WorldWideScience

Sample records for biogenic solid fuels

  1. Determination of consumption biogenic solid fuels in the commercial sector, trade, services (tertiary sector). Final report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Viehmann, Cornelia; Westerkamp, Tanja; Schwenker, Andre; Schenker, Marian; Thraen, Daniela; Lenz, Volker; Ebert, Marcel

    2012-01-01

    The policy has both national and European level ambitious program aimed at expansion of renewable energy and related to the reduction of greenhouse gas emissions. In the national action plan for renewable energy of the Federal Republic of Germany these goals are defined by 2020. The share of renewable energy in the provision of heat and cold should therefore rise from 6.6% to 15.5% of gross final energy consumption. According to the increasing importance of solar-thermal, near-surface and geothermal heat, the relative share of biomass is decreasing. However biomass makes with those listed in the national action plan with 79% an essential amount in regenerative heat market [BMU 2010]. For the pursuit of goals and reviews, the support measures and packages of measures which are initiated in this context, a regular and timely reporting on the development of the above objectives is mandatory. The diverse and growing reporting requirements such as in the EU directive on the promotion of renewable energy, require, however well-founded knowledge of the sector-specific energy consumption from renewable sources. While the data available for use of biogenic solid fuels in the sectors household and industry has improved significantly in recent years, for the sector commercial sector, trade, services (tertiary sector) reliable figures are still lacking. Against this background, the objective is to present study, in close cooperation with the Federal Environment Agency (UBA), the determination of the final energy consumption biogenic solid fuels in the tertiary sector in Germany for the year 2008. The basis is, in addition to the development of the current knowledge of the energy and heat consumption, the delimitation and characterization of the sector and the development of an extrapolation tools. The demand for this tool is its expandability and update possibility. From the industry-nonspecific and industry-specific input data can be derived, collecting for the extrapolation

  2. Natural biogenic solid fuels - environmentally relevant characteristics and possible influences. Final report; Naturbelassene biogene Festbrennstoffe - umweltrelevante Eigenschaften und Einflussmoeglichkeiten. Abschlussbericht

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hartmann, H.; Boehm, T.; Maier, L. [Bayerische Landesanstalt fuer Landtechnik, Friesing-Weihenstephan (Germany). Arbeitsgruppe Festbrennstoffe

    2000-09-01

    The focus of the research, however, lies in the analysis of biofuels which were collected under certain aspects from different field trials. Several influences were regarded: - The kind and level of potassium fertilisation (in collaboration with the University of Hohenheim) - the date of harvesting, tested for triticale (whole plants), festuca grass, set aside hay, and short rotation forestry (poplar and willow) - the rainfall induced leaching of pollutants from the fuel after cutting, tested for set aside hay, wheat straw and grain (whole plants). A structure for an SQL-database was designed, which allows to record a large range of information on each regarded fuel sample. Along with the actual analyses results, many additional characteristics can be regarded, in order to gain a precise specification of the respective biomass type and origin, the analysis method and the data source, including also the geographical location, special treatments and other criteria. An initial series of 1,238 data sets were entered until April 1999. This data were either generated during research projects or they were found in other primary sources from Germany and Austria. Additionally, the data base was broadened by a questioning among 200 relevant institutions or companies. From these sources the most reliable data were selected and applied. (orig.) [German] Den Schwerpunkt der vorliegenden Arbeit bildet jedoch die Analyse von biogenen Brennstoffen, die unter verschiedenen Gesichtspunkten aus verschiedenen Versuchsserien gewonnen wurden. Hierbei wurden unterschiedliche Einfluesse betrachtet bzw. gezielt abgestuft: - Art und Hoehe der Kaliumduengung bei Triticale und Feldgras (in Zusammenarbeit mit dem Institut fuer Pflanzenbau und Gruenlandwirtschaft der Universitaet Hohenheim) - Erntezeitpunkte bei Triticaleganzpflanzen, Rohrschwingel, Landschaftspflegeheu, Pappeln und Weiden - niederschlagsbedingte Auswaschung von Schadelementen nach der Ernte bei Landschaftspflegeheu

  3. Determination of consumption biogenic solid fuels in the commercial sector, trade, services (tertiary sector). Final report; Ermittlung des Verbrauchs biogener Festbrennstoffe im Sektor Gewerbe, Handel, Dienstleistungen (GHD-Sektor). Endbericht

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Viehmann, Cornelia; Westerkamp, Tanja; Schwenker, Andre; Schenker, Marian; Thraen, Daniela; Lenz, Volker [DBFZ Deutsches BiomasseForschungsZentrum gemeinnuetzige GmbH, Leipzig (Germany); Ebert, Marcel [Leipziger Institut fuer Energie GmbH (Ireland), Leipzig (DE)

    2012-07-01

    The policy has both national and European level ambitious program aimed at expansion of renewable energy and related to the reduction of greenhouse gas emissions. In the national action plan for renewable energy of the Federal Republic of Germany these goals are defined by 2020. The share of renewable energy in the provision of heat and cold should therefore rise from 6.6% to 15.5% of gross final energy consumption. According to the increasing importance of solar-thermal, near-surface and geothermal heat, the relative share of biomass is decreasing. However biomass makes with those listed in the national action plan with 79% an essential amount in regenerative heat market [BMU 2010]. For the pursuit of goals and reviews, the support measures and packages of measures which are initiated in this context, a regular and timely reporting on the development of the above objectives is mandatory. The diverse and growing reporting requirements such as in the EU directive on the promotion of renewable energy, require, however well-founded knowledge of the sector-specific energy consumption from renewable sources. While the data available for use of biogenic solid fuels in the sectors household and industry has improved significantly in recent years, for the sector commercial sector, trade, services (tertiary sector) reliable figures are still lacking. Against this background, the objective is to present study, in close cooperation with the Federal Environment Agency (UBA), the determination of the final energy consumption biogenic solid fuels in the tertiary sector in Germany for the year 2008. The basis is, in addition to the development of the current knowledge of the energy and heat consumption, the delimitation and characterization of the sector and the development of an extrapolation tools. The demand for this tool is its expandability and update possibility. From the industry-nonspecific and industry-specific input data can be derived, collecting for the extrapolation

  4. Total balance of biogenic fuels for thermal uses; Ganzheitliche Bilanzierung verschiedener biogener Festbrennstoffe zur thermischen Nutzung

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Becher, S.; Kaltschmitt, M. [Stuttgart Univ. (Germany). Inst. fuer Energiewirtschaft und Rationelle Energieanwendung (IER)

    1996-12-31

    In this situation of unfavourable energy price levels, the use of biogenic fuels for power supply can be recommended only if it serves to reduce environmental pollution. Against this background and on the basis of a primary energy balance, the authors attempted a total balance of selected enfironmental effects (global heating and acidification potential) of biomass use as compared to fossil fuel combustion. (orig) [Deutsch] ie Nutzung biogener Festbrennstoffe zur Energienachfragedeckung ist bei dem gegenwaertigen unguenstigen Energiepreisniveau nur dann zu rechtfertigen, wenn es durch die Biomassenutzung zu einer Reduzierung der energiebedingten Umwelteffekte kommt. Vor disem Hintergrund werden ausgehend von der Primaerenergiebilanz ausgewaehlte Umwelteffekte (d.h. das Treibhaus- und das Versauerungspotential) einer Biomassenutzung im Vergleich zu einer Nutzung fossiler Energietraeger ganzheitlich bilanziert. Die wesentlichen Ergebnisse werden zusammengefasst und interpretiert. (orig)

  5. Stability of liquid fuels with biogenic content

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Koch, Winfried; Hoffmann, Hajo; Pohland vom Schloss, Heide [OWI - Oel-Waerme-Institut GmbH, Herzogenrath (Germany)

    2013-06-01

    Mineral-based fuels for diesel- and spark-ignition engines are always mixtures of many components with a wide distillation range. These insure, for example, a low viscosity and good cold starting properties. Therefore, the fuel system components are designed for mineral-based diesel and gasoline fuels. Biofuels like biodiesel and bioethanol, which only partially show these physical properties, are introduced into the fuel market because of political and ecological aspects. Currently common biofuels, such as ethanol and biodiesel, are investigated in uncommon high blend levels of 10 vol.-% and 30 vol.-% as well as future biofuels. Biodiesel (fatty acid methyl ester, FAME) has poor cold-flow properties concerning to the CP and CFPP. Therefore, biodiesel has the tendency to form crystalline deposits at sub-zero temperatures. For bioethanol applications, an adjustment of the materials used, for example for sealing, is necessary. It is well known that the negative implications of biofuels require an additive treatment for an optimal performance. In contrast to previous examinations, in which technical components were analyzed by their own, in the presented investigations (''GObio''-project), the complete system of sensitive fuel tank and feed system with auxiliary units like independent vehicle heaters is used to determine the influences of the biofuels. The investigations are based on hardware in the loop testing. A target of the project was to modify the application technology like the independent vehicle heater and the in-tank pumps to use the biofuels in the conventional systems. Furthermore, it was an objective to upgrade the performance of the fuels through the development and the treatment with additives. During operation with low blend levels no problems were detected so that safe operation using diesel with up to 7 vol.-% FAME according to EN 590 is ensured. At the temperature levels present in the fuel leading parts during operation

  6. Solid Oxide Fuel Cell

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    2010-01-01

    The solid oxide fuel cell comprising a metallic support material, an active anode layer consisting of a good hydrocarbon cracking catalyst, an electrolyte layer, an active cathode layer, and a transition layer consisting of preferably a mixture of LSM and a ferrite to the cathode current collector...

  7. Operation of marine diesel engines on biogenic fuels: modification of emissions and resulting climate effects.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Petzold, Andreas; Lauer, Peter; Fritsche, Uwe; Hasselbach, Jan; Lichtenstern, Michael; Schlager, Hans; Fleischer, Fritz

    2011-12-15

    The modification of emissions of climate-sensitive exhaust compounds such as CO(2), NO(x), hydrocarbons, and particulate matter from medium-speed marine diesel engines was studied for a set of fossil and biogenic fuels. Applied fossil fuels were the reference heavy fuel oil (HFO) and the low-sulfur marine gas oil (MGO); biogenic fuels were palm oil, soybean oil, sunflower oil, and animal fat. Greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions related to the production of biogenic fuels were treated by means of a fuel life cycle analysis which included land use changes associated with the growth of energy plants. Emissions of CO(2) and NO(x) per kWh were found to be similar for fossil fuels and biogenic fuels. PM mass emission was reduced to 10-15% of HFO emissions for all low-sulfur fuels including MGO as a fossil fuel. Black carbon emissions were reduced significantly to 13-30% of HFO. Changes in emissions were predominantly related to particulate sulfate, while differences between low-sulfur fossil fuels and low-sulfur biogenic fuels were of minor significance. GHG emissions from the biogenic fuel life cycle (FLC) depend crucially on energy plant production conditions and have the potential of shifting the overall GHG budget from positive to negative compared to fossil fuels.

  8. Operation of Marine Diesel Engines on Biogenic Fuels: Modification of Emissions and Resulting Climate Effects

    OpenAIRE

    Petzold, A.; Lauer, P.; Fritsche, U.; Hasselbach, J.; Lichtenstern, M.; Schlager, H.; Fleischer, F.

    2011-01-01

    The modification of emissions of climate-sensitive exhaust compounds such as CO2, NOx, hydrocarbons, and particulate matter from medium-speed marine diesel engines was studied for a set of fossil and biogenic fuels. Applied fossil fuels were the reference heavy fuel oil (HFO) and the low-sulfur marine gas oil (MGO); biogenic fuels were palm oil, soybean oil, sunflower oil, and animal fat. Greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions related to the production of biogenic fuels were treated by means of a fue...

  9. Solid TRU fuels and fuel cycle technology

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ogawa, Toru; Suzuki, Yasufumi

    1997-01-01

    Alloys and nitrides are candidate solid fuels for transmutation. However, the nitride fuels are preferred to the alloys because they have more favorable thermal properties which allows to apply a cold-fuel concept. The nitride fuel cycle technology is briefly presented

  10. Determination of biogenic component in waste and liquid fuels by the 14C method

    OpenAIRE

    Krajcar Bronić, Ines; Barešić, Jadranka; Horvatinčić, Nada

    2015-01-01

    Intensive use of fossil fuels for energy production and transport during 20th century caused an increase of CO2 concentration in the atmosphere. The increase of CO2 concentration can be slowed down by the use of biogenic materials for energy production and/or transport. One of the method for determination of the fraction of the biogenic component in any type of fuel or waste is the 14C method, which is based on different content of 14C in biogenic and in fossil component: while the biogenic c...

  11. Combustion experiments in a small furnace using natural biogenic solid fuels. Emissions and ash quality. Final report; Verbrennungsversuche mit naturbelassenen biogenen Festbrennstoffen in einer Kleinfeuerungsanlage. Emissionen und Aschequalitaet. Abschlussbericht

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Launhardt, T.; Hartmann, H.; Link, H.; Schmid, V.

    2000-09-01

    Emissions and ash qualities of the fuels were compared in order to assess their pollutant emissions CO, dust, C{sub n}H{sub m}, NO{sub x}, particle size distribution of airborne dust, organic and inorganic chlorinated pollutants (including PCDD/F), PAH and heavy metals. Quality characteristics of the fuels and ashes were investigated as well (nutrient and pollutant concentrations including heavy metals, chlorine, PCDD/F, PAH). The focus was on agricultural biomass, which was compared with chopped pinewood. [German] Ziel des Messvorhabens ist eine umfassende Analyse der Emissionen und der Aschenqualitaet beim Einsatz verschiedener biogener Festbrennstoffe in einer Kleinfeuerungsanlage (50 kW{sub th}). Dadurch soll eine vergleichende Bewertung der unterschiedlichen Brennstoffarten und Aufbereitungsformen (Pellet, Haeckselgut) moeglich werden und eine generelle Aussage ueber das Niveau des Schadstoffausstosses inklusive hochtoxischer organischer Komponenten abgeleitet werden. Ergaenzend dazu soll eine Quantifizierung moeglicher Einfluesse durch den Wassergehalt im Brennstoff und die Heizlast der Feuerungsanlage vorgenommen werden. Zielgroessen der Untersuchung sind der Wirkungsgrad der Feuerungsanlage, die Standard-Emissionsgroessen CO, Staub, C{sub n}H{sub m} und NO{sub x}, die Partikelgroessenverteilung des Flugstaubes, organisch und anorganisch chlorierte Schadstoffe (u.a. PCDD/F), PAK und Schwermetalle. Zusaetzlich werden eine Reihe von Qualitaetsmerkmalen im Brennstoff und in den Aschen betrachtet (Naehr- und Schadstoffgehalte, einschliesslich Schwermetalle, Chlor, PCDD/F, PAK). Im Vordergrund stehen die Biomassebrennstoffe, die speziell in der Landwirtschaft erzeugt werden. Sie werden mit dem Referenzbrennstoff Fichtenhackgut verglichen. (orig.)

  12. Decentralized heat and power supply from biogenic solid fuels. A technical and economic evaluation of the gasification in comparison to combustion. 2. ed.; Dezentrale Strom- und Waermeerzeugung aus biogenen Festbrennstoffen. Eine technische und oekonomische Bewertung der Vergasung im Vergleich zur Verbrennung

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Vogel, A.

    2007-04-15

    The previous technologies for the development of the decentralized combined heat and power generation are based on various concepts with different ripeness. Gasification is regarded as an energetically promising technology, which is not yet marketable. Under this aspect, the author of the contribution under consideration reports on an economic evaluation of the decentralized power and heat production by gasification of biogenic solid fuels and on a comparison with existing alternative technologies of combustion. In particular, the author examines the following central issues: (a) Which technologies of gasification can be regarded as promising with respect to a decentralized application?; (b) How are the technologies of gasification to be evaluated with respect to the alternative technologies of combustion from technical and economic view? For the comparative view of these different techniques, an electrical output of 500 W is specified as a uniform characteristic value of performance according to the decentralized gasification and combustion.

  13. Power generation from solid fuels

    CERN Document Server

    Spliethoff, Hartmut

    2010-01-01

    Power Generation from Solid Fuels introduces the different technologies to produce heat and power from solid fossil (hard coal, brown coal) and renewable (biomass, waste) fuels, such as combustion and gasification, steam power plants and combined cycles etc. The book discusses technologies with regard to their efficiency, emissions, operational behavior, residues and costs. Besides proven state of the art processes, the focus is on the potential of new technologies currently under development or demonstration. The main motivation of the book is to explain the technical possibilities for reduci

  14. Abundance of (14)C in biomass fractions of wastes and solid recovered fuels.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fellner, Johann; Rechberger, Helmut

    2009-05-01

    In recent years thermal utilization of mixed wastes and solid recovered fuels has become of increasing importance in European waste management. Since wastes or solid recovered fuels are generally composed of fossil and biogenic materials, only part of the CO(2) emissions is accounted for in greenhouse gas inventories or emission trading schemes. A promising approach for determining this fraction is the so-called radiocarbon method. It is based on different ratios of the carbon isotopes (14)C and (12)C in fossil and biogenic fuels. Fossil fuels have zero radiocarbon, whereas biogenic materials are enriched in (14)C and reflect the (14)CO(2) abundance of the ambient atmosphere. Due to nuclear weapons tests in the past century, the radiocarbon content in the atmosphere has not been constant, which has resulted in a varying (14)C content of biogenic matter, depending on the period of growth. In the present paper (14)C contents of different biogenic waste fractions (e.g., kitchen waste, paper, wood), as well as mixtures of different wastes (household, bulky waste, and commercial waste), and solid recovered fuels are determined. The calculated (14)C content of the materials investigated ranges between 98 and 135pMC.

  15. Abundance of 14C in biomass fractions of wastes and solid recovered fuels

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fellner, Johann; Rechberger, Helmut

    2009-01-01

    In recent years thermal utilization of mixed wastes and solid recovered fuels has become of increasing importance in European waste management. Since wastes or solid recovered fuels are generally composed of fossil and biogenic materials, only part of the CO 2 emissions is accounted for in greenhouse gas inventories or emission trading schemes. A promising approach for determining this fraction is the so-called radiocarbon method. It is based on different ratios of the carbon isotopes 14 C and 12 C in fossil and biogenic fuels. Fossil fuels have zero radiocarbon, whereas biogenic materials are enriched in 14 C and reflect the 14 CO 2 abundance of the ambient atmosphere. Due to nuclear weapons tests in the past century, the radiocarbon content in the atmosphere has not been constant, which has resulted in a varying 14 C content of biogenic matter, depending on the period of growth. In the present paper 14 C contents of different biogenic waste fractions (e.g., kitchen waste, paper, wood), as well as mixtures of different wastes (household, bulky waste, and commercial waste), and solid recovered fuels are determined. The calculated 14 C content of the materials investigated ranges between 98 and 135 pMC

  16. Solid Oxide Fuel Cell Experimental Laboratory

    Data.gov (United States)

    Federal Laboratory Consortium — NETL’s Solid Oxide Fuel Cell Experimental Laboratory in Morgantown, WV, gives researchers access to models and simulations that predict how solid oxide fuel cells...

  17. Sustainable use of biogenic fuels resources through industrial synergies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Schuech, Andrea; Nelles, Michael; Nassour, Abdallah

    2017-01-01

    The term industrial symbiosis is used when traditionally separate companies and industries work together in a collective approach to physically exchange materials, energy, water and by-products with a mutual competitive advantage. Aim of the European project ''UBIS - Urban Baltic Industrial Symbiosis'' (INTERREG South-Baltic Programme) is to use biogenic resources as well as waste and residues sustainable in industrial symbiosis and to reduce emissions at the same time. Even if a lot has already been achieved in this area, there are still many unused material flows and there are possibilities to use them even more efficiently. In the project existing collaborations will be investigated as well as new ones identified and evaluated. This article introduces the UBIS project and provides an insight into the subject of industrial symbiosis as well examples described.

  18. DGMK 729. Application characteristics of fuels with biogenic components

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Neulen, Martin; Hoffmann, Hajo [OWI - Oel-Waerme-Institut GmbH, Herzogenrath (Germany)

    2013-06-01

    Using the test rig developed within a project funded by the DGMK (project 729), fuel can be aged semi-realistically in a short time. The test rig was designed to age a fuel within less than 1,000 hours of operation. Another aspect was to investigate the influence of the different aging mechanisms on the fuel, such as light, ambient air, high temperatures and mechanical stress. By defining these parameters and intensifying them, the goal of 1,000 hours of operation has already been achieved in the first test run. A high repeatability and the possibility to vary the parameters of the test runs for all four nearly identical apparatuses are the main characteristics of this test rig. With this test rig it can be tried out how additives react when the fuel ages and how a fuel behaves during its storage. The test runs are supervised by pressure transducer and thermocouples, so that the test rig can be operated unattendedly when started. During the test run every 300 hours of operation fuel samples are taken. These samples are analyzed according to an analysis matrix. Furthermore, the deposits sedimented in the filters or other components can be analyzed. By this, the aging can be understood and monitored. (orig.)

  19. Composite Solid Fuel: Research of Formation Parameters

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tabakaev Roman

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Involving of local low-grade fuels resources in fuel and energy balance is actual question of research in the present. In this paper the possibility of processing low-grade fuel in the solid fuel composite was considered. The aim of the work is to define the optimal parameters for formation of the solid composite fuel. A result of researches determined that dextrin content in the binder allows to obtain solid composite fuel having the highest strength. The drying temperature for the various fuels was determined: for pellets production was 20-80 °C, for briquettes – 20-40 °C.

  20. Gas transport in solid oxide fuel cells

    CERN Document Server

    He, Weidong; Dickerson, James

    2014-01-01

    This book provides a comprehensive overview of contemporary research and emerging measurement technologies associated with gas transport in solid oxide fuel cells. Within these pages, an introduction to the concept of gas diffusion in solid oxide fuel cells is presented. This book also discusses the history and underlying fundamental mechanisms of gas diffusion in solid oxide fuel cells, general theoretical mathematical models for gas diffusion, and traditional and advanced techniques for gas diffusivity measurement.

  1. Energy properties of solid fossil fuels and solid biofuels

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Holubcik, Michal; Jandacka, Jozef; Kolkova, Zuzana

    2016-01-01

    The paper deals about the problematic of energy properties of solid biofuels in comparison with solid fossil fuels. Biofuels are alternative to fossil fuels and their properties are very similar. During the experiments were done in detail experiments to obtain various properties of spruce wood pellets and wheat straw pellets like biofuels in comparison with brown coal and black coal like fossil fuels. There were tested moisture content, volatile content, fixed carbon content, ash content, elementary analysis (C, H, N, S content) and ash fusion temperatures. The results show that biofuels have some advantages and also disadvantages in comparison with solid fossil fuels.

  2. Energy properties of solid fossil fuels and solid biofuels

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Holubcik, Michal, E-mail: michal.holubcik@fstroj.uniza.sk; Jandacka, Jozef, E-mail: jozef.jandacka@fstroj.uniza.sk [University of Žilina, Faculty of Mechanical Engineering, Department of Power Engineering, Univerzitná 8215/1, 010 26 Žilina (Slovakia); Kolkova, Zuzana, E-mail: zuzana.kolkova@rc.uniza.sk [Research centre, University of Žilina, Univerzitna 8215/1, 010 26 Žilina (Slovakia)

    2016-06-30

    The paper deals about the problematic of energy properties of solid biofuels in comparison with solid fossil fuels. Biofuels are alternative to fossil fuels and their properties are very similar. During the experiments were done in detail experiments to obtain various properties of spruce wood pellets and wheat straw pellets like biofuels in comparison with brown coal and black coal like fossil fuels. There were tested moisture content, volatile content, fixed carbon content, ash content, elementary analysis (C, H, N, S content) and ash fusion temperatures. The results show that biofuels have some advantages and also disadvantages in comparison with solid fossil fuels.

  3. Oxy-fuel combustion of solid fuels

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Toftegaard, Maja Bøg; Brix, Jacob; Jensen, Peter Arendt

    2010-01-01

    temperature. The flue gas produced thus consists primarily of carbon dioxide and water. Much research on the different aspects of an oxy-fuel power plant has been performed during the last decade. Focus has mainly been on retrofits of existing pulverized-coal-fired power plant units. Green-field plants which......Oxy-fuel combustion is suggested as one of the possible, promising technologies for capturing CO2 from power plants. The concept of oxy-fuel combustion is removal of nitrogen from the oxidizer to carry out the combustion process in oxygen and, in most concepts, recycled flue gas to lower the flame...

  4. Interconnection of bundled solid oxide fuel cells

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brown, Michael; Bessette, II, Norman F; Litka, Anthony F; Schmidt, Douglas S

    2014-01-14

    A system and method for electrically interconnecting a plurality of fuel cells to provide dense packing of the fuel cells. Each one of the plurality of fuel cells has a plurality of discrete electrical connection points along an outer surface. Electrical connections are made directly between the discrete electrical connection points of adjacent fuel cells so that the fuel cells can be packed more densely. Fuel cells have at least one outer electrode and at least one discrete interconnection to an inner electrode, wherein the outer electrode is one of a cathode and and anode and wherein the inner electrode is the other of the cathode and the anode. In tubular solid oxide fuel cells the discrete electrical connection points are spaced along the length of the fuel cell.

  5. Durable and Robust Solid Oxide Fuel Cells

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hjalmarsson, Per; Knibbe, Ruth; Hauch, Anne

    The solid oxide fuel cell (SOFC) is an attractive technology for the generation of electricity with high efficiency and low emissions. Risø DTU (now DTU Energy Conversion) works closely together with Topsoe Fuel Cell A/S in their effort to bring competitive SOFC systems to the market. This 2-year...

  6. Solid oxide fuel cells fueled with reducible oxides

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chuang, Steven S.; Fan, Liang Shih

    2018-01-09

    A direct-electrochemical-oxidation fuel cell for generating electrical energy includes a cathode provided with an electrochemical-reduction catalyst that promotes formation of oxygen ions from an oxygen-containing source at the cathode, a solid-state reduced metal, a solid-state anode provided with an electrochemical-oxidation catalyst that promotes direct electrochemical oxidation of the solid-state reduced metal in the presence of the oxygen ions to produce electrical energy, and an electrolyte disposed to transmit the oxygen ions from the cathode to the solid-state anode. A method of operating a solid oxide fuel cell includes providing a direct-electrochemical-oxidation fuel cell comprising a solid-state reduced metal, oxidizing the solid-state reduced metal in the presence of oxygen ions through direct-electrochemical-oxidation to obtain a solid-state reducible metal oxide, and reducing the solid-state reducible metal oxide to obtain the solid-state reduced metal.

  7. Biogenic metallic nanoparticles as catalyst for bioelectricity production: A novel approach in microbial fuel cells

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Saravanakumar, Kandasamy, E-mail: saravana732@gmail.com [School of Agriculture and Biology, Shanghai Jiao Tong University, Shanghai (China); State Key Laboratory of Microbial Metabolism, Shanghai Jiao Tong University, Shanghai (China); Key Laboratory of Urban Agriculture (South), Ministry of Agriculture, Shanghai (China); MubarakAli, Davoodbasha [Microbial Genetic Engineering Laboratory, Division of Bioengineering, College of Life Science and Bioengineering, Incheon National University, Songdo 406772, Incheon (Korea, Republic of); Department of Microbiology, School of Lifesciences, Bharathidasan University, Tiruchirappalli 620024 (India); Kathiresan, Kandasamy [Centre of Advanced Study in Marine Biology, Faculty of Marine Sciences, Annamalai University, Parangipettai 608 502, Tamil Nadu (India); Thajuddin, Nooruddin [Department of Microbiology, School of Lifesciences, Bharathidasan University, Tiruchirappalli 620024 (India); Department of Botany and Microbiology, College of Science, King Saud University, Riyadh 11451 (Saudi Arabia); Alharbi, Naiyf S. [Department of Botany and Microbiology, College of Science, King Saud University, Riyadh 11451 (Saudi Arabia); Chen, Jie, E-mail: jiechen59@sjtu.edu.cn [School of Agriculture and Biology, Shanghai Jiao Tong University, Shanghai (China); State Key Laboratory of Microbial Metabolism, Shanghai Jiao Tong University, Shanghai (China); Key Laboratory of Urban Agriculture (South), Ministry of Agriculture, Shanghai (China)

    2016-01-15

    Highlights: • Trichoderma sp., showed an abilities to synthesis of AgNPs and AuNPs with an excellent stability. • AuNPs significantly enhanced the bioelectricity production by MFC of anaerobic fermentation as catalyst. • Maximum bioelectricity production was optimized and obtained the voltage of 432.80 mA using RSM. - Abstract: The present work aimed to use the biogenic metallic nanoparticles as catalyst for bioelectricity production in microbial fuel cell (MFC) approach under anaerobic condition. Silver and gold nanoparticles (AuNPs) were synthesized using Trichoderma sp. Particle size and cystallinity were measured by X-ray diffraction revealed the crystalline structure with average size of 36.17 nm. Electron microscopic studies showed spherical shaped silver nanoparticles (AgNPs) and cubical shaped AuNPs with size ranges from 50 to 150 nm. The concentration of biogenic metallic nanoparticles as catalyst for enhanced bioelectricity generations and estimated by response surface methodology (RSM) and found at the greatest of 342.80 mA under optimized conditions are time interval, temperature, nanoparticles used as 63 h, 28 ± 2.0 °C, 22.54 mg l{sup −1} (AgNPs) and 25.62 mg l{sup −1} (AuNPs) in a batch reactor. AuNPs acted as an excellent catalyst to enhance the bioelectricity production. This novel technique could be used for eco-friendly, economically feasible and facile electricity production.

  8. Solid polymer MEMS-based fuel cells

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jankowski, Alan F [Livermore, CA; Morse, Jeffrey D [Pleasant Hill, CA

    2008-04-22

    A micro-electro-mechanical systems (MEMS) based thin-film fuel cells for electrical power applications. The MEMS-based fuel cell may be of a solid oxide type (SOFC), a solid polymer type (SPFC), or a proton exchange membrane type (PEMFC), and each fuel cell basically consists of an anode and a cathode separated by an electrolyte layer. The electrolyte layer can consist of either a solid oxide or solid polymer material, or proton exchange membrane electrolyte materials may be used. Additionally catalyst layers can also separate the electrodes (cathode and anode) from the electrolyte. Gas manifolds are utilized to transport the fuel and oxidant to each cell and provide a path for exhaust gases. The electrical current generated from each cell is drawn away with an interconnect and support structure integrated with the gas manifold. The fuel cells utilize integrated resistive heaters for efficient heating of the materials. By combining MEMS technology with thin-film deposition technology, thin-film fuel cells having microflow channels and full-integrated circuitry can be produced that will lower the operating temperature an will yield an order of magnitude greater power density than the currently known fuel cells.

  9. Direct liquid methanol-fueled solid oxide fuel cell

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Mingfei; Peng, Ranran; Dong, Dehua; Gao, Jianfeng; Liu, Xingqin; Meng, Guangyao

    Anode coking problem of solid oxide fuel cell (SOFC) when using hydrocarbon fuels has been the major barrier for the practice and commercialization of well-developed high performance SOFC. In this work, based on fuels consideration, we chose liquid methanol as the candidate fuel for SOFC with the configuration of NiO/SDC-SDC-SSC/SDC. For comparison, traditional fuels, hydrogen and ammonia, were tested. With methanol as fuel, the maximum power densities were 698, 430 and 223 mW cm -2 at 650, 600 and 550 °C, respectively, which were higher than that with ammonia and lower than that of hydrogen. The electrochemical properties of the cells with the three fuels were investigated by AC impedance spectroscopy. The long-term stability of the cell with methanol, methane and ethanol were also studied at a constant output voltage of 0.5 V.

  10. Microbiological contamination of biogenic fuels; Wechselwirkungen zwischen Mikroorganismen und Heizoel EL A Bio

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Eiden, Simon; Koch, Winfried; Schloss, Heide vom [RWTH Aachen (Germany). OWI Oel-Waerme-Institut GmbH An-Institut; Leuchtle, Bernd; Xie, Wei; Zimmermann, Martin; Blank, Lars M. [RWTH Aachen (Germany). iAMB Inst. fuer Angewandte Mikrobiologie

    2013-10-15

    The project's aim was to clarify, which microorganisms can occur in heating oil EL, in FAME and in their mixtures (heating oil EL A bio) and in how far the risk of microbiological load is increased by using biogenic fuels. Various field systems with a FAME share of up to 20 % (V/V) could be investigated and microbes could be isolated and identified. Moreover, the chemical-physical characteristics of heating oil EL, FAME and their mixtures could be determined in more detail by means of laboratory investigations. The hygroscopic characteristics of fuels and their emulsion formation or degradation as well as the corrosive characteristics could be investigated in detail. On the basis of the collected data, exposure tests could be carried out afterwards. Purposefully, the different fuels and their mixtures were microbiologically contaminated and incubated under various storage conditions. As inoculum a mixed population, which was isolated from a diesel fuel, was used. It could be shown that FAME is decisive for an increased water absorption capacity of the fuel phase because of its hygroscopic effect. The general formation of a micro-emulsion due to FAME-admixture could not be shown. Due to the increased water absorption capacity and the reinforced nutrients inflow through FAME an increased microbiological growth could be demonstrated. The formation of a free aqueous phase is essential for the growth of microorganisms. During the incubation biofilms were formed; i.e. a mixed population of different microorganisms. In the course of the project different microorganisms could be isolated and identified. Yarrowia lipolytica could be identified as yeast most frequently. The genres Pseudomonas, Burkholdelia und Sphingomonas were the most frequent bacteria. All isolated or identified organisms were able to exploit FAME. Investigating microbiologically contaminated fuels in an electron microscope, a micro-emulsion with a drop size of about 100 nm could be proven. The steel

  11. Jet Fuel Based High Pressure Solid Oxide Fuel Cell System

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gummalla, Mallika (Inventor); Yamanis, Jean (Inventor); Olsommer, Benoit (Inventor); Dardas, Zissis (Inventor); Bayt, Robert (Inventor); Srinivasan, Hari (Inventor); Dasgupta, Arindam (Inventor); Hardin, Larry (Inventor)

    2015-01-01

    A power system for an aircraft includes a solid oxide fuel cell system which generates electric power for the aircraft and an exhaust stream; and a heat exchanger for transferring heat from the exhaust stream of the solid oxide fuel cell to a heat requiring system or component of the aircraft. The heat can be transferred to fuel for the primary engine of the aircraft. Further, the same fuel can be used to power both the primary engine and the SOFC. A heat exchanger is positioned to cool reformate before feeding to the fuel cell. SOFC exhaust is treated and used as inerting gas. Finally, oxidant to the SOFC can be obtained from the aircraft cabin, or exterior, or both.

  12. Solid Acid Based Fuel Cells

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Haile, Sossina M

    2005-01-01

    ...) without pressurization. In this configuration, the thin-film fuel cell is supported on a porous stainless steel gas diffusion layer and the electrocatalyst and electrolyte layers are spray-deposited...

  13. Durability of solid oxide fuel cells using sulfur containing fuels

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hagen, Anke; Rasmussen, Jens Foldager Bregnballe; Thydén, Karl Tor Sune

    2011-01-01

    The usability of hydrogen and also carbon containing fuels is one of the important advantages of solid oxide fuel cells (SOFCs), which opens the possibility to use fuels derived from conventional sources such as natural gas and from renewable sources such as biogas. Impurities like sulfur compounds...... are critical in this respect. State-of-the-art Ni/YSZ SOFC anodes suffer from being rather sensitive towards sulfur impurities. In the current study, anode supported SOFCs with Ni/YSZ or Ni/ScYSZ anodes were exposed to H2S in the ppm range both for short periods of 24h and for a few hundred hours. In a fuel...

  14. Coal derived-briquetted solid fuels

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sciazko, M.

    1993-01-01

    Despite considerable progress, there are some regions in Central and Eastern Europe where residential heating is dominated by direct burning of bituminous or brown coal with all environmental consequences. In Poland, the residential heating consumes more than 25 mln tons of coal annually. It is estimated that during the heating season coal-fired individual home ovens and local heating stations in some Polish heavily populated areas contribute up to 22% in total emission of dust, 86% of SO 2 , and 56% of tar species. It has been proposed to replace some of the fuel, i.e. directly burnt coal by more ecological solid fuels in a form of briquettes. Considering the emissive characteristics, solid ecological fuels can be divided into two groups. The first one manufactured on the basis of high rank coals, and a cold briquetting with some additives capturing harmful combustion products. Production of these fuels is reasonably cheap and simple and the result of their use is a noticeable decrease in dust, sulfur oxides and soot emissions. The second one is ecologically clean fuel, i.e. smokeless fuel, produced on the basis of deeply degasified coals and a hot briquetting with the addition of either binder or caking coals and other compounds aimed at capturing harmful combustion products. The technology of production of the smokeless fuels is much more complicated and expensive, but as a result of their use a significant decrease in atmospheric emission is achieved. The best results are observed in decreasing the emission of tars and aromatic hydrocarbons. Technologies of production of ecological fuels are non-waste and non-emissive. The paper deals with the economical and technological side of briquetted solid fuels of both types. Emission factors of chosen components for ecological fuels with reference to primary coal are also discussed

  15. Solid Oxide Fuel Cells Operating on Alternative and Renewable Fuels

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wang, Xiaoxing; Quan, Wenying; Xiao, Jing; Peduzzi, Emanuela; Fujii, Mamoru; Sun, Funxia; Shalaby, Cigdem; Li, Yan; Xie, Chao; Ma, Xiaoliang; Johnson, David; Lee, Jeong; Fedkin, Mark; LaBarbera, Mark; Das, Debanjan; Thompson, David; Lvov, Serguei; Song, Chunshan

    2014-09-30

    This DOE project at the Pennsylvania State University (Penn State) initially involved Siemens Energy, Inc. to (1) develop new fuel processing approaches for using selected alternative and renewable fuels – anaerobic digester gas (ADG) and commercial diesel fuel (with 15 ppm sulfur) – in solid oxide fuel cell (SOFC) power generation systems; and (2) conduct integrated fuel processor – SOFC system tests to evaluate the performance of the fuel processors and overall systems. Siemens Energy Inc. was to provide SOFC system to Penn State for testing. The Siemens work was carried out at Siemens Energy Inc. in Pittsburgh, PA. The unexpected restructuring in Siemens organization, however, led to the elimination of the Siemens Stationary Fuel Cell Division within the company. Unfortunately, this led to the Siemens subcontract with Penn State ending on September 23rd, 2010. SOFC system was never delivered to Penn State. With the assistance of NETL project manager, the Penn State team has since developed a collaborative research with Delphi as the new subcontractor and this work involved the testing of a stack of planar solid oxide fuel cells from Delphi.

  16. Sustainable use of biogenic fuels resources through industrial synergies; Nachhaltige energetische Nutzung biogener Ressourcen durch industrielle Synergien

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Schuech, Andrea [Rostock Univ. (Germany). Professur Abfall- und Stoffstromwirtschaft; Nelles, Michael [Rostock Univ. (Germany). Agrar- und Umweltwissenschaftliche Fakultaet; Nassour, Abdallah

    2017-08-01

    The term industrial symbiosis is used when traditionally separate companies and industries work together in a collective approach to physically exchange materials, energy, water and by-products with a mutual competitive advantage. Aim of the European project ''UBIS - Urban Baltic Industrial Symbiosis'' (INTERREG South-Baltic Programme) is to use biogenic resources as well as waste and residues sustainable in industrial symbiosis and to reduce emissions at the same time. Even if a lot has already been achieved in this area, there are still many unused material flows and there are possibilities to use them even more efficiently. In the project existing collaborations will be investigated as well as new ones identified and evaluated. This article introduces the UBIS project and provides an insight into the subject of industrial symbiosis as well examples described.

  17. Solid oxide fuel cell with monolithic core

    Science.gov (United States)

    McPheeters, C.C.; Mrazek, F.C.

    1988-08-02

    A solid oxide fuel cell in which fuel and oxidant gases undergo an electrochemical reaction to produce an electrical output includes a monolithic core comprised of a corrugated conductive sheet disposed between upper and lower generally flat sheets. The corrugated sheet includes a plurality of spaced, parallel, elongated slots which form a series of closed, linear, first upper and second lower gas flow channels with the upper and lower sheets within which a fuel gas and an oxidant gas respectively flow. Facing ends of the fuel cell are generally V-shaped and provide for fuel and oxidant gas inlet and outlet flow, respectively, and include inlet and outlet gas flow channels which are continuous with the aforementioned upper fuel gas and lower oxidant gas flow channels. The upper and lower flat sheets and the intermediate corrugated sheet are preferably comprised of ceramic materials and are securely coupled together such as by assembly in the green state and sintering together during firing at high temperatures. A potential difference across the fuel cell, or across a stacked array of similar fuel cells, is generated when an oxidant gas such as air and a fuel such as hydrogen gas is directed through the fuel cell at high temperatures, e.g., between 700 C and 1,100 C. 8 figs.

  18. Ecological, energetic and economical comparison of fermentation, composting and incineration of solid biogenic waste materials; Oekologischer, energetischer und oekonomischer Vergleich von Vergaerung, Kompostierung und Verbrennung fester biogener Abfallstoffe

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Edelmann, W. [Arbeitsgemeinschaft Bioenergie GmbH, Arbi, Baar (Switzerland); Schleiss, K. [Umwelt- und Kompostberatung Schleiss, Baar (Switzerland)

    2001-07-01

    This study compares different technologies for the treatment of biogenic wastes, including open windrow and enclosed tunnel composting, anaerobic digestion, the combination of both these methods and burning in waste incineration plants. The methods are compared from the points of view of environmental impact, energy use and production, and economics. The environmental impact, calculated for normalised quantities of waste using the 'Ecoindicator 95+' tool, are discussed and the methane and carbon dioxide emissions of the different methods of treatment are compared. Also, the considerable differences to be found in the energy balances of the different systems are discussed in the light of efforts to substitute nuclear and fossil-fuel generated power. Cost and energetic comparisons are also made between compost and artificial fertilisers. The report is concluded with recommendations for adapting bio-technological methods for the treatment of wastes with an emphasis on anaerobic processes.

  19. Mathematical modeling of solid oxide fuel cells

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lu, Cheng-Yi; Maloney, Thomas M.

    1988-01-01

    Development of predictive techniques, with regard to cell behavior, under various operating conditions is needed to improve cell performance, increase energy density, reduce manufacturing cost, and to broaden utilization of various fuels. Such technology would be especially beneficial for the solid oxide fuel cells (SOFC) at it early demonstration stage. The development of computer models to calculate the temperature, CD, reactant distributions in the tubular and monolithic SOFCs. Results indicate that problems of nonuniform heat generation and fuel gas depletion in the tubular cell module, and of size limitions in the monolithic (MOD 0) design may be encountered during FC operation.

  20. Biogenic Carbon Fraction of Biogas and Natural Gas Fuel Mixtures Determined with 14C

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Palstra, Sanne W. L.; Meijer, Harro A. J.

    2014-01-01

    This study investigates the accuracy of the radiocarbon-based calculation of the biogenic carbon fraction for different biogas and biofossil gas mixtures. The focus is on the uncertainty in the C-14 reference values for 100% biogenic carbon and on the C-13-based isotope fractionation correction of

  1. Near-ambient solid polymer fuel cell

    Science.gov (United States)

    Holleck, G. L.

    1993-01-01

    Fuel cells are extremely attractive for extraterrestrial and terrestrial applications because of their high energy conversion efficiency without noise or environmental pollution. Among the various fuel cell systems the advanced polymer electrolyte membrane fuel cells based on sulfonated fluoropolymers (e.g., Nafion) are particularly attractive because they are fairly rugged, solid state, quite conductive, of good chemical and thermal stability and show good oxygen reduction kinetics due to the low specific adsorption of the electrolyte on the platinum catalyst. The objective of this program is to develop a solid polymer fuel cell which can efficiently operate at near ambient temperatures without ancillary components for humidification and/or pressurization of the fuel or oxidant gases. During the Phase 1 effort we fabricated novel integral electrode-membrane structures where the dispersed platinum catalyst is precipitated within the Nafion ionomer. This resulted in electrode-membrane units without interfacial barriers permitting unhindered water diffusion from cathode to anode. The integral electrode-membrane structures were tested as fuel cells operating on H2 and O2 or air at 1 to 2 atm and 10 to 50 C without gas humidification. We demonstrated that cells with completely dry membranes could be self started at room temperature and subsequently operated on dry gas for extended time. Typical room temperature low pressure operation with unoptimized electrodes yielded 100 mA/cm(exp 2) at 0.5V and maximum currents over 300 mA/cm(exp 2) with low platinum loadings. Our results clearly demonstrate that operation of proton exchange membrane fuel cells at ambient conditions is feasible. Optimization of the electrode-membrane structure is necessary to assess the full performance potential but we expect significant gains in weight and volume power density for the system. The reduced complexity will make fuel cells also attractive for smaller and portable power supplies and as

  2. Preliminary carbon isotope measurements of fossil fuel and biogenic emissions from the Brazilian Southeastern region

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oliveira, F. M.; Santos, G.; Macario, K.; Muniz, M.; Queiroz, E.; Park, J.

    2014-12-01

    Researchers have confirmed that the continuing global rising of atmospheric CO2 content is caused by anthropogenic CO2 contributions. Most of those contributions are essentially associated with burning of fossil fuels (coal, petroleum and natural gas). However, deforestation, biomass burning, and land use changes, can also play important roles. Researchers have showed that 14C measurements of annual plants, such as corn leaf (Hsueh et al. 2007), annual grasses (Wang and Pataki 2012), and leaves of deciduous trees (Park et al. 2013) can be used to obtain time-integrated information of the fossil fuel ration in the atmosphere. Those regional-scale fossil fuel maps are essential for monitoring CO2 emissions mitigation efforts and/or growth spikes around the globe. However, no current data from anthropogenic contributions from both biogenic and fossil carbon has been reported from the major urban areas of Brazil. Here we make use of carbon isotopes (13C and 14C) to infer sources of CO2 in the highly populated Brazilian Southeastern region (over 80 million in 2010). This region leads the country in population, urban population, population density, vehicles, industries, and many other utilities and major infrastructures. For a starting point, we focus on collecting Ipê leaves (Tabebuia, a popular deciduous tree) from across Rio de Janeiro city and state as well as Sao Paulo city during May/June of 2014 to obtain the regional distribution of 13C and 14C of those urban domes. So far, Δ14C range from -10 to 32‰, when δ13C values are running from -26 to -35‰. The result of these preliminary investigations will be presented and discussed.Hsueh et al. 2007 Regional patterns of radiocarbon and fossil fuel-derived CO2 in surface air across North America. Geophysical Research Letters. 34: L02816. doi:10.1029/2006GL027032 Wang and Pataki 2012 Drivers of spatial variability in urban plant and soil isotopic composition in the Los Angeles Basin. Plant and Soil 350: 323

  3. Catalysis in solid oxide fuel cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gorte, R J; Vohs, J M

    2011-01-01

    Solid oxide fuel cells (SOFCs) and solid oxide electrolyzers (SOEs) hold much promise as highly efficient devices for the direct interconversion of chemical and electrical energy. Commercial application of these devices, however, requires further improvements in their performance and stability. Because the performance of SOFC and SOE electrodes depends on their microstructures, electronic and ionic conductivities, and chemical reactivities, the needed improvements require the expertise of various disciplines, with catalytic science playing an important role. Highly active and thermally stable catalysts are required to limit the internal losses in the devices, increase the range of fuels they can use, and decrease the temperatures at which they operate. In this article we review some of the most important recent advances in catalysis for SOFC and SOE electrodes and highlight additional improvements that are needed.

  4. Intermediate temperature solid oxide fuel cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brett, Daniel J L; Atkinson, Alan; Brandon, Nigel P; Skinner, Stephen J

    2008-08-01

    High temperature solid oxide fuel cells (SOFCs), typified by developers such as Siemens Westinghouse and Rolls-Royce, operate in the temperature region of 850-1000 degrees C. For such systems, very high efficiencies can be achieved from integration with gas turbines for large-scale stationary applications. However, high temperature operation means that the components of the stack need to be predominantly ceramic and high temperature metal alloys are needed for many balance-of-plant components. For smaller scale applications, where integration with a heat engine is not appropriate, there is a trend to move to lower temperatures of operation, into the so-called intermediate temperature (IT) range of 500-750 degrees C. This expands the choice of materials and stack geometries that can be used, offering reduced system cost and, in principle, reducing the corrosion rate of stack and system components. This review introduces the IT-SOFC and explains the advantages of operation in this temperature regime. The main advances made in materials chemistry that have made IT operation possible are described and some of the engineering issues and the new opportunities that reduced temperature operation affords are discussed. This tutorial review examines the advances being made in materials and engineering that are allowing solid oxide fuel cells to operate at lower temperature. The challenges and advantages of operating in the so-called 'intermediate temperature' range of 500-750 degrees C are discussed and the opportunities for applications not traditionally associated with solid oxide fuel cells are highlighted. This article serves as an introduction for scientists and engineers interested in intermediate temperature solid oxide fuel cells and the challenges and opportunities of reduced temperature operation.

  5. Stability of solid oxide fuel cell materials

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Armstrong, T.R.; Bates, J.L.; Chick, L.A. [Pacific Northwest Lab., Richland, WA (United States)

    1996-04-01

    Interconnection materials in a solid oxide fuel cell are exposed to both highly oxidizing conditions at the cathode and to highly reducing conditions at the anode. The thermal expansion characteristics of substituted lanthanum and yttrium chromite interconnect materials were evaluated by dilatometry as a function of oxygen partial pressures from 1 atm to 10{sup -18} atm, controlled using a carbon dioxide/hydrogen buffer.

  6. SOLID STATE ENERGY CONVERSION ALLIANCE DELPHI SOLID OXIDE FUEL CELL

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Steven Shaffer; Sean Kelly; Subhasish Mukerjee; David Schumann; Gail Geiger; Kevin Keegan; John Noetzel; Larry Chick

    2003-12-08

    The objective of Phase I under this project is to develop a 5 kW Solid Oxide Fuel Cell power system for a range of fuels and applications. During Phase I, the following will be accomplished: Develop and demonstrate technology transfer efforts on a 5 kW stationary distributed power generation system that incorporates steam reforming of natural gas with the option of piped-in water (Demonstration System A). Initiate development of a 5 kW system for later mass-market automotive auxiliary power unit application, which will incorporate Catalytic Partial Oxidation (CPO) reforming of gasoline, with anode exhaust gas injected into an ultra-lean burn internal combustion engine. This technical progress report covers work performed by Delphi from January 1, 2003 to June 30, 2003, under Department of Energy Cooperative Agreement DE-FC-02NT41246. This report highlights technical results of the work performed under the following tasks: Task 1 System Design and Integration; Task 2 Solid Oxide Fuel Cell Stack Developments; Task 3 Reformer Developments; Task 4 Development of Balance of Plant (BOP) Components; Task 5 Manufacturing Development (Privately Funded); Task 6 System Fabrication; Task 7 System Testing; Task 8 Program Management; and Task 9 Stack Testing with Coal-Based Reformate.

  7. Field measurements of biogenic volatile organic compounds in the atmosphere using solid-phase microextraction Arrow

    Science.gov (United States)

    Feijó Barreira, Luís Miguel; Duporté, Geoffroy; Rönkkö, Tuukka; Parshintsev, Jevgeni; Hartonen, Kari; Hyrsky, Lydia; Heikkinen, Enna; Jussila, Matti; Kulmala, Markku; Riekkola, Marja-Liisa

    2018-02-01

    Biogenic volatile organic compounds (BVOCs) emitted by terrestrial vegetation participate in a diversity of natural processes. These compounds impact both short-range processes, such as on plant protection and communication, and long-range processes, for example by participating in aerosol particle formation and growth. The biodiversity of plant species around the Earth, the vast assortment of emitted BVOCs, and their trace atmospheric concentrations contribute to the substantial remaining uncertainties about the effects of these compounds on atmospheric chemistry and physics, and call for the development of novel collection devices that can offer portability with improved selectivity and capacity. In this study, a novel solid-phase microextraction (SPME) Arrow sampling system was used for the static and dynamic collection of BVOCs from a boreal forest, and samples were subsequently analyzed on site by gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (GC-MS). This system offers higher sampling capacity and improved robustness when compared to traditional equilibrium-based SPME techniques, such as SPME fibers. Field measurements were performed in summer 2017 at the Station for Measuring Ecosystem-Atmosphere Relations (SMEAR II) in Hyytiälä, Finland. Complementary laboratory tests were also performed to compare the SPME-based techniques under controlled experimental conditions and to evaluate the effect of temperature and relative humidity on their extraction performance. The most abundant monoterpenes and aldehydes were successfully collected. A significant improvement on sampling capacity was observed with the new SPME Arrow system over SPME fibers, with collected amounts being approximately 2 × higher for monoterpenes and 7-8 × higher for aldehydes. BVOC species exhibited different affinities for the type of sorbent materials used (polydimethylsiloxane (PDMS)-carbon wide range (WR) vs. PDMS-divinylbenzene (DVB)). Higher extraction efficiencies were obtained with dynamic

  8. Direct Carbon Fuel Cell System Utilizing Solid Carbonaceous Fuels

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Turgut Gur

    2010-04-30

    This 1-year project has achieved most of its objective and successfully demonstrated the viability of the fluidized bed direct carbon fuel cell (FB-DCFC) approach under development by Direct Carbon technologies, LLC, that utilizes solid carbonaceous fuels for power generation. This unique electrochemical technology offers high conversion efficiencies, produces proportionately less CO{sub 2} in capture-ready form, and does not consume or require water for gasification. FB-DCFC employs a specialized solid oxide fuel cell (SOFC) arrangement coupled to a Boudouard gasifier where the solid fuel particles are fluidized and reacted by the anode recycle gas CO{sub 2}. The resulting CO is electrochemically oxidized at the anode. Anode supported SOFC structures employed a porous Ni cermet anode layer, a dense yttria stabilized zirconia membrane, and a mixed conducting porous perovskite cathode film. Several kinds of untreated solid fuels (carbon and coal) were tested in bench scale FBDCFC prototypes for electrochemical performance and stability testing. Single cells of tubular geometry with active areas up to 24 cm{sup 2} were fabricated. The cells achieved high power densities up to 450 mW/cm{sup 2} at 850 C using a low sulfur Alaska coal char. This represents the highest power density reported in the open literature for coal based DCFC. Similarly, power densities up to 175 mW/cm{sup 2} at 850 C were demonstrated with carbon. Electrical conversion efficiencies for coal char were experimentally determined to be 48%. Long-term stability of cell performance was measured under galvanostatic conditions for 375 hours in CO with no degradation whatsoever, indicating that carbon deposition (or coking) does not pose any problems. Similar cell stability results were obtained in coal char tested for 24 hours under galvanostatic conditions with no sign of sulfur poisoning. Moreover, a 50-cell planar stack targeted for 1 kW output was fabricated and tested in 95% CO (balance CO{sub 2

  9. Solid Oxide Fuel Cell Systems PVL Line

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shearer, Susan; Rush, Gregory

    2012-01-01

    In July 2010, Stark State College (SSC), received Grant DE-EE0003229 from the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE), Golden Field Office, for the development of the electrical and control systems, and mechanical commissioning of a unique 20kW scale high-pressure, high temperature, natural gas fueled Stack Block Test System (SBTS). SSC worked closely with subcontractor, Rolls-Royce Fuel Cell Systems (US) Inc. (RRFCS) over a 13 month period to successfully complete the project activities. This system will be utilized by RRFCS for pre-commercial technology development and training of SSC student interns. In the longer term, when RRFCS is producing commercial products, SSC will utilize the equipment for workforce training. In addition to DOE Hydrogen, Fuel Cells, and Infrastructure Technologies program funding, RRFCS internal funds, funds from the state of Ohio, and funding from the DOE Solid State Energy Conversion Alliance (SECA) program have been utilized to design, develop and commission this equipment. Construction of the SBTS (mechanical components) was performed under a Grant from the State of Ohio through Ohio's Third Frontier program (Grant TECH 08-053). This Ohio program supported development of a system that uses natural gas as a fuel. Funding was provided under the Department of Energy (DOE) Solid-state Energy Conversion Alliance (SECA) program for modifications required to test on coal synthesis gas. The subject DOE program provided funding for the electrical build, control system development and mechanical commissioning. Performance testing, which includes electrical commissioning, was subsequently performed under the DOE SECA program. Rolls-Royce Fuel Cell Systems is developing a megawatt-scale solid oxide fuel cell (SOFC) stationary power generation system. This system, based on RRFCS proprietary technology, is fueled with natural gas, and operates at elevated pressure. A critical success factor for development of the full scale system is the capability to

  10. Combustion of large solid fuels in cement rotary kilns

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielsen, Anders Rooma

    The cement industry has a significant interest in replacing fossil fuels with alternative fuels in order to minimize production costs and reduce CO2 emissions. These new alternative fuels are in particular solid fuels such as refuse derived fuel (RDF), tire-derived fuel (TDF), meat and bone meal...... from traditional solid fossil fuels. This creates a need for new combustion equipment or modification of existing kiln systems, because alternative fuels may influence process stability and product quality. Process stability is mainly influenced by exposing the raw material bed in the rotary kiln...... (MBM), waste wood, sewage sludge, paper and plastics. The alternative fuel share of the total energy varies significantly from region to region, but the general trend is towards increased alternative fuel utilization. Solid alternative fuels typically have physical and chemical properties that differ...

  11. Determination of biogenic component in liquid fuels by the 14C direct LSC method by using quenching properties of modern liquids for calibration

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bronić, Ines Krajcar; Barešić, Jadranka; Horvatinčić, Nada; Sironić, Andreja

    2017-08-01

    The fraction of biogenic component within various types of materials that can be used as fuels for energy production and transport can be determined by measuring their 14C activity. The method is based on different 14C signatures of the biogenic and the fossil components: while the biogenic component reflects the modern atmospheric 14C activity, no 14C is present in fossil fuels. A direct measurement of the 14C content in liquid fuel by liquid scintillation counter is a simple and fast technique but has a main disadvantage: different liquid colors cause different quenching properties and affect the measurement efficiency. We propose a new evaluation technique that uses liquids of different colors to construct modern and background calibration curves. Various binary mixtures of biogenic liquids have been used to verify the relation between the count rate and the quenching parameter. Mixtures of a biogenic and a 14C-free liquid demonstrated the potential of the proposed technique for determining the biogenic fraction of a mixture.

  12. Production of Solid Fuel Briquettes from Agricultural and Wood ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Fibrous agricultural and wood waste materials have been compressed with suitable adhesive into solid fuel briquettes in a compressing machine, which was ... the solid fuel briquettes bound with starch burnt with bluish yellow flame with little black smoke indicating that the stoichiometric (air-fuel) ratio was almost correct.

  13. A review of liquid metal anode solid oxide fuel cells

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    ALIYA TOLEUOVA

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available This review discusses recent advances in a solid oxide fuel cell (SOFC variant that uses liquid metal electrodes (anodes with the advantage of greater fuel tolerance and the ability to operate on solid fuel. Key features of the approach are discussed along with the technological and research challenges that need to be overcome for scale-up and commercialisation.

  14. Advanced materials for solid oxide fuel cells

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Armstrong, T.; Stevenson, J.

    1995-12-31

    The purpose of this research is to improve the properties of the current state-of-the-art materials used for solid oxide fuel cells (SOFCs). The objectives are to: (1) develop materials based on modifications of the state-of-the-art materials; (2) minimize or eliminate stability problems in the cathode, anode, and interconnect; (3) Electrochemically evaluate (in reproducible and controlled laboratory tests) the current state-of-the-art air electrode materials and cathode/electrolyte interfacial properties; (4) Develop accelerated electrochemical test methods to evaluate the performance of SOFCs under controlled and reproducible conditions; and (5) Develop and test materials for use in low-temperature SOFCs.

  15. Solid fuel grindability: a literature review

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hills, L.

    2007-07-01

    The most commonly used measurement of coal grindability is the Hardgrove Grindability Index (HGI) however, many solid fuels do not exhibit the grinding performance predicted by this index. Parameters which can influence grindability and possibly lead to inaccurate prediction of grindability as determined by HGI include: composition and texture, mineral components, brittleness, and rank (which establishes carbon, volatile matter, and moisture contents). Descriptions of these parameters are provided. Alternative measurements of grindability from literature are presented. The most promising may be a revision on the standard HGI, in which a mill capacity factor is derived from the number of mill rotations to crush coal to a specific fineness. 88 refs.

  16. Complex plasmochemical processing of solid fuel

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vladimir Messerle

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available Technology of complex plasmaochemical processing of solid fuel by Ecibastuz bituminous and Turgay brown coals is presented. Thermodynamic and experimental study of the technology was fulfilled. Use of this technology allows producing of synthesis gas from organic mass of coal and valuable components (technical silicon, ferrosilicon, aluminum and silicon carbide and microelements of rare metals: uranium, molybdenum, vanadium etc. from mineral mass of coal. Produced a high-calorific synthesis gas can be used for methanol synthesis, as high-grade reducing gas instead of coke, as well as energy gas in thermal power plants.

  17. SOLID STATE ENERGY CONVERSION ALLIANCE DELPHI SOLID OXIDE FUEL CELL

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Steven Shaffer; Sean Kelly; Subhasish Mukerjee; David Schumann; Gail Geiger; Kevin Keegan; Larry Chick

    2004-05-07

    The objective of this project is to develop a 5 kW Solid Oxide Fuel Cell power system for a range of fuels and applications. During Phase I, the following will be accomplished: Develop and demonstrate technology transfer efforts on a 5 kW stationary distributed power generation system that incorporates steam reforming of natural gas with the option of piped-in water (Demonstration System A). Initiate development of a 5 kW system for later mass-market automotive auxiliary power unit application, which will incorporate Catalytic Partial Oxidation (CPO) reforming of gasoline, with anode exhaust gas injected into an ultra-lean burn internal combustion engine. This technical progress report covers work performed by Delphi from July 1, 2003 to December 31, 2003, under Department of Energy Cooperative Agreement DE-FC-02NT41246. This report highlights technical results of the work performed under the following tasks: Task 1 System Design and Integration; Task 2 Solid Oxide Fuel Cell Stack Developments; Task 3 Reformer Developments; Task 4 Development of Balance of Plant (BOP) Components; Task 5 Manufacturing Development (Privately Funded); Task 6 System Fabrication; Task 7 System Testing; Task 8 Program Management; Task 9 Stack Testing with Coal-Based Reformate; and Task 10 Technology Transfer from SECA CORE Technology Program. In this reporting period, unless otherwise noted Task 6--System Fabrication and Task 7--System Testing will be reported within Task 1 System Design and Integration. Task 8--Program Management, Task 9--Stack Testing with Coal Based Reformate, and Task 10--Technology Transfer from SECA CORE Technology Program will be reported on in the Executive Summary section of this report.

  18. Carbon monoxide-fueled solid oxide fuel cell

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Homel, Michael; Koh, Joon Ho [Materials and Systems Research, Inc., 5395 West 700 South, Salt Lake City, UT 84104 (United States); Guer, Turgut M. [Direct Carbon Technologies, LLC, 525 University Avenue, Suite 1400, Palo Alto, CA 94301 (United States); Department of Materials Science and Engineering, Stanford University, Stanford, CA 94305 (United States); Virkar, Anil V. [Department of Materials Science and Engineering, University of Utah, Salt Lake City, UT 84112 (United States)

    2010-10-01

    This study explored CO as a primary fuel in anode-supported solid oxide fuel cells (SOFCs) of both tubular and planar geometries. Tubular single cells with active areas of 24 cm{sup 2} generated power up to 16 W. Open circuit voltages for various CO/CO{sub 2} mixture compositions agreed well with the expected values. In flowing dry CO, power densities up to 0.67 W cm{sup -2} were achieved at 1 A cm{sup -2} and 850 C. This performance compared well with 0.74 W cm{sup -2} measured for pure H{sub 2} in the same cell and under the same operating conditions. Performance stability of tubular cells was investigated by long-term testing in flowing CO during which no carbon deposition was observed. At a constant current of 9.96 A (or, 0.414 A cm{sup -2}) power output remained unchanged over 375 h of continuous operation at 850 C. In addition, a 50-cell planar SOFC stack was operated at 800 C on 95% CO (balance CO{sub 2}), which generated 1176 W of total power at a power density of 224 mW cm{sup -2}. The results demonstrate that CO is a viable primary fuel for SOFCs. (author)

  19. Addressing fuel recycling in solid oxide fuel cell systems fed by alternative fuels

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rokni, Masoud

    2017-01-01

    %. Furthermore, it is founded that for the case with methanol, ethanol and DME then at high utilization factors, low anode recirculation is recommended while at low utilization factors, high anode recirculation is recommended. If the plant is fed by biogas from biomass gasification then for each utilization......An innovative study on anode recirculation in solid oxide fuel cell systems with alternative fuels is carried out and investigated. Alternative fuels under study are ammonia, pure hydrogen, methanol, ethanol, DME and biogas from biomass gasification. It is shown that the amount of anode off......-fuel recirculation depends strongly on type of the fuel used in the system. Anode recycling combined with fuel cell utilization factors have an important impact on plant efficiency, which will be analysed here. The current study may provide an in-depth understanding of reasons for using anode off-fuel recycling...

  20. Engineered glass seals for solid-oxide fuel cells

    Science.gov (United States)

    Surdoval, Wayne; Lara-Curzio, Edgar; Stevenson, Jeffry; Muth, Joseph Thomas; Armstrong, Beth L.; Shyam, Amit; Trejo, Rosa M.; Wang, Yanli; Chou, Yeong Shyung; Shultz, Travis Ray

    2017-02-07

    A seal for a solid oxide fuel cell includes a glass matrix having glass percolation therethrough and having a glass transition temperature below 650.degree. C. A deformable second phase material is dispersed in the glass matrix. The second phase material can be a compliant material. The second phase material can be a crushable material. A solid oxide fuel cell, a precursor for forming a seal for a solid oxide fuel cell, and a method of making a seal for a solid oxide fuel cell are also disclosed.

  1. Direct solid phase microextraction combined with gas chromatography - Mass spectrometry for the determination of biogenic amines in wine.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Papageorgiou, Myrsini; Lambropoulou, Dimitra; Morrison, Calum; Namieśnik, Jacek; Płotka-Wasylka, Justyna

    2018-06-01

    A direct method based on immersion solid phase microextraction (DI-SPME) gas chromatography mass-spectrometry (GC-MS) was optimized and validated for the determination of 16 biogenic amines in Polish wines. In the analysis two internal standards were used: 1,7-diaminoheptane and bis-3-aminopropylamine. The method allows for simultaneous extraction and derivatization, providing a simple and fast mode of extraction and enrichment. Different parameters which affect the extraction procedure were studied and optimized including ionic strength (0-25%), fiber materials (PDMS/DVB, PDMS/DVD + OC, Polyacrylate, Carboxen/PDMS and DVB/CAR/PDMS) and timings of the extraction, derivatization and desorption processes. Validation studies confirmed the linearity, sensitivity, precision and accuracy of the method. The method was successfully applied to the analysis of 44 wine samples originating from several regions of Poland and 3 wine samples from other countries. Analysis showed that many of the samples contained all examined biogenic amines. The method, assessed using an Eco-Scale tool with satisfactory results, was found to be green in terms of hazardous chemicals and solvents usage, energy consumption and production of waste. Therefore the proposed method can be safely used in the wine industry for routine analysis of BAs in wine samples with a minimal detrimental impact on human health and the environment. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  2. Reactivity of biogenic manganese oxide for metal sequestration and photochemistry: Computational solid state physics study

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kwon, K.D.; Sposito, G.

    2010-02-01

    Many microbes, including both bacteria and fungi, produce manganese (Mn) oxides by oxidizing soluble Mn(II) to form insoluble Mn(IV) oxide minerals, a kinetically much faster process than abiotic oxidation. These biogenic Mn oxides drive the Mn cycle, coupling it with diverse biogeochemical cycles and determining the bioavailability of environmental contaminants, mainly through strong adsorption and redox reactions. This mini review introduces recent findings based on quantum mechanical density functional theory that reveal the detailed mechanisms of toxic metal adsorption at Mn oxide surfaces and the remarkable role of Mn vacancies in the photochemistry of these minerals.

  3. An integrated appraisal of energy recovery options in the United Kingdom using solid recovered fuel derived from municipal solid waste

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Garg, A.; Smith, R.; Hill, D.; Longhurst, P.J.; Pollard, S.J.T.; Simms, N.J.

    2009-01-01

    This paper reports an integrated appraisal of options for utilising solid recovered fuels (SRF) (derived from municipal solid waste, MSW) in energy intensive industries within the United Kingdom (UK). Four potential co-combustion scenarios have been identified following discussions with industry stakeholders. These scenarios have been evaluated using (a) an existing energy and mass flow framework model, (b) a semi-quantitative risk analysis, (c) an environmental assessment and (d) a financial assessment. A summary of results from these evaluations for the four different scenarios is presented. For the given ranges of assumptions; SRF co-combustion with coal in cement kilns was found to be the optimal scenario followed by co-combustion of SRF in coal-fired power plants. The biogenic fraction in SRF (ca. 70%) reduces greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions significantly (∼2500 g CO 2 eqvt./kg DS SRF in co-fired cement kilns and ∼1500 g CO 2 eqvt./kg DS SRF in co-fired power plants). Potential reductions in electricity or heat production occurred through using a lower calorific value (CV) fuel. This could be compensated for by savings in fuel costs (from SRF having a gate fee) and grants aimed at reducing GHG emission to encourage the use of fuels with high biomass fractions. Total revenues generated from coal-fired power plants appear to be the highest ( Pounds 95/t SRF) from the four scenarios. However overall, cement kilns appear to be the best option due to the low technological risks, environmental emissions and fuel cost. Additionally, cement kiln operators have good experience of handling waste derived fuels. The scenarios involving co-combustion of SRF with MSW and biomass were less favourable due to higher environmental risks and technical issues.

  4. Fixed bed gasification of solid biomass fuels

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Haavisto, I. [Condens Oy, Haemeenlinna (Finland)

    1996-12-31

    Fixed bed biomass gasifiers are feasible in the effect range of 100 kW -10 MW. Co-current gasification is available only up to 1 MW for technical reasons. Counter-current gasifiers have been used in Finland and Sweden for 10 years in gasification heating plants, which are a combination of a gasifier and an oil boiler. The plants have proved to have a wide control range, flexible and uncomplicated unmanned operation and an excellent reliability. Counter-current gasifiers can be applied for new heating plants or for converting existing oil and natural gas boilers into using solid fuels. There is a new process development underway, aiming at motor use of the producer gas. The development work involves a new, more flexible cocurrent gasifier and a cleaning step for the counter-current producer gas. (orig.)

  5. High power density solid oxide fuel cells

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pham, Ai Quoc; Glass, Robert S.

    2004-10-12

    A method for producing ultra-high power density solid oxide fuel cells (SOFCs). The method involves the formation of a multilayer structure cells wherein a buffer layer of doped-ceria is deposited intermediate a zirconia electrolyte and a cobalt iron based electrode using a colloidal spray deposition (CSD) technique. For example, a cobalt iron based cathode composed of (La,Sr)(Co,Fe)O (LSCF) may be deposited on a zirconia electrolyte via a buffer layer of doped-ceria deposited by the CSD technique. The thus formed SOFC have a power density of 1400 mW/cm.sup.2 at 600.degree. C. and 900 mW/cm.sup.2 at 700.degree. C. which constitutes a 2-3 times increased in power density over conventionally produced SOFCs.

  6. Reviews on Solid Oxide Fuel Cell Technology

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Apinan Soottitantawat

    2009-02-01

    Full Text Available Solid Oxide Fuel Cell (SOFC is one type of high temperature fuel cell that appears to be one of the most promising technology to provide the efficient and clean energy production for wide range of applications (from small units to large scale power plants. This paper reviews the current status and related researches on SOFC technologies. In details, the research trend for the development of SOFC components(i.e. anode, electrolyte, cathode, and interconnect are presented. Later, the current important designs of SOFC (i.e. Seal-less Tubular Design, Segmented Cell in Series Design, Monolithic Design and Flat Plate Design are exampled. In addition, the possible operations of SOFC (i.e. external reforming, indirect internal reforming, and direct internal reforming are discussed. Lastly, the research studies on applications of SOFCs with co-generation (i.e. SOFC with Combined Heat and Power (SOFC-CHP, SOFC with Gas Turbine (SOFC-GT and SOFC with chemical production are given.

  7. Nanostructured Solid Oxide Fuel Cell Electrodes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sholklapper, Tal Zvi [Univ. of California, Berkeley, CA (United States)

    2007-01-01

    The ability of Solid Oxide Fuel Cells (SOFC) to directly and efficiently convert the chemical energy in hydrocarbon fuels to electricity places the technology in a unique and exciting position to play a significant role in the clean energy revolution. In order to make SOFC technology cost competitive with existing technologies, the operating temperatures have been decreased to the range where costly ceramic components may be substituted with inexpensive metal components within the cell and stack design. However, a number of issues have arisen due to this decrease in temperature: decreased electrolyte ionic conductivity, cathode reaction rate limitations, and a decrease in anode contaminant tolerance. While the decrease in electrolyte ionic conductivities has been countered by decreasing the electrolyte thickness, the electrode limitations have remained a more difficult problem. Nanostructuring SOFC electrodes addresses the major electrode issues. The infiltration method used in this dissertation to produce nanostructure SOFC electrodes creates a connected network of nanoparticles; since the method allows for the incorporation of the nanoparticles after electrode backbone formation, previously incompatible advanced electrocatalysts can be infiltrated providing electronic conductivity and electrocatalysis within well-formed electrolyte backbones. Furthermore, the method is used to significantly enhance the conventional electrode design by adding secondary electrocatalysts. Performance enhancement and improved anode contamination tolerance are demonstrated in each of the electrodes. Additionally, cell processing and the infiltration method developed in conjunction with this dissertation are reviewed.

  8. Solid Oxide Fuel Cells Canada (SOFCC)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Birss, V.; Borglum, B.

    2006-01-01

    Vision: To enhance co-ordination and to ensure sustainable funding of research, development, and commercialization of solid oxide fuel cells and related technologies in Canada in order to create products that serve the world. Current Research Areas of Investigation: Mission: To provide cleaner air, reduce CO 2 emissions, better utilize fuel resources, increase economic prosperity, and enhance the quality of life in Canada and the world by enabling and accelerating development of the Canadian SOFC industry. To achieve this, we will: 1. Establish national priorities for the research, development, design, demonstration, and the innovation process; commercialization of SOFC and related technologies; 2. Develop a strategy to produce commercial products within 5 years; 3. Co-ordinate activities as one integrated Canada-wide initiative; 4. Facilitate effective access to funding by providing a venue for funders to directly participate in; 5. Provide an integrating and interdisciplinary function to maximize the collective knowledge, expertise, and capacity of the alliance partners; 6. Maintain strategic relevance within an ever changing global context by providing high-quality intelligence. (author)

  9. Intermediate Temperature Solid Oxide Fuel Cell Development

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    S. Elangovan; Scott Barnett; Sossina Haile

    2008-06-30

    Solid oxide fuel cells (SOFCs) are high efficiency energy conversion devices. Present materials set, using yttria stabilized zirconia (YSZ) electrolyte, limit the cell operating temperatures to 800 C or higher. It has become increasingly evident however that lowering the operating temperature would provide a more expeditious route to commercialization. The advantages of intermediate temperature (600 to 800 C) operation are related to both economic and materials issues. Lower operating temperature allows the use of low cost materials for the balance of plant and limits degradation arising from materials interactions. When the SOFC operating temperature is in the range of 600 to 700 C, it is also possible to partially reform hydrocarbon fuels within the stack providing additional system cost savings by reducing the air preheat heat-exchanger and blower size. The promise of Sr and Mg doped lanthanum gallate (LSGM) electrolyte materials, based on their high ionic conductivity and oxygen transference number at the intermediate temperature is well recognized. The focus of the present project was two-fold: (a) Identify a cell fabrication technique to achieve the benefits of lanthanum gallate material, and (b) Investigate alternative cathode materials that demonstrate low cathode polarization losses at the intermediate temperature. A porous matrix supported, thin film cell configuration was fabricated. The electrode material precursor was infiltrated into the porous matrix and the counter electrode was screen printed. Both anode and cathode infiltration produced high performance cells. Comparison of the two approaches showed that an infiltrated cathode cells may have advantages in high fuel utilization operations. Two new cathode materials were evaluated. Northwestern University investigated LSGM-ceria composite cathode while Caltech evaluated Ba-Sr-Co-Fe (BSCF) based pervoskite cathode. Both cathode materials showed lower polarization losses at temperatures as low as 600

  10. Arsenic species in weathering mine tailings and biogenic solids at the Lava Cap Mine Superfund Site, Nevada City, CA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ashley Roger P

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background A realistic estimation of the health risk of human exposure to solid-phase arsenic (As derived from historic mining operations is a major challenge to redevelopment of California's famed "Mother Lode" region. Arsenic, a known carcinogen, occurs in multiple solid forms that vary in bioaccessibility. X-ray absorption fine-structure spectroscopy (XAFS was used to identify and quantify the forms of As in mine wastes and biogenic solids at the Lava Cap Mine Superfund (LCMS site, a historic "Mother Lode" gold mine. Principal component analysis (PCA was used to assess variance within water chemistry, solids chemistry, and XAFS spectral datasets. Linear combination, least-squares fits constrained in part by PCA results were then used to quantify arsenic speciation in XAFS spectra of tailings and biogenic solids. Results The highest dissolved arsenic concentrations were found in Lost Lake porewater and in a groundwater-fed pond in the tailings deposition area. Iron, dissolved oxygen, alkalinity, specific conductivity, and As were the major variables in the water chemistry PCA. Arsenic was, on average, 14 times more concentrated in biologically-produced iron (hydroxide than in mine tailings. Phosphorous, manganese, calcium, aluminum, and As were the major variables in the solids chemistry PCA. Linear combination fits to XAFS spectra indicate that arsenopyrite (FeAsS, the dominant form of As in ore material, remains abundant (average: 65% in minimally-weathered ore samples and water-saturated tailings at the bottom of Lost Lake. However, tailings that underwent drying and wetting cycles contain an average of only 30% arsenopyrite. The predominant products of arsenopyrite weathering were identified by XAFS to be As-bearing Fe (hydroxide and arseniosiderite (Ca2Fe(AsO43O3•3H2O. Existence of the former species is not in question, but the presence of the latter species was not confirmed by additional measurements, so its identification is

  11. Advanced methods of solid oxide fuel cell modeling

    CERN Document Server

    Milewski, Jaroslaw; Santarelli, Massimo; Leone, Pierluigi

    2011-01-01

    Fuel cells are widely regarded as the future of the power and transportation industries. Intensive research in this area now requires new methods of fuel cell operation modeling and cell design. Typical mathematical models are based on the physical process description of fuel cells and require a detailed knowledge of the microscopic properties that govern both chemical and electrochemical reactions. ""Advanced Methods of Solid Oxide Fuel Cell Modeling"" proposes the alternative methodology of generalized artificial neural networks (ANN) solid oxide fuel cell (SOFC) modeling. ""Advanced Methods

  12. Agglomeration and Deposition Behaviour of Solid Recovered Fuel

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pedersen, Morten Nedergaard; Jensen, Peter Arendt; Hjuler, Klaus

    2016-01-01

    Waste-derived fuels, such as solid recovered fuel (SRF), are increasingly being used in, e.g., the cement industry as a means to reduce cost. The inhomogeneous nature of SRF makes it difficult to combust, and many problems may arise within, e.g., combustion control, feeding of fuel, deposit...

  13. Performance Evaluation of Solid Oxide Fuel Cell by Computer ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The search for sustainable energy source that can compete with the existing one led to the discovery and acceptance of fuel cell technologies as a perfect replacement for fossil fuel. The ability of Solid Oxide Fuel Cells (SOFC) to capture the heat generation during the process of energy generation from electrochemical ...

  14. Rate of production, dissolution and accumulation of biogenic solids in the ocean.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arrhenius, G

    1988-01-01

    The equatorial current system, by its response to global circulation changes, provides a unique recording mechanism for long range climatic oscillations. A permanent record of the changes in rate of upwelling and organic production is generated in the equatorial deep sea sediments, particularly by such biogenic components which are unaffected by secondary dissolution. In order to determine the rates of accumulation of various sedimentary components, a reliable differential measurement of age of the strata must be obtained. Various approaches to this problem are reviewed, and sources of error discussed. Secondary dissolution of calcium carbonate introduces a substantial and variable difference between the dissolution-modified, and hence a priori unknown, rate of deposition on one hand and the rate of accumulation, derivable from the observed concentration, on the other. The cause and magnitude of these variations are of importance, particularly since some current dating schemes are based on assumed constancy in the rate of accumulation of this and, in some cases, also all other sedimentary components. The concepts used in rate evaluation are discussed with emphasis on the difference between the state of dissolution, an observable property of the sediment, and the rate of dissolution, a parameter that requires deduction of the carbonate fraction dissolved, and of the time differential. As a most likely cause of the enhanced state of dissolution of the interglacial carbonate sediments is proposed the lowered rates of biogenic production and deposition, which cause longer exposure of the carbonate microfossils to corrosion in the bioturbated surface layer of the sediment. Historical perspective is included in the discussion in view of the dedication of the Symposium to Hans Pettersson, the leader of the Swedish Deep Sea Expedition 1947-1948, an undertaking that opened a new era in deep sea research and planetary dynamics.

  15. Fine grain separation for the production of biomass fuel from mixed municipal solid waste.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Giani, H; Borchers, B; Kaufeld, S; Feil, A; Pretz, T

    2016-01-01

    The main goal of the project MARSS (Material Advanced Sustainable Systems) is to build a demonstration plant in order to recover a renewable biomass fuel suitable for the use in biomass power plants out of mixed municipal solid waste (MMSW). The demonstration plant was constructed in Mertesdorf (Germany), working alongside an existing mechanical-biological treatment plant, where the MMSW is biological dried under aerobe conditions in rotting boxes. The focus of the presented sorting campaign was set on the processing of fine grain particles minor than 11.5mm which have the highest mass content and biogenic energy potential of the utilized grain size fractions. The objective was to produce a biomass fuel with a high calorific value and a low content of fossil (plastic, synthetic) materials while maximizing the mass recovery. Therefore, the biogenic components of the dried MMSW are separated from inert and fossil components through various classification and sifting processes. In three experimental process setups of different processing depths, the grain size fraction 4-11.5mm was sifted by the use of air sifters and air tables. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  16. A 21st-century shift from fossil-fuel to biogenic methane emissions indicated by ¹³CH₄.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schaefer, Hinrich; Mikaloff Fletcher, Sara E; Veidt, Cordelia; Lassey, Keith R; Brailsford, Gordon W; Bromley, Tony M; Dlugokencky, Edward J; Michel, Sylvia E; Miller, John B; Levin, Ingeborg; Lowe, Dave C; Martin, Ross J; Vaughn, Bruce H; White, James W C

    2016-04-01

    Between 1999 and 2006, a plateau interrupted the otherwise continuous increase of atmospheric methane concentration [CH4] since preindustrial times. Causes could be sink variability or a temporary reduction in industrial or climate-sensitive sources. We reconstructed the global history of [CH4] and its stable carbon isotopes from ice cores, archived air, and a global network of monitoring stations. A box-model analysis suggests that diminishing thermogenic emissions, probably from the fossil-fuel industry, and/or variations in the hydroxyl CH4 sink caused the [CH4] plateau. Thermogenic emissions did not resume to cause the renewed [CH4] rise after 2006, which contradicts emission inventories. Post-2006 source increases are predominantly biogenic, outside the Arctic, and arguably more consistent with agriculture than wetlands. If so, mitigating CH4 emissions must be balanced with the need for food production. Copyright © 2016, American Association for the Advancement of Science.

  17. Conversion of solid carbonaceous fuels in a fluidized bed fuel cell

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lee, A.C.; Li, S.; Mitchell, R.E.; Guer, T.M. [Stanford University, Stanford, CA (United States). Dept. of Mechanical Engineering

    2008-07-01

    A fluidized bed direct carbon fuel cell was employed to achieve direct conversion of solid fuels into electricity. Power was generated from pulverized Lower Kittanning (bituminous) coal, synthetic carbon, and biomass in a single process step. Current-voltage characteristics exhibited typical fuel cell behavior. Fluidization in flowing CO{sub 2} overcomes the difficulty of attaining solid fuel-to-anode contact and generates CO in situ via the Boudouard reaction. A mechanistic reaction pathway is proposed for anodic oxidation of the solid fuel. Conversion was verified by gas analysis of oxidation products in the flue stream and by oxygen mass balance.

  18. High performance solid acid fuel cells through humidity stabilization

    OpenAIRE

    Boysen, Dane A.; Uda, Tetsuya; Chisholm, Calum R. I.; Haile, Sossina M.

    2004-01-01

    Although they hold the promise of clean energy, state-of-the-art fuel cells based on polymer electrolyte membrane fuel cells are inoperable above 100°C, require cumbersome humidification systems, and suffer from fuel permeation. These difficulties all arise from the hydrated nature of the electrolyte. In contrast, “solid acids” exhibit anhydrous proton transport and high-temperature stability. We demonstrate continuous, stable power generation for both H_2/O_2 and direct methanol fuel cells o...

  19. Sealing materials for solid oxide fuel cells

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Larsen, P.H.

    1999-02-01

    A major obstacle in the achievement of high electrical efficiency for planar solid oxide fuel cell stacks (SOFC) is the need for long term stable seals at the operational temperature between 850 and 1000 deg. C. In the present work the formation and properties of sealing materials for SOFC stacks that fulfil the necessary requirements were investigated. The work comprises analysis of sealing material properties independently, in simple systems as well as tests in real SOFC stacks. The analysed sealing materials were based on pure glasses or glass-ceramic composites having B{sub 2}O{sub 3}, P{sub 2}O{sub 5} or siO{sub 2} as glass formers, and the following four glass systems were investigated: MgO/caO/Cr{sub 2}O{sub 3}-Al{sub 2}O{sub 3}B{sub 2}O{sub 3}-P{sub 2}O{sub 5}, MgO-Al{sub 2}O{sub 3}-P{sub 2}O{sub 5}, MgO-Al{sub 2}O{sub 3}-P{sub 2}O{sub 5}-SiO{sub 2} and BaO/Na{sub 2}O-Al{sub 2}O{sub 3}-SiO{sub 2}. (au) 32 tabs., 106 ills., 107 refs.

  20. Low NOx nozzle tip for a pulverized solid fuel furnace

    Science.gov (United States)

    Donais, Richard E; Hellewell, Todd D; Lewis, Robert D; Richards, Galen H; Towle, David P

    2014-04-22

    A nozzle tip [100] for a pulverized solid fuel pipe nozzle [200] of a pulverized solid fuel-fired furnace includes: a primary air shroud [120] having an inlet [102] and an outlet [104], wherein the inlet [102] receives a fuel flow [230]; and a flow splitter [180] disposed within the primary air shroud [120], wherein the flow splitter disperses particles in the fuel flow [230] to the outlet [104] to provide a fuel flow jet which reduces NOx in the pulverized solid fuel-fired furnace. In alternative embodiments, the flow splitter [180] may be wedge shaped and extend partially or entirely across the outlet [104]. In another alternative embodiment, flow splitter [180] may be moved forward toward the inlet [102] to create a recessed design.

  1. Glass/BNNT Composite for Sealing Solid Oxide Fuel Cells

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bansal, Narottam P.; Hurst, Janet B.; Choi, Sung R.

    2007-01-01

    A material consisting of a barium calcium aluminosilicate glass reinforced with 4 weight percent of boron nitride nanotubes (BNNTs) has shown promise for use as a sealant in planar solid oxide fuel cells (SOFCs).

  2. Technoeconomy of different solid oxide fuel cell based hybrid cycle

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rokni, Masoud

    2014-01-01

    Gas turbine, steam turbine and heat engine (Stirling engine) is used as bottoming cycle for a solid oxide fuel cell plant to compare different plants efficiencies, CO2 emissionsand plants cost in terms of $/kW. Each plant is then integrated with biomass gasification and finally six plants...... configurations are compared with each other. Technoeconomy is used when calculating the cost if the plants. It is found that when a solid oxide fuel cell plant is combined with a gas turbine cycle then the plant efficiency will be the highest one while if a biomass gasification plant is integrated...... with these hybrid cycles then integrated biomass gasification with solid oxide fuel cell and steam cycle will have the highest plant efficiency. The cost of solid oxide fuel cell with steam plant is found to be the lowest one with a value of about 1030$/kW....

  3. Symmetrical, bi-electrode supported solid oxide fuel cell

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cable, Thomas L. (Inventor); Sofie, Stephen W. (Inventor)

    2009-01-01

    The present invention is a symmetrical bi-electrode supported solid oxide fuel cell comprising a sintered monolithic framework having graded pore electrode scaffolds that, upon treatment with metal solutions and heat subsequent to sintering, acquire respective anodic and cathodic catalytic activity. The invention is also a method for making such a solid oxide fuel cell. The graded pore structure of the graded pore electrode scaffolds in achieved by a novel freeze casting for YSZ tape.

  4. Obtaining fuel briquets from the solid municipal waste

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Armenski, Slave; Kachurkov, Gjorgji; Vasilevski, Goce

    1998-01-01

    Recycling systems for solid waste materials are designed to reduce the amount of solid waste materials going to land fields. Through the Trash Separation Systems, clean municipal waste are reused in production of fuel pellets. Other waste streams such as coal fines, sawdust, wood chips, coke breeze and agricultural waste can be blended with these pellets along with a high thermal value binder and/or used motor oil to form a quality clean burning alternative fuel. (Author)

  5. Lowering the temperature of solid oxide fuel cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wachsman, Eric D; Lee, Kang Taek

    2011-11-18

    Fuel cells are uniquely capable of overcoming combustion efficiency limitations (e.g., the Carnot cycle). However, the linking of fuel cells (an energy conversion device) and hydrogen (an energy carrier) has emphasized investment in proton-exchange membrane fuel cells as part of a larger hydrogen economy and thus relegated fuel cells to a future technology. In contrast, solid oxide fuel cells are capable of operating on conventional fuels (as well as hydrogen) today. The main issue for solid oxide fuel cells is high operating temperature (about 800°C) and the resulting materials and cost limitations and operating complexities (e.g., thermal cycling). Recent solid oxide fuel cells results have demonstrated extremely high power densities of about 2 watts per square centimeter at 650°C along with flexible fueling, thus enabling higher efficiency within the current fuel infrastructure. Newly developed, high-conductivity electrolytes and nanostructured electrode designs provide a path for further performance improvement at much lower temperatures, down to ~350°C, thus providing opportunity to transform the way we convert and store energy.

  6. Radiation-induced pyrolysis of solid fuels for ramjet application

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Trevor D. Hedman

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available A wide variety of hydroxyl-terminated polybutadiene (HTPB based fuels are experimentally assessed in anaerobic reaction. In this study HTPB pyrolysis is investigated using a CO2 laser as the energy source. The formulation of the solid fuel samples is systematically changed to isolate the effects of carbon black, metal fuel additives, and small amounts of oxidizer. In addition, chemical changes to the fuels including curative type and base polymer are varied. Rates of pyrolysis reaction are reported for a wide range of solid fuels applicable to ramjet application. Processes involving the sintering together of metal particles, accumulation of carbon black, and formation of a melt layer are found to affect the reaction rate. It is determined that the surface composition is the most influential factor influencing the regression rate of HTPB based fuels.

  7. Combustion of solid alternative fuels in the cement kiln burner

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nørskov, Linda Kaare

    stability, and process efficiency. Alternative fuel substitution in the calciner unit has reached close to 100% at many cement plants and to further increase the use of alternative fuels rotary kiln substitution must be enhanced. At present, limited systematic knowledge of the alternative fuel combustion...... properties and the influence on the flame formation is available. In this project a scientific approach to increase the fundamental understanding of alternative fuel conversion in the rotary kiln burner is employed through literature studies, experimental combustion characterisation studies, combustion...... modelling, data collection and observations at an industrial cement plant firing alternative fuels. Alternative fuels may differ from conventional fossil fuels in combustion behaviour through differences in physical and chemical properties and reaction kinetics. Often solid alternative fuels are available...

  8. Solid oxide fuel cell generator with removable modular fuel cell stack configurations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gillett, J.E.; Dederer, J.T.; Zafred, P.R.; Collie, J.C.

    1998-04-21

    A high temperature solid oxide fuel cell generator produces electrical power from oxidation of hydrocarbon fuel gases such as natural gas, or conditioned fuel gases, such as carbon monoxide or hydrogen, with oxidant gases, such as air or oxygen. This electrochemical reaction occurs in a plurality of electrically connected solid oxide fuel cells bundled and arrayed in a unitary modular fuel cell stack disposed in a compartment in the generator container. The use of a unitary modular fuel cell stack in a generator is similar in concept to that of a removable battery. The fuel cell stack is provided in a pre-assembled self-supporting configuration where the fuel cells are mounted to a common structural base having surrounding side walls defining a chamber. Associated generator equipment may also be mounted to the fuel cell stack configuration to be integral therewith, such as a fuel and oxidant supply and distribution systems, fuel reformation systems, fuel cell support systems, combustion, exhaust and spent fuel recirculation systems, and the like. The pre-assembled self-supporting fuel cell stack arrangement allows for easier assembly, installation, maintenance, better structural support and longer life of the fuel cells contained in the fuel cell stack. 8 figs.

  9. Process integration and optimization of a solid oxide fuel cell – Gas turbine hybrid cycle fueled with hydrothermally gasified waste biomass

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Facchinetti, Emanuele; Gassner, Martin; D’Amelio, Matilde; Marechal, François; Favrat, Daniel

    2012-01-01

    Due to its suitability for using wet biomass, hydrothermal gasification is a promising process for the valorization of otherwise unused waste biomass to synthesis gas and biofuels. Solid oxide fuel cell (SOFC) based hybrid cycles are considered as the best candidate for a more efficient and clean conversion of (bio) fuels. A significant potential for the integration of the two technologies is expected since hydrothermal gasification requires heat at 673–773 K, whereas SOFC is characterized by heat excess at high temperature due to the limited electrochemical fuel conversion. This work presents a systematic process integration and optimization of a SOFC-gas turbine (GT) hybrid cycle fueled with hydrothermally gasified waste biomass. Several design options are systematically developed and compared through a thermodynamic optimization approach based on First Law and exergy analysis. The work demonstrates the considerable potential of the system that allows for converting wet waste biomass into electricity at a First Law efficiency of up to 63%, while simultaneously enabling the separation of biogenic carbon dioxide for further use or sequestration. -- Highlights: ► Hydrothermal gasification is a promising process for the valorization of waste wet biomass. ► Solid Oxide Fuel Cell – Gas Turbine hybrid cycle emerges as the best candidates for conversion of biofuels. ► A systematic process integration and optimization of a SOFC-GT hybrid cycle fuelled with hydrothermally gasified biomass is presented. ► The system may convert wet waste biomass to electricity at a First Law efficiency of 63% while separating the biogenic carbon dioxide. ► The process integration enables to improve the First Law efficiency of around 4% with respect to a non-integrated system.

  10. Secondary organic aerosol origin in an urban environment: influence of biogenic and fuel combustion precursors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Minguillón, M C; Pérez, N; Marchand, N; Bertrand, A; Temime-Roussel, B; Agrios, K; Szidat, S; van Drooge, B; Sylvestre, A; Alastuey, A; Reche, C; Ripoll, A; Marco, E; Grimalt, J O; Querol, X

    2016-07-18

    Source contributions of organic aerosol (OA) are still not fully understood, especially in terms of quantitative distinction between secondary OA formed from anthropogenic precursors vs. that formed from natural precursors. In order to investigate the OA origin, a field campaign was carried out in Barcelona in summer 2013, including two periods characterized by low and high traffic conditions. Volatile organic compound (VOC) concentrations were higher during the second period, especially aromatic hydrocarbons related to traffic emissions, which showed a marked daily cycle peaking during traffic rush hours, similarly to black carbon (BC) concentrations. Biogenic VOC (BVOC) concentrations showed only minor changes from the low to the high traffic period, and their intra-day variability was related to temperature and solar radiation cycles, although a decrease was observed for monoterpenes during the day. The organic carbon (OC) concentrations increased from the first to the second period, and the fraction of non-fossil OC as determined by (14)C analysis increased from 43% to 54% of the total OC. The combination of (14)C analysis and Aerosol Chemical Speciation Monitor (ACSM) OA source apportionment showed that the fossil OC was mainly secondary (>70%) except for the last sample, when the fossil secondary OC only represented 51% of the total fossil OC. The fraction of non-fossil secondary OC increased from 37% of total secondary OC for the first sample to 60% for the last sample. This enhanced formation of non-fossil secondary OA (SOA) could be attributed to the reaction of BVOC precursors with NOx emitted from road traffic (or from its nocturnal derivative nitrate that enhances night-time semi-volatile oxygenated OA (SV-OOA)), since NO2 concentrations increased from 19 to 42 μg m(-3) from the first to the last sample.

  11. Direct Coal Oxidation in Modified Solid Oxide Fuel Cells

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Deleebeeck, Lisa; Gil, Vanesa; Ippolito, Davide

    2015-01-01

    Hybrid direct carbon fuel cells employ a classical solid oxide fuel cell together with carbon dispersed in a carbonate melt on the anode side. In a European project, the utilization of various coals has been investigated with and without addition of an oxidation catalyst to the carbon-carbonate s......Hybrid direct carbon fuel cells employ a classical solid oxide fuel cell together with carbon dispersed in a carbonate melt on the anode side. In a European project, the utilization of various coals has been investigated with and without addition of an oxidation catalyst to the carbon......-carbonate slurry or anode layer. The nature of the coal affects both open circuit voltage and power output. Highest OCV and power densities were observed for bituminous coal and by adding manganese oxide or praseodymium-doped ceria to the carbon/carbonate mixture. Comparing the carbon black fueled performance...... bituminous coal (73 mW/cm2). © 2015 ECS - The Electrochemical Society...

  12. Direct Coal Oxidation in Modified Solid Oxide Fuel Cells

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Deleebeeck, Lisa; Gil, Vanesa; Ippolito, Davide

    2017-01-01

    Hybrid direct carbon fuel cells employ a classical solid oxide fuel cell together with carbon dispersed in a carbonate melt on the anode side. In a European project, the utilization of various coals has been investigated with and without addition of an oxidation catalyst to the carbon-carbonate s......Hybrid direct carbon fuel cells employ a classical solid oxide fuel cell together with carbon dispersed in a carbonate melt on the anode side. In a European project, the utilization of various coals has been investigated with and without addition of an oxidation catalyst to the carbon......-carbonate slurry or anode layer. The nature of the coal affects both open circuit voltage and power output. Highest OCV and power densities were observed for bituminous coal and by adding manganese oxide or praseodymium-doped ceria to the carbon/carbonate mixture. Comparing the carbon black fueled performance...... bituminous coal (73 mW/cm2)....

  13. Assessment of bio-fuel options for solid oxide fuel cell applications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lin, Jiefeng

    Rising concerns of inadequate petroleum supply, volatile crude oil price, and adverse environmental impacts from using fossil fuels have spurred the United States to promote bio-fuel domestic production and develop advanced energy systems such as fuel cells. The present dissertation analyzed the bio-fuel applications in a solid oxide fuel cell-based auxiliary power unit from environmental, economic, and technological perspectives. Life cycle assessment integrated with thermodynamics was applied to evaluate the environmental impacts (e.g., greenhouse gas emission, fossil energy consumption) of producing bio-fuels from waste biomass. Landfill gas from municipal solid wastes and biodiesel from waste cooking oil are both suggested as the promising bio-fuel options. A nonlinear optimization model was developed with a multi-objective optimization technique to analyze the economic aspect of biodiesel-ethanol-diesel ternary blends used in transportation sectors and capture the dynamic variables affecting bio-fuel productions and applications (e.g., market disturbances, bio-fuel tax credit, policy changes, fuel specification, and technological innovation). A single-tube catalytic reformer with rhodium/ceria-zirconia catalyst was used for autothermal reformation of various heavy hydrocarbon fuels (e.g., diesel, biodiesel, biodiesel-diesel, and biodiesel-ethanol-diesel) to produce a hydrogen-rich stream reformates suitable for use in solid oxide fuel cell systems. A customized mixing chamber was designed and integrated with the reformer to overcome the technical challenges of heavy hydrocarbon reformation. A thermodynamic analysis, based on total Gibbs free energy minimization, was implemented to optimize the operating environment for the reformations of various fuels. This was complimented by experimental investigations of fuel autothermal reformation. 25% biodiesel blended with 10% ethanol and 65% diesel was determined to be viable fuel for use on a truck travelling with

  14. Sulfur Release from Cement Raw Materials during Solid Fuel Combustion

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielsen, Anders Rooma; Larsen, Morten B.; Glarborg, Peter

    2011-01-01

    deposit formation in the kiln system. SO2 release from cement raw materials during combustion of solid fuels has been studied experimentally in a high temperature rotary drum. The fuels were tire rubber, pine wood, petcoke, sewage sludge, and polypropylene. The SO2 release from the raw materials...... was observed to increase when (a) the inlet oxygen concentration decreased, (b) the temperature increased, and (c) when the total surface area of the fuel particles increased. The type of fuel also had a significant effect on the SO2 release. The sequence of SO2 release for fuel particles in the size interval...... 1–2 mm was found to be tire rubber granulate > sewage sludge > pine wood sawdust > petcoke > polypropylene flakes. The SO2 release was generally observed to increase when formation of local reducing conditions near the raw material bed increased, as indicated by elevated levels of CO during the fuel...

  15. Redox Stable Anodes for Solid Oxide Fuel Cells

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Guoliang eXiao

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available Solid oxide fuel cells (SOFCs can convert chemical energy from the fuel directly to electrical energy with high efficiency and fuel flexibility. Ni-based cermets have been the most widely adopted anode for SOFCs. However, the conventional Ni-based anode has low tolerance to sulfur-contamination, is vulnerable to deactivation by carbon build-up (coking from direct oxidation of hydrocarbon fuels, and suffers volume instability upon redox cycling. Among these limitations, the redox instability of the anode is particularly important and has been intensively studied since the SOFC anode may experience redox cycling during fuel cell operations even with the ideal pure hydrogen as the fuel. This review aims to highlight recent progresses on improving redox stability of the conventional Ni-based anode through microstructure optimization and exploration of alternative ceramic-based anode materials.

  16. Fuel electrode containing pre-sintered nickel/zirconia for a solid oxide fuel cell

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ruka, Roswell J.; Vora, Shailesh D.

    2001-01-01

    A fuel cell structure (2) is provided, having a pre-sintered nickel-zirconia fuel electrode (6) and an air electrode (4), with a ceramic electrolyte (5) disposed between the electrodes, where the pre-sintered fuel electrode (6) contains particles selected from the group consisting of nickel oxide, cobalt and cerium dioxide particles and mixtures thereof, and titanium dioxide particles, within a matrix of yttria-stabilized zirconia and spaced-apart filamentary nickel strings having a chain structure, and where the fuel electrode can be sintered to provide an active solid oxide fuel cell.

  17. Bioenergy in Germany. Facts and figures. Solid fuels, biofuels, biogas

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2012-04-11

    The brochure under consideration gives statistical information about the bioenergy in Germany: Renewable energies (bioenergy) and solid fuels. For example, the structure of the primary energy consumption in the year 2010, the energy supply from renewables, gross electricity generation, the total sales of renewables, growth in number of installed pellet boilers, wood fuel equivalent prices by energy value or biofuels in comparison with heating oil are presented.

  18. Solid waste generation in reprocessing nuclear fuel

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    North, E.D.

    1975-01-01

    Estimates are made of the solid wastes generated annually from a 750-ton/year plant (such as the NFS West Valley plant): high-level waste, hulls, intermediate level waste, failed equipment, HEPA filters, spent solvent, alpha contaminated combustible waste, and low specific activity waste. The annual volume of each category is plotted versus the activity level

  19. Five Kilowatt Solid Oxide Fuel Cell/Diesel Reformer

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dennis Witmer; Thomas Johnson

    2008-12-31

    Reducing fossil fuel consumption both for energy security and for reduction in global greenhouse emissions has been a major goal of energy research in the US for many years. Fuel cells have been proposed as a technology that can address both these issues--as devices that convert the energy of a fuel directly into electrical energy, they offer low emissions and high efficiencies. These advantages are of particular interest to remote power users, where grid connected power is unavailable, and most electrical power comes from diesel electric generators. Diesel fuel is the fuel of choice because it can be easily transported and stored in quantities large enough to supply energy for small communities for extended periods of time. This projected aimed to demonstrate the operation of a solid oxide fuel cell on diesel fuel, and to measure the resulting efficiency. Results from this project have been somewhat encouraging, with a laboratory breadboard integration of a small scale diesel reformer and a Solid Oxide Fuel Cell demonstrated in the first 18 months of the project. This initial demonstration was conducted at INEEL in the spring of 2005 using a small scale diesel reformer provided by SOFCo and a fuel cell provided by Acumentrics. However, attempts to integrate and automate the available technology have not proved successful as yet. This is due both to the lack of movement on the fuel processing side as well as the rather poor stack lifetimes exhibited by the fuel cells. Commercial product is still unavailable, and precommercial devices are both extremely expensive and require extensive field support.

  20. Solid Oxide Fuel Cell Stack Diagnostics

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mosbæk, Rasmus Rode; Barfod, Rasmus Gottrup

    . An operating stack is subject to compositional gradients in the gaseous reactant streams, and temperature gradients across each cell and across the stack, which complicates detailed analysis. Several experimental stacks from Topsoe Fuel Cell A/S were characterized using Electrochemical Impedance Spectroscopy...... (EIS). The stack measurement geometry was optimized for EIS by careful selection of the placement of current feeds and voltage probes in order to minimize measurement errors. It was demonstrated that with the improved placement of current feeds and voltage probes it is possible to separate the loss...... in the hydrogen fuel gas supplied to the stack. EIS was used to examine the long-term behavior and monitor the evolution of the impedance of each of the repeating units and the whole stack. The observed impedance was analyzed in detail for one of the repeating units and the whole stack and the losses reported...

  1. Solid fuels. Coal. Economy and resources

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bautin, F.; Martin-Amouroux, J.M.

    2007-01-01

    The share of coal in the world energy mix (25%) and its possible increase during the next decades is due to its specific use in steelmaking industry and to its excellent competitiveness in fossil-fuel power plants with respect to other energy sources. Its inferior energy efficiency is compensated by lower and more stable prices on international markets. This situation is explained by a strong competition and abundant reserves. However, coal is a strong emitter of greenhouse gases and would be temporarily penalized by the implementation of emission tax or trading systems before the development of carbon sequestration systems. This article presents: the main world markets (consumption per sector of activity, power generation market, coke market, start-up of a synthetic fuels market), the main international coal producers and traders (overview and typology, international trades, transport), the reserves and resources, and the worldwide perspectives (2050 scenarios, climatic risks, CO 2 prices and technological changes). (J.S.)

  2. The combustion of solid fuels and wastes

    CERN Document Server

    Tillman, David

    1991-01-01

    Careful organization and empirical correlations help clarify the prodigious technical information presented in this useful reference.Key Features* Written for practicing engineers, this comprehensive book supplies an overall framework of the combustion process; It connects information on specific reactions and reaction sequences with current applications and hardware; Each major group of combustion solids is evaluated; Among the many topics covered are:* Various biomass forms* The coalification process* Grate, kiln, and suspension firing* Fluidized bed combustion

  3. LG Solid Oxide Fuel Cell (SOFC) Model Development

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Haberman, Ben [LG Fuel Cell Systems Inc., North Canton, OH (United States); Martinez-Baca, Carlos [LG Fuel Cell Systems Inc., North Canton, OH (United States); Rush, Greg [LG Fuel Cell Systems Inc., North Canton, OH (United States)

    2013-05-31

    This report presents a summary of the work performed by LG Fuel Cell Systems Inc. during the project LG Solid Oxide Fuel Cell (SOFC) Model Development (DOE Award Number: DE-FE0000773) which commenced on October 1, 2009 and was completed on March 31, 2013. The aim of this project is for LG Fuel Cell Systems Inc. (formerly known as Rolls-Royce Fuel Cell Systems (US) Inc.) (LGFCS) to develop a multi-physics solid oxide fuel cell (SOFC) computer code (MPC) for performance calculations of the LGFCS fuel cell structure to support fuel cell product design and development. A summary of the initial stages of the project is provided which describes the MPC requirements that were developed and the selection of a candidate code, STAR-CCM+ (CD-adapco). This is followed by a detailed description of the subsequent work program including code enhancement and model verification and validation activities. Details of the code enhancements that were implemented to facilitate MPC SOFC simulations are provided along with a description of the models that were built using the MPC and validated against experimental data. The modeling work described in this report represents a level of calculation detail that has not been previously available within LGFCS.

  4. Comparative study of ATW systems using solid alloy fuel and molten salt fuel

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mulyaman, Maman; Silakhuddin

    2002-01-01

    Burning of radioactive wastes can be carried out by transmutation process using a pressurized water reactor, fast breeder reactor and a high energy particle accelerator system. The transmutation using accelerator system which is known as Accelerator Transmutation of Waste (ATW) can be performed in two systems: solid alloy fuel system and molten salt for fuel and cooling system. A comparison of those methods has been assessed. The k e ff values are 0.89 for solid alloy fuel system and 0.92 for molten salt system, with same proton energy of 1.5 GeV

  5. Strength of Anode‐Supported Solid Oxide Fuel Cells

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Faes, A.; Frandsen, Henrik Lund; Kaiser, Andreas

    2011-01-01

    Nickel oxide and yttria doped zirconia composite strength is crucial for anode‐supported solid oxide fuel cells, especially during transient operation, but also for the initial stacking process, where cell curvature after sintering can cause problems. This work first compares tensile and ball...

  6. Impedance Modeling of Solid Oxide Fuel Cell Cathodes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mortensen, Jakob Egeberg; Søgaard, Martin; Jacobsen, Torben

    2010-01-01

    A 1-dimensional impedance model for a solid oxide fuel cell cathode is formulated and applied to a cathode consisting of 50/50 wt% strontium doped lanthanum cobaltite and gadolinia doped ceria. A total of 42 impedance spectra were recorded in the temperature range: 555-852°C and in the oxygen...

  7. Conversion of hydrocarbons in solid oxide fuel cells

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mogensen, Mogens Bjerg; Kammer Hansen, K.

    2003-01-01

    Recently, a number of papers about direct oxidation of methane and hydrocarbon in solid oxide fuel cells (SOFC) at relatively low temperatures (about 700degreesC) have been published. Even though the conversion of almost dry CH4 at 1000degreesC on ceramic anodes was demonstrated more than 10 years...

  8. ATTACK ON WATER BY CARBON OF SOLID FUEL

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    N. S. Nazarov

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available The paper considers a continuous method for attack of high temperature water steam by carbon of solid fuel (coke. Design of water-coal gas generator and experimental stand, methodology for  measurements of parameters of water-coal gasification are described in the paper.

  9. Conversion of Solid Waste to Fuels

    Science.gov (United States)

    1976-01-01

    mc ne^to t ^ ^ ^^ "^ ^ ^ trash is b—d ’ dicr u u in i rat r o produce steam. Incineration of solid waste for steam production is a viable...8217 based P^ly on h epor a list o several propert.es for these alcohols plus isooctane and benzene The main arguments aganm the use of...Molecular Weight 160 ^ ^ y *r J? J J> * TOLUENE 1-BUTANOL 1-PROPANOL ETHANOL >ETHYL BENZENE METHANOL GASEOUS COMBUSTION PRODUCTS (LHV) -i

  10. Solid Oxide Fuel Cell Hybrid System for Distributed Power Generation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    David Deangelis; Rich Depuy; Debashis Dey; Georgia Karvountzi; Nguyen Minh; Max Peter; Faress Rahman; Pavel Sokolov; Deliang Yang

    2004-09-30

    This report summarizes the work performed by Hybrid Power Generation Systems, LLC (HPGS) during the April to October 2004 reporting period in Task 2.3 (SOFC Scaleup for Hybrid and Fuel Cell Systems) under Cooperative Agreement DE-FC26-01NT40779 for the U. S. Department of Energy, National Energy Technology Laboratory (DOE/NETL), entitled ''Solid Oxide Fuel Cell Hybrid System for Distributed Power Generation''. This study analyzes the performance and economics of power generation systems for central power generation application based on Solid Oxide Fuel Cell (SOFC) technology and fueled by natural gas. The main objective of this task is to develop credible scale up strategies for large solid oxide fuel cell-gas turbine systems. System concepts that integrate a SOFC with a gas turbine were developed and analyzed for plant sizes in excess of 20 MW. A 25 MW plant configuration was selected with projected system efficiency of over 65% and a factory cost of under $400/kW. The plant design is modular and can be scaled to both higher and lower plant power ratings. Technology gaps and required engineering development efforts were identified and evaluated.

  11. Chemical analysis of solid residue from liquid and solid fuel combustion: Method development and validation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Trkmic, M. [University of Zagreb, Faculty of Mechanical Engineering and Naval Architecturek Zagreb (Croatia); Curkovic, L. [University of Zagreb, Faculty of Chemical Engineering and Technology, Zagreb (Croatia); Asperger, D. [HEP-Proizvodnja, Thermal Power Plant Department, Zagreb (Croatia)

    2012-06-15

    This paper deals with the development and validation of methods for identifying the composition of solid residue after liquid and solid fuel combustion in thermal power plant furnaces. The methods were developed for energy dispersive X-ray fluorescence (EDXRF) spectrometer analysis. Due to the fuels used, the different composition and the location of creation of solid residue, it was necessary to develop two methods. The first method is used for identifying solid residue composition after fuel oil combustion (Method 1), while the second method is used for identifying solid residue composition after the combustion of solid fuels, i. e. coal (Method 2). Method calibration was performed on sets of 12 (Method 1) and 6 (Method 2) certified reference materials (CRM). CRMs and analysis test samples were prepared in pellet form using hydraulic press. For the purpose of method validation the linearity, accuracy, precision and specificity were determined, and the measurement uncertainty of methods for each analyte separately was assessed. The methods were applied in the analysis of real furnace residue samples. (Copyright copyright 2012 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH and Co. KGaA, Weinheim)

  12. Characteristics of sustainable bio-solid fuel produced from sewage sludge as a conventional fuel substitute

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jung, Bongjin; Nam, Wonjun; Lee, Na-Yeon; Kim, Kyung-Hoon

    2010-01-01

    Safely final disposal of sewage sludge which is being increased every year has already become serious problems. As one of the promising technologies to solve this problem, thermal drying method has been attracting wide attention due to energy recovery from sewage sludge. This paper describes several characteristics of sustainable bio-solid fuel, as a conventional fuel substitute, produced from sewage sludge drying and granulation plant having the treatment capacity of 10 ton/ day. This plant has been successfully operated many times and is now designing for scale-up. Average moisture content of twelve kinds of bio-solid fuels produced from the plant normally less than 10 wt% and average shape of them is mainly composed of granular type having a diameter of 2-8 mm for easy handling and transportation to the final market destinations. Average higher heating value, which is one of the important properties to estimate the possibility of available energy, of bio-solid fuels is about 3800 kcal/ kg as dry basis. So they can be utilized to supply energy in the coal power plant and cement kiln etc. as a conventional fuel substitute for a beneficial reuse. Characteristics including proximate analysis, ultimate analysis, contents of heavy metals, wettability etc. of bio-solid fuels have been also analyzed for the environmentally safe re utilization. (author)

  13. Nondestructive characterization methods for monolithic solid oxide fuel cells

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ellingson, W.A.

    1993-01-01

    Monolithic solid oxide fuel cells (MSOFCS) represent a potential breakthrough in fuel cell technology, provided that reliable fabrication methods can be developed. Fabrication difficulties arise in several steps of the processing: First is the fabrication of uniform thin (305 {mu}m) single-layer and trilayer green tapes (the trilayer tapes of anode/electrolyte/cathode and anode/interconnect/cathode must have similar coefficients of thermal expansion to sinter uniformly and to have the necessary electrochemical properties); Second is the development of fuel and oxidant channels in which residual stresses are likely to develop in the tapes; Third is the fabrication of a ``complete`` cell for which the bond quality between layers and the quality of the trilayers must be established; and Last, attachment of fuel and oxidant manifolds and verification of seal integrity. Purpose of this report is to assess nondestructive characterization methods that could be developed for application to laboratory, prototype, and full-scale MSOFCs.

  14. Provisional 2008 assessment of solid mineral fuels; Bilan provisoire 2008 des combustibles mineraux solides

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2009-03-15

    This article first comments data on solid mineral fuel consumption in France in 2008, i.e., the overall consumption, and the consumption by different sectors (energy production in coal plants, iron and steel industry, other industries, housing and office buildings). Then, it comments solid mineral fuel imports and their origins. It comments and explains the price evolution since 1999 (notably on the Antwerp-Rotterdam-Amsterdam market) in relationship with maritime transport price, availabilities and problems, and with the evolution of coal demand (notably in China) and oil prices. Finally, it briefly comments the French residual production and stocks.

  15. PRODUCTION OF NEW BIOMASS/WASTE-CONTAINING SOLID FUELS

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    David J. Akers; Glenn A. Shirey; Zalman Zitron; Charles Q. Maney

    2001-04-20

    CQ Inc. and its team members (ALSTOM Power Inc., Bliss Industries, McFadden Machine Company, and industry advisors from coal-burning utilities, equipment manufacturers, and the pellet fuels industry) addressed the objectives of the Department of Energy and industry to produce economical, new solid fuels from coal, biomass, and waste materials that reduce emissions from coal-fired boilers. This project builds on the team's commercial experience in composite fuels for energy production. The electric utility industry is interested in the use of biomass and wastes as fuel to reduce both emissions and fuel costs. In addition to these benefits, utilities also recognize the business advantage of consuming the waste byproducts of customers both to retain customers and to improve the public image of the industry. Unfortunately, biomass and waste byproducts can be troublesome fuels because of low bulk density, high moisture content, variable composition, handling and feeding problems, and inadequate information about combustion and emissions characteristics. Current methods of co-firing biomass and wastes either use a separate fuel receiving, storage, and boiler feed system, or mass burn the biomass by simply mixing it with coal on the storage pile. For biomass or biomass-containing composite fuels to be extensively used in the U.S., especially in the steam market, a lower cost method of producing these fuels must be developed that includes both moisture reduction and pelletization or agglomeration for necessary fuel density and ease of handling. Further, this method of fuel production must be applicable to a variety of combinations of biomass, wastes, and coal; economically competitive with current fuels; and provide environmental benefits compared with coal. Notable accomplishments from the work performed in Phase I of this project include the development of three standard fuel formulations from mixtures of coal fines, biomass, and waste materials that can be used in

  16. Solid Oxide Fuel Cells coupled with a biomass gasification unit

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Skrzypkiewicz Marek

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available A possibility of fuelling a solid oxide fuel cell stack (SOFC with biomass fuels can be realized by coupling a SOFC system with a self-standing gasification unit. Such a solution enables multi-fuel operation, elasticity of the system as well as the increase of the efficiency of small-scale biomass-to-electricity conversion units. A system of this type, consisting of biomass gasification unit, gas purification unit, SOFC stack, anode off-gas afterburner and peripherals was constructed and operated successfully. During the process, biomass fuel (wood chips was gasified with air as gasification agent. The gasifier was capable of converting up to 30 kW of fuel to syngas with efficiencies up to 75%. Syngas leaving the gasification unit is delivered to a medium temperature adsorber for sulphur compounds removal. Steam is added to the purified fuel to maintain steam to carbon ratio higher than 2. The syngas then is passed to a SOFC stack through a fuel preheater. In such a configuration it was possible to operate a commercial 1.3 kW stack within its working regime. Conducted tests confirmed successful operation of a SOFC stack fuelled by biomass-sourced syngas.

  17. Carbon as a fuel for efficient electricity generation in carbon solid oxide fuel cells

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Skrzypkiewicz Marek

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available In this paper, the impact of the physicochemical properties of carbonaceous solid fuels on the performance of a direct carbon solid oxide fuel cell (DC-SOFC was investigated. High-purity synthetic carbon powders such as carbon black N-220 and Carbo Medicinalis FP5 were chosen for analytical and electrochemical investigations in a DC-SOFC. The research focussed on choosing an optimised, cost-effective, high-purity carbon powder which could be applied as a solid reference fuel for all tests performed on a single DC-SOFC cell as well as on DC-SOFC stack constructions. Most of the electrochemical investigations described in this paper were performed using square DCSOFCs with dimensions of 5 × 5 cm. The relationship between structure, physicochemical properties, and electrochemical reactivity in a DC-SOFC was analysed.

  18. New techniques for the characterization of refuse-derived fuels and solid recovered fuels.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rotter, Vera Susanne; Lehmann, Annekatrin; Marzi, Thomas; Möhle, Edda; Schingnitz, Daniel; Hoffmann, Gaston

    2011-02-01

    Solid recovered fuel (SRF) today refers to a waste-derived fuel meeting defined quality specifications, in terms of both origin (produced from non-hazardous waste) and levels of certain fuel properties. Refuse-derived fuel (RDF) nowadays is more used for unspecified waste after a basic processing to increase the calorific value and therefore this term usually refers to the segregated, high calorific fraction of municipal solid waste (MSW), commercial or industrial wastes. In comparison with conventional fuels, both types of secondary fuel show waste of inherently varying quality and an increased level of waste-specific contaminants.The transition from RDF to SRF in the emerging national and European market requires a quality assurance system with defined quality parameters and analytical methods to ensure reliable fuel characterization. However, due to the quality requirements for RDF and SRF, the current standardized analysis methods often do not meet these practical demands. Fast test methods, which minimize personnel, financial and time efforts and which are applicable for producers as well as users can be an important supporting tool for RDF- and SRF-characterization. Currently, a fast test system based on incineration and correlation analyses which enable the determination of relevant fuel parameters is under development. Fast test methods are not aimed at replacing current standardized test methods, but have to be considered as practical supporting tools for the characterization of RDF and SRF.

  19. Development of Solid-State Electrochemiluminescence (ECL Sensor Based on Ru(bpy32+-Encapsulated Silica Nanoparticles for the Detection of Biogenic Polyamines

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anna-Maria Spehar-Délèze

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available A solid state electrochemiluminescence (ECL sensor based on Ru(bpy32+-encapsulated silica nanoparticles (RuNP covalently immobilised on a screen printed carbon electrode has been developed and characterised. RuNPs were synthesised using water-in-oil microemulsion method, amino groups were introduced on their surface, and they were characterised by transmission electron microscopy. Aminated RuNPs were covalently immobilised on activate screen-printed carbon electrodes to form a solid state ECL biosensor. The biosensor surfaces were characterised using electrochemistry and scanning electron microscopy, which showed that aminated nanoparticles formed dense 3D layers on the electrode surface thus allowing immobilisation of high amount of Ru(bpy32+. The developed sensor was used for ECL detection of biogenic polyamines, namely spermine, spermidine, cadaverine and putrescine. The sensor exhibited high sensitivity and stability.

  20. Pollutants generated by the combustion of solid biomass fuels

    CERN Document Server

    Jones, Jenny M; Ma, Lin; Williams, Alan; Pourkashanian, Mohamed

    2014-01-01

    This book considers the pollutants formed by the combustion of solid biomass fuels. The availability and potential use of solid biofuels is first discussed because this is the key to the development of biomass as a source of energy.This is followed by details of the methods used for characterisation of biomass and their classification.The various steps in the combustion mechanisms are given together with a compilation of the kinetic data. The chemical mechanisms for the formation of the pollutants: NOx, smoke and unburned hydrocarbons, SOx, Cl compounds, and particulate metal aerosols

  1. Modules for estimating solid waste from fossil-fuel technologies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Crowther, M.A.; Thode, H.C. Jr.; Morris, S.C.

    1980-10-01

    Solid waste has become a subject of increasing concern to energy industries for several reasons. Increasingly stringent air and water pollution regulations result in a larger fraction of residuals in the form of solid wastes. Control technologies, particularly flue gas desulfurization, can multiply the amount of waste. With the renewed emphasis on coal utilization and the likelihood of oil shale development, increased amounts of solid waste will be produced. In the past, solid waste residuals used for environmental assessment have tended only to include total quantities generated. To look at environmental impacts, however, data on the composition of the solid wastes are required. Computer modules for calculating the quantities and composition of solid waste from major fossil fuel technologies were therefore developed and are described in this report. Six modules have been produced covering physical coal cleaning, conventional coal combustion with flue gas desulfurization, atmospheric fluidized-bed combustion, coal gasification using the Lurgi process, coal liquefaction using the SRC-II process, and oil shale retorting. Total quantities of each solid waste stream are computed together with the major components and a number of trace elements and radionuclides

  2. Mass, energy and material balances of SRF production process. Part 3: solid recovered fuel produced from municipal solid waste.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nasrullah, Muhammad; Vainikka, Pasi; Hannula, Janne; Hurme, Markku; Kärki, Janne

    2015-02-01

    This is the third and final part of the three-part article written to describe the mass, energy and material balances of the solid recovered fuel production process produced from various types of waste streams through mechanical treatment. This article focused the production of solid recovered fuel from municipal solid waste. The stream of municipal solid waste used here as an input waste material to produce solid recovered fuel is energy waste collected from households of municipality. This article presents the mass, energy and material balances of the solid recovered fuel production process. These balances are based on the proximate as well as the ultimate analysis and the composition determination of various streams of material produced in a solid recovered fuel production plant. All the process streams are sampled and treated according to CEN standard methods for solid recovered fuel. The results of the mass balance of the solid recovered fuel production process showed that 72% of the input waste material was recovered in the form of solid recovered fuel; 2.6% as ferrous metal, 0.4% as non-ferrous metal, 11% was sorted as rejects material, 12% as fine faction and 2% as heavy fraction. The energy balance of the solid recovered fuel production process showed that 86% of the total input energy content of input waste material was recovered in the form of solid recovered fuel. The remaining percentage (14%) of the input energy was split into the streams of reject material, fine fraction and heavy fraction. The material balances of this process showed that mass fraction of paper and cardboard, plastic (soft) and wood recovered in the solid recovered fuel stream was 88%, 85% and 90%, respectively, of their input mass. A high mass fraction of rubber material, plastic (PVC-plastic) and inert (stone/rock and glass particles) was found in the reject material stream. © The Author(s) 2014.

  3. Quality standards and requirements for solid recovered fuels: a review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Flamme, Sabine; Geiping, Julia

    2012-04-01

    The utilization of solid recovered fuels (SRF) for energy recovery has been increasing steadily in recent years, and this development is set to continue. In order to use SRF efficiently, it is necessary to define quality standards and introduce targeted quality assurance measures. SRF can be used both in mono-incineration and in co-incineration systems, for instance in power generation and cement plants; but as quality requirements differ, it is necessary to unambiguously define the term 'solid recovered fuel'. The purpose of this article is to provide an overview of the origin, development and the current status of quality assurance for SRF. The basic principles of quality assurance for SRF are explained with reference to the development of the German RAL Quality Assurance System and in addition specifications that have emerged from European standardization work of CEN/TC 343 are analysed.

  4. A literature review of methods for handling solid residues arising from fuel dissolution in a nuclear fuel recycle plant

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Taylor, P.

    1990-06-01

    This report reviews the literature on the management of solid residues, principally Zircaloy fuel hulls, arising from fuel dissolution in nuclear fuel recycle plants. Emphasis is placed on information likely to be relevant to possible future recycling of CANDU fuel. The report was prepared as part of the supporting documentation for the evaluation of fuel-waste treatment and disposal options in the Canadian Nuclear Fuel Waste Management Program

  5. Method to fabricate high performance tubular solid oxide fuel cells

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Fanglin; Yang, Chenghao; Jin, Chao

    2013-06-18

    In accordance with the present disclosure, a method for fabricating a solid oxide fuel cell is described. The method includes forming an asymmetric porous ceramic tube by using a phase inversion process. The method further includes forming an asymmetric porous ceramic layer on a surface of the asymmetric porous ceramic tube by using a phase inversion process. The tube is co-sintered to form a structure having a first porous layer, a second porous layer, and a dense layer positioned therebetween.

  6. Current status of Westinghouse tubular solid oxide fuel cell program

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Parker, W.G. [Westinghouse Science and Technology Center, Pittsburgh, PA (United States)

    1996-04-01

    In the last ten years the solid oxide fuel cell (SOFC) development program at Westinghouse has evolved from a focus on basic material science to the engineering of fully integrated electric power systems. Our endurance for this cell is 5 to 10 years. To date we have successfully operated at power for over six years. For power plants it is our goal to have operated before the end of this decade a MW class power plant. Progress toward these goals is described.

  7. Thermodynamic analysis of SOFC (solid oxide fuel cell)–Stirling hybrid plants using alternative fuels

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rokni, Masoud

    2013-01-01

    A novel hybrid power system (∼10 kW) for an average family home is proposed. The system investigated contains a solid oxide fuel cell (SOFC) on top of a Stirling engine. The off-gases produced in the SOFC cycle are fed to a bottoming Stirling engine, at which additional power is generated. Simulations of the proposed system were conducted using different fuels, which should facilitate the use of a variety of fuels depending on availability. Here, the results for natural gas (NG), ammonia, di-methyl ether (DME), methanol and ethanol are presented and analyzed. The system behavior is further investigated by comparing the effects of key factors, such as the utilization factor and the operating conditions under which these fuels are used. Moreover, the effect of using a methanator on the plant efficiency is also studied. The combined system improves the overall electrical efficiency relative to that of a stand-alone Stirling engine or SOFC plant. For the combined SOFC and Stirling configuration, the overall power production was increased by approximately 10% compared to that of a stand-alone SOFC plant. System efficiencies of approximately 60% are achieved, which is remarkable for such small plant sizes. Additionally, heat is also produced to heat the family home when necessary. - Highlights: • Integrating a solid oxide fuel with a Stirling engine • Design of multi-fuel hybrid plants • Plants running on alternative fuels; natural gas, methanol, ethanol, DME and ammonia • Thermodynamic analysis of hybrid SOFC–Stirling engine plants

  8. Solid Polymer Fuel Cells. Electrode and membrane performance studies

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Moeller-Holst, S.

    1996-12-31

    This doctoral thesis studies aspects of fuel cell preparation and performance. The emphasis is placed on preparation and analysis of low platinum-loading solid polymer fuel cell (SPEC) electrodes. A test station was built and used to test cells within a wide range of real operating conditions, 40-150{sup o}C and 1-10 bar. Preparation and assembling equipment for single SPFCs was designed and built, and a new technique of spraying the catalyst layer directly onto the membrane was successfully demonstrated. Low Pt-loading electrodes (0.1 mg Pt/cm{sup 2}) prepared by the new technique exhibited high degree of catalyst utilization. The performance of single cells holding these electrodes is comparable to state-of-the-art SPFCs. Potential losses in single cell performance are ascribed to irreversibilities by analysing the efficiency of the Solid Oxide Fuel Cell by means of the second law of thermodynamics. The water management in membranes is discussed for a model system and the results are relevant to fuel cell preparation and performance. The new spray deposition technique should be commercially interesting as it involves few steps as well as techniques that are adequate for larger scale production. 115 refs., 43 figs., 18 tabs.

  9. Degradation of solid oxide fuel cell metallic interconnects in fuels containing sulfur

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ziomek-Moroz, M.; Hawk, Jeffrey A.

    2005-01-01

    Hydrogen is the main fuel for all types of fuel cells except direct methanol fuel cells. Hydrogen can be generated from all manner of fossil fuels, including coal, natural gas, diesel, gasoline, other hydrocarbons, and oxygenates (e.g., methanol, ethanol, butanol, etc.). Impurities in the fuel can cause significant performance problems and sulfur, in particular, can decrease the cell performance of fuel cells, including solid oxide fuel cells (SOFC). In the SOFC, the high (800-1000°C) operating temperature yields advantages (e.g., internal fuel reforming) and disadvantages (e.g., material selection and degradation problems). Significant progress in reducing the operating temperature of the SOFC from ~1000 ºC to ~750 ºC may allow less expensive metallic materials to be used for interconnects and as balance of plant (BOP) materials. This paper provides insight on the material performance of nickel, ferritic steels, and nickel-based alloys in fuels containing sulfur, primarily in the form of H2S, and seeks to quantify the extent of possible degradation due to sulfur in the gas stream.

  10. Planar solid oxide fuel cell with staged indirect-internal air and fuel preheating and reformation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Geisbrecht, Rodney A; Williams, Mark C

    2003-10-21

    A solid oxide fuel cell arrangement and method of use that provides internal preheating of both fuel and air in order to maintain the optimum operating temperature for the production of energy. The internal preheat passes are created by the addition of two plates, one on either side of the bipolar plate, such that these plates create additional passes through the fuel cell. This internal preheat fuel cell configuration and method reduce the requirements for external heat exchanger units and air compressors. Air or fuel may be added to the fuel cell as required to maintain the optimum operating temperature through a cathode control valve or an anode control valve, respectively. A control loop comprises a temperature sensing means within the preheat air and fuel passes, a means to compare the measured temperature to a set point temperature and a determination based on the comparison as to whether the control valves should allow additional air or fuel into the preheat or bypass manifolds of the fuel cell.

  11. Artificial neural networks application for solid fuel slagging intensity predictions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kakietek Sławomir

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Slagging issues present in pulverized steam boilers very often lead to heat transfer problems, corrosion and not planned outages of boilers which increase the cost of energy production and decrease the efficiency of energy production. Slagging especially occurs in regions with reductive atmospheres which nowadays are very common due to very strict limitations in NOx emissions. Moreover alternative fuels like biomass which are also used in combustion systems from two decades in order to decrease CO2 emissions also usually increase the risk of slagging. Thus the prediction of slagging properties of fuels is not the minor issue which can be neglected before purchasing or mixing of fuels. This however is rather difficult to estimate and even commonly known standard laboratory methods like fusion temperature determination or special indexers calculated on the basis of proximate and ultimate analyses, very often have no reasonable correlation to real boiler fuel behaviour. In this paper the method of determination of slagging properties of solid fuels based on laboratory investigation and artificial neural networks were presented. A fuel data base with over 40 fuels was created. Neural networks simulations were carried out in order to predict the beginning temperature and intensity of slagging. Reasonable results were obtained for some of tested neural networks, especially for hybrid feedforward networks with PCA technique. Consequently neural network model will be used in Common Intelligent Boiler Operation Platform (CIBOP being elaborated within CERUBIS research project for two BP-1150 and BB-1150 steam boilers. The model among others enables proper fuel selection in order to minimize slagging risk.

  12. Operation of real landfill gas fueled solid oxide fuel cell (SOFC) using internal dry reforming

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Langnickel, Hendrik; Hagen, Anke

    2017-01-01

    Biomass is one renewable energy source, which is independent from solar radiation and wind effect. Solid oxide fuel cells (SOFC’s) are able to convert landfill gas derived from landfill directly into electricity and heat with a high efficiency. In the present work a planar 16cm2 SOFC cell...

  13. Novel materials for more robust solid oxide fuel cells in small scale applications

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Holtappels, Peter

    Solid oxide fuel cells can offer supply of electrical energy with a high efficiency and based on a wide range of fuels. While natural gas and/or bio methane is a commonly used fuel for combined heat and power supply, liquid fuels such as gasoline, Diesel and alcohols are interesting fuels...

  14. Compact hydrogen production systems for solid polymer fuel cells

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ledjeff-Hey, K.; Formanski, V.; Kalk, Th.; Roes, J.

    Generally there are several ways to produce hydrogen gas from carbonaceous fuels like natural gas, oil or alcohols. Most of these processes are designed for large-scale industrial production and are not suitable for a compact hydrogen production system (CHYPS) in the power range of 1 kW. In order to supply solid polymer fuel cells (SPFC) with hydrogen, a compact fuel processor is required for mobile applications. The produced hydrogen-rich gas has to have a low level of harmful impurities; in particular the carbon monoxide content has to be lower than 20 ppmv. Integrating the reaction step, the gas purification and the heat supply leads to small-scale hydrogen production systems. The steam reforming of methanol is feasible at copper catalysts in a low temperature range of 200-350°C. The combination of a small-scale methanol reformer and a metal membrane as purification step forms a compact system producing high-purity hydrogen. The generation of a SPFC hydrogen fuel gas can also be performed by thermal or catalytic cracking of liquid hydrocarbons such as propane. At a temperature of 900°C the decomposition of propane into carbon and hydrogen takes place. A fuel processor based on this simple concept produces a gas stream with a hydrogen content of more than 90 vol.% and without CO and CO2.

  15. Integration of a municipal solid waste gasification plant with solid oxide fuel cell and gas turbine

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bellomare, Filippo; Rokni, Masoud

    2013-01-01

    An interesting source of producing energy with low pollutants emission and reduced environmental impact are the biomasses; particularly using Municipal Solid Waste (MSW) as fuel, can be a competitive solution not only to produce energy with negligible costs but also to decrease the storage...... it reacts with air and produces electricity. The exhausted gases out of the SOFC enter a burner for further fuel combusting and finally the off-gases are sent to a gas turbine to produce additional electricity. Different plant configurations have been studied and the best one found to be a regenerative gas...

  16. Indoor air pollution from unprocessed solid fuels in developing countries.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kaplan, Charlotte

    2010-01-01

    Approximately half of the world's population relies on biomass (primarily wood and agricultural residues) or coal fuels (collectively termed solid fuels) for heating, lighting, and cooking. The incomplete combustion of such materials releases byproducts with well-known adverse health effects, hence increasing the risk of many diseases and death. Among these conditions are acute respiratory infections, chronic obstructive pulmonary disease, heart disease, stroke, lung cancer, cataracts and blindness, tuberculosis, asthma, and adverse pregnancy outcomes. The International Agency for Research on Cancer has classified the indoor combustion of coal emissions as Group 1, a known carcinogen to humans. Indoor air pollution exposure is greatest in individuals who live in rural developing countries. Interventions have been limited and show only mixed results. To reduce the morbidity and mortality from indoor air pollution, countermeasures have to be developed that are practical, efficient, sustainable, and economical with involvement from the government, the commercial sector, and individuals. This review focuses on the contribution of solid fuels to indoor air pollution.

  17. Strategies for Lowering Solid Oxide Fuel Cells Operating Temperature

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Albert Tarancón

    2009-11-01

    Full Text Available Lowering the operating temperature of solid oxide fuel cells (SOFCs to the intermediate range (500–700 ºC has become one of the main SOFC research goals. High operating temperatures put numerous requirements on materials selection and on secondary units, limiting the commercial development of SOFCs. The present review first focuses on the main effects of reducing the operating temperature in terms of materials stability, thermo-mechanical mismatch, thermal management and efficiency. After a brief survey of the state-of-the-art materials for SOFCs, attention is focused on emerging oxide-ionic conductors with high conductivity in the intermediate range of temperatures with an introductory section on materials technology for reducing the electrolyte thickness. Finally, recent advances in cathode materials based on layered mixed ionic-electronic conductors are highlighted because the decreasing temperature converts the cathode into the major source of electrical losses for the whole SOFC system. It is concluded that the introduction of alternative materials that would enable solid oxide fuel cells to operate in the intermediate range of temperatures would have a major impact on the commercialization of fuel cell technology.

  18. Development of a solid oxide fuel cell (SOFC) automotive auxiliary power unit (APU) fueled by gasoline

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    DeMinco, C.; Mukerjee, S.; Grieve, J.; Faville, M.; Noetzel, J.; Perry, M.; Horvath, A.; Prediger, D.; Pastula, M.; Boersma, R.; Ghosh, D.

    2000-01-01

    This paper describes the design and the development progress of a 3 to 5 auxiliary power unit (APU) based on a gasoline fueled solid oxide fuel cell (SOFC). This fuel cell was supplied reformate gas (reactant) by a partial oxidation (POx) catalytic reformer utilizing liquid gasoline and designed by Delphi Automotive Systems. This reformate gas consists mainly of hydrogen, carbon monoxide and nitrogen and was fed directly in to the SOFC stack without any additional fuel reformer processing. The SOFC stack was developed by Global Thermoelectric and operates around 700 o C. This automotive APU produces power to support future 42 volt vehicle electrical architectures and loads. The balance of the APU, designed by Delphi Automotive Systems, employs a packaging and insulation design to facilitate installation and operation on-board automobiles. (author)

  19. Thermal stress analysis of sulfur deactivated solid oxide fuel cells

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zeng, Shumao; Parbey, Joseph; Yu, Guangsen; Xu, Min; Li, Tingshuai; Andersson, Martin

    2018-03-01

    Hydrogen sulfide in fuels can deactivate catalyst for solid oxide fuel cells, which has become one of the most critical challenges to stability. The reactions between sulfur and catalyst will cause phase changes, leading to increase in cell polarization and mechanical mismatch. A three-dimensional computational fluid dynamics (CFD) approach based on the finite element method (FEM) is thus used to investigate the polarization, temperature and thermal stress in a sulfur deactivated SOFC by coupling equations for gas-phase species, heat, momentum, ion and electron transport. The results indicate that sulfur in fuels can strongly affect the cell polarization and thermal stresses, which shows a sharp decrease in the vicinity of electrolyte when 10% nickel in the functional layer is poisoned, but they remain almost unchanged even when the poisoned Ni content was increased to 90%. This investigation is helpful to deeply understand the sulfur poisoning effects and also benefit the material design and optimization of electrode structure to enhance cell performance and lifetimes in various hydrocarbon fuels containing impurities.

  20. Application of Fly Ash from Solid Fuel Combustion in Concrete

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pedersen, Kim Hougaard

    2008-01-01

    Application of Fly Ash from Solid Fuel Combustion in Concrete Kim H. Pedersen Abstract Industrial utilization of fly ash from pulverized coal combustion plays an important role in environmentally clean and cost effective power generation. Today, the primary market for fly ash utilization...... is as pozzolanic additive in the production of concrete. However, the residual carbon in fly ash can adsorb the air entraining admixtures (AEAs) added to enhance air entrainment in concrete in order to increase its workability and resistance toward freezing and thawing conditions. The problem has increased...... with implementation of low-NOx combustion technologies. The present thesis concerns three areas of importance within this field: 1) testing of fly ash adsorption behavior; 2) the influence of fuel type and combustion conditions on the ash adsorption behaviour including full-scale experiments at the power plant...

  1. AlliedSignal solid oxide fuel cell technology

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Minh, N.; Barr, K.; Kelly, P.; Montgomery, K. [AlliedSignal Aerospace Equipment Systems, Torrance, CA (United States)

    1996-12-31

    AlliedSignal has been developing high-performance, lightweight solid oxide fuel cell (SOFC) technology for a broad spectrum of electric power generation applications. This technology is well suited for use in a variety of power systems, ranging from commercial cogeneration to military mobile power sources. The AlliedSignal SOFC is based on stacking high-performance thin-electrolyte cells with lightweight metallic interconnect assemblies to form a compact structure. The fuel cell can be operated at reduced temperatures (600{degrees} to 800{degrees}C). SOFC stacks based on this design has the potential of producing 1 kW/kg and 1 ML. This paper summarizes the technical status of the design, manufacture, and operation of AlliedSignal SOFCs.

  2. Planar solid oxide fuel cells: the Australian experience and outlook

    Science.gov (United States)

    Godfrey, Bruce; Föger, Karl; Gillespie, Rohan; Bolden, Roger; Badwal, S. P. S.

    Since 1992, Ceramic Fuel Cells (CFCL) has grown to what is now the largest focussed program globally for development of planar ceramic (solid oxide) fuel cell, SOFC, technology. A significant intellectual property position in know-how and patents has been developed, with over 80 people involved in the venture. Over $A60 million in funding for the activities of the company has been raised from private companies, government-owned corporations and government business-support programs, including from energy — particularly electricity — industry shareholders that can facilitate access to local markets for our products. CFCL has established state-of-the-art facilities for planar SOFC R&D, with their expansion and scaling-up to pilot manufacturing capability underway. We expect to achieve commercial introduction of our market-entry products in 2002, with prototype systems expected to be available from early 2001.

  3. PREPARATION AND CHARACTERIZATION OF SOLID ELECTROLYTES: FUEL CELL APPLICATIONS

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rambabu Bobba; Josef Hormes; T. Wang; Jaymes A. Baker; Donald G. Prier; Tommy Rockwood; Dinesha Hawkins; Saleem Hasan; V. Rayanki

    1997-12-31

    The intent of this project with Federal Energy Technology Center (FETC)/Morgantown Energy Technology Center (METC) is to develop research infrastructure conductive to Fuel Cell research at Southern University and A and M College, Baton Route. A state of the art research laboratory (James Hall No.123 and No.114) for energy conversion and storage devices was developed during this project duration. The Solid State Ionics laboratory is now fully equipped with materials research instruments: Arbin Battery Cycling and testing (8 channel) unit, Electrochemical Analyzer (EG and G PAR Model 273 and Solartron AC impedance analyzer), Fuel Cell test station (Globe Tech), Differential Scanning Calorimeter (DSC-10), Thermogravimetric Analyzer (TGA), Scanning Tunneling Microscope (STM), UV-VIS-NIR Absorption Spectrometer, Fluorescence Spectrometer, FT-IR Spectrometer, Extended X-ray Absorption Fine Structure (EXAFS) measurement capability at Center for Advanced Microstructure and Devices (CAMD- a multimillion dollar DOE facility), Glove Box, gas hood chamber, high temperature furnaces, hydraulic press and several high performance computers. IN particular, a high temperature furnace (Thermodyne 6000 furnace) and a high temperature oven were acquired through this project funds. The PI Dr. R Bobba has acquired additional funds from federal agencies include NSF-Academic Research Infrastructure program and other DOE sites. They have extensively used the multimillion dollar DOE facility ''Center'' for Advanced Microstructures and Devices (CAMD) for electrochemical research. The students were heavily involved in the experimental EXAFS measurements and made use of their DCM beamline for EXAFS research. The primary objective was to provide hands on experience to the selected African American undergraduate and graduate students in experimental energy research.The goal was to develop research skills and involve them in the Preparation and Characterization of Solid

  4. Production of New Biomass/Waste-Containing Solid Fuels

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Glenn A. Shirey; David J. Akers

    2005-09-23

    CQ Inc. and its industry partners--PBS Coals, Inc. (Friedens, Pennsylvania), American Fiber Resources (Fairmont, West Virginia), Allegheny Energy Supply (Williamsport, Maryland), and the Heritage Research Group (Indianapolis, Indiana)--addressed the objectives of the Department of Energy and industry to produce economical, new solid fuels from coal, biomass, and waste materials that reduce emissions from coal-fired boilers. This project builds on the team's commercial experience in composite fuels for energy production. The electric utility industry is interested in the use of biomass and wastes as fuel to reduce both emissions and fuel costs. In addition to these benefits, utilities also recognize the business advantage of consuming the waste byproducts of customers both to retain customers and to improve the public image of the industry. Unfortunately, biomass and waste byproducts can be troublesome fuels because of low bulk density, high moisture content, variable composition, handling and feeding problems, and inadequate information about combustion and emissions characteristics. Current methods of co-firing biomass and wastes either use a separate fuel receiving, storage, and boiler feed system, or mass burn the biomass by simply mixing it with coal on the storage pile. For biomass or biomass-containing composite fuels to be extensively used in the U.S., especially in the steam market, a lower cost method of producing these fuels must be developed that is applicable to a variety of combinations of biomass, wastes, and coal; economically competitive with current fuels; and provides environmental benefits compared with coal. During Phase I of this project (January 1999 to July 2000), several biomass/waste materials were evaluated for potential use in a composite fuel. As a result of that work and the team's commercial experience in composite fuels for energy production, paper mill sludge and coal were selected for further evaluation and demonstration

  5. Thermodynamic analysis of SOFC (solid oxide fuel cell) - Stirling hybrid plants using alternative fuels

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rokni, Masoud

    2013-01-01

    A novel hybrid power system (∼10 kW) for an average family home is proposed. The system investigated contains a solid oxide fuel cell (SOFC) on top of a Stirling engine. The off-gases produced in the SOFC cycle are fed to a bottoming Stirling engine, at which additional power is generated...... investigated by comparing the effects of key factors, such as the utilization factor and the operating conditions under which these fuels are used. Moreover, the effect of using a methanator on the plant efficiency is also studied. The combined system improves the overall electrical efficiency relative...

  6. Trends for Methane Oxidation at Solid Oxide Fuel Cell Conditions

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kleis, Jesper; Jones, Glenn; Abild-Pedersen, Frank

    2009-01-01

    First-principles calculations are used to predict a plausible reaction pathway for the methane oxidation reaction. In turn, this pathway is used to obtain trends in methane oxidation activity at solid oxide fuel cell (SOFC) anode materials. Reaction energetics and barriers for the elementary...... reaction steps on both the close-packed Ni{111} and stepped Ni{211} surfaces are presented. Quantum-mechanical calculations augmented with thermodynamic corrections allow appropriate treatment of the elevated temperatures in SOFCs. Linear scaling relationships are used to extrapolate the results from...

  7. Production of gaseous fuel by pyrolysis of municipal solid waste

    Science.gov (United States)

    Crane, T. H.; Ringer, H. N.; Bridges, D. W.

    1975-01-01

    Pilot plant tests were conducted on a simulated solid waste which was a mixture of shredded newspaper, wood waste, polyethylene plastics, crushed glass, steel turnings, and water. Tests were conducted at 1400 F in a lead-bath pyrolyser. Cold feed was deaerated by compression and was dropped onto a moving hearth of molten lead before being transported to a sealed storage container. About 80 percent of the feed's organic content was converted to gaseous products which contain over 90 percent of the potential waste energy; 12 percent was converted to water; and 8 percent remained as partially pyrolyzed char and tars. Nearly half of the carbon in the feed is converted to benzene, toluene and medium-quality fuel gas, a potential credit of over $25 per ton of solid waste. The system was shown to require minimal preprocessing and less sorting then other methods.

  8. Cooking with Fire: The Mutagenicity- and PAH-Emission Factors of Solid-Fuel Cookstoves

    Science.gov (United States)

    Emissions from solid fuels used for cooking cause ~4 million premature deaths per year. Advanced solid-fuel cookstoves are a potential solution, but they should be assessed by appropriate performance indicators, including biological effects. We evaluated two categories of solid...

  9. Solid State Energy Conversion Alliance (SECA) Solid Oxide Fuel Cell Program

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nguyen Minh

    2006-07-31

    This report summarizes the work performed for Phase I (October 2001 - August 2006) under Cooperative Agreement DE-FC26-01NT41245 for the U. S. Department of Energy, National Energy Technology Laboratory (DOE/NETL) entitled 'Solid State Energy Conversion Alliance (SECA) Solid Oxide Fuel Cell Program'. The program focuses on the development of a low-cost, high-performance 3-to-10-kW solid oxide fuel cell (SOFC) system suitable for a broad spectrum of power-generation applications. During Phase I of the program significant progress has been made in the area of SOFC technology. A high-efficiency low-cost system was designed and supporting technology developed such as fuel processing, controls, thermal management, and power electronics. Phase I culminated in the successful demonstration of a prototype system that achieved a peak efficiency of 41%, a high-volume cost of $724/kW, a peak power of 5.4 kW, and a degradation rate of 1.8% per 500 hours. . An improved prototype system was designed, assembled, and delivered to DOE/NETL at the end of the program. This prototype achieved an extraordinary peak efficiency of 49.6%.

  10. Criteria for solid recovered fuels as a substitute for fossil fuels--a review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Beckmann, Michael; Pohl, Martin; Bernhardt, Daniel; Gebauer, Kathrin

    2012-04-01

    The waste treatment, particularly the thermal treatment of waste has changed fundamentally in the last 20 years, i.e. from facilities solely dedicated to the thermal treatment of waste to facilities, which in addition to that ensure the safe plant operation and fulfill very ambitious criteria regarding emission reduction, resource recovery and energy efficiency as well. Therefore this contributes to the economic use of raw materials and due to the energy recovered from waste also to the energy provision. The development described had the consequence that waste and solid recovered fuels (SRF) has to be evaluated based on fuel criteria as well. Fossil fuels - coal, crude oil, natural gas etc. have been extensively investigated due to their application in plants for energy conversion and also due to their use in the primary industry. Thereby depending on the respective processes, criteria on fuel technical properties can be derived. The methods for engineering analysis of regular fuels (fossil fuels) can be transferred only partially to SRF. For this reason methods are being developed or adapted to current analytical methods for the characterization of SRF. In this paper the possibilities of the energetic utilization of SRF and the characterization of SRF before and during the energetic utilization will be discussed.

  11. A solid oxide fuel cell system for buildings

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zink, Florian; Lu, Yixin; Schaefer, Laura

    2007-01-01

    This paper examines an integrated solid oxide fuel cell (SOFC) absorption heating and cooling system used for buildings. The integrated system can provide heating/cooling and/or hot water for buildings while consuming natural gas. The aim of this study is to give an overall description of the system. The possibility of such an integrated system is discussed and the configuration of the system is described. A system model is presented, and a specific case study of the system, which consists of a pre-commercial SOFC system and a commercial LiBr absorption system, is performed. In the case study, the detailed configuration of an integrated system is given, and the heat and mass balance and system performance are obtained through numerical calculation. Based on the case study, some considerations with respect to system component selection, system configuration and design are discussed. Additionally, the economic and environmental issues of this specific system are evaluated briefly. The results show that the combined system demonstrates great advantages in both technical and environmental aspects. With the present development trends in solid oxide fuel cells and the commercial status of absorption heating and cooling systems, it is very likely that such a combined system will become increasingly feasible within the following decade

  12. The flexfuel tractor. Invesigations on the combustion behaviour of vegetable oil fuels and on the discernability of fossil and biogenic fuels; Der Flexfuel Traktor. Untersuchungen zum Verbrennungsverhalten von Pflanzenoelkraftstoffen und zur Unterscheidbarkeit fossiler und biogener Kraftstoffe

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dieringer, Stefanie

    2012-07-01

    Increasing energy prices, especially for fossil fuels, as well as the necessity to reduce CO{sub 2} emissions are emphasizing the advantages of self-produced vegetable oil fuels in agriculture. Monetary advantages are depending on basic conditions like farm size or tax legislation, which can be changing locally as well as temporarily. Due to the differing properties of diesel and vegetable oil fuel, engines have to be adapted to each fuel to fulfil performance requirements as well as emission limits and reliability. Knowing that there are advantages of vegetable oil compared to diesel fuel, though not always and everywhere present, it becomes obvious that the well known flexible fuel concept of passenger cars should be adapted for diesel engines of agricultural machines. So called flexfuel engines imply the detection of the fuel type and an automated adjustment of the engine control parameters without any manual action of an operator. Therefore, the first step consists of the evaluation of the combustion properties of rapeseed, sunflower, jatropha and false flax oil compared to diesel fuel. The tested vegetable oils showed very similar behaviour in the tested common rail diesel engine. Especially the limited emissions were met with the same engine control software with all vegetable oils. In consequence it is possible to realize a flexfuel engine using the two engine control maps available at the moment, one for diesel and the other one for vegetable oil fuels. For further investigations one oil type, namely rapeseed oil was selected to test the combustion behaviour of fuel blends made of diesel and vegetable oil. The goal was to determine the blend ratio of vegetable oil and diesel fuel at which the engine control software has to be changed from the diesel to the vegetable oil map automatically. If the fuel consists of 40% or more vegetable oil, the vegetable oil engine control map has to be selected in order to fulfil legal emission limits. Finally the

  13. Sampling, characterisation and processing of solid recovered fuel production from municipal solid waste: An Italian plant case study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ranieri, Ezio; Ionescu, Gabriela; Fedele, Arcangela; Palmieri, Eleonora; Ranieri, Ada Cristina; Campanaro, Vincenzo

    2017-08-01

    This article presents the classification of solid recovered fuel from the Massafra municipal solid waste treatment plant in Southern Italy in compliancy with the EN 15359 standard. In order to ensure the reproducibility of this study, the characterisation methods of waste input and output flow, the mechanical biological treatment line scheme and its main parameters for each stage of the processing chain are presented in details, together with the research results in terms of mass balance and derived fuel properties. Under this study, only 31% of refused municipal solid waste input stream from mechanical biological line was recovered as solid recovered fuel with a net heating value (NC=HV) average of 15.77 MJ kg -1 ; chlorine content average of 0.06% on a dry basis; median of mercury solid recovered fuel produced meets the European Union standard requirements and can be classified with the class code: Net heating value (3); chlorine (1); mercury (1).

  14. Low Temperature, High Energy Density Micro Thin Film Solid Oxide Fuel Cell Project

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — A new type of solid oxide fuel cell based on thin film technology and ultra-thin electrolyte is being proposed to develop to realize major reductions in fuel cell...

  15. Electrode design for low temperature direct-hydrocarbon solid oxide fuel cells

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Fanglin; Zhao, Fei; Liu, Qiang

    2015-10-06

    In certain embodiments of the present disclosure, a solid oxide fuel cell is described. The solid oxide fuel cell includes a hierarchically porous cathode support having an impregnated cobaltite cathode deposited thereon, an electrolyte, and an anode support. The anode support includes hydrocarbon oxidation catalyst deposited thereon, wherein the cathode support, electrolyte, and anode support are joined together and wherein the solid oxide fuel cell operates a temperature of 600.degree. C. or less.

  16. Electrode Design for Low Temperature Direct-Hydrocarbon Solid Oxide Fuel Cells

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Fanglin (Inventor); Zhao, Fei (Inventor); Liu, Qiang (Inventor)

    2015-01-01

    In certain embodiments of the present disclosure, a solid oxide fuel cell is described. The solid oxide fuel cell includes a hierarchically porous cathode support having an impregnated cobaltite cathode deposited thereon, an electrolyte, and an anode support. The anode support includes hydrocarbon oxidation catalyst deposited thereon, wherein the cathode support, electrolyte, and anode support are joined together and wherein the solid oxide fuel cell operates a temperature of 600.degree. C. or less.

  17. Superheated fuel injection for combustion of liquid-solid slurries

    Science.gov (United States)

    Robben, Franklin A.

    1985-01-01

    A method and device for obtaining, upon injection, flash evaporation of a liquid in a slurry fuel to aid in ignition and combustion. The device is particularly beneficial for use of coal-water slurry fuels in internal combustion engines such as diesel engines and gas turbines, and in external combustion devices such as boilers and furnaces. The slurry fuel is heated under pressure to near critical temperature in an injector accumulator, where the pressure is sufficiently high to prevent boiling. After injection into a combustion chamber, the water temperature will be well above boiling point at a reduced pressure in the combustion chamber, and flash boiling will preferentially take place at solid-liquid surfaces, resulting in the shattering of water droplets and the subsequent separation of the water from coal particles. This prevents the agglomeration of the coal particles during the subsequent ignition and combustion process, and reduces the energy required to evaporate the water and to heat the coal particles to ignition temperature. The overall effect will be to accelerate the ignition and combustion rates, and to reduce the size of the ash particles formed from the coal.

  18. Surface-modified low-temperature solid oxide fuel cell

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kim, Young Beom; Holme, Timothy P. [Department of Mechanical Engineering, Stanford University, Stanford, CA 94305 (United States); Guer, Turgut M. [Department of Materials Science and Engineering, Stanford University, Stanford, CA 94305 (United States); Prinz, Fritz B. [Department of Mechanical Engineering, Stanford University, Stanford, CA 94305 (United States); Department of Materials Science and Engineering, Stanford University, Stanford, CA 94305 (United States)

    2011-12-20

    This paper reports both experimental and theoretical results of the role of surface modification on the oxygen reduction reaction in low-temperature solid oxide fuel cells (LT-SOFC). Epitaxial ultrathin films of yttria-doped ceria (YDC) cathode interlayers (<10-130 nm) are grown by pulsed laser deposition (PLD) on single-crystalline YSZ(100). Fuel cell current-voltage measurements and electrochemical impedance spectroscopy are performed in the temperature range of 350 C {approx} 450 C. Quantum mechanical simulations of oxygen incorporation energetics support the experimental results and indicate a low activation energy of only 0.07 eV for YDC, while the incorporation reaction on YSZ is activated by a significantly higher energy barrier of 0.38 eV. Due to enhanced oxygen incorporation at the modified Pt/YDC interface, the cathodic interface resistance is reduced by two-fold, while fuel cell performance shows more than a two-fold enhancement with the addition of an ultrathin YDC interlayer at the cathode side of an SOFC element. The results of this study open up opportunities for improving cell performance, particularly of LT-SOFCs by adopting surface modification of YSZ surface with catalytically superior, ultrathin cathodic interlayers. (Copyright copyright 2011 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH and Co. KGaA, Weinheim)

  19. Tecnored process - high potential in using different kinds of solid fuels

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    José Henrique Noldin Júnior

    2005-12-01

    Full Text Available One important feature of the Brazilian Tecnored ironmaking process is its flexibility to use different types of solid fuels, other than metallurgical coke, as proved in the pilot plant tests by extensively using green petroleum coke, biomasses, high ash cokes, etc. Even if new solid fuels not thus far used are envisaged for a given project, thru the bench scale simulator of the process it is possible to predict the behavior of such solid fuels in the Tecnored furnace and establish the best techno-economical-environmental equation for its use. This paper discusses the key aspects involved in the use of alternative solid fuels in the Tecnored process.

  20. Evaluation of apatite silicates as solid oxide fuel cell electrolytes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Marrero-Lopez, D. [Dpto. de Fisica Aplicada I, Laboratorio de Materiales y Superficies (Unidad Asociada al C.S.I.C.), Universidad de Malaga, 29071 Malaga (Spain); Dpto. de Quimica Inorganica, Universidad de La Laguna, 38200 La Laguna, Tenerife (Spain); Martin-Sedeno, M.C.; Aranda, M.A.G. [Dpto. de Quimica Inorganica, Universidad Malaga, 29071 Malaga (Spain); Pena-Martinez, J. [Dpto. de Quimica Inorganica, Universidad de La Laguna, 38200 La Laguna, Tenerife (Spain); Instituto de Energias Renovables, Parque Tecnologico, Universidad de Castilla La Mancha, 02006 Albacete (Spain); Ruiz-Morales, J.C.; Nunez, P. [Dpto. de Quimica Inorganica, Universidad de La Laguna, 38200 La Laguna, Tenerife (Spain); Ramos-Barrado, J.R. [Dpto. de Fisica Aplicada I, Laboratorio de Materiales y Superficies (Unidad Asociada al C.S.I.C.), Universidad de Malaga, 29071 Malaga (Spain)

    2010-05-01

    Apatite-type silicates have been considered as promising electrolytes for Solid Oxide Fuel Cells (SOFC); however studies on the potential use of these materials in SOFC devices have received relatively little attention. The lanthanum silicate with composition La{sub 10}Si{sub 5.5}Al{sub 0.5}O{sub 26.75} has been evaluated as electrolyte with the electrode materials commonly used in SOFC, i.e. manganite, ferrite and cobaltite as cathode materials and NiO-CGO composite, chromium-manganite and Sr{sub 2}MgMoO{sub 6} as anode materials. Chemical compatibility, area-specific resistance and fuel cell studies have been performed. X-ray powder diffraction (XRPD) analysis did not reveal any trace of reaction products between the apatite electrolyte and most of the aforementioned electrode materials. However, the area-specific polarisation resistance (ASR) of these electrodes in contact with apatite electrolyte increased significantly with the sintering temperature, indicating reactivity at the electrolyte/electrode interface. On the other hand, the ASR values are significantly improved using a ceria buffer layer between the electrolyte and electrode materials to prevent reactivity. Maximum power densities of 195 and 65 mWcm{sup -2} were obtained at 850 and 700 C, respectively in H{sub 2} fuel, using an 1 mm-thick electrolyte, a NiO-Ce{sub 0.8}Gd{sub 0.2}O{sub 1.9} composite as anode and La{sub 0.6}Sr{sub 0.4}Co{sub 0.8}Fe{sub 0.2}O{sub 3-{delta}} as cathode materials. This fuel cell was tested for 100 h in 5%H{sub 2}-Ar atmosphere showing stable performance. (author)

  1. Mixed fuel strategy for carbon deposition mitigation in solid oxide fuel cells at intermediate temperatures.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Su, Chao; Chen, Yubo; Wang, Wei; Ran, Ran; Shao, Zongping; Diniz da Costa, João C; Liu, Shaomin

    2014-06-17

    In this study, we propose and experimentally verified that methane and formic acid mixed fuel can be employed to sustain solid oxide fuel cells (SOFCs) to deliver high power outputs at intermediate temperatures and simultaneously reduce the coke formation over the anode catalyst. In this SOFC system, methane itself was one part of the fuel, but it also played as the carrier gas to deliver the formic acid to reach the anode chamber. On the other hand, the products from the thermal decomposition of formic acid helped to reduce the carbon deposition from methane cracking. In order to clarify the reaction pathways for carbon formation and elimination occurring in the anode chamber during the SOFC operation, O2-TPO and SEM analysis were carried out together with the theoretical calculation. Electrochemical tests demonstrated that stable and high power output at an intermediate temperature range was well-maintained with a peak power density of 1061 mW cm(-2) at 750 °C. With the synergic functions provided by the mixed fuel, the SOFC was running for 3 days without any sign of cell performance decay. In sharp contrast, fuelled by pure methane and tested at similar conditions, the SOFC immediately failed after running for only 30 min due to significant carbon deposition. This work opens a new way for SOFC to conquer the annoying problem of carbon deposition just by properly selecting the fuel components to realize their synergic effects.

  2. NEW SOLID FUELS FROM COAL AND BIOMASS WASTE; FINAL

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hamid Farzan

    2001-01-01

    fuel. These fuels will be converted to energy while reducing CO(sub 2) emissions from power generating boilers and mitigating global warming concerns. This report describes the sludge analysis, solid fuel preparation and production, combustion performance, environmental emissions and required equipment

  3. NEW SOLID FUELS FROM COAL AND BIOMASS WASTE

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hamid Farzan

    2001-09-24

    fuel. These fuels will be converted to energy while reducing CO{sub 2} emissions from power generating boilers and mitigating global warming concerns. This report describes the sludge analysis, solid fuel preparation and production, combustion performance, environmental emissions and required equipment.

  4. Solid oxide fuel cell bi-layer anode with gadolinia-doped ceria for utilization of solid carbon fuel

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kellogg, Isaiah D.; Koylu, Umit O.; Dogan, Fatih

    Pyrolytic carbon was used as fuel in a solid oxide fuel cell (SOFC) with a yttria-stabilized zirconia (YSZ) electrolyte and a bi-layer anode composed of nickel oxide gadolinia-doped ceria (NiO-GDC) and NiO-YSZ. The common problems of bulk shrinkage and emergent porosity in the YSZ layer adjacent to the GDC/YSZ interface were avoided by using an interlayer of porous NiO-YSZ as a buffer anode layer between the electrolyte and the NiO-GDC primary anode. Cells were fabricated from commercially available component powders so that unconventional production methods suggested in the literature were avoided, that is, the necessity of glycine-nitrate combustion synthesis, specialty multicomponent oxide powders, sputtering, or chemical vapor deposition. The easily-fabricated cell was successfully utilized with hydrogen and propane fuels as well as carbon deposited on the anode during the cyclic operation with the propane. A cell of similar construction could be used in the exhaust stream of a diesel engine to capture and utilize soot for secondary power generation and decreased particulate pollution without the need for filter regeneration.

  5. Designing and optimization of a micro CHP system based on Solid Oxide Fuel Cell with different fuel processing technologies

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Liso, Vincenzo; Nielsen, Mads Pagh; Kær, Søren Knudsen

    2009-01-01

    The development of fuel cell technologies offers the opportunity to achieve significant improvements in energy conversion efficiencies at many scales. The high operating temperature (700-1000 Celsius) of Solid Oxide Fuel Cells (SOFC) has a number of consequences, the most important of which...... are the possibility to partially reform hydrocarbon in the fuel cell anode compartment and the possibility to use high quality heat for cogeneration. In this work, different configurations of solid oxide fuel cell system for decentralized electricity production are examined. The Balance of Plant (BoP) components...... of the Micro Combined Heat and Power plant (mCHP) will be identified including fuel and air supply, fuel management anode re-circulation, exhaust gas heat management, power conditioning and control system. Using mass and energy balance, different types of fuel reforming including steam reforming...

  6. Processing and properties of a solid energy fuel from municipal solid waste (MSW) and recycled plastics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gug, JeongIn; Cacciola, David; Sobkowicz, Margaret J

    2015-01-01

    Diversion of waste streams such as plastics, woods, papers and other solid trash from municipal landfills and extraction of useful materials from landfills is an area of increasing interest especially in densely populated areas. One promising technology for recycling municipal solid waste (MSW) is to burn the high-energy-content components in standard coal power plant. This research aims to reform wastes into briquettes that are compatible with typical coal combustion processes. In order to comply with the standards of coal-fired power plants, the feedstock must be mechanically robust, free of hazardous contaminants, and moisture resistant, while retaining high fuel value. This study aims to investigate the effects of processing conditions and added recyclable plastics on the properties of MSW solid fuels. A well-sorted waste stream high in paper and fiber content was combined with controlled levels of recyclable plastics PE, PP, PET and PS and formed into briquettes using a compression molding technique. The effect of added plastics and moisture content on binding attraction and energy efficiency were investigated. The stability of the briquettes to moisture exposure, the fuel composition by proximate analysis, briquette mechanical strength, and burning efficiency were evaluated. It was found that high processing temperature ensures better properties of the product addition of milled mixed plastic waste leads to better encapsulation as well as to greater calorific value. Also some moisture removal (but not complete) improves the compacting process and results in higher heating value. Analysis of the post-processing water uptake and compressive strength showed a correlation between density and stability to both mechanical stress and humid environment. Proximate analysis indicated heating values comparable to coal. The results showed that mechanical and moisture uptake stability were improved when the moisture and air contents were optimized. Moreover, the briquette

  7. Resilient Sealing Materials for Solid Oxide Fuel Cells

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Signo T. Reis; Richard K. Brow

    2006-09-30

    This report describes the development of ''invert'' glass compositions designed for hermetic seals in solid oxide fuel cells (SOFC). Upon sealing at temperatures compatible with other SOFC materials (generally {le}900 C), these glasses transform to glass-ceramics with desirable thermo-mechanical properties, including coefficients of thermal expansion (CTE) over 11 x 10{sup -6}/C. The long-term (>four months) stability of CTE under SOFC operational conditions (e.g., 800 C in wet forming gas or in air) has been evaluated, as have weight losses under similar conditions. The dependence of sealant properties on glass composition are described in this report, as are experiments to develop glass-matrix composites by adding second phases, including Ni and YSZ. This information provides design-guidance to produce desirable sealing materials.

  8. Solid Oxide Fuel Cell Seal Glass - BN Nanotubes Composites

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bansal, Narottam P.; Choi, Sung R.; Hurst, Janet B.; Garg, Anita

    2005-01-01

    Solid oxide fuel cell seal glass G18 composites reinforced with approx.4 weight percent of BN nanotubes were fabricated via hot pressing. Room temperature strength and fracture toughness of the composite were determined by four-point flexure and single edge V-notch beam methods, respectively. The strength and fracture toughness of the composite were higher by as much as 90% and 35%, respectively, than those of the glass G18. Microscopic examination of the composite fracture surfaces using SEM and TEM showed pullout of the BN nanotubes, similar in feature to fiber-reinforced ceramic matrix composites with weak interfaces. Other mechanical and physical properties of the composite will also be presented.

  9. Review on MIEC Cathode Materials for Solid Oxide Fuel Cells

    Science.gov (United States)

    Burnwal, Suman Kumar; Bharadwaj, S.; Kistaiah, P.

    2016-11-01

    The cathode is one of the most important components of solid oxide fuel cells (SOFCs). The reduction of oxygen at the cathode (traditional cathodes like LSM, LSGM, etc.) is the slow step in the cell reaction at intermediate temperature (600-800∘C) which is one of the key obstacles to the development of SOFCs. The mixed ionic and electronic conducting cathode (MIEC) like LSCF, BSCF, etc., has recently been proposed as a promising cathode material for SOFC due to the improvement of the kinetic of the cathode reaction. The MIEC materials provide not only the electrons for the reduction of oxygen, but also the ionic conduction required to ensure the transport of the formed oxygen ions and thereby improves the overall electrochemical performance of SOFC system. The characteristics of MIEC cathode materials and its comparison with other traditional cathode materials is studied and presented in the paper.

  10. Anodes for Solid Oxide Fuel Cells Operating at Low Temperatures

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Abdul Jabbar, Mohammed Hussain

    An important issue that has limited the potential of Solid Oxide Fuel Cells (SOFCs) for portable applications is its high operating temperatures (800-1000 ºC). Lowering the operating temperature of SOFCs to 400-600 ºC enable a wider material selection, reduced degradation and increased lifetime....... On the other hand, low-temperature operation poses serious challenges to the electrode performance. Effective catalysts, redox stable electrodes with improved microstructures are the prime requisite for the development of efficient SOFC anodes. The performance of Nb-doped SrT iO3 (STN) ceramic anodes...... at 400ºC. The potential of using WO3 ceramic as an alternative anode materials has been explored. The relatively high electrode polarization resistance obtained, 11 Ohm cm2 at 600 ºC, proved the inadequate catalytic activity of this system for hydrogen oxidation. At the end of this thesis...

  11. Solid oxide fuel cell having a glass composite seal

    Science.gov (United States)

    De Rose, Anthony J.; Mukerjee, Subhasish; Haltiner, Jr., Karl Jacob

    2013-04-16

    A solid oxide fuel cell stack having a plurality of cassettes and a glass composite seal disposed between the sealing surfaces of adjacent cassettes, thereby joining the cassettes and providing a hermetic seal therebetween. The glass composite seal includes an alkaline earth aluminosilicate (AEAS) glass disposed about a viscous glass such that the AEAS glass retains the viscous glass in a predetermined position between the first and second sealing surfaces. The AEAS glass provides geometric stability to the glass composite seal to maintain the proper distance between the adjacent cassettes while the viscous glass provides for a compliant and self-healing seal. The glass composite seal may include fibers, powders, and/or beads of zirconium oxide, aluminum oxide, yttria-stabilized zirconia (YSZ), or mixtures thereof, to enhance the desirable properties of the glass composite seal.

  12. Investigation on application properties of liquid fuels with biogenic compounds; Untersuchungen zu anwendungstechnischen Eigenschaften fluessiger Brennstoffe mit biogenen Anteilen

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Neulen, Martin [OWI Oel-Waerme-Institut GmbH, Aachen (Germany); Hoffmann, Hajo

    2013-10-01

    Within a DGMK project (DGMK 729) a test rig was developed in which fuel can be aged semi realistically to test additives, components from middle distillate devices, fuel components and the fuel itself. The test rig is designed as a hardware-in-the-loop test rig. The test rig's design allows a high flexibility in setting aging parameters. In contrast to other, similar test rigs, the aging parameters can be set in a very defined way. Test runs were already conducted with variations in temperature, operating cycles or pressing dry air in fuel or using nitrogen in order to eliminate the ambient air. It could be shown, that higher temperatures can age the fuel faster than lower temperatures, which was expected. Pressing air into the fuel extended the time needed to reach the abort criterion. Using nitrogen in order to reduce the influence of ambient air showed no effect on the duration of the test run. The effects of both settings - pressing air in the fuel and reducing the effect of ambient air by nitrogen - cannot be explained entirely yet. (orig.)

  13. Processing and properties of a solid energy fuel from municipal solid waste (MSW) and recycled plastics

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gug, JeongIn; Cacciola, David; Sobkowicz, Margaret J.

    2015-01-01

    Highlights: • Briquetting was used to produce solid fuels from municipal solid waste and recycled plastics. • Optimal drying, processing temperature and pressure were found to produce stable briquettes. • Addition of waste plastics yielded heating values comparable with typical coal feedstocks. • This processing method improves utilization of paper and plastic diverted from landfills. - Abstract: Diversion of waste streams such as plastics, woods, papers and other solid trash from municipal landfills and extraction of useful materials from landfills is an area of increasing interest especially in densely populated areas. One promising technology for recycling municipal solid waste (MSW) is to burn the high-energy-content components in standard coal power plant. This research aims to reform wastes into briquettes that are compatible with typical coal combustion processes. In order to comply with the standards of coal-fired power plants, the feedstock must be mechanically robust, free of hazardous contaminants, and moisture resistant, while retaining high fuel value. This study aims to investigate the effects of processing conditions and added recyclable plastics on the properties of MSW solid fuels. A well-sorted waste stream high in paper and fiber content was combined with controlled levels of recyclable plastics PE, PP, PET and PS and formed into briquettes using a compression molding technique. The effect of added plastics and moisture content on binding attraction and energy efficiency were investigated. The stability of the briquettes to moisture exposure, the fuel composition by proximate analysis, briquette mechanical strength, and burning efficiency were evaluated. It was found that high processing temperature ensures better properties of the product addition of milled mixed plastic waste leads to better encapsulation as well as to greater calorific value. Also some moisture removal (but not complete) improves the compacting process and results in

  14. Processing and properties of a solid energy fuel from municipal solid waste (MSW) and recycled plastics

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gug, JeongIn, E-mail: Jeongin_gug@student.uml.edu; Cacciola, David, E-mail: david_cacciola@student.uml.edu; Sobkowicz, Margaret J., E-mail: Margaret_sobkowiczkline@uml.edu

    2015-01-15

    Highlights: • Briquetting was used to produce solid fuels from municipal solid waste and recycled plastics. • Optimal drying, processing temperature and pressure were found to produce stable briquettes. • Addition of waste plastics yielded heating values comparable with typical coal feedstocks. • This processing method improves utilization of paper and plastic diverted from landfills. - Abstract: Diversion of waste streams such as plastics, woods, papers and other solid trash from municipal landfills and extraction of useful materials from landfills is an area of increasing interest especially in densely populated areas. One promising technology for recycling municipal solid waste (MSW) is to burn the high-energy-content components in standard coal power plant. This research aims to reform wastes into briquettes that are compatible with typical coal combustion processes. In order to comply with the standards of coal-fired power plants, the feedstock must be mechanically robust, free of hazardous contaminants, and moisture resistant, while retaining high fuel value. This study aims to investigate the effects of processing conditions and added recyclable plastics on the properties of MSW solid fuels. A well-sorted waste stream high in paper and fiber content was combined with controlled levels of recyclable plastics PE, PP, PET and PS and formed into briquettes using a compression molding technique. The effect of added plastics and moisture content on binding attraction and energy efficiency were investigated. The stability of the briquettes to moisture exposure, the fuel composition by proximate analysis, briquette mechanical strength, and burning efficiency were evaluated. It was found that high processing temperature ensures better properties of the product addition of milled mixed plastic waste leads to better encapsulation as well as to greater calorific value. Also some moisture removal (but not complete) improves the compacting process and results in

  15. Trade of Solid Biofuels, and Fuel Prices in Europe

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Alakangas, E. [VTT Processes, Jyvaeskylae (Finland); Hillring, B. [Swedish Univ. of Agricultural Sciences, Uppsala (Sweden); Nikolaisen, L.S. [Danish Technological Inst. (DTI), Aarhus (Denmark). Centre for Biomass Technology

    2002-07-01

    Traditionally, biomass fuels are used in the same geographical region, in which they are produced. In more recent years, this pattern has been changed in Northern Europe by large-scale use of biomass for district heating and a vast supply of recycled wood and forest residues. The trade situation has come about as a result of means of control on waste and energy. Sea shipments allow bulk transports of biomass over long distances at low cost. In most countries, the customs statistics do not record trade in such a detail that the international trade of different biomass types could be identified. Today, solid biofuels like wood residues, pellets and wood chips are already traded in Europe and have reached a level of almost 50 PJ/a. In some countries, there is a growing interest in the international biomass trade, because the trade can provide biofuels at lower prices. The largest volumes of biomass are traded from the Baltic countries (Estonia, Latvia, Lithuania) to the Nordic countries (especially Sweden and Denmark, but also Finland). Some volumes are also traded from Finland to other Nordic countries, and between neighbouring countries in Central Europe, especially the Netherlands, Germany, Austria, Slovenia and Italy. The traded biofuel is most often of refined wood fuels (pellets and briquettes) and industrial by-products (sawdust, chips), in Central Europe also wood waste.

  16. Trade of Solid Biofuels, and Fuel Prices in Europe

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Alakangas, E.; Hillring, B.; Nikolaisen, L.S.

    2002-01-01

    Traditionally, biomass fuels are used in the same geographical region, in which they are produced. In more recent years, this pattern has been changed in Northern Europe by large-scale use of biomass for district heating and a vast supply of recycled wood and forest residues. The trade situation has come about as a result of means of control on waste and energy. Sea shipments allow bulk transports of biomass over long distances at low cost. In most countries, the customs statistics do not record trade in such a detail that the international trade of different biomass types could be identified. Today, solid biofuels like wood residues, pellets and wood chips are already traded in Europe and have reached a level of almost 50 PJ/a. In some countries, there is a growing interest in the international biomass trade, because the trade can provide biofuels at lower prices. The largest volumes of biomass are traded from the Baltic countries (Estonia, Latvia, Lithuania) to the Nordic countries (especially Sweden and Denmark, but also Finland). Some volumes are also traded from Finland to other Nordic countries, and between neighbouring countries in Central Europe, especially the Netherlands, Germany, Austria, Slovenia and Italy. The traded biofuel is most often of refined wood fuels (pellets and briquettes) and industrial by-products (sawdust, chips), in Central Europe also wood waste

  17. Integrated Solid Oxide Fuel Cell Power System Characteristics Prediction

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marian GAICEANU

    2009-07-01

    Full Text Available The main objective of this paper is to deduce the specific characteristics of the CHP 100kWe Solid Oxide Fuel Cell (SOFC Power System from the steady state experimental data. From the experimental data, the authors have been developed and validated the steady state mathematical model. From the control room the steady state experimental data of the SOFC power conditioning are available and using the developed steady state mathematical model, the authors have been obtained the characteristic curves of the system performed by Siemens-Westinghouse Power Corporation. As a methodology the backward and forward power flow analysis has been employed. The backward power flow makes possible to obtain the SOFC power system operating point at different load levels, resulting as the load characteristic. By knowing the fuel cell output characteristic, the forward power flow analysis is used to predict the power system efficiency in different operating points, to choose the adequate control decision in order to obtain the high efficiency operation of the SOFC power system at different load levels. The CHP 100kWe power system is located at Gas Turbine Technologies Company (a Siemens Subsidiary, TurboCare brand in Turin, Italy. The work was carried out through the Energia da Ossidi Solidi (EOS Project. The SOFC stack delivers constant power permanently in order to supply the electric and thermal power both to the TurboCare Company and to the national grid.

  18. Solid oxide fuel cell performance under severe operating conditions

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Koch, Søren; Hendriksen, P.V.; Mogensen, Mogens Bjerg

    2006-01-01

    The performance and degradation of Solid Oxide Fuel Cells (SOFC) were studied under severe operating conditions. The cells studied were manufactured in a small series by ECN, in the framework of the EU funded CORE-SOFC project. The cells were of the anode-supported type with a double layer LSM...... cathode. They were operated at 750 °C or 850 °C in hydrogen with 5% or 50% water at current densities ranging from 0.25 A cm–2 to 1 A cm–2 for periods of 300 hours or more. The area specific cell resistance, corrected for fuel utilisation, ranged between 0.20 Ω cm2 and 0.34 Ω cm2 at 850 °C and 520 m......V, and between 0.51 Ω cm2 and 0.92 Ω cm2 at 750 °C and 520 mV. The degradation of cell performance was found to be low (ranging from 0 to 8%/1,000 hours) at regular operating conditions. Voltage degradation rates of 20 to 40%/1,000 hours were observed under severe operating conditions, depending on the test...

  19. Glass/Ceramic Composites for Sealing Solid Oxide Fuel Cells

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bansal, Narottam P.; Choi, Sung R.

    2007-01-01

    A family of glass/ceramic composite materials has been investigated for use as sealants in planar solid oxide fuel cells. These materials are modified versions of a barium calcium aluminosilicate glass developed previously for the same purpose. The composition of the glass in mole percentages is 35BaO + 15CaO + 5Al2O3 + 10B2O3 + 35SiO2. The glass seal was found to be susceptible to cracking during thermal cycling of the fuel cells. The goal in formulating the glass/ ceramic composite materials was to (1) retain the physical and chemical advantages that led to the prior selection of the barium calcium aluminosilicate glass as the sealant while (2) increasing strength and fracture toughness so as to reduce the tendency toward cracking. Each of the composite formulations consists of the glass plus either of two ceramic reinforcements in a proportion between 0 and 30 mole percent. One of the ceramic reinforcements consists of alumina platelets; the other one consists of particles of yttria-stabilized zirconia wherein the yttria content is 3 mole percent (3YSZ). In preparation for experiments, panels of the glass/ceramic composites were hot-pressed and machined into test bars.

  20. PRESSURIZED SOLID OXIDE FUEL CELL/GAS TURBINE POWER SYSTEM

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    W.L. Lundberg; G.A. Israelson; R.R. Moritz(Rolls-Royce Allison); S.E. Veyo; R.A. Holmes; P.R. Zafred; J.E. King; R.E. Kothmann (Consultant)

    2000-02-01

    Power systems based on the simplest direct integration of a pressurized solid oxide fuel cell (SOFC) generator and a gas turbine (GT) are capable of converting natural gas fuel energy to electric power with efficiencies of approximately 60% (net AC/LHV), and more complex SOFC and gas turbine arrangements can be devised for achieving even higher efficiencies. The results of a project are discussed that focused on the development of a conceptual design for a pressurized SOFC/GT power system that was intended to generate 20 MWe with at least 70% efficiency. The power system operates baseloaded in a distributed-generation application. To achieve high efficiency, the system integrates an intercooled, recuperated, reheated gas turbine with two SOFC generator stages--one operating at high pressure, and generating power, as well as providing all heat needed by the high-pressure turbine, while the second SOFC generator operates at a lower pressure, generates power, and provides all heat for the low-pressure reheat turbine. The system cycle is described, major system components are sized, the system installed-cost is estimated, and the physical arrangement of system components is discussed. Estimates of system power output, efficiency, and emissions at the design point are also presented, and the system cost of electricity estimate is developed.

  1. Development of multilayer imprint process for solid oxide fuel cells

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tokumaru, Kazuki; Tsumori, Fujio; Kudo, Kentaro; Osada, Toshiko; Shinagawa, Kazunari

    2017-06-01

    Solid oxide fuel cells (SOFCs) are fuel cells made of ceramics. To increase the SOFC energy density, we developed an SOFC with a wavy electrolyte layer. As a wavy electrolyte has a larger reaction surface area than a flat electrolyte, a higher energy density could be obtained. Our proposed process is named micro-powder imprint (µPI) with a multilayer imprint process that is useful for fabricating a microscale pattern on a ceramic sheet such as an SOFC electrolyte layer. µPI is based on nanoimprint lithography; therefore, it also exhibits the same advantages of high resolution and mass productivity. The starting material for µPI is a compound sheet containing ceramic powder and binder materials consisting of thermoplastic resin. In this study, two different sheets were stacked into one sheet as a multilayer sheet for the µPI process to form a wavy compound sheet. As the initial state of the stacked sheet, including the mechanical properties of each layer, affects the final wavy shape, we changed the material composition. As a result, the SOFCs unit cell with a wavy electrolyte was fabricated. Note that the anode layer was formed at the same time. After adding the cathode layer, we succeeded in preparing a complete cell for testing power generation.

  2. Radiocarbon AMS determination of the biogenic component in CO2 emitted from waste incineration

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Calcagnile, L.; Quarta, G.; D’Elia, M.; Ciceri, G.; Martinotti, V.

    2011-01-01

    The thermal utilization of waste for energy production is gaining importance in European countries. Nevertheless, the combustion of waste leads to significant CO 2 emissions in the atmosphere which, depending on the fraction of biogenic and fossil materials, have to be only partially accounted for the national greenhouse gas inventory. For this reason the development of proper methodologies for the measurement of the biogenic fraction in the combusted waste is an active research field. In fact the determination of the radiocarbon concentration in the carbon dioxide stack emissions allows to have a direct indication of the biogenic component in the burned fuel. We present the results of the AMS radiocarbon analyses carried out on carbon dioxide sampled at the stack of three power plants located in Northern Italy burning natural gas, landfill biogas and SRF (Solid Recovered Fuel) derived from MSW (Municipal Solid Waste). The sampling apparatus and the applied processing protocols are described together with the calculation procedures used to determine, from the measured radiocarbon concentrations, the proportion of biogenic and fossil component in the flue gas and in the combusted fuel. The results confirm the high potentialities of this approach in the analysis of industrial CO 2 emissions.

  3. Solid oxide fuel cells towards real life applications. Final report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    2010-07-01

    Solid Oxide Fuel Cells offer a clean and efficient way of producing electricity and heat from a wide selection of fuels. The project addressed three major challenges to be overcome by the technology to make commercialisation possible. (1) At the cell level, increased efficiency combined with production cost reduction has been achieved through an optimization of the manufacturing processes, b) by using alternative raw materials with a lower purchase price and c) by introducing a new generation of fuel cells with reduced loss and higher efficiency. (2) At the stack level, production cost reduction is reduced and manufacturing capacity is increased through an optimization of the stack production. (3) At the system level, development of integrated hotbox concepts for the market segments distributed generation (DG), micro combined heat and power (mCHP), and auxiliary power units (APU) have been developed. In the mCHP segment, two concepts have been developed and validated with regards to market requirements and scalability. In the APU-segment, different types of reformers have been tested and it has been proven that diesel can be reformed through appropriate reformers. Finally, operation experience and feedback has been gained by deployment of stacks in the test facility at the H.C. OErsted Power Plant (HCV). This demonstration has been carried out in collaboration between TOFC and DONG Energy Power A/S (DONG), who has participated as a subcontractor to TOFC. The demonstration has given valuable knowledge and experience with design, start-up and operation of small power units connected to the grid and future development within especially the mCHP segment will benefit from this. In this report, the project results are described for each of the work packages in the project. (Author)

  4. The effect of air preheating on the combustion of solid fuels on a grate

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kessel, L.B.M. van; Arendsen, A.R.J.; Boer-Meulman, P.D.M. de; Brem, G.

    2004-01-01

    Combustion of solid fuels on a grate is widely used. Mostly, the combustion behaviour is explained by the classical theory of Rogers. However, that theory cannot explain the combustion process when primary air preheating is applied. Solid fuel grate combustion is studied by experiments in a pot

  5. Biomass-powered Solid Oxide Fuel Cells : Experimental and Modeling Studies for System Integrations

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Liu, M.

    2013-01-01

    Biomass is a sustainable energy source which, through thermo-chemical processes of biomass gasification, is able to be converted from a solid biomass fuel into a gas mixture, known as syngas or biosyngas. A solid oxide fuel cell (SOFC) is a power generation device that directly converts the chemical

  6. Designing and optimization of a micro CHP system based on Solid Oxide Fuel Cell with different fuel processing technologies

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Liso, Vincenzo; Nielsen, Mads Pagh; Kær, Søren Knudsen

    2009-01-01

    are the possibility to partially reform hydrocarbon in the fuel cell anode compartment and the possibility to use high quality heat for cogeneration. In this work, different configurations of solid oxide fuel cell system for decentralized electricity production are examined. The Balance of Plant (BoP) components...... of the Micro Combined Heat and Power plant (mCHP) will be identified including fuel and air supply, fuel management anode re-circulation, exhaust gas heat management, power conditioning and control system. Using mass and energy balance, different types of fuel reforming including steam reforming...... will be evaluated in terms of their energetic performance and suitability for meeting residential thermal and electric demand....

  7. Understanding Our Energy Footprint: Undergraduate Chemistry Laboratory Investigation of Environmental Impacts of Solid Fossil Fuel Wastes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Berger, Michael; Goldfarb, Jillian L.

    2017-01-01

    Engaging undergraduates in the environmental consequences of fossil fuel usage primes them to consider their own anthropogenic impact, and the benefits and trade-offs of converting to renewable fuel strategies. This laboratory activity explores the potential contaminants (both inorganic and organic) present in the raw fuel and solid waste…

  8. Solid oxide fuel cell electrode characterization and improvement for fuel flexibility and supplemental power production

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kellogg, Isaiah Daniel

    2010-03-01

    Solid oxide fuel cells (SOFC) were fabricated and the electrodes tested for their individual catalytic effectiveness in various fuels by exposing each electrode to mixed gas while the opposite electrode was exposed to its respective pure gas. Mixed hydrogen and oxygen gas was successfully utilized as fuel in a single chamber SOFC (SC-SOFC). The conditions at which the porous nickel-yttria-stabilized zirconia (Ni-YSZ) cermet anode performed well did not significantly overlap the conditions at which the La0.8Sr 0.2Fe0.8Co0.2 oxide (LSCF) cathode performed well, but there was significant catalytic activity at both electrodes which increased the open circuit voltage (OCV) beyond that predicted by the Nernst equation. The results of these tests, and future tests of similar format, could be useful in the development of SC-SOFC electrode catalysts. Pyrolytic carbon was used as fuel in a SOFC with a YSZ electrolyte and a bi-layer anode composed of nickel gadolinia-doped ceria (Ni-GDC) and Ni-YSZ. The common problems of bulk shrinkage and emergent porosity in the YSZ layer adjacent to the GDC/YSZ interface were avoided by using an interlayer of porous Ni-YSZ as a buffer anode layer between the electrolyte and the Ni-GDC primary anode. Cells were fabricated from commercially available component powders so that unconventional production methods suggested in the literature were avoided. A cell of similar construction was used with externally applied acetylene flame soot as fuel so that soot captured at the exhaust of a diesel engine could be utilized for secondary power generation in a SOFC while decreasing particulate pollution without the need for filter regeneration.

  9. Solid fuel residues inventory of fixtures and perspectives. Extended abstract

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bicocchi, S.; Tenza, A.

    2008-01-01

    The solid fuel residues, so called CSR, represent a fraction with high Lower Calorific value, with physicochemical characteristics conferring them the capacity to replace usual fuels. These last years, industrial applications seem to develop all over Europe. The present study thus sticks to draw up a panorama of the European situation in 2007. It develops the global regulation and normative context in which this waste processing channel must fit, while waiting for the presentation of the new Framework Directive of Waste during 2008, and the initiatives of certain precursory countries like Italy, Germany and the Netherlands. A scientific and technical inventory is presented being based on concrete cases identified within the Community territory. The study examines in particular a representative sample of 11 countries observed (Germany, Austria, Belgium, Spain, France, Italy, Netherlands, Finland, Denmark, Sweden and United Kingdom) and points out the local context, the layer and the practices developed in the use of this fraction. Finally, the study tries to position the French case in the European overview and highlights certain conditions (success factors, obstacles) allowing the development of CSR channel. Until few time, the CSR channel has increased without established regulation and normative framework. The diversity of the trade names listed through Europe testifies to the absence of common framework. To date, term CSR doesn't exist in European legislation. Only nomenclature NAPFUE (support for the declaration of the emissions in atmosphere) identifies fuels including the CSR. The working group CEN TC 343 (M325 Mandate) indicates that it only acts of solid waste, non made up of biomass, resulting from waste non dangerous and intended to be used in incineration or co-incineration. Regarding to existing European directives, a global tendency for the development of the channel is identified (management of waste, energy, environment). Thus, the objectives of

  10. Development and Characterization of Fast Burning Solid Fuels/Propellants for Hybrid Rocket Motors with High Volumetric Efficiency

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — The objective of this proposed work is to develop several fast burning solid fuels/fuel-rich solid propellants for hybrid rocket motor applications. In the...

  11. Functionally Graded Cathodes for Solid Oxide Fuel Cells

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Harry Abernathy; Meilin Liu

    2006-12-31

    One primary suspected cause of long-term performance degradation of solid oxide fuels (SOFCs) is the accumulation of chromium (Cr) species at or near the cathode/electrolyte interface due to reactive Cr molecules originating from Cr-containing components (such as the interconnect) in fuel cell stacks. To date, considerable efforts have been devoted to the characterization of cathodes exposed to Cr sources; however, little progress has been made because a detailed understanding of the chemistry and electrochemistry relevant to the Cr-poisoning processes is still lacking. This project applied multiple characterization methods - including various Raman spectroscopic techniques and various electrochemical performance measurement techniques - to elucidate and quantify the effect of Cr-related electrochemical degradation at the cathode/electrolyte interface. Using Raman microspectroscopy the identity and location of Cr contaminants (SrCrO{sub 4}, (Mn/Cr){sub 3}O{sub 4} spinel) have been observed in situ on an LSM cathode. These Cr contaminants were shown to form chemically (in the absence of current flowing through the cell) at temperatures as low as 625 C. While SrCrO{sub 4} and (Mn/Cr){sub 3}O{sub 4} spinel must preferentially form on LSM, since the LSM supplies the Sr and Mn cations necessary for these compounds, LSM was also shown to be an active site for the deposition of Ag{sub 2}CrO{sub 4} for samples that also contained silver. In contrast, Pt and YSZ do not appear to be active for formation of Cr-containing phases. The work presented here supports the theory that Cr contamination is predominantly chemically-driven and that in order to minimize the effect, cathode materials should be chosen that are free of cations/elements that could preferentially react with chromium, including silver, strontium, and manganese.

  12. Development of single chamber solid oxide fuel cells (SCFC)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Viricelle, J.-P.; Udroiu, S.; Gadacz, G.; Pijolat, M.; Pijolat, C. [Ecole Nationale Superieure des Mines de Saint-Etienne, Centre SPIN, LPMG-UMR CNRS 5148, 158 cours Fauriel, 42023 Saint-Etienne Cedex 02 (France)

    2010-08-15

    Single Chamber Solid Oxide Fuel Cells (SCFC) have been prepared using an electrolyte as support (Ce{sub 0.9}Gd{sub 0.1}O{sub 1.95} named GDC). Anode (Ni-GDC) and different cathodes (Sm{sub 0.5}Sr{sub 0.5}CoO{sub 3} (SSC), Ba{sub 0.5}Sr{sub 0.5}Co{sub 0.2}Fe{sub 0.8}O{sub 3} (BSCF) and La{sub 0.8}Sr{sub 0.2}MnO{sub 3} (LSM)) were placed on the same side of the electrolyte. All the electrodes were deposited using screen-printing technology. A gold collector was also deposited on the cathode to decrease the over-potential. The different materials and fuel cell devices were tested under propane/air mixture, after a preliminary treatment under hydrogen to reduce the as-deposited nickel oxide anode. The results show that SSC and BSCF cathodes are not stable in these conditions, leading to a very low open circuit voltage (OCV) of 150 mV. Although LSM material is not the more adequate cathode regarding its high catalytic activity towards hydrocarbon conversion, it has a better chemical stability than SSC and BSCF. Ni-GDC-LSM SCFC devices were elaborated and tested; an OCV of nearly 750 mV could be obtained with maximum power densities around 20 mW cm{sup -2} at 620 C, under air-propane mixture with C{sub 3}H{sub 8}/O{sub 2} ratio equal to 0.53. (Abstract Copyright [2010], Wiley Periodicals, Inc.)

  13. Polypropylene Oil as a Fuel for Ni-YSZ | YSZ | LSCF Solid Oxide Fuel Cell

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pratiwi, Andini W.; Rahmawati, Fitria; Rochman, Refada A.; Syahputra, Rahmat J. E.; Prameswari, Arum P.

    2018-01-01

    This research aims to convert polypropylene plastic to polypropylene oil through pyrolysis method and use the polypropylene oil as fuel for Solid Oxide Fuel Cell, SOFC, to produce electricity. The material for SOFC single cell are Ni-YSZ, YSZ, and LSCF as anode, electrolyte and cathode, respectively. YSZ is yttria-stabilized-zirconia. Meanwhile, LSCF is a commercial La0.6Sr0.4Co0.2Fe0.8O3. The Ni-YSZ is a composite of YSZ with nickel powder. LSCF and Ni-YSZ slurry coated both side of YSZ electrolyte pellet through screen printing method. The result shows that, the produced polypropylene oil consist of C8 to C27 hydrocarbon chain. Meanwhile, a single cell performance test at 673 K, 773 K and 873 K with polypropylene oil as fuel, found that the maximum power density is 1.729 μW. cm-2 at 673 K with open circuit voltage value of 9.378 mV.

  14. Materials System for Intermediate Temperature Solid Oxide Fuel Cell

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Uday B. Pal; Srikanth Gopalan

    2006-01-12

    The objective of this work was to obtain a stable materials system for intermediate temperature solid oxide fuel cell (SOFC) capable of operating between 600-800 C with a power density greater than 0.2 W/cm{sup 2}. The solid electrolyte chosen for this system was La{sub 0.9}Sr{sub 0.1}Ga{sub 0.8}Mg{sub 0.2}O{sub 3}, (LSGM). To select the right electrode materials from a group of possible candidate materials, AC complex impedance spectroscopy studies were conducted between 600-800 C on symmetrical cells that employed the LSGM electrolyte. Based on the results of the investigation, LSGM electrolyte supported SOFCs were fabricated with La{sub 0.6}Sr{sub 0.4}Co{sub 0.8}Fe{sub 0.2}O{sub 3}-La{sub 0.9}Sr{sub 0.1}Ga{sub 0.8}Mg{sub 0.2}O{sub 3} (LSCF-LSGM) composite cathode and Nickel-Ce{sub 0.6}La{sub 0.4}O{sub 3} (Ni-LDC) composite anode having a barrier layer of Ce{sub 0.6}La{sub 0.4}O{sub 3} (LDC) between the LSGM electrolyte and the Ni-LDC anode. Electrical performance and stability of these cells were determined and the electrode polarization behavior as a function of cell current was modeled between 600-800 C. The electrical performance of the anode-supported SOFC was simulated assuming an electrode polarization behavior identical to the LSGM-electrolyte-supported SOFC. The simulated electrical performance indicated that the selected material system would provide a stable cell capable of operating between 600-800 C with a power density between 0.2 to 1 W/cm{sup 2}.

  15. Filled glass composites for sealing of solid oxide fuel cells.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tandon, Rajan; Widgeon, Scarlett Joyce; Garino, Terry J.; Brochu, Mathieu; Gauntt, Bryan D.; Corral, Erica L.; Loehman, Ronald E.

    2009-04-01

    Glasses filled with ceramic or metallic powders have been developed for use as seals for solid oxide fuel cells (SOFC's) as part of the U.S. Department of Energy's Solid State Energy Conversion Alliance (SECA) Program. The composites of glass (alkaline earth-alumina-borate) and powders ({approx}20 vol% of yttria-stabilized zirconia or silver) were shown to form seals with SOFC materials at or below 900 C. The type and amount of powder were adjusted to optimize thermal expansion to match the SOFC materials and viscosity. Wetting studies indicated good wetting was achieved on the micro-scale and reaction studies indicated that the degree of reaction between the filled glasses and SOFC materials, including spinel-coated 441 stainless steel, at 750 C is acceptable. A test rig was developed for measuring strengths of seals cycled between room temperature and typical SOFC operating temperatures. Our measurements showed that many of the 410 SS to 410 SS seals, made using silver-filled glass composites, were hermetic at 0.2 MPa (2 atm.) of pressure and that seals that leaked could be resealed by briefly heating them to 900 C. Seal strength measurements at elevated temperature (up to 950 C), measured using a second apparatus that we developed, indicated that seals maintained 0.02 MPa (0.2 atm.) overpressures for 30 min at 750 C with no leakage. Finally, the volatility of the borate component of sealing glasses under SOFC operational conditions was studied using weight loss measurements and found by extrapolation to be less than 5% for the projected SOFC lifetime.

  16. Probing and Mapping Electrode Surfaces in Solid Oxide Fuel Cells

    Science.gov (United States)

    Blinn, Kevin S.; Li, Xiaxi; Liu, Mingfei; Bottomley, Lawrence A.; Liu, Meilin

    2012-01-01

    Solid oxide fuel cells (SOFCs) are potentially the most efficient and cost-effective solution to utilization of a wide variety of fuels beyond hydrogen 1-7. The performance of SOFCs and the rates of many chemical and energy transformation processes in energy storage and conversion devices in general are limited primarily by charge and mass transfer along electrode surfaces and across interfaces. Unfortunately, the mechanistic understanding of these processes is still lacking, due largely to the difficulty of characterizing these processes under in situ conditions. This knowledge gap is a chief obstacle to SOFC commercialization. The development of tools for probing and mapping surface chemistries relevant to electrode reactions is vital to unraveling the mechanisms of surface processes and to achieving rational design of new electrode materials for more efficient energy storage and conversion2. Among the relatively few in situ surface analysis methods, Raman spectroscopy can be performed even with high temperatures and harsh atmospheres, making it ideal for characterizing chemical processes relevant to SOFC anode performance and degradation8-12. It can also be used alongside electrochemical measurements, potentially allowing direct correlation of electrochemistry to surface chemistry in an operating cell. Proper in situ Raman mapping measurements would be useful for pin-pointing important anode reaction mechanisms because of its sensitivity to the relevant species, including anode performance degradation through carbon deposition8, 10, 13, 14 ("coking") and sulfur poisoning11, 15 and the manner in which surface modifications stave off this degradation16. The current work demonstrates significant progress towards this capability. In addition, the family of scanning probe microscopy (SPM) techniques provides a special approach to interrogate the electrode surface with nanoscale resolution. Besides the surface topography that is routinely collected by AFM and STM

  17. Constrained Sintering in Fabrication of Solid Oxide Fuel Cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Hae-Weon; Park, Mansoo; Hong, Jongsup; Kim, Hyoungchul; Yoon, Kyung Joong; Son, Ji-Won; Lee, Jong-Ho; Kim, Byung-Kook

    2016-08-09

    Solid oxide fuel cells (SOFCs) are inevitably affected by the tensile stress field imposed by the rigid substrate during constrained sintering, which strongly affects microstructural evolution and flaw generation in the fabrication process and subsequent operation. In the case of sintering a composite cathode, one component acts as a continuous matrix phase while the other acts as a dispersed phase depending upon the initial composition and packing structure. The clustering of dispersed particles in the matrix has significant effects on the final microstructure, and strong rigidity of the clusters covering the entire cathode volume is desirable to obtain stable pore structure. The local constraints developed around the dispersed particles and their clusters effectively suppress generation of major process flaws, and microstructural features such as triple phase boundary and porosity could be readily controlled by adjusting the content and size of the dispersed particles. However, in the fabrication of the dense electrolyte layer via the chemical solution deposition route using slow-sintering nanoparticles dispersed in a sol matrix, the rigidity of the cluster should be minimized for the fine matrix to continuously densify, and special care should be taken in selecting the size of the dispersed particles to optimize the thermodynamic stability criteria of the grain size and film thickness. The principles of constrained sintering presented in this paper could be used as basic guidelines for realizing the ideal microstructure of SOFCs.

  18. Hydrocarbon fuel processing of micro solid oxide fuel cell systems[Dissertation 17455

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Stutz, M. J.

    2007-07-01

    The scope of this thesis is the numerical and experimental investigation of the fuel processing of a micro solid oxide fuel cell (SOFC) running on hydrocarbon fuel. The goal is to enhance the overall system efficiency by optimization of the reforming process in the steady state and the improvement of the start-up process. Micro SOFC are a potential alternative to the currently used batteries in portable devices. Liquid butane in a cartridge could be the energy source. This dissertation is focused on the fuel processing of the system, namely the reforming and post-combusting processes. The reformer converts the hydrocarbon fuel to a hydrogen rich gas that can be utilized by the SOFC. The post-combustor depletes the toxic and/or explosive gases before leaving the exhaust. Chapter One presents a short introduction to the field of hydrocarbon fuel processing in micro solid oxide fuel cell systems, the next three chapters deal with computational modeling of the transport phenomena inside a micro-reformer, which leads to a better understanding of the chemistry and the physics therein, hence progress in the design and operation parameters. The experimental part (i.e. Chapter Five) of this thesis focuses on the feasibility of a novel hybrid start-up method of a fuel cell system that employs existing components as an additional heat source. In Chapter Two the effect of wall heat conduction on the syngas (hydrogen and carbon monoxide) production of a micro-reformer, representing micro-fabricated channels or monoliths, is investigated. Methane is used as a model hydrocarbon fuel since its heterogeneous reaction path on rhodium is known and validated. The simulations demonstrate that the axial wall conduction strongly influences the performance of the micro-reformer and should not be neglected without a careful a priori investigation of its impact. Methane conversion and hydrogen yield are strongly dependent of the wall inner surface temperature, which is influenced by the

  19. Status of solid polymer electrolyte fuel cell technology and potential for transportation applications

    Science.gov (United States)

    McElroy, J. F.; Nuttall, L. J.

    The solid polymer electrolyte (SPE) fuel cell represents the first fuel cell technology known to be used operationally. Current activities are mainly related to the development of a space regenerative fuel cell system for energy storage on board space stations, or other large orbiting vehicles and platforms. During 1981, a study was performed to determine the feasibility of using SPE fuel cells for automotive or other vehicular applications, using methanol as the fuel. The results of this study were very encouraging. Details concerning a conceptual automotive fuel cell power plant study are discussed, taking into account also a layout of major components for compact passenger car installation.

  20. Simultaneous analysis of qualitative parameters of solid fuel using complex neutron gamma method

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dombrovskij, V.P.; Ajtsev, N.I.; Ryashchikov, V.I.; Frolov, V.K.

    1983-01-01

    A study was made on complex neutron gamma method for simultaneous analysis of carbon content, ash content and humidity of solid fuel according to gamma radiation of inelastic fast neutron scattering and radiation capture of thermal neutrons. Metrological characteristics of pulse and stationary neutron gamma methods for determination of qualitative solid fuel parameters were analyzed, taking coke breeze as an example. Optimal energy ranges of gamma radiation detection (2-8 MeV) were determined. The advantages of using pulse neutron generator for complex analysis of qualitative parameters of solid fuel in large masses were shown

  1. Combustion Characteristics of Chlorine-Free Solid Fuel Produced from Municipal Solid Waste by Hydrothermal Processing

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kunio Yoshikawa

    2012-11-01

    Full Text Available An experimental study on converting municipal solid waste (MSW into chlorine-free solid fuel using a combination of hydrothermal processing and water-washing has been performed. After the product was extracted from the reactor, water-washing experiments were then conducted to obtain chlorine-free products with less than 3000 ppm total chlorine content. A series of combustion experiments were then performed for the products before and after the washing process to determine the chlorine content in the exhaust gas and those left in the ash after the combustion process at a certain temperature. A series of thermogravimetric analyses were also conducted to compare the combustion characteristics of the products before and after the washing process. Due to the loss of ash and some volatile matter after washing process, there were increases in the fixed carbon content and the heating value of the product. Considering the possible chlorine emission, the washing process after the hydrothermal treatment should be necessary only if the furnace temperature is more than 800 °C.

  2. Elemental balance of SRF production process: solid recovered fuel produced from municipal solid waste.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nasrullah, Muhammad; Vainikka, Pasi; Hannula, Janne; Hurme, Markku; Oinas, Pekka

    2016-01-01

    In the production of solid recovered fuel (SRF), certain waste components have excessive influence on the quality of product. The proportion of rubber, plastic (hard) and certain textiles was found to be critical as to the elemental quality of SRF. The mass flow of rubber, plastic (hard) and textiles (to certain extent, especially synthetic textile) components from input waste stream into the output streams of SRF production was found to play the decisive role in defining the elemental quality of SRF. This paper presents the mass flow of polluting and potentially toxic elements (PTEs) in SRF production. The SRF was produced from municipal solid waste (MSW) through mechanical treatment (MT). The results showed that of the total input chlorine content to process, 55% was found in the SRF and 30% in reject material. Of the total input arsenic content, 30% was found in the SRF and 45% in fine fraction. In case of cadmium, lead and mercury, of their total input content to the process, 62%, 38% and 30%, respectively, was found in the SRF. Among the components of MSW, rubber material was identified as potential source of chlorine, containing 8.0 wt.% of chlorine. Plastic (hard) and textile components contained 1.6 and 1.1. wt.% of chlorine, respectively. Plastic (hard) contained higher lead and cadmium content compared with other waste components, i.e. 500 mg kg(-1) and 9.0 mg kg(-1), respectively. © The Author(s) 2015.

  3. Effects of accelerated degradation on metal supported thin film-based solid oxide fuel cell

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Reolon, R. P.; Sanna, S.; Xu, Yu

    2018-01-01

    A thin film-based solid oxide fuel cell is deposited on a Ni-based metal porous support by pulsed laser deposition with a multi-scale-graded microstructure design. The fuel cell, around 1 μm in thickness, is composed of a stabilized-zirconia/doped-ceria bi-layered dense electrolyte and nanostruct......A thin film-based solid oxide fuel cell is deposited on a Ni-based metal porous support by pulsed laser deposition with a multi-scale-graded microstructure design. The fuel cell, around 1 μm in thickness, is composed of a stabilized-zirconia/doped-ceria bi-layered dense electrolyte...

  4. Plasma membranes modified by plasma treatment or deposition as solid electrolytes for potential application in solid alkaline fuel cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reinholdt, Marc; Ilie, Alina; Roualdès, Stéphanie; Frugier, Jérémy; Schieda, Mauricio; Coutanceau, Christophe; Martemianov, Serguei; Flaud, Valérie; Beche, Eric; Durand, Jean

    2012-07-30

    In the highly competitive market of fuel cells, solid alkaline fuel cells using liquid fuel (such as cheap, non-toxic and non-valorized glycerol) and not requiring noble metal as catalyst seem quite promising. One of the main hurdles for emergence of such a technology is the development of a hydroxide-conducting membrane characterized by both high conductivity and low fuel permeability. Plasma treatments can enable to positively tune the main fuel cell membrane requirements. In this work, commercial ADP-Morgane® fluorinated polymer membranes and a new brand of cross-linked poly(aryl-ether) polymer membranes, named AMELI-32®, both containing quaternary ammonium functionalities, have been modified by argon plasma treatment or triallylamine-based plasma deposit. Under the concomitant etching/cross-linking/oxidation effects inherent to the plasma modification, transport properties (ionic exchange capacity, water uptake, ionic conductivity and fuel retention) of membranes have been improved. Consequently, using plasma modified ADP-Morgane® membrane as electrolyte in a solid alkaline fuel cell operating with glycerol as fuel has allowed increasing the maximum power density by a factor 3 when compared to the untreated membrane.

  5. Plasma Membranes Modified by Plasma Treatment or Deposition as Solid Electrolytes for Potential Application in Solid Alkaline Fuel Cells

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reinholdt, Marc; Ilie, Alina; Roualdès, Stéphanie; Frugier, Jérémy; Schieda, Mauricio; Coutanceau, Christophe; Martemianov, Serguei; Flaud, Valérie; Beche, Eric; Durand, Jean

    2012-01-01

    In the highly competitive market of fuel cells, solid alkaline fuel cells using liquid fuel (such as cheap, non-toxic and non-valorized glycerol) and not requiring noble metal as catalyst seem quite promising. One of the main hurdles for emergence of such a technology is the development of a hydroxide-conducting membrane characterized by both high conductivity and low fuel permeability. Plasma treatments can enable to positively tune the main fuel cell membrane requirements. In this work, commercial ADP-Morgane® fluorinated polymer membranes and a new brand of cross-linked poly(aryl-ether) polymer membranes, named AMELI-32®, both containing quaternary ammonium functionalities, have been modified by argon plasma treatment or triallylamine-based plasma deposit. Under the concomitant etching/cross-linking/oxidation effects inherent to the plasma modification, transport properties (ionic exchange capacity, water uptake, ionic conductivity and fuel retention) of membranes have been improved. Consequently, using plasma modified ADP-Morgane® membrane as electrolyte in a solid alkaline fuel cell operating with glycerol as fuel has allowed increasing the maximum power density by a factor 3 when compared to the untreated membrane. PMID:24958295

  6. Life cycle assessment integrated with thermodynamic analysis of bio-fuel options for solid oxide fuel cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lin, Jiefeng; Babbitt, Callie W; Trabold, Thomas A

    2013-01-01

    A methodology that integrates life cycle assessment (LCA) with thermodynamic analysis is developed and applied to evaluate the environmental impacts of producing biofuels from waste biomass, including biodiesel from waste cooking oil, ethanol from corn stover, and compressed natural gas from municipal solid wastes. Solid oxide fuel cell-based auxiliary power units using bio-fuel as the hydrogen precursor enable generation of auxiliary electricity for idling heavy-duty trucks. Thermodynamic analysis is applied to evaluate the fuel conversion efficiency and determine the amount of fuel feedstock needed to generate a unit of electrical power. These inputs feed into an LCA that compares energy consumption and greenhouse gas emissions of different fuel pathways. Results show that compressed natural gas from municipal solid wastes is an optimal bio-fuel option for SOFC-APU applications in New York State. However, this methodology can be regionalized within the U.S. or internationally to account for different fuel feedstock options. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  7. Mathematical modeling of oxygen transport in solid oxide fuel cells

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Svensson, Ann Mari

    1997-12-31

    This thesis develops mathematical models to describe the electrochemical performance of a solid oxide fuel cell cathode based on electrochemical kinetics and mass transfer. The individual effects of various coupled processes are investigated. A one-dimensional model is developed based on porous electrode theory. Two different mechanisms are investigated for the charge transfer reaction. One of these assumes that intermediately adsorbed oxygen atoms are reduced at the electrode/electrolyte interface, similar to the models proposed for metal electrodes. Simulated polarization curves exhibit limited currents due to depletion of oxygen adsorbates at high cathodic overvoltages. An empirical correlation is confirmed to exist between the limiting current an the oxygen partial pressure, however, a similar correlation often assumed to exist between the measured polarization resistance and the oxygen partial pressure could not be justified. For the other model, oxygen vacancies are assumed to be exchanged directly at the electrode/electrolyte interface. The electrochemical behaviour is improved by reducing the oxygen partial pressure, due to increased vacancy concentration of the electrode material. Simulated polarization curves exhibit Tafel-like slopes in the cathodic direction, which are due to polarization concentration, and not activation polarization in the conventional sense. Anodic limiting currents are predicted due to lack of available free sites for vacancy exchange at the cathode side. The thesis also presents a theoretical treatment of current and potential distributions in simple two-dimensional cell geometries, and a two-dimensional model for a porous electrode-electrolyte system for investigation of the effect of interfacial diffusion of adsorbates along the electrode/electrolyte interface. 172 refs., 60 figs., 11 tabs.

  8. Lanthanum manganate based cathodes for solid oxide fuel cells

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Juhl Joergensen, M.

    2001-07-01

    Composite cathodes for solid oxide fuel cells were investigated using electrochemical impedance spectroscopy and scanning electron microscopy. The aim was to study the oxygen reduction process in the electrode in order to minimise the voltage drop in the cathode. The electrodes contained a composite layer made from lanthanum strontium manganate (LSM) and yttria stabilised zirconia (YSZ) and a layer of pure LSM aimed for current collection. The performance of the composite electrodes was sensitive to microstructure and thickness. Further, the interface between the composite and the current collecting layer proved to affect the performance. In a durability study severe deg-radation of the composite electrodes was found when passing current through the electrode for 2000 hours at 1000 deg. C. This was ascribed to pore formation along the composite interfaces and densification of the composite and current collector microstructure. An evaluation of the measurement approach indicated that impedance spectroscopy is a very sensitive method. This affects the reproducibility, as small undesirable variations in for instance the microstructure from electrode to electrode may change the impedance. At least five processes were found to affect the impedance of LSM/YSZ composite electrodes. Two high frequency processes were ascribed to transport of oxide ions/oxygen intermediates across LSM/YSZ interfaces and through YSZ in the composite. Several competitive elementary reaction steps, which appear as one medium frequency process in the impedance spectra, were observed. A low frequency arc related to gas diffusion limitation in a stagnant gas layer above the composite structure was detected. Finally, an inductive process, assumed to be connected to an activation process involving segregates at the triple phase boundary between electrode, electrolyte and gas phase, was found. (au)

  9. Efficient and Scalable Fabrication of Solid Oxide Fuel Cells via 3D-Printing

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — Although solid oxide fuel cells (SOFCs) are a source of both efficient and clean electricity, the brittle ceramic materials which comprise them are difficult to form...

  10. Notice of Approval of the Renewable Fuel Standard Program Municipal Solid Waste Separation Plan

    Science.gov (United States)

    EPA's response documents and federal register notices on Fiberight's plan to separate recyclables from municipal solid waste intended for use as feedstock for renewable fuel production at its biorefinery in Blairstown, Iowa.

  11. Microstructural evolution of nanograin nickel-zirconia cermet anode materials for solid oxide fuel cell applications

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nayak, Bibhuti Bhusan

    2012-01-01

    The aim of the study is to study the structure, microstructure, porosity, thermal expansion, electrical conductivity and electrochemical behavior of the anode material thus synthesized in order to find its suitability for solid oxide fuel cell (SOFC) anode application

  12. Fuel cells with solid polymer electrolyte and their application on vehicles

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fateev, V.

    1996-04-01

    In Russia, solid polymer electrolyte MF-4-SK has been developed for fuel cells. This electrolyte is based on perfluorinated polymer with functional sulfogroups. Investigations on electrolyte properties and electrocatalysts have been carried out.

  13. Micro Pulsed Inductive Thruster with Solid Fuel Option (uPIT_SF), Phase I

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — The Micro Pulsed Inductive Thruster with Solid Fuel Option (µPIT_SF) is a high-precision impulse bit electromagnetic plasma micro-thruster. The µPIT prototype is a...

  14. Thermodynamic analysis of Direct Urea Solid Oxide Fuel Cell in combined heat and power applications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abraham, F.; Dincer, I.

    2015-12-01

    This paper presents a comprehensive steady state modelling and thermodynamic analysis of Direct Urea Solid Oxide Fuel Cell integrated with Gas Turbine power cycle (DU-SOFC/GT). The use of urea as direct fuel mitigates public health and safety risks associated with the use of hydrogen and ammonia. The integration scheme in this study covers both oxygen ion-conducting solid oxide fuel cells (SOFC-O) and hydrogen proton-conducting solid oxide fuel cells (SOFC-H). Parametric case studies are carried out to investigate the effects of design and operating parameters on the overall performance of the system. The results reveal that the fuel cell exhibited the highest level of exergy destruction among other system components. Furthermore, the SOFC-O based system offers better overall performance than that with the SOFC-H option mainly due to the detrimental reverse water-gas shift reaction at the SOFC anode as well as the unique configuration of the system.

  15. The fuel properties of pyrolysis liquid derived from urban solid wastes in Bangladesh.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Islam, M N; Islam, M N; Beg, M R A

    2004-04-01

    Urban solid wastes in the form of scrap tyre, waste plastic and waste paper, were pyrolyzed in an externally heated fixed bed reactor. The condensed liquids were analyzed for their properties as fuels and compared with petroleum-derived products. The properties were physical properties, higher heating value, elemental (CHNOS) analysis and chemical composition using Fourier transform infra-red (FTIR) spectroscopy. The results showed that the pyrolysis of urban solid wastes may be a potential source of liquid hydrocarbon fuel.

  16. Airflow Obstruction and Use of Solid Fuels for Cooking or Heating: BOLD Results.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Amaral, André F S; Patel, Jaymini; Kato, Bernet S; Obaseki, Daniel O; Lawin, Hervé; Tan, Wan C; Juvekar, Sanjay K; Harrabi, Imed; Studnicka, Michael; Wouters, Emiel F M; Loh, Li-Cher; Bateman, Eric D; Mortimer, Kevin; Buist, A Sonia; Burney, Peter G J

    2017-09-12

    Evidence supporting the association of COPD or airflow obstruction with use of solid fuels is conflicting and inconsistent. To assess the association of airflow obstruction with self-reported use of solid fuels for cooking or heating. We analysed 18,554 adults from the BOLD study, who had provided acceptable post-bronchodilator spirometry measurements and information on use of solid fuels. The association of airflow obstruction with use of solid fuels for cooking or heating was assessed by sex, within each site, using regression analysis. Estimates were stratified by national income and meta-analysed. We carried out similar analyses for spirometric restriction, chronic cough and chronic phlegm. We found no association between airflow obstruction and use of solid fuels for cooking or heating (ORmen=1.20, 95%CI 0.94-1.53; ORwomen=0.88, 95%CI 0.67-1.15). This was true for low/middle and high income sites. Among never smokers there was also no evidence of an association of airflow obstruction with use of solid fuels (ORmen=1.00, 95%CI 0.57-1.76; ORwomen=1.00, 95%CI 0.76-1.32). Overall, we found no association of spirometric restriction, chronic cough or chronic phlegm with the use of solid fuels. However, we found that chronic phlegm was more likely to be reported among female never smokers and those who had been exposed for ≥20 years. Airflow obstruction assessed from post-bronchodilator spirometry was not associated with use of solid fuels for cooking or heating.

  17. The history, genotoxicity, and carcinogenicity of carbon-based fuels and their emissions. Part 2: solid fuels.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Claxton, Larry D

    2014-01-01

    The combustion of solid fuels (like wood, animal dung, and coal) usually involves elevated temperatures and altered pressures and genotoxicants (e.g., PAHs) are likely to form. These substances are carcinogenic in experimental animals, and epidemiological studies implicate these fuels (especially their emissions) as carcinogens in man. Globally, ∼50% of all households and ∼90% of all rural households use solid fuels for cooking or heating and these fuels often are burnt in simple stoves with very incomplete combustion. Exposed women and children often exhibit low birth weight, increased infant and perinatal mortality, head and neck cancer, and lung cancer although few studies have measured exposure directly. Today, households that cannot meet the expense of fuels like kerosene, liquefied petroleum gas, and electricity resort to collecting wood, agricultural residue, and animal dung to use as household fuels. In the more developed countries, solid fuels are often used for electric power generation providing more than half of the electricity generated in the United States. The world's coal reserves, which equal approximately one exagram, equal ∼1 trillion barrels of crude oil (comparable to all the world's known oil reserves) and could last for 600 years. Studies show that the PAHs that are identified in solid fuel emissions react with NO2 to form direct-acting mutagens. In summary, many of the measured genotoxicants found in both the indoor and electricity-generating combustors are the same; therefore, the severity of the health effects vary with exposure and with the health status of the exposed population. Copyright © 2014. Published by Elsevier B.V.

  18. Formulation and Testing of Paraffin-Based Solid Fuels Containing Energetic Additives for Hybrid Rockets

    Science.gov (United States)

    Larson, Daniel B.; Boyer, Eric; Wachs,Trevor; Kuo, Kenneth K.; Story, George

    2012-01-01

    Many approaches have been considered in an effort to improve the regression rate of solid fuels for hybrid rocket applications. One promising method is to use a fuel with a fast burning rate such as paraffin wax; however, additional performance increases to the fuel regression rate are necessary to make the fuel a viable candidate to replace current launch propulsion systems. The addition of energetic and/or nano-sized particles is one way to increase mass-burning rates of the solid fuels and increase the overall performance of the hybrid rocket motor.1,2 Several paraffin-based fuel grains with various energetic additives (e.g., lithium aluminum hydride (LiAlH4) have been cast in an attempt to improve regression rates. There are two major advantages to introducing LiAlH4 additive into the solid fuel matrix: 1) the increased characteristic velocity, 2) decreased dependency of Isp on oxidizer-to-fuel ratio. The testing and characterization of these solid-fuel grains have shown that continued work is necessary to eliminate unburned/unreacted fuel in downstream sections of the test apparatus.3 Changes to the fuel matrix include higher melting point wax and smaller energetic additive particles. The reduction in particle size through various methods can result in more homogeneous grain structure. The higher melting point wax can serve to reduce the melt-layer thickness, allowing the LiAlH4 particles to react closer to the burning surface, thus increasing the heat feedback rate and fuel regression rate. In addition to the formulation of LiAlH4 and paraffin wax solid-fuel grains, liquid additives of triethylaluminum and diisobutylaluminum hydride will be included in this study. Another promising fuel formulation consideration is to incorporate a small percentage of RDX as an additive to paraffin. A novel casting technique will be used by dissolving RDX in a solvent to crystallize the energetic additive. After dissolving the RDX in a solvent chosen for its compatibility

  19. Thermodynamic Analysis of an Integrated Solid Oxide Fuel Cell Cycle with a Rankine Cycle

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rokni, Masoud

    2010-01-01

    Hybrid systems consisting of Solid Oxide Fuel Cells (SOFC) on the top of a Steam Turbine (ST) are investigated. The plants are fired by natural gas (NG). A desulfurization reactor removes the sulfur content in the fuel while a pre-reformer breaks down the heavier hydrocarbons. The pre-treated fue......% are achieved which is considerably higher than the conventional Combined Cycles (CC). Both ASR (Adiabatic Steam Reformer) and CPO (Catalytic Partial Oxidation) fuel pre-reformer reactors are considered in this investigation.......Hybrid systems consisting of Solid Oxide Fuel Cells (SOFC) on the top of a Steam Turbine (ST) are investigated. The plants are fired by natural gas (NG). A desulfurization reactor removes the sulfur content in the fuel while a pre-reformer breaks down the heavier hydrocarbons. The pre-treated fuel...

  20. Study of catalysis for solid oxide fuel cells and direct methanol fuel cells

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jiang, Xirong

    Fuel cells offer the enticing promise of cleaner electricity with lower environmental impact than traditional energy conversion technologies. Driven by the interest in power sources for portable electronics, and distributed generation and automotive propulsion markets, active development efforts in the technologies of both solid oxide fuel cell (SOFC) and direct methanol fuel cell (DMFC) devices have achieved significant progress. However, current catalysts for fuel cells are either of low catalytic activity or extremely expensive, presenting a key barrier toward the widespread commercialization of fuel cell devices. In this thesis work, atomic layer deposition (ALD), a novel thin film deposition technique, was employed to apply catalytic Pt to SOFC, and investigate both Pt skin catalysts and Pt-Ru catalysts for methanol oxidation, a very important reaction for DMFC, to increase the activity and utilization levels of the catalysts while simultaneously reducing the catalyst loading. For SOFCs, we explored the use of ALD for the fabrication of electrode components, including an ultra-thin Pt film for use as the electrocatalyst, and a Pt mesh structure for a current collector for SOFCs, aiming for precise control over the catalyst loading and catalyst geometry, and enhancement in the current collect efficiency. We choose Pt since it has high chemical stability and excellent catalytic activity for the O2 reduction reaction and the H2 oxidation reaction even at low operating temperatures. Working SOFC fuel cells were fabricated with ALD-deposited Pt thin films as an electrode/catalyst layer. The measured fuel cell performance reveals that comparable peak power densities were achieved for ALD-deposited Pt anodes with only one-fifth of the Pt loading relative to a DC-sputtered counterpart. In addition to the continuous electrocatalyst layer, a micro-patterned Pt structure was developed via the technique of area selective ALD. By coating yttria-stabilized zirconia, a

  1. On-line determination of the calorific value of solid fuels

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kessel, L.B.M. van; Arendsen, A.R.J.; Brem, G.

    2004-01-01

    In thermal processes with highly inhomogeneous fuels it is desirable to know real time fuel characteristics. In the case of municipal solid waste combustion (MSWC) it was up till now not possible to determine the calorific value of the waste on-line with a high accuracy. In this paper, a new method

  2. Strontium Titanate-based Composite Anodes for Solid Oxide Fuel Cells

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Blennow Tullmar, Peter; Kammer Hansen, Kent; Wallenberg, L.R.

    2008-01-01

    Surfactant-assisted infiltration of Gd-doped ceria (CGO) in Nb-doped SrTiO3 (STN) was investigated as a potential fuel electrode for solid oxide fuel cells (SOFC). An electronically conductive backbone structure of STN was first fabricated at high temperatures and then combined with the mixed con...

  3. Investigation of Novel Electrocatalysts for Metal Supported Solid Oxide Fuel Cells - Ru:GDC

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sudireddy, Bhaskar Reddy; Nielsen, Jimmi; Thydén, Karl Tor Sune

    2015-01-01

    Even though solid oxide fuel cells (SOFCs) have a high potential with respect to efficiency and fuel flexibility they are not yet competitive in terms of cost and durability with conventional chemical energy conversion technologies. The potential cost reduction can be achieved through the develop...

  4. Pressurized solid oxide fuel cell integral air accumular containment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gillett, James E.; Zafred, Paolo R.; Basel, Richard A.

    2004-02-10

    A fuel cell generator apparatus contains at least one fuel cell subassembly module in a module housing, where the housing is surrounded by a pressure vessel such that there is an air accumulator space, where the apparatus is associated with an air compressor of a turbine/generator/air compressor system, where pressurized air from the compressor passes into the space and occupies the space and then flows to the fuel cells in the subassembly module, where the air accumulation space provides an accumulator to control any unreacted fuel gas that might flow from the module.

  5. Strategies for carbon and sulfur tolerant solid oxide fuel cell materials, incorporating lessons from heterogeneous catalysis

    OpenAIRE

    Boldrin, P; Ruiz Trejo, E; Mermelstein, J; Bermudez Menendez, J; Ramirez Reina, T; Brandon, N

    2016-01-01

    Solid oxide fuel cells (SOFCs) are a rapidly emerging energy technology for a low carbon world, providing high efficiency, potential to use carbonaceous fuels and compatibility with carbon capture and storage. However, current state-of-the-art materials have low tolerance to sulfur, a common contaminant of many fuels, and are vulnerable to deactivation due to carbon deposition when using carbon-containing compounds. In this review we first study the theoretical basis behind carbon and sulfur ...

  6. Source apportionment of carbonaceous chemical species to fossil fuel combustion, biomass burning and biogenic emissions by a coupled radiocarbon-levoglucosan marker method

    Science.gov (United States)

    Salma, Imre; Németh, Zoltán; Weidinger, Tamás; Maenhaut, Willy; Claeys, Magda; Molnár, Mihály; Major, István; Ajtai, Tibor; Utry, Noémi; Bozóki, Zoltán

    2017-11-01

    An intensive aerosol measurement and sample collection campaign was conducted in central Budapest in a mild winter for 2 weeks. The online instruments included an FDMS-TEOM, RT-OC/EC analyser, DMPS, gas pollutant analysers and meteorological sensors. The aerosol samples were collected on quartz fibre filters by a low-volume sampler using the tandem filter method. Elemental carbon (EC), organic carbon (OC), levoglucosan, mannosan, galactosan, arabitol and mannitol were determined, and radiocarbon analysis was performed on the aerosol samples. Median atmospheric concentrations of EC, OC and PM2.5 mass were 0.97, 4.9 and 25 µg m-3, respectively. The EC and organic matter (1.6 × OC) accounted for 4.8 and 37 %, respectively, of the PM2.5 mass. Fossil fuel (FF) combustion represented 36 % of the total carbon (TC = EC + OC) in the PM2.5 size fraction. Biomass burning (BB) was a major source (40 %) for the OC in the PM2.5 size fraction, and a substantial source (11 %) for the PM10 mass. We propose and apply here a novel, straightforward, coupled radiocarbon-levoglucosan marker method for source apportionment of the major carbonaceous chemical species. The contributions of EC and OC from FF combustion (ECFF and OCFF) to the TC were 11.0 and 25 %, respectively, EC and OC from BB (ECBB and OCBB) were responsible for 5.8 and 34 %, respectively, of the TC, while the OC from biogenic sources (OCBIO) made up 24 % of the TC. The overall relative uncertainty of the OCBIO and OCBB contributions was assessed to be up to 30 %, while the relative uncertainty for the other apportioned species is expected to be below 20 %. Evaluation of the apportioned atmospheric concentrations revealed some of their important properties and relationships among them. ECFF and OCFF were associated with different FF combustion sources. Most ECFF was emitted by vehicular road traffic, while the contribution of non-vehicular sources such as domestic and industrial heating or cooking using gas, oil or coal

  7. Functionally Graded Cathodes for Solid Oxide Fuel Cells

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    YongMan Choi; Meilin Liu

    2006-09-30

    This DOE SECA project focused on both experimental and theoretical understanding of oxygen reduction processes in a porous mixed-conducting cathode in a solid oxide fuel cell (SOFC). Elucidation of the detailed oxygen reduction mechanism, especially the rate-limiting step(s), is critical to the development of low-temperature SOFCs (400 C to 700 C) and to cost reduction since much less expensive materials may be used for cell components. However, cell performance at low temperatures is limited primarily by the interfacial polarization resistances, specifically by those associated with oxygen reduction at the cathode, including transport of oxygen gas through the porous cathode, the adsorption of oxygen onto the cathode surface, the reduction and dissociation of the oxygen molecule (O{sub 2}) into the oxygen ion (O{sup 2-}), and the incorporation of the oxygen ion into the electrolyte. In order to most effectively enhance the performance of the cathode at low temperatures, we must understand the mechanism and kinetics of the elementary processes at the interfaces. Under the support of this DOE SECA project, our accomplishments included: (1) Experimental determination of the rate-limiting step in the oxygen reduction mechanism at the cathode using in situ FTIR and Raman spectroscopy, including surface- and tip-enhanced Raman spectroscopy (SERS and TERS). (2) Fabrication and testing of micro-patterned cathodes to compare the relative activity of the TPB to the rest of the cathode surface. (3) Construction of a mathematical model to predict cathode performance based on different geometries and microstructures and analyze the kinetics of oxygen-reduction reactions occurring at charged mixed ionic-electronic conductors (MIECs) using two-dimensional finite volume models with ab initio calculations. (4) Fabrication of cathodes that are graded in composition and microstructure to generate large amounts of active surface area near the cathode/electrolyte interface using a

  8. Modifying ferritic stainless steels for solid oxide fuel cell applications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Laney, Scot Jason

    2007-12-01

    One of the most important problem areas associated with the solid oxide fuel cells is selection of a cost effective material for use as the interconnect component of the cell. Metals are now being considered as materials for this component, with ferritic stainless steels being the leading candidate. This work evaluates methods to combat the problem areas, namely rapid growth rate and vaporization of the oxide scale, that hinder the use of these materials. Oxidation experiments have been performed in dry and wet single atmosphere exposures as well as a dual environment exposure to simulate the conditions in a working SOFC. Measurements of the electrical properties of the oxides that formed were also performed. Commercial alloys, E-Brite and Crofer 22APU, were tested to form a baseline and resultant oxidation and electrical behaviors match those found in the literature. Isothermal oxidation tests for short exposure times have also led to a possible mechanism for the formation of the MnCr2O4 layer on Crofer. All of these tests were then replicated on a series of experimental Fe-22Cr-XTi (X=0-4) alloys. These alloys are shown to form a rutile layer analogous to the MnCr2O4 layer on Crofer. While this layer does prevent some chromia vaporization, the consequences due to the presence of Ti in the chromia include increased growth rate, decreased resistivity, extensive internal oxidation and nitridation of Ti, and a change of the growth direction of the chromia. The alloys containing ˜2--3 wt%Ti appear to offer the best combination of oxidation, electrical, and mechanical properties. Coatings of lanthanum chromites and ferrites were also tested and shown to be very sensitive to exposure condition, resulting in the formation of pores, and to coating thickness, where thicker coatings are subject to cracking. Finally, reactive element oxide doping was attempted to slow the oxide growth rate for E-Brite (CeO2 doping) and for the Fe-Cr-Ti alloys (CeO 2 and La2O3 doping). A

  9. Bed models for solid fuel conversion process in grate-fired boilers

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Costa, M.; Massarotti, N.; Indrizzi, V.

    2013-01-01

    Because of the complexity to describe and solve thermo-chemical processes occurring in a fuel bed in grate-fired boiler, it is often necessary to simplify the process and use modeling techniques based on overall mass, energy and species conservation. A comparison between two numerical models...... to describe the thermo-chemical conversion process of a solid fuel bed in a grate-fired boiler is presented. In this work both models consider the incoming solid fuel as subjected to drying, pyrolysis, gasification and combustion. In the first approach the biomass bed is treated as a 0D system, but the thermo...

  10. Ethylene glycol as a new sustainable fuel for solid oxide fuel cells with conventional nickel-based anodes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Qu, Jifa; Wang, Wei; Chen, Yubo; Wang, Feng; Ran, Ran; Shao, Zongping

    2015-01-01

    Highlights: • Ethylene glycol could be used as a sustainable fuel for solid oxide fuel cells. • Ethylene glycol was beneficial in suppressing coke formation on Ni anode. • A high power output of 1200 mW cm −2 was obtained with ethylene glycol at 750 °C. • An excellent operational stability was obtained with ethylene glycol fuel. - Abstract: In this study, renewable ethylene glycol (EG) was exploited as a potential fuel for solid oxide fuel cells (SOFCs) with conventional nickel yttria-stabilized zirconia (Ni–YSZ) cermet anodes for sustainable electric power generation. Carbon deposition behaviors over Ni–YSZ anodes under different carbon-containing atmospheres such as EG, glycerol, ethanol and methane were characterized through thermodynamic prediction, oxygen-temperature programmed oxidation and SEM–EDX analysis. EG was observed to be better than acetic acid and glycerol and much better than methane and ethanol in terms of carbon deposition. A calculation of the open-circuit voltages of EG-fueled SOFCs suggested that EG is a suitable fuel for SOFCs. A maximum power output of 1200 mW cm −2 at 750 °C was obtained from a cell operating on EG-steam fuel, which is only a little lower than that from a cell based on hydrogen fuel. The cell was further operated stably on an EG-steam gas mixture for 200 h with no apparent performance degradation, carbon deposition over the anode, Ni agglomeration, or change in the morphology of the anodes. The current study confirmed the practical applicability of EG as a direct fuel for SOFCs, which may have a great effect on future energy systems

  11. 40 CFR 63.1216 - What are the standards for solid fuel boilers that burn hazardous waste?

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... boilers that burn hazardous waste? 63.1216 Section 63.1216 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL... Waste Combustors Emissions Standards and Operating Limits for Solid Fuel Boilers, Liquid Fuel Boilers, and Hydrochloric Acid Production Furnaces § 63.1216 What are the standards for solid fuel boilers that...

  12. Solid Fuel in Kitchen and Acute Respiratory Tract Infection Among Under Five Children

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Acharya, Pawan; Mishra, Shiva Raj; Berg-Beckhoff, Gabriele

    2015-01-01

    adjusting for age, sex, birth order, urban/rural residence, ecological zone, development region, economic status, number of family members, mother's smoking status and mother's education, odds of suffering from ARI was 1.79 times higher among the children from the households using solid fuel in comparison......This study assessed the association between use of solid fuel in kitchen and ARI among under five children in Nepal. The latest data from the Nepal Demographic and Health Survey 2011 were used. A total of 4,802 under 5 de-jure children were included in this analysis. Cough accompanied by short....../rapid breath and chest problem within 2 weeks before survey was considered as the symptoms of ARI. Logistic regression analysis was performed to calculate the odds of being suffered from ARI among the children from households using solid fuel in comparison to the children from households using cleaner fuel...

  13. Potential electrode materials for symmetrical Solid Oxide Fuel Cells

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ruiz Morales, J. C.

    2008-08-01

    Full Text Available Chromites, titanates and Pt-YSZ-CeO2 cermets have been investigated as potential electrode materials for an alternative concept of Solid Oxide Fuel Cell (SOFC, the symmetrical SOFCs (SFC. In this configuration, the same electrode material is used simultaneously as anode and cathode. Interconnector materials, such as chromites, could be considered as potential SFC electrodes, at least under pure hydrogen-fed at relatively high temperatures, as they do not exhibit significant catalytic activity towards hydrocarbon oxidation. This may be overcome by partially substituting Cr in the perovskite B-sites by other transition metal cations such as Mn. La0.75Sr0.25Cr0.5Mn0.5O3-δ (LSCM is a good candidate for such SFCs, rendering fuel cell performances in excess of 500 and 300mW/cm2 using pure H2 and CH4 as fuel, at 950 oC. Similarly, typical n-type electronic conductors traditionally regarded as anode materials, such as strontium titanates, may also operate under oxidising conditions as cathodes by substituting some Ti content for Fe to introduce p-type conductivity. Preliminary electrochemical experiments on La4Sr8Ti12-xFexO38-δ-based SFCs show that they perform reasonably well under humidified H2, at high temperatures. A third group of materials is the support material of any typical cermet anode, i.e. YSZ, CeO2 plus a current collector. It has been found that this combination could be optimised to operate as SFC electrodes, rendering performances of 400mW/cm2 under humidified pure H2 at 950oC.

    Cromitas, titanatos y cermets de Pt-YSZ-CeO2 han sido investigados como potenciales materiales de electrodo para un concepto alternativo de Pilas de Combustible de Óxidos Sólidos (SOFC, las pilas SOFC simétricas (SFC. En

  14. Thermal Analysis of Solid Fuels in an Inert Atmosphere

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kijo-Kleczkowska, Agnieszka; Szumera, Magdalena; Środa, Katarzyna

    2017-12-01

    The paper takes the analysis of thermal studies of different types of fuels. It allowed diversification of fuels depending on their composition and origin. Consideration of coal, biomass and waste (coal mule, sewage sludge) as fuel is nowadays an important aspect of energy in our country. It should be emphasized that Poland power engineering is based up to 95% on coal - the primary fuel. Mining industry, forced to deliver power engineering more and better fuel, must however, use a deeper cleaning of coal. This results in a continuous increase waste in the form of mule flotation. The best method of disposing these mule is combustion and co-combustion with other fuels. On the other hand, commonly increasing awareness state of the environment and the need to reduce CO2 emissions energy industry have committed to implement alternative solutions in order to gain power, through, i.a.: development technologies use of biomass, which is one of the most promising renewable energy sources in Poland. The paper presents the results of research TG-DTA fuels made in an inert atmosphere.

  15. Fuel Cell Power Plant Initiative. Volume 1; Solid Oxide Fuel Cell/Logistics Fuel Processor 27 kWe Power System Demonstration for ARPA

    Science.gov (United States)

    Veyo, S.E.

    1997-01-01

    This report describes the successful testing of a 27 kWe Solid Oxide Fuel Cell (SOFC) generator fueled by natural gas and/or a fuel gas produced by a brassboard logistics fuel preprocessor (LFP). The test period began on May 24, 1995 and ended on February 26, 1996 with the successful completion of all program requirements and objectives. During this time period, this power system produced 118.2 MWh of electric power. No degradation of the generator's performance was measured after 5582 accumulated hours of operation on these fuels: local natural gas - 3261 hours, jet fuel reformate gas - 766 hours, and diesel fuel reformate gas - 1555 hours. This SOFC generator was thermally cycled from full operating temperature to room temperature and back to operating temperature six times, because of failures of support system components and the occasional loss of test site power, without measurable cell degradation. Numerous outages of the LFP did not interrupt the generator's operation because the fuel control system quickly switched to local natural gas when an alarm indicated that the LFP reformate fuel supply had been interrupted. The report presents the measured electrical performance of the generator on all three fuel types and notes the small differences due to fuel type. Operational difficulties due to component failures are well documented even though they did not affect the overall excellent performance of this SOFC power generator. The final two appendices describe in detail the LFP design and the operating history of the tested brassboard LFP.

  16. Methane-Oxygen Solid Oxide Fuel Cell System, Phase I

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — NASA has a defined need for energy dense and highly efficient energy storage and power delivery systems for future space missions. Compared to other fuel cell...

  17. A Direct Methane Solid Oxide Fuel Cell (DMSOFC), Phase I

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — Producing return fuel on Mars rather than carrying it from Earth significantly reduces the mass that must be lifted from Earth for a manned mission to Mars. The most...

  18. A novel design for solid oxide fuel cell stacks

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Al-Qattan, A.M.; Chmielewski, D.J.; Al-Hallaj, S.; Selman, J.R. [Illinois Inst. of Technology, Chicago, IL (United States). Dept. of Chemical and Environmental Engineering

    2004-01-01

    Conventional fuel cell stack designs suffer from severe spatial nonuniformity in both temperature and current density. Such variations are known to create damaging thermal stresses within the stack and thus, impact overall lifespan. In this work, we propose a novel stack design aimed at reducing spatial variations at the source. We propose a mechanism of distributed fuel feed in which the heat generation profile can be influenced directly. Simulation results are presented to illustrate the potential of the proposed scheme. (author)

  19. Thermodynamic Investigation of an Integrated Gasification Plant with Solid Oxide Fuel Cell and Steam Cycles

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rokni, Masoud

    2012-01-01

    A gasification plant is integrated on the top of a solid oxide fuel cell (SOFC) cycle, while a steam turbine (ST) cycle is used as a bottoming cycle for the SOFC plant. The gasification plant was fueled by woodchips to produce biogas and the SOFC stacks were fired with biogas. The produced gas...... was rather clean for feeding to the SOFC stacks after a simple cleaning step. Because all the fuel cannot be burned in the SOFC stacks, a burner was used to combust the remaining fuel. The off-gases from the burner were then used to produce steam for the bottoming steam cycle in a heat recovery steam...

  20. A study of solid ramjet fuel containing boron–magnesium mixtures

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    EricT. Sandall

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available Solid fuel ramjets (SFRJ are known for their operational simplicity and high specific impulse. The performance of the SFRJ propulsion system is directly tied to the energy density and combustion behavior of the fuel. A typical solid fuel used in a ramjet application is a collection of metal particles suspended in a polymeric binder. Boron is the ubiquitous candidate when considering metal additives for fuels due to an impressive 122.5 kJ/cm3 energy density. However, boron requires long residence times in combustors due to its high melting and boiling points. Magnesium appears to be a natural complement to boron; while possessing a lower energy density (42.1 kJ/cm3, it burns with a high flame temperature and readily reacts in combustion with a low melting point. In this study, several HTPB–boron–magnesium fuels are studied on a small scale to evaluate performance for ramjet application. Holography experiments are conducted, as well as laser ignition tests, to study particle behavior just above the fuel surface. Small, center-perforated fuel grains are examined in a direct-connect SFRJ test stand configuration to measure ignition temperatures and performance parameters. Combustion efficiency of the HTPB–boron–magnesium fuel is found to significantly increase for one of the fuels studied.

  1. Selected aspects of the design and diagnostics of solid oxide fuel cells

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lis Bartłomiej

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available An increased growth in demand for energy accompanied by efforts to limit its negative impact on the environment is forcing society to seek new, more efficient energy sources. Fuel cells are one of the most promising solutions among the widely developed new generation of electrical generators. Fuel cells directly convert chemical fuel into electricity. Water and waste heat are by-products of fuel cell operation. Solid oxide fuel cells (SOFCs have proven to be one of the most interesting solutions among the five types of technologically advanced fuel cells, for their ability to operate at temperatures above 800°C. Furthermore, SOFCs are characterized by other advantages in comparison to PEMFCs, including: (1 no need to use expensive catalysts (e.g. platinum, the price of which is high, and its resources limited, (2 the possibility of direct, internal conversion of hydrocarbon fuels, (3 lower sensitivity to contaminants (in particular, hydrogen fuel containing CO, which is useful for SOFCs instead of the platinum catalyst poisoners, and (4 the possibility of using waste heat in a gas turbine, or for heating or other industrial purposes. The paper discusses selected issues regarding the construction and characteristics of planar solid oxide fuel cells. Selected results of the following electrochemical investigations: Ba0.9Ca0.1Ce0.9Y0.1O3-based proton electrolyte as possible components of SOFCs operating at intermediate temperature range (500-700°C.

  2. SOLID SOLUTION CARBIDES ARE THE KEY FUELS FOR FUTURE NUCLEAR THERMAL PROPULSION

    Science.gov (United States)

    Panda, Binayak; Hickman, Robert R.; Shah, Sandeep

    2005-01-01

    Nuclear thermal propulsion uses nuclear energy to directly heat a propellant (such as liquid hydrogen) to generate thrust for space transportation. In the 1960 s, the early Rover/Nuclear Engine for Rocket Propulsion Application (NERVA) program showed very encouraging test results for space nuclear propulsion but, in recent years, fuel research has been dismal. With NASA s renewed interest in long-term space exploration, fuel researchers are now revisiting the RoverMERVA findings, which indicated several problems with such fuels (such as erosion, chemical reaction of the fuel with propellant, fuel cracking, and cladding issues) that must be addressed. It is also well known that the higher the temperature reached by a propellant, the larger the thrust generated from the same weight of propellant. Better use of fuel and propellant requires development of fuels capable of reaching very high temperatures. Carbides have the highest melting points of any known material. Efforts are underway to develop carbide mixtures and solid solutions that contain uranium carbide, in order to achieve very high fuel temperatures. Binary solid solution carbides (U, Zr)C have proven to be very effective in this regard. Ternary carbides such as (U, Zr, X) carbides (where X represents Nb, Ta, W, and Hf) also hold great promise as fuel material, since the carbide mixtures in solid solution generate a very hard and tough compact material. This paper highlights past experience with early fuel materials and bi-carbides, technical problems associated with consolidation of the ingredients, and current techniques being developed to consolidate ternary carbides as fuel materials.

  3. 3-Dimensional Computational Fluid Dynamics Modeling of Solid Oxide Fuel Cell Using Different Fuels

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-01-01

    major types of fuel cells in practice are listed below: Polymer Electrolyte Membrane Fuel Cell ( PEMFC ) Alkaline Fuel cell (AFC) Phosphoric Acid...Material Operating Temperature (oC) Efficiency (%) PEMFC H2, Methanol, Formic Acid Hydrated Organic Polymer < 90 40-50 AFC Pure H2 Aqueous

  4. Copper-substituted perovskite compositions for solid oxide fuel cell cathodes and oxygen reduction electrodes in other electrochemical devices

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rieke, Peter C [Pasco, WA; Coffey, Gregory W [Richland, WA; Pederson, Larry R [Kennewick, WA; Marina, Olga A [Richland, WA; Hardy, John S [Richland, WA; Singh, Prabhaker [Richland, WA; Thomsen, Edwin C [Richland, WA

    2010-07-20

    The present invention provides novel compositions that find advantageous use in making electrodes for electrochemical cells. Also provided are electrochemical devices that include active oxygen reduction electrodes, such as solid oxide fuel cells, sensors, pumps and the like. The compositions comprises a copper-substituted ferrite perovskite material. The invention also provides novel methods for making and using the electrode compositions and solid oxide fuel cells and solid oxide fuel cell assemblies having cathodes comprising the compositions.

  5. Thermodynamic analysis of solid oxide fuel cell gas turbine systems operating with various biofuels

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Patel, H.C.; Woudstra, T.; Aravind, P.V. [Process and Energy Laboratory, Delft University of Technology, Section Energy Technology, Leeghwaterstraat 44, 2628 CA Delft (Netherlands)

    2012-12-15

    Solid oxide fuel cell-gas turbine (SOFC-GT) systems provide a thermodynamically high efficiency alternative for power generation from biofuels. In this study biofuels namely methane, ethanol, methanol, hydrogen, and ammonia are evaluated exergetically with respect to their performance at system level and in system components like heat exchangers, fuel cell, gas turbine, combustor, compressor, and the stack. Further, the fuel cell losses are investigated in detail with respect to their dependence on operating parameters such as fuel utilization, Nernst voltage, etc. as well as fuel specific parameters like heat effects. It is found that the heat effects play a major role in setting up the flows in the system and hence, power levels attained in individual components. The per pass fuel utilization dictates the efficiency of the fuel cell itself, but the system efficiency is not entirely dependent on fuel cell efficiency alone, but depends on the split between the fuel cell and gas turbine powers which in turn depends highly on the nature of the fuel and its chemistry. Counter intuitively it is found that with recycle, the fuel cell efficiency of methane is less than that of hydrogen but the system efficiency of methane is higher. (Copyright copyright 2012 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH and Co. KGaA, Weinheim)

  6. Municipal solid waste combustion: Fuel testing and characterization

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bushnell, D.J.; Canova, J.H.; Dadkhah-Nikoo, A.

    1990-10-01

    The objective of this study is to screen and characterize potential biomass fuels from waste streams. This will be accomplished by determining the types of pollutants produced while burning selected municipal waste, i.e., commercial mixed waste paper residential (curbside) mixed waste paper, and refuse derived fuel. These materials will be fired alone and in combination with wood, equal parts by weight. The data from these experiments could be utilized to size pollution control equipment required to meet emission standards. This document provides detailed descriptions of the testing methods and evaluation procedures used in the combustion testing and characterization project. The fuel samples will be examined thoroughly from the raw form to the exhaust emissions produced during the combustion test of a densified sample.

  7. System modeling of an air-independent solid oxide fuel cell system for unmanned undersea vehicles

    Science.gov (United States)

    Burke, A. Alan; Carreiro, Louis G.

    To examine the feasibility of a solid oxide fuel cell (SOFC)-powered unmanned undersea vehicle (UUV), a system level analysis is presented that projects a possible integration of the SOFC stack, fuel steam reformer, fuel/oxidant storage and balance of plant components into a 21-in. diameter UUV platform. Heavy hydrocarbon fuel (dodecane) and liquid oxygen (LOX) are chosen as the preferred reactants. A maximum efficiency of 45% based on the lower heating value of dodecane was calculated for a system that provides 2.5 kW for 40 h. Heat sources and sinks have been coupled to show viable means of thermal management. The critical design issues involve proper recycling of exhaust steam from the fuel cell back into the reformer and effective use of the SOFC stack radiant heat for steam reformation of the hydrocarbon fuel.

  8. Modeling the burnout of solid polydisperse fuel under the conditions of external heat transfer

    Science.gov (United States)

    Skorik, I. A.; Goldobin, Yu. M.; Tolmachev, E. M.; Gal'perin, L. G.

    2013-11-01

    A self-similar burnout mode of solid polydisperse fuel is considered taking into consideration heat transfer between fuel particles, gases, and combustion chamber walls. A polydisperse composition of fuel is taken into account by introducing particle distribution functions by radiuses obtained for the kinetic and diffusion combustion modes. Equations for calculating the temperatures of particles and gases are presented, which are written for particles average with respect to their distribution functions by radiuses taking into account the fuel burnout ratio. The proposed equations take into consideration the influence of fuel composition, air excess factor, and gas recirculation ratio. Calculated graphs depicting the variation of particle and gas temperatures, and the fuel burnout ratio are presented for an anthracite-fired boiler.

  9. Perovskite solid electrolytes: Structure, transport properties and fuel cell applications

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bonanos, N.; Knight, K.S.; Ellis, B.

    1995-01-01

    vapour transfer in a cell in which the perovskite is exposed to wet hydrogen on both sides. The evolution of transport properties with temperature is discussed in relation to structure. Neutron diffraction studies of doped and undoped barium cerate are reported, revealing a series of phase transitions......Doped barium cerate perovskites, first investigated by Iwahara and co-workers, have ionic conductivities of the order of 20 mS/cm at 800 degrees C making them attractive as fuel cell electrolytes for this temperature region. They have been used to construct laboratory scale fuel cells, which...

  10. Source apportionment of carbonaceous chemical species to fossil fuel combustion, biomass burning and biogenic emissions by a coupled radiocarbon–levoglucosan marker method

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    I. Salma

    2017-11-01

    Full Text Available An intensive aerosol measurement and sample collection campaign was conducted in central Budapest in a mild winter for 2 weeks. The online instruments included an FDMS-TEOM, RT-OC/EC analyser, DMPS, gas pollutant analysers and meteorological sensors. The aerosol samples were collected on quartz fibre filters by a low-volume sampler using the tandem filter method. Elemental carbon (EC, organic carbon (OC, levoglucosan, mannosan, galactosan, arabitol and mannitol were determined, and radiocarbon analysis was performed on the aerosol samples. Median atmospheric concentrations of EC, OC and PM2.5 mass were 0.97, 4.9 and 25 µg m−3, respectively. The EC and organic matter (1.6  ×  OC accounted for 4.8 and 37 %, respectively, of the PM2.5 mass. Fossil fuel (FF combustion represented 36 % of the total carbon (TC  =  EC + OC in the PM2.5 size fraction. Biomass burning (BB was a major source (40 % for the OC in the PM2.5 size fraction, and a substantial source (11 % for the PM10 mass. We propose and apply here a novel, straightforward, coupled radiocarbon–levoglucosan marker method for source apportionment of the major carbonaceous chemical species. The contributions of EC and OC from FF combustion (ECFF and OCFF to the TC were 11.0 and 25 %, respectively, EC and OC from BB (ECBB and OCBB were responsible for 5.8 and 34 %, respectively, of the TC, while the OC from biogenic sources (OCBIO made up 24 % of the TC. The overall relative uncertainty of the OCBIO and OCBB contributions was assessed to be up to 30 %, while the relative uncertainty for the other apportioned species is expected to be below 20 %. Evaluation of the apportioned atmospheric concentrations revealed some of their important properties and relationships among them. ECFF and OCFF were associated with different FF combustion sources. Most ECFF was emitted by vehicular road traffic, while the contribution of non-vehicular sources such as

  11. 40 kW Stirling Engine for Solid Fuel

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Carlsen, Henrik; Trærup, Jens

    1996-01-01

    been adapted to the special demands of combustion of wood chips, resulting in a large engine compared to engines for gas or liquid fuels. The engine has four-cylinders arranged in a square. The design is made as a hermetic unit, where the alternator is built into the pressurised crankcase so...

  12. Child mortality from solid-fuel use in India: a nationally-representative case-control study

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    Background Most households in low and middle income countries, including in India, use solid fuels (coal/coke/lignite, firewood, dung, and crop residue) for cooking and heating. Such fuels increase child mortality, chiefly from acute respiratory infection. There are, however, few direct estimates of the impact of solid fuel on child mortality in India. Methods We compared household solid fuel use in 1998 between 6790 child deaths, from all causes, in the previous year and 609 601 living children living in 1.1 million nationally-representative homes in India. Analyses were stratified by child's gender, age (neonatal, post-neonatal, 1-4 years) and colder versus warmer states. We also examined the association of solid fuel to non-fatal pneumonias. Results Solid fuel use was very common (87% in households with child deaths and 77% in households with living children). After adjustment for demographic factors and living conditions, solid-fuel use significantly increase child deaths at ages 1-4 (prevalence ratio (PR) boys: 1.30, 95%CI 1.08-1.56; girls: 1.33, 95%CI 1.12-1.58). More girls than boys died from exposure to solid fuels. Solid fuel use was also associated with non-fatal pneumonia (boys: PR 1.54 95%CI 1.01-2.35; girls: PR 1.94 95%CI 1.13-3.33). Conclusions Child mortality risks, from all causes, due to solid fuel exposure were lower than previously, but as exposure was common solid, fuel caused 6% of all deaths at ages 0-4, 20% of deaths at ages 1-4 or 128 000 child deaths in India in 2004. Solid fuel use has declined only modestly in the last decade. Aside from reducing exposure, complementary strategies such as immunization and treatment could also reduce child mortality from acute respiratory infections. PMID:20716354

  13. Child mortality from solid-fuel use in India: a nationally-representative case-control study - article no. 491

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bassani, D.G.; Jha, P.; Dhingra, N.; Kumar, R. [St. Michaels Hospital, Toronto, ON (Canada)

    2010-08-17

    Most households in low and middle income countries, including in India, use solid fuels (coal/coke/lignite, firewood, dung, and crop residue) for cooking and heating. Such fuels increase child mortality, chiefly from acute respiratory infection. There are, however, few direct estimates of the impact of solid fuel on child mortality in India. Methods: We compared household solid fuel use in 1998 between 6790 child deaths, from all causes, in the previous year and 609 601 living children living in 1.1 million nationally-representative homes in India. Analyses were stratified by child's gender, age (neonatal, post-neonatal, 1-4 years) and colder versus warmer states. We also examined the association of solid fuel to non-fatal pneumonias. Solid fuel use was very common (87% in households with child deaths and 77% in households with living children). After adjustment for demographic factors and living conditions, solid-fuel use significantly increase child deaths at ages 1-4 (prevalence ratio (PR) boys: 1.30, 95%CI 1.08-1.56; girls: 1.33, 95%CI 1.12-1.58). More girls than boys died from exposure to solid fuels. Solid fuel use was also associated with non-fatal pneumonia (boys: PR 1.54 95%CI 1.01-2.35; girls: PR 1.94 95%CI 1.13-3.33). Child mortality risks, from all causes, due to solid fuel exposure were lower than previously, but as exposure was common solid, fuel caused 6% of all deaths at ages 0-4, 20% of deaths at ages 1-4 or 128 000 child deaths in India in 2004. Solid fuel use has declined only modestly in the last decade. Aside from reducing exposure, complementary strategies such as immunization and treatment could also reduce child mortality from acute respiratory infections.

  14. Child mortality from solid-fuel use in India: a nationally-representative case-control study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bassani Diego G

    2010-08-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Most households in low and middle income countries, including in India, use solid fuels (coal/coke/lignite, firewood, dung, and crop residue for cooking and heating. Such fuels increase child mortality, chiefly from acute respiratory infection. There are, however, few direct estimates of the impact of solid fuel on child mortality in India. Methods We compared household solid fuel use in 1998 between 6790 child deaths, from all causes, in the previous year and 609 601 living children living in 1.1 million nationally-representative homes in India. Analyses were stratified by child's gender, age (neonatal, post-neonatal, 1-4 years and colder versus warmer states. We also examined the association of solid fuel to non-fatal pneumonias. Results Solid fuel use was very common (87% in households with child deaths and 77% in households with living children. After adjustment for demographic factors and living conditions, solid-fuel use significantly increase child deaths at ages 1-4 (prevalence ratio (PR boys: 1.30, 95%CI 1.08-1.56; girls: 1.33, 95%CI 1.12-1.58. More girls than boys died from exposure to solid fuels. Solid fuel use was also associated with non-fatal pneumonia (boys: PR 1.54 95%CI 1.01-2.35; girls: PR 1.94 95%CI 1.13-3.33. Conclusions Child mortality risks, from all causes, due to solid fuel exposure were lower than previously, but as exposure was common solid, fuel caused 6% of all deaths at ages 0-4, 20% of deaths at ages 1-4 or 128 000 child deaths in India in 2004. Solid fuel use has declined only modestly in the last decade. Aside from reducing exposure, complementary strategies such as immunization and treatment could also reduce child mortality from acute respiratory infections.

  15. High pressure operation of tubular solid oxide fuel cells and their intergration with gas turbines

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Haynes, C.; Wepfer, W.J. [Georgia Institute of Technology, Atlanta, GA (United States)

    1996-12-31

    Fossil fuels continue to be used at a rate greater than that of their natural formation, and the current byproducts from their use are believed to have a detrimental effect on the environment (e.g. global warming). There is thus a significant impetus to have cleaner, more efficient fuel consumption alternatives. Recent progress has led to renewed vigor in the development of fuel cell technology, which has been shown to be capable of producing high efficiencies with relatively benign exhaust products. The tubular solid oxide fuel cell developed by Westinghouse Electric Corporation has shown significant promise. Modeling efforts have been and are underway to optimize and better understand this fuel cell technology. Thus far, the bulk of modeling efforts has been for operation at atmospheric pressure. There is now interest in developing high-efficiency integrated gas turbine/solid oxide fuel cell systems. Such operation of fuel cells would obviously occur at higher pressures. The fuel cells have been successfully modeled under high pressure operation and further investigated as integrated components of an open loop gas turbine cycle.

  16. Generator module architecture for a large solid oxide fuel cell power plant

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gillett, James E.; Zafred, Paolo R.; Riggle, Matthew W.; Litzinger, Kevin P.

    2013-06-11

    A solid oxide fuel cell module contains a plurality of integral bundle assemblies, the module containing a top portion with an inlet fuel plenum and a bottom portion receiving air inlet feed and containing a base support, the base supports dense, ceramic exhaust manifolds which are below and connect to air feed tubes located in a recuperator zone, the air feed tubes passing into the center of inverted, tubular, elongated, hollow electrically connected solid oxide fuel cells having an open end above a combustion zone into which the air feed tubes pass and a closed end near the inlet fuel plenum, where the fuel cells comprise a fuel cell stack bundle all surrounded within an outer module enclosure having top power leads to provide electrical output from the stack bundle, where the fuel cells operate in the fuel cell mode and where the base support and bottom ceramic air exhaust manifolds carry from 85% to all 100% of the weight of the stack, and each bundle assembly has its own control for vertical and horizontal thermal expansion control.

  17. Solid fuels, indoor air quality and health: a major issue in developing countries

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mandin, C.; Ezratty, V.

    2009-01-01

    This article intends to do a synthesis of knowledge about the relationship between the indoor air pollution and the use of solid fuels ( such wood or biomass) for heating and cooking, from publications since 200 by specifying the fuels, the pollutants and the concerned geographical areas as well as the sanitary effects and more generally the impact in term of public health. (N.C.)

  18. Municipal Solid Waste (MSW) to Liquid Fuels Synthesis, Volume 1: Availability of Feedstock and Technology

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Valkenburt, Corinne; Walton, Christie W.; Thompson, Becky L.; Gerber, Mark A.; Jones, Susanne B.; Stevens, Don J.

    2008-12-01

    This report investigated the potential of using municipal solid waste (MSW) to make synthesis gas (syngas) suitable for production of liquid fuels. Issues examined include: • MSW physical and chemical properties affecting its suitability as a gasifier feedstock and for liquid fuels synthesis • expected process scale required for favorable economics • the availability of MSW in quantities sufficient to meet process scale requirements • the state-of-the-art of MSW gasification technology.

  19. Modelling of Physical, Chemical, and Material Properties of Solid Oxide Fuel Cells

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jakub Kupecki

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper provides a review of modelling techniques applicable for system-level studies to account for physical, chemical, and material properties of solid oxide fuel cells. Functionality of 0D to 3D models is discussed and selected examples are given. Author provides information on typical length scales in evaluation of power systems with solid oxide fuel cells. In each section, proper examples of previous studies done in the field of 0D–3D modelling are recalled and discussed.

  20. Regenerable mixed copper-iron-inert support oxygen carriers for solid fuel chemical looping combustion process

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Siriwardane, Ranjani V.; Tian, Hanjing

    2016-12-20

    The disclosure provides an oxygen carrier for a chemical looping cycle, such as the chemical looping combustion of solid carbonaceous fuels, such as coal, coke, coal and biomass char, and the like. The oxygen carrier is comprised of at least 24 weight % (wt %) CuO, at least 10 wt % Fe2O3, and an inert support, and is typically a calcine. The oxygen carrier exhibits a CuO crystalline structure and an absence of iron oxide crystalline structures under XRD crystallography, and provides an improved and sustained combustion reactivity in the temperature range of 600.degree. C.-1000.degree. C. particularly for solid fuels such as carbon and coal.

  1. Diffusion and conversion impedance in solid oxide fuel cells

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jacobsen, Torben; Hendriksen, Peter Vang; Koch, Søren

    2008-01-01

    In fuel cell electrodes where the thin, active electrode layer is supported by a porous layer the diffusion processes as well as the change in the gas phase composition due to the conversion of reactants will influence the cell impedance. Two models are developed for the description of these proc......In fuel cell electrodes where the thin, active electrode layer is supported by a porous layer the diffusion processes as well as the change in the gas phase composition due to the conversion of reactants will influence the cell impedance. Two models are developed for the description...... to consumption of reactants and accumulation of products. For simplicity this model is restricted to cases dominated by mass transfer and conversion of the gas supply. Qualitatively the predictions by both models are alike. At high frequencies a Warburg diffusion impedance is seen. Depending on the dimensions...

  2. Degradation of solid oxide fuel cells with wood

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    N Frank; M Saule; J Karl

    2006-01-01

    The Technical University of Munich investigates the degradation effects observed on SOFCs when fired with product gases from biomass gasification processes. The TUM has concentrated its research on tubular SOFCs. For this purpose tubular electrolyte-supported SOFCs have been manufactured using commercially available electrolyte tubes, anode foil and cathode paste. The tubular SOFCs were first run with hydrogen and synthetic fuels. Once stable and reproducible results were achieved, tests with product gas from four different biomass gasifiers have started. These gasifiers have been coupled to a gas cleaning device which includes sulphur and particle removal and pre-reforming. Different operation conditions of the gasifiers and the gas cleaning device have been realized and the corresponding fuel cell degradations have been analysed. (authors)

  3. Polypropylene oil as fuel for solid oxide fuel cell with samarium doped-ceria (SDC)-carbonate as electrolyte

    Science.gov (United States)

    Syahputra, R. J. E.; Rahmawati, F.; Prameswari, A. P.; Saktian, R.

    2017-03-01

    The research focusses on converting polypropylene oil as pyrolysis product of polypropylene plastic into an electricity. The converter was a direct liquid fuel-solid oxide fuel cell (SOFC) with cerium oxide based material as electrolyte. The polypropylene vapor flowed into fuel cell, in the anode side and undergo oxidation reaction, meanwhile, the Oxygen in atmosphere reduced into oxygen ion at cathode. The fuel cell test was conducted at 400 - 600 °C. According to GC-MS analysis, the polypropylene oil consist of C8 to C27 hydrocarbon chain. The XRD analysis result shows that Na2CO3 did not change the crystal structure of SDC even increases the electrical conductivity. The maximum power density is 0.079 mW.cm-2 at 773 K. The open circuite voltage is 0.77 volt. Chemical stability test by analysing the single cell at before and after fuel cell test found that ionic migration occured during fuel cell operation. It is supported by the change of elemental composition in the point position of electrolyte and at the electrolyte-electrode interface

  4. Thermodynamic Analysis of an Integrated Gasification Solid Oxide Fuel Cell Plant with a Kalina Cycle

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pierobon, Leonardo; Rokni, Masoud

    2015-01-01

    A hybrid plant that consists of a gasification system, Solid Oxide Fuel Cells (SOFC) and a Simple Kalina Cycle (SKC) is investigated. Woodchips are introduced into a fixed bed gasification plant to produce syngas, which is then fed into an integrated SOFC-SKC plant to produce electricity. The pre......-treated fuel then enters the anode side of the SOFC. Complete fuel oxidation is ensured in a burner by off-gases exiting the SOFC stacks. Off-gases are utilized as heat source for a SKC where a mixture of ammonia and water is expanded in a turbine to produce additional electric power. Thus, a triple novel...

  5. Operating Point Optimization of a Hydrogen Fueled Hybrid Solid Oxide Fuel Cell-Steam Turbine (SOFC-ST Plant

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Juanjo Ugartemendia

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available This paper presents a hydrogen powered hybrid solid oxide fuel cell-steam turbine (SOFC-ST system and studies its optimal operating conditions. This type of installation can be very appropriate to complement the intermittent generation of renewable energies, such as wind generation. A dynamic model of an alternative hybrid SOFC-ST configuration that is especially suited to work with hydrogen is developed. The proposed system recuperates the waste heat of the high temperature fuel cell, to feed a bottoming cycle (BC based on a steam turbine (ST. In order to optimize the behavior and performance of the system, a two-level control structure is proposed. Two controllers have been implemented for the stack temperature and fuel utilization factor. An upper supervisor generates optimal set-points in order to reach a maximal hydrogen efficiency. The simulation results obtained show that the proposed system allows one to reach high efficiencies at rated power levels.

  6. Green conversion of municipal solid wastes into fuels and chemicals

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Leonidas Matsakas

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available Presently, the society is facing a serious challenge for the effective management of the increasing amount of produced municipal solid wastes. The accumulated waste has caused a series of environmental problems such as uncontrolled release of greenhouse gases. Moreover, the increasing amount of wastes has resulted in a shortage of areas available for waste disposal, resulting in a nonsustainable waste management. These problems led to serious public concerns, which in turn resulted in political actions aiming to reduce the amount of wastes reaching the environment. These actions aim to promote sustainable waste management solutions. The main objective of these policies is to promote the recycling of municipal solid waste and the conversion of waste to energy and valuable chemicals. These conversions can be performed using either biological (e.g., anaerobic digestion or thermochemical processes (e.g., pyrolysis. Research efforts during the last years have been fruitful, and many publications demonstrated the effective conversation of municipal solid waste to energy and chemicals. These processes are discussed in the current review article together with the change of the waste policy that was implemented in the EU during the last years.

  7. Thermodynamic analysis of an integrated solid oxide fuel cell cycle with a rankine cycle

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rokni, Masoud

    2010-01-01

    Hybrid systems consisting of solid oxide fuel cells (SOFC) on the top of a steam turbine (ST) are investigated. The plants are fired by natural gas (NG). A desulfurization reactor removes the sulfur content in the fuel while a pre-reformer breaks down the heavier hydro-carbons. The pre-treated fuel enters then into the anode side of the SOFC. The remaining fuels after the SOFC stacks enter a burner for further burning. The off-gases are then used to produce steam for a Rankine cycle in a heat recovery steam generator (HRSG). Different system setups are suggested. Cyclic efficiencies up to 67% are achieved which is considerably higher than the conventional combined cycles (CC). Both adiabatic steam reformer (ASR) and catalytic partial oxidation (CPO) fuel pre-reformer reactors are considered in this investigation.

  8. Plant Characteristics of an Integrated Solid Oxide Fuel Cell Cycle and a Steam Cycle

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rokni, Masoud

    2010-01-01

    hydrocarbons in an adiabatic steam reformer (ASR). The pre-treated fuel then entered to the anode side of the SOFC. The remaining fuels after the SOFC stacks entered a catalytic burner for further combusting. The burned gases from the burner were then used to produce steam for the Rankine cycle in a heat......Plant characteristics of a system containing a solid oxide fuel cell (SOFC) cycle on the top of a Rankine cycle were investigated. Natural gas (NG) was used as the fuel for the plant. A desulfurization reactor removes the sulfur content in the fuel, while a pre-reformer broke down the heavier...... and the pre-reformer reactor had no effect on the plant efficiency, which was also true when decreasing the anode temperature. However, increasing the cathode temperature had a significant effect on the plant efficiency. In addition, decreasing the SOFC utilization factor from 0.8 to 0.7, increases the plant...

  9. Condensed-phase biogenic-anthropogenic interactions with implications for cold cloud formation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Charnawskas, Joseph C; Alpert, Peter A; Lambe, Andrew T; Berkemeier, Thomas; O'Brien, Rachel E; Massoli, Paola; Onasch, Timothy B; Shiraiwa, Manabu; Moffet, Ryan C; Gilles, Mary K; Davidovits, Paul; Worsnop, Douglas R; Knopf, Daniel A

    2017-08-24

    Anthropogenic and biogenic gas emissions contribute to the formation of secondary organic aerosol (SOA). When present, soot particles from fossil fuel combustion can acquire a coating of SOA. We investigate SOA-soot biogenic-anthropogenic interactions and their impact on ice nucleation in relation to the particles' organic phase state. SOA particles were generated from the OH oxidation of naphthalene, α-pinene, longifolene, or isoprene, with or without the presence of sulfate or soot particles. Corresponding particle glass transition (T g ) and full deliquescence relative humidity (FDRH) were estimated using a numerical diffusion model. Longifolene SOA particles are solid-like and all biogenic SOA sulfate mixtures exhibit a core-shell configuration (i.e. a sulfate-rich core coated with SOA). Biogenic SOA with or without sulfate formed ice at conditions expected for homogeneous ice nucleation, in agreement with respective T g and FDRH. α-pinene SOA coated soot particles nucleated ice above the homogeneous freezing temperature with soot acting as ice nuclei (IN). At lower temperatures the α-pinene SOA coating can be semisolid, inducing ice nucleation. Naphthalene SOA coated soot particles acted as ice nuclei above and below the homogeneous freezing limit, which can be explained by the presence of a highly viscous SOA phase. Our results suggest that biogenic SOA does not play a significant role in mixed-phase cloud formation and the presence of sulfate renders this even less likely. However, anthropogenic SOA may have an enhancing effect on cloud glaciation under mixed-phase and cirrus cloud conditions compared to biogenic SOA that dominate during pre-industrial times or in pristine areas.

  10. Plant Performance of Solid Oxide Fuel Cell Systems Fed by Alternative Fuels

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rokni, Masoud

    2016-01-01

    recycle increases plant efficiency only if fuel utilization factor is low. Other important issues such as why plant efficiency is lower when it is fed with hydrogen or biogas compared to when it is fed by other fuels such as methanol, ethanol, DME and ammonia will also be discussed and explained...

  11. Multi-Fuel oxidation in Solid Oxide Fuel Cells : Model anodes and system studies

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Patel, H.C.

    2015-01-01

    With the evolution of renewable energy technologies it has become necessary that a balance is found between power production with conventional energy sources and other long term solutions. SOFCs offer an alternative for utilising conventional fossil fuels as well as sustainable biomass derived fuels

  12. A direct carbon solid oxide fuel cell operated on a plant derived biofuel with natural catalyst

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cai, Weizi; Zhou, Qian; Xie, Yongmin; Liu, Jiang; Long, Guohui; Cheng, Shuang; Liu, Meilin

    2016-01-01

    Graphical abstract: A plant-derived biochar, with biologically accumulated chemical elements as catalyst for the Boudouard reaction, is a superior fuel to the all-solid-state direct carbon solid oxide fuel cells (DC-SOFCs), and, it enables DC-SOFCs to be a novel technology, of high efficient, low cost and environmental friendliness, for distributed power generation. - Highlights: • Orchid leaf char is a good fuel of all-solid-state DC-SOFCs. • Performance of DC-SOFC with leaf char is better than that with Fe-loaded carbon. • Biologically accumulated Ca in leaf char acts as catalyst for Boudouard reaction. • Leaf char with natural Ca performs better than C with Ca added by mechanical mixing. • Biochar with natural catalyst provides low cost and low pollutant fuel to DC-SOFCs. - Abstract: Biochar derived from orchid tree leaves is utilised as the fuel of a direct carbon solid oxide fuel cell (DC-SOFC), with yttrium stabilized zirconia (YSZ) as electrolyte and cermet of silver and gadolinium doped ceria (Ag-GDC) as the material of both cathode and anode, operating without any liquid medium or feeding gas. The performance of the DC-SOFC operated on the leaf char is higher than that operated on the best reported carbon fuel for DC-SOFCs, Fe-loaded activated carbon. XRD, Raman spectroscopy, SEM and EDX are applied to characterize the leaf char. It turns out that the leaf char is with porous structure and there is much Ca along with some K and Mg uniformly distributing in the leaf char. The effects of the naturally existing alkaline earth metal and alkaline metal and their distribution on the performance of the DC-SOFCs operated on the leaf char are analyzed in detail.

  13. Development of materials for use in solid oxid fuel cells anodes using renewable fuels in direct operation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lima, D.B.P.L. de; Florio, D.Z. de; Bezerra, M.E.O.

    2016-01-01

    Fuel cells produce electrical current from the electrochemical combustion of a gas or liquid (H2, CH4, C2H5OH, CH3OH, etc.) inserted into the anode cell. An important class of fuel cells is the SOFC (Solid Oxide Cell Fuel). It has a ceramic electrolyte that transports protons (H +) or O-2 ions and operating at high temperatures (500-1000 °C) and mixed conductive electrodes (ionic and electronic) ceramics or cermets. This work aims to develop anodes for fuel cells of solid oxide (SOFC) in order to direct operations with renewable fuels and strategic for the country (such as bioethanol and biogas). In this context, it becomes important to study in relation to the ceramic materials, especially those that must be used in high temperatures. Some types of double perovskites such as Sr2MgMoO6 (or simply SMMO) have been used as anodes in SOFC. In this study were synthesized by the polymeric precursor method, analyzed and characterized different ceramic samples of families SMMO, doped with Nb, this is: Sr2 (MgMo)1-xNbxO6 with 0 ≤ x ≤ 0.2. The materials produced were characterized by various techniques such as, thermal analysis, X-ray diffraction and scanning electron microscopy, and electrical properties determined by dc and ac measurements in a wide range of temperature, frequency and partial pressure of oxygen. The results of this work will contribute to a better understanding of advanced ceramic properties with mixed driving (electronic and ionic) and contribute to the advancement of SOFC technology operating directly with renewable fuels. (author)

  14. Operation of solid oxide fuel cells on glycerol fuel: A thermodynamic analysis using the Gibbs free energy minimization approach

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lima da Silva, Aline; Müller, Iduvirges Lourdes

    Solid oxide fuel cells (SOFCs) are very flexible, unlike other fuel cells. In principle, SOFCs can operate on almost any fuel. Currently much effort is invested in the development of SOFCs for portable applications operating directly on liquid fuels such as methanol and ethanol rather than hydrogen. However, there are very few publications dealing with the direct use of glycerol in SOFCs for portable systems. A recently published study shows that the performance achieved for an SOFC fueled by pure glycerol is quite interesting even when there is a thick electrolyte membrane, indicating that glycerol is a promising fuel for portable applications. For this reason a thermodynamic analysis for SOFCs operating directly on glycerol fuel is performed in the present study. The Gibbs energy minimization method computes the equilibrium compositions of the anode gas mixture, carbon deposition boundaries and electromotive forces (EMFs) as a function of fuel utilization and temperature. Moreover, the minimum amounts of H 2O, CO 2 (direct internal reforming case) and air (partial oxidation case) to be added to glycerol in the feedstock to avoid carbon deposition at the open circuit voltage (OCV) are calculated. Finally, a thermodynamic analysis is performed, taking into account the experimental conditions employed in a previous study. Experimental observations concerning carbon deposition in an SOFC operating on glycerol can be explained by the theoretical analysis developed in the present study. Additionally, the effect of mixed electronic-ionic conduction of the electrolyte on carbon deposition at the anode is discussed based on the thermodynamic analysis of the C-O system.

  15. Optimal design and operation of solid oxide fuel cell systems for small-scale stationary applications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Braun, Robert Joseph

    The advent of maturing fuel cell technologies presents an opportunity to achieve significant improvements in energy conversion efficiencies at many scales; thereby, simultaneously extending our finite resources and reducing "harmful" energy-related emissions to levels well below that of near-future regulatory standards. However, before realization of the advantages of fuel cells can take place, systems-level design issues regarding their application must be addressed. Using modeling and simulation, the present work offers optimal system design and operation strategies for stationary solid oxide fuel cell systems applied to single-family detached dwellings. A one-dimensional, steady-state finite-difference model of a solid oxide fuel cell (SOFC) is generated and verified against other mathematical SOFC models in the literature. Fuel cell system balance-of-plant components and costs are also modeled and used to provide an estimate of system capital and life cycle costs. The models are used to evaluate optimal cell-stack power output, the impact of cell operating and design parameters, fuel type, thermal energy recovery, system process design, and operating strategy on overall system energetic and economic performance. Optimal cell design voltage, fuel utilization, and operating temperature parameters are found using minimization of the life cycle costs. System design evaluations reveal that hydrogen-fueled SOFC systems demonstrate lower system efficiencies than methane-fueled systems. The use of recycled cell exhaust gases in process design in the stack periphery are found to produce the highest system electric and cogeneration efficiencies while achieving the lowest capital costs. Annual simulations reveal that efficiencies of 45% electric (LHV basis), 85% cogenerative, and simple economic paybacks of 5--8 years are feasible for 1--2 kW SOFC systems in residential-scale applications. Design guidelines that offer additional suggestions related to fuel cell

  16. Ni modified ceramic anodes for direct-methane solid oxide fuel cells

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xiao, Guoliang; Chen, Fanglin

    2016-01-19

    In accordance with certain embodiments of the present disclosure, a method for fabricating a solid oxide fuel cell is described. The method includes synthesizing a composition having a perovskite present therein. The method further includes applying the composition on an electrolyte support to form an anode and applying Ni to the composition on the anode.

  17. Prediction of solid oxide fuel cell cathode activity with first-principles descriptors

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lee, Yueh-Lin; Kleis, Jesper; Rossmeisl, Jan

    2011-01-01

    In this work we demonstrate that the experimentally measured area specific resistance and oxygen surface exchange of solid oxide fuel cell cathode perovskites are strongly correlated with the first-principles calculated oxygen p-band center and vacancy formation energy. These quantities...

  18. Engineering bed models for solid fuel conversion process in grate-fired boilers

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Costa, M.; Massarotti, N.; Indrizzi, V.

    2014-01-01

    A comparison between two numerical models describing the thermo-chemical conversion process of a solid fuel bed in a grate-fired boiler is presented. Both models consider the incoming biomass as subjected to drying, pyrolysis, gasification and combustion. In the first approach the biomass bed...

  19. Investigation into the Flow Properties of Coarse Solid Fuels for Use in Industrial Feed Systems

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    James M. Craven

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Material feeding and handling systems have been cited as one of the most common causes of process downtime where thermochemical conversion processes are concerned. New and emerging fuels come in a variety of forms, and if such fuels are to be deployed widely it is imperative that material feeding and handling systems are designed appropriately. This study proposes an approach for designing material feeding and handling systems for use with coarse solid fuels. The data obtained from this study indicates particle size to be one of the key issues affecting the flowability of bulk solids further to the uniformity in particle shape. Coarse bulk solid samples were shown to flow more freely than their milled and pulverised counterparts, generating higher degrees of flowability. The results from this study were also applied to a new feed system used for feeding solid fuels to high pressure processes named the Hydraulic Lock Hopper. In this study the Hydraulic Lock Hopper demonstrated the feeding of wood pellets, torrefied spruce pellets, and ground anthracite coal grains against a pressure of 25 barg in two modes of operation. Energy savings compared to conventional lock hopper systems were recorded in the region of 80%.

  20. Physical Properties of Mixed Conductor Solid Oxide Fuel Cell Anodes of Doped CeO2

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mogensen, Mogens Bjerg; Lindegaard, Thomas; Hansen, Uffe Rud

    1994-01-01

    conductivity vs. oxygen partial pressure. For both typesof conductivity a dependence on dopant valency was observed. The electronic conductivity was independent of dopantradius in contrast to the ionic which was highly dependent. These measured physical properties are compared with the idealrequirements...... for solid oxide fuel cell anodes. Not all requirements are fulfilled. Measures to compensate for this arediscussed....

  1. Solid oxide fuel cell systems with hot zones having improved reactant distribution

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Poshusta, Joseph C.; Booten, Charles W.; Martin, Jerry L.

    2016-05-17

    A Solid Oxide Fuel Cell (SOFC) system having a hot zone with a center cathode air feed tube for improved reactant distribution, a CPOX reactor attached at the anode feed end of the hot zone with a tail gas combustor at the opposing end for more uniform heat distribution, and a counter-flow heat exchanger for efficient heat retention.

  2. Methane Steam Reforming over an Ni-YSZ Solid Oxide Fuel Cell Anode in Stack Configuration

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mogensen, David; Grunwaldt, Jan-Dierk; Hendriksen, Peter Vang

    2014-01-01

    The kinetics of catalytic steam reforming of methane over an Ni-YSZ anode of a solid oxide fuel cell (SOFC) have been investigated with the cell placed in a stack configuration. In order to decrease the degree of conversion, a single cell stack with reduced area was used. Measurements were...

  3. Development Of A Solid Oxide Fuel Cell Stack By Delphi And Battelle

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mukerjee, Subhasish; Shaffer, Steven J.; Zizelman, James; Chick, Lawrence A.; Baskaran, Suresh; Chou, Y. S.; Coyle, Christopher A.; Deibler, John E.; Maupin, Gary D.; Meinhardt, Kerry D.; Paxton, Dean M.; Peters, Timothy J.; Sprenkle, Vince L.; Weil, K. Scott; Williford, Rick E.

    2003-01-20

    Delphi and Battelle are developing a Solid Oxide Fuel Cell (SOFC) stack for transportation and residential applications. This paper describes the status of development of the Generation 2 stack and key progress made in addressing some of the challenges in this technology.

  4. Optimizing solid oxide fuel cell cathode processing route for intermediate temperature operation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ortiz-Vitoriano, N.; Bernuy-Lopez, Carlos; Ruiz de Larramendi, I.

    2013-01-01

    For Solid Oxide Fuel Cells (SOFCs) to become an economically attractive energy conversion technology suitable materials which allow operation at lower temperatures, while retaining cell performance, must be developed. At the same time, the cell components must be inexpensive - requiring both low-...

  5. Investigation of Novel Electrocatalysts for Metal Supported Solid Oxide Fuel Cells - Ru:GDC

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sudireddy, Bhaskar Reddy; Nielsen, Jimmy; Thydén, Karl Tor Sune

    2015-01-01

    The electrochemical performance and stability of the planar metal supported solid oxide fuel cells (MS-SOFC) with two different electrocatalytically active materials, namely, Ni:GDC and Ru:GDC were investigated. Ru:GDC with an ASR of 0.322 Ωcm2 performed better than Ni:GDC with an ASR of 0.453 Ωc...

  6. The study of flow and proton exchange interactions in the cylindrical solid oxide fuel cell

    CERN Document Server

    Saievar-Iranizad, E

    2002-01-01

    The solid oxide fuel cell operates at high temperature of about 1000 deg C. In this temperature, some known materials such as Ni, ... which is abundant in the nature, can be used as a catalyst in the electrodes. The electrolytes of such cell solid oxide fuel cell can be made through non-porous solid ceramics such as Zircon's (ZrO sub 2). It can be stabilized using a doped Yttrium oxide. The importance of Yttria-stabilised Zirconia at high temperature belongs to the transport of oxygen ions through the electrolyte. Oxygen using in the hot cathode side causes a considerable reduction in the concentration of oxygen molecules. The oxygen ions exchange through the electrolyte relates to the molecular oxygen concentration gradient between the anode and cathode. Applying fuels such as hydrogen or natural gas in the anode and its chemical reaction with oxygen ions transfer from cathode through the electrolyte, produce electricity, water and heat. To study the ion exchange and its interaction into solid oxide fuel cel...

  7. Basic data biogas Germany. Solid fuels, biofuels, biogas; Basisdaten Bioenergie Deutschland. Festbrennstoffe - Biokraftstoffe - Biogas

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2012-08-15

    The brochure ''Basic data biogas Germany'' gives statistical information about (a) renewable energies: primary energy consumption, power generation, energy supply, avoidance of greenhouse gases; (b) Solid fuels: energetic utilization, wood pellets, energy consumption, comparison to heating oil; (c) Biofuels: consumption, bioethanol, biodiesel, vegetable oils; (d) Biogas: biogas power plants, energy content, production, legal aspects.

  8. Basic data biogas Germany. Solid fuels, biofuels, biogas; Basisdaten Bioenergie Deutschland. Festbrennstoffe, Biokraftstoffe, Biogas

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2011-09-15

    The brochure ''Basic data biogas Germany'' gives statistical information about (a) renewable energies: primary energy consumption, power generation, energy supply, avoidance of greenhouse gases; (b) Solid fuels: energetic utilization, wood pellets, energy consumption, comparison to heating oil; (c) Biofuels: consumption, bioethanol, biodiesel, vegetable oils; (d) Biogas: biogas power plants, energy content, production, legal aspects.

  9. Ab initio Defect Energetics in LaBO3 Perovskite Solid Oxide Fuel Cell Materials

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lee, Yueh-Lin; Morgan, Dane; Kleis, Jesper

    2009-01-01

    Perovskite materials of the form ABO3 are a promising family of compounds for use in solid oxide fuel cell (SOFC) cathodes. Study of the physics of these compounds under SOFC conditions with ab initio methods is particularly challenging due to high temperatures, exchange of oxygen with O2 gas...

  10. Magnetron sputtered gadolinia-doped ceria diffusion barriers for metal-supported solid oxide fuel cells

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sønderby, Steffen; Klemensø, Trine; Christensen, Bjarke H.

    2014-01-01

    Gadolinia-doped ceria (GDC) thin films are deposited by reactive magnetron sputtering in an industrial-scale setup and implemented as barrier layers between the cathode and electrolyte in metal-based solid oxide fuel cells consisting of a metal support, an electrolyte of ZrO2 co-doped with Sc2O3 ...

  11. A combined SEM and CV Study of Solid Oxide Fuel Cell Interconnect Steels

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kammer Hansen, Kent; Ofoegbu, Stanley; Mikkelsen, Lars

    2012-01-01

    Scanning electron microscopy and cyclic voltammetry were used to investigate the high temperature oxidation behavior of two solid oxide fuel cell interconnect steels. One alloy had a low content of manganese; the other alloy had a high content of manganese. Four reduction and four oxidation peaks...

  12. Recovery Act. Solid Oxide Fuel Cell Diesel Auxilliary Power Unit Demonstration

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Geiger, Gail E. [Delphi Automotive Systems, LLC., Gillingham (United Kingdom)

    2013-09-30

    Solid Oxide Fuel Cell Diesel Auxilliary Power Unit Demonstration Project. Summarizing development of Delphi’s next generation SOFC system as the core power plant to prove the viability of the market opportunity for a 3-5 kW diesel SOFC system. Report includes test and demonstration results from testing the diesel APU in a high visibility fleet customer vehicle application.

  13. Micromachined Dense Palladium Electrodes for Thin-film Solid Acid Fuel Cells

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Unnikrishnan, S.

    2009-01-01

    This thesis paves the way towards the microfabrication of a solid acid electrolyte based fuel cell (µSAFC), which has a membrane electrode assembly (MEA) consisting of a thin-film of water soluble electrolyte encapsulated between two dense palladium electrode membranes. This project work

  14. Electrolytic hydrogen fuel production with solid polymer electrolyte technology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Titterington, W. A.; Fickett, A. P.

    1973-01-01

    A water electrolysis technology based on a solid polymer electrolyte (SPE) concept is presented for applicability to large-scale hydrogen production in a future energy system. High cell current density operation is selected for the application, and supporting cell test performance data are presented. Demonstrated cell life data are included to support the adaptability of the SPE system to large-size hydrogen generation utility plants as needed for bulk energy storage or transmission. The inherent system advantages of the acid SPE electrolysis technology are explained. System performance predictions are made through the year 2000, along with plant capital and operating cost projections.

  15. Volume reduction technology development for solid wastes from the nuclear fuel cycle

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Oh, Won Zin; Lee, Kune Woo; Song, Kee Chan; Choi, Wang Kyu; Kim, Young Min

    1998-07-01

    A great deal of solid wastes, which have various physical, chemical, and radiological characteristics, are generated from the nuclear fuel cycle facility as well as radioactive gaseous and liquid wastes. The treatment of the large quantity of solid wastes from the nuclear fuel cycle have great technical, economical and social effects on the domestic policy decision on the nuclear fuel cycle, such as operation and maintenance of the facility, waste disposal, etc. Cement immobilization, super compaction, and electrochemical dissolution were selected as the volume reduction technologies for solid wastes, which will generated from the domestic nuclear fuel cycle facility in the future. And the assessment of annual arisings and the preliminary conceptual design of volume reduction processes were followed. Electrochemical decontamination of α-radionuclides from the spent fuel hulls were experimentally investigated, and showed the successful results. However, β/γ radioactivity did not reduce to the level below which hulls can be classified as the low-level radioactive waste and sent to the disposal site for the shallow land burial. The effects of the various process variables in the electrochemical decontamination were experimentally analysed on the process. (author). 32 refs., 32 tabs., 52 figs

  16. Study of ceria-carbonate nanocomposite electrolytes for low-temperature solid oxide fuel cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fan, L; Wang, C; Di, J; Chen, M; Zheng, J; Zhu, B

    2012-06-01

    Composite and nanocomposite samarium doped ceria-carbonates powders were prepared by solid-state reaction, citric acid-nitrate combustion and modified nanocomposite approaches and used as electrolytes for low temperature solid oxide fuel cells. X-ray Diffraction, Scanning Electron Microscope, low-temperature Nitrogen Adsorption/desorption Experiments, Electrochemical Impedance Spectroscopy and fuel cell performance test were employed in characterization of these materials. All powders are nano-size particles with slight aggregation and carbonates are amorphous in composites. Nanocomposite electrolyte exhibits much lower impedance resistance and higher ionic conductivity than those of the other electrolytes at lower temperature. Fuel cell using the electrolyte prepared by modified nanocomposite approach exhibits the best performance in the whole operation temperature range and achieves a maximum power density of 839 mW cm(-2) at 600 degrees C with H2 as fuel. The excellent physical and electrochemical performances of nanocomposite electrolyte make it a promising candidate for low-temperature solid oxide fuel cells.

  17. Hydrogen and synthetic fuel production using pressurized solid oxide electrolysis cells

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jensen, Søren Højgaard; Sun, Xiufu; Ebbesen, Sune

    2010-01-01

    Wind and solar power is troubled by large fluctuations in delivery due to changing weather. The surplus electricity can be used in a Solid Oxide Electrolyzer Cell (SOEC) to split CO2 + H2O into CO + H2 (+O2). The synthesis gas (CO + H2) can subsequently be catalyzed into various types of synthetic...... fuels using a suitable catalyst. As the catalyst operates at elevated pressure the fuel production system can be simplified by operating the SOEC at elevated pressure. Here we present the results of a cell test with pressures ranging from 0.4 bar to 10 bar. The cell was tested both as an SOEC...... and as a Solid Oxide Fuel Cell (SOFC). In agreement with previous reports, the SOFC performance increases with pressure. The SOEC performance, at 750 °C, was found to be weakly affected by the pressure range in this study, however the internal resistance decreased significantly with increasing pressure....

  18. Modelling of solid polymer and direct methanol fuel cells: Phenomenological equations and analytical solutions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kauranen, P. S.

    1993-04-01

    In the solid state concept of a direct methanol fuel cell (DMFC), methanol is directly oxidized at the anode of a solid polymer electrolyte fuel cell (SPEFC). Mathematical modelling of the transport and reaction phenomena within the electrodes and the electrolyte membrane is needed in order to get a closer insight into the operation of the fuel cell. In the work, macro-homogenous porous electrode and dilute solution theories are used to derive the phenomenological equations describing the transport and reaction mechanisms in a SPEFC single cell. The equations are first derived for a conventional H2/air SPEFC, and then extended for a DMFC. The basic model is derived in a one dimensional form in which it is assumed that species transport take place only in the direction crossing the cell sandwich. In addition, two dimensional descriptions of the catalyst layer are reviewed.

  19. The liquid biodiesel extracted from pranajiwa (Sterculia Foetida) seeds as fuel for direct biofuel-solid oxide fuel cell

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rahmawati, Fitria; Syahputra, Rahmat J. E.; Yuniastuti, Endang; Prameswari, Arum P.; Nurcahyo, I. F.

    2017-03-01

    This research applied the liquid biodiesel extracted from Pranajiwa seeds (biodiesel-p) as fuel in Intermediate Temperature-Solid Oxide Fuel Cell, IT-SOFC, with an operational temperature of 400 - 600°C. FTIR analysis of the liquid biodiesel found that the liquid consist of some functional groups. By comparing the spectrum with the commercial biosolar as produced by Pertamina, Indonesia, it is found that there are differenet peaks at a wavenumber of 3472.98; 1872.00; and 724.30 cm-1. It indicates the presence of alcoholo molecules. Composite of Samarium doped-Ceria, SDC, with sodium carbonate, NaCO3, was used as the electrolyte, and it is named as NSDC. Meanwhile, the composite of NSDC with catalyst powder of LNC, producing NSDC-L was used as a cathode and as an anode. The liquid fuel vapourized at 150 °C before come into the fuel cell, and it was reformed inside the fuel cell tube which was set up at 400, 500, and 600 °C. The measurement found that the highest Open Circuite Voltage is 0.57 volt and the power density of 1.7 mW.cm-2 at 500 °C.

  20. Development of low temperature solid oxide fuel cells

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bakker, W.T.; Goldstein, R. [Electric Power Research Institute, Palo Alto, CA (United States)

    1996-12-31

    The historical focus of the electric utility industry has been central station power plants. These plants are usually sited outside urban areas and electricity was delivered via high voltage transmission lines. Several things are beginning to change this historical precedent One is the popular concern with EMF as a health hazard. This has rendered the construction of new lines as well as upgrading old ones very difficult. Installation of power generating equipment near the customer enables the utility to better utilize existing transmission and distribution networks and defer investments. Power quality and lark of disturbances and interruptions is also becoming increasingly more important to many customers. Grid connected, but dedicated small power plants can greatly improve power quality. Finally the development of high efficiency, low emission, modular fuel cells promises near pollution free localized power generation with an efficiency equal to or exceeding that of even the most efficient central power stations.

  1. Agglomeration and Deposition Behaviour of Solid Recovered Fuel

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pedersen, Morten Nedergaard; Jensen, Peter Arendt; Nielsen, Mads

    2015-01-01

    contains significant quantities of common plastics such as polyethylene (PE), polypropylene (PP), and polyethylene terephthalate (PET). Fluidized bed experiments to examine the pyrolysis of polymers have shown that bed agglomeration can result from melting plastics or sticky char residues in the case...... of PET [11,12]. The main objective of this study was to characterize the combustion of SRF and especially the deposition propensity of SRF and the main constituents of SRF. This relates both to the low temperature deposits formed during plastic pyrolysis and the high temperature deposits formed by ash...... materials such as plastic and paper than mixed MSW [2]. The inhomogeneous nature of SRF [3] makes it difficult to combust and many problems may arise concerning e.g. combustion control, feeding of fuel [2,4], deposit formation [5], or accumulation of impurities [3]. Laboratory ash fusion tests typically...

  2. Modeling and Structural Optimization of Solid Oxide Fuel Cells

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Panagakos, Grigorios

    the problem in the micro-scale. Taking as starting point the homogenization method for getting an upscaled equation for the diffusion of ion vacancies in a fuel cell's cathode, we derive formulas that express the Area Specific Resistance (ASR) of the electrode as a function of geometric parameters......, such as the tortuosity and the porosity of the material, for preselected micro-structures. Furthermore, we apply optimization techniques to lead this ASR to minimization. This work has been the fruit of collaboration with Professor Sossina Haile at the California Institute of Technology (Caltech) and with assistant...... the compound of magnesium hydrides encapsulated in PMMA for a set of experiments aiming at the development of a mass production method through laser ablation for cheap and effective hydrogen storage. This work was done in collaboration with Dr. Athanasios Stubos at the National Center for Scientific Research...

  3. Final Technical Report, Oct 2004 - Nov. 2006, High Performance Flexible Reversible Solid Oxide Fuel Cell

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Guan, Jie; Minh, Nguyen

    2007-02-21

    This report summarizes the work performed for the program entitled “High Performance Flexible Reversible Solid Oxide Fuel Cell” under Cooperative Agreement DE-FC36-04GO14351 for the U. S. Department of Energy. The overall objective of this project is to demonstrate a single modular stack that generates electricity from a variety of fuels (hydrogen and other fuels such as biomass, distributed natural gas, etc.) and when operated in the reverse mode, produces hydrogen from steam. This project has evaluated and selected baseline cell materials, developed a set of materials for oxygen and hydrogen electrodes, and optimized electrode microstructures for reversible solid oxide fuel cells (RSOFCs); and demonstrated the feasibility and operation of a RSOFC multi-cell stack. A 10-cell reversible SOFC stack was operated over 1000 hours alternating between fuel cell (with hydrogen and methane as fuel) and steam electrolysis modes. The stack ran very successfully with high power density of 480 mW/cm2 at 0.7V and 80% fuel utilization in fuel cell mode and >6 SLPM hydrogen production in steam electrolysis mode using about 1.1 kW electrical power. The hydrogen generation is equivalent to a specific capability of 2.59 Nm3/m2 with electrical energy demand of 3 kWh/Nm3. The performance stability in electrolysis mode was improved vastly during the program with a degradation rate reduction from 8000 to 200 mohm-cm2/1000 hrs. This was accomplished by increasing the activity and improving microstructure of the oxygen electrode. Both cost estimate and technology assessment were conducted. Besides the flexibility running under both fuel cell mode and electrolysis mode, the reversible SOFC system has the potentials for low cost and high efficient hydrogen production through steam electrolysis. The cost for hydrogen production at large scale was estimated at ~$2.7/kg H2, comparing favorably with other electrolysis techology.

  4. Characterization and Detailed Analysis of Regression Behavior for HTPB Solid Fuels Containing High Aluminum Loadings

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kibbey, Timothy P.; Cortopassi, Andrew C.; Boyer, Eric C.

    2017-01-01

    NASA Marshall Space Flight Center's Materials and Processes Department, with support from the Propulsion Systems Department, has renewed the development and maintenance of a hybrid test bed for exposing ablative thermal protection materials to an environment similar to that seen in solid rocket motors (SRM). The Solid Fuel Torch (SFT), operated during the Space Shuttle program, utilized gaseous oxygen for oxidizer and an aluminized hydroxyl-terminated polybutadiene (HTPB) fuel grain to expose a converging section of phenolic material to a 400 psi, 2-phase flow combustion environment. The configuration allows for up to a 2 foot long, 5 inch diameter fuel grain cartridge. Wanting to now test rubber insulation materials with a turn-back feature to mimic the geometry of an aft dome being impinged by alumina particles, the throat area has now been increased by several times to afford flow similarity. Combined with the desire to maintain a higher operating pressure, the oxidizer flow rate is being increased by a factor of 10. Out of these changes has arisen the need to characterize the fuel/oxidizer combination in a higher mass flux condition than has been previously tested at MSFC, and at which the literature has little to no reporting as well. For (especially) metalized fuels, hybrid references have pointed out possible dependence of fuel regression rate on a number of variables: mass flux, G - oxidizer only (G0), or - total mass flux (Gtot), Length, L, Pressure, P, and Diameter, D.

  5. Independent and combined effects of maternal smoking and solid fuel on infant and child mortality in sub-Saharan Africa.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Akinyemi, Joshua O; Adedini, Sunday A; Wandera, Stephen O; Odimegwu, Clifford O

    2016-12-01

    To estimate the independent and combined risks of infant and child mortality associated with maternal smoking and use of solid fuel in sub-Saharan Africa. Pooled weighted data on 143 602 under-five children in the most recent demographic and health surveys for 15 sub-Saharan African countries were analysed. The synthetic cohort life table technique and Cox proportional hazard models were employed to investigate the effect of maternal smoking and solid cooking fuel on infant (age 0-11 months) and child (age 12-59 months) mortality. Socio-economic and other confounding variables were included as controls. The distribution of the main explanatory variable in households was as follows: smoking + solid fuel - 4.6%; smoking + non-solid fuel - 0.22%; no smoking + solid fuel - 86.9%; and no smoking + non-solid fuel - 8.2%. The highest infant mortality rate was recorded among children exposed to maternal smoking + solid fuel (72 per 1000 live births); the child mortality rate was estimated to be 54 per 1000 for this group. In full multivariate models, the risk of infant death was 71% higher among those exposed to maternal smoking + solid fuel (HR = 1.71, CI: 1.29-2.28). For ages 12 to 59 months, the risk of death was 99% higher (HR = 1.99, CI: 1.28-3.08). Combined exposures to cigarette smoke and solid fuel increase the risks of infant and child mortality. Mothers of under-five children need to be educated about the danger of smoking while innovative approaches are needed to reduce the mortality risks associated with solid cooking fuel. © 2016 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  6. Kinetic and geometric aspects of solid oxide fuel cell electrodes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mogensen, Mogens Bjerg; Skaarup, Steen

    1996-01-01

    the size of the polarisation resistance greatly and may also change the rate limiting step for oxygen reduction as evidenced by the change in dependence on oxygen partial pressure and in the apparent activation energy. O-16/O-19 isotope exchange measurements have shown that oxygen surface exchange takes...... are is much more dependent on the structure than the low frequency arcs. In the case of LSM-YSZ composite it has been demonstrated that both the ratio of LSM to YSZ and the conductivity of the YSZ is of major importance. The length and the nature of the three-phase-boundary between LSM, YSZ and air influence...... place with significant rates on both electrodes and electrolyte types of materials. Results from pointed electrodes indicate that the electrochemical reaction occurs on both the solid electrolyte and the electrode materials but only in a narrow zone (few mu m) along the three-phase-boundary....

  7. Evaluation of the potential of pelletized biomass from different municipal solid wastes for use as solid fuel.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Ting; Li, Yuening; Zhang, Jing; Zhao, Jingbo; Liu, Yan; Sun, Luna; Liu, Boyang; Mao, Hongjun; Lin, Yingchao; Li, Weizun; Ju, Meiting; Zhu, Fudong

    2018-04-01

    Four different municipal solid wastes (dog manure, horse manure, apple pomace waste and tea waste) and an industrial by-product (NovoGro) were used to produce solid fuel pellets. The mixtures followed a raw material to NovoGro ratio of 50:1. The pellets diameters varied between 4 and 5 mm, and the average length was 20 mm. The dog manure, horse manure, apple pomace waste and tea waste pellets were denoted as DN, HN, AN and TN, respectively. The combustion characteristics of the pelletized fuels were investigated, such as total moisture, ash content, calorific value and ash fusion point, etc. The physicochemical properties were analyzed by using a number of analytical techniques including X-ray fluorescence spectrometry (XRF), X-ray diffraction spectrometry (XRD), scanning electron microscopy (SEM) and Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FTIR). The results of the mechanical, thermal and morphological properties show that the raw materials were effectively combined with the NovoGro binder; furthermore, the DN, HN and TN pellets exhibited excellent mechanical and thermal properties, including high calorific values (>16.30 MJ/kg), high resistance to mechanical shock (>99%), high volatile matter contents, optimal softening temperatures and optimal ash contents. However, the high K, Ca, and Si contents of the AN can form low-melting-point eutectics, which can cause slagging. Moreover, the AN materials had large particle sizes, and high cellulose and hemicellulose contents led to high total moistures, low softening temperatures and low calorific values. The AN was not suitable for use as a fuel. The results suggested that NG is an effective binder for pelletization of biomass and showed the feasibility of using municipal solid wastes for energy production. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  8. Thermodynamic analysis of synthetic hydrocarbon fuel production in pressurized solid oxide electrolysis cells

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sun, Xiufu; Chen, Ming; Jensen, Søren Højgaard

    2012-01-01

    improved system efficiency, potentially lowering the fuel production cost significantly. In this paper, we present a thermodynamic analysis of synthetic methane and dimethyl ether (DME) production using pressurized SOECs, in order to determine feasible operating conditions for producing the desired......A promising way to store wind and solar electricity is by electrolysis of H2O and CO2 using solid oxide electrolysis cells (SOECs) to produce synthetic hydrocarbon fuels that can be used in existing fuel infrastructure. Pressurized operation decreases the cell internal resistance and enables...... hydrocarbon fuel and avoiding damage to the cells. The main parameters of cell operating temperature, pressure, inlet gas composition and reactant utilization are varied to examine how they influence cell thermoneutral and reversible potentials, in situ formation of methane and carbon at the Ni–YSZ electrode...

  9. Strategies for Carbon and Sulfur Tolerant Solid Oxide Fuel Cell Materials, Incorporating Lessons from Heterogeneous Catalysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boldrin, Paul; Ruiz-Trejo, Enrique; Mermelstein, Joshua; Bermúdez Menéndez, José Miguel; Ramı Rez Reina, Tomás; Brandon, Nigel P

    2016-11-23

    Solid oxide fuel cells (SOFCs) are a rapidly emerging energy technology for a low carbon world, providing high efficiency, potential to use carbonaceous fuels, and compatibility with carbon capture and storage. However, current state-of-the-art materials have low tolerance to sulfur, a common contaminant of many fuels, and are vulnerable to deactivation due to carbon deposition when using carbon-containing compounds. In this review, we first study the theoretical basis behind carbon and sulfur poisoning, before examining the strategies toward carbon and sulfur tolerance used so far in the SOFC literature. We then study the more extensive relevant heterogeneous catalysis literature for strategies and materials which could be incorporated into carbon and sulfur tolerant fuel cells.

  10. Computational Fluid Dynamics calculation of a planar solid oxide fuel cell design running on syngas

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pianko-Oprych Paulina

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available The present study deals with modelling and validation of a planar Solid Oxide Fuel Cell (SOFC design fuelled by gas mixture of partially pre-reformed methane. A 3D model was developed using the ANSYS Fluent Computational Fluid Dynamics (CFD tool that was supported by an additional Fuel Cell Tools module. The governing equations for momentum, heat, gas species, ion and electron transport were implemented and coupled to kinetics describing the electrochemical and reforming reactions. In the model, the Water Gas Shift reaction in a porous anode layer was included. Electrochemical oxidation of hydrogen and carbon monoxide fuels were both considered. The developed model enabled to predict the distributions of temperature, current density and gas flow in the fuel cell.

  11. Innovative Seals for Solid Oxide Fuel Cells (SOFC)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Singh, Raj

    2008-06-30

    A functioning SOFC requires different type of seals such as metal-metal, metal-ceramic, and ceramic-ceramic. These seals must function at high temperatures between 600--900{sup o}C and in oxidizing and reducing environments of the fuels and air. Among the different type of seals, the metal-metal seals can be readily fabricated using metal joining, soldering, and brazing techniques. However, the metal-ceramic and ceramic-ceramic seals require significant research and development because the brittle nature of ceramics/glasses can lead to fracture and loss of seal integrity and functionality. Consequently, any seals involving ceramics/glasses require a significant attention and technology development for reliable SOFC operation. This final report is prepared to describe the progress made in the program on the needs, approaches, and performance of high temperature seals for SOFC. In particular, a new concept of self-healing glass seals is pursued for making seals between metal-ceramic material combinations, including some with a significant expansion mismatch.

  12. Effect of Coal Contaminants on Solid Oxide Fuel System Performance and Service Life

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gopala Krishnan; P. Jayaweera; J. Bao; J. Perez; K. H. Lau; M. Hornbostel; A. Sanjurjo; J. R. Albritton; R. P. Gupta

    2008-09-30

    The U.S. Department of Energy's SECA program envisions the development of high-efficiency, low-emission, CO{sub 2} sequestration-ready, and fuel-flexible technology to produce electricity from fossil fuels. One such technology is the integrated gasification-solid oxide fuel cell (SOFC) that produces electricity from the gas stream of a coal gasifier. SOFCs have high fuel-to-electricity conversion efficiency, environmental compatibility (low NO{sub x} production), and modularity. Naturally occurring coal has many impurities and some of these impurities end in the fuel gas stream either as a vapor or in the form of fine particulate matter. Establishing the tolerance limits of SOFCs for contaminants in the coal-derived gas will allow proper design of the fuel feed system that will not catastrophically damage the SOFC or allow long-term cumulative degradation. The anodes of Ni-cermet-based SOFCs are vulnerable to degradation in the presence of contaminants that are expected to be present in a coal-derived fuel gas stream. Whereas the effects of some contaminants such as H{sub 2}S, NH{sub 3} and HCl have been studied, the effects of other contaminants such as As, P, and Hg have not been ascertained. The primary objective of this study was to determine the sensitivity of the performance of solid oxide fuel cells to trace level contaminants present in a coal-derived gas stream in the temperature range 700 to 900 C. The results were used to assess catastrophic damage risk and long-term cumulative effects of the trace contaminants on the lifetime expectancy of SOFC systems fed with coal-derived gas streams.

  13. Long term performance degradation analysis and optimization of anode supported solid oxide fuel cell stacks

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Parhizkar, Tarannom; Roshandel, Ramin

    2017-01-01

    Highlights: • A degradation based optimization framework is developed. • The cost of electricity based on degradation of solid oxide fuel cells is minimized. • The effects of operating conditions on degradation mechanisms are investigated. • Results show 7.12% lower cost of electricity in comparison with base case. • Degradation based optimization is a beneficial concept for long term analysis. - Abstract: The main objective of this work is minimizing the cost of electricity of solid oxide fuel cell stacks by decelerating degradation mechanisms rate in long term operation for stationary power generation applications. The degradation mechanisms in solid oxide fuel cells are caused by microstructural changes, reactions between lanthanum strontium manganite and electrolyte, poisoning by chromium, carburization on nickel particles, formation of nickel sulfide, nickel coarsening, nickel oxidation, loss of conductivity and crack formation in the electrolyte. The rate of degradation mechanisms depends on the cell operating conditions (cell voltage and fuel utilization). In this study, the degradation based optimization framework is developed which determines optimum operating conditions to achieve a minimum cost of electricity. To show the effectiveness of the developed framework, optimization results are compared with the case that system operates at its design point. Results illustrate optimum operating conditions decrease the cost of electricity by 7.12%. The performed study indicates that degradation based optimization is a beneficial concept for long term performance degradation analysis of energy conversion systems.

  14. Hydrogen Fueled Hybrid Solid Oxide Fuel Cell-Gas Turbine (SOFC-GT) System for Long-Haul Rail Application

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chow, Justin Jeff

    Freight movement of goods is the artery for America's economic health. Long-haul rail is the premier mode of transport on a ton-mile basis. Concerns regarding greenhouse gas and criteria pollutant emissions, however, have motivated the creation of annually increasing locomotive emissions standards. Health issues from diesel particulate matter, especially near rail yards, have also been on the rise. These factors and the potential to raise conventional diesel-electric locomotive performance warrants the investigation of using future fuels in a more efficient system for locomotive application. This research evaluates the dynamic performance of a Solid Oxide Fuel Cell-Gas Turbine (SOFC-GT) Hybrid system operating on hydrogen fuel to power a locomotive over a rail path starting from the Port of Los Angeles and ending in the City of Barstow. Physical constraints, representative locomotive operation logic, and basic design are used from a previous feasibility study and simulations are performed in the MATLAB Simulink environment. In-house controls are adapted to and expanded upon. Results indicate high fuel-to-electricity efficiencies of at least 54% compared to a conventional diesel-electric locomotive efficiency of 35%. Incorporation of properly calibrated feedback and feed-forward controls enables substantial load following of difficult transients that result from train kinematics while maintaining turbomachinery operating requirements and suppressing thermal stresses in the fuel cell stack. The power split between the SOFC and gas turbine is deduced to be a deterministic factor in the balance between capital and operational costs. Using hydrogen results in no emissions if renewable and offers a potential of 24.2% fuel energy savings for the rail industry.

  15. Thermal characterizations of the paraffin wax/low density polyethylene blends as a solid fuel

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kim, Soojong; Moon, Heejang; Kim, Jinkon

    2015-01-01

    Highlights: • Regression rate of blends fuel is higher than polymer fuel. • LDPE is an effective mixing ingredient for the combustion efficiency. • Blends fuel is a uniform mixture with two degradation steps. • LDPE plays a positive role for the low sensitivity to the thermal deformation • Blends with low LDPE content can be an effective fuel for hybrid rocket application. - Abstract: Thermal characterizations of a novel solid fuel for hybrid rocket application, based on the paraffin wax blends with low density polyethylene (LDPE) concentration of 5% (SF-5) and 10% (SF-10) were conducted. Both the increased regression rate in comparison with the polymeric fuel, and the improved combustion efficiency in comparison with the pure paraffin fuel reveal that the blend fuels achieve higher combustion performance. The morphology of the shape stabilized paraffin wax/LDPE blends was characterized by the scanning electron microscopy (SEM). Although the SEM observation indicated the blends have uniform mixtures, they showed two degradation steps confirming the immiscibility of components in the crystalline phase from thermogravimetric analysis (TGA). The differential scanning calorimeter (DSC) results showed that the melting temperature of LDPE in the blends decreased with an increase of paraffin wax content. The decreasing total specific melting enthalpy of blended fuels with decreasing paraffin wax content is in fairly good agreement with the additive rule. In thermomechanical analysis (TMA), the linear coefficient of thermal expansion (LCTE) seems to decrease with an increase of LDPE loading, however, the loaded LDPE do merely affect the LCTE in case of the blends with low LDPE concentration. It was found that a blend of low concentration of LDPE with a relatively high concentration of paraffin wax can lead to a potential novel fuel for rocket application, a contrary case with respect to the field of phase change materials (PCM) where a blend of high concentration

  16. Use of Solid Hydride Fuel for Improved long-Life LWR Core Designs. Final summary report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Greenspan, E

    2006-01-01

    The primary objective of this project was to assess the feasibility of improving the performance of PWR and BWR cores by using solid hydride fuels instead of the commonly used oxide fuel. The primary measure of performance considered is the bus-bar cost of electricity (COE). Additional performance measures considered are safety, fuel bundle design simplicity in particular for BWR's, and plutonium incineration capability. It was found that hydride fuel can safely operate in PWR's and BWR's without restricting the linear heat generation rate of these reactors relative to that attainable with oxide fuel. A couple of promising applications of hydride fuel in PWR's and BWR's were identified: (1) Eliminating dedicated water moderator volumes in BWR cores thus enabling to significantly increase the cooled fuel rods surface area as well as the coolant flow cross section area in a given volume fuel bundle while significantly reducing the heterogeneity of BWR fuel bundles thus achieving flatter pin-by-pin power distribution. The net result is a possibility to significantly increase the core power density ? on the order of 30% and, possibly, more, while greatly simplifying the fuel bundle design. Implementation of the above modifications is, though, not straightforward; it requires a design of completely different control system that could probably be implemented only in newly designed plants. It also requires increasing the coolant pressure drop across the core. (2) Recycling plutonium in PWR's more effectively than is possible with oxide fuel by virtue of a couple of unique features of hydride fuel reduced inventory of U-238 and increased inventory of hydrogen. As a result, the hydride fueled core achieves nearly double the average discharge burnup and the fraction of the loaded Pu it incinerates in one pass is double that of the MOX fuel. The fissile fraction of the Pu in the discharged hydride fuel is only ∼2/3 that of the MOX fuel and the discharged hydride fuel is

  17. A simulation study of Solid Oxide fuel cell for IGCC power generation using Aspen Plus

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rudra, Souman; Kim, Hyung Taek

    2010-01-01

    The solid oxide fuel cell (SOFC) is a promising technology for electricity generation. Sulfur free syngas from the gas cleaning unit serves as a fuel for SOFC in IGFC (Integrated gasification Fuel cell) power plant. It converts the chemical energy of the fuel gas directly to electric energy and t...... with respect to a variety of SOFC inputs. SOFC stack operation on syn-gas is compared to operation on different coal properties and as expected there is a drop in performance, which is attributed to increased input fuel and air flow due to the lower quality of the fuel gas....... and therefore, very high efficiencies can be achieved. The high operating temperature of the SOFC also provides excellent possibilities for cogeneration application. The outputs from SOFC can be utilized by HRSG which helps to drive steam generator. Recent developments in modeling techniques has resulted...... in a more accurate fuel cell model giving an advantage over previous system studies based on simplified SOFC models. The objective of this work is to develop a simulation model of a SOFC for IGFC system, flexible enough for use in future development, capable of predicting system performance under various...

  18. Solid-oxide fuel cell operated on in situ catalytic decomposition products of liquid hydrazine

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gu, Hongxia; Ran, Ran; Zhou, Wei; Shao, Zongping; Jin, Wanqin; Xu, Nanping; Ahn, Jeongmin

    Hydrazine was examined as a fuel for a solid-oxide fuel cell (SOFC) that employed a typical nickel-based anode. An in situ catalytic decomposition of hydrazine at liquid state under room temperature and ambient pressure before introducing to the fuel cell was developed by applying a Ba 0.5Sr 0.5Co 0.8Fe 0.2O 3- δ (BSCF) oxide catalyst. Catalytic testing demonstrated that liquid N 2H 4 can be decomposed to gaseous NH 3 and H 2 at a favorable rate and at a temperature as low as 20 °C and H 2 selectivity reaching values as high as 10% at 60 °C. Comparable fuel cell performance was observed using either the in situ decomposition products of hydrazine or pure hydrogen as fuel. A peak power density of ∼850 mW cm -2 at 900 °C was obtained with a typical fuel cell composed of scandia-stabilized zirconia and La 0.8Sr 0.2MnO 3 cathode. The high energy and power density, easy storage and simplicity in fuel delivery make it highly attractive for portable applications.

  19. A high-performance cathode for the next generation of solid-oxide fuel cells

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shao, Zongping; Haile, Sossina M.

    2004-09-01

    Fuel cells directly and efficiently convert chemical energy to electrical energy. Of the various fuel cell types, solid-oxide fuel cells (SOFCs) combine the benefits of environmentally benign power generation with fuel flexibility. However, the necessity for high operating temperatures (800-1,000°C) has resulted in high costs and materials compatibility challenges. As a consequence, significant effort has been devoted to the development of intermediate-temperature (500-700°C) SOFCs. A key obstacle to reduced-temperature operation of SOFCs is the poor activity of traditional cathode materials for electrochemical reduction of oxygen in this temperature regime. Here we present Ba0.5Sr0.5Co0.8Fe0.2O3-δ(BSCF) as a new cathode material for reduced-temperature SOFC operation. BSCF, incorporated into a thin-film doped ceria fuel cell, exhibits high power densities (1,010mWcm-2 and 402mWcm-2 at 600°C and 500°C, respectively) when operated with humidified hydrogen as the fuel and air as the cathode gas. We further demonstrate that BSCF is ideally suited to `single-chamber' fuel-cell operation, where anode and cathode reactions take place within the same physical chamber. The high power output of BSCF cathodes results from the high rate of oxygen diffusion through the material. By enabling operation at reduced temperatures, BSCF cathodes may result in widespread practical implementation of SOFCs.

  20. Mutagenicity of particle emissions from solid fuel cookstoves: A literature review and research perspective.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shen, Guofeng

    2017-07-01

    Household solid fuel use is a major source of many air pollutants causing severe air pollution and adverse health outcomes. In evaluation of health impacts of household air pollution, it is essential to characterize toxic properties like mutagenicity of residential fuel combustion emissions and exposure assessments. Mutagenicity of emissions from solid fuel cookstoves were analyzed through a literature review. T98 and TA100 strains are two most widely used strains in mutagenic Ames test, and results for these two strains are generally positively correlated though they have different endpoints. Direct and indirect mutagenic activities are positively correlated, and statistically insignificantly different though indirect mutagenic emissions are apparently higher. Mutagenicity emission factors on the basis of fuel energy (MJ) or useful energy delivered (MJd) for solid fuel cookstoves vary in nearly 3 orders of magnitude, ranging from 3.0×10 4 rev./MJd to 1.8×10 7 rev./MJd (or 1.1×10 4 rev./MJ to 4.2×10 6 rev./MJ). Low mutagenic emissions are reported for high efficiency stoves such as a forced-draft one. Mutagenicity emission factors are positively correlated with emissions of PM 2.5 . Relationship between mutagenicity and polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) emissions is inconsistent among studies as PAHs are minor fractions of toxic organics contributing to the total mutagenicity. Generally, studies on mutagenicity of emissions from household cookstoves are very limited, and future studies are encouraged on mutagenic emissions from different fuel types and household stoves, evaluation of mutagenic activities of both gaseous and particulate emissions, and toxicology and exposure assessments of household air pollution. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  1. Kinetic Studies on State of the Art Solid Oxide Cells – A Comparison between Hydrogen/Steam and Reformate Fuels

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Njodzefon, Jean-Claude; Graves, Christopher R.; Mogensen, Mogens Bjerg

    2015-01-01

    Electrochemical reaction kinetics at the electrodes of Solid Oxide Cells (SOCs) were investigated at 700 °C for two cells with different fuel electrode microstructures as well as on a third cell with a reduced active electrode area. Three fuel mixtures were investigated – hydrogen....../steam and reformate fuels hydrogen/carbon-dioxide and hydrogen/methane/steam. It was found that the kinetics at the fuel electrode were exactly the same in both reformates. The hydrogen/steam fuel displayed slightly faster kinetics than the reformate fuels. Furthermore the gas conversion impedance in the hydrogen....../steam fuel split into two processes with opposing temperature behavior in the reformate fuels. An 87.5% reduction in active electrode area diminishes the gas conversion impedance in the hydrogen/steam fuel at high fuel flow rates. In both reformates, the second and third lowest frequency processes merged...

  2. Micro solid oxide fuel cell on the chip. Final report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Stutz, M.; Hotz, N.; Bieri, N.; Poulikakos, D.

    2006-07-01

    The aim of this project is the numerical and experimental investigation of hydrocarbon-to-syngas reforming in micro reformers for incorporation into an entire micro fuel cell system. Numerical simulations are used to achieve deeper understanding of several determining aspects in such a micro reformer. These insights are used to optimize the reforming performance by proper choice of operational and geometrical parameters of a reformer. These numerical results are continued by comprehensive experimental studies. In the first chapter, the effect of wall conduction of a tubular methane micro reformer is investigated numerically. Methane is used as the representative hydrocarbon because its detailed surface reaction mechanism is known. It is found that the axial wall conduction can strongly influence the performance of the microreactor and should not be neglected without a careful a priori investigation of its impact. In the second chapter, the effect of the catalyst amount and reactor geometry on the reforming process was investigated. It was found that the hydrogen selectivity changes significantly with varying catalyst loading. Thus, the reaction path leading to higher hydrogen production becomes more important by increasing the catalyst surface site density on the active surface. Another unexpected result is the presence of optimum channel geometry and optimum catalyst amount. In the third chapter of this project, the capability of flame-made Rh/Ce{sub 0.5}Zr{sub 0.5}O{sub 2} nanoparticles catalyzing the reforming of butane to H{sub 2}- and CO-rich syngas was investigated experimentally in a packed bed reactor. The main goal of this study was the efficient reforming of butane at temperatures between 500 and 600 {sup o}C for a micro intermediate-temperature SOFC system. Our results showed that Rh/Ce{sub 0.5}Zr{sub 0.5}O{sub 2} nanoparticles proved to be a very promising material for butane-to-syngas reforming with complete butane conversion and a hydrogen yield of 77

  3. Municipal Solid Waste Gasification with Solid Oxide Fuel Cells and Stirling Engine

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rokni, Masoud

    2014-01-01

    Municipal Solid Waste (MSW) can be considered a valid biomass to be used in a power plant. The major advantage is the reduction of pollutants and greenhouse gases emissions not only within large cities but also globally. Another advantage is that by th eir use it is possible to reduce the waste......, waste is subject to chemical treatments through air or/and steam utilization; the result is a synthesis gas, called “Syngas” which is principally composed of hydrogen and carbon monoxide. Traces of hydrogen sulfide could also be present which can easily be separated in a desulfurization reactor...... studied to optimize the plant efficiency in terms of operating conditions. Compared with modern waste incinerators with heat recovery, the gasification process integrated with SOFC and Stirling engine permits an increase in electricity output up of 50%, which means that the solid waste gasification...

  4. Operation strategy for solid oxide fuel cell systems for small-scale stationary applications

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Liso, Vincenzo; Nielsen, Mads Pagh; Kær, Søren Knudsen

    2009-01-01

    Solid oxide fuel cell micro cogeneration systems have the potential to reduce domestic energy consumption by providing both heat and power on site without transmission losses. The high grade heat produced during the operation of the power causes high thermal transients during startup....../shutdown phases and degrades the fuel cells. To counteract the degradation, the system has not to be stressed with rapid load variation during the operation. The analysis will consider an average profile for heat and power demand of a family house. Finally data analysis and power system limitations will be used...

  5. Residential Systems Based on Solid Oxide Fuel Cells for Scandinavian Climate

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rokni, Masoud; Vialetto, Giulio

    2015-01-01

    Energy saving is an open point in most European countries where energy policies are oriented to reduce the use of fossil fuels, greenhouses emissions and energy independence and to increase the use of renewable energies. In the last several years, new technologies have been developed, and some...... of them received subsidies to increase installation and reduce cost. This article presents an innovative cogeneration system based on a solid oxide fuel cell (SOFC) system and heat pump for household applications with a focus on primary energy and economic savings using electric equivalent load parameter...

  6. Bond layer for a solid oxide fuel cell, and related processes and devices

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wu, Jian; Striker, Todd-Michael; Renou, Stephane; Gaunt, Simon William

    2017-03-21

    An electrically-conductive layer of material having a composition comprising lanthanum and strontium is described. The material is characterized by a microstructure having bimodal porosity. Another concept in this disclosure relates to a solid oxide fuel cell attached to at least one cathode interconnect by a cathode bond layer. The bond layer includes a microstructure having bimodal porosity. A fuel cell stack which incorporates at least one of the cathode bond layers is also described herein, along with related processes for forming the cathode bond layer.

  7. High temperature solid oxide regenerative fuel cell for solar photovoltaic energy storage

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bents, David J.

    1987-01-01

    A hydrogen-oxygen regenerative fuel cell energy storage system based on high temperature solid oxide fuel cell technology is discussed which has application to darkside energy storage for solar photovoltaics. The forward and reverse operating cycles are described, and heat flow, mass, and energy balance data are presented to characterize the system's performance and the variation of performance with changing reactant storage pressure. The present system weighs less than nickel hydrogen battery systems after 0.7 darkside operation, and it maintains a specific weight advantage over radioisotope generators for discharge periods up to 72 hours.

  8. Design of Waste Gasification Energy Systems with Solid Oxide Fuel Cells

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rokni, Masoud

    2017-01-01

    Energy saving is an open point in most European countries where energy policies are oriented to reduce the use of fossil fuels, greenhouses emissions and energy independence, and to increase the use of renewable energies. In the last several years, new technologies have been developed and some...... of them received subsidies to increase installation and reduce cost. This article presents a new sustainable trigeneration system (power, heat and cool) based on a solid oxide fuel cell (SOFC) system integrated with an absorption chiller for special applications such as hotels, resorts, hospitals, etc...

  9. Thermodynamic Analysis of a Woodchips Gasification Integrated with Solid Oxide Fuel Cell and Stirling Engine

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rokni, Masoud

    2013-01-01

    Integrated gasification Solid Oxide Fuel Cell (SOFC) and Stirling engine for combined heat and power application is analysed. The target for electricity production is 120 kW. Woodchips are used as gasification feedstock to produce syngas which is utilized for feeding the SOFC stacks for electricity...... and suggested. Thermodynamic analysis shows that a thermal efficiency of 42.4% based on LHV (lower heating value) can be achieved. Different parameter studies are performed to analysis system behaviour under different conditions. The analysis show that increasing fuel mass flow from the design point results...

  10. Simulation of tubular solid oxide fuel cell behavior for integration into gas turbine cycles

    Science.gov (United States)

    Haynes, Comas Lamar

    Models have been developed and validated for the characterization of tubular solid oxide fuel cells (TSOFCs) and a corresponding fuel cell/gas turbine (FC/GT) power cycle. This promising area of technology is expected to attain near-term commercialization (most notably the SiemensWestinghouse "SureCell" initiative). There is a need for continued conceptual design research in order for the full potential of these systems to be realized. Parametric studies were performed to delineate the impact of cell stack operating conditions on power generation, cell stack thermal management, independent cell load-following and performance quality. The diverse operating conditions included variations in physical cell design, stack pressure, operating voltage, stoichiometric number and stack fuel utilization. A number of novel findings are reported throughout the thesis. As an example, it has been shown that lowering cell stack fuel utilization has a number of benefits for both the simple TSOFC arrangement and the hybrid TSOFC/ GT scenario. The cell stack produces more power at lower fuel utilizations, because fuel supply to the stack actually increases. Additionally, fuel depletion issues (i.e., Nernst potential decrease and smaller limiting currents) are not as influential. A gas turbine bottoming engine would also increase in power production, at lower stack fuel utilizations, because a greater amount of fuel would then fire it. Note that power generation expense is measured per unit rating (e.g., $/kW). Increasing power capacity may then be a means of lowering cost, which is the key obstacle to commercialization. Another cost reduction may stein from the greater contribution of turbomachinery to system power generation, when stack fuel utilization is lowered. FC/GT system efficiency remains stable across a wide domain of cell stack fuel utilizations. This is a result of both the indirect internally reforming (IIR) fuel processor efficiency and Brayton cycle regeneration

  11. Quality Assurance of Solid Oxide Fuel Cell (SOFC) and Electrolyser (SOEC) Stacks

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lang, Michael; Auer, Corinna; Couturier, Karine

    2017-01-01

    In the EU-funded project “Solid oxide cell and stack testing and quality assurance” (SOCTESQA) standardized and industry wide test modules and programs for high temperature solid oxide cells and stacks are being developed. These test procedures can be applied for the fuel cell (SOFC......), the electrolysis (SOEC) and in the combined SOFC/SOEC mode. In order to optimize the test modules the project partners have tested identical SOC stacks with the same test programs in several testing campaigns. Altogether 10 pre-normative test modules were developed: Start-up, current-voltage characteristics...

  12. Binder Jetting: A Novel Solid Oxide Fuel-Cell Fabrication Process and Evaluation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Manogharan, Guha; Kioko, Meshack; Linkous, Clovis

    2015-03-01

    With an ever-growing concern to find a more efficient and less polluting means of producing electricity, fuel cells have constantly been of great interest. Fuel cells electrochemically convert chemical energy directly into electricity and heat without resorting to combustion/mechanical cycling. This article studies the solid oxide fuel cell (SOFC), which is a high-temperature (100°C to 1000°C) ceramic cell made from all solid-state components and can operate under a wide range of fuel sources such as hydrogen, methanol, gasoline, diesel, and gasified coal. Traditionally, SOFCs are fabricated using processes such as tape casting, calendaring, extrusion, and warm pressing for substrate support, followed by screen printing, slurry coating, spray techniques, vapor deposition, and sputter techniques, which have limited control in substrate microstructure. In this article, the feasibility of engineering the porosity and configuration of an SOFC via an additive manufacturing (AM) method known as binder jet printing was explored. The anode, cathode and oxygen ion-conducting electrolyte layers were fabricated through AM sequentially as a complete fuel cell unit. The cell performance was measured in two modes: (I) as an electrolytic oxygen pump and (II) as a galvanic electricity generator using hydrogen gas as the fuel. An analysis on influence of porosity was performed through SEM studies and permeability testing. An additional study on fuel cell material composition was conducted to verify the effects of binder jetting through SEM-EDS. Electrical discharge of the AM fabricated SOFC and nonlinearity of permeability tests show that, with additional work, the porosity of the cell can be modified for optimal performance at operating flow and temperature conditions.

  13. Biogenic Emission Sources

    Science.gov (United States)

    Biogenic emissions sources come from natural sources and need to accounted for in photochemical grid models. They are computed using a model which utilizes spatial information on vegetation and land use.

  14. TECHNOLOGY FOR EFFICIENT USAGE OF HYDROCARBON-CONTAINING WASTE IN PRODUCTION OF MULTI-COMPONENT SOLID FUEL

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    B. M. Khroustalev

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available The paper considers modern approaches to usage of hydrocarbon-containing waste as energy resources and presents description of investigations, statistic materials, analysis results on formation of hydrocarbon-containing waste in the Republic of Belarus. Main problems pertaining to usage of waste as a fuel and technologies for their application have been given in the paper. The paper describes main results of the investigations and a method for efficient application of viscous hydrocarbon-containing waste as an energy-packed component and a binding material while producing a solid fuel. A technological scheme, a prototype industrial unit which are necessary to realize a method for obtaining multi-component solid fuel are represented in the paper. A paper also provides a model of technological process with efficient sequence of technological operations and parameters of optimum component composition. Main factors exerting significant structure-formation influence in creation of structural composition of multi-component solid fuel have been presented in the paper. The paper gives a graphical representation of the principle for selection of mixture particles of various coarseness to form a solid fuel while using a briquetting method and comprising viscous hydrocarbon-containing waste. A dependence of dimensionless concentration g of emissions into atmosphere during burning of two-component solid fuel has been described in the paper. The paper analyzes an influence of the developed methodology for emission calculation of multi-component solid fuels and reveals a possibility to optimize the component composition in accordance with ecological function and individual peculiar features of fuel-burning equipment. Special features concerning storage and transportation, advantages and disadvantages, comparative characteristics, practical applicability of the developed multi-component solid fuel have been considered and presented in the paper. The paper

  15. Design and optimization of a combined fuel reforming and solid oxide fuel cell system with anode off-gas recycling

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lee, Tae Seok; Chung, J.N.; Chen, Yen-Cho

    2011-01-01

    Highlights: → In this work, an analytical, parametric study is performed to evaluate the feasibility and performance of a combined fuel reforming and SOFC system. → Specifically the effects of adding the anode off-gas recycling and recirculation components and the CO 2 absorbent unit are investigated. → The AOG recycle ratio increases with increasing S/C ratio and the addition of AOG recycle eliminates the need for external water consumption. → The key finding is that for the SOFC operating at 900 deg. C with the steam to carbon ratio at 5 and no AOG recirculation, the system efficiency peaks. - Abstract: An energy conversion and management concept for a combined system of a solid oxide fuel cell coupled with a fuel reforming device is developed and analyzed by a thermodynamic and electrochemical model. The model is verified by an experiment and then used to evaluate the overall system performance and to further suggest an optimal design strategy. The unique feature of the system is the inclusion of the anode off-gas recycle that eliminates the need of external water consumption for practical applications. The system performance is evaluated as a function of the steam to carbon ratio, fuel cell temperature, anode off gas recycle ratio and CO 2 adsorption percentage. For most of the operating conditions investigated, the system efficiency starts at around 70% and then monotonically decreases to the average of 50% at the peak power density before dropping down to zero at the limiting current density point. From an engineering application point of view, the proposed combined fuel reforming and SOFC system with a range of efficiency between 50% and 70% is considered very attractive. It is suggested that the optimal system is the one where the SOFC operates around 900 deg. C with S/C ratio higher than 3, maximum CO 2 capture, and minimum AOG recirculation.

  16. Characterization of Solid Oxide Fuel Cell Components Using Electromagnetic Model-Based Sensors

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zilberstein, Vladimir; Craven, Chris; Goldfine, Neil

    2004-12-28

    In this Phase I SBIR, the contractor demonstrated a number of capabilities of model-based sensors such as MWM sensors and MWM-Arrays. The key results include (1) porosity/microstructure characterization for anodes, (2) potential for cathode material characterization, (3) stress measurements in nickel and cobalt, and (4) potential for stress measurements in non-magnetic materials with a ferromagnetic layer. In addition, potential applications for manufacturing quality control of nonconductive layers using interdigitated electrode dielectrometers have been identified. The results indicate that JENTEK's MWM technology can be used to significantly reduce solid oxide fuel cell production and operating costs in a number of ways. Preliminary investigations of solid oxide fuel cell health monitoring and scale-up issues to address industry needs have also been performed.

  17. Biomass gasification integrated with a solid oxide fuel cell and Stirling engine

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rokni, Masoud

    2014-01-01

    An integrated gasification solid oxide fuel cell (SOFC) and Stirling engine for combined heat and power application is analyzed. The target for electricity production is 120 kW. Woodchips are used as gasification feedstock to produce syngas, which is then used to feed the SOFC stacks for electric......An integrated gasification solid oxide fuel cell (SOFC) and Stirling engine for combined heat and power application is analyzed. The target for electricity production is 120 kW. Woodchips are used as gasification feedstock to produce syngas, which is then used to feed the SOFC stacks......-of-plant is designed and suggested. Thermodynamic analysis shows that a thermal efficiency of 42.4% based on the lower heating value (LHV) can be achieved if all input parameters are selected conservatively. Different parameter studies are performed to analyze the system behavior under different conditions...

  18. Secondary creep of porous metal supports for solid oxide fuel cells by a CDM approach

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Esposito, L.; Boccaccini, D. N.; Pucillo, G. P.

    2017-01-01

    The creep behaviour of porous iron-chromium alloy used in solid oxide fuel cells (SOFCs) becomes relevant under SOFC operating temperatures. In this paper, the secondary creep stage of infiltrated and non-infiltrated porous metal supports (MS) was investigated and theoretically modelled by a cont......The creep behaviour of porous iron-chromium alloy used in solid oxide fuel cells (SOFCs) becomes relevant under SOFC operating temperatures. In this paper, the secondary creep stage of infiltrated and non-infiltrated porous metal supports (MS) was investigated and theoretically modelled...... as function of temperature, determined by the high temperature impulse excitation technique, was directly used to account for the porosity and the related effective stress acting during the creep tests. The proposed creep rate formulation was used to extend the Crofer® 22 APU Monkman-Grant diagram...

  19. Aqueous Leaching Prior to Dewatering Improves the Quality of Solid Fuels from Grasslands

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Frank Hensgen

    2018-04-01

    Full Text Available Renewable energies are necessary to reduce greenhouse gas emissions in energy production, and biomass plays a dominant role in the renewable energy sector. Combustion of biomass constitutes an efficient conversion technique, but is hindered by harmful elements which are frequently contained in residual grassland biomass. We investigated the effect of leaching on solid fuel quality with three independent experiments including the following treatments: (1 with or without leaching, (2 with leaching at various water to silage ratios and (3 with the use of press liquid versus fresh water. Biomass was mechanically dehydrated and press cakes for combustion were produced and analyzed for their concentrations of ash, N and minerals harmful for combustion. Solid fuel quality was improved by leaching prior to dewatering, and the application of higher proportions of fresh water enabled even higher quality to be attained.

  20. Creep behaviour of porous metal supports for solid oxide fuel cells

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Boccaccini, Dino; Frandsen, Henrik Lund; Sudireddy, Bhaskar Reddy

    2014-01-01

    The creep behaviour of porous ironechromium alloy used as solid oxide fuel cell support was investigated, and the creep parameters are compared with those of dense strips of similar composition under different testing conditions. The creep parameters were determined using a thermo-mechanical anal......The creep behaviour of porous ironechromium alloy used as solid oxide fuel cell support was investigated, and the creep parameters are compared with those of dense strips of similar composition under different testing conditions. The creep parameters were determined using a thermo......-mechanical analyser with applied stresses in the range from 1 to 15 MPa and temperatures between 650 and 800 _C. The GibsoneAshby and Mueller models developed for uniaxial creep of open-cell foams were used to analyse the results. The influence of scale formation on creep behaviour was assessed by comparing the creep...

  1. Multi-physicochemical modeling of direct methane fueled solid oxide fuel cells

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xie, Yuanyuan; Ding, Hanping; Xue, Xingjian

    2013-11-01

    Both H2-H2O and CO-CO2 electro-oxidation processes are considered in direct methane fueled SOFC model and incorporated into the comprehensive couplings between multi bulk transport processes, diffusion processes, surface chemical processes and the cell polarization performance. The model is validated using the experimental data of polarization performance at 600 °C, 650 °C and 700 °C respectively. Upon the model validation, extensive simulations are carried out to elucidate the complicated interaction mechanisms with emphasis on surface reaction processes and surface adsorbates under SOFC operating conditions. Results show that the surface reactions of methane are strongly dependent on the cell operating conditions and increase with increasing the operating temperature and cell current. The bulk gas species and surface adsorbates show different degree of sensitivities to cell operating conditions. Surface carbon deposition can be mitigated through increasing the operating temperature, the cell operating current, and the exchange current of electrodes as well as suitable increasing H2O content in the fuel. Surface carbon deposition may also be mitigated through suitable reducing the content of CH4, CO, and/or CO2 in the fuel.

  2. Characterization of Korean solid recovered fuels (SRFs): an analysis and comparison of SRFs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Choi, Yeon-Seok; Han, Soyoung; Choi, Hang-Seok; Kim, Seock-Joon

    2012-04-01

    To date, Korea has used four species of solid recovered fuels (SRFs) which have been certified by the Environmental Ministry of Korea: refuse-derived fuel (RDF), refused plastic fuel (RPF), tyre-derived fuel (TDF), and wood chip fuel (WCF). These fuels have been used in many industrial boilers. In this study, seven regulatory properties associated with each of the four species: particle size, moisture and ash content, lower heating value (LHV), total chlorine, sulfur, and heavy metals content (Pb, As, Cd, Hg, Cr) were analysed. These properties are the main regulation criteria for the usage and transfer of SRFs in Korea. Different properties of each SRF were identified on the basis of data collected over the last 3 years in Korea, and the manufacturing process problem associated with the production of SRFs were considered. It was found that the high moisture content of SRFs (especially WCF) could directly lead to the low LHV of SRFs and that the poor screening and sorting of raw materials could cause defective SRF products with high ash or chlorine contents. The information obtained from this study could contribute to the manufacturing of SRF with good quality.

  3. Biodiesel fuel production with solid amorphous-zirconia catalysis in fixed bed reactor

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Furuta, Satoshi; Matsuhashi, Hiromi; Arata, Kazushi

    2006-01-01

    Amorphous zirconia catalysts, titanium-, aluminum-, and potassium-doped zirconias, were prepared and evaluated in the transesterification of soybean oil with methanol at 250 deg. C, and the esterification of n-octanoic acid with methanol at 175-200 deg. C. Titanium- and aluminum-doped zirconias are promising solid catalysts for the production of biodiesel fuels from soybean oil because of their high performance, with over 95% conversion in both of the esterifications

  4. Design and performance of tubular flat-plate solid oxide fuel cell

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Matsushima, T.; Ikeda, D.; Kanagawa, H. [NTT Integrated Information & Energy Systems Labs., Tokyo (Japan)] [and others

    1996-12-31

    With the growing interest in conserving the environmental conditions, much attention is being paid to Solid Oxide Fuel Cell (SOFC), which has high energy-conversion efficiency. Many organizations have conducted studies on tubular and flat type SOFCs. Nippon Telegraph and Telephone Corporation (NTT) has studied a combined tubular flat-plate SOFC, and already presented the I-V characteristics of a single cell. Here, we report the construction of a stack of this SOFC cell and successful generation tests results.

  5. A novel electronic current-blocked stable mixed ionic conductor for solid oxide fuel cells

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Sun, Wenping; Jiang, Yinzhu; Wang, Yanfei; Fang, S.; Zhu, Zhiwen; Liu, Wei

    2011-01-01

    A novel ionic conductor, BaCe0.8Sm0.2O3¿¿¿Ce0.8Sm0.2O2¿¿ (BCS¿SDC, weight ratio 1:1), is reported as an electrolyte material for solid oxide fuel cells (SOFCs). Homogeneous BCS¿SDC composite powders are synthesized via a one-step gel combustion method. The BCS and SDC crystalline grains play a role

  6. A novel electronic current-blocked stable mixed ionic conductor for solid oxide fuel cells

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Sun, Wenping; Jiang, Yinzhu; Wang, Yanfei; Fang, S.; Zhu, Zhiwen; Liu, Wei

    2011-01-01

    A novel ionic conductor, BaCe0.8Sm0.2O3−δ–Ce0.8Sm0.2O2−δ (BCS–SDC, weight ratio 1:1), is reported as an electrolyte material for solid oxide fuel cells (SOFCs). Homogeneous BCS–SDC composite powders are synthesized via a one-step gel combustion method. The BCS and SDC crystalline grains play a role

  7. Highly durable anode supported solid oxide fuel cell with an infiltrated cathode

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Samson, Alfred Junio; Hjalmarsson, Per; Søgaard, Martin

    2012-01-01

    An anode supported solid oxide fuel cell with an La0.6Sr0.4Co1.05O3_δ (LSC) infiltrated-Ce0.9Gd0.1O1.95 (CGO) cathode that shows a stable performance has been developed. The cathode was prepared by screen printing a porous CGO backbone on top of a laminated and co-fired anode supported half cell...

  8. Thermomechanical stresses in the ceramic and cerametallic layers of tube solid oxide fuel elements

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khrustov, A. V.; Gorelov, V. P.

    2013-10-01

    A model is proposed to calculate the residual thermomechanical stresses in the layers of a tube solid oxide fuel cell (SOFC) that are caused by the difference between the linear thermal expansion coefficients of these layers. The distributions of the residual stresses in the cell layers that appear during the production of SOFC and under operating conditions are determined, and the regions of probable failure in the cell are revealed.

  9. Advances in medium and high temperature solid oxide fuel cell technology

    CERN Document Server

    Salvatore, Aricò

    2017-01-01

    In this book well-known experts highlight cutting-edge research priorities and discuss the state of the art in the field of solid oxide fuel cells giving an update on specific subjects such as protonic conductors, interconnects, electrocatalytic and catalytic processes and modelling approaches. Fundamentals and advances in this field are illustrated to help young researchers address issues in the characterization of materials and in the analysis of processes, not often tackled in scholarly books.

  10. Design of an extrusion screw and solid fuel produced from coconut shell

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Madhiyanon, T

    2006-03-01

    Full Text Available The objectives were to design an extrusion screw to produce biomass solid fuel in a cold extrusion process, and investigate the effects of molasses used as a selected adhesive on the physical properties of extruded products. The material employed consisted of crushed coconut shell char and coconut fiber char mixed at a ratio of 40:60. The ratios of molasses in the mixture were 10:100, 15:100 and 20:100 (by weight and the extrusion die angles were 1.0, 1.1, 1.2, and 1.3 degrees gradation per experiment. The experimental results showed that the newly designed screw could function properly in the output range 0.75-0.90 kg/min, which is close to the design value. Regarding the molasses's effect on solid fuel properties, increasing the share of molasses was positive for both output and strength of the resulting briquettes, whereas the results of increasing die angle showed decreases in both output and strength. The compressive strength varied between 2.49-2.87 MPa in all circumstances, which was considerably higher than acceptable industrial level. Furthermore, the extruded solid fuel showed excellent resistance to impact force. Regarding energy consumption, the amount of electrical energy used in the extrusion process was insignificant, ranging between 0.040-0.079 kWh/kg.

  11. Biomass energy utilization in the Pacific Northwest: impacts associated with residential use of solid fuels

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Petty, P.; Hopp, W.; Chockie, A.

    1981-05-01

    The Pacific Northwest Region, including Washington, Oregon, and Idaho, is the geographic area for which an impact assessment of the residential use of solid fuels is performed. Increased use of solid fuels in the residential sector has led to a marked decline in per household use of other forms of energy. An estimate of the potential energy contained in the fuelwood burned annually and an estimate of the mean conversion efficiency of the regional capital stock of woodburning appliances leads to a reasoned assessment of the contribution of wood energy to the residential energy use in the region. The use of solid fuels has been associated with an increase in the incidence of residential fires nationally. This is also true of the Pacific Northwest Region. An estimate is made of the economic costs attributable to this source of fire incidence. An additional area of concern relates to the harvesting practices of hundreds of individuals, cutting fuelwood for their own use. Statistics describing injuries and deaths per Btu in the commercial logging industry are used as a basis for an estimate of injuries and deaths resulting from the increased collection of forest residues and fuelwood by private woodcutters. This analysis indicates that the private harvest of fuelwood may be extremely costly in terms of injuries and deaths suffered by private woodcutters in the region.

  12. Numerical simulation of mass and energy transport phenomena in solid oxide fuel cells

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Arpino, F. [Dipartimento di Meccanica, Strutture, Ambiente e Territorio (DiMSAT), University of Cassino, via Di Biasio 43, Cassino (Italy); Massarotti, N. [Dipertimento per le Tecnologie (DiT), University of Naples ' ' Parthenope' ' , Centro Direzionale, isola C4, 80143 Napoli (Italy)

    2009-12-15

    Solid Oxide Fuel Cells (SOFCs) represent a very promising technology for near future energy conversion thanks to a number of advantages, including the possibility of using different fuels. In this paper, a detailed numerical model, based on a general mathematical description and on a finite element Characteristic based Split (CBS) algorithm code is employed to simulate mass and energy transport phenomena in SOFCs. The model predicts the thermodynamic quantity of interest in the fuel cell. Full details of the numerical solution obtained are presented both in terms of heat and mass transfer in the cell and in terms of electro-chemical reactions that occur in the system considered. The results obtained with the present algorithm is compared with the experimental data available in the literature for validation, showing an excellent agreement. (author)

  13. Improvement in retention of solid fission products in HTGR fuel particles by ceramic kernel additives

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Foerthmann, R.; Groos, E.; Gruebmeier, H.

    1975-08-01

    Increased requirements concerning the retention of long-lived solid fission products in fuel elements for use in advanced High Temperature Gas-cooled Reactors led to the development of coated particles with improved fission product retention of the kernel, which represent an alternative to silicon carbide-coated fuel particles. Two irradiation experiments have shown that the release of strontium, barium, and caesium from pyrocarbon-coated particles can be reduced by orders of magnitude if the oxide kernel contains alumina-silica additives. It was detected by electron microprobe analysis that the improved retention of the mentioned fission products in the fuel kernel is caused by formation of the stable aluminosilicates SrAl 2 Si 2 O 8 , BaAl 2 Si 2 O 8 and CsAlSi 2 O 6 in the additional aluminasilica phase of the kernel. (orig.) [de

  14. Characterized hydrochar of algal biomass for producing solid fuel through hydrothermal carbonization.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Park, Ki Young; Lee, Kwanyong; Kim, Daegi

    2018-06-01

    The aim of this work was to study the characterized hydrochar of algal biomass to produce solid fuel though hydrothermal carbonization. Hydrothermal carbonization conducted at temperatures ranging from 180 to 270 °C with a 60 min reaction improved the upgrading of the fuel properties and the dewatering of wet-basis biomasses such as algae. The carbon content, carbon recovery, energy recovery, and atomic C/O and C/H ratios in all the hydrochars in this study were improved. These characteristic changes in hydrochar from algal biomass are similar to the coalification reactions due to dehydration and decarboxylation with an increase in the hydrothermal reaction temperature. The results of this study indicate that hydrothermal carbonization can be used as an effective means of generating highly energy-efficient renewable fuel resources using algal biomass. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  15. New methodology of preparation support for solid oxide fuel cells using different pore forming agent

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fiuza, Raigenis da P.; Guedes, Bruna C.F.; Silva, Marcos A. da; Carvalho, Luiz F.V. de; Boaventura, Jaime S. [Universidade Federal da Bahia (IQ/UFBA), Salvador, BA (Brazil). Inst. de Quimica; Pontes, Luiz A.M. [Universidade Federal da Bahia (EP/UFBA), Salvador, BA (Brazil). Escola Politecnica. Programa de Pos-Graduacao em Engenharia Quimica

    2008-07-01

    The development of environment-friendly energy sources has been of the most important scientific and technological area. Solid oxide fuel cells (SOFC) are very promising alternative for their ability to handle renewable fuels with low emissions and high efficiency. However, this device requires massive improvement before commercial application. This work studies the pore formation in the cell anode and cathode with NaHCO{sub 3} or citric acid, comparing to graphite. The three agents make pore with similar features, but the use of NaHCO{sub 3} and citric acid considerably improves the adhesion of the electrode-electrolyte interface, critical characteristic for good cell efficiency. The prepared anode-electrolyte-cathode structure was studied by SEM technique. The SOFC prepared using citric acid was tested with gaseous ethanol, natural gas and hydrogen. For all these three fuels the SOFC shows virtually no overpotential, indicating the good ionic conductance of the electrodes-electrolyte interface.. (author)

  16. Dual Pressure versus Hybrid Recuperation in an Integrated Solid Oxide Fuel Cell Cycle – Steam Cycle

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rokni, Masoud

    2014-01-01

    A SOFC (solid oxide fuel cell) cycle running on natural gas was integrated with a ST (steam turbine) cycle. The fuel is desulfurized and pre-reformed before entering the SOFC. A burner was used to combust the remaining fuel after the SOFC stacks. The off-gases from the burner were used to produce...... steam in a HRSG (heat recovery steam generator). The bottoming steam cycle was modeled with two configurations: (1) a simple single pressure level and (2) a dual pressure level with both a reheat and a pre-heater. The SOFC stacks in the present SOFC-ST hybrid cycles were not pressurized. The dual...... pressure configuration steam cycle combined with SOFC cycle (SOFC-ST) was new and has not been studied previously. In each of the configuration, a hybrid recuperator was used to recovery the remaining energy of the off-gases after the HRSG. Thus, four different plants system setups were compared to each...

  17. Cost Study for Manufacturing of Solid Oxide Fuel Cell Power Systems

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Weimar, Mark R. [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States); Chick, Lawrence A. [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States); Gotthold, David W. [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States); Whyatt, Greg A. [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States)

    2013-09-30

    Solid oxide fuel cell (SOFC) power systems can be designed to produce electricity from fossil fuels at extremely high net efficiencies, approaching 70%. However, in order to penetrate commercial markets to an extent that significantly impacts world fuel consumption, their cost will need to be competitive with alternative generating systems, such as gas turbines. This report discusses a cost model developed at PNNL to estimate the manufacturing cost of SOFC power systems sized for ground-based distributed generation. The power system design was developed at PNNL in a study on the feasibility of using SOFC power systems on more electric aircraft to replace the main engine-mounted electrical generators [Whyatt and Chick, 2012]. We chose to study that design because the projected efficiency was high (70%) and the generating capacity was suitable for ground-based distributed generation (270 kW).

  18. Open-source computational model of a solid oxide fuel cell

    Science.gov (United States)

    Beale, Steven B.; Choi, Hae-Won; Pharoah, Jon G.; Roth, Helmut K.; Jasak, Hrvoje; Jeon, Dong Hyup

    2016-03-01

    The solid oxide fuel cell is an electro-chemical device which converts chemical energy into electricity and heat. To compete in today's market, design improvements, in terms of performance and life cycle, are required. Numerical prototypes can accelerate design and development progress. In this programme of research, a three-dimensional solid oxide fuel cell prototype, openFuelCell, based on open-source computational fluid dynamics software was developed and applied to a single cell. Transport phenomena, combined with the solution to the local Nernst equation for the open-circuit potential, as well as the Kirchhoff-Ohm relationship for the local current density, allow local electro-chemistry, fluid flow, multi-component species transport, and multi-region thermal analysis to be considered. The underlying physicochemical hydrodynamics, including porous-electrode and electro-chemical effects are described in detail. The openFuelCell program is developed in an object-oriented open-source C++ library. The code is available at http://openfuelcell.sourceforge.net/. The paper also describes domain decomposition techniques considered in the context of highly efficient parallel programming.

  19. Solid recovered fuel production from biodegradable waste in grain processing industry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kliopova, Irina; Staniskis, Jurgis Kazimieras; Petraskiene, Violeta

    2013-04-01

    Management of biodegradable waste is one of the most important environmental problems in the grain-processing industry since this waste cannot be dumped anymore due to legal requirements. Biodegradable waste is generated in each stage of grain processing, including the waste-water and air emissions treatment processes. Their management causes some environmental and financial problems. The majority of Lithuanian grain-processing enterprises own and operate composting sites, but in Lithuania the demand for compost is not given. This study focused on the analysis of the possibility of using biodegradable waste for the production of solid recovered fuel, as a local renewable fuel with the purpose of increasing environmental performance and decreasing the direct costs of grain processing. Experimental research with regard to a pilot grain-processing plant has proven that alternative fuel production will lead to minimizing of the volume of biodegradable waste by 75% and the volume of natural gas for heat energy production by 62%. Environmental indicators of grain processing, laboratory analysis of the chemical and physical characteristics of biodegradable waste, mass and energy balances of the solid recovered fuel production, environmental and economical benefits of the project are presented and discussed herein.

  20. TAPE CALENDERING MANUFACTURING PROCESS FOR MULTILAYER THIN-FILM SOLID OXIDE FUEL CELLS

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nguyen Minh; Kurt Montgomery

    2004-10-01

    This report summarizes the work performed by Hybrid Power Generation Systems, LLC during the Phases I and II under Contract DE-AC26-00NT40705 for the U. S. Department of Energy, National Energy Technology Laboratory (DOE/NETL) entitled ''Tape Calendering Manufacturing Process For Multilayer Thin-Film Solid Oxide Fuel Cells''. The main objective of this project was to develop the manufacturing process based on tape calendering for multilayer solid oxide fuel cells (SOFC's) using the unitized cell design concept and to demonstrate cell performance under specified operating conditions. Summarized in this report is the development and improvements to multilayer SOFC cells and the unitized cell design. Improvements to the multilayer SOFC cell were made in electrochemical performance, in both the anode and cathode, with cells demonstrating power densities of nearly 0.9 W/cm{sup 2} for 650 C operation and other cell configurations showing greater than 1.0 W/cm{sup 2} at 75% fuel utilization and 800 C. The unitized cell design was matured through design, analysis and development testing to a point that cell operation at greater than 70% fuel utilization was demonstrated at 800 C. The manufacturing process for both the multilayer cell and unitized cell design were assessed and refined, process maps were developed, forming approaches explored, and nondestructive evaluation (NDE) techniques examined.

  1. Estimating contributions from biomass burning, fossil fuel combustion, and biogenic carbon to carbonaceous aerosols in the Valley of Chamonix: a dual approach based on radiocarbon and levoglucosan

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    L. Bonvalot

    2016-11-01

    valleys. The non-fossil carbon concentrations are strongly correlated with the levoglucosan concentrations in winter samples, suggesting that almost all of the non-fossil carbon originates from wood combustion used for heating during winter. For summer samples, the joint use of 14C and levoglucosan measurements leads to a new model to separately quantify the contributions of biomass burning and biogenic emissions in the non-fossil fraction. The comparison of the biogenic fraction with polyols (a proxy for primary soil biogenic emissions and with the temperature suggests a major influence of the secondary biogenic aerosols. Significant correlations are found between the NOx concentration and the fossil carbon concentration for all seasons and sites, confirming the relation between road traffic emissions and fossil carbon. Overall, this dual approach combining radiocarbon and levoglucosan analyses strengthens the conclusion concerning the impact of biomass burning. Combining these geochemical data serves both to detect and quantify additional carbon sources. The Arve River valley provides the first illustration of aerosols of this model.

  2. Ignition et oxydation des particules de combustible solide pulvérisé Ignition and Oxidation of Pulverized Solid Fuel

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    De Soete G. G.

    2006-11-01

    élais d'ignition ont été déterminés pour un grand nombre de combustibles solides de rang inférieur et supérieur (charbons, cokes, asphaltènes, suies, bois, graphite. L'étude de la vitesse expérimentale de la combustion hétérogène, notamment l'étude de la température apparente d'activation, et sa dépendance par rapport à la taille des particules et à la concentration d'oxygène, montre que, dans les conditions des essais, cette combustion est contrôlée par la désorption du CO et se déroule principalement en régime cinético-diffusionnel mixte. L'étude de la dépendance des délais d'ignition par rapport à la température, la taille des particules et la pression partielle d'oxygène, suggère que, pendant ces délais, les réactions se déroulent en régime cinétique pur et que le produit des réactions de désorption est principalement le CO. The heated-grid method is used to investigate the competition between (1 the devolatilization and subsequent oxidation of pyrolysis products and (2 the ignition of the solid matrix and its rapid combustion. A comparison between the instant of ignition and the start of pyrolysis is used to determine the range in which ignition of a pyrolyzable solid fuel of the whole coal ignitiontype (i. e. when ignition occurs before pyrolysis becomes measurable occurs as a function of temperature, particle size and oxygen concentration. The results suggest that this type of ignition might occur, as a general rule, under conditions involving pulverized solid fuels in industrial flames. In the case of whole coalignition, the rate of combustion of the solid matrix is inhibited during the period following ignition. This inhibition is due partly to the difficulty oxygen has of spreading through the pores during the discharge of pyrolysis products and partly to preferential oxygen consumption during the oxidation of pyrolysis products, mainly when this oxidation develops in the form of flames. t is only when pyrolysis ends that

  3. Military Solid Waste Reformer: A Pilot Study to Convert Military Waste to Logistics Fuel in the Field

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Myers, Duane

    2004-01-01

    The Military Solid Waste Reformer project was a laboratory validation of conventional gasification and/or pyrolysis processes for the conversion of military field waste to liquid fuels in the field...

  4. Solid Oxide Fuel Cell/Turbine Hybrid Power System for Advanced Aero-propulsion and Power, Phase I

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — Solid oxide fuel cell (SOFC)/ gas turbine hybrid power systems (HPSs) have been recognized by federal agencies and other entities as having the potential to operate...

  5. Advanced manufacturing of intermediate temperature, direct methane oxidation membrane electrode assemblies for durable solid oxide fuel cell, Phase I

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — ITN proposes to create an innovative anode supported membrane electrode assembly (MEA) for solid oxide fuel cells (SOFCs) that is capable of long-term operation at...

  6. Models for solid oxide fuel cell systems exploitation of models hierarchy for industrial design of control and diagnosis strategies

    CERN Document Server

    Marra, Dario; Polverino, Pierpaolo; Sorrentino, Marco

    2016-01-01

    This book presents methodologies for optimal design of control and diagnosis strategies for Solid Oxide Fuel Cell systems. A key feature of the methodologies presented is the exploitation of modelling tools that balance accuracy and computational burden.

  7. Modelling carbonaceous aerosol from residential solid fuel burning with different assumptions for emissions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    R. Ots

    2018-04-01

    Full Text Available Evidence is accumulating that emissions of primary particulate matter (PM from residential wood and coal combustion in the UK may be underestimated and/or spatially misclassified. In this study, different assumptions for the spatial distribution and total emission of PM from solid fuel (wood and coal burning in the UK were tested using an atmospheric chemical transport model. Modelled concentrations of the PM components were compared with measurements from aerosol mass spectrometers at four sites in central and Greater London (ClearfLo campaign, 2012, as well as with measurements from the UK black carbon network.The two main alternative emission scenarios modelled were Base4x and combRedist. For Base4x, officially reported PM2.5 from the residential and other non-industrial combustion source sector were increased by a factor of four. For the combRedist experiment, half of the baseline emissions from this same source were redistributed by residential population density to simulate the effect of allocating some emissions to the smoke control areas (that are assumed in the national inventory to have no emissions from this source. The Base4x scenario yielded better daily and hourly correlations with measurements than the combRedist scenario for year-long comparisons of the solid fuel organic aerosol (SFOA component at the two London sites. However, the latter scenario better captured mean measured concentrations across all four sites. A third experiment, Redist – all emissions redistributed linearly to population density, is also presented as an indicator of the maximum concentrations an assumption like this could yield.The modelled elemental carbon (EC concentrations derived from the combRedist experiments also compared well with seasonal average concentrations of black carbon observed across the network of UK sites. Together, the two model scenario simulations of SFOA and EC suggest both that residential solid fuel emissions may be higher than

  8. Modelling carbonaceous aerosol from residential solid fuel burning with different assumptions for emissions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ots, Riinu; Heal, Mathew R.; Young, Dominique E.; Williams, Leah R.; Allan, James D.; Nemitz, Eiko; Di Marco, Chiara; Detournay, Anais; Xu, Lu; Ng, Nga L.; Coe, Hugh; Herndon, Scott C.; Mackenzie, Ian A.; Green, David C.; Kuenen, Jeroen J. P.; Reis, Stefan; Vieno, Massimo

    2018-04-01

    Evidence is accumulating that emissions of primary particulate matter (PM) from residential wood and coal combustion in the UK may be underestimated and/or spatially misclassified. In this study, different assumptions for the spatial distribution and total emission of PM from solid fuel (wood and coal) burning in the UK were tested using an atmospheric chemical transport model. Modelled concentrations of the PM components were compared with measurements from aerosol mass spectrometers at four sites in central and Greater London (ClearfLo campaign, 2012), as well as with measurements from the UK black carbon network.The two main alternative emission scenarios modelled were Base4x and combRedist. For Base4x, officially reported PM2.5 from the residential and other non-industrial combustion source sector were increased by a factor of four. For the combRedist experiment, half of the baseline emissions from this same source were redistributed by residential population density to simulate the effect of allocating some emissions to the smoke control areas (that are assumed in the national inventory to have no emissions from this source). The Base4x scenario yielded better daily and hourly correlations with measurements than the combRedist scenario for year-long comparisons of the solid fuel organic aerosol (SFOA) component at the two London sites. However, the latter scenario better captured mean measured concentrations across all four sites. A third experiment, Redist - all emissions redistributed linearly to population density, is also presented as an indicator of the maximum concentrations an assumption like this could yield.The modelled elemental carbon (EC) concentrations derived from the combRedist experiments also compared well with seasonal average concentrations of black carbon observed across the network of UK sites. Together, the two model scenario simulations of SFOA and EC suggest both that residential solid fuel emissions may be higher than inventory

  9. Energy and exergy analysis of an ethanol reforming process for solid oxide fuel cell applications.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tippawan, Phanicha; Arpornwichanop, Amornchai

    2014-04-01

    The fuel processor in which hydrogen is produced from fuels is an important unit in a fuel cell system. The aim of this study is to apply a thermodynamic concept to identify a suitable reforming process for an ethanol-fueled solid oxide fuel cell (SOFC). Three different reforming technologies, i.e., steam reforming, partial oxidation and autothermal reforming, are considered. The first and second laws of thermodynamics are employed to determine an energy demand and to describe how efficiently the energy is supplied to the reforming process. Effect of key operating parameters on the distribution of reforming products, such as H2, CO, CO2 and CH4, and the possibility of carbon formation in different ethanol reformings are examined as a function of steam-to-ethanol ratio, oxygen-to-ethanol ratio and temperatures at atmospheric pressure. Energy and exergy analysis are performed to identify the best ethanol reforming process for SOFC applications. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  10. Preparation and Evaluation of Multi-Layer Anodes of Solid Oxide Fuel Cell

    Science.gov (United States)

    Santiago, Diana; Farmer, Serene C.; Setlock, John A.

    2012-01-01

    The development of an energy device with abundant energy generation, ultra-high specific power density, high stability and long life is critical for enabling longer missions and for reducing mission costs. Of all different types of fuel cells, the solid oxide fuel cells (SOFC) is a promising high temperature device that can generate electricity as a byproduct of a chemical reaction in a clean way and produce high quality heat that can be used for other purposes. For aerospace applications, a power-to-weight of (is) greater than 1.0 kW/kg is required. NASA has a patented fuel cell technology under development, capable of achieving the 1.0 kW/kg figure of merit. The first step toward achieving these goals is increasing anode durability. The catalyst plays an important role in the fuel cells for power generation, stability, efficiency and long life. Not only the anode composition, but its preparation and reduction are key to achieving better cell performance. In this research, multi-layer anodes were prepared varying the chemistry of each layer to optimize the performance of the cells. Microstructure analyses were done to the new anodes before and after fuel cell operation. The cells' durability and performance were evaluated in 200 hrs life tests in hydrogen at 850 C. The chemistry of the standard nickel anode was modified successfully reducing the anode degradation from 40% to 8.4% in 1000 hrs and retaining its microstructure.

  11. Impact of source segregation intensity of solid waste on fuel consumption and collection costs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Di Maria, Francesco; Micale, Caterina

    2013-11-01

    Fuel consumption and collection costs of solid waste were evaluated by the aid of a simulation model for a given collection area of a medium-sized Italian city. Using the model it is possible to calculate time, collected waste and fuel consumption for a given waste collection route. Starting from the data for the current waste collection scenario with a Source Segregated (SS) intensity of 25%, all the main model error evaluated was ⩽1.2. SS intensity scenarios of 25%, 30%, 35% and 52% were simulated. Results showed an increase in the average fuel consumed by the collection vehicles that went from about 3.3L/tonne for 25% SS intensity to about 3.8L/tonne for a SS intensity of 52%. Direct collection costs, including crews and vehicle purchase, ranged from about 40€/tonne to about 70€/tonne, respectively, for 25% and 52% SS intensity. The increase in fuel consumption and collection costs depends on the density of the waste collected, on the collection vehicle compaction ratio and on the waste collection vehicle utilization factor (WCVUF). In particular a reduction of about 50% of the WCVUF can lead to an average increase of about 80% in fuel consumption and 100% in collection costs. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  12. Analysis and design of solid oxide fuel cell for railroad applications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kothapally, Adarsh Srivatsav

    Solid oxide fuel cell (SOFC) is a direct chemical-to-electrical energy conversion system using hydrogen and oxygen as reactants, operating at a higher temperature range (800°--1100° C). With the advantages of low-cost materials for anode, cathode, membrane, and the versatility in the use of various types of fuels as compared to other fuel cell types, the SOFC is one of the most recommendable fuel cells for large power generating system. An additional distinct advantage is of using the hot exhaust by-product gases to generate electricity in an advance combined power generation system along with a gas turbine. The objective of the present work is to analyze a tri-layer SOFC using a two-dimensional simulation model. This work was concerned with the evaluation of different fuel cell losses, heat generation, and determining the performance polarization of the SOFC using in-house computer code. The operation characteristics were evaluated with a wide spectrum of cell parameters and operating conditions. Further, a 1-MW SOFC is designed for a locomotive engine based on the selected operating characteristics and using the state-of-the-art SOFC materials.

  13. DEVELOPMENT OF LOW-COST MANUFACTURING PROCESSES FOR PLANAR, MULTILAYER SOLID OXIDE FUEL CELL ELEMENTS

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Scott Swartz; Matthew Seabaugh; William Dawson; Harlan Anderson; Tim Armstrong; Michael Cobb; Kirby Meacham; James Stephan; Russell Bennett; Bob Remick; Chuck Sishtla; Scott Barnett; John Lannutti

    2004-06-12

    This report summarizes the results of a four-year project, entitled, ''Low-Cost Manufacturing Of Multilayer Ceramic Fuel Cells'', jointly funded by the U.S. Department of Energy, the State of Ohio, and by project participants. The project was led by NexTech Materials, Ltd., with subcontracting support provided by University of Missouri-Rolla, Michael A. Cobb & Co., Advanced Materials Technologies, Inc., Edison Materials Technology Center, Gas Technology Institute, Northwestern University, and The Ohio State University. Oak Ridge National Laboratory, though not formally a subcontractor on the program, supported the effort with separate DOE funding. The objective of the program was to develop advanced manufacturing technologies for making solid oxide fuel cell components that are more economical and reliable for a variety of applications. The program was carried out in three phases. In the Phase I effort, several manufacturing approaches were considered and subjected to detailed assessments of manufacturability and development risk. Estimated manufacturing costs for 5-kW stacks were in the range of $139/kW to $179/kW. The risk assessment identified a number of technical issues that would need to be considered during development. Phase II development work focused on development of planar solid oxide fuel cell elements, using a number of ceramic manufacturing methods, including tape casting, colloidal-spray deposition, screen printing, spin-coating, and sintering. Several processes were successfully established for fabrication of anode-supported, thin-film electrolyte cells, with performance levels at or near the state-of-the-art. The work in Phase III involved scale-up of cell manufacturing methods, development of non-destructive evaluation methods, and comprehensive electrical and electrochemical testing of solid oxide fuel cell materials and components.

  14. Use of pyrolysis gases from biogenic fuels as reductionfuels in coal dust furnaces; Einsatz von Pyrolysegasen aus biogenen Brennstoffen als Reduktionsbrennstoff in Kohlestaubfeuerungen

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ruediger, H.; Greul, U.; Spliethoff, H.; Hein, K.R.G. [Stuttgart Univ. (Germany). Inst. fuer Verfahrenstechnik und Dampfkesselwesen (IVD)

    1996-12-31

    Co-combustion of refuse-derived fuels in the form of pyrolysis gases, with coal as primary fuel, has advantages in terms of fuel ash separation and nitric oxide emissions. Biomass or sewage sludge is degassed in a pyrolysis reactor, and the gas is used as secondary fuel in a coal dust furnace. The authors investigated the influence of reaction temperature, fuel moisture and reaction atmosphere in the pyrolysis stage on the product fractions gas, tar, and residual fuel, as well as the suitability of the resulting pyrolysis gas as secondary fuel in a coal dust furnace for the purpose of reducing nitric oxide emissions. (orig) [Deutsch] Ein am IVD betriebenes Konzept der Mitverbrennung von Brennstoffen in Form von Pyrolysegasen bietet Vorteile bezueglich der Trennung der Brennstoffaschen und Stickoxidemissionen bei der Feuerung des Primaerbrennstoffes Steinkohle. Biomasse oder Klaerschlamm wird hierbei in einem Pyrolysereaktor engast und gasfoermig als Sekundaerbrennstoff in einer Kohlenstaubfeuerung eingesetzt. Untersuchungsschwerpunkte in der Pyrolysestufe des Prozesses waren die Einfluesse von Reaktionstemperatur, Brennstofffeuchte und Reaktionsatmosphaere auf die Produktfraktionen Gas, Teer und Restbrennstoff sowie die Eignung des erzeugten Pyrolysegases als Sekundaerbrennstoff in einer Kohlenstaubfeuerung zur Senkung derKohlendioxidemissione. (orig)

  15. Facile Synthesis of Highly Active and Robust Ni-Mo Bimetallic Electrocatalyst for Hydrocarbon Oxidation in Solid Oxide Fuel Cells

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hua, B.; Li, M.; Zhang, Y.-Q.; Chen, J.; Sun, Y.-F.; Yan, N.; Li, J.; Luo, J.L.

    2016-01-01

    We report a novel Ni–Mo bimetallic alloy decorated with multimicrocrystals as an efficient anode catalyst for hydrocarbon-fueled solid oxide fuel cells (SOFCs). We show that these Ni–Mo bimetallic alloys are highly active, thermally stable, and sulfur/coke tolerant electrocatalysts for hydrocarbon

  16. Characterization and quantification of uncertainty in solid oxide fuel cell hybrid power plants

    Science.gov (United States)

    Subramanyan, Karthik; Diwekar, Urmila M.

    Distributed power generation is one of the most powerful applications of fuel cell technology. Several types of configurations have been hypothesized and tested for these kinds of applications at the conceptual level, but hybrid power plants are one of the most efficient. These are designs that combine the fuel cell cycle with other thermodynamic cycles to provide higher efficiency. The power plant in focus is the high pressure (HP)-low pressure (LP) solid oxide fuel cells (SOFC)/steam turbine (ST)/gas turbine (GT) configuration which is a part of the vision-21 program, which is a new approach, the U.S. Department of Energy's (DOE's) Office of Fossil Energy has begun, for developing 21st century energy plants that would have virtually no environmental impact. The overall goal is to effectively eliminate—at competitive costs—environmental concerns associated with the use of fossil fuels, for producing electricity and transportation fuels. In this design, coal is gasified in an entrained bed gasifier and the syn-gas produced is cleaned in a transport bed desulfurizer and passed over to cascaded SOFC modules (at two pressure levels). This module is integrated with a reheat GT cycle. The heat of the exhaust from the GT cycle is used to convert water to steam, which is eventually used in a steam bottoming cycle. Since this hybrid technology is new and futuristic, the system level models used for predicting the fuel cells' performance and for other modules like the desulfurizer have significant uncertainties in them. Also, the performance curves of the SOFC would differ depending on the materials used for the anode, cathode and electrolyte. The accurate characterization and quantification of these uncertainties is crucial for the validity of the model predictions and hence is the main focus of this paper. This work performs a two-level uncertainty analysis of the fuel cell module: uncertainty associated with (1) model and (2) material used for anode, cathode and

  17. Molecularly Engineered Azobenzene Derivatives for High Energy Density Solid-State Solar Thermal Fuels.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cho, Eugene N; Zhitomirsky, David; Han, Grace G D; Liu, Yun; Grossman, Jeffrey C

    2017-03-15

    Solar thermal fuels (STFs) harvest and store solar energy in a closed cycle system through conformational change of molecules and can release the energy in the form of heat on demand. With the aim of developing tunable and optimized STFs for solid-state applications, we designed three azobenzene derivatives functionalized with bulky aromatic groups (phenyl, biphenyl, and tert-butyl phenyl groups). In contrast to pristine azobenzene, which crystallizes and makes nonuniform films, the bulky azobenzene derivatives formed uniform amorphous films that can be charged and discharged with light and heat for many cycles. Thermal stability of the films, a critical metric for thermally triggerable STFs, was greatly increased by the bulky functionalization (up to 180 °C), and we were able to achieve record high energy density of 135 J/g for solid-state STFs, over a 30% improvement compared to previous solid-state reports. Furthermore, the chargeability in the solid state was improved, up to 80% charged from 40% charged in previous solid-state reports. Our results point toward molecular engineering as an effective method to increase energy storage in STFs, improve chargeability, and improve the thermal stability of the thin film.

  18. Composite electrolyte with proton conductivity for low-temperature solid oxide fuel cell

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Raza, Rizwan, E-mail: razahussaini786@gmail.com [Department of Physics, COMSATS Institute of Information Technology, Lahore 54000 (Pakistan); Department of Energy Technology, Royal Institute of Technology, KTH, Stockholm 10044 (Sweden); Ahmed, Akhlaq; Akram, Nadeem; Saleem, Muhammad; Niaz Akhtar, Majid; Ajmal Khan, M.; Abbas, Ghazanfar; Alvi, Farah; Yasir Rafique, M. [Department of Physics, COMSATS Institute of Information Technology, Lahore 54000 (Pakistan); Sherazi, Tauqir A. [Department of Chemistry, COMSATS Institute of Information Technology, Abbotabad 22060 (Pakistan); Shakir, Imran [Sustainable Energy Technologies (SET) center, College of Engineering, King Saud University, PO-BOX 800, Riyadh 11421 (Saudi Arabia); Mohsin, Munazza [Department of Physics, Lahore College for Women University, Lahore, 54000 (Pakistan); Javed, Muhammad Sufyan [Department of Physics, COMSATS Institute of Information Technology, Lahore 54000 (Pakistan); Department of Applied Physics, Chongqing University, Chongqing 400044 (China); Zhu, Bin, E-mail: binzhu@kth.se, E-mail: zhubin@hubu.edu.cn [Department of Energy Technology, Royal Institute of Technology, KTH, Stockholm 10044 (Sweden); Hubei Collaborative Innovation Center for Advanced Organic Chemical Materials, Faculty of Physics and Electronic Science/Faculty of Computer and Information, Hubei University, Wuhan, Hubei 430062 (China)

    2015-11-02

    In the present work, cost-effective nanocomposite electrolyte (Ba-SDC) oxide is developed for efficient low-temperature solid oxide fuel cells (LTSOFCs). Analysis has shown that dual phase conduction of O{sup −2} (oxygen ions) and H{sup +} (protons) plays a significant role in the development of advanced LTSOFCs. Comparatively high proton ion conductivity (0.19 s/cm) for LTSOFCs was achieved at low temperature (460 °C). In this article, the ionic conduction behaviour of LTSOFCs is explained by carrying out electrochemical impedance spectroscopy measurements. Further, the phase and structure analysis are investigated by X-ray diffraction and scanning electron microscopy techniques. Finally, we achieved an ionic transport number of the composite electrolyte for LTSOFCs as high as 0.95 and energy and power density of 90% and 550 mW/cm{sup 2}, respectively, after sintering the composite electrolyte at 800 °C for 4 h, which is promising. Our current effort toward the development of an efficient, green, low-temperature solid oxide fuel cell with the incorporation of high proton conductivity composite electrolyte may open frontiers in the fields of energy and fuel cell technology.

  19. A global equilibrium analysis of co-firing coal and solid recovered fuel

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Wu, Hao; Glarborg, Peter; Jappe Frandsen, Flemming

    Global equilibrium calculations have been performed to study the behavior of ash forming species in cocombustion of a bituminous coal and a solid recovered fuel (SRF). It revealed that co-combustion of coal and 25% SRF (weight basis) could significantly reduce the formation of NaCl (g) and KCl (g...... to aluminosilicates during the flue gas cooling in the experiments, probably due to kinetic limitations. The results suggest that it is important to control the chlorine and alkali content in SRF, in order to facilitate co-combustion of coal and SRF.......Global equilibrium calculations have been performed to study the behavior of ash forming species in cocombustion of a bituminous coal and a solid recovered fuel (SRF). It revealed that co-combustion of coal and 25% SRF (weight basis) could significantly reduce the formation of NaCl (g) and KCl (g......) in moderate temperature (800–1000 oC), as compared with that in 100% SRF combustion. The simulation results were compared with the experiment results obtained at the same fuel condition, and qualitative agreements were achieved. Both results suggest that co-combustion of coal and SRF would be a feasible...

  20. Electrochemical investigation of mixed metal oxide nanocomposite electrode for low temperature solid oxide fuel cell

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abbas, Ghazanfar; Raza, Rizwan; Ashfaq Ahmad, M.; Ajmal Khan, M.; Jafar Hussain, M.; Ahmad, Mukhtar; Aziz, Hammad; Ahmad, Imran; Batool, Rida; Altaf, Faizah; Zhu, Bin

    2017-10-01

    Zinc-based nanostructured nickel (Ni) free metal oxide electrode material Zn0.60/Cu0.20Mn0.20 oxide (CMZO) was synthesized by solid state reaction and investigated for low temperature solid oxide fuel cell (LTSOFC) applications. The crystal structure and surface morphology of the synthesized electrode material were examined by XRD and SEM techniques respectively. The particle size of ZnO phase estimated by Scherer’s equation was 31.50 nm. The maximum electrical conductivity was found to be 12.567 S/cm and 5.846 S/cm in hydrogen and air atmosphere, respectively at 600∘C. The activation energy of the CMZO material was also calculated from the DC conductivity data using Arrhenius plots and it was found to be 0.060 and 0.075 eV in hydrogen and air atmosphere, respectively. The CMZO electrode-based fuel cell was tested using carbonated samarium doped ceria composite (NSDC) electrolyte. The three layers 13 mm in diameter and 1 mm thickness of the symmetric fuel cell were fabricated by dry pressing. The maximum power density of 728.86 mW/cm2 was measured at 550∘C.

  1. Composite electrolyte with proton conductivity for low-temperature solid oxide fuel cell

    Science.gov (United States)

    Raza, Rizwan; Ahmed, Akhlaq; Akram, Nadeem; Saleem, Muhammad; Niaz Akhtar, Majid; Sherazi, Tauqir A.; Ajmal Khan, M.; Abbas, Ghazanfar; Shakir, Imran; Mohsin, Munazza; Alvi, Farah; Javed, Muhammad Sufyan; Yasir Rafique, M.; Zhu, Bin

    2015-11-01

    In the present work, cost-effective nanocomposite electrolyte (Ba-SDC) oxide is developed for efficient low-temperature solid oxide fuel cells (LTSOFCs). Analysis has shown that dual phase conduction of O-2 (oxygen ions) and H+ (protons) plays a significant role in the development of advanced LTSOFCs. Comparatively high proton ion conductivity (0.19 s/cm) for LTSOFCs was achieved at low temperature (460 °C). In this article, the ionic conduction behaviour of LTSOFCs is explained by carrying out electrochemical impedance spectroscopy measurements. Further, the phase and structure analysis are investigated by X-ray diffraction and scanning electron microscopy techniques. Finally, we achieved an ionic transport number of the composite electrolyte for LTSOFCs as high as 0.95 and energy and power density of 90% and 550 mW/cm2, respectively, after sintering the composite electrolyte at 800 °C for 4 h, which is promising. Our current effort toward the development of an efficient, green, low-temperature solid oxide fuel cell with the incorporation of high proton conductivity composite electrolyte may open frontiers in the fields of energy and fuel cell technology.

  2. High performance solid oxide fuel cell operating on dry gasified coal

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Guer, Turgut M. [Department of Materials Science and Engineering, Stanford University, Stanford, CA 94305 (United States); Direct Carbon Technologies, LLC, 525 University Avenue, Suite 1400, Palo Alto, CA 94301 (United States); Homel, Michael [Materials and Systems Research, Inc., 5395 West 700 South, Salt lake City, UT 84104 (United States); Virkar, Anil V. [Department of Materials Science and Engineering, University of Utah, Salt Lake City, UT 84112 (United States)

    2010-02-15

    A fluidized coal bed-solid oxide fuel cell (FB-SOFC) arrangement is employed for efficient conversion of dry gasified coal into electricity at 850 C. It consists of an anode-supported tubular solid oxide fuel cell of 24 cm{sup 2} active area coupled to a Boudouard gasifier. A minimally fluidized bed of low sulfur (0.15 wt%) Alaska coal is gasified at 930 C by flowing CO{sub 2} to generate CO. The resulting CO fuel is oxidized at the Ni/YSZ cermet anode. The highest cell power density achieved is 0.45 W cm{sup -2} at 0.64 V with 35.7% electrical conversion efficiency based on CO utilization. This power density is the highest reported in the literature for such systems and corresponds to a total power generation of 10.8 W by this cell. Similarly, 48.4% is the highest conversion efficiency measured at a power density of 0.30 W cm{sup -2} and 0.7 V. The open circuit voltages are in good agreement with values expected based on thermodynamic data. (author)

  3. Combustion characteristics and turbulence modeling of swirling reacting flow in solid fuel ramjet

    Science.gov (United States)

    Musa, Omer; Xiong, Chen; Changsheng, Zhou

    2017-10-01

    This paper reviews the historical studies have been done on the solid-fuel ramjet engine and difficulties associated with numerical modeling of swirling flow with combustible gases. A literature survey about works related to numerical and experimental investigations on solid-fuel ramjet as well as using swirling flow and different numerical approaches has been provided. An overview of turbulence modeling of swirling flow and the behavior of turbulence at streamline curvature and system rotation are presented. A new and simple curvature/correction factor is proposed in order to reduce the programming complexity of SST-CC turbulence model. Finally, numerical and experimental investigations on the impact of swirling flow on SFRJ have been carried out. For that regard, a multi-physics coupling code is developed to solve the problems of multi-physics coupling of fluid mechanics, solid pyrolysis, heat transfer, thermodynamics, and chemical kinetics. The connected-pipe test facility is used to carry out the experiments. The results showed a positive impact of swirling flow on SFRJ along with, three correlations are proposed.

  4. Advanced materials for solid oxide fuel cells: Hafnium-Praseodymium-Indium Oxide System

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bates, J.L.; Griffin, C.W.; Weber, W.J.

    1988-06-01

    The HfO/sub 2/-PrO/sub 1.83/-In/sub 2/O/sub 3/ system has been studied at the Pacific Northwest Laboratory to develop alternative, highly electrically conducting oxides as electrode and interconnection materials for solid oxide fuel cells. A coprecipitation process was developed for synthesizing single-phase, mixed oxide powders necessary to fabricate powders and dense oxides. A ternary phase diagram was developed, and the phases and structures were related to electrical transport properties. Two new phases, an orthorhombic PrInO/sub 3/ and a rhombohedral Hf/sub 2/In/sub 2/O/sub 7/ phase, were identified. The highest electronic conductivity is related to the presence of a bcc, In/sub 2/O/sub 3/ solid solution (ss) containing HfO/sub 2/ and PrO/sub 1.83/. Compositions containing more than 35 mol % of the In/sub 2/O/sub 3/ ss have electrical conductivities greater than 10/sup /minus/1/ (ohm-cm)/sup /minus/1/, and the two or three phase structures that contain this phase appear to exhibit mixed electronic-ionic conduction. The high electrical conductivities and structures similar to the Y/sub 2/O/sub 3/-stabilized ZrO/sub 2/(HfO/sub 2/) electrolyte give these oxides potential for use as cathodes in solid oxide fuel cells. 21 refs.

  5. Solid oxide fuel cell (SOFC) systems with integrated reforming or gasification of hydrocarbons; Solid Oxide Fuel Cell (SOFC)-Systeme mit integrierter Reformierung bzw. Vergasung von Kohlenwasserstoffen

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Schlitzberger, Christian

    2012-07-01

    hydrocarbons as fuel are simulated. The simulation results serve as base for the final evaluation of the stack- and system-design concerning operation and feasibility and show the capability of the concept to meet the demands listed above as high electrical system-efficiencies up to 70% and nearly efficiency-neutral CO{sub 2}-separation. [German] In der Arbeit werden innovative Konzepte fuer baulich, thermisch und stofflich hochintegrierte oxidkeramische Brennstoffzellen (Solid Oxide Fuel Cell (SOFC))-Systeme mit optionaler CO{sub 2}-Abscheidung entwickelt und untersucht. Zunaechst erfolgt die Ausarbeitung von Moeglichkeiten zur Wirkungsgradsteigerung, wie die Verschaltung der Gaserzeugungseinheit mit der Brennstoffzelle nach dem Prinzip der chemischen Waermepumpe oder die serielle elektrische Verschaltung der Einzelzellen. Diese Optionen werden anschliessend bezueglich ihrer thermodynamischen Grenzen, wie maximal erzielbare Wirkungsgrade oder maximal moeglicher interner Abwaermenutzung, evaluiert. Darauf aufbauend erfolgt unter Beachtung des Stands der Technik eine methodische Konzeption und Konstruktion eines SOFC-Systems, bei dem Reformierungsreaktor, Brennstoffzelle sowie die thermische Gaskonditionierung in einem Stack-Modul vereint sind. Diese Grundeinheit kann den Anwendungs-, Betriebs-und Brennstoffanforderungen angepasst werden und stellt aufgrund des hohen baulichen Integrationsgrades sowie der nur geringen Anzahl an zusaetzlich benoetigten peripheren Komponenten ein sehr kompaktes System dar. Der zweite Teil der Arbeit beschreibt die mathematische Modeliierung der entsprechenden Systemkomponenten sowie die Modellimplementierung in das institutseigene, C++ basierte Kreislaufsimulationsprogramm ENBIPRO (Energie-Bilanz-Programm). Mittels der mathematischen Modelle werden SOFC-Systeme basierend auf dem entwickelten integrierten Stack-und System-Konzept fuer verschiedene Brennstoffe und Systemverschaltungen simuliert. Die Simulationsergebnisse dienen als Grundlage fuer

  6. Elementary kinetic modelling applied to solid oxide fuel cell pattern anodes and a direct flame fuel cell system

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Vogler, Marcel

    2009-05-27

    In the course of this thesis a model for the prediction of polarisation characteristics of solid oxide fuel cells (SOFC) was developed. The model is based on an elementary kinetic description of electrochemical reactions and the fundamental conservation principles of mass and energy. The model allows to predict the current-voltage relation of an SOFC and offers ideal possibilities for model validation. The aim of this thesis is the identification of rate-limiting processes and the determination of the elementary pathway during charge transfer. The numerical simulation of experiments with model anodes allowed to identify a hydrogen transfer to be the most probable charge-transfer reaction and revealed the influence of diffusive transport. Applying the hydrogen oxidation kinetics to the direct flame fuel cell system (DFFC) showed that electrochemical oxidation of CO is possible based on the same mechanism. Based on the quantification of loss processes in the DFFC system, improvements on cell design, predicting 80% increase of efficiency, were proposed. (orig.)

  7. STABLE HIGH CONDUCTIVITY BILAYERED ELECTROLYTES FOR LOW TEMPERATURE SOLID OXIDE FUEL CELLS

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Eric D. Wachsman; Keith L. Duncan

    2001-09-30

    Solid oxide fuel cells (SOFCs) are the future of energy production in America. They offer great promise as a clean and efficient process for directly converting chemical energy to electricity while providing significant environmental benefits (they produce negligible hydrocarbons, CO, or NO{sub x} and, as a result of their high efficiency, produce about one-third less CO{sub 2} per kilowatt hour than internal combustion engines). Unfortunately, the current SOFC technology, based on a stabilized zirconia electrolyte, must operate in the region of 1000 C to avoid unacceptably high ohmic losses. These high temperatures demand (a) specialized (expensive) materials for the fuel cell interconnects and insulation, (b) time to heat up to the operating temperature and (c) energy input to arrive at the operating temperature. Therefore, if fuel cells could be designed to give a reasonable power output at low to intermediate1 temperatures tremendous benefits may be accrued. At low temperatures, in particular, it becomes feasible to use ferritic steel for interconnects instead of expensive and brittle ceramic materials such as those based on LaCrO{sub 3}. In addition, sealing the fuel cell becomes easier and more reliable; rapid start-up is facilitated; thermal stresses (e.g., those caused by thermal expansion mismatches) are reduced; radiative losses ({approx}T{sup 4}) become minimal; electrode sintering becomes negligible and (due to a smaller thermodynamic penalty) the SOFC operating cycle (heating from ambient) would be more efficient. Combined, all these improvements further result in reduced initial and operating costs. The problem is, at lower temperatures the conductivity of the conventional stabilized zirconia electrolyte decreases to the point where it cannot supply electrical current efficiently to an external load. The primary objectives of the proposed research are to develop a stable high conductivity (> 0.05 S cm{sup -1} at {le} 550 C) electrolyte for lower

  8. Thermodynamic analysis of an integrated gasification solid oxide fuel cell plant combined with an organic Rankine cycle

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pierobon, Leonardo; Rokni, Masoud; Larsen, Ulrik

    2013-01-01

    A 100 kWe hybrid plant consisting of gasification system, solid oxide fuel cells and organic Rankine cycle is presented. The nominal power is selected based on cultivation area requirement. For the considered output a land of around 0.5 km2 needs to be utilized. Woodchips are introduced...... into a fixed bed gasification plant to produce syngas which fuels the combined solid oxide fuel cells e organic Rankine cycle system to produce electricity. More than a hundred fluids are considered as possible alternative for the organic cycle using non-ideal equations of state (or state-of-the-art equations...... achieved by simple and double stage organic Rankine cycle plants and around the same efficiency of a combined gasification, solid oxide fuel cells and micro gas turbine plant. © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved....

  9. SOLID FUEL OF HYDROCARBON, WOOD AND AGRICULTURAL WASTE FOR LOCAL HEAT SUPPLY SYSTEMS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    B. M. Khroustalev

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available In Belarus oil refining and oil producing industries are paid close attention. On the background of the active maintaining the level of oil processing and volume of oil extraction in our country and in the countries of the Eurasian Economic Union there is a steady formation of hydrocarbon-containing waste; therefore recycling of the latter is an urgent task to improve the competitiveness of production. The most cost-effective way of using hydrocarbon waste is the conversion of it into power resources. In this case it is possible to obtain significant power-saving and economic effect of the combined use of a hydrocarbon, wood, agricultural and other combustible waste, meanwhile improving the ecological situation at the sites of waste storage and creating a solid fuel with the necessary energy and specified physical-and-chemical properties. A comprehensive solution of a recycling problem makes it possible to use as energy resources a lot of waste that has not found application in other technologies, to produce alternative multi-component fuel which structure meets environmental and energy requirement for local heating systems. In addition, the implementation of such technology will make it possible to reduce power consumption of enterprises of various kinds that consume fuel and will also increase the share of local fuels in the energy balance of a particular region.

  10. Thermodynamic simulation of biomass gas steam reforming for a solid oxide fuel cell (SOFC system

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. Sordi

    2009-12-01

    Full Text Available This paper presents a methodology to simulate a small-scale fuel cell system for power generation using biomass gas as fuel. The methodology encompasses the thermodynamic and electrochemical aspects of a solid oxide fuel cell (SOFC, as well as solves the problem of chemical equilibrium in complex systems. In this case the complex system is the internal reforming of biomass gas to produce hydrogen. The fuel cell input variables are: operational voltage, cell power output, composition of the biomass gas reforming, thermodynamic efficiency, electrochemical efficiency, practical efficiency, the First and Second law efficiencies for the whole system. The chemical compositions, molar flows and temperatures are presented to each point of the system as well as the exergetic efficiency. For a molar water/carbon ratio of 2, the thermodynamic simulation of the biomass gas reforming indicates the maximum hydrogen production at a temperature of 1070 K, which can vary as a function of the biomass gas composition. The comparison with the efficiency of simple gas turbine cycle and regenerative gas turbine cycle shows the superiority of SOFC for the considered electrical power range.

  11. Method for Making a Fuel Cell from a Solid Oxide Monolithic Framework

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cable, Thomas L. (Inventor); Sofie, Stephen W. (Inventor)

    2014-01-01

    The invention is a novel solid oxide fuel cell (SOFC) stack comprising individual bi-electrode supported fuel cells in which a thin electrolyte is supported between electrodes of essentially equal thickness. Individual cell units are made from graded pore ceramic tape that has been created by the freeze cast method followed by freeze drying. Each piece of graded pore tape later becomes a graded pore electrode scaffold that subsequent to sintering, is made into either an anode or a cathode by means of appropriate solution and thermal treatment means. Each cell unit is assembled by depositing of a thin coating of ion conducting ceramic material upon the side of each of two pieces of tape surface having the smallest pore openings, and then mating the coated surfaces to create an unsintered electrode scaffold pair sandwiching an electrolyte layer. The opposing major outer exposed surfaces of each cell unit is given a thin coating of electrically conductive ceramic, and multiple cell units are stacked, or built up by stacking of individual cell layers, to create an unsintered fuel cell stack. Ceramic or glass edge seals are installed to create flow channels for fuel and air. The cell stack with edge sealants is then sintered into a ceramic monolithic framework. Said solution and thermal treatments means convert the electrode scaffolds into anodes and cathodes. The thin layers of electrically conductive ceramic become the interconnects in the assembled stack.

  12. Engine-integrated solid oxide fuel cells for efficient electrical power generation on aircraft

    Science.gov (United States)

    Waters, Daniel F.; Cadou, Christopher P.

    2015-06-01

    This work investigates the use of engine-integrated catalytic partial oxidation (CPOx) reactors and solid oxide fuel cells (SOFCs) to reduce fuel burn in vehicles with large electrical loads like sensor-laden unmanned air vehicles. Thermodynamic models of SOFCs, CPOx reactors, and three gas turbine (GT) engine types (turbojet, combined exhaust turbofan, separate exhaust turbofan) are developed and checked against relevant data and source material. Fuel efficiency is increased by 4% and 8% in the 50 kW and 90 kW separate exhaust turbofan systems respectively at only modest cost in specific power (8% and 13% reductions respectively). Similar results are achieved in other engine types. An additional benefit of hybridization is the ability to provide more electric power (factors of 3 or more in some cases) than generator-based systems before encountering turbine inlet temperature limits. A sensitivity analysis shows that the most important parameters affecting the system's performance are operating voltage, percent fuel oxidation, and SOFC assembly air flows. Taken together, this study shows that it is possible to create a GT-SOFC hybrid where the GT mitigates balance of plant losses and the SOFC raises overall system efficiency. The result is a synergistic system with better overall performance than stand-alone components.

  13. Mechanistic modelling of a cathode-supported tubular solid oxide fuel cell

    Science.gov (United States)

    Suwanwarangkul, R.; Croiset, E.; Pritzker, M. D.; Fowler, M. W.; Douglas, P. L.; Entchev, E.

    A two-dimensional mechanistic model of a tubular solid oxide fuel cell (SOFC) considering momentum, energy, mass and charge transport is developed. The model geometry of a single cell comprises an air-preheating tube, air channel, fuel channel, anode, cathode and electrolyte layers. The heat radiation between cell and air-preheating tube is also incorporated into the model. This allows the model to predict heat transfer between the cell and air-preheating tube accurately. The model is validated and shows good agreement with literature data. It is anticipated that this model can be used to help develop efficient fuel cell designs and set operating variables under practical conditions. The transport phenomena inside the cell, including gas flow behaviour, temperature, overpotential, current density and species concentration, are analysed and discussed in detail. Fuel and air velocities are found to vary along flow passages depending on the local temperature and species concentrations. This model demonstrates the importance of incorporating heat radiation into a tubular SOFC model. Furthermore, the model shows that the overall cell performance is limited by O 2 diffusion through the thick porous cathode and points to the development of new cathode materials and designs being important avenues to enhance cell performance.

  14. Steam Methane Reformation Testing for Air-Independent Solid Oxide Fuel Cell Systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mwara, Kamwana N.

    2015-01-01

    Recently, NASA has been looking into utilizing landers that can be propelled by LOX-CH (sub 4), to be used for long duration missions. Using landers that utilize such propellants, also provides the opportunity to use solid oxide fuel cells as a power option, especially since they are able to process methane into a reactant through fuel reformation. One type of reformation, called steam methane reformation, is a process to reform methane into a hydrogen-rich product by reacting methane and steam (fuel cell exhaust) over a catalyst. A steam methane reformation system could potentially use the fuel cell's own exhaust to create a reactant stream that is hydrogen-rich, and requires less internal reforming of the incoming methane. Also, steam reformation may hold some advantages over other types of reforming, such as partial oxidation (PROX) reformation. Steam reformation does not require oxygen, while up to 25 percent can be lost in PROX reformation due to unusable CO (sub 2) reformation. NASA's Johnson Space Center has conducted various phases of steam methane reformation testing, as a viable solution for in-space reformation. This has included using two different types of catalysts, developing a custom reformer, and optimizing the test system to find the optimal performance parameters and operating conditions.

  15. A Review of RedOx Cycling of Solid Oxide Fuel Cells Anode

    Science.gov (United States)

    Faes, Antonin; Hessler-Wyser, Aïcha; Zryd, Amédée; Van Herle, Jan

    2012-01-01

    Solid oxide fuel cells are able to convert fuels, including hydrocarbons, to electricity with an unbeatable efficiency even for small systems. One of the main limitations for long-term utilization is the reduction-oxidation cycling (RedOx cycles) of the nickel-based anodes. This paper will review the effects and parameters influencing RedOx cycles of the Ni-ceramic anode. Second, solutions for RedOx instability are reviewed in the patent and open scientific literature. The solutions are described from the point of view of the system, stack design, cell design, new materials and microstructure optimization. Finally, a brief synthesis on RedOx cycling of Ni-based anode supports for standard and optimized microstructures is depicted. PMID:24958298

  16. Materials and Components for Low Temperature Solid Oxide Fuel Cells – an Overview

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    D. Radhika

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available This article summarizes the recent advancements made in the area of materials and components for low temperature solid oxide fuel cells (LT-SOFCs. LT-SOFC is a new trend in SOFCtechnology since high temperature SOFC puts very high demands on the materials and too expensive to match marketability. The current status of the electrolyte and electrode materials used in SOFCs, their specific features and the need for utilizing them for LT-SOFC are presented precisely in this review article. The section on electrolytes gives an overview of zirconia, lanthanum gallate and ceria based materials. Also, this review article explains the application of different anode, cathode and interconnect materials used for SOFC systems. SOFC can result in better performance with the application of liquid fuels such methanol and ethanol. As a whole, this review article discusses the novel materials suitable for operation of SOFC systems especially for low temperature operation.

  17. Modelling and control of solid oxide fuel cell generation system in microgrid

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhou, Niancheng; Li, Chunyan; Sun, Fangqing; Wang, Qianggang

    2017-11-01

    Compared with other kinds of fuel cells, solid oxide fuel cell (SOFC) has been widely used in microgrids because of its higher efficiency and longer operation life. The weakness of SOFC lies in its slow response speed when grid disturbance occurs. This paper presents a control strategy that can promote the response speed and limit the fault current impulse for SOFC systems integrated into microgrids. First, the hysteretic control of the bidirectional DC-DC converter, which joins the SOFC and DC bus together, is explored. In addition, an improved droop control with limited current protection is applied in the DC-AC inverter, and the active synchronization control is applied to ensure a smooth transition of the microgrid between the grid-connected mode and the islanded mode. To validate the effectiveness of this control strategy, the control model was built and simulated in PSCAD/EMTDC.

  18. A New Cogeneration Residential System Based on Solid Oxide Fuel Cells for a Northern European Climate

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Vialetto, Giulio; Rokni, Masoud

    2015-01-01

    Energy saving is an open point in most European countries where energy policies are oriented to reduce the use of fossil fuels, greenhouses emissions and energy independence and to increase the use of renewable energies. In the last several years, new technologies have been developed, and some...... of them received subsidies to increase installation and reduce cost. This article presents an innovative cogeneration system based on a solid oxide fuel cell (SOFC) system and heat pump for household applications with a focus on primary energy and economic savings using electric equivalent load parameter...... are performed under different strategies at a resort located in a northern European climate (Denmark) to cover electricity, space heating and domestic hot water (DHW) demands. The results of these simulations are analyzed with thermodynamic and techno-economic benchmarks, considering different economic...

  19. Innovative Household Systems Based on Solid Oxide Fuel Cells for a Northern European climate

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rokni, Masoud; Vialetto, Giulio

    2015-01-01

    Energy saving is an open point in most European countries where energy policies are oriented to reduce the use of fossil fuels, greenhouses emissions and energy independence and to increase the use of renewable energies. In the last several years, new technologies have been developed, and some...... of them received subsidies to increase installation and reduce cost.This article presents an innovative cogeneration system based on a solid oxide fuel cell (SOFC) systemand heat pump for household applications with a focus on primary energy and economic savings using electric equivalent load parameter...... are performed under different strategies at a resort located in a northern European climate (Denmark) to cover electricity, space heating and domestic hot water (DHW) demands.The results of these simulations are analyzed with thermodynamic and techno-economic benchmarks,considering different economic scenarios...

  20. Method for processing coal-enrichment waste with solid and volatile fuel inclusions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khasanova, A. V.; Zhirgalova, T. B.; Osintsev, K. V.

    2017-10-01

    The method relates to the field of industrial heat and power engineering. It can be used in coal preparation plants for processing coal waste. This new way is realized to produce a loose ash residue directed to the production of silicate products and fuel gas in rotary kilns. The proposed method is associated with industrial processing of brown coal beneficiation waste. Waste is obtained by flotation separation of rock particles up to 13 mm in size from coal particles. They have in their composition both solid and volatile fuel inclusions (components). Due to the high humidity and significant rock content, low heat of combustion, these wastes are not used on energy boilers, they are stored in dumps polluting the environment.

  1. Corrosive characteristics of surface-modified stainless steel bipolar plate in solid polymer fuel cell

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Xiaowen; Wang, Lixia; Sun, Juncai

    2015-03-01

    In this paper, corrosion behavior of an AISI 304 stainless steel modified by niobium or niobium nitride (denoted as niobized 304 SS and Nb-N 304 SS, respectively) is investigated in simulated solid polymer fuel cell (SPFC) operating conditions. Potentiodynamic polarizations show that the corrosion potentials of surface modified 304 SS shift to positive direction while the corrosion current densities decrease greatly comparing with the bare 304 SS in simulated anodic SPFC environments. The order of corrosive resistance in corrosive potential, corrosive current density and pitting potential is: Nb-N 304 SS > niobized 304 SS > bare 304 SS. In the methanol-fueled SPFC operating conditions, the results show that the corrosion resistance of bare and niobized 304 SS increases with the methanol concentration increasing in the test solutions.

  2. Towards High Power Density Metal Supported Solid Oxide Fuel Cell for Mobile Applications

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielsen, Jimmi; Persson, Åsa H.; Muhl, Thuy Thanh

    2018-01-01

    For use of metal supported solid oxide fuel cell (MS-SOFC) in mobile applications it is important to reduce the thermal mass to enable fast startup, increase stack power density in terms of weight and volume and reduce costs. In the present study, we report on the effect of reducing the Technical...... loss, two different routes for increasing the porosity of the support layer and thus performance were explored. The first route is the introduction of gas channels by puncturing of the green tape casted support layer. The second route is modification of the co-sintering profile. In summary, the cell...... thickness and thus weight and volume was reduced and the cell power density at 0.7 V at 700°C was increased by 46% to 1.01 Wcm−2 at a fuel utilization of 48%. All modifications were performed on a stack technological relevant cell size of 12 cm × 12 cm....

  3. Carbon and Redox Tolerant Infiltrated Oxide Fuel-Electrodes for Solid Oxide Cells

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Skafte, Theis Løye; Sudireddy, Bhaskar Reddy; Blennow, P.

    2016-01-01

    by infiltrating nano-sized CGO orNiCGO on top of SFM, while still sustaining the high electronicconductivity. Ohmic resistance of the electrodes was thuspractically eliminated and performance comparable to, or betterthan, state-of-the-art fuel electrodes was achieved. The Nicontaining cells were damaged by carbon......To solve issues of coking and redox instability related to the presence of nickel in typical fuel electrodes in solid oxide cells,Gd-doped CeO2 (CGO) electrodes were studied using symmetriccells. These electrodes showed high electro-catalytic activity, butlow electronic conductivity. When...... deposition in a CO/CO2-atmosphere, while none of the non-nickel cells catalyzed carbon.Stability towards redox cycles was also proven....

  4. A Review of RedOx Cycling of Solid Oxide Fuel Cells Anode

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jan Van herle

    2012-08-01

    Full Text Available Solid oxide fuel cells are able to convert fuels, including hydrocarbons, to electricity with an unbeatable efficiency even for small systems. One of the main limitations for long-term utilization is the reduction-oxidation cycling (RedOx cycles of the nickel-based anodes. This paper will review the effects and parameters influencing RedOx cycles of the Ni-ceramic anode. Second, solutions for RedOx instability are reviewed in the patent and open scientific literature. The solutions are described from the point of view of the system, stack design, cell design, new materials and microstructure optimization. Finally, a brief synthesis on RedOx cycling of Ni-based anode supports for standard and optimized microstructures is depicted.

  5. Spray pyrolysis of doped-ceria barrier layers for solid oxide fuel cells

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Szymczewska, Dagmara; Chrzan, Aleksander; Karczewski, Jakub

    2017-01-01

    of elements. The parameters of the fabrication process are linked to the measured area specific resistances of the symmetrical cells and the efficiency of the fuel cells. Results show, that application of 800 nm thick barrier effectively hinder negative reactions, while 400 nm thick layer is sufficient......Gadolinium doped ceria (Ce0.8Gd0.2O2 − x-CGO) layer fabricated by spray pyrolysis is investigated as the diffusion barrier for solid oxide fuel cell. It is deposited between the La0.6Sr0.4FeO3 − δ cathode and the yttria stabilized zirconia electrolyte to mitigate harmful interdiffusion...

  6. Computer Simulations of Composite Electrodes in Solid-Oxide Fuel-Cells

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sunde, Svein

    1999-07-01

    Fuel cells are devices for converting the combined chemical (free) energy of fuels and oxygen (air) directly to electrical energy without relying on the dynamic action of steam heated by reacting fuel-oxygen mixtures, like in steam turbines, or of the reacting gas mixtures themselves, like in gas turbines. The basic rationale for fuel cells is their high efficiencies as compared to indirect-conversion methods. Fuel cells are currently being considered for a number of applications, among them de-centralised power supply. Fuel cells come in five basic types and are usually classified according to the type of electrolyte used, which in turn to a significant degree limits the options for anode and cathode materials. The solid-oxide fuel-cell (SOFC) , with which this thesis is concerned, is thus named after its oxide electrolyte, typically the oxide-ion conducting material yttria-stabilised zirconia (YSZ). While the cathode of an SOFC is often uniform in chemical composition (or at least intended to be), various problems of delamination, cracking etc. associated with the use of metallic anode electrocatalysts led to the development of composite SOFC anodes. Porous anodes consisting of Ni and YSZ particles in roughly 50/50 wt-% mixtures are now almost standard with any SOFC-development programme. The designer of composite SOFC electrodes is faced with at least three, interrelated questions: (1) What will be the optimum microstructure and composition of the composite electrode? (2) If the structure changes during operation, as is often observed, what will be the consequences for the internal losses in the cell? (3) How do we interpret electrochemical and conductivity measurements with regard to structure and composition? It is the primary purpose of this thesis to provide a framework for modelling the electrochemical and transport properties of composite electrodes for SOFC, and to arrive at some new insights that cannot be offered by experiment alone. Emphasis is put on

  7. High performance metal-supported solid oxide fuel cells with Gd-doped ceria barrier layers

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Klemensø, Trine; Nielsen, Jimmi; Blennow Tullmar, Peter

    2011-01-01

    Metal-supported solid oxide fuel cells are believed to have commercial advantages compared to conventional anode (Ni–YSZ) supported cells, with the metal-supported cells having lower material costs, increased tolerance to mechanical and thermal stresses, and lower operational temperatures...... at 650 °C and 0.6 V, were obtained on cells with barrier layers fabricated by magnetron sputtering. The performance is dependent on the density of the barrier layer, indicating Sr2+ diffusion is occurring at the intermediate SOFC temperatures. The optimized design further demonstrate improved durability...

  8. Solid oxide fuel cells powered by biomass gasification for high efficiency power generation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gadsbøll, Rasmus Østergaard; Thomsen, Jesper; Bang-Møller, Christian

    2017-01-01

    efficiencies, flexibility and possibly costs of current biomass power generating systems, a power plant concept combining solid oxide fuel cells (SOFC) and gasification is investigated experimentally. The aim of the study is to examine the commercial operation system potential of these two technologies......Increased use of bioenergy is a very cost-effective and flexible measure to limit changes in the climate and the infrastructure. One of the key technologies toward a higher implementation of biomass is thermal gasification, which enables a wide span of downstream applications. In order to improve...

  9. Solid oxide fuel cells having porous cathodes infiltrated with oxygen-reducing catalysts

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Meilin; Liu, Ze; Liu, Mingfei; Nie, Lifang; Mebane, David Spencer; Wilson, Lane Curtis; Surdoval, Wayne

    2014-08-12

    Solid-oxide fuel cells include an electrolyte and an anode electrically coupled to a first surface of the electrolyte. A cathode is provided, which is electrically coupled to a second surface of the electrolyte. The cathode includes a porous backbone having a porosity in a range from about 20% to about 70%. The porous backbone contains a mixed ionic-electronic conductor (MIEC) of a first material infiltrated with an oxygen-reducing catalyst of a second material different from the first material.

  10. Ni-YSZ solid oxide fuel cell anode behavior upon redox cycling based on electrical characterization

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Klemensø, Trine; Mogensen, Mogens Bjerg

    2006-01-01

    Ni-YSZ cermets are a prevalent material used for solid oxide fuel cells. However, the cermet degrades upon redox cycling. The degradation is related to microstructural changes, but knowledge of the mechanisms has been limited. DC conductivity measurements were performed on cermets and cermets......, where the Ni component was removed, before, during and after redox cycling the cermet. The cermet conductivity degraded over time due to sintering of the nickel phase. Following oxidizing events, the conductivity of the cermets improved, whereas the conductivity of the YSZ phase decreased. A model...

  11. Ni-YSZ solid oxide fuel cell anode behavior upon redox cycling based on electrical characterization

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Klemensø, Trine; Mogensen, Mogens Bjerg

    2007-01-01

    Nickel (Ni)—yttria-stabilized zirconia (YSZ) cermets are a prevalent material used for solid oxide fuel cells. The cermet degrades upon redox cycling. The degradation is related to microstructural changes, but knowledge of the mechanisms has been limited. Direct current conductivity measurements...... were performed on cermets and cermets where the Ni component was removed. Measurements were carried out before, during, and after redox cycling the cermet. The cermet conductivity degraded over time due to sintering of the nickel phase. Following oxidizing events, the conductivity of the cermets...

  12. Determination of the bonding strength in solid oxide fuel cells' interfaces by Schwickerath crack initiation test

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Boccaccini, D. N.; Sevecek, O.; Frandsen, Henrik Lund

    2017-01-01

    An adaptation of the Schwickerath crack initiation test (ISO 9693) was used to determine the bonding strength between an anode support and three different cathodes with a solid oxide fuel cell interconnect. Interfacial elemental characterization of the interfaces was carried out by SEM/EDS analysis...... on fracture surfaces to investigate the bonding mechanisms. SEM/EDS of fresh fractures were also performed to determine the cohesion/adhesion mechanism of bonding. Calculations of the residual stresses were determined by finite element simulation using ANSYS, based on thermo-mechanical properties...

  13. Study of Seal Glass for Solid Oxide Fuel/Electrolyzer Cells

    OpenAIRE

    Mahapatra, Manoj Kumar

    2009-01-01

    Seal glass is essential and plays a crucial role in solid oxide fuel/electrolyzer cell performance and durability. A seal glass should have a combination of thermal, chemical, mechanical, and electrical properties in order to seal different cell components and stacks and prevent gas leakage. All the desired properties can simultaneously be obtained in a seal glass by suitable compositional design. In this dissertation, SrO-La₂O₃-A₂O₃-B₂O₃3-SiO₂ based seal glasses have been developed and compo...

  14. Manufacturing and characterization of metal-supported solid oxide fuel cells

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Blennow Tullmar, Peter; Hjelm, Johan; Klemensø, Trine

    2011-01-01

    A metal-supported solid oxide fuel cell design offers competitive advantages, for example reduced material costs and improved robustness. This paper reports the performance and stability of a recently developed metal-supported cell design, based on a novel cermet anode, on a 25cm2 (1cm2/16cm2...... functional layer, oxygen reduction in the mixed ionic-electronic conducting cathode and an additional polarization process with a rather high relaxation frequency, which may be assigned to an insulating corrosion interlayer.The durability of the cells was investigated by means of galvanostatic operation...

  15. Micromechanical Modeling of Solid Oxide Fuel Cell Anode Supports based on Three-dimensional Reconstructions

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kwok, Kawai; Jørgensen, Peter Stanley; Frandsen, Henrik Lund

    2014-01-01

    The efficiency and lifetime of solid oxide fuel cells (SOFCs) is compromised by mechanical failure of cells in the system. Improving the mechanical reliability is a major step in ensuring feasibility of the technology. To quantify the stress in a cell, mechanical properties of the different layers...... need to be accurately known. Since the mechanical properties are heavily dependent on the microstructures of the materials, it is highly advantageous to understand the impact of microstructures and to be able to determine accurate effective mechanical properties for cell or stack scale analyses...

  16. Morphology Control of the Electrode for Solid Oxide Fuel Cells by Using Nanoparticles

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fukui, Takehisa; Ohara, Satoshi; Naito, Makio; Nogi, Kiyoshi

    2001-01-01

    LSM(La(Sr)MnO 3 )/YSZ(Y 2 O 3 stabilized ZrO 2 ) composite cathode for Solid Oxide Fuel Cells (SOFCs) was fabricated by using the composite particle consisting of well-dispersed nano-size grains of LSM and YSZ. The composite cathode had a porous structure as well as uniformly dispersed fine LSM and YSZ grains. Such unique morphology of the composite cathode led high electrochemical activity at 800 deg. C. It suggests that the intermediate temperature (less than 800 o C) operation of SOFCs will be achieved by using composite particles

  17. Formation of Liquid Products at the Filtration Combustion of Solid Fuels

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    E. A. Salgansky

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Yields of liquid and gaseous products of the filtration combustion of cellulose, wood, peat, coal, and rubber have been investigated. Experiments have shown that the gasification of solid fuels in the regime with superadiabatic heating yields liquid hydrocarbons with quantity and quality, which are close to those produced using other methods, for example, by pyrolysis. But in this case no additional energy supply is needed to carry out the gasification process. The low calorific combustible gas, which forms in this process, contains a substantial quantity of carbon monoxide and hydrogen, which are components of syngas.

  18. Transient deformational properties of high temperature alloys used in solid oxide fuel cell stacks

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Tadesse Molla, Tesfaye; Kwok, Kawai; Frandsen, Henrik Lund

    2017-01-01

    Stresses and probability of failure during operation of solid oxide fuel cells (SOFCs) is affected by the deformational properties of the different components of the SOFC stack. Though the overall stress relaxes with time during steady state operation, large stresses would normally appear through...... the transient behavior of Crofer 22 APU, a typical iron-chromium alloy used in SOFC stacks. The material parameters for the model are determined by measurements involving relaxation and constant strain rate experiments. The constitutive law is implemented into commercial finite element software using a user...

  19. A mathematical model of the solid-polymer-electrolyte fuel cell

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bernardi, D.M.; Verbrugge, M.W.

    1992-01-01

    This paper presents a mathematical model of the solid-polymer-electrolyte fuel cell and apply it to (i) investigate factors that limit cell performance and (ii) elucidate the mechanism of species transport in the complex network of gas, liquid, and solid phases of the cell. Calculations of cell polarization behavior compare favorably with existing experimental data. For most practical electrode thicknesses, model results indicate that the volume fraction of the cathode available for gas transport must exceed 20% in order to avoid unacceptably low cell-limiting current densities. It is shown that membrane dehydration can also pose limitations on operating current density; circumvention of this problem by appropriate membrane and electrode design and efficient water-management schemes is discussed. The authors' model results indicate that for a broad range of practical current densities there are no external water requirements because the water produced at the cathode is enough to satisfy the water requirement of the membrane

  20. Effect of hydrothermal treatment temperature on the properties of sewage sludge derived solid fuel

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mi Yan

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available High moisture content along with poor dewaterability are the main challenges for sewage sludge treatment and utilization. In this study, the effect of hydrothermal treatment at various temperature (120-200 ˚C on the properties of sewage sludge derived solid fuel was investigated in the terms of mechanical dewatering character, drying character, calorific value and heavy metal distribution. Hydrothermal treatment (HT followed by dewatering process significantly reduced moisture content and improved calorific value of sewage sludge with the optimum condition obtained at 140˚C. No significant alteration of drying characteristic was produced by HT. Heavy metal enrichment in solid particle was found after HT that highlighted the importance of further study regarding heavy metal behavior during combustion. However, it also implied the potential application of HT on sewage sludge for heavy metal removal from wastewater.

  1. Production of Solid Fuel by Torrefaction Using Coconut Leaves As Renewable Biomass

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lola Domnina Bote Pestaño

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available The reserves of non-renewable energy sources such as coal, crude oil and natural gas are not limitless, they gradually get exhausted and their price continually increases. In the last four decades, researchers have been focusing on alternate fuel resources to meet the ever increasing energy demand and to avoid dependence on crude oil. Amongst different sources of renewable energy, biomass residues hold special promise due to their inherent capability to store solar energy and amenability to subsequent conversion to convenient solid, liquid and gaseous fuels. At present, among the coconut farm wastes such as husks, shell, coir dust and coconut leaves, the latter is considered the most grossly under-utilized by in situ burning in the coconut farm as means of disposal. In order to utilize dried coconut leaves and to improve its biomass properties, this research attempts to produce solid fuel by torrefaction using dried coconut leaves for use as alternative source of energy. Torrefaction is a thermal method for the conversion of biomass operating in the low temperature range of 200oC-300oC under atmospheric conditions in absence of oxygen. Dried coconut leaves were torrefied at different feedstock conditions. The key torrefaction products were collected and analyzed. Physical and combustion characteristics of both torrefied and untorrefied biomass were investigated. Torrefaction of dried coconut leaves significantly improved the heating value compared to that of the untreated biomass.  Proximate compositions of the torrefied biomass also improved and were comparable to coal. The distribution of the products of torrefaction depends highly on the process conditions such as torrefaction temperature and residence time. Physical and combustion characteristics of torrefied biomass were superior making it more suitable for fuel applications. Article History: Received June 24th 2016; Received in revised form August 16th 2016; Accepted 27th 2016; Available

  2. Experimental study on the 300W class planar type solid oxide fuel cell stack: Investigation for appropriate fuel provision control and the transient capability of the cell performance

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Komatsu, Y; Brus, G; Szmyd, J S; Kimijima, S

    2012-01-01

    The present paper reports the experimental study on the dynamic behavior of a solid oxide fuel cell (SOFC). The cell stack consists of planar type cells with standard power output 300W. A Major subject of the present study is characterization of the transient response to the electric current change, assuming load-following operation. The present studies particularly focus on fuel provision control to the load change. Optimized fuel provision improves power generation efficiency. However, the capability of SOFC must be restricted by a few operative parameters. Fuel utilization factor, which is defined as the ratio of the consumed fuel to the supplied fuel is adopted for a reference in the control scheme. The fuel flow rate was regulated to keep the fuel utilization at 50%, 60% and 70% during the current ramping. Lower voltage was observed with the higher fuel utilization, but achieved efficiency was higher. The appropriate mass flow control is required not to violate the voltage transient behavior. Appropriate fuel flow manipulation can contribute to moderate the overshoot on the voltage that may appear to the current change. The overshoot on the voltage response resulted from the gradual temperature behavior in the SOFC stack module.

  3. Reversible solid oxide fuel cells (R-SOFCs) with chemically stable proton-conducting oxides

    KAUST Repository

    Bi, Lei

    2015-07-01

    Proton-conducting oxides offer a promising way of lowering the working temperature of solid oxide cells to the intermediate temperate range (500 to 700. °C) due to their better ionic conductivity. In addition, the application of proton-conducting oxides in both solid oxide fuel cells (SOFCs) and sold oxide electrolysis cells (SOECs) provides unique advantages compared with the use of conventional oxygen-ion conducting conductors, including the formation of water at the air electrode site. Since the discovery of proton conduction in some oxides about 30. years ago, the development of proton-conducting oxides in SOFCs and SOECs (the reverse mode of SOFCs) has gained increased attention. This paper briefly summarizes the development in the recent years of R-SOFCs with proton-conducting electrolytes, focusing on discussing the importance of adopting chemically stable materials in both fuel cell and electrolysis modes. The development of electrode materials for proton-conducting R-SOFCs is also discussed. © 2015 Elsevier B.V.

  4. Characterization of proton exchange membrane materials for fuel cells by solid state nuclear magnetic resonance

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kong, Zueqian [Iowa State Univ., Ames, IA (United States)

    2010-01-01

    Solid-state nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) has been used to explore the nanometer-scale structure of Nafion, the widely used fuel cell membrane, and its composites. We have shown that solid-state NMR can characterize chemical structure and composition, domain size and morphology, internuclear distances, molecular dynamics, etc. The newly-developed water channel model of Nafion has been confirmed, and important characteristic length-scales established. Nafion-based organic and inorganic composites with special properties have also been characterized and their structures elucidated. The morphology of Nafion varies with hydration level, and is reflected in the changes in surface-to-volume (S/V) ratio of the polymer obtained by small-angle X-ray scattering (SAXS). The S/V ratios of different Nafion models have been evaluated numerically. It has been found that only the water channel model gives the measured S/V ratios in the normal hydration range of a working fuel cell, while dispersed water molecules and polymer ribbons account for the structures at low and high hydration levels, respectively.

  5. Modeling of thermal expansion coefficient of perovskite oxide for solid oxide fuel cell cathode

    Science.gov (United States)

    Heydari, F.; Maghsoudipour, A.; Alizadeh, M.; Khakpour, Z.; Javaheri, M.

    2015-09-01

    Artificial intelligence models have the capacity to eliminate the need for expensive experimental investigation in various areas of manufacturing processes, including the material science. This study investigates the applicability of adaptive neuro-fuzzy inference system (ANFIS) approach for modeling the performance parameters of thermal expansion coefficient (TEC) of perovskite oxide for solid oxide fuel cell cathode. Oxides (Ln = La, Nd, Sm and M = Fe, Ni, Mn) have been prepared and characterized to study the influence of the different cations on TEC. Experimental results have shown TEC decreases favorably with substitution of Nd3+ and Mn3+ ions in the lattice. Structural parameters of compounds have been determined by X-ray diffraction, and field emission scanning electron microscopy has been used for the morphological study. Comparison results indicated that the ANFIS technique could be employed successfully in modeling thermal expansion coefficient of perovskite oxide for solid oxide fuel cell cathode, and considerable savings in terms of cost and time could be obtained by using ANFIS technique.

  6. Reversible solid oxide fuel cell for natural gas/renewable hybrid power generation systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Luo, Yu; Shi, Yixiang; Zheng, Yi; Cai, Ningsheng

    2017-02-01

    Renewable energy (RE) is expected to be the major part of the future energy. Presently, the intermittence and fluctuation of RE lead to the limitation of its penetration. Reversible solid oxide fuel cell (RSOFC) as the energy storage device can effectively store the renewable energy and build a bidirectional connection with natural gas (NG). In this paper, the energy storage strategy was designed to improve the RE penetration and dynamic operation stability in a distributed system coupling wind generators, internal combustion engine, RSOFC and lithium-ion batteries. By compromising the relative deviation of power supply and demand, RE penetration, system efficiency and capacity requirement, the strategy that no more than 36% of the maximum wind power output is directly supplied to users and the other is stored by the combination of battery and reversible solid oxide fuel cell is optimal for the distributed system. In the case, the RE penetration reached 56.9% and the system efficiency reached 55.2%. The maximum relative deviation of power supply and demand is also lower than 4%, which is significantly superior to that in the wind curtailment case.

  7. Characterization of electrode-electrolyte interface in solid oxide fuel cell

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lenka, R.K.; Mahata, T.; Sinha, P.K.; Tyagi, A.K.

    2010-01-01

    Full text: Solid oxide fuel cell (SOFC) is an electrochemical device in which chemical energy of fuel, such as, hydrogen, is directly converted to electrical energy in an efficient and environment-friendly manner.The SOFC is primarily a multi-layer structure in which impervious solid oxide electrolyte is sandwiched between porous electrodes. For good performance the cell resistance should be reasonably low. The internal resistance of a working cell is primarily determined by the resistance of the electrolyte layer and the resistances at the electrode - electrolyte interfaces. The later is dependent on the catalytic activity of the electrode material for the corresponding electrode reaction and the interface microstructure in terms of length of the triple phase boundary (TBP). The ceramic fabrication technique plays an important role in determining the interfacial microstructure and hence, the overall performance of a cell. In the present study, gadolinium cobaltate based cathode material and nickel-gadolinia doped ceria (Ni-GDC) composite anode material have been synthesized and integrated with GDC electrolyte. The interfacial microstructures have been studied by scanning electron microscopy (SEM). The area specific resistance (ASR) at the electrode-electrolyte interfaces have been evaluated by electrochemical impedance spectroscopy (EIS) using symmetrical cell. Using our optimum processing technique ASR values of 0.41 U.cm 2 and 0.03 U.cm 2 have been obtained at Ba-doped GdCoO 3 /GDC interface and Ni-GDC/GDC interface respectively at 900 deg C

  8. Modeling of gas turbine - solid oxide fuel cell systems for combined propulsion and power on aircraft

    Science.gov (United States)

    Waters, Daniel Francis

    This dissertation investigates the use of gas turbine (GT) engine integrated solid oxide fuel cells (SOFCs) to reduce fuel burn in aircraft with large electrical loads like sensor-laden unmanned air vehicles (UAVs). The concept offers a number of advantages: the GT absorbs many SOFC balance of plant functions (supplying fuel, air, and heat to the fuel cell) thereby reducing the number of components in the system; the GT supplies fuel and pressurized air that significantly increases SOFC performance; heat and unreacted fuel from the SOFC are recaptured by the GT cycle offsetting system-level losses; good transient response of the GT cycle compensates for poor transient response of the SOFC. The net result is a system that can supply more electrical power more efficiently than comparable engine-generator systems with only modest (power density. Thermodynamic models of SOFCs, catalytic partial oxidation (CPOx) reactors, and three GT engine types (turbojet, combined exhaust turbofan, separate exhaust turbofan) are developed that account for equilibrium gas phase and electrochemical reaction, pressure losses, and heat losses in ways that capture `down-the-channel' effects (a level of fidelity necessary for making meaningful performance, mass, and volume estimates). Models are created in a NASA-developed environment called Numerical Propulsion System Simulation (NPSS). A sensitivity analysis identifies important design parameters and translates uncertainties in model parameters into uncertainties in overall performance. GT-SOFC integrations reduce fuel burn 3-4% in 50 kW systems on 35 kN rated engines (all types) with overall uncertainty power level. GT-SOFCs are also able to provide more electric power (factors >3 in some cases) than generator-based systems before encountering turbine inlet temperature limits. Aerodynamic drag effects of engine-airframe integration are by far the most important limiter of the combined propulsion/electrical generation concept. However

  9. Emission of Oxygenated Polycyclic Aromatic Hydrocarbons from Indoor Solid Fuel Combustion

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shen, Guofeng; Tao, Shu; Wang, Wei; Yang, Yifeng; Ding, Junnan; Xue, Miao; Min, Yujia; Zhu, Chen; Shen, Huizhong; Li, Wei; Wang, Bin; Wang, Rong; Wang, Wentao; Wang, Xilong; Russell, Armistead G.

    2011-01-01

    Indoor solid fuel combustion is a dominant source of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) and oxygenated PAHs (OPAHs) and the latter are believed to be more toxic than the former. However, there is limited quantitative information on the emissions of OPAHs from solid fuel combustion. In this study, emission factors of OPAHs (EFOPAH) for nine commonly used crop residues and five coals burnt in typical residential stoves widely used in rural China were measured under simulated kitchen conditions. The total EFOPAH ranged from 2.8±0.2 to 8.1±2.2 mg/kg for tested crop residues and from 0.043 to 71 mg/kg for various coals and 9-fluorenone was the most abundant specie. The EFOPAH for indoor crop residue burning were 1~2 orders of magnitude higher than those from open burning, and they were affected by fuel properties and combustion conditions, like moisture and combustion efficiency. For both crop residues and coals, significantly positive correlations were found between EFs for the individual OPAHs and the parent PAHs. An oxygenation rate, Ro, was defined as the ratio of the EFs between the oxygenated and parent PAH species to describe the formation potential of OPAHs. For the studied OPAH/PAH pairs, mean Ro values were 0.16 ~ 0.89 for crop residues and 0.03 ~ 0.25 for coals. Ro for crop residues burned in the cooking stove were much higher than those for open burning and much lower than those in ambient air, indicating the influence of secondary formation of OPAH and loss of PAHs. In comparison with parent PAHs, OPAHs showed a higher tendency to be associated with particulate matter (PM), especially fine PM, and the dominate size ranges were 0.7 ~ 2.1 µm for crop residues and high caking coals and < 0.7 µm for the tested low caking briquettes. PMID:21375317

  10. Study on Zinc Oxide-Based Electrolytes in Low-Temperature Solid Oxide Fuel Cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xia, Chen; Qiao, Zheng; Feng, Chu; Kim, Jung-Sik; Wang, Baoyuan; Zhu, Bin

    2017-12-28

    Semiconducting-ionic conductors have been recently described as excellent electrolyte membranes for low-temperature operation solid oxide fuel cells (LT-SOFCs). In the present work, two new functional materials based on zinc oxide (ZnO)-a legacy material in semiconductors but exceptionally novel to solid state ionics-are developed as membranes in SOFCs for the first time. The proposed ZnO and ZnO-LCP (La/Pr doped CeO₂) electrolytes are respectively sandwiched between two Ni 0.8 Co 0.15 Al 0.05 Li-oxide (NCAL) electrodes to construct fuel cell devices. The assembled ZnO fuel cell demonstrates encouraging power outputs of 158-482 mW cm -2 and high open circuit voltages (OCVs) of 1-1.06 V at 450-550 °C, while the ZnO-LCP cell delivers significantly enhanced performance with maximum power density of 864 mW cm -2 and OCV of 1.07 V at 550 °C. The conductive properties of the materials are investigated. As a consequence, the ZnO electrolyte and ZnO-LCP composite exhibit extraordinary ionic conductivities of 0.09 and 0.156 S cm -1 at 550 °C, respectively, and the proton conductive behavior of ZnO is verified. Furthermore, performance enhancement of the ZnO-LCP cell is studied by electrochemical impedance spectroscopy (EIS), which is found to be as a result of the significantly reduced grain boundary and electrode polarization resistances. These findings indicate that ZnO is a highly promising alternative semiconducting-ionic membrane to replace the electrolyte materials for advanced LT-SOFCs, which in turn provides a new strategic pathway for the future development of electrolytes.

  11. Direct internal steam reforming of ethanol in a solid oxide fuel cell (SOFC) - A thermodynamic analysis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lima da Silva, Aline; De Fraga Malfatti, Celia; Heck, Nestor Cesar; Melo Halmenschlager, Cibele

    2003-01-01

    Among the various types of fuel cells, the solid oxide fuel cell (SOFC) has attracted considerable interest due to the possibility for operation with an internal reformer and higher system efficiency. In SOFC, high operative temperature allows the direct conversion of ethanol into H 2 and CO to take place in the electrochemical cell. Ethanol is considered to be an attractive fuel because it is a renewable energy source and presents some advantages over other green fuels such as safety in storage and handling. Direct internal reforming of ethanol, however, can produce undesirable products that diminish system efficiency and, in the case of carbon deposition over the anode, promote the growth of carbon filaments attached to the anode crystallites which generate massive forces within the electrode structure leading to its rapid breakdown. In this context, a thermodynamic analysis is fundamental to predict the product distribution as well as the conditions favorable for carbon to precipitate inside the cell. Despite of such importance, there are few works in literature dealing with thermodynamic analysis of the direct internal steam reforming of ethanol in fuel cell systems. Hence, the aim of this work is to find appropriate ranges for operating conditions where carbon deposition in SOFC with direct internal reforming operation is not feasible, in temperature range of 500- 1200K. The calculation here is more complicated than that for a reformer because the disappearance of hydrogen and the generation of H 2 O from electrochemical reaction must be taken into account. In the present study, the effects of hydrogen consumption on anode components and on carbon formation are investigated. Equilibrium determinations are performed by the Gibbs energy minimization method, considering the following species: H 2 , H 2 O, CH 4 , CO, CO 2 and C gr . (graphite). The effect of the type of solid electrolyte (oxygen-conducting and hydrogen-conducting) on carbon formation is also

  12. Study of tape casting of Yttria stabilized zirconia for apply in solid oxide fuel cell

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Santana, Leonardo de Paulo

    2008-01-01

    The hydrogen economy has been risen as new option for supply the growing global demand for energy. A fuel cell is an electrochemical device able to use hydrogen as a energy source. Carbon dioxide (CO 2 ) emission is very low so it is ecologically friendly, once energy is produced by a reaction of hydrogen and oxygen. The production of energy from hydrogen fuelled devices can be done even in small unities and in a distributed way. It can bring energy for isolated communities, where traditional energy distribution systems can not be reached. A fuel cell is composed essentially of 3 components: anode, cathode and the electrolyte. In present days, there are many materials proposed for use as electrolyte in fuel cells. Among then, Yttria stabilized zirconia (YSZ) is the most studied and effectively used in solid oxide fuel cell. Tape casting technology is a cheap, simple and efficient way to cast ceramics slurries in laminates thick enough to be used as components for fuel cells. Considering theses aspects, in this work, ceramic thin film forming was studied using tape casting technology with raw materials prepared from Brazilian zircon ores. It is described in literature that ceramic slurries are generally made from powders with low surface area (often between 0,5 to 10m 2 /g), and the powders used in this study had larger surface area (often between 40 to 80m 2 /g). The use of zeta potential is indicated to study the stability of a suspension of ceramic powders. However, for suspensions with large concentration of solid, it is also necessary to determine the flow curve, because in these conditions, the double electric layer formed during the stabilization of suspensions can be compressed. In the rheological properties study, calcined ceramic powders were classified using a set of ABNT series screens and separated and retained by the de mesh 60 screen. Flow curve of suspension was determined in aqueous suspensions of these powders. For tape casting processing, a binder

  13. Is the biochar produced from sewage sludge a good quality solid fuel?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pulka Jakub

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available The influence of sewage sludge torrefaction temperature on fuel properties was investigated. Non-lignocellulosic waste thermal treatment experiment was conducted within 1 h residence time, under the following temperatures: 200, 220, 240, 260, 280 and 300°C. Sawdust was used as lignocellulosic reference material. The following parameters of biochar have been measured: moisture, higher heating value, ash content, volatile compounds and sulfur content. Sawdust biochar has been confirmed to be a good quality solid fuel. High ash and sulfur content may be an obstacle for biochar energy reuse. The best temperature profile for sawdust torrefaction and fuel production for 1 h residence time was 220°C. At this temperature the product contained 84% of initial energy while decreased the mass by 25%. The best temperature profile for sewage sludge was 240°C. The energy residue was 91% and the mass residue was 85%. Higher temperatures in both cases caused excessive mass and energy losses.

  14. Characterization of drying parameters for solid fuels; Kiinteiden polttoaineiden kuivumis-parametrien karakterisointi

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Impola, R.; Saastamoinen, J. [VTT Energy, Jyvaeskylae (Finland); Fagernaes, L. [VTT Energy, Espoo (Finland)

    1997-12-01

    Drying of solid fuel particles in hot gases (50 - 200 deg C) is studied both theoretically and experimentally. The measurements are carried out by using a thermobalance reactor constructed for drying and pyrolysis studies of particles up to 30 mm by diameter. The model is based on the solution of the conservation equations for mass and energy. The main parameters affecting the drying rate are: particle size, particle shape, initial particle moisture content, gas temperature and gas moisture content, temperature of the reactor walls and slip velocity. Also, the drying of biomass fuel particles in fixed and moving beds with hot gas or steam is considered both experimentally and theoretically. A single particle drying model is coupled with a model describing heat and moisture transfer in the gas phase of the bed. The model can be used in the dimensioning of the drying system in a larger scale. Other study subjects were the movement of wood and peat particles in a pneumatic dryer, and the drying of a single fuel particle in steam under various pressures. The aim of the research work was to present a review of recent studies on emissions from biomass drying. The work covers the emissions from different feedstocks, and from different dryers and drying tests (atmospheric, pressurised, flue gas and steam drying), and the effects of factors, such as feedstock, dryer type and drying conditions, on the emissions. The formation and effects of the emissions, and methods to reduce them are also discussed

  15. Energy analysis of a trigeneration plant based on solid oxide fuel cell and organic Rankine cycle

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Al-Sulaiman, F.A.; Dincer, I.; Hamdullahpur, F.

    2009-01-01

    In this paper, energy analysis of a trigeneration plant based on Solid Oxide Fuel cell (SOFC) and organic Rankine cycle (ORC) is carried out. The physical and thermodynamic elements of the plant include a SOFC, ORC, a heating process and a single-effect absorption chiller. The waste heat from the SOFC is used as an input heat to the ORC. In turn, the waste heat from the ORC is used to heat the inlet water, and to provide the heat needed for the single-effect absorption chiller. The results obtained from this study show that the highest cycle efficiency that can be attained under the proposed scheme is 48% and the highest SOFC efficiency is 43%. Furthermore, it is found that the highest net work rate is 435 kW and the highest SOFC-AC work rate is 337 kW. At a current density higher than 0.87 A/cm 2 , the SOFC and cycle efficiencies drop abruptly because of the sharp increase in the voltage losses of the SOFC. At a current density of 0.75 A/cm 2 , the highest SOFC efficiency of 41% is obtained at the inlet fuel cell temperature of 890 K. The change in the inlet pressure of the turbine has insignificant effect on the efficiencies of the ORC and overall cycle. The study shows the effect of both the current density and the inlet fuel cell temperature on the cell voltage and voltage loss. (author)

  16. Cfd Analysis of Heat Transfer in a Microtubular Solid Oxide Fuel Cell Stack

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pianko-Oprych Paulina

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this work was to achieve a deeper understanding of the heat transfer in a microtubular Solid Oxide Fuel Cell (mSOFC stack based on the results obtained by means of a Computational Fluid Dynamics tool. Stack performance predictions were based on simulations for a 16 anodesupported mSOFCs sub-stack, which was a component of the overall stack containing 64 fuel cells. The emphasis of the paper was put on steady-state modelling, which enabled identification of heat transfer between the fuel cells and air flow cooling the stack and estimation of the influence of stack heat losses. Analysis of processes for different heat losses and the impact of the mSOFC reaction heat flux profile on the temperature distribution in the mSOFC stack were carried out. Both radiative and convective heat transfer were taken into account in the analysis. Two different levels of the inlet air velocity and three different values of the heat losses were considered. Good agreement of the CFD model results with experimental data allowed to predict the operation trends, which will be a reliable tool for optimisation of the working setup and ensure sufficient cooling of the mSOFC stack.

  17. Thermal Cyclability of Reactive Air Braze Seals in Anode Supported Solid Oxide Fuel Cells

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hardy, John S.; Darsell, Jens T.; Coyle, Christopher A.; Birnbaum, Jerome C.; Weil, K. Scott

    2004-12-31

    The popularity of anode-supported solid oxide fuel cells (SOFC) has increased in tandem with the ability to fabricate thinner gas-tight yttrium-stabilized zirconia (YSZ) electrolyte layers, which can now be routinely produced on the order of 7 to 10 μm thick. While this has significantly improved power output and decreased the required fuel cell operating temperatures, the ability to reliably seal fuel cells remains a concern. The seals must be hermetic and be robust enough to retain their hermeticity even under the extreme operating conditions of SOFCs. Perhaps the largest contributor to stresses experienced by the seal is the fact that the SOFC is an assembly of many different materials with different thermal expansion properties. Although every effort is made to minimize thermal expansion mismatches across the seals, the stresses developed during thermal cycling still jeopardize seal integrity. Reactive air brazing (RAB), a method of joining that employs a metallic, and therefore non-brittle, seal material has been used to seal electrolyte/anode bilayers, such as those in anode-supported SOFCs, to Crofer-22 alloy. The results of rupture strength testing will be reported for as-brazed and thermally cycled samples and the effect of thermal cycling on the RAB seal microstructure will be shown

  18. A high performance cathode for proton conducting solid oxide fuel cells

    KAUST Repository

    Wang, Zhiquan

    2015-01-01

    Intermediate temperature solid-oxide fuel cells (IT-SOFCs)), as one of the energy conversion devices, have attracted worldwide interest for their great fuel efficiency, low air pollution, much reduced cost and excellent longtime stability. In the intermediate temperature range (500-700°C), SOFCs based on proton conducting electrolytes (PSOFCs) display unique advantages over those based on oxygen ion conducting electrolytes. A key obstacle to the practical operation of past P-SOFCs is the poor stability of the traditionally used composite cathode materials in the steam-containing atmosphere and their low contribution to proton conduction. Here we report the identification of a new Ruddlesden-Popper-type oxide Sr3Fe2O7-δ that meets the requirements for much improved long-term stability and shows a superior single-cell performance. With a Sr3Fe2O7-δ-5 wt% BaZr0.3Ce0.5Y0.2O3-δ cathode, the P-SOFC exhibits high power densities (683 and 583 mW cm-2 at 700°C and 650°C, respectively) when operated with humidified hydrogen as the fuel and air as the cathode gas. More importantly, no decay in discharging was observed within a 100 hour test. © The Royal Society of Chemistry 2015.

  19. Development of planar solid oxide fuel cells for power generation applications

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Minh, N.Q. [AlliedSignal Aerospce Equipment Systems, Torrance, CA (United States)

    1996-04-01

    Planar solid oxide fuel cells (SOFCs) are presently being developed for a variety of electric power generation application. The planar design offers simple cell geometry, high power density, and multiple fabrication and gas manifolding options. Planar SOFC technology has received much attention recently, and significant progress has been made in this area. Recent effort at AlliedSignal has focused on the development of high-performance, lightweight planar SOFCs, having thin-electrolyte films, that can be operated efficiently at reduced temperatures (< 1000{degrees}C). The advantages of reduced-temperature operation include wider material choice (including use of metallic interconnects), expected longer cell life, reduced thermal stress, improved reliability, and reduced fuel cell cost. The key aspect in the development of thin-film SIFCs is to incorporate the thin electrolyte layer into the desired structure of cells in a manner that yields the required characteristics. AlliedSignal has developed a simple and cost-effective method based on tape calendering for the fabrication of thin-electrolyte SOFCs. Thin-electrolyte cells made by tape calendering have shown extraordinary performance, e.g., producing more than 500mW/cm{sup 2} at 700{degrees}C and 800mW/cm{sup 2} at 800{degrees}C with hydrogen as fuel and air is oxidant. thin-electrolyte single cells have been incorporated into a compliant metallic stack structure and operated at reduced and operated at reduced-temperature conditions.

  20. Demonstration of high efficiency intermediate-temperature solid oxide fuel cell based on lanthanum gallate electrolyte

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Inagaki, Toru; Nishiwaki, Futoshi; Kanou, Jirou; Yamasaki, Satoru; Hosoi, Kei; Miyazawa, Takashi; Yamada, Masaharu; Komada, Norikazu

    2006-01-01

    The Kansai Electric Power Co., Inc. (KEPCO) and Mitsubishi Materials Corporation (MMC) have been jointly developing intermediate-temperature solid oxide fuel cells (SOFCs). The operation temperatures between 600 and 800 o C were set as the target, which enable SOFC to use less expensive metallic separators for cell-stacking and to carry out internal reforming of hydrocarbon fuels. The electrolyte-supported planar-type cells were fabricated using highly conductive lanthanum gallate-based electrolyte, La(Sr)Ga(Mg,Co)O 3-δ , Ni-(CeO 2 ) 1-x (SmO 1.5 ) x cermet anode, and Sm(Sr)CoO 3-δ cathode. The 1 kW-class power generation modules were fabricated using a seal-less stack of the cells and metallic separators. The 1 kW-class prototype power generation system with the module was developed with the high performance cell, which showed the thermally self-sustainability. The system included an SOFC module, a dc-ac inverter, a desulfurizer, and a heat recovery unit. It provided stable ac power output of 1 kW with the electrical efficiency of 45% LHV based on ac output by using city gas as a fuel, which was considered to be excellent for such a small power generation system. And the hot water of 90 o C was obtained using high temperature off-gas from SOFC

  1. FUNDAMENTAL STUDIES OF THE DURABILITY OF MATERIALS FOR INTERCONNECTS IN SOLID OXIDE FUEL CELLS

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Frederick S. Pettit; Gerald H. Meier

    2003-06-30

    This report describes the result of the first eight months of effort on a project directed at improving metallic interconnect materials for solid oxide fuel cells (SOFCs). The results include cyclic oxidation studies of a group of ferritic alloys, which are candidate interconnect materials. The exposures have been carried out in simulated fuel cell atmospheres. The oxidation morphologies have been characterized and the ASR has been measured for the oxide scales. The effect of fuel cell electric current density on chromia growth rates has been considered The thermomechanical behavior of the scales has been investigated by stress measurements using x-ray diffraction and interfacial fracture toughness measurements using indentation. The ultimate goal of this thrust is to use knowledge of changes in oxide thickness, stress and adhesion to develop accelerated testing methods for evaluating SOFC interconnect alloys. Finally a theoretical assessment of the potential for use of ''new'' metallic materials as interconnect materials has been conducted and is presented in this report. Alloys being considered include materials based on pure nickel, materials based on the ''Invar'' concept, and coated materials to optimize properties in both the anode and cathode gases.

  2. Dynamic modeling and evaluation of solid oxide fuel cell - combined heat and power system operating strategies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nanaeda, Kimihiro; Mueller, Fabian; Brouwer, Jacob; Samuelsen, Scott

    Operating strategies of solid oxide fuel cell (SOFC) combined heat and power (CHP) systems are developed and evaluated from a utility, and end-user perspective using a fully integrated SOFC-CHP system dynamic model that resolves the physical states, thermal integration and overall efficiency of the system. The model can be modified for any SOFC-CHP system, but the present analysis is applied to a hotel in southern California based on measured electric and heating loads. Analysis indicates that combined heat and power systems can be operated to benefit both the end-users and the utility, providing more efficient electric generation as well as grid ancillary services, namely dispatchable urban power. Design and operating strategies considered in the paper include optimal sizing of the fuel cell, thermal energy storage to dispatch heat, and operating the fuel cell to provide flexible grid power. Analysis results indicate that with a 13.1% average increase in price-of-electricity (POE), the system can provide the grid with a 50% operating range of dispatchable urban power at an overall thermal efficiency of 80%. This grid-support operating mode increases the operational flexibility of the SOFC-CHP system, which may make the technology an important utility asset for accommodating the increased penetration of intermittent renewable power.

  3. Predicting the calorific value of refuse derived fuel from the characteristics of municipal solid waste

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sivapalan Kathiravale; Muhd Noor Muhd Yunus; Mohamad Puad Abu; Mohamad Azman Che Mat Isa; Mohd Fairus Abdul Farid; Norasalwa Zakaria; Khaironie Mohd Takip; Rohyiza Ba'an

    2006-01-01

    The Imposing need to manage the municipal solid waste generated by society in a proper manner has urged municipalities to look into new management methods, which are not only environmentally friendly but also economically profitable. One such way is by converting this waste material into fuel. Currently, Kajang in the State of Selangor, Malaysia, generates about 700 tons of Municipal Solid Waste (MSW) a day. Due to rapid development, lack of land area for new landfill and the environmental impact of raw landfills, the local municipal council has collaborated with a local company in the management of this waste. The company has proposed to convert the MSW to Refuse Derived Fuel (RDF). In view of this, a pilot plant to convert MSW to RDF was erected by the company and begun operation in January 2002. This pilot plant has the capability of converting 15 tons of MSW to 5 tons of RDF. At the same time studies, have been carried out to assess the plant performance, the flue gas analysis, and also the MSW and RDF characteristic. This paper will highlight the findings of the MSW and RDF characterization work carried out over the past year. Sampling and analysis was carried in accordance with ASTM standards. Results of the waste analysis showed that the calorific value of the resulting RDF could be predicted from the physical characteristics as well as the moisture content. Regression analysis on the available data has been used to create equations relating the proximate composition and moisture content of the incoming municipal solid waste to the calorific value of the RDF

  4. Design of a thermally integrated bioethanol-fueled solid oxide fuel cell system integrated with a distillation column

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jamsak, W.; Douglas, P. L.; Croiset, E.; Suwanwarangkul, R.; Laosiripojana, N.; Charojrochkul, S.; Assabumrungrat, S.

    Solid oxide fuel cell systems integrated with a distillation column (SOFC-DIS) have been investigated in this study. The MER (maximum energy recovery) network for SOFC-DIS system under the base conditions (C EtOH = 25%, EtOH recovery = 80%, V = 0.7 V, fuel utilization = 80%, T SOFC = 1200 K) yields Q Cmin = 73.4 and Q Hmin = 0 kW. To enhance the performance of SOFC-DIS, utilization of internal useful heat sources from within the system (e.g. condenser duty and hot water from the bottom of the distillation column) and a cathode recirculation have been considered in this study. The utilization of condenser duty for preheating the incoming bioethanol and cathode recirculation for SOFC-DIS system were chosen and implemented to the SOFC-DIS (CondBio-CathRec). Different MER designs were investigated. The obtained MER network of CondBio-CathRec configuration shows the lower minimum cold utility (Q Cmin) of 55.9 kW and total cost index than that of the base case. A heat exchanger loop and utility path were also investigated. It was found that eliminate the high temperature distillate heat exchanger can lower the total cost index. The recommended network is that the hot effluent gas is heat exchanged with the anode heat exchanger, the external reformer, the air heat exchanger, the distillate heat exchanger and the reboiler, respectively. The corresponding performances of this design are 40.8%, 54.3%, 0.221 W cm -2 for overall electrical efficiency, Combine Heat and Power (CHP) efficiency and power density, respectively. The effect of operating conditions on composite curves on the design of heat exchanger network was investigated. The obtained composite curves can be divided into two groups: the threshold case and the pinch case. It was found that the pinch case which T SOFC = 1173 K yields higher total cost index than the CondBio-CathRec at the base conditions. It was also found that the pinch case can become a threshold case by adjusting split fraction or operating at

  5. Program of scientific investigations and development of solid-oxide fuel cells (SOFC) in VIITF proposals on scientific and technical collaboration and SOFC commercialization

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kleschev, Yu.N.; Chulharev, V.F.

    1996-04-01

    Investigations being performed at VNIITF covers the whole cycle of solid oxide fuel cell manufacturing. This report describes the main directions of investigations in materials, technologies, and commercialization.

  6. Effect of binder burnout on the sealing performance of glass ceramics for solid oxide fuel cells

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ertugrul, Tugrul Y.; Celik, Selahattin; Mat, Mahmut D.

    2013-11-01

    The glass ceramics composite sealants are among few materials suitable for the solid oxide fuel cells (SOFC) due to their high operating temperatures (600 °C-850 °C). The glass ceramics chemically bond to both the metallic interconnector and the ceramic electrolyte and provide a gas tight connection. A careful and several stages manufacturing procedure is required to obtain a gas tight sealing. In this study, effects of binder burnout process on the sealing performance are investigated employing commercially available glass ceramic powders. The glass ceramic laminates are produced by mixing glass ceramic powders with the organic binders and employing a tape casting method. The laminates are sandwiched between the metallic interconnectors of an SOFC cell. The burnout and subsequent sealing quality are analyzed by measuring leakage rate and final macrostructure of sealing region. The effects of heating rate, dead weight load, solid loading, carrier gas and their flow rates are investigated. It is found that sealing quality is affected from all investigated parameters. While a slower heating rate is required for a better burnout, the mass flow rate of sweep gas must be adequate for removal of the burned gas. The leakage rate is reduced to 0.1 ml min-1 with 2 °C min-1 + 1 °C min-1 heating rate, 86.25% solid loading, 200 N dead weight load and 500 ml min-1 sweep gas flow rate.

  7. Electrical Generation for More-Electric Aircraft Using Solid Oxide Fuel Cells

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Whyatt, Greg A.; Chick, Lawrence A.

    2012-04-01

    This report examines the potential for Solid-Oxide Fuel Cells (SOFC) to provide electrical generation on-board commercial aircraft. Unlike a turbine-based auxiliary power unit (APU) a solid oxide fuel cell power unit (SOFCPU) would be more efficient than using the main engine generators to generate electricity and would operate continuously during flight. The focus of this study is on more-electric aircraft which minimize bleed air extraction from the engines and instead use electrical power obtained from generators driven by the main engines to satisfy all major loads. The increased electrical generation increases the potential fuel savings obtainable through more efficient electrical generation using a SOFCPU. However, the weight added to the aircraft by the SOFCPU impacts the main engine fuel consumption which reduces the potential fuel savings. To investigate these relationships the Boeing 787­8 was used as a case study. The potential performance of the SOFCPU was determined by coupling flowsheet modeling using ChemCAD software with a stack performance algorithm. For a given stack operating condition (cell voltage, anode utilization, stack pressure, target cell exit temperature), ChemCAD software was used to determine the cathode air rate to provide stack thermal balance, the heat exchanger duties, the gross power output for a given fuel rate, the parasitic power for the anode recycle blower and net power obtained from (or required by) the compressor/expander. The SOFC is based on the Gen4 Delphi planar SOFC with assumed modifications to tailor it to this application. The size of the stack needed to satisfy the specified condition was assessed using an empirically-based algorithm. The algorithm predicts stack power density based on the pressure, inlet temperature, cell voltage and anode and cathode inlet flows and compositions. The algorithm was developed by enhancing a model for a well-established material set operating at atmospheric pressure to reflect the

  8. Evaluation of Ni/SDC as anode material for dry CH4 fueled Solid Oxide Fuel Cells

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Zhiming; Li, Yongdan; Schwank, Johannes W.

    2014-02-01

    A Ni/Sm0.2Ce0.8O1.9 (SDC) composite was employed as anode material for direct electrochemical oxidation (DEO) of dry CH4 in a solid oxide fuel cell. The anodic performance was investigated at temperatures between 600 °C and 700 °C using SDC as electrolyte material and Ba0.5Sr0.5Co0.8Fe0.2O3-δ (BSCF) as cathode material. The single cell exhibited maximum power densities of 671 mW cm-2, 494 mW cm-2 and 305 mW cm-2 in dry CH4 at 700 °C, 650 °C and 600 °C, respectively. Remarkably, at 700 °C the power density in CH4 was higher than in H2, thanks to the carbon tolerance of the anode. Durability tests under constant 300 mA output current showed only 3.7% performance loss after 72 h operation. The results demonstrate that Ni/SDC can be used as anode for the DEO of dry CH4 even at temperatures as low as 600 °C.

  9. Use of wastewater treatment plant biogas for the operation of Solid Oxide Fuel Cells (SOFCs).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lackey, Jillian; Champagne, Pascale; Peppley, Brant

    2017-12-01

    Solid Oxide Fuel Cells (SOFCs) perform well on light hydrocarbon fuels, and the use of biogas derived from the anaerobic digestion (AD) of municipal wastewater sludges could provide an opportunity for the CH 4 produced to be used as a renewable fuel. Greenhouse gas (GHG), NO x , SO x , and hydrocarbon pollutant emissions would also be reduced. In this study, SOFCs were operated on AD derived biogas. Initially, different H 2 dilutions were tested (N 2 , Ar, CO 2 ) to examine the performance of tubular SOFCs. With inert gases as diluents, a decrease in cell performance was observed, however, the use of CO 2 led to a higher decrease in performance as it promoted the reverse water-gas shift (WGS) reaction, reducing the H 2 partial pressure in the gas mixture. A model was developed to predict system efficiency and GHG emissions. A higher electrical system efficiency was noted for a steam:carbon ratio of 2 compared to 1 due to the increased H 2 partial pressure in the reformate resulting from higher H 2 O concentration. Reductions in GHG emissions were estimated at 2400 tonnes CO 2 , 60 kg CH 4 and 18 kg N 2 O. SOFCs were also tested using a simulated biogas reformate mixture (66.7% H 2 , 16.1% CO, 16.5% CO 2 , 0.7% N 2 , humidified to 2.3 or 20 mol% H 2 O). Higher humidification yielded better performance as the WGS reaction produced more H 2 with additional H 2 O. It was concluded that AD-derived biogas, when cleaned to remove H 2 S, Si compounds, halides and other contaminants, could be reformed to provide a clean, renewable fuel for SOFCs. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  10. Thermal stress management of a solid oxide fuel cell using neural network predictive control

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hajimolana, S.A.; Tonekabonimoghadam, S.M.; Hussain, M.A.; Chakrabarti, M.H.; Jayakumar, N.S.; Hashim, M.A.

    2013-01-01

    In SOFC (solid oxide fuel cell) systems operating at high temperatures, temperature fluctuation induces a thermal stress in the electrodes and electrolyte ceramics; therefore, the cell temperature distribution is recommended to be kept as constant as possible. In the present work, a mathematical model based on first principles is presented to avert such temperature fluctuations. The fuel cell running on ammonia is divided into five subsystems and factors such as mass/energy/momentum transfer, diffusion through porous media, electrochemical reactions, and polarization losses inside the subsystems are presented. Dynamic cell-tube temperature responses of the cell to step changes in conditions of the feed streams is investigated. The results of simulation indicate that the transient response of the SOFC is mainly influenced by the temperature dynamics. It is also shown that the inlet stream temperatures are associated with the highest long term start-up time (467 s) among other parameters in terms of step changes. In contrast the step change in fuel velocity has the lowest influence on the start-up time (about 190 s from initial steady state to the new steady state) among other parameters. A NNPC (neural network predictive controller) is then implemented for thermal stress management by controlling the cell tube temperature to avoid performance degradation by manipulating the temperature of the inlet air stream. The regulatory performance of the NNPC is compared with a PI (proportional–integral) controller. The performance of the control system confirms that NNPC is a non-linear-model-based strategy which can assure less oscillating control responses with shorter settling times in comparison to the PI controller. - Highlights: • Effect of the operating parameters on the fuel cell temperature is analysed. • A neural network predictive controller (NNPC) is implemented. • The performance of NNPC is compared with the PI controller. • A detailed model is used for

  11. Effect of Coal Contaminants on Solid Oxide Fuel System Performance and Service Life

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Krishnan, Gopala N.; Jayaweera, Palitha; Perez, Jordi; Hornbostel, M.; Albritton, John R.; Gupta, Raghubir P.

    2007-10-31

    The U.S. Department of Energy’s SECA program envisions the development of high-efficiency, low-emission, CO2 sequestration-ready, and fuel-flexible technology to produce electricity from fossil fuels. One such technology is the integrated gasification-solid oxide fuel cell (SOFC) that produces electricity from the gas stream of a coal gasifier. SOFCs have high fuel-to-electricity conversion efficiency, environmental compatibility (low NOx production), and modularity. The primary objective of the Phase I study was to determine the sensitivity of the performance of solid oxide fuel cells to trace level contaminants present in a coal-derived gas stream in the temperature range 700° to 900°C. Laboratory-scale tests were performed with 1-inch diameter solid oxide fuel cells procured from InDec B.V., Netherlands. These cells produce 0.15, 0.27, and 0.35 W/cm2 at 700°, 750°, and 800°C, respectively, in a H2 anode feed and are expected to be stable within 10% of the original performance over a period of 2000 h. A simulated coal-derived gas containing 30.0% CO, 30.6% H2 11.8% CO2, 27.6% H2O was used at a rate of ~100 standard cm3/min to determine the effect of contaminants on the electrical performance of the cells. Alumina or zirconia components were used for the gas manifold to prevent loss of contaminants by reaction with the surfaces of the gas manifold Short-term accelerated tests were conducted with several contaminants including As, P, CH3Cl, HCl, Hg, Sb, and Zn vapors. In these tests, AsH3, PH3, Cd vapor and CH3Cl identified as the potential contaminants that can affect the electrical performance of SOFCs. The effect of some of these contaminants varied with the operating temperature. Cell failure due to contact break inside the anode chamber occurred when the cell was exposed to 10 ppm arsenic vapor at 800°C. The electrical performance of SOFC

  12. A ``NEW'' Solid-Core Reactor Fuel Form that Maximizes the Performance of Nuclear Thermal and Electric Rockets

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rom, Frank E.; Finnegan, Patrick M.

    1994-07-01

    The ``NEW'' solid-core fuel form is the old Vapor Transport (VT) fuel pin investigated at NASA about 30 years ago. It is simply a tube sealed at both ends partially filled with UO2. During operation the UO2 forms an annular layer on the inside of the tube by vaporization and condensation. This form is an ideal structure for overall strength and retention of fission products. All of the structural material lies between the fuel (including fission products) and the reactor coolant. The isothermal inside fuel surface temperature that results from the vaporization and condensation of fuel during operation eliminates hotspots, significantly increasing the design fuel pin surface temperature. For NTP, W-UO2 fuel pins yield higher operating temperatures than for other fuel forms, because W has about a ten-fold lower vaporization rate compared to any other known material. The use of perigee propulsion using W-UO2 fuel pins can result in a more than ten-fold reduction in reactor power. Lower reactor power, together with zero fission product release potential, and the simplicity of fabrication of VT fuel pins should greatly simplify and reduce the cost of development of NTP. For NEP, VT fuel pins can increase fast neutron spectrum reactor life with no fission product release. Thermal spectrum NEP reactors using W184 or Mo VT fuel pins, with only small amounts of high neutron absorbing additives, offer benefits because of much lower fissionable fuel requirements. The VT fuel pin has application to commercial power reactors with similar benefits.

  13. Phase 1 - Evaluation of a Functional Interconnect System for Solid Oxide Fuel Cells

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    James M. Rakowski

    2006-09-30

    This project is focused on evaluating the suitability of materials and complex multi-materials systems for use as solid oxide fuel cell interconnects. ATI Allegheny Ludlum has generated promising results for interconnect materials which incorporate modified surfaces. Methods for producing these surfaces include cladding, which permits the use of novel materials, and modifications via unique thermomechanical processing, which allows for the modification of materials chemistry. The University of Pittsburgh is assisting in this effort by providing use of their in-place facilities for dual atmosphere testing and ASR measurements, along with substantial work to characterize post-exposure specimens. Carnegie Mellon is testing interconnects for chromia scale spallation resistance using macro-scale and nano-scale indentation tests. Chromia spallation can increase electrical resistance to unacceptable levels and interconnect systems must be developed that will not experience spallation within 40,000 hours at operating temperatures. Spallation is one of three interconnect failure mechanisms, the others being excessive growth of the chromia scale (increasing electrical resistance) and scale evaporation (which can poison the cathode). The goal of indentation fracture testing at Carnegie Mellon is to accelerate the evaluation of new interconnect systems (by inducing spalls at after short exposure times) and to use fracture mechanics to understand mechanisms leading to premature interconnect failure by spallation. Tests include bare alloys from ATI and coated systems from DOE Laboratories and industrial partners, using ATI alloy substrates. West Virginia University is working towards developing a cost-effective material for use as a contact material in the cathode chamber of the SOFC. Currently materials such as platinum are well suited for this purpose, but are cost-prohibitive. For the solid-oxide fuel cell to become a commercial reality it is imperative that lower cost

  14. Interaction of coal-derived synthesis gas impurities with solid oxide fuel cell metallic components

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Marina, Olga A.; Coyle, Christopher A.; Edwards, Danny J.; Chou, Yeong-Shyung; Cramer, Carolyn N. [Pacific Northwest National Laboratory, Richland, WA 99352 (United States); Pederson, Larry R. [North Dakota State University, Fargo, ND 58102 (United States)

    2011-01-15

    Oxidation-resistant alloys find use as interconnect materials, heat exchangers, and gas supply tubing in solid oxide fuel cell (SOFC) systems, especially when operated at temperatures below {proportional_to}800 C. If fueled with synthesis gas derived from coal or biomass, such metallic components could be exposed to impurities contained in those fuel sources. In this study, coupons of ferritic stainless steels Crofer 22 APU and SS 441, austenitic nickel-chromium superalloy Inconel 600, and an alumina-forming high nickel alloy alumel were exposed to synthesis gas containing {<=}2 ppm phosphorus, arsenic and antimony, and reaction products were tested. Crofer 22 APU coupons coated with a (Mn,Co){sub 3}O{sub 4} protective layer were also evaluated. Phosphorus was found to be the most reactive. On Crofer 22 APU, the (Mn,Cr){sub 3}O{sub 4} passivation layer reacted to form an Mn-P-O product, predicted to be manganese phosphate from thermochemical calculations, and Cr{sub 2}O{sub 3}. On SS 441, reaction of phosphorus with (Mn,Cr){sub 3}O{sub 4} led to the formation of manganese phosphate as well as an Fe-P product, predicted from thermochemical calculations to be Fe{sub 3}P. Minimal interactions with antimony or arsenic in synthesis gas were limited to Fe-Sb and Fe-As solid solution formation. Though not intended for use on the anode side, a (Mn,Co){sub 3}O{sub 4} spinel coating on Crofer 22 APU reacted with phosphorus in synthesis gas to produce products consistent with Mn{sub 3}(PO{sub 4}){sub 2} and Co{sub 2}P. A thin Cr{sub 2}O{sub 3} passivation layer on Inconel 600 did not prevent the formation of nickel phosphides and arsenides and of iron phosphides and arsenides, though no reaction with Cr{sub 2}O{sub 3} was apparent. On alumel, an Al{sub 2}O{sub 3} passivation layer rich in Ni did not prevent the formation of nickel phosphides, arsenides, and antimonides, though no reaction with Al{sub 2}O{sub 3} occurred. This work shows that unprotected metallic components of

  15. Global climate impacts of country-level primary carbonaceous aerosol from solid-fuel cookstove emissions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lacey, Forrest; Henze, Daven

    2015-01-01

    Cookstove use is globally one of the largest unregulated anthropogenic sources of primary carbonaceous aerosol. While reducing cookstove emissions through national-scale mitigation efforts has clear benefits for improving indoor and ambient air quality, and significant climate benefits from reduced green-house gas emissions, climate impacts associated with reductions to co-emitted black (BC) and organic carbonaceous aerosol are not well characterized. Here we attribute direct, indirect, semi-direct, and snow/ice albedo radiative forcing (RF) and associated global surface temperature changes to national-scale carbonaceous aerosol cookstove emissions. These results are made possible through the use of adjoint sensitivity modeling to relate direct RF and BC deposition to emissions. Semi- and indirect effects are included via global scaling factors, and bounds on these estimates are drawn from current literature ranges for aerosol RF along with a range of solid fuel emissions characterizations. Absolute regional temperature potentials are used to estimate global surface temperature changes. Bounds are placed on these estimates, drawing from current literature ranges for aerosol RF along with a range of solid fuel emissions characterizations. We estimate a range of 0.16 K warming to 0.28 K cooling with a central estimate of 0.06 K cooling from the removal of cookstove aerosol emissions. At the national emissions scale, countries’ impacts on global climate range from net warming (e.g., Mexico and Brazil) to net cooling, although the range of estimated impacts for all countries span zero given uncertainties in RF estimates and fuel characterization. We identify similarities and differences in the sets of countries with the highest emissions and largest cookstove temperature impacts (China, India, Nigeria, Pakistan, Bangladesh and Nepal), those with the largest temperature impact per carbon emitted (Kazakhstan, Estonia, and Mongolia), and those that would provide the

  16. Global climate impacts of country-level primary carbonaceous aerosol from solid-fuel cookstove emissions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lacey, Forrest; Henze, Daven

    2015-11-01

    Cookstove use is globally one of the largest unregulated anthropogenic sources of primary carbonaceous aerosol. While reducing cookstove emissions through national-scale mitigation efforts has clear benefits for improving indoor and ambient air quality, and significant climate benefits from reduced green-house gas emissions, climate impacts associated with reductions to co-emitted black (BC) and organic carbonaceous aerosol are not well characterized. Here we attribute direct, indirect, semi-direct, and snow/ice albedo radiative forcing (RF) and associated global surface temperature changes to national-scale carbonaceous aerosol cookstove emissions. These results are made possible through the use of adjoint sensitivity modeling to relate direct RF and BC deposition to emissions. Semi- and indirect effects are included via global scaling factors, and bounds on these estimates are drawn from current literature ranges for aerosol RF along with a range of solid fuel emissions characterizations. Absolute regional temperature potentials are used to estimate global surface temperature changes. Bounds are placed on these estimates, drawing from current literature ranges for aerosol RF along with a range of solid fuel emissions characterizations. We estimate a range of 0.16 K warming to 0.28 K cooling with a central estimate of 0.06 K cooling from the removal of cookstove aerosol emissions. At the national emissions scale, countries’ impacts on global climate range from net warming (e.g., Mexico and Brazil) to net cooling, although the range of estimated impacts for all countries span zero given uncertainties in RF estimates and fuel characterization. We identify similarities and differences in the sets of countries with the highest emissions and largest cookstove temperature impacts (China, India, Nigeria, Pakistan, Bangladesh and Nepal), those with the largest temperature impact per carbon emitted (Kazakhstan, Estonia, and Mongolia), and those that would provide the

  17. Methane-free biogas for direct feeding of solid oxide fuel cells

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leone, P.; Lanzini, A.; Santarelli, M.; Calì, M.; Sagnelli, F.; Boulanger, A.; Scaletta, A.; Zitella, P.

    This paper deals with the experimental analysis of the performance and degradation issues of a Ni-based anode-supported solid oxide fuel cell fed by a methane-free biogas from dark-anaerobic digestion of wastes by pastry and fruit shops. The biogas is produced by means of an innovative process where the biomass is fermented with a pre-treated bacteria inoculum (Clostridia) able to completely inhibit the methanization step during the fermentation process and to produce a H 2/CO 2 mixture instead of conventional CH 4/CO 2 anaerobic digested gas (bio-methane). The proposed biogas production route leads to a biogas composition which avoids the need of introducing a reformer agent into or before the SOFC anode in order to reformate it. In order to analyse the complete behaviour of a SOFC with the bio-hydrogen fuel, an experimental session with several H 2/CO 2 synthetic mixtures was performed on an anode-supported solid oxide fuel cell with a Ni-based anode. It was found that side reactions occur with such mixtures in the typical thermodynamic conditions of SOFCs (650-800 °C), which have an effect especially at high currents, due to the shift to a mixture consisting of hydrogen, carbon monoxide, carbon dioxide and water. However, cells operated with acceptable performance and carbon deposits (typical of a traditional hydrocarbon-containing biogas) were avoided after 50 h of cell operation even at 650 °C. Experiments were also performed with traditional bio-methane from anaerobic digestion with 60/40 vol% of composition. It was found that the cell performance dropped after few hours of operation due to the formation of carbon deposits. A short-term test with the real as-produced biogas was also successfully performed. The cell showed an acceptable power output (at 800 °C, 0.35 W cm -2 with biogas, versus 0.55 W cm -2 with H 2) although a huge quantity of sulphur was present in the feeding fuel (hydrogen sulphide at 103 ppm and mercaptans up to 10 ppm). Therefore, it

  18. Impact of indoor air pollution from the use of solid fuels on the incidence of life threatening respiratory illnesses in children in India.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Upadhyay, Ashish Kumar; Singh, Abhishek; Kumar, Kaushalendra; Singh, Ashish

    2015-03-28

    India contributes 24% of the global annual child deaths due to acute respiratory infections (ARIs). According to WHO, nearly 50% of the deaths among children due to ARIs is because of indoor air pollution (IAP). There is insufficient evidence on the relationship between IAP from the use of solid fuels and incidence of life threatening respiratory illnesses (LTRI) in children in India. Panel data of children born during 2001-02, from the Young Lives Study (YLS) conducted in India during 2002 and 2006-07 was used to estimate the impact of household use of solid fuels for cooking on LTRI in children. Multivariable two-stage random effects logistic regression model was used to estimate the odds of suffering from LTRI among children from households using solid fuels relative to children from households using other fuels (Gas/Electricity/Kerosene). Bivariate results indicate that the probability of an episode of LTRI was considerably higher among children from households using solid fuels for cooking (18%) than among children from households using other fuels (10%). Moreover, children from households using solid fuels in both the rounds of YLS were more likely to suffer from one or more than one episode of LTRI compared to children from households using solid fuels in only one round. Two-stage random effects logistic regression result shows that children from households using solid fuels were 1.78 (95% CI: 1.05-2.99) times as likely to suffer from LTRI as those from households using other fuels. The findings of this paper provide conclusive evidence on the harmful effects of the use of solid fuels for cooking on LTRI in India. The Government of India must make people aware about the health risks associated with the use of solid fuels for cooking and strive to promote the use of cleaner fuels.

  19. Hybrid Solid Oxide Fuel Cell and Thermoelectric Generator for Maximum Power Output in Micro-CHP Systems

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rosendahl, Lasse; Mortensen, Paw Vestergård; Enkeshafi, Ali A.

    2011-01-01

    and market segments which are not yet quantified. This paper quantifies a micro-CHP system based on a solid oxide fuel cell (SOFC) and a high-performance TE generator. Based on a 3 kW fuel input, the hybrid SOFC implementation boosts electrical output from 945 W to 1085 W, with 1794 W available for heating...... the electricity production in micro-CHP systems by more than 15%, corresponding to system electrical efficiency increases of some 4 to 5 percentage points. This will make fuel cell-based micro-CHP systems very competitive and profitable and will also open opportunities in a number of other potential business...

  20. Nanostructured Gd-CeO2 electrolyte for solid oxide fuel cell by aqueous tape casting

    Science.gov (United States)

    Akbari-Fakhrabadi, A.; Mangalaraja, R. V.; Sanhueza, Felipe A.; Avila, Ricardo E.; Ananthakumar, S.; Chan, S. H.

    2012-11-01

    Gadolinia-doped ceria (Ce0.9Gd0.1O1.95, GDC) electrolyte was fabricated by aqueous-based tape casting method for solid oxide fuel cells (SOFCs). The ceramic powder prepared by combustion synthesis was used with poly acrylic acid (PAA), poly vinyl alcohol (PVA), poly ethylene glycol (PEG), Octanol, 2,4,7,9-tetramethyl-5-decyne-4,7-diol ethoxylate and double distilled water as dispersant, binder, plasticizer, defoamer, surfactant and solvent respectively, to prepare stable GDC slurry. The conditions for preparing stable GDC slurries were studied and optimized by sedimentation, zeta potential and viscosity measurements. Green tapes with smooth surface, flexibility, thickness in the range of 0.35-0.4 mm and 45% relative green density were prepared. Conventional and flash sintering techniques were used and compared for densification which demonstrated the possibility of surpassing sintering at high temperatures and retarding related grain growth.

  1. Optimization of the stand for test of hybrid rocket engines of solid fuel

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zolotorev Nikolay

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available In the paper the laboratory experimental stand of the hybrid rocket engine of solid fuel to study ballistic parameters of the engine at burning of high-energy materials in flow of hot gas is presented. Mixture of air with nitrogen with a specified content of active oxygen is used as a gaseous oxidizer. The experimental stand has modular design and consists of system of gas supply, system of heating of gas, system for monitoring gas parameters, to which a load cell with a model engine was connected. The modular design of the stand allows to change its configuration under specific objective. This experimental stand allows to conduct a wide range of the pilot studies at interaction of a hot stream of gas with samples high-energy materials.

  2. Effect of cathode gas humidification on performance and durability of Solid Oxide Fuel Cells

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielsen, Jimmi; Hagen, Anke; Liu, Yi-Lin

    2010-01-01

    The effect of cathode inlet gas humidification was studied on single anode supported Solid Oxide Fuel Cells (SOFC's). The studied cells were Risø 2 G and 2.5 G. The former consists of a LSM:YSZ composite cathode, while the latter consists of a LSCF:CGO composite cathode on a CGO protection layer...... respectively. A clear effect of humidification was observed for 2 G cells with a fast transient upon humidification followed by an ongoing long term passivation/degradation during humidification. Removal of humidification resulted in a partial regain of the cell voltage prior to humidification....... The humidification effect was found to be dependent on both the degree of humidification and the cathode polarization. No significant effect of humidification was found at OCV which rules out the possibility of a traditional poisoning effect with a blocking of active sites. Post-mortem high resolution FEG...

  3. Hydrothermal Upgrading of Korean MSW for Solid Fuel Production: Effect of MSW Composition

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Daegi Kim

    2012-01-01

    In this research, the hydrothermal treatment was applied to treat the surrogate MT residue composed of paper and/or kimchi. It was shown that the hydrothermal treatment increased the calorific value of the surrogate MT residue due to increasing fixed carbon content and decreasing oxygen content and enhanced the dehydration and drying performances of kimchi. Comparing the results of paper and kimchi samples, the calorific value of the treated product from paper was increased more effectively due to its high content of cellulose. Furthermore, the change of the calorific value before and after the hydrothermal treatment of the mixture of paper and kimchi can be well predicted by this change of paper and kimchi only. The hydrothermal treatment can be expected to effectively convert high moisture MT residue into a uniform solid fuel.

  4. Mechanism of chromium poisoning the conventional cathode material for solid oxide fuel cells

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Xiaoqiang; Yu, Guangsen; Zeng, Shumao; Parbey, Joseph; Xiao, Shuhao; Li, Baihai; Li, Tingshuai; Andersson, Martin

    2018-03-01

    Chromium poisoning the La0.875Sr0.125MnO3 (LSM) cathode for solid oxide fuel cells is a critical issue that can strongly affect the stability. In this study, we evaluate the temperature distribution in a SOFC based on a 3D model and then combine conductivity test and material computation to reveal the effects of chromium in SUS430 stainless steels on LSM conductivities. The starch concentration in LSM pellets and the applied pressure on the contact with interconnect materials show close relationships with the chromium poisoning behavior. The density functional theory (DFT) computing results indicate that chromium atoms preferably adsorb on the MnO2-terminated and La (Sr)-O-terminated (001) surfaces. The resulting conclusions are expected to deeply understand mechanism of chromium deactivating conventional cathodes at some typical operational conditions, and offer crucial information to optimize the structure to avoid the poisoning effect.

  5. Method of Fabrication of High Power Density Solid Oxide Fuel Cells

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pham, Ai Quoc; Glass, Robert S.

    2008-09-09

    A method for producing ultra-high power density solid oxide fuel cells (SOFCs). The method involves the formation of a multilayer structure cells wherein a buffer layer of doped-ceria is deposited intermediate a zirconia electrolyte and a cobalt iron based electrode using a colloidal spray deposition (CSD) technique. For example, a cobalt iron based cathode composed of (La,Sr)(Co,Fe)O(LSCF) may be deposited on a zirconia electrolyte via a buffer layer of doped-ceria deposited by the CSD technique. The thus formed SOFC have a power density of 1400 mW/cm.sup.2 at 600.degree. C. and 900 mW/cm.sup.2 at 700.degree. C. which constitutes a 2-3 times increased in power density over conventionally produced SOFCs.

  6. Conditioning of high activity solid waste: fuel claddings and dissolution residues

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anon.

    1982-01-01

    This chapter reports on experimental studies of embedding into matrix material, the melting and conversion of zircaloy, and waste properties and characterization. Methods are developed for embedding the waste scrap into a solid and resistant matrix material in order to confine the radioactivity and to prevent it from dispersion. The matrix materials investigated are lead alloys, ceramics and compacted graphite or aluminium powder. The treatment of fuel hulls by melting or chemical conversion is described. Cemented hulls are characterized and the pyrophoricity of zircaloy fines is investigated. Topics considered include the embedding of hulls into graphite and aluminium, the embedding of hulls and dissolution residues into alumino-ceramics, the solidification of alpha-bearing wastes into a ceramic matrix, and the conditioning of cladding waste by eutectoidic melting and by embedding in glass

  7. Study of PAH emission from the solid fuels combustion in residential furnaces

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kakareka, Sergey V.; Kukharchyk, Tamara I.; Khomich, Valery S.

    2005-01-01

    The procedure for and results of a test study of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbon (PAH) emission from a few types of solid fuels combustion in residential furnaces of various designs typical for Belarus are discussed. Greatest levels of PAH emission were detected from domestic wastes and wood waste combustion. Lowest levels of PAH emission are from peat briquette combustion. It was found that PAH concentration in off-gases from firewood combustion also varies significantly depending on the type of wood: the highest values of PAH are typical for waste gases from birch firewood combustion in comparison with pine firewood combustion. Draft PAH emission factors are proposed with intended application for emission inventory of such installations

  8. Testing and improving the redox stability of Ni-based solid oxide fuel cells

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pihlatie, Mikko; Ramos, Tania; Kaiser, Andreas

    2009-01-01

    cells. When the symmetric cells are reduced and redox cycled isothermally at 850 °C, no major change in the serial or polarisation resistance of the cell and electrodes was measured. When the cells are, after the similar initial reduction treatment, redox cycled at 650 °C, the serial resistance remains......Despite active development, solid oxide fuel cells (SOFCs) based on Ni-YSZ anodes still suffer from thermomechanical instability under conditions where the anode side is exposed to oxidising conditions at high temperature. In the first part of the paper, structures and solutions, which could...... improve the redox stability of Ni-YSZ anode supported SOFC's in terms of dimensional and mechanical stability are reported. Porosity is identified as a major microstructural parameter linked to the dimensional and structural stability during redox cycling. The cumulative redox strain (CRS) after three...

  9. Electrochemically active thickness of solid oxide fuel cell electrodes: Effectiveness model prediction

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nam, Jin Hyun [School of Mechanical Engineering, Daegu University, Gyungsan (Korea, Republic of)

    2017-04-15

    The three-phase boundaries (TPBs) in the electrodes of solid oxide fuel cells (SOFCs) have different activity because of the distributed nature of the electrochemical reactions. The electrochemically active thickness (EAT) is a good measure to evaluate the extension of the active reaction zone into the electrode and the effective utilization of TPBs. In this study, an electrochemical reaction/charge conduction problem is formulated based on the Butler–Volmer reaction kinetics and then numerically solved to determine the EATs for the active electrode layers of SOFCs with various microstructural, dimensional, and property parameters. Thus, the EAT data and correlations presented in this study are expected to provide useful information for designing efficient electrodes of SOFCs.

  10. An experimental investigation of pressurized planar solid oxide fuel cells using two different flow distributors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chang, H. W.; Huang, C. M.; Shy, S. S.

    2014-03-01

    A high-pressure high-temperature dual-chamber facility is established for electrochemical impedance measurements of pressurized solid oxide fuel cells (PSOFC) to explain why and how the cell performance is increased with increasing pressure (p). By comparing two sets of nearly identical single-cell stacks except using different flow distributors with different degrees of flow uniformity at 850 °C over a range of p varying from 0.1 MPa to 0.5 MPa, we found that the better flow uniformity in flow distributors is, the better the cell performance is, and such performance enhancement is increased with increasing p. This finding is explained by impedance spectra and their associated equivalent circuit models, showing the coupling impact of flow uniformity and pressure elevation to the decrease of ohmic and polarization resistances. These results should be useful to the development of PSOFC integrating with micro gas turbines for future stationary power generation.

  11. Microstructural densification and electrical performance of yttria stabilized zirconia SOCF (Solid Oxide Fuel Cell) electrolyte

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Furtado, J.G. de M., E-mail: furtado@cepel.b [Centro de Pesquisas de Energia Eletrica (ELETROBRAS/CEPEL), Rio de Janeiro, RJ (Brazil); Silva, C.A. da; Miranda, P.E.V. de [Coordenacao dos Programas de Pos-graduacao de Engenharia (COPPE/UFRJ), Rio de Janeiro, RJ (Brazil). Programa de Engenharia Metalurgica e de Materiais

    2010-07-01

    The understanding of the mechanisms associated with densification and sintering of Yttria stabilized zirconia (YSZ), a main solid oxide fuel cell electrolyte, enables the improvement of its microstructure. The present work that has the objective to study the sintering and densification processes of polycrystalline nanostructured 8% mol YSZ (8YSZ), correlating the microstructural development with the electrical performance of the material. The sintering behaviors of nanocrystalline 8YSZ powders obtained by two different chemical synthesis techniques (glycine-nitrate combustion process and Pechini method) were studied based on sintering dilatometer method. X-ray diffraction and scanning electron microscopy were used in the microstructural characterization. Full-densified 8YSZ (98.8%) were obtained and it was found that the samples obtained by the Pechini's method showed a higher densification degree in the final stage of sintering and resulted in ceramics with higher final relative density and better electrical behavior. (author)

  12. Complete relaxation of residual stresses during reduction of solid oxide fuel cells

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Frandsen, Henrik Lund; Chatzichristodoulou, Christodoulos; Hendriksen, Peter Vang

    2015-01-01

    , accelerated creep, taking place during the reduction of the anode. This relaxes stresses at a much higher rate (~×104) than creep during operation. The phenomenon has previously been studied by simultaneous loading and reduction. With the recorded high creep rates, the stresses at the time of reduction should...... reduce significantly over minutes. In this work the stresses are measured in-situ before and after the reduction by use of XRD. The phenomenon of accelerated creep has to be considered both in the production of stacks and in the analysis of the stress field in a stack based on anode supported SOFCs.......To asses the reliability of solid oxide fuel cell (SOFC) stacks during operation, the stress field in the stack must be known. During operation the stress field will depend on time as creep processes relax stresses. This work reports further details on a newly discovered creep phenomenon...

  13. Solid oxide fuel cell power plant with an anode recycle loop turbocharger

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Saito, Kazuo; Skiba, Tommy; Patel, Kirtikumar H.

    2016-09-27

    An anode exhaust recycle turbocharger (100) has a turbocharger turbine (102) secured in fluid communication with a compressed oxidant stream within an oxidant inlet line (218) downstream from a compressed oxidant supply (104), and the anode exhaust recycle turbocharger (100) also includes a turbocharger compressor (106) mechanically linked to the turbocharger turbine (102) and secured in fluid communication with a flow of anode exhaust passing through an anode exhaust recycle loop (238) of the solid oxide fuel cell power plant (200). All or a portion of compressed oxidant within an oxidant inlet line (218) drives the turbocharger turbine (102) to thereby compress the anode exhaust stream in the recycle loop (238). A high-temperature, automotive-type turbocharger (100) replaces a recycle loop blower-compressor (52).

  14. Methane Steam Reforming over an Ni-YSZ Solid Oxide Fuel Cell Anode in Stack Configuration

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    D. Mogensen

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available The kinetics of catalytic steam reforming of methane over an Ni-YSZ anode of a solid oxide fuel cell (SOFC have been investigated with the cell placed in a stack configuration. In order to decrease the degree of conversion, a single cell stack with reduced area was used. Measurements were performed in the temperature range 600–800°C and the partial pressures of all reactants and products were varied. The obtained rates could be well fitted with a power law expression (r ∝PCH40.7. A simple model is presented which is capable of predicting the methane conversion in a stack configuration from intrinsic kinetics of the anode support material. The predictions are compared with the stack measurements presented here, and good agreement is observed.

  15. Optimization of spin-coated electrodes for electrolyte-supported solid oxide fuel cells

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nobrega, Shayenne Diniz da; Monteiro, Natalia Kondo; Tabuti, Francisco; Fonseca, Fabio Coral, E-mail: shaynnedn@hotmail.com, E-mail: nataliakm@usp.br, E-mail: fntabuti@ipen.br, E-mail: fabiocf@usp.br [Instituto de Pesquisas Energeticas e Nucleares (IPEN-CNEN/SP), Sao Paulo, SP (Brazil); Florio, Daniel Zanetti de, E-mail: daniel.florio@ufabc.edu.br [Universidade Federal do ABC (UFABC), Santo Andre, SP (Brazil)

    2017-01-15

    Electrodes for electrolyte-supported solid oxide fuel cells (SOFC’s) were fabricated by spin coating. Strontium-doped lanthanum manganite (LSM) cathode and nickel yttria-stabilized zirconia cermet anodes were synthesized and processed for enhanced deposition conditions. The influence of electrode microstructural parameters was investigated by a systematic experimental procedure aiming at optimized electrochemical performance of single cells. Polarization curves showed a strong dependence on both electrode thickness and sintering temperature. By a systematic control of such parameters, the performance of single cells was significantly enhanced due to decreasing of polarization resistance from 26 Ω cm² to 0.6 Ω cm² at 800°C. The results showed that spin-coated electrodes can be optimized for fast and cost effective fabrication of SOFCs. (author)

  16. Alternative fuel production by catalytic hydroliquefaction of solid municipal wastes, primary sludges and microalgae.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lemoine, F; Maupin, I; Lemée, L; Lavoie, J-M; Lemberton, J-L; Pouilloux, Y; Pinard, L

    2013-08-01

    An alternative fuel production was investigated through catalytic hydroliquefaction of three different carbonaceous sources: solid municipal wastes (MW), primary sludges (PS), and microalgae (MA). The reaction was carried out under hydrogen pressure, at different temperatures (330, 380 and 450°C), with a Raney nickel catalyst and two different hydrogen donor solvents: a "fossil solvent" (tetralin) and a "green solvent" (2-methyl-hydro-furan). The feeds analyses (TDA-TGA, ICP-AES, lipids quantification) showed that MW and PS had similar characteristics and physico-chemical properties, but different from those of MA. The hydroliquefaction of these feeds allowed to obtain high oil yields, with a significant energetic value, similar to that of a bio-petroleum. 2-methyl-hydro-furan was more efficient than tetralin for the treatment of the strongly bio-degraded biomasses MW and PS, while better results were obtained with tetralin in the case of MA. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  17. Experimental study of methane partial oxidation on Ni-YSZ anode of solid oxide fuel cells

    Science.gov (United States)

    Iwai, Hiroshi; Tada, Koshi; Kishimoto, Masashi; Saito, Motohiro; Yoshida, Hideo

    2017-08-01

    The effects of oxygen addition to methane directly supplied to solid oxide fuel cells were investigated. Fundamental experiments were conducted using Ni-YSZ (yttria-stabilized zirconia) cermet as a typical anode material, and Ni-YSZ catalysts having different streamwise lengths were fabricated on YSZ flat plates. A premixed gas of methane, oxygen, nitrogen and steam was supplied to a test catalyst set in a rectangular test channel. The exhaust gas compositions and the surface temperature distributions of the test catalysts were measured. It was found that the oxidation of methane prominently proceeded near the upstream edge of the catalyst followed by steam/dry reforming reactions downstream. This resulted in the formation of a high-temperature region, leading to a large temperature gradient in the streamwise direction.

  18. Transport phenomena in solid oxide fuel cell electrodes focusing on heat transfer related to chemical reactions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Navasa, M; Andersson, M; Yuan, J; Sundén, B

    2012-01-01

    Solid oxide fuel cells (SOFCs) are widely studied for their advantages especially at high temperatures. However, operating at high temperatures represents a high cost due to the strict requirements the materials are expected to fulfill. Thus, the main goal in SOFC research has been to decrease the operating temperature so that the range of available materials is widened and hence, the operating cost can be reduced. In this paper, the different heat sources that contribute to the cell energy balance are presented with strong emphasis on the chemical reactions that take place in SOFCs. The knowledge of which heat sources or sinks taking place and their locations within the SOFC can provide useful information for further design and efficiency improvements.

  19. Design and development of major balance of plant components in solid oxide fuel cell system

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hong, Wen-Tang; Huang, Cheng-Nan; Tan, Hsueh-I; Chao, Yu [Institute of Nuclear Energy Research Atomic Energy Council, Taoyuan County 32546 (Taiwan, Province of China); Yen, Tzu-Hsiang [Green Technology Research Institute, CPC Corporation, Chia-Yi City 60036 (Taiwan, Province of China)

    2013-07-01

    The balance of plant (BOP) of a Solid Oxide Fuel Cell (SOFC) system with a 2 kW stack and an electric efficiency of 40% is optimized using commercial GCTool software. The simulation results provide a detailed understanding of the optimal operating temperature, pressure and mass flow rate in all of the major BOP components, i.e., the gas distributor, the afterburner, the reformer and the heat exchanger. A series of experimental trials are performed to validate the simulation results. Overall, the results presented in this study not only indicate an appropriate set of operating conditions for the SOFC power system, but also suggest potential design improvements for several of the BOP components.

  20. Nanofiber-based composite cathodes for intermediate temperature solid oxide fuel cells

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ahn, Minwoo; Lee, Jongseo; Lee, Wonyoung

    2017-06-01

    We demonstrate the Sm0.5Sr0.5CoO3-δ (SSC) nanofiber-based composite cathodes for intermediate temperature solid oxide fuel cells (IT-SOFCs), showing a cathode area-specific resistance (ASR) value of 0.024 Ωcm2 at 650 °C. The hollow and porous SSC nanofiber layer, fabricated by electrospinning, is sintered at low temperatures to preserve the high specific surface area for facile oxygen surface exchange reactions. The low sintering temperature is enabled by additional SSC powder layer, providing sufficient adhesion between the electrolyte and the nanofiber layer. Our results can provide a design guideline to fully utilize the nanostructured electrodes by engineering the structural properties of the surface and the interface, and hence high-performance IT-SOFCs can be achieved by structural modification with conventional materials.

  1. Novel in situ method (vacuum assisted electroless plating) modified porous cathode for solid oxide fuel cells

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Su, Ren; Lue, Zhe; Chen, Kongfa; Ai, Na; Li, Shuyan; Wei, Bo [Center for the Condensed Matter Science and Technology, Harbin Institute of Technology, Harbin 150001 (China); Su, Wenhui [Center for the Condensed Matter Science and Technology, Harbin Institute of Technology, Harbin 150001 (China); Department of Condensed Matter Physics, Jilin University, Changchun 130023 (China); International Centre for Materials Physics, Academia Sinica, Shenyang 110015 (China)

    2008-06-15

    A novel in situ method - vacuum assisted electroless plating (VA-EP) is developed to modify the porous structure of various materials. The advantage of this method is that it can form a metal network based on the already-given structure. We utilize this method to deposit silver (VA-EPA) in porous perovskite cathode Ba{sub 0.5}Sr{sub 0.5}Co{sub 0.8}Fe{sub 0.2}O{sub 3-{delta}} (BSCF) for an intermediate temperature solid oxide fuel cell (IT-SOFC) in the present research. The results of investigation show the performance of the modified cathode (VA-EPA-BSCF) enhances greatly, for example, the polarization resistance of VA-EPA-BSCF decreases by 60% at 600 C compared to BSCF. (author)

  2. Solid oxide fuel cell power plant with an anode recycle loop turbocharger

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saito, Kazuo; Skiba, Tommy; Patel, Kirtikumar H.

    2015-07-14

    An anode exhaust recycle turbocharger (100) has a turbocharger turbine (102) secured in fluid communication with a compressed oxidant stream within an oxidant inlet line (218) downstream from a compressed oxidant supply (104), and the anode exhaust recycle turbocharger (100) also includes a turbocharger compressor (106) mechanically linked to the turbocharger turbine (102) and secured in fluid communication with a flow of anode exhaust passing through an anode exhaust recycle loop (238) of the solid oxide fuel cell power plant (200). All or a portion of compressed oxidant within an oxidant inlet line (218) drives the turbocharger turbine (102) to thereby compress the anode exhaust stream in the recycle loop (238). A high-temperature, automotive-type turbocharger (100) replaces a recycle loop blower-compressor (52).

  3. Electrode materials: a challenge for the exploitation of protonic solid oxide fuel cells

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fabbri, Emiliana; Pergolesi, Daniele; Traversa, Enrico

    2010-01-01

    High temperature proton conductor (HTPC) oxides are attracting extensive attention as electrolyte materials alternative to oxygen-ion conductors for use in solid oxide fuel cells (SOFCs) operating at intermediate temperatures (400-700 0 C). The need to lower the operating temperature is dictated by cost reduction for SOFC pervasive use. The major stake for the deployment of this technology is the availability of electrodes able to limit polarization losses at the reduced operation temperature. This review aims to comprehensively describe the state-of-the-art anode and cathode materials that have so far been tested with HTPC oxide electrolytes, offering guidelines and possible strategies to speed up the development of protonic SOFCs. (topical review)

  4. Performance of a novel type of electrolyte-supported solid oxide fuel cell with honeycomb structure

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ruiz-Morales, Juan Carlos; Savvin, Stanislav N.; Nunez, Pedro [Departmento de Quimica Inorganica, Universidad de La Laguna, 38200 Tenerife (Spain); Marrero-Lopez, David [Departamento de Fisica Aplicada I, Universidad de Malaga, 29071 Malaga (Spain); Pena-Martinez, Juan; Canales-Vazquez, Jesus [Instituto de Energias Renovables-Universidad de Castilla la Mancha, 02006 Albacete (Spain); Roa, Joan Josep; Segarra, Merce [DIOPMA, Departamento de Ciencia de los Materiales e Ing. Metalurgica, 08028 Barcelona (Spain)

    2010-01-15

    A novel design, alternative to the conventional electrolyte-supported solid oxide fuel cell (SOFC) is presented. In this new design, a honeycomb-electrolyte is fabricated from hexagonal cells, providing high mechanical strength to the whole structure and supporting the thin layer used as electrolyte of a SOFC. This new design allows a reduction of {proportional_to}70% of the electrolyte material and it renders modest performances over 320 mW cm{sup -2} but high volumetric power densities, i.e. 1.22 W cm{sup -3} under pure CH{sub 4} at 900 C, with a high OCV of 1.13 V, using the standard Ni-YSZ cermet as anode, Pt as cathode material and air as the oxidant gas. (author)

  5. Electrode materials: a challenge for the exploitation of protonic solid oxide fuel cells

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Emiliana Fabbri, Daniele Pergolesi and Enrico Traversa

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available High temperature proton conductor (HTPC oxides are attracting extensive attention as electrolyte materials alternative to oxygen-ion conductors for use in solid oxide fuel cells (SOFCs operating at intermediate temperatures (400–700 °C. The need to lower the operating temperature is dictated by cost reduction for SOFC pervasive use. The major stake for the deployment of this technology is the availability of electrodes able to limit polarization losses at the reduced operation temperature. This review aims to comprehensively describe the state-of-the-art anode and cathode materials that have so far been tested with HTPC oxide electrolytes, offering guidelines and possible strategies to speed up the development of protonic SOFCs.

  6. Fracture toughness of glass sealants for solid oxide fuel cell application

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Abdoli, Hamid; Alizadeh, Parvin; Boccaccini, Dino

    2014-01-01

    Glass and glass-ceramics are versatile materials and have been widely used for sealing in the ongoing development of intermediate temperature solid oxide fuel cell (SOFC) technology where its integrity is crucial for reliable operation of the stack. The fracture toughness is a key parameter...... required for the prediction of the mechanical performance of a seal glass. A comparative indentation study on two RE-glasses (RE=La and Y) was performed to evaluate their fracture toughness. Indentation toughness was calculated both through measurements of the indentation crack lengths and of crack......-opening displacements in the near regions of a crack tip. Both approaches exhibited good agreement. La-containing glass showed higher stiffness, hardness and fracture toughness, which has been related to the in-situ toughening mechanism caused by devitrification and formation of crystalline phases. © 2013 Elsevier B.V....

  7. Indirect Determination of Chemical Composition and Fuel Characteristics of Solid Waste

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Riber, Christian; Christensen, Thomas Højlund

    Determination of chemical composition of solid waste can be performed directly or indirectly by analysis of combustion products. The indirect methodology instrumented by a full scale incinerator is the only method that can conclude on elements in trace concentrations. These elements are of great...... interest in evaluating waste management options by for example LCA modeling. A methodology description of indirect determination of chemical composition and fuel properties of waste is provided and validated by examples. Indirect analysis of different waste types shows that the chemical composition...... of toxic elements is shown exemplified by Hg. The average concentration is evaluated to be affected by three occurrences; background, rare items and very rare items (1/800 tonnes), that are all important to the Hg average concentration....

  8. Thermal and Ash Characterization of Indonesian Bamboo and Its Potential for Solid Fuel and Waste Valorization

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Aprilina Purbasari

    2016-08-01

    Full Text Available Bamboo has been widely used in Indonesia for construction, handicrafts, furniture and other uses. However, the use of bamboo as a biomass for renewable energy source has not been extensively explored. This paper describes the thermal and ash characterization of three bamboo species found in Indonesia, i.e. Gigantochloa apus, Gigantochloa levis and Gigantochloa atroviolacea. Characterization of bamboo properties as a solid fuel includes proximate and ultimate analyses, calorific value measurement and thermogravimetric analysis. Ash characterization includes oxide composition analysis and phase analysis by X-Ray diffraction. The selected bamboo species have calorific value comparable with wood with low nitrogen and sulphur contents, indicating that they can be used as renewable energy sources. Bamboo ash contains high silicon so that bamboo ash has potential to be used further as building materials or engineering purposes. Ash composition analysis also indicates high alkali that can cause ash sintering and slag formation in combustion process. This implies that the combustion of bamboo requires the use of additives to reduce the risk of ash sintering and slag formation. Article History: Received May 15, 2016; Received in revised form July 2nd, 2016; Accepted July 14th, 2016; Available online How to Cite This Article: Purbasari, A., Samadhi, T.W. & Bindar, Y. (2016 Thermal and Ash Characterization of Indonesian Bamboo and its Potential for Solid Fuel and Waste Valorization. Int. Journal of Renewable Energy Development, 5(2, 95-100. http://dx.doi.org/10.14710/ijred.5.2.96-100 

  9. Enzymatic hydrolysis at high-solids loadings for the conversion of agave bagasse to fuel ethanol

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Caspeta, Luis; Caro-Bermúdez, Mario A.; Ponce-Noyola, Teresa; Martinez, Alfredo

    2014-01-01

    Highlights: • Conversion of agave bagasse to fuel ethanol. • Ethanosolv-pretreatment variables were statistically adjusted. • 91% of total sugars found in agave bagasse were recovered. • 225 g/L glucose from 30%-consistency hydrolysis using mini-reactors with peg-mixers. • 0.25 g of ethanol per g of dry agave bagasse was obtained. - Abstract: Agave bagasse is the lignocellulosic residue accumulated during the production of alcoholic beverages in Mexico and is a potential feedstock for the production of biofuels. A factorial design was used to investigate the effect of temperature, residence time and concentrations of acid and ethanol on ethanosolv pretreatment and enzymatic hydrolysis of agave bagasse. This method and the use of a stirred in-house-made mini-reactor increased the digestibility of agave bagasse from 30% observed with the dilute-acid method to 98%; also allowed reducing the quantity of enzymes used to hydrolyze samples with solid loadings of 30% w/w and glucose concentrations up to 225 g/L were obtained in the enzymatic hydrolysates. Overall this process allows the recovery of 91% of the total fermentable sugars contained in the agave bagasse (0.51 g/g) and 69% of total lignin as co-product (0.11 g/g). The maximum ethanol yield under optimal conditions using an industrial yeast strain for the fermentation was 0.25 g/g of dry agave bagasse, which is 86% of the maximum theoretical (0.29 g/g). The effect of the glucose concentration and solid loading on the conversion of cellulose to glucose is discussed, in addition to prospective production of about 50 million liters of fuel ethanol using agave bagasse residues from the tequila industry as a potential solution to the disposal problems

  10. Biomass gasification integrated with a solid oxide fuel cell and Stirling engine

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rokni, Masoud

    2014-01-01

    An integrated gasification solid oxide fuel cell (SOFC) and Stirling engine for combined heat and power application is analyzed. The target for electricity production is 120 kW. Woodchips are used as gasification feedstock to produce syngas, which is then used to feed the SOFC stacks for electricity production. Unreacted hydrocarbons remaining after the SOFC are burned in a catalytic burner, and the hot off-gases from the burner are recovered in a Stirling engine for electricity and heat production. Domestic hot water is used as a heat sink for the Stirling engine. A complete balance-of-plant is designed and suggested. Thermodynamic analysis shows that a thermal efficiency of 42.4% based on the lower heating value (LHV) can be achieved if all input parameters are selected conservatively. Different parameter studies are performed to analyze the system behavior under different conditions. The analysis shows that the decreasing number of stacks from a design viewpoint, indicating that plant efficiency decreases but power production remains nearly unchanged. Furthermore, the analysis shows that there is an optimum value for the utilization factor of the SOFC for the suggested plant design with the suggested input parameters. This optimum value is approximately 65%, which is a rather modest value for SOFC. In addition, introducing a methanator increases plant efficiency slightly. If SOFC operating temperature decreases due to new technology then plant efficiency will slightly be increased. Decreasing gasifier temperature, which cannot be controlled, causes the plant efficiency to increase also. - Highlights: • Design of integrated gasification with solid oxide fuel and Stirling engine. • Important plant parameters study. • Plant running on biomass with and without methanator. • Thermodynamics of integrated gasification SOFC-Stirling engine plants

  11. Novel quasi-symmetric solid oxide fuel cells with enhanced electrochemical performance

    KAUST Repository

    Chen, Yonghong

    2016-02-16

    Symmetrical solid oxide fuel cell (SSOFC) using same materials as both anode and cathode simultaneously has gained extensively attentions, which can simplify fabrication process, minimize inter-diffusion between components, enhance sulfur and coking tolerance by operating the anode as the cathode in turn. With keeping the SSOFC\\'s advantages, a novel quasi-symmetrical solid oxide fuel cell (Q-SSOFC) is proposed to further improve the performance, which optimally combines two different SSOFC electrode materials as both anode and cathode simultaneously. PrBaFe2O5+δ (PBFO) and PrBaFe1.6Ni0.4O5+δ (PBFNO, Fe is partially substituted by Ni.) are prepared and applied as both cathode and anode for SSOFC, which exhibit desirable chemical and thermal compatibility with Sm0.8Ce0.2O1.9 (SDC) electrolyte. PBFO cathode exhibits higher oxygen reduction reaction (ORR) activity than PBFNO cathode in air, whereas PBFNO anode exhibits higher hydrogen oxidation reaction (HOR) activity than PBFO anode in H2. The as-designed Q-SSOFC of PBFNO/SDC/PBFO exhibits higher electrochemical performance than the conventional SSOFCs of both PBFO/SDC/PBFO and PBFNO/SDC/PBFNO. The superior performance of Q-SSOFC is attributed to the lowest polarization resistance (Rp). The newly developed Q-SSOFCs open doors for further improvement of electrochemical performance in SSOFC, which hold more promise for various potential applications. © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  12. Effect of indoor air pollution from biomass and solid fuel combustion on symptoms of preeclampsia/eclampsia in Indian women.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Agrawal, S; Yamamoto, S

    2015-06-01

    Available evidence concerning the association between indoor air pollution (IAP) from biomass and solid fuel combustion and preeclampsia/eclampsia is not available in developing countries. We investigated the association between exposure to IAP from biomass and solid fuel combustion and symptoms of preeclampsia/eclampsia in Indian women by analyzing cross-sectional data from India's third National Family Health Survey (NFHS-3, 2005-2006). Self-reported symptoms of preeclampsia/eclampsia during pregnancy such as convulsions (not from fever), swelling of legs, body or face, excessive fatigue or vision difficulty during daylight, were obtained from 39,657 women aged 15-49 years who had a live birth in the previous 5 years. Effects of exposure to cooking smoke, ascertained by type of fuel used for cooking on preeclampsia/eclampsia risk, were estimated using logistic regression after adjusting for various confounders. Results indicate that women living in households using biomass and solid fuels have two times higher likelihood of reporting preeclampsia/eclampsia symptoms than do those living in households using cleaner fuels (OR = 2.21; 95%: 1.26-3.87; P = 0.006), even after controlling for the effects of a number of potentially confounding factors. This study is the first to empirically estimate the associations of IAP from biomass and solid fuel combustion and reported symptoms suggestive of preeclampsia/eclampsia in a large nationally representative sample of Indian women and we observed increased risk. These findings have important program and policy implications for countries such as India, where large proportions of the population rely on polluting biomass fuels for cooking and space heating. More epidemiological research with detailed exposure assessments and clinical measures of preeclampsia/eclampsia is needed in a developing country setting to validate these findings. © 2014 The Authors. Indoor Air published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  13. Technology watch of stationary solid oxide fuel cells (SOFC) 2012; Teknikbevakning av stationaera fastoxidbraensleceller (SOFC) 2012

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Andersson, Martin; Sunden, Bengt

    2013-03-15

    The first solid oxide fuel cell (SOFC) was developed in 1937. However, the commercialization has waited. In 2012, 20MW of SOFC-systems are expected to be delivered to customers, compared to 1.3 MW in 2008. It is mainly in specific niche markets, such as on-site power generation for data centers, small-scale CHP for individual households and as military applications, where SOFC systems are available today. The future potential is enormous in the just mentioned areas as well as for APUs in trucks and other vehicles as well as for MW-scale distributed power generation. There are public research program, support for demonstration projects and investment support to private households as well as companies in various terms around the world. EU invests SEK 666 million (distributed at hydrogen, fuel cells for transportation, stationary systems and cogeneration) in the FCH-JU program only in 2012, compared with SEK 1.59 billion in the Japanese program (of which 125 million is directed to SOFC research and 740 million to the ENE-FARM project to be distributed between PEMFC and SOFC). The German hydrogen and fuel cell program is SEK 12 billion during 2006-2016 (of which 54% to transportation applications, 36% to stationary applications and 10% to special applications), compared with the Finnish program that invest SEK 1.3 billion in 2007-2013. The federal SECA program directs SEK 160 million to SOFC research. Denmark goes slightly over SEK 115 million annually in public funds for fuel cell research. The trend is that the proportion of public funding for demonstration projects and support to customers for purchasing pre-commercial products is increasing at the expense of basic research funding. Note that the listed research programs involve different types of fuel cells, and information regarding the percentage that goes to SOFCs is not specified for each case. Research continues to deliver new advances. Researchers at Harvard have shown that a SOFC, with vanadium oxide in the

  14. Optimization of the Interconnect Ribs for a Cathode-Supported Solid Oxide Fuel Cell

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wei Kong

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available A comprehensive mathematical model of the performance of the cathode-supported solid oxide fuel cell (SOFC with syngas fuel is presented. The model couples the intricate interdependency between the ionic conduction, electronic conduction, gas transport, the electrochemical reaction processes in the functional layers and on the electrode/electrolyte interfaces, methane steam reforming (MSR and the water gas shift reaction (WGSR. The validity of the mathematical model is demonstrated by the excellent agreement between the numerical and experimental I-V curves. The effect of anode rib width and cathode rib width on gas diffusion and cell performance is examined. The results show conclusively that the cell performance is strongly influenced by the rib width. Furthermore, the anode optimal rib width is smaller than that for cathode, which is contrary to anode-supported SOFC. Finally, the formulae for the anode and cathode optimal rib width are given, which provide an easy to use guidance for the broad SOFC engineering community.

  15. Numerical modelling of emissions of nitrogen oxides in solid fuel combustion.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bešenić, Tibor; Mikulčić, Hrvoje; Vujanović, Milan; Duić, Neven

    2018-06-01

    Among the combustion products, nitrogen oxides are one of the main contributors to a negative impact on the environment, participating in harmful processes such as tropospheric ozone and acid rains production. The main source of emissions of nitrogen oxides is the human combustion of fossil fuels. Their formation models are investigated and implemented with the goal of obtaining a tool for studying the nitrogen-containing pollutant production. In this work, numerical simulation of solid fuel combustion was carried out on a three-dimensional model of a drop tube furnace by using the commercial software FIRE. It was used for simulating turbulent fluid flow and temperature field, concentrations of the reactants and products, as well as the fluid-particles interaction by numerically solving the integro-differential equations describing these processes. Chemical reactions mechanisms for the formation of nitrogen oxides were implemented by the user functions. To achieve reasonable calculation times for running the simulations, as well as efficient coupling with the turbulent mixing process, the nitrogen scheme is limited to sufficiently few homogeneous reactions and species. Turbulent fluctuations that affect the reaction rates of nitrogen oxides' concentration are modelled by probability density function approach. Results of the implemented model for nitrogen oxides' formation from coal and biomass are compared to the experimental data. Temperature, burnout and nitrogen oxides' concentration profiles are compared, showing satisfactory agreement. The new model allows the simulation of pollutant formation in the real-world applications. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  16. Mass and Heat Transfer in Ion-Exchange Membranes Applicable to Solid Polymer Fuel Cells

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Otteroey, M.

    1996-04-01

    In this doctoral thesis, an improved emf method for determination of transference numbers of two counter ions in ion-exchange membranes is presented. Transference numbers were obtained as a continuous function of the composition. The method avoids problems with diffusion by using a stack of membranes. Water transference coefficients in ion-exchange membranes is discussed and reversible and irreversible water transfer is studied by emf methods. Efforts were made to get data relevant to the solid polymer fuel cell. The results support the findings of other researchers that the reversible water transfer is lower than earlier predicted. A chapter on the conductivity of ion-exchange membranes establishes a method to separate the very thin liquid layers surrounding the membranes in a stack. Using the method it was found that the conductivity is obtained with high accuracy and that the liquid layer in a membrane stack can contribute significantly to the total measured resistance. A four point impedance method was tested to measure the conductivity of membranes under fuel cell conditions. Finally, there is a discussion of reversible heat effects and heat transfer in ion-exchange membranes. 155 refs., 45 figs., 13 tabs.

  17. Optimal robust control strategy of a solid oxide fuel cell system

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, Xiaojuan; Gao, Danhui

    2018-01-01

    Optimal control can ensure system safe operation with a high efficiency. However, only a few papers discuss optimal control strategies for solid oxide fuel cell (SOFC) systems. Moreover, the existed methods ignore the impact of parameter uncertainty on system instantaneous performance. In real SOFC systems, several parameters may vary with the variation of operation conditions and can not be identified exactly, such as load current. Therefore, a robust optimal control strategy is proposed, which involves three parts: a SOFC model with parameter uncertainty, a robust optimizer and robust controllers. During the model building process, boundaries of the uncertain parameter are extracted based on Monte Carlo algorithm. To achieve the maximum efficiency, a two-space particle swarm optimization approach is employed to obtain optimal operating points, which are used as the set points of the controllers. To ensure the SOFC safe operation, two feed-forward controllers and a higher-order robust sliding mode controller are presented to control fuel utilization ratio, air excess ratio and stack temperature afterwards. The results show the proposed optimal robust control method can maintain the SOFC system safe operation with a maximum efficiency under load and uncertainty variations.

  18. Study on component interface evolution of a solid oxide fuel cell stack after long term operation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Jiajun; Huang, Wei; Wang, Xiaochun; Li, Jun; Yan, Dong; Pu, Jian; Chi, Bo; Li, Jian

    2018-05-01

    A 5-cell solid oxide fuel cell (SOFC) stack with external manifold structure is assembled and underwent a durability test with an output of 250 W for nearly 4400 h when current density and operating temperature are 355 mA/cm2 and 750 °C. Cells used in the stack are anode-supported cells (ASC) with yttria-stabilized zirconia (YSZ) electrolytes, Ni/YSZ hydrogen electrodes, and YSZ based composite cathode. The dimension of the cell is 150 × 150 mm (active area: 130 × 130 mm). Ceramic-glass sealant is used in the stack to keep the gas tightness between cells, interconnects and manifolds. Pure hydrogen and dry air are used as fuel and oxidant respectively. The stack has a maximum output of 340 W at 562 mA/cm2 current density at 750 °C. The stack shows a degradation of 1.5% per 1000 h during the test with 2 thermal cycles to room temperature. After the test, the stack was dissembled and examined. The relationship between microstructure changes of interfaces and degradation in the stack are discussed. The microstructure evolution of interfaces between electrode, contact material and current collector are unveiled and their relationship with the degradation is discussed.

  19. Micro solid oxide fuel cells: a new generation of micro-power sources for portable applications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chiabrera, Francesco; Garbayo, Iñigo; Alayo, Nerea; Tarancón, Albert

    2017-06-01

    Portable electronic devices are already an indispensable part of our daily life; and their increasing number and demand for higher performance is becoming a challenge for the research community. In particular, a major concern is the way to efficiently power these energy-demanding devices, assuring long grid independency with high efficiency, sustainability and cheap production. In this context, technologies beyond Li-ion are receiving increasing attention, among which the development of micro solid oxide fuel cells (μSOFC) stands out. In particular, μSOFC provides a high energy density, high efficiency and opens the possibility to the use of different fuels, such as hydrocarbons. Yet, its high operating temperature has typically hindered its application as miniaturized portable device. Recent advances have however set a completely new range of lower operating temperatures, i.e. 350-450°C, as compared to the typical <900°C needed for classical bulk SOFC systems. In this work, a comprehensive review of the status of the technology is presented. The main achievements, as well as the most important challenges still pending are discussed, regarding (i.) the cell design and microfabrication, and (ii.) the integration of functional electrolyte and electrode materials. To conclude, the different strategies foreseen for a wide deployment of the technology as new portable power source are underlined.

  20. Thermomechanical analysis of porous solid oxide fuel cell by using peridynamics

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hanlin Wang

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available Solid oxide fuel cell (SOFC is widely used in hybrid marine propulsion systems due to its high power output, excellent emission control and wide fuel suitability. However, the operating temperature in SOFC will rise up to 800–1000 ℃ due to redox reaction among hydrogen and oxygen ions. This provides a suitable environment for ions transporting through ceramic materials. Under such operation temperatures, degradation may occur in the electrodes and electrolyte. As a result, unstable voltage, low capacity and cell failure may eventually occur. This study presents thermomechanical analysis of a porous SOFC cell plate which contains electrodes, electrolytes and pores. A microscale specimen in the shape of a plate is considered in order to maintain uniform temperature loading and increase the accuracy of estimation. A new computational technique, peridynamics, is utilized to calculate the deformations and stresses of the cell plate. Moreover, the crack formation and propagation are also obtained by using peridynamics. According to the numerical results, damage evolution depends on the electrolyte/electrode interface strength during the charging process. For weak interface strength case, damage emerges at the electrode/electrolyte interface. On the other hand, for stronger interface cases, damage emerges on pore boundaries especially with sharp corner.