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Sample records for biogenic uraninite produced

  1. Structural similarities between biogenic uraninites produced by phylogenetically and metabolically diverse bacteria

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    While the product of microbial uranium reduction is often reported to be 'UO2', a comprehensive characterization including stoichiometry and unit cell determination is available for only one Shewanella species. Here, we compare the products of batch uranyl reduction by a collection of dissimilatory metal- and sulfate-reducing bacteria of the genera Shewanella, Geobacter, Anaeromyxobacter, and Desulfovibrio under similar laboratory conditions. Our results demonstrate that U(VI) bioreduction by this assortment of commonly studied, environmentally relevant bacteria leads to the precipitation of uraninite with a composition between UO2.00 and UO2.075, regardless of phylogenetic or metabolic diversity. Coupled analyses, including electron microscopy, X-ray absorption spectroscopy, and powder diffraction, confirm that structurally and chemically analogous uraninite solids are produced. These biogenic uraninites have particle diameters of about 2-3 nm and lattice constants consistent with UO2.0 and exhibit a high degree of intermediate-range order. Results indicate that phylogenetic and metabolic variability within delta- and gamma-proteobacteria has little effect on nascent biouraninite structure or crystal size under the investigated conditions.

  2. Oxidation of uraninite

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Samples of uraninite and pitchblende annealed at 1200 degrees C in H2, and untreated pitchblende were sequentially oxidized in air at 180-190 degrees C, 230 degrees C, and 300 degrees C. Uraninite and untreated pitchblende oxidized to the U4O9-type oxide, and their x-ray symmetry remained isometric up to 300 degrees C. Reduced pitchblende, after oxidation to UO2+x and U4O9-type oxides, transformed into α-U3O8 at 300 degrees C. Two major mechanisms control uraninite and untreated pitchblende stability during oxidation: 1. Th and/or lanthanide elements maintain charge balance and block oxygen interstitials near impurity cations; 2. the uraninite structure saturates with respect to excess and radiation-induced oxygen interstitials. Untreated pitchblende during oxidation behaved similarly to irradiated UO2 in spent nuclear fuel; whereas, reduced pitchblende resembled non-irradiated UO2. An analysis of the data in the literature, as well as our own efforts (XRD, EMPA, SEM, AEM) to identify U3O7 in samples form Cigar Lake, Canada, failed to provide conclusive evidence of the natural occurrence of tetragonal αU3O7. Most probably, reported occurrences of U3O7 are mixtures of isometric uraninites of slightly different compositions, 45 refs

  3. Biogenic amines in commercially produced Yulu, a Chinese fermented fish sauce.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jiang, Wei; Xu, Ying; Li, Chunsheng; Dong, Xiaoyan; Wang, Dongfeng

    2014-01-01

    Seven biogenic amines were determined in 35 commercially produced Yulu samples from three provinces of China by pre-column derivatisation with dansyl chloride (Dns-Cl) and high-performance liquid chromatography with fluorescence detection (HPLC-FLD). Putrescine, cadaverine, histamine and tyramine were the major biogenic amines (more than 100 mg kg(-1)), while tryptamine, spermidine and spermine were regarded as minor biogenic amines (less than 25 mg kg(-1)). Twenty samples contained more than 50 mg kg(-1) histamine (the limit for histamine in seafood products as suggested by the Food and Drug Administration). Twenty-one samples contained more than 100 mg kg(-1) tyramine and 10 contained more than 1000 mg kg(-1) total biogenic amines. This study provided data on biogenic amine levels in Chinese fermented fish sauce. The results suggested that biogenic amine content should be monitored in commercially produced Yulu. PMID:24779975

  4. Molecular methods for the detection of biogenic amine-producing bacteria on foods

    OpenAIRE

    Landete, José María; Rivas, Blanca de las; Marcobal, Angela; Muñoz, Rosario

    2007-01-01

    Biogenic amines are low molecular weight organic bases that can be detected in raw and processed foods. Several toxicological problems resulting from the ingestion of food containing biogenic amines have been described. Biogenic amines are mainly produced by the decarboxylation of certain amino acids by microbial action. Since the ability of microorganisms to decarboxylate amino acid is highly variable, being in most cases strain-specific, the detection of bacteria possessing amino a...

  5. Concentration of Biogenic Amines in ‘Pinot Noir’ Wines Produced in Croatia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ana Jeromel

    2012-03-01

    Full Text Available The origins of biogenic amines are sound grapes, alcoholic fermentations, malolactic fermentation and microbial activities during wine storage. These biologically produced amines are essential at low concentrations for optimal metabolic and physiological functions in animals, plants and micro-organisms. During alcoholic fermentation the degree of maceration is the first factor that affects the extraction of compounds present in the grape skin, among them aminoacids, precursors of biogenic amines. The aim of the present work was to study the changes of the concentration of biogenic amines in wines made from Vitis vinifera ‘Pinot noir’ from Plešivica (vintage 2009 produced with classical maceration, cold maceration and use of sur lie method. Biogenic amines were quantified using a reversed-phase high performance liquid chromatography (HPLC with fluorescence detection after pre-column derivatization with o-phthalaldehyde (OPA. In ‘Pinot noir’ wines tested, histamine was the most abundant biogenic amine followed by tryptamine and 2-Phenylethylamine. Total amount of biogenic amines ranged from 8.72 mg/L in wines made with classical maceration up to 9.34 mg/L in sur lie wines. In summary, from the results obtained in this study, it can be concluded that sur lie technology can influence the formation of biogenic acids since the release of amino acids is probably more pronounced in wines aged with lees and stirred weekly. No significant differences were found in the concentration of biogenic amines in relation to the used maceration process.

  6. Concentration of Biogenic Amines in ‘Pinot Noir’ Wines Produced in Croatia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ana Jeromel

    2014-02-01

    Full Text Available The origins of biogenic amines are sound grapes, alcoholic fermentations, malolactic fermentation and microbial activities during wine storage. These biologically produced amines are essential at low concentrations for optimal metabolic and physiological functions in animals, plants and micro-organisms. During alcoholic fermentation the degree of maceration is the first factor that affects the extraction of compounds present in the grape skin, among them aminoacids, precursors of biogenic amines. The aim of the present work was to study the changes of the concentration of biogenic amines in wines made from Vitis vinifera ‘Pinot noir’ from Plešivica (vintage 2009 produced with classical maceration, cold maceration and use of sur lie method. Biogenic amines were quantified using a reversed-phase high performance liquid chromatography (HPLC with fluorescence detection after pre-column derivatization with o-phthalaldehyde (OPA. In ‘Pinot noir’ wines tested, histamine was the most abundant biogenic amine followed by tryptamine and 2-Phenylethylamine. Total amount of biogenic amines ranged from 8.72 mg/L in wines made with classical maceration up to 9.34 mg/L in sur lie wines. In summary, from the results obtained in this study, it can be concluded that sur lie technology can influence the formation of biogenic acids since the release of amino acids is probably more pronounced in wines aged with lees and stirred weekly. No significant differences were found in the concentration of biogenic amines in relation to the used maceration process.

  7. PCR methods for the detection of biogenic amine-producing bacteria on wine

    OpenAIRE

    Landete, José María; Rivas, Blanca de las; Marcobal, Ángela; Muñoz, Rosario

    2011-01-01

    Biogenic amines are low molecular weight organic bases frequently found in wine. Several toxicological problems resulting from the ingestion of wine containing biogenic amines have been described. In wine, histamine, tyramine, and putrescine are mainly produced by the decarboxylation of the amino acid histidine, tyrosine, and ornithine, respectively, by lactic acid bacteria action. The bacterial ability to decarboxylate amino acids is highly variable, and therefore the...

  8. Effect of gamma irradiation on the activity of some microorganisms producing biogenic amines in some foods

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The effect of gamma irradiation on the proximate chemical composition ( moisture content , protein , fat, ash) chemical freshness tests (TBA, TVB-N, TMA, FAN, ph) and microbiological changes (total bacterial count, proteolytic bacteria, Enterobacteriaceae, moulds and yeasts counts) occurred in sardine fish and pastirma during cold storage at (4 ± 1 degree C) were fully investigated. Furthermore, the bacterial activity causing the formation of biogenic amines were also studied. In addition, the determination of biogenic amines in sardine fish and pastirma produced by these bacteria were explored. The effects of irradiation doses (1, 3 and 5 kGy) which were applied as a trial to reduce biogenic amines formation in sardine fish and pastirma were also investigated. In addition, the effect of the tested irradiation doses (1, 3 and 5 kGy) on organoleptic properties of the treated sardine fish and pastirma were determined.

  9. Enhancement of Biogenic Coalbed Methane Production and Back Injection of Coalbed Methane Co-Produced Water

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Song Jin

    2007-05-31

    Biogenic methane is a common constituent in deep subsurface environments such as coalbeds and oil shale beds. Coalbed methane (CBM) makes significant contributions to world natural gas industry and CBM production continues to increase. With increasing CBM production, the production of CBM co-produced water increases, which is an environmental concern. This study investigated the feasibility in re-using CBM co-produced water and other high sodic/saline water to enhance biogenic methane production from coal and other unconventional sources, such as oil shale. Microcosms were established with the selected carbon sources which included coal, oil shale, lignite, peat, and diesel-contaminated soil. Each microcosm contained either CBM coproduced water or groundwater with various enhancement and inhibitor combinations. Results indicated that the addition of nutrients and nutrients with additional carbon can enhance biogenic methane production from coal and oil shale. Methane production from oil shale was much greater than that from coal, which is possibly due to the greater amount of available Dissolved Organic Carbon (DOC) from oil shale. Inconclusive results were observed from the other sources since the incubation period was too low. WRI is continuing studies with biogenic methane production from oil shale.

  10. Debaryomyces hansenii, Proteus vulgaris, Psychrobacter sp and Microbacterium foliorum are able to produce biogenic amines

    OpenAIRE

    Hélinck, Sandra; Perello, Marie-Claire; Deetae, Pawinee; De Revel, Gilles; Spinnler, Henry-Eric

    2013-01-01

    The occurrence of biogenic amines (BAs) produced by the microbiota of fermented foods is a source of health concern. The three bacteria Microbacterium foliorum, Proteus vulgaris and Psychrobacter sp. and the yeast Debaryomyces hansenii, isolated from surface-ripened cheeses, are known to contribute to their aromatic properties. The potential of each of these strains to produce BAs was investigated, both in pure cultures of each bacterium in a laboratory medium supplemented with amino acids an...

  11. Age and origin of uraninite in the Elliot Lake, Ontario uranium ores

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    There is a strong, positive linear correlation between the 204Pb/206Pb and 207Pb/206Pb ratios and between the 208Pb/206Pb and 207Pb/206Pb ratios in the galenas. The linear relation is interpreted to be the result of ''mixing'' of isotopically distinct Pb produced during two uraninite Pb loss episodes. A complete mixing of crustal Pb and radiogenic Pb released from the associated uraninite at a time T1 formed one end member of the observed trends. The other end member consists of radiogenic Pb released from the uraninite at a later time T2. The galena Pb isotope data indicate that T0, the inital age of the uraninite in the Elliot Lake ores, is 2200-3300 Ma, T1 is less than 2200 Ma, and T2 is less than 1350 Ma. Upper concordia intercepts for most uraninite grains range from 2210 +/- 430 Ma to 2575 +/- 180 Ma; lower concordia intercepts range from 1200 +/- 120 Ma to 1705 +/- 30 Ma. During the first Pb loss episode, at time T1, the centers of most uraninite grains released 45-90% of the accumulated Pb and the outer 5 μm region of the grains released 95-100% of the accumulated Pb. During the second Pb loss episode, at time T2, the grain exteriors released 2-6 times more Pb than the grain centers. A few highly fractured grains appear to have been ''reset'' at T1. The uraninite U-Pb data indicate that T0 greater than or equal to 1700 Ma. Together, the galena Pb isotope and uraninite U-Pb data require that T0 = 2560 +/- 50 Ma, T1, = 1700 +/- 50 Ma, and T2 = 500 +/- 180 Ma, if the 2350 +/- 100 Ma estimated age of deposition of the Huronian rocks (Roscoe, 1973) is correct, the 2560 +/- Ma obtained for the uraninite requires that the uraninite in the Elliot Lake ores is of detrital derivation

  12. Concentration of Biogenic Amines in ‘Pinot Noir’ Wines Produced in Croatia

    OpenAIRE

    Ana Jeromel; Karin Kovačević Ganić; Stanka Herjavec; Marin Mihaljević; Ana Marija Jagatić Korenika; Ivana Rendulić; Marijana Čolić

    2012-01-01

    The origins of biogenic amines are sound grapes, alcoholic fermentations, malolactic fermentation and microbial activities during wine storage. These biologically produced amines are essential at low concentrations for optimal metabolic and physiological functions in animals, plants and micro-organisms. During alcoholic fermentation the degree of maceration is the first factor that affects the extraction of compounds present in the grape skin, among them aminoacids, precursors of bioge...

  13. Histamine-producing bacteria in blue scad (Decapterus maruadsi) and their abilities to produce histamine and other biogenic amines.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hu, Yue; Huang, Zhiyong; Chen, Xia

    2014-08-01

    Using decarboxylation medium and 16S rDNA sequence analysis, histamine-producing bacteria (HPB) in blue scad (Decapterus maruadsi) were isolated and identified, and the histamine-producing abilities of the isolated HPB were determined. Nine mesophilic strains (H1-H9) isolated from the muscle of blue scad were identified as the genera of HPB, including Arthrobacter bergeri (H1), Pseudomonas sp. (H2, H5 and H6), Psychrobacter sp. (H3), Shewanella baltica (H4 and H7), and Aeromonas salmonicida (H8 and H9), respectively. Results showed that most of the HPB strains were weak on histamine formation (13.0-20.4 mg/l), except for the H8 strain with the ability of producing 115 mg of histamine/l in trypticase soy broth containing 1.0 % L-histidine. As the strongest HPB in blue scad, bacterial strain H8 also presented a strong ability to produce other biogenic amines, such as putrescine, cadaverine, spermidine, spermine, tyramine and tryptamine. Therefore, the H8 strain identified as the genus of A. salmonicida was the dominant mesophilic HPB strain for producing histamine and other biogenic amines in blue scad at room temperature. PMID:24668182

  14. Biogenic amines content in Spanish and French natural ciders: Application of qPCR for quantitative detection of biogenic amine-producers

    OpenAIRE

    Ladero Losada, Víctor Manuel; Coton, M.; Fernández García, María; Burón, Nicolás; Martín, M. Cruz; Guichard, Hugues; Coton, E.; Álvarez González, Miguel Ángel

    2011-01-01

    Biogenic amines (BA) are low molecular weight nitrogenous bases commonly found in fermented foods and beverages and their consumption can induce undesirable reactions. In this work, the BA content in natural cider from Spain and France was determined. Samples from commercially available cider or obtained during the elaboration process were analyzed. A different profile and BA concentration was observed depending on cider origin. qPCR tools developed for the quantitative detection of BA produc...

  15. Molecular- and Nano-Scale Structure and Reactivity of Biogenic Uranium(IV) Oxide

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schofield, E. J.; Bargar, J. R.; Veeramani, H.; Sharp, J. O.; Bernier-Latmani, R.; Survova, E.; Giammar, D. E.; Ulrich, K.; Mehta, A.; Webb, S. M.; Conradson, S. D.; Clark, D. L.; Ilton, E. S.

    2008-12-01

    Bioremediation has been proposed and extensively researched as an in-situ immobilization strategy for uranium contamination in the subsurface with nanoparticulate uraninite (UO2) being the commonly reported product. Little detail is known about the structure and reactivity of this material, but based on comparison to its closest abiotic analog, UO2+x (0 powder diffraction and TEM. The lattice parameter of the nanoparticulate phase is seen to be consistent with bulk UO2. There is no evidence for hyperstoichiometry or strain of the UO2 particles, the latter indicating that surface energy is relatively modest. Similar results were obtained for biogenic UO2 particles produced by other metal reducing bacteria indicating that biological variability may play a minimal role in structure. In agreement with the structural analysis, the surface area-normalized dissolution rate of the biogenic UO2 was found to be comparable to that of coarser, synthetic UO2.00. Mn2+ was found to attenuate the particle size of biogenic UO2+xand to be structurally incorporated. This finding suggests that groundwater composition can have a pronounced impact on the structure and properties of biogenic uraninite.

  16. Biofilm-forming capacity in biogenic amine-producing bacteria isolated from dairy products.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maria eDiaz

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available Biofilms on the surface of food industry equipment are reservoirs of potentially food-contaminating bacteria - both spoilage and pathogenic. However, the capacity of biogenic amine (BA-producers to form biofilms has remained largely unexamined. BAs are low molecular weight, biologically active compounds that in food can reach concentrations high enough to be a toxicological hazard. Fermented foods, especially some types of cheese, accumulate the highest BA concentrations of all. The present work examines the biofilm-forming capacity of 56 BA-producing strains belonging to three genera and 10 species (12 Enterococcus faecalis, 6 Enterococcus faecium, 6 Enterococcus durans, 1 Enterococcus hirae, 12 Lactococcus lactis, 7 Lactobacillus vaginalis, 2 Lactobacillus curvatus, 2 Lactobacillus brevis, 1 Lactobacillus reuteri and 7 Lactobacillus parabuchneri, all isolated from dairy products. Strains of all the tested species - except for L. vaginalis - were able to produce biofilms on polystyrene and adhered to stainless steel. However, the biomass produced in biofilms was strain-dependent. These results suggest that biofilms may provide a route via which fermented foods can become contaminated by BA-producing microorganisms.

  17. Biofilm-Forming Capacity in Biogenic Amine-Producing Bacteria Isolated from Dairy Products

    Science.gov (United States)

    Diaz, Maria; Ladero, Victor; del Rio, Beatriz; Redruello, Begoña; Fernández, María; Martin, M. Cruz; Alvarez, Miguel A.

    2016-01-01

    Biofilms on the surface of food industry equipment are reservoirs of potentially food-contaminating bacteria—both spoilage and pathogenic. However, the capacity of biogenic amine (BA)-producers to form biofilms has remained largely unexamined. BAs are low molecular weight, biologically active compounds that in food can reach concentrations high enough to be a toxicological hazard. Fermented foods, especially some types of cheese, accumulate the highest BA concentrations of all. The present work examines the biofilm-forming capacity of 56 BA-producing strains belonging to three genera and 10 species (12 Enterococcus faecalis, 6 Enterococcus faecium, 6 Enterococcus durans, 1 Enterococcus hirae, 12 Lactococcus lactis, 7 Lactobacillus vaginalis, 2 Lactobacillus curvatus, 2 Lactobacillus brevis, 1 Lactobacillus reuteri, and 7 Lactobacillus parabuchneri), all isolated from dairy products. Strains of all the tested species - except for L. vaginalis—were able to produce biofilms on polystyrene and adhered to stainless steel. However, the biomass produced in biofilms was strain-dependent. These results suggest that biofilms may provide a route via which fermented foods can become contaminated by BA-producing microorganisms. PMID:27242675

  18. Improved multiplex-PCR method for the simultaneous detection of food bacteria producing biogenic amines

    OpenAIRE

    Marcobal, Ángela; Rivas, Blanca de las; Muñoz, Rosario

    2006-01-01

    The presence of biogenic amines in foods is of considerable public concern for the food industry and the regulatory agencies, since given the potential health hazard, there is a growing demand from consumers and control authorities to reduce the allowable limits of biogenic amines in foods and beverages. Rapid and simple methods are needed for the analysis of the ability to form biogenic amines by bacteria in order to evaluate the potential risk of bacterial occurring in ...

  19. Age and origin of uraninite in the Elliot Lake, Ontario uranium ores

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Meddaugh, W.S.

    1983-01-01

    There is a strong, positive linear correlation between the /sup 204/Pb//sup 206/Pb and /sup 207/Pb//sup 206/Pb ratios and between the /sup 208/Pb//sup 206/Pb and /sup 207/Pb//sup 206/Pb ratios in the galenas. The linear relation is interpreted to be the result of ''mixing'' of isotopically distinct Pb produced during two uraninite Pb loss episodes. A complete mixing of crustal Pb and radiogenic Pb released from the associated uraninite at a time T/sub 1/ formed one end member of the observed trends. The other end member consists of radiogenic Pb released from the uraninite at a later time T/sub 2/. The galena Pb isotope data indicate that T/sub 0/, the inital age of the uraninite in the Elliot Lake ores, is 2200-3300 Ma, T/sub 1/ is less than 2200 Ma, and T/sub 2/ is less than 1350 Ma. Upper concordia intercepts for most uraninite grains range from 2210 +/- 430 Ma to 2575 +/- 180 Ma; lower concordia intercepts range from 1200 +/- 120 Ma to 1705 +/- 30 Ma. During the first Pb loss episode, at time T/sub 1/, the centers of most uraninite grains released 45-90% of the accumulated Pb and the outer 5 ..mu..m region of the grains released 95-100% of the accumulated Pb. During the second Pb loss episode, at time T/sub 2/, the grain exteriors released 2-6 times more Pb than the grain centers. A few highly fractured grains appear to have been ''reset'' at T/sub 1/. The uraninite U-Pb data indicate that T/sub 0/ greater than or equal to 1700 Ma. Together, the galena Pb isotope and uraninite U-Pb data require that T/sub 0/ = 2560 +/- 50 Ma, T/sub 1/, = 1700 +/- 50 Ma, and T/sub 2/ = 500 +/- 180 Ma, if the 2350 +/- 100 Ma estimated age of deposition of the Huronian rocks (Roscoe, 1973) is correct, the 2560 +/- Ma obtained for the uraninite requires that the uraninite in the Elliot Lake ores is of detrital derivation.

  20. Uraninite alteration in an oxidizing environment and its relevance to the disposal of spent nuclear fuel

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Uraninite is a natural analogue for spent nuclear fuel because of similarities in structure and chemistry. Effective assessment of the long-term behavior of spent fuel in a geologic repository requires a knowledge of the corrosion products produced in that environment. Several important natural analogue sites are reviewed, illustrating a wide variety of environments from oxidizing to reducing, including, among others: Cigar Lake, Canada, a uraninite-bearing ore body at depth within a strictly reducing environment; the ore body has 'seen' extensive groundwater interaction with virtually no significant oxidation or mobilization of U apperent. Koongara, Australia is a highly altered uraninite-bearing ore body partially exposed to meteoric water; alteration at depth has resulted from interaction with groundwater having a somewhat reduced Eh compared to the surface. Uraninite, Pb-uranyl oxide hydrates and uranyl silicates control U solubility at depth; uranyl phosphates and U adsorption onto clays and FeMn-oxides control U solubility near the surface. Pocos de Caldas, Brazil displays a redox from moving through uraninite-bearing rocks near the surface and shows local remobilization of U. Oklo, Gabon, a uraninite- and coffinite-bearing ore body, locally affected by intense hydrothermal alteration during fission reactions, demonstrates restricted radionuclide and fission product transport within a reducing environment. A current study being conducted by the authors at Shinkolbwe, Zaire, a uraninite-bearing ore body exposed to highly oxidizing conditions at the surface, provides over 50 species of uranyl phases for detailed study, and illustrates a complex uranyl phase paragenesis over several million years, from earliest-formed uranyl oxide hydrates and uranyl silicates to later-formed uranyl phosphate. (au) (268 refs.)

  1. Recent Advances in the Application of Metabolomics to Studies of Biogenic Volatile Organic Compounds (BVOC) Produced by Plant

    OpenAIRE

    Yoko Iijima

    2014-01-01

    In many plants, biogenic volatile organic compounds (BVOCs) are produced as specialized metabolites that contribute to the characteristics of each plant. The varieties and composition of BVOCs are chemically diverse by plant species and the circumstances in which the plants grow, and also influenced by herbivory damage and pathogen infection. Plant-produced BVOCs are receptive to many organisms, from microorganisms to human, as both airborne attractants and repellants. In addition, it is know...

  2. Uraninite chemistry as forensic tool for provenance analysis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Highlights: • Uraninite chemistry can be used as fingerprint and provenance tool. • U/Th ratio and total REE contents are good indicators of crystallisation temperature. • REE fractionation is strongly dependent on uraninite genesis. • Application to uraninite from the Witwatesrand Basin highlights its detrital nature. • Witwatersrand uraninite is derived from a variety of magmatic sources. - Abstract: Electron microprobe and laser ablation-inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometric (LA-ICPMS) analyses were carried out on individual uraninite grains from several localities worldwide, representing a variety of different U-deposit types ranging in age from Mesoarchaean to the Mesozoic. For the first time, concentration data on a comprehensive set of minor/trace elements in uraninite are presented, i.e. LA-ICPMS concentration data for Th, Si, Al, Fe, Mn, Ca, Mg, P, Ti, V, Cr, Co, Ni, Pb, Zn, As, rare earth elements (REE), Y, Zr, Nb, Mo, Ag, Ta, W, Bi, and Au. Most of these elements could be detected in significant quantities in many of the studied examples. The results obtained in this study, supplemented by previously published data on major element and REE concentrations, reveal systematic differences in uraninite composition between genetically different deposit types and also, for a given genetic type, between different locations. Low-temperature hydrothermal uraninite is marked by U/Th >1000, whereas high-temperature metamorphic and magmatic (granitic, pegmatitic) uraninite has U/Th <100. Our new data also confirm previous observations that low-temperature, hydrothermal uraninite has low total REE contents (<1 wt%) whereas higher temperature uraninite can contain as much as several percent total REE. Genetically different uraninite types can be further identified by means of different REE fractionation patterns. Systematic differences between primary uraninite from different localities could be also noted with respect to the abundances of especially

  3. Genome Sequence of Lactobacillus saerimneri 30a (Formerly Lactobacillus sp. Strain 30a), a Reference Lactic Acid Bacterium Strain Producing Biogenic Amines

    OpenAIRE

    Romano, Andrea; Trip, Hein; Campbell-Sills, Hugo; Bouchez, Olivier; Sherman, David; Lolkema, Juke S.; Lucas, Patrick M

    2013-01-01

    Lactobacillus sp. strain 30a (Lactobacillus saerimneri) produces the biogenic amines histamine, putrescine, and cadaverine by decarboxylating their amino acid precursors. We report its draft genome sequence (1,634,278 bases, 42.6% G+C content) and the principal findings from its annotation, which might shed light onto the enzymatic machineries that are involved in its production of biogenic amines.

  4. Application of biogenic carbon dioxide produced by yeast with different carbon sources for attraction of mosquitoes towards adult mosquito traps.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sukumaran, D; Ponmariappan, S; Sharma, Atul K; Jha, Hemendra K; Wasu, Yogesh H; Sharma, Ajay K

    2016-04-01

    Surveillance is a prime requisite for controlling arthropod vectors like mosquitoes that transmit diseases such as malaria, dengue and chikungunya. Carbon dioxide (CO2) is one of the main cues from vertebrate breath that attracts mosquitoes towards the host. Hence, CO2 is used as an attractant during surveillance of mosquitoes either from commercial cylinders or dry ice for mosquito traps. In the present study, the biogenic carbon dioxide production was optimized with different carbon sources such as glucose, simple sugar and jaggery with and without yeast peptone dextrose (YPD) media using commercial baker's yeast. The results showed that yeast produced more biogenic CO2 with simple sugar as compared to other carbon sources. Further substrate concentration was optimized for the continuous production of biogenic CO2 for a minimum of 12 h by using 10 g of baker's yeast with 50 g of simple sugar added to 1.5 l distilled water (without YPD media) in a 2-l plastic bottle. This setup was applied in field condition along with two different mosquito traps namely Mosquito Killing System (MKS) and Biogents Sentinel (BGS) trap. Biogenic CO2 from this setup has increased the trapping efficiency of MKS by 6.48-fold for Culex quinquefasciatus, 2.62-fold for Aedes albopictus and 1.5-fold for Anopheles stephensi. In the case of BGS, the efficiency was found to be increased by 3.54-fold for Ae. albopictus, 4.33-fold for An. stephensi and 1.3-fold for Armigeres subalbatus mosquitoes. On the whole, plastic bottle setup releasing biogenic CO2 from sugar and yeast has increased the efficiency of MKS traps by 6.38-fold and 2.74-fold for BGS traps as compared to traps without biogenic CO2. The present study reveals that, among different carbon sources used, simple sugar as a substance (which is economical and readily available across the world) yielded maximum biogenic CO2 with yeast. This setup can be used as an alternative to CO2 cylinder and dry ice in any adult mosquito traps to

  5. Simulation of in situ uraninite leaching

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In situ leaching of uraninite is relevant to both uranium production processes and environmental remediation. In situ leaching of uraninite and calcite by H2O2-NH4HCO3-(NH4)2CO3 solutions has been simulated using a partial equilibrium model which incorporates a one-parameter mixing cell model of solution flow. Rate laws for UO2 dissolution and for CaCO3 dissolution/precipitation were taken from the literature, as were equilibrium constants for solution phase reactions. Parameters of the model include the UO2 and CaCO3 ore grades, the concentrations of the H2O2, NH4HCO3, and (NH4)2CO3 components, porosity, exit solution flow rate, ore and mineral densities, and mineral rate constants and surface areas. Mineral conversions, component and species concentrations, and porosity are among the time-dependent quantities calculated using the model. For the conditions simulated, calcite dissolved somewhat faster than uraninite. The results emphasize the importance of the coupling between the mineral reactions and solution flow. Changes in the concentrations of the CO2-3 and HCO-3 species are particularly complicated and not predictable from the calcite kinetics alone or from a purely equilibrium model; although the simulations did not reveal any conditions under which the solution would become saturated with CaCO3, the pH continued to change throughout the calcite dissolution and is buffered only after calcite has been consumed

  6. Biogenic acids produced on epoxy linings installed in sewer crown and tidal zones.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Valix, M; Shanmugarajah, K

    2015-09-01

    In this study the biogenic acids generated by microbes on the surface of Bisphenol A epoxy mortar coupons were investigated for up to 30 months. The epoxy coupons were installed in six sewers in three city locations, Sydney, Melbourne and Perth. Coupons were installed in both the crown and the tidal zones of the sewers to capture the effect of location within the pipe on acid production. The coupons were retrieved approximately every 6 months to provide a dynamic analysis of the biogenic acid production. Our results reveal the colonisation of epoxy mortar by the more aggressive acidophilic bacteria occurred within six months to two years of their installation in the sewer pipes. Biogenic acid generation appear to occur homogeneously from the tidal zone to the crown of the sewer pipes. The reduction in the surface pH of the epoxy lining was supported by the successive growth of microbes beginning with fungi followed be neutrophilic and heterotrophic bacteria and finally by the acidophilic bacteria and the corresponding accumulation of organic and sulphuric acids attributed to these organisms. This study also revealed the potential inhibiting effects on the microbes induced by the accumulation of metabolic products on the epoxy surface. The accumulation of organic acids and H2S coincided with the growth and metabolism inhibition of fungi and acidophilic bacteria. These results provide insights into the microbial interaction and biogenic acids production that contribute to lining degradation and corrosion of concrete in sewer pipes. PMID:26005783

  7. Genome Sequence of Lactobacillus saerimneri 30a (Formerly Lactobacillus sp. Strain 30a), a Reference Lactic Acid Bacterium Strain Producing Biogenic Amines

    OpenAIRE

    Romano, Andrea; Trip, Hein; Campbell-Sills, Hugo; Bouchez, Olivier; Sherman, David; Lolkema, Juke S.; Lucas, Patrick M

    2013-01-01

    Lactobacillus sp. strain 30a (Lactobacillus saerimneri) produces the biogenic amines histamine, putrescine, and cadaverine by decarboxylating their amino acid precursors. We report its draft genome sequence (1,634,278 bases, 42.6% G+C content) and the principal findings from its annotation, which might shed light onto the enzymatic machineries that are involved in its production of biogenic amines.

  8. Occurrence of disseminated uraninite in Wheeler Basin, Grand County, Colorado

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Disseminated uraninite occurs in Wheeler Basin, Grand County, Colo., about 5 mi (8 km) southeast of Monarch Lake, in Precambrian metamorphic rocks consisting of migmatized gneiss and mixed gneiss and pegmatite. An intrusion of Precambrian Y Silver Plume Granite lies within 400 ft (122 m) of the occurrence. The disseminated uraninite is confined to parts of the host rock that are rich in biotite; highest grade found was 0.73 percent uranium. The disseminated uraninite occurs as cubes and grains, generally from 0.1 to 0.3 mm across. Unit cell edge of the uraninite, approximately 5.48 A, suggests its pegmatitic origin. The origin of the uraninite disseminations is attributed by us to remobilization and concentration of elements during metamorphism caused by the intrusion of Silver Plume Granite. Uranium and lead isotopic analyses by K. R. Ludwig of uraninite and monazite from biotite concentrations confirm an apparent age of 1,450 +- 20 m.y. for these minerals. This age is equivalent to that reported for the Silver Plume Granite. Although the Wheeler Basin occurrence is small in size, it has many similarities to the Roessing uranium deposit in South-West Africa

  9. Occurrence of disseminated uraninite in Wheeler Basin, Grand County, Colorado

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Disseminated uraninite occurs in Wheeler Basin. Grand County, Colo., about 5 mi (8 km) southeast of Monarch Lake, in Precambrian metamorphic rocks consisting of migmatized gneiss and pegmatite. An intrusion of Precambrian Y Silver Plume Granite lies within 400 ft (122 m) of the occurrence. The disseminated uraninite is confined to parts of the host rock that are rich in biotite; highest grade found was 0.73 percent uranium. The disseminated uraninite occurs as cubes and grains, generally from 0.1 to 0.3 mm across. Unit cell edge of the uraninite, approx. =5.48 A, suggests its pegmatitic origin. The origin of the uraninite disseminations is attributed by us to remobilization and concentration of elements during metamorphism caused by the intrusion of Silver Plume Granite. Uranium and lead isotopic analyses by K. R. Ludwig of uraninite and monazite from biotite concentrations confirm an apparent age of 1,450 +- 20 m.y. for these minerals. This age is equivalent to that reported for the Silver Plume Granite. Although the Wheeler Basin occurrence is small in size, it has many similarities to the Rossing uranium deposite in South-West Africa

  10. Recent Advances in the Application of Metabolomics to Studies of Biogenic Volatile Organic Compounds (BVOC Produced by Plant

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yoko Iijima

    2014-08-01

    Full Text Available In many plants, biogenic volatile organic compounds (BVOCs are produced as specialized metabolites that contribute to the characteristics of each plant. The varieties and composition of BVOCs are chemically diverse by plant species and the circumstances in which the plants grow, and also influenced by herbivory damage and pathogen infection. Plant-produced BVOCs are receptive to many organisms, from microorganisms to human, as both airborne attractants and repellants. In addition, it is known that some BVOCs act as signals to prime a plant for the defense response in plant-to-plant communications. The compositional profiles of BVOCs can, thus, have profound influences in the physiological and ecological aspects of living organisms. Apart from that, some of them are commercially valuable as aroma/flavor compounds for human. Metabolomic technologies have recently revealed new insights in biological systems through metabolic dynamics. Here, the recent advances in metabolomics technologies focusing on plant-produced BVOC analyses are overviewed. Their application markedly improves our knowledge of the role of BVOCs in chemosystematics, ecological influences, and aroma research, as well as being useful to prove the biosynthetic mechanisms of BVOCs.

  11. Study of the alteration products of a natural uraninite by Raman spectroscopy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bonales, L.J., E-mail: laura.jimenez@ciemat.es [Centro de Investigaciones Energéticas, Medioambientales y Tecnológicas, CIEMAT Avenida Complutense, 40, 28040 Madrid (Spain); Menor-Salván, C. [Centro de Astrobiología (CSIC-INTA), Ctra. Torrejón-Ajalvir, km 4, 28850 Torrejon de Ardoz (Spain); Cobos, J. [Centro de Investigaciones Energéticas, Medioambientales y Tecnológicas, CIEMAT Avenida Complutense, 40, 28040 Madrid (Spain)

    2015-07-15

    Uraninite is a mineral considered as an analogue of the spent fuel, and the study of its alteration products has been used to predict the secondary phases produced during the fuel storage under specific environmental conditions. In this work, we study by Raman spectroscopy the alteration by weathering of the primary uraninite from the uranium deposit of Sierra Albarrana. The identification of the different secondary phases is based on the analysis of the symmetrical stretching vibration of the uranyl group (UO{sub 2}{sup 2+}), which allows the identification of individual uranyl phases and can be used as a fingerprint. Additionally, we show in this work a new approach to perform a semi-quantitative analysis of these uranium minerals by means of Raman spectroscopy. From this analysis we found the next sequence of alteration products: rutherfordine in contact with the uraninite core, then a mixture of uranyl silicates: soddyite, uranophane alpha and kasolite. Soddyite prevails in the inner part while uranophane alpha predominates in the outer part of the sample, and kasolite appears intermittently (1.0–3.3 mm; 4.6–7.1 mm and 8.8–10 mm)

  12. Species of Staphylococcus and Bacillus isolated from traditional sausages as producers of biogenic amines.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Roberto eBermúdez

    2012-04-01

    Full Text Available Histidine, lysine, ornithine and tyrosine decarboxylase activities were tested in 38 strains of Staphylococcus (15 of Staph. equorum, 11 of Staph. epidermidis, 7 of Staph. saprophyticus, and 5 of Staph. pasteuri and 19 strains of Bacillus (13 of B. subtilis and 6 of B. amyloliquefaciens isolated from two Spanish traditional sausage varieties.The four decarboxylase activities were present in most of the strains studied, but some variability was observed between strains within each microbial species.Accumulation of putrescine and cadaverine was assessed in the culture media of the strains that displayed ornithine and lysine decarboxylase activities. The aminogenic potential of the strains was low, with amounts accumulated lower than 25 mg/L for the putrescine and than 5 mg/L for the cadaverine, with the exception of a strain of Staph. equorum that produced 1415 mg/L of putrescine, and of a strain of Staph. epidermidis that accumulated 977 mg/L of putrescine and 36 mg/L of cadaverine.

  13. A specific Ce oxidation process during sorption of rare earth elements on biogenic Mn oxide produced by Acremonium sp. strain KR21-2

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tanaka, Kazuya; Tani, Yukinori; Takahashi, Yoshio; Tanimizu, Masaharu; Suzuki, Yoshinori; Kozai, Naofumi; Ohnuki, Toshihiko

    2010-10-01

    Sorption of rare earth elements (REEs) and Ce oxidation on natural and synthetic Mn oxides have been investigated by many researchers. Although Mn(II)-oxidizing microorganisms are thought to play an important role in the formation of Mn oxides in most natural environments, Ce oxidation by biogenic Mn oxide and the relevance of microorganisms to the Ce oxidation process have not been well understood. Therefore, in this study, we conducted sorption experiments of REEs on biogenic Mn oxide produced by Acremonium sp. strain KR21-2. The distribution coefficients, Kd(REE), between biogenic Mn oxide (plus hyphae) and 10 mmol/L NaCl solution showed a large positive Ce anomaly and convex tetrad effect variations at pH 3.8, which was consistent with previous works using synthetic Mn oxide. The positive Ce anomaly was caused by oxidation of Ce(III) to Ce(IV) by the biogenic Mn oxide, which was confirmed by analysis of the Ce L III-edge XANES spectra. With increasing pH, the positive Ce anomaly and convex tetrad effects became less pronounced. Furthermore, negative Ce anomalies were observed at a pH of more than 6.5, suggesting that Ce(IV) was stabilized in the solution (HPLC-ICP-MS showed that some fractions of REEs in the filtrates (<0.2 μm) after sorption experiments were bound to organic molecules (40 and <670 kDa fractions), which were possibly released from hyphae. A line of our data indicates that the negative Ce anomalies under circumneutral pH conditions arose from Ce(III) oxidation on the biogenic Mn oxide and subsequent complexation of Ce(IV) with organic ligands. The suppression of tetrad effects is also explained by the complexation of REEs with organic ligands. The results of this study demonstrate that the coexistence of the biogenic Mn oxide and hyphae of strain KR21-2 produces a specific redox chemistry which cannot be explained by inorganic species.

  14. Synchrotron X-ray characterization of mackinawite and uraninite relevant to bio-remediation of groundwater contaminated with uranium

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carpenter, J.; Hyun, S.; Hayes, K. F.

    2010-12-01

    Uranium (U) originating from mining operations for weapon manufacturing and nuclear energy production is a significant radionuclide contaminant in groundwater local to uranium mining, uranium milling, and uranium mill tailing (UMT) storage sites. In the USA, the Department of Energy (DOE) is currently overseeing approximately 24 Uranium Mill Tailing Remediation Action (UMTRA) sites which have collectively processed over 27 million tons of uranium ore1,2. In-Situ microbial bio-reduction of the highly mobile U6+ ion into the dramatically less mobile U4+ ion has been demonstrated as an effective remedial process to inhibit uranium migration in the aqueous phase3. The resistance of this process to oxidization and possible remobilization of U when bioremediation stops (and oxidants such as oxygen from the air or nitrate in water diffuse into the formation) in the long term is not known. UMTRA site studies3 have shown that iron sulfide solids are produced by sulfate reducing bacteria (SRB) during U bioremediation, and some forms of these iron sulfide solids are known to be effective oxidant scavengers, potentially protecting against re-oxidation and thus remobilization of U. This work is investigating the role of iron sulfide solids in the long-term immobilization of reduced U compounds after bioremediation is completed in groundwater local to UMTRA sites. Re-oxidation tests are being performed in packed media columns loaded with both FeS and U solids. High quality mackinawite (FeS), and uraninite (UO2) have been synthesized in our laboratory via a wet chemistry approach. These synthetic materials are expected to mimic the naturally occurring and biogenic materials present in biologically stimulated UMTRA sites. In order to establish the initial conditions of the prepared experimental columns and to compare synthetic and biogenic FeS and UO2, these synthesized materials have been characterized with synchrotron radiation at the Stanford Synchrotron Radiation Lightsource

  15. Two stage column leaching of uranium from uraninite ore

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The leaching process of uraninite ore was divided into the acidification and bacterial leaching stages, and the two stage leaching experiments and the control were conducted with 3 columns, each being charged with 20 kg uraninite ore. The ore contained 0.113% uranium, 1.859% iron and large amounts of silica and alumina. In the acidification stage, high to low concentration sulfuric acid solutions were used to acidify the uranium ore in each column until the pH of the pregnant leach solution from each column was maintained at 2.0. The acidification lasted for 18 d and the uranium recoveries for the three columns reached about 70%. In the bacterial leaching stage, column 1, as the control, continued to be leached with sulfuric acid solution with pH=2.0, column 2, with the bacterial solution based on the indirect leaching mechanism, and column 3, with the bacterial solution based on the direct leaching mechanism. The leaching in this stage was continued until the concentrations of the uranium in the pregnant leach solutions from the three columns amounted to less than 50 mg/L. This stage lasted for 20 d and the final uranium recoveries for columns 1, 2 and 3 reached 73.72%, 78.97% and 75.79%, respectively. (authors)

  16. Primary dispersal patterns of uraninite in the Proterozoic Vaal Reef placer deposit, Witwatersrand, South Africa

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The Vaal Reef is a strata-bound uranium orebody. Uraninite, together with nodular pyrite and gold, is a detrital heavy-mineral component of the sediment. Consequently, the areal distribution patterns of uranium content match the braided, southeasterly dispersal pattern evident in the Vaal Reef. Deeper channelways contain more uraninite

  17. Biomineralization of uraninite and uranyl phosphate controlled by organic acids

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Biomineralization of uraninite (UO2) and uranyl phosphate minerals are both able to decrease the mobility of uranium in the environment. We examined biomineralization of UO2 and uranyl phosphate by Shewanella putrefaciens in the basic medium containing lactate as an electron donor, β- glycerolphosphate as a phosphorous source, and uranyl nitrate in the absence and presence of weak or strong complexing organic acids (WCOA or SCOA) under an anaerobic condition. In the basic medium, only biomineralization of UO2 was observed because of rapid reduction of U(VI). Biomineralization of UO2 and uranyl phosphate occurred in the media with WCOA, however the no biomineralization was occurred in the presence of SCOA. It is thought that formation of stable U(VI)-, and U(IV)- organic complexes prevents the biomineralization. These finding suggest that coexisting organic acids control the biomineralization of UO2 and uranyl phosphate minerals by microorganisms. (author)

  18. Screening Procedure for Biogenic Amine-producing Lactic Acid Bacteria and Enterobacteria in Traditional Chinese Sausage%传统香肠中产生物胺肠细菌和乳酸菌分离方法的研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    卢士玲; 李开雄; 徐幸莲; 李蕊婷; 马宇霞; 李宝坤

    2012-01-01

    A new method of monolayer cultivation coupled with double-layer color development was established. 96 strains of biogenic amines-producing lactic acid bacteria and 58 strains of biogenic amines-producing Enterobacteria were obtained. The 154 strains of biogenic amines-producing bacteria belonged to 5 species according to the results of polymerase chain reaction denaturing gradient gel eleetrophoresis (PCR-DGGE) analysis. After sequencing of PCR- products of 16S rDNA fragments and alignment in Genebank, the 5 strains of biogenic amines-producing bacteria were found to be Enterococcus faecium, Enterococcus faecalis, Enterobacter cloacae, Escherichia coli, and Enterobacter aero- genes. The presence of Biogenic amines-producing gene was demonstrated by special primers.%研究建立了单层培养,双层显色分离产生物胺肠细菌和乳酸菌的方法,并分离到96株产生物胺肠细菌和58株产生物胺乳酸菌。经变性凝胶梯度电泳分析(PCR—DGGE)和PCR扩增测序后与Genebank数据库比对得知,这154株产胺菌属于5种菌,分别为屎肠球菌、粪肠球菌、阴沟肠杆菌、大肠埃希杆菌和产气肠杆菌。并采用特异性引物证明了产生物胺基因的存在。

  19. Association of gold with uraninite and pyrobitumen in the metavolcanic rock hosted hydrothermal Au-U mineralisation at Rompas, Peräpohja Schist Belt, northern Finland

    Science.gov (United States)

    Molnár, Ferenc; Oduro, Harry; Cook, Nick D. J.; Pohjolainen, Esa; Takács, Ágnes; O'Brien, Hugh; Pakkanen, Lassi; Johanson, Bo; Wirth, Richard

    2016-06-01

    The Peräpohja Schist Belt comprises a supracrustal sequence of quartzites, mafic volcanics and volcaniclastics, carbonate rocks, black shales, mica schists and greywackes which were deposited from ca. 2.44 to ~1.91 Ga, during the rifting of the Archaean basement in the eastern part of the Fennoscandian shield. Metamorphism and multiple folding of the basin fill took place during the Svecofennian orogeny (1.9-1.8 Ga) followed by intrusions of late-orogenic (1.84-1.80 Ga) and post-orogenic granitoids (1.79-1.76 Ga). The Rompas Au-U mineralisation is hosted by deformed calcsilicate veins in mafic volcanic rocks and locally contains very high grade (>10,000 g/t Au) gold pockets with strict spatial association of gold minerals to uraninite and pyrobitumen. Chemical ages from the unaltered domains in the structure of uraninite indicate a 1.95-1.90 Ga age for the deposition of the primary, high temperature (e.g. U/Th cracks and on the botryoidal surfaces of uraninite-pyrobitumen nodules. Remobilisation and redeposition of uranium by these hydrothermal events produced secondary uraninite grains with chemical ages between 1.85 and 1.65 Ga. Native gold is associated with galena, altaite, hunchunite, nickeline and rare cobaltite, Pb-bearing maldonite, pyrite, pyrrhotite, chalcopyrite, molybdenite and titanite. Raman spectra show disordered structure of undeformed pyrobitumen nodules in contrast with the well-ordered graphite in calcsilicate veins. Mean random reflectance data for pyrobitumen indicate 270-340 °C maximum temperature of thermal maturation—this temperature range is also considered as the temperature of gold deposition. Results of multiple sulphur isotope analyses of organic material-, pyrite- and acid-volatile-bound sulphur show distinct ranges of δ34S values for SORG and SCRS in uraninite-pyrobitumen (from -6.99 to -3.55‰ and from -10.02 to -4.41‰, respectively) and uraninite-pyrobitumen-native gold mineral associations (from +1.36 to +6.87‰ and from

  20. Discovery of uraninite in a pegmatite located in Benfica, Marica township, state of Rio de Janeiro

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The SPAR pegmatite is located in Benfica (Marica township, State of Rio de Janeiro). In this pegmatite, uraninite occurs within the quartz, feldspar and muscovite. It was found in four differents places, alwayw surrounded by secondary products. Localization, geology, feature, mineralogy and a study of radioactive minerals of the pegmatite are given. Uraninite, uranophane, autunite and meta-autunite are the uranium mineral species determined. (Author)

  1. Biogenic amines in seafood: a review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Biji, K B; Ravishankar, C N; Venkateswarlu, R; Mohan, C O; Gopal, T K Srinivasa

    2016-05-01

    The biogenic amines are low molecular weight organic bases present normally in the body with biological activity influencing important physiological functions. The physiological functions of these molecules are achieved by very low concentrations in the tissues. However, significantly high amounts of biogenic amines are produced during processing and storage of seafood as a result of microbial contamination and inadequate storage conditions. Microorganisms having decarboxylase enzyme activity convert amino acids to their respective biogenic amines. Biogenic amines in seafood have been implicated as a major causative agent of food borne illness, where intoxication results from the ingestion of foods containing higher amount of biogenic amines. Hence its identification, quantitation and awareness of this food borne toxin are important in relation to food safety and spoilage. The aim of this paper is to review the basic concepts of seafood quality and safety in relation to biogenic amines along with its control measures and future areas for research. PMID:27407186

  2. The biogenic content of process streams from mechanical-biological treatment plants producing solid recovered fuel. Do the manual sorting and selective dissolution determination methods correlate?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Séverin, Mélanie; Velis, Costas A; Longhurst, Phil J; Pollard, Simon J T

    2010-07-01

    The carbon emissions trading market has created a need for standard methods for the determination of biogenic content (chi(B)) in solid recovered fuels (SRF). We compare the manual sorting (MSM) and selective dissolution methods (SDM), as amended by recent research, for a range of process streams from a mechanical-biological treatment (MBT) plant. The two methods provide statistically different biogenic content values, as expressed on a dry mass basis, uncorrected for ash content. However, they correlate well (r(2)>0.9) and the relative difference between them was <5% for chi(B) between 21% (w)/w(d) and 72% (w)/w(d) (uncorrected for ash content). This range includes the average SRF biogenic content of ca. 68% (w)/w(d). Methodological improvements are discussed in light of recent studies. The repeatability of the SDM is characterised by relative standard deviations on triplicates of <2.5% for the studied population. PMID:20116991

  3. Heterogeneity and alteration of uraninite from the natural fission reactor 10 at Oklo, Gabon

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A mineralogical study of uranium ore from reactor zone 10 revealed that uraninite in the natural reactors at Oklo, Gabon, has been altered through partial dissolution, Pb loss, and replacement by coffinite, USiO4.nH2O. The dissolution occurred during formation of the clay mantle surrounding the ore body and was probably caused by hydrothermal saline solutions under reducing conditions. The loss of lead (up to 11 wt%) from uraninite occurred approximately one billion years after the operation of the reactors. As a result, there are two generations of uraninite in the reactor zone that differ in chemical composition and unit cell parameters [a1 = 0.5495(2) and a2 = 0.5455(2) nm]. Minor coffinitization of uraninite has also occurred. Thus, the Oklo deposit has been altered since the event of nuclear criticality. This provides several distinct geochemical environments in which one may analyze the corrosion of uraninite and the subsequent retention or migration of fission products. (author). 20 refs., 3 figs., 1 tab

  4. U and Pb isotope analysis of uraninite and galena by ion microprobe

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Evins, L.Z.; Sunde, T.; Schoeberg, H. [Swedish Museum of Natural History, Stockholm (Sweden). Laboratory for Isotope Geology; Fayek, M. [Univ. of Tennessee, Knoxville, TN (United States). Dept. of Geological Sciences

    2001-10-01

    Accurate isotopic analysis of minerals by ion microprobe, or SIMS (Secondary Ion Mass Spectrometry) usually requires a standard to correct for instrumental mass bias effects that occur during analysis. We have calibrated two uraninite crystals and one galena crystal to be used as ion probe standards. As part of this study we describe the analytical procedures and problems encountered while trying to establish fractionation factors for U and Pb isotopes measured in galena and uraninite. Only the intra-element isotopic mass fractionation is considered and not the interelement fractionation. Galena and uraninite were analysed with TIMS (Thermal Ionisation Mass Spectrometry) prior to SIMS. One uraninite crystal (P88) comes from Sweden and is ca 900 Ma old, the other from Maine, USA (LAMNH-30222) and is ca 350 Ma old. The galena sample comes from the Paleoproterozoic ore district Bergslagen in Sweden. SIMS analyses were performed at two different laboratories: the NORDSM facility in Stockholm, which has a high resolution Cameca IMS 1270 ion microprobe, and the Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL) in Tennessee, which has a Cameca IMS 4f ion microprobe. The results show that during the analysis of galena, Pb isotopes fractionate in favour of the lighter isotope by as much as 0.5%/amu. A Pb isotope fractionation factor for uraninite was more difficult to calculate, probably due to the formation of hydride interferences encountered during analysis with the Cameca IMS 1270 ion microprobe. However, drying the sample in vacuum prior to analysis, and using high-energy filtering and a cold trap during analysis can minimise these hydride interferences. A large fractionation of U isotopes of ca 1.4%/amu in favour of the lighter isotope was calculated for uraninite.

  5. U and Pb isotope analysis of uraninite and galena by ion microprobe

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Accurate isotopic analysis of minerals by ion microprobe, or SIMS (Secondary Ion Mass Spectrometry) usually requires a standard to correct for instrumental mass bias effects that occur during analysis. We have calibrated two uraninite crystals and one galena crystal to be used as ion probe standards. As part of this study we describe the analytical procedures and problems encountered while trying to establish fractionation factors for U and Pb isotopes measured in galena and uraninite. Only the intra-element isotopic mass fractionation is considered and not the interelement fractionation. Galena and uraninite were analysed with TIMS (Thermal Ionisation Mass Spectrometry) prior to SIMS. One uraninite crystal (P88) comes from Sweden and is ca 900 Ma old, the other from Maine, USA (LAMNH-30222) and is ca 350 Ma old. The galena sample comes from the Paleoproterozoic ore district Bergslagen in Sweden. SIMS analyses were performed at two different laboratories: the NORDSM facility in Stockholm, which has a high resolution Cameca IMS 1270 ion microprobe, and the Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL) in Tennessee, which has a Cameca IMS 4f ion microprobe. The results show that during the analysis of galena, Pb isotopes fractionate in favour of the lighter isotope by as much as 0.5%/amu. A Pb isotope fractionation factor for uraninite was more difficult to calculate, probably due to the formation of hydride interferences encountered during analysis with the Cameca IMS 1270 ion microprobe. However, drying the sample in vacuum prior to analysis, and using high-energy filtering and a cold trap during analysis can minimise these hydride interferences. A large fractionation of U isotopes of ca 1.4%/amu in favour of the lighter isotope was calculated for uraninite

  6. Oxidation–hydration weathering of uraninite: the current state-of-knowledge

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Plášil, Jakub

    2014-01-01

    Roč. 59, č. 2 (2014), s. 99-114. ISSN 1802-6222 R&D Projects: GA ČR GP13-31276P Institutional support: RVO:68378271 Keywords : weathering of uraninite * paragenetic sequence * bond-valence theory * uranyl–oxide minerals * radiogenic lead * thermodynamics Subject RIV: DB - Geology ; Mineralogy Impact factor: 1.405, year: 2014

  7. Loellingite, uraninite and products of its alteration within pegmatite from Corrego do Urucum (Minas Gerais - Brazil)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The zoned Corrego do Urucum granitic pegmatite lies in Governador Valadares, in Minas Gerais State - Brazil. Opaque minerals are described: loellingite, bismuth, tennantite, covellite, hematite, pyrite and uraninite, like that products proceeding from arsenate and phosphate alteration. The minerals were characterized by X-ray fluorescence analysis and chemical analysis. (Author)

  8. Detrital uraninite and pyrite: are they evidence for a reducing atmosphere

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Many occurrences of uraniferous quartz-pebble conglomerates are known to date from the period 2.8 to 2.0 billion years ago. Comparison of modern alluvial sediments of the Indus River with those of the Dominion Reef and Witwatersrand Systems indicates stable assemblages of detrital thorian uraninite and pyrite of similar grain size and composition. Authigenic pitchblende and pyrite provide indirect evidence of uranyl and sulphate ions coexisting with detrital thorian uraninite and pyrite during the formation of Witwatersrand sediments. It is suggested that this bimodal form of transport and deposition can be most readily accounted for by a model in which the sulphate and uranyl ions exist in superficial, oxidized, active sediments and river waters draining into the Witwatersrand Basin while detrital grains of uraninite were contained within the bedload of streams in reducing conditions below the sediment/water interface. This would prevent oxidation of the abundant organic matter, now represented by carbonaceous material, to give carbonate and bicarbonate ions, which form uranyl carbonate complexes that are highly soluble even in reducing conditions. The occurrence of Precambrian uraninite-bearing conglomerates is therefore controlled by geological and not atmospheric conditions. It is suggested that the deposits are the erosion products of the upper layers of a primitive, layered Archaean crust containing granitic rocks enriched in thorian uraninite. The period 2.8 to 2.0 billion years ago is thought to represent a unique phase of crustal evolution, when extensive erosion of uranium-rich upper crust resulted in the deposition of uraniferous sediments in enclosed basins

  9. Identification of Hafnia alvei and Its Ability to Produce Biogenic Amine%一株蜂房哈夫尼亚菌的鉴定和产胺能力分析

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王淼; 丁文; 汪先丁; 朱亮; 孙群

    2012-01-01

    A biogenic amine-producing strain named as C10 was isolated from chilled chicken in our laboratory. Its effect on the safety of chilled chicken was evaluated during storage. The strain was identified according to its physiological and biochemi- cal characteristics and 16 rDNA sequence. At the same time, its ability to produce biogenic amine during culture in decarboxylase medium at 4 ℃ for 3 days was analyzed by thin layer chromatography (TLC) and high performance liquid chromatography (HPLC). The strain C10 was identified as Hafnia alvei. Consistent results were obtained using TLC and HPLC, which showed that C 10 could produce cadaverine, putrescine and histamine at levels of 12.28, 5.23 mg/L and 8.35 mg/L, respectively. In conclusion, Hafnia alvei is a potential hazard to the safety of chicken during refrigeration. In addition, TLC is proved to be a rapid, economical and reliable method for detecting BAs in meats.%考察本实验室从冷藏鸡肉中分离出的一株产生物胺细菌C10的产胺能力,评估其对冷藏鸡肉的食品安全的影响,根据生理生化特性及16S rRNA基因序列对其进行鉴定,并用薄层层析法(TLC)和高效液相色谱法(HPLC)测定其在4℃脱羧酶液体培养基中产生物胺能力。结1果表明,菌株C10为蜂房哈夫尼亚菌(Hafnia alvei),TLC和HPLC检测结果一致,说明C10能产生尸胺(12.28mg/L)、腐胺(5.23mg/L)、组胺(8.35mg/L),因此其会对冷藏鸡肉的食品安全造成潜在风险。同时,TLC与HPLC检测法比较表明,TLC可作为一种经济、快捷、可靠的生物胺筛查方法。

  10. The Potential of the Yeast Debaryomyces hansenii H525 to Degrade Biogenic Amines in Food

    OpenAIRE

    Mathias Bäumlisberger; Urs Moellecken; Helmut König; Harald Claus

    2015-01-01

    Twenty-six yeasts from different genera were investigated for their ability to metabolize biogenic amines. About half of the yeast strains produced one or more different biogenic amines, but some strains of Debaryomyces hansenii and Yarrowia lipolytica were also able to degrade such compounds. The most effective strain D. hanseniii H525 metabolized a broad spectrum of biogenic amines by growing and resting cells. Degradation of biogenic amines by this yeast isolate could be attributed to a pe...

  11. 云南牛干巴加工过程产生物胺的微生物消长规律%Changes in Biogenic Amine-Producing Microorganisms during the Manufacture of Yunnan Dry Cured Beef

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    孙灿; 肖蓉; 尹丰; 龚娜; 代佳和; 廖国周

    2015-01-01

    目的:分析云南牛干巴加工过程中产生物胺的微生物的消长规律.方法:采用传统工艺加工牛干巴,并于腌制前、腌制中期、腌制后期、成熟1个月、成熟2个月及成熟3个月取样,用选择性培养基对菌落总数和产生物胺微生物:乳酸菌、假单胞菌属和肠杆菌科细菌进行菌落计数.结果:菌落总数在加工过程中先增加后减少,在成熟1个月时达到最大值;乳酸菌、假单胞菌属和肠杆菌科细菌的数量在加工过程中先增加后减少;其中假单胞菌属和肠杆菌科细菌的数量在腌制后期达到最大值,乳酸菌的数量在成熟1个月达到最大值.结论:从数量上来说,乳酸菌是牛干巴加工中的优势菌.%Objective: To understand the patterns of growth and decline of the major biogenic amine-producing microorganisms in the processing of Yunnan dry-cured beef. Method: In the traditional production process, five samples were collected before curing, mid-curing, post-curing, and after one, two and three months of fermentation and ripening, respectively. The numbers of total microorganisms and biogenic amine-producing microorganisms including lactic acid bacteria,Pseudomonas andEnterobacteriaceae were measured by using selective medium. Results: The aerobic plate count first increased to reach the maximum level as observed in the 1-month fermented sample and then decreased, and the same trend was observed for the counts of lactic acid bacteria,Pseudomonas andEnterobacteriaceae. The growth ofPseudomonas andEnterobacteriaceae reached their peaks at the later stage of curing, whereas the maximum count of lactic acid bacteria was observed after 1 month of fermentation. Conclusion: Lactic acid bacteriawere the dominant bacteria during the processing of dry-cured beef.

  12. The Potential of the Yeast Debaryomyces hansenii H525 to Degrade Biogenic Amines in Food

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mathias Bäumlisberger

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available Twenty-six yeasts from different genera were investigated for their ability to metabolize biogenic amines. About half of the yeast strains produced one or more different biogenic amines, but some strains of Debaryomyces hansenii and Yarrowia lipolytica were also able to degrade such compounds. The most effective strain D. hanseniii H525 metabolized a broad spectrum of biogenic amines by growing and resting cells. Degradation of biogenic amines by this yeast isolate could be attributed to a peroxisomal amine oxidase activity. Strain H525 may be useful as a starter culture to reduce biogenic amines in fermented food.

  13. BIO-1211 (Biogen).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bolger, G T

    2000-05-01

    Biogen, in collaboration with Merck & Co, is developing late activator VLA-4 (alpha4beta1) integrin antagonists for the potential treatment of inflammatory conditions [271194]. Merck has begun phase II trials with the lead compound, BIO-1211, for asthma, Biogen is still conducting preclinical research for its designated indications [317648,319225]. Under the collaborative agreement, each company has worldwide rights to certain indications; Merck has rights for asthma and Biogen retains the rights to a number of smaller indications, including multiple sclerosis, inflammatory bowel disease, renal indications and most diseases in which the US patient population is less than 200,000 [271194]. VLA-4 inhibitors show anti-inflammatory action by inhibition of binding between adhesion factors and leukocytes, but with no loss of basophil function, and they have the advantage of specificity not seen with existing drugs [273417]. In February 1999, Lehman Brothers predicted 40% probabilities that the compound would reach the US and ex-US markets for the asthma indication (Merck), and launch onto these markets by 2003. Peak annual sales of US dollar 500 million (US) and US dollar 500 million (outside US) are predicted, both in 2010 [319225]. PMID:16100687

  14. Precipitation of uraninite in chlorite-bearing veins of the hydrothermal alteration zone (argile de pile) of the natural nuclear reactor at Bangombe, Republic of Gabon

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This paper describes the mineralogy of a phyllosilicate/uraninite/galena-bearing vein located within the hydrothermal alteration halo associated with the Bangombe reactor. Phyllosilicates within the vein include a trioctahedral Al-Mg-Fe chlorite (ripidolite), Al-rich clay (kaolinite and/or donbassite) and illite. Textural relations obtained by backscattered-electron imaging suggest that ripidolite crystallized first among the sheet silicates. Uraninite is spatially associated with ripidolite and probably precipitated at a later time. While energy-dispersive X-ray analyses suggest that the uranium phase is predominantly uraninite, coffinite or other phases may also be present

  15. Structural investigation of biogenic ferrihydrite nanoparticles dispersion

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Structural properties of biogenic ferrihydrite nanoparticles produced by bacteria Klebsiella oxytoca are investigated. Investigations of morphology and size of particles dispersed in water by means of high-resolution transmission electron microscopy and small angle X-ray scattering measurements were performed. By model calculations followed by fitting procedure the structural parameters of a cylinder of radius R = (4.87 ± 0.02) nm and height L = (2.12 ± 0.04) nm are obtained

  16. Presence of uraninite associated with copper and iron minerals in the region of the Serra do Sossego, north of Brazil

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In this work, results on studies carried out on radioactive samples from Serra do Sossego (close to Carajas , in the state of Para) are reported. According to studies of mineralogical characterization, involving petrographic and mineralographic analysis, complemented by other specific techniques, it was possible to determine the forms of presentation of the uraninite (UO2), and its respective association to sulphide minerals rich in copper, primarily those with greater concentration, such as bornite (Cu5FeS4) and, secondarily, calcopirite (CuFeS2). These sulphides come associated to abundant iron oxide, such as magnetite (Fe3O4) and its alteration products, and also assorted silicate minerals. From the results of autoradiographic tests and an electronic microprobe, a significant amount of uraninite was determined, showing that sulfites and oxides that occur associated to the uranium mineral, include this element in their crystalline lattices. (author)

  17. Uranium isotopic data in uraninite spent fuel from the Bangombe natural nuclear reactor (Gabon) and its surroundings

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In the framework of the 'Oklo-Natural Analogue Phase II' Project, uraninite from the Bangombe natural reactor and samples from its host rock were analyzed to determine their uranium isotopic composition by thermal ionisation mass spectrometry, inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry and alpha spectrometry. There were several objectives for this work: (i) to validate the 235U/238U isotopic ratios obtained by these techniques; (ii) to test the use of the 235U/238U ratio of uraninite as a tracer of migration/retention processes of uranium from the source term to the far field; (iii) to evaluate the most recent migration/retention processes of uranium in the system by U-series disequilibrium

  18. Biogenic Impact on Materials

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stephan, Ina; Askew, Peter; Gorbushina, Anna; Grinda, Manfred; Hertel, Horst; Krumbein, Wolfgang; Müller, Rolf-Joachim; Pantke, Michael; Plarre, Rüdiger (Rudy); Schmitt, Guenter; Schwibbert, Karin

    Materials as constituents of products or components of technical systems rarely exist in isolation and many must cope with exposure in the natural world. This chapter describes methods that simulate how a material is influenced through contact with living systems such as microorganisms and arthropods. Both unwanted and desirable interactions are considered. This biogenic impact on materials is intimately associated with the environment to which the material is exposed (Materials-Environment Interaction, Chap. 15). Factors such as moisture, temperature and availability of food sources all have a significant influence on biological systems. Corrosion (Chap. 12) and wear (Chap. 13) can also be induced or enhanced in the presence of microorganisms. Section 14.1 introduces the categories between desired (biodegradation) and undesired (biodeterioration) biological effects on materials. It also introduces the role of biocides for the protection of materials. Section 14.2 describes the testing of wood as a building material especially against microorganisms and insects. Section 14.3 characterizes the test methodologies for two other groups of organic materials, namely polymers (Sect. 14.3.1) and paper and textiles (Sect. 14.3.2). Section 14.4 deals with the susceptibility of inorganic materials such as metals (Sect. 14.4.1), concrete (Sect. 14.4.2) and ceramics (Sect. 14.4.3) to biogenic impact. Section 14.5 treats the testing methodology concerned with the performance of coatings and coating materials. In many of these tests specific strains of organisms are employed. It is vital that these strains retain their ability to utilize/attack the substrate from which they were isolated, even when kept for many years in the laboratory. Section 14.6 therefore considers the importance of maintaining robust and representative test organisms that are as capable of utilizing a substrate as their counterparts in nature such that realistic predictions of performance can be made.

  19. Biogenic silver for disinfection of water contaminated with viruses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    De Gusseme, Bart; Sintubin, Liesje; Baert, Leen; Thibo, Ellen; Hennebel, Tom; Vermeulen, Griet; Uyttendaele, Mieke; Verstraete, Willy; Boon, Nico

    2010-02-01

    The presence of enteric viruses in drinking water is a potential health risk. Growing interest has arisen in nanometals for water disinfection, in particular the use of silver-based nanotechnology. In this study, Lactobacillus fermentum served as a reducing agent and bacterial carrier matrix for zerovalent silver nanoparticles, referred to as biogenic Ag(0). The antiviral action of biogenic Ag(0) was examined in water spiked with an Enterobacter aerogenes-infecting bacteriophage (UZ1). Addition of 5.4 mg liter(-1) biogenic Ag(0) caused a 4.0-log decrease of the phage after 1 h, whereas the use of chemically produced silver nanoparticles (nAg(0)) showed no inactivation within the same time frame. A control experiment with 5.4 mg liter(-1) ionic Ag+ resulted in a similar inactivation after 5 h only. The antiviral properties of biogenic Ag(0) were also demonstrated on the murine norovirus 1 (MNV-1), a model organism for human noroviruses. Biogenic Ag(0) was applied to an electropositive cartridge filter (NanoCeram) to evaluate its capacity for continuous disinfection. Addition of 31.25 mg biogenic Ag(0) m(-2) on the filter (135 mg biogenic Ag(0) kg(-1) filter medium) caused a 3.8-log decline of the virus. In contrast, only a 1.5-log decrease could be obtained with the original filter. This is the first report to demonstrate the antiviral efficacy of extracellular biogenic Ag(0) and its promising opportunities for continuous water disinfection. PMID:20038697

  20. Biogenic Silver for Disinfection of Water Contaminated with Viruses▿

    Science.gov (United States)

    De Gusseme, Bart; Sintubin, Liesje; Baert, Leen; Thibo, Ellen; Hennebel, Tom; Vermeulen, Griet; Uyttendaele, Mieke; Verstraete, Willy; Boon, Nico

    2010-01-01

    The presence of enteric viruses in drinking water is a potential health risk. Growing interest has arisen in nanometals for water disinfection, in particular the use of silver-based nanotechnology. In this study, Lactobacillus fermentum served as a reducing agent and bacterial carrier matrix for zerovalent silver nanoparticles, referred to as biogenic Ag0. The antiviral action of biogenic Ag0 was examined in water spiked with an Enterobacter aerogenes-infecting bacteriophage (UZ1). Addition of 5.4 mg liter−1 biogenic Ag0 caused a 4.0-log decrease of the phage after 1 h, whereas the use of chemically produced silver nanoparticles (nAg0) showed no inactivation within the same time frame. A control experiment with 5.4 mg liter−1 ionic Ag+ resulted in a similar inactivation after 5 h only. The antiviral properties of biogenic Ag0 were also demonstrated on the murine norovirus 1 (MNV-1), a model organism for human noroviruses. Biogenic Ag0 was applied to an electropositive cartridge filter (NanoCeram) to evaluate its capacity for continuous disinfection. Addition of 31.25 mg biogenic Ag0 m−2 on the filter (135 mg biogenic Ag0 kg−1 filter medium) caused a 3.8-log decline of the virus. In contrast, only a 1.5-log decrease could be obtained with the original filter. This is the first report to demonstrate the antiviral efficacy of extracellular biogenic Ag0 and its promising opportunities for continuous water disinfection. PMID:20038697

  1. Isolation, Identification and Biogenic Amines-producing Ability of Lactic Acid Bacteria from The Fermentation Broth of Chinese Rice Wine%黄酒发酵液中产生物胺乳酸菌的分离鉴定与评价

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    周韩玲; 杜丽平; 孟镇; 钟其顶; 熊正河; 邹慧君; 肖冬光

    2011-01-01

    从黄酒发酵液中分离得到6株乳酸菌,16S rDNA序列分析和生理生化鉴定结果表明:菌株R1、R4、R5、R8、R20为Lactobacillus rossiae,菌株R2为Lactobacillus casei。采用平板检测法对6株乳酸菌产生物胺能力进行了评价,结果显示只有乳酸菌R1具有产生物胺的能力。利用HPLC检测对平板检测结果进行了验证,结果表明乳酸菌R1能产598.61mg/L的腐胺,其他菌株不具有产生物胺的能力。平板检测与HPLC检测结果相一致,表明平板检测可作为一种有效、操作简单、费用低的定性评价乳酸菌产生物胺能力的手段。%Six strains of lactic acid bacteria were obtained from the fermentation broth of Chinese rice wine. By using methods of physiological-biochemical and 16S rDNA tests, strains R1, R4, R5, R8 and R20 were identified as LactobaciUus rossiae, and strain R2 was identified as LactobaciUus casei. The ability of producing biogenic amines by these strains was evaluated by MRS plates and showed that only strain R1 could produce biogenic amines. HPLC confirmed that strain R1 could produce 598.61mg/L putrescine,and the others could not produce biogenic amines. The consistency of the results indicated that MRS plates analysis could be used as an effective, simple and economical method to evaluate the lactic acid bacteria's ability of producing biogenic amines.

  2. Simulation of in situ uraninite leaching. Part 3: The effects of solution concentration

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The effects of variations in the concentrations of leaching reagents have been stimulated for in situ leaching of UO2 by H2O2-(NH4)2CO3-NH4HCO3. The model used in the simulations incorporates rate laws for the mineral reactions, equilibrium reactions among the solution species, and a mixing cell representation of solution flow. Of the component concentrations, the major factor affecting the rate of uraninite dissolution is the oxidant concentration. High peroxide concentrations lead to more rapid reaction with an early maximum in the U(VI) concentration. If lower oxidant concentrations are used, the reaction is under mixed kinetic and mass transfer control and the U(VI) concentration is lower but approximately constant for an extended period. Because they increase the concentration of the HCO3- anion, high ammonium carbonate and ammonium bicarbonate concentrations also result in some enhancement in the rate of U leaching; the reaction is known to be half-order in both HCO3- and H2O2. A 10:1 ratio of (NH4)2CO3 to NH4HCO3 concentrations were found to result in a nearly constant pH during most of the leaching process. Calcite-containing gangue causes an immediate pH increase from about 8.9 to 9.4. The rate of the calcite reaction, calcite saturation index, and porosity are all independent of the lixiviant concentrations. Detailed calculations of solution speciation are necessary to predict the concentrations of individual species from those of components

  3. Simulation of in situ uraninite leaching-part III: The effects of solution concentration

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liddell, Knona C.; Bautista, Renato G.

    1995-08-01

    The effects of variations in the concentrations of leaching reagents have been simulated for in situ leaching of UO2 by H2O-(NH4)2CO3-NH4HCO3. The model used in the simulations incorporates rate laws for the mineral reactions, equilibrium reactions among the solution species, and a mixing cell representation of solution flow. Of the component concentrations, the major factor affecting the rate of uraninite dissolution is the oxidant concentration. High peroxide concentrations lead to more rapid reaction with an early maximum in the U(VI) concentration. If lower oxidant concentrations are used, the reaction is under mixed kinetic and mass transfer control and the U(VI) concentration is lower but approximately constant for an extended period. Because they increase the concentration of the HCO 3/- anion, high ammonium carbonate and ammonium bicarbonate concentrations also result in some enhancement in the rate of U leaching; the reaction is known to be half-order in both HCO3 - and H2O2. A 10:1 ratio of (NH4)2CO3 to NH4HCO3 concentrations was found to result in a nearly constant pH during most of the leaching process. Calcite-containing gangue causes an immediate pH increase from about 8.9 to 9.4. The rate of the calcite reaction, calcite saturation index, and porosity are all independent of the lixiviant concentrations. Detailed calculations of solution speciation are necessary to predict the concentrations of individual species from those of components.

  4. The biogenic approach to cognition.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lyon, Pamela

    2006-03-01

    After half a century of cognitive revolution we remain far from agreement about what cognition is and what cognition does. It was once thought that these questions could wait until the data were in. Today there is a mountain of data, but no way of making sense of it. The time for tackling the fundamental issues has arrived. The biogenic approach to cognition is introduced not as a solution but as a means of approaching the issues. The traditional, and still predominant, methodological stance in cognitive inquiry is what I call the anthropogenic approach: assume human cognition as the paradigm and work 'down' to a more general explanatory concept. The biogenic approach, on the other hand, starts with the facts of biology as the basis for theorizing and works 'up' to the human case by asking psychological questions as if they were biological questions. Biogenic explanations of cognition are currently clustered around two main frameworks for understanding biology: self-organizing complex systems and autopoiesis. The paper describes the frameworks and infers from them ten empirical principles--the biogenic 'family traits'--that constitute constraints on biogenic theorizing. Because the anthropogenic approach to cognition is not constrained empirically to the same degree, I argue that the biogenic approach is superior for approaching a general theory of cognition as a natural phenomenon. PMID:16628463

  5. Influence of beer storage for the selected biogenic amines content

    OpenAIRE

    Brýdlová, Nikola

    2012-01-01

    This thesis does not only changes in the content of biogenic amines during storage of bottled beer, but beer in general. The production of beer in the world is gradually increasing. In 2010, produced a 811,4 million hectoliters of beer. Czech Republic in 2010 produced 17,1 million hectoliters in 2011 and ceased production decline. Average consumption in the Czech Republic was in 2010, 144 liters/person/year. Another chapter is devoted to biogenic amines. They are nitrogen compounds, in which ...

  6. Manganese in biogenic magnetite crystals from magnetotactic bacteria.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Keim, Carolina N; Lins, Ulysses; Farina, Marcos

    2009-03-01

    Magnetotactic bacteria produce either magnetite (Fe(3)O(4)) or greigite (Fe(3)S(4)) crystals in cytoplasmic organelles called magnetosomes. Whereas greigite magnetosomes can contain up to 10 atom% copper, magnetite produced by magnetotactic bacteria was considered chemically pure for a long time and this characteristic was used to distinguish between biogenic and abiogenic crystals. Recently, it was shown that magnetosomes containing cobalt could be produced by three strains of Magnetospirillum. Here we show that magnetite crystals produced by uncultured magnetotactic bacteria can incorporate manganese up to 2.8 atom% of the total metal content (Fe+Mn) when manganese chloride is added to microcosms. Thus, chemical purity can no longer be taken as a strict prerequisite to consider magnetite crystals to be of biogenic origin. PMID:19187208

  7. Biogenic amines in dry fermented sausages: a review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Suzzi, Giovanna; Gardini, Fausto

    2003-11-15

    Biogenic amines are compounds commonly present in living organisms in which they are responsible for many essential functions. They can be naturally present in many foods such as fruits and vegetables, meat, fish, chocolate and milk, but they can also be produced in high amounts by microorganisms through the activity of amino acid decarboxylases. Excessive consumption of these amines can be of health concern because their not equilibrate assumption in human organism can generate different degrees of diseases determined by their action on nervous, gastric and intestinal systems and blood pressure. High microbial counts, which characterise fermented foods, often unavoidably lead to considerable accumulation of biogenic amines, especially tyramine, 2-phenylethylamine, tryptamine, cadaverine, putrescine and histamine. However, great fluctuations of amine content are reported in the same type of product. These differences depend on many variables: the quali-quantitative composition of microbial microflora, the chemico-physical variables, the hygienic procedure adopted during production, and the availability of precursors. Dry fermented sausages are worldwide diffused fermented meat products that can be a source of biogenic amines. Even in the absence of specific rules and regulations regarding the presence of these compounds in sausages and other fermented products, an increasing attention is given to biogenic amines, especially in relation to the higher number of consumers with enhanced sensitivity to biogenic amines determined by the inhibition of the action of amino oxidases, the enzymes involved in the detoxification of these substances. The aim of this paper is to give an overview on the presence of these compounds in dry fermented sausages and to discuss the most important factors influencing their accumulation. These include process and implicit factors as well as the role of starter and nonstarter microflora growing in the different steps of sausage production

  8. Managing your wine fermentation to reduce the risk of biogenic amine formation

    OpenAIRE

    MaretDu Toit

    2012-01-01

    Biogenic amines are nitrogenous organic compounds produced in wine from amino acid precursors mainly by microbial decarboxylation. The concentration of biogenic amines that can potentially be produced is dependent on the amount of amino acid precursors in the medium, the presence of decarboxylase positive microorganisms and conditions that enable microbial or biochemical activity such as the addition of nutrients to support the alcoholic and malolactic fermentation (MLF) inoculated starter cu...

  9. Managing Your Wine Fermentation to Reduce the Risk of Biogenic Amine Formation

    OpenAIRE

    Smit, Anita Yolandi; Engelbrecht, Lynn; du Toit, Maret

    2012-01-01

    Biogenic amines are nitrogenous organic compounds produced in wine from amino acid precursors mainly by microbial decarboxylation. The concentration of biogenic amines that can potentially be produced is dependent on the amount of amino acid precursors in the medium, the presence of decarboxylase positive microorganisms and conditions that enable microbial or biochemical activity such as the addition of nutrients to support the inoculated starter cultures for alcoholic and malolactic fermenta...

  10. Biogenic emissions of isoprenoids and NO in China and comparison to anthropogenic emissions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    southern China, there are relatively large biogenic emissions of isoprenoids, leading to an important impact on the ozone production in these regions. Furthermore, the emissions of isoprenoids are highest during summer and noontime, which correlates to the peak of ozone production period. For example, the ratio between summer and winter for the emissions of isoprenoids is about 15 in China. As a result, the biogenic emissions of isoprenoids are significantly larger than the anthropogenic emissions of VOCs in China during daytime in summer. Biogenic NO emissions are mostly produced by agricultural soils which co-exist with large populations and human activity. As a result, the biogenic emissions of NO are mostly overlapped with the anthropogenic emissions of NO, leading to the enhancement in NO concentrations in the high anthropogenic NO emission regions. Finally, the future emissions of isoprene and monoterpenes over China are estimated. The results show that the future biogenic emissions may increase significantly due to land cover changes in central eastern China, which could have a very important impact on ozone formation in this region. However, these estimates are highly uncertain and are presented as a potential scenario to show the importance of possible changes of biogenic emissions in China

  11. Biogenic amines in dairy products

    OpenAIRE

    Linares, Daniel M.; Martín, M. Cruz; Ladero Losada, Víctor Manuel; Álvarez González, Miguel Ángel; Fernández García, María

    2011-01-01

    Biogenic amines (BA) are organic, basic, nitrogenous compounds with biological activity, mainly formed by the decarboxylation of amino acids. BA are present in a wide range of foods, including dairy products, and can accumulate in high concentrations. In some cheeses more than 1000 mg of BA have been detected per kilogram of cheese. The consumption of food containing large amounts of these amines can have toxicological consequences. Although there is no specific legislation regarding the BA c...

  12. Biogenic magnetite in the nematode caenorhabditis elegans.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cranfield, Charles G; Dawe, Adam; Karloukovski, Vassil; Dunin-Borkowski, Rafal E; de Pomerai, David; Dobson, Jon

    2004-01-01

    The nematode Caenorhabditis elegans is widely used as a model system in biological research. Recently, examination of the production of heat-shock proteins in this organism in response to mobile phone-type electromagnetic field exposure produced the most robust demonstration to date of a non-thermal, deleterious biological effect. Though these results appear to be a sound demonstration of non-thermal bioeffects, to our knowledge, no mechanism has been proposed to explain them. We show, apparently for the first time, that biogenic magnetite, a ferrimagnetic iron oxide, is present in C. elegans. Its presence may have confounding effects on experiments involving electromagnetic fields as well as implications for the use of this nematode as a model system for iron biomineralization in multi-cellular organisms. PMID:15801597

  13. BIOGENIC AMINES CONTENT IN DIFFERENT WINE SAMPLES

    OpenAIRE

    Attila Kántor; Miroslava Kačániová; Vendula Pachlová

    2015-01-01

    Twenty-five samples of different Slovak wines before and after filtration were analysed in order to determine the content of eight biogenic amines (tryptamine, phenylalanine, putrescine, cadaverine, histamine, tyramine, spermidine and spermine). The method involves extraction of biogenic amines from wine samples with used dansyl chloride. Ultra-high performance liquid chromatography (UHPLC) was used for determination of biogenic amines equipped with a Rapid Resolution High Definition (RRHD), ...

  14. Relationship Between Biogenic Amines and Free Amino Acid Contents of Winesand Musts from Alentejo (Portugal)

    OpenAIRE

    Herbert, Paulo; Cabrita, Maria Joao; Ratola, Nuno; Laureano, Olga; Alves, Arminda

    2006-01-01

    The concentration of biogenic amines and free amino acids was studied in 102 Portuguese wines and 18 musts from Alentejo demarcated (D.O.C.) regions. Most wines were commercial, except for 38 monovarietals obtained by micro vinification. Musts from the varieties used to produce the latter wines were also studied. Both biogenic amines and free amino acids were analyzed by HPLC using fluorescence detection for their o-phthalaldehyde/fluorenylmethyl chloroformate (OPA/FMOC) deriva...

  15. Screening of biogenic amine production by lactic acid bacteria isolated from grape musts and wine

    OpenAIRE

    Moreno-Arribas, M. Victoria; Polo, María Carmen; Jorganes, Felisa; Muñoz, Rosario

    2003-01-01

    The potential to produce the biogenic amines tyramine, histamine and putrescine, was investigated for lactic acid bacteria (LAB) of various origin, including commercial malolactic starter cultures, type strains and 78 strains isolated from Spanish grape must and wine. The presence of biogenic amines in a decarboxylase synthetic broth was determined by reverse-phase high performance liquid chromatography (RP-HPLC). Tyramine was the main amine formed by the LAB strains investigated. ...

  16. The recent weathering of uraninite from the Červená vein, Jáchymov (Czech Republic): a fingerprint of the primary mineralization geochemistry onto the alteration association

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Plášil, Jakub; Sejkora, J.; Škoda, R.; Škácha, P.

    2014-01-01

    Roč. 59, č. 3 (2014), s. 223-253. ISSN 1802-6222 R&D Projects: GA ČR GP13-31276P Grant ostatní: AV ČR(CZ) Praemium Academiae Institutional support: RVO:68378271 Keywords : uraninite * supergene weathering * acid-mine drainage * mineral data * X-ray diffraction * bond-valence approach Subject RIV: DB - Geology ; Mineralogy Impact factor: 1.405, year: 2014

  17. Paired uraninite and molybdenite dating of the Königshain granite: implications for the onset of late-Variscan magmatism in the Lausitz Block

    Science.gov (United States)

    Förster, Hans-Jürgen; Rhede, Dieter; Stein, Holly J.; Romer, Rolf L.; Tischendorf, Gerhard

    2012-01-01

    We present geochronological data for late-Variscan magmatism in the Lausitz Block of the Saxo-Thuringian Zone, Germany. The Th-U-total Pb age of uraninite and the Re-Os age of molybdenite from the composite biotite-monzogranite pluton of Königshain overlap at the 2σ confidence limit: 328.6 ± 1.9 Ma (uraninite), and 327.0 ± 1.3 Ma and 327.6 ± 1.3 Ma (molybdenite), indicating that crystallization of magmatic uraninite and deposition of molybdenite were nearly contemporaneous. These data imply that magmatic processes in this part of the Variscan orogen already started in latest Visean time, about 10 Ma earlier than previously assumed (315-320 Ma). The new ages correspond to ages for plutonic rocks in the Elbe Zone immediately west of the Lausitz (around 335-325 Ma) and the bulk of late-Variscan igneous rocks in the Saxo-Thuringian Zone (335-320 Ma).

  18. Formation and destruction of biogenic amines in Chunjang (a black soybean paste) and Jajang (a black soybean sauce).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bai, Xuezhi; Byun, Bo Young; Mah, Jae-Hyung

    2013-11-15

    Chunjang and Jajang samples were analysed for biogenic amine contents by using HPLC equipped with a UV-Vis detector. Chunjang samples contained relatively large amounts of histamine (up to 273mg/kg) and tyramine (up to 131mg/kg), whereas Jajang samples had relatively small amounts of biogenic amines (mostly less than 40mg/kg). There appeared to be a strong relationship between biogenic amine contents in Chunjang and Jajang, and the biogenic amines in Chunjang were found to be pyrolysed during frying thereof to prepare Jajang. Meanwhile, the total plate counts of Chunjang samples ranged from 5 to 8logcfu/g, and most strains that were isolated from Chunjang samples were identified to be Bacillus subtilis (91.0%). The strains isolated from a sample in which relatively small amounts of biogenic amines were detected showed significantly weak abilities to produce biogenic amines. This indicates that biogenic amine contents in Chunjang are primarily attributed to bacterial abilities to produce biogenic amines. PMID:23790882

  19. Biomass burning: Combustion emissions, satellite imagery, and biogenic emissions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This chapter deals with two different, but related, aspects of biomass burning. The first part of the chapter deals with a technique to estimate the instantaneous emissions of trace gases produced by biomass burning using satellite imagery. The second part of the chapter concerns the recent discovery that burning results in significantly enhanced biogenic emissions of N2O, NO, and CH4. Hence, biomass burning has both an immediate and long-term impact on the production of trace gases to the atmosphere. The objective of this research is to better assess and quantify the role of this research is to better assess and quantify the role and impact of biomass as a driver for global change. It will be demonstrated that satellite imagery of fires may be used to estimate combustion emissions and may in the future be used to estimate the long-term postburn biogenic emissions of trace gases to the atmosphere

  20. Applications of Satellite Remote Sensing Data for Biogenic Emission Estimates in Southeastern Texas

    Science.gov (United States)

    Feldman, M. S.; Howard, T.; Mullins, G.; McDonald-Buller, E.; Allen, D. T.

    2007-12-01

    Biogenic hydrocarbons, including isoprene, monoterpenes, and oxygenated compounds, are emitted in substantial quantities by vegetation and dominate the overall volatile organic compound emission inventory in Southeastern Texas. Spatial distributions of biogenic emissions in Texas are heterogeneous, and biogenic emission processes are affected by the characterization of land cover, leaf area index, drought stress, and surface temperatures. On a regional scale, biogenic emissions, particularly isoprene, in the presence of high levels of nitrogen oxides (NOx), will produce elevated ground-level ozone concentrations. The sensitivity of biogenic emission estimates and air quality model predictions to the characterization of land use/land cover (LULC) in southeastern Texas is examined. A LULC database has been developed for the region based on source imagery collected by the Landsat 7 Enhanced Thematic Mapper-Plus sensor between 1999 and 2003, and data from field studies used for species identification and quantification of biomass densities. This database and the LULC database currently used in regulatory air quality models by the State of Texas are compared. Effects of the LULC data on biogenic emission estimates and modeled ozone concentrations are examined using the Global Biosphere Emissions and Interactions System and the Comprehensive Air Quality Model with extensions during an August 22-September 6, 2000 episode developed for the Houston/Galveston area. These results are also compared to biogenic emission estimates from the recently created Model of Emissions of Gases and Aerosols from Nature (MEGAN), which includes a global vegetation map compiled from recent satellite data and ecosystem inventories. Biogenic emissions estimated from the new LULC dataset showed good general spatial agreement with those from the currently used LULC dataset but significantly lower emissions (~40% less hourly emissions across the modeling domain), primarily due to differences in

  1. Influence of physical and biological processes on the seasonal cycle of biogenic flux in the equatorial Indian Ocean

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    Vidya, P.J.; PrasannaKumar, S.; Gauns, M.; Verenkar, A.; Unger, D.; Ramaswamy, V.

    of it. Phytoplankton produces half of the oxygen we breathe, draw down the atmospheric CO2, and ultimately controls the global climate system (Siegel and Franz, 2010). The bi- ological pump in the upper ocean transfers biogenic com- pounds from...

  2. Biogenic and non-biogenic Si pools in terrestrial ecosystems: results from a novel analysis method

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barao, Lucia; Vandevenne, Floor; Clymans, Wim; Meire, Patrick; Frings, Patrick; Conley, Daniel; Struyf, Eric

    2015-04-01

    Silicon (Si) is a chemical element frequently associated with highly abundant silicate minerals in the Earth crust. Over millions of years, the interaction of such minerals with the atmosphere and hydrosphere produces a myriad of processed compounds, and the mineral weathering consumes CO2 during the process. The weathering of minerals also triggers the export of dissolved Si (DSi) to coastal waters and the ocean. Here, DSi is deposited in diatom frustules, in an amorphous biogenic form (BSi). Diatoms account for 50% of the primary production and are crucial for the export of carbon into the deep sea. In recent years, it was acknowledged that terrestrial systems filter the Si transition from the terrestrial mineral to the marine and coastal biological pool, by the incorporation of DSi into plants. In this process, DSi is taken up by roots together with other nutrients and precipitates in plant cells in amorphous structures named phytoliths. After dead, plant tissues become mixed in the top soil, where BSi is available for dissolution and will control the DSi availability in short time scales. Additionally, Si originated from soil forming processes can also significantly interfere with the global cycle. The Si cycle in terrestrial ecosystems is a key factor to coastal ecology, plant ecology, biogeochemistry and agro-sciences, but the high variability of different biogenic and non-biogenic Si pools remains as an obstacle to obtain accurate measurements. The traditional methods, developed to isolate diatoms in ocean sediments, only account for simple mineral corrections. In this dissertation we have adapted a novel continuous analysis method (during alkaline extraction) that uses Si-Al ratios and reactivity to differ biogenic from non-biogenic fractions. The method was originally used in marine sediments, but we have developed it to be applicable in a wide range of terrestrial, aquatic and coastal ecosystems. We first focused on soils under strong human impact in

  3. Screening of biogenic amine production by coagulase-negative staphylococci isolated during industrial Spanish dry-cured ham proceses

    OpenAIRE

    Landeta, Gerardo; Rivas, Blanca de las; Alfonso V Carrascosa; Muñoz, Rosario

    2007-01-01

    The potential to produce biogenic amines was investigated for 56 coagulase-negative staphylococci isolated during industrial Spanish dry-cured ham processes. The presence of biogenic amines from bacterial cultures was determined by thin-layer chromatography. The percentage of strains that decarboxylated amino acids was very low (3.6%). The only staphylococci with aminogenic capacity were an histamine-producing Staphylococcus capitis strain, and a Staphylococcus lugdunensis strain tha...

  4. Study on biogenic amines in various dry salted fish consumed in China

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, Yanyan; Chen, Yufeng; Li, Laihao; Yang, Xianqing; Yang, Shaoling; Lin, Wanling; Zhao, Yongqiang; Deng, Jianchao

    2016-05-01

    This study was carried out to investigate the biogenic amines (BAs), physicochemical property and microorganisms in dry salted fish, a traditional aquatic food consumed in China. Forty three samples of dry salted fish were gathered from retail and wholesale markets and manufacturers, which had been produced in various regions in China. Cadaverine (CAD) and putrescine (PUT) were quantitatively the most common biogenic amines. About 14% of the samples exceeded the histamine content standards established by the FDA and/or EU. The highest histamine content was found in Silver pomfret (Pampus argenteus) (347.79 mg kg-1). Five of forty three samples exceeded the acceptable content of TYR (100 mg kg-1), and 23.26% of dried-salted fish contained high contents of biogenic amines (above 600 mg kg-1). In addition, species, regions, pickling processes and drying methods made the physicochemical property, microorganisms and biogenic amines in dry salted fish to be different to some extents. The total plate count (TPC) was much higher than that of total halophilic bacteria in all samples. The biogenic amines, physicochemical property and microbiological counts exhibited large variations among samples. Furthermore, no significant correlation between biogenic amines and physicochemical property and TPC was observed. This study indicated that dry salted fish may still present healthy risk for BAs, depending on the processing methods, storage conditions among others.

  5. Study on biogenic amines in various dry salted fish consumed in China

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, Yanyan; Chen, Yufeng; Li, Laihao; Yang, Xianqing; Yang, Shaoling; Lin, Wanling; Zhao, Yongqiang; Deng, Jianchao

    2016-08-01

    This study was carried out to investigate the biogenic amines (BAs), physicochemical property and microorganisms in dry salted fish, a traditional aquatic food consumed in China. Forty three samples of dry salted fish were gathered from retail and wholesale markets and manufacturers, which had been produced in various regions in China. Cadaverine (CAD) and putrescine (PUT) were quantitatively the most common biogenic amines. About 14% of the samples exceeded the histamine content standards established by the FDA and/or EU. The highest histamine content was found in Silver pomfret ( Pampus argenteus) (347.79 mg kg-1). Five of forty three samples exceeded the acceptable content of TYR (100 mg kg-1), and 23.26% of dried-salted fish contained high contents of biogenic amines (above 600 mg kg-1). In addition, species, regions, pickling processes and drying methods made the physicochemical property, microorganisms and biogenic amines in dry salted fish to be different to some extents. The total plate count (TPC) was much higher than that of total halophilic bacteria in all samples. The biogenic amines, physicochemical property and microbiological counts exhibited large variations among samples. Furthermore, no significant correlation between biogenic amines and physicochemical property and TPC was observed. This study indicated that dry salted fish may still present healthy risk for BAs, depending on the processing methods, storage conditions among others.

  6. Biogenic caliches in Texas: The role of organisms and effect of climate

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhou, Jie; Chafetz, Henry S.

    2009-12-01

    Biogenic constituents are ubiquitous and abundant in the caliches of Texas. Investigation of 51 caliche profiles on various host strata (alluvium, limestone, igneous rocks, etc.) across approximately 900 km of Texas from subhumid east to arid west has shown that 43 of these profiles exhibit prominent biogenic constituents. These profiles exhibit significant differences in thickness (varying from centimeters to meters) and maturity (varying from I to VI). All of the different caliche facies are composed of low-Mg calcite. Biogenic features generally occur in the upper part of the profiles, including the uppermost portion of massive caliche horizons, platy horizons, laminar crusts, and pisoids. The main biogenic caliche facies include rhizoliths (calcified root structures), stromatolite-like laminar crusts, and coated grains. Compared to the abiogenic massive micritic to microsparitic calcite groundmass, biogenic constituents are morphologically distinct. These biogenic constituents are composed of several microscopic mineral components, including calcified filaments, needle fiber calcite (e.g., single crystalline needles and needle pairs, triangular crystals, and polycrystalline chains of rhombohedrons), spherulites, micro-rods, and nano-spheres. A large number of calcified root cellular structures and micro-organisms, e.g., fungal filaments, actinomycetes, and rod-like bacteria, are also present. Plant roots as well as soil biota produce distinctive structures and also enhance lithification by inducing calcite precipitation in the caliches, i.e., biologically controlled or influenced processes. Host strata did not significantly influence the abundance nor type of biogenic features in the caliches. In contrast, climate had an evident effect on the development of biogenic constituents in these caliches in terms of the amount as well as type. The thickness of laminar crusts and grain coatings and the abundance of biotic constituents within those facies decrease as the

  7. SPATIAL VARIATIONS IN BIOGENIC EMISSIONS FOR LITHUANIA

    OpenAIRE

    Ulevičius, Vidmantas; Byčenkien, Svetlana; Senuta, Kestas

    2008-01-01

    Abstract: The numerical modelling of biogenic volatile organic compounds (BVOCs) monoterpene and isoprene was carried out using three-dimensional (3D) mesoscale meteorological and photochemical atmospheric models. Emission factors, combined with land cover data represented by the appropriate 11 Biogenic Emission Inventory System (BEIS) vegetation categories, along with environmental correction factors were used to derive emission fluxes of isoprene, monoterpene and other VOCs for Lit...

  8. Formation temperatures of thermogenic and biogenic methane

    OpenAIRE

    Stolper, D. A.; Lawson, M.; Davis, C. L.; Ferreira, A. A.; Santos Neto, E. V.; Ellis, G.S.; Lewan, M.D.; Martini, A. M.; Tang, Y.; Schoell, M.; Sessions, A.L.; Eiler, J. M.

    2014-01-01

    Methane is an important greenhouse gas and energy resource generated dominantly by methanogens at low temperatures and through the breakdown of organic molecules at high temperatures. However, methane-formation temperatures in nature are often poorly constrained. We measured formation temperatures of thermogenic and biogenic methane using a “clumped isotope” technique. Thermogenic gases yield formation temperatures between 157° and 221°C, within the nominal gas window, and biogenic gases yiel...

  9. Biogenic amines in raw and processed seafood

    OpenAIRE

    Pierina eVisciano; Maria eSchirone; Rosanna eTofalo; Giovanna eSuzzi

    2012-01-01

    The presence of biogenic amines in raw and processed seafood, associated with either time/temperature conditions or food technologies is discussed in the present paper from a safety and prevention point of view. In particular, storage temperature, handling practices, presence of microbial populations with decarboxylase activity and availability of free amino acids are considered the most important factors affecting the production of biogenic amines in raw seafood. On the other hand, some foo...

  10. Managing your wine fermentation to reduce the risk of biogenic amine formation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anita Yolandi Smit

    2012-03-01

    Full Text Available Biogenic amines are nitrogenous organic compounds produced in wine from amino acid precursors mainly by microbial decarboxylation. The concentration of biogenic amines that can potentially be produced is dependent on the amount of amino acid precursors in the medium, the presence of decarboxylase positive microorganisms and conditions that enable microbial or biochemical activity such as the addition of nutrients to support the alcoholic and malolactic fermentation (MLF inoculated starter cultures. MLF can be conducted using co-inoculation or inoculated after the completion of alcoholic fermentation (AF that may also affect the level of biogenic amine in the wine. This study focussed on the impact the addition of complex commercial yeast and bacterial nutrients and the use of different MLF inoculation scenarios could have on the production of biogenic amine in the wine. Results obtained with wine showed that in this study the amine that was influenced by nutrient addition was histamine. In the synthetic winemaking using 12 different treatments no clear tendencies were observed. It was shown that in certain conditions co-inoculation could reduce the amount of biogenic amines produced.

  11. An approach for verifying biogenic greenhouse gas emissions inventories with atmospheric CO2 concentration data

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Verifying national greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions inventories is a critical step to ensure that reported emissions data to the United Nations Framework Convention on Climate Change (UNFCCC) are accurate and representative of a country’s contribution to GHG concentrations in the atmosphere. Furthermore, verifying biogenic fluxes provides a check on estimated emissions associated with managing lands for carbon sequestration and other activities, which often have large uncertainties. We report here on the challenges and results associated with a case study using atmospheric measurements of CO2 concentrations and inverse modeling to verify nationally-reported biogenic CO2 emissions. The biogenic CO2 emissions inventory was compiled for the Mid-Continent region of United States based on methods and data used by the US government for reporting to the UNFCCC, along with additional sources and sinks to produce a full carbon balance. The biogenic emissions inventory produced an estimated flux of −408 ± 136 Tg CO2 for the entire study region, which was not statistically different from the biogenic flux of −478 ± 146 Tg CO2 that was estimated using the atmospheric CO2 concentration data. At sub-regional scales, the spatial density of atmospheric observations did not appear sufficient to verify emissions in general. However, a difference between the inventory and inversion results was found in one isolated area of West-central Wisconsin. This part of the region is dominated by forestlands, suggesting that further investigation may be warranted into the forest C stock or harvested wood product data from this portion of the study area. The results suggest that observations of atmospheric CO2 concentration data and inverse modeling could be used to verify biogenic emissions, and provide more confidence in biogenic GHG emissions reporting to the UNFCCC. (letter)

  12. Global Biogenic Emission of Carbon Dioxide from Landfills

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lima, R.; Nolasco, D.; Meneses, W.; Salazar, J.; Hernández, P.; Pérez, N.

    2002-12-01

    Human-induced increases in the atmospheric concentrations of greenhouse gas components have been underway over the past century and are expected to drive climate change in the coming decades. Carbon dioxide was responsible for an estimated 55 % of the antropogenically driven radiactive forcing of the atmosphere in the 1980s and is predicted to have even greater importance over the next century (Houghton et al., 1990). A highly resolved understanding of the sources and sinks of atmospheric CO2, and how they are affected by climate and land use, is essential in the analysis of the global carbon cycle and how it may be impacted by human activities. Landfills are biochemical reactors that produce CH4 and CO2 emissions due to anaerobic digestion of solid urban wastes. Estimated global CH4 emission from landfills is about 44 millions tons per year and account for a 7.4 % of all CH4 sources (Whiticar, 1989). Observed CO2/CH4 molar ratios from landfill gases lie within the range of 0.7-1.0; therefore, an estimated global biogenic emission of CO2 from landfills could reach levels of 11.2-16 millions tons per year. Since biogas extraction systems are installed for extracting, purifying and burning the landfill gases, most of the biogenic gas emission to the atmosphere from landfills occurs through the surface environment in a diffuse and disperse form, also known as non-controlled biogenic emission. Several studies of non-controlled biogenic gas emission from landfills showed that CO2/CH4 weight ratios of surface landfill gases, which are directly injected into the atmosphere, are about 200-300 times higher than those observed in the landfill wells, which are usually collected and burned by gas extraction systems. This difference between surface and well landfill gases is mainly due to bacterial oxidation of the CH4 to CO2 inducing higher CO2/CH4 ratios for surface landfill gases than those well landfill gases. Taking into consideration this observation, the global biogenic

  13. Microwave sintering of biogenic hydroxyapatite ceramics for reconstructive surgery

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hanna Tovstonoh

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available Ceramics based on biogenic hydroxyapatite have been produced via a microwave sintering at 1000 °C for 5, 10, 15, 20 and 30 min. It was shown that all of the ceramics studied exhibit volumetric shrinkage (2.3–4.6 %, which increases with increasing sintering time at maximum temperature. It was established that the total porosity did not depend on sintering time at 1000 °C and was equal to 38–40 %. Moreover, in all of the materials an open porosity dominated. The ultimate compression strength was in the range 35–40 MPa.

  14. Subsurface Uranium Fate and Transport: Integrated Experiments and Modeling of Coupled Biogeochemical Mechanisms of Nanocrystalline Uraninite Oxidation by Fe(III)-(hydr)oxides - Project Final Report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Peyton, Brent M. [Montana State Univ., Bozeman, MT (United States); Timothy, Ginn R. [Univ. of California, Davis, CA (United States); Sani, Rajesh K. [South Dakota School of Mines and Technology, Rapid City, SD (United States)

    2013-08-14

    Subsurface bacteria including sulfate reducing bacteria (SRB) reduce soluble U(VI) to insoluble U(IV) with subsequent precipitation of UO2. We have shown that SRB reduce U(VI) to nanometer-sized UO2 particles (1-5 nm) which are both intra- and extracellular, with UO2 inside the cell likely physically shielded from subsequent oxidation processes. We evaluated the UO2 nanoparticles produced by Desulfovibrio desulfuricans G20 under growth and non-growth conditions in the presence of lactate or pyruvate and sulfate, thiosulfate, or fumarate, using ultrafiltration and HR-TEM. Results showed that a significant mass fraction of bioreduced U (35-60%) existed as a mobile phase when the initial concentration of U(VI) was 160 µM. Further experiments with different initial U(VI) concentrations (25 - 900 M) in MTM with PIPES or bicarbonate buffers indicated that aggregation of uraninite depended on the initial concentrations of U(VI) and type of buffer. It is known that under some conditions SRB-mediated UO2 nanocrystals can be reoxidized (and thus remobilized) by Fe(III)-(hydr)oxides, common constituents of soils and sediments. To elucidate the mechanism of UO2 reoxidation by Fe(III) (hydr)oxides, we studied the impact of Fe and U chelating compounds (citrate, NTA, and EDTA) on reoxidation rates. Experiments were conducted in anaerobic batch systems in PIPES buffer. Results showed EDTA significantly accelerated UO2 reoxidation with an initial rate of 9.5 M day-1 for ferrihydrite. In all cases, bicarbonate increased the rate and extent of UO2 reoxidation with ferrihydrite. The highest rate of UO2 reoxidation occurred when the chelator promoted UO2 and Fe(III) (hydr)oxide dissolution as demonstrated with EDTA. When UO2 dissolution did not occur, UO2 reoxidation likely proceeded through an aqueous Fe(III) intermediate as observed for both NTA and

  15. BIOGENIC AMINES CONTENT IN DIFFERENT WINE SAMPLES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Attila Kántor

    2015-02-01

    Full Text Available Twenty-five samples of different Slovak wines before and after filtration were analysed in order to determine the content of eight biogenic amines (tryptamine, phenylalanine, putrescine, cadaverine, histamine, tyramine, spermidine and spermine. The method involves extraction of biogenic amines from wine samples with used dansyl chloride. Ultra-high performance liquid chromatography (UHPLC was used for determination of biogenic amines equipped with a Rapid Resolution High Definition (RRHD, DAD detectors and Extend-C18 LC column (50 mm x 3.0 mm ID, 1.8 μm particle size. In this study the highest level of biogenic amine in all wine samples represent tryptamine (TRM with the highest content 170.9±5.3 mg/L in Pinot Blanc wine. Phenylalanine (PHE cadaverine (CAD, histamine (HIS and spermidine (SPD were not detected in all wines; mainly SPD was not detected in 16 wines, HIS not detected in 14 wines, PHE and CAD not detected in 2 wines. Tyramine (TYR, spermine (SPN and putrescine (PUT were detected in all wines, but PUT and SPN in very low concentration. The worst wine samples with high biogenic amine content were Saint Laurent (BF, Pinot Blanc (S and Pinot Noir (AF.

  16. Biogenic amines in raw and processed seafood

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pierina eVisciano

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available The presence of biogenic amines in raw and processed seafood, associated with either time/temperature conditions or food technologies is discussed in the present paper from a safety and prevention point of view. In particular, storage temperature, handling practices, presence of microbial populations with decarboxylase activity and availability of free amino acids are considered the most important factors affecting the production of biogenic amines in raw seafood. On the other hand, some food technological treatments such as salting, ripening, fermentation or marination can increase the levels of biogenic amines in processed seafood. The consumption of high amount of biogenic amines, above all histamine, can result in food borne poisoning which is a worldwide problem. The European Regulation established as maximum limits for histamine, in fishery products from fish species associated with high histidine amounts, values ranging from 100 to 200 mg/kg, while for products which have undergone enzyme maturation treatment in brine, the aforementioned limits rise to 200 and 400 mg/kg. Preventive measures and emerging methods aiming at controlling the production of biogenic amines are also reported for potential application in seafood industries.

  17. The Effect of Different Temperature and Time in Storage on the Formation of Biogenic Amines in Fermented Sucuks

    OpenAIRE

    ÇOLAK, Hilal; UĞUR, Muammer

    2002-01-01

    The aim of this study was to determine the effect of maturating and storing time at different temperatures on biogenic amine formation in fermented sucuk produced in Turkey. For this purpose, fermented sucuks were analysed for biogenic amines (tryptamine, b-phenylethylamine, putrescine, cadaverine, histamine, tyramine, spermidine and spermine) by means of HPLC using a fluorescence detector, for physicochemical characteristics (humidity, pH, water activity) and for microbiological characterist...

  18. Biogenic aminies and aroma in Vranec wines from Macedonia and Montenegro and effect of malolactic fermentation on their formation

    OpenAIRE

    Ivanova, Violeta; Dimovska, Violeta; Stefova, Marina; Tasev, Krste; Balabanova, Biljana; Ilieva, Fidanka; Petreska Stanoeva, Jasmina

    2016-01-01

    The control of biogenic amines is becoming increasingly important to the consumers and also to wine producers because of the potential risk of toxicity and the negative impact on sales, trade and export of wine. Biogenic amines are organic nitrogen compounds with low molecular weight which have different origin in the wine. They can be found in the must, can be formed by the yeast during the alcoholic and malolactic fermentation and during wine aging. In this project the content of the bioge...

  19. Biogenic amines in Italian Pecorino cheese

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maria eSchirone

    2012-05-01

    Full Text Available The quality of distinctive artisanal cheeses is closely associated with the territory of production and its traditions. Pedoclimatic characteristics, genetic autochthonous variations and anthropic components create an environment so specific that it would be extremely difficult to reproduce elsewhere. Pecorino cheese is included in this sector of the market and is widely diffused in Italy (approximately 53.727t of production. Pecorino is a common name given to indicate Italian cheeses made exclusively from pure ewes' milk characterized by a high content of fat matter and it is mainly produced in the middle and south of Italy by traditional procedures from raw or thermized milk. The microbiota plays a major role in the development of the organoleptic characteristics of the cheese but it can also be responsible for the accumulation of undesirable substances, such as biogenic amines (BA. Several factors can contribute to the qualitative and quantitative profiles of BA’s in Pecorino cheese such as environmental hygienic conditions, pH, salt concentration, aw, fat content, pasteurization of milk, decarboxylase microorganisms, starter cultures, temperature and time of ripening, storage, part of the cheese (core, edge and the presence of cofactor. Generally, the total content of BA’s can range from about 100-2400 mg/kg, with a prevalence of toxicologically important BA’s, tyramine and histamine. The presence of BA in Pecorino cheeses is becoming increasingly important to consumers and cheese-maker alike, due to the potential threats of toxicity to humans and consequent trade implications.

  20. Biogenic crust dynamics on sand dunes

    CERN Document Server

    Kinast, Shai; Yizhaq, Hezi; Ashkenazy, Yosef

    2012-01-01

    Sand dunes are often covered by vegetation and biogenic crusts. Despite their significant role in dune stabilization, biogenic crusts have rarely been considered in studies of dune dynamics. Using a simple model, we study the existence and stability ranges of different dune-cover states along gradients of rainfall and wind power. Two ranges of alternative stable states are identified: fixed crusted dunes and fixed vegetated dunes at low wind power, and fixed vegetated dunes and active dunes at high wind power. These results suggest a cross-over between two different forms of desertification.

  1. Biogenic amines and radiosensitivity of solitary cells

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Different stability of cells to ionizing radiation is considered from a position of the ''elevated biochemical radioresistance background'' concept. Experimental evidence presented indicates an important role of endogenic amines (serotonin and histamine) possessing radioprotector properties in the cell radioresistance formation. The concept about their effect as being solely a result of circulatory hypoxia is critically discussed. The experimental results favor the existence of a ''cellular'' component, along with the ''hypoxic'' one, in the mechanism of action of biogenic amines. These compounds can affect the initial stages of peroxide oxidation of lipids, thereby favoring a less intensive oxidation induced by radiation. Biogenic amines can also exert influence on the cyclic nucleotide system

  2. Improved dewatering of CEPT sludge by biogenic flocculant from Acidithiobacillus ferrooxidans.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wong, Jonathan W C; Murugesan, Kumarasamy; Yu, Shuk Man; Kurade, Mayur B; Selvam, Ammaiyappan

    2016-01-01

    Bioleaching using an iron-oxidizing bacterium, Acidithiobacillus ferrooxidans, and its biogenic flocculants was evaluated to improve the dewaterability of chemically enhanced primary treatment (CEPT) sewage sludge. CEPT sludge in flasks was inoculated with A. ferrooxidans culture, medium-free cells and the cell-free culture filtrate with and without the energy substance Fe(2+), and periodically the sludge samples were analysed for the dewaterability. This investigation proves that bioleaching effectively improved the sludge dewaterability as evidenced from drastic reduction in capillary suction time (≤20 seconds) and specific resistance to filtration (≥90%); however, it requires an adaptability period of 1-2 days. On the other hand, the biogenic flocculant produced by A. ferrooxidans greatly decreased the time-to-filtration and facilitated the dewaterability within 4 h. Results indicate that rapid dewatering of CEPT sludge by biogenic flocculants provides an opportunity to replace the synthetic organic polymer for dewatering. PMID:26901727

  3. Factors influencing biogenic amines accumulation in dairy products

    OpenAIRE

    Daniel M. eLinares; Beatriz edel Río; Victor eLadero; Noelia eMartínez; María eFernández; María Cruz eMartín; Miguel A. eAlvarez

    2012-01-01

    Fermented foods are within the food products more often complained of having caused biogenic amines poisoning. Concerning milk-based fermented foods, cheese is the main product likely to contain significant levels of biogenic amines, specially tyramine, histamine and putrescine. Prompted by the increasing awareness of the risks related to dietary uptake of high biogenic amine loads, in this review we report about cheese elaboration and processing technological aspects affecting biogenic amine...

  4. A survey of biogenic amines in vinegars.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ordóñez, J L; Callejón, R M; Morales, M L; García-Parrilla, M C

    2013-12-01

    This paper reports the determination of biogenic amines by high-performance liquid chromatography (HPLC) and fluorescence detection after derivatization with 6-aminoquinolyl-N-hydroxysuccinimidyl carbamate (AQC) in balsamic, apple, and red, white, and Sherry wine vinegars. A solid-phase extraction (SPE) with mixed-mode resins method was used before analysis. The method was successfully validated obtaining adequate values of selectivity, response linearity, precision, accuracy, and low detection and quantification limits. The total content of biogenic amines in vinegars ranged from 23.35 to 1445.2 μg/L, being lower than those reported in wines. Putrescine was the amine that showed the highest concentrations in most samples. Methylamine and phenylethylamine were not determined in any vinegar. Balsamic and "Pedro Ximénez" Sherry vinegars reached the highest amounts of biogenic amines, while apple, white and Sherry wine vinegars had the lowest concentrations. Principal component analysis using the biogenic amines as variables, allowed to separate the different kind of vinegars, excepting red vinegars. PMID:23871015

  5. Biogenic UO2 Characterization and Surface Reactivity

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nano-scale biogenic UO2 is easier to oxidize and more reactive to aqueous metal ions than bulk UO2. In an attempt to understand these differences in properties, we have used a suite of bulk and surface characterization techniques to examine differences in the reactivity of biogenic UO2 versus bulk UO2 with respect to aqueous Zn(II). Precipitation of biogenic UO2 was mediated by Shewanella putrefaciens CN32, and the precipitates were washed using two protocols: (1) 5% NaOH, followed by 4 mM KHCO3/KCl (NA-wash; ''NAUO2'', to remove surface organic matter), and (2) 4 mM KHCO3-KCl (BI-wash; ''BIUO2'', to remove soluble uranyl species). BET surface areas of biogenic-UO2 prepared using the two protocols are 128.63 m2g-1 and 92.56 m2g-1, respectively; particle sizes range from 2-10 nm as determined by FEG-SEM. Surface composition was probed using XPS, which showed a strong carbon 1s signal for the BI-washed samples; surface uranium is > 90% U(IV) for both washing protocols. U LIII-edge XANES spectra also indicate that U(IV) is the dominant oxidation state in the biogenic UO2 samples. Fits of the EXAFS spectra of these samples yielded half the number of uranium second-shell neighbors relative to bulk UO2, and no detectable oxygen neighbors beyond the first shell. At pH 7, the sorption of Zn(II) onto both biogenic and bulk UO2 is independent of electrolyte concentration, suggesting that Zn(II) sorption complexes are dominantly inner-sphere. Fits of Zn K-edge EXAFS spectra for biogenic UO2 indicate that Zn(II) sorption is dependent on the washing protocol. Zn-U pair correlations are observed for the NA-washed samples, but not for the BI-washed ones, suggesting that Zn(II) sorbs directly to the UO2 surface in the first case, and possibly to organic matter in the latter. Further work is required to elucidate the binding mechanism of Zn(II) to bulk UO2

  6. Oxidative alteration of uraninite at the Nopal I deposit, Mexico: Possible contaminant transport and source term constraints for the proposed repository at Yucca Mountain

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The Nopal I uranium deposit at Pena Blanca, Mexico is being studied as a natural analog of the proposed high-level nuclear waste repository at Yucca Mountain. Identification of secondary uranium phases at Nopal I, and the sequence of their formation after uraninite oxidation, provides insight into the source term for uranium, and suggests that uranophane may control uranium release and transport in a silici, tuffaceous, chemically oxidizing, and hydrologically unsaturated environment. Possible constraints on contaminant transport at Nopal I are derived from the spatial distribution of uranium and from measurements of 238U decay-series isotopes. The analyses indicate that flow of U-bearing fluids was influenced strongly by fracture density, but that the flow of these fluids was not restricted to fractures. Gamma spectroscopic measurements of 238U decay-series isotopes indicates secular equilibrium, which suggests undetectable U transport under present conditions

  7. Rare-element granitic pegmatite of Miocene age emplaced in UHP rocks from Visole, Pohorje Mountains (Eastern Alps, Slovenia): accessory minerals, monazite and uraninite chemical dating

    Science.gov (United States)

    Uher, Pavel; Janák, Marian; Konečný, Patrik; Vrabec, Mirijam

    2014-04-01

    The granitic pegmatite dike intruded the Cretaceous UHP rocks at Visole, near Slovenska Bistrica, in the Pohorje Mountains (Slovenia). The rock consists mainly of K-feldspar, albite and quartz, subordinate muscovite and biotite, while the accessory minerals include spessartine-almandine, zircon, ferrocolumbite, fluorapatite, monazite- (Ce), uraninite, and magnetite. Compositions of garnet (Sps48-49Alm45-46Grs + And3-4 Prp1.5-2), metamict zircon with 3.5 to 7.8 wt. % HfO2 [atom. 100Hf/(Hf + Zr) = 3.3-7.7] and ferrocolumbite [atom. Mn/(Mn + Fe) = 0.27-0.43, Ta/(Ta + Nb) = 0.03-0.46] indicate a relatively low to medium degree of magmatic fractionation, characteristic of the muscovite - rare-element class or beryl-columbite subtype of the rare-element class pegmatites. Monazite-(Ce) reveals elevated Th and U contents (≤11 wt. % ThO2, ≤5 wt. % UO2). The monazite-garnet geothermometer shows a possible precipitation temperature of ~495 ± 30 °C at P~4 to 5 kbar. Chemical U-Th-Pb dating of the monazite yielded a Miocene age (17.2 ± 1.8 Ma), whereas uraninite gave a younger (~14 Ma) age. These ages are comtemporaneous with the main crystallization and emplacement of the Pohorje pluton and adjacent volcanic rocks (20 to 15 Ma), providing the first documented evidence of Neogene granitic pegmatites in the Eastern Alps. Consequently, the Visole pegmatite belongs to the youngest rare-element granitic pegmatite populations in Europe, together with the Paleogene pegmatite occurrences along the Periadriatic (Insubric) Fault System in the Alps and in the Rhodope Massif, as well as the Late Miocene to Pliocene pegmatites in the Tuscany magmatic province (mainly on the Island of Elba).

  8. A biogenic volatile organic compounds emission inventory for Yunnan Province

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    WANG Zhi-hui; BAI Yu-hua; ZHANG Shu-yu

    2005-01-01

    The first detailed inventory for volatile organic compounds(VOC) emissions from vegetation over Yunnan Province, China was presented. The spatially and temporally resolved inventory was developed based on a geographic information system (GIS), remote sensing(RS) data and field measurement data, such as digitized land-use data, normalized difference vegetation index (NDVl) and temperature data from direct real-time measurement. The inventory has a spatial resolution of 5 km × 5 km and a time resolution of 1 h.Urban, agriculture, and natural land-use distributions in Yunnan Province were combined with biomass factors for each land-use category to produce a spatially resolved biomass inventory. A biogenic emission inventory was developed by combining the biomass inventory with hourly emission rates for tree, shrub and ground cover species of the study area. Correcting for environmental factors, including light intensity and temperature, a value of 1.1 × 1012 gC for total annual biogenic VOC emissions from Yunnan Province, including 6.1 × 1011 gCfor isoprene, 2.1 × 1011 gC for monoterpenes, and 2.6 × 1011 gC for OVOC was obtained. The highest VOC emissions occurred in the northwestern, southwestern and north region of Yunnan Province. Some uncertainties were also discussed in this study.

  9. Seasonal trends of biogenic terpene emissions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Helmig, Detlev; Daly, Ryan Woodfin; Milford, Jana; Guenther, Alex

    2013-09-01

    Biogenic volatile organic compound (BVOC) emissions from six coniferous tree species, i.e. Pinus ponderosa (Ponderosa Pine), Picea pungens (Blue Spruce), Pseudotsuga menziesii (Rocky Mountain Douglas Fir) and Pinus longaeva (Bristlecone Pine), as well as from two deciduous species, Quercus gambelii (Gamble Oak) and Betula occidentalis (Western River Birch) were studied over a full annual growing cycle. Monoterpene (MT) and sesquiterpene (SQT) emissions rates were quantified in a total of 1236 individual branch enclosure samples. MT dominated coniferous emissions, producing greater than 95% of BVOC emissions. MT and SQT demonstrated short-term emission dependence with temperature. Two oxygenated MT, 1,8-cineol and piperitone, were both light and temperature dependent. Basal emission rates (BER, normalized to 1000μmolm(-2)s(-1) and 30°C) were generally higher in spring and summer than in winter; MT seasonal BER from the coniferous trees maximized between 1.5 and 6.0μgg(-1)h(-1), while seasonal lows were near 0.1μgg(-1)h(-1). The fractional contribution of individual MT to total emissions was found to fluctuate with season. SQT BER measured from the coniferous trees ranged from <0.01 to 0.15μgg(-1)h(-1). BER of up to 1.2μgg(-1)h(-1) of the SQT germacrene B were found from Q. gambelii, peaking in late summer. The β-factor, used to define temperature dependence in emissions modeling, was not found to exhibit discernible growth season trends. A seasonal correction factor proposed by others in previous work to account for a sinusoidal shaped emission pattern was applied to the data. Varying levels of agreement were found between the data and model results for the different plant species seasonal data sets using this correction. Consequently, the analyses on this extensive data set suggest that it is not feasible to apply a universal seasonal correction factor across different vegetation species. A modeling exercise comparing two case scenarios, (1) without and (2

  10. Production of extremely low volatile organic compounds from biogenic emissions: Measured yields and atmospheric implications

    OpenAIRE

    Jokinen, T; Berndt, T; Makkonen, R.; Kerminen, V-M; Junninen, H.; Paasonen, P.; Stratmann, F.; Herrmann, H.; Guenther, AB; Worsnop, DR; M. Kulmala; M. Ehn; Sipilä, M.

    2015-01-01

    Extremely low volatility organic compounds (ELVOC) are suggested to promote aerosol particle formation and cloud condensation nuclei (CCN) production in the atmosphere. We show that the capability of biogenic VOC (BVOC) to produce ELVOC depends strongly on their chemical structure and relative oxidant levels. BVOC with an endocyclic double bond, representative emissions from, e.g., boreal forests, efficiently produce ELVOC from ozonolysis. Compounds with exocyclic double bonds or acyclic comp...

  11. Formation temperatures of thermogenic and biogenic methane

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stolper, D.A.; Lawson, M.; Davis, C.L.; Ferreira, A.A.; Santos Neto, E. V.; Ellis, G.S.; Lewan, M.D.; Martini, A.M.; Tang, Y.; Schoell, M.; Sessions, A.L.; Eiler, J.M.

    2014-01-01

    Methane is an important greenhouse gas and energy resource generated dominantly by methanogens at low temperatures and through the breakdown of organic molecules at high temperatures. However, methane-formation temperatures in nature are often poorly constrained. We measured formation temperatures of thermogenic and biogenic methane using a “clumped isotope” technique. Thermogenic gases yield formation temperatures between 157° and 221°C, within the nominal gas window, and biogenic gases yield formation temperatures consistent with their comparatively lower-temperature formational environments (<50°C). In systems where gases have migrated and other proxies for gas-generation temperature yield ambiguous results, methane clumped-isotope temperatures distinguish among and allow for independent tests of possible gas-formation models.

  12. Biogenic Amines in Raw and Processed Seafood

    OpenAIRE

    Visciano, Pierina; Schirone, Maria; Tofalo, Rosanna; Suzzi, Giovanna

    2012-01-01

    The presence of biogenic amines (BAs) in raw and processed seafood, associated with either time/temperature conditions or food technologies is discussed in the present paper from a safety and prevention point of view. In particular, storage temperature, handling practices, presence of microbial populations with decarboxylase activity and availability of free amino acids are considered the most important factors affecting the production of BAs in raw seafood. On the other hand, some food techn...

  13. Biogenic Magnetite in Martian Meteorite ALH84001

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thomas-Keprta, K. L.; Bazylinski, Dennis; Wentworth, Susan J.; McKay, David S.; Kirschvink, Joseph L.; Clemett, SImon J.; Bell, Mary Sue; Golden, D. C.; Gibson, Everett K., Jr.

    1999-01-01

    Fine-grained magnetite (Fe3O4) in martian meteorite ALH84001, generally less than 200 nm in size, is located primarily in the rims that surround the carbonate globules. There are two populations of ALH84001 magnetites, which are likely formed at low temperature by inorganic and biogenic processes. Nearly 27% of ALH84001 magnetite particles, also called elongated prisms, have characteristics which make them uniquely identifiable as biological precipitates. Additional information is contained in the original extended abstract.

  14. Discrimination of abiogenic and biogenic alkane gases

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2008-01-01

    We have combined the analytical data of the carbon isotope distribution pattern, R/Ra and CH4/3He values of abiogenic and biogenic (referring to the thermogenic and bacterial or microbial) alkane gases in China with those of alkane gases from USA, Russia, Germany, Australia and other countries. Four discrimination criteria are derived from this comparative study: 1) Carbon isotopic composition is generally greater than -30‰ for abiogenic methane and less than -30‰ for biogenic methane; 2) Abiogenic alkane gases have a carbon isotopic reversal trend (δ 13C1> δ 13C2> δ 13C3> δ 13C4) with δ 13C1>-30‰ in general; 3) Gases with R/Ra >0.5 and δ 13C11 δ 13C2>0 are of abiogenic origin; 4) Gases (meth- ane) with CH4/3He≤106 are of abiogenic origin, whereas gases with CH4/3He≥1011 are of biogenic origin.

  15. Cytotoxicity and genotoxicity of biogenic silver nanoparticles

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lima, R.; Feitosa, L. O.; Ballottin, D.; Marcato, P. D.; Tasic, L.; Durán, N.

    2013-04-01

    Biogenic silver nanoparticles with 40.3 ± 3.5 nm size and negative surface charge (- 40 mV) were prepared with Fusarium oxysporum. The cytotoxicity of 3T3 cell and human lymphocyte were studied by a TaliTM image-based cytometer and the genotoxicity through Allium cepa and comet assay. The results of BioAg-w (washed) and BioAg-nw (unwashed) biogenic silver nanoparticles showed cytotoxicity exceeding 50 μg/mL with no significant differences of response in 5 and 10 μg/mL regarding viability. Results of genotoxicity at concentrations 5.0 and 10.0 ug/mL show some response, but at concentrations 0.5 and 1.0 μg/mL the washed and unwashed silver nanoparticles did not present any effect. This in an important result since in tests with different bacteria species and strains, including resistant, MIC (minimal inhibitory concentration) had good answers at concentrations less than 1.9 μg/mL. This work concludes that biogenic silver nanoparticles may be a promising option for antimicrobial use in the range where no cyto or genotoxic effect were observed. Furthermore, human cells were found to have a greater resistance to the toxic effects of silver nanoparticles in comparison with other cells.

  16. Rett syndrome - Stimulation of endogenous biogenic amines

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pelligra, R.; Norton, R. D.; Wilkinson, R.; Leon, H. A.; Matson, W. R.

    1992-01-01

    Transient hypercapnic hyperoxemia was induced in two Rett syndrome children by the administration of a gaseous mixture of 80 percent O2 and 20 percent CO2. Time course studies of neurotransmitters and their metabolites showed an immediate and marked increase in central biogenic amine turnover following inhalation of the gas mixture. The increased turnover of biogenic amines was associated with improved clinical changes. This suggests a coupled relationship and provides further support for an etiological role of neurotransmitter dysfunction in Rett syndrome. In a complementary study, elevation of pulmonary CO2 by application of a simple rebreathing device resulted in improvement of abnormal blood gases and elimination of the Cheyne-Stokes-like respiratory pattern of the Rett syndrome. Near normalization of the EEG occurred when a normal respiratory pattern was imposed by means of a respirator. Taken together, these results lead to the preliminary conclusion that cerebral hypoxemia secondary to abnormal respiratory function may contribute to diminished production of biogenic amines in Rett syndrome.

  17. biogenic aerosol precursors: volatile amines from agriculture

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kuhn, Uwe; Sintermann, Jörg; Spirig, Christoph; Ammann, Christof; Neftel, Albrecht

    2010-05-01

    Information on the occurrence of volatile biogenic amines in the atmosphere is marginal. This group of N-bearing organic compounds are assumed to be a small, though significant component of the atmospheric N-cycle, but are not accounted for in global assessments due to the scarceness of available data. There is increasing evidence for an important role of biogenic amines in the formation of new particulate matter, as well as for aerosol secondary growth. Volatile amines are ubiquitously formed by biodegradation of organic matter, and agriculture is assumed to dominantly contribute to their atmospheric burden. Here we show that the mixing ratios of volatile amines within livestock buildings scale about 2 orders of magnitude lower than NH3, confirming the few literature data available (e.g., Schade and Crutzen, J. Atm. Chem. 22, 319-346, 1995). Flux measurements after manure application in the field, mixing ratios in the headspace of manure storage pools, and concentrations in distilled manure all indicate major depletion of amines relative to NH3 during manure processing. We conclude that the agricultural source distribution of NH3 and amines is not similar. While for NH3 the spreading of manure in the field dominates agricultural emissions, the direct release from livestock buildings dominates the budget of volatile biogenic amines.

  18. Ion-induced nucleation of pure biogenic particles

    CERN Document Server

    Kirkby, Jasper; Sengupta, Kamalika; Frege, Carla; Gordon, Hamish; Williamson, Christina; Heinritzi, Martin; Simon, Mario; Yan, Chao; Almeida, João; Tröstl, Jasmin; Nieminen, Tuomo; Ortega, Ismael K; Wagner, Robert; Adamov, Alexey; Amorim, Antonio; Bernhammer, Anne-Kathrin; Bianchi, Federico; Breitenlechner, Martin; Brilke, Sophia; Chen, Xuemeng; Craven, Jill; Dias, antonio; Ehrhart, Sebastian; Flagan, Richard C; Franchin, Alessandro; Fuchs, Claudia; Guida, Roberto; Hakala, Jani; Hoyle, Christopher R; Jokinen, Tuija; Junninen, Heikki; Kangasluoma, Juha; Kim, Jaeseok; Krapf, Manuel; Kürten, andreas; Laaksonen, Ari; Lehtipalo, Katrianne; Makhmutov, Vladimir; Mathot, Serge; Molteni, Ugo; Onnela, antti; Peräkylä, Otso; Piel, Felix; Petäjä, Tuukka; Praplan, Arnaud P; Pringle, Kirsty; Rap, Alexandru; Richards, Nigel A D; Riipinen, Ilona; Rissanen, Matti P; Rondo, Linda; Sarnela, Nina; Schobesberger, Siegfried; Scott, Catherine E; Seinfeld, John H; Sipilä, Mikko; Steiner, Gerhard; Stozhkov, Yuri; Stratmann, Frank; Tomé, Antonio; Virtanen, Annele; Vogel, Alexander L; Wagner, Andrea C; Wagner, Paul E; Weingartner, Ernest; Wimmer, Daniela; Winkler, Paul M; Ye, Penglin; Zhang, Xuan; Hansel, Armin; Dommen, Josef; Donahue, Neil M; Worsnop, Douglas R; Baltensperger, Urs; Kulmala, Markku; Carslaw, Kenneth S; Curtius, Joachim

    2016-01-01

    Atmospheric aerosols and their effect on clouds are thought to be important for anthropogenic radiative forcing of the climate, yet remain poorly understood. Globally, around half of cloud condensation nuclei originate from nucleation of atmospheric vapours. It is thought that sulfuric acid is essential to initiate most particle formation in the atmosphere and that ions have a relatively minor role. Some laboratory studies, however, have reported organic particle formation without the intentional addition of sulfuric acid, although contamination could not be excluded. Here we present evidence for the formation of aerosol particles from highly oxidized biogenic vapours in the absence of sulfuric acid in a large chamber under atmospheric conditions. The highly oxygenated molecules (HOMs) are produced by ozonolysis of $\\alpha$-pinene. We find that ions from Galactic cosmic rays increase the nucleation rate by one to two orders of magnitude compared with neutral nucleation. Our experimental findings are supported...

  19. Inhibitory Effects of Spices on Biogenic Amine Accumulation during Fish Sauce Fermentation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhou, Xuxia; Qiu, Mengting; Zhao, Dandan; Lu, Fei; Ding, Yuting

    2016-04-01

    The presence of high levels of biogenic amines is detrimental to the quality and safety of fish sauce. This study investigated the effects of ethanol extracts of spices, including garlic, ginger, cinnamon, and star anise extracts, in reducing the accumulation of biogenic amines during fish sauce fermentation. The concentrations of biogenic amines, which include histamine, putrescine, tyramine, and spermidine, all increased during fish sauce fermentation. When compared with the samples without spices, the garlic and star anise extracts significantly reduced these increases. The greatest inhibitory effect was observed for the garlic ethanolic extracts. When compared with controls, the histamine, putrescine, tyramine, and spermidine contents and the overall biogenic amine levels of the garlic extract-treated samples were reduced by 30.49%, 17.65%, 26.03%, 37.20%, and 27.17%, respectively. The garlic, cinnamon, and star anise extracts showed significant inhibitory effects on aerobic bacteria counts. Furthermore, the garlic and star anise extracts showed antimicrobial activity against amine producers. These findings may be helpful for enhancing the safety of fish sauce. PMID:26953496

  20. Biogenic amine metabolism in juvenile neurocardiogenic syncope with dysautonomia

    OpenAIRE

    Butler, Ian J.; Lankford, Jeremy E; Hashmi, Syed Shahrukh; Numan, Mohammed T

    2014-01-01

    Objective Biogenic amine brain levels and their cerebral metabolism are frequently studied by quantitation of biogenic amine metabolites in cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) compared to age-matched controls. There is a paucity of studies in adolescents and young adults investigating the potential role of disordered cerebral biogenic amine metabolism in young patients who have dysautonomia based on abnormal head-up tilt table (HUTT). Methods In a cohort of juvenile patients with neurocardiogenic synco...

  1. Status of research on biogenic coalbed gas generation mechanisms

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2010-01-01

    Biogenic coalbed gas,how it is generated and the geochemical characteristics of the gas are gaining global attention.The ways coalbed gas is generated,the status of research on the generation mechanism and the methods of differentiating between biogenic gasses are discussed.The generation of biogenic coalbed methane is consistent with anaerobic fermentation theory.Commercial biogenic coalbed gas reservoirs are mainly generated by the process of CO2 reduction.The substrates used by the microbes living in the...

  2. Presence of uraninite associated with copper and iron minerals in the region of the Serra do Sossego, north of Brazil; Presenca de uraninita associada a minerais de cobre e ferro na regiao da Serra do Sossego, norte do Brasil

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Salas, Humberto Terrazas; Murta, Clecio Campi [Centro de Desenvolvimento da Tecnologia Nuclear (CDTN), Belo Horizonte, MG (Brazil)]. E-mail: salasht@urano.cdtn.br; Nalini Junior, Herminio Arias [Ouro Preto Univ., MG (Brazil). Escola de Minas. Dept. de Geologia

    2000-07-01

    In this work, results on studies carried out on radioactive samples from Serra do Sossego (close to Carajas , in the state of Para) are reported. According to studies of mineralogical characterization, involving petrographic and mineralographic analysis, complemented by other specific techniques, it was possible to determine the forms of presentation of the uraninite (UO{sub 2}), and its respective association to sulphide minerals rich in copper, primarily those with greater concentration, such as bornite (Cu{sub 5}FeS{sub 4}) and, secondarily, calcopirite (CuFeS{sub 2}). These sulphides come associated to abundant iron oxide, such as magnetite (Fe{sub 3}O{sub 4}) and its alteration products, and also assorted silicate minerals. From the results of autoradiographic tests and an electronic microprobe, a significant amount of uraninite was determined, showing that sulfites and oxides that occur associated to the uranium mineral, include this element in their crystalline lattices. (author)

  3. SUICIDAL IDEATION AND BIOGENIC AMINES IN DEPRESSION*

    OpenAIRE

    Palaniappan, V.; V. Ramachandran; Somasundaram, O.

    1983-01-01

    SUMMARY This report is based on the study of 40 depressives in an attempt to explore the possible association between the suicidal ideas and the biogenic amines. The severity of suicidal ideas was measured on Hamilton Depressive Rating Scale and their amine metabolites were measured (MHFG, HVA and 5 HIAA) in urine and C.S.F. It was observed that the level of 5 HIAA, and Serotonin (5 HT) was more related to suicidal ideas and was inversely related. The probable associations between these are d...

  4. Photocatalytic oxidation of chloroform using immobilized-biogenic TiO2 nanoparticles

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Y.; Cho, Y.; Yoo, H.

    2011-12-01

    Although commercial titanium dioxide (TiO2) nanoparticles as a suspension in water are one of the most popular photocatalysts for treatment of chlorinated organic compounds, the reuse and recovery of the nanoscale phtocatalyst is a practical challenge for application in water and groundwater treatment system. As part of efforts to overcome this practical limitation, development of immobilized TiO2 is needed. Diatom Pinnularia sp. were found to be capable of producing nanoscale TiO2 in their microscale silica shells. In order to obtain biogenic TiO2 nanoparticles from Pinnularia sp., soluble Ti was fed to the silicon-starved cells, resulting in deposition of titanium on the microscale features of the silica shells. After thermal treatment at 720 oC for 2 hr, the titanium was eventually converted to nanoscale TiO2. In order to determine the physical and chemical properties of the immobilized TiO2, material characterization such as TEM, STEM-EDS, BET and XRD analysis was carried out. In this study, a novel type of immobilized photocatalytic nanoparticles, biogenic TiO2 on silica shells was used for the mineralization of chloroform in water. Batch tests were conducted to evaluate the chloroform removal efficiency of biogenic and commercial TiO2 nanoparticles. Also, the amount of Cl- ions in water during the mineralization was measured to check mineralization of chloroform by biogenic TiO2 nanoparticles. Kinetic models were used to determine the rate of chloroform mineralization. In addition, the effect of UVA (ultraviolet-A) intensity on chloroform mineralization was investigated. The results obtained from this study could provide useful information for practical application of biogenic TiO2 in the groundwater treatment contaminated with some chlorinated organic compounds.

  5. Bioactive Molecules Released in Food by Lactic Acid Bacteria: Encrypted Peptides and Biogenic Amines

    OpenAIRE

    Pessione, Enrica; Cirrincione, Simona

    2016-01-01

    Lactic acid bacteria (LAB) can produce a huge amount of bioactive compounds. Since their elective habitat is food, especially dairy but also vegetal food, it is frequent to find bioactive molecules in fermented products. Sometimes these compounds can have adverse effects on human health such as biogenic amines (tyramine and histamine), causing allergies, hypertensive crises, and headache. However, some LAB products also display benefits for the consumers. In the present review article, the ma...

  6. Biogenic palladium enhances diatrizoate removal from hospital wastewater in a microbial electrolysis cell

    OpenAIRE

    De Gusseme, Bart; Hennebel, Tom; Vanhaecke, Lynn; Soetaert, Maarten; Desloover, Joachim; Wille, Klaas; Verbeken, Kim; Verstraete, Willy; Boon, Nico

    2011-01-01

    decrease the load of pharmaceuticals to the environment, decentralized wastewater treatment has been proposed for important point-sources such as hospitals. In this study, a microbial electrolysis cell (MEC) was used for the dehalogenation of the iodinated X-ray contrast medium diatrizoate. The presence of biogenic palladium nanoparticles (bio-Pd) in the cathode significantly enhanced diatrizoate removal by direct electrochemical reduction and by reductive catalysis using the H(2) gas produce...

  7. Catalytic dechlorination of diclofenac by biogenic palladium in a microbial electrolysis cell

    OpenAIRE

    De Gusseme, Bart; Soetaert, Maarten; Hennebel, Tom; Vanhaecke, Lynn; Boon, Nico; Verstraete, Willy

    2012-01-01

    Summary Diclofenac is one of the most commonly detected pharmaceuticals in wastewater treatment plant (WWTP) effluents and the receiving water bodies. In this study, biogenic Pd nanoparticles (‘bio‐Pd’) were successfully applied in a microbial electrolysis cell (MEC) for the catalytic reduction of diclofenac. Hydrogen gas was produced in the cathodic compartment, and consumed as a hydrogen donor by the bio‐Pd on the graphite electrodes. In this way, complete dechlorination of 1 mg diclofenac ...

  8. Gigantism in unique biogenic magnetite at the Paleocene-Eocene Thermal Maximum

    OpenAIRE

    Schumann, Dirk; Raub, Timothy D; Kopp, Robert E.; Guerquin-Kern, Jean-Luc; Wu, Ting-Di; Rouiller, Isabelle; Smirnov, Aleksey V.; Sears, S. Kelly; Lücken, Uwe; Tikoo, Sonia M.; Hesse, Reinhard; Kirschvink, Joseph L.; Vali, Hojatollah

    2008-01-01

    We report the discovery of exceptionally large biogenic magnetite crystals in clay-rich sediments spanning the Paleocene-Eocene Thermal Maximum (PETM) in a borehole at Ancora, New Jersey. Aside from previously-described abundant bacterial magnetofossils, electron microscopy reveals novel spearhead-like and spindle-like magnetite up to 4 μm long and hexaoctahedral prisms up to 1.4 μm long. Similar to magnetite produced by magnetotactic bacteria, these single-crystal particles exhibit chemical...

  9. MODELLING OF THE ENERGY SUPPLY SYSTEM OF MOBILE TECHNOLOGICAL LINES FOR THE PRODUCTION OF DRY FUEL WOOD CHIPS WITH THE PARTIAL USAGE OF THE PRODUCIBLE BIOGENIC FUEL Моделирование работы системы энергообеспечения мобильных технологических линий по производству сухой топливной щепы с использованием части производимого биогенного топлива

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anisimov P. N.

    2013-05-01

    Full Text Available The scheme of the energetic balance of the autonomous energy supply system of mobile technological lines that produces dry fire wood chips on the basis of the engine installation with the Stirling engine, using a part producible biogenic fuel, is produced; the mathematical model of the functioning of the present energy supply system of mobile technological line is elaborated

  10. Determination of Biogenic Amines with HPLC-APCI-MS

    Science.gov (United States)

    Determination of biogenic amines in fish samples can be used as a quality attribute and are commonly performed using a derivatization step followed by high pressure liquid chromatography (HPLC) and UV detection. Over estimation and misidentification of biogenic amines can occur when interfering comp...

  11. Biogenic amines in submicron marine aerosol (Invited)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Facchini, M.

    2010-12-01

    Ammonium salts of dimethyl and diethyl amine (DMA+ and DEA+) have been detected in size segregated marine samples collected in the North Atlantic over open ocean and at a coastal site. DMA+ and DEA+ peak in the accumulation mode range while very low concentration, close to detection limit, are observed in the coarse size fractions, as well as in sea spray aerosol artificially generated in the laboratory using sea water. These results indicate a secondary formation pathway. DMA+ and DEA+ represent up to 20% of secondary organic aerosol (SOA) in our samples , and to our knowledge they are the most abundant organic species besides MSA ever detected in clean marine aerosol . Maximum concentrations have been observed during spring and summer when the biological activity is high and in clean marine air masses, thus indicating biogenic sources. Total organic nitrogen (ON) concentration also peaks in the accumulation mode range and represents in our samples a fraction from 32 to 54 % of the total SOA. Ammonium salt formation from biogenic amines might be an important source of marine SOA and atmospheric nitrogen at the global scale with a seasonal variation connected to the oceanic biological productivity and an atmospheric cycle parallel to that of the organosulfur species.

  12. Factors influencing biogenic amines accumulation in dairy products

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Daniel M. eLinares

    2012-05-01

    Full Text Available Fermented foods are within the food products more often complained of having caused biogenic amines poisoning. Concerning milk-based fermented foods, cheese is the main product likely to contain significant levels of biogenic amines, specially tyramine, histamine and putrescine. Prompted by the increasing awareness of the risks related to dietary uptake of high biogenic amine loads, in this review we report about cheese elaboration and processing technological aspects affecting biogenic amines levels. Synthesis of biogenic amines is possible only when three conditions converge: i availability of the substrate amino acids; ii presence of microorganisms with the appropriate catabolic pathway activated; and iii environmental conditions favorable to the decarboxilation activity. These conditions depend on several factors such as milk treatment (pasteurization, use of starter cultures, NaCl concentration, time and temperature of ripening and preservation, pH… which will be discussed in this chapter.

  13. Biogenic gas in the Cambrian-Ordovcian Alum Shale (Denmark and Sweden)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Schulz, H.M.; Wirth, R.; Biermann, S.; Arning, E.T. [Helmholtz-Zentrum Potsdam - Deutsches GeoForschungsZentrum GFZ, Potsdam (Germany); Krueger, M.; Straaten, N. [BGR Hannover (Germany); Bechtel, A. [Montanuniv. Leoben (Austria); Berk, W. van [Technical Univ. of Clausthal (Germany); Schovsbo, N.H. [Geological Survey of Denmark and Greenland - GEUS, Copenhagen (Denmark); Crabtree, Stephen [Gripen Gas (Sweden)

    2013-08-01

    Shale gas is mainly produced from thermally mature black shales. However, biogenic methane also represents a resource which is often underestimated. Today biogenic methane is being produced from the Upper Devonian Antrim Shale in the Michigan Basin which was the most successfully exploited shale gas system during the 1990-2000 decade in the U.S.A. before significant gas production from the Barnett Shale started (Curtis et al., 2008). The Cambro-Ordovician Alum Shale in northern Europe has thermal maturities ranging from overmature in southern areas (Denmark and southern Sweden) to immature conditions (central Sweden). Biogenic methane is recorded during drilling in central Sweden. The immature Alum Shale in central Sweden has total organic carbon (TOC) contents up to 20 wt%. The hydrogen index HI ranges from 380 to 560 mgHC/gTOC at very low oxygen index (OI) values of around 4 mg CO{sub 2}/gTOC, Tmax ranges between 420 - 430 C. The organic matter is highly porous. In general, the Alum Shale is a dense shale with intercalated sandy beds which may be dense due to carbonate cementation. Secondary porosity is created in some sandy beds due to feldspar dissolution and these beds serve as gas conduits. Methane production rates with shale as substrate in the laboratory are dependent on the kind of hydrocarbon-degrading microbial enrichment cultures used in the incubation experiments, ranging from 10-620 nmol/(g*d). In these experiments, the CO{sub 2} production rate was always higher than for methane. Like the northern part of North America, also Northern European has been covered by glaciers during the Pleistocene and similar geological processes may have developed leading to biogenic shale gas formation. For the Antrim Shale one hypothesis suggests that fresh waters, recharged from Pleistocene glaciation and modern precipitation, suppressed basinal brine salinity along the northern margins of the Michigan Basin to greater depths and thereby enhancing methanogenesis

  14. Total balance of biogenic fuels for thermal uses; Ganzheitliche Bilanzierung verschiedener biogener Festbrennstoffe zur thermischen Nutzung

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Becher, S.; Kaltschmitt, M. [Stuttgart Univ. (Germany). Inst. fuer Energiewirtschaft und Rationelle Energieanwendung (IER)

    1996-12-31

    In this situation of unfavourable energy price levels, the use of biogenic fuels for power supply can be recommended only if it serves to reduce environmental pollution. Against this background and on the basis of a primary energy balance, the authors attempted a total balance of selected enfironmental effects (global heating and acidification potential) of biomass use as compared to fossil fuel combustion. (orig) [Deutsch] ie Nutzung biogener Festbrennstoffe zur Energienachfragedeckung ist bei dem gegenwaertigen unguenstigen Energiepreisniveau nur dann zu rechtfertigen, wenn es durch die Biomassenutzung zu einer Reduzierung der energiebedingten Umwelteffekte kommt. Vor disem Hintergrund werden ausgehend von der Primaerenergiebilanz ausgewaehlte Umwelteffekte (d.h. das Treibhaus- und das Versauerungspotential) einer Biomassenutzung im Vergleich zu einer Nutzung fossiler Energietraeger ganzheitlich bilanziert. Die wesentlichen Ergebnisse werden zusammengefasst und interpretiert. (orig)

  15. Emission and role of biogenic volatile organic compounds in biosphere

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Plants are an essential part of the biosphere. Under the influence of climate change, plants respond in multiple ways within the ecosystem. One such way is the release of assimilated carbon back to the atmosphere in form of biogenic volatile organic compounds (BVOCs), which are produced by plants and are involved in plant growth, reproduction, defense and other . These compounds are emitted from vegetation into the atmosphere under different environmental situations. Plants produce an extensive range of BVOCs, including isoprenoids, sequisterpenes, aldehydes, alcohols and terpenes in different tissues above and below the ground. The emission rates vary with various environmental conditions and the plant growth stage in its life span.BVOCs are released under biotic and abiotic stress changes, like heat, drought, land-use changes, higher atmospheric CO concentrations, increased UV radiation and insect or disease attack. Plants emit BVOCs in atmosphere in order to avoid stress, and adapt to harsh circumstances. These compounds also have a significant role in plant-plant interaction, communication and competition. BVOCs have the ability to alter atmospheric chemistry; they readily react with atmospheric pollutant gases under high temperature and form tropospheric ozone, which is a potent air pollutant for global warming and disease occurrence. BVOCs may be a cause of photochemical smog and increase the stay of other GHGs in the atmosphere. Therefore, further study is required to assess the behavior of BVOCs in the biosphere as well as the atmosphere. (author)

  16. 76 FR 80368 - Notification of Teleconferences of the Science Advisory Board Biogenic Carbon Emissions Panel

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-12-23

    ... draft report and accounting framework. As noticed in 76 FR 61100-61101, the SAB Biogenic Carbon... AGENCY Notification of Teleconferences of the Science Advisory Board Biogenic Carbon Emissions Panel... Biogenic Carbon Emissions Panel to review EPA's draft Accounting Framework for Biogenic CO2 Emissions...

  17. Biogenic amines in meat and fermented meat products

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Joanna Stadnik

    2010-09-01

    Full Text Available Recent trends in food quality and safety promote an increasing search for trace compounds that can affect human health. Biogenic amines belong to this group of substances. They can cause distinctive pharmacological, physiological and toxic effects in organisms. Their amounts are usually increasing as a consequence of the use of poor quality raw materials, during controlled or spontaneous microbial fermentation or in the course of food spoilage. The origin of biogenic amines makes them suitable as chemical indicators of the hygienic quality and freshness of some foods being associated to the degree of food fermentation or degradation. The development of appropriate manufacturing technologies to obtain products free or nearly free from biogenic amines is a challenge for the meat industry. This review briefly summarises current knowledge on the biological implications of biogenic amines on human health and collects data on the factors affecting their formation in meat and fermented meat products.

  18. A molecular probe for the optical detection of biogenic amines

    OpenAIRE

    Lee, Boram; Scopelliti, Rosario; Severin, Kay

    2011-01-01

    A coumarin derivative was employed for the detection of biogenic amines in buffered aqueous solution by UV-Vis or fluorescence spectroscopy. Incorporated in a polymeric matrix, the dye can also be used for the optical detection of gaseous amines.

  19. Biogenic silica in surficial sediments of Prydz Bay, Antarctica

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Hu Chuanyu; Xue Bin; Yu Peisong; Pan Jianming

    2008-01-01

    The content and distribution of biogenic silica were investigated in sediment cores from Prydz Bay,Antarctica,during the CHINARE 18/21 cruise.The results show that the content of biogenic silica(BSiO 2 )is ranged from 4.89% to 85.41%,and the average content of biogenic silica is 30.90%,the highest valueoccurred at the IV 10 station.The profile of BSiO 2 in sediment is contrast to that of silicate in the interstitial water.The content of biogenic silica and organic carbon in the surface sediments in the central area of Prydz Bay gyre were much higher than those in other area,and closely related to the Chla content and primary productivity of phytoplankton in the surface water column.

  20. Modelling approach to the assessment of biogenic fluxes at a selected Ross Sea site, Antarctica

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. Vichi

    2009-07-01

    Full Text Available Several biogeochemical data have been collected in the last 10 years of Italian activity in Antarctica (ABIOCLEAR, ROSSMIZE, BIOSESO-I/II. A comprehensive 1-D biogeochemical model was implemented as a tool to link observations with processes and to investigate the mechanisms that regulate the flux of biogenic material through the water column. The model is ideally located at station B (175° E–74° S and was set up to reproduce the seasonal cycle of phytoplankton and organic matter fluxes as forced by the dominant water column physics over the period 1990–2001. Austral spring-summer bloom conditions are assessed by comparing simulated nutrient drawdown, primary production rates, bacterial respiration and biomass with the available observations. The simulated biogenic fluxes of carbon, nitrogen and silica have been compared with the fluxes derived from sediment traps data. The model reproduces the observed magnitude of the biogenic fluxes, especially those found in the bottom sediment trap, but the peaks are markedly delayed in time. Sensitivity experiments have shown that the characterization of detritus, the choice of the sinking velocity and the degradation rates are crucial for the timing and magnitude of the vertical fluxes. An increase of velocity leads to a shift towards observation but also to an overestimation of the deposition flux which can be counteracted by higher bacterial remineralization rates. Model results suggest that the timing of the observed fluxes depends first and foremost on the timing of surface production and on a combination of size-distribution and quality of the autochtonous biogenic material. It is hypothesized that the bottom sediment trap collects material originated from the rapid sinking of freshly-produced particles and also from the previous year's production period.

  1. Absorption of Visible and Long-wave Radiation by Primary and Secondary Biogenic Aerosols.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gaffney, J. S.; Marley, N. A.

    2008-12-01

    Field results for the 14C content of carbonaceous aerosols are presented that indicate significant biogenic sources of both primary and secondary aerosols in urban and regional environments. Samples collected in Mexico City and downwind of the urban area during the MILAGRO field study are compared with results reported previously in the literature indicating a significant amount of biogenic aerosols from both biomass burning and secondary photochemical production (e.g. terpene oxidations) are contributing to the overall carbonaceous aerosols in the optically active region of 0.1 to 1.0 micron. Samples in this size range collected on quartz fiber filters were also examined using an integrating sphere and FTIR diffuse reflectance techniques to obtain absorption spectra from 280 to the mid-IR. These data clearly indicate that the biogenic derived primary aerosols from agricultural and trash-burning, as well as secondary organic aerosols from isoprene and terpene oxidations will produce both UV-Visible (short-wave) absorbing substances as well as IR (long-wave) absorbing compounds including humic-like-substances (HULIS). With the anticipated increases in growing seasons (i.e. earlier springs and longer summers) the likely hood of increased fires (forest and grassland) as well as the continuing growth in agricultural burning activities, these primary sources are expected to increase and may play a role in heating of the atmosphere. The compound effects of these primary and secondary biogenic sources of absorbing aerosols to the total aerosol loading and regional climate will be discussed. This work was supported by the Office of Science (BER), U.S. Department of Energy, Grant No. DE-FG02-07ER64328 as part of the Atmospheric Science Program.

  2. Modelling approach to the assessment of biogenic fluxes at a selected Ross Sea site, Antarctica

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vichi, M.; Coluccelli, A.; Ravaioli, M.; Giglio, F.; Langone, L.; Azzaro, M.; Azzaro, F.; La Ferla, R.; Catalano, G.; Cozzi, S.

    2009-07-01

    Several biogeochemical data have been collected in the last 10 years of Italian activity in Antarctica (ABIOCLEAR, ROSSMIZE, BIOSESO-I/II). A comprehensive 1-D biogeochemical model was implemented as a tool to link observations with processes and to investigate the mechanisms that regulate the flux of biogenic material through the water column. The model is ideally located at station B (175° E-74° S) and was set up to reproduce the seasonal cycle of phytoplankton and organic matter fluxes as forced by the dominant water column physics over the period 1990-2001. Austral spring-summer bloom conditions are assessed by comparing simulated nutrient drawdown, primary production rates, bacterial respiration and biomass with the available observations. The simulated biogenic fluxes of carbon, nitrogen and silica have been compared with the fluxes derived from sediment traps data. The model reproduces the observed magnitude of the biogenic fluxes, especially those found in the bottom sediment trap, but the peaks are markedly delayed in time. Sensitivity experiments have shown that the characterization of detritus, the choice of the sinking velocity and the degradation rates are crucial for the timing and magnitude of the vertical fluxes. An increase of velocity leads to a shift towards observation but also to an overestimation of the deposition flux which can be counteracted by higher bacterial remineralization rates. Model results suggest that the timing of the observed fluxes depends first and foremost on the timing of surface production and on a combination of size-distribution and quality of the autochtonous biogenic material. It is hypothesized that the bottom sediment trap collects material originated from the rapid sinking of freshly-produced particles and also from the previous year's production period.

  3. Effects of calcium and phosphate on uranium(IV) oxidation. Comparison between nanoparticulate uraninite and amorphous UIV–phosphate

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Latta, Drew E. [Argonne National Lab. (ANL), Argonne, IL (United States); Kemner, Kenneth M. [Argonne National Lab. (ANL), Argonne, IL (United States); Mishra, Bhoopesh [Argonne National Lab. (ANL), Argonne, IL (United States); Illinois Inst. of Technology, Chicago, IL (United States); Boyanov, Maxim I. [Argonne National Lab. (ANL), Argonne, IL (United States); Bulgarian Academy of Sciences, Sofia (Bulgaria)

    2016-02-01

    The mobility of uranium in subsurface environments depends strongly on its redox state, with UIV phases being significantly less soluble than UVI minerals. This study compares the oxidation kinetics and mechanisms of two potential products of UVI reduction in natural systems, a nanoparticulate UO2 phase and an amorphous UIV–Ca–PO4 analog to ningyoite (CaUIV(PO4)2·1–2H2O). The valence of U was tracked by X-ray absorption near-edge spectroscopy (XANES), showing similar oxidation rate constants for UIVO2 and UIV–phosphate in solutions equilibrated with atmospheric O2 and CO2 at pH 7.0 (kobs,UO2 = 0.17 ± 0.075 h-1 vs. kobs,UIVPO4 = 0.30 ± 0.25 h-1). Addition of up to 400 μM Ca and PO4 decreased the oxidation rate constant by an order of magnitude for both UO2 and UIV–phosphate. The intermediates and products of oxidation were tracked by electron microscopy, powder X-ray diffraction (pXRD), and extended X-ray absorption fine-structure spectroscopy (EXAFS). In the absence of Ca or PO4, the product of UO2 oxidation is Na–uranyl oxyhydroxide (under environmentally relevant concentrations of sodium, 15 mM NaClO4 and low carbonate concentration), resulting in low concentrations of dissolved UVI (<2.5 × 10-7 M). Oxidation of UIV–phosphate produced a Na-autunite phase (Na2(UO2)PO4·xH2O), resulting in similarly low dissolved U concentrations (<7.3 × 10-8 M). When Ca and PO4 are present in the solution, the EXAFS data and the solubility of the UVI phase resulting from oxidation of UO2 and UIV–phosphate are consistent with the precipitation of Na-autunite. Bicarbonate extractions and Ca K-edge X-ray absorption spectroscopy of oxidized solids indicate the formation of a Ca–UVI–PO4 layer on the UO2 surface and suggest a passivation layer mechanism for the decreased rate of UO2 oxidation in the presence of Ca and PO4. Interestingly, the extractions were unable to remove all of the oxidized U from partially oxidized UO2 solids, suggesting that oxidized U is

  4. Effects of calcium and phosphate on uranium(IV) oxidation: Comparison between nanoparticulate uraninite and amorphous UIV-phosphate

    Science.gov (United States)

    Latta, Drew E.; Kemner, Kenneth M.; Mishra, Bhoopesh; Boyanov, Maxim I.

    2016-02-01

    The mobility of uranium in subsurface environments depends strongly on its redox state, with UIV phases being significantly less soluble than UVI minerals. This study compares the oxidation kinetics and mechanisms of two potential products of UVI reduction in natural systems, a nanoparticulate UO2 phase and an amorphous UIV-Ca-PO4 analog to ningyoite (CaUIV(PO4)2·1-2H2O). The valence of U was tracked by X-ray absorption near-edge spectroscopy (XANES), showing similar oxidation rate constants for UIVO2 and UIV-phosphate in solutions equilibrated with atmospheric O2 and CO2 at pH 7.0 (kobs,UO2 = 0.17 ± 0.075 h-1 vs. kobs,UIVPO4 = 0.30 ± 0.25 h-1). Addition of up to 400 μM Ca and PO4 decreased the oxidation rate constant by an order of magnitude for both UO2 and UIV-phosphate. The intermediates and products of oxidation were tracked by electron microscopy, powder X-ray diffraction (pXRD), and extended X-ray absorption fine-structure spectroscopy (EXAFS). In the absence of Ca or PO4, the product of UO2 oxidation is Na-uranyl oxyhydroxide (under environmentally relevant concentrations of sodium, 15 mM NaClO4 and low carbonate concentration), resulting in low concentrations of dissolved UVI (<2.5 × 10-7 M). Oxidation of UIV-phosphate produced a Na-autunite phase (Na2(UO2)PO4·xH2O), resulting in similarly low dissolved U concentrations (<7.3 × 10-8 M). When Ca and PO4 are present in the solution, the EXAFS data and the solubility of the UVI phase resulting from oxidation of UO2 and UIV-phosphate are consistent with the precipitation of Na-autunite. Bicarbonate extractions and Ca K-edge X-ray absorption spectroscopy of oxidized solids indicate the formation of a Ca-UVI-PO4 layer on the UO2 surface and suggest a passivation layer mechanism for the decreased rate of UO2 oxidation in the presence of Ca and PO4. Interestingly, the extractions were unable to remove all of the oxidized U from partially oxidized UO2 solids, suggesting that oxidized U is distributed between

  5. Biogenic Silver for Disinfection of Water Contaminated with Viruses▿

    OpenAIRE

    De Gusseme, Bart; Sintubin, Liesje; Baert, Leen; Thibo, Ellen; Hennebel, Tom; Vermeulen, Griet; Uyttendaele, Mieke; Verstraete, Willy; Boon, Nico

    2009-01-01

    The presence of enteric viruses in drinking water is a potential health risk. Growing interest has arisen in nanometals for water disinfection, in particular the use of silver-based nanotechnology. In this study, Lactobacillus fermentum served as a reducing agent and bacterial carrier matrix for zerovalent silver nanoparticles, referred to as biogenic Ag0. The antiviral action of biogenic Ag0 was examined in water spiked with an Enterobacter aerogenes-infecting bacteriophage (UZ1). Addition o...

  6. Factors Influencing Biogenic Amines Accumulation in Dairy Products

    OpenAIRE

    Linares, Daniel M.; del Río, Beatriz; Ladero, Victor; Martínez, Noelia; Fernández, María; Martín, María Cruz; Álvarez, Miguel A.

    2012-01-01

    Fermented foods are among the food products more often complained of having caused episodes of biogenic amines (BA) poisoning. Concerning milk-based fermented foods, cheese is the main product likely to contain potentially harmful levels of BA, specially tyramine, histamine, and putrescine. Prompted by the increasing awareness of the risks related to dietary uptake of high biogenic amine loads, in this review we report all those elaboration and processing technological aspects affecting BA bi...

  7. Factors influencing biogenic amines accumulation in dairy products

    OpenAIRE

    Alvarez, Miguel A.

    2012-01-01

    Fermented foods are among the food products more often complained of having caused episodes of biogenic amines (BA) poisoning. Concerning milk-based fermented foods, cheese is the main product likely to contain potentially harmful levels of BA, specially tyramine, histamine, and putrescine. Prompted by the increasing awareness of the risks related to dietary uptake of high biogenic amine loads, in this review we report all those elaboration and processing technological aspects affecting BA bi...

  8. Quantification of biogenic amines by microchip electrophoresis with chemiluminescence detection

    OpenAIRE

    Zhao, Shulin; Yong HUANG; Shi, Ming; Liu, Yi-Ming

    2009-01-01

    A highly sensitive microchip electrophoresis (MCE) method with chemiluminescence (CL) detection was developed for the determination of biogenic amines including agmatine, epinephrine, dopamine, tyramine, and histamine in human urine samples. To achieve a high assay sensitivity, the targeted analytes were pre-column labeled by a CL tagging reagent, N-(4-aminobutyl)-N-ethylisoluminol (ABEI). ABEI-tagged biogenic amines after MCE separation reacted with hydrogen peroxide in the presence of horse...

  9. Biogenic amines in meat and fermented meat products

    OpenAIRE

    Joanna Stadnik; Zbigniew J. Dolatowski

    2010-01-01

    Recent trends in food quality and safety promote an increasing search for trace compounds that can affect human health. Biogenic amines belong to this group of substances. They can cause distinctive pharmacological, physiological and toxic effects in organisms. Their amounts are usually increasing as a consequence of the use of poor quality raw materials, during controlled or spontaneous microbial fermentation or in the course of food spoilage. The origin of biogenic amines makes them suitabl...

  10. BIOGENIC AMINES CONTENT IN SELECTED WINES DURING WINEMAKING

    OpenAIRE

    Radka Flasarová; Leona Buňková; Barbora Ivičičová; František Buňka; Stanislav Kráčmar

    2012-01-01

    The aim of this study was to describe the development of selected biogenic amines (histamine; tyramine; phenylethylamine; putrescine; agmatine; and cadaverine) during the winemaking in 10 selected species grown in Central Europe in 2008. The analysis was performed using ion-exchange chromatography by the sodium-citrate buffers with the post-column ninhydrin derivatization and photometric detection. A comparison of the content of biogenic amines in red and wine varieties showed that red wines ...

  11. Sub-Antarctic marine aerosol: significant contributions from biogenic sources

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J. Schmale

    2013-03-01

    Full Text Available Biogenic influences on the composition and characteristics of aerosol were investigated on Bird Island (54°00' S, 38°03' W in the South Atlantic during November and December 2010. This remote marine environment is characterised by large seabird and seal colonies. The chemical composition of the submicron particles, measured by an aerosol mass spectrometer (AMS, was 21% non-sea salt sulfate 2% nitrate, 7% ammonium, 22% organics and 47% sea salt including sea salt sulfate. A new method to isolate the sea salt signature from the high-resolution AMS data was applied. Generally, the aerosol was found to be less acidic than in other marine environments due to the high availability of ammonia, from local fauna emissions. By positive matrix factorisation five different organic aerosol (OA profiles could be isolated: an amino acids/amine factor (AA-OA, 18% of OA mass, a methanesulfonic acid OA factor (MSA-OA, 25%, a marine oxygenated OA factor (M-OOA, 40%, a sea salt OA fraction (SS-OA, 7% and locally produced hydrocarbon-like OA (HOA, 9%. The AA-OA was dominant during the first two weeks of November and found to be related with the hatching of penguins in a nearby colony. This factor, rich in nitrogen (C : N ratio = 0.13, has implications for the biogeochemical cycling of nitrogen in the area as particulate matter is often transported over longer distances than gaseous N-rich compounds. The MSA-OA was mainly transported from more southerly latitudes where phytoplankton bloomed. The bloom was identified as one of three sources for particulate sulfate on Bird Island, next to sea salt sulfate and sulfate transported from South America. M-OOA was the dominant organic factor and found to be similar to marine OA observed at Mace Head, Ireland. An additional OA factor highly correlated with sea salt aerosol was identified (SS-OA. However, based on the available data the type of mixture, internal or external, could not be determined. Potassium was not

  12. Sub-Antarctic marine aerosol: dominant contributions from biogenic sources

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J. Schmale

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available Biogenic influences on the composition and characteristics of aerosol were investigated on Bird Island (54°00' S, 38°03' W in the South Atlantic during November and December 2010. This remote marine environment is characterised by large seabird and seal colonies. The chemical composition of the submicron particles, measured by an aerosol mass spectrometer (AMS, was 21% non-sea-salt sulfate, 2% nitrate, 8% ammonium, 22% organics and 47% sea salt including sea salt sulfate. A new method to isolate the sea spray signature from the high-resolution AMS data was applied. Generally, the aerosol was found to be less acidic than in other marine environments due to the high availability of ammonia, from local fauna emissions. By positive matrix factorisation five different organic aerosol (OA profiles could be isolated: an amino acid/amine factor (AA-OA, 18% of OA mass, a methanesulfonic acid OA factor (MSA-OA, 25%, a marine oxygenated OA factor (M-OOA, 41%, a sea spray OA fraction (SS-OA, 7% and locally produced hydrocarbon-like OA (HOA, 9%. The AA-OA was dominant during the first two weeks of November and found to be related with the hatching of penguins in a nearby colony. This factor, rich in nitrogen (N : C ratio = 0.13, has implications for the biogeochemical cycling of nitrogen in the area as particulate matter is often transported over longer distances than gaseous N-rich compounds. The MSA-OA was mainly transported from more southerly latitudes where phytoplankton bloomed. The bloom was identified as one of three sources for particulate sulfate on Bird Island, next to sea salt sulfate and sulfate transported from South America. M-OOA was the dominant organic factor and found to be similar to marine OA observed at Mace Head, Ireland. An additional OA factor highly correlated with sea spray aerosol was identified (SS-OA. However, based on the available data the type of mixture, internal or external, could not be determined. Potassium was not

  13. Sub-Antarctic marine aerosol: significant contributions from biogenic sources

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schmale, J.; Schneider, J.; Nemitz, E.; Tang, Y. S.; Dragosits, U.; Blackall, T. D.; Trathan, P. N.; Phillips, G. J.; Sutton, M.; Braban, C. F.

    2013-03-01

    Biogenic influences on the composition and characteristics of aerosol were investigated on Bird Island (54°00' S, 38°03' W) in the South Atlantic during November and December 2010. This remote marine environment is characterised by large seabird and seal colonies. The chemical composition of the submicron particles, measured by an aerosol mass spectrometer (AMS), was 21% non-sea salt sulfate 2% nitrate, 7% ammonium, 22% organics and 47% sea salt including sea salt sulfate. A new method to isolate the sea salt signature from the high-resolution AMS data was applied. Generally, the aerosol was found to be less acidic than in other marine environments due to the high availability of ammonia, from local fauna emissions. By positive matrix factorisation five different organic aerosol (OA) profiles could be isolated: an amino acids/amine factor (AA-OA, 18% of OA mass), a methanesulfonic acid OA factor (MSA-OA, 25%), a marine oxygenated OA factor (M-OOA, 40%), a sea salt OA fraction (SS-OA, 7%) and locally produced hydrocarbon-like OA (HOA, 9%). The AA-OA was dominant during the first two weeks of November and found to be related with the hatching of penguins in a nearby colony. This factor, rich in nitrogen (C : N ratio = 0.13), has implications for the biogeochemical cycling of nitrogen in the area as particulate matter is often transported over longer distances than gaseous N-rich compounds. The MSA-OA was mainly transported from more southerly latitudes where phytoplankton bloomed. The bloom was identified as one of three sources for particulate sulfate on Bird Island, next to sea salt sulfate and sulfate transported from South America. M-OOA was the dominant organic factor and found to be similar to marine OA observed at Mace Head, Ireland. An additional OA factor highly correlated with sea salt aerosol was identified (SS-OA). However, based on the available data the type of mixture, internal or external, could not be determined. Potassium was not associated to sea

  14. Sub-Antarctic marine aerosol: dominant contributions from biogenic sources

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schmale, J.; Schneider, J.; Nemitz, E.; Tang, Y. S.; Dragosits, U.; Blackall, T. D.; Trathan, P. N.; Phillips, G. J.; Sutton, M.; Braban, C. F.

    2013-09-01

    Biogenic influences on the composition and characteristics of aerosol were investigated on Bird Island (54°00' S, 38°03' W) in the South Atlantic during November and December 2010. This remote marine environment is characterised by large seabird and seal colonies. The chemical composition of the submicron particles, measured by an aerosol mass spectrometer (AMS), was 21% non-sea-salt sulfate, 2% nitrate, 8% ammonium, 22% organics and 47% sea salt including sea salt sulfate. A new method to isolate the sea spray signature from the high-resolution AMS data was applied. Generally, the aerosol was found to be less acidic than in other marine environments due to the high availability of ammonia, from local fauna emissions. By positive matrix factorisation five different organic aerosol (OA) profiles could be isolated: an amino acid/amine factor (AA-OA, 18% of OA mass), a methanesulfonic acid OA factor (MSA-OA, 25%), a marine oxygenated OA factor (M-OOA, 41%), a sea spray OA fraction (SS-OA, 7%) and locally produced hydrocarbon-like OA (HOA, 9%). The AA-OA was dominant during the first two weeks of November and found to be related with the hatching of penguins in a nearby colony. This factor, rich in nitrogen (N : C ratio = 0.13), has implications for the biogeochemical cycling of nitrogen in the area as particulate matter is often transported over longer distances than gaseous N-rich compounds. The MSA-OA was mainly transported from more southerly latitudes where phytoplankton bloomed. The bloom was identified as one of three sources for particulate sulfate on Bird Island, next to sea salt sulfate and sulfate transported from South America. M-OOA was the dominant organic factor and found to be similar to marine OA observed at Mace Head, Ireland. An additional OA factor highly correlated with sea spray aerosol was identified (SS-OA). However, based on the available data the type of mixture, internal or external, could not be determined. Potassium was not associated

  15. Biogenic aldehyde determination by reactive paper spray ionization mass spectrometry

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bag, Soumabha; Hendricks, P.I. [Aston Labs, Department of Chemistry, Purdue University, West Lafayette, IN 47907 (United States); Reynolds, J.C. [Centre for Analytical Science, Loughborough University, Loughborough, Leicestershire (United Kingdom); Cooks, R.G., E-mail: cooks@purdue.edu [Aston Labs, Department of Chemistry, Purdue University, West Lafayette, IN 47907 (United States)

    2015-02-20

    Highlights: • In-situ derivatization and simultaneous ionization used to detect aldehydes. • Biogenic aliphatic and aromatic aldehydes reacted with 4-aminophenol. • Derivatized products yield structurally characteristic fragment ions. • This measurement demonstrated using a miniaturized portable mass spectrometer. - Abstract: Ionization of aliphatic and aromatic aldehydes is improved by performing simultaneous chemical derivatization using 4-aminophenol to produce charged iminium ions during paper spray ionization. Accelerated reactions occur in the microdroplets generated during the paper spray ionization event for the tested aldehydes (formaldehyde, n-pentanaldehyde, n-nonanaldehyde, n-decanaldehyde, n-dodecanaldehyde, benzaldehyde, m-anisaldehyde, and p-hydroxybenzaldehyde). Tandem mass spectrometric analysis of the iminium ions using collision-induced dissociation demonstrated that straight chain aldehydes give a characteristic fragment at m/z 122 (shown to correspond to protonated 4-(methyleneamino)phenol), while the aromatic aldehyde iminium ions fragment to give a characteristic product ion at m/z 120. These features allow straightforward identification of linear and aromatic aldehydes. Quantitative analysis of n-nonaldehyde using a benchtop mass spectrometer demonstrated a linear response over 3 orders of magnitude from 2.5 ng to 5 μg of aldehyde loaded on the filter paper emitter. The limit of detection was determined to be 2.2 ng for this aldehyde. The method had a precision of 22%, relative standard deviation. The experiment was also implemented using a portable ion trap mass spectrometer.

  16. Biogenic aldehyde determination by reactive paper spray ionization mass spectrometry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Highlights: • In-situ derivatization and simultaneous ionization used to detect aldehydes. • Biogenic aliphatic and aromatic aldehydes reacted with 4-aminophenol. • Derivatized products yield structurally characteristic fragment ions. • This measurement demonstrated using a miniaturized portable mass spectrometer. - Abstract: Ionization of aliphatic and aromatic aldehydes is improved by performing simultaneous chemical derivatization using 4-aminophenol to produce charged iminium ions during paper spray ionization. Accelerated reactions occur in the microdroplets generated during the paper spray ionization event for the tested aldehydes (formaldehyde, n-pentanaldehyde, n-nonanaldehyde, n-decanaldehyde, n-dodecanaldehyde, benzaldehyde, m-anisaldehyde, and p-hydroxybenzaldehyde). Tandem mass spectrometric analysis of the iminium ions using collision-induced dissociation demonstrated that straight chain aldehydes give a characteristic fragment at m/z 122 (shown to correspond to protonated 4-(methyleneamino)phenol), while the aromatic aldehyde iminium ions fragment to give a characteristic product ion at m/z 120. These features allow straightforward identification of linear and aromatic aldehydes. Quantitative analysis of n-nonaldehyde using a benchtop mass spectrometer demonstrated a linear response over 3 orders of magnitude from 2.5 ng to 5 μg of aldehyde loaded on the filter paper emitter. The limit of detection was determined to be 2.2 ng for this aldehyde. The method had a precision of 22%, relative standard deviation. The experiment was also implemented using a portable ion trap mass spectrometer

  17. Technological Factors Affecting Biogenic Amine Content in Foods: A Review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gardini, Fausto; Özogul, Yesim; Suzzi, Giovanna; Tabanelli, Giulia; Özogul, Fatih

    2016-01-01

    Biogenic amines (BAs) are molecules, which can be present in foods and, due to their toxicity, can cause adverse effects on the consumers. BAs are generally produced by microbial decarboxylation of amino acids in food products. The most significant BAs occurring in foods are histamine, tyramine, putrescine, cadaverine, tryptamine, 2-phenylethylamine, spermine, spermidine, and agmatine. The importance of preventing the excessive accumulation of BAs in foods is related to their impact on human health and food quality. Quality criteria in connection with the presence of BAs in food and food products are necessary from a toxicological point of view. This is particularly important in fermented foods in which the massive microbial proliferation required for obtaining specific products is often relater with BAs accumulation. In this review, up-to-date information and recent discoveries about technological factors affecting BA content in foods are reviewed. Specifically, BA forming-microorganism and decarboxylation activity, genetic and metabolic organization of decarboxylases, risk associated to BAs (histamine, tyramine toxicity, and other BAs), environmental factors influencing BA formation (temperature, salt concentration, and pH). In addition, the technological factors for controlling BA production (use of starter culture, technological additives, effects of packaging, other non-thermal treatments, metabolizing BA by microorganisms, effects of pressure treatments on BA formation and antimicrobial substances) are addressed. PMID:27570519

  18. Ion-induced nucleation of pure biogenic particles

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kirkby, Jasper; Duplissy, Jonathan; Sengupta, Kamalika; Frege, Carla; Gordon, Hamish; Williamson, Christina; Heinritzi, Martin; Simon, Mario; Yan, Chao; Almeida, João; Tröstl, Jasmin; Nieminen, Tuomo; Ortega, Ismael K.; Wagner, Robert; Adamov, Alexey; Amorim, Antonio; Bernhammer, Anne-Kathrin; Bianchi, Federico; Breitenlechner, Martin; Brilke, Sophia; Chen, Xuemeng; Craven, Jill; Dias, Antonio; Ehrhart, Sebastian; Flagan, Richard C.; Franchin, Alessandro; Fuchs, Claudia; Guida, Roberto; Hakala, Jani; Hoyle, Christopher R.; Jokinen, Tuija; Junninen, Heikki; Kangasluoma, Juha; Kim, Jaeseok; Krapf, Manuel; Kürten, Andreas; Laaksonen, Ari; Lehtipalo, Katrianne; Makhmutov, Vladimir; Mathot, Serge; Molteni, Ugo; Onnela, Antti; Peräkylä, Otso; Piel, Felix; Petäjä, Tuukka; Praplan, Arnaud P.; Pringle, Kirsty; Rap, Alexandru; Richards, Nigel A. D.; Riipinen, Ilona; Rissanen, Matti P.; Rondo, Linda; Sarnela, Nina; Schobesberger, Siegfried; Scott, Catherine E.; Seinfeld, John H.; Sipilä, Mikko; Steiner, Gerhard; Stozhkov, Yuri; Stratmann, Frank; Tomé, Antonio; Virtanen, Annele; Vogel, Alexander L.; Wagner, Andrea C.; Wagner, Paul E.; Weingartner, Ernest; Wimmer, Daniela; Winkler, Paul M.; Ye, Penglin; Zhang, Xuan; Hansel, Armin; Dommen, Josef; Donahue, Neil M.; Worsnop, Douglas R.; Baltensperger, Urs; Kulmala, Markku; Carslaw, Kenneth S.; Curtius, Joachim

    2016-05-01

    Atmospheric aerosols and their effect on clouds are thought to be important for anthropogenic radiative forcing of the climate, yet remain poorly understood. Globally, around half of cloud condensation nuclei originate from nucleation of atmospheric vapours. It is thought that sulfuric acid is essential to initiate most particle formation in the atmosphere, and that ions have a relatively minor role. Some laboratory studies, however, have reported organic particle formation without the intentional addition of sulfuric acid, although contamination could not be excluded. Here we present evidence for the formation of aerosol particles from highly oxidized biogenic vapours in the absence of sulfuric acid in a large chamber under atmospheric conditions. The highly oxygenated molecules (HOMs) are produced by ozonolysis of α-pinene. We find that ions from Galactic cosmic rays increase the nucleation rate by one to two orders of magnitude compared with neutral nucleation. Our experimental findings are supported by quantum chemical calculations of the cluster binding energies of representative HOMs. Ion-induced nucleation of pure organic particles constitutes a potentially widespread source of aerosol particles in terrestrial environments with low sulfuric acid pollution.

  19. Ion-induced nucleation of pure biogenic particles.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kirkby, Jasper; Duplissy, Jonathan; Sengupta, Kamalika; Frege, Carla; Gordon, Hamish; Williamson, Christina; Heinritzi, Martin; Simon, Mario; Yan, Chao; Almeida, João; Tröstl, Jasmin; Nieminen, Tuomo; Ortega, Ismael K; Wagner, Robert; Adamov, Alexey; Amorim, Antonio; Bernhammer, Anne-Kathrin; Bianchi, Federico; Breitenlechner, Martin; Brilke, Sophia; Chen, Xuemeng; Craven, Jill; Dias, Antonio; Ehrhart, Sebastian; Flagan, Richard C; Franchin, Alessandro; Fuchs, Claudia; Guida, Roberto; Hakala, Jani; Hoyle, Christopher R; Jokinen, Tuija; Junninen, Heikki; Kangasluoma, Juha; Kim, Jaeseok; Krapf, Manuel; Kürten, Andreas; Laaksonen, Ari; Lehtipalo, Katrianne; Makhmutov, Vladimir; Mathot, Serge; Molteni, Ugo; Onnela, Antti; Peräkylä, Otso; Piel, Felix; Petäjä, Tuukka; Praplan, Arnaud P; Pringle, Kirsty; Rap, Alexandru; Richards, Nigel A D; Riipinen, Ilona; Rissanen, Matti P; Rondo, Linda; Sarnela, Nina; Schobesberger, Siegfried; Scott, Catherine E; Seinfeld, John H; Sipilä, Mikko; Steiner, Gerhard; Stozhkov, Yuri; Stratmann, Frank; Tomé, Antonio; Virtanen, Annele; Vogel, Alexander L; Wagner, Andrea C; Wagner, Paul E; Weingartner, Ernest; Wimmer, Daniela; Winkler, Paul M; Ye, Penglin; Zhang, Xuan; Hansel, Armin; Dommen, Josef; Donahue, Neil M; Worsnop, Douglas R; Baltensperger, Urs; Kulmala, Markku; Carslaw, Kenneth S; Curtius, Joachim

    2016-05-26

    Atmospheric aerosols and their effect on clouds are thought to be important for anthropogenic radiative forcing of the climate, yet remain poorly understood. Globally, around half of cloud condensation nuclei originate from nucleation of atmospheric vapours. It is thought that sulfuric acid is essential to initiate most particle formation in the atmosphere, and that ions have a relatively minor role. Some laboratory studies, however, have reported organic particle formation without the intentional addition of sulfuric acid, although contamination could not be excluded. Here we present evidence for the formation of aerosol particles from highly oxidized biogenic vapours in the absence of sulfuric acid in a large chamber under atmospheric conditions. The highly oxygenated molecules (HOMs) are produced by ozonolysis of α-pinene. We find that ions from Galactic cosmic rays increase the nucleation rate by one to two orders of magnitude compared with neutral nucleation. Our experimental findings are supported by quantum chemical calculations of the cluster binding energies of representative HOMs. Ion-induced nucleation of pure organic particles constitutes a potentially widespread source of aerosol particles in terrestrial environments with low sulfuric acid pollution. PMID:27225125

  20. Prospects for biogenic natural gas. Pt. 2. Supply of heat, power and fuel; Perspektiven fuer Bio-Erdgas. T. 2. Bereitstellung von Waerme, Strom und Kraftstoff

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kappler, Gunnar; Hurtig, Oliver; Kaelber, Stefan; Leible, Ludwig [Karlsruher Institut fuer Technologie (KIT), Karlsruhe (DE). Inst. fuer Technikfolgenabschaetzung und Systemanalyse (ITAS)

    2012-07-01

    Biogenic natural gas as a substitute for natural gas (SNG) offers various opportunities for different types of biomass for a more efficient handling and energy use in the power, heat and fuel sectors. The first part of this publication dealt with techno-economic aspects of SNG production based on biogas and thermo-chemically produced gas. Based on these results, this second part analyzes different utilizations of biogenic natural gas for heat, power and fuel production and compares these utilizations with fossil natural gas and the direct use of biogas or thermo-chemically produced gas. (orig.)

  1. Prospects for biogenic natural gas. Pt. I. Production from wet and dry biomass; Perspektiven fuer Bio-Erdgas. T. I.. Bereitstellung aus nasser und trockener Biomasse

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Leible, Ludwig; Kaelber, Stefan; Kappler, Gunnar [Karlsruher Institut fuer Technologie (KIT), Karlsruhe (DE). Inst. fuer Technikfolgenabschaetzung und Systemanalyse (ITAS); Eltrop, Ludger; Stenull, Maria [Stuttgart Univ. (DE). Inst. fuer Energiewirtschaft und Rationelle Energieanwendung (IER); Lansche, Jens [Hohenheim Univ., Stuttgart (Germany). Inst. fuer Agrartechnik; Poboss, Norman [Stuttgart Univ. (DE). Inst. fuer Feuerungs- und Kraftwerkstechnik (IFK); Stuermer, Bernd; Kelm, Tobias [Zentrum fuer Sonnenenergie- und Wasserstoff-Forschung Baden-Wuerttemberg (ZSW), Stuttgart (Germany); Koeppel, Wolfgang [Deutsche Vereinigung des Gas- und Wasserfaches e.V. (DVGW), Forschungsstelle am Engler-Bunte-Institut (EBI), Karlsruhe (Germany)

    2012-07-01

    Biogenic natural gas offers as substitute for natural gas (SNG) various opportunities for different types of biomass for a more efficient handling and energy use in the power, heat and fuel sector. Part I of this publication deals with techno-economic aspects of SNG production based on biogas and thermo-chemically produced gas. Associated GHG emissions are discussed as well. Part II focuses on the utilization of biogenic natural gas for heat, power and fuel production. A comparison with fossil natural gas and the direct use of biogas or thermo-chemically produced gas is included. (orig.)

  2. Biogenic amine production by Lactococcus lactis subsp. cremoris strains in the model system of Dutch-type cheese.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Flasarová, Radka; Pachlová, Vendula; Buňková, Leona; Menšíková, Anna; Georgová, Nikola; Dráb, Vladimír; Buňka, František

    2016-03-01

    The aim of this study was to compare the biogenic amine production of two starter strains of Lactococcus lactis subsp. cremoris (strains from the Culture Collection of Dairy Microorganisms - CCDM 824 and CCDM 946) with decarboxylase positive activity in a model system of Dutch-type cheese during a 90-day ripening period at 10°C. During ripening, biogenic amine and free amino acid content, microbiological characteristics and proximate chemical properties were observed. By the end of the ripening period, the putrescine content in both samples with the addition of the biogenic amine producing strain almost evened out and the concentration of putrescine was >800mg/kg. The amount of tyramine in the cheeses with the addition of the strain of CCDM 824 approached the limit of 400mg/kg by the end of ripening. In the cheeses with the addition of the strain of CCDM 946 it even exceeded 500mg/kg. In the control samples, the amount of biogenic amines was insignificant. PMID:26471528

  3. Biogenic Carbon on Mars: A Subsurface Chauvinistic Viewpoint

    Science.gov (United States)

    Onstott, T. C.; Lau, C. Y. M.; Magnabosco, C.; Harris, R.; Chen, Y.; Slater, G.; Sherwood Lollar, B.; Kieft, T. L.; van Heerden, E.; Borgonie, G.; Dong, H.

    2015-12-01

    A review of 150 publications on the subsurface microbiology of the continental subsurface provides ~1,400 measurements of cellular abundances down to 4,800 meter depth. These data suggest that the continental subsurface biomass is comprised of ~1016-17 grams of carbon, which is higher than the most recent estimates of ~1015 grams of carbon (1 Gt) for the marine deep biosphere. If life developed early in Martian history and Mars sustained an active hydrological cycle during its first 500 million years, then is it possible that Mars could have developed a subsurface biomass of comparable size to that of Earth? Such a biomass would comprise a much larger fraction of the total known Martian carbon budget than does the subsurface biomass on Earth. More importantly could a remnant of this subsurface biosphere survive to the present day? To determine how sustainable subsurface life could be in isolation from the surface we have been studying subsurface fracture fluids from the Precambrian Shields in South Africa and Canada. In these environments the energetically efficient and deeply rooted acetyl-CoA pathway for carbon fixation plays a central role for chemolithoautotrophic primary producers that form the base of the biomass pyramid. These primary producers appear to be sustained indefinitely by H2 generated through serpentinization and radiolytic reactions. Carbon isotope data suggest that in some subsurface locations a much larger population of secondary consumers are sustained by the primary production of biogenic CH4 from a much smaller population of methanogens. These inverted biomass and energy pyramids sustained by the cycling of CH4 could have been and could still be active on Mars. The C and H isotopic signatures of Martian CH4 remain key tools in identifying potential signatures of an extant Martian biosphere. Based upon our results to date cavity ring-down spectroscopic technologies provide an option for making these measurements on future rover missions.

  4. Title: Biogenic Magnetite Prevails in Oxic Pelagic Red Clay Core in the South Pacific Gyre

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shimono, T.; Yamazaki, T.

    2012-12-01

    Magnetotactic bacteria have been observed in wide variety of environments, including soils, freshwater lakes, and marine sediments, since Blakemore (1975) first described in 1975. Magnetotactic bacteria, which most commonly live within the oxic-anoxic transition zone (OATZ) of aquatic environments, produce intracellular crystals of magnetic minerals, specifically magnetite or greigite. It is considered that the magnetite/greigite crystals facilitate the bacteria's search for optimal conditions within the sharp chemical gradients of the OATZ. Petermann and Bleil (1993) reported living magnetotactic bacteria in pelagic and hemipelagic sediments near OATZ in the eastern South Atlantic at water depths to about 3,000 m, but they couldn't find actively swimming magnetotactic bacteria in sediments of deeper water depths. The South Pacific Gyre (SPG) is far from continents and the lowest productivity region on Earth. IODP site U1365 (water depth ~5,700 m) cored pelagic red clay of 75.5 m thick above ~100 Ma basement (except for the chart layer from ~42 to 63.5 m) in the western edge of the SPG. The core mainly consists of iron rich clay. The color is dark reddish and/or dark brown throughout the core. We conducted a paleomagnetic and environmental rock magnetic study of the pelagic clay core. The magnetostratigraphy revealed the top 5 m sediments cover the last 5 My, and sedimentation rate decreases downward from 1.7 to 0.6 m/m.y. Geochemical measurements of pore water indicate that dissolved oxygen was present throughout the core (>50 μM). Thus oxygen penetrates through the entire sediment column to the sediment/basalt interface, and there is no OATZ. Magnetic mineral assemblage of this core is dominated by biogenic magnetite despite no OATZ. First-order reversal curve (FORC) diagrams of all specimens have a narrow central ridge along the Hc axis with very small vertical spread. This indicates very weak magnetostatic interaction (Roberts et al., 2000), and is the

  5. Reactivity of biogenic manganese oxide for metal sequestration and photochemistry: Computational solid state physics study

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kwon, K.D.; Sposito, G.

    2010-02-01

    Many microbes, including both bacteria and fungi, produce manganese (Mn) oxides by oxidizing soluble Mn(II) to form insoluble Mn(IV) oxide minerals, a kinetically much faster process than abiotic oxidation. These biogenic Mn oxides drive the Mn cycle, coupling it with diverse biogeochemical cycles and determining the bioavailability of environmental contaminants, mainly through strong adsorption and redox reactions. This mini review introduces recent findings based on quantum mechanical density functional theory that reveal the detailed mechanisms of toxic metal adsorption at Mn oxide surfaces and the remarkable role of Mn vacancies in the photochemistry of these minerals.

  6. BIOGENIC AMINE CONTENT IN “PECORINO DEL PARCO DI MIGLIARINO - SAN ROSSORE”

    OpenAIRE

    F. Forzale; M. Giorgi; F. Pedonese; R. Nuvoloni; C. D’Ascenzi; S. Rindi

    2011-01-01

    Biogenic amines (BAs) can be naturally present in several foods. They are mainly produced in large amounts by amino acid decarboxylases activity of bacteria. The BAs content has been associated to the quality of raw material and to fermentation or spoilage processes. The aim of the present study was to asses the content of BAs (single and total value) in the core and in the external part of a Tuscan traditional pecorino cheese. Sixteen “Pecorino del Parco di Migliarino-San Rossore&rdquo...

  7. Characterization of biogenic secondary organic aerosols using statistical methods; Charakterisierung Biogener Sekundaerer Organischer Aerosole mit Statistischen Methoden

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Spindler, Christian

    2010-07-01

    Atmospheric aerosols have important influence on the radiation balance of the Earth, on visibility and human health. Secondary organic aerosol is formed from gas-to-particle conversion of oxidized volatile organic compounds. A dominant fraction of the gases originates from plant emissions, making biogenic secondary organic aerosol (BSOA) an especially important constituent of the atmosphere. Knowing the chemical composition of BSOA particles is crucial for a thorough understanding of aerosol processes in the environment. In this work, the chemical composition of BSOA particles was measured with aerosol mass spectrometry and analyzed with statistical methods. The experimental part of the work comprises process studies of the formation and aging of biogenic aerosols in simulation chambers. Using a plant chamber, real tree emissions were used to produce particles in a way close to conditions in forest environments. In the outdoor chamber SAPHIR, OH-radicals were produced from the photooxidation of ozone under illumination with natural sunlight. Here, BSOA was produced from defined mixtures of mono- and sesquiterpenes that represent boreal forest emissions. A third kind of experiments was performed in the indoor chamber AIDA. Here, particles were produced from ozonolysis of single monoterpenes and aged by condensing OH-oxidation products. Two aerosol mass spectrometers (AMS) were used to measure the chemical composition of the particles. One of the instruments is equipped with a quadrupole mass spectrometer providing unit mass resolution. The second instrument contains a time-of-flight mass spectrometer and provides mass resolution sufficient to distinguish different fragments with the same nominal mass. Aerosol mass spectra obtained with these instruments are strongly fragmented due to electron impact ionization of the evaporated molecules. In addition, typical BSOA mass spectra are very similar to each other. In order to get a more detailed knowledge about the mass

  8. Biogenic amine production by the wine Lactobacillus brevis IOEB 9809 in systems that partially mimic the gastrointestinal tract stress

    OpenAIRE

    Russo Pasquale; Fernández de Palencia Pilar; Romano Andrea; Fernández María; Lucas Patrick; Spano Giuseppe; López Paloma

    2012-01-01

    Abstract Background Ingestion of fermented foods containing high levels of biogenic amines (BA) can be deleterious to human health. Less obvious is the threat posed by BA producing organisms contained within the food which, in principle, could form BA after ingestion even if the food product itself does not initially contain high BA levels. In this work we have investigated the production of tyramine and putrescine by Lactobacillus brevis IOEB 9809, of wine origin, under simulated gastrointes...

  9. Technologies for the utilisation of biogenic waste in the bioeconomy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    O'Callaghan, Kenneth

    2016-05-01

    A brief review has been done of technologies involved in the exploitation of biogenic wastes, in order to provide an introduction to the subject from the technological perspective. Biogenic waste materials and biomass have historically been utilised for thousands of years, but a new conversation is emerging on the role of these materials in modern bioeconomies. Due to the nature of the products and commodities now required, a modern bioeconomy is not simply a rerun of former ones. This new dialogue needs to help us understand how technologies for managing and processing biogenic wastes--both established and novel--should be deployed and integrated (or not) to meet the requirements of the sustainability, closed-loop and resource-security agendas that evidently sit behind the bioeconomy aspirations now being voiced in many countries and regions of the world. PMID:26769498

  10. Measuring biogenic silica in marine sediments and suspended matter

    Science.gov (United States)

    DeMaster, David J.

    Measuring the biogenic silica content of marine sediments and suspended matter is essential for a variety of geochemical, biological, and sedimentological studies. Biota forming siliceous skeletal material account for as much as one third of the primary productivity in the ocean [Lisitzin, 1972] and a significant portion (2 to 70% by weight) of open-ocean sediments. Biogenic silica measurements reveal important information concerning the bulk chemistry of suspended material or sediment and are essential in any type of silica flux study in the water column or seabed. Analyses of this biogenic phase in marine plankton are useful in characterizing the basic types of biota present and in comparing the distributions of particulate and dissolved silicate when evaluating nutrient dynamics [Nelson and Smith, 1986]. In the marine environment, diatoms, radiolaria, sponges, and silicoflagellates are the common types of siliceous biota.

  11. Biogenic emissions from Citrus species in California

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fares, Silvano; Gentner, Drew R.; Park, Jeong-Hoo; Ormeno, Elena; Karlik, John; Goldstein, Allen H.

    2011-09-01

    Biogenic Volatile Organic Compounds (BVOC) emitted from plants are the dominant source of reduced carbon chemicals to the atmosphere and are important precursors to the photochemical production of ozone and secondary organic aerosols. Considering the extensive land used for agriculture, cultivated Citrus plantations may play an important role in the chemistry of the atmosphere especially in regions such as the Central Valley of California. Moreover, the BVOC emissions from Citrus species have not been characterized in detail and more species-specific inputs for regional models of BVOC emissions are needed. In this study, we measured the physiological parameters and emissions of the most relevant BVOC (oxygenated compounds, monoterpenes, and sesquiterpenes) for four predominant Citrus species planted in California ( Citrus sinensis var. 'Parent Navel', Citrus limon var. 'Meyer', Citrus reticulata var. 'W. Murcott' and 'Clementine'). We used two analytical techniques to measure a full range of BVOC emitted: Proton Transfer Reaction Mass Spectrometry (PTR-MS) and gas chromatography with mass spectrometry. Methanol, followed by acetone and acetaldehyde, were the dominant BVOC emitted from lemon and mandarin trees (basal emission rates up to 300 ng(C) g(DW) -1 h -1), while oxygenated monoterpenes, monoterpenes, and sesquiterpenes were the main BVOC emitted from orange trees (basal emission rates up to = 2500 ng(C) g(DW) -1 h -1). Light and temperature-dependent algorithms were better predictors of methanol, acetaldehyde, acetone, isoprene and monoterpenes for all the Citrus species. Whereas, temperature-dependent algorithms were better predictors of oxygenated monoterpenes, and sesquiterpenes. We observed that flowering increased emissions from orange trees by an order of magnitude with the bulk of BVOC emissions being comprised of monoterpenes, sesquiterpenes, and oxygenated monoterpenes. Chemical speciation of BVOC emissions show that the various classes of terpene

  12. Emissions of biogenic volatile organic compounds & their photochemical transformation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yu, Zhujun; Hohaus, Thorsten; Tillmann, Ralf; Andres, Stefanie; Kuhn, Uwe; Rohrer, Franz; Wahner, Andreas; Kiendler-Scharr, Astrid

    2015-04-01

    Natural and anthropogenic activities emit volatile organic compounds (VOC) into the atmosphere. While it is known that land vegetation accounts for 90% of the global VOC emissions, only a few molecules' emission factors are understood. Through VOCs atmospheric oxidation intermediate products are formed. The detailed chemical mechanisms involved are insufficiently known to date and need to be understood for air quality management and climate change predictions. In an experiment using a PTR-ToF-MS with the new-built plant chamber SAPHIR-PLUS in Forschungszentrum Juelich, biogenic emissions of volatile organic compounds (BVOC) from Quercus ilex trees were measured. The BVOC emissions were dominated by monoterpenes, minor emissions of isoprene and methanol were also observed with the overall emission pattern typical for Quercus ilex trees in the growing season. Monoterpenes and isoprene emissions showed to be triggered by light. Additionally, their emissions showed clear exponential temperature dependence under constant light condition as reported in literature. As a tracer for leaf growth, methanol emission showed an abrupt increase at the beginning of light exposure. This is explained as instantaneous release of methanol produced during the night once stomata of leaves open upon light exposure. Emission of methanol showed a near linear increase with temperature in the range of 10 to 35 °C. BVOC were transferred from the plant chamber PLUS to the atmospheric simulation chamber SAPHIR, where their oxidation products from O3 oxidation were measured with PTR-ToF-MS. Gas phase oxidation products such as acetone and acetaldehyde were detected. A quantitative analysis of the data will be presented, including comparison of observations to the Master Chemical Mechanism model.

  13. Biogenic methane potential of marine sediments. Application of chemical thermodynamics

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Arning, E.T.; Schulz, H.M. [Helmholtz Centre Potsdam GFZ, Potsdam (Germany); Berk, W. van [Technical Univ. of Clausthal (Germany). Dept. of Hydrogeology

    2013-08-01

    Accumulations of biogenic methane-dominated gas are widespread and occur in a variety of depositional settings and rock types. However, the potential of biogenic methane remains underexplored. This is mainly due to the fact that quantitative assessments applying numerical modeling techniques for exploration purposes are generally lacking to date. Biogenic methane formation starts in relatively shallow marine sediments below the sulfate reduction zone. When sulfate is exhausted, methanogenesis via the CO{sub 2} reduction pathway is often the dominant biogenic methane formation process in marine sediments (Claypool and Kaplan, 1974). The process can be simplified by the reaction: 2CH{sub 2}O + Ca{sup 2+} + H{sub 2}O {yields} CH{sub 4} + CaCO{sub 3} + 2H{sup +}. The products of early diagenetic reactions initiate coupled equilibrium reactions that induce a new state of chemical equilibrium among minerals, pore water and gas. The driving force of the complex biogeochemical reactions in sedimentary environments during early diagenesis is the irreversible redox-conversion of organic matter. Early diagenetic formation of biogenic methane shortly after deposition ('early diagenesis') was retraced using PHREEQC computer code that is applied to calculate homogenous and heterogeneous mass-action equations in combination with one-dimensional diffusion driven transport (Parkhurst and Appelo, 1999). Our modeling approach incorporates interdependent diagenetic reactions evolving into a diffusive multi-component and multiphase system by means of thermodynamic equilibrium calculations of species distribution (Arning et al., 2011, 2012, 2013). Reaction kinetics of organic carbon conversion is integrated into the set of equilibrium reactions by defining type and amount of converted organic matter in a certain time step. It is the aim (1) to calculate quantitatively thermodynamic equilibrium conditions (composition of pore water, mineral phase and gas phase assemblage) in

  14. Ratios of biogenic elements for distinguishing recent from fossil microorganisms

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hoover, Richard B.

    2007-09-01

    The ability to distinguish possible microfossils from recent biological contaminants is of great importance to Astrobiology. In this paper we discuss the application of the ratios of life critical biogenic elements (C/O; C/N; and C/S) as determined by Energy Dispersive X-ray Spectroscopy (EDS) to this problem. Biogenic element ratios are provided for a wide variety of living cyanobacteria and other microbial extremophiles, preserved herbarium materials, and ancient biota from the Antarctic Ice Cores and Siberian and Alaskan Permafrost for comparison with macrofossils and microfossils in ancient terrestrial rocks and carbonaceous meteorites.

  15. Ratios of Biogenic Elements for Distinguishing Recent from Fossil Microorganisms

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hoover, Richard B.

    2007-01-01

    The ability to distinguish possible microfossils from recent biological contaminants is of great importance to Astrobiology. In this paper we discuss the application of the ratios of life critical biogenic elements (C/O; C/N; and C/S) as determined by Energy Dispersive X-ray Spectroscopy (EDS) to this problem. Biogenic element ratios will be provided for a wide variety of living cyanobacteria and other microbial extremophiles, preserved herbarium materials, and ancient biota from the Antarctic Ice Cores and Siberian and Alaskan Permafrost for comparison with megafossils and microfossils in ancient terrestrial rocks and carbonaceous meteorites.

  16. Determination of Biogenic Amines in Different Shrimp Species for Export

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This study is part of the project on the ''Quality Assurance of Different Shrimp Species for Export''. Local shrimp samples were collected from Ministry of Livestock and Fisheries and various private enterprises. Contents of biogenic amines were determined by using benzoyl chloride derivatization method with HPLC (reverse phase high performance liquid chromatography). Based on the biogenic amines, quality index of shrimps were correlated with freshness index so that the grade of shrimp samples can be classified as excellent, good, and acceptable. All sizes of shrimps such as extra large, large, medium were found to excceptable respectively

  17. Determination of biogenic amines by high-performance liquid chromatography (HPLC-DAD) in probiotic cow's and goat's fermented milks and acceptance

    OpenAIRE

    Costa, Marion P; Balthazar, Celso F; Rodrigues, Bruna L; Lazaro, Cesar A; Silva, Adriana C O; Cruz, Adriano G; Conte Junior, Carlos A

    2015-01-01

    This study evaluated the presence of biogenic amines in fermented cow's and goat's milks containing probiotic bacteria, during the first 10 days of chilled storage (4 ± 2°C), when the probiotic strains are most viable. The overall acceptance of both fermented milks, produced using the same starter culture and probiotics, was tested. In both products, the initially high levels of tyramine (560 mg kg−1 means for both fermented milks), the predominant biogenic amine, increased during the storage...

  18. Influence of the immobilized yeast cells technology on the presence of biogenic amines in wine

    OpenAIRE

    Miličević, Borislav; Šubarić, Drago; Babić, Jurislav; Ačkar, Đurđica; Jozinović, Antun; Petošić, Emil; Matijević, Anita

    2014-01-01

    Biogenic amines are basic nitrogenous low molecular weight compounds with biological activity. Biogenic amines are important because they contain a health risk for sensitive humans. Biogenic amines in the wine can be formed from their precursors by various microorganisms present in the wine, at any stage of production. The aim of the present work was to study the changes of the content of biogenic amines in wines made from grape variety Frankovka and Pinot noir (Vitis vinifera L.) from Kutjev...

  19. The irony of iron -- biogenic iron oxides as an iron source to the ocean

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    David eEmerson

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Primary productivity in at least a third of the sunlit open ocean is thought to be iron-limited. Primary sources of dissolved iron (dFe to the ocean are hydrothermal venting, flux from the sediments along continental margins, and airborne dust. This article provides a general review of sources of hydrothermal and sedimentary iron to the ocean, and speculates upon the role that iron-cycling microbes play in controlling iron dynamics from these sources. Special attention is paid to iron-oxidizing bacteria (FeOB that live by oxidizing iron and producing biogenic iron oxides as waste products. The presence and ubiquity of FeOB both at hydrothermal systems and in sediments is only beginning to be appreciated. The biogenic oxides they produce have unique properties that could contribute significantly to the dynamics of dFe in the ocean. Changes in the physical and chemical characteristics of the ocean due to climate change and ocean acidification will undoubtedly impact the microbial iron cycle. A better understanding of the contemporary role of microbes in the iron cycle will help in predicting how these changes could ultimately influence marine primary productivity.

  20. Biogenic volatile organic compounds - small is beautiful

    Science.gov (United States)

    Owen, S. M.; Asensio, D.; Li, Q.; Penuelas, J.

    2012-12-01

    While canopy and regional scale flux measurements of biogenic volatile organic compounds (bVOCs) are essential to obtain an integrated picture of total compound reaching the atmosphere, many fascinating and important emission details are waiting to be discovered at smaller scales, in different ecological and functional compartments. We concentrate on bVOCs below ground to pollination of flowers. Although bVOC emissions from soil surfaces are small, bVOCs are exuded by roots of some plant species, and can be extracted from decaying litter. Naturally occurring monoterpenes in the rhizosphere provide a specialised carbon source for micro-organisms, helping to define the micro-organism community structure, and impacting on nutrient cycles which are partly controlled by microorganisms. Naturally occurring monoterpenes in the soil system could also affect the aboveground structure of ecosystems because of their role in plant defence strategies and as mediating chemicals in allelopathy. A gradient of monoterpene concentration was found in soil around Pinus sylvestris and Pinus halepensis, decreasing with distance from the tree. Some compounds (α-pinene, sabinene, humulene and caryophyllene) in mineral soil were linearly correlated with the total amount of each compound in the overlying litter, indicating that litter might be the dominant source of these compounds. However, α-pinene did not fall within the correlation, indicating a source other than litter, probably root exudates. We also show that rhizosphere bVOCs can be a carbon source for soil microbes. In a horizontal gradient from Populus tremula trees, microbes closest to the tree trunk were better enzymatically equipped to metabolise labeled monoterpene substrate. Monoterpenes can also increase the degradation rate in soil of the persistant organic pollutants, likely acting as analogues for the cometabo-lism of polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) Flowers of a ginger species (Alpinia kwangsiensis) and a fig species

  1. Biogenic gases in tropical floodplain river

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maria Victória Ramos Ballester

    2001-06-01

    Full Text Available Analysis of the distribution of biogenic gases in the floodplain of the Mogi-Guaçu River (São Paulo, Brazil enabled the establishment of a "redox hierarchy", in which the main channel was the most oxidizing environment, followed by Diogo Lake, with Infernão Lake having the most reducing conditions of the subsystems evaluated. Diogo Lake exported about 853.4 g C.m-2.year-1, of which, 14.6% was generated from methanogenesis and 36.7% by aerobic respiration. For Infernão Lake, these values were 2016 g C.m-2.year-1, 1.8 % and 41.5 %, respectively. Carbon export by these systems was predominantly in the form of CO2, which was responsible for the release of 728.78 g C.m-2.year-1 at Diogo Lake and 1979.72 g C.m-2. year-1 at Infernão Lake. Such patterns may result from the nature of the hydrological conditions, the action of the hydroperiod, and morphological characteristics of the environment.A análise da distribuição de gases biogênicos na planície de inundação do Rio Mogi Guaçu (São Paulo, Brasil possibilitou o estabelecimento de um gradiente redox para os sistemas aquáticos avaliados, em que o canal principal do rio apresentou-se como o ambiente mais oxidado, seguido da Lagoa do Diogo, e a Lagoa do Infernão apresentando as condições mais redutoras entre os ambientes em questão. A Lagoa do Diogo exporta um total de 853,4 g C.m-2.ano-1, do qual 14,6% é produzido pela metanogênese e 36,7% pela respiração aeróbia. Para a Lagoa do Infernão estes valores foram respectivamente de 2.016 g C.m-2.ano-1, 1,8% e de 41,5%. A exportação de carbono por estes sistemas é realizada, predominantemente na forma de CO2, nos valores de 728,78 g C.m-2.ano-1 para a Lagoa do Diogo e 1.979,72 g C.m-2.ano-1 para a Lagoa do Infernão. Estes padrões parecem estar relacionados com a natureza das condições hidrológicas, com a ação do hidroperíodo e com as características morfológicas do ambiente.

  2. Comparing Organic Aerosol Composition from Marine Biogenic Sources to Seawater and to Physical Sea Spray Models

    Science.gov (United States)

    Russell, L. M.; Frossard, A. A.; Sanchez, K.; Massoli, P.; Elliott, S.; Burrows, S. M.; Bates, T. S.; Quinn, P.

    2015-12-01

    In much of the marine atmosphere, organic components in aerosol particles have many sources other than sea spray that contribute organic constituents. For this reason, physical sea spray models provide an important technique for studying the organic composition of particles from marine biogenic sources. The organic composition of particles produced by two different physical sea spray models were measured in three open ocean seawater types: (i) Coastal California in the northeastern Pacific, which is influenced by wind-driven, large-scale upwelling leading to productive or eutrophic (nutrient-rich) seawater and high chl-a concentrations, (ii) George's Bank in the northwestern Atlantic, which is also influenced by nutrient upwelling and eutrophic seawater with phytoplankton productivity and high chl-a concentrations, and (iii) the Sargasso Sea in the subtropical western Atlantic, which is oligotrophic and nutrient-limited, reflected in low phytoplankton productivity and low chl-a concentrations. Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy provides information about the functional group composition that represents the marine organic fraction more completely than is possible with techniques that measure non-refractory mass (vaporizable at 650°C). After separating biogenic marine particles from those from other sources, the measured compositions of atmospheric marine aerosol particles from three ocean regions is 65±12% hydroxyl, 21±9% alkane, 6±6% amine, and 7±8% carboxylic acid functional groups. The organic composition of atmospheric primary marine (ocean-derived) aerosol particles is nearly identical to model generated primary marine aerosol particles from bubbled seawater. Variability in productive and non-productive seawater may be caused by the presence of surfactants that can stabilize the bubble film and lead to preferential drainage of the more soluble (lower alkane group fraction) organic components without substantial changes in overall group composition

  3. Source of nutrient substrates for microbes in deep biosphere and characteristics of biogenic gas source rock

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2010-01-01

    To understand the biogas formation in geological basins, the present work investigated the reactive organic matter in sediments of the Sanhu depression of Qaidam Basin, a prolific region of biogenic gases with a proved reserve of 300 bil steres. The ROC (reactive organic carbon) was obtained by ultrasonic extraction from sediment samples in the solution of 6 mol/L HCl and 5% K2SO4. To investigate the effect of early diagenesis, parts of the samples were heated at 80°C before extraction. The results showed that the ROC content at a constant temperature decreased with increasing burial depths, which should be attributed to the microbial consumption. For the same sample, the ROC content heated at 80°C was dramatically higher than the unheated. The increment of the ROC content for some samples was as high as 200% in the experiment. The dramatically increasing ROC by thermal action should be the major nutrient substrate for the deep biospheres in most geological basins. There is a positive correlation between the reactive organic carbon (ROC) and the traditional insoluble organic carbon (TOC), not only for its absolute content of the ROC, but also for the ’ROC’ produced in thermal action, all of these are clearly related with TOC. These data showed that higher abundance of organic matter can contribute more to the reactive organic matter, and is more favorable to the formation of biogenic gases. In the Sanhu depression of Qaidam Basin, more than 85% of the biogenic gas reserves occur in the lower layers (K5-K13) with a relatively high abundance of organic matter. The exploration has provided further evidence that deposits with higher abundance of organic matter are effective biogas source rocks.

  4. Reduction kinetics of aqueous U(VI) in acidic chloride brines to uraninite by methane, hydrogen or C-graphite under hydrothermal conditions: Implications for the genesis of unconformity-related uranium ore deposits

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dargent, Maxime; Truche, Laurent; Dubessy, Jean; Bessaque, Gilles; Marmier, Hervé

    2015-10-01

    The formation of hydrothermal uranium ore deposits involves the reduction of dissolved U(VI)(aq) to uraninite. However, the nature of the reducing agent and the kinetics of such a process are currently unknown. These questions are addressed through dedicated experiments performed under conditions relevant for the genesis of unconformity-related uranium (URU) deposits. We tested the efficiency of the following potential reductants supposed to be involved in the reaction: H2, CH4, C-graphite and dissolved Fe(II). Results demonstrate the great efficiency of H2, CH4 and C-graphite to reduce U(VI)(aq) into uraninite in acidic chloride brines, unlike dissolved Fe(II). Times needed for H2 (1.4 bar), CH4 (2.4 bar) and C-graphite (water/carbon mass ratio = 10) to reduce 1 mM of U(VI)(aq) in an acidic brine (1 m LiCl, pH ≈ 1 fixed by HCl) to uraninite at 200 °C are 12 h, 3 days and 4 months, respectively. The effects of temperature (T) between 100 °C and 200 °C, H2 partial pressure (0.14, 1.4, and 5.4 bar), salinity (0.1, 1 and 3.2 m LiCl) and pH at 25 °C (0.8 and 3.3) on the reduction rate were also investigated. Results show that increasing temperature and H2 partial pressure increase the reaction rate, whereas increasing salinity or pH have the reverse effect. The reduction of uranyl to uraninite follows an apparent zero-order with respect to time, whatever the considered electron donor. From the measured rate constants, the following values of activation energy (Ea), depending on the nature of the electron donor, have been derived: EaC-graphite = 155 ± 3 kJ mol-1, EaCH4 = 143 ± 6 kJ mol-1, and EaH2 = 124 ± 15 kJ mol-1 at T 150 °C. An empirical relationship between the reaction rate, the hydrogen partial pressure, the uranyl speciation, and the temperature is also proposed. This allows an estimation of the time of formation of a giant U ore deposit such as McArthur River (Canada). The duration of the mineralizing event is controlled both by the U concentration

  5. Preliminary investigation of biogenic gas production in Indonesian low rank coals and implications for a renewable energy source

    Science.gov (United States)

    Susilawati, Rita; Papendick, Sam L.; Gilcrease, Patrick C.; Esterle, Joan S.; Golding, Suzanne D.; Mares, Tennille E.

    2013-11-01

    Indonesia has abundant coal resources at depths suitable to contain substantial volumes of naturally occurring methane, which are currently being explored. Most Indonesian coals are thermally immature, but are composed of hydrogen-rich organic components that are presumed to make them excellent substrates for biogenic methane production. Gas isotope results from pilot wells in South Sumatra, reported in this study, are interpreted to indicate biogenic origins for the methane. Corresponding formation water samples were collected and incubated, and show the presence of indigenous microbial communities capable of producing methane from Indonesian and Australian coal. Although these results are only preliminary, they are promising and support the possibility of Indonesia developing bio renewable energy from coal seams.

  6. Enzymatic Sensor of Biogenic Amines with Optical Oxygen Transducer

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Maixnerová, Lucie; Horvitz, Alexandar; Kuncová, Gabriela; Přibyl, M.; Šebela, M.; Koštejn, Martin

    Brno: Masarykova Universita, 2014, s. 173. ISBN 978-80-210-7159-9. [CEITEC Annual Conference. Brno (CZ), 21.10.2014-24.10.2014] R&D Projects: GA TA ČR TA03010544 Institutional support: RVO:67985858 Keywords : optical enzymatic biosensor * biogenic amines * mathematical model Subject RIV: CB - Analytical Chemistry, Separation

  7. Azo dye decolorization assisted by chemical and biogenic sulfide

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Prato-Garcia, Dorian [Laboratory for Research on Advanced Processes for Water Treatment, Unidad Académica Juriquilla, Instituto de Ingeniería, Universidad Nacional Autónoma de México, Blvd. Juriquilla 3001, Querétaro 76230 (Mexico); Cervantes, Francisco J. [División de Ciencias Ambientales, Instituto Potosino de Investigación Científica y Tecnológica, Camino a la Presa de San José 2055, San Luis Potosí 78216 (Mexico); Buitrón, Germán, E-mail: gbuitronm@ii.unam.mx [Laboratory for Research on Advanced Processes for Water Treatment, Unidad Académica Juriquilla, Instituto de Ingeniería, Universidad Nacional Autónoma de México, Blvd. Juriquilla 3001, Querétaro 76230 (Mexico)

    2013-04-15

    Highlights: ► Azo dyes were reduced efficiently by chemical and biogenic sulfide. ► Biogenic sulfide was more efficient than chemical sulfide. ► There was no competition between dyes and sulfate for reducing equivalents. ► Aromatic amines barely affected the sulfate-reducing process. -- Abstract: The effectiveness of chemical and biogenic sulfide in decolorizing three sulfonated azo dyes and the robustness of a sulfate-reducing process for simultaneous decolorization and sulfate removal were evaluated. The results demonstrated that decolorization of azo dyes assisted by chemical sulfide and anthraquinone-2,6-disulfonate (AQDS) was effective. In the absence of AQDS, biogenic sulfide was more efficient than chemical sulfide for decolorizing the azo dyes. The performance of sulfate-reducing bacteria in attached-growth sequencing batch reactors suggested the absence of competition between the studied azo dyes and the sulfate-reducing process for the reducing equivalents. Additionally, the presence of chemical reduction by-products had an almost negligible effect on the sulfate removal rate, which was nearly constant (94%) after azo dye injection.

  8. Azo dye decolorization assisted by chemical and biogenic sulfide

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Highlights: ► Azo dyes were reduced efficiently by chemical and biogenic sulfide. ► Biogenic sulfide was more efficient than chemical sulfide. ► There was no competition between dyes and sulfate for reducing equivalents. ► Aromatic amines barely affected the sulfate-reducing process. -- Abstract: The effectiveness of chemical and biogenic sulfide in decolorizing three sulfonated azo dyes and the robustness of a sulfate-reducing process for simultaneous decolorization and sulfate removal were evaluated. The results demonstrated that decolorization of azo dyes assisted by chemical sulfide and anthraquinone-2,6-disulfonate (AQDS) was effective. In the absence of AQDS, biogenic sulfide was more efficient than chemical sulfide for decolorizing the azo dyes. The performance of sulfate-reducing bacteria in attached-growth sequencing batch reactors suggested the absence of competition between the studied azo dyes and the sulfate-reducing process for the reducing equivalents. Additionally, the presence of chemical reduction by-products had an almost negligible effect on the sulfate removal rate, which was nearly constant (94%) after azo dye injection

  9. Advances in Biochemical Screening for Phaeochromocytoma using Biogenic Amines

    OpenAIRE

    Whiting, Malcolm J; Doogue, Matthew P

    2009-01-01

    Biochemical testing for phaeochromocytoma is performed in diagnostic laboratories using a variety of tests with plasma, serum or 24-hour urine collections. These tests include catecholamines and their methylated metabolites - the metanephrines, either individually or in combination with their sulfated metabolites. High-performance liquid chromatography (HPLC) continues to be the dominant analytical method for biogenic amine quantitation. Chromatographic techniques are changing, with improveme...

  10. Biogenic Isoprene Emission Mechanism from 13CO2 Exposure Experiments

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2002-01-01

    Biogenic isoprene emissions have been believed to be from only photosynthesis processes in plant. However nocturnal isoprene emission from pine is detected. And by feeding 13CO2 to plants, it is found that both photosynthesis pathway and light independent processes contribute to isoprene emissions.

  11. Emission of Biogenic Volatile Organic Compounds in the Arctic

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lindwall, Frida

    Emissions of biogenic volatile organic compounds (BVOCs) from arctic ecosystems are scarcely studied and the effect of climate change on BVOC emissions even less so. BVOCs are emitted from all living organisms and play a role for atmospheric chemistry. The major part of BVOCs derives from plants...

  12. Biogenic Magnetite Formation through Anaerobic Biooxidation of Fe(II)

    OpenAIRE

    Chaudhuri, Swades K.; Lack, Joseph G.; Coates, John D.

    2001-01-01

    The presence of isotopically light carbonates in association with fine-grained magnetite is considered to be primarily due to the reduction of Fe(III) by Fe(III)-reducing bacteria in the environment. Here, we report on magnetite formation by biooxidation of Fe(II) coupled to denitrification. This metabolism offers an alternative environmental source of biogenic magnetite.

  13. Mineralogy and mineral chemistry of detrital heavy minerals from the Rhine River in Germany as evidence to their provenance, sedimentary and depositional history: focus on platinum-group minerals and remarks on cassiterite, columbite-group minerals and uraninite

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oberthür, Thomas; Melcher, Frank; Goldmann, Simon; Wotruba, Hermann; Gerdes, Axel; Dijkstra, Arjan; Dale, Christopher W.

    2016-03-01

    In the course of studying the gold-bearing heavy mineral spectrum of sediments from the upper Rhine River, a distinct suite of detrital grains comprising platinum-group minerals (PGM), cassiterite, columbite-group minerals and uraninite was identified and investigated using conventional and modern analytical methods. This study aimed to characterize the selected mineral groups mineralogically and geochemically in order to identify possible source areas and to reconstruct different aspects of the complex sedimentary history of the Rhine River sediments. The PGM assemblage is dominated by grains of Ru-Os-Ir alloys (~70 %), followed by Pt-Fe alloys, sperrylite and rare other PGM. Accordingly, this PGM assemblage represents highly mature, physically and chemically extremely resistant compounds which may have experienced and survived repeated reworking during their sedimentary history. Pt-Fe alloys and sperrylite may originate from various sources; however, the predominant Ru-Os-Ir alloy grains point to an origin from ophiolite sequences of unknown age (but likely pre-Alpine; Variscan or older). The exact locations of the primary sources and the complex, prolonged sedimentary history of the detrital PGM with possibly multiple intermittent storages remain unknown. Detrital cassiterite grains were dated by the U-Pb method using LA-ICP-MS. The age dates of cassiterite largely overlap with zircon age distributions by peaking distinctly at ca. 325 Ma (majority of ages), thereby implying a predominantly Variscan age of the cassiterite grains and possible derivation from mineralization in the Black Forest area. Columbite-group minerals are dominantly tapiolite originating from pegmatites. Rare uraninite grains attest that this mineral experienced rapid erosion, transport and deposition in a reducing environment.

  14. Determination of biogenic amines by high-performance liquid chromatography (HPLC-DAD) in probiotic cow's and goat's fermented milks and acceptance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Costa, Marion P; Balthazar, Celso F; Rodrigues, Bruna L; Lazaro, Cesar A; Silva, Adriana C O; Cruz, Adriano G; Conte Junior, Carlos A

    2015-05-01

    This study evaluated the presence of biogenic amines in fermented cow's and goat's milks containing probiotic bacteria, during the first 10 days of chilled storage (4 ± 2°C), when the probiotic strains are most viable. The overall acceptance of both fermented milks, produced using the same starter culture and probiotics, was tested. In both products, the initially high levels of tyramine (560 mg kg(-1) means for both fermented milks), the predominant biogenic amine, increased during the storage period, which may be considered this amine as a quality index for fermented milks. The other principal biogenic amines (putrescine, cadaverine, histamine, and spermidine) were produced on days 1-5 of storage, and thereafter decreased. At the end of the 10th day, these amines, respectively, showed values of fermented cow's milk 20.26, 29.09, 17.97, and 82.07 mg kg(-1); and values of fermented goat's milk 22.92, 29.09, 34.85, and 53.85 mg kg(-1), in fermented cow's and goat's milk. Fermented cow's milk was well accepted compared to fermented goat's milk. The results suggested that the content of biogenic amines may be a criterion for selecting lactic acid bacteria used to produce fermented milks. PMID:25987991

  15. Assessing the potential for using biogenic calcites as dosemeters for luminescence dating

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Duller, G.A.T. [Institute of Geography and Earth Sciences, Aberystwyth University, Ceredigion, SY23 3DB (United Kingdom)], E-mail: ggd@aber.ac.uk; Penkman, K.E.H. [BioArCh, Department of Chemistry, University of York, YO10 5DD (United Kingdom); Wintle, A.G. [Institute of Geography and Earth Sciences, Aberystwyth University, Ceredigion, SY23 3DB (United Kingdom)

    2009-05-15

    Calcium carbonate emits an intense thermoluminescence (TL) signal and previous work has explored the potential of using this signal to date both inorganic carbonates such as limestones and stalagmites and biogenic calcite produced by marine organisms. Luminescence analysis of biogenic calcites directly dates the secretion of the mineral by the organism and is therefore not reliant upon exposure of the sample to daylight. A method is outlined for using the TL signals from slug plates, from the Limacidae family, and opercula from the snail Bithynia tentaculata to construct a single-aliquot regenerative-dose growth curve. Analysis of slug plates from a number of Quaternary sites show that the equivalent dose (D{sub e}) of a late Holocene sample is close to zero and that the D{sub e} increases with age over the last 500 ka. The TL signal from snail opercula is shown to increase up to doses over 4000 Gy. Replicate measurements from 16 opercula from a site {approx}220 ka show a broad distribution. Potential causes of this scatter are discussed along with recommendations about how it could be reduced. The major challenge which remains to be solved before slug plates or snail opercula could be used to calculate ages is to develop methods for calculating the dose rate received during burial.

  16. Tyrosine-containing peptides are precursors of tyramine produced by Lactobacillus plantarum strain IR BL0076 isolated from wine

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bonnin-Jusserand Maryse

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Biogenic amines are molecules with allergenic properties. They are found in fermented products and are synthesized by lactic acid bacteria through the decarboxylation of amino acids present in the food matrix. The concentration of biogenic amines in fermented foodstuffs is influenced by many environmental factors, and in particular, biogenic amine accumulation depends on the quantity of available precursors. Enological practices which lead to an enrichment in nitrogen compounds therefore favor biogenic amine production in wine. Free amino acids are the only known precursors for the synthesis of biogenic amines, and no direct link has previously been demonstrated between the use of peptides by lactic acid bacteria and biogenic amine synthesis. Results Here we demonstrate for the first time that a Lactobacillus plantarum strain isolated from a red wine can produce the biogenic amine tyramine from peptides containing tyrosine. In our conditions, most of the tyramine was produced during the late exponential growth phase, coinciding with the expression of the tyrDC and tyrP genes. The DNA sequences of tyrDC and tyrP in this strain share 98% identity with those in Lactobacillus brevis consistent with horizontal gene transfer from L. brevis to L. plantarum. Conclusion Peptides amino acids are precursors of biogenic amines for Lactobacillus plantarum strain IR BL0076.

  17. Evaluation of Biogenic and Fire Emissions in a Global Chemistry Model with NOMADSS, DC3 and SEAC4RS observations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Emmons, L. K.; Wiedinmyer, C.; Park, M.; Kaser, L.; Apel, E. C.; Guenther, A. B.

    2014-12-01

    Numerous measurements of compounds produced by biogenic and fire emissions were made during several recent field campaigns in the southeast United States, providing a unique data set for emissions and chemical model evaluation. The NCAR Community Atmosphere Model with Chemistry (CAM-chem) is coupled to the Community Land Model (CLM), which includes the biogenic emissions model MEGAN-v2.1, allowing for online calculation of emissions from vegetation for 150 compounds. Simulations of CAM-chem for summers 2012 and 2013 are evaluated with the aircraft and ground-based observations from DC3, NOMADSS and SEAC4RS. Comparison of directly emitted biogenic species, such as isoprene, terpenes, methanol and acetone, are used to evaluate the MEGAN emissions. Evaluation of oxidation products, including methyl vinyl ketone (MVK), methacrolein, formaldehyde, and other oxygenated VOCs are used to test the model chemistry mechanism. In addition, several biomass burning inventories are used in the model, including FINN, QFED, and FLAMBE, and are compared for their impact on atmospheric composition and ozone production, and evaluated with the aircraft observations.

  18. Biogenic emission measurement and inventories determination of biogenic emissions in the eastern United States and Texas and comparison with biogenic emission inventories

    OpenAIRE

    Warneke, C.; De Gouw, JA; Del Negro, L; J. Brioude; Mckeen, S.; H. Stark; Kuster, WC; Goldan, PD; Trainer, M.; Fehsenfeld, FC; Wiedinmyer, C.; Guenther, AB; Hansel, A.; A. Wisthaler; Atlas, E.

    2010-01-01

    During the NOAA Southern Oxidant Study 1999 (SOS1999), Texas Air Quality Study 2000 (TexAQS2000), International Consortium for Atmospheric Research on Transport and Transformation (ICARTT2004), and Texas Air Quality Study 2006 (TexAQS2006) campaigns, airborne measurements of isoprene and monoterpenes were made in the eastern United States and in Texas, and the results are used to evaluate the biogenic emission inventories BEIS3.12, BEIS3.13, MEGAN2, and WM2001. Two methods are used for the ev...

  19. Gas formation. Formation temperatures of thermogenic and biogenic methane.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stolper, D A; Lawson, M; Davis, C L; Ferreira, A A; Santos Neto, E V; Ellis, G S; Lewan, M D; Martini, A M; Tang, Y; Schoell, M; Sessions, A L; Eiler, J M

    2014-06-27

    Methane is an important greenhouse gas and energy resource generated dominantly by methanogens at low temperatures and through the breakdown of organic molecules at high temperatures. However, methane-formation temperatures in nature are often poorly constrained. We measured formation temperatures of thermogenic and biogenic methane using a "clumped isotope" technique. Thermogenic gases yield formation temperatures between 157° and 221°C, within the nominal gas window, and biogenic gases yield formation temperatures consistent with their comparatively lower-temperature formational environments (<50°C). In systems where gases have migrated and other proxies for gas-generation temperature yield ambiguous results, methane clumped-isotope temperatures distinguish among and allow for independent tests of possible gas-formation models. PMID:24970083

  20. Hauterivian shallow marine calcareous biogenic mounds: S.E. Spain

    OpenAIRE

    Arias, Consuelo; Masse, Jean Pierre; Vilas Minondo, Lorenzo

    1995-01-01

    Hauterivian biogenic deposits from the Prebetic northern margin near Caudete (Albacete Province, southeastern Spain) are represented by low domed bodies, less than 10 m thick, surrounded by bioclastic sediments and capped by siliciclastics. They consist of a coral, stromatoporoid and microbial framework with cavities filled by mud, rapidly lithified. Intermound bioclastics, derived from the mound organic community, reflect high energy conditions and shallow water settings. Mound g...

  1. Biogenic amines in smear and mould-ripened cheeses

    OpenAIRE

    Pavel Pleva; Leona Buňková; Eva Theimrová; Vendula Bartošáková; František Buňka; Khatantuul Purevdorj

    2014-01-01

    The aim of the study was the monitoring of six biogenic amines (histamine, tyramine, phenylethylamine, tryptamine, putrescine, and cadaverine) and two polyamines (spermidine and spermine) in 30 samples of dairy products purchased in the Czech Republic, namely in 15 samples of mould-ripened cheeses and in 15 samples of smear-ripened cheeses. A further goal was the microbiological analysis of the individual samples of cheeses (total count of microorganisms, number of enterobacteria, enterococci...

  2. Analysis of Some Biogenic Amines by Micellar Liquid Chromatography

    OpenAIRE

    Irena Malinowska; Katarzyna E. Stępnik

    2012-01-01

    Micellar liquid chromatography (MLC) with the use of high performance liquid chromatography (HPLC) was used to determine some physicochemical parameters of six biogenic amines: adrenaline, dopamine, octopamine, histamine, 2-phenylethylamine, and tyramine. In this paper, an influence of surfactant’s concentration and pH of the micellar mobile phase on the retention of the tested substances was examined. To determine the influence of surfactant’s concentration on the retention of the tested ami...

  3. Biogenic calcite structures in Green Lake, James Ross Island, Antarctica

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Elster, Josef; Nedbalová, Linda; Komárek, Jiří; Vodrážka, R.

    Brno: Masarykova Univerzita, 2009 - (Barták, M.; Hájek, J.; Váczi, P.), s. 38-40 ISBN 978-80-210-4987-1. [Electronic Conference on Interactions between Antarctic Life and Environmental Factors. Brno (CZ), 22.10.2009-23.10.2009] R&D Projects: GA MŠk(CZ) ME 945 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z60050516 Keywords : Green Lake * James Ross * Biogenic calcite structures Subject RIV: EF - Botanics

  4. Biogenic calcite granules--are brachiopods different?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pérez-Huerta, Alberto; Dauphin, Yannicke; Cusack, Maggie

    2013-01-01

    Brachiopods are still one of the least studied groups of organisms in terms of biomineralization despite recent studies indicating the presence of highly complex biomineral structures, particularly in taxa with calcitic shells. Here, we analyze the nanostructure of calcite biominerals, fibers and semi-nacre tablets, in brachiopod shells by high-resolution scanning electron microscopy (SEM) and atomic force microscopy (AFM). We demonstrate that basic mechanisms of carbonate biomineralization are not uniform within the phylum, with semi-nacre tablets composed of spherical aggregates with sub-rounded granules and fibers composed of large, triangular or rod-like particles composed of small sub-rounded granules (40-60 nm). Additionally, proteinaceous envelopes surrounding calcite fibers have been shown for the first time to have a dual function: providing a micro-environment in which granules are produced and acting as the organic template for particle orientation as fiber components. In summary, these new findings in brachiopod shells reveal a complex and distinctive style of biomineralization among carbonate-producing organisms. PMID:23026148

  5. BAECC Biogenic Aerosols - Effects on Clouds and Climate

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Petäjä, Tuukka [Univ. of Helsinki (Finland); Moisseev, Dmitri [Univ. of Helsinki (Finland); Sinclair, Victoria [Univ. of Helsinki (Finland); O' Connor, Ewan J. [Finnish Meteorological Institute, Helsinki (Finland); Manninen, Antti J. [Univ. of Helsinki (Finland); Levula, Janne [Univ. of Helsinki (Finland); Väänänen, Riikka [Univ. of Helsinki (Finland); Heikkinen, Liine [Univ. of Helsinki (Finland); Äijälä, Mikko [Univ. of Helsinki (Finland); Aalto, Juho [Univ. of Helsinki (Finland); Bäck, Jaana [University of Helsinki, Finland

    2015-11-01

    Biogenic Aerosols - Effects on Clouds and Climate (BAECC)”, featured the U.S. Department of Energy’s Atmospheric Radiation Measurement (ARM) Program’s 2nd Mobile Facility (AMF2) in Hyytiälä, Finland. It operated for an 8-month intensive measurement campaign from February to September 2014. The main research goal was to understand the role of biogenic aerosols in cloud formation. One of the reasons to perform BAECC study in Hyytiälä was the fact that it hosts SMEAR-II (Station for Measuring Forest Ecosystem-Atmosphere Relations), which is one of the world’s most comprehensive surface in-situ observation sites in a boreal forest environment. The station has been measuring atmospheric aerosols, biogenic emissions and an extensive suite of parameters relevant to atmosphere-biosphere interactions continuously since 1996. The BAECC enables combining vertical profiles from AMF2 with surface-based in-situ SMEAR-II observations and allows the processes at the surface to be directly related to processes occurring throughout the entire tropospheric column. With the inclusion of extensive surface precipitation measurements, and intensive observation periods involving aircraft flights and novel radiosonde launches, the complementary observations of AMF2 and SMEAR-II provide a unique opportunity for investigating aerosol-cloud interactions, and cloud-to-precipitation processes. The BAECC dataset will initiate new opportunities for evaluating and improving models of aerosol sources and transport, cloud microphysical processes, and boundary-layer structures.

  6. The Volumetric Impact of Biogenic Sediment Reworking on the Geomorphology and Shallow Stratigraphy of Barrier Islands

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grimes, Z. T.; Buynevich, I. V.; Darrow, J. S.; Seminack, C. T.; Griffis, N.

    2010-12-01

    In addition to physical processes operating along the dynamic, sand-dominated coastal landforms, biogenic activity affects their unconsolidated surfaces in a variety of ways, displacing large volumes of sediment and partially modifying their morphological elements. This is particularly well pronounced on isolated coastal landforms, such as several barrier islands along the U.S. Mid-Atlantic Coast and Sable Island (Canada), where populations of native and introduced organisms have a confined range of activity. Diverse communities of vertebrates (ungulates, carnivores, wading birds, and reptiles) produce well-pronounced trails (trampled areas) or extend into regions of mobile fine-to-coarse sand. Large ungulates, such as horses, deer, and wild boar not only leave deep hoofprint structures in sand (1-5 cm, depending on substrate properties), but can easily penetrate and dislocate substantial portions of thin soil horizons. For example, beyond their grazing impact on vegetation, several hundred feral horses on Assateague Island (Maryland-Virginia, USA) disturb sections of beach, dune, and shallow saltmarsh through compaction and displacement of surface sediment. Given hoofprint diameters of 8-12 cm, partial track and trackway overlap, and an uninterrupted activity period of only 1 hour/day, anywhere from 100 to more than 1200 m3 of sand may be affected by this population on a daily basis. The compaction alters the geomechanical properties of the sediment, particularly along partially saturated intertidal areas. On steeply sloping dunes, which may be traversed numerous times by several individuals, grainflows are common, often leading to partial collapses of the dune slope. In addition to vertebrate trampling and burrowing (e.g., turtle nests), large invertebrates produce distinct bioturbation structures in the upper 0.5-1.0 m of barrier sands. A single ghost crab burrow in the backshore region may attain 4-5 cm in diameter, resulting in the removal and shifting of 3

  7. Evaluation of ELISA screening test for detecting aflatoxin in biogenic dust samples

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Durant, J.T.

    1996-05-01

    Aflatoxin is a carcinogenic chemical that is sometimes produced when agricultural commodities are infested by the fungi Aspergillus flavus and A. Parasiticus. Aflatoxin has been found to be present in air samples taken around persons handling materials likely to be contaminated. The purpose of this investigation was to demonstrate the feasibility of using an Enzyme Linked Immunosorbent Assay (ELISA) test kit that was developed to screen for aflatoxin in bulk agricultural commodities, to an air sample. Samples were taken from two environments likely to be contaminated with aflatoxin, a dairy farm feed mixing operation and a peanut bagging operation. The dust collected from these environments was considered to be biogenic, in that it originated primarily from biological materials.

  8. BIOGENIC AMINE CONTENT IN “PECORINO DEL PARCO DI MIGLIARINO - SAN ROSSORE”

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    F. Forzale

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Biogenic amines (BAs can be naturally present in several foods. They are mainly produced in large amounts by amino acid decarboxylases activity of bacteria. The BAs content has been associated to the quality of raw material and to fermentation or spoilage processes. The aim of the present study was to asses the content of BAs (single and total value in the core and in the external part of a Tuscan traditional pecorino cheese. Sixteen “Pecorino del Parco di Migliarino-San Rossore” cheeses belonging to same batch were tested during ripening time, up to 5 months. BAs content was analyzed by an HPLC-UV method. The BAs content was significantly higher in the core than in the external part. Tyramine was the amine most frequently detected and largely quantized, followed by putrescine, histamine and cadaverine.

  9. 40K in the Black Sea: a proxy to estimate biogenic sedimentation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    An approach to estimate the rate of biogenic sedimentation in the Black Sea using the naturally occurring radionuclide 40K has been considered. It allows assessment of the contribution of suspended matter of biological origin to the overall sediment accumulation in the Black Sea coastal, shelf and deep-water areas. Based upon this method, a relationship between the biogenic fraction of the seabed sediments and the water depth has been established with a view to differentiating the contributions of allochthonous and autochthonous suspended matter to the sedimentation rate. Overall, 40K can be considered as an easily applicable proxy to assess sedimentation rate of biogenic fraction of particulate matter in marine environments. - Highlights: • 40K-based approach was developed to assess biogenic sedimentation in the Black Sea. • 40K-derived relationship between biogenic sedimentation and water depth was traced. • 40K is an easily applicable proxy to estimate rate of biogenic sedimentation in sea

  10. Biogenic Mn oxides for effective adsorption of Cd from aquatic environment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Biogenic Mn oxides exert important controls on trace metal cycling in aquatic and soil environments. A Mn-oxidizing bacterium Bacillus sp. WH4 was isolated from Fe-Mn nodules of an agrudalf in central China. The biogenic Mn oxides formed by mediation of this Mn oxidizing microorganism were identified as short-ranged and nano-sized Mn oxides. Cd adsorption isotherms, pH effect on adsorption and kinetics were investigated in comparison with an abiotic Mn oxide todorokite. Maximum adsorption of Cd to the biogenic Mn oxides and todorokite was 2.04 and 0.69 mmol g-1 sorbent, respectively. Thus, the biogenic Mn oxides were more effective Cd adsorbents than the abiotic Mn oxide in the aquatic environment. The findings could improve our knowledge of biogenic Mn oxides formation in the environment and their important roles in the biogeochemical cycles of heavy metals. - Biogenic Mn oxides effectively adsorb Cd from aquatic environments.

  11. Biogenic Mn oxides for effective adsorption of Cd from aquatic environment

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Meng Youting [State Key Laboratory of Urban and Regional Ecology, Research Center for Eco-environmental Sciences, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Beijing 100085 (China); Graduate School, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Beijing 100039 (China); Zheng Yuanming; Zhang Limei [State Key Laboratory of Urban and Regional Ecology, Research Center for Eco-environmental Sciences, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Beijing 100085 (China); He Jizheng, E-mail: jzhe@rcees.ac.c [State Key Laboratory of Urban and Regional Ecology, Research Center for Eco-environmental Sciences, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Beijing 100085 (China)

    2009-08-15

    Biogenic Mn oxides exert important controls on trace metal cycling in aquatic and soil environments. A Mn-oxidizing bacterium Bacillus sp. WH4 was isolated from Fe-Mn nodules of an agrudalf in central China. The biogenic Mn oxides formed by mediation of this Mn oxidizing microorganism were identified as short-ranged and nano-sized Mn oxides. Cd adsorption isotherms, pH effect on adsorption and kinetics were investigated in comparison with an abiotic Mn oxide todorokite. Maximum adsorption of Cd to the biogenic Mn oxides and todorokite was 2.04 and 0.69 mmol g{sup -1} sorbent, respectively. Thus, the biogenic Mn oxides were more effective Cd adsorbents than the abiotic Mn oxide in the aquatic environment. The findings could improve our knowledge of biogenic Mn oxides formation in the environment and their important roles in the biogeochemical cycles of heavy metals. - Biogenic Mn oxides effectively adsorb Cd from aquatic environments.

  12. Bioactive Molecules Released in Food by Lactic Acid Bacteria: Encrypted Peptides and Biogenic Amines

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pessione, Enrica; Cirrincione, Simona

    2016-01-01

    Lactic acid bacteria (LAB) can produce a huge amount of bioactive compounds. Since their elective habitat is food, especially dairy but also vegetal food, it is frequent to find bioactive molecules in fermented products. Sometimes these compounds can have adverse effects on human health such as biogenic amines (tyramine and histamine), causing allergies, hypertensive crises, and headache. However, some LAB products also display benefits for the consumers. In the present review article, the main nitrogen compounds produced by LAB are considered. Besides biogenic amines derived from the amino acids tyrosine, histidine, phenylalanine, lysine, ornithine, and glutamate by decarboxylation, interesting peptides can be decrypted by the proteolytic activity of LAB. LAB proteolytic system is very efficient in releasing encrypted molecules from several proteins present in different food matrices. Alpha and beta-caseins, albumin and globulin from milk and dairy products, rubisco from spinach, beta-conglycinin from soy and gluten from cereals constitute a good source of important bioactive compounds. These encrypted peptides are able to control nutrition (mineral absorption and oxidative stress protection), metabolism (blood glucose and cholesterol lowering) cardiovascular function (antithrombotic and hypotensive action), infection (microbial inhibition and immunomodulation) and gut-brain axis (opioids and anti-opioids controlling mood and food intake). Very recent results underline the role of food-encrypted peptides in protein folding (chaperone-like molecules) as well as in cell cycle and apoptosis control, suggesting new and positive aspects of fermented food, still unexplored. In this context, the detailed (transcriptomic, proteomic, and metabolomic) characterization of LAB of food interest (as starters, biocontrol agents, nutraceuticals, and probiotics) can supply a solid evidence-based science to support beneficial effects and it is a promising approach as well to obtain

  13. Biostimulated uranium immobilization within aquifers – from bench scale to field experiments

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ulrich, Kai-Uwe; Veeramani, Harish; Schofield, Eleanor J.; Sharp, Jonathan O.; Suvorova, Elena; Stubbs, Joanne E.; Lezama Pacheco, Juan S.; Barrows, Charles J.; Cerrato, Jose M.; Campbell, Kate M.; Yabusaki, Steven B.; Long, Philip E.; Bernier-Latmani, Rizlan; Giammar, Daniel E.; Bargar, John R.

    2011-12-29

    In situ bioremediation of uranium-contaminated aquifers through microbially catalyzed reduction of mobile U(VI) species can only be successful if the U(IV) products are immobilized over long time-scales. Although uraninite is known for its low solubility and has been produced in nano-particulate form by several species of metal- and sulfate-reducing bacteria in laboratory studies, little is known about the stability of biogenic U(IV) in the subsurface. Using an up-scaling approach, we investigated the chemical and environmental stability of biogenic UO₂ nano-solids. Our results show that diffusive limitations due to aquifer porosity and microstructure may retard uraninite corrosion. Corrosion was also retarded by adsorption or incorporation of manganese. On the other hand, U(VI) bioreduction in field sediments generated U(IV) that was more labile than biogenic UO₂.

  14. Formation of biogenic amines and vitamin K contents in the Norwegian autochthonous cheese Gamalost during ripening

    OpenAIRE

    Qureshi, Tahir; Vermeer, Cees; Vegarud, Gerd; Abrahamsen, Roger; Skeie, Siv

    2013-01-01

    Gamalost, a Norwegian mould (Mucor mucedo) ripened autochthonous cheese, is a potential functional food due to a high content of peptides that might reduce hypertension, however it has a high content of free amino acids which may be precursors for biogenic amines. This study aimed to investigate if Gamalost might have further health benefits or risks by determination of the formation of vitamin K and biogenic amines. The development of biogenic amines and vitamin K was analysed during ripenin...

  15. Biogenic amines degradation by malolactic bacteria: towards a potential application in wine

    OpenAIRE

    GiuseppeSpano; VittorioCapozzi; Alvarez, Miguel A.; DanielaFiocco; FrancescoGrieco

    2012-01-01

    Biogenic amines in wine represent a toxicological risk for the health of the consumer, with several trade implications. In this study 26 strains of Lactobacillus plantarum were analysed for their ability to degrade biogenic amines commonly found during wine fermentation. Two strains of L. plantarum were selected in reason of their ability to degrade putrescine and tyramine. The degradation was assessed in vitro, both in presence of the biogenic amines and in presence of the specific chemical ...

  16. Biogenic amines degradation by Lactobacillus plantarum: toward a potential application in wine

    OpenAIRE

    Capozzi, Vittorio; Russo, Pasquale; Ladero, Victor; Fernández, María; Fiocco, Daniela; Alvarez, Miguel A.; Grieco, Francesco; Spano, Giuseppe

    2012-01-01

    Biogenic amines in wine represent a toxicological risk for the health of the consumer, with several trade implications. In this study 26 strains of Lactobacillus plantarum were analysed for their ability to degrade biogenic amines commonly found during wine fermentation. Two strains of L. plantarum were selected in reason of their ability to degrade putrescine and tyramine. The degradation was assessed in vitro, both in presence of the biogenic amines and in presence of the specific chemical ...

  17. Control of biogenic amines in fermented sausages: role of starter cultures

    OpenAIRE

    MariluzLatorre-Moratalla; SaraBover-Cid

    2012-01-01

    Biogenic amines show biological activity and exert undesirable physiological effects when absorbed at high concentrations. Biogenic amines are mainly formed by microbial decarboxylation of amino acids and thus are usually present in a wide range of foods, fermented sausages being one of the major biogenic amine sources. The use of selected starter cultures is one of the best technological measures to control aminogenesis during meat fermentation. Although with variable effectiveness, several ...

  18. Control of Biogenic Amines in Fermented Sausages: Role of Starter Cultures

    OpenAIRE

    Latorre-Moratalla, M.L.; Bover-Cid, Sara; Veciana-Nogués, M.T.; Vidal-Carou, M.C.

    2012-01-01

    Biogenic amines show biological activity and exert undesirable physiological effects when absorbed at high concentrations. Biogenic amines are mainly formed by microbial decarboxylation of amino acids and thus are usually present in a wide range of foods, fermented sausages being one of the major biogenic amine sources. The use of selected starter cultures is one of the best technological measures to control aminogenesis during meat fermentation. Although with variable effectiveness, several ...

  19. Significant Biogenic Silica Retention from Reverse Weathering in Non-deltaic Sediments

    Science.gov (United States)

    Krause, J. W.; Larson, A. M.; Darrow, E. S.; Carmichael, R. H.

    2014-12-01

    Coastal biogeochemical processes exert important controls on the net delivery of silicon to the ocean. Reverse weathering of biogenic silica by authigenic transformation has been suggested to be an important processes for silicon retention in coastal sediments. Many reported sediment biogenic silica measurements may underestimate this authigenically-transformed fraction; for example, the incorporation of metal hydroxides with the biogenic silica matrix suppresses the ability to distinguish it from mineral silica when using a traditional alkaline leach. Most studies demonstrating the importance of reverse weathering on biogenic silica have examined deltaic sediments in river dominated systems (e.g. Mississippi, Amazon), but this has not been examined in sediments which lack strong fluvial input. Using sediment cores from the outside the Mississippi River plume, we adapted a method which lessens the interference of metal hydroxides on biogenic silica by using an initial acid leach. The addition of this step increased the measured biogenic silica up to five-fold above that detected using a traditional alkaline digestion method. The magnitude of authigenically-altered biogenic silica in these cores was significant, representing a majority of the sediment biogenic silica pool at most depths. These findings confirm the importance of reverse-weathered biogenic silica as a mechanism for silicon retention and suggest the significance of this process may be more widespread.

  20. Effect of radioprotective biogenic amines on peroxide oxidation of lipids in rat small intestine mucosa microsomes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The radioprotective biogenic amines, dopamine, histamine, and serotonin inhibited lipid peroxidation in rat small intestine mucosal microsomes. Possible mechanisms of these inhibitory effects are discussed

  1. Distribution and accumulation of biogenic silica in the intertidal sediments of the Yangtze Estuary

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    HOU Lijun; LIU Min; XU Shiyuan; YAN Huimin; OU Dongni; CHENG Shubo; LIN Xiao

    2008-01-01

    Sedimentary biogenic silica is known to be all important parameter to understand biogeochemical processes and paleoenviromental records in estuarine and coastal ecosystems. Consequently, it is of great significance to investigate accumulation and distribution of biogenic silica in sediments. The two-step mild acid-mild alkaline extraction procedure was used to leach biogenic silica and its early diagenetic products in intertidal sediments of the Yangtze Estuary. The results showed that total biogenic silica(t-BSi)in the intertidal sediments varied from 237. 7-419. 4 μmol Si/g. while the mild acid leachable silica(Si-HCl)and the mild alkaline leachable silica(Si-Alk)were in the range of 25. 1-72. 9μmol Si/g and 208. 1-350. 4 μmol Si/g. respectively. Significant correlations were observed for the grain size distributions of sediments and different biogenic silica pools in intertidal sediments. This confirms that grain size distribution Can significantly affect biogenic silica contents in sediments. Close relationships of biogenic silica with organic carbon and nitrogen Were also found, reflecting that there is a strong coupling between biogenic silica and organic matter biogeochemical cycles in the intertidal system of the Yangtze Estuary. Additionally, the early diagenetic changes of biogenic silica in sediments are discussed in the present study.

  2. Measurements of Biogenic and Anthropogenic Ozone and Aerosol Precursors during the SENEX (Southeast Nexus) Campaign 2013

    Science.gov (United States)

    Warneke, C.; Trainer, M.; De Gouw, J. A.

    2013-12-01

    Natural emissions of ozone and aerosol precursor gases such as isoprene and monoterpenes are the highest in the southeast of the U.S. and rival those found in tropical forests. In addition, anthropogenic emissions are significant in the Southeast and photochemistry is rapid. The southeast U.S. has not warmed like other parts of the U.S. in response to global climate change, and the temperature anomaly has been suggested to be related to aerosols derived from a combination of anthropogenic and biogenic precursors. The NOAA SENEX aircraft campaign took place in June-July 2013 in the southeast U.S. as part of the Southeast Atmosphere Study (SAS). The NOAA WP-3 aircraft conducted 20 research flights between May 27 and July 10, 2013 based out of Smyrna, TN. To investigate the combination of anthropogenic and biogenic emissions several flights were designed to follow the emissions of cities and power plants as they are transported over forested regions in the Southeast. For example, over-flights of Atlanta, Birmingham and Nashville were performed and the plumes were followed to the forested areas with high isoprene and monoterpene emissions. The same was done for several power plants such as EC Gaston, Scherer and Johnsonville. In the anthropogenic plumes, effects such as the modulation of the isoprene chemistry by high NOx and particle formation and growth were investigated. The same strategy was used for three nighttime flights over Atlanta, Birmingham and the New Madrid and White Bluff power plants. Flights over and downwind of St Lois and Indianapolis were used as a contrast in areas with smaller biogenic emissions. Other anthropogenic emissions sources that were investigated during SENEX included bio refineries, paper mills, coalmines, poultry and pork farming. Also biomass burning emissions were observed during one daytime and one nighttime flight. Another focus of the SENEX campaign was to determine the emissions of natural gas and oil production from the

  3. Biogenic Emissions of Light Alkenes from a Coniferous Forest

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rhew, R. C.; Turnipseed, A. A.; Martinez, L.; Shen, S.; De Gouw, J. A.; Warneke, C.; Koss, A.; Lerner, B. M.; Miller, B. R.; Smith, J. N.; Guenther, A. B.

    2014-12-01

    Alkenes are reactive hydrocarbons that play important roles in the photochemical production of tropospheric ozone and in the formation of secondary organic aerosols. The light alkenes (C2-C4) originate from both biogenic and anthropogenic sources and include C2H4 (ethene), C3H6 (propene) and C4H8 (1-butene, 2-butene, 2-methylpropene). Light alkenes are used widely as chemical feedstocks because their double bond makes them versatile for industrial reactions. Their biogenic sources are poorly characterized, with most global emissions estimates relying on laboratory-based studies; net ecosystem emissions have been measured at only one site thus far. Here we report net ecosystem fluxes of light alkenes and isoprene from a semi-arid ponderosa pine forest in the Rocky Mountains of Colorado, USA. Canopy scale fluxes were measured using relaxed eddy accumulation (REA) techniques on the 28-meter NCAR tower in the Manitou Experimental Forest Observatory. Updrafts and downdrafts were determined by sonic anemometry and segregated into 'up' and 'down' reservoirs over the course of an hour. Samples were then measured on two separate automated gas chromatographs (GCs). The first GC measured light hydrocarbons (C2-C6 alkanes and C2-C5 alkenes) by flame ionization detection (FID). The second GC measured halocarbons (methyl chloride, CFC-12, and HCFC-22) by electron capture detection (ECD). Additional air measurements from the top of the tower included hydrocarbons and their oxidation products by Proton Transfer Reaction Mass Spectrometry (PTR-MS). Three field intensives were conducted during the summer of 2014. The REA flux measurements showed that ethene, propene and the butene emissions have significant diurnal cycles, with maximum emissions at midday. The light alkenes contribute significantly to the overall biogenic source of reactive hydrocarbons and have a temporal variability that may be associated with physical and biological parameters. These ecosystem scale measurements

  4. Biogenic influence on cloud microphysics over the global ocean

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. Lana

    2012-02-01

    Full Text Available Aerosols have a large potential to influence climate through their effects on the microphysics and optical properties of clouds and, hence, on the Earth's radiation budget. Aerosol-cloud interactions have been intensively studied in polluted air, but the possibility that the marine biosphere plays a role in regulating cloud brightness in the pristine oceanic atmosphere remains largely unexplored. We used 9 yr of global satellite data and ocean climatologies to derive parameterizations of (a production fluxes of sulfur aerosols formed by the oxidation of the biogenic gas dimethylsulfide emitted from the sea surface; (b production fluxes of secondary organic aerosols from biogenic organic volatiles; (c emission fluxes of biogenic primary organic aerosols ejected by wind action on sea surface; and (d emission fluxes of sea salt also lifted by the wind upon bubble bursting. Series of global weekly estimates of these fluxes were correlated to series of cloud droplet effective radius data derived from satellite (MODIS. Similar analyses were conducted in more detail at 6 locations spread among polluted and clean regions of the oceanic atmosphere. The outcome of the statistical analysis was that negative correlation was common at mid and high latitude for sulfur and organic secondary aerosols, indicating both might be important in seeding cloud droplet activation. Conversely, primary aerosols (organic and sea salt showed more variable, non-significant or positive correlations, indicating that, despite contributing to large shares of the marine aerosol mass, they are not major drivers of the variability of cloud microphysics. Uncertainties and synergisms are discussed, and recommendations of research needs are given.

  5. Post-speleogenetic biogenic modification of Gomantong Caves, Sabah, Borneo

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lundberg, Joyce; McFarlane, Donald A.

    2012-07-01

    The Gomantong cave system of eastern Sabah, Malaysia, is well-known as an important site for harvesting edible bird-nests and, more recently, as a tourist attraction. Although the biology of the Gomantong system has been repeatedly studied, very little attention has been given to the geomorphology. Here, we report on the impact of geobiological modification in the development of the modern aspect of the cave, an important but little recognized feature of tropical caves. Basic modeling of the metabolic outputs from bats and birds (CO2, H2O, heat) reveals that post-speleogenetic biogenic corrosion can erode bedrock by between ~ 3.0 mm/ka (1 m/~300 ka) and ~ 4.6 mm/ka (1 m/~200 ka). Modeling at high densities of bats yields rates of corrosion of ~ 34 mm/ka (or 1 m/~30 ka). Sub-aerial corrosion creates a previously undescribed speleological feature, the apse-flute, which is semicircular in cross-section and ~ 80 cm wide. It is vertical regardless of rock properties, developing in parallel but apparently completely independently, and often unbroken from roof to floor. They end at a blind hemi-spherical top with no extraneous water source. Half-dome ceiling conch pockets are remnants of previous apse-fluting. Sub-cutaneous corrosion creates the floor-level guano notch formed by organic acid dissolution of bedrock in contact with guano. Speleogenetic assessment suggests that as much as 70-95% of the total volume of the modern cave may have been opened by direct subaerial biogenic dissolution and biogenically-induced collapse, and by sub-cutaneous removal of limestone, over a timescale of 1-2 Ma.

  6. Diel Variation of Biogenic Volatile Organic Compound Emissions

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lindwall, Frida; Faubert, Patrick; Rinnan, Riikka

    2015-01-01

    Many hours of sunlight in the midnight sun period suggest that significant amounts of biogenic volatile organic compounds (BVOCs) may be released from arctic ecosystems during night-time. However, the emissions from these ecosystems are rarely studied and limited to point measurements during...... the same range as those during the day. These results warn against overlooking the night period when considering arctic emissions. During the day, the quantity of BVOCs and the number of different compounds emitted was higher under ambient light than in darkness. The monoterpenes α-fenchene, α...

  7. Magnetically modified natural biogenic iron oxides for organic xenobiotics removal

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Šafařík, Ivo; Filip, J.; Horská, Kateřina; Nowakova, M.; Tuček, J.; Šafaříková, Miroslava; Hashimoto, H.; Takada, J.; Zbořil, R.

    Elsevier. Roč. 24, S1 (2013), S77-S77. ISSN 0958-1669. [European Biotechnology Congress. 16.05.2013-18.05.2013, Bratislava] Institutional support: RVO:67179843 Keywords : organic xenobiotics * biogenic iron * Magnetically modified Subject RIV: EI - Biotechnology ; Bionics http://ac.els-cdn.com/S0958166913003340/1-s2.0-S0958166913003340-main.pdf?_tid=55b04b50-cbc0-11e4-8cb5-00000aab0f6c&acdnat=1426498946_517d901283c9cd0d7b198ceb605f1435

  8. Studies in biogenic amine metabolism by mass spectrometry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Two areas of mass spectral study related to biogenic amine metabolism are presented: The use of electron capture negative ion chemical ionization mass spectrometry for the quantitation of melatonin and other indole amines, and general synthetic procedures useful for the synthesis of deuterated diazomethane and deuteromethylated catechols. The factors determining instrumental sensitivity in negative ion chemical ionization are discussed, and the enhancement of the primary ion beam using magnetic fields is described. Quantitation of human plasma melatonin at the parts per trillion or pg/ml level has been demonstrated and is routinely performed as a selected ion monitoring assay. (Auth.)

  9. Biogenic amines and acute thermal stress in the rat

    Science.gov (United States)

    Williams, B. A.; Moberg, G. P.

    1975-01-01

    A study is summarized which demonstrates that depletion of the biogenic amines 5-hydroxytryptamine (5-HT) or norepinephrine (NE) alters the normal thermoregulatory responses to acute temperature stress. Specifically, NE depletion caused a significant depression in equilibrium rectal temperature at 22 C and a greater depression in rectal temperature than controls in response to cold (6 C) stress; NE depletion also resulted in a significantly higher rectal temperature response to acute heat (38 C) stress. Depletion of 5-HT had less severe effects. It remains unclear whether the primary site of action of these agents is central or peripheral.

  10. Pulmonary extraction of biogenic amines during septic shock

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The effect of live Escherichia coli on the pulmonary extraction of the biogenic amines 14C 5-hydroxytryptamine, (5-HT) and 3H-epinephrine was investigated. The labeled isotopes were injected into a central venous catheter and collected from an aortic catheter. One hundred per cent of the labeled epinephrine was recovered in the control and septic state. Only 32.8 +/- 3.6% SEM of the 5-hydroxytryptamine was recovered before sepsis and 42.5 +/- 4.9% SEM after sepsis. During sepsis, mean arterial pressure fell to 58 mm Hg from 121 mm Hg. Pulmonary shunt increased from .7 +/- .05 SEM to .33 +/- .09 SEM

  11. The influence of marine biogenic particles on ice phase initiation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alpert, P. A.; Radway, J.; Aller, J. Y.; Knopf, D. A.

    2011-12-01

    Aerosol particles vary in composition with many being biogenic and of terrestrial or marine origin. Efficient ice forming biogenic particles are typically thought to be of terrestrial origin; however, recent data demonstrate that marine biogenic particles can act as ice nuclei (IN) in both immersion and deposition modes, with and without association of NaCl. These results are significant given that ocean derived particles including phytoplankton, microorganisms, transparent exopolymers, and colloidal gels become aerosolized from the sea surface microlayer through wave breaking and bubble bursting. Such particles typically include sea salt, but in situ observations of air masses associated with phytoplankton blooms have identified organic compounds as significant mass contributors to aerosol loading. Here we present results from experiments with Thalassiosira pseudonana, Emiliania huxleyi, and Nanochloris atomus, phytoplankton with distinctly different cell walls: silica, calcite, and cellulose fibrils, respectively, as efficient IN in immersion and deposition modes at typical tropospheric conditions. In a separate set of experiments, submicron size particles with and without organics are generated through bubble bursting in a custom built seawater tank. Subsequently collected, these particles are observed using a coupled cooling stage/optical microscope, for their ice nucleation potential as a function of particle temperature (T), water activity (aw), relative humidity with respect to ice (RHice), droplet volume, and particle surface area. In the immersion mode, fragmented and intact cells of T. pseudonana and N. atomus enhance ice nucleation in aqueous NaCl solution droplets by ~10-30 K and 10-20 K above the homogeneous freezing limit, and for a range of aw of 1.0-0.8, while E. huxleyi do not enhance freezing temperatures. In the deposition mode, all three species nucleate ice for RHice as low as ~120%, however, for each, different nucleation modes occur at warmer

  12. Carbon nanomaterial based electrochemical sensors for biogenic amines

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This review describes recent advances in the use of carbon nanomaterials for electroanalytical detection of biogenic amines (BAs). It starts with a short introduction into carbon nanomaterials such as carbon nanotubes, graphene, nanodiamonds, carbon nanofibers, fullerenes, and their composites. Next, electrochemical sensing schemes are discussed for various BAs including dopamine, serotonin, epinephrine, norepinephrine, tyramine, histamine and putrescine. Examples are then given for methods for simultaneous detection of various BAs. Finally, we discuss the current and future challenges of carbon nanomaterial-based electrochemical sensors for BAs. The review contains 175 references. (author)

  13. Extracellular proteins limit the dispersal of biogenic nanoparticles

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moreau, J.W.; Weber, P.K.; Martin, M.C.; Gilbert, B.; Hutcheon, I.D.; Banfield, J.F.

    2007-01-01

    High-spatial-resolution secondary ion microprobe spectrometry, synchrotron radiation-based Fourier-transform infrared spectroscopy, and polyacrylamide gel analysis demonstrated the intimate association of proteins with spheroidal aggregates of biogenic zinc sulfide nanocrystals, an example of extracellular biomineralization. Experiments involving synthetic zinc sulfide nanoparticles and representative amino acids indicated a driving role for cysteine in rapid nanoparticle aggregation. These findings suggest that microbially derived extracellular proteins can limit the dispersal of nanoparticulate metal-bearing phases, such as the mineral products of bioremediation, that may otherwise be transported away from their source by subsurface fluid flow.

  14. Extracellular Proteins Limit the Dispersal of BiogenicNanoparticles

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Moreau, John W.; Weber, Peter K.; Martin, Michael C.; Gilbert,Benjamin; Hutcheon, Ian D.; Banfield, Jillian F.

    2007-04-27

    High spatial-resolution secondaryion microprobespectrometry, synchrotron radiation Fourier-transform infraredspectroscopy and polyacrylamide gel analysis demonstrate the intimateassociation of proteins with spheroidal aggregates of biogenic zincsulfide nanocrystals, an example of extracellular biomineralization.Experiments involving synthetic ZnS nanoparticles and representativeamino acids indicate a driving role for cysteine in rapid nanoparticleaggregation. These findings suggest that microbially-derivedextracellular proteins can limit dispersal of nanoparticulatemetal-bearing phases, such as the mineral products of bioremediation,that may otherwise be transported away from their source by subsurfacefluid flow.

  15. Potential Organic Aerosol Formation from Biogenic Compounds: Model and Measurement analysis of the BEACHON-RoMBAS 2011 field data

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hodzic, A.; Lee-Taylor, J.; Aumont, B.; Madronich, S.; Palm, B. B.; Campuzano Jost, P.; Day, D. A.; Jimenez, J. L.; Karl, T.; Apel, E. C.; Kaser, L.; Hansel, A.

    2012-12-01

    comparing the results of GECKO with the experimental results of the Potential Aerosol Mass (PAM, Kang et al., ACP, 2007) photochemical reactor analyzed by an AMS and SMPS (Palm et al., this conference). PAM is a flowtube reactor through which ambient air is continually sampled and exposed for 4 minutes to high levels of oxidants (100-10000 higher than atmospheric conditions), allowing quantification of the maximum aerosol mass that can be produced by oxidation of biogenic VOCs and its chemical evolution with oxidant exposure. PAM measurements were simulated by running the GECKO-A model for the RoMBAS conditions with ambient to extremely high amounts of oxidants: [OH] of 1e7 to 2.5e10 molec/cc and [O3] of 50 to 20,000 ppb. The results show that all precursor gases were rapidly oxidized, yielding substantial concentrations of low volatility compounds and SOA. The simulations are performed for daytime and nighttime mixtures. Similarities and differences between the PAM measurements and GECKO-A predictions, especially for very high OH (~1e10 molec/cc) exposure, are discussed.

  16. The contribution of tephra constituents during biogenic silica determination: implications for soil and paleoecological studies

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    W. Clymans

    2015-02-01

    Full Text Available Biogenic silica (BSi is used as a proxy by soil scientists to identify biological effects on the Si cycle and by paleoecologists to study environmental changes. Alkaline extractions are typically used to measure BSi in both terrestrial and aquatic environments. The dissolution properties of volcanic glass in tephra deposits and their nano-crystalline weathering products are hypothesized to overlap those of BSi, however, data to support this behavior are lacking. The understanding that the Si-bearing fractions that dissolve in alkaline media (SiAlk do not necessarily correspond to BSi, question the applicability of BSi as a proxy. Here, analysis of 15 samples reported as tephra-containing allows us to reject the hypothesis that tephra constituents produce an identical dissolution signal to that of BSi during alkaline extraction. We found that dissolution of volcanic glass shards is incomplete during alkaline dissolution. Simultaneous measurement of Al and Si used here during alkaline dissolution provides an important parameter to enable us to separate glass shard dissolution from dissolution of BSi and other Si-bearing fractions. The contribution from volcanic glass shard (between 0.2–4 wt.% SiO2, the main constituent of distal tephra, during alkaline dissolution can be substantial depending on the total SiAlk. Hence, soils and lake sediments with low BSi concentrations are highly sensitive to the additional dissolution from tephra constituents and its weathering products. We advise evaluation of the potential for volcanic or other non-biogenic contributions for all types of studies using BSi as an environmental proxy.

  17. Size distribution studies in the SOA-particle formation during the ozonolysis of biogenic alkenes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moortgat, G.; Bonn, B.; Winterhalter, R.

    2003-04-01

    It is established that secondary organic aerosols (SOA) are formed during the reaction of ozone with biogenic alkenes. Experiments of endocyclic (e.g. alpha-pinene, 3-carene) as well as exocyclic monoterpenes (e.g. beta-pinene, sabinene) with ozone have been performed with additional compounds such as water vapour, alcohols and carbonyl compounds, to examine their effect on the SOA particle size distribution in dependence of the alkene structure. This study was further used to describe the formation mechanism of nucleating species for both endo- and exocyclic terpene reactions. Experiments were performed in a spherical glass vessel of 570 L volume at atmospheric pressure. The particle size distribution was measured by a scanning mobility particle sizer, including a long DMA and an ultra-fine particle counter, with a time resolution of two minutes. Cyclohexane was present to prevent interfering reactions of the produced OH-radicals. The laboratory results seem to indicate that the homogeneous nucleation process during the ozonolysis of terpenes is controlled by the formation of large secondary ozonides and can be supressed by the addition of water vapour. These nucleating secondary ozonides are formed differently in endo-and exocyclic reactions: intramolecular in endocyclic and intermolecular in exocylic monoterpene ozonolyses. Such processes are known to be controlled by the stabilized Criegee Intermediates (CI), formed in the ozone reaction with biogenic terpenes. On the other hand, analysis of aerosol material from laboratory and some sparse field studies have identifed various multifunctional dicarboxylic, and keto-carboxylic acids (e.g. pinic and pinonic acid), whose current formation mechanism seems to involve excited CI. Due to their low volatility, these acids may act as nucleation precursors (new particle formation) or condense on preexisting particles (heterogeneous nucleation). The current dilemma, whether stabilized or excited CI are involved in the

  18. The contribution of tephra constituents during biogenic silica determination: implications for soil and paleoecological studies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Clymans, W.; Barão, L.; Van der Putten, N.; Wastegård, S.; Gísladóttir, G.; Björck, S.; Moine, B.; Struyf, E.; Conley, D. J.

    2015-02-01

    Biogenic silica (BSi) is used as a proxy by soil scientists to identify biological effects on the Si cycle and by paleoecologists to study environmental changes. Alkaline extractions are typically used to measure BSi in both terrestrial and aquatic environments. The dissolution properties of volcanic glass in tephra deposits and their nano-crystalline weathering products are hypothesized to overlap those of BSi, however, data to support this behavior are lacking. The understanding that the Si-bearing fractions that dissolve in alkaline media (SiAlk) do not necessarily correspond to BSi, question the applicability of BSi as a proxy. Here, analysis of 15 samples reported as tephra-containing allows us to reject the hypothesis that tephra constituents produce an identical dissolution signal to that of BSi during alkaline extraction. We found that dissolution of volcanic glass shards is incomplete during alkaline dissolution. Simultaneous measurement of Al and Si used here during alkaline dissolution provides an important parameter to enable us to separate glass shard dissolution from dissolution of BSi and other Si-bearing fractions. The contribution from volcanic glass shard (between 0.2-4 wt.% SiO2), the main constituent of distal tephra, during alkaline dissolution can be substantial depending on the total SiAlk. Hence, soils and lake sediments with low BSi concentrations are highly sensitive to the additional dissolution from tephra constituents and its weathering products. We advise evaluation of the potential for volcanic or other non-biogenic contributions for all types of studies using BSi as an environmental proxy.

  19. The contribution of tephra constituents during biogenic silica determination: implications for soil and palaeoecological studies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Clymans, W.; Barão, L.; Van der Putten, N.; Wastegård, S.; Gísladóttir, G.; Björck, S.; Moine, B.; Struyf, E.; Conley, D. J.

    2015-06-01

    Biogenic silica (BSi) is used as a proxy by soil scientists to identify biological effects on the Si cycle and by palaeoecologists to study environmental changes. Alkaline extractions are typically used to measure BSi in both terrestrial and aquatic environments. The dissolution properties of volcanic glass in tephra deposits and their nanocrystalline weathering products are hypothesized to overlap those of BSi; however, data to support this behaviour are lacking. The potential that Si-bearing fractions dissolve in alkaline media (SiAlk) that do not necessarily correspond to BSi brings the applicability of BSi as a proxy into question. Here, analysis of 15 samples reported as tephra-containing allows us to reject the hypothesis that tephra constituents produce an identical dissolution signal to that of BSi during alkaline extraction. We found that dissolution of volcanic glass shards is incomplete during alkaline dissolution. Simultaneous measurement of Al and Si used here during alkaline dissolution provides an important parameter to enable us to separate glass shard dissolution from dissolution of BSi and other Si-bearing fractions. The contribution from volcanic glass shards (between 0.2 and 4 wt % SiO2), the main constituent of distal tephra, during alkaline dissolution can be substantial depending on the total SiAlk. Hence, soils and lake sediments with low BSi concentrations are highly sensitive to the additional dissolution from tephra constituents and its weathering products. We advise evaluation of the potential for volcanic or other non-biogenic contributions for all types of studies using BSi as an environmental proxy.

  20. 78 FR 50135 - Soil Biogenics Ltd., File No. 500-1; Order of Suspension of Trading

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-08-16

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office SECURITIES AND EXCHANGE COMMISSION Soil Biogenics Ltd., File No. 500-1; Order of Suspension of Trading August 14, 2013. It appears to... concerning the securities of Soil Biogenics Ltd. because it has not filed ] any periodic reports since...

  1. Genome Sequence Analysis of the Biogenic Amine-Degrading Strain Lactobacillus casei 5b

    OpenAIRE

    Ladero Losada, Víctor Manuel; Herrero, Ana; Martínez Álvarez, Noelia; Río Lagar, Beatriz del; Linares, Daniel M.; Fernández García, María; Martín, M. Cruz; Álvarez González, Miguel Ángel

    2014-01-01

    We here report a 3.02-Mbp annotated draft assembly of the Lactobacillus casei 5b genome. The sequence of this biogenic amine-degrading dairy isolate may help identify the mechanisms involved in the catabolism of biogenic amines and perhaps shed light on ways to reduce the presence of these toxic compounds in food.

  2. Factors influencing biogenic amines accumulation in dairy products.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Linares, Daniel M; Del Río, Beatriz; Ladero, Victor; Martínez, Noelia; Fernández, María; Martín, María Cruz; Alvarez, Miguel A

    2012-01-01

    Fermented foods are among the food products more often complained of having caused episodes of biogenic amines (BA) poisoning. Concerning milk-based fermented foods, cheese is the main product likely to contain potentially harmful levels of BA, specially tyramine, histamine, and putrescine. Prompted by the increasing awareness of the risks related to dietary uptake of high biogenic amine loads, in this review we report all those elaboration and processing technological aspects affecting BA biosynthesis and accumulation in dairy foods. Improved knowledge of the factors involved in the synthesis and accumulation of BA should lead to a reduction in their incidence in milk products. Synthesis of BA is possible only when three conditions converge: (i) availability of the substrate amino acids; (ii) presence of microorganisms with the appropriate catabolic pathway activated; and (iii) environmental conditions favorable to the decarboxylation activity. These conditions depend on several factors such as milk treatment (pasteurization), use of starter cultures, NaCl concentration, time, and temperature of ripening and preservation, pH, temperature, or post-ripening technological processes, which will be discussed in this chapter. PMID:22783233

  3. Analysis of biogenic amines using corona discharge ion mobility spectrometry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hashemian, Z; Mardihallaj, A; Khayamian, T

    2010-05-15

    A new method based on corona discharge ion mobility spectrometry (CD-IMS) was developed for the analysis of biogenic amines including spermidine, spermine, putrescine, and cadaverine. The ion mobility spectra of the compounds were obtained with and without n-Nonylamine used as the reagent gas. The high proton affinity of n-Nonylamine prevented ion formation from compounds with a proton affinity lower than that of n-Nonylamine and, therefore, enhanced its selectivity. It was also realized that the ion mobility spectrum of n-Nonylamine varied with its concentration. A sample injection port of a gas chromatograph was modified and used as the sample introduction system into the CD-IMS. The detection limits, dynamic ranges, and analytical parameters of the compounds with and without using the reagent gas were obtained. The detection limits and dynamic ranges of the compounds were about 2ng and 2 orders of magnitude, respectively. The wide dynamic range of CD-IMS originates from the high current of the corona discharge. The results revealed the high capability of the CD-IMS for the analysis of biogenic amines. PMID:20298897

  4. Role of surface-inoculated Debaryomyces hansenii and Yarrowia lipolytica strains in dried fermented sausage manufacture. Part 2: Evaluation of their effects on sensory quality and biogenic amine content.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Iucci, Luciana; Patrignani, Francesca; Belletti, Nicoletta; Ndagijimana, Maurice; Elisabetta Guerzoni, M; Gardini, Fausto; Lanciotti, Rosalba

    2007-04-01

    The aim was to study the effects of Debaryomyces hansenii and Yarrowia lipolytica strains, used with lactic acid starter cultures (Lactobacillus plantarum), in the manufacture of dried fermented sausages in order to understand their effects on volatile profile, biogenic amine content and sensory properties. The experimental data showed that every yeast strain produced a specific profile of volatile metabolic products. The yeasts also gave sausages with distinctive sensory properties. The degree of mincing also influenced these properties, but none of these factors had significant influence upon the accumulation of biogenic amines. PMID:22064032

  5. Methylotrophic methanogenesis governs the biogenic coal bed methane formation in Eastern Ordos Basin, China

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Guo, Hongguang; Yu, Zhisheng; Liu, Ruyin [Graduate Univ. of Chinese Academy of Sciences, Beijing (China). College of Resources and Environment; Zhang, Hongxun [Graduate Univ. of Chinese Academy of Sciences, Beijing (China). College of Resources and Environment; Chinese Academy of Sciences, Beijing (China). Research Center for Eco-Environmental Sciences; Zhong, Qiding; Xiong, Zhenghe [China National Research Institute of Food and Fermentation Industries, Beijing (China). Food Analysis using Isotope Technology Lab

    2012-12-15

    To identify the methanogenic pathways present in a deep coal bed methane (CBM) reservoir associated with Eastern Ordos Basin in China, a series of geochemical and microbiological studies was performed using gas and water samples produced from the Liulin CBM reservoir. The composition and stable isotopic ratios of CBM implied a mixed biogenic and thermogenic origin of the methane. Archaeal 16S rRNA gene analysis revealed the dominance of the methylotrophic methanogen Methanolobus in the water produced. The high potential of methane production by methylotrophic methanogens was found in the enrichments using the water samples amended with methanol and incubated at 25 and 35 C. Methylotrophic methanogens were the dominant archaea in both enrichments as shown by polymerase chain reaction (PCR)-denaturing gradient gel electrophoresis (DGGE). Bacterial 16S rRNA gene analysis revealed that fermentative, sulfate-reducing, and nitrate-reducing bacteria inhabiting the water produced were a factor in coal biodegradation to fuel methanogens. These results suggested that past and ongoing biodegradation of coal by methylotrophic methanogens and syntrophic bacteria, as well as thermogenic CBM production, contributed to the Liulin CBM reserves associated with the Eastern Ordos Basin. (orig.)

  6. Carbon and hydrogen isotopic composition and generation pathway of biogenic gas in China

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    SHEN Ping; WANG Xiaofeng; XU Yin; SHI Baoguang; XU Yongchang

    2009-01-01

    The carbon and hydrogen isotopic composition of biogenic gas is of great importance for the study of its generation pathway and reservoiring characteristics. In this paper, the formation pathways and reservoiring characteristics of biogenic gas reservoirs in China are described in terms of the carbon and hydrogen isotopic compositions of 31 gas samples from 10 biogenic gas reservoirs. The study shows that the hydrogen isotopic compositions of these biogenic gas reservoirs can be divided into three intervals:δDCH4>-200‰,-250‰<δDCH4<-200‰ and δDCH4<-250‰. The forerunners believed that the main generation pathway of biogenic gas under the condition of continental fresh water is acetic fermentation. Our research results showed that the generation pathway of biogenic gas under the condition of marine facies is typical CO2- reduction, the biogenic gas has heavy hydrogen isotopic composition: its δDCH4 values are higher than -200‰; that the biogenic gas under the condition of continental facies also was generated by the same way, but its hydrogen isotopic composition is lighter than that of biogenetic gas generated under typical marine facies condition: -250‰<δDCH4<-200‰, the δDCH4 values may be related to the salinity of the water medium in ancient lakes. From the relevant data of the Qaidam Basin, it can be seen that the hydrogen isotopic composition of biogenic methane has the same variation trend with increasing salinity of water medium. There are biogenic gas reservoirs formed in transitional regions under the condition of continental facies. These gas reservoirs resulted from both CO2- reduction and acetic fermentation, the formation of which may be related to the non-variant salinity of ancient water medium and the relatively high geothermal gradient, as is the case encountered in the Baoshan Basin. The biogenic gas generating in these regions has light hydrogen isotopic composition: δDCH4<-250‰, and relatively heavy carbon isotopic

  7. An evaluation of pretreatment agents for the stimulation of secondary biogenic coalbed natural gas

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huang, Zaixing

    permanganate treated samples, which had a much lower TOC (5%), were more promising in terms of biological conversion potential. The biometer assay data indicated that up to 1.1% of the coal carbon was mineralized to carbon dioxide (CO2) within a period of two weeks. On this basis, permanganate treated samples were utilized in subsequent experiments to evaluate potential biogenic methane generation. For the permanganate treated samples, 5.4% of the coal carbon was solubilized/depolymerized, and 3.2% of the soluble carbon was converted to methane (CH4). The methane was rapidly generated and peaked at 40-days with a cumulative amount of 93.4 mumol/g coal (73.9 standard cubic feet (Scf)/ton coal equivalent using linear extrapolation). This compares very favorably to the 22-74 Scf/ton said to exist within the PBR coalbeds prior to resource exploitation. Our data also showed that a small fraction, 143 mumol/g coal, of the soluble carbon which was designated as the volatile fraction (i.e., the purgeable fraction removable by sparging with N2 gas) is essential to the generation of biogenic methane from coal derived constituents. Subsequent studies evaluating the influence of the chemical pretreatment agents (HNO3, NaOH, catalyzed H 2O2, KMnO4) on the subsequent enzymatic conversion of subbituminous coal using a fungal manganese peroxidase (MnP) produced by the agaric white-rot fungus Bjerkandera adusta have shown that chemical pretreatments can also enhance the coal solubilization performance of MnP.

  8. Influence of pH, competing ions, and salinity on the sorption of strontium and cobalt onto biogenic hydroxyapatite

    Science.gov (United States)

    Handley-Sidhu, Stephanie; Mullan, Thomas K.; Grail, Quentin; Albadarneh, Malek; Ohnuki, Toshihiko; Macaskie, Lynne E.

    2016-03-01

    Anthropogenic radionuclides contaminate a range of environments as a result of nuclear activities, for example, leakage from waste storage tanks/ponds (e.g. Hanford, USA or Sellafield sites, UK) or as a result of large scale nuclear accidents (e.g. Chernobyl, Ukraine or Fukushima, Japan). One of the most widely applied remediation techniques for contaminated waters is the use of sorbent materials (e.g. zeolites and apatites). However, a key problem at nuclear contaminated sites is the remediation of radionuclides from complex chemical environments. In this study, biogenic hydroxyapatite (BHAP) produced by Serratia sp. bacteria was investigated for its potential to remediate surrogate radionuclides (Sr2+ and Co2+) from environmentally relevant waters by varying pH, salinity and the type and concentration of cations present. The sorption capacity of the BHAP for both Sr2+ and Co2+ was higher than for a synthetically produced hydroxyapatite (HAP) in the solutions tested. BHAP also compared favorably against a natural zeolite (as used in industrial decontamination) for Sr2+ and Co2+ uptake from saline waters. Results confirm that hydroxyapatite minerals of high surface area and amorphous calcium phosphate content, typical for biogenic sources, are suitable restoration or reactive barrier materials for the remediation of complex contaminated environments or wastewaters.

  9. Influence of pH, competing ions, and salinity on the sorption of strontium and cobalt onto biogenic hydroxyapatite

    Science.gov (United States)

    Handley-Sidhu, Stephanie; Mullan, Thomas K.; Grail, Quentin; Albadarneh, Malek; Ohnuki, Toshihiko; Macaskie, Lynne E.

    2016-01-01

    Anthropogenic radionuclides contaminate a range of environments as a result of nuclear activities, for example, leakage from waste storage tanks/ponds (e.g. Hanford, USA or Sellafield sites, UK) or as a result of large scale nuclear accidents (e.g. Chernobyl, Ukraine or Fukushima, Japan). One of the most widely applied remediation techniques for contaminated waters is the use of sorbent materials (e.g. zeolites and apatites). However, a key problem at nuclear contaminated sites is the remediation of radionuclides from complex chemical environments. In this study, biogenic hydroxyapatite (BHAP) produced by Serratia sp. bacteria was investigated for its potential to remediate surrogate radionuclides (Sr2+ and Co2+) from environmentally relevant waters by varying pH, salinity and the type and concentration of cations present. The sorption capacity of the BHAP for both Sr2+ and Co2+ was higher than for a synthetically produced hydroxyapatite (HAP) in the solutions tested. BHAP also compared favorably against a natural zeolite (as used in industrial decontamination) for Sr2+ and Co2+ uptake from saline waters. Results confirm that hydroxyapatite minerals of high surface area and amorphous calcium phosphate content, typical for biogenic sources, are suitable restoration or reactive barrier materials for the remediation of complex contaminated environments or wastewaters. PMID:26988070

  10. Biogenic hydrogen production from organic raw materials and residues; Biogene Wasserstofferzeugung aus organischen Roh- und Reststoffen

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Meyer, M.; Rechtenbach, D.; Stegmann, R. [Technische Univ. Hamburg-Harburg, Hamburg (Germany). Inst. fuer AbfallRessourcenWirtschaft

    2007-02-15

    Hydrogen (H{sub 2}) is considered as an energy source for the future. Laboratory scale thermophilic fermentation tests were carried out in three different test systems (500 ml Sensomat system, 6 l anaerobic test system (ATS) and a 30 l continuously stirred tank reactor CSTR). Hydrogen was produced from glucose and agricultural products as substrates in batch and discontinuous tests at 60 C. The inoculum consisted of heat-treated digested sewage sludge. The best specific hydrogen production of 280 Nml H{sub 2}/g VSS was achieved with glucose at a pH 5.5 in batch operation in the CSTR. Corn starch produced 211 Nml H{sub 2}/g VSS and potato starch 123 Nml H{sub 2}/g VSS. The agricultural products sugar beet, fodder beet, potato, turnip, corn and bio-waste potato peel showed good potential for biological hydrogen production with conversion yields between 24 - 60%. In the discontinuous test system, hydrogen production rates of between 0.4 Nl/(l{sub R}.d) and 1.3 Nl/(l{sub R}.d) were produced, corresponding to yields of between 83 to 445 Nml H{sub 2}/g VSS. (orig.)

  11. Structure of nanocrystalline phyllomanganates produced by freshwater fungi

    OpenAIRE

    Grangeon, Sylvain; Lanson, Bruno; Miyata, Naoyuki; Tani, Yukinori; Manceau, Alain

    2010-01-01

    The crystal structures of biogenic Mn oxides produced by three fungal strains isolated from stream pebbles were determined using chemical analyses, XANES and EXAFS spectroscopy, and powder X-ray diffraction. The fungi-mediated oxidation of aqueous Mn2+ produces layered Mn oxides analogous to vernadite, a natural nanostructured and turbostratic variety of birnessite. The crystallites have domain dimensions of ~10 nm in the layer plane (equivalent to ~35 MnO6 octahedra), and ~1.5-2.2 nm perpend...

  12. Biogenic CO2 fluxes, changes in surface albedo and biodiversity impacts from establishment of a miscanthus plantation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jørgensen, Susanne V; Cherubini, Francesco; Michelsen, Ottar

    2014-12-15

    Depletion in oil resources and environmental concern related to the use of fossil fuels has increased the interest in using second generation biomass as alternative feedstock for fuels and materials. However, the land use and land use change for producing second generation (2G) biomass impacts the environment in various ways, of which not all are usually considered in life cycle assessment. This study assesses the biogenic CO2 fluxes, surface albedo changes and biodiversity impacts for 100 years after changing land use from forest or fallow land to miscanthus plantation in Wisconsin, US. Climate change impacts are addressed in terms of effective forcing, a mid-point indicator which can be used to compare impacts from biogenic CO2 fluxes and albedo changes. Biodiversity impacts are assessed through elaboration on two different existing approaches, to express the change in biodiversity impact from one human influenced state to another. Concerning the impacts from biogenic CO2 fluxes, in the case of conversion from a forest to a miscanthus plantation (case A) there is a contribution to global warming, whereas when a fallow land is converted (case B), there is a climate cooling. When the effects from albedo changes are included, both scenarios show a net cooling impact, which is more pronounced in case B. Both cases reduce biodiversity in the area where the miscanthus plantation is established, though most in case A. The results illustrate the relevance of these issues when considering environmental impacts of land use and land use change. The apparent trade-offs in terms of environmental impacts further highlight the importance of including these aspects in LCA of land use and land use changes, in order to enable informed decision making. PMID:25194521

  13. Biogenic and pedogenic controls on Si distributions and cycling in grasslands of the Santa Cruz soil chronosequence, California

    Science.gov (United States)

    White, Art F.; Vivit, Davison V.; Schulz, Marjorie S.; Bullen, Tom D.; Evett, Rand R.; Aagarwal, Jugdeep

    2012-10-01

    Biogenic and pedogenic processes control silica cycling in grasslands growing on a soil chronosequence and dominated by strong seasonal variabilities of a Mediterranean climate. Shallow pore water Si, in spite of significant annual uptake and release by plant growth and dieback, exhibits only moderate seasonal fluctuations reflecting strong buffering from labile biogenic Si, dominated by phytoliths and by secondary pedogenic silicates. Long phytolith residence times (340-900 yrs) reflect the seasonally dry climate and high solute Si concentrations. Water-extractable Si is closely associated with Al, indicating seasonal precipitation and dissolution of a highly labile 1:1 hydroxyaluminosilicate (HAS), probably allophane, which transforms in deeper soil into fine grained, poorly crystalline kaolinite. Shallow plant roots extract greater proportions of biogenic Si and deeper plant roots larger amounts pedogenic Si. High pore water Ge/Si in late winter and spring reflects the reinforcing effects of plant fractionation and concurrent dissolution of Ge-enriched HAS. The same processes produce pore waters with depleted 30Si/28Si. In the summer and fall, Ge/Si declines and 30Si/28Si increases, reflecting the cessation of plant uptake, continued dissolution of soil phytoliths and re-precipitation of less soluble HAS. Si inputs from weathering (2-90 mmol m-2 yr-1) and losses from pore water discharge (18-68 mM m-2 yr-1) are comparable for individual soils, decline with soil age and are significantly less than amounts of Si annual cycled through the vegetation (42-171 mM m-2 yr-1). Mobile Si is generally balanced in the soils with upward bio-pumping by the shallow-rooted grasses efficiently competing against downward leaching and pore water discharge. Small net annual increases in Si in the present day soils could not have been maintained over the time scale represented by the chronosequence (65-225 yrs), implying past changes in environmental conditions.

  14. Monitoring biogenic volatile compounds emitted by Eucalyptus citriodora using SPME.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zini, C A; Augusto, F; Christensen, T E; Smith, B P; Caramão, E B; Pawliszy, J

    2001-10-01

    A procedure to monitor BVOC emitted by living plants using SPME technique is presented. For this purpose, a glass sampling chamber was designed. This device was employed for the characterization of biogenic volatile compounds emitted by leaves of Eucalyptus citriodora. After extraction with SPME fibers coated with PDMS/ DVB, it was possible to identify or detect 33 compounds emitted by this plant. A semiquantitative approach was applied to monitor the behavior of the emitted BVOC during 9 days. Circadian profiles of the variation in the concentration of isoprene were plotted. Using diffusion-based SPME quantitation, a recently introduced analytical approach, with extraction times as short as 15 s, it was possible to quantify subparts-per-billion amounts of isoprene emitted by this plant. PMID:11605854

  15. Fungal spores overwhelm biogenic organic aerosols in a midlatitudinal forest

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhu, Chunmao; Kawamura, Kimitaka; Fukuda, Yasuro; Mochida, Michihiro; Iwamoto, Yoko

    2016-06-01

    Both primary biological aerosol particles (PBAPs) and oxidation products of biogenic volatile organic compounds (BVOCs) contribute significantly to organic aerosols (OAs) in forested regions. However, little is known about their relative importance in diurnal timescales. Here, we report biomarkers of PBAP and secondary organic aerosols (SOAs) for their diurnal variability in a temperate coniferous forest in Wakayama, Japan. Tracers of fungal spores, trehalose, arabitol and mannitol, showed significantly higher levels in nighttime than daytime (p SOA formation. Using tracer-based methods, we estimated that fungal spores account for 45 % of organic carbon (OC) in nighttime and 22 % in daytime, whereas BVOC oxidation products account for 15 and 19 %, respectively. To our knowledge, we present for the first time highly time-resolved results that fungal spores overwhelmed BVOC oxidation products in contributing to OA especially in nighttime. This study emphasizes the importance of both PBAPs and SOAs in forming forest organic aerosols.

  16. Organic nitrate aerosol formation via NO3 + biogenic volatile organic compounds in the southeastern United States

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ayres, B. R.; Allen, H. M.; Draper, D. C.; Brown, S. S.; Wild, R. J.; Jimenez, J. L.; Day, D. A.; Campuzano-Jost, P.; Hu, W.; de Gouw, J.; Koss, A.; Cohen, R. C.; Duffey, K. C.; Romer, P.; Baumann, K.; Edgerton, E.; Takahama, S.; Thornton, J. A.; Lee, B. H.; Lopez-Hilfiker, F. D.; Mohr, C.; Wennberg, P. O.; Nguyen, T. B.; Teng, A.; Goldstein, A. H.; Olson, K.; Fry, J. L.

    2015-12-01

    Gas- and aerosol-phase measurements of oxidants, biogenic volatile organic compounds (BVOCs) and organic nitrates made during the Southern Oxidant and Aerosol Study (SOAS campaign, Summer 2013) in central Alabama show that a nitrate radical (NO3) reaction with monoterpenes leads to significant secondary aerosol formation. Cumulative losses of NO3 to terpenes are correlated with increase in gas- and aerosol-organic nitrate concentrations made during the campaign. Correlation of NO3 radical consumption to organic nitrate aerosol formation as measured by aerosol mass spectrometry and thermal dissociation laser-induced fluorescence suggests a molar yield of aerosol-phase monoterpene nitrates of 23-44 %. Compounds observed via chemical ionization mass spectrometry (CIMS) are correlated to predicted nitrate loss to BVOCs and show C10H17NO5, likely a hydroperoxy nitrate, is a major nitrate-oxidized terpene product being incorporated into aerosols. The comparable isoprene product C5H9NO5 was observed to contribute less than 1 % of the total organic nitrate in the aerosol phase and correlations show that it is principally a gas-phase product from nitrate oxidation of isoprene. Organic nitrates comprise between 30 and 45 % of the NOy budget during SOAS. Inorganic nitrates were also monitored and showed that during incidents of increased coarse-mode mineral dust, HNO3 uptake produced nitrate aerosol mass loading at a rate comparable to that of organic nitrate produced via NO3 + BVOCs.

  17. Rapid Detection and Identification of Biogenic Aerosol Releases and Sources

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wagner, J.; Macher, J.; Ghosal, S.; Ahmed, K.; Hemati, K.; Wall, S.; Kumagai, K.

    2011-12-01

    Biogenic aerosols can be important contributors to aerosol chemistry, cloud droplet and ice nucleation, absorption and scattering of radiation, human health and comfort, and plant, animal, and microbial ecology. Many types of bioaerosols, e.g., fungal spores, are released into the atmosphere in response to specific climatological and meteorological conditions. The rapid identification of bioaerosol releases is thus important for better characterization of the above phenomena, as well as enabling public officials to respond quickly and appropriately to releases of infectious agents or biological toxins. One approach to rapid and accurate bioaerosol detection is to employ sequential, automated samples that can be fed directly into an image acquisition and data analysis device. Raman spectroscopy-based identification of bioaerosols, automated analysis of microscopy images, and automated detection of near-monodisperse peaks in aerosol size-distribution data were investigated as complementary approaches to traditional, manual methods for the identification and counting of fungal and actinomycete spores. Manual light microscopy is a widely used analytical technique that is compatible with a number of air sample formats and requires minimal sample preparation. However, a major drawback is its dependence on a human analyst's ability to distinguish particles and accurately count, size, and identify them. Therefore, automated methods, such as those evaluated in this study, have the potential to provide cost-effective and rapid alternatives if demonstrated to be accurate and reliable. An exploratory examination of individual spores for several macro- and microfungi (those with and without large fruiting bodies) by Raman microspectroscopy found unique spectral features that were used to identify fungi to the genus level. Automated analyses of digital spore images accurately recognized and counted single fungal spores and clusters. An automated procedure to discriminate near

  18. CO2 Biogenic vs Anthropogenic Sectoral Contribution for INFLUX

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lopez-Coto, I.; Prasad, K.; Hu, H.; Whetstone, J. R.; Miles, N. L.; Richardson, S.; Lauvaux, T.; Davis, K. J.; Turnbull, J. C.; Karion, A.; Sweeney, C.; Brewer, A.; Hardesty, M.; Cambaliza, M. O. L.; Shepson, P. B.; Patarasuk, R.; Gurney, K. R.

    2014-12-01

    The Indianapolis Flux Experiment (INFLUX) aims to use a top-down inversion methodology to quantify sources of Greenhouse Gas (GHG) emissions over an urban domain with high spatial and temporal resolution. This project is an experimental test bed which is intended to establish reliable methods for quantifying and validating GHG emissions independently of the inventory methods typically used for Measurement, Reporting and Verification (MRV) of pollution sources. Analyzing the contribution of different source types or sectors is a fundamental step in order to achieve an accuracy level desired for such MRV applications. This is especially challenging when attempting to determine anthropogenic emissions during the growing season since biological GHG fluxes reach a maximum at this time. To this end, the Weather Research and Forecasting Model (WRF-ARW) version 3.5.1 was used along with a modified version of the Green House Gases chemistry module for simulating the CO2 mole fraction transport during September and October 2013. Sectoral anthropogenic CO2 emissions were obtained from Hestia 2012 and from Vulcan 2002 beyond the spatial coverage of Hestia. Biogenic CO2 emissions were simulated by using an augmented version of the "Vegetation Photosynthesis and Respiration Model" (VPRM) included in WRF-CHEM. An implementation of the unconstrained nonlinear global optimization method of Nelder and Mead was employed to find the optimum values for the VPRM parameters for each vegetation category by using data from Ameriflux eddy covariance flux towers. Here we present a preliminary assessment of the relative contribution of biological vs sectoral anthropogenic CO2 fluxes on the INFLUX measurements network. The simulations are compared to tower and aircraft measurements that include trace gases with the capacity to distinguish observationally anthropogenic and biogenic CO2 sources and sinks. In addition, an evaluation of the sensitivity of the sectoral attribution to meteorological

  19. Anthropogenic impact on biogenic Si pools in temperate soils

    Science.gov (United States)

    Clymans, W.; Struyf, E.; Govers, G.; Vandevenne, F.; Conley, D. J.

    2011-05-01

    Human land use changes directly affect silica (Si) mobilisation and Si storage in terrestrial ecosystems and influence Si export from the continents, although the magnitudes of the impact are unknown. Yet biogenic silica (BSi) in soils is an understudied aspect. We have quantified and compared total biogenic (PSia) and easily soluble (PSie) Si pools at four sites along a gradient of disturbance in southern Sweden. An estimate of the magnitude of change in temperate continental BSi pools due to human disturbance is provided. Land use clearly affects BSi pools and their distribution. Total PSia and PSie for a continuous forested site at Siggaboda Nature Reserve (66 900 ± 22 800 kg SiO2 ha-1 and 952 ± 16 kg SiO2 ha-1) are significantly higher than disturbed land use types from the Råshult Culture Reserve including arable land (28 800 ± 7200 kg SiO2 ha-1 and 239 ± 91 kg SiO2 ha-1), pasture sites (27 300 ± 5980 kg SiO2 ha-1 and 370 ± 129 kg SiO2 ha-1) and grazed forest (23 600 ± 6370 kg SiO2 ha-1 and 346 ± 123 kg SiO2 ha-1). Vertical PSia and PSie profiles show significant (pexport of 1.1 ± 0.8 Tmol Si yr-1, leading to an annual contribution of ca. 20 % to the global land-ocean Si flux carried by rivers. Human activities clearly exert a long-term influence on Si cycling in soils and contribute significantly to the land-ocean Si flux.

  20. Role of mesoscale eddies on the variability of biogenic flux in the northern and central Bay of Bengal

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    Vidya, P.J.; PrasannaKumar, S.

    15 m with spatial resolution of 1o x 1o [Bonjean and Lagerloef, 2002]. 3 Results 3.1 Biogenic flux The time-series of biogenic flux at NBBT during the period 1994 February to 1998 November is presented in Figure 2a (black line). Biogenic flux... with low SSHA (Figure 2, black line). Interestingly, at both the locations, all the peaks in the biogenic flux showed an inverse relation with SSHA (negative). This indicates that biogenic flux at both the locations is someway related to negative SSHA...

  1. Operation of Marine Diesel Engines on Biogenic Fuels: Modification of Emissions and Resulting Climate Effects

    OpenAIRE

    Petzold, A.; Lauer, P.; Fritsche, U.; Hasselbach, J.; M. Lichtenstern; Schlager, H.; Fleischer, F.

    2011-01-01

    The modification of emissions of climate-sensitive exhaust compounds such as CO2, NOx, hydrocarbons, and particulate matter from medium-speed marine diesel engines was studied for a set of fossil and biogenic fuels. Applied fossil fuels were the reference heavy fuel oil (HFO) and the low-sulfur marine gas oil (MGO); biogenic fuels were palm oil, soybean oil, sunflower oil, and animal fat. Greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions related to the production of biogenic fuels were treated by means of a fue...

  2. Influence of physical and biological processes on the seasonal cycle of biogenic flux in the equatorial Indian Ocean

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vidya, P. J.; Prasanna Kumar, S.; Gauns, M.; Verenkar, A.; Unger, D.; Ramaswamy, V.

    2013-11-01

    Seasonal cycle of biogenic fluxes obtained from sediment trap at two locations 5°24' N, 86°46' E (southern Bay of Bengal trap; SBBT) and 3°34' N, 77°46' E (equatorial Indian Ocean trap; EIOT) within the equatorial Indian Ocean (EIO) were examined to understand the factors that control them. The sediment trap data at SBBT was collected for ten years from November 1987 while that at EIOT was for a one year period from January 1996. The characteristic of biogenic flux at SBBT was the strong seasonality with peak flux in August, while lack of seasonality characterised the flux at EIOT. The high chlorophyll biomass at the SBBT during the summer monsoon was supported by a combination of processes such as wind-mixing and advection, both of which supplied new nitrogen to the upper ocean. In contrast, the elevated chlorophyll at EIOT during summer monsoon was supported only by wind mixing. High cell counts of phytoplankton (> 5 μm) at SBBT dominated by diatoms suggest the operation of classical food web and high carbon export. On the contrary, dominance of pico-phytoplankton and one-and-a-half time higher magnitude of micro-zooplankton biomass along with 2-fold lesser meso-zooplankton at EIOT indicated the importance of microbial loop. The substantial decrease in the carbon export at EIOT indicated faster remineralization of photosynthetically produced organic matter.

  3. 食品中生物胺的研究进展%Research advance of Biogenic Amines in Food

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    胡鹏; 罗凯; 陈光静; 胡国洲; 阚建全

    2012-01-01

    生物胺普遍存在于生物体中,有许多重要的生理功能.生物胺天然存在于许多食品种类中,如水果、蔬菜、肉类、鱼类、巧克力和牛奶等;也可以由氨基酸脱羧酶对游离氨基酸的脱羧作用产生.人体摄入大量生物胺会引起身体不适,严重的还可能危及生命.文中综述了有关生物胺的化学结构、毒性和测定的研究进展,并展望了其研究前景.%Biogenic amines are compounds commonly presented in living organisms in which they are responsible for many essential functions. They are naturally existed in many kinds of food such as fruits, vegetables, meat, fish, chocolate and milk, they can also be produced by microorganisms through the activity of amino acid decarboxylases. Excessive intake of these amines will lead to sick or even death. The chemical structure, the mechanism, toxicity and determination of biogenic amines were reviewed in this paper. Moreover, the future prospects were also introduced.

  4. Climate forcing, primary production and the distribution of Holocene biogenic sediments in the Gulf of California

    Science.gov (United States)

    Douglas, Robert; Gonzalez-Yajimovich, Oscar; Ledesma-Vazquez, Jorge; Staines-Urias, Francisca

    2007-01-01

    The Gulf of California is a marginal seaway under the influence of a monsoon climate that produces cool, dry winters and warm, humid summers. Winds, tidal mixing and coastal-trapped waves forced by climate and the Pacific Ocean control nutrient advection and primary productivity (PP). Strong northwest winds from the subtropical East Pacific High Pressure system begin in November and last until April and drive coastal upwelling along the mainland margin, especially in the central and southern Gulf. In the northern Gulf, particularly around the midrift island, tidal mixing and turbulence occurs year round, advecting nutrients into the mixed layer and high productivity. During summer and early fall months, winds are variable, of less intensity and mainly blow cross-basin except in the most northern Gulf. Summer PP is generally low in the central and southern Gulf except along the mainland where coastal-trapped waves associated with tropical surges and hurricanes generate mixing over the continental shelf. Mesoscale eddies or gyres often associated with jets and filaments extend to depths of 1000 m and transport nutrient-enriched upwelled waters and plankton detritus across the Gulf. The largest and most persistent gyres rotate in an anti-cyclonic direction (east to west) and are a principal source of the plankton export to the peninsula margin. Two major biogenic sediment patterns are present in core-top sediments. Hemipelagic biosiliceous-rich muds are accumulating beneath upwelling areas of high productivity in the central Gulf and along the mainland margin. Calcium carbonate- and organic carbon-rich (OC) sediments are concentrated along the peninsula margin, generally beneath lower productivity waters with the highest OC content in areas with the lowest productivity. The high, uniform biosiliceous content in Guaymas basin, extending southward into Carmen basin reflects the redistribution by mesoscale gyres of phytoplankon debris produced in mainland coastal

  5. Microbially-Enhanced Coal Bed Methane: Strategies for Increased Biogenic Production

    Science.gov (United States)

    Davis, K.; Barhart, E. P.; Schweitzer, H. D.; Cunningham, A. B.; Gerlach, R.; Hiebert, R.; Fields, M. W.

    2014-12-01

    Coal is the largest fossil fuel resource in the United States. Most of this coal is deep in the subsurface making it costly and potentially dangerous to extract. However, in many of these deep coal seams, methane, the main component of natural gas, has been discovered and successfully harvested. Coal bed methane (CBM) currently accounts for approximately 7.5% of the natural gas produced in the U.S. Combustion of natural gas produces substantially less CO2 and toxic emissions (e.g. heavy metals) than combustion of coal or oil thereby making it a cleaner energy source. In the large coal seams of the Powder River Basin (PRB) in southeast Montana and northeast Wyoming, CBM is produced almost entirely by biogenic processes. The in situ conversion of coal to CBM by the native microbial community is of particular interest for present and future natural gas sources as it provides the potential to harvest energy from coal seams with lesser environmental impacts than mining and burning coal. Research at Montana State University has shown the potential for enhancing the subsurface microbial processes that produce CBM. Long-term batch enrichments have investigated the methane enhancement potential of yeast extract as well as algal and cyanobacterial biomass additions with increased methane production observed with all three additions when compared to no addition. Future work includes quantification of CBM enhancement and normalization of additions. This presentation addresses the options thus far investigated for increasing CBM production and the next steps for developing the enhanced in situ conversion of coal to CBM.

  6. Monitoring of biogenic amines in cheeses manufactured at small-scale farms and in fermented dairy products in the Czech Republic.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Buňková, Leona; Adamcová, Gabriela; Hudcová, Kateřina; Velichová, Helena; Pachlová, Vendula; Lorencová, Eva; Buňka, František

    2013-11-01

    The aim of the study was the monitoring of six biogenic amines (histamine, tyramine, phenylethylamine, tryptamine, putrescine, and cadaverine) and two polyamines (spermidine and spermine) in 112 samples of dairy products purchased in the Czech Republic, namely in 55 cheeses made in small-scale farms and in 57 fermented dairy products. The products were tested at the end of their shelf-life period. Neither tryptamine nor phenylethylamine was detected in the monitored samples; histamine was found only in four cheese samples containing up to 25mg/kg. The contents of spermine and spermidine were low and did not exceed the values of 35 mg/kg. Significant amounts of tyramine, putrescine, and cadaverine occurred especially in cheeses produced from ewe's milk or in long-term ripened cheeses. In about 10% of the tested cheeses, the total concentration of all the monitored biogenic amines and polyamines exceeded the level of 200mg/kg, which can be considered toxicologically significant. In fermented dairy products, the tested biogenic amines occurred in relatively low amounts (generally up to 30 mg/kg) that are regarded safe for the consumer's health. PMID:23768392

  7. Synthesis of Derivatives of Biogenic Amines Labelled with Radioactive Tracers for Brain Imaging

    OpenAIRE

    Arturo A. Vitale

    2000-01-01

    Endogenous derivatives of biogenic amines, such as phenethylamines, indolalkylamines and harmines, have been extensively studied as usual constituents of body fluids. Methylated derivatives of indolalkylamines have been also related to mental disorders, e.g. schizophrenia and hallucination.

  8. Validation of an HPLC Analytical Method for Determination of Biogenic Amines in Agricultural Products and Monitoring of Biogenic Amines in Korean Fermented Agricultural Products.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yoon, Hyeock; Park, Jung Hyuck; Choi, Ari; Hwang, Han-Joon; Mah, Jae-Hyung

    2015-09-01

    An HPLC analytical method was validated for the quantitative determination of biogenic amines in agricultural products. Four agricultural foods, including apple juice, Juk, corn oil and peanut butter, were selected as food matrices based on their water and fat contents (i.e., non-fatty liquid, non-fatty solid, fatty liquid and fatty solid, respectively). The precision, accuracy, recovery, limit of detection (LOD) and quantification (LOQ) were determined to test the validity of an HPLC procedure for the determination of biogenic amines, including tryptamine, β-phenylethylamine, putrescine, cadaverine, histamine, tyramine, spermidine and spermine, in each matrix. The LODs and LOQs for the biogenic amines were within the range of 0.01~0.10 mg/kg and 0.02~0.31 mg/kg, respectively. The relative standard deviation (RSD) of intraday for biogenic amine concentrations ranged from 1.86 to 5.95%, whereas the RSD of interday ranged from 2.08 to 5.96%. Of the matrices spiked with biogenic amines, corn oil with tyramine and Juk with putrescine exhibited the least accuracy of 84.85% and recovery rate of 89.63%, respectively, at the lowest concentration (10 mg/kg). Therefore, the validation results fulfilled AOAC criteria and recommendations. Subsequently, the method was applied to the analysis of biogenic amines in fermented agricultural products for a total dietary survey in Korea. Although the results revealed that Korean traditional soy sauce and Doenjang contained relatively high levels of histamine, the amounts are of no concern if these fermented agricultural products serve as condiments. PMID:26483889

  9. Evolution of cyclonic eddies and biogenic fluxes in the northern Bay of Bengal

    OpenAIRE

    M. Nuncio; Prasanna Kumar, S.

    2013-01-01

    The Bay of Bengal has been traditionally known for its low primary productivity and varied reasons were attributed to it. The data analysis from the sediment traps deployed in the northern Bay of Bengal during the 5 yr from 1994 show episodic events of enhanced downward biogenic flux every year which was not related to monsoon-driven seasonal cycle. Satellite-derived sea level anomaly suggests that the episodic increase in the biogenic flu...

  10. Cocaine affects foraging behaviour and biogenic amine modulated behavioural reflexes in honey bees

    OpenAIRE

    Eirik Søvik; Naïla Even; Radford, Catherine W.; Barron, Andrew B.

    2014-01-01

    In humans and other mammals, drugs of abuse alter the function of biogenic amine pathways in the brain leading to the subjective experience of reward and euphoria. Biogenic amine pathways are involved in reward processing across diverse animal phyla, however whether cocaine acts on these neurochemical pathways to cause similar rewarding behavioural effects in animal phyla other than mammals is unclear. Previously, it has been shown that bees are more likely to dance (a signal of perceived rew...

  11. Administration of biogenic amines to Saanen kids: effects on growth performance and meat quality

    OpenAIRE

    E. Fusi; R. Rebucci; C. Pecorini; Rossi, L.; F. Cheli

    2011-01-01

    Biogenic amines are low molecular weight organic bases present in all organisms. The most common are putrescine, cadaverine, spermine, spermidine, histamine, tryptamine and β- phenylethylamine. In low concentrations they are essential for the normal growth and differentiation of cells (Bardócz et al., 1995), but in larger quantities are harmful to humans and livestock. Biogenic amines are naturally present in silage; however their presence in high concentrations may be a sign of u...

  12. A Review: Microbiological, Physicochemical and Health Impact of High Level of Biogenic Amines in Fish Sauce

    OpenAIRE

    Muhammad Z. Zaman; A. S. Abdulamir; Fatimah A. Bakar; Jinap Selamat; Jamilah Bakar

    2009-01-01

    Problem statement: Biogenic amines are basic nitrogenous compounds present in a wide variety of foods and beverages. Their formations were mainly due to the amino acids decarboxylase activity of certain microorganisms. Excessive intake of biogenic amines could induce many undesirable physiological effects determined by their psychoactive and vasoactive action. Fish sauce which is considered as a good source of dietary protein, amino acids, vitamins and minerals was a popular condiment in Sout...

  13. Analysis of Biogenic Amines by GC/FID and GC/MS

    OpenAIRE

    Nakovich, Laura

    2003-01-01

    Low levels of biogenic amines occur naturally, but high levels (FDA sets 50 ppm of histamine in fish as the maximum allowable level) can lead to scombroid poisoning. Amines in general are difficult to analyze by Gas Chromatography (GC) due to their lack of volatility and their interaction with the GC column, often leading to significant tailing and poor reproducibility. Biogenic amines need to be derivatized before both GC and HPLC analyses. The objective of this research was to devel...

  14. Changes of the content of biogenic amines during winemaking of Sauvignon wines

    OpenAIRE

    Kovačević Ganić, Karin; Gracin, L.; Komes, Draženka; Ćurko, Natka; Lovrić, T.

    2009-01-01

    The aim of the present work was to study the changes of the content of biogenic amines during winemaking and maturation processes of wines made from Vitis vinifera cv Sauvignon grapes from Slavonia region (vintage 2008). Biogenic amines were quantified using a reversed-phase high performance liquid chromatography (HPLC) with fluorescence detection after pre-column derivatization with o-phthalaldehyde (OPA). Samples used in this study were obtained during production of Sauvignon wines in three...

  15. Control of Biogenic Amines in Food—Existing and Emerging Approaches

    OpenAIRE

    Naila, Aishath; Flint, Steve; Fletcher, Graham; Bremer, Phil; Meerdink, Gerrit

    2010-01-01

    Biogenic amines have been reported in a variety of foods, such as fish, meat, cheese, vegetables, and wines. They are described as low molecular weight organic bases with aliphatic, aromatic, and heterocyclic structures. The most common biogenic amines found in foods are histamine, tyramine, cadaverine, 2-phenylethylamine, spermine, spermidine, putrescine, tryptamine, and agmatine. In addition octopamine and dopamine have been found in meat and meat products and fish. The formation of biogeni...

  16. Levels of histamine and other biogenic amines in high quality red wines.

    OpenAIRE

    Konakovsky, Viktor; Focke, Margarete; Hoffmann-Sommergruber, Karin; Schmid, Rainer,; Scheiner, Otto; Moser, Peter; Jarisch, Reinhart; Hemmer, Wolfgang

    2011-01-01

    Abstract Biogenic amines in wine may impair sensory wine quality and cause adverse health effects in susceptible individuals. In this study, histamine and other biogenic amines were determined by HPLC after amine derivatization to dansyl chloride conjugates in 100 selected high quality red wines made from seven different cultivars. Amine levels varied considerably between different wines. The most abundant amines were putrescine (median 19.4 mg/L, range 2.9-122), histamine (7.2, 0....

  17. Metabolism of biogenic amines in acute cerebral ischemia: Influence of systemic hyperglycemia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Milovanović Aleksandar

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Dopamine, norepinephrine and serotonin are biogenic amines which are transmitters of the central nervous system. The effects of ischemia on the brain parenchyma depends on many factors, such is the mechanism of blood flow interruption, velocity of the occurring blood flow interruption, duration of an ischemic episode, organization of anatomical structures of the brain blood vessels etc., which all influence the final outcome. During interruption of the brain circulation in experimental or clinical conditions, neurotransmitter metabolism, primarily of biogenic amines, is disturbed. Many researches with various experimental models of complete ischemia reported a decrease in the content of norepinephrine, dopamine and serotonin in the CNS tissue. It was proven that hyperglycemia can drastically increase cerebral injury followed by short-term cerebral ischemia. Considering the fact that biogenic amines (dopamine, norepinephrine and serotonin influence the size of neurologic damage, as well as the fact that in hyperglycemic conditions infarct size (from the morphological aspect is larger relative to normoglycemic status, the intention was to evaluate the role of biogenic amines in occurrence of damage in conditions of hyperglycemia, i.e. in the case of brain apoplexia in diabetics. Analysis of biogenic amines metabolism in states of acute hyperglycemia, as well as analysis of the effects of reversible and irreversible brain ischemia on metabolism of serotonin, dopamine and norepinephrine, showed that acute hyperglycemia slows down serotonin, dopamine and norepinephrine metabolism in the cerebral cortex and n. caudatus. Brain ischemia in normoglycemic animals by itself has no influence on biogenic amines metabolism, but the effect of ischemia becomes apparent during reperfusion. In recirculation, which corresponds to the occurrences in penumbra, release of biogenic amines is uncontrolled and increased. Brain ischemia in acute hyperglycemic animals

  18. Ligand-gated chloride channels are receptors for biogenic amines in C. elegans

    OpenAIRE

    Ringstad, Niels; Abe, Namiko; Horvitz, H. Robert

    2009-01-01

    Biogenic amines such as serotonin and dopamine are intercellular signaling molecules that function widely as neurotransmitters and neuromodulators. We have identified in the nematode Caenorhabditis elegans three ligand-gated chloride channels that are receptors for biogenic amines: LGC-53 is a high-affinity dopamine receptor, LGC-55 is a high-affinity tyramine receptor, and LGC-40 is a low-affinity serotonin receptor that is also gated by choline and acetylcholine. lgc-55 mutants are defectiv...

  19. Studio della formazione di ammine biogene e di altri composti azotati negli alimenti

    OpenAIRE

    Congiu, Francesca

    2014-01-01

    The aim of this thesis was the qualitative and quantitative determination of biogenic amines (BA) and amino acids (AA), in particular the essential AA, in different food matrices typical of Sardinia (Italy). The study was focused on wines and table olives, which are potential source of biogenic amines due to their fermentation processes involved in their production. The decision to follow this research field is based on the importance of having updated information to assess the actual r...

  20. Über den Einfluss biogener Amine auf unkonditionierten und konditionierten Stimulus

    OpenAIRE

    Buckemüller, Christina

    2014-01-01

    Biogenic amines play an important role in the modulation of behavior in vertebrates and invertebrates. Octopamine, a biogenic amine, exclusively for invertebrates is an important neurotransmitter and neuromodulator and has a considerable role as stress hormone. Octopamine plays a central role in learning and behavior in insects. The precise role in such behavior has been discussed over the last years. The signaling pathways of octopamine, tyramine and dopamine interact. Therefore, it is di...

  1. Diclofenac and 2‐anilinophenylacetate degradation by combined activity of biogenic manganese oxides and silver

    OpenAIRE

    Meerburg, Francis; Hennebel, Tom; Vanhaecke, Lynn; Verstraete, Willy; Boon, Nico

    2012-01-01

    Summary The occurrence of a range of recalcitrant organic micropollutants in our aquatic environment has led to the development of various tertiary wastewater treatment methods. In this study, biogenic manganese oxides (Bio‐MnOx), biogenic silver nanoparticles (Bio‐Ag0) and ionic silver were used for the oxidative removal of the frequently encountered drug diclofenac and its dechlorinated form, 2‐anilinophenylacetate (APA). Diclofenac was rapidly degraded during ongoing manganese oxidation by...

  2. Biogenic hardparts: Difficult archives of the geological past (Invited)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Immenhauser, A.; Schone, B. R.; Hoffmann, R.; Niedermayr, A.

    2013-12-01

    Biomineralized exo- or endoskeletons of fossil marine invertebrates are widespread and diverse components of the Phanerozoic rock record of Earth's past and present oceans. Exoskeletons serve as protection against environmental pressure or predators, whilst endoskeletons can act as support or serve as an attachment for muscles and ligaments and hence as a mechanism for transmitting muscular forces. Biogenic hard parts represent sophisticated products resulting from the hierarchical interaction of inorganic minerals (95%) and macromolecular organic matrices, forming commonly less than 5%. The significance of many biogenic carbonate archives lies in the time-resolved growth patterns and their ability to record ambient environmental conditions in the form of multiple geochemical properties (multi-proxy archives) that have been widely used to assess past oceanic seawater properties. Here, we compile and review published work dealing with crystallization pathways of skeletal hard parts secreted by mollusks (i.e., bivalves and cephalopods) as well as brachiopods as widely used archives of ancient neritic epeiric settings. Bivalves and cephalopods (e.g., extinct ammonoids and belemnites and extant Sepia, Nautilus and Spirula) all form accretionary calcitic, aragonitic or vateritic skeletal hard parts. Despite the fact that mollusks and brachiopods form part of very different branches of the animal phylogenetic tree, their biomineralization strategies are surprisingly similar. Our main focus lies in a critical assessment of the complex pathways of ions and aquo-complexes from their source (seawater) to the final product (biomineral). We do this as an attempt to critically test the commonly held hypothesis that many fossil hard parts precipitated (under favorable conditions and pending subsequent diagenetic alteration) in equilibrium with seawater. Two main observations stand out: (1) the present knowledge on pathways and mechanisms (e.g., ion channel trans-membrane or

  3. Magnesium stable isotope fractionation in marine biogenic calcite and aragonite

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wombacher, F.; Eisenhauer, A.; Böhm, F.; Gussone, N.; Regenberg, M.; Dullo, W.-Chr.; Rüggeberg, A.

    2011-10-01

    This survey of magnesium stable isotope compositions in marine biogenic aragonite and calcite includes samples from corals, sclerosponges, benthic porcelaneous and planktonic perforate foraminifera, coccolith oozes, red algae, and an echinoid and brachiopod test. The analyses were carried out using MC-ICP-MS with an external repeatability of ±0.22‰ (2SD for δ 26Mg; n = 37), obtained from a coral reference sample (JCp-1). Magnesium isotope fractionation in calcitic corals and sclerosponges agrees with published data for calcitic speleothems with an average Δ 26Mg calcite-seawater = -2.6 ± 0.3‰ that appears to be weakly related to temperature. With one exception ( Vaceletia spp.), aragonitic corals and sclerosponges also display uniform Mg isotope fractionations relative to seawater with Δ 26Mg biogenic aragonite-seawater = -0.9 ± 0.2. Magnesium isotopes in high-Mg calcites from red algae, echinoids and perhaps some porcelaneous foraminifera as well as in all low-Mg calcites (perforate foraminifera, coccoliths and brachiopods) display significant biological influences. For planktonic foraminifera, the Mg isotope data is consistent with the fixation of Mg by organic material under equilibrium conditions, but appears to be inconsistent with Mg removal from vacuoles. Our preferred model, however, suggests that planktonic foraminifera synthesize biomolecules that increase the energetic barrier for Mg incorporation. In this model, the need to remove large quantities of Mg from vacuole solutions is avoided. For the high-Mg calcites from echinoids, the precipitation of amorphous calcium carbonate may be responsible for their weaker Mg isotope fractionation. Disregarding superimposed biological effects, it appears that cation light isotope enrichments in CaCO 3 principally result from a chemical kinetic isotope effect, related to the incorporation of cations at kink sites. In this model, the systematics of cation isotope fractionations in CaCO 3 relate to the

  4. Characteristics of aerosolized ice forming marine biogenic particles

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alpert, Peter A.

    atomus and Emiliania huxleyi, cells and cell fragments efficiently nucleate ice in the deposition mode, however, only T. pseudonana and N. atomus form ice in the immersion mode, presumably due to different cell wall compositions. This further corroborates the role of phytoplanktonic species for aerosolization of marine biogenic cloud active particles. Experimental data are used to parameterize marine biogenic particle fluxes and heterogeneous ice nucleation as a function of biological activity. The atmospheric implications of the results and their implementation into cloud and climate models are discussed.

  5. Anthropogenic impact on biogenic Si pools in temperate soils

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    W. Clymans

    2011-05-01

    Full Text Available Human land use changes directly affect silica (Si mobilisation and Si storage in terrestrial ecosystems and influence Si export from the continents, although the magnitudes of the impact are unknown. Yet biogenic silica (BSi in soils is an understudied aspect. We have quantified and compared total biogenic (PSia and easily soluble (PSie Si pools at four sites along a gradient of disturbance in southern Sweden. An estimate of the magnitude of change in temperate continental BSi pools due to human disturbance is provided. Land use clearly affects BSi pools and their distribution. Total PSia and PSie for a continuous forested site at Siggaboda Nature Reserve (66 900 ± 22 800 kg SiO2 ha−1 and 952 ± 16 kg SiO2 ha−1 are significantly higher than disturbed land use types from the Råshult Culture Reserve including arable land (28 800 ± 7200 kg SiO2 ha−1 and 239 ± 91 kg SiO2 ha−1, pasture sites (27 300 ± 5980 kg SiO2 ha−1 and 370 ± 129 kg SiO2 ha−1 and grazed forest (23 600 ± 6370 kg SiO2 ha−1 and 346 ± 123 kg SiO2 ha−1. Vertical PSia and PSie profiles show significant (p<0.05 variation among the sites. These differences in size and distribution are interpreted as the long-term effect of reduced BSi replenishment and increased mobilisation of the PSia in disturbed soils. In temperate regions, total PSia showed a 10 % decline since agricultural development (3000BCE. Recent agricultural expansion (after 1700CE has resulted in an average export of 1.1 ± 0.8 Tmol Si yr−1, leading to an annual contribution of ca. 20 % to the global land-ocean Si flux carried by rivers. Human activities clearly exert a long-term influence on Si cycling in soils and

  6. Contribution of flowering trees to urban atmospheric biogenic volatile organic compound emissions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baghi, R.; Helmig, D.; Guenther, A.; Duhl, T.; Daly, R.

    2012-10-01

    Emissions of biogenic volatile organic compounds (BVOC) from urban trees during and after blooming were measured during spring and early summer 2009 in Boulder, Colorado. Air samples were collected onto solid adsorbent cartridges from branch enclosures on the tree species crabapple (Malus sp.), horse chestnut (Aesculus carnea, "Ft. McNair"), honey locust (Gleditsia triacanthos, "Sunburst"), and hawthorn (Crataegus laevigata, "Pauls Scarlet"). These species constitute ~ 65% of the insect-pollinated fraction of the flowering tree canopy (excluding catkin-producing trees) from the street area managed by the City of Boulder. Samples were analyzed for C10-C15 BVOC by thermal desorption and gas chromatography coupled to a flame ionization detector and a mass spectrometer (GC/FID/MS). Identified emissions and emission rates from these four tree species during the flowering phase were found to vary over a wide range. Monoterpene emissions were identified for honey locust, horse chestnut and hawthorn. Sesquiterpene emissions were observed in horse chestnut and hawthorn samples. Crabapple flowers were found to emit significant amounts of benzyl alcohol and benzaldehyde. Floral BVOC emissions increased with temperature, generally exhibiting exponential temperature dependence. Changes in BVOC speciation during and after the flowering period were observed for every tree studied. Emission rates were significantly higher during the blooming compared to the post-blooming state for crabapple and honey locust. The results were scaled to the dry mass of leaves and flowers contained in the enclosure. Only flower dry mass was accounted for crabapple emission rates as leaves appeared at the end of the flowering period. Total normalized (30 °C) monoterpene emissions from honey locust were higher during flowering (5.3 μgC g-1 h-1) than after flowering (1.2 μgC g-1 h-1). The total normalized BVOC emission rate from crabapple (93 μgC g-1 h-1) during the flowering period is of the same

  7. Contribution of flowering trees to urban atmospheric biogenic volatile organic compound emissions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    R. Baghi

    2012-03-01

    Full Text Available Emissions of biogenic volatile organic compounds (BVOC from urban trees during and after blooming were measured during spring and early summer 2009 in Boulder, Colorado. Air samples were collected onto solid adsorbent cartridges from branch enclosures on the tree species crabapple, horse chestnut, honey locust, and hawthorn. These species constitute ~65 % of the insect-pollinated fraction of the flowering tree canopy (excluding catkin-producing trees from the street area managed by the City of Boulder. Samples were analyzed for C10–C15 BVOC by thermal desorption and gas chromatography coupled to a flame ionization detector and a mass spectrometer (GC/FID/MS. Identified emissions and emission rates from these four tree species during the flowering phase were found to vary over a wide range. Monoterpene emissions were identified for honey locust, horse chestnut and hawthorn. Sesquiterpene emissions were observed in horse chestnut and hawthorn samples. Crabapple flowers were found to emit significant amounts of benzyl alcohol and benzaldehyde. Floral BVOC emissions increased with temperature, generally exhibiting exponential temperature dependence. Changes in BVOC speciation during and after the flowering period were observed for every tree studied. Emission rates were significantly higher during the blooming compared to the vegetative state for crabapple and honey locust. Total normalized (30 °C monoterpene emissions from honey locust were higher during flowering (5.26 μg Cg−1 h−1 than after flowering (1.23 μg Cg−1 h−1. The total normalized BVOC emission rate from crabapple (93 μg Cg−1 h−1 during the flowering period is of the same order as isoprene emissions from oak trees, which are among the highest BVOC emissions observed from plants to date. These findings illustrate that during the relatively brief springtime flowering period, floral

  8. Seasonal variations of biogenic secondary organic aerosol tracers in ambient aerosols from Alaska

    Science.gov (United States)

    Haque, Md. Mozammel; Kawamura, Kimitaka; Kim, Yongwon

    2016-04-01

    We investigated total suspended particles (TSP) collected from central Alaska, USA for molecular compositions of secondary organic aerosol (SOA) derived from the oxidation of biogenic volatile organic compounds (BVOCs). Isoprene-, α-/β-pinene- and β-caryophyllene-SOA tracers were determined using gas chromatography-mass spectrometry. The concentration ranges of isoprene, α-/β-pinene and β-caryophyllene oxidation products were 0.02-18.6 ng m-3 (ave. 4.14 ng m-3), 0.42-8.24 ng m-3 (2.01 ng m-3) and 0.10-9 ng m-3 (1.53 ng m-3), respectively. Isoprene-SOA tracers showed higher concentrations in summer (ave. 8.77 ng m-3), whereas α-/β-pinene- and β-caryophyllene-SOA tracers exhibited highest levels in spring (3.55 ng m-3) and winter (4.04 ng m-3), respectively. β-Caryophyllinic acid and levoglucosan showed a positive correlation, indicating that biomass burning may be a major source for β-caryophyllene. We found that mean contributions of isoprene oxidation products to organic carbon (OC) and water-soluble organic (WSOC) (0.56% and 1.2%, respectively) were higher than those of α-/β-pinene (0.31% and 0.55%) and β-caryophyllene (0.08% and 0.13%). Using a tracer-based method, we estimated the concentrations of secondary organic carbon (SOC) produced from isoprene, α-/β-pinene and β-caryophyllene to be 0.66-718 ngC m-3 (ave. 159 ngC m-3), 7.4-143 ngC m-3 (35 ngC m-3) and 4.5-391 ngC m-3 (66.3 ngC m-3), respectively. Based on SOA tracers, this study suggests that isoprene is a more important precursor for the production of biogenic SOA than α-/β-pinene and β-caryophyllene in subarctic Alaska.

  9. Humidity-dependent phase state of SOA particles from biogenic and anthropogenic precursors

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    E. Saukko

    2012-08-01

    Full Text Available The physical phase state (solid, semi-solid, or liquid of secondary organic aerosol (SOA particles has important implications for a number of atmospheric processes. We report the phase state of SOA particles spanning a wide range of oxygen to carbon ratios (O / C, used here as a surrogate for SOA oxidation level, produced in a flow tube reactor by photo-oxidation of various atmospherically relevant surrogate anthropogenic and biogenic volatile organic compounds (VOCs. The phase state of laboratory-generated SOA was determined by the particle bounce behavior after inertial impaction on a polished steel substrate. The measured bounce fraction was evaluated as a function of relative humidity and SOA oxidation level (O / C measured by an Aerodyne high resolution time of flight aerosol mass spectrometer (HR-ToF AMS.

    The main findings of the study are: (1 biogenic and anthropogenic SOA particles are found to be amorphous solid or semi-solid based on the measured bounced fraction (BF, which was typically higher than 0.6 on a 0 to 1 scale. A decrease in the BF is observed for most systems after the SOA is exposed to relative humidity of at least 80% RH, corresponding to a RH at impaction of 55%. (2 Long-chain alkanes have a low BF (indicating a "liquid-like", less viscous phase particles at low oxidation levels (BF < 0.2 ± 0.05 for O / C = 0.1. However, BF increases substantially upon increasing oxidation. (3 Increasing the concentration of sulphuric acid (H2SO4 in solid SOA particles (here tested for longifolene SOA causes a decrease in BF levels. (4 In the majority of cases the bounce behavior of the various SOA systems did not show correlation with the particle O / C. Rather, the molar mass of the gas-phase VOC precursor showed a positive correlation with the resistance to the RH-induced phase change of the formed SOA particles.

  10. Elucidating Protein Involvement in the Stabilization of the Biogenic Silver Nanoparticles

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ballottin, Daniela; Fulaz, Stephanie; Souza, Michele L.; Corio, Paola; Rodrigues, Alexandre G.; Souza, Ana O.; Gaspari, Priscyla M.; Gomes, Alexandre F.; Gozzo, Fábio; Tasic, Ljubica

    2016-06-01

    Silver nanoparticles (AgNPs) have been broadly used as antibacterial and antiviral agents. Further, interests for green AgNP synthesis have increased in recent years and several results for AgNP biological synthesis have been reported using bacteria, fungi and plant extracts. The understanding of the role and nature of fungal proteins, their interaction with AgNPs and the subsequent stabilization of nanosilver is yet to be deeply investigated. Therefore, in an attempt to better understand biogenic AgNP stabilization with the extracellular fungal proteins and to describe these supramolecular interactions between proteins and silver nanoparticles, AgNPs, produced extracellularly by Aspergillus tubingensis—isolated as an endophytic fungus from Rizophora mangle—were characterized in order to study their physical characteristics, identify the involved proteins, and shed light into the interactions among protein-NPs by several techniques. AgNPs of around 35 nm in diameter as measured by TEM and a positive zeta potential of +8.48 mV were obtained. These AgNPs exhibited a surface plasmon resonance (SPR) band at 440 nm, indicating the nanoparticles formation, and another band at 280 nm, attributed to the electronic excitations in tryptophan, tyrosine, and/or phenylalanine residues in fungal proteins. Fungal proteins were covalently bounded to the AgNPs, mainly through S-Ag bonds due to cysteine residues (HS-) and with few N-Ag bonds from H2N- groups, as verified by Raman spectroscopy. Observed supramolecular interactions also occur by electrostatic and other protein-protein interactions. Furthermore, proteins that remain free on AgNP surface may perform hydrogen bonds with other proteins or water increasing thus the capping layer around the AgNPs and consequently expanding the hydrodynamic diameter of the particles (~264 nm, measured by DLS). FTIR results enabled us to state that proteins adsorbed to the AgNPs did not suffer relevant secondary structure alteration upon

  11. Elucidating Protein Involvement in the Stabilization of the Biogenic Silver Nanoparticles.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ballottin, Daniela; Fulaz, Stephanie; Souza, Michele L; Corio, Paola; Rodrigues, Alexandre G; Souza, Ana O; Gaspari, Priscyla M; Gomes, Alexandre F; Gozzo, Fábio; Tasic, Ljubica

    2016-12-01

    Silver nanoparticles (AgNPs) have been broadly used as antibacterial and antiviral agents. Further, interests for green AgNP synthesis have increased in recent years and several results for AgNP biological synthesis have been reported using bacteria, fungi and plant extracts. The understanding of the role and nature of fungal proteins, their interaction with AgNPs and the subsequent stabilization of nanosilver is yet to be deeply investigated. Therefore, in an attempt to better understand biogenic AgNP stabilization with the extracellular fungal proteins and to describe these supramolecular interactions between proteins and silver nanoparticles, AgNPs, produced extracellularly by Aspergillus tubingensis-isolated as an endophytic fungus from Rizophora mangle-were characterized in order to study their physical characteristics, identify the involved proteins, and shed light into the interactions among protein-NPs by several techniques. AgNPs of around 35 nm in diameter as measured by TEM and a positive zeta potential of +8.48 mV were obtained. These AgNPs exhibited a surface plasmon resonance (SPR) band at 440 nm, indicating the nanoparticles formation, and another band at 280 nm, attributed to the electronic excitations in tryptophan, tyrosine, and/or phenylalanine residues in fungal proteins. Fungal proteins were covalently bounded to the AgNPs, mainly through S-Ag bonds due to cysteine residues (HS-) and with few N-Ag bonds from H2N- groups, as verified by Raman spectroscopy. Observed supramolecular interactions also occur by electrostatic and other protein-protein interactions. Furthermore, proteins that remain free on AgNP surface may perform hydrogen bonds with other proteins or water increasing thus the capping layer around the AgNPs and consequently expanding the hydrodynamic diameter of the particles (~264 nm, measured by DLS). FTIR results enabled us to state that proteins adsorbed to the AgNPs did not suffer relevant secondary structure alteration upon

  12. Unusual biogenic calcite structures in two shallow lakes, James Ross Island, Antarctica

    Science.gov (United States)

    Elster, J.; Nedbalová, L.; Vodrážka, R.; Láska, K.; Haloda, J.; Komárek, J.

    2016-01-01

    The floors of two shallow endorheic lakes, located on volcanic surfaces on James Ross Island, are covered with calcareous organosedimentary structures. Their biological and chemical composition, lake water characteristics, and seasonal variability of the thermal regime are introduced. The lakes are frozen down to the bottom for 8-9 months a year and their water chemistry is characterised by low conductivity and neutral to slightly alkaline pH. The photosynthetic microbial mat is composed of filamentous cyanobacteria and microalgae that are considered to be Antarctic endemic species. The mucilaginous black biofilm is covered by green spots formed by a green microalga and the macroscopic structures are packed together with fine material. Thin sections consist of rock substrate, soft biofilm, calcite spicules and mineral grains originating from different sources. The morphology of the spicules is typical of calcium carbonate monocrystals having a layered structure and specific surface texture, which reflect growth and degradation processes. The spicules' chemical composition and structure correspond to pure calcite. The lakes' age, altitude, morphometry, geomorphological and hydrological stability, including low sedimentation rates, together with thermal regime predispose the existence of this community. We hypothesise that the precipitation of calcite is connected with the photosynthetic activity of the green microalgae that were not recorded in any other lake in the region. This study has shown that the unique community producing biogenic calcite spicules is quite different to any yet described.

  13. Polyvinyl alcohol electrospun nanofibers containing Ag nanoparticles used as sensors for the detection of biogenic amines

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marega, Carla; Maculan, Jenny; Rizzi, Gian Andrea; Saini, Roberta; Cavaliere, Emanuele; Gavioli, Luca; Cattelan, Mattia; Giallongo, Giuseppe; Marigo, Antonio; Granozzi, Gaetano

    2015-02-01

    Polyvinyl alcohol (PVA) electrospun nanofibers containing Ag nanoparticles (NPs) have been deposited on glass substrates. The aim of the work was to test the feasibility of this approach for the detection of biogenic amines by using either the Ag localized surface plasmon resonance quenching caused by the adsorption of amines on Ag NPs or by detecting the amines by surface enhanced Raman spectroscopy (SERS) after adsorption, from the gas phase, on the metal NPs. Two different approaches have been adopted. In the first one an ethanol/water solution containing AgNO3 was used directly in the electrospinning apparatus. In this way, a simple heat treatment of the nanofibers mat was sufficient to obtain the formation of Ag NPs inside the nanofibers and a partial cross-link of PVA. In the second procedure, the Ag NPs were deposited on PVA nanofibers by using the supersonic cluster beam deposition method, so that a beam of pure Ag NPs of controlled size was obtained. Exposure of the PVA mat to the beam produced a uniform distribution of the NPs on the nanofibers surface. Ethylendiamine vapors and volatile amines released from fresh shrimp meat were chemisorbed on the nanofibers mats. A SERS spectrum characterized by a diagnostic Ag-N stretching vibration at 230 cm-1 was obtained. The results allow to compare the two different approaches in the detection of ammines.

  14. Polyvinyl alcohol electrospun nanofibers containing Ag nanoparticles used as sensors for the detection of biogenic amines

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Polyvinyl alcohol (PVA) electrospun nanofibers containing Ag nanoparticles (NPs) have been deposited on glass substrates. The aim of the work was to test the feasibility of this approach for the detection of biogenic amines by using either the Ag localized surface plasmon resonance quenching caused by the adsorption of amines on Ag NPs or by detecting the amines by surface enhanced Raman spectroscopy (SERS) after adsorption, from the gas phase, on the metal NPs. Two different approaches have been adopted. In the first one an ethanol/water solution containing AgNO3 was used directly in the electrospinning apparatus. In this way, a simple heat treatment of the nanofibers mat was sufficient to obtain the formation of Ag NPs inside the nanofibers and a partial cross-link of PVA. In the second procedure, the Ag NPs were deposited on PVA nanofibers by using the supersonic cluster beam deposition method, so that a beam of pure Ag NPs of controlled size was obtained. Exposure of the PVA mat to the beam produced a uniform distribution of the NPs on the nanofibers surface. Ethylendiamine vapors and volatile amines released from fresh shrimp meat were chemisorbed on the nanofibers mats. A SERS spectrum characterized by a diagnostic Ag–N stretching vibration at 230 cm−1 was obtained. The results allow to compare the two different approaches in the detection of ammines. (paper)

  15. Vaginal Biogenic Amines: Biomarkers of Bacterial Vaginosis or Precursors to Vaginal Dysbiosis?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tiffanie Maree Nelson

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available Bacterial vaginosis (BV is the most common vaginal disorder among reproductive age women. One clinical indicator of BV is a ‘fishy’ odor. This odor has been associated with increases in several biogenic amines (BAs that may serve as important biomarkers. Within the vagina, BA production has been linked to various vaginal taxa, yet their genetic capability to synthesize BAs is unknown. Using a bioinformatics approach, we show that relatively few vaginal taxa are predicted to be capable of producing BAs. Many of these taxa (Dialister, Prevotella, Parvimonas, Megasphaera, Peptostreptococcus, and Veillonella spp. are more abundant in the vaginal microbial community state type (CST IV, which is depleted in lactobacilli. Several of the major Lactobacillus species (L. crispatus, L. jensenii, and L. gasseri were identified as possessing gene sequences for proteins predicted to be capable of putrescine production. Finally, we show in a small cross sectional study of 37 women that the BAs putrescine, cadaverine and tyramine are significantly higher in CST IV over CSTs I and III. These data support the hypothesis that BA production is conducted by few vaginal taxa and may be important to the outgrowth of BV-associated (vaginal dysbiosis vaginal bacteria.

  16. The influences of fish infusion broth on the biogenic amines formation by lactic acid bacteria

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Esmeray Küley

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available The influences of fish infusion decarboxylase broth (IDB on biogenic amines (BA formation by lactic acid bacteria (LAB were investigated. BA productions by single LAB strains were tested in five different fish (anchovy, mackerel, white shark, sardine and gilthead seabream IDB. The result of the study showed that significant differences in ammonia (AMN and BA production were observed among the LAB strains in fish IDB (p < 0.05. The highest AMN and TMA production by LAB strains were observed for white shark IDB. The all tested bacteria had decarboxylation activity in fish IDB. The uppermost accumulated amines by LAB strains were tyramine (TYM, dopamine, serotonin and spermidine. The maximum histamine production was observed in sardine (101.69 mg/L and mackerel (100.84 mg/L IDB by Leuconostoc mesenteroides subsp. cremoris and Pediococcus acidophilus, respectively. Lactobacillus delbrueckii subsp. lactis and Pediococcus acidophilus had a high TYM producing capability (2943 mg/L and 1157 mg/L in sardine IDB.

  17. Mineralogy and inorganic chemistry of naturally occurring biogenic iron oxyhydroxides: Spectroscopic evidence of thermal maturation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Haddad, A.; Fakra, S.; Orcutt, B. N.; Toner, B.; Edwards, K. J.

    2011-12-01

    Microbial mats were sampled at four sites at the Lo'ihi Seamount and examined for changes in mineralogy and inorganic chemistry via synchrotron-sourced X-ray Absorption Spectroscopy (XAS). These mats are rich in iron oxyhydroxides with morphologies similar to those produced by iron oxidizing microorganisms related to Zetaproteobacteria such as Mariprofundus ferroxydans, which have been shown to be present and active in all of these mat ecosystems. The same particle morphologies are observed consistently at all four sites, which range in temperature (4 - 40°C) and hydrothermal activity (dead to very active). Fe L-edge XAS reveals no significant differences in Fe speciation between the morphologies. Mineralogy, however, as reflected in O 1s XAS measurements, appears to be a function of thermal maturation with the hottest site harboring more crystalline particles. Morphology does not factor into the changes in mineralogy. These measurements are confirmed by Fe 1s XAS spectroscopy. The C 1s XAS spectroscopy is highly variable and may be related to overall maturation (age) or undetermined factors. Elucidating the effect of thermal maturation on biogenic iron oxhydroxide particles is essential to understanding the environmental influences on their preservation in the rock record.

  18. Catalytic dechlorination of diclofenac by biogenic palladium in a microbial electrolysis cell.

    Science.gov (United States)

    De Gusseme, Bart; Soetaert, Maarten; Hennebel, Tom; Vanhaecke, Lynn; Boon, Nico; Verstraete, Willy

    2012-05-01

    Diclofenac is one of the most commonly detected pharmaceuticals in wastewater treatment plant (WWTP) effluents and the receiving water bodies. In this study, biogenic Pd nanoparticles ('bio-Pd') were successfully applied in a microbial electrolysis cell (MEC) for the catalytic reduction of diclofenac. Hydrogen gas was produced in the cathodic compartment, and consumed as a hydrogen donor by the bio-Pd on the graphite electrodes. In this way, complete dechlorination of 1 mg diclofenac l(-1) was achieved during batch recirculation experiments, whereas no significant removal was observed in the absence of the biocatalyst. The complete dechlorination of diclofenac was demonstrated by the concomitant production of 2-anilinophenylacetate (APA). Through the addition of -0.8 V to the circuit, continuous and complete removal of diclofenac was achieved in synthetic medium at a minimal HRT of 2 h. Continuous treatment of hospital WWTP effluent containing 1.28 µg diclofenac l(-1) resulted in a lower removal efficiency of 57%, which can probably be attributed to the affinity of other environmental constituents for the bio-Pd catalyst. Nevertheless, reductive catalysis coupled to sustainable hydrogen production in a MEC offers potential to lower the release of micropollutants from point-sources such as hospital WWTPs. PMID:22221490

  19. Catalytic dechlorination of diclofenac by biogenic palladium in a microbial electrolysis cell

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gusseme, Bart De; Soetaert, Maarten; Hennebel, Tom; Vanhaecke, Lynn; Boon, Nico; Verstraete, Willy

    2012-01-01

    Summary Diclofenac is one of the most commonly detected pharmaceuticals in wastewater treatment plant (WWTP) effluents and the receiving water bodies. In this study, biogenic Pd nanoparticles (‘bio‐Pd’) were successfully applied in a microbial electrolysis cell (MEC) for the catalytic reduction of diclofenac. Hydrogen gas was produced in the cathodic compartment, and consumed as a hydrogen donor by the bio‐Pd on the graphite electrodes. In this way, complete dechlorination of 1 mg diclofenac l−1 was achieved during batch recirculation experiments, whereas no significant removal was observed in the absence of the biocatalyst. The complete dechlorination of diclofenac was demonstrated by the concomitant production of 2‐anilinophenylacetate (APA). Through the addition of −0.8 V to the circuit, continuous and complete removal of diclofenac was achieved in synthetic medium at a minimal HRT of 2 h. Continuous treatment of hospital WWTP effluent containing 1.28 µg diclofenac l−1 resulted in a lower removal efficiency of 57%, which can probably be attributed to the affinity of other environmental constituents for the bio‐Pd catalyst. Nevertheless, reductive catalysis coupled to sustainable hydrogen production in a MEC offers potential to lower the release of micropollutants from point‐sources such as hospital WWTPs. PMID:22221490

  20. Operation of marine diesel engines on biogenic fuels: modification of emissions and resulting climate effects.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Petzold, Andreas; Lauer, Peter; Fritsche, Uwe; Hasselbach, Jan; Lichtenstern, Michael; Schlager, Hans; Fleischer, Fritz

    2011-12-15

    The modification of emissions of climate-sensitive exhaust compounds such as CO(2), NO(x), hydrocarbons, and particulate matter from medium-speed marine diesel engines was studied for a set of fossil and biogenic fuels. Applied fossil fuels were the reference heavy fuel oil (HFO) and the low-sulfur marine gas oil (MGO); biogenic fuels were palm oil, soybean oil, sunflower oil, and animal fat. Greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions related to the production of biogenic fuels were treated by means of a fuel life cycle analysis which included land use changes associated with the growth of energy plants. Emissions of CO(2) and NO(x) per kWh were found to be similar for fossil fuels and biogenic fuels. PM mass emission was reduced to 10-15% of HFO emissions for all low-sulfur fuels including MGO as a fossil fuel. Black carbon emissions were reduced significantly to 13-30% of HFO. Changes in emissions were predominantly related to particulate sulfate, while differences between low-sulfur fossil fuels and low-sulfur biogenic fuels were of minor significance. GHG emissions from the biogenic fuel life cycle (FLC) depend crucially on energy plant production conditions and have the potential of shifting the overall GHG budget from positive to negative compared to fossil fuels. PMID:22044020

  1. Characterization of bio-synthesized nanoparticles produced by Klebsiella oxytoca

    Science.gov (United States)

    Anghel, L.; Balasoiu, M.; Ishchenko, L. A.; Stolyar, S. V.; Kurkin, T. S.; Rogachev, A. V.; Kuklin, A. I.; Kovalev, Yu S.; Raikher, Yu L.; Iskhakov, R. S.; Duca, G.

    2012-03-01

    Structural and morphological properties of biogenic ferrihydrite nanoparticles produced by bacteria Klebsiella oxytoca are investigated. The stability of water dispersions of biomineral particles produced by Klebsiella oxytoca was monitored by UV-Vis spectroscopy. Their chemical composition was determined by FT-IR spectroscopy. The vibrational spectra of biogenic ferrihydrite nanoparticles revealed typical absorption peaks of exopolysaccharides. Morphological analysis based on Raman spectroscopy indicated the presence of exopolysaccharides on the surface as well as inside the pores of the ferrihydrite nanoparticles. Structural investigations of ultrasonic assisted samples of different concentration of water dispersed particles were performed using small angle X-ray scattering analysis. Model calculations and fitting procedures revealed scattering objects of an elongated shape with 6.73±0.16 nm radius of gyration.

  2. Characterization of bio-synthesized nanoparticles produced by Klebsiella oxytoca

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Structural and morphological properties of biogenic ferrihydrite nanoparticles produced by bacteria Klebsiella oxytoca are investigated. The stability of water dispersions of biomineral particles produced by Klebsiella oxytoca was monitored by UV-Vis spectroscopy. Their chemical composition was determined by FT-IR spectroscopy. The vibrational spectra of biogenic ferrihydrite nanoparticles revealed typical absorption peaks of exopolysaccharides. Morphological analysis based on Raman spectroscopy indicated the presence of exopolysaccharides on the surface as well as inside the pores of the ferrihydrite nanoparticles. Structural investigations of ultrasonic assisted samples of different concentration of water dispersed particles were performed using small angle X-ray scattering analysis. Model calculations and fitting procedures revealed scattering objects of an elongated shape with 6.73±0.16 nm radius of gyration.

  3. Hydrothermal solubility of uraninite. Final technical report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Experimental measurements of the solubility of UO2 from 100 to 3000C under 500 bars H2, in NaCl solutions at pH from 1 to 8 do not agree with solubilities calculated using existing thermodynamic databases. For pH 2(hyd) has precipitated and is controlling solubility. For pH > 8, solubilities at all temperatures are much lower than predicted, suggesting that the U(OH)/sub delta/- complex is much weaker than predicted. Extrapolated to 250C, high pH solubility agrees within experimental error with the upper limit suggested by Ryan and Rai (1983). In the pH range 2 to 6, solubilities are up to three orders of magnitude lower than predicted for temperatures exceeding 2000C and up to two orders higher than predicted at lower temperatures. pH dependence in this region is negligible suggesting that U(OH)4(aq) predominates, thus the stability of this species is higher than presently estimated at low temperatures, but the enthalpy of solution is smaller. A low maximum observed near pH approx. =3 is presently unexplained. 40 refs., 16 figs., 12 tabs

  4. Analysis of Some Biogenic Amines by Micellar Liquid Chromatography

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Irena Malinowska

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Micellar liquid chromatography (MLC with the use of high performance liquid chromatography (HPLC was used to determine some physicochemical parameters of six biogenic amines: adrenaline, dopamine, octopamine, histamine, 2-phenylethylamine, and tyramine. In this paper, an influence of surfactant’s concentration and pH of the micellar mobile phase on the retention of the tested substances was examined. To determine the influence of surfactant’s concentration on the retention of the tested amines, buffered solutions (at pH 7.4 of ionic surfactant—sodium dodecyl sulfate SDS (at different concentrations with acetonitrile as an organic modifier (0.8/0.2 v/v were used as the micellar mobile phases. To determine the influence of pH of the micellar mobile phase on the retention, mobile phases contained buffered solutions (at different pH values of sodium dodecyl sulfate SDS (at 0.1 M with acetonitrile (0.8/0.2 v/v. The inverse of value of retention factor (1/ versus concentration of micelles ( relationships were examined. Other physicochemical parameters of solutes such as an association constant analyte—micelle (ma—and partition coefficient of analyte between stationary phase and water (hydrophobicity descriptor (swΦ were determined by the use of Foley’s equation.

  5. XENOBIOTICS AND BIOGENIC ELEMENTS IN RAW COW'S MILK

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Agnieszka Greń

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available Normal 0 21 false false false SK X-NONE X-NONE This paper presents the concentration some toxic and biogenic elements in milk from Nitra region. The aim of this investigation was to evaluate 30 samples of raw milk with fat contents 3.8% obtained from milk machine in the Nitra region. Samples were analyzed for metal contents using atomic absorption spectrophotometry (AAS. In comparison with maximum acceptable concentration for milk in the food codex of the Slovak republic, the level of contamination with cadmium was exceeded and reached the value 0.221 µg.ml-1. The copper content ranged from 1.201 µg.ml-1 to 5.810 µg.ml-1 and the average concentration reached 3.793 µg.ml-1.  Iron had an average of 1.824 µg.ml-1. Overall in all milk samples high correlations were found. Between positive correlation (0.7019 and negative correlation between of nickel and potassium concentration in raw milk (-0.72 was found. doi:10.5219/246

  6. Biogenic Emissions of Volatile Organic Compounds by Urban Forests

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    CENTRITTOMauro; LIUShirong; LORETOFrancesco

    2005-01-01

    All plants emit a wide range of volatile compounds, the so-called biogenic volatile organic compounds (BVOC). BVOC emissions have received increased scientific attention in the last two decades because they may profoundly influence the chemical and physical properties of the atmosphere, and may modulate plant tolerance to heat, pollutants, oxidative stress and abiotic stresses, and affect plant-plant and plant-insect interactions. Urban forestry may have a high impact on atmospheric composition, air quality, environment,and quality of life in urban areas. However, few studies have been carried out where the emission of BVOC could have important consequence for the quality of air and contribute to pollution episodes. A screening of BVOC emission by the mixed stand constituting urban forests is therefore required if emissions are to be reliably predicted. Monitoring the emission rates simultaneously with measurements of air quality, plant physiology and micrometeorology on selected urban forests, will allow detailed quantitative information on the inventory of BVOC emissions by urban vegetation to be compiled. This information will make it possible to propose an innovative management of urban vegetation in cities characterised by heavy emissions of anthropogenic pollutants, aiming at the abatement of BVOC emissions through the introduction or selection of non-BVOC emitting species in urban areas subjected to pollution episodes and in the new afforestation areas covering peri-urban parks, green belts and green corridors between peri-urban rural areas and the conurbations.

  7. A marine biogenic source of atmospheric ice-nucleating particles

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wilson, T. W.; Ladino, L. A.; Alpert, Peter A.; Breckels, M. N.; Brooks, I. M.; Browse, J.; Burrows, Susannah M.; Carslaw, K. S.; Huffman, J. A.; Judd, C.; Kilthau, W. P.; Mason, R. H.; McFiggans, Gordon; Miller, L. A.; Najera, J.; Polishchuk, E. A.; Rae, S.; Schiller, C. L.; Si, M.; Vergara Temprado, J.; Whale, Thomas; Wong, J P S; Wurl, O.; Yakobi-Hancock, J. D.; Abbatt, JPD; Aller, Josephine Y.; Bertram, Allan K.; Knopf, Daniel A.; Murray, Benjamin J.

    2015-09-09

    The formation of ice in clouds is facilitated by the presence of airborne ice nucleating particles1,2. Sea spray is one of the major global sources of atmospheric particles, but it is unclear to what extent these particles are capable of nucleating ice3–11. Here we show that material in the sea surface microlayer, which is enriched in surface active organic material representative of that found in sub-micron sea- spray aerosol12–21, nucleates ice under conditions that occur in mixed-phase clouds and high-altitude ice clouds. The ice active material is likely biogenic and is less than ~0.2 ?m in size. We also show that organic material (exudate) released by a common marine diatom nucleates ice when separated from cells and propose that organic material associated with phytoplankton cell exudates are a candidate for the observed ice nucleating ability of the microlayer samples. By combining our measurements with global model simulations of marine organic aerosol, we show that ice nucleating particles of marine origin are dominant in remote marine environments, such as the Southern Ocean, the North Pacific and the North Atlantic.

  8. Analysis of irradiated biogenic amines by computational chemistry and spectroscopy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Biogenic Amines (B A) are nitrogenous compounds able to cause food poisoning. In this work, we studied the tyramine, one of the most common BA present in foods by combining experimental measured IR (Infrared) and GC/MS (Gas Chromatograph / Mass Spectrometry) spectra and computational quantum chemistry. Density Functional Theory (DFT) and the Deformed Atoms in Molecules (DMA) method was used to compute the partition the electronic densities in a chemically-intuitive way and electrostatic potentials of molecule to identify the acid and basic sites. Trading pattern was irradiated using a Cs 137 radiator, and each sample was identified by IR and GC/MS. Calculated and experimental IR spectra were compared. We observed that ionizing gamma irradiation was very effective in decreasing the population of standard amine, resulting in fragments that could be rationalized through the quantum chemistry calculations. In particular, we could locate the acid and basic sites of both molecules and identify possible sites of structural weaknesses, which allowed to propose mechanistic schemes for the breaking of chemical bonds by the irradiation. Moreover, from this work we hope it will be also possible to properly choose the dose of gamma irradiation which should be provided to eliminate each type of contamination. (author)

  9. Biogenic CO2 fluxes, changes in surface albedo and biodiversity impacts from establishment of a miscanthus plantation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jørgensen, Susanne Vedel; Cherubini, Francesco; Michelsen, Ottar

    2014-01-01

    human influenced state to another.Concerning the impacts from biogenic CO2 fluxes, in the case of conversion from a forest to a miscanthus plantation (case A) there is a contribution to global warming, whereas when a fallow land is converted (case B), there is a climate cooling. When the effects from...... albedo changes are included, both scenarios show a net cooling impact, which is more pronounced in case B. Both cases reduce biodiversity in the area where the miscanthus plantation is established, though most in case A.The results illustrate the relevance of these issues when considering environmental......Depletion in oil resources and environmental concern related to the use of fossil fuels has increased the interest in using second generation biomass as alternative feedstock for fuels and materials. However, the land use and land use change for producing second generation (2G) biomass impacts the...

  10. Biogenic Amines: A Public Health Problem [Aminas Biogênicas: Um Problema de Saúde Pública

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Monique Cardozo

    2013-03-01

    Full Text Available Biogenic amines (BA are toxic low molecular weight organic bases with aliphatic, aromatic or heterocyclic structures that can be found in several foods and are mainly produced by microbial decarboxylation of amino acids. The consumption of food containing large amounts of BA can result in allergic reactions, characterized by difficulties in breathing, rash, vomiting and hypertension. BA are also known as possible precursors of carcinogens such as N-nitrosamines. They are frequently found in high concentrations in food and cannot be reducedby high-temperature treatments, which makes difficult the use of conventional methods of food preservation for this purpose. Food irradiation is an alternative technology for their reduction because it can induce the formation of less toxic BA sub products by radiolysis.

  11. Energy recovery from the biogenic fraction of MSW after revamping of MSW mechanical-biological separation plants

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Renewable energy sources are becoming more and more important for energetic demand management across the world. The EU directive 2001/77/CE, indicated that the organic fraction of the municipal solid waste has a biogenic origin and so it can be assimilate to a biomass. Therefore the recovery of this fraction for energy production became important from both environmental (Kyoto Protocol) and economic point of view (green certificates). This paper propose a model to revamp MBT plants (two fluxes) to recover the organic fraction of MSW (OFMSW) that, at present, is converted into CO2 and into low-quality compost which is finally disposed of in landfills. Here we propose that bio drying replaces bio stabilization allowing OFMSW to be used to produce energy

  12. Isolation of compound and CNS depressant activities of Mikania scandens Willd with special emphasis to brain biogenic amines in mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pal, Dilipkumar; Mazumder, Upal Kanti

    2014-12-01

    Mikania scandens, a twining herb that grows as a weed in India and Bangladesh is used as vegetables and is a good source of vitamin A, C, B complex, mikanin, sesquiterpenes, betasitosterin, stigmasterol and friedelin. The present communication reports CNS depressant activities with special emphasis to brain biogenic amines in mice. Ethanol extract of leaves of M. scandens (EEMS) was prepared by Soxhalation and analyzed chemically. EEMS potentiated sleeping time induced by pentobarbitone, diazepam and meprobamate and showed significant reduction in the number of writhes and stretches. EEMS caused significant protection against pentylene tetrazole-induced convulsion and increased catecholamines and brain amino acids level significantly. Results showed that EEMS produced good CNS depressant effects in mice. PMID:25651612

  13. Distinguishing and understanding thermogenic and biogenic sources of methane using multiply substituted isotopologues

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stolper, D. A.; Martini, A. M.; Clog, M.; Douglas, P. M.; Shusta, S. S.; Valentine, D. L.; Sessions, A. L.; Eiler, J. M.

    2015-07-01

    Sources of methane to sedimentary environments are commonly identified and quantified using the stable isotopic compositions of methane. The methane "clumped-isotope geothermometer", based on the measurement of multiply substituted methane isotopologues (13CH3D and 12CH2D2), shows promise in adding new constraints to the sources and formational environments of both biogenic and thermogenic methane. However, questions remain about how this geothermometer behaves in systems with mixtures of biogenic and thermogenic gases and different biogenic environments. We have applied the methane clumped-isotope thermometer to a mixed biogenic-thermogenic system (Antrim Shale, USA) and to biogenic gas from gas seeps (Santa Barbara and Santa Monica Basin, USA), a pond on the Caltech campus, and methanogens grown in pure culture. We demonstrate that clumped-isotope based temperatures add new quantitative constraints to the relative amounts of biogenic vs. thermogenic gases in the Antrim Shale indicating a larger proportion (∼50%) of thermogenic gas in the system than previously thought. Additionally, we find that the clumped-isotope temperature of biogenic methane appears related to the environmental settings in which the gas forms. In systems where methane generation rates appear to be slow (e.g., the Antrim Shale and gas seeps), microbial methane forms in or near both internal isotopic equilibrium and hydrogen-isotope equilibrium with environmental waters. In systems where methane forms rapidly, microbial methane is neither in internal isotopic equilibrium nor hydrogen-isotope equilibrium with environmental waters. A quantitative model of microbial methanogenesis that incorporates isotopes is proposed to explain these results.

  14. Biogenic amines in food and their determination methods%食品中的生物胺及其检测方法

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王颖; 邱璠; 韩北忠; 殷丽君

    2011-01-01

    生物胺普遍存在于生物体中,有重要的生理功能.许多天然食品中都含有生物胺.摄入大量生物胺会引起身体不适,严重的还可能危及生命.引起食物中毒的生物胺主要包括组胺和酪胺.此外,存在大量微生物的食品中,生物胺的含量较高,同类食品中生物胺的种类和含量又有很大的变化,这一现象受许多因素影响,如微生物的种类和数量、温度、pH值等.生物胺含量还与食品的腐败变质有关,是食品品质的指示器,因此对于生物胺的检测受到重视.目前检测食品中生物胺含量的方法主要有薄层色谱、气相色谱、毛细管电泳和高效液相色谱.%Biogenic amines (BA) which commonly present in living organisms play important roles in essential functions. Many natural foods contain biogenic amines. Biogenic amines can be produced by microorganisms through the activity of amino acid decarboxylases. Excessive consumption of these amines can be of health concern, even life-threatening. Histamine and tyramine are the main amines which are causative agents in food poisoning episodes. In addition, high microbial counts often lead to considerable accumulation of biogenic amines. However, great fluctuations of amine content are reported in the same type of product. These differences depend on many variables: the composition of microflora, temperature, pH value, and so on. Biogenic amines are indicators of spoilage of food and the analytical methods used for quanti?cation of BA are mainly based on chromato-graphic methods: thin layer chromatography, gas chromatography, capillary electrophoresis and high-performance liquid chromatography.

  15. The impact of biogenic VOC emissions on photochemical ozone formation during a high ozone pollution episode in the Iberian Peninsula in the 2003 summer season

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    N. Castell

    2008-04-01

    Full Text Available Throughout Europe the summer of 2003 was exceptionally warm, especially July and August. The European Environment Agency (EEA reported several ozone episodes, mainly in the first half of August. These episodes were exceptionally long-lasting, spatially extensive, and associated to high temperatures. In this paper, the 10$ndash;15 August 2003 ozone pollution event has been analyzed using meteorological and regional air quality modelling. During this period the threshold values of the European Directive 2002/3/EC were exceeded in various areas of the Iberian Peninsula.

    The aim of this paper is to computationally understand and quantify the influence of biogenic volatile organic compound (BVOC emissions in the formation of tropospheric ozone during this high ozone episode. Being able to differentiate how much ozone comes from biogenic emissions alone and how much comes from the interaction between anthropogenic and biogenic emissions would be helpful to develop a feasible and effective ozone control strategy. The impact on ozone formation was also studied in combination with various anthropogenic emission reduction strategies, i.e., when anthropogenic VOC emissions and/or NOx emissions are reduced. The results show a great dependency of the BVOC contribution to ozone formation on the antropoghenic reduction scenario. In rural areas, the impact due to a NOx and/or VOC reduction does not change the BVOC impact. Nevertheless, within big cities or industrial zones, a NOx reduction results in a decrease of the biogenic impact in ozone levels that can reach 85 μg/m3, whereas an Anthropogenic Volatile Organic Compound (AVOC reduction results in a decrease of the BVOC contribution on ozone formation that varies from 0 to 30 μg/m3 with respect to the contribution at the same points in the 2003 base scenario. On the other hand, downwind of the big cities, a decrease in NOx produces

  16. Biogenic carbon fluxes from global agricultural production and consumption

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wolf, Julie; West, Tristram O.; Le Page, Yannick LB; Kyle, G. Page; Zhang, Xuesong; Collatz, George; Imhoff, Marc L.

    2015-10-01

    Quantification of biogenic carbon fluxes from agricultural lands is needed to generate comprehensive bottom-up estimates of net carbon exchange for global and regional carbon monitoring. We estimated global agricultural carbon fluxes associated with annual crop net primary production (NPP), harvested biomass, and consumption of biomass by humans and livestock. These estimates were combined for a single estimate of net carbon exchange (NCE) and spatially distributed to 0.05 degree resolution using MODIS satellite land cover data. Global crop NPP in 2011 was estimated at 5.25 ± 0.46 Pg C yr-1, of which 2.05 ± 0.05 Pg C yr-1 was harvested and 0.54 Pg C yr-1 was collected from crop residues for livestock fodder. Total livestock feed intake in 2011 was 2.42 ± 0.21 Pg C yr-1, of which 2.31 ± 0.21 Pg C yr-1 was emitted as CO2, 0.07 ± 0.01 Pg C yr-1 was emitted as CH4, and 0.04 Pg C yr-1 was contained within milk and egg production. Livestock grazed an estimated 1.27 Pg C yr-1 in 2011, which constituted 52.4% of total feed intake. Global human food intake was 0.57 ± 0.03 Pg C yr-1 in 2011, the majority of which is respired as CO2. Completed global cropland carbon budgets accounted for the ultimate use of ca. 80% of harvested biomass. The spatial distribution of these fluxes may be used for global carbon monitoring, estimation of regional uncertainty, and for use as input to Earth system models.

  17. Historical anthropogenic radiative forcing of changes in biogenic secondary aerosol

    Science.gov (United States)

    Acosta Navarro, Juan; D'Andrea, Stephen; Pierce, Jeffrey; Ekman, Annica; Struthers, Hamish; Zorita, Eduardo; Guenther, Alex; Arneth, Almut; Smolander, Sampo; Kaplan, Jed; Farina, Salvatore; Scott, Catherine; Rap, Alexandru; Farmer, Delphine; Spracklen, Domink; Riipinen, Ilona

    2016-04-01

    Human activities have lead to changes in the energy balance of the Earth and the global climate. Changes in atmospheric aerosols are the second largest contributor to climate change after greenhouse gases since 1750 A.D. Land-use practices and other environmental drivers have caused changes in the emission of biogenic volatile organic compounds (BVOCs) and secondary organic aerosol (SOA) well before 1750 A.D, possibly causing climate effects through aerosol-radiation and aerosol-cloud interactions. Two numerical emission models LPJ-GUESS and MEGAN were used to quantify the changes in aerosol forming BVOC emissions in the past millennium. A chemical transport model of the atmosphere (GEOS-Chem-TOMAS) was driven with those BVOC emissions to quantify the effects on radiation caused by millennial changes in SOA. We found that global isoprene emissions decreased after 1800 A.D. by about 12% - 15%. This decrease was dominated by losses of natural vegetation, whereas monoterpene and sesquiterpene emissions increased by about 2% - 10%, driven mostly by rising surface air temperatures. From 1000 A.D. to 1800 A.D, isoprene, monoterpene and sesquiterpene emissions decline by 3% - 8% driven by both, natural vegetation losses, and the moderate global cooling between the medieval climate anomaly and the little ice age. The millennial reduction in BVOC emissions lead to a 0.5% to 2% reduction in climatically relevant aerosol particles (> 80 nm) and cause a direct radiative forcing between +0.02 W/m² and +0.07 W/m², and an indirect radiative forcing between -0.02 W/m² and +0.02 W/m².

  18. Biosafety of the application of biogenic nanometal powders in husbandry

    Science.gov (United States)

    Anatolievna Nazarova, Anna; Dmitrievna Polischuk, Svetlana; Anatolievna Stepanova, Irina; Ivanovich Churilov, Gennady; Chau Nguyen, Hoai; Buu Ngo, Quoc

    2014-03-01

    Effects of iron and copper nanopowders (particle size of 20-40 nm) were investigated on rabbits of 1 month age and heifers of 6 months. For introduction of nanometals into the animal's ration, the mixed fodder was treated with the nanometal powder suspension in such a way: 0.08 mg of nanoiron per kg of animal's body weight and 0.04 mg kg-1 for nanocopper. The weight gain of the heifers who received nanoiron and nanocopper after 8 months was 22.4 and 10.7% higher than that of the control, respectively. For the rabbits who received nano Fe and Cu after 3 months, the weight gain was 11.7 and 7.3% compared to the control, respectively. Under the action of metal nanopowders morphological indices of blood were changed in comparison with the control: after 8 months the quantity of erythrocytes increased by 19.6%, hemoglobin by 17.1% and leukocytes by 7.6%. There was a realignment in leukocytic formula: the quantity of lymphocytes increased by 9% compared to the control. Biogenic metals in superdispersive state were able to stimulate immune, enzymatic and humoral systems of the animal's organism, promoting metabolism. Adding Co and Cu metal nanopowders to the bull-calves’ fodder rations increased content of Ca by 31.8 and 0%, Fe by 38.8 and 37.5%, K by 19.2 and 15.3%, Mg by 17.6 and 23.5%, Mn by 9.8 and 45% and Na by 20.5 and 8.8%, respectively, compared to control. Metal nanopowders improved the quality indices and meat productivity of black-white bull-calves, expressed in intensive growth of muscle, tissue and more nutritious meat. The conducted veterinary-sanitary expertise showed that the supplements based on iron, cobalt and copper nanopowders can be used as safe bioactive supplements in animal husbandry.

  19. Biogenic silver nanoparticles: efficient and effective antifungal agents

    Science.gov (United States)

    Netala, Vasudeva Reddy; Kotakadi, Venkata Subbaiah; Domdi, Latha; Gaddam, Susmila Aparna; Bobbu, Pushpalatha; Venkata, Sucharitha K.; Ghosh, Sukhendu Bikash; Tartte, Vijaya

    2016-04-01

    Biogenic synthesis of silver nanoparticles (AgNPs) by exploiting various plant materials is an emerging field and considered green nanotechnology as it involves simple, cost effective and ecofriendly procedure. In the present study AgNPs were successfully synthesized using aqueous callus extract of Gymnema sylvestre. The aqueous callus extract treated with 1nM silver nitrate solution resulted in the formation of AgNPs and the surface plasmon resonance (SPR) of the formed AgNPs showed a peak at 437 nm in the UV Visible spectrum. The synthesized AgNPs were characterized using Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FTIR), Transmission electron microscopy (TEM), and X-ray diffraction spectroscopy (XRD). FTIR spectra showed the peaks at 3333, 2928, 2361, 1600, 1357 and 1028 cm-1 which revealed the role of different functional groups possibly involved in the synthesis and stabilization of AgNPs. TEM micrograph clearly revealed the size of the AgNPs to be in the range of 3-30 nm with spherical shape and poly-dispersed nature; it is further confirmed by Particle size analysis that the stability of AgNPs is due its high negative Zeta potential (-36.1 mV). XRD pattern revealed the crystal nature of the AgNPs by showing the braggs peaks corresponding to (111), (200), (220) and (311) planes of face-centered cubic crystal phase of silver. Selected area electron diffraction pattern showed diffraction rings and confirmed the crystalline nature of synthesized AgNPs. The synthesized AgNPs exhibited effective antifungal activity against Candida albicans, Candida nonalbicans and Candida tropicalis.

  20. Arsenic removal from acidic solutions with biogenic ferric precipitates.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ahoranta, Sarita H; Kokko, Marika E; Papirio, Stefano; Özkaya, Bestamin; Puhakka, Jaakko A

    2016-04-01

    Treatment of acidic solution containing 5g/L of Fe(II) and 10mg/L of As(III) was studied in a system consisting of a biological fluidized-bed reactor (FBR) for iron oxidation, and a gravity settler for iron precipitation and separation of the ferric precipitates. At pH 3.0 and FBR retention time of 5.7h, 96-98% of the added Fe(II) precipitated (99.1% of which was jarosite). The highest iron oxidation and precipitation rates were 1070 and 28mg/L/h, respectively, and were achieved at pH 3.0. Subsequently, the effect of pH on arsenic removal through sorption and/or co-precipitation was examined by gradually decreasing solution pH from 3.0 to 1.6 (feed pH). At pH 3.0, 2.4 and 1.6, the highest arsenic removal efficiencies obtained were 99.5%, 80.1% and 7.1%, respectively. As the system had ferric precipitates in excess, decreased arsenic removal was likely due to reduced co-precipitation at pH<2.4. As(III) was partially oxidized to As(V) in the system. In shake flask experiments, As(V) sorbed onto jarosite better than As(III). Moreover, the sorption capacity of biogenic jarosite was significantly higher than that of synthetic jarosite. The developed bioprocess simultaneously and efficiently removes iron and arsenic from acidic solutions, indicating potential for mining wastewater treatment. PMID:26705889

  1. The behavior of biogenic silica-rich rocks and volcanic tuffs as pozzolanic additives in cement

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fragoulis, Dimitris; Stamatakis, Michael; Anastasatou, Marianthi

    2015-04-01

    late compressive strength, the worst performing cement was the one with the lowest reactive silica content with biogenic opal-A as the only reactive pozzolana constituent. Cements produced with perlites, raw materials consisting mainly of a glassy phase, were characterized by higher strength and a rather ordinary specific surface area. Cements produced with Turkish zeolite tuff and Milos glassy tuff exhibited higher late compressive strength than those mentioned above. The highest strength was achieved by the implementation of Australian diatomite for cement production. Its 28 day strength exceeded that of the control mixture consisting of 95% clinker and 5% gypsum. That could be attributed to both, high specific surface of cement and reactive SiO2 of diatomite. Therefore, a preliminary assessment regarding late strength of pozzolanic cements could be obtained by the consideration of two main parameters, namely: specific surface area of cement and reactive silica content of pozzolana.

  2. Temperature-dependent accumulation mode particle and cloud nuclei concentrations from biogenic sources during WACS 2010

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    L. Ahlm

    2012-10-01

    Full Text Available Submicron aerosol particles collected simultaneously at the mountain peak (2182 m a.s.l. and at a forested mid-mountain site (1300 m a.s.l. on Whistler Mountain, British Columbia, Canada, during June and July 2010 were analyzed by Fourier transform infrared (FTIR spectroscopy for quantification of organic functional groups. Positive matrix factorization (PMF was applied to the FTIR spectra. Three PMF factors associated with (1 combustion, (2 biogenics, and (3 vegetative detritus, were identified at both sites. The biogenic factor was correlated with both temperature and several volatile organic compounds (VOCs. The combustion factor dominated the submicron particle mass during the beginning of the campaign when the temperature was lower and advection was from the Vancouver area, but as the temperature started to rise in early July the biogenic factor came to dominate as a result of increased emissions of biogenic VOCs and thereby increased formation of secondary organic aerosol (SOA. On average, the biogenic factor represented 69% and 49% of the submicron organic particle mass at Whistler Peak and at the mid-mountain site, respectively. The lower fraction at the mid-mountain site was a result of more vegetative detritus there, and also higher influence from local combustion sources.

    The biogenic factor was strongly correlated (r ~ 0.9 to number concentration of particles with diameter (Dp> 100 nm, whereas the combustion factor was better correlated to number concentration of particles with Dp < 100 nm (r~ 0.4. The number concentration of cloud condensation nuclei (CCN was correlated (r ~ 0.7 to the biogenic factor for supersaturations (S of 0.2% or higher, which indicates that particle condensational growth from biogenic vapors was an important factor in controlling the CCN concentration for clouds where S≥0.2%. Both the number concentration of particles with

  3. Temperature-dependent accumulation mode particle and cloud nuclei concentrations from biogenic sources during WACS 2010

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    L. Ahlm

    2013-03-01

    Full Text Available Submicron aerosol particles collected simultaneously at the mountain peak (2182 m a.s.l. and at a forested mid-mountain site (1300 m a.s.l. on Whistler Mountain, British Columbia, Canada, during June and July 2010 were analyzed by Fourier transform infrared (FTIR spectroscopy for quantification of organic functional groups. Positive matrix factorization (PMF was applied to the FTIR spectra. Three PMF factors associated with (1 combustion, (2 biogenics, and (3 vegetative detritus were identified at both sites. The biogenic factor was correlated with both temperature and several volatile organic compounds (VOCs. The combustion factor dominated the submicron particle mass during the beginning of the campaign, when the temperature was lower and advection was from the Vancouver area, but as the temperature started to rise in early July, the biogenic factor came to dominate as a result of increased emissions of biogenic VOCs, and thereby increased formation of secondary organic aerosol (SOA. On average, the biogenic factor represented 69% and 49% of the submicron organic particle mass at Whistler Peak and at the mid-mountain site, respectively. The lower fraction at the mid-mountain site was a result of more vegetative detritus there, and also higher influence from local combustion sources. The biogenic factor was strongly correlated (r~0.9 to number concentration of particles with diameter (Dp> 100 nm, whereas the combustion factor was better correlated to number concentration of particles with Dpr~0.4. The number concentration of cloud condensation nuclei (CCN was correlated (r~0.7 to the biogenic factor for supersaturations (S of 0.2% or higher, which indicates that particle condensational growth from biogenic vapors was an important factor in controlling the CCN concentration for clouds where S≥0.2%. Both the number concentration of particles with Dp>100 nm and numbers of CCN for S≥0.2% were correlated to temperature. Considering the biogenic

  4. Characterization of Highly Oxidized Molecules in Fresh and Aged Biogenic Secondary Organic Aerosol.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tu, Peijun; Hall, Wiley A; Johnston, Murray V

    2016-04-19

    In this work, highly oxidized multifunctional molecules (HOMs) in fresh and aged secondary organic aerosol (SOA) derived from biogenic precursors are characterized with high-resolution mass spectrometry. Fresh SOA was generated by mixing ozone with a biogenic precursor (β-pinene, limonene, α-pinene) in a flow tube reactor. Aging was performed by passing the fresh SOA through a photochemical reactor where it reacted with hydroxyl radicals. Although these aerosols were as a whole not highly oxidized, molecular analysis identified a significant number of HOMs embedded within it. HOMs in fresh SOA consisted mostly of monomers and dimers, which is consistent with condensation of extremely low-volatility organic compounds (ELVOCs) that have been detected in the gas phase in previous studies and linked to SOA particle formation. Aging caused an increase in the average number of carbon atoms per molecule of the HOMs, which is consistent with particle phase oxidation of (less oxidized) oligomers already existing in fresh SOA. HOMs having different combinations of oxygen-to-carbon ratio, hydrogen-to-carbon ratio and average carbon oxidation state are discussed and compared to low volatility oxygenated organic aerosol (LVOOA), which has been identified in ambient aerosol based on average elemental composition but not fully understood at a molecular level. For the biogenic precursors and experimental conditions studied, HOMs in fresh biogenic SOA have molecular formulas more closely resembling LVOOA than HOMs in aged SOA, suggesting that aging of biogenic SOA is not a good surrogate for ambient LVOOA. PMID:27000653

  5. Evolution of cyclonic eddies and biogenic fluxes in the northern Bay of Bengal

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. Nuncio

    2013-10-01

    Full Text Available The Bay of Bengal has been traditionally known for its low primary productivity and varied reasons were attributed to it. The data analysis from the sediment traps deployed in the northern Bay of Bengal during the 5 yr from 1994 show episodic events of enhanced downward biogenic flux every year which was not related to monsoon-driven seasonal cycle. Satellite-derived sea level anomaly suggests that the episodic increase in the biogenic flux was associated with the presence of cyclonic eddies in the sediment trap location. Cyclonic eddy-induced down ward biogenic flux in the sediment trap location was larger than the amplitude, ∼40 mg m−2 d−1, of the seasonal cycle. The magnitude of the peak episodic fluxes were one-and-half to two-and-half times the annual mean flux, while the anomaly of peak episodic fluxes was at least equal to or greater than the magnitude of the seasonal flux value. Cyclonic eddies responsible for high biogenic flux during 1994 and 1996 were formed in the northern Bay of Bengal during February–March of respective years due to the interaction of northward flowing western boundary current and coastally trapped Kelvin wave. In contrast, cyclonic eddies during 1997 and 1998 were formed from the breaking of westward propagating Rossby waves. The sediment trap data provided the observational evidence that eddy-induced biological productivity is an important mechanism in the Bay of Bengal that contributes significantly to the mid-depth biogenic flux.

  6. Cocaine affects foraging behaviour and biogenic amine modulated behavioural reflexes in honey bees

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eirik Søvik

    2014-11-01

    Full Text Available In humans and other mammals, drugs of abuse alter the function of biogenic amine pathways in the brain leading to the subjective experience of reward and euphoria. Biogenic amine pathways are involved in reward processing across diverse animal phyla, however whether cocaine acts on these neurochemical pathways to cause similar rewarding behavioural effects in animal phyla other than mammals is unclear. Previously, it has been shown that bees are more likely to dance (a signal of perceived reward when returning from a sucrose feeder after cocaine treatment. Here we examined more broadly whether cocaine altered reward-related behaviour, and biogenic amine modulated behavioural responses in bees. Bees developed a preference for locations at which they received cocaine, and when foraging at low quality sucrose feeders increase their foraging rate in response to cocaine treatment. Cocaine also increased reflexive proboscis extension to sucrose, and sting extension to electric shock. Both of these simple reflexes are modulated by biogenic amines. This shows that systemic cocaine treatment alters behavioural responses that are modulated by biogenic amines in insects. Since insect reward responses involve both octopamine and dopamine signalling, we conclude that cocaine treatment altered diverse reward-related aspects of behaviour in bees. We discuss the implications of these results for understanding the ecology of cocaine as a plant defence compound. Our findings further validate the honey bee as a model system for understanding the behavioural impacts of cocaine, and potentially other drugs of abuse.

  7. Safety assessment of the biogenic amines in fermented soya beans and fermented bean curd.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Juan; Ding, Xiaowen; Qin, Yingrui; Zeng, Yitao

    2014-08-01

    To evaluate the safety of biogenic amines, high performance liquid chromatography (HPLC) was used to evaluate the levels of biogenic amines in fermented soya beans and fermented bean curd. In fermented soya beans, the total biogenic amines content was in a relatively safe range in many samples, although the concentration of histamine, tyramine, and β-phenethylamine was high enough in some samples to cause a possible safety threat, and 8 of the 30 samples were deemed unsafe. In fermented bean curd, the total biogenic amines content was more than 900 mg/kg in 19 white sufu amples, a level that has been determined to pose a safety hazard; putrescine was the only one detected in all samples and also had the highest concentration, which made samples a safety hazard; the content of tryptamine, β-phenethylamine, tyramine, and histamine had reached the level of threat to human health in some white and green sufu samples, and that may imply another potential safety risk; and 25 of the 33 samples were unsafe. In conclusion, the content of biogenic amines in all fermented soya bean products should be studied and appropriate limits determined to ensure the safety of eating these foods. PMID:25029555

  8. The Deep-Sea Natural Products, Biogenic Polyphosphate (Bio-PolyP and Biogenic Silica (Bio-Silica, as Biomimetic Scaffolds for Bone Tissue Engineering: Fabrication of a Morphogenetically-Active Polymer

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Florian Draenert

    2013-03-01

    Full Text Available Bone defects in human, caused by fractures/nonunions or trauma, gain increasing impact and have become a medical challenge in the present-day aging population. Frequently, those fractures require surgical intervention which ideally relies on autografts or suboptimally on allografts. Therefore, it is pressing and likewise challenging to develop bone substitution materials to heal bone defects. During the differentiation of osteoblasts from their mesenchymal progenitor/stem cells and of osteoclasts from their hemopoietic precursor cells, a lineage-specific release of growth factors and a trans-lineage homeostatic cross-talk via signaling molecules take place. Hence, the major hurdle is to fabricate a template that is functioning in a way mimicking the morphogenetic, inductive role(s of the native extracellular matrix. In the last few years, two naturally occurring polymers that are produced by deep-sea sponges, the biogenic polyphosphate (bio-polyP and biogenic silica (bio-silica have also been identified as promoting morphogenetic on both osteoblasts and osteoclasts. These polymers elicit cytokines that affect bone mineralization (hydroxyapatite formation. In this manner, bio-silica and bio-polyP cause an increased release of BMP-2, the key mediator activating the anabolic arm of the hydroxyapatite forming cells, and of RANKL. In addition, bio-polyP inhibits the progression of the pre-osteoclasts to functionally active osteoclasts. Based on these findings, new bioinspired strategies for the fabrication of bone biomimetic templates have been developed applying 3D-printing techniques. Finally, a strategy is outlined by which these two morphogenetically active polymers might be used to develop a novel functionally active polymer.

  9. Prodotti della tradizione e contenuto di amine biogene alternative alla Low tyramine diet per la sostenibilità dei prodotti di nicchia e la salubrità del consumatore

    OpenAIRE

    Giovanna Suzzi; Rosanna Tofalo; Maria Schirone

    2011-01-01

    Biogenic amines (BA) are present in a wide range of foods and mainly can be produced in high amounts by microorganisms through the activity of amino acid decarboxylases. Excessive consumption of foods with large concentrations of these compounds can induce adverse reactions such as nausea, headaches, rashes and changes in blood pressure. These problems are more severe in consumers with less efficient detoxification systems because of their genetic constitution or their medical treatments. The...

  10. Influence of physical and biological processes on the seasonal cycle of biogenic flux in the equatorial Indian Ocean

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    P. J. Vidya

    2013-02-01

    Full Text Available Seasonal cycle of biogenic fluxes obtained from sediment trap at two locations 5° 24′ N, 86° 46′ E (SBBT and 3° 34′ N, 77° 46′ E (EIOT within the equatorial Indian Ocean (EIO were examined to understand the factors that control them. The sediment trap data at SBBT were collected for ten years from November 1987 while that at EIOT was for one year period from January 1996. The characteristic of biogenic flux at SBBT was the strong seasonality with peak flux in August, while lack of seasonality characterized the flux at EIOT. At the SBBT and EIOT, the higher chlorophyll biomass during summer monsoon was supported by wind-mixing, which supplied new nitrogen to the upper ocean. The stronger winds at SBBT compared to EIOT resulted in greater entrainment of nutrients to the euphotic zone, which supported higher chlorophyll biomass. High cell counts of phytoplankton (> 5 μm at SBBT dominated by diatoms suggest the operation of classical food web and high carbon export. On the contrary, one-and-half time higher magnitude of micro-zooplankton biomass dominated by picophytoplankton along with 2-fold lesser meso-zooplankton at EIOT indicated the importance of microbial loop. The substantial decrease in the carbon export at EIOT indicated faster remineralization of photosynthetically produced organic matter. We see a striking similarity between the biological process that operates in the SBBT with that of the equatorial Atlantic and EIOT with that of the equatorial Pacific, though the physical forcing in these three regions, namely EIO, the equatorial Atlantic and the equatorial Pacific, are very different.

  11. Biogenic carbon in combustible waste: Waste composition, variability and measurement uncertainty

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Larsen, Anna Warberg; Fuglsang, Karsten; Pedersen, Niels H.;

    2013-01-01

    described in the literature. This study addressed the variability of biogenic and fossil carbon in combustible waste received at a municipal solid waste incinerator. Two approaches were compared: (1) radiocarbon dating (14C analysis) of carbon dioxide sampled from the flue gas, and (2) mass and energy......Obtaining accurate data for the contents of biogenic and fossil carbon in thermally-treated waste is essential for determination of the environmental profile of waste technologies. Relations between the variability of waste chemistry and the biogenic and fossil carbon emissions are not well...... balance calculations using the balance method. The ability of the two approaches to accurately describe short-term day-to-day variations in carbon emissions, and to which extent these short-term variations could be explained by controlled changes in waste input composition, was evaluated. Finally, the...

  12. Simultaneous determination of selected biogenic amines in alcoholic beverage samples by isotachophoretic and chromatographic methods.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jastrzębska, Aneta; Piasta, Anna; Szłyk, Edward

    2014-01-01

    A simple and useful method for the determination of biogenic amines in beverage samples based on isotachophoretic separation is described. The proposed procedure permitted simultaneous analysis of histamine, tyramine, cadaverine, putrescine, tryptamine, 2-phenylethylamine, spermine and spermidine. The data presented demonstrate the utility, simplicity, flexibility, sensitivity and environmentally friendly character of the proposed method. The precision of the method expressed as coefficient of variations varied from 0.1% to 5.9% for beverage samples, whereas recoveries varied from 91% to 101%. The results for the determination of biogenic amines were compared with an HPLC procedure based on a pre-column derivatisation reaction of biogenic amines with dansyl chloride. Furthermore, the derivatisation procedure was optimised by verification of concentration and pH of the buffer, the addition of organic solvents, reaction time and temperature. PMID:24350674

  13. A comparison between acoustic properties and heat effects in biogenic (magnetosomes) and abiotic magnetite nanoparticle suspensions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Józefczak, A.; Leszczyński, B.; Skumiel, A.; Hornowski, T.

    2016-06-01

    Magnetic nanoparticles show unique properties and find many applications because of the possibility to control their properties using magnetic field. Magnetic nanoparticles are usually synthesized chemically and modification of the particle surface is necessary. Another source of magnetic nanoparticles are various magnetotactic bacteria. These biogenic nanoparticles (magnetosomes) represent an attractive alternative to chemically synthesized iron oxide particles because of their unique characteristics and a high potential for biotechnological and biomedical applications. This work presents a comparison between acoustic properties of biogenic and abiotic magnetite nanoparticle suspensions. Experimental studies have shown the influence of a biological membrane on the ultrasound properties of magnetosomes suspension. Finally the heat effect in synthetic and biogenic magnetite nanoparticles is also discussed. The experimental study shows that magnetosomes present good heating efficiency.

  14. The Li isotope composition of modern biogenic carbonates

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dellinger, M.; West, A. J.; Adkins, J. F.; Paris, G.; Eagle, R.; Freitas, P. S.; Bagard, M. L.; Ries, J. B.; Corsetti, F. A.; Pogge von Strandmann, P.; Ullmann, C. V.

    2015-12-01

    The lithium stable isotope composition (δ7Li) of sedimentary carbonates has great potential to unravel weathering rates and intensity in the past, with implications for understanding the carbon cycle over geologic time. However, so far very little is known about the potential influence of fractionation of the stable Li isotope composition of biogenic carbonates. Here, we investigate the δ7Li of various organisms (particularly mollusks, echinoderms and brachiopods) abundant in the Phanerozoic record, in order to understand which geologic archives might provide the best targets for reconstructing past seawater composition. The range of measured samples includes (i) modern calcite and aragonite shells from variable natural environments, (ii) shells from organisms grown under controlled conditions (temperature, salinity, pCO2), and (iii) fossil shells from a range of species collected from Miocene deposits. When possible, both the inner and outer layers of bivalves were micro-sampled to assess the intra-shell heterogeneity. For calcitic shells, the measured δ7Li of bivalve species range from +32 to +41‰ and is systematically enriched in the heavy isotope relative to seawater (31 ‰) and to inorganic calcite, which is characterized by Δ7Licalcite-seawater = -2 to -5‰ [1]. The Li isotope composition of aragonitic bivalves, ranging from +16 to +22‰, is slightly fractionated to both high and low δ7Li relative to inorganic aragonite. The largest intra-shell Li isotope variability is observed for mixed calcite-aragonite shells (more than 20‰) whereas in single mineralogy shells, intra-shell δ7Li variability is generally less than 3‰. Overall, these results suggest a strong influence of vital effects on Li isotopes during bio-calcification of bivalve shells. On the contrary, measured brachiopods systematically exhibit fractionation that is very similar to inorganic calcite, with a mean δ7Li of 27.0±1.5‰, suggesting that brachiopods may provide good

  15. Triple oxygen isotopes in biogenic and sedimentary carbonates

    Science.gov (United States)

    Passey, Benjamin H.; Hu, Huanting; Ji, Haoyuan; Montanari, Shaena; Li, Shuning; Henkes, Gregory A.; Levin, Naomi E.

    2014-09-01

    The 17O anomaly (Δ17O) of natural waters has been shown to be sensitive to evaporation in a way analogous to deuterium excess, with evaporated bodies of water (e.g., leaf waters, lake waters, animal body waters) tending to have lower Δ17O than primary meteoric waters. In animal body water, Δ17O relates to the intake of evaporated waters, evaporative effluxes of water, and the Δ17O value of atmospheric O2, which itself carries signatures of global carbon cycling and photochemical reactions in the stratosphere. Carbonates have the potential to record the triple oxygen isotope compositions of parent waters, allowing reconstruction of past water compositions, but such investigations have awaited development of methods for high-precision measurement of Δ17O of carbonate. We describe optimized methods based on a sequential acid digestion/reduction/fluorination approach that yield Δ17O data with the high precision (∼0.010‰, 1σ) needed to resolve subtle environmental signals. We report the first high-precision Δ17O dataset for terrestrial carbonates, focusing on vertebrate biogenic carbonates and soil carbonates, but also including marine invertebrates and high-temperature carbonates. We determine apparent three-isotope fractionation factors between the O2 analyte derived from carbonate and the parent waters of the carbonate. These in combination with appropriate temperature estimates (from clumped isotope thermometry, or known or estimated body temperatures) are used to calculate the δ18O and Δ17O of parent waters. The clearest pattern to emerge is the strong 17O-depletion in avian, dinosaurian, and mammalian body water (from analyses of eggshell and tooth enamel) relative to meteoric waters, following expected influences of evaporated water (e.g., leaf water) and atmospheric O2 on vertebrate body water. Parent waters of the soil carbonates studied here have Δ17O values that are similar to or slightly lower than global precipitation. Our results suggest

  16. Trophic structure and pathways of biogenic carbon flow in the eastern North Water Polynya

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tremblay, Jean-Éric; Hattori, Hiroshi; Michel, Christine; Ringuette, Marc; Mei, Zhi-Ping; Lovejoy, Connie; Fortier, Louis; Hobson, Keith A.; Amiel, David; Cochran, Kirk

    2006-10-01

    In the eastern North Water, most of the estimated annual new and net production of carbon (C) occurred during the main diatom bloom in 1998. During the bloom, at least 30% of total and new phytoplankton production occurred as dissolved organic carbon (DOC) and was unavailable for short-term assimilation into the herbivorous food web or sinking export. Based on particle interceptor traps and 234Th deficits, 27% of the particulate primary production (PP) sank out of the upper 50 m, with only 7% and 1% of PP reaching the benthos at shallow (≈200 m) and deep (≈500 m) sites, respectively. Mass balance calculations and grazing estimates agree that ≈79% of PP was ingested by pelagic consumers between April and July. During this period, the vertical flux of biogenic silica (BioSi) at 50 m was equivalent to the total BioSi produced, indicating that all of the diatom production was removed from the euphotic zone as intact cells (direct sinking) or empty frustules (grazing or lysis). The estimated flux of empty frustules was consistent with rates of herbivory by the large, dominant copepods and appendicularians during incubations. Since the carbon demand of the dominant planktivorous bird, Alle alle, amounted to ≈2% of the biomass synthesized by its main prey, the large copepod Calanus hyperboreus, most of the secondary carbon production was available to pelagic carnivores. Stable isotopes indicated that the biomass of predatory amphipods, polar cod and marine mammals was derived from these herbivores, but corresponding carbon fluxes were not quantified. Our analysis shows that a large fraction of PP in the eastern North Water was ingested by consumers in the upper 50 m, leading to substantial carbon respiration and DOC accumulation in surface waters. An increasingly early and prolonged opening of the Artic Ocean is likely to promote the productivity of the herbivorous food web, but not the short-term efficiency of the particulate, biological CO 2 pump.

  17. Urban stress-induced biogenic VOC emissions and SOA-forming potentials in Beijing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ghirardo, Andrea; Xie, Junfei; Zheng, Xunhua; Wang, Yuesi; Grote, Rüdiger; Block, Katja; Wildt, Jürgen; Mentel, Thomas; Kiendler-Scharr, Astrid; Hallquist, Mattias; Butterbach-Bahl, Klaus; Schnitzler, Jörg-Peter

    2016-03-01

    Trees can significantly impact the urban air chemistry by the uptake and emission of reactive biogenic volatile organic compounds (BVOCs), which are involved in ozone and particle formation. Here we present the emission potentials of "constitutive" (cBVOCs) and "stress-induced" BVOCs (sBVOCs) from the dominant broadleaf woody plant species in the megacity of Beijing. Based on the municipal tree census and cuvette BVOC measurements on leaf level, we built an inventory of BVOC emissions, and assessed the potential impact of BVOCs on secondary organic aerosol (SOA) formation in 2005 and 2010, i.e., before and after realizing the large tree-planting program for the 2008 Olympic Games. We found that sBVOCs, such as fatty acid derivatives, benzenoids, and sesquiterpenes, constituted a significant fraction ( ˜ 40 %) of the total annual BVOC emissions, and we estimated that the overall annual BVOC budget may have doubled from ˜ 4.8 × 109 g C year-1 in 2005 to ˜ 10.3 × 109 g C year-1 in 2010 due to the increase in urban greening, while at the same time the emission of anthropogenic VOCs (AVOCs) decreased by 24 %. Based on the BVOC emission assessment, we estimated the biological impact on SOA mass formation potential in Beijing. Constitutive and stress-induced BVOCs might produce similar amounts of secondary aerosol in Beijing. However, the main contributors of SOA-mass formations originated from anthropogenic sources (> 90 %). This study demonstrates the general importance to include sBVOCs when studying BVOC emissions. Although the main problems regarding air quality in Beijing still originate from anthropogenic activities, the present survey suggests that in urban plantation programs, the selection of low-emitting plant species has some potential beneficial effects on urban air quality.

  18. Insights into Methane Formation Temperatures, Biogenic Methanogenesis, and Natural Methane Emissions from Clumped Isotopes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Douglas, P. M.; Stolper, D. A.; Walter Anthony, K. M.; Dallimore, S.; Paull, C. K.; Wik, M.; Crill, P. M.; Winterdahl, M.; Smith, D. A.; Luhmann, A. J.; Ding, K.; Seyfried, W. E., Jr.; Eiler, J. M.; Ponton, C.; Sessions, A. L.

    2015-12-01

    Multiply substituted isotopologues of methane are a valuable new tool for characterizing and understanding the source of methane in different Earth environments. Here we present methane clumped isotope results from natural gas wells, hydrothermal vents, marine and lacustrine methane seeps, and culture experiments. We observe a wide range of formation temperatures for thermogenic methane. Methane samples from low-maturity reservoirs indicate formation temperatures between 102-144° C, high-maturity conventional and shale gasses indicate temperatures between 158-246 °C, and thermogenic coal gases indicate temperatures between 174-267 °C. Methane formation temperatures generally correlate positively with δ13C, and negatively with gas wetness indices. Methane samples from a set of marine hydrothermal vents indicate a formation temperature of 290-350 °C. Methane sampled from subsurface and marine biogenic sources typically indicate temperatures consistent with the formation environment (0-64° C). In contrast, freshwater biogenic methane samples, and cultures of hydrogenotrophic and methylotrophic methanogens, express low levels of isotopic clumping inconsistent with their formation temperature. These data and complementary models suggest that kinetic isotope effects, likely modulated by rates and pathways of methanogenesis, affect biogenic methane in cultures and freshwater environments. Alternatively, non-equilibrium signatures may result from mixing of methane with widely differing δD and δ13C values. Analyses of biogenic methane emissions from lakes indicate a correlation between methane flux and non-equilibrium clumped isotope fractionations in a given lake. Results from large methane seeps in Alaskan lakes confirm that some seeps emit thermogenic methane, but also indicate that other seeps emit subsurface biogenic methane or variable mixtures of biogenic and thermogenic methane. These results point to diverse sources for large Arctic methane seeps.

  19. Biogenic contribution to PM-2.5 ambient aerosol from radiocarbon measurements

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lewis, C.; Klouda, G.; Ellenson, W.

    2003-04-01

    Knowledge of the relative contributions of biogenic versus anthropogenic sources to ambient aerosol is of great interest in the formulation of strategies to achieve nationally mandated air quality standards. Radiocarbon (14C) measurements provide a means to quantify the biogenic fraction of any carbon-containing sample of ambient aerosol. In the absence of an impact from biomass burning (e.g., during summertime) such measurements can provide an estimate of the contribution of biogenic secondary organic aerosol, from biogenic volatile organic compound precursors. Radiocarbon results for 11.5-h PM-2.5 samples collected near Nashville, Tennessee, USA, during summer 1999 will be presented. On average the measured biogenic fraction was surprisingly large (more than half), with the average biogenic fraction for night samples being only slightly smaller than for day samples. Discussion will include (a) description of the radiocarbon methodology, (b) use of radiocarbon measurements on local vegetation and fuel samples as calibration data, (c) concurrent measurements of organic carbon and elemental carbon ambient concentrations, (d) assessment of organic aerosol sampling artifact through use of organic vapor denuders, variable face velocities, and filter extraction, and (e) comparison with published radiocarbon results obtained in Houston, Texas in a similar study. Disclaimer: This work has been funded wholly or in part by the United States Environmental Protection Agency under Interagency Agreement No. 13937923 to the National Institute of Standards and Technology, and Contract No. 68-D5-0049 to ManTech Environmental Tecnology, Inc. It has been subjected to Agency review and approved for publication.

  20. BIOGENIC AMINES CONTENT IN SELECTED COMMERCIAL FERMENTED PRODUCTS OF ANIMAL ORIGIN

    OpenAIRE

    Vendula Pachlová; Radka Flasarová; Ludmila Zálešáková; František Buňka; Pavel Budinský; Leona Buňková

    2012-01-01

    The aim of this study was to monitor of biogenic amines contents in commercial fermented products, especially various type of ripening cheeses and fermented meat products (15 cheese samples and nine dry fermented meat products obtained from Czech Republic, Slovak Republic, Poland, and Germany). Furthermore, the changes in samples during storage were also observed. The samples were stored at 6±1°C. The samples were taken the first day of storage and the last day of shelf-life. The biogenic ami...

  1. Evaluation of N-nitrosopiperidine formation from biogenic amines during the production of dry fermented sausages

    OpenAIRE

    De Mey, Eveline; De Maere, Hannelore; Goemaere, Olivier; Steen, Liselot; Peeters, Christine; Derdelinckx, Guy; Paelinck, Hubert; Fraeye, Ilse

    2014-01-01

    The aim of this study was to determine the role of the precursors cadaverine and piperidine in the N-nitrosopiperidine (NPIP) formation during the production of dry fermented sausages. The influences of pH (4.9 and 5.3), sodium nitrite (0 and 150 mg/kg) and ascorbate (0 and 500 mg/kg) were investigated by the use of a dry fermented sausage model. The biogenic amines and volatile N-nitrosamines were analyzed by HPLC-UV and GC-TEA. The major biogenic amines were tyramine (TYR), putrescine (PUT)...

  2. Biogenic amine content, histamine-forming bacteria, and adulteration of pork in tuna sausage products.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kung, Hsien-Feng; Tsai, Yung-Hsiang; Chang, Shih-Chih; Hong, Tang-Yao

    2012-10-01

    Twenty-five tuna sausage products were purchased from retail markets in Taiwan. The rates of occurrence of biogenic amines, histamine-forming bacteria, and adulteration by pork and poultry were determined. The average content of various biogenic amines in all tested samples was less than 2.0 mg/100 g (Thunnus albacares for 22 samples (88%), Thunnus alalunga for 1 sample (4%), and Thunnus thynnus for 1 sample (4%), whereas the remaining sample was identified as Makaira nigricans (blue marlin). PMID:23043830

  3. Biogenic iron oxyhydroxide formation at mid-ocean ridge hydrothermal vents: Juan de Fuca Ridge

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Toner, Brandy M.; Santelli, Cara M.; Marcus, Matthew A.; Wirth, Richard; Chan, Clara S.; McCollom, Thomas; Bach, Wolfgang; Edwards, Katrina J.

    2008-05-22

    Here we examine Fe speciation within Fe-encrusted biofilms formed during 2-month seafloor incubations of sulfide mineral assemblages at the Main Endeavor Segment of the Juan de Fuca Ridge. The biofilms were distributed heterogeneously across the surface of the incubated sulfide and composed primarily of particles with a twisted stalk morphology resembling those produced by some aerobic Fe-oxidizing microorganisms. Our objectives were to determine the form of biofilm-associated Fe, and identify the sulfide minerals associated with microbial growth. We used micro-focused synchrotron-radiation X-ray fluorescence mapping (mu XRF), X-ray absorption spectroscopy (mu EXAFS), and X-ray diffraction (mu XRD) in conjunction with focused ion beam (FIB) sectioning, and highresolution transmission electron microscopy (HRTEM). The chemical and mineralogical composition of an Fe-encrusted biofilm was queried at different spatial scales, and the spatial relationship between primary sulfide and secondary oxyhydroxide minerals was resolved. The Fe-encrusted biofilms formed preferentially at pyrrhotite-rich (Fe1-xS, 0<_ x<_ 0.2) regions of the incubated chimney sulfide. At the nanometer spatial scale, particles within the biofilm exhibiting lattice fringing and diffraction patterns consistent with 2-line ferrihydrite were identified infrequently. At the micron spatial scale, Fe mu EXAFS spectroscopy and mu XRD measurements indicate that the dominant form of biofilm Fe is a short-range ordered Fe oxyhydroxide characterized by pervasive edge-sharing Fe-O6 octahedral linkages. Double corner-sharing Fe-O6 linkages, which are common to Fe oxyhydroxide mineral structures of 2-line ferrihydrite, 6-line ferrihydrite, and goethite, were not detected in the biogenic iron oxyhydroxide (BIO). The suspended development of the BIO mineral structure is consistent with Fe(III) hydrolysis and polymerization in the presence of high concentrations of Fe-complexing ligands. We hypothesize that

  4. Biogenic iron oxyhydroxide formation at mid-ocean ridge hydrothermal vents: Juan de Fuca Ridge

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Here we examine Fe speciation within Fe-encrusted biofilms formed during 2-month seafloor incubations of sulfide mineral assemblages at the Main Endeavor Segment of the Juan de Fuca Ridge. The biofilms were distributed heterogeneously across the surface of the incubated sulfide and composed primarily of particles with a twisted stalk morphology resembling those produced by some aerobic Fe-oxidizing microorganisms. Our objectives were to determine the form of biofilm-associated Fe, and identify the sulfide minerals associated with microbial growth. We used micro-focused synchrotron-radiation X-ray fluorescence mapping (mu XRF), X-ray absorption spectroscopy (mu EXAFS), and X-ray diffraction (mu XRD) in conjunction with focused ion beam (FIB) sectioning, and high-resolution transmission electron microscopy (HRTEM). The chemical and mineralogical composition of an Fe-encrusted biofilm was queried at different spatial scales, and the spatial relationship between primary sulfide and secondary oxyhydroxide minerals was resolved. The Fe-encrusted biofilms formed preferentially at pyrrhotite-rich (Fe1-xS, 0 (le) x (le) 0.2) regions of the incubated chimney sulfide. At the nanometer spatial scale, particles within the biofilm exhibiting lattice fringing and diffraction patterns consistent with 2-line ferrihydrite were identified infrequently. At the micron spatial scale, Fe mu EXAFS spectroscopy and mu XRD measurements indicate that the dominant form of biofilm Fe is a short-range ordered Fe oxyhydroxide characterized by pervasive edge-sharing Fe-O6 octahedral linkages. Double corner-sharing Fe-O6 linkages, which are common to Fe oxyhydroxide mineral structures of 2-line ferrihydrite, 6-line ferrihydrite, and goethite, were not detected in the biogenic iron oxyhydroxide (BIO). The suspended development of the BIO mineral structure is consistent with Fe(III) hydrolysis and polymerization in the presence of high concentrations of Fe-complexing ligands. We hypothesize that

  5. Validation of an HPLC Analytical Method for Determination of Biogenic Amines in Agricultural Products and Monitoring of Biogenic Amines in Korean Fermented Agricultural Products

    OpenAIRE

    Yoon, Hyeock; Park, Jung Hyuck; Choi, Ari; Hwang, Han-Joon; Mah, Jae-Hyung

    2015-01-01

    An HPLC analytical method was validated for the quantitative determination of biogenic amines in agricultural products. Four agricultural foods, including apple juice, Juk, corn oil and peanut butter, were selected as food matrices based on their water and fat contents (i.e., non-fatty liquid, non-fatty solid, fatty liquid and fatty solid, respectively). The precision, accuracy, recovery, limit of detection (LOD) and quantification (LOQ) were determined to test the validity of an HPLC procedu...

  6. Natural biogenic solid fuels - environmentally relevant characteristics and possible influences. Final report; Naturbelassene biogene Festbrennstoffe - umweltrelevante Eigenschaften und Einflussmoeglichkeiten. Abschlussbericht

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hartmann, H.; Boehm, T.; Maier, L. [Bayerische Landesanstalt fuer Landtechnik, Friesing-Weihenstephan (Germany). Arbeitsgruppe Festbrennstoffe

    2000-09-01

    , Weizenstroh und Weizenganzpflanzen. Eine Datenbank fuer naturbelassene biogene Festbrennstoffe wurde errichtet. Hierfuer wurde ein relationales Datenbankmodell gewaehlt. Dessen Struktur wurde so angelegt, dass neben den eigentlichen Messgroessen auch eine Vielzahl weiterer Eigenschaften und Informationen zum Brennstoff sowie seine Herkunftsmerkmale und die verwendeten Analyseverfahren festgehalten werden konnten. Die in den eigenen Versuchsserien zustande gekommenen Analyseergebnisse wurden durch weitere Daten aus einer umfangreichen Recherche (Befragung) sowie aus Literaturangaben ergaenzt, so dass insgesamt ca. 1.238 Datensaetze (Stand April 1999) zusammengetragen werden konnten. (orig.)

  7. Contribution of flowering trees to urban atmospheric biogenic volatile organic compound emissions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    R. Baghi

    2012-10-01

    Full Text Available Emissions of biogenic volatile organic compounds (BVOC from urban trees during and after blooming were measured during spring and early summer 2009 in Boulder, Colorado. Air samples were collected onto solid adsorbent cartridges from branch enclosures on the tree species crabapple (Malus sp., horse chestnut (Aesculus carnea, "Ft. McNair", honey locust (Gleditsia triacanthos, "Sunburst", and hawthorn (Crataegus laevigata, "Pauls Scarlet". These species constitute ~ 65% of the insect-pollinated fraction of the flowering tree canopy (excluding catkin-producing trees from the street area managed by the City of Boulder. Samples were analyzed for C10–C15 BVOC by thermal desorption and gas chromatography coupled to a flame ionization detector and a mass spectrometer (GC/FID/MS. Identified emissions and emission rates from these four tree species during the flowering phase were found to vary over a wide range. Monoterpene emissions were identified for honey locust, horse chestnut and hawthorn. Sesquiterpene emissions were observed in horse chestnut and hawthorn samples. Crabapple flowers were found to emit significant amounts of benzyl alcohol and benzaldehyde. Floral BVOC emissions increased with temperature, generally exhibiting exponential temperature dependence. Changes in BVOC speciation during and after the flowering period were observed for every tree studied. Emission rates were significantly higher during the blooming compared to the post-blooming state for crabapple and honey locust. The results were scaled to the dry mass of leaves and flowers contained in the enclosure. Only flower dry mass was accounted for crabapple emission rates as leaves appeared at the end of the flowering period. Total normalized (30 °C monoterpene emissions from honey locust were higher during flowering (5.3 μgC g−1 h−1 than after flowering (1.2 μgC g−1 h−1. The total normalized BVOC

  8. Can the biogenicity of Europa's surfical sulfur be tested simultaneously with penetrators and ion traps?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chela-Flores, J.; Bhattacherjee, A. B.; Dudeja, S.; Kumar, N.; Seckbach, J.

    2009-04-01

    We suggest a biogenic interpretation of the sulfur patches on the Europan icy surface. This hypothesis is testable by LAPLACE, or a later mission, in which the instrumentation on board are penetrators, or ion traps, with component selection including miniaturized mass spectrometry. The argument in favor of such instrumentation and component selection is as follows: Extreme environments with microbes can act as models for extraterrestrial life (Seckbach et al., 2008). Suggestions have ranged from Venusian environments (Sagan, 1967, Seckbach and Libby, 1970) to Mars (Grilli Caiola and Billi, 2007). Active photosynthetic microbial communities are found on Antarctica, both in and on ice, in fresh water, in saline lakes and streams and within rocks. In the dry valley lakes of Antarctica close to the McMurdo Base, microbial mats are known to selectively remove a huge quantity of sulfur (Parker et al., 1982). Lake Vostok in Antarctica possesses a perennially thick (3 to 4 km) ice-cover that precludes photosynthesis, thus making this subglacial environment a good model system for determining how a potential Europan biota might emerge, evolve and distribute itself. Jupiter's moon Europa may harbor a subsurface water ocean, which lies beneath an ice layer that might be too thick to allow photosynthesis, just as in Lake Vostok. However, disequilibrium chemistry driven by charged particles from Jupiter's magnetosphere could produce sufficient organic and oxidant molecules for an Europan biosphere (Chyba, 2000). We restrict our attention to microbial mats that could still be thriving in spite of the extreme conditions of radiation on Europa. We are especially concerned with sulfur patches discovered by the Galileo mission. In the near future there are technologies available to settle the question of habitability on Europa, such as penetrators that are currently being developed for preliminary trials nearer to the Earth—the Moon-Lite mission (Smith et al., 2008). If analogies

  9. Investigations of BVOC-SOA-cloud-climate feedbacks via interactive biogenic emissions using NorESM

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alterskjær, Kari; Egill Kristjansson, Jon; Grini, Alf; Iversen, Trond; Kirkevåg, Alf; Olivié, Dirk; Schulz, Michael; Seland, Øyvind

    2016-04-01

    Climate feedbacks represent a large source of uncertainty in future climate projections. One such feedback involves a change in emissions of biogenic volatile organic compounds (BVOCs) under global warming and a subsequent change in cloud radiative effects. Parts of the atmospheric BVOCs will oxidize in the atmosphere, which may reduce their volatility enough to form secondary organic aerosols (SOA). A changed SOA load will affect cloud radiative properties through aerosol-cloud interactions (ACI) and therefore act to reduce or enhance the temperature change resulting from greenhouse gases alone. In order to study this effect, a development version of the Norwegian Earth System Model (NorESM) has been extended to include explicit atmospheric particle nucleation and a treatment of SOA based on work by Risto Makkonen and collaborators. Biogenic sources of monoterpene and isoprene are interactively calculated by the Model of Emissions of Gases and Aerosols from Nature (MEGAN), version 2.1, incorporated into the Community Land Model, version 4.5. Monoterpene and isoprene are oxidized by O3, OH and NO3 to form SOA with a yield of 15 % and 5 % respectively. It is assumed that 50 % of the product from monoterpene ozonolysis is of low enough volatility to nucleate new particles. The remaining oxidized BVOCs condensate onto preexisting particles. The model improvements include three new tracers to account for both SOA and the BVOCs. This allows for transport of both SOA and precursor gases, making it possible for SOA to form above the surface layer of the model. The new SOA treatment also changes the size distribution of most model aerosols due to condensation. Preliminary results from 6-year simulations with prescribed sea surface temperatures show that the present day emissions of both isoprene (435.9 Tg/yr) and monoterpenes (121.4 Tg/yr) are within the range found in other studies. The resulting SOA production is on the order of 77 Tg/yr, also within the range found by

  10. Fertilizer impact on biogenic nitric oxide emissions from agricultural soils of the Taklimakan desert (Xinjiang, China)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fechner, A. D.; Behrendt, T.; Bruse, M.; Mamtimin, B.; Andreae, M. O.; Meixner, F. X.

    2012-04-01

    It is known that soil microbial processes play a crucial role in the production and consumption of atmospheric trace gases worldwide. Soils are mostly a major source of biogenic nitric oxide (NO). The main influencing factors controlling soil NO emissions are soil moisture, soil temperature, as well as nutrient availability. Adding fertilizer to agricultural soils changes the pool of nutrients and impacts the net NO emission from these soils. Irrigated and fertilized oases around the great Central Asian Taklamakan desert form the backbone of the agricultural output (80% of the Chinese cotton production) of the Xinjiang Uygur Autonomous Region (NW-China). While nowadays 90% of the agricultural output is produced on just 4.3% of Xinjiang's total area, recent and future enlargement of farmland and intensification of agriculture will definitely impact the regional soil NO emission and consequently the budget of nitrogen oxides and ozone. We present a systematic laboratory study of the influence of urea (CH4N2O) and diammonium hydrogen phosphate ((NH4)2HPO4, DAP) fertilizer on NO emissions from Xinjiang soil samples. Urea is the most widely and excessively applied fertilizer in Xinjiang. Typically, about 600 kg ha-1 yr-1(in terms of mass of nitrogen) were applied to a cotton field in four separate events. In the laboratory, the fertilizer was applied accordingly, ranging from one quarter of the field amount within one of the four events (i.e. 37.5 kg ha-1 yr-1) to quadruple of that (150 kg ha-1 yr-1). Two different measurement series have been performed on six sub- samples (each out of a total of three soil samples taken in Xinjiang): the first series was conducted solely with urea fertilizer, the second one with a mixture of urea and DAP (2:1). All sub-samples were prepared in a standardized way: a fixed mass of soil (~0.06 kg, dried in field) was sieved (2 mm) and stored at 4° C. Then it was wetted up to a soil moisture tension of 1.8 pF. Subsequently, fertilizer was

  11. Biogenic arsenic volatilisation from an acidic wetland soil

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ilgen, Gunter; Huang, Jen-How; Lu, Shipeng; Tian, Liyan; Alewell, Christine

    2014-05-01

    Biogenic arsenic (As) volatilisation was budgeted at 26000 t yr-1as the largest input of the global As release into the atmosphere, thereby playing an important role in the biogeochemical cycle of As in the surface environment. In order to quantify As volatilisation from wetland soils and to elucidate the geochemical and microbiological factors governing As volatilisation, a series of incubations with an acidic wetland soil collected in NE-Bavaria in Germany were performed at 15oC for 4 months with addition of NaN3, arsenite (As(III)), FeCl3, NaSO4 and NaOAc with N2 and air in the headspace. Speciation of gaseous As in the headspace using GC-ICP-MS/ ESI-MS coupling showed the predominance of either arsine (AsH3) or trimethylarsine ((CH3)3As) in all treatments during the time course of incubation. Monomethylarsine ((CH3)AsH2) and dimethylarsine ((CH3)2AsH) could be only detected in trace amounts. Arsenic speciation in porewater with HPLC-ICP-MS revealed the predominance of As(III) and methylated As was never detectable. Arsenic volatilisation summed to 2.3 ng As (88% as AsH3) in the control incubations, which accounted for ~0.25 % of the total As storage in the wetland soil. Treatments with 10 mM NaN3 resulted in emission of only 0.03 ng As. In contrast, addition of 10 mM NaOAc stimulated microbial activities in wetland soils and subsequently rose As volatilisation to 8.5 ng As. It could be therefore concluded that As volatilisation from the wetland soils was mainly biological. Spiking 67 μM As(III) increased 10 times of As volatilisation and the proportion of methylated arsines increased to 66%, which is supposed to be caused by the largely enhanced As availability in porewater for microbes (480 ppb, ~65 times higher than those in the controls). Adding 10 mM FeCl3 stimulated microbial Fe(III) reducing activities but suppressed other microbial activities by lowering soil pH from 5 to 3.6, decreasing consequently As volatilisation to 0.3 ng As. The much lower redox

  12. Biogenic N2 and δ15 N-N2 As Proxies for N-Loss in the Eastern Tropical North Pacific: A Lagrangian Float Experiment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bourbonnais, A.; Altabet, M. A.; McNeil, C. L.; Larkum, J.; Reed, A. C.; D'Asaro, E. A.

    2014-12-01

    A large portion of the ocean's bioavailable N, a macronutrient limiting primary productivity, is lost in oxygen minimum zones (OMZs). Mesoscale processes (e.g. eddies, meandering currents), can transport highly productive waters from the coasts, increasing the downward flux of organic material, a substrate for N-loss, and thus can act as N-loss hotspots in OMZs. However, due to their transient nature, these mesoscale events are difficult to monitor using traditional shipboard observations. We deployed biogeochemical Lagrangian floats in the eastern tropical North Pacific during a research cruise in May/June 2014, where transport of high chlorophyll waters from the coast were inferred from satellite imagery. These Lagrangian floats are automonous platforms with the ability to follow isopycnals and were equipped with a suite of gas tension devices and other sensors to measure N2(g), O2, NO3- and NO2- concentrations. We concurrently collected discrete samples to calibrate and complement float measurements. We present here biogenic N2, i.e. N2 produced by local N-loss processes and derived from measured N2/Ar and δ15N-N2 anomaly, i.e. the difference between δ15N-N2 observed and at equilibrium for in-situ temperature and salinity, during a ~4 weeks Lagrangian experiment. During N-loss, the product (N2) is depleted in 15N because of kinetic isotope fractionation. While biogenic N2 only reached up to ~10 µmol/kg, the δ15N-N2 anomalies were relatively low (down to ~-0.4‰). The δ15N-N2 anomalies are low compared to values always >-0.1‰) for equivalent biogenic N2 in the OMZ of the eastern tropical South Pacific. We will discuss the implication of these results for the global oceanic N budget.

  13. Observations of continental biogenic impacts on marine aerosol and clouds off the coast of California

    Science.gov (United States)

    Coggon, M. M.; Sorooshian, A.; Wang, Z.; Craven, J. S.; Metcalf, A. R.; Lin, J. J.; Nenes, A.; Jonsson, H. H.; Flagan, R. C.; Seinfeld, J. H.

    2014-06-01

    During the 2011 Eastern Pacific Emitted Aerosol Cloud Experiment (E-PEACE) and 2013 Nucleation in California Experiment (NiCE) field campaigns, a predominantly organic aerosol (> 85% by mass) was observed in the free troposphere over marine stratocumulus off the coast of California. These particles originated from a densely forested region in the Northwestern United States. The organic mass spectrum resolved by positive matrix factorization is consistent with the mass spectra of previously measured biogenic organic aerosol. Particulate organic mass exhibits a latitudinal gradient that corresponds to the geographical distribution of vegetation density and composition, with the highest concentration over regions impacted by densely populated monoterpene sources. Due to meteorological conditions during summer months, cloud-clearing events transport aerosol from the Northwestern United States into the free troposphere above marine stratocumulus. Based on the variation of meteorological variables with altitude, dry air containing enhanced biogenic organic aerosol is shown to entrain into the marine boundary layer. Fresh impacts on cloud water composition are observed north of San Francisco, CA which is consistent with fresh continental impacts on the marine atmosphere at higher latitudes. Continental aerosol size distributions are bimodal. Particles in the 100 nm mode are impacted by biogenic sources, while particles in the ˜ 30 nm mode may originate from fresh biogenic emissions. Continental aerosol in the 100 nm mode is cloud condensation nuclei active and may play a role in modulating marine stratocumulus microphysics.

  14. Sediment waves with a biogenic twist in Pleistocene cool water carbonates, Great Australian Bight

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Anderskouv, Kresten; Surlyk, Finn; Huuse, Mads;

    2010-01-01

    contours immediately off the shelf–slope break. They are asymmetrical, showing up-slope migration, and mainly occur in trains. The sediment waves were drilled during ODP leg 182 in 1998, and were interpreted as biogenic reef mounds. New high-quality seismic and multibeam bathymetry data were acquired on...

  15. Discrimination of biogenic and detrital magnetite through a double Verwey transition temperature

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chang, Liao; Heslop, David; Roberts, Andrew P.; Rey, Daniel; Mohamed, Kais J.

    2016-01-01

    Magnetite occurs widely in natural environments in both inorganic and biogenic forms. Discrimination of the origin of magnetite has important implications, from searching for past microbial activity to interpreting paleomagnetic and environmental magnetic records in a wide range of settings. In this study, we present rock magnetic and electron microscopic analyses of marine sediments from the continental margin of Oman. Low-temperature magnetic data reveal two distinct Verwey transition (Tv) temperatures that are associated with the presence of biogenic and inorganic magnetite. This interpretation is consistent with room temperature magnetic properties and is confirmed by electron microscopic analyses. Our study justifies the use of two distinct Tv temperatures as a diagnostic signature for discriminating inorganic and biogenic magnetite. Simple low-temperature magnetic measurements, therefore, provide a tool to recognize rapidly the origin of magnetite within natural samples. In addition, our analyses reveal progressive down-core dissolution of detrital and biogenic magnetite, but with preservation of significant amounts of fine-grained magnetite within sediments that have been subjected to severe diagenetic alteration. We demonstrate that preservation of magnetite in such environments is due to protection of fine-grained magnetite inclusions within silicate hosts. Our results, therefore, also provide new insights into diagenetic processes in marine sediments.

  16. Crystal and fine structural transformation of Heat-treated biogenic manganese oxide

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Kimura, N.; Hashimoto, H.; Miyata, N.; Nishina, Y.; Kusano, Y.; Ikeda, Y.; Nakanishi, Y.; Fujii, T.; Šafařík, Ivo; Šafaříková, Miroslava; Takada, J.

    2013-01-01

    Roč. 60, č. 3 (2013), s. 92-98. ISSN 0532-8799 R&D Projects: GA MŠk(CZ) LH11111 Institutional support: RVO:67179843 Keywords : microorganisms * biogenic manganese oxides * phase transitions * nano -sheets * microstructures Subject RIV: EH - Ecology, Behaviour

  17. Methyl chavicol: characterization of its biogenic emission rate, abundance, and oxidation products in the atmosphere

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bouvier-Brown, N. C.; Goldstein, A. H.; Worton, D. R.; Matross, D. M.; Gilman, J. B.; Kuster, W. C.; Welsh-Bon, D.; Warneke, C.; de Gouw, J. A.; Cahill, T. M.; Holzinger, R.

    2009-03-01

    We report measurements of ambient atmospheric mixing ratios for methyl chavicol and determine its biogenic emission rate. Methyl chavicol, a biogenic oxygenated aromatic compound, is abundant within and above Blodgett Forest, a ponderosa pine forest in the Sierra Nevada Mountains of California. Methyl chavicol was detected simultaneously by three in-situ instruments - a gas chromatograph with mass spectrometer detector (GC-MS), a proton transfer reaction mass spectrometer (PTR-MS), and a thermal desorption aerosol GC-MS (TAG) - and found to be abundant within and above Blodgett Forest. Methyl chavicol atmospheric mixing ratios are strongly correlated with 2-methyl-3-buten-2-ol (MBO), a light- and temperature-dependent biogenic emission from the ponderosa pine trees at Blodgett Forest. Scaling from this correlation, methyl chavicol emissions account for 4-68% of the carbon mass emitted as MBO in the daytime, depending on the season. From this relationship, we estimate a daytime basal emission rate of 0.72-10.2 μgCg-1 h-1, depending on needle age and seasonality. We also present the first observations of its oxidation products (4-methoxybenzaldehyde and 4-methyoxy benzene acetaldehyde) in the ambient atmosphere. Methyl chavicol is a major essential oil component of many plant species. This work suggests that methyl chavicol plays a significant role in the atmospheric chemistry of Blodgett Forest, and potentially other sites, and should be included explicitly in both biogenic volatile organic carbon emission and atmospheric chemistry models.

  18. Biogenic silica in tidal freshwater marsh sediments and vegetation (Schelde estuary, Belgium)

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Struyf, E.; van Damme, S.; Gribsholt, B.; Middelburg, J.J.; Meire, P.

    2005-01-01

    To date, estuarine ecosystem research has mostly neglected silica cycling in freshwater intertidal marshes. However, tidal marshes can store large amounts of biogenic silica (BSi) in vegetation and sediment. BSi content of the typical freshwater marsh plants Phragmites australis, Impatiens glandulif

  19. Biogenic silica in space and time in sediments of Central Indian Ocean

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    Pattan, J.N.; Gupta, S.M.; Mudholkar, A.V.; Parthiban, G.

    silica (30-35%) in the surface sediments from 11 degrees to 13 degrees S, may be due to higher productivity and better preservation of siliceous tests. The lowest biogenic silica at approximately 100 to 140 x 10 sup(3) y BP is suppressed with higher...

  20. Distinguishing black carbon from biogenic humic substances in soil clay fractions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Laird, D.A.; Chappell, M.A.; Martens, D.A.; Wershaw, R. L.; Thompson, M.

    2008-01-01

    Most models of soil humic substances include a substantial component of aromatic C either as the backbone of humic heteropolymers or as a significant component of supramolecular aggregates of degraded biopolymers. We physically separated coarse (0.2-2.0????m e.s.d.), medium (0.02-0.2????m e.s.d.), and fine (> 0.02????m e.s.d.) clay subfractions from three Midwestern soils and characterized the organic material associated with these subfractions using 13C-CPMAS-NMR, DTG, SEM-EDX, incubations, and radiocarbon age. Most of the C in the coarse clay subfraction was present as discrete particles (0.2-5????m as seen in SEM images) of black carbon (BC) and consisted of approximately 60% aromatic C, with the remainder being a mixture of aliphatic, anomeric and carboxylic C. We hypothesize that BC particles were originally charcoal formed during prairie fires. As the BC particles aged in soil their surfaces were oxidized to form carboxylic groups and anomeric and aliphatic C accumulated in the BC particles either by adsorption of dissolved biogenic compounds from the soil solution or by direct deposition of biogenic materials from microbes living within the BC particles. The biogenic soil organic matter was physically separated with the medium and fine clay subfractions and was dominated by aliphatic, anomeric, and carboxylic C. The results indicate that the biogenic humic materials in our soils have little aromatic C, which is inconsistent with the traditional heteropolymer model of humic substances.

  1. Biogenic amines determination in some traditional cheeses in West Azerbaijan province of Iran.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Razavi Rohani, Seyed Mehdi; Aliakbarlu, Javad; Ehsani, Ali; Hassanzadazar, Hassan

    2013-01-01

    Biogenic amines (BA) are nitrogenous compounds that possess biological activity. The source of production is the microbial decarboxylation of amino acids. This compounds are found in various types of cheese. The aim of this work was to evaluate the BA content of some traditional cheeses in West Azerbaijan province Iran. For this purpose, 70 samples of Koopeh, 10 samples of Lighvan and 5 samples of Red Salmas cheeses were obtained from local supermarkets of different cities of West Azerbaijan province. After preparation of samples, biogenic amines content was evaluated by modified HPLC method. The presence of histamine, cadaverine, putrescine and tyramine in tested cheeses were observed. Total amount of biogenic amines was highest in Red Salmas cheese with 1426.91 ppm. It followed by Lighvan cheese and Koopeh cheese with 1008.98 and 517.71 ppm, respectively. Putrescine, cadaverine, histamine and tyramine were detected in Koopeh cheese at levels up to 156.09, 282.34, 70.80, 8.48 ppm respectively. These amines were detected also in Lighvan cheese at levels up to 277.53, 342.74, 37.58, 351.12 ppm and in Red Salmas cheese samples at levels up to 438.03, 701.05, 105.21, 182.62 ppm, respectively. Large amounts of biogenic amines can indicate non hygienic conditions and contamination of used milk for cheese production. PMID:25653782

  2. Magnetically-modified natural biogenic iron oxides for organic xenobiotics removal

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Šafařík, Ivo; Filip, J.; Horská, Kateřina; Nowakova, M.; Tuček, J.; Šafaříková, Miroslava; Hashimoto, H.; Takada, J.; Zbořil, R.

    2015-01-01

    Roč. 12, č. 2 (2015), s. 673-682. ISSN 1735-1472 R&D Projects: GA MŠk(CZ) LH11111; GA MŠk LH12190 Institutional support: RVO:67179843 Keywords : Biogenic iron oxides * Leptothrix ochracea * Magnetic fluid * Magnetic adsorbents * Xenobiotics Subject RIV: EI - Biotechnology ; Bionics Impact factor: 2.190, year: 2014

  3. Age and Gender-Related Changes in Biogenic Amine Metabolites in Cerebrospinal Fluid in Children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kuśmierska, Katarzyna; Szymańska, Krystyna; Rokicki, Dariusz; Kotulska, Katarzyna; Jóźwiak, Sergiusz; Sykut-Cegielska, Jolanta; Mierzewska, Hanna; Szczepanik, Elzbieta; Pronicka, Ewa; Demkow, Urszula

    2016-01-01

    Metabolites of cerebrospinal biogenic amines (dopamine and serotonin)are an important tool in clinical research and diagnosis of children with neurotransmitter disorders. In this article we focused on finding relationships between the concentration of biogenic amine metabolites, age, and gender. We analyzed 148 samples from children with drug resistant seizures of unknown etiology and children with mild stable encephalopathy aged 0-18 years. A normal profile of biogenic amineswas found in 107 children and those children were enrolled to the study group. The CSF samples were analyzed by HPLC with an electrochemical detector. The concentrations of the dopamine and serotonin metabolites homovanillic acid (HVA) and 5-hydroxyindoleacetic acid (5-HIAA), respectively, were high at birth, gradually decreasing afterward until the 18 years of age. Nevertheless, the HVA/5-HIAA ratio did not vary with age, except in the children below 1 year of age. In the youngest group we observed a strong relationship between the HVA/5-HIAA ratio and age (r = 0.69, p biogenic amine metabolites is age and sex dependent. PMID:26453071

  4. Differential behavioral responses of two plant-parasitic nematodes to biogenic amines

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hatching and infective juvenile (J2) behavior in two species of plant-parasitic nematodes, Heterodera glycines and Meloidogyne incognita, were affected by in vitro treatment with the biogenic amines dopamine, octopamine, and serotonin. While the overall responses of each species to amine exposures w...

  5. Synthesis of Derivatives of Biogenic Amines Labelled with Radioactive Tracers for Brain Imaging

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Arturo A. Vitale

    2000-03-01

    Full Text Available Endogenous derivatives of biogenic amines, such as phenethylamines, indolalkylamines and harmines, have been extensively studied as usual constituents of body fluids. Methylated derivatives of indolalkylamines have been also related to mental disorders, e.g. schizophrenia and hallucination.

  6. Effect of biogenic amines on the mating and egg-laying behaviors in the stable fly

    Science.gov (United States)

    The stable fly Stomoxys calcitrans (L.) (Diptera: Muscidae), is one of the most significant biting fly pests affecting livestock.The annual economic damage to the U.S. cattle industry is estimated at over one billion US dollars. Biogenic amines are known to play critical roles in feeding and reprodu...

  7. A ratiometric fluorescent probe for detection of biogenic primary amines with nanomolar sensitivity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mallick, Suman; Chandra, Falguni; Koner, Apurba L

    2016-02-01

    An ultrasensitive ratiometric fluorescent sensor made of an N,N-dimethylaminonaphthalene anhydride moiety for detection of aliphatic primary amines is reported. Biogenic amines at nanomolar concentration is detected with the additional ability to discriminate between primary, secondary and tertiary amines by using both UV-Visible and fluorescence spectroscopy. PMID:26734688

  8. Biogenic amines determination in some traditional cheeses in West Azerbaijan province of Iran

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Seyed Mehdi Razavi Rohani

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available Biogenic amines (BA are nitrogenous compounds that possess biological activity. The source of production is the microbial decarboxylation of amino acids. This compounds are found in various types of cheese. The aim of this work was to evaluate the BA content of some traditional cheeses in West Azerbaijan province Iran. For this purpose, 70 samples of Koopeh, 10 samples of Lighvan and 5 samples of Red Salmas cheeses were obtained from local supermarkets of different cities of West Azerbaijan province. After preparation of samples, biogenic amines content was evaluated by modified HPLC method. The presence of histamine, cadaverine, putrescine and tyramine in tested cheeses were observed. Total amount of biogenic amines was highest in Red Salmas cheese with 1426.91 ppm. It followed by Lighvan cheese and Koopeh cheese with 1008.98 and 517.71 ppm, respectively. Putrescine, cadaverine, histamine and tyramine were detected in Koopeh cheese at levels up to 156.09, 282.34, 70.80, 8.48 ppm respectively. These amines were detected also in Lighvan cheese at levels up to 277.53, 342.74, 37.58, 351.12 ppm and in Red Salmas cheese samples at levels up to 438.03, 701.05, 105.21, 182.62 ppm, respectively. Large amounts of biogenic amines can indicate non hygienic conditions and contamination of used milk for cheese production.

  9. Importance of particle formation to reconstructed water column biogenic silica fluxes

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Moriceau, B.; Gallinari, M.; Soetaert, K.E.R.; Ragueneau, O.

    2007-01-01

    The particles sinking out of the ocean's surface layer are made up of a mixture of living and dead algal cells, fecal pellets, and aggregates, while the parameters used to describe the behavior of biogenic silica (bSiO2) in today's models are experimentally determined on freely suspended diatoms (FC

  10. 77 FR 21772 - Notification of Two Public Teleconferences of the Science Advisory Board Biogenic Carbon...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-04-11

    ... of Air and Radiation requested SAB review of EPA's draft accounting framework. As noticed in 76 FR... Stationary Sources (September 2011). As noticed in 76 FR 80368-80369, the Panel discussed its draft reports... AGENCY Notification of Two Public Teleconferences of the Science Advisory Board Biogenic Carbon...

  11. Radiocarbon AMS determination of the biogenic component in CO{sub 2} emitted from waste incineration

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Calcagnile, L., E-mail: lucio.calcagnile@unisalento.it [CEDAD-Department of Innovation Engineering, University of Salento, via per Monteroni, 73100 Lecce (Italy); Quarta, G., E-mail: gianluca.quarta@unisalento.it [CEDAD-Department of Innovation Engineering, University of Salento, via per Monteroni, 73100 Lecce (Italy); D' Elia, M., E-mail: marisa.delia@unisalento.it [CEDAD-Department of Innovation Engineering, University of Salento, via per Monteroni, 73100 Lecce (Italy); Ciceri, G., E-mail: giovanni.ciceri@erse-web.it [Ricerca sul Sistema Energetico-RSE spa, Dipartimento Ambiente e Sviluppo Sostenibile, Via R. Rubattino, 54, 20134 Milano (Italy); Martinotti, V., E-mail: valter.Martinotti@erse-web.it [Ricerca sul Sistema Energetico-RSE spa, Dipartimento Ambiente e Sviluppo Sostenibile, Via R. Rubattino, 54, 20134 Milano (Italy)

    2011-12-15

    The thermal utilization of waste for energy production is gaining importance in European countries. Nevertheless, the combustion of waste leads to significant CO{sub 2} emissions in the atmosphere which, depending on the fraction of biogenic and fossil materials, have to be only partially accounted for the national greenhouse gas inventory. For this reason the development of proper methodologies for the measurement of the biogenic fraction in the combusted waste is an active research field. In fact the determination of the radiocarbon concentration in the carbon dioxide stack emissions allows to have a direct indication of the biogenic component in the burned fuel. We present the results of the AMS radiocarbon analyses carried out on carbon dioxide sampled at the stack of three power plants located in Northern Italy burning natural gas, landfill biogas and SRF (Solid Recovered Fuel) derived from MSW (Municipal Solid Waste). The sampling apparatus and the applied processing protocols are described together with the calculation procedures used to determine, from the measured radiocarbon concentrations, the proportion of biogenic and fossil component in the flue gas and in the combusted fuel. The results confirm the high potentialities of this approach in the analysis of industrial CO{sub 2} emissions.

  12. Radiocarbon AMS determination of the biogenic component in CO 2 emitted from waste incineration

    Science.gov (United States)

    Calcagnile, L.; Quarta, G.; D'Elia, M.; Ciceri, G.; Martinotti, V.

    2011-12-01

    The thermal utilization of waste for energy production is gaining importance in European countries. Nevertheless, the combustion of waste leads to significant CO 2 emissions in the atmosphere which, depending on the fraction of biogenic and fossil materials, have to be only partially accounted for the national greenhouse gas inventory. For this reason the development of proper methodologies for the measurement of the biogenic fraction in the combusted waste is an active research field. In fact the determination of the radiocarbon concentration in the carbon dioxide stack emissions allows to have a direct indication of the biogenic component in the burned fuel. We present the results of the AMS radiocarbon analyses carried out on carbon dioxide sampled at the stack of three power plants located in Northern Italy burning natural gas, landfill biogas and SRF (Solid Recovered Fuel) derived from MSW (Municipal Solid Waste). The sampling apparatus and the applied processing protocols are described together with the calculation procedures used to determine, from the measured radiocarbon concentrations, the proportion of biogenic and fossil component in the flue gas and in the combusted fuel. The results confirm the high potentialities of this approach in the analysis of industrial CO 2 emissions.

  13. Carbon-14 based determination of the biogenic fraction of industrial CO2 emissions : Application and validation

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Palstra, S. W. L.; Meijer, H. A. J.

    2010-01-01

    The C-14 method is a very reliable and sensitive method for industrial plants, emission authorities and emission inventories to verify data estimations of biogenic fractions of CO2 emissions. The applicability of the method is shown for flue gas CO2 samples that have been sampled in I-h intervals at

  14. Biocompatibility assessment of rice husk-derived biogenic silica nanoparticles for biomedical applications.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alshatwi, Ali A; Athinarayanan, Jegan; Periasamy, Vaiyapuri Subbarayan

    2015-02-01

    Synthetic forms of silica have low biocompatibility, whereas biogenic forms have myriad beneficial effects in current toxicological applications. Among the various sources of biogenic silica, rice husk is considered a valuable agricultural biomass material and a cost-effective resource that can provide biogenic silica for biomedical applications. In the present study, highly pure biogenic silica nanoparticles (bSNPs) were successfully harvested from rice husks using acid digestion under pressurized conditions at 120°C followed by a calcination process. The obtained bSNPs were subjected to phase identification analysis using X-ray diffraction, which revealed the amorphous nature of the bSNPs. The morphologies of the bSNPs were observed using transmission electron microscopy (TEM), which revealed spherical particles 10 to 30 nm in diameter. Furthermore, the biocompatibility of the bSNPs with human lung fibroblast cells (hLFCs) was investigated using a viability assay and assessing cellular morphological changes, intracellular ROS generation, mitochondrial transmembrane potential and oxidative stress-related gene expression. Our results revealed that the bSNPs did not have any significant incompatibility in these in vitro cell-based approaches. These preliminary findings suggest that bSNPs are biocompatible, could be the best alternative to synthetic forms of silica and are applicable to food additive and biomedical applications. PMID:25492167

  15. Removal and recovery of toxic silver ion using deep-sea bacterial generated biogenic manganese oxides.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yuanjun Pei

    Full Text Available Products containing silver ion (Ag(+ are widely used, leading to a large amount of Ag(+-containing waste. The deep-sea manganese-oxidizing bacterium Marinobacter sp. MnI7-9 efficiently oxidizes Mn(2+ to generate biogenic Mn oxide (BMO. The potential of BMO for recovering metal ions by adsorption has been investigated for some ions but not for Ag(+. The main aim of this study was to develop effective methods for adsorbing and recovering Ag using BMO produced by Marinobacter sp. MnI7-9. In addition, the adsorption mechanism was determined using X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy analysis, specific surface area analysis, adsorption kinetics and thermodynamics. The results showed that BMO had a higher adsorption capacity for Ag(+ compared to the chemical synthesized MnO2 (CMO. The isothermal absorption curves of BMO and CMO both fit the Langmuir model well and the maximum adsorption capacities at 28°C were 8.097 mmol/g and 0.787 mmol/g, for BMO and CMO, respectively. The change in enthalpy (ΔH(θ for BMO was 59.69 kJ/mol indicating that it acts primarily by chemical adsorption. The change in free energy (ΔG(θ for BMO was negative, which suggests that the adsorption occurs spontaneously. Ag(+ adsorption by BMO was driven by entropy based on the positive ΔS(θ values. The Ag(+ adsorption kinetics by BMO fit the pseudo-second order model and the apparent activation energy of Ea is 21.72 kJ/mol. X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy analysis showed that 15.29% Ag(+ adsorbed by BMO was transferred to Ag(0 and meant that redox reaction had happened during the adsorption. Desorption using nitric acid and Na2S completely recovered the Ag. The results show that BMO produced by strain MnI7-9 has potential for bioremediation and reutilization of Ag(+-containing waste.

  16. Removal and recovery of toxic silver ion using deep-sea bacterial generated biogenic manganese oxides.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pei, Yuanjun; Chen, Xiao; Xiong, Dandan; Liao, Shuijiao; Wang, Gejiao

    2013-01-01

    Products containing silver ion (Ag(+)) are widely used, leading to a large amount of Ag(+)-containing waste. The deep-sea manganese-oxidizing bacterium Marinobacter sp. MnI7-9 efficiently oxidizes Mn(2+) to generate biogenic Mn oxide (BMO). The potential of BMO for recovering metal ions by adsorption has been investigated for some ions but not for Ag(+). The main aim of this study was to develop effective methods for adsorbing and recovering Ag using BMO produced by Marinobacter sp. MnI7-9. In addition, the adsorption mechanism was determined using X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy analysis, specific surface area analysis, adsorption kinetics and thermodynamics. The results showed that BMO had a higher adsorption capacity for Ag(+) compared to the chemical synthesized MnO2 (CMO). The isothermal absorption curves of BMO and CMO both fit the Langmuir model well and the maximum adsorption capacities at 28°C were 8.097 mmol/g and 0.787 mmol/g, for BMO and CMO, respectively. The change in enthalpy (ΔH(θ)) for BMO was 59.69 kJ/mol indicating that it acts primarily by chemical adsorption. The change in free energy (ΔG(θ)) for BMO was negative, which suggests that the adsorption occurs spontaneously. Ag(+) adsorption by BMO was driven by entropy based on the positive ΔS(θ) values. The Ag(+) adsorption kinetics by BMO fit the pseudo-second order model and the apparent activation energy of Ea is 21.72 kJ/mol. X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy analysis showed that 15.29% Ag(+) adsorbed by BMO was transferred to Ag(0) and meant that redox reaction had happened during the adsorption. Desorption using nitric acid and Na2S completely recovered the Ag. The results show that BMO produced by strain MnI7-9 has potential for bioremediation and reutilization of Ag(+)-containing waste. PMID:24312566

  17. 酿酒工艺对葡萄酒中生物胺的影响%Effects of Different Vintage Technologies on the Formation of Biogenic Amines in Dry Red Wines

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    于英; 李记明; 姜文广; 赵荣华

    2011-01-01

    The effects of different vintage technologies(pectases,yeasts,malolactic bacterias and fermentation temperature) on the formation of biogenic amines(histamine,2-phenylethylamine,tyramine,tryptamine,putrescine, cadaverine,spermidine and spermine) in Cabernet Gernischt wines during vinification were studied using high pressure liquid chromatography.The results showed that biogenic amines were generated mainly from alcoholic fermentation and malo-lactic fermentation during winemaking,and the former had low concentrations of biogenic amines.The concentrations of putrescine and spermine produced during alcoholic fermentation could be controlled by pectases,inoculum concentration of yeast,fermentation temperature.The biogenic amines in dry red wines were produced mostly by malolactic bacterias,and histamine and tryptamine were largely from malo-lactic fermentation.%探讨了不同酿酒工艺对葡萄酒中生物胺(组胺、苯乙胺、酪胺、色胺、腐胺、尸胺、精胺和亚精胺)含量的影响。结果显示,葡萄酒酿造过程中生物胺主要在酒精发酵和苹果酸-乳酸发酵过程产生。酒精发酵过程生成量较少,主要产生腐胺和精胺,果胶酶的使用、酵母接种量、发酵温度等因素可以调节酒精发酵过程生物胺的生成量;乳酸菌是葡萄酒生物胺最主要来源,在苹果酸-乳酸发酵过程中会产生大量的组胺和色胺。

  18. Biocompatibility assessment of rice husk-derived biogenic silica nanoparticles for biomedical applications

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Alshatwi, Ali A., E-mail: alshatwi@ksu.edu.sa; Athinarayanan, Jegan; Periasamy, Vaiyapuri Subbarayan

    2015-02-01

    Synthetic forms of silica have low biocompatibility, whereas biogenic forms have myriad beneficial effects in current toxicological applications. Among the various sources of biogenic silica, rice husk is considered a valuable agricultural biomass material and a cost-effective resource that can provide biogenic silica for biomedical applications. In the present study, highly pure biogenic silica nanoparticles (bSNPs) were successfully harvested from rice husks using acid digestion under pressurized conditions at 120 °C followed by a calcination process. The obtained bSNPs were subjected to phase identification analysis using X-ray diffraction, which revealed the amorphous nature of the bSNPs. The morphologies of the bSNPs were observed using transmission electron microscopy (TEM), which revealed spherical particles 10 to 30 nm in diameter. Furthermore, the biocompatibility of the bSNPs with human lung fibroblast cells (hLFCs) was investigated using a viability assay and assessing cellular morphological changes, intracellular ROS generation, mitochondrial transmembrane potential and oxidative stress-related gene expression. Our results revealed that the bSNPs did not have any significant incompatibility in these in vitro cell-based approaches. These preliminary findings suggest that bSNPs are biocompatible, could be the best alternative to synthetic forms of silica and are applicable to food additive and biomedical applications. - Highlights: • Simple, rapid and convenient process • Amorphous and spherical with 10–30 nm size SiO{sub 2} nanoparticles were fabricated. • Biogenic silica nanoparticles showed biocompatibility. • bSNPs are an alternative to synthetic forms of silica.

  19. New procedure of selected biogenic amines determination in wine samples by HPLC

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Piasta, Anna M.; Jastrzębska, Aneta, E-mail: aj@chem.uni.torun.pl; Krzemiński, Marek P.; Muzioł, Tadeusz M.; Szłyk, Edward

    2014-06-27

    Highlights: • We proposed new procedure for derivatization of biogenic amines. • The NMR and XRD analysis confirmed the purity and uniqueness of derivatives. • Concentration of biogenic amines in wine samples were analyzed by RP-HPLC. • Sample contamination and derivatization reactions interferences were minimized. - Abstract: A new procedure for determination of biogenic amines (BA): histamine, phenethylamine, tyramine and tryptamine, based on the derivatization reaction with 2-chloro-1,3-dinitro-5-(trifluoromethyl)-benzene (CNBF), is proposed. The amines derivatives with CNBF were isolated and characterized by X-ray crystallography and {sup 1}H, {sup 13}C, {sup 19}F NMR spectroscopy in solution. The novelty of the procedure is based on the pure and well-characterized products of the amines derivatization reaction. The method was applied for the simultaneous analysis of the above mentioned biogenic amines in wine samples by the reversed phase-high performance liquid chromatography. The procedure revealed correlation coefficients (R{sup 2}) between 0.9997 and 0.9999, and linear range: 0.10–9.00 mg L{sup −1} (histamine); 0.10–9.36 mg L{sup -1} (tyramine); 0.09–8.64 mg L{sup −1} (tryptamine) and 0.10–8.64 mg L{sup −1} (phenethylamine), whereas accuracy was 97%–102% (recovery test). Detection limit of biogenic amines in wine samples was 0.02–0.03 mg L{sup −1}, whereas quantification limit ranged 0.05–0.10 mg L{sup −1}. The variation coefficients for the analyzed amines ranged between 0.49% and 3.92%. Obtained BA derivatives enhanced separation the analytes on chromatograms due to the inhibition of hydrolysis reaction and the reduction of by-products formation.

  20. Arsenite Removal from Simulated Groundwater by Biogenic Schwertmannite: A Column Trial

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    XIE Yue; ZHOU Li-Xiang

    2013-01-01

    To assess the feasibility of biogenic schwertmannite to act as a sorbent for removing arsenite from groundwater,a series of biogenic schwertmannite-packed column adsorption experiments were conducted on simulated As(Ⅲ)-containing groundwater.Empty bed contact time (EBCT),As(Ⅲ) concentration in effluent,and the removal efficiency of As(Ⅲ) through the column were investigated at pH 8.0 and temperature 25 ± 0.5 ℃.The results showed that the breakthrough curves were mainly dependent on EBCT values when the influent As(Ⅲ) concentration was 500 μg L-1 and the optimum EBCT was 4.0 min.When the effluent As(Ⅲ) concentration reached 10 and 50 μg L-1,the breakthrough volumes for the schwertmannite adsorption column were 4200 and 5600 bed volume (BV),with As(Ⅲ) adsorption capacity of 2.1 and 2.8 mg g-1,respectively.Biogenic schwertmannite could be regenerated by 1.0 mol L-1 NaOH solution,and more than 80% of As(Ⅲ) adsorbed on the surface of schwertmannite could be released after 3 successive regenerations.The breakthrough volume for the regenerated schwertmannite-packed column still maintained 4 000-4 200 BV when the As(Ⅲ) concentration in effluent was below 10 μg L-1.Compared with other sorbents for As(Ⅲ) removal,the biogenic schwertmannitepacked column had a higher breakthrough volume and a much higher adsorption capacity,implying that biogenic schwertmannite was a highly efficient and potential sorbent to purify As(Ⅲ)-contaminated groundwater.

  1. Biocompatibility assessment of rice husk-derived biogenic silica nanoparticles for biomedical applications

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Synthetic forms of silica have low biocompatibility, whereas biogenic forms have myriad beneficial effects in current toxicological applications. Among the various sources of biogenic silica, rice husk is considered a valuable agricultural biomass material and a cost-effective resource that can provide biogenic silica for biomedical applications. In the present study, highly pure biogenic silica nanoparticles (bSNPs) were successfully harvested from rice husks using acid digestion under pressurized conditions at 120 °C followed by a calcination process. The obtained bSNPs were subjected to phase identification analysis using X-ray diffraction, which revealed the amorphous nature of the bSNPs. The morphologies of the bSNPs were observed using transmission electron microscopy (TEM), which revealed spherical particles 10 to 30 nm in diameter. Furthermore, the biocompatibility of the bSNPs with human lung fibroblast cells (hLFCs) was investigated using a viability assay and assessing cellular morphological changes, intracellular ROS generation, mitochondrial transmembrane potential and oxidative stress-related gene expression. Our results revealed that the bSNPs did not have any significant incompatibility in these in vitro cell-based approaches. These preliminary findings suggest that bSNPs are biocompatible, could be the best alternative to synthetic forms of silica and are applicable to food additive and biomedical applications. - Highlights: • Simple, rapid and convenient process • Amorphous and spherical with 10–30 nm size SiO2 nanoparticles were fabricated. • Biogenic silica nanoparticles showed biocompatibility. • bSNPs are an alternative to synthetic forms of silica

  2. New procedure of selected biogenic amines determination in wine samples by HPLC

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Highlights: • We proposed new procedure for derivatization of biogenic amines. • The NMR and XRD analysis confirmed the purity and uniqueness of derivatives. • Concentration of biogenic amines in wine samples were analyzed by RP-HPLC. • Sample contamination and derivatization reactions interferences were minimized. - Abstract: A new procedure for determination of biogenic amines (BA): histamine, phenethylamine, tyramine and tryptamine, based on the derivatization reaction with 2-chloro-1,3-dinitro-5-(trifluoromethyl)-benzene (CNBF), is proposed. The amines derivatives with CNBF were isolated and characterized by X-ray crystallography and 1H, 13C, 19F NMR spectroscopy in solution. The novelty of the procedure is based on the pure and well-characterized products of the amines derivatization reaction. The method was applied for the simultaneous analysis of the above mentioned biogenic amines in wine samples by the reversed phase-high performance liquid chromatography. The procedure revealed correlation coefficients (R2) between 0.9997 and 0.9999, and linear range: 0.10–9.00 mg L−1 (histamine); 0.10–9.36 mg L-1 (tyramine); 0.09–8.64 mg L−1 (tryptamine) and 0.10–8.64 mg L−1 (phenethylamine), whereas accuracy was 97%–102% (recovery test). Detection limit of biogenic amines in wine samples was 0.02–0.03 mg L−1, whereas quantification limit ranged 0.05–0.10 mg L−1. The variation coefficients for the analyzed amines ranged between 0.49% and 3.92%. Obtained BA derivatives enhanced separation the analytes on chromatograms due to the inhibition of hydrolysis reaction and the reduction of by-products formation

  3. Protection of Nitrate-Reducing Fe(II)-Oxidizing Bacteria from UV Radiation by Biogenic Fe(III) Minerals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gauger, Tina; Konhauser, Kurt; Kappler, Andreas

    2016-04-01

    Due to the lack of an ozone layer in the Archean, ultraviolet radiation (UVR) reached early Earth's surface almost unattenuated; as a consequence, a terrestrial biosphere in the form of biological soil crusts would have been highly susceptible to lethal doses of irradiation. However, a self-produced external screen in the form of nanoparticular Fe(III) minerals could have effectively protected those early microorganisms. In this study, we use viability studies by quantifying colony-forming units (CFUs), as well as Fe(II) oxidation and nitrate reduction rates, to show that encrustation in biogenic and abiogenic Fe(III) minerals can protect a common soil bacteria such as the nitrate-reducing Fe(II)-oxidizing microorganisms Acidovorax sp. strain BoFeN1 and strain 2AN from harmful UVC radiation. Analysis of DNA damage by quantifying cyclobutane pyrimidine dimers (CPD) confirmed the protecting effect by Fe(III) minerals. This study suggests that Fe(II)-oxidizing microorganisms, as would have grown in association with mafic and ultramafic soils/outcrops, would have been able to produce their own UV screen, enabling them to live in terrestrial habitats on early Earth. PMID:27027418

  4. Emissions of terpenoids, benzenoids, and other biogenic gas-phase organic compounds from agricultural crops and their potential implications for air quality

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gentner, D. R.; Ormeño, E.; Fares, S.; Ford, T. B.; Weber, R.; Park, J.-H.; Brioude, J.; Angevine, W. M.; Karlik, J. F.; Goldstein, A. H.

    2014-06-01

    Agriculture comprises a substantial, and increasing, fraction of land use in many regions of the world. Emissions from agricultural vegetation and other biogenic and anthropogenic sources react in the atmosphere to produce ozone and secondary organic aerosol, which comprises a substantial fraction of particulate matter (PM2.5). Using data from three measurement campaigns, we examine the magnitude and composition of reactive gas-phase organic carbon emissions from agricultural crops and their potential to impact regional air quality relative to anthropogenic emissions from motor vehicles in California's San Joaquin Valley, which is out of compliance with state and federal standards for tropospheric ozone PM2.5. Emission rates for a suite of terpenoid compounds were measured in a greenhouse for 25 representative crops from California in 2008. Ambient measurements of terpenoids and other biogenic compounds in the volatile and intermediate-volatility organic compound ranges were made in the urban area of Bakersfield and over an orange orchard in a rural area of the San Joaquin Valley during two 2010 seasons: summer and spring flowering. We combined measurements from the orchard site with ozone modeling methods to assess the net effect of the orange trees on regional ozone. When accounting for both emissions of reactive precursors and the deposition of ozone to the orchard, the orange trees are a net source of ozone in the springtime during flowering, and relatively neutral for most of the summer until the fall, when it becomes a sink. Flowering was a major emission event and caused a large increase in emissions including a suite of compounds that had not been measured in the atmosphere before. Such biogenic emission events need to be better parameterized in models as they have significant potential to impact regional air quality since emissions increase by several factors to over an order of magnitude. In regions like the San Joaquin Valley, the mass of biogenic

  5. Therapeutic Application of Synbiotics, a Fusion of Probiotics and Prebiotics, and Biogenics as a New Concept for Oral Candida Infections: A Mini Review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ohshima, Tomoko; Kojima, Yukako; Seneviratne, Chaminda J; Maeda, Nobuko

    2016-01-01

    Candida is a major human fungal pathogen causing infectious conditions predominantly in the elderly and immunocompromised hosts. Although Candida resides as a member of the oral indigenous microbiota in symbiosis, some circumstances may cause microbial imbalance leading to dysbiosis and resultant oral candidiasis. Therefore, oral microbial symbiosis that suppresses the overgrowth of Candida is important for a healthy oral ecosystem. In this regard, probiotics, prebiotics, and synbiotics can be considered a potential therapeutic and preventive strategy against oral candidiasis. Prebiotics have a direct effect on microbial growth as they stimulate the growth of beneficial bacteria and suppress the growth of pathogens. Probiotics render a local protective effect against pathogens and a systemic indirect effect on immunological amelioration. Synbiotics are fusion products of prebiotics and probiotics. This mini review discusses the potential use and associated limitations of probiotics, prebiotics, and synbiotics for the prevention and treatment of oral candidiasis. We will also introduce biogenics, a recent concept derived from the work on probiotics. Biogenics advocates the use of beneficial bioactive substances produced by probiotic bacteria, whose activities are independent from the viability of probiotic bacteria in human bodies. PMID:26834728

  6. Biogenic amines as freshness index of meat wrapped in a new active packaging system formulated with essential oils of Rosmarinus officinalis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sirocchi, Veronica; Caprioli, Giovanni; Cecchini, Cinzia; Coman, Maria Magdalena; Cresci, Alberto; Maggi, Filippo; Papa, Fabrizio; Ricciutelli, Massimo; Vittori, Sauro; Sagratini, Gianni

    2013-12-01

    Biogenic amines (BAs) are considered as an important indicator of freshness and quality of food. In this work, a new active packaging (AP) system for meat that, incorporating essential oil of Rosmarinus officinalis at 4% (w/w), inhibits the increase of BAs and the bacteria involved into their production was developed. BAs were analyzed by a SPE-HPLC-DAD method during the storage time of meat (0-7 d, 4 °C). Results showed that, in each monitored day, Biogenic Amine Index (BAI) expressed in mg kg(-1) is lower in meat wrapped in AP with respect to that packed in polycoupled packaging (PP) (from 19% to 62%). A strong correlation was found between the inhibition of increase of putrescine, cadaverine, histamine and their bacteria producers such as Enterobacteriaceae, Pseudomonas spp. and Brocothrix thermospacta. By exploiting antimicrobial and antioxidant action of essential oil of R. officinalis, the new APs contribute to increase the shelf life of fresh meat and to preserve its important nutrients. PMID:23815565

  7. Grain coarsening of calcite: Fundamental mechanisms and biogenic inhibition

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Schultz, Logan Nicholas

    coarsening – small grains coarsen by aggregation at high temperatures, followed by Ostwald ripening. Alginate, a model for the acidic polysaccharides produced by coccolithiphores, inhibited coarsening at a steady rate. A Pseudomonas aeruginosa biofilm preserved particles for at least 60 days before a...

  8. Phase state and humidity-induced phase transition studies of SOA particles from biogenic and anthropogenic precursors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saukko, E.; Lambe, A. T.; Massoli, P.; Koop, T.; Wright, J. P.; Croasdale, D. R.; Pedernera, D. A.; Onasch, T. B.; Laaksonen, A.; Davidovits, P.; Worsnop, D. R.; Virtanen, A.

    2012-04-01

    There is mounting evidence showing that tropospheric secondary organic aerosol (SOA) may exist in a phase state other than liquid, namely semi-solid or solid amorphous. The solid or semi-solid, high viscosity material may have significantly higher lifetime in an oxidizing atmosphere than low viscosity liquid due to mass transfer limitations in the particle bulk. In this work we report a systematic study of the phase state of SOA particles produced by photo-oxidation of several volatile organic compound (VOC) precursors in a potential aerosol mass (PAM) flow tube reactor. The phase state of the particles was studied by their bounce behaviour upon impaction on a polished steel plate in a low pressure impactor. The SOA oxidation level (O/C) was determined by an Aerodyne high resolution time-of-flight aerosol mass spectrometer (HR-ToF-AMS) The phase state for several types of SOA from different surrogate anthropogenic and biogenic precursors, produced at a wide range of oxidation conditions, were studied at a range of relative humidities. We report the solid or semi-solid phase state of SOA produced from cyclic and terpene precursors used in the study up to at least 50 % relative humidity. Furthermore, adding sulfur dioxide into the reaction chamber yielded liquefied particles, while particles formed from oxidation of pure organic precursor were solid or semi-solid. For a long-chain alkane precursor a liquid-like SOA at low oxidation level was produced, but upon increasing the oxidation level, the formed particles became more solid. While the bounce behaviour of the particles had no single explaining factor for all experiments, the precursor molar mass was seen to correlate with more solid phase at higher humidities in cases with cyclic or terpene precursor.

  9. Turnover of Biogenic Amines in the Hypothalamus of Rats during Pyrogen Fever

    Science.gov (United States)

    Penn, P. E.; Williams, B. A.

    1979-01-01

    Many pharmacological studies have implicated the biogenic amines in the hypothalamus as playing a role in the production of fever, but few investigations of endogenous neurochemicals have been made during fever. Turnover rates of transmitters utilizing radioactive precursors may be one of the most accurate measurements of activity in brain regions. The present study was designed to measure the turnover of 5-hydroxytryptamine (5-HT) norepinephrine (NE) and dopamine (DA) in the hypothalamus of rats during pyrogen fever. Salmonella typhosa (Wyeth, 8 units) was previously found in our laboratory to produce a significant hyperthermia in most rats by 2.5 hours. This pyrogen (N = l2) or saline control (N = 8) was injected intraperitoneally and the rats killed 2.75 hours later. Rectal temperatures (Tr) were monitored continuously with thermocouples taped to the tail and recorded automatically every 3 minutes. Half of each group received an injection of radioactive precursors, (3)H-tryptophan (0.5 mCi) and (3)H-tryptophan (1.0 mCi), via an indwelling jugular catheter 60 minutes before killing, and the other half at 90 minutes. The rats were killed by near freezing in liquid nitrogen and the brains dissected in the cold. Turnover was measured by the method of Lane (Life Sci 21, 1101, 1977). At the time of killing most of the pyrogen group showed a significant (p amines between the pyrogen and saline groups. A significant difference was found in the specific activity of NE between the 60 minute pyrogen and saline groups (4.41 +/- 0.41 vs 2.6 +/- 0.51 dpm/pmole) but no change in turnover. This suggests an increased accumulation of (3)H-NE in the pyrogen group, but no change in utilization. An increased turnover of DA for the pyrogen group (44.5 vs 19.2 pmole/mg protein/hr) was found. However, DA is mainly a precursor in the hypothalamus and measurement was near the limit of sensitivity for the assay; these limitations Must be considered in interpreting this data. The most

  10. High-temperature removal of sulphur for biogenic gas products; Hochtemperatur-Entschwefelung fuer biogene Produktgase. Design und Optimierung - Schlussbericht/Jahresbericht

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Schildhauer, T.; Biollaz, S.

    2009-12-15

    This final report for the Swiss Federal Office of Energy (SFOE) presents the results of a project concerning the development of basics ideas on the design and optimisation of high-temperature methods for the removal of sulphur from biogenic gas products. Tests made as part of the 'Methane from Wood' project at pilot installations in Switzerland and Austria are discussed. Low temperature and high-temperature methods are examined and discussed. A number of sulphur compounds were tested. Also, experiments made using nickel, HDS and CPO catalysers are discussed.

  11. Uncertainty in biogenic isoprene emissions and its impacts on tropospheric chemistry in East Asia

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In this study, the accuracy of biogenic isoprene emission fluxes over East Asia during two summer months (July and August) was examined by comparing two tropospheric HCHO columns (ΩHCHO) obtained from the SCIAMACHY sensor and the Community Multi-scale Air Quality (CMAQ v4.7.1) model simulations, using three available biogenic isoprene emission inventories over East Asia: i) GEIA, ii) MEGAN and iii) MOHYCAN. From this comparative analysis, the tropospheric HCHO columns from the CMAQ model simulations, using the MEGAN and MOHYCAN emission inventories (ΩCMAQ,MEGAN and ΩCMAQ,MOHYCAN), were found to agree well with the tropospheric HCHO columns from the SCIAMACHY observations (ΩSCIA). Secondly, the propagation of such uncertainties in the biogenic isoprene emission fluxes to the levels of atmospheric oxidants (e.g., OH and HO2) and other atmospheric gaseous/particulate species over East Asia during the two summer months was also investigated. As the biogenic isoprene emission fluxes decreased from the GEIA to the MEGAN emission inventories, the levels of OH radicals increased by factors of 1.39 and 1.75 over Central East China (CEC) and South China, respectively. Such increases in the OH radical mixing ratios subsequently influence the partitioning of HOy species. For example, the HO2/OH ratios from the CMAQ model simulations with GEIA isoprene emissions were 2.7 times larger than those from the CMAQ model simulations based on MEGAN isoprene emissions. The large HO2/OH ratios from the CMAQ model simulations with the GEIA biogenic emission were possibly due to the overestimation of GEIA biogenic isoprene emissions over East Asia. It was also shown that such large changes in HOx radicals created large differences on other tropospheric compounds (e.g., NOy chemistry) over East Asia during the summer months. - Highlights: • GEIA isoprene emissions were possibly overestimated over East Asia. • Using MEGAN or MOHYCAN emissions in CMAQ well captured HCHO columns from

  12. Biogenic isoprene and implications for oxidant levels in Beijing during the 2008 Olympic Games

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chang, Chih-Chung; Shao, Min; Chou, Charles C. K.; Liu, Shaw-Chen; Zhu, Tong; Lee, Kun-Zhang; Lai, Cheng-Hsun; Lin, Po-Hsiung; Wang*, Jia-Lin

    2014-05-01

    As the host of the 2008 Summer Olympic Games, Beijing implemented a series of stringent, short-term air quality control measures to reduce the emissions of anthropogenic air pollutants. Large reductions in the daily average concentrations of primary pollutants, e.g., non-methane hydrocarbons (NMHCs) and nitrogen oxides (NOx) of approximately 50% were observed at the air quality observatory of Peking University. Nevertheless, high levels of ozone were present during the control period. Although anthropogenic precursors were greatly reduced, the meteorological conditions in summer, including high temperature and light flux, are conducive to the production of large amounts of biogenic isoprene, which is extremely reactive. The diurnal pattern of isoprene showed daily maximum mixing ratios of 0.83 ppbv at noon and a minimum at night, reflecting its primarily biogenic properties. Using the ratio of isoprene to vehicle exhaust tracers, approximately 92% of the daytime isoprene was estimated from biogenic sources, and only 8% was attributed to vehicular emissions. In terms of OH reactivity and the ozone formation potential (OFP), biogenic isoprene with its midday surge can contribute approximately 20% of the total OFPs and 40-50% of the total OH reactivities of the 65 measured NMHCs during the midday hours. The discrepancy between decreased precursor levels and the observed high ozone was most likely caused by a combination of many factors. The changes in the partition among the components of oxidation products (O3, NO2 and NOz) and the contribution of air pollutants from regional sources outside Beijing should be two primary reasons. Furthermore, the influences of biogenic isoprene as well as the non-linearity of O3-VOC-NOx chemistry are other major concerns that can reduce the effectiveness of the control measures for decreasing ozone formation. Although anthropogenic precursors were greatly reduced during the Olympic Games, the presence of sufficient biogenic isoprene

  13. Biogenic isoprene and implications for oxidant levels in Beijing during the 2008 Olympic Games

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    C.-C. Chang

    2013-10-01

    Full Text Available As the host of the 2008 Summer Olympic Games, Beijing implemented a series of stringent, short-term air quality control measures to reduce the emissions of anthropogenic air pollutants. Large reductions in the daily average concentrations of primary pollutants, e.g., non-methane hydrocarbons (NMHCs and nitrogen oxides (NOx of approximately 50% were observed at the air quality observatory of Peking University. Nevertheless, high levels of ozone were present during the control period. Although anthropogenic precursors were greatly reduced, the meteorological conditions in summer, including high temperature and light flux, are conducive to the production of large amounts of biogenic isoprene, which is extremely reactive. The diurnal pattern of isoprene showed daily maximum mixing ratios of 0.83 ppbv at noon and a minimum at night, reflecting its primarily biogenic properties. Using the ratio of isoprene to vehicle exhaust tracers, approximately 92% of the daytime isoprene was estimated from biogenic sources, and only 8% was attributed to vehicular emissions. In terms of OH reactivity and the ozone formation potential (OFP, biogenic isoprene with its midday surge can contribute approximately 20% of the total OFPs and 40–50% of the total OH reactivities of the 65 measured NMHCs during the midday hours. The discrepancy between decreased precursor levels and the observed high ozone was most likely caused by a combination of many factors. The changes in the partition among the components of oxidation products (O3, NO2 and NOz and the contribution of air pollutants from regional sources outside Beijing should be two primary reasons. Furthermore, the influences of biogenic isoprene as well as the non-linearity of O3-VOC-NOx chemistry are other major concerns that can reduce the effectiveness of the control measures for decreasing ozone formation. Although anthropogenic precursors were greatly reduced during the Olympic Games, sufficient biogenic

  14. Methodology for histamine and biogenic amines analysis. Seafoodplus Traceability

    OpenAIRE

    Etienne, Monique

    2006-01-01

    Histamine, putrescine, cadaverine, tyramine and agmatine are produced from the decarboxylation of histidine, ornithine, lysine tyrosine and arginine respectively. Histamine is associated of scombroid poisoning in conjonction with the ingestion of some fish species such as tuna, mackerel, sardine, herring,anchovy. The formation of histamine in fish products is directly correlated with the concentration of histidine in the tissue and the level of microorganisms present in the product, due to ...

  15. Secondary organic aerosol from biogenic volatile organic compound mixtures

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hatfield, Meagan L.; Huff Hartz, Kara E.

    2011-04-01

    The secondary organic aerosol (SOA) yields from the ozonolysis of a Siberian fir needle oil (SFNO), a Canadian fir needle oil (CFNO), and several SOA precursor mixtures containing reactive and non-reactive volatile organic compounds (VOCs) were investigated. The use of precursor mixtures more completely describes the atmosphere where many VOCs exist. The addition of non-reactive VOCs such as bornyl acetate, camphene, and borneol had very little to no effect on SOA yields. The oxidation of VOC mixtures with VOC mass percentages similar to the SFNO produced SOA yields that became more similar to the SOA yield from SFNO as the complexity and concentration of VOCs within the mixture became more similar to overall SFNO composition. The SOA yield produced by the oxidation of CFNO was within the error of the SOA yield produced by the oxidation of SFNO at a similar VOC concentration. The SOA yields from SFNO were modeled using the volatility basis set (VBS), which predicts the SOA yields for a given mass concentration of mixtures containing similar VOCs.

  16. Regional variations in the fluxes of foraminifera carbonate, coccolithophorid carbonate and biogenic opal in the northern Indian Ocean

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    Ramaswamy, V.; Gaye, B.

    .3. In the western Arabian Sea, coccolithophorids are the major contributors to biogenic flux during periods of low nutrient concentrations. Coccolithophorid carbonate fluxes decrease and planktonic foraminiferal carbonate and diatom opal fluxes increase when...

  17. Use of small diameter column particles to enhance HPLC determination of histamine and other biogenic amines in seafood

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Simat, Vida; Dalgaard, Paw

    2011-01-01

    Pre-column and post-column HPLC derivatization methods were modified and evaluated for the identification and quantification of nine biogenic amines in seafood Two HPLC methods with column particles of 1 8 mu m or 3 mu m in diameter were modified and compared to classical methods using 5 mu m...... determination of biogenic amines in lean canned tuna and fatty frozen herring The modified methods using smaller column particles of 1 8 mu m or 3 mu m allowed biogenic amines to be separated and quantified faster (23-59%) and with less eluent consumption (59-62%) than classical HPLC methods Backpressures were...... below 170 bar and this allowed the use of classical HPLC systems rather than dedicated and costly ultra-high-pressure liquid chromatography (UHPLC) equipment Biogenic amine separation sensitivity recovery and repeatability for the modified methods were similar to or performed better than for the...

  18. The role of biogenic structures on the biogeochemical functioning of mangrove constructed wetlands sediments - A mesocosm approach

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Benthic metabolism (measured as CO2 production) and carbon oxidation pathways were evaluated in 4 mangrove mesocosms subjected daily to seawater or 60% sewage in the absence or presence of mangrove trees and biogenic structures (pneumatophores and crab burrows). Total CO2 emission from darkened sediments devoid of biogenic structures at pristine conditions was comparable during inundation (immersion) and air exposure (emersion), although increased 2-7 times in sewage contaminated mesocosms. Biogenic structures increased low tide carbon gas emissions at contaminated (30%) and particularly pristine conditions (60%). When sewage was loaded into the mesocosms under unvegetated and planted conditions, iron reduction was substituted by sulfate reduction and contribution of aerobic respiration to total metabolism remained above 50%. Our results clearly show impacts of sewage on the partitioning of electron acceptors in mangrove sediment and confirm the importance of biogenic structures for biogeochemical functioning but also on greenhouse gases emission.

  19. Cavity-Enhanced Gas Analyzer for In-Situ Sampling of Biogenic Gases and Their Isotopes Project

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — This Small Business Innovation Research Phase I project concerns the novel application of cavity-enhanced absorption spectroscopy to quantify biogenic gases (CH4,...

  20. Salting-out assisted liquid-liquid extraction for the determination of biogenic amines in fruit juices and alcoholic beverages after derivatization with 1-naphthylisothiocyanate and high performance liquid chromatography.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jain, Archana; Gupta, Manju; Verma, Krishna K

    2015-11-27

    A new method for determining biogenic amines in fruit juices and alcoholic beverages is described involving reaction of biogenic amines with 1-naphthylisothiocyanate followed by extraction of 1-naphthylthiourea derivatives with water-miscible organic solvent acetonitrile when solvents phase separation occurred using ammonium sulphate, a process called salting-out assisted liquid-liquid extraction. The extract was analyzed by high-performance liquid chromatography with UV detection at 254nm. The new reagent avoided many of the inconveniences as observed with existing derivatizing agents, such as dansyl chloride and benzoyl chloride, in regard to their inselectivity, instability, adverse effect of excess reagent, and necessity to remove excess reagent. The procedure has been optimized with respect to reaction time and temperature, water-miscible extraction solvent, and salt for solvents phase separation. Use of reagent as dispersed phase in aqueous medium produced derivatives in high yield. A linear calibration was obtained between the amount of biogenic amines in range 1-1000μgL(-1) and peak areas of corresponding thioureas formed; the correlation coefficient was 0.9965, and the limit of detection and limit of quantification found were 1.1μgL(-1) and 3.2μgL(-1), respectively. The pre-concentration method gave an average enrichment factor of 94. The application of the method has been demonstrated in the determination of biogenic amines in commercial samples of fruit juices and alcoholic beverages. In spiking experiments to real samples, the average recovery found by the present method was 94.5% that agreed well with 95.8% obtained by established comparison methods. PMID:26518497

  1. Dynamics of dissolved and biogenic silica in the freshwater reaches of a macrotidal estuary (The Scheldt, Belgium)

    OpenAIRE

    Carbonnel, Vincent; Lionard, Marie; Muylaert, Koenraad; Chou, Lei

    2009-01-01

    Temporal evolution of dissolved and biogenic silica concentrations along the Scheldt tidal river and in its tributaries was investigated during 1 year in 2003. In the tributaries, dissolved silica (DSi) concentrations remained high and biogenic silica (BSi) concentrations were low throughout the year. In the tidal river during summer, DSi was completely consumed and BSi concentrations increased. Overall, most of the BSi was associated with living diatoms during the productive period in the ti...

  2. Influence of physical and biological processes on the seasonal cycle of biogenic flux in the equatorial Indian Ocean

    OpenAIRE

    P. J. Vidya; Prasanna Kumar, S.; M. Gauns; A. Verenkar; Unger, D.; Ramaswamy, V.

    2013-01-01

    Seasonal cycle of biogenic fluxes obtained from sediment trap at two locations 5° 24′ N, 86° 46′ E (SBBT) and 3° 34′ N, 77° 46′ E (EIOT) within the equatorial Indian Ocean (EIO) were examined to understand the factors that control them. The sediment trap data at SBBT were collected for ten years from November 1987 while that at EIOT was for one year period from January 1996. The characteristic of biogenic flux at S...

  3. Biogenic Amines in Microdissected Brain Regions of Drosophila melanogaster Measured with Micellar Electrokinetic Capillary Chromatography – Electrochemical Detection

    OpenAIRE

    Kuklinski, Nicholas J.; Berglund, E. Carina; Engelbrektsson, Johan; Ewing, Andrew G.

    2010-01-01

    Micellar electrokinetic chromatography with electrochemical detection has been used to quantify biogenic amines in microdissected Drosophila melanogaster brains and brain regions. The effects of pigment from the relatively large fly eyes on the separation have been examined to find that the red pigment from the compound eye masks much of the signal from biogenic amines. The brains of white mutant flies, which have characteristically low pigment in the eyes, have a significantly simplified sep...

  4. The role of biogenic structures on the biogeochemical functioning of mangrove constructed wetlands sediments - A mesocosm approach

    OpenAIRE

    Penha-Lopes, G.; Kristensen, E.; Flindt, M; Mangion, P.; BOUILLON, S; J. Paula

    2010-01-01

    Benthic metabolism (measured as CO2 production) and carbon oxidation pathways were evaluated in 4 mangrove mesocosms subjected daily to seawater or 60% sewage in the absence or presence of mangrove trees and biogenic structures (pneumatophores and crab burrows). Total CO2 emission from darkened sediments devoid of biogenic structures at pristine conditions was comparable during inundation (immersion) and air exposure (emersion), although increased 2-7 times in sewage contaminated mesocosms. B...

  5. Contribution of First- versus Second-Generation Products to Secondary Organic Aerosols Formed in the Oxidation of Biogenic Hydrocarbons

    OpenAIRE

    Ng, Nga L.; Kroll, Jesse H.; Keywood, Melita D.; Bahreini, Roya; Varutbangkul, Varuntida; Flagan, Richard C.; Seinfeld, John H.; Lee, Anita; Goldstein, Allen H.

    2006-01-01

    Biogenic hydrocarbons emitted by vegetation are important contributors to secondary organic aerosol (SOA), but the aerosol formation mechanisms are incompletely understood. In this study, the formation of aerosols and gas-phase products from the ozonolysis and photooxidation of a series of biogenic hydrocarbons (isoprene, 8 monoterpenes, 4 sesquiterpenes, and 3 oxygenated terpenes) are examined. By comparing aerosol growth (measured by Differential Mobility Analyzers, DMAs) and gas-phase conc...

  6. Magnetic particles-based biosensor for biogenic amines using an optical oxygen sensor as a transducer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    We have developed a fibre optic biosensor with incorporated magnetic microparticles for the determination of biogenic amines. The enzyme diamine oxidase from Pisum sativum was immobilized either on chitosan-coated magnetic microparticles or on commercial microbeads modified with a ferrofluid. Both the immobilized enzyme and the ruthenium complex were incorporated into a UV-cured inorganic-organic polymer composite and deposited on a lens that was connected, by optical fibres, to an electro-optical detector. The enzyme catalyzes the oxidation of amines under consumption of oxygen. The latter was determined by measuring the quenched fluorescence lifetime of the ruthenium complex. The limits of detection for the biogenic amines putrescine and cadaverine are 25-30 μmol L-1, and responses are linear up to a concentration of 1 mmol L-1. (author)

  7. Conjugation of chitosan nanoparticles with biogenic and synthetic polyamines: A delivery tool for antitumor polyamine analogues.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chanphai, P; Tajmir-Riahi, H A

    2016-11-01

    We report the conjugation of chitosan nanoparticles with biogenic polyamines spermine (spm), spermidine (spmd) and synthetic polyamines 3,7,11,15-tetrazaheptadecane.4HCl (BE-333) in aqueous solution. Multiple spectroscopic methods, thermodynamic parameters and molecular modeling were used to analyse polyamine bindings to chitosan nanoparticles. Thermodynamic parameters ΔS, ΔH and ΔG showed that polyamines bind protein through H-bonding and hydrophobic contacts with biogenic polyamines form more stable conjugates than synthetic polyamines. As polymer size increases the stability of polyamine-chitosan conjugate increases. The loading efficacy was 40-50% for polyamine-chitosan conjugates. Modeling showed that polyamine-protein interaction is spontaneous and chitosan nanoparticles can be used for delivery of antitumor polyamine analogues. PMID:27516317

  8. Regional alterations of brain biogenic amines in young rats following chronic lead exposure

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dubas, T.C.; Stevenson, A.; Singhal, R.L.; Hrdina, P.D.

    1978-02-01

    An examination was made of neurochemical changes that occur in discrete brain regions of rats that have been chronically exposed to low levels of lead from birth, in order to provide further information on the involvement of brain biogenic amines in lead-induced neurotoxicity. Results indicate a relationship between exposure to lead and alterations in the brain levels of various putative neurotransmitters. However, changes in the functional activity of the neurotransmitter may not be adequately reflected in the change of its steady-state levels or may occur even in the absence of any changes in the actual concentrations. Lead may influence central neurotransmitter function by affecting one or several of the processes involved in the synthesis, release and/or disposition of biogenic amines.

  9. Formation of brown carbon via reactions of ammonia with secondary organic aerosols from biogenic and anthropogenic precursors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Updyke, Katelyn M.; Nguyen, Tran B.; Nizkorodov, Sergey A.

    2012-12-01

    Filter samples of secondary organic aerosols (SOA) generated from the ozone (O3)- and hydroxyl radical (OH)-initiated oxidation of various biogenic (isoprene, α-pinene, limonene, α-cedrene, α-humulene, farnesene, pine leaf essential oils, cedar leaf essential oils) and anthropogenic (tetradecane, 1,3,5-trimethylbenzene, naphthalene) precursors were exposed to humid air containing approximately 100 ppb of gaseous ammonia (NH3). Reactions of SOA compounds with NH3 resulted in production of light-absorbing "brown carbon" compounds, with the extent of browning ranging from no observable change (isoprene SOA) to visible change in color (limonene SOA). The aqueous phase reactions with dissolved ammonium (NH4+) salts, such as ammonium sulfate, were equally efficient in producing brown carbon. Wavelength-dependent mass absorption coefficients (MAC) of the aged SOA were quantified by extracting known amounts of SOA material in methanol and recording its UV/Vis absorption spectra. For a given precursor, the OH-generated SOA had systematically lower MAC compared to the O3-generated SOA. The highest MAC values, for brown carbon from SOA resulting from O3 oxidation of limonene and sesquiterpenes, were comparable to MAC values for biomass burning particles but considerably smaller than MAC values for black carbon aerosols. The NH3/NH4+ + SOA brown carbon aerosol may contribute to aerosol optical density in regions with elevated concentrations of NH3 or ammonium sulfate and high photochemical activity.

  10. Assessment of the genetic polymorphism and biogenic amine production of indigenous Oenococcus oeni strains isolated from Greek red wines.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pramateftaki, P V; Metafa, M; Karapetrou, G; Marmaras, G

    2012-02-01

    In the warm climate country of Greece malolactic fermentation (MLF) has received limited attention. Molecular techniques and High Performance Liquid Chromatography (HPLC) were used to study the genetic polymorphism of autochthonous lactic acid bacteria developing towards the end of spontaneous MLF of Greek red wines and for the assessment of their potential to produce harmful biogenic amines. This research revealed that native Oenococcus oeni isolates are very much adapted to specific winery conditions since the majority of spontaneous MLF were driven mostly or exclusively by a single strain of O. oeni. Native O. oeni strains showed only limited dispersion since cluster analysis uncovered only few common genotypes among indigenous isolates from different wineries. The genotype of a frequently used malolactic starter was more than often detected among autochthonous isolates without nevertheless compromising the biodiversity of natural microflora residing in wineries but rather becoming a part of it. For the majority of the wine samples studied, MLF implementation and storage in bottles resulted in negligible changes on the levels of the BA histamine, tyramine, phenylethylamine, cadaverine as well as of ethylamine, methylamine, isobutylamine. We provide evidence that autochthonous O. oeni isolates can only contribute to putrescine accumulation in Greek wines but still the specific trait behaves as strain-specific with a limited dispersion. PMID:22029925

  11. Thermostable trypsin conjugates immobilized to biogenic magnetite show a high operational stability and remarkable reusability for protein digestion

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In this work, magnetosomes produced by microorganisms were chosen as a suitable magnetic carrier for covalent immobilization of thermostable trypsin conjugates with an expected applicability for efficient and rapid digestion of proteins at elevated temperatures. First, a biogenic magnetite was isolated from Magnetospirillum gryphiswaldense and its free surface was coated with the natural polysaccharide chitosan containing free amino and hydroxy groups. Prior to covalent immobilization, bovine trypsin was modified by conjugating with α-, β- and γ-cyclodextrin. Modified trypsin was bound to the magnetic carriers via amino groups using 1-ethyl-3-(3-dimethylaminopropyl) carbodiimide and N-hydroxysulfosuccinimide as coupling reagents. The magnetic biomaterial was characterized by magnetometric analysis and electron microscopy. With regard to their biochemical properties, the immobilized trypsin conjugates showed an increased resistance to elevated temperatures, eliminated autolysis, had an unchanged pH optimum and a significant storage stability and reusability. Considering these parameters, the presented enzymatic system exhibits properties that are superior to those of trypsin forms obtained by other frequently used approaches. The proteolytic performance was demonstrated during in-solution digestion of model proteins (horseradish peroxidase, bovine serum albumin and hen egg white lysozyme) followed by mass spectrometry. It is shown that both magnetic immobilization and chemical modification enhance the characteristics of trypsin making it a promising tool for protein digestion. (paper)

  12. Thermostable trypsin conjugates immobilized to biogenic magnetite show a high operational stability and remarkable reusability for protein digestion

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pečová, M.; Šebela, M.; Marková, Z.; Poláková, K.; Čuda, J.; Šafářová, K.; Zbořil, R.

    2013-03-01

    In this work, magnetosomes produced by microorganisms were chosen as a suitable magnetic carrier for covalent immobilization of thermostable trypsin conjugates with an expected applicability for efficient and rapid digestion of proteins at elevated temperatures. First, a biogenic magnetite was isolated from Magnetospirillum gryphiswaldense and its free surface was coated with the natural polysaccharide chitosan containing free amino and hydroxy groups. Prior to covalent immobilization, bovine trypsin was modified by conjugating with α-, β- and γ-cyclodextrin. Modified trypsin was bound to the magnetic carriers via amino groups using 1-ethyl-3-(3-dimethylaminopropyl) carbodiimide and N-hydroxysulfosuccinimide as coupling reagents. The magnetic biomaterial was characterized by magnetometric analysis and electron microscopy. With regard to their biochemical properties, the immobilized trypsin conjugates showed an increased resistance to elevated temperatures, eliminated autolysis, had an unchanged pH optimum and a significant storage stability and reusability. Considering these parameters, the presented enzymatic system exhibits properties that are superior to those of trypsin forms obtained by other frequently used approaches. The proteolytic performance was demonstrated during in-solution digestion of model proteins (horseradish peroxidase, bovine serum albumin and hen egg white lysozyme) followed by mass spectrometry. It is shown that both magnetic immobilization and chemical modification enhance the characteristics of trypsin making it a promising tool for protein digestion.

  13. 800 year ice-core record of nitrogen deposition in Svalbard linked to ocean productivity and biogenic emissions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    I. A. Wendl

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available We present the records of the two nitrogen species nitrate (NO3− and ammonium (NH4+ analysed in a new ice core from Lomonosovfonna, Svalbard, in the Eurasian Arctic covering the period 1222–2009. We investigate the emission sources and the influence of melt on the records. During the 20th century both records are influenced by anthropogenic pollution from Eurasia. In pre-industrial times NO3− is highly correlated with methane-sulfonate (MSA on decadal time-scales, which we explain by a fertilising effect. Enhanced atmospheric NO3− concentrations and the corresponding nitrogen input to the ocean trigger the growth of dimethyl-sulfide-(DMS-producing phytoplankton. Increased DMS production results in elevated fluxes to the atmosphere where it is oxidised to MSA. Eurasia was presumably the main source area also for pre-industrial NO3−, but a more exact source apportionment could not be performed based on our data. This is different for NH4+, where biogenic ammonia (NH3 emissions from Siberian boreal forests were identified as the dominant source of pre-industrial NH4+. Changes in melt at the Lomonosovfonna glacier are excluded as major driving force for the decadal variations of the investigated compounds.

  14. Arsenic species in weathering mine tailings and biogenic solids at the Lava Cap Mine Superfund Site, Nevada City, CA

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-01-01

    Background A realistic estimation of the health risk of human exposure to solid-phase arsenic (As) derived from historic mining operations is a major challenge to redevelopment of California's famed "Mother Lode" region. Arsenic, a known carcinogen, occurs in multiple solid forms that vary in bioaccessibility. X-ray absorption fine-structure spectroscopy (XAFS) was used to identify and quantify the forms of As in mine wastes and biogenic solids at the Lava Cap Mine Superfund (LCMS) site, a historic "Mother Lode" gold mine. Principal component analysis (PCA) was used to assess variance within water chemistry, solids chemistry, and XAFS spectral datasets. Linear combination, least-squares fits constrained in part by PCA results were then used to quantify arsenic speciation in XAFS spectra of tailings and biogenic solids. Results The highest dissolved arsenic concentrations were found in Lost Lake porewater and in a groundwater-fed pond in the tailings deposition area. Iron, dissolved oxygen, alkalinity, specific conductivity, and As were the major variables in the water chemistry PCA. Arsenic was, on average, 14 times more concentrated in biologically-produced iron (hydr)oxide than in mine tailings. Phosphorous, manganese, calcium, aluminum, and As were the major variables in the solids chemistry PCA. Linear combination fits to XAFS spectra indicate that arsenopyrite (FeAsS), the dominant form of As in ore material, remains abundant (average: 65%) in minimally-weathered ore samples and water-saturated tailings at the bottom of Lost Lake. However, tailings that underwent drying and wetting cycles contain an average of only 30% arsenopyrite. The predominant products of arsenopyrite weathering were identified by XAFS to be As-bearing Fe (hydr)oxide and arseniosiderite (Ca2Fe(AsO4)3O3•3H2O). Existence of the former species is not in question, but the presence of the latter species was not confirmed by additional measurements, so its identification is less certain. The

  15. Arsenic species in weathering mine tailings and biogenic solids at the Lava Cap Mine Superfund Site, Nevada City, CA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ashley Roger P

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background A realistic estimation of the health risk of human exposure to solid-phase arsenic (As derived from historic mining operations is a major challenge to redevelopment of California's famed "Mother Lode" region. Arsenic, a known carcinogen, occurs in multiple solid forms that vary in bioaccessibility. X-ray absorption fine-structure spectroscopy (XAFS was used to identify and quantify the forms of As in mine wastes and biogenic solids at the Lava Cap Mine Superfund (LCMS site, a historic "Mother Lode" gold mine. Principal component analysis (PCA was used to assess variance within water chemistry, solids chemistry, and XAFS spectral datasets. Linear combination, least-squares fits constrained in part by PCA results were then used to quantify arsenic speciation in XAFS spectra of tailings and biogenic solids. Results The highest dissolved arsenic concentrations were found in Lost Lake porewater and in a groundwater-fed pond in the tailings deposition area. Iron, dissolved oxygen, alkalinity, specific conductivity, and As were the major variables in the water chemistry PCA. Arsenic was, on average, 14 times more concentrated in biologically-produced iron (hydroxide than in mine tailings. Phosphorous, manganese, calcium, aluminum, and As were the major variables in the solids chemistry PCA. Linear combination fits to XAFS spectra indicate that arsenopyrite (FeAsS, the dominant form of As in ore material, remains abundant (average: 65% in minimally-weathered ore samples and water-saturated tailings at the bottom of Lost Lake. However, tailings that underwent drying and wetting cycles contain an average of only 30% arsenopyrite. The predominant products of arsenopyrite weathering were identified by XAFS to be As-bearing Fe (hydroxide and arseniosiderite (Ca2Fe(AsO43O3•3H2O. Existence of the former species is not in question, but the presence of the latter species was not confirmed by additional measurements, so its identification is

  16. Online measurement of biogenic organic acids in the boreal forest using atmospheric pressure chemical ionization mass spectrometry (APCI-MS)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vogel, A. L.; Brüggemann, M.; ńijälä, M.; Ehn, M.; Junninen, H.; Corrigan, A. L.; Petäjä, T.; Worsnop, D. R.; Russell, L. M.; Kulmala, M.; Williams, J.; Hoffmann, T.

    2012-04-01

    Emission of biogenic volatile organic compounds (BVOCs) by vegetation in the boreal forest and their subsequent atmospheric oxidation leads to the formation of secondary organic aerosol (SOA) which has important impacts on climate and human health. Oxidation of BVOCs produces a variety of mostly unidentified species in oxygenated organic aerosol (OOA). Presently aerosol mass spectrometers (AMS) are able to determine quantitative information about the relative oxygen to carbon content of organic aerosols and thereby reveal the photochemical age and volatility of organic aerosol by distinguishing between low volatile oxygenated organic aerosol (LV-OOA), semivolatile oxygenated organic aerosol (SV-OOA) and hydrocarbon like organic aerosol (HOA)[1]. However, the AMS can usually not be used to measure and quantify single organic compounds such as individual biogenic organic marker compounds. Here we show the results of online measurements of gas and particle phase biogenic acids during HUMPPA-COPEC 2010 at Hyytiälä, Finland. This was achieved by coupling a self built miniature Versatile Aerosol Concentration Enrichment System (mVACES) as described by Geller et al. [2] with an Atmospheric Pressure Chemical Ionization Ion Trap Mass Spectrometer (APCI IT MS; Hoffmann et al., [3]). The benefits of the on-line APCI-MS are soft ionization with little fragmentation compared to AMS, high measurement frequency and less sampling artifacts than in the common procedure of taking filter samples, extraction and detection with LC-MS. Furthermore, the ion trap of the instrument allows MS/MS experiments to be performed by isolation of single m/z ratios of selected molecular species. By subsequent addition of energy, the trapped ions form characteristic fragments which enable structural insight on the molecular level. Comparison of APCI-MS data to AMS data, acquired with a C-ToF-AMS [4], revealed a good correlation coefficient for total organics and sulphate. Furthermore, data show

  17. Synthesis and functionalization of nanoparticles with biogenic amines and their biological application

    OpenAIRE

    Gasiorek, Friederike Britta

    2016-01-01

    This work presents a successful application of newly developed conjugates of bioactive molecule and nanoparticle. A remarkable enhancement of receptor activation was achieved by multivalent presentation of active moieties supported on gold nanoparticles. For this purpose diverse gold nanoparticles were synthesized and functionalized with biogenic amines. Different synthetic approaches were used to obtain gold nanoparticles between 4 nm and 25 nm. Small gold nanoparticles of 4 nm, 6 nm and ...

  18. Biological colloid engineering: Self-assembly of dipolar ferromagnetic chains in a functionalized biogenic ferrofluid

    OpenAIRE

    Ruder, Warren C.; Hsu, Chia-Pei D.; Edelman, Brent D.; Schwartz, Russell; Leduc, Philip R.

    2012-01-01

    We have studied the dynamic behavior of nanoparticles in ferrofluids consisting of single-domain, biogenic magnetite (Fe3O4) isolated from Magnetospirillum magnetotacticum (MS-1). Although dipolar chains form in magnetic colloids in zero applied field, when dried upon substrates, the solvent front disorders nanoparticle aggregation. Using avidin-biotin functionalization of the particles and substrate, we generated self-assembled, linear chain motifs that resist solvent front disruption in zer...

  19. Biogenic silica in tidal freshwater marsh sediments and vegetation (Schelde estuary, Belgium)

    OpenAIRE

    E. Struyf; S. Van Damme; Gribsholt, B.; Middelburg, J. J.; P. Meire

    2005-01-01

    To date, estuarine ecosystem research has mostly neglected silica cycling in freshwater intertidal marshes. However, tidal marshes can store large amounts of biogenic silica (BSi) in vegetation and sediment. BSi content of the typical freshwater marsh plants Phragmites australis, Impatiens glandulifera, Urtica dioica, Epilobium hirsutum and Salix sp. was analysed year-round. All herbaceous species accumulated silica in their tissue during their life cycle. Of the live plants, P. australis con...

  20. Biogenic silica in freshwater marsh sediments and vegetation (Schelde estuary, Belgium)

    OpenAIRE

    E. Struyf; S. Van Damme; Gribsholt, B.; Middelburg, J. J.; P. Meire

    2005-01-01

    Up to this date, silicon cycling in freshwater intertidal marshes has mostly been neglected in estuarine ecosystem research. However, tidal marshes can store large amounts of biogenic silica (BSi) in vegetation and sediment. BSi content of the typical freshwater marsh plants Phragmites australis, Impatiens glandulifera, Urtica dioica, Epilobium hirsutum and Salixx sp. was analysed year round. All herbaceous species accumulated silica in their tissue during their life cycle. P. australis conta...

  1. Characterization of biogenic gas dynamics in low-latitude peat soils using hydrogeophysical methods

    Science.gov (United States)

    Comas, X.; Wright, W. J.

    2011-12-01

    Peatlands are well recognized carbon reservoirs that account for about 33% of the global soil carbon pool and about 5 to 10% of methane (CH4) flux to the atmosphere while acting as a net sink for atmospheric carbon dioxide (CO2). Although wetland distribution is roughly bimodal with approximately 50% located in boreal and arctic regions and about 35% located in tropical/subtropical regions, most studies investigating biogenic gas dynamics (i.e. accumulation and/or releases) from peat soils are based on boreal peatlands while low-latitude systems have traditionally been less studied. The work presented here focuses on the use of hydrogeophysical methods (mostly ground penetrating radar, GPR) to investigate biogenic gas build up and release from low-latitude peat soils in the Everglades at both the laboratory and field-scale. GPR is a geophysical method based on measuring the travel times of high-frequency electromagnetic (EM) waves primarily controlled by changes in water content and thus gas content. This method has been effectively applied as a non-invasive technique for investigating biogenic gas dynamics in peat soils over a wide range of spatial and temporal scales. Several applications of GPR at both the laboratory and field scale are presented here in order to investigate the temporal dynamics of biogenic gases in peat soils from several locations in the Everglades. Geophysical measurements are constrained temporally by measuring flux using gas chambers fitted with time-lapse cameras, and gas composition is determined using gas analyzers. Further recommendations for future applications of hydrogeophysical methods for investigating gas distribution and dynamics in peat soils in low-latitude systems are also proposed.

  2. Quantitative laboratory measurements of biogeochemical processes controlling biogenic calcite carbon sequestration.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zendejas, Frank; Lane, Todd W.; Lane, Pamela D.

    2011-01-01

    The purpose of this LDRD was to generate data that could be used to populate and thereby reduce the uncertainty in global carbon cycle models. These efforts were focused on developing a system for determining the dissolution rate of biogenic calcite under oceanic pressure and temperature conditions and on carrying out a digital transcriptomic analysis of gene expression in response to changes in pCO2, and the consequent acidification of the growth medium.

  3. Off-season biogenic volatile organic compound emissions from heath mesocosms

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rinnan, Riikka; Gierth, Diana; Bilde, Merete;

    2013-01-01

    Biogenic volatile organic compounds (BVOCs) affect both atmospheric processes and ecological interactions. Our primary aim was to differentiate between BVOC emissions from above- and belowground plant parts and heath soil outside the growing season. The second aim was to assess emissions from her......, at least outside the growing season. If insect outbreaks become more frequent with climate change, ecosystem BVOC emissions will periodically increase due to herbivory....

  4. MICROBIOTA AND BIOGENIC AMINES VARIATION OF CHICKEN MEAT; COMPARISON BETWEEN WHITE AND RED MEAT

    OpenAIRE

    Octavian Baston; Octavian Barna; Aida Vasile

    2010-01-01

    Chicken meat freshness is in permanent attention for all partners involved in food chain. In this paper we want to highlight the variation of microbiota (psychrotrophic and total viable count) and the variation of biogenic amines in chicken red and white meat. We compared the two anatomical parts of chicken because they have different metabolism, and after cutting from the carcasses they can suffer microbial contamination in the process. The purpose of the study is the evaluation of refrigera...

  5. The influences of fish infusion broth on the biogenic amines formation by lactic acid bacteria

    OpenAIRE

    Esmeray Küley; Fatih Özogul; Esra Balikçi; Mustafa Durmus; Deniz Ayas

    2013-01-01

    The influences of fish infusion decarboxylase broth (IDB) on biogenic amines (BA) formation by lactic acid bacteria (LAB) were investigated. BA productions by single LAB strains were tested in five different fish (anchovy, mackerel, white shark, sardine and gilthead seabream) IDB. The result of the study showed that significant differences in ammonia (AMN) and BA production were observed among the LAB strains in fish IDB (p < 0.05). The highest AMN and TMA production by LAB strains were obser...

  6. A Review: Microbiological, Physicochemical and Health Impact of High Level of Biogenic Amines in Fish Sauce

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Muhammad Z. Zaman

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available Problem statement: Biogenic amines are basic nitrogenous compounds present in a wide variety of foods and beverages. Their formations were mainly due to the amino acids decarboxylase activity of certain microorganisms. Excessive intake of biogenic amines could induce many undesirable physiological effects determined by their psychoactive and vasoactive action. Fish sauce which is considered as a good source of dietary protein, amino acids, vitamins and minerals was a popular condiment in Southeast Asian countries. However, it has also been reported that fish sauce contain high amount of amines. Hence, attention should be given to ensure the safety of this product. Approach: A review study was conducted to deliver an overview on the presence of biogenic amines in fish sauce and to discuss the important factors affecting their accumulation. Impact of amines on human health and efforts to reduce their accumulation in fish sauce were also discussed to give a comprehensive view. Results: Histamine, putrescine and cadaverine is the most abundant amines in fish sauce with maximum reported value of 1220, 1257 and 1429 ppm, respectively. Tyramine present in a lesser amount with maximum reported value of 1178 ppm. Other amines such as tryptamine, phenylethylamine, spermine and spermidine were considered as minor amines. However, different profiles of amines were reported in different type of products. This was depended on microbial flora, availability of precursors and physicochemical factors such as temperature, pH, salt, oxygen and sugar concentration. In synergistically supporting physicochemical factors, several microorganisms such as Enterobacteriaceae, Micrococci and Lactobacilli were responsible for biogenic amines formation in fish sauce. Conclusion: Since the formation of amines in fish sauce was a result of many factors, it was almost virtually impossible to control each factor during fermentation. Addition of amines degrading bacteria into fish

  7. Structure, Function, and Evolution of Biogenic Amine-binding Proteins in Soft Ticks

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mans, Ben J.; Ribeiro, Jose M.C.; Andersen, John F. (NIH)

    2008-08-19

    Two highly abundant lipocalins, monomine and monotonin, have been isolated from the salivary gland of the soft tick Argas monolakensis and shown to bind histamine and 5-hydroxytryptamine (5-HT), respectively. The crystal structures of monomine and a paralog of monotonin were determined in the presence of ligands to compare the determinants of ligand binding. Both the structures and binding measurements indicate that the proteins have a single binding site rather than the two sites previously described for the female-specific histamine-binding protein (FS-HBP), the histamine-binding lipocalin of the tick Rhipicephalus appendiculatus. The binding sites of monomine and monotonin are similar to the lower, low affinity site of FS-HBP. The interaction of the protein with the aliphatic amine group of the ligand is very similar for the all of the proteins, whereas specificity is determined by interactions with the aromatic portion of the ligand. Interestingly, protein interaction with the imidazole ring of histamine differs significantly between the low affinity binding site of FS-HBP and monomine, suggesting that histamine binding has evolved independently in the two lineages. From the conserved features of these proteins, a tick lipocalin biogenic amine-binding motif could be derived that was used to predict biogenic amine-binding function in other tick lipocalins. Heterologous expression of genes from salivary gland libraries led to the discovery of biogenic amine-binding proteins in soft (Ornithodoros) and hard (Ixodes) tick genera. The data generated were used to reconstruct the most probable evolutionary pathway for the evolution of biogenic amine-binding in tick lipocalins.

  8. Biogenic amines determination in some traditional cheeses in West Azerbaijan province of Iran

    OpenAIRE

    Seyed Mehdi Razavi Rohani; Javad Aliakbarlu; Ali Ehsani; Hassan Hassanzadazar

    2013-01-01

    Biogenic amines (BA) are nitrogenous compounds that possess biological activity. The source of production is the microbial decarboxylation of amino acids. This compounds are found in various types of cheese. The aim of this work was to evaluate the BA content of some traditional cheeses in West Azerbaijan province Iran. For this purpose, 70 samples of Koopeh, 10 samples of Lighvan and 5 samples of Red Salmas cheeses were obtained from local supermarkets of different cities of West Azerbaijan ...

  9. Metabolism of biogenic amines in acute cerebral ischemia: Influence of systemic hyperglycemia

    OpenAIRE

    Milovanović Aleksandar; Milovanović J.; Milovanović Anđela; Konstatinović Ljubica; Petrović M.; Kekuš Divna; Petronijević-Vrzić Svetlana; Artiko Vera

    2012-01-01

    Dopamine, norepinephrine and serotonin are biogenic amines which are transmitters of the central nervous system. The effects of ischemia on the brain parenchyma depends on many factors, such is the mechanism of blood flow interruption, velocity of the occurring blood flow interruption, duration of an ischemic episode, organization of anatomical structures of the brain blood vessels etc., which all influence the final outcome. During interruption of the brai...

  10. Amino Acids and Biogenic Amines Evolution during the Estufagem of Fortified Wines

    OpenAIRE

    Vanda Pereira; Pereira, Ana C.; Pérez Trujillo, Juan P.; Juan Cacho; Marques, José C.

    2015-01-01

    The current study was focused on the impact of accelerated ageing (heating step) on the amino acid and biogenic amine profiles of fortified wines. In this sense, three Madeira wines from two commonly used grape varieties (one red and the other white) were analysed during the heating, at standard (45°C, 3 months) and overheating (70°C, 1 month) conditions, following a precolumn derivatization procedure using iodoacetic acid, o-phthaldialdehyde, and 2-mercaptoethanol, carried out in the injecti...

  11. Lactobacillus casei strains isolated from cheese reduce biogenic amine accumulation in an experimental model

    OpenAIRE

    Herrero, Ana; Martínez Álvarez, Noelia; Sánchez-Llana , Esther; Díaz, María; Fernández García, María; Martín, M. Cruz; Ladero Losada, Víctor Manuel; Álvarez González, Miguel Ángel

    2012-01-01

    Tyramine and histamine are the biogenic amines (BAs) most commonly found in cheese, in which they appear as a result of the microbial enzymatic decarboxylation of tyrosine and histidine respectively. Given their toxic effects, their presence in high concentrations in foods should be avoided. In this work, samples of three cheeses (Zamorano, Cabrales and Emmental) with long ripening periods, and that often have high BA concentrations, were screened for the presence of BA-degrading lactic acid ...

  12. Urban stress-induced biogenic VOC emissions impact secondary aerosol formation in Beijing

    OpenAIRE

    Ghirardo, A.; Xie, J; Zheng, X; Wang, Y.; Grote, R.; Block, K.; J. Wildt; Mentel, T.; Kiendler-Scharr, A.; M. Hallquist; Butterbach-Bahl, K.; J.-P. Schnitzler

    2015-01-01

    Trees can significantly impact the urban air chemistry by the uptake and emission of reactive biogenic volatile organic compounds (BVOCs), which are involved in ozone and particle formation. Here we present the emission potentials of "constitutive" (cBVOCs) and "stress-induced" BVOCs (sBVOCs) from the dominant broadleaf woody plant species in the megacity of Beijing. Based on an inventory of BVOC emissions and the tree census, we assessed the potential impact ...

  13. Urban stress-induced biogenic VOC emissions and SOA-forming potentials in Beijing

    OpenAIRE

    Ghirardo, Andrea; Xie, Junfei; Zheng, Xunhua; Wang, Yuesi; Grote, Rüdiger; Block, Katja; Wildt, Jürgen; Mentel, Thomas; Kiendler-Scharr, Astrid; Hallquist, Mattias; Butterbach-Bahl, Klaus; Schnitzler, Jörg-Peter

    2016-01-01

    Trees can significantly impact the urban air chemistry by the uptake and emission of reactive biogenic volatile organic compounds (BVOCs), which are involved in ozone and particle formation. Here we present the emission potentials of "constitutive" (cBVOCs) and "stress-induced" BVOCs (sBVOCs) from the dominant broadleaf woody plant species in the megacity of Beijing. Based on the municipal tree census and cuvette BVOC measurements on leaf level, we built an inventory of BVOC...

  14. Global dataset of biogenic VOC emissions calculated by the MEGAN model over the last 30 years

    OpenAIRE

    Sindelarova, K.; C. Granier; Bouarar, I.; A. Guenther; Tilmes, S.; Stavrakou, T.; J.-F. Müller; Kuhn, U.; Stefani, P.; Knorr, W.

    2014-01-01

    The Model of Emissions of Gases and Aerosols from Nature (MEGANv2.1) together with the Modern-Era Retrospective Analysis for Research and Applications (MERRA) meteorological fields were used to create a global emission dataset of biogenic volatile organic compounds (BVOC) available on a monthly basis for the time period of 1980–2010. This dataset is called MEGAN-MACC. The model estimated mean annual total BVOC emission of 760 Tg (C) yr−1 consisting of ...

  15. Incremental Reactivity Effects on Secondary Organic Aerosol Formation in Urban Atmospheres with and without Biogenic Influence

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kacarab, Mary; Li, Lijie; Carter, William P. L.; Cocker, David R., III

    2016-04-01

    Two different surrogate mixtures of anthropogenic and biogenic volatile organic compounds (VOCs) were developed to study secondary organic aerosol (SOA) formation at atmospheric reactivities similar to urban regions with varying biogenic influence levels. Environmental chamber simulations were designed to enable the study of the incremental aerosol formation from select anthropogenic (m‑Xylene, 1,2,4-Trimethylbenzene, and 1-Methylnaphthalene) and biogenic (α-pinene) precursors under the chemical reactivity set by the two different surrogate mixtures. The surrogate reactive organic gas (ROG) mixtures were based on that used to develop the maximum incremental reactivity (MIR) factors for evaluation of O3 forming potential. Multiple incremental aerosol formation experiments were performed in the University of California Riverside (UCR) College of Engineering Center for Environmental Research and Technology (CE-CERT) dual 90m3 environmental chambers. Incremental aerosol yields were determined for each of the VOCs studied and compared to yields found from single precursor studies. Aerosol physical properties of density, volatility, and hygroscopicity were monitored throughout experiments. Bulk elemental chemical composition from high-resolution time of flight aerosol mass spectrometer (HR-ToF-AMS) data will also be presented. Incremental yields and SOA chemical and physical characteristics will be compared with data from previous single VOC studies conducted for these aerosol precursors following traditional VOC/NOx chamber experiments. Evaluation of the incremental effects of VOCs on SOA formation and properties are paramount in evaluating how to best extrapolate environmental chamber observations to the ambient atmosphere and provides useful insights into current SOA formation models. Further, the comparison of incremental SOA from VOCs in varying surrogate urban atmospheres (with and without strong biogenic influence) allows for a unique perspective on the impacts

  16. Methyl chavicol: characterization of its biogenic emission rate, abundance, and oxidation products in the atmosphere

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    N. C. Bouvier-Brown

    2008-11-01

    Full Text Available We report measurements of ambient atmospheric mixing ratios for methyl chavicol and determine its biogenic emission rate. Methyl chavicol, a biogenic oxygenated aromatic compound, is abundant within and above Blodgett Forest, a ponderosa pine forest in the Sierra Nevada Mountains of California. Methyl chavicol was detected simultaneously by three in-situ instruments – a gas chromatograph with mass spectrometer detector (GC-MS, a proton transfer reaction mass spectrometer (PTR-MS, and a thermal desorption aerosol GC-MS (TAG – and found to be abundant within and above Blodgett Forest, a ponderosa pine forest in the Sierra Nevada Mountains of California. Methyl chavicol atmospheric mixing ratios are strongly correlated with 2-methyl-3-buten-2-ol (MBO, a light- and temperature-dependent biogenic emission from the ponderosa pine trees at Blodgett Forest. Scaling from this correlation, methyl chavicol emissions account for 4–68% of the carbon mass emitted as MBO in the daytime, depending on the season. From this relationship, we estimate a daytime basal emission rate of 0.72–10.2 μgCg−1h−1, depending on needle age and seasonality. We also present the first observations of its oxidation products (4-methoxybenzaldehyde and 4-methyoxy benzene acetaldehyde in the ambient atmosphere. Methyl chavicol is a major essential oil component of many plant species. This work suggests that methyl chavicol plays a significant role in the atmospheric chemistry of Blodgett Forest, and potentially other sites, and should be included explicitly in both biogenic volatile organic carbon emission and atmospheric chemistry models.

  17. Methyl chavicol: characterization of its biogenic emission rate, abundance, and oxidation products in the atmosphere

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    N. C. Bouvier-Brown

    2009-03-01

    Full Text Available We report measurements of ambient atmospheric mixing ratios for methyl chavicol and determine its biogenic emission rate. Methyl chavicol, a biogenic oxygenated aromatic compound, is abundant within and above Blodgett Forest, a ponderosa pine forest in the Sierra Nevada Mountains of California. Methyl chavicol was detected simultaneously by three in-situ instruments – a gas chromatograph with mass spectrometer detector (GC-MS, a proton transfer reaction mass spectrometer (PTR-MS, and a thermal desorption aerosol GC-MS (TAG – and found to be abundant within and above Blodgett Forest. Methyl chavicol atmospheric mixing ratios are strongly correlated with 2-methyl-3-buten-2-ol (MBO, a light- and temperature-dependent biogenic emission from the ponderosa pine trees at Blodgett Forest. Scaling from this correlation, methyl chavicol emissions account for 4–68% of the carbon mass emitted as MBO in the daytime, depending on the season. From this relationship, we estimate a daytime basal emission rate of 0.72–10.2 μgCg−1 h−1, depending on needle age and seasonality. We also present the first observations of its oxidation products (4-methoxybenzaldehyde and 4-methyoxy benzene acetaldehyde in the ambient atmosphere. Methyl chavicol is a major essential oil component of many plant species. This work suggests that methyl chavicol plays a significant role in the atmospheric chemistry of Blodgett Forest, and potentially other sites, and should be included explicitly in both biogenic volatile organic carbon emission and atmospheric chemistry models.

  18. Humus components and biogenic structures under tropical slash-and-burn agriculture

    OpenAIRE

    Topoliantz, Stéphanie; Ponge, Jean-François; Lavelle, Patrick

    2006-01-01

    International audience Slash-and-burn cultivation in the humid tropics can cause changes in the composition of topsoil, depending on the duration of the fallow. We studied differences between practices, using the small-volume micromorphological method, to quantify the distribution of solid components in the topsoil, concentrating on plant organs and biogenic structures created by soil animals. We compared samples of topsoil from five plots, two at Maripasoula, an Aluku village along the Ma...

  19. Laboratory and field measurements of enantiomeric and non-enantiomeric biogenic VOCs and anthropogenic BTEX compounds

    OpenAIRE

    Song, Wei

    2012-01-01

    This doctoral thesis was focused on the investigation of enantiomeric and non-enantiomeric biogenic organic compound (BVOC) emissions from both leaf and canopy scales in different environments. In addition, the anthropogenic compounds benzene, toluene, ethylbenzene, and xylenes (BTEX) were studied. BVOCs are emitted into the lower troposphere in large quantities (ca. 1150 Tg C ·yr-1), approximately an order of magnitude greater than the anthropogenic VOCs. BVOCs are particul...

  20. The three steps of the carbonate biogenic dissolution process by microborers in coral reefs (New Caledonia).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grange, J S; Rybarczyk, H; Tribollet, A

    2015-09-01

    Biogenic dissolution of carbonates by microborers is one of the main destructive forces in coral reefs and is predicted to be enhanced by eutrophication and ocean acidification by 2100. The chlorophyte Ostreobium sp., the main agent of this process, has been reported to be one of the most responsive of all microboring species to those environmental factors. However, very little is known about its recruitment, how it develops over successions of microboring communities, and how that influences rates of biogenic dissolution. Thus, an experiment with dead coral blocks exposed to colonization by microborers was carried out on a reef in New Caledonia over a year period. Each month, a few blocks were collected to study microboring communities and the associated rates of biogenic dissolution. Our results showed a drastic shift in community species composition between the 4th and 5th months of exposure, i.e., pioneer communities dominated by large chlorophytes such as Phaeophila sp. were replaced by mature communities dominated by Ostreobium sp. Prior the 4th month of exposure, large chlorophytes were responsible for low rates of biogenic dissolution while during the community shift, rates increased exponentially (×10). After 6 months of exposure, rates slowed down and reached a "plateau" with a mean of 0.93 kg of CaCO3 dissolved per m(2) of reef after 12 months of exposure. Here, we show that (a) Ostreobium sp. settled down in new dead substrates as soon as the 3rd month of exposure but dominated communities only after 5 months of exposure and (b) microbioerosion dynamics comprise three distinct steps which fully depend on community development stage and grazing pressure. PMID:25592911

  1. Potential of biogenic hydrogen production for hydrogen driven remediation strategies in marine environments

    OpenAIRE

    Hosseinkhani, Baharak; Hennebel, Tom; Boon, Nico

    2014-01-01

    Fermentative production of bio-hydrogen (bio-H2) from organic residues has emerged as a promising alternative for providing the required electron source for hydrogen driven remediation strategies. Unlike the widely used production of H2 by bacteria in fresh water systems, few reports are available regarding the generation of biogenic H2 and optimisation processes in marine systems. The present research aims to optimise the capability of an indigenous marine bacterium for the production of bio...

  2. Incremental Reactivity Effects of Anthropogenic and Biogenic Volatile Organic Compounds on Secondary Organic Aerosol Formation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kacarab, M.; Li, L.; Carter, W. P. L.; Cocker, D. R., III

    2015-12-01

    Two surrogate reactive organic gas (ROG) mixtures were developed to create a controlled reactivity environment simulating different urban atmospheres with varying levels of anthropogenic (e.g. Los Angeles reactivity) and biogenic (e.g. Atlanta reactivity) influences. Traditional chamber experiments focus on the oxidation of one or two volatile organic compound (VOC) precursors, allowing the reactivity of the system to be dictated by those compounds. Surrogate ROG mixtures control the overall reactivity of the system, allowing for the incremental aerosol formation from an added VOC to be observed. The surrogate ROG mixtures were developed based on that used to determine maximum incremental reactivity (MIR) scales for O3 formation from VOC precursors in a Los Angeles smog environment. Environmental chamber experiments were designed to highlight the incremental aerosol formation in the simulated environment due to the addition of an added anthropogenic (aromatic) or biogenic (terpene) VOC. All experiments were conducted in the UC Riverside/CE-CERT dual 90m3 environmental chambers. It was found that the aerosol precursors behaved differently under the two altered reactivity conditions, with more incremental aerosol being formed in the anthropogenic ROG system than in the biogenic ROG system. Further, the biogenic reactivity condition inhibited the oxidation of added anthropogenic aerosol precursors, such as m-xylene. Data will be presented on aerosol properties (density, volatility, hygroscopicity) and bulk chemical composition in the gas and particle phases (from a SYFT Technologies selected ion flow tube mass spectrometer, SIFT-MS, and Aerodyne high resolution time of flight aerosol mass spectrometer, HR-ToF-AMS, respectively) comparing the two controlled reactivity systems and single precursor VOC/NOx studies. Incremental aerosol yield data at different controlled reactivities provide a novel and valuable insight in the attempt to extrapolate environmental chamber

  3. The contribution of tephra constituents during biogenic silica determination: implications for soil and palaeoecological studies

    OpenAIRE

    Clymans, W.; L. Barão; Van Der Putten, N.; S. Wastegård; G. Gísladóttir; Björck, S.; Moine, B.; E. Struyf; Conley, D. J.

    2015-01-01

    Biogenic silica (BSi) is used as a proxy by soil scientists to identify biological effects on the Si cycle and by palaeoecologists to study environmental changes. Alkaline extractions are typically used to measure BSi in both terrestrial and aquatic environments. The dissolution properties of volcanic glass in tephra deposits and their nanocrystalline weathering products are hypothesized to overlap those of BSi; however, data to support this behaviour are lacking. The potent...

  4. Life Cycle Assessment of age-related environmental impact of biogenic hydraulic fluids; Life Cycle Assessment der alterungsbedingten Umweltvertraeglichkeit biogener Hydraulik-Schmierstoffe

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bressling, Jana

    2012-07-01

    Biogenic hydraulic fluids, based on synthetic esters (category: HEES), have an excellent environmental profile in the unused state, so that they are typically classified into water hazard class 1 or as ''not hazardous to water''. During storage at room temperature and tribological application, occurring chemical and toxicological changes take no account in the classification of lubricants until now. However, the ageing and oxidation stability gets increasing importance, since it determines the service life of lubricants in tribological systems in addition to the storage time. Since it always comes to direct and uncontrolled entries into the environment in case of accidents or hydraulic leaks, it is essential to assess whether there is an environmental hazard by waste oils. With an increased use of biogenic hydraulic fluids in environmentally sensitive areas, thus the need for an appropriate monitoring and assessment approach as part of a Life Cycle Assessment (LCA). The aquatic and miniaturised test procedures applied in this work with the Water Soluble Fraction (WSF) concept, allows a simple and quick screening of age-related ecotoxic potential of lubricants by oxidative processes and tribological application. For detection of genotoxic potential the umu-test is a suitable indicator test to detect geno- and cytotoxic effects by oxidative reactions. The determination of biodegradability is essential for the assessment of the environmental impact of hydraulic fluids. The optimised biodegradability test system ''O2/CO2-Headspace Test'' has proved itself as a suitable procedure for the investigation of biogenic lubricants within the scope of a LCA and shows therefore a comparable method of the required test procedures for the assignment of ecolabels. In addition, the combination of biological test procedures and chemical analysis allows a comprehensive investigation of effects and causes of age-related changes of hydraulic

  5. Biogenic, anthropogenic and sea salt sulfate size-segregated aerosols in the Arctic summer

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ghahremaninezhad, Roghayeh; Norman, Ann-Lise; Abbatt, Jonathan P. D.; Levasseur, Maurice; Thomas, Jennie L.

    2016-04-01

    Size-segregated aerosol sulfate concentrations were measured on board the Canadian Coast Guard Ship (CCGS) Amundsen in the Arctic during July 2014. The objective of this study was to utilize the isotopic composition of sulfate to address the contribution of anthropogenic and biogenic sources of aerosols to the growth of the different aerosol size fractions in the Arctic atmosphere. Non-sea-salt sulfate is divided into biogenic and anthropogenic sulfate using stable isotope apportionment techniques. A considerable amount of the average sulfate concentration in the fine aerosols with a diameter 63 %), which is higher than in previous Arctic studies measuring above the ocean during fall ( 30 %) (Norman et al., 1999). The anthropogenic sulfate concentration was less than that of biogenic sulfate, with potential sources being long-range transport and, more locally, the Amundsen's emissions. Despite attempts to minimize the influence of ship stack emissions, evidence from larger-sized particles demonstrates a contribution from local pollution. A comparison of δ34S values for SO2 and fine aerosols was used to show that gas-to-particle conversion likely occurred during most sampling periods. δ34S values for SO2 and fine aerosols were similar, suggesting the same source for SO2 and aerosol sulfate, except for two samples with a relatively high anthropogenic fraction in particles Ocean during the productive summer months.

  6. Effects of biogenic amines on the testicular development in mud crabs Scylla serrata

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    YE Haihui; HUANG Huiyang; LI Shaojing; WANG Guizhong; LI Qifu

    2006-01-01

    The regulation of three biogenic amines over the reproductive neuroendocrine activity of the male Scylla serrata was investigated by in vivo injection and in vitro incubation. The testicular index, the ratio of the mature sections in testes, and the ratio of Type B cells in androgenic gland were taken as the quantitative indexes. The in vivo injections indicated that: 5-HT can significantly promote the testicular development and the secretion of the androgenic gland in S. serrata; DA can inhibit the testicular development, but no influence on the secretion of the androgenic gland was found; no significant difference was observed between the OA-injected group and the concurrent control group. In vitro incubations showed that: 5-HT can stimulate the secretion of the brain and the thoracic ganglia, thus accelerating that of the androgenic gland; however, neither OA nor DA showed any significant influence on the secretion of the brain and the thoracic ganglionic mass. As to the optic ganglia, the three biogenic amines hardly have any effect on its secretion. It is the first time to report the regulation of biogenic amines over the reproductive neuroendocrine of male crustaceans through vitro experiments.Results corroborate that 5-HT activates the brain and the thoracic ganglia to secret GSH first, then promote the testicular development through the activity of the androgenic gland.

  7. Biogenic non-methane hydrocarbons (NMHC). Nature`s contribution to regional and global atmospheric chemistry

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Klockow, D.; Hoffman, T. [Inst. of Spectrochemistry and Applied Spectroscopy, Dortmund (Germany)

    1995-12-31

    Terrestrial vegetation provides an important source of volatile hydrocarbons, especially isoprene, monoterpenes and in addition possibly sesquiterpenes as well as oxygenated compounds. Although there exist considerable uncertainties in the estimation of the magnitude of these biogenic NMHC emissions, it is generally accepted that the majority of global NMHC release is from natural and not from anthropogenic sources. Taking into consideration the high reactivity of the mostly unsaturated biogenic emissions, their impact on tropospheric processes can be assumed to be of great importance. Together with anthropogenic NO{sub x} emissions, the highly reactive natural alkenes can act as precursors in photochemical oxidant formation and contribute to regional-scale air pollution. Their oxidation in the atmosphere and the subsequent gas-to-particle conversion of the products lead to the formation of organic aerosols. Because of the formation of phytotoxic compounds, the interaction of the biogenic hydrocarbons with ozone inside or outside the leaves and needles of plants has been suggested to play a role in forest decline. (author)

  8. Biogenic iron mineralization at Iron Mountain, CA with implications for detection with the Mars Curiosity rover

    Science.gov (United States)

    Williams, Amy J.; Sumner, Dawn Y.; Alpers, Charles N.; Campbell, Kate M.; Nordstrom, D Kirk

    2014-01-01

    (Introduction) Microbe-mineral interactions and biosignature preservation in oxidized sulfidic ore bodies (gossans) are prime candidates for astrobiological study. Such oxidized iron systems have been proposed as analogs for some Martian environments. Recent studies identified microbial fossils preserved as mineral-coated filaments. This study documents microbially-mediated mineral biosignatures in hydrous ferric oxide (HFO) and ferric oxyhydroxysulfates (FOHS) in three environments at Iron Mountain, CA. We investigated microbial community preservation via HFO and FOHS precipitation and the formation of filamentous mineral biosignatures. These environments included 1) actively precipitating (1000's yrs), naturally weathered HFO from in situ gossan, and 3) remobilized iron deposits, which contained lithified clastics and zones of HFO precipitate. We used published biogenicity criteria as guidelines to characterize the biogenicity of mineral filaments. These criteria included A) an actively precipitating environment where microbes are known to be coated in minerals, B) presence of extant microbial communities with carbon signatures, C) structures observable as a part of the host rock, and D) biological morphology, including cellular lumina, multiple member population, numerous taxa, variable and 3-D preservation, biological size ranges, uniform diameter, and evidence of flexibility. This study explores the relevance and detection of these biosignatures to possible Martian biosignatures. Similar filamentous biosignatures are resolvable by the Mars Hand Lens Imager (MAHLI) onboard the Mars Science Laboratory (MSL) rover, Curiosity, and may be identifiable as biogenic if present on Mars.

  9. BIOGENIC AMINE CONTENT AND CHEMICAL AND PHYSICAL FEATURES OF ITALIAN FORMAGGIO DI FOSSA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S Rea

    2010-06-01

    Full Text Available Formaggio di Fossa is an Italian traditional cheese of the Montefeltro area (Emilia Romagna and Marche regions characterized by a particular step of ripening that is carried out into pits (infossamento borne in the sandstone. Since the XIV century, the inhabitants were used to set food, especially cereals and cheese, into pits to preserve them during winter and to protect them from invaders. The aim of the present work is to study physical and chemical features of this product with particular reference to the presence of the most important biogenic amines ( -Phenylethylamine, putrescine, cadaverine, histamine, tyramine, spermine and spermidine, compared with a control cheese fully ripened in factory. Formaggio di Fossa showed higher values of Aw, pH, humidity, proteins, pH 4,6-soluble nitrogen (NCN and water soluble nitrogen (NPN and much lower amounts of fat. Much higher amounts of total biogenic amines were detected in Formaggio di Fossa than in control cheese, where their concentration was very low. Cadaverine, putrescine and tyramine were the most concentrated biogenic amines. Nevertheless, thyramine was present at levels suggested as compatible with GMPs. Histamine was detected at low amounts, far from potentially toxic levels.

  10. New procedure of selected biogenic amines determination in wine samples by HPLC.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Piasta, Anna M; Jastrzębska, Aneta; Krzemiński, Marek P; Muzioł, Tadeusz M; Szłyk, Edward

    2014-06-27

    A new procedure for determination of biogenic amines (BA): histamine, phenethylamine, tyramine and tryptamine, based on the derivatization reaction with 2-chloro-1,3-dinitro-5-(trifluoromethyl)-benzene (CNBF), is proposed. The amines derivatives with CNBF were isolated and characterized by X-ray crystallography and (1)H, (13)C, (19)F NMR spectroscopy in solution. The novelty of the procedure is based on the pure and well-characterized products of the amines derivatization reaction. The method was applied for the simultaneous analysis of the above mentioned biogenic amines in wine samples by the reversed phase-high performance liquid chromatography. The procedure revealed correlation coefficients (R(2)) between 0.9997 and 0.9999, and linear range: 0.10-9.00 mg L(-1) (histamine); 0.10-9.36 mg L(-1) (tyramine); 0.09-8.64 mg L(-1) (tryptamine) and 0.10-8.64 mg L(-1) (phenethylamine), whereas accuracy was 97%-102% (recovery test). Detection limit of biogenic amines in wine samples was 0.02-0.03 mg L(-1), whereas quantification limit ranged 0.05-0.10 mg L(-1). The variation coefficients for the analyzed amines ranged between 0.49% and 3.92%. Obtained BA derivatives enhanced separation the analytes on chromatograms due to the inhibition of hydrolysis reaction and the reduction of by-products formation. PMID:24928246

  11. Amino Acids and Biogenic Amines Evolution during the Estufagem of Fortified Wines

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vanda Pereira

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available The current study was focused on the impact of accelerated ageing (heating step on the amino acid and biogenic amine profiles of fortified wines. In this sense, three Madeira wines from two commonly used grape varieties (one red and the other white were analysed during the heating, at standard (45°C, 3 months and overheating (70°C, 1 month conditions, following a precolumn derivatization procedure using iodoacetic acid, o-phthaldialdehyde, and 2-mercaptoethanol, carried out in the injection loop prior to RP-HPLC-FLD detection. Eighteen amino acids were identified, with arginine being the most abundant. An important decrease of the amino acid levels was detected during the standard heating (up to 30%, enhanced up to 61% by the temperature increase. Cysteine, histidine, and asparagine revealed the greatest decreases at 45°C. Conversely, some amino acids, such as asparagine, slightly increased. Four biogenic amines were identified but always in trace amounts. Finally, it was observed that the accelerated ageing did not favour the biogenic amine development. The results also indicate that the heating process promotes the amino acid transformation into new ageing products.

  12. Fast determination of biogenic amines in beverages by a core-shell particle column.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Preti, Raffaella; Antonelli, Marta Letizia; Bernacchia, Roberta; Vinci, Giuliana

    2015-11-15

    A fast and reliable HPLC method for the determination of 11 biogenic amines in beverages has been performed. After pre-column derivatization with dansyl-chloride a Kinetex C18 core-shell particle column (100 mm × 4.6 mm, 2.6 μm particle size) has been employed and the biogenic amines were identified and quantified in a total run time of 13 min with ultraviolet (UV) or fluorescence detection (FLD). Chromatographic conditions such as column temperature (kept at 50 °C), gradient elution and flow rate have been optimized and the method has been tested on red wine and fruit nectar. The proposed method is enhanced in terms of reduced analysis time and eluent consumption with respect of classical HPLC method as to be comparable to UHPLC methods. Green and cost-effective, this method can be used as a quality-control tool for routine quantitative analysis of biogenic amines in beverages for the average laboratory. PMID:25977063

  13. Biogenic amine levels, reproduction and social dominance in the queenless ant Streblognathus peetersi.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cuvillier-Hot, Virginie; Lenoir, Alain

    2006-03-01

    Social harmony often relies on ritualized dominance interactions between society members, particularly in queenless ant societies, where colony members do not have developmentally predetermined castes but have to fight for their status in the reproductive and work hierarchy. In this behavioural plasticity, their social organisation resembles more that of vertebrates than that of the "classic" social insects. The present study investigates the neurochemistry of the queenless ant species, Streblognathus peetersi, to better understand the neural basis of the high behavioural plasticity observed in queenless ants. We report measurements of brain biogenic amines [octopamine, dopamine, serotonin] of S. peetersi ants; they reveal a new set of biogenic amine influences on social organisation with no common features with other "primitively organised societies" (bumble bees) and some common features with "highly eusocial" species (honey bees). This similarity to honey bees may either confirm the heritage of queenless species from their probably highly eusocial ancestors or highlight independent patterns of biogenic amine influences on the social organisation of these highly derived species. PMID:16514515

  14. Evidence for the biogenic origin of manganese-enriched layers in Lake Superior sediments.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Palermo, Christine; Dittrich, Maria

    2016-04-01

    Manganese (Mn) and iron (Fe)-enriched sediment layers were discovered in Lake Superior within, above and below the oxic-anoxic interface. While the role of bacteria in redox reactions with Mn is known to be significant, little information exists about indigenous microbial communities in many freshwater environments. This study examined the bacterial communities of Mn-enriched layers in Lake Superior to identify the potential Mn(II) oxidizers responsible for the formation of Mn oxides. Anaerobic Mn(II) oxidation occurring in the Mn-enriched layers at the oxic-anoxic interface was investigated using Mn(II)-enriched cultures. High-resolution microscopic and spectroscopic investigations provided evidence of the biogenic formation of Mn oxides on cell surfaces. Spectroscopic mapping confirmed high levels of Mn in structures resembling biogenic Mn oxides. These structures were observed in enrichment cultures and in Mn-enriched layer sediment samples, indicating the significance of biogenic Mn oxidation occurring in situ. 16S ribosomal DNA pyrosequencing was used to identify the bacteria potentially responsible for Mnoxide formation in the enrichment cultures and Mn-enriched layers, revealing that the Mn-enriched layer contains classes with known Mn(II)-oxidizing members. Pyrosequencing of bacterial cultures suggested that these bacteria may be Bacillus strains, and that anaerobic microbial-mediated Mn(II) oxidation contributes to the formation of the layers. PMID:26636960

  15. Direct radiative feedback due to biogenic secondary organic aerosol estimated from boreal forest site observations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    We used more than five years of continuous aerosol measurements to estimate the direct radiative feedback parameter associated with the formation of biogenic secondary organic aerosol (BSOA) at a remote continental site at the edge of the boreal forest zone in Northern Finland. Our upper-limit estimate for this feedback parameter during the summer period (ambient temperatures above 10 °C) was −97 ± 66 mW m−2 K−1 (mean ± STD) when using measurements of the aerosol optical depth (fAOD) and −63 ± 40 mW m−2 K−1 when using measurements of the ‘dry’ aerosol scattering coefficient at the ground level (fσ). Here STD represents the variability in f caused by the observed variability in the quantities used to derive the value of f. Compared with our measurement site, the magnitude of the direct radiative feedback associated with BSOA is expected to be larger in warmer continental regions with more abundant biogenic emissions, and even larger in regions where biogenic emissions are mixed with anthropogenic pollution. (letter)

  16. Role of biogenic amines in pathogenesis of dust induced respiratory diseases

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Talakin, Yu.N.; Deinega, V.G.; Gridneva, N.V.; Levitskaya, V.A.

    1987-06-01

    Studies metabolism of biogenic amines, catecholamine, histamine and serotonin and their part in pathophysiologic mechanisms of bronchial obstruction in chronic dust bronchitits of coal miners. Three groups of miners, 50 healthy controls, 200 with pneumoconiosis and 95 with chronic dust bronchitis were tested to determine content in blood of histamine, serotonin, activity of histaminase, monoaminoxidase (MAO), daily elimination in urine of 5-oxyindoleacetic acid, adrenalin, noradrelin, dopamine and dopa. Results processed statistically are shown in a table (changes of indices of metabolism of biogenic amines in blood of coal miners). Healthy miners show increased catabolism of serotonin. During stage 1 pneumoconiosis, evacuation of noradrenalin is increased and emission of dopamine with urine decreases, level of histamine in blood rises, activity of MOA and excretion of 5-oxyindoleacetic acid increase. In chronic dust bronchitis depression of mediator link of sympathetic adrenalin system is augmented, level of histamine of blood rises with lowered histaminopexia. Activity of MAO and evacuation of 5-oxyindoleacetic increase. To evaluate the condition of metabolism of biogenic amines, it is advisable in clinical practice to use informative biochemical criteria in combination with physiologic methods of investigation to conduct provocative and pharmacologic tests in order to approach differentially establishment of a basic curative treatment complex and improve effectiveness of therapy. 16 refs.

  17. The Functions of China Marginal Sea Sediments in the Cycle of Biogenic Elements

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Sun Yunming; Song Jinming

    2002-01-01

    The contents of biogenic elements in China marginal sea sediments are related to their grain sizes, river transport, et al. In general, the finer the grain size is, the higher the contents of organic matter and OC, N, P are, the lower the contents of S and Si are. The biogeochemical environments of sediments are related to Eh, pH, temperature content of OC,Fe3+/Fe2+ radio, water dynamics condition, grain size of sediment, S system in sediment interstitial waters, et al., and they influence the early diageneses and cycle of biogenic elements in sediments. In most regions of China marginal sea, the flux directions of S2-, HS-,3- NH4+H4SiO4, PO4 , across the sediment-water interface are from sediment to the overlying seawater, the flux directions of SO42-, HCO3-, NO3-, NO2- across the sediment-water interface are from the overlying seawater to sediment. The irrigation of living things is important in the cycle of the biogenic elements across sediment-water interfaces.

  18. Organic aerosol formation from biogenic compounds over the Ponderosa pine forest in Colorado

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roux, Alma Hodzic; Lee-Taylor, Julia; Cui, Yuyan; Madronich, Sasha

    2013-05-01

    The secondary organic aerosol (SOA) formation and regional growth from biogenic precursors is of particular interest given their abundance in the atmosphere, and has been investigated during the Rocky Mountain Biogenic Aerosol field Study in 2011 in the pine forest canopy (dominated by terpene emissions) using both WRF/Chem 4km simulations and the GECKO-A explicit chemistry box-model runs. We have quantified the relative contribution of different biogenic precursors to SOA levels that were measured by the aerosol mass spectrometer at the site, and investigated the relative contribution of OH, O3 and NO3 chemistry to the formed SOA mass during day-and nighttime. Although, the local production and mass concentrations of submicron organic aerosols at the site seem relatively modest ˜1-2 ug/m3, we show that the optically active regional mass is increased as the SOA formation continues for several days in the background forest air. We investigate whether the simplified SOA parameterizations used in 3D models can capture this growth. In addition, preliminary comparisons of the number concentrations and the composition of ultrafine particles (8 - 30nm) from WRF/Chem simulations and TD-CIMS measurements are also discussed, and the contribution of organic aerosols to CCN formation is quantified.

  19. Diclofenac and 2-anilinophenylacetate degradation by combined activity of biogenic manganese oxides and silver.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meerburg, Francis; Hennebel, Tom; Vanhaecke, Lynn; Verstraete, Willy; Boon, Nico

    2012-05-01

    The occurrence of a range of recalcitrant organic micropollutants in our aquatic environment has led to the development of various tertiary wastewater treatment methods. In this study, biogenic manganese oxides (Bio-MnOx), biogenic silver nanoparticles (Bio-Ag(0)) and ionic silver were used for the oxidative removal of the frequently encountered drug diclofenac and its dechlorinated form, 2-anilinophenylacetate (APA). Diclofenac was rapidly degraded during ongoing manganese oxidation by Pseudomonas putida MnB6. Furthermore, whereas preoxidized Bio-MnOx, Bio-Ag(0) and Ag(+) separately did not show any removal capacity for diclofenac, an enhanced removal occurred when Bio-MnOx and silver species were combined. Similar results were obtained for APA. Finally, a slow removal of diclofenac but more rapid APA degradation was observed when silver was added to manganese-free P. putida biomass. Combining these results, three mechanisms of diclofenac and APA removal could be distinguished: (i) a co-metabolic removal during active Mn(2+) oxidation by P. putida; (ii) a synergistic interaction between preoxidized Bio-MnOx and silver species; and (iii) a (bio)chemical process by biomass enriched with silver catalysts. This paper demonstrates the use of P. putida for water treatment purposes and is the first report of the application of silver combined with biogenic manganese for the removal of organic water contaminants. PMID:22221449

  20. Diclofenac and 2‐anilinophenylacetate degradation by combined activity of biogenic manganese oxides and silver

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meerburg, Francis; Hennebel, Tom; Vanhaecke, Lynn; Verstraete, Willy; Boon, Nico

    2012-01-01

    Summary The occurrence of a range of recalcitrant organic micropollutants in our aquatic environment has led to the development of various tertiary wastewater treatment methods. In this study, biogenic manganese oxides (Bio‐MnOx), biogenic silver nanoparticles (Bio‐Ag0) and ionic silver were used for the oxidative removal of the frequently encountered drug diclofenac and its dechlorinated form, 2‐anilinophenylacetate (APA). Diclofenac was rapidly degraded during ongoing manganese oxidation by Pseudomonas putida MnB6. Furthermore, whereas preoxidized Bio‐MnOx, Bio‐Ag0 and Ag+ separately did not show any removal capacity for diclofenac, an enhanced removal occurred when Bio‐MnOx and silver species were combined. Similar results were obtained for APA. Finally, a slow removal of diclofenac but more rapid APA degradation was observed when silver was added to manganese‐free P. putida biomass. Combining these results, three mechanisms of diclofenac and APA removal could be distinguished: (i) a co‐metabolic removal during active Mn2+ oxidation by P. putida; (ii) a synergistic interaction between preoxidized Bio‐MnOx and silver species; and (iii) a (bio)chemical process by biomass enriched with silver catalysts. This paper demonstrates the use of P. putida for water treatment purposes and is the first report of the application of silver combined with biogenic manganese for the removal of organic water contaminants. PMID:22221449

  1. Deforestation and Biogenic Trace Emissions from Brazilian Cerrado

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sinha, Ravi; Geol, P.

    1996-01-01

    The overall goal of NASA's SCAR (Smoke, Cloud and Radiation) Program is to obtain physical and chemical properties of the smoke produced by biomass burning and the effects of the smoke on the earth's radiation balance and climate. It is a joint project with the Brazilian government and their organizations, including INPE (Instituto Nacional Pesquisas Espaciais) who actively participate in all activities. Appropriate estimates of the biomass buming in the tropics is therefore essential to determine its effect on the atmosphere and on climate. The SCAR series of experiments is designed with that purpose. The present study of evaluating the burnt-out areas is to augment the data collected to date to help evaluate the effect of biomass burning.

  2. Spatial and temporal patterns of Pleistocene biogenic sediment accumulation in the Gulf of Alaska

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moy, C. M.; Bahlburg, H.; Childress, L. B.; Cowan, E. A.; Forwick, M.; Müller, J.; Ribeiro, F.; Ridgway, K. D.; Mix, A. C.

    2013-12-01

    Reconstructing the timing and nature of past changes in aquatic productivity in the Gulf of Alaska (GoA) can shed light on the primary processes driving biogeochemical cycling over geologic timescales. Today, Fe is an important micronutrient that limits primary productivity in surface waters beyond the continental shelf in much of the GoA. However, we have a relatively poor understanding of how Fe-delivery processes, combined with changing climate, environmental, and oceanographic conditions, interact to influence primary production over glacial-interglacial timescales. An important first step is to identify the spatial and temporal patterns of increased productivity in the sediment record. Here, we present sedimentologic and physical property data from IODP Expedition 341 and identify intervals where diatom ooze and diatom-rich mud lithofacies are prevalent during the Pleistocene. Among the Expedition 341 recovered cores, were high-recovery intervals in the outer (Site U1417) and inner (U1418) Surveyor Fan, and from a small slope basin at the edge of the continental shelf (Site U1419). In general, greenish gray diatomaceous ooze (containing >50 % diatoms in smear slides) and diatom-rich mud (>25% diatoms) is found in beds ranging in thickness from 20 to 150 cm, interbedded with gray mud that commonly contains lonestones. Ooze is occasionally found immediately overlying volcanic ash. Compared to non-biogenic mud, diatomaceous sediments are generally characterized by lower magnetic susceptibility, natural gamma ray, bulk density, and higher b* color reflectance. At Site U1417, we observe a frequent occurrence of diatomaceous ooze during the middle Pleistocene relative to the early and late Pleistocene. At Site U1418, intervals containing diatom ooze are less common than at U1417 and biogenic sediments are mainly observed within the late Pleistocene portion of the record. However, higher sedimentation rates at U1418 relative to U1417, and the co-occurrence of sand

  3. Frictional properties of the biogenic oozes from the CRISP drilling project: possible evidence of past slip-to-the-trench

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vannucchi, P.; Spagnuolo, E.; Aretusini, S.; Di Toro, G.; Tsutsumi, A.; Ujiie, K.; Namiki, Y.

    2015-12-01

    The 2011 Tohoku EQ revealed that co-seismic displacement along the megathrust can reach the deformation front of subduction zones. Since then the global significance of slip-to-the-trench has become an important field of study; hence investigation of past events at other active megathrusts is critical. Offshore SE Costa Rica the deformation front of the Caribbean forearc is formed by a ~10 km-wide accretionary wedge. Here, drill Site U141 has revealed a record of frontal thrusts detached along biogenic ooze, which correlates lithologically with the "reference" Site U1381. This biogenic ooze contains >70% of organic components.There are up to 15% silica-rich elements in the upper part of the formation, while clay increases downsection. The biogenic ooze is overlain by silty clay, in which smectite is the dominant mineral. Low- to high-velocity friction experiments were performed on the biogenic ooze and the silty clay to investigate the velocity dependence of friction and the micromechanical foundation of strain localization within fontal thrusts. These experiments were performed at slip-rates of 3 µms-1 to 3.5 ms-1and σn up to 12 MPa, under both room-humidity and water saturated conditions. These experimental results indicate that, at low slip-rates, the biogenic ooze is stronger than the silty clay. At increasing slip-rates silty clays have a positive dependence of friction, while biogenic oozes show a sharp decrease of their friction coefficient as slip-rate increases. This rate-weakening behavior of the biogenic oozes may enhance co-seismic slip along the megathrust. The implication of these mechanical measurements is that the geological structures found in the forearc toe offshore SE Costa Rica were formed by locally high slip-rates that have enhanced slip propagation to the trench. Under slow slip-rates, deformation can have localized easier by creeping within the clays than in the oozes as seen. As Tsunami earthquakes are known to form with pronounced slip

  4. Relationships linking primary production, sea ice melting, and biogenic aerosol in the Arctic

    Science.gov (United States)

    Becagli, S.; Lazzara, L.; Marchese, C.; Dayan, U.; Ascanius, S. E.; Cacciani, M.; Caiazzo, L.; Di Biagio, C.; Di Iorio, T.; di Sarra, A.; Eriksen, P.; Fani, F.; Giardi, F.; Meloni, D.; Muscari, G.; Pace, G.; Severi, M.; Traversi, R.; Udisti, R.

    2016-07-01

    This study examines the relationships linking methanesulfonic acid (MSA, arising from the atmospheric oxidation of the biogenic dimethylsulfide, DMS) in atmospheric aerosol, satellite-derived chlorophyll a (Chl-a), and oceanic primary production (PP), also as a function of sea ice melting (SIM) and extension of the ice free area in the marginal ice zone (IF-MIZ) in the Arctic. MSA was determined in PM10 samples collected over the period 2010-2012 at two Arctic sites, Ny Ålesund (78.9°N, 11.9°E), Svalbard islands, and Thule Air Base (76.5°N, 68.8°W), Greenland. PP is calculated by means of a bio-optical, physiologically based, semi-analytical model in the potential source areas located in the surrounding oceanic regions (Barents and Greenland Seas for Ny Ålesund, and Baffin Bay for Thule). Chl-a peaks in May in the Barents sea and in the Baffin Bay, and has maxima in June in the Greenland sea; PP follows the same seasonal pattern of Chl-a, although the differences in absolute values of PP in the three seas during the blooms are less marked than for Chl-a. MSA shows a better correlation with PP than with Chl-a, besides, the source intensity (expressed by PP) is able to explain more than 30% of the MSA variability at the two sites; the other factors explaining the MSA variability are taxonomic differences in the phytoplanktonic assemblages, and transport processes from the DMS source areas to the sampling sites. The taxonomic differences are also evident from the slopes of the correlation plots between MSA and PP: similar slopes (in the range 34.2-36.2 ng m-3of MSA/(gC m-2 d-1)) are found for the correlation between MSA at Ny Ålesund and PP in Barents Sea, and between MSA at Thule and PP in the Baffin Bay; conversely, the slope of the correlation between MSA at Ny Ålesund and PP in the Greenland Sea in summer is smaller (16.7 ng m-3of MSA/(gC m-2 d-1)). This is due to the fact that DMS emission from the Barents Sea and Baffin Bay is mainly related to the MIZ

  5. Biogenic aldehyde determination by reactive paper spray ionization mass spectrometry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bag, Soumabha; Hendricks, P I; Reynolds, J C; Cooks, R G

    2015-02-20

    Ionization of aliphatic and aromatic aldehydes is improved by performing simultaneous chemical derivatization using 4-aminophenol to produce charged iminium ions during paper spray ionization. Accelerated reactions occur in the microdroplets generated during the paper spray ionization event for the tested aldehydes (formaldehyde, n-pentanaldehyde, n-nonanaldehyde, n-decanaldehyde, n-dodecanaldehyde, benzaldehyde, m-anisaldehyde, and p-hydroxybenzaldehyde). Tandem mass spectrometric analysis of the iminium ions using collision-induced dissociation demonstrated that straight chain aldehydes give a characteristic fragment at m/z 122 (shown to correspond to protonated 4-(methyleneamino)phenol), while the aromatic aldehyde iminium ions fragment to give a characteristic product ion at m/z 120. These features allow straightforward identification of linear and aromatic aldehydes. Quantitative analysis of n-nonaldehyde using a benchtop mass spectrometer demonstrated a linear response over 3 orders of magnitude from 2.5 ng to 5 μg of aldehyde loaded on the filter paper emitter. The limit of detection was determined to be 2.2 ng for this aldehyde. The method had a precision of 22%, relative standard deviation. The experiment was also implemented using a portable ion trap mass spectrometer. PMID:25682245

  6. Biogenic nanoparticles: production, characterization, and application of bacterial magnetosomes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The ability of magnetotactic bacteria (MTB) to navigate along magnetic field lines is based on unique nanosized organelles (magnetosomes), which are membrane-enclosed intracellular crystals of a magnetic iron mineral that assemble into highly ordered chain-like structures. The biomineralization of magnetosomes is a process with genetic control over the accumulation of iron, the deposition of the magnetic crystal within a specific compartment, as well as the assembly, alignment and intracellular organization of particle chains. Magnetite crystals produced by MTB have uniform species-specific morphologies and sizes, which are mostly unknown from inorganic systems. The unusual characteristics of magnetosome particles have attracted a great interdisciplinary interest and inspired numerous ideas for their biotechnological application. In this article, we summarize the current knowledge of magnetosome biomineralization in bacteria. In addition, we will present results on the mass production, as well as the biochemical and physico-chemical analysis and functionalization of bacterial magnetosomes, with emphasis on their characterization as a novel class of magnetic nanoparticles. Finally, we describe the potential of magnetosomes in various biomedical and technological applications

  7. Quantitative detection and identification of tyramine-producing enterococci and lactobacilli in cheese by multiplex qPCR

    OpenAIRE

    Ladero Losada, Víctor Manuel; Fernández García, María; Cuesta Suárez, Isabel; Álvarez González, Miguel Ángel

    2010-01-01

    Tyramine is the most abundant biogenic amine in fermented dairy products, in which it is produced through the microbial enzymatic decarboxylation of tyrosine. This activity has been detected in a variety of lactic acid bacteria mainly belonging to the genera Enterococcus and Lactobacillus. This paper describes a culture-independent qPCR method, based on the specific amplification of the tdc gene, for the detection, quantification and identification of bacteria with the ability to produce tyra...

  8. Ecological, energetic and economical comparison of fermentation, composting and incineration of solid biogenic waste materials; Oekologischer, energetischer und oekonomischer Vergleich von Vergaerung, Kompostierung und Verbrennung fester biogener Abfallstoffe

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Edelmann, W. [Arbeitsgemeinschaft Bioenergie GmbH, Arbi, Baar (Switzerland); Schleiss, K. [Umwelt- und Kompostberatung Schleiss, Baar (Switzerland)

    2001-07-01

    This study compares different technologies for the treatment of biogenic wastes, including open windrow and enclosed tunnel composting, anaerobic digestion, the combination of both these methods and burning in waste incineration plants. The methods are compared from the points of view of environmental impact, energy use and production, and economics. The environmental impact, calculated for normalised quantities of waste using the 'Ecoindicator 95+' tool, are discussed and the methane and carbon dioxide emissions of the different methods of treatment are compared. Also, the considerable differences to be found in the energy balances of the different systems are discussed in the light of efforts to substitute nuclear and fossil-fuel generated power. Cost and energetic comparisons are also made between compost and artificial fertilisers. The report is concluded with recommendations for adapting bio-technological methods for the treatment of wastes with an emphasis on anaerobic processes.

  9. Physiology and Genetics of Biogenic Methane-Production from Acetate

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sowers, Kevin R

    2013-04-04

    Biomass conversion catalyzed by methanogenic consortia is a widely available, renewable resource for both energy production and waste treatment. The efficiency of this process is directly dependent upon the interaction of three metabolically distinct groups of microorganisms; the fermentative and acetogenic Bacteria and the methanogenic Archaea. One of the rate limiting steps in the degradation of soluble organic matter is the dismutation of acetate, a predominant intermediate in the process, which accounts for 70 % or more of the methane produced by the methanogens. Acetate utilization is controlled by regulation of expression of carbon monoxide dehydrogensase (COdh), which catalyzes the dismutation of acetate. However, physiological and molecular factors that control differential substrate utilization have not been identified in these Archaea. Our laboratory has identified sequence elements near the promoter of the gene (cdh) encoding for COdh and we have confirmed that these sequences have a role in the in vivo expression of cdh. The current proposal focuses on identifying the regulatory components that interact with DNA and RNA elements, and identifying the mechanisms used to control cdh expression. We will determine whether expression is controlled at the level of transcription or if it is mediated by coordinate interaction of transcription initiation with other processes such as transcription elongation rate and differential mRNA stability. Utilizing recently sequenced methanosarcinal genomes and a DNA microarray currently under development genes that encode regulatory proteins and transcription factors will be identified and function confirmed by gene disruption and subsequent screening on different substrates. Functional interactions will be determined in vivo by assaying the effects of gene dosage and site-directed mutagenesis of the regulatory gene on the expression of a cdh::lacZ operon fusion. Results of this study will reveal whether this critical

  10. Geological characteristics and prospective analysis of uranium-producing pegmatites in lushi, western henan province

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Two small pegmatite-type uranium deposits and lots of uranium mineralization are found in Shangdan triangle area in Shaanxi Qinling group strata. In western Henan, Huichizi rock extend eastward from the Shaanxi to Huangbogou-Qima river-Limanping area. Huichizi rock in the Qinling group is controlled by Shangdan and Zhixia fracture zone. Qinling group is a set of deep metamorphic rocks. Huichizi rock is I type granite rock. Pegmatite is divided into three types of uranium mineralization: biotite pegmatite, two-mica pegmatite and muscovite pegmatite. Around the rock, the distribution of pegmatites have horizontal and vertical zonation. The rock within the zone is biotite pegmatites, away from rock distribution muscovite pegmatites, between two-mica pegmatites. Biotite pegmatites REE produced in the Caledonian is a light rare earth-based, with strong Eu depletion, chemical characteristics of rocks with high silica (73%), alkali-rich, K> Na, poor Fe, Mn, Mg, Ca. Accessory mineral assemblages are ilmenite-Monazite-uraninite. Crystalline uranium aged in 426 Ma mainly distributed in pegmatites of biotite or rare earth. Huichzi rock in some Henan pegmatites have good prospects of uranium, mineralization. Especially in Limanping, Qima river and Huangbguo Lushi county, Uranium resources are rich. (authors)

  11. Electrolyte-promoted demineralization of biogenic, vitreous, and crystalline silica: A density functional investigation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dove, P. M.; Wallace, A. F.; Gibbs, G. V.

    2007-12-01

    The dissolution of amorphous and crystalline varieties of SiO2 is an integral part of the global biogeochemical cycle of silicon. Nanoparticulate biogenic silica produced by marine phytoplankton and terrestrial plants are of particular interest because their enhanced reactivity and abundance make them important sources and sinks of dissolved silicon in natural environments. Recent experimental results on (100) surfaces of quartz show that the dominant dissolution mechanism in simple H2O solutions is by retreat of Q2 groups along step edges. In the presence of electrolytes, rates are accelerated by up to 100X in the presence by a crossover in the dominant dissolution mechanism to nucleation of vacancy islands at Q3 terminated species (Dove et al., PNAS, 2005). While the control of surface coordination in reactivity is clear, the molecular pathway by which electrolytes induce dissolution by a nucleated process remains poorly understood. The results of previous ab initio investigations of Si-O bond hydrolysis by water have demonstrated that the reaction proceeds through the dissociative adsorption of H2O at the silica surface, resulting in the formation of a pentacoordinated Si transition state, followed by the transfer of one of the water bound hydrogen atoms to a bridging oxygen in the SiO2 bonded network, and breakage of the Si-O bond. Assuming a similar reaction path, the specific effects of hydrated group II metal cations (Mg2+, Ca2+, Sr2+, Ba2+) on the energetics of Si-O bond hydrolysis have been investigated with density functional methods (B3LYP) and a relatively large neutral silica cluster (H8Si6O16). Reactant, product, and transition states for Q3 to Q2 hydrolysis in the presence and absence of the afore-mentioned cations have been determined with all electron (6-31G(d)) and effective core potential (SDDALL) Gaussian basis sets. The free energy of activation for Q3 to Q2 Si-O bond hydrolysis was determined to be approximately 5 kJ/mol lower for Ca2+ than Mg

  12. Impact of biogenic amine molecular weight and structure on surfactant adsorption at the air-water interface.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Penfold, Jeffrey; Thomas, Robert K; Li, Peixun

    2016-02-01

    The oligoamines, such as ethylenediamine to pentaethylenetetramine, and the aliphatic biogenic amines, such as putrescine, spermidine and spermine, strongly interact with anionic surfactants, such as sodium dodecylsulfate, SDS. It has been shown that this results in pronounced surfactant adsorption at the air-water interface and the transition from monolayer to multilayer adsorption which depends upon solution pH and oligoamine structure. In the neutron reflectivity, NR, and surface tension, ST, results presented here the role of the oligoamine structure on the adsorption of SDS is investigated more fully using a range of different biogenic amines. The effect of the extent of the intra-molecular spacing between amine groups on the adsorption has been extended by comparing results for cadavarine with putrescine and ethylenediamine. The impact of more complex biogenic amine structures on the adsorption has been investigated with the aromatic phenethylamine, and the heterocyclic amines histamine and melamine. The results provide an important insight into how surfactant adsorption at interfaces can be manipulated by the addition of biogenic amines, and into the role of solution pH and oligoamine structure in modifying the interaction between the surfactant and oligoamine. The results impact greatly upon potential applications and in understanding some of the important biological functions of biogenic amines. PMID:26524255

  13. Comparison of biogenic amine profile in cheeses manufactured from fresh and stored (4 degrees C, 48 hours) raw goat's milk.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Novella-Rodríguez, Sonia; Veciana-Nogués, M Teresa; Roig-Sagués, Artur X; Trujillo-Mesa, Antonio J; Vidal-Carou, M Carmen

    2004-01-01

    In this study, the evolution of microbial counts, biogenic amine contents, and related parameters (pH, moisture, and proteolysis) in goat cheese made from fresh raw milk or raw milk stored for 48 h at 4 degrees C was examined. In both cases the milk was nonpasteurized. This study was designed to evaluate the effect of milk quality on the profile of biogenic amines in relation to the evolution of the microbial population during cheese making. Cheese made from raw milk stored for 48 h at 4 degrees C showed the highest microbial counts and biogenic amine levels. The storage of milk under refrigeration caused significant increases in the levels of some microbial and biogenic amines during ripening, but not initially. Tyramine was the main biogenic amine in the two cheeses tested, followed by cadaverine. However, the main differences in amine contents between batches were found for putrescine, histamine, and beta-phenylethylamine, whose levels were more than twofold higher in samples from raw milk refrigerated for 48 h than in samples from fresh milk. PMID:14717360

  14. A biogenic source of oxalic acid and glyoxal in marine boundary layer

    Science.gov (United States)

    Facchini, C.; Rinaldi, M.; Ceburnis, D.; O'Dowd, C.; Sciare, J.; Burrows, J. P.

    2011-12-01

    We present the results of oxalic acid aerosol measurements samples performed at Mace Head (Ireland, 53°20'N, 9°54'W) and Amsterdam Island (Indian Ocean, 37°48'S, 77°34'E), supporting the existence of a biogenic source of oxalic acid over the oceans. Aerosol oxalic acid was detected in clean marine air masses in concentrations ranging from 2.7 to 39 ng m-3, at Mace Head, and from 0.31 to 17 ng m-3, at Amsterdam Island. In both hemispheres, oxalic acid concentration showed a clear seasonal trend, with maxima in spring-summer and minima in the fall-winter period, in analogy with other marine biogenic aerosol components (e.g., MSA and amines). Oxalic acid was distributed along the whole aerosol size spectrum, with the major contribution given by the 1.0-2.0 μm size range, and by the lower accumulation mode (0.25-0.5 μm). Given the observed size distributions, marine aerosol oxalic acid can be assumed as the result of the combination of different formation processes, among which in-cloud oxidation of gaseous precursors [1] and photochemical degradation of biogenic unsaturated fatty acids [2] are likely the most important. Among aerosol oxalic acid precursors, glyoxal is the most likely candidate in the marine boundary layer, as a source of glyoxal over the oceans has recently been discovered by satellite observations [3] and confirmed by in situ measurements [4]. In support of this hypothesis, SCIAMACHY satellite retrieved glyoxal column concentrations, over the two sampling sites, resulted characterized by a clear seasonal trend, resembling the aerosol oxalic acid one. [1] Warneck, Atmospheric Environment, 37, 2423-2427, 2003. [2] Kawamura & Sakaguchi, J. Geophys. Res., 104, D3, 3501-3509, 1999. [3] Fu et al., J. Geophys. Res., 113, D15303, doi:10.1029/2007JD009505, 2008 [4] Sinreich et al., Atmos. Chem. Phys. Discuss., 10, 15075-15107, 2010.

  15. Molecular markers of biomass burning, fungal spores and biogenic SOA in the Taklimakan desert aerosols

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fu, Pingqing; Zhuang, Guoshun; Sun, Yele; Wang, Qiongzhen; Chen, Jing; Ren, Lujie; Yang, Fan; Wang, Zifa; Pan, Xiaole; Li, Xiangdong; Kawamura, Kimitaka

    2016-04-01

    Biogenic primary organic aerosols (POA) and secondary organic aerosols (SOA) are important organic constituents of atmospheric particulate matter (PM). In order to better understand the atmospheric abundances, molecular compositions and sources of the desert aerosols, biomass-burning tracers (e.g. levoglucosan), primary saccharides including fungal spore tracers, and SOA tracers from the oxidation of biogenic volatile organic compounds (e.g. isoprene, monoterpenes and sesquiterpene) have been studied in ambient aerosols from the Taklimakan desert, using gas chromatography-mass spectrometry. Results showed that the total concentrations of biomass-burning tracers at Hetian (177-359 ng m-3, mean 233 ng m-3 in PM2.5) in the south rim of the desert were much higher than those at Tazhong (1.9-8.8 ng m-3 in PM2.5 and 5.9-32 ng m-3 in TSP) in the central Taklimakan desert. Molecular markers of fungal spores were also detected in all the desert aerosols, highlighting the importance of primary bioaerosols in the Asian dust particles. A specific pattern of the dominance of 2-methylglyceric acid over 2-methyltetrols and C5-alkene triols was found in the Taklimakan desert aerosols, especially during the dust storm events, which is different from the 2-methyltetrols-dominated pattern in other ambient aerosols. Our results provide direct evidence on the biogenic POA and SOA tracers in the Taklimakan desert region, which help to better understand their impact on the aerosol chemistry in the down-wind regions.

  16. Structural and functional probing of the biogenic amine transporters by fluorescence spectroscopy

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rasmussen, Søren G F; Adkins, Erika M; Carroll, F Ivy;

    2003-01-01

    Fluorescence spectroscopy techniques have proven extremely powerful for probing the molecular structure and function of membrane proteins. In this review, it will be described how we have applied a series of these techniques to the biogenic amine transporters, which are responsible for the...... clearance of dopamine, norepinephrine, and serotonin from the synaptic cleft. In our studies, we have focused on the serotonin transporter (SERT) for which we have established a purification procedure upon expression of the transporter in Sf-9 insect cells. Importantly, the purified transporter displays......, it will be described how we recently initiated the implementation of single-molecule confocal fluorescence spectroscopy techniques in our studies of the SERT....

  17. Urban stress-induced biogenic VOC emissions impact secondary aerosol formation in Beijing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ghirardo, A.; Xie, J.; Zheng, X.; Wang, Y.; Grote, R.; Block, K.; Wildt, J.; Mentel, T.; Kiendler-Scharr, A.; Hallquist, M.; Butterbach-Bahl, K.; Schnitzler, J.-P.

    2015-08-01

    Trees can significantly impact the urban air chemistry by the uptake and emission of reactive biogenic volatile organic compounds (BVOCs), which are involved in ozone and particle formation. Here we present the emission potentials of "constitutive" (cBVOCs) and "stress-induced" BVOCs (sBVOCs) from the dominant broadleaf woody plant species in the megacity of Beijing. Based on an inventory of BVOC emissions and the tree census, we assessed the potential impact of BVOCs on secondary particulate matter formation in 2005 and 2010, i.e., before and after realizing the large tree-planting program for the 2008 Olympic Games. We found that sBVOCs, such as fatty acid derivatives, benzenoids and sesquiterpenes, constituted a significant fraction (∼ 15 %) of the total annual BVOC emissions, and we estimated that the overall annual BVOC budget may have doubled from ∼ 3.6 × 109 g C year-1 in 2005 to ∼ 7.1 × 109 g C year-1 in 2010 due to the increase in urban greens, while at the same time, the emission of anthropogenic VOCs (AVOCs) could be lowered by 24 %. Based on our BVOC emission assessment, we estimated the biological impact on SOA mass formation in Beijing. Compared to AVOCs, the contribution of biogenic precursors (2-5 %) for secondary particulate matter in Beijing was low. However, sBVOCs can significantly contribute (∼ 40 %) to the formation of total secondary organic aerosol (SOA) from biogenic sources; apparently, their annual emission increased from 1.05 μg m-3 in 2005 to 2.05 μg m-3 in 2010. This study demonstrates that biogenic and, in particular, sBVOC emissions contribute to SOA formation in megacities. However, the main problems regarding air quality in Beijing still originate from anthropogenic activities. Nevertheless, the present survey suggests that in urban plantation programs, the selection of plant species with low cBVOC and sBVOC emission potentials have some possible beneficial effects on urban air quality.

  18. Biogenic hydrogen sulfide in the oil gas of Western Siberian fields

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yershov, V.A.; Chetverkina, V.N.; Nosova, V.S.; Shakirova, A.Kh.

    1984-01-01

    In connection with the discovery of biogenic hydrogen sulfide in the oil gas of Western Siberian fields, the quantity of hydrogen sulfide has been monitored and the dynamics of the development of the sulfate reduction processes and their features are examined. It is noted that in the absence of influences on the bacterial flora, it is necessary to eliminate hydrogen sulfide from natural gas or to use hydrogen sulfide corrosion inhibiters in order to suppress biocenosis in building gas processing plants and gas lift systems, in order to reduce equipment corrosion.

  19. Aerosol and precipitation chemistry in a remote site in Central Amazonia: the role of biogenic contribution

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    T. Pauliquevis

    2007-08-01

    Full Text Available A long-term (2–3 years measurement of aerosol and precipitation chemistry was carried out in a remote site in Central Amazonia, Balbina, (1°55' S, 59°29' W, 174 m above sea level, about 200 km north of Manaus city. Aerosols were sampled using stacked filter units (SFU, which separate fine (d<2.5 μm and coarse mode (2.5 μmbiogenic origin and concentrated in coarse mode, comprising up to 81% of PM10 concentration during the wet season. Natural biogenic aerosol also dominates the fine mode in the wet season, with very low concentrations (average 2.2 μg/m3. Large-scale transport of smoke from biomass burning was the second most important contribution, reaching 77% of fine mode particulate mass during the dry season. Soil dust was responsible by a minor fraction of the aerosol mass (less than 17%. Rainwater chemistry was controlled by biogenic emissions. The volume-weighted mean (VWM pH was 4.90. The most important contribution to acidity was weak organic acids. The organic acidity was predominantly associated with the presence of acetic acid, instead of formic acid which is more often observed in pristine tropical areas. Deposition rates for major species did not differ significantly between dry and wet season, except for NH4+ and acetate, which had smaller deposition rates during dry season. While biomass burning emissions were clearly identified in the aerosol component, it was not possible to discern any presence of biomass burning emissions in rainwater chemistry. The long-range transport of sea salt and biogenic particles was observed both in

  20. Biological colloid engineering: Self-assembly of dipolar ferromagnetic chains in a functionalized biogenic ferrofluid

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ruder, Warren C.; Hsu, Chia-Pei D.; Edelman, Brent D.; Schwartz, Russell; LeDuc, Philip R.

    2012-08-01

    We have studied the dynamic behavior of nanoparticles in ferrofluids consisting of single-domain, biogenic magnetite (Fe3O4) isolated from Magnetospirillum magnetotacticum (MS-1). Although dipolar chains form in magnetic colloids in zero applied field, when dried upon substrates, the solvent front disorders nanoparticle aggregation. Using avidin-biotin functionalization of the particles and substrate, we generated self-assembled, linear chain motifs that resist solvent front disruption in zero-field. The engineered self-assembly process we describe here provides an approach for the creation of ordered magnetic structures that could impact fields ranging from micro-electro-mechanical systems development to magnetic imaging of biological structures.

  1. Aging of biogenic secondary organic aerosol via gas-phase OH radical reactions

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Donahue, Neil M.; Henry, Kaytlin M.; Mentel, Thomas F.;

    2012-01-01

    The Multiple Chamber Aerosol Chemical Aging Study (MUCHACHAS) tested the hypothesis that hydroxyl radical (OH) aging significantly increases the concentration of first-generation biogenic secondary organic aerosol (SOA). OH is the dominant atmospheric oxidant, and MUCHACHAS employed environmental...... chambers of very different designs, using multiple OH sources to explore a range of chemical conditions and potential sources of systematic error. We isolated the effect of OH aging, confirming our hypothesis while observing corresponding changes in SOA properties. The mass increases are consistent with an...

  2. Excretion of metabolites of biogenic amines in patients with irradiated brain tumours

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The metabolites of biogenic amines were determined in the 24-hour urine samples of patients submitted to surgical removal of a malignant brain tumour and subsequently to telecobalt therapy of the corresponding head region. A significant increase in the excretion of 5-hydroxyindoleasetic acid (5-HIAA), vanillinmandelic acid (VMA) as well as of free 3-methoxy-4-hydroxy-phenylglycol (MHPG) during the period of irradiation was found. This increase is presumably the result of radiation induced release of their parent amines from the brain; in the case of VMA the secondary response of the peripheral sympathetic system might occur. (author)

  3. Urban stress-induced biogenic VOC emissions impact secondary aerosol formation in Beijing

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. Ghirardo

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available Trees can significantly impact the urban air chemistry by the uptake and emission of reactive biogenic volatile organic compounds (BVOCs, which are involved in ozone and particle formation. Here we present the emission potentials of "constitutive" (cBVOCs and "stress-induced" BVOCs (sBVOCs from the dominant broadleaf woody plant species in the megacity of Beijing. Based on an inventory of BVOC emissions and the tree census, we assessed the potential impact of BVOCs on secondary particulate matter formation in 2005 and 2010, i.e., before and after realizing the large tree-planting program for the 2008 Olympic Games. We found that sBVOCs, such as fatty acid derivatives, benzenoids and sesquiterpenes, constituted a significant fraction (∼ 15 % of the total annual BVOC emissions, and we estimated that the overall annual BVOC budget may have doubled from ∼ 3.6 × 109 g C year-1 in 2005 to ∼ 7.1 × 109 g C year-1 in 2010 due to the increase in urban greens, while at the same time, the emission of anthropogenic VOCs (AVOCs could be lowered by 24 %. Based on our BVOC emission assessment, we estimated the biological impact on SOA mass formation in Beijing. Compared to AVOCs, the contribution of biogenic precursors (2–5 % for secondary particulate matter in Beijing was low. However, sBVOCs can significantly contribute (∼ 40 % to the formation of total secondary organic aerosol (SOA from biogenic sources; apparently, their annual emission increased from 1.05 μg m-3 in 2005 to 2.05 μg m-3 in 2010. This study demonstrates that biogenic and, in particular, sBVOC emissions contribute to SOA formation in megacities. However, the main problems regarding air quality in Beijing still originate from anthropogenic activities. Nevertheless, the present survey suggests that in urban plantation programs, the selection of plant species with low cBVOC and sBVOC emission potentials have some possible beneficial effects on urban air quality.

  4. Magnesium isotope fractionation in biogenic and abiogenic carbonates: implications for paleoenvironmental proxies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saenger, Casey; Wang, Zhengrong

    2014-04-01

    Geochemical variations in marine biogenic carbonates that are preserved in the geological record serve as proxies of past environmental change. However, interpreting most proxies is complicated by biologically-mediated vital effects, highlighting the need to develop new tools for reconstructing paleoenvironmental change. Recently, magnesium (Mg) isotope variability in carbonates has been explored extensively to determine its utility as a paleoenvironmental proxy. We review the results of these works, which have yielded valuable information on the factors affecting Mg isotope fractionation between carbonates and solution (Δ26Mgcarb-sol) in biogenic and abiogenic carbonate minerals. Strong evidence exists for a mineralogical control on Δ26Mgcarb-sol, with the negative offset from 0‰ following the sequence aragonite ˜3 mol/mol) and saturation states (Ω >˜3) that are similar to seawater suggest that Δ26Mgcarb-sol has a temperature dependence of ˜0.01‰ °C-1 and is insensitive to precipitation rate. In contrast, a significant precipitation rate dependence is observed in calcites precipitated from solutions with relatively low Mg/Ca ratios (precursors, ion attachment/detachment kinetics, surface entrapment and Mg speciation. High-Mg calcite organisms, which likely precipitate from relatively unmodified seawater, also exhibit a temperature dependence of ˜0.01‰ °C-1, albeit sometimes with a systematic offset toward smaller fractionations. In contrast, strong vital effects in low-Mg calcite organisms, which exclude Mg from their calcifying fluids, lead to Δ26Mgcarb-sol values that exhibit no clear temperature dependence and are offset from abiogenic experiments. The majority of biogenic aragonites have Δ26Mgcarb-sol values that are slightly more positive than those in abiogenic experiments, but bivalves and one sclerosponge species can exhibit significantly larger fractionations. Although vital effects and analytical uncertainties will limit Δ26Mgcarb

  5. Synthetic and biogenic magnetite nanoparticles for tracking of stem cells and dendritic cells

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Accurate delivery of cells to target organs is critical for success of cell-based therapies with stem cells or immune cells such as antigen-presenting dendritic cells (DC). Labeling with contrast agents before implantation provides a powerful means for monitoring cellular migration using magnetic resonance imaging (MRI). In this study, we investigated the uptake of fully synthesized or bacterial magnetic nanoparticles (MNPs) into hematopoietic Flt3+ stem cells and DC from mouse bone marrow. We show that (i) uptake of both synthetic and biogenic nanoparticles into cells endow magnetic activity and (ii) low numbers of MNP-loaded cells are readily detected by MRI.

  6. Synthetic and biogenic magnetite nanoparticles for tracking of stem cells and dendritic cells

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Schwarz, Sebastian [Institute for Biomedical Engineering, Department of Cell Biology, RWTH Aachen University Medical School, Pauwelsstrasse 30, 52074 Aachen (Germany); Helmholtz Institute for Biomedical Engineering, Department of Cell Biology, RWTH Aachen, Pauwelsstrasse 20, 52074 Aachen (Germany); Fernandes, Fabiana [Institute for Biomedical Engineering, Department of Cell Biology, RWTH Aachen University Medical School, Pauwelsstrasse 30, 52074 Aachen (Germany); Department of Biological Engineering, University of Minho, Campus de Gualtar, 4710-057 Braga (Portugal); Sanroman, Laura [Institute for Biomedical Engineering, Department of Cell Biology, RWTH Aachen University Medical School, Pauwelsstrasse 30, 52074 Aachen (Germany); Helmholtz Institute for Biomedical Engineering, Department of Cell Biology, RWTH Aachen, Pauwelsstrasse 20, 52074 Aachen (Germany); Hodenius, Michael [Institute for Biomedical Engineering and Helmholtz Institute for Biomedical Engineering, Department of Applied Medical Engineering, RWTH Aachen, Pauwelsstrasse 20, 52074 Aachen (Germany); Lang, Claus [Department of Microbiology, Ludwig-Maximillians-University of Munich, Maria-Ward-Str. 1a, 80638 Munich (Germany); Himmelreich, Uwe [In-vivo-NMR-Laboratory, Max-Planck-Institute for Neurological Research, Gleueler Str. 50, 50931 Cologne (Germany); Biomedical NMR Unit, MoSAIC, Faculty of Medicine, KU Leuven, Onderwijs en Navorsing 1, bus 505, 3000 Leuven (Belgium); Schmitz-Rode, Thomas [Institute for Biomedical Engineering and Helmholtz Institute for Biomedical Engineering, Department of Applied Medical Engineering, RWTH Aachen, Pauwelsstrasse 20, 52074 Aachen (Germany); Schueler, Dirk [Department of Microbiology, Ludwig-Maximillians-University of Munich, Maria-Ward-Str. 1a, 80638 Munich (Germany); Hoehn, Mathias [In-vivo-NMR-Laboratory, Max-Planck-Institute for Neurological Research, Gleueler Str. 50, 50931 Cologne (Germany)] (and others)

    2009-05-15

    Accurate delivery of cells to target organs is critical for success of cell-based therapies with stem cells or immune cells such as antigen-presenting dendritic cells (DC). Labeling with contrast agents before implantation provides a powerful means for monitoring cellular migration using magnetic resonance imaging (MRI). In this study, we investigated the uptake of fully synthesized or bacterial magnetic nanoparticles (MNPs) into hematopoietic Flt3{sup +} stem cells and DC from mouse bone marrow. We show that (i) uptake of both synthetic and biogenic nanoparticles into cells endow magnetic activity and (ii) low numbers of MNP-loaded cells are readily detected by MRI.

  7. Airborne Biogenic Particles in the Snow of the Cities of the Russian Far East as Potential Allergic Compounds

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kirill S. Golokhvast

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper presents an analysis of airborne biogenic particles (1 mkm–1 mm found in the snow in several cities of the Russian Far East during 2010–2013. The most common was vegetational terraneous detritus (fragments of tree and grass leaves followed by animal hair, small insects and their fragments, microorganisms of aeroplankton, and equivocal biological garbage. Specific components were found in samples from locations close to bodies of water such as fragments of algae and mollusc shells and, marine invertebrates (needles of sea urchins and shell debris of arthropods. In most locations across the Far East (Vladivostok, Khabarovsk, Blagoveshchensk, and Ussuriysk, the content of biogenic particles collected in the winter did not exceed 10% of the total particulate matter, with the exception of Birobidzhan and the nature reserve Bastak, where it made up to 20%. Most of all biogenic compounds should be allergic: hair, fragments of tree and grass leaves, insects, and microorganisms.

  8. Airborne biogenic particles in the snow of the cities of the Russian Far East as potential allergic compounds.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Golokhvast, Kirill S

    2014-01-01

    This paper presents an analysis of airborne biogenic particles (1 mkm-1 mm) found in the snow in several cities of the Russian Far East during 2010-2013. The most common was vegetational terraneous detritus (fragments of tree and grass leaves) followed by animal hair, small insects and their fragments, microorganisms of aeroplankton, and equivocal biological garbage. Specific components were found in samples from locations close to bodies of water such as fragments of algae and mollusc shells and, marine invertebrates (needles of sea urchins and shell debris of arthropods). In most locations across the Far East (Vladivostok, Khabarovsk, Blagoveshchensk, and Ussuriysk), the content of biogenic particles collected in the winter did not exceed 10% of the total particulate matter, with the exception of Birobidzhan and the nature reserve Bastak, where it made up to 20%. Most of all biogenic compounds should be allergic: hair, fragments of tree and grass leaves, insects, and microorganisms. PMID:25140327

  9. An autoradiographic study on the function of biogenic amines in wing dimorphism of the aphid Myzus persicae

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In Myzus persicae wing dimorphism can be influenced before and after birth. Biogenic amines are involved in the regulation of wing dimorphism, and the authors have now used radio-labelled amines to study the possible relation between the endocrine system, the supposed role of juvenile hormone and biogenic amines. The data presented indicate that JH does not play a role in the action of messengers between the maternal body and the developing embryo. The preliminary results suggest that a direct message is transmitted from the maternal brain to the embryo. Between 5 and 15 min after injecting a radio-labelled biogenic amine or its precursor into the haemolymph, labelled substances are present in the older embryos. (Auth.)

  10. Determination of biogenic amines in squid and white prawn by high-performance liquid chromatography with postcolumn derivatization.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhao, Qing-Xi; Xu, Jie; Xue, Chang-Hu; Sheng, Wen-Jing; Gao, Rui-Chang; Xue, Yong; Li, Zhao-Jie

    2007-04-18

    A simple method was developed for the determination of biogenic amines in aquatic food products using a reverse-phase high-performance liquid chromatography with postcolumn automatic o-phthalaldehyde derivatization and fluorescence detection. The linearity, repeatability, and recovery of the method for seven amines (tyramine, putrescine, cadaverine, histamine, agmatine, spermidine, and spermine) were evaluated. This optimized method was applied to detect biogenic amines in squid and white prawn during refrigerated storage. Sensory analysis, pH value, and total volatile base nitrogen value were combined to evaluate the freshness quality of these two raw materials. Agmatine and cadaverine in squid, cadaverine, and putrescine in white prawn were the most obviously changed amines during the storage at two different temperatures, and these biogenic amines could be the effective quality indicators for the freshness of the raw aquatic materials. PMID:17381105

  11. Influence of ripening time on the amount of certain biogenic amines in rind and core of cow milk Livno cheese

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Antonela Marijan

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available Determining the levels of biogenic amines in cheese except that it has significance for determining the nutritional value and hygienic accuracy, cheese as food can be used as a parameter to evaluate the conditions of production and/or ripening of products, and particularly in the selection of bacterial cultures. The purpose of this paper was to determine the effect of the ripening process on the amount of biogenic amines in cheese. For this purpose were conducted physico-chemical analysis, determination of biogenic amines and microbiological analysis. During the process of ripening Livno cheese from three different batches was taken one cheese from prime day and 9th, 20th, 29th, 50th, 60th and 105th day. From each cheese two samples were taken, one from the middle and one from the cheese rind. During 105th day of ripening Livno cheese, the presence of triptamin, ß-feniletlamine, putrescine, cadaverine, histamine, tyramine, spermine and spermidine were determinated. The maximum total values of searched biogenic amines were found 105th day, in the middle 184.13 mg/kg and 76.26 mg/kg in the rind of cheese. With an indication that the largest share of value rep¬resent histamine with 43.9 % and tyramine with 38.2 % in the middle, respectively histamine with 31.6 % and tyramine with 31.5 % in the rind of cheese. The values of putrescine and spermine were in small ranges and they are not identified in all samples. The values of histamine and tyramine are almost a third more at 105th than 60th day. There was a significant difference between the middle and the rind of cheese in the values of biogenic amines. Correlation between biogenic amines and microorganisms has not been determined.

  12. Detection of biogenic CO production above vascular cell cultures using a near-room-temperature QC-DFB laser

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kosterev, A. A.; Tittel, F. K.; Durante, W.; Allen, M.; Kohler, R.; Gmachl, C.; Capasso, F.; Sivco, D. L.; Cho, A. Y.

    2002-01-01

    We report the first application of pulsed, near-room-temperature quantum cascade laser technology to the continuous detection of biogenic CO production rates above viable cultures of vascular smooth muscle cells. A computer-controlled sequence of measurements over a 9-h period was obtained, resulting in a minimum detectable CO production of 20 ppb in a 1-m optical path above a standard cell-culture flask. Data-processing procedures for real-time monitoring of both biogenic and ambient atmospheric CO concentrations are described.

  13. Influence of physical and biological processes on the seasonal cycle of biogenic flux in the equatorial Indian Ocean

    OpenAIRE

    P. J. Vidya; Prasanna Kumar, S.; M. Gauns; A. Verenkar; Unger, D.; Ramaswamy, V.

    2013-01-01

    Seasonal cycle of biogenic fluxes obtained from sediment trap at two locations 5°24' N, 86°46' E (southern Bay of Bengal trap; SBBT) and 3°34' N, 77°46' E (equatorial Indian Ocean trap; EIOT) within the equatorial Indian Ocean (EIO) were examined to understand the factors that control them. The sediment trap data at SBBT was collected for ten years from November 1987 while that at EIOT was for a one year period from January 1996. The characteristic of biogenic flux at SBBT ...

  14. Biogenic oxides from neutrophilic iron bacteria and possibilities for application in the nanotechnology

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The aim of this study is to obtain and characterize the ferric oxides/(oxy)hydroxides formed after cultivation of bacteria under laboratory conditions. The pure cultures of these bacteria isolated from natural habitats are identified by the methods of classical and molecular taxonomy as strains of the Leptothrix genus. Adler (AM) and Silicon iron glucose peptone (SIGP) media are the most appropriate ones for obtaining the iron oxides. The characterization of the oxides and sheaths is performed by different physical methods. The sheaths are formed in a SIGP medium. Light micrograph images and SEM revealed the average size and diameter of the sheaths. The XRD measurements showed the composition of the oxides obtained, as well as the average size of the iron particles (up to 30 nm). The TEM micrographs showed the shape of the biogenic nanoparticles, while the magnetic measurements demonstrated the superparamagnetic character of the magnetic part of the biomaterials. The new biogenic materials are promising for application in magneto electronic for building biosensors

  15. Processing and characterization of glass reinforced biogenic hydroxyapatite composites with ferromagnetic additives

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nataliya Pinchuk

    2008-06-01

    Full Text Available Biogenic hydroxyapatite-glass composites, with addition of up to 2 wt.% of Fe or Fe3O4, were fabricated from biogenic hydroxyapatite powder and four types of reinforcing glasses by sintering under different conditions. It has been established that the relative density, mechanical and magnetic properties of the prepared composites depend on the composition and sintering conditions. The composites with 1 wt.% Fe or Fe3O4 sintered at 500°С in vacuum have a magnetic susceptibility of 2–3·10-3 cm3/g. This parameter decreases to 0.858·10-3 cm3/g for the specimens with 1 wt.% additives sintered at 800°С in vacuum and to 0.27–1.3·10-3cm3/g for the specimens with 2 wt.% additives sintered at 500°С under the usual atmospheric conditions. The magnetic susceptibility for the specimens with 2 wt.% additives sintered at 780°С under the same atmospheric conditions decreases to 0.24–1.25·10-6 cm3/g. These ferromagnetic additives influence the degradation rate in vitro within the first 40 min of the composite soaking. Short-term treatment of specimens by the magnetic field leads to an increase in the initial degradation rate, but insignificantly influences it within more prolonged soaking.

  16. High Resolution Modeling of Anthropogenic and Biogenic Carbon Dioxide Fluxes From the Portland Oregon Metropolitan Area

    Science.gov (United States)

    Butenhoff, C. L.; Powell, J.; Tran, D.; Rice, A. L.

    2013-12-01

    The future of the North American carbon cycle is heavily dependent on urban ecosystems and their development. Around 75-80% of the current U.S. population is urbanized and this percentage is likely to increase in the future. Despite the lack of national climate policy, cities nationwide are developing their own plans to reduce carbon dioxide (CO2) emissions. The city of Portland OR for example (along with Multnomah County) has in place an ambitious goal of reducing CO2 emissions by 80% by the year 2050. Monitoring and verifying emission reductions will be integral to the successful operation of this and other mitigation policies. To do so requires both the modeling and measurement of CO2 at high spatial and temporal resolution. To this effort we developed gridded inventories of anthropogenic and biogenic fluxes of CO2 from Portland and the surrounding metropolitan region at 1-km resolution and at hourly time steps. Mobile emissions were estimated using traffic count data, a land-use regression model, and the EPA MOVES model. Biogenic fluxes of CO2 were calculated using high resolution remote sensing vegetation maps and the Vegetation Photosynthesis and Respiration Model coupled to the Weather Research and Forecasting Model (WRF-VPRM). This is part of an on-going effort to constrain emission estimates using measurements of CO2 from throughout the region. Here we compare simulated concentrations of CO2 with data available from three sites, representing upwind, downwind, and city center conditions.

  17. Biogenic amines in pressurized vacuum-packaged cooked sliced ham under different chilled storage conditions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ruiz-Capillas, C; Carballo, J; Jiménez Colmenero, F

    2007-03-01

    This work was undertaken to study how storage conditions (at constant temperatures of 2±1 and 12±1°C and temperature fluctuations at 7±5°C) affect microbial development and the production of biogenic amines in vacuum-packaged cooked sliced ham subjected to high pressure (400MPa/10min/30°C). Initially, the product exhibited low levels of contamination. Microbiological changes during storage depend on the processing (non-pressure and pressure treatment) and the chilled storage conditions. Generally, microbial growth in pressurized samples was similar to that in the non-pressurized samples, although the total viable count and lactic flora were lower and growth was delayed. Processing and storage conditions affected the formation of each amine differently. The most important changes were in tyramine, which formed more quickly in non-pressurized products stored at 12°C and with temperature fluctuations. The formation of biogenic amines in these products can be prevented not only by ensuring good manufacturing practices and applying high pressure but also by ensuring the right chilled storage conditions. PMID:22063795

  18. [Highly selective analysis of biogenic-related compounds utilizing fluorous chemistry].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hayama, Tadashi

    2015-01-01

    Perfluoroalkyl-containing compounds are highly fluorous, meaning that they have a remarkable affinity for one another and effectively exclude non-fluorous species. Utilizing this unique property, we have developed a fluorous derivatization with a liquid chromatographic analysis method for highly selective analysis of target analytes. Although most previous methods focused on extremely sensitive detection-oriented derivatization, the fluorous derivatization method involves highly specific separation for analytes. This method includes perfluoroalkylation of analytes with a fluorous reagent, and separation of the derivatives using a perfluoroalkyl-modified stationary phase LC column. The derivatives can be selectively retained on the fluorous-phase LC column, whereas the non-fluorous derivatives are poorly retained under the same separation conditions. The combination of this method with LC-tandem mass spectrometry (MS/MS) is very useful for complex biological sample analysis, because matrix-induced suppression effects, which are a common problem in LC-MS/MS analysis arising from components of a biological endogenous matrix, have not been observed. We have successfully applied this method to precise and accurate LC-MS/MS analysis of some biogenic compounds, such as sialic acids and biogenic amines, in complex biological samples. PMID:25747214

  19. Photocatalytic activity of biogenic silver nanoparticles synthesized using potato (Solanum tuberosum) infusion

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roy, Kaushik; Sarkar, C. K.; Ghosh, C. K.

    2015-07-01

    In this study, we have reported a fast and eco-benign procedure to synthesis silver nanoparticle at room temperature using potato (Solanum tuberosum) infusion along with the study of its photocatalytic activity on methyl orange dye. After addition of potato infusion to silver nitrate solution, the color of the mixture changed indicating formation of silver nanoparticles. Time dependent UV-Vis spectra were obtained to study the rate of nanoparticle formation with time. Purity and crystallinity of the biogenic silver nanoparticles were examined by X-ray diffraction (XRD). Average size and morphology of the nanoparticles were characterized by dynamic light scattering (DLS) and transmission electron microscopy (TEM). Fourier transform infra-red spectroscopy (FTIR) was employed to detect functional bio-molecules responsible that contribute to the reduction and capping of biosynthesized Ag nanoparticles. Further, these synthesized nanoparticles were used to investigate their ability to degrade methyl orange dye under sunlight irradiation and the results showed effective photocatalytic property of these biogenic silver nanoparticles.

  20. Biogenic volatile organic compounds from the urban forest of the Metropolitan Region, Chile

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tropospheric ozone is a secondary pollutant whose primary sources are volatile organic compounds and nitrogen oxides. The national standard is exceeded on a third of summer days in some areas of the Chilean Metropolitan Region (MR). This study reports normalized springtime experimental emissions factors (EF) for biogenic volatile organic compounds from tree species corresponding to approximately 31% of urban trees in the MR. A Photochemical Ozone Creation Index (POCI) was calculated using Photochemical Ozone Creation Potential of quantified terpenes. Ten species, natives and exotics, were analysed using static enclosure technique. Terpene quantification was performed using GC-FID, thermal desorption, cryogenic concentration and automatic injection. Observed EF and POCI values for terpenes from exotic species were 78 times greater than native values; within the same family, exotic EF and POCI values were 28 and 26 times greater than natives. These results support reforestation with native species for improved urban pollution management. -- First experimental determination of the emission factors of biogenic volatile organic compounds in the urban forest of the Metropolitan Region, Chile