogenic carbon is defined as carbon contained in biomass that is accumulated during plant growth. In spite of the considerable progress towards the inventory of biogenic carbon in the life cycle assessment (LCA) of bioenergy in policy guidelines, many scientific articles tend to give no

  12. Changes in biogenic amine concentrations in meat of eviscerated pheasants (Phasianus colchicus during storage at 7 °C

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zdeňka Hutařová

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available In our study, we tested biogenic amine concentrations in 20 eviscerated pheasants killed by pithing (the slaughtering technique in which the spinal cord of the animals is severed and their brain is destroyed and stored at 7 °C for 21 days. Biogenic amine concentrations in breast and thigh muscles were analysed by reverse phase liquid chromatography. In the thigh muscle, the highest increases during the storage time were found in cadaverine (20.17 ± 18.66 mg/kg, putrescine (4.39 ± 4.17 mg/kg and tyramine (15.20 ± 16.88 mg/kg concentrations. Changes of biogenic amine concentrations in the breast muscle were minimal during the whole storage time. The concentration of biogenic amines in meat is associated with the presence of contaminating microorganisms. For that reason, biogenic amines are often used as markers of meat spoilage in various livestock species. Based on our results, the biogenic amines cadaverine, putrescine and tyramine may be considered the main indicators of hygienic quality of pheasant meat. We can recommend storing pithed pheasants treated by evisceration no longer than for seven days at 7 °C. After that period, biogenic amine concentrations in meat begin to change. The main significance of this study lies in the extension of the lack information about the content of biogenic amines in the meat of eviscerated pithed pheasant and also about changes of their concentrations during the course of storage.

  13. Biogenic iron oxyhydroxide formation at mid-ocean ridge hydrothermal vents: Juan de Fuca Ridge

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Toner, Brandy M.; Santelli, Cara M.; Marcus, Matthew A.; Wirth, Richard; Chan, Clara S.; McCollom, Thomas; Bach, Wolfgang; Edwards, Katrina J.

    2008-05-22

    Here we examine Fe speciation within Fe-encrusted biofilms formed during 2-month seafloor incubations of sulfide mineral assemblages at the Main Endeavor Segment of the Juan de Fuca Ridge. The biofilms were distributed heterogeneously across the surface of the incubated sulfide and composed primarily of particles with a twisted stalk morphology resembling those produced by some aerobic Fe-oxidizing microorganisms. Our objectives were to determine the form of biofilm-associated Fe, and identify the sulfide minerals associated with microbial growth. We used micro-focused synchrotron-radiation X-ray fluorescence mapping (mu XRF), X-ray absorption spectroscopy (mu EXAFS), and X-ray diffraction (mu XRD) in conjunction with focused ion beam (FIB) sectioning, and highresolution transmission electron microscopy (HRTEM). The chemical and mineralogical composition of an Fe-encrusted biofilm was queried at different spatial scales, and the spatial relationship between primary sulfide and secondary oxyhydroxide minerals was resolved. The Fe-encrusted biofilms formed preferentially at pyrrhotite-rich (Fe1-xS, 0<_ x<_ 0.2) regions of the incubated chimney sulfide. At the nanometer spatial scale, particles within the biofilm exhibiting lattice fringing and diffraction patterns consistent with 2-line ferrihydrite were identified infrequently. At the micron spatial scale, Fe mu EXAFS spectroscopy and mu XRD measurements indicate that the dominant form of biofilm Fe is a short-range ordered Fe oxyhydroxide characterized by pervasive edge-sharing Fe-O6 octahedral linkages. Double corner-sharing Fe-O6 linkages, which are common to Fe oxyhydroxide mineral structures of 2-line ferrihydrite, 6-line ferrihydrite, and goethite, were not detected in the biogenic iron oxyhydroxide (BIO). The suspended development of the BIO mineral structure is consistent with Fe(III) hydrolysis and polymerization in the presence of high concentrations of Fe-complexing ligands. We hypothesize that

  14. Biogenic iron oxyhydroxide formation at mid-ocean ridge hydrothermal vents: Juan de Fuca Ridge

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Toner, Brandy M.; Santelli, Cara M.; Marcus, Matthew A.; Wirth, Richard; Chan, Clara S.; McCollom, Thomas; Bach, Wolfgang; Edwards, Katrina J.

    2008-01-01

    Here we examine Fe speciation within Fe-encrusted biofilms formed during 2-month seafloor incubations of sulfide mineral assemblages at the Main Endeavor Segment of the Juan de Fuca Ridge. The biofilms were distributed heterogeneously across the surface of the incubated sulfide and composed primarily of particles with a twisted stalk morphology resembling those produced by some aerobic Fe-oxidizing microorganisms. Our objectives were to determine the form of biofilm-associated Fe, and identify the sulfide minerals associated with microbial growth. We used micro-focused synchrotron-radiation X-ray fluorescence mapping (mu XRF), X-ray absorption spectroscopy (mu EXAFS), and X-ray diffraction (mu XRD) in conjunction with focused ion beam (FIB) sectioning, and high-resolution transmission electron microscopy (HRTEM). The chemical and mineralogical composition of an Fe-encrusted biofilm was queried at different spatial scales, and the spatial relationship between primary sulfide and secondary oxyhydroxide minerals was resolved. The Fe-encrusted biofilms formed preferentially at pyrrhotite-rich (Fe 1-x S, 0 (le) x (le) 0.2) regions of the incubated chimney sulfide. At the nanometer spatial scale, particles within the biofilm exhibiting lattice fringing and diffraction patterns consistent with 2-line ferrihydrite were identified infrequently. At the micron spatial scale, Fe mu EXAFS spectroscopy and mu XRD measurements indicate that the dominant form of biofilm Fe is a short-range ordered Fe oxyhydroxide characterized by pervasive edge-sharing Fe-O 6 octahedral linkages. Double corner-sharing Fe-O 6 linkages, which are common to Fe oxyhydroxide mineral structures of 2-line ferrihydrite, 6-line ferrihydrite, and goethite, were not detected in the biogenic iron oxyhydroxide (BIO). The suspended development of the BIO mineral structure is consistent with Fe(III) hydrolysis and polymerization in the presence of high concentrations of Fe-complexing ligands. We hypothesize that

  15. Natural biogenic solid fuels - environmentally relevant characteristics and possible influences. Final report; Naturbelassene biogene Festbrennstoffe - umweltrelevante Eigenschaften und Einflussmoeglichkeiten. Abschlussbericht

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hartmann, H; Boehm, T; Maier, L [Bayerische Landesanstalt fuer Landtechnik, Friesing-Weihenstephan (Germany). Arbeitsgruppe Festbrennstoffe

    2000-09-01

    , Weizenstroh und Weizenganzpflanzen. Eine Datenbank fuer naturbelassene biogene Festbrennstoffe wurde errichtet. Hierfuer wurde ein relationales Datenbankmodell gewaehlt. Dessen Struktur wurde so angelegt, dass neben den eigentlichen Messgroessen auch eine Vielzahl weiterer Eigenschaften und Informationen zum Brennstoff sowie seine Herkunftsmerkmale und die verwendeten Analyseverfahren festgehalten werden konnten. Die in den eigenen Versuchsserien zustande gekommenen Analyseergebnisse wurden durch weitere Daten aus einer umfangreichen Recherche (Befragung) sowie aus Literaturangaben ergaenzt, so dass insgesamt ca. 1.238 Datensaetze (Stand April 1999) zusammengetragen werden konnten. (orig.)

  16. Estimating Biogenic Non-Methane Hydrocarbon Emissions for the Wasatch Front Through a High-Resolution. Gridded, Biogenic Vola Tile Organic Compound Emissions Inventory

    Science.gov (United States)

    2002-01-01

    1-hour and proposed 8-hour National Ambient Air Quality Standards. Reactive biogenic (natural) volatile organic compounds emitted from plants have...uncertainty in predicting plant species composition and frequency. Isoprene emissions computed for the study area from the project’s high-resolution...Landcover Database (BELD 2), while monoterpene and other reactive volatile organic compound emission rates were almost 26% and 28% lower, respectively

  17. Type and amount of organic amendments affect enhanced biogenic methane production from coal and microbial community structure

    Science.gov (United States)

    Davis, Katherine J.; Lu, Shipeng; Barnhart, Elliott P.; Parker, Albert E.; Fields, Matthew W.; Gerlach, Robin

    2018-01-01

    Slow rates of coal-to-methane conversion limit biogenic methane production from coalbeds. This study demonstrates that rates of coal-to-methane conversion can be increased by the addition of small amounts of organic amendments. Algae, cyanobacteria, yeast cells, and granulated yeast extract were tested at two concentrations (0.1 and 0.5 g/L), and similar increases in total methane produced and methane production rates were observed for all amendments at a given concentration. In 0.1 g/L amended systems, the amount of carbon converted to methane minus the amount produced in coal only systems exceeded the amount of carbon added in the form of amendment, suggesting enhanced coal-to-methane conversion through amendment addition. The amount of methane produced in the 0.5 g/L amended systems did not exceed the amount of carbon added. While the archaeal communities did not vary significantly, the bacterial populations appeared to be strongly influenced by the presence of coal when 0.1 g/L of amendment was added; at an amendment concentration of 0.5 g/L the bacterial community composition appeared to be affected most strongly by the amendment type. Overall, the results suggest that small amounts of amendment are not only sufficient but possibly advantageous if faster in situcoal-to-methane production is to be promoted.

  18. Fishmeal with different levels of biogenic amines in Aquafeed: Comparison of feed protein quality, fish growth performance, and metabolism

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jasour, Mohammad Sedigh; Wagner, Liane; Sundekilde, Ulrik Kræmer

    2018-01-01

    The current study investigated the effects of fishmeal quality (low (LB) and high (HB) levels of endogenous biogenic amines) and feed extrusion temperatures (100 and 130 °C) on protein oxidation indicators and amino acids racemization (AAR) in extruded fish feed. Furthermore, the study investigated......, secondary oxidation products, and racemized methionine correlated positively with a low content of biogenic amines, whereas the primary oxidation product, protein hydroperoxides, and in vivo AAs digestibility correlated positively with high content of biogenic amines. At an extrusion temperature of 100 °C......, the growth performance of the fish decreased when the content of biogenic amines increased. In contrast, at an extrusion temperature of 130 °C, the growth performance was unaffected by the level of biogenic amines. The latter could be a consequence of the higher level of protein oxidation of LB fishmeal...

  19. Biogenic origin of coalbed gas in the northern Gulf of Mexico Coastal Plain, U.S.A

    Science.gov (United States)

    Warwick, Peter D.; Breland, F. Clayton; Hackley, Paul C.

    2008-01-01

    . Shallow (gas.Molecular and isotopic analyses of gas samples collected from conventional gas and oil wells suggests that both biogenic and thermogenic gases are present in and adjacent to the Wilcox intervals that contain biogenic coal gases. Oil, probably sourced from thermally mature, down-structural-dip parts of the Wilcox Group, is produced from sandstones within the coal-bearing interval. Gas chromatograms of C10+ saturated hydrocarbons from Wilcox oils show a depletion of n-alkanes probably resulting from biodegradation of the oil. Isotopic composition of the gases associated with the oils is of mixed themogenic and biogenic origin (average δ13CCH4 = − 44.4‰ VPDB, and average δDCH4 = − 182.4‰ VSMOW).

  20. Effect of garlic, black seed and Biogen as immunostimulants on the ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Three dosage levels of black seed, garlic and commercial Biogen were administered for three months in summer and six months in winter to test their stimulation effect on growth, survival and response to challenge infection in Oreochromis niloticus. At the end of summer, no significant difference was observed in the growth ...

  1. Magnetically-modified natural biogenic iron oxides for organic xenobiotics removal

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Šafařík, Ivo; Filip, J.; Horská, Kateřina; Nowakova, M.; Tuček, J.; Šafaříková, Miroslava; Hashimoto, H.; Takada, J.; Zbořil, R.

    2015-01-01

    Roč. 12, č. 2 (2015), s. 673-682 ISSN 1735-1472 R&D Projects: GA MŠk(CZ) LH11111; GA MŠk LH12190 Institutional support: RVO:67179843 Keywords : Biogenic iron oxides * Leptothrix ochracea * Magnetic fluid * Magnetic adsorbents * Xenobiotics Subject RIV: EI - Biotechnology ; Bionics Impact factor: 2.344, year: 2015

  2. Crystal and fine structural transformation of Heat-treated biogenic manganese oxide

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Kimura, N.; Hashimoto, H.; Miyata, N.; Nishina, Y.; Kusano, Y.; Ikeda, Y.; Nakanishi, Y.; Fujii, T.; Šafařík, Ivo; Šafaříková, Miroslava; Takada, J.

    2013-01-01

    Roč. 60, č. 3 (2013), s. 92-98 ISSN 0532-8799 R&D Projects: GA MŠk(CZ) LH11111 Institutional support: RVO:67179843 Keywords : microorganisms * biogenic manganese oxides * phase transitions * nano-sheets * microstructures Subject RIV: EH - Ecology, Behaviour

  3. From urban municipalities to polar bioremediation: the characterisation and contribution of biogenic minerals for water treatment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Freidman, Benjamin L; Northcott, Kathy A; Thiel, Peta; Gras, Sally L; Snape, Ian; Stevens, Geoff W; Mumford, Kathryn A

    2017-06-01

    Minerals of biological origin have shown significant potential for the separation of contaminants from water worldwide. This study details the contribution of biologically derived minerals to water treatment operations, with a focus on filtration media from urban municipalities and remote cold regions. The results support biofilm-embedded iron and manganese to be the building blocks of biogenic mineral development on activated carbon and nutrient-amended zeolites. The presence of similar iron and manganese oxidising bacterial species across all filter media supports the analogous morphologies of biogenic minerals between sites and suggests that biological water treatment processes may be feasible across a range of climates. This is the first time the stages of biogenic mineral formation have been aligned with comprehensive imaging of the biofilm community and bacterial identification; especially with respect to cold regions. Where biogenic mineral formation occurs on filter media, the potential exists for enhanced adsorption for a range of organic and inorganic contaminants and improved longevity of filter media beyond the adsorption or exchange capacities of the raw material.

  4. Nitrate radicals and biogenic volatile organic compounds: oxidation, mechanisms, and organic aerosol

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oxidation of biogenic volatile organic compounds (BVOC) by the nitrate radical (NO3) represents one of the important interactions between anthropogenic emissions related to combustion and natural emissions from the biosphere. This interaction has been recognized for more than 3 d...

  5. Radiocarbon AMS determination of the biogenic component in CO2 emitted from waste incineration

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Calcagnile, L.; Quarta, G.; D’Elia, M.; Ciceri, G.; Martinotti, V.

    2011-01-01

    The thermal utilization of waste for energy production is gaining importance in European countries. Nevertheless, the combustion of waste leads to significant CO 2 emissions in the atmosphere which, depending on the fraction of biogenic and fossil materials, have to be only partially accounted for the national greenhouse gas inventory. For this reason the development of proper methodologies for the measurement of the biogenic fraction in the combusted waste is an active research field. In fact the determination of the radiocarbon concentration in the carbon dioxide stack emissions allows to have a direct indication of the biogenic component in the burned fuel. We present the results of the AMS radiocarbon analyses carried out on carbon dioxide sampled at the stack of three power plants located in Northern Italy burning natural gas, landfill biogas and SRF (Solid Recovered Fuel) derived from MSW (Municipal Solid Waste). The sampling apparatus and the applied processing protocols are described together with the calculation procedures used to determine, from the measured radiocarbon concentrations, the proportion of biogenic and fossil component in the flue gas and in the combusted fuel. The results confirm the high potentialities of this approach in the analysis of industrial CO 2 emissions.

  6. An approach for verifying biogenic greenhouse gas emissions inventories with atmospheric CO2 concentration data

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stephen M Ogle; Kenneth Davis; Thomas Lauvaux; Andrew Schuh; Dan Cooley; Tristram O West; Linda S Heath; Natasha L Miles; Scott Richardson; F Jay Breidt; James E Smith; Jessica L McCarty; Kevin R Gurney; Pieter Tans; A Scott. Denning

    2015-01-01

    Verifying national greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions inventories is a critical step to ensure that reported emissions data to the United Nations Framework Convention on Climate Change (UNFCCC) are accurate and representative of a country's contribution to GHG concentrations in the atmosphere. Furthermore, verifying biogenic fluxes provides a check on estimated...

  7. UNITED STATES LAND USE INVENTORY FOR ESTIMATING BIOGENIC OZONE PRECURSOR EMISSIONS

    Science.gov (United States)

    The U.S. Geological Survey's (USGS) Earth Resources Observation System (EROS) Data Center's (EDC) 1-km classified land cover data are combined with other land use data using a Geographic Information System (GIS) to create the Biogenic Emissions Landcover Database (BELD). The land...

  8. Future changes in biogenic isoprene emissions: how might they affect regional and global atmospheric chemistry?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Christine Wiedinmyer; Xuexi Tie; Alex Guenther; Ron Neilson; Claire. Granier

    2006-01-01

    Isoprene is emitted from vegetation to the atmosphere in significant quantities, and it plays an important role in the reactions that control tropospheric oxidant concentrations. As future climatic and land-cover changes occur, the spatial and temporal variations, as well as the magnitude of these biogenic isoprene emissions, are expected to change. This paper presents...

  9. Carbon-14 based determination of the biogenic fraction of industrial CO2 emissions : Application and validation

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Palstra, S. W. L.; Meijer, H. A. J.

    The C-14 method is a very reliable and sensitive method for industrial plants, emission authorities and emission inventories to verify data estimations of biogenic fractions of CO2 emissions. The applicability of the method is shown for flue gas CO2 samples that have been sampled in I-h intervals at

  10. Worldwide biogenic soil NOx emissions inferred from OMI NO2 observations

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Vinken, G.C.M.; Boersma, K.F.; Maasakkers, J.D.; Adon, M.; Martin, R.V.

    2014-01-01

    Biogenic NOx emissions from soils are a large natural source with substantial uncertainties in global bottom-up estimates (ranging from 4 to 15 Tg N yr-1). We reduce this range in emission estimates, and present a top-down soil NOx emission inventory for 2005 based on retrieved tropospheric NO2

  11. Worldwide biogenic soil NOx emissions inferred from OMI NO2 observations.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Vinken, G.C.M.; Boersma, K.F.; Maasakkers, J.D.; Adon, M.; Martin, R.V.

    2014-01-01

    Biogenic NOx emissions from soils are a large natural source with substantial uncertainties in global bottom-up estimates (ranging from 4 to 15 Tg N yr-1). We reduce this range in emission estimates, and present a top-down soil NOx emission inventory for 2005 based on retrieved tropospheric NO2

  12. Evidence of intensified biogenic silica recycling in the Black Sea after 1970

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mousing, Erik Askov; Adjou, Mohamed; Ellegaard, Marianne

    2015-01-01

    140 years and show that siliceous protists became significantly more dissolved after the late 1960s indicating a reduction of the silicate pool preserved in the deep sea sediment. We hypothesize that the decline in the dissolution state is caused by increased recycling of biogenic silica in the water...

  13. Land use change affects biogenic silica pool distribution in a subtropical soil toposequence

    Science.gov (United States)

    Unzué-Belmonte, Dácil; Ameijeiras-Mariño, Yolanda; Opfergelt, Sophie; Cornelis, Jean-Thomas; Barão, Lúcia; Minella, Jean; Meire, Patrick; Struyf, Eric

    2017-07-01

    Land use change (deforestation) has several negative consequences for the soil system. It is known to increase erosion rates, which affect the distribution of elements in soils. In this context, the crucial nutrient Si has received little attention, especially in a tropical context. Therefore, we studied the effect of land conversion and erosion intensity on the biogenic silica pools in a subtropical soil in the south of Brazil. Biogenic silica (BSi) was determined using a novel alkaline continuous extraction where Si / Al ratios of the fractions extracted are used to distinguish BSi and other soluble fractions: Si / Al > 5 for the biogenic AlkExSi (alkaline-extractable Si) and Si / Al soils depending on the slope of the study site (10-53 %), with faster depletion in steeper sites. We show that higher erosion in steeper sites implies increased accumulation of biogenic Si in deposition zones near the bottom of the slope, where rapid burial can cause removal of BSi from biologically active zones. Our study highlights the interaction of erosion strength and land use for BSi redistribution and depletion in a soil toposequence, with implications for basin-scale Si cycling.

  14. Evolution of cyclonic eddies and biogenic fluxes in the northern Bay of Bengal

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    Nuncio, M.; PrasannaKumar, S.

    in the sediment trap location. Cyclonic eddy-induced down ward biogenic flux in the sediment trap location was larger than the amplitude, ~40 mg m-2 d-1, of the seasonal cycle. The magnitude of the peak episodic fluxes were one...

  15. Biogenic silica microfossils in sediments of the Permian - Carboniferous Unayzah Formation, Saudi Arabia

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Garming, J.F.L.; Franks, S.G.; Cremer, H.; Abbink, O.A.

    2010-01-01

    Biogenic silica particles (BSPs) have been discovered in sediments of the Permian - Carboniferous Unayzah Formation of Saudi Arabia. The BSPs are extracted from sediments that are generally barren of macro- or microfossils. BSPs have been found in the Basal Khuff Clastics (BKC), and the Unayzah A,

  16. Foliar leaching, translocation, and biogenic emission of 35S in radiolabeled loblolly pines

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Garten, C.T. Jr.

    1990-01-01

    Foliar leaching, basipetal (downward) translocation, and biogenic emission of sulfur (S), as traced by 35 S, were examined in a field study of loblolly pines. Four trees were radiolabeled by injection with amounts of 35 S in the 6-8 MBq range, and concentrations in needle fall, stemflow, throughfall, and aboveground biomass were measured over a period of 15-20 wk after injection. The contribution of dry deposition to sulfate-sulfur (SO 4 2- -S) concentrations in net throughfall (throughfall SO 4 2- -S concentration minus that in incident precipitation) beneath all four trees was > 90%. Calculations indicated that about half of the summertime SO 2 dry deposition flux to the loblolly pines was fixed in the canopy and not subsequently leached by rainfall. Based on mass balance calculations, 35 S losses through biogenic emissions from girdled trees were inferred to be 25-28% of the amount injected. Estimates based on chamber methods and mass balance calculations indicated a range in daily biogenic S emission of 0.1-10 μg/g dry needles. Translocation of 35 S to roots in nongirdled trees was estimated to be between 14 and 25% of the injection. It is hypothesized that biogenic emission and basipetal translocation of S (and not foliar leaching) are important mechanisms by which forest trees physiologically adapt to excess S in the environment

  17. Biogenic carbon in combustible waste: waste composition, variability and measurement uncertainty.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Larsen, Anna W; Fuglsang, Karsten; Pedersen, Niels H; Fellner, Johann; Rechberger, Helmut; Astrup, Thomas

    2013-10-01

    Obtaining accurate data for the contents of biogenic and fossil carbon in thermally-treated waste is essential for determination of the environmental profile of waste technologies. Relations between the variability of waste chemistry and the biogenic and fossil carbon emissions are not well described in the literature. This study addressed the variability of biogenic and fossil carbon in combustible waste received at a municipal solid waste incinerator. Two approaches were compared: (1) radiocarbon dating ((14)C analysis) of carbon dioxide sampled from the flue gas, and (2) mass and energy balance calculations using the balance method. The ability of the two approaches to accurately describe short-term day-to-day variations in carbon emissions, and to which extent these short-term variations could be explained by controlled changes in waste input composition, was evaluated. Finally, the measurement uncertainties related to the two approaches were determined. Two flue gas sampling campaigns at a full-scale waste incinerator were included: one during normal operation and one with controlled waste input. Estimation of carbon contents in the main waste types received was included. Both the (14)C method and the balance method represented promising methods able to provide good quality data for the ratio between biogenic and fossil carbon in waste. The relative uncertainty in the individual experiments was 7-10% (95% confidence interval) for the (14)C method and slightly lower for the balance method.

  18. APPLICATION OF COMPUTER-AIDED TOMOGRAPHY TO VISUALIZE AND QUANTIFY BIOGENIC STRUCTURES IN MARINE SEDIMENTS

    Science.gov (United States)

    We used computer-aided tomography (CT) for 3D visualization and 2D analysis ofmarine sediment cores from 3 stations (at 10, 75 and 118 m depths) with different environmentalimpact. Biogenic structures such as tubes and burrows were quantified and compared among st...

  19. Impacts of Interannual Variability in Biogenic VOC Emissions near Transitional Ozone Production Regimes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Geddes, J.

    2017-12-01

    Due to successful NOx emission controls, summertime ozone production chemistry in urban areas across North America is transitioning from VOC-limited to increasingly NOx-limited. In some regions where ozone production sensitivity is in transition, interannual variability in surrounding biogenic VOC emissions could drive fluctuations in the prevailing chemical regime and modify the impact of anthropogenic emission changes. I use satellite observations of HCHO and NO2 column density, along with a long-term simulation of atmospheric chemistry, to investigate the impact of interannual variability in biogenic isoprene sources near large metro areas. Peak emissions of isoprene in the model can vary by up to 20-60% in any given year compared to the long term mean, and this variability drives the majority of the variability in simulated local HCHO:NO2 ratios (a common proxy for ozone production sensitivity). The satellite observations confirm increasingly NOx-limited chemical regimes with large interannual variability. In several instances, the model and satellite observations suggest that variability in biogenic isoprene emissions could shift summertime ozone production from generally VOC- to generally NOx- sensitive (or vice versa). This would have implications for predicting the air quality impacts of anthropogenic emission changes in any given year, and suggests that drivers of biogenic emissions need to be well understood.

  20. CHARACTERIZATION OF BIOGENIC, INTERMEDIATE AND PHYSICOGENIC SOIL AGGREGATES OF AREAS IN THE BRAZILIAN ATLANTIC FOREST

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    JÚLIO CÉSAR FEITOSA FERNANDES

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Aggregate formation and stability are related to soil quality, contributing significantly to the carbon storage and nutrient maintenance capacities of the soil. Soil aggregates are formed by two different process: physicogenic, related to moistening and drying cycles and input of organic matter; and biogenic, related to the action of macrofauna organisms and roots. The objective this work was to classify aggregates according to their formation process, quantify and compare organic carbon contents in humic substances and assess the stability of aggregates formed by different processes, in areas with different coverage in the Mid Paraiba Valley, Pinheiral, State of Rio de Janeiro, Brazil. Aggregated soil samples were collected at a depth of 0-10 cm, in a Cambisol (Cambissolo Háplico Tb Distrófico under four plant covers: secondary forest in advanced (SFAS, medium (SFMS and initial (SFIS successional stages and managed mixed pasture (MMP. Aggregates were classified and identified into three morphological classes (physicogenic, biogenic and intermediate. The variables evaluated were mean weight diameter (MWD and geometric mean diameter (GMD of aggregates, chemical fractions of organic matter, total organic carbon (TOC and humic substances: humin (C-HUM humic acid (C-FAH and fulvic acid (C-FAF. Biogenic aggregates were found in smaller quantities and showed higher TOC, C-HUM and C-FAH, compared to intermediate and physicogenic aggregates. Thus, biogenic aggregates have potential to be used as soil quality indicators for structured environments, which are able to maintain its intrinsic formation processes.

  1. TETHERED BALLOON MEASUREMENTS OF BIOGENIC VOCS IN THE ATMOSPHERIC BOUNDARY LAYER

    Science.gov (United States)

    Measurements of biogenic volatile organic compounds (BVOCs) have been made on a tethered balloon platform in eleven field deployments between 1985 and 1996. A series of balloon sampling packages have been developed for these campaigns and they have been used to describe boundary ...

  2. Synthesis and Surface-Specific Analysis of Molecular Constituents Relevant to Biogenic Secondary Organic Aerosol Material

    Science.gov (United States)

    Be, A. G.; Upshur, M. A.; Chase, H. M.; Geiger, F.; Thomson, R. J.

    2017-12-01

    Secondary organic aerosol (SOA) particles formed from the oxidation of biogenic volatile organic compounds (BVOCs) remain a principal, yet elusive, class of airborne particulate matter that impacts the Earth's radiation budget. Given the characteristic molecular complexity comprising biogenic SOA particles, chemical information selective to the gas-aerosol interface may be valuable in the investigation of such systems, as surface considerations likely dictate the phenomena driving particle evolution mechanisms and climate effects. In particular, cloud activation processes may be parameterized using the surface tension depression that coincides with partitioning of surface-active organic species to the gas-droplet interface. However, the extent to which surface chemical processes, such as cloud droplet condensation, are influenced by the chemical structure and reactivity of individual surface-active molecules in SOA particles is largely unknown. We seek to study terpene-derived organic species relevant to the surfaces of biogenic SOA particles via synthesis of putative oxidation products followed by analysis using surface-selective physicochemical measurements. Using dynamic surface tension measurements, considerable differences are observed in the surface tension depression of aqueous pendant droplets that contain synthetically prepared ozonolysis products derived from abundant terpene precursors. Furthermore, sum frequency generation spectroscopy is utilized for comparison of the surface vibrational spectral responses of synthesized reference compounds with those observed for laboratory aerosol toward probing the surface composition of SOA material. Such ongoing findings highlight the underlying importance of molecular structure and reactivity when considering the surface chemistry of biogenic terpene-derived atmospheric aerosols.

  3. Producing cement

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Stone, E G

    1923-09-12

    A process and apparatus are described for producing Portland cement in which pulverized shale is successively heated in a series of inclined rotary retorts having internal stirrers and oil gas outlets, which are connected to condensers. The partially treated shale is removed from the lowermost retort by a conveyor, then fed separately or conjointly into pipes and thence into a number of vertically disposed retorts. Each of these retorts may be fitted interiorly with vertical arranged conveyors which elevate the shale and discharge it over a lip, from whence it falls to the bottom of the retorts. The lower end of each casing is furnished with an adjustable discharge door through which the spent shale is fed to a hopper, thence into separate trucks. The oil gases generated in the retorts are exhausted through pipes to condensers. The spent shale is conveyed to a bin and mixed while hot with ground limestone. The admixed materials are then ground and fed to a rotary kiln which is fired by the incondensible gases derived from the oil gases obtained in the previous retorting of the shale. The calcined materials are then delivered from the rotary kiln to rotary coolers. The waste gases from the kiln are utilized for heating the retorts in which the ground shale is heated for the purpose of extracting therefrom the contained hydrocarbon oils and gases.

  4. New Technique Of Determination Of Biogenic Fraction In Liquid Fuels By The 14C Method

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Krajcar Bronic, I.; Baresic, J.; Horvatincic, N.; Kristof, R.; Kozar Logar, J.

    2015-01-01

    According to the EU Directive 2009/28/EC all (liquid) fuels have to contain at least 10 percent of bio-fuel, i.e., blend of biogenic origin, by 2020. 14C method is the most reliable method of determination of the biogenic fraction in fuels and various measurement techniques can be applied. A technique of direct measurement of the 14C content in liquid fuel is simple and fast but has main disadvantage: different liquid colours cause different quenching and changes in the measurement efficiency. Here we have described a new technique that uses liquids of different colours to construct modern and background calibration curves, MCC and BCC, respectively, by measuring count rates and SQP values of various modern and fossil liquids. Several types of fossil fuel, pure benzine and benzene (used as 14C-free background for 14C dating) were used for BCC, and various brands of domestic oil (vegetable, sunflower, olive, pumpkin), bioethanol and benzene prepared from modern samples were used MCC construction. The procedure for the unknown sample consists of: 1) measurement of the count rate and the SQP value, 2) calculation of background and modern count rates corresponding to the measured SQP value based on the BCC and MCC curves, respectively, and 3) the ratio of net count rates of the unknown sample and the modern net count rate at the same SQP represents the fraction of the biogenic component in the liquid. All samples should be measured under the same conditions. In our case these are: UltimaGold F scintillator, the ratio sample:scintillator (10 mL:10 mL), low-potassium glass vials of 20 mL volume, spectra recorded by LSC Quantulus and evaluated in the window 124 - 570. Lowest detectable biogenic fraction is 0.5 %. The technique depends neither on the fossil matrix or the biogenic additive types. The results are in good agreement with those obtained by different evaluation technique. (author).

  5. Recent trends in the determination of biogenic amines in fermented beverages – A review

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ordóñez, José Luis; Troncoso, Ana Maria; García-Parrilla, Maria Del Carmen; Callejón, Raquel Maria, E-mail: rcallejon@us.es

    2016-10-05

    Biogenic amines (BA) are generally considered as a food hazard, even though there is not a threshold for these biomolecules in the European legislation, except for histamine in fishery products. These compounds are formed during the storage and processing of certain foods through microbiological activity, and when present in high concentrations, could have toxicological effects, causing health problems in consumers, especially to sensitive persons. This fact, in addition to the economical concern involved, makes it necessary to control the amounts of biogenic amines in foods. For all these reasons, literature on biogenic amines in different food products, especially in fermented beverages, is extensive. This review provides an overview of the most recent trends in the determination of biogenic amines in fermented beverages focusing on novelty, improvement and optimization of analytical methods. Hence, the different sample treatment procedures (including derivatization), the most important analytical techniques and the most frequent applications are described and discussed. Although biogenic amines have been determined in wine and other fermented beverages for decades, new advancements and technical possibilities have allowed to increase the accuracy and sensitivity of analytical methods, in order to overcome the challenges posed by the complex matrices and their high intrinsic variability. Thus, the different purposes of BA determination (food safety, production process or food microbiology research) and the most widely employed analytical techniques have been reviewed. - Highlights: • A critical review on analytical methods for BA in fermented beverages is presented. • Recent sample treatments and analytical techniques are described and discussed. • A previous derivatization is needed in most liquid chromatographic methods. • BA determination is related to food safety, production process or microbiology research.

  6. The impact of drawing on the biogenic amines content in meat of pithed pheasant

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zdeňka Hutařová

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available With the increasing popularity of game meat, greater emphasis is being placed on ensuring high hygienic quality of this food. Biogenic amines are among possible indicators of the hygienic quality of meat. The aim of this study was to monitor biogenic amine concentrations in the muscle tissues of pheasants (n = 20 killed by pithing and treated by drawing (guts are removed from the body cavity through the cloaca using a specially fashioned hook. The pheasants’ bodies were stored hanged by the neck for 21 days at ±7 °C. Breast and thigh muscle samples were collected at weekly intervals (day 1, 7, 14 and 21 of storage. Biogenic amines (putrescine, cadaverine, tyramine, histamine, tryptamine and phenylethylamine were analysed by reverse phase liquid chromatography and detected by tandem mass spectrometry. In breast muscle, the most evident change was noted in the concentration of cadaverine (0.026 and 1.070 mg/kg for storage day 1 and 21, respectively and tyramine (0.001 and 0.958 mg/kg for storage day 1 and 21, respectively. Throughout the storage period, the concentration of 5 mg/kg (indicating a loss of high hygienic quality of meat was not exceeded by any of the assessed biogenic amines. In thigh muscle, the concentration indicating high hygienic quality of meat was exceed after 14 days of storage in the case of cadaverine, tyramine and putrescine (at the end of storage their concentrations were 9.058, 10.708 and 3.345 mg/kg, respectively. Hygienic quality of thigh muscle decreased faster compared to breast muscle. This study brings new information about the content of biogenic amines in the meat of pithed pheasants treated by drawing.

  7. Biocompatibility assessment of rice husk-derived biogenic silica nanoparticles for biomedical applications

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Alshatwi, Ali A., E-mail: alshatwi@ksu.edu.sa; Athinarayanan, Jegan; Periasamy, Vaiyapuri Subbarayan

    2015-02-01

    Synthetic forms of silica have low biocompatibility, whereas biogenic forms have myriad beneficial effects in current toxicological applications. Among the various sources of biogenic silica, rice husk is considered a valuable agricultural biomass material and a cost-effective resource that can provide biogenic silica for biomedical applications. In the present study, highly pure biogenic silica nanoparticles (bSNPs) were successfully harvested from rice husks using acid digestion under pressurized conditions at 120 °C followed by a calcination process. The obtained bSNPs were subjected to phase identification analysis using X-ray diffraction, which revealed the amorphous nature of the bSNPs. The morphologies of the bSNPs were observed using transmission electron microscopy (TEM), which revealed spherical particles 10 to 30 nm in diameter. Furthermore, the biocompatibility of the bSNPs with human lung fibroblast cells (hLFCs) was investigated using a viability assay and assessing cellular morphological changes, intracellular ROS generation, mitochondrial transmembrane potential and oxidative stress-related gene expression. Our results revealed that the bSNPs did not have any significant incompatibility in these in vitro cell-based approaches. These preliminary findings suggest that bSNPs are biocompatible, could be the best alternative to synthetic forms of silica and are applicable to food additive and biomedical applications. - Highlights: • Simple, rapid and convenient process • Amorphous and spherical with 10–30 nm size SiO{sub 2} nanoparticles were fabricated. • Biogenic silica nanoparticles showed biocompatibility. • bSNPs are an alternative to synthetic forms of silica.

  8. Modeling of microbial gas generation: application to the eastern Mediterranean “Biogenic Play”

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Schneider, M.; Dubille, M.; Montadert, L.

    2016-07-01

    Biogenic gas is becoming increasingly important as an exploration target in the petroleum industry because it occurs in geologically predictable circumstances and in large quantities at shallow depths as free gas or gas hydrates. As accumulations of biogenic gas result in a subtle synchronization between early generation and early trapping, we integrated a macroscopic model of microbial gas generation within a 3D basin and petroleum system forward simulator. The macroscopic model is based on a microscopic model, which consists in a 1D sedimentary column that accounts for sedimentation, compaction, Darcy flow and Diffusion flow. The organic carbon is the only non-soluble element considered in this version of the model. The dissolved elements are O2, SO4 2-, H2, CH3COOH, and CH4. Methane is dissolved in water or present as a free phase if its concentration exceeds its solubility at given pressure and temperature. In this microscopic model, the transformation of substrate into biomass is described through a set of logistic equations coupled with the transport equations (advection and diffusion). Based on the microscopic considerations we developed the macroscopic model of low maturity/biogenic gas generation in which hydrocarbons are generated through first order kinetic reactions at low maturity. This macroscopic model is adapted to petroleum system modeling at basin scale with TemisFlow®, which aims to understand and predict hydrocarbon generation, migration, and accumulation. It is composed of: i) A source rock criteria which allow defining the biogenic gas source rocks potential and ii) A kinetic model of methane generation. The previous model has been successfully applied on different basins such as the Carupano Basin from the offshore Venezuela, the Magdalena Delta (offshore Colombia) and the offshore Vietnam where direct observations of low-maturity gas were available. Furthermore, it has been applied in the offshore Lebanon in order to check the viability of

  9. Recent trends in the determination of biogenic amines in fermented beverages – A review

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ordóñez, José Luis; Troncoso, Ana Maria; García-Parrilla, Maria Del Carmen; Callejón, Raquel Maria

    2016-01-01

    Biogenic amines (BA) are generally considered as a food hazard, even though there is not a threshold for these biomolecules in the European legislation, except for histamine in fishery products. These compounds are formed during the storage and processing of certain foods through microbiological activity, and when present in high concentrations, could have toxicological effects, causing health problems in consumers, especially to sensitive persons. This fact, in addition to the economical concern involved, makes it necessary to control the amounts of biogenic amines in foods. For all these reasons, literature on biogenic amines in different food products, especially in fermented beverages, is extensive. This review provides an overview of the most recent trends in the determination of biogenic amines in fermented beverages focusing on novelty, improvement and optimization of analytical methods. Hence, the different sample treatment procedures (including derivatization), the most important analytical techniques and the most frequent applications are described and discussed. Although biogenic amines have been determined in wine and other fermented beverages for decades, new advancements and technical possibilities have allowed to increase the accuracy and sensitivity of analytical methods, in order to overcome the challenges posed by the complex matrices and their high intrinsic variability. Thus, the different purposes of BA determination (food safety, production process or food microbiology research) and the most widely employed analytical techniques have been reviewed. - Highlights: • A critical review on analytical methods for BA in fermented beverages is presented. • Recent sample treatments and analytical techniques are described and discussed. • A previous derivatization is needed in most liquid chromatographic methods. • BA determination is related to food safety, production process or microbiology research.

  10. New procedure of selected biogenic amines determination in wine samples by HPLC

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Piasta, Anna M.; Jastrzębska, Aneta, E-mail: aj@chem.uni.torun.pl; Krzemiński, Marek P.; Muzioł, Tadeusz M.; Szłyk, Edward

    2014-06-27

    Highlights: • We proposed new procedure for derivatization of biogenic amines. • The NMR and XRD analysis confirmed the purity and uniqueness of derivatives. • Concentration of biogenic amines in wine samples were analyzed by RP-HPLC. • Sample contamination and derivatization reactions interferences were minimized. - Abstract: A new procedure for determination of biogenic amines (BA): histamine, phenethylamine, tyramine and tryptamine, based on the derivatization reaction with 2-chloro-1,3-dinitro-5-(trifluoromethyl)-benzene (CNBF), is proposed. The amines derivatives with CNBF were isolated and characterized by X-ray crystallography and {sup 1}H, {sup 13}C, {sup 19}F NMR spectroscopy in solution. The novelty of the procedure is based on the pure and well-characterized products of the amines derivatization reaction. The method was applied for the simultaneous analysis of the above mentioned biogenic amines in wine samples by the reversed phase-high performance liquid chromatography. The procedure revealed correlation coefficients (R{sup 2}) between 0.9997 and 0.9999, and linear range: 0.10–9.00 mg L{sup −1} (histamine); 0.10–9.36 mg L{sup -1} (tyramine); 0.09–8.64 mg L{sup −1} (tryptamine) and 0.10–8.64 mg L{sup −1} (phenethylamine), whereas accuracy was 97%–102% (recovery test). Detection limit of biogenic amines in wine samples was 0.02–0.03 mg L{sup −1}, whereas quantification limit ranged 0.05–0.10 mg L{sup −1}. The variation coefficients for the analyzed amines ranged between 0.49% and 3.92%. Obtained BA derivatives enhanced separation the analytes on chromatograms due to the inhibition of hydrolysis reaction and the reduction of by-products formation.

  11. Protection of Nitrate-Reducing Fe(II)-Oxidizing Bacteria from UV Radiation by Biogenic Fe(III) Minerals

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gauger, Tina; Konhauser, Kurt; Kappler, Andreas

    2016-04-01

    Due to the lack of an ozone layer in the Archean, ultraviolet radiation (UVR) reached early Earth's surface almost unattenuated; as a consequence, a terrestrial biosphere in the form of biological soil crusts would have been highly susceptible to lethal doses of irradiation. However, a self-produced external screen in the form of nanoparticular Fe(III) minerals could have effectively protected those early microorganisms. In this study, we use viability studies by quantifying colony-forming units (CFUs), as well as Fe(II) oxidation and nitrate reduction rates, to show that encrustation in biogenic and abiogenic Fe(III) minerals can protect a common soil bacteria such as the nitrate-reducing Fe(II)-oxidizing microorganisms Acidovorax sp. strain BoFeN1 and strain 2AN from harmful UVC radiation. Analysis of DNA damage by quantifying cyclobutane pyrimidine dimers (CPD) confirmed the protecting effect by Fe(III) minerals. This study suggests that Fe(II)-oxidizing microorganisms, as would have grown in association with mafic and ultramafic soils/outcrops, would have been able to produce their own UV screen, enabling them to live in terrestrial habitats on early Earth.

  12. Production of biogenic manganese oxides coupled with methane oxidation in a bioreactor for removing metals from wastewater.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Matsushita, Shuji; Komizo, Daisuke; Cao, Linh Thi Thuy; Aoi, Yoshiteru; Kindaichi, Tomonori; Ozaki, Noriatsu; Imachi, Hiroyuki; Ohashi, Akiyoshi

    2018-03-01

    Biogenic manganese oxide (BioMnO x ) can efficiently adsorb various minor metals. The production of BioMnO x in reactors to remove metals during wastewater treatment processes is a promising biotechnological method. However, it is difficult to preferentially enrich manganese-oxidizing bacteria (MnOB) to produce BioMnO x during wastewater treatment processes. A unique method of cultivating MnOB using methane-oxidizing bacteria (MOB) to produce soluble microbial products is proposed here. MnOB were successfully enriched in a methane-fed reactor containing MOB. BioMnO x production during the wastewater treatment process was confirmed. Long-term continual operation of the reactor allowed simultaneous removal of Mn(II), Co(II), and Ni(II). The Co(II)/Mn(II) and Ni(II)/Mn(II) removal ratios were 53% and 19%, respectively. The degree to which Mn(II) was removed indicated that the enriched MnOB used utilization-associated products and/or biomass-associated products. Microbial community analysis revealed that methanol-oxidizing bacteria belonging to the Hyphomicrobiaceae family played important roles in the oxidation of Mn(II) by using utilization-associated products. Methane-oxidizing bacteria were found to be inhibited by MnO 2 , but the maximum Mn(II) removal rate was 0.49 kg m -3  d -1 . Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  13. Emissions of terpenoids, benzenoids, and other biogenic gas-phase organic compounds from agricultural crops and their potential implications for air quality

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gentner, D. R.; Ormeño, E.; Fares, S.; Ford, T. B.; Weber, R.; Park, J.-H.; Brioude, J.; Angevine, W. M.; Karlik, J. F.; Goldstein, A. H.

    2014-06-01

    Agriculture comprises a substantial, and increasing, fraction of land use in many regions of the world. Emissions from agricultural vegetation and other biogenic and anthropogenic sources react in the atmosphere to produce ozone and secondary organic aerosol, which comprises a substantial fraction of particulate matter (PM2.5). Using data from three measurement campaigns, we examine the magnitude and composition of reactive gas-phase organic carbon emissions from agricultural crops and their potential to impact regional air quality relative to anthropogenic emissions from motor vehicles in California's San Joaquin Valley, which is out of compliance with state and federal standards for tropospheric ozone PM2.5. Emission rates for a suite of terpenoid compounds were measured in a greenhouse for 25 representative crops from California in 2008. Ambient measurements of terpenoids and other biogenic compounds in the volatile and intermediate-volatility organic compound ranges were made in the urban area of Bakersfield and over an orange orchard in a rural area of the San Joaquin Valley during two 2010 seasons: summer and spring flowering. We combined measurements from the orchard site with ozone modeling methods to assess the net effect of the orange trees on regional ozone. When accounting for both emissions of reactive precursors and the deposition of ozone to the orchard, the orange trees are a net source of ozone in the springtime during flowering, and relatively neutral for most of the summer until the fall, when it becomes a sink. Flowering was a major emission event and caused a large increase in emissions including a suite of compounds that had not been measured in the atmosphere before. Such biogenic emission events need to be better parameterized in models as they have significant potential to impact regional air quality since emissions increase by several factors to over an order of magnitude. In regions like the San Joaquin Valley, the mass of biogenic

  14. Biogenic amines as freshness index of meat wrapped in a new active packaging system formulated with essential oils of Rosmarinus officinalis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sirocchi, Veronica; Caprioli, Giovanni; Cecchini, Cinzia; Coman, Maria Magdalena; Cresci, Alberto; Maggi, Filippo; Papa, Fabrizio; Ricciutelli, Massimo; Vittori, Sauro; Sagratini, Gianni

    2013-12-01

    Biogenic amines (BAs) are considered as an important indicator of freshness and quality of food. In this work, a new active packaging (AP) system for meat that, incorporating essential oil of Rosmarinus officinalis at 4% (w/w), inhibits the increase of BAs and the bacteria involved into their production was developed. BAs were analyzed by a SPE-HPLC-DAD method during the storage time of meat (0-7 d, 4 °C). Results showed that, in each monitored day, Biogenic Amine Index (BAI) expressed in mg kg(-1) is lower in meat wrapped in AP with respect to that packed in polycoupled packaging (PP) (from 19% to 62%). A strong correlation was found between the inhibition of increase of putrescine, cadaverine, histamine and their bacteria producers such as Enterobacteriaceae, Pseudomonas spp. and Brocothrix thermospacta. By exploiting antimicrobial and antioxidant action of essential oil of R. officinalis, the new APs contribute to increase the shelf life of fresh meat and to preserve its important nutrients.

  15. Biogenic SeNPs from Bacillus mycoides SelTE01 and Stenotrophomonas maltophilia SelTE02: Characterization with reference to their associated organic coating

    Science.gov (United States)

    Piacenza, Elena; Bulgarini, Alessandra; Lampis, Silvia; Vallini, Giovanni; Turner, Raymond J.

    2017-08-01

    The exploitation of biological systems (i.e. plants, fungi and bacteria) for the production of nanomaterials relies on their ability to bioconvert toxic metal(loid) ions into their less toxic and bioavailable elemental states forming mainly nanoparticles (NPs) or nanorods (NRs). Further, these methods of nanomaterial production are nowadays recognized as eco-friendly alternatives to the chemical synthesis processes. A common feature among the so-called biogenic nanomaterials is the presence of an organic layer surrounding them. However, we are just learning the existing relation between biogenic nanostructures and their organic material. Our work is focused on the study of bacterial strains for the production of selenium nanoparticles (SeNPs) as end product of selenite (SeO32 -) bioconversion. In this context, our previous reports described the ability of two bacteria, namely Bacillus mycoides SelTE01 and Stenotrophomonas maltophilia SelTE02, to generate SeNPs, which were surrounded by organic material. Here, the potential role of this organic material as stabilizing agent of SeNPs was investigated altering both the bacteria cells culturing and the SeNPs extraction procedure, in order to understand the interaction between these two elements in suspension. As a result, SeNPs produced by both bacterial strains showed the tendency to aggregate when subjected to the treatments tested, suggesting an involvement of the surrounding organic material in their stabilization in suspension.

  16. Origin of the Putrescine-Producing Ability of the Coagulase-Negative Bacterium Staphylococcus epidermidis 2015B

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Coton, Emmanuel; Mulder, Niels; Coton, Monika; Pochet, Sylvie; Trip, Hein; Lolkema, Juke S.

    A multiplex PCR method, aimed at the detection of genes associated with biogenic amine production, identified the odc gene encoding ornithine decarboxylase in 1 of 15 strains of Staphylococcus epidermidis. The ability of the positive strain, S. epidermidis 2015B, to produce putrescine in vitro was

  17. Remediation of arsenic-contaminated groundwater by in-situ stimulating biogenic precipitation of iron sulfides.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pi, Kunfu; Wang, Yanxin; Xie, Xianjun; Ma, Teng; Liu, Yaqing; Su, Chunli; Zhu, Yapeng; Wang, Zhiqiang

    2017-02-01

    Severe health problems due to elevated arsenic (As) in groundwater have made it urgent to develop cost-effective technologies for As removal. This field experimental study tested the feasibility of in-situ As immobilization via As incorporation into newly formed biogenic Fe(II) sulfides in a typical As-affected strongly reducing aquifer at the central part of Datong Basin, China. After periodic supply of FeSO 4 into the aquifer for 25 d to stimulate microbial sulfate reduction, dissolved sulfide concentrations increased during the experiment, but the supplied Fe(II) reacted quickly with sulfide to form Fe(II)-sulfides existing majorly as mackinawite as well as a small amount of pyrite-like minerals in sediments, thereby restricting sulfide build-up in groundwater. After the completion of field experiment, groundwater As concentration decreased from an initial average value of 593 μg/L to 159 μg/L, with an overall As removal rate of 73%, and it further declined to 136 μg/L adding the removal rate up to 77% in 30 d after the experiment. The arsenite/As total ratio gradually increased over time, making arsenite to be the predominant species in groundwater residual As. The good correlations between dissolved Fe(II), sulfide and As concentrations, the increased abundance of As in newly-formed Fe sulfides as well as the reactive-transport modeling results all indicate that As could have been adsorbed onto and co-precipitated with Fe(II)-sulfide coatings once microbial sulfate reduction was stimulated after FeSO 4 supply. Under the strongly reducing conditions, sulfide may facilitate arsenate reduction into arsenite and promote As incorporation into pyrite or arsenopyrite. Therefore, the major mechanisms for the in-situ As-contaminated groundwater remediation can be As surface-adsorption on and co-precipitation with Fe(II) sulfides produced during the experimental period. Copyright © 2016. Published by Elsevier Ltd.

  18. Inflammatory responses to secondary organic aerosols (SOA generated from biogenic and anthropogenic precursors

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    W. Y. Tuet

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available Cardiopulmonary health implications resulting from exposure to secondary organic aerosols (SOA, which comprise a significant fraction of ambient particulate matter (PM, have received increasing interest in recent years. In this study, alveolar macrophages were exposed to SOA generated from the photooxidation of biogenic and anthropogenic precursors (isoprene, α-pinene, β-caryophyllene, pentadecane, m-xylene, and naphthalene under different formation conditions (RO2 + HO2 vs. RO2 + NO dominant, dry vs. humid. Various cellular responses were measured, including reactive oxygen and nitrogen species (ROS/RNS production and secreted levels of cytokines, tumor necrosis factor-α (TNF-α and interleukin-6 (IL-6. SOA precursor identity and formation condition affected all measured responses in a hydrocarbon-specific manner. With the exception of naphthalene SOA, cellular responses followed a trend where TNF-α levels reached a plateau with increasing IL-6 levels. ROS/RNS levels were consistent with relative levels of TNF-α and IL-6, due to their respective inflammatory and anti-inflammatory effects. Exposure to naphthalene SOA, whose aromatic-ring-containing products may trigger different cellular pathways, induced higher levels of TNF-α and ROS/RNS than suggested by the trend. Distinct cellular response patterns were identified for hydrocarbons whose photooxidation products shared similar chemical functionalities and structures, which suggests that the chemical structure (carbon chain length and functionalities of photooxidation products may be important for determining cellular effects. A positive nonlinear correlation was also detected between ROS/RNS levels and previously measured DTT (dithiothreitol activities for SOA samples. In the context of ambient samples collected during summer and winter in the greater Atlanta area, all laboratory-generated SOA produced similar or higher levels of ROS/RNS and DTT activities. These results

  19. Turnover of Biogenic Amines in the Hypothalamus of Rats during Pyrogen Fever

    Science.gov (United States)

    Penn, P. E.; Williams, B. A.

    1979-01-01

    Many pharmacological studies have implicated the biogenic amines in the hypothalamus as playing a role in the production of fever, but few investigations of endogenous neurochemicals have been made during fever. Turnover rates of transmitters utilizing radioactive precursors may be one of the most accurate measurements of activity in brain regions. The present study was designed to measure the turnover of 5-hydroxytryptamine (5-HT) norepinephrine (NE) and dopamine (DA) in the hypothalamus of rats during pyrogen fever. Salmonella typhosa (Wyeth, 8 units) was previously found in our laboratory to produce a significant hyperthermia in most rats by 2.5 hours. This pyrogen (N = l2) or saline control (N = 8) was injected intraperitoneally and the rats killed 2.75 hours later. Rectal temperatures (Tr) were monitored continuously with thermocouples taped to the tail and recorded automatically every 3 minutes. Half of each group received an injection of radioactive precursors, (3)H-tryptophan (0.5 mCi) and (3)H-tryptophan (1.0 mCi), via an indwelling jugular catheter 60 minutes before killing, and the other half at 90 minutes. The rats were killed by near freezing in liquid nitrogen and the brains dissected in the cold. Turnover was measured by the method of Lane (Life Sci 21, 1101, 1977). At the time of killing most of the pyrogen group showed a significant (p pyrogen and saline groups. A significant difference was found in the specific activity of NE between the 60 minute pyrogen and saline groups (4.41 +/- 0.41 vs 2.6 +/- 0.51 dpm/pmole) but no change in turnover. This suggests an increased accumulation of (3)H-NE in the pyrogen group, but no change in utilization. An increased turnover of DA for the pyrogen group (44.5 vs 19.2 pmole/mg protein/hr) was found. However, DA is mainly a precursor in the hypothalamus and measurement was near the limit of sensitivity for the assay; these limitations Must be considered in interpreting this data. The most significant finding was

  20. Early Post-Irradiation Changes in the Metabolism of Biogenic Amines; Les Changements Precoces du Metabolisme des Amines Biogenes apres Irradiation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Deanovic, Z [Institut Rudjer Boskovic, Zagreb, Yugoslavia (Croatia)

    1971-03-15

    There is accumulating evidence for the radiation-induced release of biogenic amines from their body stores. Having in mind the high patho-physiological activity of these ''local'' hormones and ''neuro-hormones'', it is reasonable to assume that they play an important role in the pathogenesis of the acute radiation syndrome. Under these pathological conditions the possible synergic and antagonistic effects of biogenic amines due to their complex interactions must be taken into consideration. The extent and dose-dependence of post-irradiation changes in the metabolism of histamine, serotonin, catecholamines and acetylcholine will be examined regarding particularly the search for biochemical indicators of radiation injury. The determination of bio-amines and their metabolites in urine seems to be a suitable method for following up those metabolic changes which could be of a biodosimetrical and/or prognostical value. Data published on this subject, obtained in experimental animals as well as in man, have been reviewed and the applicability of these tests is discussed. (author) [French] Des preuves se sont accumulees, qui demontrent que les amines biogenes sont liberees de leurs depots sous l'effet des rayonnements ionisants. Etant donne la grande activite pathophysiologique de ces hormones 'locales' et 'neurohormones', il est raisonnable de considerer que ces substances biogenes jouent un role important dans la pathogenese du syndrome aigu d'irradiation. Dans ces conditions pathologiques il faut tenir compte des effets synergiques et antagonistes des bio-amines, lies a des interactions compliquees. Les changements metaboliques en fonction de la dose recue font l'objet d'un examen qui englobe les alterations quantitatives de .'histamine, de la serotonine, des catecholamines et de l'acetylcholine et dont l'objectif est la recherche sur des indicateurs biochimiques de la lesion provoquee par l'irradiation. L'analyse des bio-amines et de leurs metabolites dans les urines

  1. Biogenic emissions of greenhouse gases caused by arable and animal agriculture. Task 3. Overall biogenic greenhouse gas emissions from agriculture. National Inventories

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hensen, A.

    1999-12-01

    The aim of the concerted action 'Biogenic Emissions of Greenhouse Gases Caused by Arable and Animal Agriculture' is to obtain an overview of the current knowledge on the emissions of greenhouse gases related to agricultural activities. This task 3 report summarises the activities that take place in the Netherlands with respect to agriculture emission inventories. This 'national' report was compiled using information from a number of Dutch groups. Therefore, from a national point of view the compilation does not contain new information. The paper can however be useful for other European partners to get an overview of how emission estimates are obtained in the Netherlands. 14 p

  2. High-temperature removal of sulphur for biogenic gas products; Hochtemperatur-Entschwefelung fuer biogene Produktgase. Design und Optimierung - Schlussbericht/Jahresbericht

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Schildhauer, T.; Biollaz, S.

    2009-12-15

    This final report for the Swiss Federal Office of Energy (SFOE) presents the results of a project concerning the development of basics ideas on the design and optimisation of high-temperature methods for the removal of sulphur from biogenic gas products. Tests made as part of the 'Methane from Wood' project at pilot installations in Switzerland and Austria are discussed. Low temperature and high-temperature methods are examined and discussed. A number of sulphur compounds were tested. Also, experiments made using nickel, HDS and CPO catalysers are discussed.

  3. Biogenic precipitation of manganese oxides and enrichment of heavy metals at acidic soil pH

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mayanna, Sathish; Peacock, Caroline L.; Schäffner, Franziska; Grawunder, Anja; Merten, Dirk; Kothe, Erika; Büchel, Georg

    2014-05-01

    The precipitation of biogenic Mn oxides at acidic pH is rarely reported and poorly understood, compared to biogenic Mn oxide precipitation at near neutral conditions. Here we identified and investigated the precipitation of biogenic Mn oxides in acidic soil, and studied their role in the retention of heavy metals, at the former uranium mining site of Ronneburg, Germany. The site is characterized by acidic pH, low carbon content and high heavy metal loads including rare earth elements. Specifically, the Mn oxides were present in layers identified by detailed soil profiling and within these layers pH varied from 4.7 to 5.1, Eh varied from 640 to 660 mV and there were enriched total metal contents for Ba, Ni, Co, Cd and Zn in addition to high Mn levels. Using electron microprobe analysis, synchrotron X-ray diffraction and X-ray absorption spectroscopy, we identified poorly crystalline birnessite (δ-MnO2) as the dominant Mn oxide in the Mn layers, present as coatings covering and cementing quartz grains. With geochemical modelling we found that the environmental conditions at the site were not favourable for chemical oxidation of Mn(II), and thus we performed 16S rDNA sequencing to isolate the bacterial strains present in the Mn layers. Bacterial phyla present in the Mn layers belonged to Firmicutes, Actinobacteria and Proteobacteria, and from these phyla we isolated six strains of Mn(II) oxidizing bacteria and confirmed their ability to oxidise Mn(II) in the laboratory. The biogenic Mn oxide layers act as a sink for metals and the bioavailability of these metals was much lower in the Mn layers than in adjacent layers, reflecting their preferential sorption to the biogenic Mn oxide. In this presentation we will report our findings, concluding that the formation of natural biogenic poorly crystalline birnessite can occur at acidic pH, resulting in the formation of a biogeochemical barrier which, in turn, can control the mobility and bioavailability of heavy metals in

  4. Uncertainty in biogenic isoprene emissions and its impacts on tropospheric chemistry in East Asia

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Han, K.M.; Park, R.S. [School of Environmental Science and Engineering, Gwangju Institute of Science and Technology (GIST), Gwangju, 500-712 (Korea, Republic of); Advanced Environmental Monitoring Research Center (ADEMRC), Gwangju Institute of Science and Technology (GIST), Gwangju, 500-712 (Korea, Republic of); Kim, H.K.; Woo, J.H. [Department of Advanced Technology Fusion, Konkuk University, 1 Hwayang dong, Gwangjin-gu, Seoul, 143-701 (Korea, Republic of); Kim, J. [Department of Atmospheric Sciences, Yonsei University, 134 Sinchon-dong, Seodaemoon-gu, Seoul, 120-749 (Korea, Republic of); Song, C.H., E-mail: chsong@gist.ac.kr [School of Environmental Science and Engineering, Gwangju Institute of Science and Technology (GIST), Gwangju, 500-712 (Korea, Republic of); Advanced Environmental Monitoring Research Center (ADEMRC), Gwangju Institute of Science and Technology (GIST), Gwangju, 500-712 (Korea, Republic of)

    2013-10-01

    In this study, the accuracy of biogenic isoprene emission fluxes over East Asia during two summer months (July and August) was examined by comparing two tropospheric HCHO columns (Ω{sub HCHO}) obtained from the SCIAMACHY sensor and the Community Multi-scale Air Quality (CMAQ v4.7.1) model simulations, using three available biogenic isoprene emission inventories over East Asia: i) GEIA, ii) MEGAN and iii) MOHYCAN. From this comparative analysis, the tropospheric HCHO columns from the CMAQ model simulations, using the MEGAN and MOHYCAN emission inventories (Ω{sub CMAQ,} {sub MEGAN} and Ω{sub CMAQ,} {sub MOHYCAN}), were found to agree well with the tropospheric HCHO columns from the SCIAMACHY observations (Ω{sub SCIA}). Secondly, the propagation of such uncertainties in the biogenic isoprene emission fluxes to the levels of atmospheric oxidants (e.g., OH and HO{sub 2}) and other atmospheric gaseous/particulate species over East Asia during the two summer months was also investigated. As the biogenic isoprene emission fluxes decreased from the GEIA to the MEGAN emission inventories, the levels of OH radicals increased by factors of 1.39 and 1.75 over Central East China (CEC) and South China, respectively. Such increases in the OH radical mixing ratios subsequently influence the partitioning of HO{sub y} species. For example, the HO{sub 2}/OH ratios from the CMAQ model simulations with GEIA isoprene emissions were 2.7 times larger than those from the CMAQ model simulations based on MEGAN isoprene emissions. The large HO{sub 2}/OH ratios from the CMAQ model simulations with the GEIA biogenic emission were possibly due to the overestimation of GEIA biogenic isoprene emissions over East Asia. It was also shown that such large changes in HO{sub x} radicals created large differences on other tropospheric compounds (e.g., NO{sub y} chemistry) over East Asia during the summer months. - Highlights: • GEIA isoprene emissions were possibly overestimated over East Asia.

  5. Uncertainty in biogenic isoprene emissions and its impacts on tropospheric chemistry in East Asia

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Han, K.M.; Park, R.S.; Kim, H.K.; Woo, J.H.; Kim, J.; Song, C.H.

    2013-01-01

    In this study, the accuracy of biogenic isoprene emission fluxes over East Asia during two summer months (July and August) was examined by comparing two tropospheric HCHO columns (Ω HCHO ) obtained from the SCIAMACHY sensor and the Community Multi-scale Air Quality (CMAQ v4.7.1) model simulations, using three available biogenic isoprene emission inventories over East Asia: i) GEIA, ii) MEGAN and iii) MOHYCAN. From this comparative analysis, the tropospheric HCHO columns from the CMAQ model simulations, using the MEGAN and MOHYCAN emission inventories (Ω CMAQ, MEGAN and Ω CMAQ, MOHYCAN ), were found to agree well with the tropospheric HCHO columns from the SCIAMACHY observations (Ω SCIA ). Secondly, the propagation of such uncertainties in the biogenic isoprene emission fluxes to the levels of atmospheric oxidants (e.g., OH and HO 2 ) and other atmospheric gaseous/particulate species over East Asia during the two summer months was also investigated. As the biogenic isoprene emission fluxes decreased from the GEIA to the MEGAN emission inventories, the levels of OH radicals increased by factors of 1.39 and 1.75 over Central East China (CEC) and South China, respectively. Such increases in the OH radical mixing ratios subsequently influence the partitioning of HO y species. For example, the HO 2 /OH ratios from the CMAQ model simulations with GEIA isoprene emissions were 2.7 times larger than those from the CMAQ model simulations based on MEGAN isoprene emissions. The large HO 2 /OH ratios from the CMAQ model simulations with the GEIA biogenic emission were possibly due to the overestimation of GEIA biogenic isoprene emissions over East Asia. It was also shown that such large changes in HO x radicals created large differences on other tropospheric compounds (e.g., NO y chemistry) over East Asia during the summer months. - Highlights: • GEIA isoprene emissions were possibly overestimated over East Asia. • Using MEGAN or MOHYCAN emissions in CMAQ well captured

  6. Quantification of Biogenic Magnetite by Synchrotron X-ray Microscopy During the PETM

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, H.; Wang, J.; Kent, D. V.; Chen-Wiegart, Y. C. K.

    2014-12-01

    Exceptionally large biogenic magnetite crystals, including spearhead-like and spindle-like ones up to 4 microns, have been reported in clay-rich sediments recording the ~56 Ma Paleocene-Eocene thermal maximum (PETM) and carbon isotope excursion (CIE) in a borehole at Ancora, NJ and along with magnetotactic bacteria (MTB) chains, were suggested [Schumann et al. 2008 PNAS; Kopp et al. 2009 Paleoceanography] to account for the distinctive single domain (SD) rock magnetic properties of these sediments [Lanci et al. 2002 JGR]. However, because uncalibrated magnetic extraction techniques were used to provide material for TEM imaging of the biogenic magnetite, it is difficult to quantitatively analyze their concentration in the bulk clay. In this study, we use a synchrotron transmission X-ray microscope to image bulk CIE clay. We first take mosaic images of sub-millimeter-sized bulk clay samples, in which we can identify many of the various types of giant biogenic magnetite crystals, as well as several other types of iron minerals, such as pyrite framboids, siderite, and detrital magnetite. However, limited by the instrument resolution (~50 nm), we are not able to identify MTB chains let alone isolated magnetic nanoparticles that may be abundant the clay. To quantitatively estimate the concentration of the giant biogenic magnetite, we re-deposited the bulk clay sample in an alcohol solution on a silicon nitride membrane for 2D X-ray scans. After scanning a total area of 0.55 mm2 with average clay thickness of 4 μm, we identified ~40 spearheads, ~5 spindles and a few elongated rods and estimated their total magnetization as SD particles to be less than about 10% of the mass normalized clay for the scanned area. This result suggests that the giant biogenic magnetite is not a major source of the SD signal for the clay and is in good agreement with rock magnetic analyses using high-resolution first-order reversal curves and thermal fluctuation tomography on bulk CIE clay

  7. Magnetic comparison of abiogenic and biogenic alteration products of lepidocrocite

    Science.gov (United States)

    Till, J. L.; Guyodo, Y.; Lagroix, F.; Ona-Nguema, G.; Brest, J.

    2014-06-01

    Lepidocrocite is a potentially important Fe-bearing precursor phase for the production of nanoscale Fe-oxide particles in the environment. We present a detailed magnetic characterization of various alteration products of lepidocrocite resulting from thermal dehydroxylation reactions and bacterially induced bioreduction and remineralization, accompanied by characterization with x-ray diffraction (XRD) and transmission electron microscopy. Dehydroxylation during annealing at moderate temperatures produces a topotactic transformation from lepidocrocite to maghemite when heated in an oxidizing atmosphere, or to magnetite when heated in a reducing atmosphere. The abiotic Fe-oxide products form an oriented framework of strongly interacting superparamagnetic crystallites and are characterized by a distinctive porous nanostructure observed by electron microscopy. Lepidocrocite bioreduction by the iron-reducing bacterium Shewanella putrefaciens ATCC 8071 produces nanoscale particles of a strongly magnetic phase. This Fe(II)-bearing mineral produced by bioreduction is highly crystalline and euhedral in shape, with a broad grain size distribution and is indicated by magnetic and XRD measurements to be a cation-excess magnetite. We highlight the distinguishing microscopic characteristics of magnetite from both abiotic and bacterially induced mineralization that should allow them to be identified in natural settings. Moreover, both mechanisms of alteration represent potential pathways for the direct formation of strongly magnetic fine-grained Fe-oxide particles in sedimentary environments.

  8. Datasets used in the manuscript titled "Nitrate radicals and biogenic volatile organic compounds: oxidation, mechanisms and organic aerosol"

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Environmental Protection Agency — This dataset documents that all of the data used in the manuscript "Nitrate radicals and biogenic volatile organic compounds: oxidation, mechanisms, and organic...

  9. The role of biogenic structures on the biogeochemical functioning of mangrove constructed wetlands sediments - A mesocosm approach

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Penha-Lopes, Gil; Kristensen, Erik; Flindt, Mogens; Mangion, Perrine; Bouillon, Steven; Paula, Jose

    2010-01-01

    Benthic metabolism (measured as CO 2 production) and carbon oxidation pathways were evaluated in 4 mangrove mesocosms subjected daily to seawater or 60% sewage in the absence or presence of mangrove trees and biogenic structures (pneumatophores and crab burrows). Total CO 2 emission from darkened sediments devoid of biogenic structures at pristine conditions was comparable during inundation (immersion) and air exposure (emersion), although increased 2-7 times in sewage contaminated mesocosms. Biogenic structures increased low tide carbon gas emissions at contaminated (30%) and particularly pristine conditions (60%). When sewage was loaded into the mesocosms under unvegetated and planted conditions, iron reduction was substituted by sulfate reduction and contribution of aerobic respiration to total metabolism remained above 50%. Our results clearly show impacts of sewage on the partitioning of electron acceptors in mangrove sediment and confirm the importance of biogenic structures for biogeochemical functioning but also on greenhouse gases emission.

  10. EARTH, WIND AND FIRE: BUILDING METEOROLOGICALLY-SENSITIVE BIOGENIC AND WILDLAND FIRE EMISSION ESTIMATES FOR AIR QUALITY MODELS

    Science.gov (United States)

    Emission estimates are important for ensuring the accuracy of atmospheric chemical transport models. Estimates of biogenic and wildland fire emissions, because of their sensitivity to meteorological conditions, need to be carefully constructed and closely linked with a meteorolo...

  11. Biogenic carbon in combustible waste: Waste composition, variability and measurement uncertainty

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Larsen, Anna Warberg; Fuglsang, Karsten; Pedersen, Niels H.

    2013-01-01

    described in the literature. This study addressed the variability of biogenic and fossil carbon in combustible waste received at a municipal solid waste incinerator. Two approaches were compared: (1) radiocarbon dating (14C analysis) of carbon dioxide sampled from the flue gas, and (2) mass and energy......, the measurement uncertainties related to the two approaches were determined. Two flue gas sampling campaigns at a full-scale waste incinerator were included: one during normal operation and one with controlled waste input. Estimation of carbon contents in the main waste types received was included. Both the 14C...... method and the balance method represented promising methods able to provide good quality data for the ratio between biogenic and fossil carbon in waste. The relative uncertainty in the individual experiments was 7–10% (95% confidence interval) for the 14C method and slightly lower for the balance method....

  12. Development and Characterization of Sr-Containing Glass-Ceramic Composites Based on Biogenic Hydroxyapatite

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kuda, Oleksii; Pinchuk, Nataliia; Bykov, Oleksandr; Tomila, Tamara; Olifan, Olena; Golovkova, Maryna

    2018-05-01

    Composite materials based on hydroxyapatite are widely used for bone tissue engineering. There is evidence of a positive effect of the presence of strontium in osteoplastic materials in the case of a Ca/Sr certain ratio. To examine the effect of the addition of Sr2+, a study was made by introducing it into the material composition based on biogenic hydroxyapatite and sodium borosilicate glass (50/50% wt.). The strontium was introduced into the composition in an amount of 1% wt. Composite materials were obtained at final sintering temperatures of 780 °C and a sintering time of 1 h. The effect of additions of glass phase and strontium affect changes in the crystal lattice of biogenic hydroxyapatite was investigated with the help of X-ray phase analysis, IR spectroscopy. Also the behavior of composites in vitro in physiological solution was studied.

  13. Biogenic Amines as Quality Marker in Organic and Fair-Trade Cocoa-Based Products

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Donatella Restuccia

    2016-08-01

    Full Text Available In this study, the quantitative determination of eight biogenic amines (cadaverine, serotonin, histamine, spermidine, spermine, tyramine, putrescine and β-phenylethylamine by an liquid chromatography method with evaporative light scattering detection was performed. The analysis of several samples of conventional, organic and fair trade cocoa-derivatives showed that organic and fair trade samples always contain much lower amine concentrations in comparison with their conventional counterparts, supporting the idea that biogenic amines can be regarded as cocoa quality markers. Irrespective of the kind of sample, results also showed that the most abundant amines were histamine, tyramine, spermidine, putrescine and spermine while β-phenylethylamine, cadaverine and serotonine have been found more rarely, all the amines never reaching dangerous amounts for consumer health. With the aim to confirm the experimental results, clustering analysis was performed on samples and instrumental results using principal component analysis.

  14. Magnetic particles-based biosensor for biogenic amines using an optical oxygen sensor as a transducer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pospiskova, K.; Sebela, M.; Safarik, I.; Kuncova, G.

    2013-01-01

    We have developed a fibre optic biosensor with incorporated magnetic microparticles for the determination of biogenic amines. The enzyme diamine oxidase from Pisum sativum was immobilized either on chitosan-coated magnetic microparticles or on commercial microbeads modified with a ferrofluid. Both the immobilized enzyme and the ruthenium complex were incorporated into a UV-cured inorganic-organic polymer composite and deposited on a lens that was connected, by optical fibres, to an electro-optical detector. The enzyme catalyzes the oxidation of amines under consumption of oxygen. The latter was determined by measuring the quenched fluorescence lifetime of the ruthenium complex. The limits of detection for the biogenic amines putrescine and cadaverine are 25-30 μmol L -1 , and responses are linear up to a concentration of 1 mmol L -1 . (author)

  15. A web accessible resource for investigating cassava phenomics and genomics information: BIOGEN BASE.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jayakodi, Murukarthick; Selvan, Sreedevi Ghokhilamani; Natesan, Senthil; Muthurajan, Raveendran; Duraisamy, Raghu; Ramineni, Jana Jeevan; Rathinasamy, Sakthi Ambothi; Karuppusamy, Nageswari; Lakshmanan, Pugalenthi; Chokkappan, Mohan

    2011-01-01

    The goal of our research is to establish a unique portal to bring out the potential outcome of the research in the Casssava crop. The Biogen base for cassava clearly brings out the variations of different traits of the germplasms, maintained at the Tapioca and Castor Research Station, Tamil Nadu Agricultural University. Phenotypic and genotypic variations of the accessions are clearly depicted, for the users to browse and interpret the variations using the microsatellite markers. Database (BIOGEN BASE - CASSAVA) is designed using PHP and MySQL and is equipped with extensive search options. It is more user-friendly and made publicly available, to improve the research and development of cassava by making a wealth of genetics and genomics data available through open, common, and worldwide forum for all individuals interested in the field. The database is available for free at http://www.tnaugenomics.com/biogenbase/casava.php.

  16. [Distribution of biogenic amines in the hippocampal formation in the rabbit].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Budantsev, A Iu; Gur'ianova, A D

    1975-06-01

    The hippocampal formation (the hippocampus and the dentate fascia) of the rabbit was studied by histochemical fluorescent method of Falk to determine localization of monoaminergic terminals containing biogenic amines: noradrenalin, dophamine and serotonin. It was shown that monoaminenergic terminals in the hippocampus were in two zones of afferent terminations: in the zone of ending of the perforating way (str. lacunosum-moleculare of fields CA1 and CA2; str. moleculare of the dentate fascia) and in the subgranular zone of the hilum where a part of septofimbrial way terminated on granular neurons of the dentate fascia, the main cellular elements of the hipocampus (pyramidal, granular and basket cells of the hippocampus) did not contain biogenic amines.

  17. Biogenic production of cyanide and its application to gold recovery.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Campbell, S C; Olson, G J; Clark, T R; McFeters, G

    2001-03-01

    Chromobacterium violaceum is a cyanogenic (cyanide-producing) microorganism. Cyanide is used on an industrial scale to complex and recover gold from ores or concentrates of ores bearing the precious metal. A potentially useful approach in gold mining operations could be to produce cyanide biologically in relatively small quantities at the ore surface. In this study, C. violaceum grown in nutrient broth formed a biofilm and could complex and solubilize 100% of the gold on glass test slides within 4-7 days. Approximately 50% of the cyanide- recoverable gold could be mobilized from a biooxidized sulfidic-ore concentrate. Complexation of cyanide in solution by gold appeared to have a beneficial effect on cell growth--viable cell counts were nearly two orders of magnitude greater in the presence of gold-coated slides or biooxidized ore substrates than in their absence. C. violaceum was cyanogenic when grown in alternative feedstocks. When grown in a mineral salt solution supplemented with 13.3% v/v swine fecal material (SFM), cells exhibited pigmentation and suspended cell concentrations comparable to cultures grown in nutrient broth. Glycine supplements stimulated production of cyanide in 13.3% v/v SFM. In contrast, glycine was inhibitory when added at the time of inoculation in the more concentrated SFM, decreasing cell numbers and reducing ultimate bulk-solution cyanide concentrations. However, aeration and addition of glycine to stationary phase cells grown on 13.3% v/v SFM anaerobically resulted in rapid production and high concentrations (up to 38 mg l(-1)) of cyanide. This indicates that biogenesis of cyanide may be supported in remote areas using locally produced and inexpensive agricultural feedstocks in place of commercial media.

  18. Thermostable trypsin conjugates immobilized to biogenic magnetite show a high operational stability and remarkable reusability for protein digestion

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pečová, M.; Šebela, M.; Marková, Z.; Poláková, K.; Čuda, J.; Šafářová, K.; Zbořil, R.

    2013-03-01

    In this work, magnetosomes produced by microorganisms were chosen as a suitable magnetic carrier for covalent immobilization of thermostable trypsin conjugates with an expected applicability for efficient and rapid digestion of proteins at elevated temperatures. First, a biogenic magnetite was isolated from Magnetospirillum gryphiswaldense and its free surface was coated with the natural polysaccharide chitosan containing free amino and hydroxy groups. Prior to covalent immobilization, bovine trypsin was modified by conjugating with α-, β- and γ-cyclodextrin. Modified trypsin was bound to the magnetic carriers via amino groups using 1-ethyl-3-(3-dimethylaminopropyl) carbodiimide and N-hydroxysulfosuccinimide as coupling reagents. The magnetic biomaterial was characterized by magnetometric analysis and electron microscopy. With regard to their biochemical properties, the immobilized trypsin conjugates showed an increased resistance to elevated temperatures, eliminated autolysis, had an unchanged pH optimum and a significant storage stability and reusability. Considering these parameters, the presented enzymatic system exhibits properties that are superior to those of trypsin forms obtained by other frequently used approaches. The proteolytic performance was demonstrated during in-solution digestion of model proteins (horseradish peroxidase, bovine serum albumin and hen egg white lysozyme) followed by mass spectrometry. It is shown that both magnetic immobilization and chemical modification enhance the characteristics of trypsin making it a promising tool for protein digestion.

  19. The effects of atmospheric [CO2] on carbon isotope fractionation and magnesium incorporation into biogenic marine calcite

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vieira, Veronica

    1997-01-01

    The influences of atmospheric carbon dioxide on the fractionation of carbon isotopes and the magnesium incorporation into biogenic marine calcite were investigated using samples of the calcareous alga Amphiroa and benthic foraminifer Sorites grown in the Biosphere 2 Ocean system under variable atmospheric CO2 concentrations (approximately 500 to 1200 ppm). Carbon isotope fractionation was studied in both the organic matter and the skeletal carbonate. Magnesium analysis was to be performed on the carbonate removed during decalcification. These data have not been collected due to technical problems. Carbon isotope data from Amphiroa yields a linear relation between [CO2] and Delta(sup 13)C(sub Corg)values suggesting that the fractionation of carbon isotopes during photosynthesis is positively correlated with atmospheric [CO2]. [CO2] and Delta(sup 13)C(sub Corg) values for Sorites produce a relation that is best described by a hyperbolic function where Delta(sup 13)C(sub Corg) values increase between 300 and 700 ppm and decrease from 700 to 1200 ppm. Further investigation of this relation and Sorites physiology is needed.

  20. Methyl chavicol: characterization of its biogenic emission rate, abundance, and oxidation products in the atmosphere

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    N. C. Bouvier-Brown

    2009-03-01

    Full Text Available We report measurements of ambient atmospheric mixing ratios for methyl chavicol and determine its biogenic emission rate. Methyl chavicol, a biogenic oxygenated aromatic compound, is abundant within and above Blodgett Forest, a ponderosa pine forest in the Sierra Nevada Mountains of California. Methyl chavicol was detected simultaneously by three in-situ instruments – a gas chromatograph with mass spectrometer detector (GC-MS, a proton transfer reaction mass spectrometer (PTR-MS, and a thermal desorption aerosol GC-MS (TAG – and found to be abundant within and above Blodgett Forest. Methyl chavicol atmospheric mixing ratios are strongly correlated with 2-methyl-3-buten-2-ol (MBO, a light- and temperature-dependent biogenic emission from the ponderosa pine trees at Blodgett Forest. Scaling from this correlation, methyl chavicol emissions account for 4–68% of the carbon mass emitted as MBO in the daytime, depending on the season. From this relationship, we estimate a daytime basal emission rate of 0.72–10.2 μgCg−1 h−1, depending on needle age and seasonality. We also present the first observations of its oxidation products (4-methoxybenzaldehyde and 4-methyoxy benzene acetaldehyde in the ambient atmosphere. Methyl chavicol is a major essential oil component of many plant species. This work suggests that methyl chavicol plays a significant role in the atmospheric chemistry of Blodgett Forest, and potentially other sites, and should be included explicitly in both biogenic volatile organic carbon emission and atmospheric chemistry models.

  1. Biogenic Properties of Deep Waters from the Black Sea Reduction (Hydrogen Sulphide) Zone for Marine Algae

    OpenAIRE

    Polikarpov, Gennady G.; Lazorenko, Galina Е.; Тereschenko, Natalya N.

    2015-01-01

    Abstract Generalized data of biogenic properties investigations of the Black Sea deep waters from its reduction zone for marine algae are presented. It is shown on board and in laboratory that after pre-oxidation of hydrogen sulphide by intensive aeration of the deep waters lifted to the surface of the sea, they are ready to be used for cultivation of the Black Sea unicellular, planktonic, and multicellular, benthic, algae instead of artificial medium. Naturally balanced micro- and macroeleme...

  2. Significance of Future Biogenic and Fire Emissions on Regional Aerosol Burden

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lim, A.; Tai, A. P. K.; Val Martin, M.

    2017-12-01

    Land-use and land cover changes have been found to substantially affect atmospheric aerosols and climate worldwide1,2, but the complex mechanisms and pathways involved in the interactions between terrestrial processes and aerosols are not well understood. Here we use a global coupled aerosol chemistry-climate-land model (CESM with CAM5 using Modal Aerosol Module 3 and CLM4.5 in Satellite Phenology mode) to investigate how aerosols respond to future climate and land-use changes, and in turn, affects cloud cover and other hydrometeorological variables in the long term. Time-sliced simulations are conducted for a base year (2000) as a base case; then three future projected scenarios for year 2050 driven by land-use and climate projections following the Representative Concentration Pathways RCP8.53 are conducted. The first scenario considers future projected biogenic emissions, allowing us to investigate the effect of increased plant activity and enhanced biogenic emissions due to future land-use and climate on aerosol burden. The second scenario considers future biomass burning emissions, allowing us to investigate the effect of increased biomass burning emissions due to future land-use and climate on aerosol burden. The third scenario combines the projected changes in the two emissions. We find that both biogenic and biomass burning emissions contribute significantly to local aerosol and cloud condensation nuclei (CCN) concentrations. The contribution from biogenic emissions to local aerosol burden is smaller in magnitude (10% to 20%), but the effects are ubiquitous in many places globally. Meanwhile, the contribution from biomass burning emissions can be much higher in magnitude (63%)4, but concentrated in heavily burned regions and occurs only during burning season. Effects of both emissions are not additive since a larger flux of emissions causes greater deposition. The resulting further impacts of land-use change on regional hydrometeorology are also explored

  3. Quantitative laboratory measurements of biogeochemical processes controlling biogenic calcite carbon sequestration.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zendejas, Frank; Lane, Todd W.; Lane, Pamela D.

    2011-01-01

    The purpose of this LDRD was to generate data that could be used to populate and thereby reduce the uncertainty in global carbon cycle models. These efforts were focused on developing a system for determining the dissolution rate of biogenic calcite under oceanic pressure and temperature conditions and on carrying out a digital transcriptomic analysis of gene expression in response to changes in pCO2, and the consequent acidification of the growth medium.

  4. Amino Acids and Biogenic Amines Evolution during the Estufagem of Fortified Wines

    OpenAIRE

    Vanda Pereira; Ana C. Pereira; Juan P. Pérez Trujillo; Juan Cacho; José C. Marques

    2015-01-01

    The current study was focused on the impact of accelerated ageing (heating step) on the amino acid and biogenic amine profiles of fortified wines. In this sense, three Madeira wines from two commonly used grape varieties (one red and the other white) were analysed during the heating, at standard (45°C, 3 months) and overheating (70°C, 1 month) conditions, following a precolumn derivatization procedure using iodoacetic acid, o-phthaldialdehyde, and 2-mercaptoethanol, carried out in the injecti...

  5. Content of biogenic amines in Lemna minor (common duckweed) growing in medium contaminated with tetracycline.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baciak, Michał; Sikorski, Łukasz; Piotrowicz-Cieślak, Agnieszka I; Adomas, Barbara

    2016-11-01

    Aquatic plants are continuously exposed to a variety of stress factors. No data on the impact of antibiotics on the biogenic amines in duckweed (Lemna minor) have been available so far, and such data could be significant, considering the ecological role of this plant in animal food chains. In the tissues of control (non-stressed) nine-day-old duckweed, the following biogenic amines were identified: tyramine, putrescine, cadaverine, spermidine and spermine. Based on the tetracycline contents and the computed EC values, the predicted toxicity units have been calculated. The obtained results demonstrated phytoxicity caused by tetracycline in relation to duckweed growth rate, yield and the contents of chlorophylls a and b. The carotenoid content was not modified by tetracycline. It was found that tetracycline as a water pollutant was a stress factor triggering an increase in the synthesis of amines. Tetracycline at 19, 39 and 78μM concentrations increased biogenic amine synthesis by 3.5 times. Although the content of tyramine increased fourteen times with the highest concentration of the drug (and of spermidine - only three-fold) the increase of spermidine was numerically the highest. Among the biogenic amines the most responsive to tetracycline were spermine and tyramine, while the least affected were putrescine and spermidine. Despite putrescine and spermidine being the least sensitive, their sum of contents increased five-fold compared to the control. These studies suggest that tetracycline in water reservoirs is taken up by L. minor as the antibiotic clearly modifies the metabolism of this plant and it may likely pose a risk. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  6. Studies of the influence of soil biogenic acidity on podzol formation

    OpenAIRE

    Yashin, Ivan; Vasenev, Ivan; Valentini, Ricardo; Petukhova, Anastasiya; Kogut, Lubov

    2013-01-01

    The paper with a review and generalization of data analysis on the principal forms of soil biogenic acidity is based on research into representative podzols and podzoluvisols with combined parent materials and boreal (taiga) ecosystems at the Central Forest Biosphere Reserve (CFBR) (Tver region), Forest Experimental Station of RSAU (FES) (Moscow) and LAMP Experimental plot in Taiga park of Petrozavodsk. Long-term monitoring of acidity forms was performed by the authors during 2002-2012. Two p...

  7. Flight initiation and maintenance deficits in flies with genetically altered biogenic amine levels

    OpenAIRE

    Brembs, Björn; Christiansen, F.; Pflüger, J.; Duch, C.

    2007-01-01

    Insect flight is one of the fastest, most intense and most energy-demanding motor behaviors. It is modulated on multiple levels by the biogenic amine octopamine. Within the CNS, octopamine acts directly on the flight central pattern generator, and it affects motivational states. In the periphery, octopamine sensitizes sensory receptors, alters muscle contraction kinetics, and enhances flight muscle glycolysis. This study addresses the roles for octopamine and its precursor tyramine in flight ...

  8. Online measurement of biogenic organic acids in the boreal forest using atmospheric pressure chemical ionization mass spectrometry (APCI-MS)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vogel, A. L.; Brüggemann, M.; ńijälä, M.; Ehn, M.; Junninen, H.; Corrigan, A. L.; Petäjä, T.; Worsnop, D. R.; Russell, L. M.; Kulmala, M.; Williams, J.; Hoffmann, T.

    2012-04-01

    Emission of biogenic volatile organic compounds (BVOCs) by vegetation in the boreal forest and their subsequent atmospheric oxidation leads to the formation of secondary organic aerosol (SOA) which has important impacts on climate and human health. Oxidation of BVOCs produces a variety of mostly unidentified species in oxygenated organic aerosol (OOA). Presently aerosol mass spectrometers (AMS) are able to determine quantitative information about the relative oxygen to carbon content of organic aerosols and thereby reveal the photochemical age and volatility of organic aerosol by distinguishing between low volatile oxygenated organic aerosol (LV-OOA), semivolatile oxygenated organic aerosol (SV-OOA) and hydrocarbon like organic aerosol (HOA)[1]. However, the AMS can usually not be used to measure and quantify single organic compounds such as individual biogenic organic marker compounds. Here we show the results of online measurements of gas and particle phase biogenic acids during HUMPPA-COPEC 2010 at Hyytiälä, Finland. This was achieved by coupling a self built miniature Versatile Aerosol Concentration Enrichment System (mVACES) as described by Geller et al. [2] with an Atmospheric Pressure Chemical Ionization Ion Trap Mass Spectrometer (APCI IT MS; Hoffmann et al., [3]). The benefits of the on-line APCI-MS are soft ionization with little fragmentation compared to AMS, high measurement frequency and less sampling artifacts than in the common procedure of taking filter samples, extraction and detection with LC-MS. Furthermore, the ion trap of the instrument allows MS/MS experiments to be performed by isolation of single m/z ratios of selected molecular species. By subsequent addition of energy, the trapped ions form characteristic fragments which enable structural insight on the molecular level. Comparison of APCI-MS data to AMS data, acquired with a C-ToF-AMS [4], revealed a good correlation coefficient for total organics and sulphate. Furthermore, data show

  9. Arsenic species in weathering mine tailings and biogenic solids at the Lava Cap Mine Superfund Site, Nevada City, CA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ashley Roger P

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background A realistic estimation of the health risk of human exposure to solid-phase arsenic (As derived from historic mining operations is a major challenge to redevelopment of California's famed "Mother Lode" region. Arsenic, a known carcinogen, occurs in multiple solid forms that vary in bioaccessibility. X-ray absorption fine-structure spectroscopy (XAFS was used to identify and quantify the forms of As in mine wastes and biogenic solids at the Lava Cap Mine Superfund (LCMS site, a historic "Mother Lode" gold mine. Principal component analysis (PCA was used to assess variance within water chemistry, solids chemistry, and XAFS spectral datasets. Linear combination, least-squares fits constrained in part by PCA results were then used to quantify arsenic speciation in XAFS spectra of tailings and biogenic solids. Results The highest dissolved arsenic concentrations were found in Lost Lake porewater and in a groundwater-fed pond in the tailings deposition area. Iron, dissolved oxygen, alkalinity, specific conductivity, and As were the major variables in the water chemistry PCA. Arsenic was, on average, 14 times more concentrated in biologically-produced iron (hydroxide than in mine tailings. Phosphorous, manganese, calcium, aluminum, and As were the major variables in the solids chemistry PCA. Linear combination fits to XAFS spectra indicate that arsenopyrite (FeAsS, the dominant form of As in ore material, remains abundant (average: 65% in minimally-weathered ore samples and water-saturated tailings at the bottom of Lost Lake. However, tailings that underwent drying and wetting cycles contain an average of only 30% arsenopyrite. The predominant products of arsenopyrite weathering were identified by XAFS to be As-bearing Fe (hydroxide and arseniosiderite (Ca2Fe(AsO43O3•3H2O. Existence of the former species is not in question, but the presence of the latter species was not confirmed by additional measurements, so its identification is

  10. Measurements of a potential interference with laser-induced fluorescence measurements of ambient OH from the ozonolysis of biogenic alkenes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rickly, Pamela; Stevens, Philip S.

    2018-01-01

    Reactions of the hydroxyl radical (OH) play a central role in the chemistry of the atmosphere, and measurements of its concentration can provide a rigorous test of our understanding of atmospheric oxidation. Several recent studies have shown large discrepancies between measured and modeled OH concentrations in forested areas impacted by emissions of biogenic volatile organic compounds (BVOCs), where modeled concentrations were significantly lower than measurements. A potential reason for some of these discrepancies involves interferences associated with the measurement of OH using the laser-induced fluorescence-fluorescence assay by gas expansion (LIF-FAGE) technique in these environments. In this study, a turbulent flow reactor operating at atmospheric pressure was coupled to a LIF-FAGE cell and the OH signal produced from the ozonolysis of α-pinene, β-pinene, ocimene, isoprene, and 2-methyl-3-buten-2-ol (MBO) was measured. To distinguish between OH produced from the ozonolysis reactions and any OH artifact produced inside the LIF-FAGE cell, an external chemical scrubbing technique was used, allowing for the direct measurement of any interference. An interference under high ozone (between 2 × 1013 and 10 × 1013 cm-3) and BVOC concentrations (between approximately 0.1 × 1012 and 40 × 1012 cm-3) was observed that was not laser generated and was independent of the ozonolysis reaction time. For the ozonolysis of α- and β-pinene, the observed interference accounted for approximately 40 % of the total OH signal, while for the ozonolysis of ocimene the observed interference accounted for approximately 70 % of the total OH signal. Addition of acetic acid to the reactor eliminated the interference, suggesting that the source of the interference in these experiments involved the decomposition of stabilized Criegee intermediates (SCIs) inside the FAGE detection cell. Extrapolation of these measurements to ambient concentrations suggests that these interferences

  11. Effect of acidic seed on biogenic secondary organic aerosol growth

    Science.gov (United States)

    Czoschke, Nadine M.; Jang, Myoseon; Kamens, Richard M.

    Secondary organic aerosol (SOA) growth in the presence of acid aerosols was studied in twin 500 l Teflon bags and in a 4 m flow reactor. In Teflon bags, isoprene, acrolein and α-pinene were all made to react individually with ozone and exposed to either acid or non-acid inorganic seed aerosols to determine the effect of acid-catalyzed heterogeneous reactions on SOA growth. α-Pinene and ozone were made to react in a flow reactor to assess the immediate effect of mixing an acid aerosol with SOA at high and low relative humidity levels. In all cases, exposure to acid seed aerosol increased the amount of SOA mass produced. Fourier transform infrared spectra of the SOA in acid systems confirmed the transformation of carbonyl functional groups through acid-catalyzed heterogeneous reactions when SOAs formed in acidic environments or were exposed to acidic aerosols. Organic products initially produced from ozonation in the gas phase partition onto the inorganic seed aerosol and react heterogeneously with an acid catalyst forming low vapor pressure products. These acid-catalyzed heterogeneous reactions are implicated in generating the increased SOA mass observed in acidic aerosol systems as they transform predominantly gas phase compounds of high volatility into low vapor pressure predominantly particle phase products.

  12. Unraveling the atomic structure of biogenic silica: evidence of the structural association of Al and Si in diatom frustules

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gehlen, M.; Beck, L.; Calas, G.; Flank, A.-M.; Van Bennekom, A. J.; Van Beusekom, J. E. E.

    2002-05-01

    We used X-ray absorption spectroscopy at the Al K-edge to investigate the atomic structure of biogenic silica and to assess the effect of Al on its crystal chemistry. Our study provides the first direct evidence for a structural association of Al and Si in biogenic silica. In samples of cultured diatoms, Al is present exclusively in fourfold coordination. The location and relative intensity of X-ray absorption near-edge structure (XANES) features suggests the structural insertion of tetrahedral Al inside the silica framework synthesized by the organism. In diatom samples collected in the marine environment, Al is present in mixed six- and fourfold coordination. The relative intensity of XANES structures indicates the coexistence of structural Al with a clay component, which most likely reflects sample contamination by adhering mineral particles. Extended X-ray absorption fine structure spectroscopy has been used to get Al-O distances in biogenic silica of cultured diatoms, confirming a tetrahedral coordination. Because of its effect on solubility and reaction kinetics of biogenic silica, the structural association between Al and biogenic silica at the stage of biosynthesis has consequences for the use of sedimentary biogenic silica as an indicator of past environmental conditions.

  13. Influence on wine biogenic amine composition of modifications to soil N availability and grapevine N by cover crops.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pérez-Álvarez, Eva P; Garde-Cerdán, Teresa; Cabrita, Maria João; García-Escudero, Enrique; Peregrina, Fernando

    2017-11-01

    Vineyard soil management can modify the nitrogen soil availability and, therefore, grape amino acid content. These compounds are precursors of biogenic amines, which have negative effects on wine quality and human health. The objective was to study whether the effect of conventional tillage and two cover crops (barley and clover) on grapevine nitrogen status could be related to wine biogenic amines. Over 4 years, soil NO 3 - -N, nitrogen content in leaf and wine biogenic amine concentration were determined. Barley reduced soil NO 3 - -N availability and clover increased it. In 2011, at bloom, nitrogen content decreased with barley treatment in both blade and petiole. In 2012, nitrogen content in both leaf tissues at bloom was greater with clover than with tillage and barley treatments. Also, total biogenic amines decreased in barley with respect to tillage and clover treatments. There were correlations between some individual and total biogenic amine concentrations with respect to nitrogen content in leaf tissues. Wine biogenic amine concentration can be affected by the grapevine nitrogen status, provoked by changes in the soil NO 3 - -N availability with both cover crop treatments. © 2017 Society of Chemical Industry. © 2017 Society of Chemical Industry.

  14. Life Cycle Assessment of age-related environmental impact of biogenic hydraulic fluids; Life Cycle Assessment der alterungsbedingten Umweltvertraeglichkeit biogener Hydraulik-Schmierstoffe

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bressling, Jana

    2012-07-01

    Biogenic hydraulic fluids, based on synthetic esters (category: HEES), have an excellent environmental profile in the unused state, so that they are typically classified into water hazard class 1 or as ''not hazardous to water''. During storage at room temperature and tribological application, occurring chemical and toxicological changes take no account in the classification of lubricants until now. However, the ageing and oxidation stability gets increasing importance, since it determines the service life of lubricants in tribological systems in addition to the storage time. Since it always comes to direct and uncontrolled entries into the environment in case of accidents or hydraulic leaks, it is essential to assess whether there is an environmental hazard by waste oils. With an increased use of biogenic hydraulic fluids in environmentally sensitive areas, thus the need for an appropriate monitoring and assessment approach as part of a Life Cycle Assessment (LCA). The aquatic and miniaturised test procedures applied in this work with the Water Soluble Fraction (WSF) concept, allows a simple and quick screening of age-related ecotoxic potential of lubricants by oxidative processes and tribological application. For detection of genotoxic potential the umu-test is a suitable indicator test to detect geno- and cytotoxic effects by oxidative reactions. The determination of biodegradability is essential for the assessment of the environmental impact of hydraulic fluids. The optimised biodegradability test system ''O2/CO2-Headspace Test'' has proved itself as a suitable procedure for the investigation of biogenic lubricants within the scope of a LCA and shows therefore a comparable method of the required test procedures for the assignment of ecolabels. In addition, the combination of biological test procedures and chemical analysis allows a comprehensive investigation of effects and causes of age-related changes of hydraulic

  15. Biogenic non-methane hydrocarbons (NMHC). Nature`s contribution to regional and global atmospheric chemistry

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Klockow, D.; Hoffman, T. [Inst. of Spectrochemistry and Applied Spectroscopy, Dortmund (Germany)

    1995-12-31

    Terrestrial vegetation provides an important source of volatile hydrocarbons, especially isoprene, monoterpenes and in addition possibly sesquiterpenes as well as oxygenated compounds. Although there exist considerable uncertainties in the estimation of the magnitude of these biogenic NMHC emissions, it is generally accepted that the majority of global NMHC release is from natural and not from anthropogenic sources. Taking into consideration the high reactivity of the mostly unsaturated biogenic emissions, their impact on tropospheric processes can be assumed to be of great importance. Together with anthropogenic NO{sub x} emissions, the highly reactive natural alkenes can act as precursors in photochemical oxidant formation and contribute to regional-scale air pollution. Their oxidation in the atmosphere and the subsequent gas-to-particle conversion of the products lead to the formation of organic aerosols. Because of the formation of phytotoxic compounds, the interaction of the biogenic hydrocarbons with ozone inside or outside the leaves and needles of plants has been suggested to play a role in forest decline. (author)

  16. Biogenic iron mineralization at Iron Mountain, CA with implications for detection with the Mars Curiosity rover

    Science.gov (United States)

    Williams, Amy J.; Sumner, Dawn Y.; Alpers, Charles N.; Campbell, Kate M.; Nordstrom, D. Kirk

    2014-01-01

    (Introduction) Microbe-mineral interactions and biosignature preservation in oxidized sulfidic ore bodies (gossans) are prime candidates for astrobiological study. Such oxidized iron systems have been proposed as analogs for some Martian environments. Recent studies identified microbial fossils preserved as mineral-coated filaments. This study documents microbially-mediated mineral biosignatures in hydrous ferric oxide (HFO) and ferric oxyhydroxysulfates (FOHS) in three environments at Iron Mountain, CA. We investigated microbial community preservation via HFO and FOHS precipitation and the formation of filamentous mineral biosignatures. These environments included 1) actively precipitating (1000's yrs), naturally weathered HFO from in situ gossan, and 3) remobilized iron deposits, which contained lithified clastics and zones of HFO precipitate. We used published biogenicity criteria as guidelines to characterize the biogenicity of mineral filaments. These criteria included A) an actively precipitating environment where microbes are known to be coated in minerals, B) presence of extant microbial communities with carbon signatures, C) structures observable as a part of the host rock, and D) biological morphology, including cellular lumina, multiple member population, numerous taxa, variable and 3-D preservation, biological size ranges, uniform diameter, and evidence of flexibility. This study explores the relevance and detection of these biosignatures to possible Martian biosignatures. Similar filamentous biosignatures are resolvable by the Mars Hand Lens Imager (MAHLI) onboard the Mars Science Laboratory (MSL) rover, Curiosity, and may be identifiable as biogenic if present on Mars.

  17. Transformation and Crystallization Energetics of Synthetic and Biogenic Amorphous Calcium Carbonate

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Radha, A. V. [Peter A. Rock Thermochemistry Lab. and Nanomaterials in the Environment, Agriculture, and Technology Organized Research Unit (NEAT ORU), Univ. of California, Davis, CA (United States); Forbes, Tori Z. [Peter A. Rock Thermochemistry Lab. and Nanomaterials in the Environment, Agriculture, and Technology Organized Research Unit (NEAT ORU), Univ. of California, Davis, CA (United States); Killian, Christopher E. [Univ. of Wisconsin, Madison, WI (United States); Gilbert, P.U.P.A [Univ. of Wisconsin, Madison, WI (United States); Navrotsky, Alexandra [Peter A. Rock Thermochemistry Lab. and Nanomaterials in the Environment, Agriculture, and Technology Organized Research Unit (NEAT ORU), Univ. of California, Davis, CA (United States)

    2010-01-01

    Amorphous calcium carbonate (ACC) is a metastable phase often observed during low temperature inorganic synthesis and biomineralization. ACC transforms with aging or heating into a less hydrated form, and with time crystallizes to calcite or aragonite. The energetics of transformation and crystallization of synthetic and biogenic (extracted from California purple sea urchin larval spicules, Strongylocentrotus purpuratus) ACC were studied using isothermal acid solution calorimetry and differential scanning calorimetry. Transformation and crystallization of ACC can follow an energetically downhill sequence: more metastable hydrated ACC → less metastable hydrated ACC→anhydrous ACC ~ biogenic anhydrous ACC→vaterite → aragonite → calcite. In a given reaction sequence, not all these phases need to occur. The transformations involve a series of ordering, dehydration, and crystallization processes, each lowering the enthalpy (and free energy) of the system, with crystallization of the dehydrated amorphous material lowering the enthalpy the most. ACC is much more metastable with respect to calcite than the crystalline polymorphs vaterite or aragonite. The anhydrous ACC is less metastable than the hydrated, implying that the structural reorganization during dehydration is exothermic and irreversible. Dehydrated synthetic and anhydrous biogenic ACC are similar in enthalpy. The transformation sequence observed in biomineralization could be mainly energetically driven; the first phase deposited is hydrated ACC, which then converts to anhydrous ACC, and finally crystallizes to calcite. The initial formation of ACC may be a first step in the precipitation of calcite under a wide variety of conditions, including geological CO₂ sequestration.

  18. Amino Acids and Biogenic Amines Evolution during the Estufagem of Fortified Wines

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vanda Pereira

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available The current study was focused on the impact of accelerated ageing (heating step on the amino acid and biogenic amine profiles of fortified wines. In this sense, three Madeira wines from two commonly used grape varieties (one red and the other white were analysed during the heating, at standard (45°C, 3 months and overheating (70°C, 1 month conditions, following a precolumn derivatization procedure using iodoacetic acid, o-phthaldialdehyde, and 2-mercaptoethanol, carried out in the injection loop prior to RP-HPLC-FLD detection. Eighteen amino acids were identified, with arginine being the most abundant. An important decrease of the amino acid levels was detected during the standard heating (up to 30%, enhanced up to 61% by the temperature increase. Cysteine, histidine, and asparagine revealed the greatest decreases at 45°C. Conversely, some amino acids, such as asparagine, slightly increased. Four biogenic amines were identified but always in trace amounts. Finally, it was observed that the accelerated ageing did not favour the biogenic amine development. The results also indicate that the heating process promotes the amino acid transformation into new ageing products.

  19. Direct radiative feedback due to biogenic secondary organic aerosol estimated from boreal forest site observations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lihavainen, Heikki; Asmi, Eija; Aaltonen, Veijo; Makkonen, Ulla; Kerminen, Veli-Matti

    2015-01-01

    We used more than five years of continuous aerosol measurements to estimate the direct radiative feedback parameter associated with the formation of biogenic secondary organic aerosol (BSOA) at a remote continental site at the edge of the boreal forest zone in Northern Finland. Our upper-limit estimate for this feedback parameter during the summer period (ambient temperatures above 10 °C) was −97 ± 66 mW m −2 K −1 (mean ± STD) when using measurements of the aerosol optical depth (f AOD ) and −63 ± 40 mW m −2 K −1 when using measurements of the ‘dry’ aerosol scattering coefficient at the ground level (f σ ). Here STD represents the variability in f caused by the observed variability in the quantities used to derive the value of f. Compared with our measurement site, the magnitude of the direct radiative feedback associated with BSOA is expected to be larger in warmer continental regions with more abundant biogenic emissions, and even larger in regions where biogenic emissions are mixed with anthropogenic pollution. (letter)

  20. Neogene biogenic sediments of onshore Peru: part I, sedimentology and stratigraphy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Marty, R.C.; Dunbar, R.B.; Baker, P.

    1985-01-01

    The Sechura (approx.6/sup 0/S) and Pisco (approx.14/sup 0/S) Basins of onshore Peru contain Miocene diatom and phosphate rich sediments which sharply contrast with underlying clastics. In the Sechura Basin the Miocene clastic Mancora, Heath and Montera Formations are overlain by the Zapallal Formation which grades upwards from a weakly biogenic base into fairly pure diatomites (biogenic silica >20%) and ore grade phosphorite (P/sub 2/O/sub 5/>20%). Biogeneic content decreases in the eastern basin as clastic content increases. The base of the Zapallal Formation has been dated at between 12.2 and 14.0 mybp using radiolaria correlated to magnetic stratigraphy by Theyer, et al (1978), and the phosphatic section yields dates of between 8.0 and 11.2 my. In the Pisco Basin the Eocene clastic Paracas Formation is overlain unconformably by the Miocene Pisco Formation which contains a basal sequence of cross-bedded clastics, tuffs, and partially recrystallized diatomites; a phosphorite bearing middle sequence; and a diatom rich top. Current direction from the cross beds of the basal Pisco Formation indicate a generally southerly transport direction but with considerable directional variability. This may be related to the Peru under-current which shows highly variable strength and direction near 15/sup 0/S.

  1. Diclofenac and 2‐anilinophenylacetate degradation by combined activity of biogenic manganese oxides and silver

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meerburg, Francis; Hennebel, Tom; Vanhaecke, Lynn; Verstraete, Willy; Boon, Nico

    2012-01-01

    Summary The occurrence of a range of recalcitrant organic micropollutants in our aquatic environment has led to the development of various tertiary wastewater treatment methods. In this study, biogenic manganese oxides (Bio‐MnOx), biogenic silver nanoparticles (Bio‐Ag0) and ionic silver were used for the oxidative removal of the frequently encountered drug diclofenac and its dechlorinated form, 2‐anilinophenylacetate (APA). Diclofenac was rapidly degraded during ongoing manganese oxidation by Pseudomonas putida MnB6. Furthermore, whereas preoxidized Bio‐MnOx, Bio‐Ag0 and Ag+ separately did not show any removal capacity for diclofenac, an enhanced removal occurred when Bio‐MnOx and silver species were combined. Similar results were obtained for APA. Finally, a slow removal of diclofenac but more rapid APA degradation was observed when silver was added to manganese‐free P. putida biomass. Combining these results, three mechanisms of diclofenac and APA removal could be distinguished: (i) a co‐metabolic removal during active Mn2+ oxidation by P. putida; (ii) a synergistic interaction between preoxidized Bio‐MnOx and silver species; and (iii) a (bio)chemical process by biomass enriched with silver catalysts. This paper demonstrates the use of P. putida for water treatment purposes and is the first report of the application of silver combined with biogenic manganese for the removal of organic water contaminants. PMID:22221449

  2. MICROBIOTA AND BIOGENIC AMINES VARIATION OF CHICKEN MEAT; COMPARISON BETWEEN WHITE AND RED MEAT

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Octavian Baston

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Chicken meat freshness is in permanent attention for all partners involved in food chain. In this paper we want to highlight the variation of microbiota (psychrotrophic and total viable count and the variation of biogenic amines in chicken red and white meat. We compared the two anatomical parts of chicken because they have different metabolism, and after cutting from the carcasses they can suffer microbial contamination in the process. The purpose of the study is the evaluation of refrigerated white and red chicken meat (breast and legs quality using biogenic amines and microbiota. The psychrotrophic microorganisms were initially around a value of 4 log CFU/cm2 in both anatomical parts, when total viable count were determined around a value of 5 log CFU/cm2. The microbial load growth until the seventh day, predominant for chicken breast being the psychrotrophic microorganisms, and for chicken legs remaining the total viable count. We studied the most five well-known biogenic amines: histamine, cadaverine, putrescin, spermine and spermidine. Theirs variation during storage was as follows: histamine increased slowly, spermine decreased, spermidine decreased, cadaverine and putrescin increased. Cadaverine was not detected until the fifth day for both chicken legs and breasts and putrescin was not detected until third day and only for chicken legs.

  3. Biogenic non-methane hydrocarbons (NMHC). Nature`s contribution to regional and global atmospheric chemistry

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Klockow, D; Hoffman, T [Inst. of Spectrochemistry and Applied Spectroscopy, Dortmund (Germany)

    1996-12-31

    Terrestrial vegetation provides an important source of volatile hydrocarbons, especially isoprene, monoterpenes and in addition possibly sesquiterpenes as well as oxygenated compounds. Although there exist considerable uncertainties in the estimation of the magnitude of these biogenic NMHC emissions, it is generally accepted that the majority of global NMHC release is from natural and not from anthropogenic sources. Taking into consideration the high reactivity of the mostly unsaturated biogenic emissions, their impact on tropospheric processes can be assumed to be of great importance. Together with anthropogenic NO{sub x} emissions, the highly reactive natural alkenes can act as precursors in photochemical oxidant formation and contribute to regional-scale air pollution. Their oxidation in the atmosphere and the subsequent gas-to-particle conversion of the products lead to the formation of organic aerosols. Because of the formation of phytotoxic compounds, the interaction of the biogenic hydrocarbons with ozone inside or outside the leaves and needles of plants has been suggested to play a role in forest decline. (author)

  4. Selection of nutrient used in biogenic healing agent for cementitious materials

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tziviloglou, Eirini; Wiktor, Virginie; Jonkers, Henk M.; Schlangen, Erik

    2017-06-01

    Biogenic self-healing cementitious materials target on the closure of micro-cracks with precipitated inorganic minerals originating from bacterial metabolic activity. Dormant bacterial spores and organic mineral compounds often constitute a biogenic healing agent. The current paper focuses on the investigation of the most appropriate organic carbon source to be used as component of a biogenic healing agent. It is of great importance to use an appropriate organic source, since it will firstly ensure an optimal bacterial performance in terms of metabolic activity, while it should secondly affect the least the properties of the cementitious matrix. The selection is made among three different organic compounds, namely calcium lactate, calcium acetate and sodium gluconate. The methodology that was used for the research was based on continuous and non-continuous oxygen consumption measurements of washed bacterial cultures and on compressive strength tests on mortar cubes. The oxygen consumption investigation revealed a preference for calcium lactate and acetate, but an indifferent behaviour for sodium gluconate. The compressive strength on mortar cubes with different amounts of either calcium lactate or acetate (up to 2.24% per cement weight) was not or it was positively affected when the compounds were dissolved in the mixing water. In fact, for calcium lactate the increase in compressive strength reached 8%, while for calcium acetate the maximum strength increase was 13.4%.

  5. Can the biogenicity of Europa's surfical sulfur be tested simultaneously with penetrators and ion traps?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chela-Flores, J.; Bhattacherjee, A. B.; Dudeja, S.; Kumar, N.; Seckbach, J.

    2009-04-01

    We suggest a biogenic interpretation of the sulfur patches on the Europan icy surface. This hypothesis is testable by LAPLACE, or a later mission, in which the instrumentation on board are penetrators, or ion traps, with component selection including miniaturized mass spectrometry. The argument in favor of such instrumentation and component selection is as follows: Extreme environments with microbes can act as models for extraterrestrial life (Seckbach et al., 2008). Suggestions have ranged from Venusian environments (Sagan, 1967, Seckbach and Libby, 1970) to Mars (Grilli Caiola and Billi, 2007). Active photosynthetic microbial communities are found on Antarctica, both in and on ice, in fresh water, in saline lakes and streams and within rocks. In the dry valley lakes of Antarctica close to the McMurdo Base, microbial mats are known to selectively remove a huge quantity of sulfur (Parker et al., 1982). Lake Vostok in Antarctica possesses a perennially thick (3 to 4 km) ice-cover that precludes photosynthesis, thus making this subglacial environment a good model system for determining how a potential Europan biota might emerge, evolve and distribute itself. Jupiter's moon Europa may harbor a subsurface water ocean, which lies beneath an ice layer that might be too thick to allow photosynthesis, just as in Lake Vostok. However, disequilibrium chemistry driven by charged particles from Jupiter's magnetosphere could produce sufficient organic and oxidant molecules for an Europan biosphere (Chyba, 2000). We restrict our attention to microbial mats that could still be thriving in spite of the extreme conditions of radiation on Europa. We are especially concerned with sulfur patches discovered by the Galileo mission. In the near future there are technologies available to settle the question of habitability on Europa, such as penetrators that are currently being developed for preliminary trials nearer to the Earth—the Moon-Lite mission (Smith et al., 2008). If analogies

  6. Deforestation and Biogenic Trace Emissions from Brazilian Cerrado

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sinha, Ravi; Geol, P.

    1996-01-01

    The overall goal of NASA's SCAR (Smoke, Cloud and Radiation) Program is to obtain physical and chemical properties of the smoke produced by biomass burning and the effects of the smoke on the earth's radiation balance and climate. It is a joint project with the Brazilian government and their organizations, including INPE (Instituto Nacional Pesquisas Espaciais) who actively participate in all activities. Appropriate estimates of the biomass buming in the tropics is therefore essential to determine its effect on the atmosphere and on climate. The SCAR series of experiments is designed with that purpose. The present study of evaluating the burnt-out areas is to augment the data collected to date to help evaluate the effect of biomass burning.

  7. Measurements of Primary Biogenic Aerosol Particles with an Ultraviolet Aerodynamic Particle Sizer (UVAPS) During AMAZE-08

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wollny, A. G.; Garland, R.; Pöschl, U.

    2008-12-01

    Biogenic aerosols are ubiquitous in the Earth's atmosphere and they influence atmospheric chemistry and physics, the biosphere, climate, and public health. They play an important role in the spread of biological organisms and reproductive materials, and they can cause or enhance human, animal, and plant diseases. Moreover, they influence the Earth's energy budget by scattering and absorbing radiation, and they can initiate the formation of clouds and precipitation as cloud condensation and ice nuclei. The composition, abundance, and origin of biogenic aerosol particles and components are, however, still not well understood and poorly quantified. Prominent examples of primary biogenic aerosol particles, which are directly emitted from the biosphere to the atmosphere, are pollen, bacteria, fungal spores, viruses, and fragments of animals and plants. During the AMazonian Aerosol CharacteriZation Experiment (AMAZE-08) a large number of aerosol and gas-phase measurements were taken on a remote site close to Manaus, Brazil, during a period of five weeks in February and March 2008. The presented study is focused on data from an ultraviolet aerodynamic particle sizer (UVAPS, TSI inc.) that has been deployed for the first time in Amazonia. In this instrument, particle counting and aerodynamic sizing over the range of 0.5-20 μm are complemented by the measurement of UV fluorescence at 355 nm (excitation) and 420-575 nm (emission), respectively. Fluorescence at these wavelengths is characteristic for reduced pyridine nucleotides (e.g., NAD(P)H) and for riboflavin, which are specific for living cells. Thus particles exhibiting fluorescence signals can be regarded as 'viable aerosols' or 'fluorescent bioparticles' (FBAP), and their concentration can be considered as lower limit for the actual abundance of primary biogenic aerosol particles. First data analyses show a pronounced peak of FBAP at diameters around 2-3 μm. In this size range the biogenic particle fraction was

  8. Comparison of regional and global land cover products and the implications for biogenic emission modeling.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huang, Ling; McDonald-Buller, Elena; McGaughey, Gary; Kimura, Yosuke; Allen, David T

    2015-10-01

    Accurate estimates of biogenic emissions are required for air quality models that support the development of air quality management plans and attainment demonstrations. Land cover characterization is an essential driving input for most biogenic emissions models. This work contrasted the global Moderate Resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer (MODIS) land cover product against a regional land cover product developed for the Texas Commissions on Environmental Quality (TCEQ) over four climate regions in eastern Texas, where biogenic emissions comprise a large fraction of the total inventory of volatile organic compounds (VOCs) and land cover is highly diverse. The Model of Emissions of Gases and Aerosols from Nature (MEGAN) was utilized to investigate the influences of land cover characterization on modeled isoprene and monoterpene emissions through changes in the standard emission potential and emission activity factor, both separately and simultaneously. In Central Texas, forest coverage was significantly lower in the MODIS land cover product relative to the TCEQ data, which resulted in substantially lower estimates of isoprene and monoterpene emissions by as much as 90%. Differences in predicted isoprene and monoterpene emissions associated with variability in land cover characterization were primarily caused by differences in the standard emission potential, which is dependent on plant functional type. Photochemical modeling was conducted to investigate the effects of differences in estimated biogenic emissions associated with land cover characterization on predicted ozone concentrations using the Comprehensive Air Quality Model with Extensions (CAMx). Mean differences in maximum daily average 8-hour (MDA8) ozone concentrations were 2 to 6 ppb with maximum differences exceeding 20 ppb. Continued focus should be on reducing uncertainties in the representation of land cover through field validation. Uncertainties in the estimation of biogenic emissions associated with

  9. An Estimate of Biogenic Emissions of Volatile Organic Compounds during Summertime in China (7 pp).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Heinrich, Almut

    2007-01-01

    and Aim. An accurate estimation of biogenic emissions of VOC (volatile organic compounds) is necessary for better understanding a series of current environmental problems such as summertime smog and global climate change. However, very limited studies have been reported on such emissions in China. The aim of this paper is to present an estimate of biogenic VOC emissions during summertime in China, and discuss its uncertainties and potential areas for further investigations. This study was mainly based on field data and related research available so far in China and abroad, including distributions of land use and vegetations, biomass densities and emission potentials. VOC were grouped into isoprene, monoterpenes and other VOC (OVOC). Emission potentials of forests were determined for 22 genera or species, and then assigned to 33 forest ecosystems. The NCEP/NCAR reanalysis database was used as standard environmental conditions. A typical summertime of July 1999 was chosen for detailed calculations. The biogenic VOC emissions in China in July were estimated to be 2.3×1012gC, with 42% as isoprene, 19% as monoterpenes and 39% as OVOC. About 77.3% of the emissions are generated from forests and woodlands. The averaged emission intensity was 4.11 mgC m-2 hr-1 for forests and 1.12 mgC m-2 hr-1 for all types of vegetations in China during the summertime. The uncertainty in the results arose from both the data and the assumptions used in the extrapolations. Generally, uncertainty in the field measurements is relatively small. A large part of the uncertainty mainly comes from the taxonomic method to assign emission potentials to unmeasured species, while the ARGR method serves to estimate leaf biomass and the emission algorithms to describe light and temperature dependence. This study describes a picture of the biogenic VOC emissions during summertime in China. Due to the uneven spatial and temporal distributions, biogenic VOC emissions may play an important role in the

  10. Biogenic, anthropogenic and sea salt sulfate size-segregated aerosols in the Arctic summer

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    R. Ghahremaninezhad

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available Size-segregated aerosol sulfate concentrations were measured on board the Canadian Coast Guard Ship (CCGS Amundsen in the Arctic during July 2014. The objective of this study was to utilize the isotopic composition of sulfate to address the contribution of anthropogenic and biogenic sources of aerosols to the growth of the different aerosol size fractions in the Arctic atmosphere. Non-sea-salt sulfate is divided into biogenic and anthropogenic sulfate using stable isotope apportionment techniques. A considerable amount of the average sulfate concentration in the fine aerosols with a diameter  <  0.49 µm was from biogenic sources (>  63 %, which is higher than in previous Arctic studies measuring above the ocean during fall (<  15 % (Rempillo et al., 2011 and total aerosol sulfate at higher latitudes at Alert in summer (>  30 % (Norman et al., 1999. The anthropogenic sulfate concentration was less than that of biogenic sulfate, with potential sources being long-range transport and, more locally, the Amundsen's emissions. Despite attempts to minimize the influence of ship stack emissions, evidence from larger-sized particles demonstrates a contribution from local pollution. A comparison of δ34S values for SO2 and fine aerosols was used to show that gas-to-particle conversion likely occurred during most sampling periods. δ34S values for SO2 and fine aerosols were similar, suggesting the same source for SO2 and aerosol sulfate, except for two samples with a relatively high anthropogenic fraction in particles  <  0.49 µm in diameter (15–17 and 17–19 July. The high biogenic fraction of sulfate fine aerosol and similar isotope ratio values of these particles and SO2 emphasize the role of marine organisms (e.g., phytoplankton, algae, bacteria in the formation of fine particles above the Arctic Ocean during the productive summer months.

  11. Brown carbon formation from ketoaldehydes of biogenic monoterpenes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nguyen, Tran B.; Laskin, Alexander; Laskin, Julia; Nizkorodov, Sergey

    2013-04-10

    Sources and chemical composition of the brown carbon are poorly understood, and even less is known about the mechanisms of its atmospheric transformations. This work presents molecular level investigation of the reactive compound ketolimononaldehyde (KLA, C9H14O3), a second generation ozonolysis product of limonene (C10H16), as a potent brown carbon precursor in secondary organic aerosol (SOA) through its reactions with reduced nitrogen compounds such as ammonium ion (NH4+), ammonia, and amino acids. The reactions of synthesized and purified KLA with NH4+ and glycine resulted in the formation of chromophores nearly identical in spectral properties and formation rates to those found in similarly-aged limonene/O3 SOA. Similar chemical reaction processes of limononaldehyde (LA, C10H16O2) and pinonaldehyde (PA, C10H16O2), the first-generation ozonolysis products in the oxidation of limonene and α-pinene, respectively, were also studied, but the resulting products did not exhibit light absorption properties of brown carbon, suggesting that the unique molecular structure of KLA produces visible-light-absorbing compounds. The KLA/NH4+ and KLA/GLY reactions produce water-soluble, hydrolysis-resilient chromophores with high mass absorption coefficients (MAC = 2000-4000 cm2 g-1) at λ ~ 500 nm, precisely at the maximum of the solar emission spectrum. Liquid chromatography was used to isolate the light-absorbing fraction, and UV-Vis, FTIR, NMR and high-resolution mass spectrometry (HR-MS) techniques were used to investigate the structures and chemical properties of the light-absorbing compounds. The KLA browning reaction generates a diverse mixture of light-absorbing compounds, with the majority of the observable products containing 1-4 units of KLA and 0-2 nitrogen atoms. Based on the HR-MS product distribution, conjugated aldol condensates, secondary imines (Schiff bases), and N-heterocycles like pyrroles may contribute in varying degree to the light-absorbing properties

  12. Nature and origin of the resistant carbonaceous polymorphs involved the fossilization of biogenic soil-aggregates

    Science.gov (United States)

    Courty, M.-A.

    2012-04-01

    The rare occurrence of organic-rich surface horizons in soil archives is widely accepted to resulting from their rapid degradation. We intend here to further elucidate how pedogenic signatures that initially formed at the soil surface could resist over long timescales to burial processes. We focus on the structural evolution of the biogenic soil aggregates that is controlled by the complex interaction of bioturbation, root colonization, microbial decomposition, chemical weathering and physical processes. The nature and origin of carbonaceous components that could possibly contribute to the long term preservation of biogenic soil-aggregates is particularly examined. The study is based on the comparison of pedogenic aggregated microfacies from present-day situations and the ones encountered in soil archives from contrasting edaphic conditions: Arctic Holocene soils from Spitsbergen, hyper-arid soils from the Moche valley (Peru), Holocene semi-arid Mediterranean soils from Northern Syria, late Pleistocene paleosols from lake Mungo (South Wales Australia) and late Pleistocene paleosols from the Ardeche valley (France). The assemblage and composition of biogenic soil-aggregated horizons has been characterized under the binocular microscope and in thin sections. The basic components have been separated by water sieving. A typology of carbonaceous polymorphs and associated composite materials has been established under the binocular. They have been characterized by SEM-EDS, Raman spectrometry, X-ray diffraction and TEM. The comparative study shows that all the biogenic soil-aggregates from the soil archives contain a high amount of similar exotic components that contrast from the parent materials by their fresh aspect and their hydrophobic properties. This exotic assemblage comprises various types of aliphatic carbonaceous polymorphs (filaments, agglutinates, spherules) and aromatic ones (vitrous char, graphite), carbon cenospheres, fine grained sandstones and rock clasts

  13. Biogenic silica fibre promotes carcinogenesis in mouse skin.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bhatt, T; Coombs, M; O'Neill, C

    1984-10-15

    Silica fibres derived from plants are common contaminants of human diet in certain regions of the world where oesophageal cancer reaches extremely high incidences. We show here that one of these types of fibre (derived from Phalaris canariensis L) promotes the occurrence of tumours in the skin of mice initiated with a polycyclic carcinogen. Three experiments are described. In the first, the grain which bears these fibres was added to the diet. This did not result in any abnormality in any part of the gastrointestinal tract, but there was a significant induction of tumours in the skin around the mouth and nose; these were the areas of the body surface which most frequently came into contact with the grain. In the second experiment, the mice were separated from the grain by an intervening wire gauze barrier; a similar number of tumours appeared on initiated mice treated in this way. In this case, contact now occurred most frequently on the dorsal surface, which was rubbed against the gauze barrier, and it was on this surface that the tumours appeared. No tumours appeared if the grain was removed. In the third experiment, pure fibres were isolated from the surface of the grain and boiled in strong nitric acid so as to remove any organic material. When these acid-cleaned fibres were applied to the initiated skin with light pressure, they promoted carcinogenesis in the same way as croton oil. In each experiment the majority of tumours produced were benign neoplasms, together with at least one squamous carcinoma. It seems possible that the size and shape of these fibres are the critical properties determining their promoting activity. Their mean diameter is 15 microns, their modal length close to 200 microns, and they are sharply pointed with a tip diameter of 0.5 micron.

  14. Impact of biogenic emission uncertainties on the simulated response of ozone and fine particulate matter to anthropogenic emission reductions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hogrefe, Christian; Isukapalli, Sastry S; Tang, Xiaogang; Georgopoulos, Panos G; He, Shan; Zalewsky, Eric E; Hao, Winston; Ku, Jia-Yeong; Key, Tonalee; Sistla, Gopal

    2011-01-01

    The role of emissions of volatile organic compounds and nitric oxide from biogenic sources is becoming increasingly important in regulatory air quality modeling as levels of anthropogenic emissions continue to decrease and stricter health-based air quality standards are being adopted. However, considerable uncertainties still exist in the current estimation methodologies for biogenic emissions. The impact of these uncertainties on ozone and fine particulate matter (PM2.5) levels for the eastern United States was studied, focusing on biogenic emissions estimates from two commonly used biogenic emission models, the Model of Emissions of Gases and Aerosols from Nature (MEGAN) and the Biogenic Emissions Inventory System (BEIS). Photochemical grid modeling simulations were performed for two scenarios: one reflecting present day conditions and the other reflecting a hypothetical future year with reductions in emissions of anthropogenic oxides of nitrogen (NOx). For ozone, the use of MEGAN emissions resulted in a higher ozone response to hypothetical anthropogenic NOx emission reductions compared with BEIS. Applying the current U.S. Environmental Protection Agency guidance on regulatory air quality modeling in conjunction with typical maximum ozone concentrations, the differences in estimated future year ozone design values (DVF) stemming from differences in biogenic emissions estimates were on the order of 4 parts per billion (ppb), corresponding to approximately 5% of the daily maximum 8-hr ozone National Ambient Air Quality Standard (NAAQS) of 75 ppb. For PM2.5, the differences were 0.1-0.25 microg/m3 in the summer total organic mass component of DVFs, corresponding to approximately 1-2% of the value of the annual PM2.5 NAAQS of 15 microg/m3. Spatial variations in the ozone and PM2.5 differences also reveal that the impacts of different biogenic emission estimates on ozone and PM2.5 levels are dependent on ambient levels of anthropogenic emissions.

  15. Ecological, energetic and economical comparison of fermentation, composting and incineration of solid biogenic waste materials; Oekologischer, energetischer und oekonomischer Vergleich von Vergaerung, Kompostierung und Verbrennung fester biogener Abfallstoffe

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Edelmann, W. [Arbeitsgemeinschaft Bioenergie GmbH, Arbi, Baar (Switzerland); Schleiss, K. [Umwelt- und Kompostberatung Schleiss, Baar (Switzerland)

    2001-07-01

    This study compares different technologies for the treatment of biogenic wastes, including open windrow and enclosed tunnel composting, anaerobic digestion, the combination of both these methods and burning in waste incineration plants. The methods are compared from the points of view of environmental impact, energy use and production, and economics. The environmental impact, calculated for normalised quantities of waste using the 'Ecoindicator 95+' tool, are discussed and the methane and carbon dioxide emissions of the different methods of treatment are compared. Also, the considerable differences to be found in the energy balances of the different systems are discussed in the light of efforts to substitute nuclear and fossil-fuel generated power. Cost and energetic comparisons are also made between compost and artificial fertilisers. The report is concluded with recommendations for adapting bio-technological methods for the treatment of wastes with an emphasis on anaerobic processes.

  16. Physiology and Genetics of Biogenic Methane-Production from Acetate

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sowers, Kevin R

    2013-04-04

    Biomass conversion catalyzed by methanogenic consortia is a widely available, renewable resource for both energy production and waste treatment. The efficiency of this process is directly dependent upon the interaction of three metabolically distinct groups of microorganisms; the fermentative and acetogenic Bacteria and the methanogenic Archaea. One of the rate limiting steps in the degradation of soluble organic matter is the dismutation of acetate, a predominant intermediate in the process, which accounts for 70 % or more of the methane produced by the methanogens. Acetate utilization is controlled by regulation of expression of carbon monoxide dehydrogensase (COdh), which catalyzes the dismutation of acetate. However, physiological and molecular factors that control differential substrate utilization have not been identified in these Archaea. Our laboratory has identified sequence elements near the promoter of the gene (cdh) encoding for COdh and we have confirmed that these sequences have a role in the in vivo expression of cdh. The current proposal focuses on identifying the regulatory components that interact with DNA and RNA elements, and identifying the mechanisms used to control cdh expression. We will determine whether expression is controlled at the level of transcription or if it is mediated by coordinate interaction of transcription initiation with other processes such as transcription elongation rate and differential mRNA stability. Utilizing recently sequenced methanosarcinal genomes and a DNA microarray currently under development genes that encode regulatory proteins and transcription factors will be identified and function confirmed by gene disruption and subsequent screening on different substrates. Functional interactions will be determined in vivo by assaying the effects of gene dosage and site-directed mutagenesis of the regulatory gene on the expression of a cdh::lacZ operon fusion. Results of this study will reveal whether this critical

  17. Impact of biogenic amine molecular weight and structure on surfactant adsorption at the air-water interface.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Penfold, Jeffrey; Thomas, Robert K; Li, Peixun

    2016-02-01

    The oligoamines, such as ethylenediamine to pentaethylenetetramine, and the aliphatic biogenic amines, such as putrescine, spermidine and spermine, strongly interact with anionic surfactants, such as sodium dodecylsulfate, SDS. It has been shown that this results in pronounced surfactant adsorption at the air-water interface and the transition from monolayer to multilayer adsorption which depends upon solution pH and oligoamine structure. In the neutron reflectivity, NR, and surface tension, ST, results presented here the role of the oligoamine structure on the adsorption of SDS is investigated more fully using a range of different biogenic amines. The effect of the extent of the intra-molecular spacing between amine groups on the adsorption has been extended by comparing results for cadavarine with putrescine and ethylenediamine. The impact of more complex biogenic amine structures on the adsorption has been investigated with the aromatic phenethylamine, and the heterocyclic amines histamine and melamine. The results provide an important insight into how surfactant adsorption at interfaces can be manipulated by the addition of biogenic amines, and into the role of solution pH and oligoamine structure in modifying the interaction between the surfactant and oligoamine. The results impact greatly upon potential applications and in understanding some of the important biological functions of biogenic amines. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  18. Ionising radiation effect on the luminescence emission of inorganic and biogenic calcium carbonates

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Boronat, C. [CIEMAT, Av. Complutense 40, Madrid 28040 (Spain); Correcher, V., E-mail: v.correcher@ciemat.es [CIEMAT, Av. Complutense 40, Madrid 28040 (Spain); Virgos, M.D. [CIEMAT, Av. Complutense 40, Madrid 28040 (Spain); Garcia-Guinea, J. [CSIC, Museo Nacional Ciencias Naturales, José Gutiérrez Abascal 2, Madrid 28006 (Spain)

    2017-06-15

    Highlights: • Aragonite and biogenic Ca-carbonates could be used as a TL dosimeters. • TL can be employed for retrospective dosimetry purposes. • Calcium carbonates show an acceptable ionizing radiation sensitivity. • The stability of the radiation–induced TL remains, at least, till 700 h. - Abstract: As known, the luminescence emission of mineral phases could be potentially employed for dosimetric purposes in the case of radiological terrorism or radiation accident where conventional monitoring is not available. In this sense, this paper reports on the thermo- (TL) and cathodoluminescence (CL) emission of both biogenic (common periwinkle – littorina littorera – shell made of calcite 90% and aragonite 10%) and inorganic (aragonite 100%) Ca-rich carbonates previously characterized by X-ray diffraction and Raman spectroscopy. Whereas the aragonite sample displays the main CL waveband peaked in the red region (linked to point defects), the more intense emission obtained from the common periwinkle shell appears at higher energies (mainly associated with structural defects). The UV-blue TL emission of the samples, regardless of the origin, displays (i) an acceptable ionizing radiation sensitivity, (ii) linear dose response in the range of interest (up to 8 Gy), (iii) reasonable stability of the TL signal after 700 h of storage with an initial decay of ca. 88% for the mineral sample and 60% for the biogenic sample and maintaining the stability from 150 h onwards. (iv) The tests of thermal stability of the TL emission performed in the range of 180–320 °C confirm a continuum in the trap system.

  19. Biogenic sedimentation beneath the California Current system for the past 30 kyr and its paleoceanographic significance

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gardner, J.V.; Dean, W.E.; Dartnell, P.

    1997-01-01

    A north-south transect of 17 cores was constructed along the eastern boundary of the California Current system from 33?? to 42?? N to investigate the changes in biogenic sedimentation over the past 30 kyr. Percentages and mass accumulation rates of CaCO3, Corg, and biogenic opal were assembled at 500 to 1000 years/sample to provide relatively high resolution. Time-space maps reveal a complex pattern of changes that do not follow a simple glacial-interglacial two-mode model. Biogenic sedimentation shows responses that are sometimes time-transgressive and sometimes coeval, and most of the responses show more consistency within a limited geographic area than any temporal consistency. Reconstructed conditions during late oxygen isotope stage 3 were more like early Holocene conditions than any other time during the last 30 kyr. Coastal upwelling and productivity during oxygen isotope stage 3 were relatively strong along the central California margin but were weak along the northern California margin. Precipitation increased during the last glacial interval in the central California region, and the waters of the southern California margin had relatively low productivity. Productivity on the southern Oregon margin was relatively low at the beginning of the last glacial interval, but by about 20 ka, productivity in this area significantly increased. This change suggests that the center of the divergence of the West Wind Drift shifted south at this time. The end of the last glacial interval was characterized by increased productivity in the southern California margin and increased upwelling along the central California margin but upwelling remained weak along the northern California margin. A sudden (biosphere as the northern latitudes were reforested following retreat of the glaciers. The Holocene has been a period of relatively high productivity in the southern California margin, relatively strong coastal upwelling along the central California margin, relatively weak

  20. Heavy metal contamination, microbiological spoilage and biogenic amine content in sushi available on the Polish market.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kulawik, Piotr; Dordevic, Dani; Gambuś, Florian; Szczurowska, Katarzyna; Zając, Marzena

    2018-05-01

    The present study determined the heavy metal contamination (mercury, cadmium, lead, arsenic and nickel) of nori, restaurant-served sushi and ready-to-eat sushi meals available via retail chains. Moreover, both microbiological load and biogenic amine content in ready-to-eat sushi meals were analysed. All of the nori samples contained high levels of Cd (2.122 mg kg -1 ), Ni (0.715 mg kg -1 ), As (34.56 mg kg -1 ) and Pb (0.659 mg kg -1 ). The studied sushi samples contained high levels of Ni and Pb, reaching 0.194 and 0.142 mg kg -1 wet weight, respectively, being potentially hazardous to women during pregnancy and lactation and small children. None of the studied samples contained high levels of Hg. Overall, 37% of ready-to-eat sushi meals exceeded a microbiological load of 10 6  cfu g -1 . However, biogenic amine content in all of the samples was low, with a highest histamine content of 2.05 mg kg -1 . Sushi is not the source of high levels of biogenic amines even with high microbiological loads. Nevertheless, the high microbiological loads at the end of the shelf-life indicate that some processors might have problems with the distribution chain or implement a poor hygienic regime. Moreover as a result of possible risk associated with heavy metal contamination, the present study highlights the need to establish new regulations regarding the contamination of nori and sushi. © 2017 Society of Chemical Industry. © 2017 Society of Chemical Industry.

  1. Ionising radiation effect on the luminescence emission of inorganic and biogenic calcium carbonates

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Boronat, C.; Correcher, V.; Virgos, M.D.; Garcia-Guinea, J.

    2017-01-01

    Highlights: • Aragonite and biogenic Ca-carbonates could be used as a TL dosimeters. • TL can be employed for retrospective dosimetry purposes. • Calcium carbonates show an acceptable ionizing radiation sensitivity. • The stability of the radiation–induced TL remains, at least, till 700 h. - Abstract: As known, the luminescence emission of mineral phases could be potentially employed for dosimetric purposes in the case of radiological terrorism or radiation accident where conventional monitoring is not available. In this sense, this paper reports on the thermo- (TL) and cathodoluminescence (CL) emission of both biogenic (common periwinkle – littorina littorera – shell made of calcite 90% and aragonite 10%) and inorganic (aragonite 100%) Ca-rich carbonates previously characterized by X-ray diffraction and Raman spectroscopy. Whereas the aragonite sample displays the main CL waveband peaked in the red region (linked to point defects), the more intense emission obtained from the common periwinkle shell appears at higher energies (mainly associated with structural defects). The UV-blue TL emission of the samples, regardless of the origin, displays (i) an acceptable ionizing radiation sensitivity, (ii) linear dose response in the range of interest (up to 8 Gy), (iii) reasonable stability of the TL signal after 700 h of storage with an initial decay of ca. 88% for the mineral sample and 60% for the biogenic sample and maintaining the stability from 150 h onwards. (iv) The tests of thermal stability of the TL emission performed in the range of 180–320 °C confirm a continuum in the trap system.

  2. Biogenic, urban, and wildfire influences on the molecular composition of dissolved organic compounds in cloud water

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cook, Ryan D.; Lin, Ying-Hsuan; Peng, Zhuoyu; Boone, Eric; Chu, Rosalie K.; Dukett, James E.; Gunsch, Matthew J.; Zhang, Wuliang; Tolic, Nikola; Laskin, Alexander; Pratt, Kerri A.

    2017-12-01

    Organic aerosol formation and transformation occurs within aqueous aerosol and cloud droplets, yet little is known about the composition of high molecular weight organic compounds in cloud water. Cloud water samples collected at Whiteface Mountain, New York, during August-September 2014 were analyzed by ultra-high-resolution mass spectrometry to investigate the molecular composition of dissolved organic carbon, with a focus on sulfur- and nitrogen-containing compounds. Organic molecular composition was evaluated in the context of cloud water inorganic ion concentrations, pH, and total organic carbon concentrations to gain insights into the sources and aqueous-phase processes of the observed high molecular weight organic compounds. Cloud water acidity was positively correlated with the average oxygen : carbon ratio of the organic constituents, suggesting the possibility for aqueous acid-catalyzed (prior to cloud droplet activation or during/after cloud droplet evaporation) and/or radical (within cloud droplets) oxidation processes. Many tracer compounds recently identified in laboratory studies of bulk aqueous-phase reactions were identified in the cloud water. Organosulfate compounds, with both biogenic and anthropogenic volatile organic compound precursors, were detected for cloud water samples influenced by air masses that had traveled over forested and populated areas. Oxidation products of long-chain (C10-12) alkane precursors were detected during urban influence. Influence of Canadian wildfires resulted in increased numbers of identified sulfur-containing compounds and oligomeric species, including those formed through aqueous-phase reactions involving methylglyoxal. Light-absorbing aqueous-phase products of syringol and guaiacol oxidation were observed in the wildfire-influenced samples, and dinitroaromatic compounds were observed in all cloud water samples (wildfire, biogenic, and urban-influenced). Overall, the cloud water molecular composition depended on

  3. Laser Scribed Graphene Biosensor for Detection of Biogenic Amines in Food Samples Using Locally Sourced Materials

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Diana C. Vanegas

    2018-04-01

    Full Text Available In foods, high levels of biogenic amines (BA are the result of microbial metabolism that could be affected by temperatures and storage conditions. Thus, the level of BA is commonly used as an indicator of food safety and quality. This manuscript outlines the development of laser scribed graphene electrodes, with locally sourced materials, for reagent-free food safety biosensing. To fabricate the biosensors, the graphene surface was functionalized with copper microparticles and diamine oxidase, purchased from a local supermarket; and then compared to biosensors fabricated with analytical grade materials. The amperometric biosensor exhibits good electrochemical performance, with an average histamine sensitivity of 23.3 µA/mM, a lower detection limit of 11.6 µM, and a response time of 7.3 s, showing similar performance to biosensors constructed from analytical grade materials. We demonstrated the application of the biosensor by testing total BA concentration in fish paste samples subjected to fermentation with lactic acid bacteria. Biogenic amines concentrations prior to lactic acid fermentation were below the detection limit of the biosensor, while concentration after fermentation was 19.24 ± 8.21 mg histamine/kg, confirming that the sensor was selective in a complex food matrix. The low-cost, rapid, and accurate device is a promising tool for biogenic amine estimation in food samples, particularly in situations where standard laboratory techniques are unavailable, or are cost prohibitive. This biosensor can be used for screening food samples, potentially limiting food waste, while reducing chances of foodborne outbreaks.

  4. Tethered balloon measurements of biogenic volatile organic compounds at a Boreal forest site

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    C. Spirig

    2004-01-01

    Full Text Available Measurements of biogenic volatile organic compounds (VOCs were performed at Hyytiälä, a Boreal forest site in Southern Finland as part of the OSOA (origin and formation of secondary organic aerosol project in August 2001. At this site, frequent formation of new particles has been observed and the role of biogenic VOCs in this process is still unclear. Tethered balloons served as platforms to collect VOC samples within the planetary boundary layer at heights up to 1.2 km above ground during daytime. Mean mixed layer concentrations of total monoterpenes varied between 10 and 170 pptv, with a-pinene, limonene and D3-carene as major compounds, isoprene was detected at levels of 2-35 pptv. A mixed layer gradient technique and a budget approach are applied to derive surface fluxes representative for areas of tens to hundreds of square kilometres. Effects of spatial heterogeneity in surface emissions are examined with a footprint analysis. Depending on the source area considered, mean afternoon emissions of the sum of terpenes range between 180 and 300 mg m-2 h-1 for the period of 2-12 August 2001. Surface fluxes close to Hyytiälä were higher than the regional average, and agree well with mean emissions predicted by a biogenic VOC emission model. Total rates of monoterpene oxidation were calculated with a photochemical model. The rates did not correlate with the occurrence of new particle formation, but the ozone pathway was of more importance on days with particle formation. Condensable vapour production from the oxidation of monoterpenes throughout the mixed layer can only account for a fraction of the increase in aerosol mass observed at the surface.

  5. In vitro synthesis of biogenic amines by Brochothrix thermosphacta isolates from meat and meat products and the influence of other microorganisms.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nowak, Agnieszka; Czyzowska, Agata

    2011-07-01

    Twenty Brochothrix thermosphacta strains tested for biogenic amines (BAs) production, formed histamine (6.6-16.2 mg/kg) and tyramine (18.7-35.4 mg/kg) but neither putrescine nor cadaverine. Six of the twenty strains were also investigated in respect of their influence on the synthesis of BAs by Escherichia coli, Pseudomonas sp., Proteus mirabilis and Lactobacillus sakei. In pure culture Escherichia coli produced all of the studied amines (histamine, tyramine, putrescine and cadaverine) with a total concentration of 167.7 mg/kg, P. mirabilis produced a total of 56.7 mg/kg histamine, tyramine and cadaverine, while Lactobacillus sakei and Pseudomonas sp. produced histamine and tyramine, totaling 37.9 and 35.2 mg/kg respectively. All B. thermosphacta promoted cadaverine production by Escherichia coli which increased by 12-68%, and some of them contributed to the appearance of this amine among the metabolites of Pseudomonas. The presence of B. thermosphacta decreased the potential ability of P. mirabilis to produce BAs. Copyright © 2010 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  6. Oxidative dissolution potential of biogenic and abiogenic TcO2 in subsurface sediments

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fredrickson, J.K.; Zachara, J.M.; Plymale, A.E.; Heald, S.M.; McKinley, J.P.; Kennedy, D.W.; Liu, C.; Nachimuthu, P.

    2009-01-01

    Technetium-99 (Tc) is an important fission product contaminant associated with sites of nuclear fuels reprocessing and geologic nuclear waste disposal. Tc is highly mobile in its most oxidized state (Tc(VII)O 4 - ) and less mobile in the reduced form (Tc(IV)O 2 · nH 2 O). Here we investigate the potential for oxidation of Tc(IV) that was heterogeneously reduced by reaction with biogenic Fe(II) in two sediments differing in mineralogy and aggregation state; unconsolidated Pliocene-age fluvial sediment from the upper Ringold (RG) Formation at the Hanford Site and a clay-rich saprolite from the Field Research Center (FRC) background site on the Oak Ridge Site. Both sediments contained Fe(III) and Mn(III/IV) as redox active phases, but FRC also contained mass-dominant Fe-phyllosilicates of different types. Shewanella putrefaciens CN32 reduced Mn(III/IV) oxides and generated Fe(II) that was reactive with Tc(VII) in heat-killed, bioreduced sediment. After bioreduction and heat-killing, biogenic Fe(II) in the FRC exceeded that in RG by a factor of two. More rapid reduction rates were observed in the RG that had lower biogenic Fe(II), and less particle aggregation. EXAFS measurements indicated that the primary reduction product was a TcO 2 -like phase in both sediments. The biogenic redox product Tc(IV) oxidized rapidly and completely in RG when contacted with air. Oxidation, in contrast, was slow and incomplete in the FRC, in spite of similar molecular scale speciation of Tc compared to RG. X-ray microprobe, electron microprobe, X-ray absorption spectroscopy, and micro X-ray diffraction were applied to the whole sediment and isolated Tc-containing particles. These analyses revealed that non-oxidizable Tc(IV) in the FRC existed as complexes with octahedral Fe(III) within intra-grain domains of 50-100 (micro)m-sized, Fe-containing micas presumptively identified as celadonite. The markedly slower oxidation rates in FRC as compared to RG were attributed to mass

  7. Oxidative dissolution potential of biogenic and abiogenic TcO 2 in subsurface sediments

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fredrickson, James K.; Zachara, John M.; Plymale, Andrew E.; Heald, Steve M.; McKinley, James P.; Kennedy, David W.; Liu, Chongxuan; Nachimuthu, Ponnusamy

    2009-04-01

    Technetium-99 (Tc) is an important fission product contaminant associated with sites of nuclear fuels reprocessing and geologic nuclear waste disposal. Tc is highly mobile in its most oxidized state [Tc(VII)O4-] and less mobile in the reduced form [Tc(IV)O 2· nH 2O]. Here we investigate the potential for oxidation of Tc(IV) that was heterogeneously reduced by reaction with biogenic Fe(II) in two sediments differing in mineralogy and aggregation state; unconsolidated Pliocene-age fluvial sediment from the upper Ringold (RG) Formation at the Hanford Site and a clay-rich saprolite from the Field Research Center (FRC) background site on the Oak Ridge Site. Both sediments contained Fe(III) and Mn(III/IV) as redox active phases, but FRC also contained mass-dominant Fe-phyllosilicates of different types. Shewanella putrefaciens CN32 reduced Mn(III/IV) oxides and generated Fe(II) that was reactive with Tc(VII) in heat-killed, bioreduced sediment. After bioreduction and heat-killing, biogenic Fe(II) in the FRC exceeded that in RG by a factor of two. More rapid reduction rates were observed in the RG that had lower biogenic Fe(II), and less particle aggregation. EXAFS measurements indicated that the primary reduction product was a TcO 2-like phase in both sediments. The biogenic redox product Tc(IV) oxidized rapidly and completely in RG when contacted with air. Oxidation, in contrast, was slow and incomplete in the FRC, in spite of similar molecular scale speciation of Tc compared to RG. X-ray microprobe, electron microprobe, X-ray absorption spectroscopy, and micro X-ray diffraction were applied to the whole sediment and isolated Tc-containing particles. These analyses revealed that non-oxidizable Tc(IV) in the FRC existed as complexes with octahedral Fe(III) within intra-grain domains of 50-100 μm-sized, Fe-containing micas presumptively identified as celadonite. The markedly slower oxidation rates in FRC as compared to RG were attributed to mass

  8. Synthetic and biogenic magnetite nanoparticles for tracking of stem cells and dendritic cells

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Schwarz, Sebastian; Fernandes, Fabiana; Sanroman, Laura; Hodenius, Michael; Lang, Claus; Himmelreich, Uwe; Schmitz-Rode, Thomas; Schueler, Dirk; Hoehn, Mathias

    2009-01-01

    Accurate delivery of cells to target organs is critical for success of cell-based therapies with stem cells or immune cells such as antigen-presenting dendritic cells (DC). Labeling with contrast agents before implantation provides a powerful means for monitoring cellular migration using magnetic resonance imaging (MRI). In this study, we investigated the uptake of fully synthesized or bacterial magnetic nanoparticles (MNPs) into hematopoietic Flt3 + stem cells and DC from mouse bone marrow. We show that (i) uptake of both synthetic and biogenic nanoparticles into cells endow magnetic activity and (ii) low numbers of MNP-loaded cells are readily detected by MRI.

  9. Formation of Biogenic Amines in Chicken Meat Stored under Modified Atmosphere

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Leo Gallas

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available The aim of the study was to investigate the effects of two modified atmospheres with a different combination of gases on selected groups of microorganisms and on concentrations of biogenic amines (BAs in samples of poultry breast muscle. The samples were packaged under modified atmosphere A (75% O2 a 25% CO2 or B (75% N2 and 25% CO2 and stored at temperatures from +2 to +4 °C for 14 days. During the storage period, O2 concentrations in modified atmosphere A (MA A decreased from the initial 74.8 ± 0.3% to 55.9 ± 6.6% at the end of the storage period. In all samples, counts of psychrotrophic bacteria counts, Brochothrix thermosphacta, lactic acid bacteria and coliform microorganism were determined. The tests were made on the packaging day, and then after three, nine and fourteen days of storage. At the end of the storage period, higher numbers of psychrotrophic bacteria (6.5 ± 0.7 log10 cfu g-1, Brochothrix thermosphacta (4.8 ± 0.3 log10 cfu g-1 and lactic acid bacteria (1.7 ± 0.4 log10 cfu g-1 were found on samples packaged under MA A. Samples packaged under modified atmosphere B on the other hand contained higher numbers of coliform bacteria (4.1 ± 0.6 log10 cfu g-1 at the end of the storage period. In addition to microbiological indicators, concentrations of biogenic amines (putrescine, cadaverine, histamine, tyramine, spermine, spermidine and β-phenylethylamine were also determined. In fresh samples and after three days of storage, only spermine and spermidine were found. After 9 and 14 days, also other BAs were detected. The biogenic amine totals at the end of the storage period was 60.0 ± 13.2 mg kg-1 in samples packaged under MA A and 129.0 ± 41.3 mg kg-1 in samples packaged under MA B. The most abundantly represented biogenic amines in samples packaged under MA A were putrescine and spermine (49.7 and 24.8%, respectively, at the end of the storage period, and putrescine and cadaverine in samples packaged under MA B (47.0 and 32

  10. Differential dissolution of biogenic carbonates: Implications of secretion at higher pH

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    Saraswat, R.

    -138. Berger, W.H. 1971. Sedimentation of planktonic foraminifera. Marine Geology 11: 325-358. Burton, E.A. and Walter, L.M. 1991. The effects of pCO 2 and temperature on magnesium incorporation in calcite in seawater and MgCl 2 -CaCl 2 solutions. Geochimica... for house building: Mg 2+ or H + removal? Geochimica Cosmochimica Acta, 66: 1159-1169. Zondervan, I., Zeebe, R., Rost, B. and Riebesell, U. 2001. Decreasing marine biogenic calcification: A negative feedback on rising atmospheric pCO 2 . Global...

  11. Sediment waves with a biogenic twist in Pleistocene cool water carbonates, Great Australian Bight

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Anderskouv, Kresten; Surlyk, Finn; Huuse, Mads

    2010-01-01

    -parallel to contours immediately off the shelf–slope break. They are asymmetrical, showing up-slope migration, and mainly occur in trains. The sediment waves were drilled during ODP leg 182 in 1998, and were interpreted as biogenic reef mounds. New high-quality seismic and multibeam bathymetry data were acquired...... involved growth in glacial periods only. Bryozoans influenced the depositional environment by adding sediment, trapping fine-grained particles, and stabilizing the muddy sea floor. This caused the sediment waves to gain a more prominent sea floor relief than most muddy siliciclastic sediment waves formed...

  12. Magnetic Dinner Salads: The Role of Biogenic Magnetite in Cryopreservation for Common Food Plants

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chaffee, T. M.; Kirschvink, J. L.; Kobayashi, A. K.

    2015-12-01

    Biogenically-precipitated magnetite has been found in organisms ranging from Bacteria, single-celled protists, and many of the animal phyla, where its major function is navigation and magnetoreception. To date there is but a single report of biogenic magnetite in plants (essentially, magnetoferritin), and that is in common grass (Festuca species, from Gajdardziska-Josifovska et. al. doi:10.1127/0935-1221/2001/0013/0863). Recent developments in cryopreservation suggest that ~ 1 mT, ~ 10 Hz oscillating magnetic fields can drastically reduce ice nucleation during freezing, promote supercooling, and minimize cellular damage in living tissues (e.g., Kaku et al., doi: 10.1016/j.cryobiol.2012.02.001). Kobayashi & Kirschvink (2014, doi:10.1016/j.cryobiol.2013.12.002) suggest that biogenic magnetite crystals could be the nucleating site for damaging ice crystals, and that they would be driven magneto-mechanically to rotate in those oscillating fields which could inhibit the ice crystal nucleation process. This prompted our investigation into the magnetite content of ordinary fruit and vegetable food products, as knowledge of the natural levels of biogenic magnetite in the human food supply could guide the selection of which foods might work for this type of cryopreservation. Our study involved a range of common foods including avocados, bananas, garlic, and apples. Samples were prepared in a clean lab environment kept free of contaminant particles, and subjected to a variety of standard rock-magnetic tests including IRM and ARM acquisition, and the corresponding Af demagnetization, on a standard 2G™ SRM. Results are consistent with moderately interacting single-domain magnetite (see figure), with moderate inter-particle interaction effects. Typical magnetite concentrations in these samples are in the range of .1 to 1 ng/g for room temperature samples, increasing to the range of 1-10 ng/g when measured frozen (to inhibit thermal rotation of small particles and clumps). If

  13. Slower CCN growth kinetics of anthropogenic aerosol compared to biogenic aerosol observed at a rural site

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shantz, N. C.; Chang, R. Y.-W.; Slowik, J. G.; Vlasenko, A.; Abbatt, J. P. D.; Leaitch, W. R.

    2010-01-01

    Growth rates of water droplets were measured with a static diffusion cloud condensation chamber in May-June 2007 at a rural field site in Southern Ontario, Canada, 70 km north of Toronto. The observations include periods when the winds were from the south and the site was impacted by anthropogenic air from the U.S. and Southern Ontario as well as during a 5-day period of northerly wind flow when the aerosol was dominated by biogenic sources. The growth of droplets on anthropogenic size-selected particles centred at 0.1 μm diameter and composed of approximately 40% organic and 60% ammonium sulphate (AS) by mass, was delayed by on the order of 1 s compared to a pure AS aerosol. Simulations of the growth rate on monodisperse particles indicate that a lowering of the water mass accommodation coefficient from αc=1 to an average of αc=0.04 is needed (assuming an insoluble organic with hygroscopicity parameter, κorg, of zero). Simulations of the initial growth rate on polydisperse anthropogenic particles agree best with observations for αc=0.07. In contrast, the growth rate of droplets on size-selected aerosol of biogenic character, consisting of >80% organic, was similar to that of pure AS. Simulations of the predominantly biogenic polydisperse aerosol show agreement between the observations and simulations when κorg=0.2 (with upper and lower limits of 0.5 and 0.07, respectively) and αc=1. Inhibition of water uptake by the anthropogenic organic applied to an adiabatic cloud parcel model in the form of a constant low αc increases the number of droplets in a cloud compared to pure AS. If the αc is assumed to increase with increasing liquid water on the droplets, then the number of droplets decreases which could diminish the indirect climate forcing effect. The slightly lower κorg in the biogenic case decreases the number of droplets in a cloud compared to pure AS.

  14. Spatial variation of biogenic sulfur in the south Yellow Sea and the East China Sea during summer and its contribution to atmospheric sulfate aerosol.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Sheng-Hui; Yang, Gui-Peng; Zhang, Hong-Hai; Yang, Jian

    2014-08-01

    Spatial distributions of biogenic sulfur compounds including dimethylsulfide (DMS), dissolved and particulate dimethylsulfoniopropionate (DMSPd and DMSPp) were investigated in the South Yellow Sea (SYS) and the East China Sea (ECS) in July 2011. The concentrations of DMS and DMSPp were significantly correlated with the levels of chlorophyll a in the surface water. Simultaneously, relatively high ratio values of DMSP/chlorophyll a and DMS/chlorophyll a occurred in the areas where the phytoplankton community was dominated by dinoflagellates. The DMSPp and chlorophyll a size-fractionation showed that larger nanoplankton (5-20 μm) was the most important producer of DMSPp in the study area. The vertical profiles of DMS and DMSP were characterized by a maximum at the upper layer and the bottom concentrations were also relatively higher compared with the overlying layer of the bottom. In addition, a positive linear correlation was observed between dissolved dimethylsulfoxide (DMSOd) and DMS concentrations in the surface waters. The sea-to-air fluxes of DMS in the study area were estimated to be from 0.03 to 102.35 μmol m(-2) d(-1) with a mean of 16.73 μmol m(-2) d(-1) and the contribution of biogenic non-sea-salt SO4(2-) (nss-SO4(2-)) to the measured total nss-SO4(2-) in the atmospheric aerosol over the study area varied from 1.42% to 30.98%, with an average of 8.2%. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  15. Use of small diameter column particles to enhance HPLC determination of histamine and other biogenic amines in seafood

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Simat, Vida; Dalgaard, Paw

    2011-01-01

    Pre-column and post-column HPLC derivatization methods were modified and evaluated for the identification and quantification of nine biogenic amines in seafood Two HPLC methods with column particles of 1 8 mu m or 3 mu m in diameter were modified and compared to classical methods using 5 mu m...... column particles Both pre-column derivatization with dansyl chloride and post-column derivatization with O-phthalaldehyde were studied The HPLC methods were compared with respect to the time of elution eluent consumption backpressure as well as separation sensitivity recovery and repeatability...... for determination of biogenic amines in lean canned tuna and fatty frozen herring The modified methods using smaller column particles of 1 8 mu m or 3 mu m allowed biogenic amines to be separated and quantified faster (23-59%) and with less eluent consumption (59-62%) than classical HPLC methods Backpressures were...

  16. The Potential for Electrofuels Production in Sweden Utilizing Fossil and Biogenic CO{sub 2} Point Sources

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hansson, Julia, E-mail: julia.hansson@ivl.se [Climate and Sustainable Cities, IVL Swedish Environmental Research Institute, Stockholm (Sweden); Division of Physical Resource Theory, Department of Energy and Environment, Chalmers University of Technology, Göteborg (Sweden); Hackl, Roman [Climate and Sustainable Cities, IVL Swedish Environmental Research Institute, Stockholm (Sweden); Taljegard, Maria [Division of Energy Technology, Department of Energy and Environment, Chalmers University of Technology, Göteborg (Sweden); Brynolf, Selma; Grahn, Maria [Division of Physical Resource Theory, Department of Energy and Environment, Chalmers University of Technology, Göteborg (Sweden)

    2017-03-13

    This paper maps, categorizes, and quantifies all major point sources of carbon dioxide (CO{sub 2}) emissions from industrial and combustion processes in Sweden. The paper also estimates the Swedish technical potential for electrofuels (power-to-gas/fuels) based on carbon capture and utilization. With our bottom-up approach using European databases, we find that Sweden emits approximately 50 million metric tons of CO{sub 2} per year from different types of point sources, with 65% (or about 32 million tons) from biogenic sources. The major sources are the pulp and paper industry (46%), heat and power production (23%), and waste treatment and incineration (8%). Most of the CO{sub 2} is emitted at low concentrations (<15%) from sources in the southern part of Sweden where power demand generally exceeds in-region supply. The potentially recoverable emissions from all the included point sources amount to 45 million tons. If all the recoverable CO{sub 2} were used to produce electrofuels, the yield would correspond to 2–3 times the current Swedish demand for transportation fuels. The electricity required would correspond to about 3 times the current Swedish electricity supply. The current relatively few emission sources with high concentrations of CO{sub 2} (>90%, biofuel operations) would yield electrofuels corresponding to approximately 2% of the current demand for transportation fuels (corresponding to 1.5–2 TWh/year). In a 2030 scenario with large-scale biofuels operations based on lignocellulosic feedstocks, the potential for electrofuels production from high-concentration sources increases to 8–11 TWh/year. Finally, renewable electricity and production costs, rather than CO{sub 2} supply, limit the potential for production of electrofuels in Sweden.

  17. A simple biogenic route to rapid synthesis of Au-TiO{sub 2} nanocomposites by electrochemically active biofilms

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kalathil, Shafeer; Khan, Mohammad Mansoob [Yeungnam University, School of Chemical Engineering (Korea, Republic of); Banerjee, Arghya Narayan [Yeungnam University, School of Mechanical Engineering (Korea, Republic of); Lee, Jintae; Cho, Moo Hwan, E-mail: mhcho@ynu.ac.kr [Yeungnam University, School of Chemical Engineering (Korea, Republic of)

    2012-08-15

    Deposition of gold on titanium dioxide (TiO{sub 2}) nanoparticles is highly beneficial for maximizing the efficiency of many photocatalytic reactions. In this study, we have reported for the first time the use of an electrochemically active biofilm (EAB) for the synthesis of Au-TiO{sub 2} nanocomposite with sodium acetate as the electron donor. The EAB acts as an electron generator for the reduction of gold ions on the surface of TiO{sub 2} nanoparticles. It was observed that the TiO{sub 2} plays not only as a support for the gold nanoparticles but also as a storage of electrons produced by the EAB within the particles. These stored electrons dramatically increase the reduction of gold ions and hence we have observed the formation of the Au-TiO{sub 2} nanocomposites within 90 min. A mechanism of the nanocomposite formation is also proposed. The as-synthesized nanocomposites were characterized by UV-Vis absorption spectroscopy to monitor the proper formation of the nanocomposites. X-ray diffraction and transmission electron microscopic analyses were performed to determine the structural and microstructural properties of the nanocomposites. High-resolution transmission electron micrographs depict the proper formation of the Au-TiO{sub 2} nanocomposites with gold nanoparticle size varying from 5 to 10 nm with an increase in the gold precursor concentration. Zeta potential measurements were used to investigate surface charges of the as-synthesized nanocomposites. This novel biogenic route represents a unique pathway for the low cost, eco-friendly, rapid, and controlled synthesis of nanostructured Au-TiO{sub 2} hybrid systems which will truly revolutionize the synthetic fields of nanocomposites.

  18. Influence of ripening time on the amount of certain biogenic amines in rind and core of cow milk Livno cheese

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Antonela Marijan

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available Determining the levels of biogenic amines in cheese except that it has significance for determining the nutritional value and hygienic accuracy, cheese as food can be used as a parameter to evaluate the conditions of production and/or ripening of products, and particularly in the selection of bacterial cultures. The purpose of this paper was to determine the effect of the ripening process on the amount of biogenic amines in cheese. For this purpose were conducted physico-chemical analysis, determination of biogenic amines and microbiological analysis. During the process of ripening Livno cheese from three different batches was taken one cheese from prime day and 9th, 20th, 29th, 50th, 60th and 105th day. From each cheese two samples were taken, one from the middle and one from the cheese rind. During 105th day of ripening Livno cheese, the presence of triptamin, ß-feniletlamine, putrescine, cadaverine, histamine, tyramine, spermine and spermidine were determinated. The maximum total values of searched biogenic amines were found 105th day, in the middle 184.13 mg/kg and 76.26 mg/kg in the rind of cheese. With an indication that the largest share of value rep¬resent histamine with 43.9 % and tyramine with 38.2 % in the middle, respectively histamine with 31.6 % and tyramine with 31.5 % in the rind of cheese. The values of putrescine and spermine were in small ranges and they are not identified in all samples. The values of histamine and tyramine are almost a third more at 105th than 60th day. There was a significant difference between the middle and the rind of cheese in the values of biogenic amines. Correlation between biogenic amines and microorganisms has not been determined.

  19. Milankovitch-scale correlations between deeply buried microbial populations and biogenic ooze lithology

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aiello, I.W.; Bekins, B.A.

    2010-01-01

    The recent discoveries of large, active populations of microbes in the subseafloor of the world's oceans supports the impact of the deep biosphere biota on global biogeochemical cycles and raises important questions concerning the functioning of these extreme environments for life. These investigations demonstrated that subseafloor microbes are unevenly distributed and that cell abundances and metabolic activities are often independent from sediment depths, with increased prokaryotic activity at geochemical and/or sedimentary interfaces. In this study we demonstrate that microbial populations vary at the scale of individual beds in the biogenic oozes of a drill site in the eastern equatorial Pacific (Ocean Drilling Program Leg 201, Site 1226). We relate bedding-scale changes in biogenic ooze sediment composition to organic carbon (OC) and microbial cell concentrations using high-resolution color reflectance data as proxy for lithology. Our analyses demonstrate that microbial concentrations are an order of magnitude higher in the more organic-rich diatom oozes than in the nannofossil oozes. The variations mimic small-scale variations in diatom abundance and OC, indicating that the modern distribution of microbial biomass is ultimately controlled by Milankovitch-frequency variations in past oceanographic conditions. ?? 2010 Geological Society of America.

  20. Processing and characterization of glass reinforced biogenic hydroxyapatite composites with ferromagnetic additives

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nataliya Pinchuk

    2008-06-01

    Full Text Available Biogenic hydroxyapatite-glass composites, with addition of up to 2 wt.% of Fe or Fe3O4, were fabricated from biogenic hydroxyapatite powder and four types of reinforcing glasses by sintering under different conditions. It has been established that the relative density, mechanical and magnetic properties of the prepared composites depend on the composition and sintering conditions. The composites with 1 wt.% Fe or Fe3O4 sintered at 500°С in vacuum have a magnetic susceptibility of 2–3·10-3 cm3/g. This parameter decreases to 0.858·10-3 cm3/g for the specimens with 1 wt.% additives sintered at 800°С in vacuum and to 0.27–1.3·10-3cm3/g for the specimens with 2 wt.% additives sintered at 500°С under the usual atmospheric conditions. The magnetic susceptibility for the specimens with 2 wt.% additives sintered at 780°С under the same atmospheric conditions decreases to 0.24–1.25·10-6 cm3/g. These ferromagnetic additives influence the degradation rate in vitro within the first 40 min of the composite soaking. Short-term treatment of specimens by the magnetic field leads to an increase in the initial degradation rate, but insignificantly influences it within more prolonged soaking.

  1. Biogenic selenium nanoparticles induce ROS-mediated necroptosis in PC-3 cancer cells through TNF activation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sonkusre, Praveen; Cameotra, Swaranjit Singh

    2017-06-07

    Selenium is well documented to inhibit cancer at higher doses; however, the mechanism behind this inhibition varies widely depending on the cell type and selenium species. Previously, we have demonstrated that Bacillus licheniformis JS2 derived biogenic selenium nanoparticles (SeNPs) induce non-apoptotic cell death in prostate adenocarcinoma cell line, PC-3, at a minimal concentration of 2 µg Se/ml, without causing toxicity to the primary cells. However, the mechanism behind its anticancer activity was elusive. Our results have shown that these SeNPs at a concentration of 2 µg Se/ml were able to induce reactive oxygen species (ROS) mediated necroptosis in PC-3 cells by gaining cellular internalization. Real-time qPCR analysis showed increased expression of necroptosis associated tumor necrotic factor (TNF) and interferon regulatory factor 1 (IRF1). An increased expression of RIP1 protein was also observed at the translational level upon SeNP treatment. Moreover, the cell viability was significantly increased in the presence of necroptosis inhibitor, Necrostatin-1. Data suggest that our biogenic SeNPs induce cell death in PC-3 cells by the ROS-mediated activation of necroptosis, independent to RIP3 and MLKL, regulated by a RIP1 kinase.

  2. Insights into the optical and anti-bacterial properties of biogenic PbSe quantum rods

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jaya Mary Jacob

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available The detailed optical properties of lead selenide (PbSe quantum rods biosynthesized in marine Aspergillus terreus were apprehended theoretically using ab initio calculations based on the experimental absorption spectrum. These studies indicate that the absorption coefficient of the biosynthesized PbSe quantum rods increases linearly with incident photon energies. The variation of other optical constants like extinction coefficient, refractive index and reflectance was comparable to that of the chemically synthesized counterparts. Further, the high dielectric constant and remarkable fluorescence of the biogenic PbSe quantum rods pronounce their application in opto-electronic devices in the Near Infra-Red and Ultraviolet spectral regime. The biosynthesized PbSe quantum rods were also found to possess appreciable anti-bacterial activity against various gram positive and gram negative bacterial species thus enhancing the relevance of the same for practical utility. Based on these results it can be concluded that biogenic PbSe quantum rods can be envisaged as potential candidates for bio-imaging, bio-sensing and other photo-voltaic applications.

  3. Biogenic metallic nanoparticles as catalyst for bioelectricity production: A novel approach in microbial fuel cells

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Saravanakumar, Kandasamy, E-mail: saravana732@gmail.com [School of Agriculture and Biology, Shanghai Jiao Tong University, Shanghai (China); State Key Laboratory of Microbial Metabolism, Shanghai Jiao Tong University, Shanghai (China); Key Laboratory of Urban Agriculture (South), Ministry of Agriculture, Shanghai (China); MubarakAli, Davoodbasha [Microbial Genetic Engineering Laboratory, Division of Bioengineering, College of Life Science and Bioengineering, Incheon National University, Songdo 406772, Incheon (Korea, Republic of); Department of Microbiology, School of Lifesciences, Bharathidasan University, Tiruchirappalli 620024 (India); Kathiresan, Kandasamy [Centre of Advanced Study in Marine Biology, Faculty of Marine Sciences, Annamalai University, Parangipettai 608 502, Tamil Nadu (India); Thajuddin, Nooruddin [Department of Microbiology, School of Lifesciences, Bharathidasan University, Tiruchirappalli 620024 (India); Department of Botany and Microbiology, College of Science, King Saud University, Riyadh 11451 (Saudi Arabia); Alharbi, Naiyf S. [Department of Botany and Microbiology, College of Science, King Saud University, Riyadh 11451 (Saudi Arabia); Chen, Jie, E-mail: jiechen59@sjtu.edu.cn [School of Agriculture and Biology, Shanghai Jiao Tong University, Shanghai (China); State Key Laboratory of Microbial Metabolism, Shanghai Jiao Tong University, Shanghai (China); Key Laboratory of Urban Agriculture (South), Ministry of Agriculture, Shanghai (China)

    2016-01-15

    Highlights: • Trichoderma sp., showed an abilities to synthesis of AgNPs and AuNPs with an excellent stability. • AuNPs significantly enhanced the bioelectricity production by MFC of anaerobic fermentation as catalyst. • Maximum bioelectricity production was optimized and obtained the voltage of 432.80 mA using RSM. - Abstract: The present work aimed to use the biogenic metallic nanoparticles as catalyst for bioelectricity production in microbial fuel cell (MFC) approach under anaerobic condition. Silver and gold nanoparticles (AuNPs) were synthesized using Trichoderma sp. Particle size and cystallinity were measured by X-ray diffraction revealed the crystalline structure with average size of 36.17 nm. Electron microscopic studies showed spherical shaped silver nanoparticles (AgNPs) and cubical shaped AuNPs with size ranges from 50 to 150 nm. The concentration of biogenic metallic nanoparticles as catalyst for enhanced bioelectricity generations and estimated by response surface methodology (RSM) and found at the greatest of 342.80 mA under optimized conditions are time interval, temperature, nanoparticles used as 63 h, 28 ± 2.0 °C, 22.54 mg l{sup −1} (AgNPs) and 25.62 mg l{sup −1} (AuNPs) in a batch reactor. AuNPs acted as an excellent catalyst to enhance the bioelectricity production. This novel technique could be used for eco-friendly, economically feasible and facile electricity production.

  4. Spatio-temporal variation of biogenic volatile organic compounds emissions in China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, L Y; Chen, Y; Xie, S D

    2013-11-01

    Aiming to reduce the large uncertainties of biogenic volatile organic compounds (BVOCs) emissions estimation, the emission inventory of BVOCs in China at a high spatial and temporal resolution of 36 km × 36 km and 1 h was established using MEGANv2.1 with MM5 providing high-resolution meteorological data, based on the most detailed and latest vegetation investigations. BVOC emissions from 82 plant functional types in China were computed firstly. More local species-specific emission rates were developed combining statistical analysis and category classification, and the leaf biomass was estimated based on vegetation volume and production with biomass-apportion models. The total annual BVOC emissions in 2003 were 42.5 Tg, including isoprene 23.4 Tg, monoterpene 5.6 Tg, sesquiterpene 1.0 Tg, and other VOCs (OVOCs) 12.5 Tg. Subtropical and tropical evergreen and deciduous broadleaf shrubs, Quercus, and bamboo contributed more than 45% to the total BVOC emissions. The highest biogenic emissions were found over northeastern, southeastern, and southwestern China. Strong seasonal pattern was observed with the highest BVOC emissions in July and the lowest in January and December, with daily emission peaked at approximately 13:00 or 14:00 local time. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  5. Biogenic volatile organic compounds from the urban forest of the Metropolitan Region, Chile

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Préndez, Margarita; Carvajal, Virginia; Corada, Karina; Morales, Johanna; Alarcón, Francis; Peralta, Hugo

    2013-01-01

    Tropospheric ozone is a secondary pollutant whose primary sources are volatile organic compounds and nitrogen oxides. The national standard is exceeded on a third of summer days in some areas of the Chilean Metropolitan Region (MR). This study reports normalized springtime experimental emissions factors (EF) for biogenic volatile organic compounds from tree species corresponding to approximately 31% of urban trees in the MR. A Photochemical Ozone Creation Index (POCI) was calculated using Photochemical Ozone Creation Potential of quantified terpenes. Ten species, natives and exotics, were analysed using static enclosure technique. Terpene quantification was performed using GC-FID, thermal desorption, cryogenic concentration and automatic injection. Observed EF and POCI values for terpenes from exotic species were 78 times greater than native values; within the same family, exotic EF and POCI values were 28 and 26 times greater than natives. These results support reforestation with native species for improved urban pollution management. -- First experimental determination of the emission factors of biogenic volatile organic compounds in the urban forest of the Metropolitan Region, Chile

  6. TL studies of quaternary biogenic carbonate deposits of Saurashtra, Western India

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Patel, M.P.; Bhatt, Nilesh; Murthy, K.V.R.

    1992-01-01

    The quaternary biogenic carbonate deposits of Saurashtra, coastal as well as inland, comprise the beach rocks, miliolites and the stabilised sand dunes. The beach rocks contain the varieties of megafossils and broken shell fragments while the miliolites are granular made up of medium to fine grained, well sorted, abraded to finely abraded and even pelletised microfossils and shell fragments. The various constituents of the beach rocks and miliolites are cemented together by a fine calcite cement. The carbonate sand dunes contain relatively less amount of biogenic material and are rich in quartz. Age wise, the well consolidated beach rocks and miliolites are older (middle to later upper pleistocene) as compared to poorly consolidated coastal stabilised younger sand dunes (holocene). Chemically the former are rich in CaCO 3 while the latter are rich in SiO 2 . TL studies of the representative samples of beach rocks, miliolites and sand dunes clearly suggest that the glow curves of beach rocks and miliolites differ from that of sand dunes. Again, the existence of close similarity between the ATL/NTL curves for beach rocks and miliolites substantiate their close affinity in the field. (author). 14 refs., 2 tabs., 2 figs

  7. Reduced anthropogenic aerosol radiative forcing caused by biogenic new particle formation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gordon, Hamish; Sengupta, Kamalika; Rap, Alexandru; Duplissy, Jonathan; Frege, Carla; Williamson, Christina; Heinritzi, Martin; Simon, Mario; Yan, Chao; Almeida, João; Tröstl, Jasmin; Nieminen, Tuomo; Ortega, Ismael K.; Wagner, Robert; Dunne, Eimear M.; Adamov, Alexey; Amorim, Antonio; Bernhammer, Anne-Kathrin; Bianchi, Federico; Breitenlechner, Martin; Brilke, Sophia; Chen, Xuemeng; Craven, Jill S.; Dias, Antonio; Ehrhart, Sebastian; Fischer, Lukas; Flagan, Richard C.; Franchin, Alessandro; Fuchs, Claudia; Guida, Roberto; Hakala, Jani; Hoyle, Christopher R.; Jokinen, Tuija; Junninen, Heikki; Kangasluoma, Juha; Kim, Jaeseok; Kirkby, Jasper; Krapf, Manuel; Kürten, Andreas; Laaksonen, Ari; Lehtipalo, Katrianne; Makhmutov, Vladimir; Mathot, Serge; Molteni, Ugo; Monks, Sarah A.; Onnela, Antti; Peräkylä, Otso; Piel, Felix; Petäjä, Tuukka; Praplan, Arnaud P.; Pringle, Kirsty J.; Richards, Nigel A. D.; Rissanen, Matti P.; Rondo, Linda; Sarnela, Nina; Schobesberger, Siegfried; Scott, Catherine E.; Seinfeld, John H.; Sharma, Sangeeta; Sipilä, Mikko; Steiner, Gerhard; Stozhkov, Yuri; Stratmann, Frank; Tomé, Antonio; Virtanen, Annele; Vogel, Alexander Lucas; Wagner, Andrea C.; Wagner, Paul E.; Weingartner, Ernest; Wimmer, Daniela; Winkler, Paul M.; Ye, Penglin; Zhang, Xuan; Hansel, Armin; Dommen, Josef; Donahue, Neil M.; Worsnop, Douglas R.; Baltensperger, Urs; Kulmala, Markku; Curtius, Joachim; Carslaw, Kenneth S.

    2016-10-01

    The magnitude of aerosol radiative forcing caused by anthropogenic emissions depends on the baseline state of the atmosphere under pristine preindustrial conditions. Measurements show that particle formation in atmospheric conditions can occur solely from biogenic vapors. Here, we evaluate the potential effect of this source of particles on preindustrial cloud condensation nuclei (CCN) concentrations and aerosol-cloud radiative forcing over the industrial period. Model simulations show that the pure biogenic particle formation mechanism has a much larger relative effect on CCN concentrations in the preindustrial atmosphere than in the present atmosphere because of the lower aerosol concentrations. Consequently, preindustrial cloud albedo is increased more than under present day conditions, and therefore the cooling forcing of anthropogenic aerosols is reduced. The mechanism increases CCN concentrations by 20-100% over a large fraction of the preindustrial lower atmosphere, and the magnitude of annual global mean radiative forcing caused by changes of cloud albedo since 1750 is reduced by 0.22 W m-2 (27%) to -0.60 W m-2. Model uncertainties, relatively slow formation rates, and limited available ambient measurements make it difficult to establish the significance of a mechanism that has its dominant effect under preindustrial conditions. Our simulations predict more particle formation in the Amazon than is observed. However, the first observation of pure organic nucleation has now been reported for the free troposphere. Given the potentially significant effect on anthropogenic forcing, effort should be made to better understand such naturally driven aerosol processes.

  8. Silicon Isotopes of Marine Pore Water: Tracking the Destiny of Marine Biogenic Opal

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cassarino, L.; Hendry, K. R.

    2017-12-01

    Silicon isotopes (δ30Si) are a powerful tool for the studying of the past and present silicon cycles, which is closely linked to the carbon cycle. Siliceous phytoplankton, such as diatoms, as one of the major conveyors of carbon to marine sediments. δ30Si from fossil diatoms has been shown to represent past silicic acid (DSi) utilization in the photic zone, since the lighter isotope is preferentially incorporated in their skeleton, the frustule. This assumes that species in the sediments depict past blooms and that frustules are preserved in their initial state during burial. Here we present new silicon isotopes data of sea water and pore water of deep marine sediments from two contrasted environments, the Equatorial Atlantic and West Antarctic Peninsula. δ30Si and DSi concentration, of both sea water and pore water, are negatively correlated. Marine biogenic opal dissolution can be tracked using δ30Si signature of pore water as lighter signals and high DSi concentrations are associated with the biogenic silica. Our data enhances post depositional and diagenesis processes during burial with a clear highlight on the sediment water interface exchanges.

  9. Ionising radiation effect on the luminescence emission of inorganic and biogenic calcium carbonates

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boronat, C.; Correcher, V.; Virgos, M. D.; Garcia-Guinea, J.

    2017-06-01

    As known, the luminescence emission of mineral phases could be potentially employed for dosimetric purposes in the case of radiological terrorism or radiation accident where conventional monitoring is not available. In this sense, this paper reports on the thermo- (TL) and cathodoluminescence (CL) emission of both biogenic (common periwinkle - littorina littorera - shell made of calcite 90% and aragonite 10%) and inorganic (aragonite 100%) Ca-rich carbonates previously characterized by X-ray diffraction and Raman spectroscopy. Whereas the aragonite sample displays the main CL waveband peaked in the red region (linked to point defects), the more intense emission obtained from the common periwinkle shell appears at higher energies (mainly associated with structural defects). The UV-blue TL emission of the samples, regardless of the origin, displays (i) an acceptable ionizing radiation sensitivity, (ii) linear dose response in the range of interest (up to 8 Gy), (iii) reasonable stability of the TL signal after 700 h of storage with an initial decay of ca. 88% for the mineral sample and 60% for the biogenic sample and maintaining the stability from 150 h onwards. (iv) The tests of thermal stability of the TL emission performed in the range of 180-320 °C confirm a continuum in the trap system.

  10. Composition and Sources of Particulate Matter Measured near Houston, TX: Anthropogenic-Biogenic Interactions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jeffrey K. Bean

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available Particulate matter was measured in Conroe, Texas (~60 km north of downtown Houston, Texas during the September 2013 DISCOVER-AQ campaign to determine the sources of particulate matter in the region. The measurement site is influenced by high biogenic emission rates as well as transport of anthropogenic pollutants from the Houston metropolitan area and is therefore an ideal location to study anthropogenic-biogenic interactions. Data from an Aerosol Chemical Speciation Monitor (ACSM suggest that on average 64 percent of non-refractory PM1 was organic material, including a high fraction (27%–41% of organic nitrates. There was little diurnal variation in the concentrations of ammonium sulfate; however, concentrations of organic and organic nitrate aerosol were consistently higher at night than during the day. Potential explanations for the higher organic aerosol loadings at night include changing boundary layer height, increased partitioning to the particle phase at lower temperatures, and differences between daytime and nighttime chemical processes such as nitrate radical chemistry. Positive matrix factorization was applied to the organic aerosol mass spectra measured by the ACSM and three factors were resolved—two factors representing oxygenated organic aerosol and one factor representing hydrocarbon-like organic aerosol. The factors suggest that the measured aerosol was well mixed and highly processed, consistent with the distance from the site to major aerosol sources, as well as the high photochemical activity.

  11. Reduced anthropogenic aerosol radiative forcing caused by biogenic new particle formation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gordon, Hamish; Sengupta, Kamalika; Rap, Alexandru; Duplissy, Jonathan; Frege, Carla; Williamson, Christina; Heinritzi, Martin; Simon, Mario; Yan, Chao; Almeida, João; Tröstl, Jasmin; Nieminen, Tuomo; Ortega, Ismael K; Wagner, Robert; Dunne, Eimear M; Adamov, Alexey; Amorim, Antonio; Bernhammer, Anne-Kathrin; Bianchi, Federico; Breitenlechner, Martin; Brilke, Sophia; Chen, Xuemeng; Craven, Jill S; Dias, Antonio; Ehrhart, Sebastian; Fischer, Lukas; Flagan, Richard C; Franchin, Alessandro; Fuchs, Claudia; Guida, Roberto; Hakala, Jani; Hoyle, Christopher R; Jokinen, Tuija; Junninen, Heikki; Kangasluoma, Juha; Kim, Jaeseok; Kirkby, Jasper; Krapf, Manuel; Kürten, Andreas; Laaksonen, Ari; Lehtipalo, Katrianne; Makhmutov, Vladimir; Mathot, Serge; Molteni, Ugo; Monks, Sarah A; Onnela, Antti; Peräkylä, Otso; Piel, Felix; Petäjä, Tuukka; Praplan, Arnaud P; Pringle, Kirsty J; Richards, Nigel A D; Rissanen, Matti P; Rondo, Linda; Sarnela, Nina; Schobesberger, Siegfried; Scott, Catherine E; Seinfeld, John H; Sharma, Sangeeta; Sipilä, Mikko; Steiner, Gerhard; Stozhkov, Yuri; Stratmann, Frank; Tomé, Antonio; Virtanen, Annele; Vogel, Alexander Lucas; Wagner, Andrea C; Wagner, Paul E; Weingartner, Ernest; Wimmer, Daniela; Winkler, Paul M; Ye, Penglin; Zhang, Xuan; Hansel, Armin; Dommen, Josef; Donahue, Neil M; Worsnop, Douglas R; Baltensperger, Urs; Kulmala, Markku; Curtius, Joachim; Carslaw, Kenneth S

    2016-10-25

    The magnitude of aerosol radiative forcing caused by anthropogenic emissions depends on the baseline state of the atmosphere under pristine preindustrial conditions. Measurements show that particle formation in atmospheric conditions can occur solely from biogenic vapors. Here, we evaluate the potential effect of this source of particles on preindustrial cloud condensation nuclei (CCN) concentrations and aerosol-cloud radiative forcing over the industrial period. Model simulations show that the pure biogenic particle formation mechanism has a much larger relative effect on CCN concentrations in the preindustrial atmosphere than in the present atmosphere because of the lower aerosol concentrations. Consequently, preindustrial cloud albedo is increased more than under present day conditions, and therefore the cooling forcing of anthropogenic aerosols is reduced. The mechanism increases CCN concentrations by 20-100% over a large fraction of the preindustrial lower atmosphere, and the magnitude of annual global mean radiative forcing caused by changes of cloud albedo since 1750 is reduced by [Formula: see text] (27%) to [Formula: see text] Model uncertainties, relatively slow formation rates, and limited available ambient measurements make it difficult to establish the significance of a mechanism that has its dominant effect under preindustrial conditions. Our simulations predict more particle formation in the Amazon than is observed. However, the first observation of pure organic nucleation has now been reported for the free troposphere. Given the potentially significant effect on anthropogenic forcing, effort should be made to better understand such naturally driven aerosol processes.

  12. Reduction of Biogenic Amines during Miso Fermentation by Lactobacillus plantarum as a Starter Culture.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Yi-Chen; Kung, Hsien-Feng; Huang, Ya-Ling; Wu, Chien-Hui; Huang, Yu-Ru; Tsai, Yung-Hsiang

    2016-09-01

    Lactobacillus plantarum D-103 isolated from a miso product that possesses amine-degrading activity was used as a starter culture in miso fermentation (25°C for 120 days) in this study. The salt content in control samples (without starter culture) and inoculated samples (inoculated with L. plantarum D-103) remained constant at 10.4% of the original salt concentration throughout fermentation, whereas the pH value decreased from 6.2 to 4.6 during fermentation. The inoculated samples had significantly lower (P < 0.05) levels of total volatile basic nitrogen than control samples after 40 days of fermentation. After 120 days of fermentation, the histamine and overall biogenic amine contents in inoculated samples were reduced by 58 and 27%, respectively, compared with control samples. To our knowledge, this is the first report to demonstrate that application of a starter culture with amine-degrading activity in miso products was effective in reducing the accumulation of biogenic amines.

  13. Post-column derivatization capillary electrochromatography for detection of biogenic amines in tuna-meat.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oguri, Shigeyuki; Okuya, Yukie; Yanase, Yukiko; Suzuki, Sayaka

    2008-08-15

    A system to perform post-column derivatization capillary electrochromatography (CEC) was developed for the first time. The system mainly included a 4-microm (O.D.) silica packed column (200 mm effective length x 0.1 mm inner diameter I.D.) with micro-magnetic particles (MMPs) frits, a T-junction connector, an in-line fluorescence detector and a high-voltage power supply. The system was evaluated by using histamine (HA) as a standard biogenic amine for this study. A 5 microM HA solution was loaded at the anodic site of the capillary column by applying 3 kV for 5s. Then, HA was electrophoretically eluted with a 20mM phosphate buffer (pH 7) by applying 3 kV, and was derivatized with 3mM o-phthalaldehyde (OPA)/N-acetylcysteine (NAC) in 100 mM borate (pH 10), which was continuously delivered through the reagent-loading capillary tube by gravity into the T-junction connector. HA derivative was finally detected with the in-line fluorescence detector (lambda(Ex)=340 nm, lambda(Em)=450 nm) at 9.7 min after sample loading. To test the utility of this system, it was next employed for its ability to detect the presence of HA and other kinds of biogenic amines, including cadaverine (Cad), spermidine (Spm) and tyramine (Tyr) in tuna-meat, once the validity of the method had been confirmed.

  14. Biogenic amines, amino acids and regional blood flow in rat brain after prenatal irradiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Deroo, J.; Gerber, G.B.; Maes, J.

    1986-01-01

    Damage to nerve cells after prenatal irradiation could affect their later ability to function normally. The concentration of several biogenic amines and amino acids was therefore determined at different times after prenatal irradiation with 0.95 Gy on day 10, 12 or 15 of pregnancy. The offspring was sacrified 0.5, 1, 3 and 6 months after birth and the following structures were dissected: Cortex, hippocampus, striatum, thalamus, hypothalamus, cerebellum and medulla. Biogenic amines isolated by HPLC and detected electrochemically were: Dopamine, DOPA, DOPAC, epinephrine, norepinephrine, serotonin and hydroxyindolacetate. Amino acids converted to their dansyl derivatives and separated by HPLC were: Aspartate, glutamate, glutamine, gamma aminobutyrate and taurine. Many neurotransmitters were found increased in brain after prenatal irradiation, particularly on day 12 and 15 p.c. Marked changes were found for serotonin in several brain structures and for dopamin in striatum. An increase was also found in glutamate, glutamine and GABA. Studies on regional blood flow using injection of labelled 15 μ microspheres did not reveal significant alterations after prenatal irradiation. (orig.)

  15. Physiological origin of biogenic magnetic nanoparticles in health and disease: from bacteria to humans

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gorobets O

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available Oksana Gorobets,1,2 Svitlana Gorobets,1 Marceli Koralewski3 1National Technical University of Ukraine (Igor Sikorsky Kyiv Polytechnic Institute, 2Institute of Magnetism, National Academy of Sciences, Kiev, Ukraine; 3Faculty of Physics, Adam Mickiewicz University, Poznan, Poland Abstract: The discovery of biogenic magnetic nanoparticles (BMNPs in the human brain gives a strong impulse to study and understand their origin. Although knowledge of the subject is increasing continuously, much remains to be done for further development to help our society fight a number of pathologies related to BMNPs. This review provides an insight into the puzzle of the physiological origin of BMNPs in organisms of all three domains of life: prokaryotes, archaea, and eukaryotes, including humans. Predictions based on comparative genomic studies are presented along with experimental data obtained by physical methods. State-of-the-art understanding of the genetic control of biomineralization of BMNPs and their properties are discussed in detail. We present data on the differences in BMNP levels in health and disease (cancer, neurodegenerative disorders, and atherosclerosis, and discuss the existing hypotheses on the biological functions of BMNPs, with special attention paid to the role of the ferritin core and apoferritin. Keywords: biogenic magnetic nanoparticles, biomineralization, ferritin, magnetoferritin, genetic control, neurodegenerative disorders, cancer

  16. Exploring sources of biogenic secondary organic aerosol compounds using chemical analysis and the FLEXPART model

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J. Martinsson

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available Molecular tracers in secondary organic aerosols (SOAs can provide information on origin of SOA, as well as regional scale processes involved in their formation. In this study 9 carboxylic acids, 11 organosulfates (OSs and 2 nitrooxy organosulfates (NOSs were determined in daily aerosol particle filter samples from Vavihill measurement station in southern Sweden during June and July 2012. Several of the observed compounds are photo-oxidation products from biogenic volatile organic compounds (BVOCs. Highest average mass concentrations were observed for carboxylic acids derived from fatty acids and monoterpenes (12. 3 ± 15. 6 and 13. 8 ± 11. 6 ng m−3, respectively. The FLEXPART model was used to link nine specific surface types to single measured compounds. It was found that the surface category sea and ocean was dominating the air mass exposure (56 % but contributed to low mass concentration of observed chemical compounds. A principal component (PC analysis identified four components, where the one with highest explanatory power (49 % displayed clear impact of coniferous forest on measured mass concentration of a majority of the compounds. The three remaining PCs were more difficult to interpret, although azelaic, suberic, and pimelic acid were closely related to each other but not to any clear surface category. Hence, future studies should aim to deduce the biogenic sources and surface category of these compounds. This study bridges micro-level chemical speciation to air mass surface exposure at the macro level.

  17. Quality properties, fatty acids, and biogenic amines profile of fresh tilapia stored in ice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kulawik, Piotr; Özoğul, Fatih; Glew, Robert H

    2013-07-01

    This work determines quality properties and fatty acids content of Nile tilapia (Oreochromis niloticus) stored in ice for 21 d. The quality properties consist of thiobarbituic acid (TBA), total volatile basic nitrogen (TVB-N), trimethylamine (TMA), and microbiological analysis (total viable count (TVC), total coliform, Salmonella and Staphylococcus aureus) and determination of biogenic amines content (histamine, cadaverine, putrescine, spermine, spermidine, 2-phenylethylamine, agmatine, tyramine, and ammonia). Moreover, the fat, moisture, and ash composition as well as fatty acids profile have also been analyzed. The TBA, TVB-N, and biogenic amines analysis showed rather low levels of spoilage even after 21 d of storage. The microbiological analysis, however, showed that tilapia was unsuitable for consumption after just 10 d. The fat, ash, moisture, and fatty acids profile analysis showed that tilapia is not a good source of n-3 fatty acids. The research indicated that the microbiological analysis was the best method to establish spoilage of tilapia stored in ice, of all analytical methods performed in this study. © 2013 Institute of Food Technologists®

  18. Effect of irradiation and storage on biogenic amine contents in ripened Egyptian smoked cooked sausage

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rabie, Mohamed A.; Toliba, Abbas O.

    2013-01-01

    The effects of γ-irradiation upon the biogenic amine inventory in Egyptian smoked cooked sausages were investigated for the first time during storage for up to 90 days at 4 ° C. Typical contents of biogenic amines in non-irradiated sausages ranged between 125.50 and 596.18 mg/kgDW; irradiation with 4 and 6 kGy decreased said total contents to 105.20-94.82 and 104.98-26.44 mg/kgDW respectively, by the end of storage. Putrescine and cadaverine were the major amines in non-irradiated samples - where it accounted for 33% and 29% respectively, of the total by 90 days; however, tyramine dominated in irradiated samples with 2, 4 and 6 kGy, where it accounted for 44, 52 and 42%. On the other hand, the histamine content in non-irradiated sausage by 90 days of storage (i.e. 109.12 mg/kgDW) clearly exceeded the maximum allowable of 50 mg/kg, unlike happened in their irradiated counterparts. Therefore, the dramatic reduction observed in the histamine levels suggests use of this preservation technique for that traditional meat food. (author)

  19. Photocatalytic activity of biogenic silver nanoparticles synthesized using potato (Solanum tuberosum) infusion.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roy, Kaushik; Sarkar, C K; Ghosh, C K

    2015-07-05

    In this study, we have reported a fast and eco-benign procedure to synthesis silver nanoparticle at room temperature using potato (Solanum tuberosum) infusion along with the study of its photocatalytic activity on methyl orange dye. After addition of potato infusion to silver nitrate solution, the color of the mixture changed indicating formation of silver nanoparticles. Time dependent UV-Vis spectra were obtained to study the rate of nanoparticle formation with time. Purity and crystallinity of the biogenic silver nanoparticles were examined by X-ray diffraction (XRD). Average size and morphology of the nanoparticles were characterized by dynamic light scattering (DLS) and transmission electron microscopy (TEM). Fourier transform infra-red spectroscopy (FTIR) was employed to detect functional bio-molecules responsible that contribute to the reduction and capping of biosynthesized Ag nanoparticles. Further, these synthesized nanoparticles were used to investigate their ability to degrade methyl orange dye under sunlight irradiation and the results showed effective photocatalytic property of these biogenic silver nanoparticles. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  20. Behavioral correlates of cerebrospinal fluid amino acid and biogenic amine neurotransmitter alterations in dementia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vermeiren, Yannick; Le Bastard, Nathalie; Van Hemelrijck, An; Drinkenburg, Wilhelmus H; Engelborghs, Sebastiaan; De Deyn, Peter P

    2013-09-01

    Behavioral and psychological signs and symptoms of dementia (BPSD) are a heterogeneous group of behavioral and psychiatric disturbances occurring in dementia patients of any etiology. Research suggests that altered activities of dopaminergic, serotonergic, (nor)adrenergic, as well as amino acid neurotransmitter systems play a role in the etiopathogenesis of BPSD. In this study we attempted to identify cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) neurochemical correlates of BPSD to provide further insight into its underlying neurochemical pathophysiological mechanisms. Patients with probable Alzheimer's disease (AD; n = 202), probable AD with cerebrovascular disease (n = 37), probable frontotemporal dementia (FTD; n = 32), and probable dementia with Lewy bodies (DLB; n = 26) underwent behavioral assessment and lumbar puncture. CSF levels of six amino acids and several biogenic amines and metabolites were analyzed using ultraperformance liquid chromatography with fluorescence detection and reversed-phase high-performance liquid chromatography with fluorescence detection. In the AD patients, CSF homovanillic acid/5-hydroxyindoleacetic acid (HVA/5HIAA) ratios correlated positively with anxieties/phobias, whereas CSF levels of taurine correlated negatively with depression and behavioral disturbances in general. In FTD patients, CSF levels of glutamate correlated negatively with verbally agitated behavior. In DLB patients, CSF levels of HVA correlated negatively with hallucinations. Several neurotransmitter systems can be linked to one specific behavioral syndrome depending on the dementia subtype. In addition to biogenic amines and metabolites, amino acids seem to play a major role in the neurochemical etiology of BPSD as well. Copyright © 2013 The Alzheimer's Association. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  1. Enzyme sensor array for the determination of biogenic amines in food samples

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lange, Jana [University of Greifswald, Institute for Chemistry and Biochemistry (Germany); Wittmann, Christine [Fachhochschule Neubrandenburg, Department of Technology (Germany)

    2002-01-01

    An enzyme sensor array for the simultaneous determination of the three biogenic amines (histamine, tyramine and putrescine) by pattern recognition using an artificial neural network and its application to different food samples is described. A combination of a monoamine oxidase, a tyramine oxidase and a diamine oxidase (with specific activities sufficient for rapid detection) are immobilised each on a separate screen-printed thick-film electrode via transglutaminase and glutaraldehyde to compare these cross-linking reagents with regard to their suitability. To calculate the amount of a specific biogenic amine, the raw data from multichannel software were transferred to a neural network. The sensor array takes 20 min to complete (excluding statistical data analysis) with only one extraction and subsequent neutralisation step required prior to sensor measurement. The lower detection limits with the enzyme sensor were 10 mg/kg for histamine and tyramine, and 5 mg/kg for putrescine with a linear range up to 200 mg/kg for histamine and tyramine and 100 mg/kg for putrescine. The application area of the enzyme sensor array was tested from fish to meat products, sauerkraut, beer, dairy products, wine and further fermented foods and compared with the data of conventional LC analyses (mean correlation coefficient: 0.854). (orig.)

  2. BIOGENIC VS. ABIOGENIC ISOTOPE SIGNATURES OF REDUCED CARBON COMPOUNDS: A LESSON FROM HYDROTHERMAL SYNTHESIS EXPERIMENTS

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Horita, J.

    2001-01-01

    With growing interest in and demonstrated cases of inorganic hydrothermal synthesis of reduced or organic carbon compounds from CO and CO(sub 2), it becomes crucial to establish geochemical criteria to distinguish reduced/organic carbon compounds of abiogenic origin from those of biogenic origin with overwhelming abundances on the surface and in subsurface of the Earth. Chemical and isotopic compositions, particularly(sup 13)C/(sup 12)C ratios, of reduced/organic carbon compounds have been widely utilized for deducing the origins and formation pathways of these compounds. An example is isotopic and C(sub 1)/(C(sub 2)+C(sub 3)) ratios of natural gases, which have been used to distinguish bacterial, thermogenic, and possible abiogenic origins. Another example is that ancient graphitic carbon with(delta)(sup 13)C values c-25per thousand has been considered of biogenic origin. Although these criteria could be largely valid, growing data including those from our hydrothermal experiments suggest that a great caution must be exercised

  3. Secondary aerosol formation from stress-induced biogenic emissions and possible climate feedbacks

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Th. F. Mentel

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available Atmospheric aerosols impact climate by scattering and absorbing solar radiation and by acting as ice and cloud condensation nuclei. Biogenic secondary organic aerosols (BSOAs comprise an important component of atmospheric aerosols. Biogenic volatile organic compounds (BVOCs emitted by vegetation are the source of BSOAs. Pathogens and insect attacks, heat waves and droughts can induce stress to plants that may impact their BVOC emissions, and hence the yield and type of formed BSOAs, and possibly their climatic effects. This raises questions of whether stress-induced changes in BSOA formation may attenuate or amplify effects of climate change. In this study we assess the potential impact of stress-induced BVOC emissions on BSOA formation for tree species typical for mixed deciduous and Boreal Eurasian forests. We studied the photochemical BSOA formation for plants infested by aphids in a laboratory setup under well-controlled conditions and applied in addition heat and drought stress. The results indicate that stress conditions substantially modify BSOA formation and yield. Stress-induced emissions of sesquiterpenes, methyl salicylate, and C17-BVOCs increase BSOA yields. Mixtures including these compounds exhibit BSOA yields between 17 and 33%, significantly higher than mixtures containing mainly monoterpenes (4–6% yield. Green leaf volatiles suppress SOA formation, presumably by scavenging OH, similar to isoprene. By classifying emission types, stressors and BSOA formation potential, we discuss possible climatic feedbacks regarding aerosol effects. We conclude that stress situations for plants due to climate change should be considered in climate–vegetation feedback mechanisms.

  4. Biogenic metallic nanoparticles as catalyst for bioelectricity production: A novel approach in microbial fuel cells

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Saravanakumar, Kandasamy; MubarakAli, Davoodbasha; Kathiresan, Kandasamy; Thajuddin, Nooruddin; Alharbi, Naiyf S.; Chen, Jie

    2016-01-01

    Highlights: • Trichoderma sp., showed an abilities to synthesis of AgNPs and AuNPs with an excellent stability. • AuNPs significantly enhanced the bioelectricity production by MFC of anaerobic fermentation as catalyst. • Maximum bioelectricity production was optimized and obtained the voltage of 432.80 mA using RSM. - Abstract: The present work aimed to use the biogenic metallic nanoparticles as catalyst for bioelectricity production in microbial fuel cell (MFC) approach under anaerobic condition. Silver and gold nanoparticles (AuNPs) were synthesized using Trichoderma sp. Particle size and cystallinity were measured by X-ray diffraction revealed the crystalline structure with average size of 36.17 nm. Electron microscopic studies showed spherical shaped silver nanoparticles (AgNPs) and cubical shaped AuNPs with size ranges from 50 to 150 nm. The concentration of biogenic metallic nanoparticles as catalyst for enhanced bioelectricity generations and estimated by response surface methodology (RSM) and found at the greatest of 342.80 mA under optimized conditions are time interval, temperature, nanoparticles used as 63 h, 28 ± 2.0 °C, 22.54 mg l"−"1 (AgNPs) and 25.62 mg l"−"1 (AuNPs) in a batch reactor. AuNPs acted as an excellent catalyst to enhance the bioelectricity production. This novel technique could be used for eco-friendly, economically feasible and facile electricity production.

  5. Consistent quantification of climate impacts due to biogenic carbon storage across a range of bio-product systems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Guest, Geoffrey; Bright, Ryan M.; Cherubini, Francesco; Strømman, Anders H.

    2013-01-01

    Temporary and permanent carbon storage from biogenic sources is seen as a way to mitigate climate change. The aim of this work is to illustrate the need to harmonize the quantification of such mitigation across all possible storage pools in the bio- and anthroposphere. We investigate nine alternative storage cases and a wide array of bio-resource pools: from annual crops, short rotation woody crops, medium rotation temperate forests, and long rotation boreal forests. For each feedstock type and biogenic carbon storage pool, we quantify the carbon cycle climate impact due to the skewed time distribution between emission and sequestration fluxes in the bio- and anthroposphere. Additional consideration of the climate impact from albedo changes in forests is also illustrated for the boreal forest case. When characterizing climate impact with global warming potentials (GWP), we find a large variance in results which is attributed to different combinations of biomass storage and feedstock systems. The storage of biogenic carbon in any storage pool does not always confer climate benefits: even when biogenic carbon is stored long-term in durable product pools, the climate outcome may still be undesirable when the carbon is sourced from slow-growing biomass feedstock. For example, when biogenic carbon from Norway Spruce from Norway is stored in furniture with a mean life time of 43 years, a climate change impact of 0.08 kg CO 2 eq per kg CO 2 stored (100 year time horizon (TH)) would result. It was also found that when biogenic carbon is stored in a pool with negligible leakage to the atmosphere, the resulting GWP factor is not necessarily − 1 CO 2 eq per kg CO 2 stored. As an example, when biogenic CO 2 from Norway Spruce biomass is stored in geological reservoirs with no leakage, we estimate a GWP of − 0.56 kg CO 2 eq per kg CO 2 stored (100 year TH) when albedo effects are also included. The large variance in GWPs across the range of resource and carbon storage

  6. Consistent quantification of climate impacts due to biogenic carbon storage across a range of bio-product systems

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Guest, Geoffrey, E-mail: geoffrey.guest@ntnu.no; Bright, Ryan M., E-mail: ryan.m.bright@ntnu.no; Cherubini, Francesco, E-mail: francesco.cherubini@ntnu.no; Strømman, Anders H., E-mail: anders.hammer.stromman@ntnu.no

    2013-11-15

    Temporary and permanent carbon storage from biogenic sources is seen as a way to mitigate climate change. The aim of this work is to illustrate the need to harmonize the quantification of such mitigation across all possible storage pools in the bio- and anthroposphere. We investigate nine alternative storage cases and a wide array of bio-resource pools: from annual crops, short rotation woody crops, medium rotation temperate forests, and long rotation boreal forests. For each feedstock type and biogenic carbon storage pool, we quantify the carbon cycle climate impact due to the skewed time distribution between emission and sequestration fluxes in the bio- and anthroposphere. Additional consideration of the climate impact from albedo changes in forests is also illustrated for the boreal forest case. When characterizing climate impact with global warming potentials (GWP), we find a large variance in results which is attributed to different combinations of biomass storage and feedstock systems. The storage of biogenic carbon in any storage pool does not always confer climate benefits: even when biogenic carbon is stored long-term in durable product pools, the climate outcome may still be undesirable when the carbon is sourced from slow-growing biomass feedstock. For example, when biogenic carbon from Norway Spruce from Norway is stored in furniture with a mean life time of 43 years, a climate change impact of 0.08 kg CO{sub 2}eq per kg CO{sub 2} stored (100 year time horizon (TH)) would result. It was also found that when biogenic carbon is stored in a pool with negligible leakage to the atmosphere, the resulting GWP factor is not necessarily − 1 CO{sub 2}eq per kg CO{sub 2} stored. As an example, when biogenic CO{sub 2} from Norway Spruce biomass is stored in geological reservoirs with no leakage, we estimate a GWP of − 0.56 kg CO{sub 2}eq per kg CO{sub 2} stored (100 year TH) when albedo effects are also included. The large variance in GWPs across the range of

  7. Modeling and direct sensitivity analysis of biogenic emissions impacts on regional ozone formation in the Mexico-U.S. border area.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mendoza-Dominguez, A; Wilkinson, J G; Yang, Y J; Russell, A G

    2000-01-01

    A spatially and temporally resolved biogenic hydrocarbon and nitrogen oxides (NOx) emissions inventory has been developed for a region along the Mexico-U.S. border area. Average daily biogenic non-methane organic gases (NMOG) emissions for the 1700 x 1000 km2 domain were estimated at 23,800 metric tons/day (62% from Mexico and 38% from the United States), and biogenic NOx was estimated at 1230 metric tons/day (54% from Mexico and 46% from the United States) for the July 18-20, 1993, ozone episode. The biogenic NMOG represented 74% of the total NMOG emissions, and biogenic NOx was 14% of the total NOx. The CIT photochemical airshed model was used to assess how biogenic emissions impact air quality. Predicted ground-level ozone increased by 5-10 ppb in most rural areas, 10-20 ppb near urban centers, and 20-30 ppb immediately downwind of the urban centers compared to simulations in which only anthropogenic emissions were used. A sensitivity analysis of predicted ozone concentration to emissions was performed using the decoupled direct method for three dimensional air quality models (DDM-3D). The highest positive sensitivity of ground-level ozone concentration to biogenic volatile organic compound (VOC) emissions (i.e., increasing biogenic VOC emissions results in increasing ozone concentrations) was predicted to be in locations with high NOx levels, (i.e., the urban areas). One urban center--Houston--was predicted to have a slight negative sensitivity to biogenic NO emissions (i.e., increasing biogenic NO emissions results in decreasing local ozone concentrations). The highest sensitivities of ozone concentrations to on-road mobile source VOC emissions, all positive, were mainly in the urban areas. The highest sensitivities of ozone concentrations to on-road mobile source NOx emissions were predicted in both urban (either positive or negative sensitivities) and rural (positive sensitivities) locations.

  8. Uraniferous minerals - uraninite and derived or related uraniferous minerals; Mineraux uraniferes - uraninite et mineraux uraniferes derives ou associes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lebrun, P.; Cesbron, F.; Le Cleac' h, J.M.; Lebocey, J.

    2009-07-01

    This special issue of 'Mineraux et Fossiles' journal (no.28) proposes a real trip in the uranium world with the exception of the industrial and military applications. The book comprises 6 chapters fully illustrated with figures and photos of minerals dealing with: 1 - a brief history of uranium (including radioactivity); 2 - crystallo-chemistry of some uranium minerals; 3 - uranium minerals with a presentation of the most important species ('remarkable' species); 4 - classification of uranium deposits; 5 - most famous uranium deposits which played an important role in the development of nuclear industry (Jachymov deposit in Czech Republic, Shinkolobwe in Katanga, Oklo in Gabon etc); 6 - uranium usages, in particular in glass and ceramics coloring and in geochronology. (J.S.)

  9. Organic compounds in aerosols from selected European sites - Biogenic versus anthropogenic sources

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alves, Célia; Vicente, Ana; Pio, Casimiro; Kiss, Gyula; Hoffer, Andras; Decesari, Stefano; Prevôt, André S. H.; Minguillón, María Cruz; Querol, Xavier; Hillamo, Risto; Spindler, Gerald; Swietlicki, Erik

    2012-11-01

    Atmospheric aerosol samples from a boreal forest (Hyytiälä, April 2007), a rural site in Hungary (K-puszta, summer 2008), a polluted rural area in Italy (San Pietro Capofiume, Po Valley, April 2008), a moderately polluted rural site in Germany located on a meadow (Melpitz, May 2008), a natural park in Spain (Montseny, March 2009) and two urban background locations (Zurich, December 2008, and Barcelona, February/March 2009) were collected. Aliphatics, polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons, carbonyls, sterols, n-alkanols, acids, phenolic compounds and anhydrosugars in aerosols were chemically characterised by gas chromatography-mass spectrometry, along with source attribution based on the carbon preference index (CPI), the ratios between the unresolved and the chromatographically resolved aliphatics, the contribution of wax n-alkanes, n-alkanols and n-alkanoic acids from plants, diagnostic ratios of individual target compounds and source-specific markers to organic carbon ratios. In spite of transboundary pollution episodes, Hyytiälä registered the lowest levels among all locations. CPI values close to 1 for the aliphatic fraction of the Montseny aerosol suggest that the anthropogenic input may be associated with the transport of aged air masses from the surrounding industrial/urban areas, which superimpose the locally originated hydrocarbons with biogenic origin. Aliphatic and aromatic hydrocarbons in samples from San Pietro Capofiume reveal that fossil fuel combustion is a major source influencing the diel pattern of concentrations. This source contributed to 25-45% of the ambient organic carbon (OC) at the Po Valley site. Aerosols from the German meadow presented variable contributions from both biogenic and anthropogenic sources. The highest levels of vegetation wax components and biogenic secondary organic aerosol (SOA) products were observed at K-puszta, while anthropogenic SOA compounds predominated in Barcelona. The primary vehicular emissions in the Spanish

  10. Determination of the biogenic secondary organic aerosol fraction in the boreal forest by NMR spectroscopy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    E. Finessi

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available The study investigates the sources of fine organic aerosol (OA in the boreal forest, based on measurements including both filter sampling (PM1 and online methods and carried out during a one-month campaign held in Hyytiälä, Finland, in spring 2007. Two aerosol mass spectrometers (Q-AMS, ToF-AMS were employed to measure on-line concentrations of major non-refractory aerosol species, while the water extracts of the filter samples were analyzed by nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR spectroscopy for organic functional group characterization of the polar organic fraction of the aerosol. AMS and NMR spectra were processed separately by non-negative factorization algorithms, in order to apportion the main components underlying the submicrometer organic aerosol composition and depict them in terms of both mass fragmentation patterns and functional group compositions.

    The NMR results supported the AMS speciation of oxidized organic aerosol (OOA into two main fractions, which could be generally labelled as more and less oxidized organics. The more oxidized component was characterized by a mass spectrum dominated by the m/z 44 peak, and in parallel by a NMR spectrum showing aromatic and aliphatic backbones highly substituted with oxygenated functional groups (carbonyls/carboxyls and hydroxyls. Such component, contributing on average 50% of the OA mass throughout the observing period, was associated with pollution outbreaks from the Central Europe. The less oxidized component was enhanced in concomitance with air masses originating from the North-to-West sector, in agreement with previous investigations conducted at this site. NMR factor analysis was able to separate two distinct components under the less oxidized fraction of OA. One of these NMR-factors was associated with the formation of terrestrial biogenic secondary organic aerosol (BSOA, based on the comparison with spectral profiles obtained from laboratory experiments of

  11. Influence of physical and biological processes on the seasonal cycle of biogenic flux in the equatorial Indian Ocean

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    Vidya, P.J.; PrasannaKumar, S.; Gauns; Verenkar, A.; Unger, D.; Ramaswamy, V.

    to understand the factors that control them. The sediment trap data at SBBT was collected for ten years from November 1987 while that at EIOT was for a one year period from January 1996. The characteristic of biogenic flux at SBBT was the strong seasonality...

  12. Measurements of the atmospheric emission of N2O from biogenic sources in general and by grassland ecosystems in particular

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Duyzer, J.

    1995-01-01

    The project is part of the 'Integrated N2O grassland project'. The project carried out at TNO aims to determine the atmospheric emissions of N2O from biogenic surface sources in the Netherlands. The following activities were part of the project: u ⊙ determination of

  13. A plant chamber system with downstream reaction chamber to study the effects of pollution on biogenic emissions

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Timovsky, J.; Gankema, Paulien; Pierik, Ronald; Holzinger, Rupert

    2014-01-01

    A system of two plant chambers and a downstream reaction chamber has been set up to investigate the emission of biogenic volatile organic compounds (BVOCs) and possible effects of pollutants such as ozone. The system can be used to compare BVOC emissions from two sets of differently treated plants,

  14. Biogenic CO2 fluxes, changes in surface albedo and biodiversity impacts from establishment of a miscanthus plantation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jørgensen, Susanne Vedel; Cherubini, Francesco; Michelsen, Ottar

    2014-01-01

    human influenced state to another.Concerning the impacts from biogenic CO2 fluxes, in the case of conversion from a forest to a miscanthus plantation (case A) there is a contribution to global warming, whereas when a fallow land is converted (case B), there is a climate cooling. When the effects from...

  15. Direct night-time ejection of particle-phase reduced biogenic sulfur compounds from the ocean to the atmosphere.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gaston, Cassandra J; Furutani, Hiroshi; Guazzotti, Sergio A; Coffee, Keith R; Jung, Jinyoung; Uematsu, Mitsuo; Prather, Kimberly A

    2015-04-21

    The influence of oceanic biological activity on sea spray aerosol composition, clouds, and climate remains poorly understood. The emission of organic material and gaseous dimethyl sulfide (DMS) from the ocean represents well-documented biogenic processes that influence particle chemistry in marine environments. However, the direct emission of particle-phase biogenic sulfur from the ocean remains largely unexplored. Here we present measurements of ocean-derived particles containing reduced sulfur, detected as elemental sulfur ions (e.g., (32)S(+), (64)S2(+)), in seven different marine environments using real-time, single particle mass spectrometry; these particles have not been detected outside of the marine environment. These reduced sulfur compounds were associated with primary marine particle types and wind speeds typically between 5 and 10 m/s suggesting that these particles themselves are a primary emission. In studies with measurements of seawater properties, chlorophyll-a and atmospheric DMS concentrations were typically elevated in these same locations suggesting a biogenic source for these sulfur-containing particles. Interestingly, these sulfur-containing particles only appeared at night, likely due to rapid photochemical destruction during the daytime, and comprised up to ∼67% of the aerosol number fraction, particularly in the supermicrometer size range. These sulfur-containing particles were detected along the California coast, across the Pacific Ocean, and in the southern Indian Ocean suggesting that these particles represent a globally significant biogenic contribution to the marine aerosol burden.

  16. Biogenic greenhouse gas emissions linked to the life cycles of biodiesel derived from European rapeseed and Brazilian soybeans

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Reijnders, L.; Huijbregts, M.A.J.

    2008-01-01

    Biogenic emissions of carbonaceous greenhouse gases and N2O turn out to be important determinants of life cycle emissions of greenhouse gases linked to the life cycle of biodiesel from European rapeseed and Brazilian soybeans. For biodiesel from European rapeseed and for biodiesel from Brazilian

  17. INFLUENCE OF STATIC MAGNETIC FIELD ON REMOVAL OF BIOGENIC COMPOUNDS FROM DAIRY WASTEWATER IN SEQUENCING BATCH REACTOR

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marcin Zieliński

    2017-08-01

    During the research it proved that the use of CMF was conducive to the elimination of biogenic compounds, although the significance of this factor in the majority of variants was not significant. Regardless of the variant of the experiment was observed very high removal efficiency of nitrogen and phosphorus from waste water dairy tested.

  18. Comparative analysis of the in vitro cytotoxicity of the dietary biogenic amines tyramine and histamine.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Linares, Daniel M; del Rio, Beatriz; Redruello, Begoña; Ladero, Victor; Martin, M Cruz; Fernandez, Maria; Ruas-Madiedo, Patricia; Alvarez, Miguel A

    2016-04-15

    Tyramine and histamine, the most toxic biogenic amines (BA), are often found in high concentrations in certain foods. Prompted by the limited knowledge of BA toxicity, and increasing awareness of the risks associated with high intakes of dietary BA, the in vitro cytotoxicity of tyramine and histamine was investigated. Tyramine and histamine were toxic for HT29 intestinal cell cultures at concentrations commonly found in BA-rich food, as determined by real-time cell analysis. Surprisingly, tyramine had a stronger and more rapid cytotoxic effect than histamine. Their mode of action was also different, while tyramine caused cell necrosis, histamine induced apoptosis. To avoid health risks, the BA content of foods should be reduced and legal limits established for tyramine. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  19. Modeling the degradation of Portland cement pastes by biogenic organic acids

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    De Windt, Laurent; Devillers, Philippe

    2010-01-01

    Reactive transport models can be used to assess the long-term performance of cement-based materials subjected to biodegradation. A bioleaching test (with Aspergillus niger fungi) applied to ordinary Portland cement pastes during 15 months is modeled with HYTEC. Modeling indicates that the biogenic organic acids (acetic, butyric, lactic and oxalic) strongly accelerate hydrate dissolution by acidic hydrolysis whilst their complexation of aluminum has an effect on the secondary gel stability only. The deepest degradation front corresponds to portlandite dissolution and decalcification of calcium silicate hydrates. A complex pattern of sulfate phases dissolution and precipitation takes place in an intermediate zone. The outermost degraded zone consists of alumina and silica gels. The modeling accurateness of calcium leaching, pH evolution and degradation thickness is consistently enhanced whilst considering increase of diffusivity in the degraded zones. Precipitation of calcium oxalate is predicted by modeling but was hindered in the bioleaching reactor.

  20. Comparative study of automotive, aircraft and biogenic emissions of aldehydes and aromatic compounds.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guimarães, C S; Custodio, D; de Oliveira, R C S; Varandas, L S; Arbilla, G

    2010-02-01

    Air samples were collected in three well characterized locations in the city of Rio de Janeiro, Brazil: downtown, the idle and taxi way areas of the national airport and an urban forest, where the main emissions are from vehicular, aircraft and biogenic sources, respectively. Aldehydes and BTEX concentrations show a characteristic profile which may be attributed to the emission sources. Formaldehyde/acetaldehyde ratios, in the early morning, were 1.39, 0.62 and 2.22 in downtown, airport and forest, respectively. Toluene/benzene ratios, for downtown, airport and forest areas, were 1.11, 1.82 and 1.06, respectively. The results show that the impact of the urban emissions on the forest is negligible as well as the impact of aircraft emissions over the urban area.

  1. Evidence of aqueous secondary organic aerosol formation from biogenic emissions in the North American Sonoran Desert.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Youn, Jong-Sang; Wang, Zhen; Wonaschütz, Anna; Arellano, Avelino; Betterton, Eric A; Sorooshian, Armin

    2013-07-16

    This study examines the role of aqueous secondary organic aerosol formation in the North American Sonoran Desert as a result of intense solar radiation, enhanced moisture, and biogenic volatile organic compounds (BVOCs). The ratio of water-soluble organic carbon (WSOC) to organic carbon (OC) nearly doubles during the monsoon season relative to other seasons of the year. When normalized by mixing height, the WSOC enhancement during monsoon months relative to preceding dry months (May-June) exceeds that of sulfate by nearly a factor of 10. WSOC:OC and WSOC are most strongly correlated with moisture parameters, temperature, and concentrations of O 3 and BVOCs. No positive relationship was identified between WSOC or WSOC:OC and anthropogenic tracers such as CO over a full year. This study points at the need for further work to understand the effect of BVOCs and moisture in altering aerosol properties in understudied desert regions.

  2. Interactions of Eu(III) with biogenic CaCO{sub 3} studied with TRLFS

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Johnstone, Erik V.; Schmidt, Moritz [Helmholtz-Zentrum Dresden-Rossendorf e.V., Dresden (Germany). Div. Surface Processes; Cherkouk, Andrea [Helmholtz-Zentrum Dresden-Rossendorf e.V., Dresden (Germany). Div. Biogeochemistry

    2016-07-01

    The interactions of Eu(III) with CaCO{sub 3} arising from biogenic origin was investigated by Time-Resolved Laser-Induced Fluorescence Spectroscopy (TRLFS). Biologically-induced precipitation via ureolysis was studied with the bacteria Sporosarcina pasteurii in the presence of Eu(III). Biomineralization occurred forming mixed phases of vaterite and calcite after one day that transformed over two weeks to pure calcite. Eu(III) was quantitatively removed from solution during mineral formation. TRLFS results show that after one day the Eu{sup 3+} is located in the vaterite phase. After one week, the Eu{sup 3+} was found primarily in the vaterite, despite calcite now being the predominant mineral, and a transition species was also formed. In the calcite two incorporated Eu{sup 3+} species were present: one substitutes at the Ca{sup 2+} site in the crystal lattice and the other is speculated to be associated with the organicmineral matrix.

  3. Determination of consumption biogenic solid fuels in the commercial sector, trade, services (tertiary sector). Final report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Viehmann, Cornelia; Westerkamp, Tanja; Schwenker, Andre; Schenker, Marian; Thraen, Daniela; Lenz, Volker; Ebert, Marcel

    2012-01-01

    The policy has both national and European level ambitious program aimed at expansion of renewable energy and related to the reduction of greenhouse gas emissions. In the national action plan for renewable energy of the Federal Republic of Germany these goals are defined by 2020. The share of renewable energy in the provision of heat and cold should therefore rise from 6.6% to 15.5% of gross final energy consumption. According to the increasing importance of solar-thermal, near-surface and geothermal heat, the relative share of biomass is decreasing. However biomass makes with those listed in the national action plan with 79% an essential amount in regenerative heat market [BMU 2010]. For the pursuit of goals and reviews, the support measures and packages of measures which are initiated in this context, a regular and timely reporting on the development of the above objectives is mandatory. The diverse and growing reporting requirements such as in the EU directive on the promotion of renewable energy, require, however well-founded knowledge of the sector-specific energy consumption from renewable sources. While the data available for use of biogenic solid fuels in the sectors household and industry has improved significantly in recent years, for the sector commercial sector, trade, services (tertiary sector) reliable figures are still lacking. Against this background, the objective is to present study, in close cooperation with the Federal Environment Agency (UBA), the determination of the final energy consumption biogenic solid fuels in the tertiary sector in Germany for the year 2008. The basis is, in addition to the development of the current knowledge of the energy and heat consumption, the delimitation and characterization of the sector and the development of an extrapolation tools. The demand for this tool is its expandability and update possibility. From the industry-nonspecific and industry-specific input data can be derived, collecting for the extrapolation

  4. Biogenic silver nanoparticles based on trichoderma harzianum: synthesis, characterization, toxicity evaluation and biological activity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guilger, Mariana; Pasquoto-Stigliani, Tatiane; Bilesky-Jose, Natália; Grillo, Renato; Abhilash, P. C.; Fraceto, Leonardo Fernandes; Lima, Renata De

    2017-03-01

    White mold is an agricultural disease caused by the fungus Sclerotinia sclerotiorum, which affects important crops. There are different ways of controlling this organism, but none provides inhibition of its resistance structures (sclerotia). Nanotechnology offers promising applications in agricultural area. Here, silver nanoparticles were biogenically synthesized using the fungus Trichoderma harzianum and characterized. Cytotoxicity and genotoxicity were evaluated, and the nanoparticles were initially tested against white mold sclerotia. Their effects on soybean were also investigated with no effects observed. The nanoparticles showed potential against S. sclerotiorum, inhibiting sclerotia germination and mycelial growth. Nanoparticle characterization data indicated spherical morphology, satisfactory polydispersity and size distribution. Cytotoxicity and genotoxicity assays showed that the nanoparticles caused both the effects, although, the most toxic concentrations were above those applied for white mold control. Given the potential of the nanoparticles against S. sclerotiorum, we conclude that this study presents a first step for a new alternative in white mold control.

  5. Concentrations of biogenic amines in fish, squid and octopus and their changes during storage.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hu, Yue; Huang, Zhiyong; Li, Jian; Yang, Hong

    2012-12-15

    The concentrations of seven biogenic amines (BA) were simultaneously determined in 74 samples of fish, squid and octopus, by the method of HPLC coupled with pre-column derivatisation. The relationship between the formation of BA in aquatic products and the growth of microbial flora during storage was also investigated. Results showed that putrescine, cadaverine, histamine and tyramine were the dominant BA in the studied samples, but the concentrations of histamine and tyramine were mostly less than 50 and 100 mgkg(-1), respectively. Freezing can effectively prevent the formation of BA, but the levels of putrescine, cadaverine, histamine and tyramine significantly increased (poctopus strongly and positively correlated with the formation of amines (such as putrescine, cadaverine, histamine and tyramine) during storage, except for histamine in octopus. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  6. Biogenic sulfur and the acidity of rainfall in remote areas of Canada

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nriagu, J.O.; Holdway, D.A.; Coker, R.D.

    1987-01-01

    Sulfur released from any given natural or anthropogenic source carries an isotopic signature that can be used to trace its flow through the environment. Measurements of the concentration and isotopic composition of sulfur in weekly bulk precipitation samples collected over a 4-year period at a remote location in location in northern Ontario were recorded. The long-term isotopic data and the measurement on the production and release of dimethyl sulfide from boreal wetlands show that biogenic sources can account for up to 30% of the acidifying sulfur burden in the atmosphere in remote areas of Canada. The data suggest that significant biological reemission of anthropogenic sulfur is occurring. The role of this process in the continuing acidification of the environment for years to come must be a matter of concern

  7. Biogenic Aerosols—Effects on Clouds and Climate (BAECC) Final Campaign Summary

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Petäjä, T [Atmospheric Radiation Measurement, Washington, DC (United States); Moisseev, D [Univ. of Helsinki (Finland); Atmospheric Radiation Measurement, Washington, DC (United States); Sinclair, V [Atmospheric Radiation Measurement, Washington, DC (United States); O’Connor, E [Atmospheric Radiation Measurement, Washington, DC (United States); Manninen, A [Univ. of Helsinki (Finland); Atmospheric Radiation Measurement, Washington, DC (United States); Levula, J [Univ. of Helsinki (Finland); Atmospheric Radiation Measurement, Washington, DC (United States); Väänänen, R [Atmospheric Radiation Measurement, Washington, DC (United States); Heikkinen, L [Atmospheric Radiation Measurement, Washington, DC (United States); Äijälä, M [Atmospheric Radiation Measurement, Washington, DC (United States); Aalto, J [Atmospheric Radiation Measurement, Washington, DC (United States); Thornton, JA [Atmospheric Radiation Measurement, Washington, DC (United States)

    2016-03-01

    Atmospheric aerosol particles impact human health in urban environments, while on regional and global scales they can affect climate patterns, the hydrological cycle, and the intensity of radiation that reaches the Earth’s surface. In spite of recent advances in the understanding of aerosol formation processes and the links between aerosol dynamics and biosphere-atmosphere-climate interactions, great challenges remain in the analysis of related processes on a global scale. Boreal forests, situated in a circumpolar belt in the Northern latitudes throughout the United States, Canada, Russia, and Scandinavia, are, of all biomes, among the most active areas of atmospheric aerosol formation. The formation of aerosol particles and their growth to cloud condensation nuclei sizes in these areas are associated with biogenic volatile organic emissions (BVOC) from vegetation and soil.

  8. Science Plan Biogenic Aerosols – Effects on Clouds and Climate (BAECC)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Petäjä, T

    2013-12-01

    Atmospheric aerosol particles impact human health in urban environments, while on regional and global scales they can affect climate patterns, the hydrological cycle, and the intensity of radiation that reaches the Earth’s surface. In spite of recent advances in the understanding of aerosol formation processes and the links between aerosol dynamics and biosphere-atmosphere-climate interactions, great challenges remain in the analysis of related processes on a global scale. Boreal forests, situated in a circumpolar belt in the northern latitudes throughout the United States, Canada, Russia and Scandinavia, are among the most active areas of atmospheric aerosol formation among all biomes. The formation of aerosol particles and their growth to the sizes of cloud condensation nuclei in these areas are associated with biogenic volatile organic emissions from vegetation and soil.

  9. Anthropogenic impact on biogenic substance distribution and bacterial community in sediment along the Yarlung Tsangpo River on Tibet Plateau, China

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, C.; Peifang, W.; Wang, X.; Hou, J.; Miao, L.

    2017-12-01

    Lotic river system plays an important part in water-vapor transfer and biogenic substances migration and transformation. Anthropogenic activities, including wastewater discharging and river damming, have altered river ecosystem and continuum. However, as the longest alpine river in China and suffered from increasing anthropogenic activities, the Yarlung Tsangpo River has been rarely studied. Recently, more attention has also been paid to the bacteria in river sediment as they make vital contributions to the biogeochemical nutrient cycling. Here, the distribution of biogenic substances, including nitrogen, phosphorus, silicon and carbon, was explored in both water and sediment of the Yarlung Tsangpo River. By using the next generation 16S rRNA sequencing, the bacterial diversity and structure in river sediment were presented. The results indicated that the nutrient concentrations increased in densely populated sites, revealing that biogenic substance distribution corresponded with the intensity of anthropogenic activity along the river. Nitrogen, phosphorus, silicon and carbon in water and sediment were all retained by the Zangmu Dam which is the only dam in the mainstream of the river. Moreover, the river damming decreased the biomass and diversity of bacteria in sediment, but no significant alteration of community structure was observed upstream and downstream of the dam. The most dominant bacteria all along the river was Proteobacteria. Meanwhile, Verrucomicrobia and Firmicutes also dominated the community composition in upstream and downstream of the river, respectively. In addition, total organic carbon (TOC) was proved to be the most important environmental factor shaping the bacterial community in river sediment. Our study offered the preliminary insights into the biogenic substance distribution and bacterial community in sediment along an alpine river which was affected by anthropogenic activities. In the future, more studies are needed to reveal the

  10. Biogenic porous silica and silicon sourced from Mexican Giant Horsetail (Equisetum myriochaetum) and their application as supports for enzyme immobilization.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sola-Rabada, Anna; Sahare, Padma; Hickman, Graham J; Vasquez, Marco; Canham, Leigh T; Perry, Carole C; Agarwal, Vivechana

    2018-06-01

    Porous silica-based materials are attractive for biomedical applications due to their biocompatibility and biodegradable character. In addition, inorganic supports such as porous silicon are being developed due to integrated circuit chip compatibility and tunable properties leading to a wide range of multidisciplinary applications. In this contribution, biosilica extracted from a rarely studied plant material (Equisetum Myriochaetum), its conversion to silicon and the potential for both materials to be used as supports for enzyme immobilization are investigated. E. myriochaetum was subject to conventional acid digestion to extract biogenic silica with a% yield remarkably higher (up to 3 times) than for other Equisetum sp. (i.e. E. Arvense). The surface area of the isolated silica was ∼400 m 2 /g, suitable for biotechnological applications. Biogenic silicon was obtained by magnesiothermic reduction. The materials were characterized by SEM-EDX, XRD, FT-IR, ICP-OES, TGA and BET analysis and did not contain significant levels of class 1 heavy elements (such as Pb, Cd, Hg and As). Two commercial peroxidases, horseradish peroxidase (HRP) and Coprinus cinereus peroxidase (CiP) were immobilized onto the biogenic materials using three different functionalization routes: (A) carbodiimide, (B) amine + glutaraldehyde and (C) amine + carbodiimide. Although both biogenic silica and porous silicon could be used as supports differences in behaviour were observed for the two enzymes. For HRP, loading onto biogenic silica via the glutaraldehyde immobilization technique (route B) was most effective. The loading of CiP showed a much higher peroxidase activity onto porous silicon than silica functionalized by the carbodiimide method (route A). From the properties of the extracted materials obtained from Equisetum Myriochaetum and the immobilization results observed, these materials appear to be promising for industrial and biomedical applications. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier

  11. Chemometric analysis for the detection of biogenic amines in Chilean Cabernet Sauvignon wines: a comparative study between organic and nonorganic production.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yañez, L; Saavedra, J; Martínez, C; Córdova, A; Ganga, M A

    2012-08-01

    In this work, the presence of biogenic amines (BAs) was correlated with the type of wine grape culture (traditional or organic) and their concentration in the different stages of winemaking (must, alcoholic fermentation [AF] and malolactic fermentation [MLF]). The formation of BA occurred mainly during MLF in which the percentages for putrescine, cadaverine, phenylethylamine, histamine, and tyramine were 100%, 70%, 13%, 61%, and 44% for the wines produced with traditional grapes and 100%, 94%, 25%, 88%, and 13% for the wines produced with organic grapes, respectively. In general, these latter wines exhibited a lower concentration of total amines. The principal component analysis and partial least-square discriminate analysis indicated that the generation of BA has a certain behavioral pattern in the wines analyzed, which is associated with the different stages of wine production and with the type of culture (traditional or organic) used in the wine grapes. Chemometrics tools can be useful as a method of characterization and classification in a global overview of the process variables involved in the development of toxic chemicals in foods, such as the production of BA in wine. © 2012 Institute of Food Technologists®

  12. Monitoring the formation of clastic-biogenic varves to improve the quality of paleoclimate reconstructions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ojala, A.; Kosonen, E.; Weckstrom, J.; Korkonen, S.

    2013-12-01

    Annually laminated (varved) sediments are excellent archives for studies of past climate and environmental changes, as they allow analysis of the undisturbed 'in-situ' sediment composition and structure with a seasonal-scale resolution. Among those, clastic-biogenic varved lake sediments have been found and investigated in Finland and Sweden during the last decades. An important prerequisite for applying varved sediments in palaeoenvironmental studies is understanding the mechanism of rhythmic sedimentation and the composition of different laminae representing annual sedimentation events. This knowledge is essential for verifying the annual nature of varves, for investigating the main factors controlling seasonal sedimentation, and for the interpretations of past environmental changes. Here, we report detailed information on the seasonal sedimentation of different varve components and palaeolimnological indicators (diatoms, chrysophycaean cysts) in Lake Nautajärvi, Finland, using near-bottom sediment trap monitoring. The monitoring results strongly support previous interpretations of the formation of clastic-biogenic varves in Fennoscandian lakes. The results also indicate that seasonal sediment fluxes correspond with regional climate and environmental changes. They clearly reveal differences in the amount of seasonal sediment flux between two climatologically and hydrologically different years. For example, higher snow storage in winter and the discharge intensity during the following spring snow melt clearly increases the suspended sediment load, transportation, and net accumulation of detrital mineral matter during spring and early summer. A prolonged autumn and subsequent freezing and thawing cycles in winter, conversely, results in an incremental but slow accumulation of assorted mineral matter and organic particles during winter, whereas the subsequent spring flooding and detrital sediment yield are diminished and thinner clastic laminae are formed. The

  13. Spatio-temporal variation of biogenic volatile organic compounds emissions in China

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Li, L.Y.; Chen, Y.; Xie, S.D.

    2013-01-01

    Aiming to reduce the large uncertainties of biogenic volatile organic compounds (BVOCs) emissions estimation, the emission inventory of BVOCs in China at a high spatial and temporal resolution of 36 km × 36 km and 1 h was established using MEGANv2.1 with MM5 providing high-resolution meteorological data, based on the most detailed and latest vegetation investigations. BVOC emissions from 82 plant functional types in China were computed firstly. More local species-specific emission rates were developed combining statistical analysis and category classification, and the leaf biomass was estimated based on vegetation volume and production with biomass-apportion models. The total annual BVOC emissions in 2003 were 42.5 Tg, including isoprene 23.4 Tg, monoterpene 5.6 Tg, sesquiterpene 1.0 Tg, and other VOCs (OVOCs) 12.5 Tg. Subtropical and tropical evergreen and deciduous broadleaf shrubs, Quercus, and bamboo contributed more than 45% to the total BVOC emissions. The highest biogenic emissions were found over northeastern, southeastern, and southwestern China. Strong seasonal pattern was observed with the highest BVOC emissions in July and the lowest in January and December, with daily emission peaked at approximately 13:00 or 14:00 local time. -- Highlights: •An emission inventory of BVOCs in China at a high spatial and temporal resolution of 36 km and 1 h is established. •High-resolution meteorological data simulated by MM5 is used. •We update the land cover data used in MEGAN based on the most detailed and latest vegetation investigations. •A new vegetation classification with 82 plant functional types is developed in MEGAN. •The leaf biomass is estimated based on vegetation volume and production with biomass-apportion models. -- An emission inventory of BVOCs in China was established based on the most detailed and latest vegetation investigations, and high-resolution meteorological data

  14. Sensitivity of biogenic volatile organic compounds to land surface parameterizations and vegetation distributions in California

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zhao, Chun; Huang, Maoyi; Fast, Jerome D.; Berg, Larry K.; Qian, Yun; Guenther, Alex; Gu, Dasa; Shrivastava, Manish; Liu, Ying; Walters, Stacy; Pfister, Gabriele; Jin, Jiming; Shilling, John E.; Warneke, Carsten

    2016-01-01

    Current climate models still have large uncertainties in estimating biogenic trace gases, which can significantly affect atmospheric chemistry and secondary aerosol formation that ultimately influences air quality and aerosol radiative forcing. These uncertainties result from many factors, including uncertainties in land surface processes and specification of vegetation types, both of which can affect the simulated near-surface fluxes of biogenic volatile organic compounds (BVOCs). In this study, the latest version of Model of Emissions of Gases and Aerosols from Nature (MEGAN v2.1) is coupled within the land surface scheme CLM4 (Community Land Model version 4.0) in the Weather Research and Forecasting model with chemistry (WRF-Chem). In this implementation, MEGAN v2.1 shares a consistent vegetation map with CLM4 for estimating BVOC emissions. This is unlike MEGAN v2.0 in the public version of WRF-Chem that uses a stand-alone vegetation map that differs from what is used by land surface schemes. This improved modeling framework is used to investigate the impact of two land surface schemes, CLM4 and Noah, on BVOCs and examine the sensitivity of BVOCs to vegetation distributions in California. The measurements collected during the Carbonaceous Aerosol and Radiative Effects Study (CARES) and the California Nexus of Air Quality and Climate Experiment (CalNex) conducted in June of 2010 provided an opportunity to evaluate the simulated BVOCs. Sensitivity experiments show that land surface schemes do influence the simulated BVOCs, but the impact is much smaller than that of vegetation distributions. This study indicates that more effort is needed to obtain the most appropriate and accurate land cover data sets for climate and air quality models in terms of simulating BVOCs, oxidant chemistry and, consequently, secondary organic aerosol formation.

  15. Influence of Gamma Irradiation on Biogenic Amine Contents and Pathogenic Bacteria in Spinach

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ali, H.A.S.

    2015-01-01

    This study was carried out to evaluate the effect of gamma irradiation at doses 1, 2, 4 and 6 kGy as compared with blanching at 95°C/3 min on biogenic amine contents and pathogenic bacteria in spinach leaves (Spinacia oleracea L.). The results indicated that tryptamine and β- phenylethylamine were not detected while histamine was the major amine detected at concentration of 12.55 mg/100g of wet weight. Blanching at 95°C/3 min significantly reduced the content of histamine, putrescine and tyramine in spinach while significantly increased the content of cadaverine. Gamma irradiation at different doses significantly reduced the contents of histamine and tyramine while significantly increased the content of cadaverine. However, putrescine content was increased significantly after subjected to doses 1 and 2 kGy while the doses 4 and 6 kGy significantly reduced it. Regarding to microbiological analysis in spinach, it could be noticed that total bacterial count, Enterobacteriaceae, coliform group, yeast, mould, Staphylococcus aureus and Salmonella spp. in fresh spinach were 5.97, 4.40, 2.53, 2.11, 1.40, 1.48 and 1.18 log cfu/g, respectively. Changes in microbiological characters (cfu/g) in spinach by different gamma irradiation doses and blanching were also followed. It could be noticed that the total bacterial count, Enterobacteriaceae, coliform group, yeast, mould, Staphylococcus aureus and Salmonella spp. were significantly decreased after treatment with blanching and gamma irradiation and these microorganisms were not detected after being subjected to 4 and 6 kGy. It could be concluded that blanching at 95°C/3 min or gamma irradiation at dose 2 kGy can be used to control the pathogenic bacteria and reduce biogenic amine (histamine, putrescine and tyramine) in spinach

  16. Si cycling in a forest biogeosystem - the importance of transient state biogenic Si pools

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sommer, M.; Jochheim, H.; Höhn, A.; Breuer, J.; Zagorski, Z.; Busse, J.; Barkusky, D.; Meier, K.; Puppe, D.; Wanner, M.; Kaczorek, D.

    2013-07-01

    The relevance of biological Si cycling for dissolved silica (DSi) export from terrestrial biogeosystems is still in debate. Even in systems showing a high content of weatherable minerals, like Cambisols on volcanic tuff, biogenic Si (BSi) might contribute > 50% to DSi (Gerard et al., 2008). However, the number of biogeosystem studies is rather limited for generalized conclusions. To cover one end of controlling factors on DSi, i.e., weatherable minerals content, we studied a forested site with absolute quartz dominance (> 95%). Here we hypothesise minimal effects of chemical weathering of silicates on DSi. During a four year observation period (05/2007-04/2011), we quantified (i) internal and external Si fluxes of a temperate-humid biogeosystem (beech, 120 yr) by BIOME-BGC (version ZALF), (ii) related Si budgets, and (iii) Si pools in soil and beech, chemically as well as by SEM-EDX. For the first time two compartments of biogenic Si in soils were analysed, i.e., phytogenic and zoogenic Si pool (testate amoebae). We quantified an average Si plant uptake of 35 kg Si ha-1 yr-1 - most of which is recycled to the soil by litterfall - and calculated an annual biosilicification from idiosomic testate amoebae of 17 kg Si ha-1. The comparatively high DSi concentrations (6 mg L-1) and DSi exports (12 kg Si ha-1 yr-1) could not be explained by chemical weathering of feldspars or quartz dissolution. Instead, dissolution of a relictic, phytogenic Si pool seems to be the main process for the DSi observed. We identified canopy closure accompanied by a disappearance of grasses as well as the selective extraction of pine trees 30 yr ago as the most probable control for the phenomena observed. From our results we concluded the biogeosystem to be in a transient state in terms of Si cycling.

  17. Si cycling in a forest biogeosystem – the importance of transient state biogenic Si pools

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. Sommer

    2013-07-01

    Full Text Available The relevance of biological Si cycling for dissolved silica (DSi export from terrestrial biogeosystems is still in debate. Even in systems showing a high content of weatherable minerals, like Cambisols on volcanic tuff, biogenic Si (BSi might contribute > 50% to DSi (Gerard et al., 2008. However, the number of biogeosystem studies is rather limited for generalized conclusions. To cover one end of controlling factors on DSi, i.e., weatherable minerals content, we studied a forested site with absolute quartz dominance (> 95%. Here we hypothesise minimal effects of chemical weathering of silicates on DSi. During a four year observation period (05/2007–04/2011, we quantified (i internal and external Si fluxes of a temperate-humid biogeosystem (beech, 120 yr by BIOME-BGC (version ZALF, (ii related Si budgets, and (iii Si pools in soil and beech, chemically as well as by SEM-EDX. For the first time two compartments of biogenic Si in soils were analysed, i.e., phytogenic and zoogenic Si pool (testate amoebae. We quantified an average Si plant uptake of 35 kg Si ha−1 yr−1 – most of which is recycled to the soil by litterfall – and calculated an annual biosilicification from idiosomic testate amoebae of 17 kg Si ha−1. The comparatively high DSi concentrations (6 mg L−1 and DSi exports (12 kg Si ha−1 yr−1 could not be explained by chemical weathering of feldspars or quartz dissolution. Instead, dissolution of a relictic, phytogenic Si pool seems to be the main process for the DSi observed. We identified canopy closure accompanied by a disappearance of grasses as well as the selective extraction of pine trees 30 yr ago as the most probable control for the phenomena observed. From our results we concluded the biogeosystem to be in a transient state in terms of Si cycling.

  18. Correlations between water-soluble organic aerosol and water vapor: a synergistic effect from biogenic emissions?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hennigan, Christopher J; Bergin, Michael H; Weber, Rodney J

    2008-12-15

    Ground-based measurements of meteorological parameters and water-soluble organic carbon in the gas(WSOCg) and particle (WSOCp) phases were carried out in Atlanta, Georgia, from May to September 2007. Fourteen separate events were observed throughout the summer in which WSOCp and water vapor concentrations were highly correlated (average WSOCp-water vapor r = 0.92); however, for the entire summer, no well-defined relationship existed between the two. The correlation events, which lasted on average 19 h, were characterized by a wide range of WSOCp and water vapor concentrations. Several hypotheses for the correlation are explored, including heterogeneous liquid phase SOA formation and the co-emission of biogenic VOCs and water vapor. The data provide supporting evidence for contributions from both and suggest the possibility of a synergistic effect between the co-emission of water vapor and VOCs from biogenic sources on SOA formation. Median WSOCp concentrations were also correlated with elemental carbon (EC), although this correlation extended over the entire summer. Despite the emission of water vapor from anthropogenic mobile sources and the WSOCp-EC correlation, mobile sources were not considered a potential cause for the WSOCp-water vapor correlations because of their low contribution to the water vapor budget. Meteorology could perhaps have influenced the WSOCp-EC correlation, but other factors are implicated as well. Overall, the results suggest that the temperature-dependent co-emission of water vapor through evapotranspiration and SOA precursor-VOCs by vegetation may be an important process contributing to SOA in some environments.

  19. The Extent of CH4 Emission and Oxidation in Thermogenic and Biogenic Gas Hydrate Environments

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kastner, M.; Solem, C.; Bartlett, D.; MacDonald, I.; Valentine, D.

    2003-12-01

    The role of methane hydrate in the global methane budget is poorly understood, because relatively little is known about the transport of gaseous and dissolved methane through the seafloor into the ocean, from the water column into the atmosphere, and the extent of water-column methanotrophy that occurs en route. We characterize the transport and consumption of methane in three distinct gas hydrate environments, spanning the spectrum of thermogenic and biogenic methane occurrences: Bush Hill in the Gulf of Mexico, Eel River off the coast of Northern California, and the Noth and South Hydrate Ridges on the Cascadia Oregon margin. At all the sites studied a significant enrichment in δ 13CH4 with distance along isopycnals away from the methane source is observed, indicative of extensive aerobic bacterial methane oxidation in the water column. The effects of this process are principally pronounced in the mostly biogenic methane setting, with δ 13C-CH4 measured as high as -12 permil (PDB) between North and South Hydrate Ridge. The δ 13C-CH4 values ranged from -12 to -67 permil at Hydrate Ridge, -34 to -52 permil at Eel River, and -41 to -49 permil at Bush Hill. The large variation in methane carbon isotope ranges between the sites suggest that major differences exist in both the rates of aerobic methane oxidation and system openness at the studied locations. A mean kinetic isotope fractionation factor is being determined using a closed-system Rayleigh distillation model. An approximate regional methane flux from the ocean into the atmosphere is being estimated for the Gulf of Mexico, by extrapolation of the flux value from the Bush Hill methane plume over 390 plume locations having persistent oil slicks on the ocean surface, mapped by time series satellite data.

  20. The coordination of sulfur in synthetic and biogenic Mg calcites: The red coral case

    Science.gov (United States)

    Perrin, J.; Rivard, C.; Vielzeuf, D.; Laporte, D.; Fonquernie, C.; Ricolleau, A.; Cotte, M.; Floquet, N.

    2017-01-01

    Sulfur has been recognized in biogenic calcites for a long time. However, its structural position is matter of debate. For some authors, sulfur is a marker of the organic matrix while it is part of the calcite structure itself for others. To better understand the place of sulfur in calcite, sulfated magnesian calcites (S-MgCalcite) have been synthetized at high pressure and temperature and studied by μ-XANES spectroscopy. S-MgCalcite XANES spectra show two different types of sulfur: sulfate (SO42-) as a predominant species and a small contribution of sulfite (SO32-), both substituting for carbonate ions in the calcite structure. To address the question of the position of sulfur in biogenic calcites, the oxidation states of sulfur in the skeleton and organic tissues of Corallium rubrum have been investigated by micro X-ray fluorescence (μ-XRF) and sulfur K-edge micro X-ray absorption near edge structure (μ-XANES) spectroscopy at the European Synchrotron Radiation Facility (ESRF, Grenoble, France) on beamline ID21. In the skeleton, sulfur is mainly present as oxidized sulfur SO42- (+VI), plus a weak sulfite contribution. XANES spectra indicate that sulfur is inorganically incorporated as sulfur structurally substituted to carbonate ions (SSS). Although an organic matrix is present in the red coral skeleton, reduced organic sulfur could not be detected by μ-XANES spectroscopy in the skeleton probably due to low organic/inorganic sulfur ratio. In the organic tissues surrounding the skeleton, several sulfur oxidation states have been detected including disulfide (S-S), thioether (R-S-CH3), sulfoxide (SO2), sulfonate (SO2O-) and sulfate (SO42-). The unexpected occurrence of inorganic sulfate within the organic tissues suggests the presence of pre-organized organic/inorganic complexes in the circulatory system of the red coral, precursors to biomineralization ahead of the growth front.

  1. Incorporating GOES Satellite Photosynthetically Active Radiation (PAR) Retrievals to Improve Biogenic Emission Estimates in Texas

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Rui; White, Andrew T.; Pour Biazar, Arastoo; McNider, Richard T.; Cohan, Daniel S.

    2018-01-01

    This study examines the influence of insolation and cloud retrieval products from the Geostationary Operational Environmental Satellite (GOES) system on biogenic emission estimates and ozone simulations in Texas. Compared to surface pyranometer observations, satellite-retrieved insolation and photosynthetically active radiation (PAR) values tend to systematically correct the overestimation of downwelling shortwave radiation in the Weather Research and Forecasting (WRF) model. The correlation coefficient increases from 0.93 to 0.97, and the normalized mean error decreases from 36% to 21%. The isoprene and monoterpene emissions estimated by the Model of Emissions of Gases and Aerosols from Nature are on average 20% and 5% less, respectively, when PAR from the direct satellite retrieval is used rather than the control WRF run. The reduction in biogenic emission rates using satellite PAR reduced the predicted maximum daily 8 h ozone concentration by up to 5.3 ppbV over the Dallas-Fort Worth (DFW) region on some days. However, episode average ozone response is less sensitive, with a 0.6 ppbV decrease near DFW and 0.3 ppbV increase over East Texas. The systematic overestimation of isoprene concentrations in a WRF control case is partially corrected by using satellite PAR, which observes more clouds than are simulated by WRF. Further, assimilation of GOES-derived cloud fields in WRF improved CAMx model performance for ground-level ozone over Texas. Additionally, it was found that using satellite PAR improved the model's ability to replicate the spatial pattern of satellite-derived formaldehyde columns and aircraft-observed vertical profiles of isoprene.

  2. Secondary biogenic coal seam gas reservoirs in New Zealand: A preliminary assessment of gas contents

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Butland, Carol I. [Department of Geological Sciences, University of Canterbury, Private Bag 4800, Christchurch (New Zealand); Moore, Tim A. [Department of Geological Sciences, University of Canterbury, Private Bag 4800, Christchurch (New Zealand); Solid Energy NZ Ltd., P.O. Box 1303, Christchurch (New Zealand)

    2008-10-02

    Four coal cores, one from the Huntly (Eocene), two from the Ohai (Cretaceous) and one from the Greymouth (Cretaceous) coalfields, were sampled and analysed in terms of gas content and coal properties. The coals vary in rank from subbituminous B-A (Huntly) to subbituminous C-A (Ohai), and high volatile A bituminous (Greymouth). Average gas contents were 1.60 m{sup 3}/t (s 0.2) in the Huntly core, 4.80 m{sup 3}/t (s = 0.8) in the Ohai cores, and 2.39 m{sup 3}/t (s = 0.8) in the Greymouth core. The Ohai core not only contained more gas but also had the highest saturation (75%) compared with the Huntly (33%) and Greymouth (45%) cores. Carbon isotopes indicate that the Ohai gas is more mature, containing higher {delta}{sup 13}C isotopes values than either the Huntly or Greymouth gas samples. This may indicate that the gas was derived from a mixed biogenic and thermogenic source. The Huntly and Greymouth gases appear to be derived solely from a secondary biogenic (by CO{sub 2} reduction) source. Although the data set is limited, preliminary analysis indicates that ash yield is the dominant control on gas volume in all samples where the ash yield was above 10%. Below 10%, the amount of gas variation is unrelated to ash yield. Although organic content has some influence on gas volume, associations are basin and/or rank dependent. In the Huntly core total gas content and structured vitrinite increase together. Although this relationship does not appear for the other core data for the Ohai SC3 core, lost gas and fusinite are associated whereas gelovitrinite (unstructured vitrinite) correlates positively with residual gas for the Greymouth data. (author)

  3. The surface reactivity of chalk (biogenic calcite) with hydrophilic and hydrophobic functional groups

    Science.gov (United States)

    Okhrimenko, D. V.; Dalby, K. N.; Skovbjerg, L. L.; Bovet, N.; Christensen, J. H.; Stipp, S. L. S.

    2014-03-01

    The surface properties of calcium carbonate minerals play an important role in a number of industrial and biological processes. Properties such as wettability and adsorption control liquid-solid interface behaviour and thus have a strong influence on processes such as biomineralisation, remediation of aquifers and oil recovery. We investigated how two model molecules of different polarity, namely water and ethanol, interact with reservoir and outcrop chalk samples and we compared their behaviour with that of pure, inorganically precipitated calcite. Thermodynamic quantities, such as the work of wetting, surface energy and isosteric adsorption enthalpy, were determined from vapour adsorption isotherms. The chalks were studied fresh and after extraction of organic residues that were originally present in these samples. The work of wetting correlates with the amount of organic matter present in the chalk samples but we observed a fundamental difference between the adsorption properties of chalk and pure, inorganically precipitated calcite toward the less polar, ethanol molecule. Further analysis of the chemical composition of the organic matter extracted from the chalk samples was made by gas chromatography (GC-MS). Monitoring surface composition by X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS) before and after extraction of the organic material, and with atomic force microscopy (AFM), showed that nanometer sized clay crystals observed on the chalk particle surfaces could be an important part of the reason for the differences. Removal of the extractable portion of the hydrocarbons liberates adsorption sites that have different wetting properties than the rest of the chalk and these have an energy distribution that is similar to clays. Thus, the results exemplify the complexity of biogenic calcite adsorption behaviour and demonstrate that chalk wetting in drinking water aquifers as well as oil reservoirs is controlled partly by the nanoparticles of clay that have grown on the

  4. Digestion of biogenic wastes from households, industry and wastes harvested on public grounds. Vergaerung biogener Abfaelle aus Haushalt, Industrie und Landschaftspflege; Schlussbericht: Band A

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1991-01-01

    The mass and biogas potentials of organic municipal and industrial solid wastes, as well as of wastes harvested on public grounds, have been determined. The mass potential was found to be around 285'000 tons of digestible organic matter per year. By digesting all this matter, theoretically, about 130'000'000 m[sup 3] of biogas or 3 PJ of energy could be generated yearly. The practical realizable potential is estimated to be nearly 2 PJ/a, including the savings by substituting the energy needed nowadays for the importation of peat and for the production of artificial fertilizers. Considering the fact, that the incineration of organic wastes costs more than biological treatment, the potential is relatively easy to realize. More than 50% of the humus losses of Swiss soils could be compensated by the application of digestion and composting technology. The different technologies for anaerobic digestion of solid organic wastes are compared: the thermophilic, one-stage digestion seems to be further advanced in development than (mesophilic) two-stage digestion. Co-digestion of sludges of municipal waste water treatment plants and solid organic wastes may be advantageous for rural areas. An appropriate marketing strategy for the application of the solid product, however, has to be looked at. Because the two-stage process seems to have some advantages regarding the rate of organic matter breakdown, the product quality and the hygienic conditions, a mesophilic two-stage experimental plant has been constructed. The results of the first experiment of a simple combination of a percolated hydrolytic step with a pulsating, dynamic anaerobic filter are presented. Data on the quality of the solid product from anaerobic digestion of biogenic solid wastes are given. (author) 9 figs., 11 tabs., 75 refs.

  5. A method for the evaluation of a system for the disposal and use of biogenic wastes and farm manure; Vorstudie fuer eine Methode zur Bewertung der Entsorgungs- und Nutzungsverfahren von biogenen Abfaellen und Hofduenger. Entwicklung der Methodik und Anwendung auf ausgewaehlte Technologien

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Baettig, M.; Klingler, G.; Dettli, R. [econcept AG, Zuerich (Switzerland); Frischknecht, R.; Tuchschmid, M. [ESU-Services Ltd., fair consulting in sustainability, Uster (Switzerland)

    2009-06-15

    This comprehensive report for the Swiss Federal Office of Energy (SFOE) deals with the evaluation of a system for the disposal and use of biogenic wastes and farm dung. The principle aim of the study was to develop a method for the evaluation of the various methods for the disposal and use of biogenic wastes and the manure produced in agriculture. A further aim was the exemplary use of the method on a selection of waste disposal methods and the drawing of initial conclusions from the ecological, economic and social points of view. The report provides details on the biomass fractions examined and their energy content. The fundamentals on which the development of the methods used are based are described. Test use of the multi-criterion analysis developed is discussed as is sensitivity analysis. Finally conclusions concerning the evaluation are presented and recommendations are made. The appendix to the report contains details on the comprehensive questionnaire used to collect information and the results of an on-line survey on the weighting of the criteria. Also, fact sheets on the 24 disposal and usage variants examined and an overview of disposal and collection costs are presented. The appendix also contains result tables on the use of the method for biogenic wastes, sewage sludge, farm manure, wood wastes and scrap wood.

  6. Clinical and radiographic evaluation of Bio-Gen with biocollagen compared with Bio-Gen with connective tissue in the treatment of class II furcation defects: a randomized clinical trial

    Science.gov (United States)

    JENABIAN, Niloofar; HAGHANIFAR, Sina; MABOUDI, Avideh; BIJANI, Ali

    2013-01-01

    Objective Treatment of furcation defects are thought to be challenging. The purpose of this study was to evaluate the clinical and radiographic parameters of Bio-Gen with Biocollagen compared with Bio-Gen with connective tissue in the treatment of Class II furcation defects. Material and Methods In this clinical trial, 24 patients with Class II furcation defect on a buccal or lingual mandibular molar were recruited. After oral hygiene instruction, scaling and root planing and achievement of acceptable plaque control, the patients were randomly chosen to receive either connective tissue and Bio-Gen (case group) or Biocollagen and Bio-Gen (control group). The following parameters were recorded before the first and re-entry surgery (six months later): vertical clinical attachment level (VCAL), gingival index (GI), plaque index (PI), horizontal probing depth (HPD), vertical probing depth (VPD), gingival recession (GR), furcation vertical component (FVC), furcation to alveolar crest (FAC), fornix to base of defect (FBD), and furcation horizontal component (FHC) were calculated at the time of first surgery and during re-entry. A digital periapical radiograph was taken in parallel before first surgery and re-entry. The radiographs were then analyzed by digital subtraction. The differences with p value <0.05 were considered significant. Results Only the mean changes of FAC, FHC, mean of FHC, FBD in re-entry revealed statistically significant differences between the two groups. HPD, VPD, FBD, FAC, and FHC showed statistically significant differences after 6 months in the case group. However, in the control group, statistically significant differences were found in GR and HPD. We did not observe any significant difference in radiographic changes among the two groups. Conclusion The results of this trial indicate that better clinical outcomes can be obtained with connective tissue grafts in combination with bone material compared with a resorbable barrier with bone material

  7. Clinical and radiographic evaluation of Bio-Gen with biocollagen compared with Bio-Gen with connective tissue in the treatment of class II furcation defects: a randomized clinical trial

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Niloofar Jenabian

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available OBJECTIVE: Treatment of furcation defects are thought to be challenging. The purpose of this study was to evaluate the clinical and radiographic parameters of Bio-Gen with Biocollagen compared with Bio-Gen with connective tissue in the treatment of Class II furcation defects. MATERIAL AND METHODS: In this clinical trial, 24 patients with Class II furcation defect on a buccal or lingual mandibular molar were recruited. After oral hygiene instruction, scaling and root planing and achievement of acceptable plaque control, the patients were randomly chosen to receive either connective tissue and Bio-Gen (case group or Biocollagen and Bio-Gen (control group. The following parameters were recorded before the first and re-entry surgery (six months later: vertical clinical attachment level (VCAL, gingival index (GI, plaque index (PI, horizontal probing depth (HPD, vertical probing depth (VPD, gingival recession (GR, furcation vertical component (FVC, furcation to alveolar crest (FAC, fornix to base of defect (FBD, and furcation horizontal component (FHC were calculated at the time of first surgery and during re-entry. A digital periapical radiograph was taken in parallel before first surgery and re-entry. The radiographs were then analyzed by digital subtraction. The differences with p value <0.05 were considered significant. RESULTS: Only the mean changes of FAC, FHC, mean of FHC, FBD in re-entry revealed statistically significant differences between the two groups. HPD, VPD, FBD, FAC, and FHC showed statistically significant differences after 6 months in the case group. However, in the control group, statistically significant differences were found in GR and HPD. We did not observe any significant difference in radiographic changes among the two groups. CONCLUSION: The results of this trial indicate that better clinical outcomes can be obtained with connective tissue grafts in combination with bone material compared with a resorbable barrier with bone

  8. Effect of Steaming and Boiling on the Antioxidant Properties and Biogenic Amines Content in Green Bean (Phaseolus vulgaris Varieties of Different Colours

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Raffaella Preti

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Effects of boiling and steaming cooking methods were studied on total polyphenols, antioxidant capacity, and biogenic amines of three green bean varieties, purple, yellow, and green. The vegetables gave good values both for antioxidant capacity and for phenolics content, with the purple variety being the richest in healthful components. Both the heat treatments affected the antioxidant properties of these vegetables, with boiling that reduced the initial antioxidant capacity till 30% in the yellow variety, having the same trend for total polyphenols, with the major decrement of 43% in the green variety. On the contrary, biogenic amines significantly increased only after boiling in green and yellow variety, while purple variety did not show any changes in biogenic amines after cooking. The steaming method showed being better cooking approach in order to preserve the antioxidant properties of green beans varieties and to maintain the biogenic amines content at the lowest level.

  9. Brookhaven Linac Isotope Producer

    Data.gov (United States)

    Federal Laboratory Consortium — The Brookhaven Linac Isoptope Producer (BLIP)—positioned at the forefront of research into radioisotopes used in cancer treatment and diagnosis—produces commercially...

  10. Biogenic cloud nuclei in the central Amazon during the transition from wet to dry season

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J. D. Whitehead

    2016-08-01

    Full Text Available The Amazon basin is a vast continental area in which atmospheric composition is relatively unaffected by anthropogenic aerosol particles. Understanding the properties of the natural biogenic aerosol particles over the Amazon rainforest is key to understanding their influence on regional and global climate. While there have been a number of studies during the wet season, and of biomass burning particles in the dry season, there has been relatively little work on the transition period – the start of the dry season in the absence of biomass burning. As part of the Brazil–UK Network for Investigation of Amazonian Atmospheric Composition and Impacts on Climate (BUNIAACIC project, aerosol measurements, focussing on unpolluted biogenic air masses, were conducted at a remote rainforest site in the central Amazon during the transition from wet to dry season in July 2013. This period marks the start of the dry season but before significant biomass burning occurs in the region. Median particle number concentrations were 266 cm−3, with size distributions dominated by an accumulation mode of 130–150 nm. During periods of low particle counts, a smaller Aitken mode could also be seen around 80 nm. While the concentrations were similar in magnitude to those seen during the wet season, the size distributions suggest an enhancement in the accumulation mode compared to the wet season, but not yet to the extent seen later in the dry season, when significant biomass burning takes place. Submicron nonrefractory aerosol composition, as measured by an aerosol chemical speciation monitor (ACSM, was dominated by organic material (around 81 %. Aerosol hygroscopicity was probed using measurements from a hygroscopicity tandem differential mobility analyser (HTDMA, and a quasi-monodisperse cloud condensation nuclei counter (CCNc. The hygroscopicity parameter, κ, was found to be low, ranging from 0.12 for Aitken-mode particles to 0.18 for accumulation

  11. Aragonite-Calcite Inversion During Biogenic Carbonate Sampling: Considerations for Interpreting Isotopic Measurements in Paleoclimate Studies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Waite, A. J.; Swart, P. K.

    2011-12-01

    As aragonite is the metastable polymorph of calcium carbonate, it lends itself to monotropic inversion to the more stable polymorph, calcite. This inversion is possible through an increase in the temperature and pressure conditions to which the sample is exposed and, although first noted nearly a century ago, has been primarily discussed in the context of sample roasting prior to analyses in paleoclimatological studies. Over the last several decades, however, researchers have found evidence to suggest that the friction associated with the sampling of biogenic carbonates via milling/drilling also induces inversion. Furthermore, this inversion may be associated with a shift in measured oxygen isotopic values and ultimately have significant implications for the interpretation of paleoclimatic reconstructions. Despite this, the isotopic heterogeneity of biogenic aragonite skeletons makes the effects of inversion challenging to test and the subject remains underrepresented in the literature. Here we present a first order study into the effects of milling on both the mineralogy and isotopic compositions measured in sclerosponges, corals, and molluscs. X-Ray diffraction analysis of samples hand ground with a mortar and pestle reveal 100% aragonitic skeletons. Conversely, samples milled with a computerized micromill show measurable inversion to calcite. On average, percent inversion of aragonite to calcite for individual specimens was 15% for sclerosponges, 16% for corals, and 9% for molluscs. Isotopic data from these specimens show that the higher the percentage of aragonite inverted to calcite, the more depleted the measured oxygen isotopic values. In the largest of the datasets (sclerosponges), it is evident that the range of oxygen isotope values from milled samples (-0.02 to +0.84%) exceeds the range in values for those samples which were hand ground and showed no inversion (+0.53 to +0.90%). This, coupled with the strong correlation between the two variables

  12. Biogenic methane leakage on the Aquitaine Shelf: fluid system characterization from source to emission

    Science.gov (United States)

    Michel, Guillaume; Dupré, Stéphanie; Baltzer, Agnès; Imbert, Patrice; Ehrhold, Axel; Battani, Anne; Deville, Eric

    2017-04-01

    The recent discovery of biogenic methane emissions associated with methane-derived authigenic carbonate mounds along the Aquitaine Shelf edge offshore SW France (140 to 220 m water depth) questions about the initiation and temporal evolution of this fluid system (80 km N-S and 8 km E-W). Based on a multi-data study (including multibeam echosounder, subbottom profiler, single channel sparker seismic, 80 traces air gun seismic data and well cuttings and logs), different scenarii are proposed for the organic matter source levels and migration pathways of the methane. Several evidence of the presence of gas are observed on seismic data and interpreted to be linked to the biogenic system. Single channel sparker seismic lines exhibit an acoustic blanking (between 75-100 ms TWT below seafloor and the first multiple) below the present-day seepage area and westwards up to 8 km beyond the shelf-break. An air gun seismic line exhibits chaotic reflections along 8 km below the seepage area from the seabed down to 700 ms TWT below seafloor. Based on 1) the local geothermal gradient about 26 °C/km and 2) the window for microbial methanogenesis ranging from 4 to 56 °C, the estimation of the bottom limit for biogenic generation window is about 1.5 km below seafloor. Cuttings from 3 wells of the area within the methanogenesis window show average TOC (Total Organic Carbon) of 0.5 %; however, one well shows some coal levels with 30-35 % TOC in the Oligocene between 1490 and 1540 m below seafloor. Geochemical analysis on crushed cuttings evidenced heavy hydrocarbons up to mid-Paleogene, while shallower series did not evidence any. In the first scenario, we propose that methane is sourced from the Neogene prograding system. The 0.5% average TOC is sufficient to generate a large volume of methane over the thickness of this interval (up to 1 km at the shelf break area). In the second scenario, methane would be sourced from the Oligocene coals; however their spatial extension with regard

  13. New Environmentalconditions Responsible for the amount of mg Incorporated in Biogenic Carbonates

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zuddas, P.; Cherchi, A.; DeGiudici, G. B.; Buosi, C.

    2012-12-01

    The composition of carbonate minerals formed in past and present oceans is assumed to be significantly controlled by temperature and seawater composition. Several kinetic laboratory investigations have suggested that the temperature is kinetically responsible for the amount of Mg incorporated in both abiotic and biogenic calcites and that variation of kinetic reaction mechanism resulting from the temperature changes are correlated with the variable amount of Mg incorporated in calcites. These results explain why in present-day marine carbonates low-Mg calcite cements are mainly associated with cool water while high-Mg carbonates are dominantly found in warm-water environments. An apparent inverse relationship between the global average paleo-temperature and the Mg/Ca ratio is however observed in the past formed marine carbonate. This apparent contradiction has been interpreted as resulting from a possible changing in the relative seawater geochemical cycles of these cations. Recent monitoring of costal areas in presence of heavy metals and CO2 released from industrial polluted area reveals the presence of porcelanaceous miliolids infested by microscopic boring microflora (cyanobacteria, algae and fungi). Here, benthonic foraminifera have Mg/Ca molar ratio by one order of magnitude higher when compared to the average value of the same genus living under uncontaminated environments. A similar behaviour has been found for Zn, Cd and Pb. In these contaminated environments, temperature and average major seawater composition remain constant, while PCO2 partial pressure (estimated by pH and alkalinity using the ion pairing model) is 3-5 times higher than the average for the open sea nearby. Geochemical models predicts that CO2 increase is affecting carbonate saturation state of surface water in the twenty-first century indicating that calcareous organisms may have difficulty calcifying leading to production of weaker skeletons and greater vulnerability to erosion. The

  14. Biogenic volatile organic compounds (BVOCs) emissions from Abies alba in a French forest.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moukhtar, S; Couret, C; Rouil, L; Simon, V

    2006-02-01

    Air quality studies need to be based on accurate and reliable data, particularly in the field of the emissions. Biogenic emissions from forests, crops, and grasslands are now considered as major compounds in photochemical processes. Unfortunately, depending on the type of vegetation, these emissions are not so often reliably defined. As an example, although the silver fir (Abies alba) is a very widespread conifer tree in the French and European areas, its standard emission rate is not available in the literature. This study investigates the isoprene and monoterpenes emission from A. alba in France measured during the fieldwork organised in the Fossé Rhénan, from May to June 2003. A dynamic cuvette method was used. Limonene was the predominant monoterpene emitted, followed by camphene, alpha-pinene and eucalyptol. No isoprene emission was detected. The four monoterpenes measured showed different behaviours according to micrometeorological conditions. In fact, emissions of limonene, alpha-pinene and camphene were temperature-dependant while eucalyptol emissions were temperature and light dependant. Biogenic volatile organic compounds emissions were modeled using information gathered during the field study. Emissions of the three monoterpenes previously quoted were achieved using the monoterpenes algorithm developed by Tingey et al. (1980) [Tingey D, Manning M, Grothaus L, Burns W. Influence of light and temperature on monoterpene emission rates from slash pine. Plant Physiol 1980;65: 797-801.] and the isoprene algorithm [Guenther, A., Monson, R., Fall, R., 1991. Isoprene and monoterpene emission rate variability: observations with eucalyptus and emission rate algorithm development. J Geophys Res 26A: 10799-10808.]; [Guenther, A., Zimmerman, P., Harley, P., Monson, R., Fall, R., 1993. Isoprene and monoterpene emission rate variability: model evaluation and sensitivity analysis. J Geophys Res 98D: 12609-12617.]) was used for the eucalyptol emission. With these

  15. Silicon pool dynamics and biogenic silica export in the Southern Ocean inferred from Si-isotopes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    F. Fripiat

    2011-09-01

    Full Text Available Silicon isotopic signatures (δ30Si of water column silicic acid (Si(OH4 were measured in the Southern Ocean, along a meridional transect from South Africa (Subtropical Zone down to 57° S (northern Weddell Gyre. This provides the first reported data of a summer transect across the whole Antarctic Circumpolar Current (ACC. δ30Si variations are large in the upper 1000 m, reflecting the effect of the silica pump superimposed upon meridional water transfer across the ACC: the transport of Antarctic surface waters northward by a net Ekman drift and their convergence and mixing with warmer upper-ocean Si-depleted waters to the north. Using Si isotopic signatures, we determine different mixing interfaces: the Antarctic Surface Water (AASW, the Antarctic Intermediate Water (AAIW, and thermoclines in the low latitude areas. The residual silicic acid concentrations of end-members control the δ30Si alteration of the mixing products and with the exception of AASW, all mixing interfaces have a highly Si-depleted mixed layer end-member. These processes deplete the silicic acid AASW concentration northward, across the different interfaces, without significantly changing the AASW δ30Si composition. By comparing our new results with a previous study in the Australian sector we show that during the circumpolar transport of the ACC eastward, the δ30Si composition of the silicic acid pools is getting slightly, but significantly lighter from the Atlantic to the Australian sectors. This results either from the dissolution of biogenic silica in the deeper layers and/or from an isopycnal mixing with the deep water masses in the different oceanic basins: North Atlantic Deep Water in the Atlantic, and Indian Ocean deep water in the Indo-Australian sector. This isotopic trend is further transmitted to the subsurface waters, representing mixing interfaces between the surface and deeper layers.

  16. Virus disinfection in water by biogenic silver immobilized in polyvinylidene fluoride membranes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gusseme, B.D.; Fitts, J.; Hennebel, T.; Christiaens, E.; Saveyn, H.; Verbeken, K.; Boon, N.; Verstraete, W.

    2011-03-01

    The development of innovative water disinfection strategies is of utmost importance to prevent outbreaks of waterborne diseases related to poor treatment of (drinking) water. Recently, the association of silver nanoparticles with the bacterial cell surface of Lactobacillus fermentum (referred to as biogenic silver or bio-Ag{sup 0}) has been reported to exhibit antiviral properties. The microscale bacterial carrier matrix serves as a scaffold for Ag{sup 0} particles, preventing aggregation during encapsulation. In this study, bio-Ag{sup 0} was immobilized in different microporous PVDF membranes using two different pre-treatments of bio-Ag{sup 0} and the immersion-precipitation method. Inactivation of UZ1 bacteriophages using these membranes was successfully demonstrated and was most probably related to the slow release of Ag{sup +} from the membranes. At least a 3.4 log decrease of viruses was achieved by application of a membrane containing 2500 mg bio-Ag{sub powder}{sup 0} m{sup -2} in a submerged plate membrane reactor operated at a flux of 3.1 L m{sup -2} h{sup -1}. Upon startup, the silver concentration in the effluent initially increased to 271 {micro}g L{sup -1} but after filtration of 31 L m{sup -2}, the concentration approached the drinking water limit (= 100 {micro}g L{sup -1}). A virus decline of more than 3 log was achieved at a membrane flux of 75 L m{sup -2} h{sup -1}, showing the potential of this membrane technology for water disinfection on small scale. In biogenic silver, silver nanoparticles are attached to a bacterial carrier matrix. Bio-Ag{sup 0} was successfully immobilized in PVDF membranes using immersion-precipitation. The antiviral activity of this material was demonstrated in a plate membrane reactor. The antimicrobial mechanism was most probably related to the slow release of Ag{sup +} ions. The membranes can be applied for treatment of limited volumes of contaminated water.

  17. A comparison of biogenic iron quotas during a diatom spring bloom using multiple approaches

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. L. King

    2012-02-01

    Full Text Available Biogenic Fe quotas were determined using three distinct techniques on samples collected concurrently in the subtropical Pacific Ocean east of New Zealand. Fe quotas were measured using radioisotope uptake experiments (24 h incubation, bulk filtration and analysis by inductively-coupled plasma mass spectrometer (ICPMS, and single-cell synchrotron x-ray fluorescence (SXRF analysis over a sixteen-day period (year days 263 to 278 of 2008 during a quasi-Lagrangian drifter experiment that tracked the evolution of the annual spring diatom bloom within a counter-clockwise open-ocean eddy. Overall, radioisotope uptake-determined Fe quotas (washed with oxalate reagent to remove extracellular Fe were the lowest (0.5–1.0 mmol Fe:mol P; 4–8 μmol Fe:mol C, followed by single-cell Fe quotas (2.3–7.5 mmol Fe:mol P; 17–57 μmol Fe:mol C, and the highest and most variable quotas were from the bulk filtration ICPMS approach that used the oxalate reagent wash, corrected for lithogenic Fe using Al (0.8–21 mmol Fe:mol P; 4–136 μmol Fe:mol C. During the evolution of the spring bloom within the eddy (year days 263 to 272, the surface mixed layer inventories of particulate biogenic elements (C, N, P, Si and chlorophyll increased while Fe quotas estimated from all three approaches exhibited a general decline. After the onset of the bloom decline, the drogued buoys exited the eddy center (days 273 to 277. Fe quotas returned to pre-bloom values during this part of the study. Our standardized and coordinated sampling protocols reveal the general observed trend in Fe quotas: ICPMS > SXRF > radioisotope uptake. We discuss the inherent differences between the techniques and argue that each technique has its individual merits and uniquely contributes to the characterization of the oceanic particulate Fe pool.

  18. Estimate of biogenic VOC emissions in Japan and their effects on photochemical formation of ambient ozone and secondary organic aerosol

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chatani, Satoru; Matsunaga, Sou N.; Nakatsuka, Seiji

    2015-11-01

    A new gridded database has been developed to estimate the amount of isoprene, monoterpene, and sesquiterpene emitted from all the broadleaf and coniferous trees in Japan with the Model of Emissions of Gases and Aerosols from Nature (MEGAN). This database reflects the vegetation specific to Japan more accurately than existing ones. It estimates much lower isoprene emitted from other vegetation than trees, and higher sesquiterpene emissions mainly emitted from Cryptomeria japonica, which is the most abundant plant type in Japan. Changes in biogenic emissions result in the decrease in ambient ozone and increase in organic aerosol simulated by the air quality simulation over the Tokyo Metropolitan Area in Japan. Although newly estimated biogenic emissions contribute to a better model performance on overestimated ozone and underestimated organic aerosol, they are not a single solution to solve problems associated with the air quality simulation.

  19. [Age-related changes in biogenic amine content and oxidative stress profile in the rat hypothalamus in hyperhomocysteinemia].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Milyutina, Yu P; Pustygina, A V; Zaloznyaya, I V; Arutjunyan, A V

    2016-01-01

    The article presents a detailed analysis of correlations between the content of a variety of biogenic amines in the hypothalamic structures responsible for the luteinizing hormone releasing hormone synthesis and secretion (the medial preoptic area and median eminence) and such independent factors as total L-homocysteine plasma level elevation induced by L-methionine loading and aging. Both a nature and a pattern of changes in oxidative stress profile were evaluated. It was shown that ageing, when compared to hyperhomocysteinemia, is a determining factor influencing biogenic amine content in the studied hypothalamic structures. Unlike antioxidant defense system profile, considerable changes in macromolecule oxidative modification were not found, which evidences a balanced activity of pro- and antioxidant systems in the hypothalamus.

  20. A plant chamber system with downstream reaction chamber to study the effects of pollution on biogenic emissions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Timkovsky, J; Gankema, P; Pierik, R; Holzinger, R

    2014-01-01

    A system of two plant chambers and a downstream reaction chamber has been set up to investigate the emission of biogenic volatile organic compounds (BVOCs) and possible effects of pollutants such as ozone. The system can be used to compare BVOC emissions from two sets of differently treated plants, or to study the photochemistry of real plant emissions under polluted conditions without exposing the plants to pollutants. The main analytical tool is a proton-transfer-reaction time-of-flight mass spectrometer (PTR-TOF-MS) which allows online monitoring of biogenic emissions and chemical degradation products. The identification of BVOCs and their oxidation products is aided by cryogenic trapping and subsequent in situ gas chromatographic analysis.

  1. Emissions of biogenic VOC from forest ecosystems in central Europe: Estimation and comparison with anthropogenic emission inventory

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zemankova, Katerina; Brechler, Josef

    2010-01-01

    This paper describes a method of estimating emission fluxes of biogenic volatile organic compounds (BVOCs) based on the approach proposed by and the high-resolution Corine land-cover 2000 database (1 x 1 km resolution). The computed emission fluxes for the Czech Republic (selected for analysis as being representative of a heavily cultivated, central European country) are compared with anthropogenic emissions, both for the entire country and for individual administrative regions. In some regions, BVOC emissions are as high as anthropogenic emissions; however, in most regions the BVOC emissions are approximately 50% of the anthropogenic emissions. The yearly course of BVOC emissions (represented by monoterpenes and isoprene) is presented, along with the spatial distribution of annual mean values. Differences in emission distributions during winter (January) and summer (June) are also considered. - The amount of the biogenic VOCs emitted over the central Europe is comparable with the anthropogenic VOC emissions from this region.

  2. Biogenic amine formation and nitrite reactions in meat batter as affected by high-pressure processing and chilled storage.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ruiz-Capillas, C; Aller-Guiote, P; Carballo, J; Colmenero, F Jiménez

    2006-12-27

    Changes in biogenic amine formation and nitrite depletion in meat batters as affected by pressure-temperature combinations (300 MPa/30 min/7, 20, and 40 degrees C), cooking process (70 degrees C/30 min), and storage (54 days/2 degrees C) were studied. Changes in residual nitrite concentration in raw meat batters were conditioned by the temperature and not by the pressure applied. Cooking process decreased (P nitrite concentration in all samples. High-pressure processing and cooking treatment increased (P nitrite concentration decreased with pressure processing, no effect was observed with the heating process of meat batters. High-pressure processing conditions had no effect on the rate of residual nitrite loss throughout the storage. The application of high pressure decreased (P processing conditions, generally, throughout storage biogenic amine levels did not change or increased, although quantitatively this effect was not very important.

  3. Estimation of biogenic emissions with satellite-derived land use and land cover data for air quality modeling of Houston-Galveston ozone nonattainment area.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Byun, Daewon W; Kim, Soontae; Czader, Beata; Nowak, David; Stetson, Stephen; Estes, Mark

    2005-06-01

    The Houston-Galveston Area (HGA) is one of the most severe ozone non-attainment regions in the US. To study the effectiveness of controlling anthropogenic emissions to mitigate regional ozone nonattainment problems, it is necessary to utilize adequate datasets describing the environmental conditions that influence the photochemical reactivity of the ambient atmosphere. Compared to the anthropogenic emissions from point and mobile sources, there are large uncertainties in the locations and amounts of biogenic emissions. For regional air quality modeling applications, biogenic emissions are not directly measured but are usually estimated with meteorological data such as photo-synthetically active solar radiation, surface temperature, land type, and vegetation database. In this paper, we characterize these meteorological input parameters and two different land use land cover datasets available for HGA: the conventional biogenic vegetation/land use data and satellite-derived high-resolution land cover data. We describe the procedures used for the estimation of biogenic emissions with the satellite derived land cover data and leaf mass density information. Air quality model simulations were performed using both the original and the new biogenic emissions estimates. The results showed that there were considerable uncertainties in biogenic emissions inputs. Subsequently, ozone predictions were affected up to 10 ppb, but the magnitudes and locations of peak ozone varied each day depending on the upwind or downwind positions of the biogenic emission sources relative to the anthropogenic NOx and VOC sources. Although the assessment had limitations such as heterogeneity in the spatial resolutions, the study highlighted the significance of biogenic emissions uncertainty on air quality predictions. However, the study did not allow extrapolation of the directional changes in air quality corresponding to the changes in LULC because the two datasets were based on vastly different

  4. Serum Neuron-Specific Enolase, Biogenic Amino-Acids and Neurobehavioral Function in Lead-Exposed Workers from Lead-Acid Battery Manufacturing Process

    OpenAIRE

    K Ravibabu; T Barman; HR Rajmohan

    2015-01-01

    Background: The interaction between serum neuron-specific enolase (NSE), biogenic amino-acids and neurobehavioral function with blood lead levels in workers exposed to lead form lead-acid battery manufacturing process was not studied. Objective: To evaluate serum NSE and biogenic amino-acids (dopamine and serotonin) levels, and neurobehavioral performance among workers exposed to lead from lead-acid storage battery plant, and its relation with blood lead levels (BLLs). Methods: In a c...

  5. A review of the Si cycle in the modern ocean: recent progress and missing gaps in the application