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Sample records for biogenic non-methane hydrocarbons

  1. Estimating the Biogenic Non-Methane Hydrocarbon Emissions over Greece

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    Ermioni Dimitropoulou

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available Biogenic emissions affect the urban air quality as they are ozone and secondary organic aerosol (SOA precursors and should be taken into account when applying photochemical pollution models. The present study presents an estimation of the magnitude of non-methane volatile organic compounds (BNMVOCs emitted by vegetation over Greece. The methodology is based on computation developed with the aid of a Geographic Information System (GIS and theoretical equations in order to produce an emission inventory on a 6 × 6 km2 spatial resolution, in a temporal resolution of 1 h covering one year (2016. For this purpose, a variety of input data was used: updated satellite land-use data, land-use specific emission potentials, foliar biomass densities, temperature, and solar radiation data. Hourly, daily, and annual isoprene, monoterpenes, and other volatile organic compounds (OVOCs were estimated. In the area under study, the annual biogenic emissions were estimated up to 472 kt, consisting of 46.6% isoprene, 28% monoterpenes, and 25.4% OVOCs. Results delineate an annual cycle with increasing values from March to April, while maximum emissions were observed from May to September, followed by a decrease from October to January.

  2. Biogenic non-methane hydrocarbons (NMHC). Nature`s contribution to regional and global atmospheric chemistry

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Klockow, D.; Hoffman, T. [Inst. of Spectrochemistry and Applied Spectroscopy, Dortmund (Germany)

    1995-12-31

    Terrestrial vegetation provides an important source of volatile hydrocarbons, especially isoprene, monoterpenes and in addition possibly sesquiterpenes as well as oxygenated compounds. Although there exist considerable uncertainties in the estimation of the magnitude of these biogenic NMHC emissions, it is generally accepted that the majority of global NMHC release is from natural and not from anthropogenic sources. Taking into consideration the high reactivity of the mostly unsaturated biogenic emissions, their impact on tropospheric processes can be assumed to be of great importance. Together with anthropogenic NO{sub x} emissions, the highly reactive natural alkenes can act as precursors in photochemical oxidant formation and contribute to regional-scale air pollution. Their oxidation in the atmosphere and the subsequent gas-to-particle conversion of the products lead to the formation of organic aerosols. Because of the formation of phytotoxic compounds, the interaction of the biogenic hydrocarbons with ozone inside or outside the leaves and needles of plants has been suggested to play a role in forest decline. (author)

  3. Biogenic non-methane hydrocarbons (NMHC). Nature`s contribution to regional and global atmospheric chemistry

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Klockow, D; Hoffman, T [Inst. of Spectrochemistry and Applied Spectroscopy, Dortmund (Germany)

    1996-12-31

    Terrestrial vegetation provides an important source of volatile hydrocarbons, especially isoprene, monoterpenes and in addition possibly sesquiterpenes as well as oxygenated compounds. Although there exist considerable uncertainties in the estimation of the magnitude of these biogenic NMHC emissions, it is generally accepted that the majority of global NMHC release is from natural and not from anthropogenic sources. Taking into consideration the high reactivity of the mostly unsaturated biogenic emissions, their impact on tropospheric processes can be assumed to be of great importance. Together with anthropogenic NO{sub x} emissions, the highly reactive natural alkenes can act as precursors in photochemical oxidant formation and contribute to regional-scale air pollution. Their oxidation in the atmosphere and the subsequent gas-to-particle conversion of the products lead to the formation of organic aerosols. Because of the formation of phytotoxic compounds, the interaction of the biogenic hydrocarbons with ozone inside or outside the leaves and needles of plants has been suggested to play a role in forest decline. (author)

  4. Estimating Biogenic Non-Methane Hydrocarbon Emissions for the Wasatch Front Through a High-Resolution. Gridded, Biogenic Vola Tile Organic Compound Emissions Inventory

    Science.gov (United States)

    2002-01-01

    1-hour and proposed 8-hour National Ambient Air Quality Standards. Reactive biogenic (natural) volatile organic compounds emitted from plants have...uncertainty in predicting plant species composition and frequency. Isoprene emissions computed for the study area from the project’s high-resolution...Landcover Database (BELD 2), while monoterpene and other reactive volatile organic compound emission rates were almost 26% and 28% lower, respectively

  5. Measurement of stable carbon isotope ratios of non-methane hydrocarbons and halocarbons

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Zuiderweg, A.T.

    2012-01-01

    Within the realm of volatile organic compounds, hydrocarbons and halocarbons form a sizable proportion of carbon input to the atmosphere. Within these compound categories, the light non-methane hydrocarbons (NMHC, two to seven carbon atoms) and monocarbon halocarbons have a special place as these

  6. Characteristics of atmospheric non-methane hydrocarbons during haze episode in Beijing, China.

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    Guo, Songjun; Tan, Jihua; Duan, Jingchun; Ma, Yongliang; Yang, Fumo; He, Kebin; Hao, Jimin

    2012-12-01

    This study firstly focused on non-methane hydrocarbons (NMHCs) during three successive days with haze episode (16-18 August 2006) in Beijing. Concentrations of alkanes, alkenes, aromatic hydrocarbons, and ethyne all peaked at traffic rush hour, implying vehicular emission; and alkanes also peaked at non-traffic rush hour in the daytime, implying additional source. Especially, alkanes and aromatics clearly showed higher levels in the nighttime than that in the daytime, implying their active photochemical reactions in the daytime. Correlation coefficients (R (2)) showed that propane, n-butane, i-butane, ethene, propene, and benzene correlated with ethyne (R (2) = 0.61-0.66), suggesting that their main source is vehicular emission; 2-methylpentane and n-hexane correlated with i-pentane (R (2) = 0.61-0.64), suggesting that gasoline evaporation is their main source; and ethylbezene, m-/p-xylene, and o-xylene correlated with toluene (R (2) = 0.60-0.79), suggesting that their main source is similar to that of toluene (e.g., solvent usage). The R (2) of ethyne, i-pentane, and toluene with total NMHCs were 0.58, 0.76, and 0.60, respectively, indicating that ambient hydrocarbons are associated with vehicular emission, gasoline evaporation, and solvent usage. The sources of other hydrocarbons (e.g., ethane) might be natural gas leakage, biogenic emission, or long-range transport of air pollutants. Measured higher mean B/T ratio (0.78 ± 0.27) was caused by the more intensive photochemical activity of toluene than benzene, still indicating the dominant emission from vehicles.

  7. Variation of ambient non-methane hydrocarbons in Beijing city in summer 2008

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    B. Wang

    2010-07-01

    Full Text Available In conjunction with hosting the 2008 Beijing Olympics, the municipal government implemented a series of stringent air quality control measures. To assess the impacts on variation of ambient non-methane hydrocarbons (NMHCs, the whole air was sampled by canisters at one urban site and two suburban sites in Beijing, and 55 NMHC species were quantified by gas chromatography equipped with a quadrupole mass spectrometer and a flame ionization detector (GC/MSD/FID as parts of the field Campaign for the Beijing Olympic Games Air Quality program (CareBeijing. According to the control measures, the data were presented according to four periods: 18–30 June, 8–19 July, 15–24 August (during the Olympic Games, and 6–15 September (during the Paralympic Games. Compared with the levels in June, the mixing ratios of NMHCs obtained in the Olympic and Paralympic Games periods were reduced by 35% and 25%, respectively. Source contributions were calculated using a chemical mass balance model (CMB 8.2. After implementing the control measures, emissions from target sources were obviously reduced, and reductions in vehicle exhaust could explain 48–82% of the reductions of ambient NMHCs. Reductions in emissions from gasoline evaporation, paint and solvent use, and the chemical industry contributed 9–40%, 3–24%, and 1–5%, respectively, to reductions of ambient NMHCs. Sources of liquefied petroleum gas (LPG and biogenic emissions were not controlled, and contributions from these sources from July to September were stable or even higher than in June. Ozone formation potentials (OFPs were calculated for the measured NMHCs. The total OFPs during the Olympic and Paralympic Games were reduced by 48% and 32%, respectively, compared with values in June. Reductions in the OFPs of alkenes and aromatics explained 77–92% of total OFP reductions. The alkenes and aromatics were mainly from vehicle exhausts, and reductions of vehicle exhaust gases explained 67–87% of

  8. Variation of ambient non-methane hydrocarbons in Beijing city in summer 2008

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, B.; Shao, M.; Lu, S. H.; Yuan, B.; Zhao, Y.; Wang, M.; Zhang, S. Q.; Wu, D.

    2010-07-01

    In conjunction with hosting the 2008 Beijing Olympics, the municipal government implemented a series of stringent air quality control measures. To assess the impacts on variation of ambient non-methane hydrocarbons (NMHCs), the whole air was sampled by canisters at one urban site and two suburban sites in Beijing, and 55 NMHC species were quantified by gas chromatography equipped with a quadrupole mass spectrometer and a flame ionization detector (GC/MSD/FID) as parts of the field Campaign for the Beijing Olympic Games Air Quality program (CareBeijing). According to the control measures, the data were presented according to four periods: 18-30 June, 8-19 July, 15-24 August (during the Olympic Games), and 6-15 September (during the Paralympic Games). Compared with the levels in June, the mixing ratios of NMHCs obtained in the Olympic and Paralympic Games periods were reduced by 35% and 25%, respectively. Source contributions were calculated using a chemical mass balance model (CMB 8.2). After implementing the control measures, emissions from target sources were obviously reduced, and reductions in vehicle exhaust could explain 48-82% of the reductions of ambient NMHCs. Reductions in emissions from gasoline evaporation, paint and solvent use, and the chemical industry contributed 9-40%, 3-24%, and 1-5%, respectively, to reductions of ambient NMHCs. Sources of liquefied petroleum gas (LPG) and biogenic emissions were not controlled, and contributions from these sources from July to September were stable or even higher than in June. Ozone formation potentials (OFPs) were calculated for the measured NMHCs. The total OFPs during the Olympic and Paralympic Games were reduced by 48% and 32%, respectively, compared with values in June. Reductions in the OFPs of alkenes and aromatics explained 77-92% of total OFP reductions. The alkenes and aromatics were mainly from vehicle exhausts, and reductions of vehicle exhaust gases explained 67-87% of reductions in alkenes and 38

  9. Observations of the release of non-methane hydrocarbons from fractured shale.

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    Sommariva, Roberto; Blake, Robert S; Cuss, Robert J; Cordell, Rebecca L; Harrington, Jon F; White, Iain R; Monks, Paul S

    2014-01-01

    The organic content of shale has become of commercial interest as a source of hydrocarbons, owing to the development of hydraulic fracturing ("fracking"). While the main focus is on the extraction of methane, shale also contains significant amounts of non-methane hydrocarbons (NMHCs). We describe the first real-time observations of the release of NMHCs from a fractured shale. Samples from the Bowland-Hodder formation (England) were analyzed under different conditions using mass spectrometry, with the objective of understanding the dynamic process of gas release upon fracturing of the shale. A wide range of NMHCs (alkanes, cycloalkanes, aromatics, and bicyclic hydrocarbons) are released at parts per million or parts per billion level with temperature- and humidity-dependent release rates, which can be rationalized in terms of the physicochemical characteristics of different hydrocarbon classes. Our results indicate that higher energy inputs (i.e., temperatures) significantly increase the amount of NMHCs released from shale, while humidity tends to suppress it; additionally, a large fraction of the gas is released within the first hour after the shale has been fractured. These findings suggest that other hydrocarbons of commercial interest may be extracted from shale and open the possibility to optimize the "fracking" process, improving gas yields and reducing environmental impacts.

  10. Cordierite-supported metal oxide for non-methane hydrocarbon oxidation in cooking oil fumes.

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    Huang, Yonghai; Yi, Honghong; Tang, Xiaolong; Zhao, Shunzheng; Gao, Fengyu; Wang, Jiangen; Yang, Zhongyu

    2018-05-21

    Cooking emission is an important reason for the air quality deterioration in the metropolitan area in China. Transition metal oxide and different loading of manganese oxide supported on cordierite were prepared by incipient wetness impregnation method and were used for non-methane hydrocarbon (NMHC) oxidation in cooking oil fumes (COFs). The effects of different calcination temperature and different Mn content were also studied. The SEM photographs and CO 2 temperature-programmed desorption revealed 5 wt% Mn/cordierite had the best pore structure and the largest number of the weak and moderate basic sites so it showed the best performance for NMHC oxidation. XRD analysis exhibited 5 wt% Mn/cordierite had the best dispersion of active phase and the active phase was MnO 2 when the calcination temperature was 400℃ which were good for the catalytic oxidation of NMHC.

  11. Characterization of non-methane hydrocarbons in Asian summer monsoon outflow observed by the CARIBIC aircraft

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    A. K. Baker

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Between April and December 2008 the CARIBIC commercial aircraft conducted monthly measurement flights between Frankfurt, Germany and Chennai, India. These flights covered the period of the Asian summer monsoon (June–September, during which enhancements in a number of atmospheric species were observed in the upper troposphere over southwestern Asia. In addition to in situ measurements of trace gases and aerosols, whole air samples were collected during the flights, and these were subsequently analyzed for a suite of trace gases that included a number of C2–C8 non-methane hydrocarbons. Non-methane hydrocarbons are relatively short-lived compounds and the large enhancements in their mixing ratios in the upper troposphere over southwestern Asia during the monsoon, sometimes more than double their spring and fall means, provides qualitative evidence for the influence of convectively uplifted boundary layer air. The particularly large enhancements of the combustion tracers benzene and ethyne, along with the similarity of their ratios with carbon monoxide and emission ratios from the burning of household biofuels, indicate a strong influence of biofuel burning to NMHC emissions in this region. Conversely, the ratios of ethane and propane to carbon monoxide, along with the ratio between i-butane and n-butane, indicate a significant source of these compounds from the use of fossil fuels, and comparison to previous campaigns suggests that this source could be increasing. Photochemical aging patterns of NMHCs showed that the CARIBIC samples were collected in two distinctly different regions of the monsoon circulation: a southern region where air masses had been recently influenced by low level contact and a northern region, where air parcels had spent substantial time in transit in the upper troposphere before being probed. Estimates of age using ratios of individual NMHCs have ranges of 3–6 days in the south and 9–12 days in

  12. Characteristics of atmospheric non-methane hydrocarbons in Foshan City, China.

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    Tan, Jihua; Guo, Songjun; Ma, Yongliang; He, Kebin; Yang, Fumo; Yu, Yongchang; Wang, Jiewen

    2011-12-01

    Foshan is the most air-polluted city in Pearl River Delta. Non-methane hydrocarbons (NMHCs) were investigated for the first time in Foshan in winter 2008. Ethene, ethane, ethyne, propane, i-pentane, and toluene were the most abundant hydrocarbons and observed to be higher in Foshan than those in many other cities in China. Different from other cities, ethene and ethane were observed to be the two highest compounds in Foshan. Generally, the most abundant hydrocarbons showed high mixing ratios in the morning (0930-1030 hours), decreased to the lowest level in the afternoon (1430-1530 hours), and increased to higher value in the evening (1930-2030 hours). But i-pentane exhibited a different diurnal pattern with the highest level (13.4 ± 5.8 ppbv) in the afternoon, implying the acceleration of solvent evaporation resulting from higher temperature. Correlation coefficients (R(2) = 66% for n = 6 at 95% confidence level) of the individual hydrocarbons with ethyne and i-pentane indicated vehicular emissions were the main sources of ethene, propene, i-butene, isoprene, benzene and toluene, while gasoline evaporation was responsible for n-pentane, n-hexane, and n-heptane. The good correlation of most of the hydrocarbons with ethyne, indicating vehicular emissions, were the main sources of NMHCs. B/T ratio was 0.36 ± 0.06, implying vehicular emissions acted as the major contributors as well as additional emissions of toluene emitted from solvent usage. According to investigation, it also suggested that LPG leakage was the main source of propane, while NG leakage was responsible for ethane in Foshan City.

  13. Estimating the biogenic emissions of non-methane volatile organic compounds from the North Western Mediterranean vegetation of Catalonia, Spain

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Parra, R.; Gasso, S.; Baldasano, J.M.

    2004-01-01

    An estimation of the magnitude of non-methane volatile organic compounds (NMVOCs) emitted by vegetation in Catalonia (NE of the Iberian Peninsula, Spain), in addition to their superficial and temporal distribution, is presented for policy and scientific (photochemical modelling) purposes. It was developed for the year 2000, for different time resolutions (hourly, daily, monthly and annual) and using a high-resolution land-use map (1-km 2 squared cells). Several meteorological surface stations provided air temperature and solar radiation data. An adjusted mathematical emission model taking account of Catalonia's conditions was built into a geographic information system (GIS) software. This estimation uses the latest information, mainly relating to: (1) emission factors; (2) better knowledge of the composition of Catalonia's forest cover; and (3) better knowledge of the particular emission behaviour of some Mediterranean vegetal species. Results depict an annual cycle with increasing values in the March-April period with the highest emissions in July-August, followed by a decrease in October-November. Annual biogenic NMVOCs emissions reach 46.9 kt, with monoterpenes the most abundant species (24.7 kt), followed by other biogenic volatile organic compounds (e.g. alcohols, aldehydes and acetone) (16.3 kt), and isoprene (5.9 kt). These compounds signify 52%, 35% and 13%, respectively, of total emission estimates. Peak hourly total emission for a winter day could be less than 10% of the corresponding value for a summer day

  14. Seasonal and Diurnal Variations of Atmospheric Non-Methane Hydrocarbons in Guangzhou, China

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    Longfeng Li

    2012-05-01

    Full Text Available In recent decades, high ambient ozone concentrations have become one of the major regional air quality issues in the Pearl River Delta (PRD region. Non-methane hydrocarbons (NMHCs, as key precursors of ozone, were found to be the limiting factor in photochemical ozone formation for large areas in the PRD. For source apportioning of NMHCs as well as ozone pollution control strategies, it is necessary to obtain typical seasonal and diurnal patterns of NMHCs with a large pool of field data. To date, few studies have focused on seasonal and diurnal variations of NMHCs in urban areas of Guangzhou. This study explored the seasonal variations of most hydrocarbons concentrations with autumn maximum and spring minimum in Guangzhou. The diurnal variations of most anthropogenic NMHCs typically showed two-peak pattern with one at 8:00 in the morning and another at 20:00 in the evening, both corresponding to traffic rush hours in Guangzhou, whereas isoprene displayed a different bimodal diurnal curve. Propene, ethene, m, p-xylene and toluene were the four largest contributors to ozone formation in Guangzhou, based on the evaluation of individual NMHCs’ photochemical reactivity. Therefore, an effective strategy for controlling ozone pollution may be achieved by the reduction of vehicle emissions in Guangzhou.

  15. Non-methane hydrocarbons in the atmosphere of Mexico City: Results of the 2012 ozone-season campaign

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    Jaimes-Palomera, Mónica; Retama, Armando; Elias-Castro, Gabriel; Neria-Hernández, Angélica; Rivera-Hernández, Olivia; Velasco, Erik

    2016-05-01

    With the aim to strengthen the verification capabilities of the local air quality management, the air quality monitoring network of Mexico City has started the monitoring of selected non-methane hydrocarbons (NMHCs). Previous information on the NMHC characterization had been obtained through individual studies and comprehensive intensive field campaigns, in both cases restricted to sampling periods of short duration. This new initiative will address the NMHC pollution problem during longer monitoring periods and provide robust information to evaluate the effectiveness of new control measures. The article introduces the design of the monitoring network and presents results from the first campaign carried out during the first six months of 2012 covering the ozone-season (Mar-May). Using as reference data collected in 2003, results show reductions during the morning rush hour (6-9 h) in the mixing ratios of light alkanes associated with the consumption and distribution of liquefied petroleum gas and aromatic compounds related with the evaporation of fossil fuels and solvents, in contrast to olefins from vehicular traffic. The increase in mixing ratios of reactive olefins is of relevance to understand the moderate success in the ozone and fine aerosols abatement in recent years in comparison to other criteria pollutants. In the case of isoprene, the typical afternoon peak triggered by biogenic emissions was clearly observed for the first time within the city. The diurnal profiles of the monitored compounds are analyzed in terms of the energy balance throughout the day as a surrogate of the boundary layer evolution. Particular features of the diurnal profiles and correlation between individual NMHCs and carbon monoxide are used to investigate the influence of specific emission sources. The results discussed here highlight the importance of monitoring NMHCs to better understand the drivers and impacts of air pollution in large cities like Mexico City.

  16. Non-methane hydrocarbons in a controlled ecological life support system.

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    Dai, Kun; Yu, Qingni; Zhang, Zhou; Wang, Yuan; Wang, Xinming

    2018-02-01

    Non-methane hydrocarbons (NMHCs) are vital to people's health and plants' growth, especially inside a controlled ecological life support system (CELSS) built for long-term space explorations. In this study, we measured 54 kinds of NMHCs to study their changing trends in concentration levels during a 4-person-180-day integrated experiment inside a CELSS with four cabins for plants growing and other two cabins for human daily activities and resources management. During the experiment, the total mixing ratio of measured NMHCs was 423 ± 283 ppbv at the first day and it approached 2961 ± 323 ppbv ultimately. Ethane and propane were the most abundant alkanes and their mixing ratios kept growing from 27.5 ± 19.4 and 31.0 ± 33.6 ppbv to 2423 ± 449 ppbv and 290 ± 10 ppbv in the end. For alkenes, ethylene and isoprene presented continuously fluctuating states during the experimental period with average mixing ratios of 30.4 ± 19.3 ppbv, 7.4 ± 5.8 ppbv. For aromatic hydrocarbons, the total mixing ratios of benzene, toluene, ethylbenzene and xylenes declined from 48.0 ± 44 ppbv initially to 3.8 ± 1.1 ppbv ultimately. Biomass burning, sewage treatment, construction materials and plants all contributed to NMHCs inside CELSS. In conclusion, the results demonstrate the changing trends of NMHCs in a long-term closed ecological environment's atmosphere which provides valuable information for both the atmosphere management of CELSS and the exploration of interactions between humans and the total environment. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  17. A five year record of high-frequency in situ measurements of non-methane hydrocarbons at Mace Head, Ireland

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    A. Grant

    2011-05-01

    Full Text Available Continuous high-frequency in situ measurements of a range of non-methane hydrocarbons have been made at Mace Head since January 2005. Mace Head is a background Northern Hemispheric site situated on the eastern edge of the Atlantic. Five year measurements (2005–2009 of six C2–C5 non-methane hydrocarbons have been separated into baseline Northern Hemispheric and European polluted air masses, among other sectors. Seasonal cycles in baseline Northern Hemispheric air masses and European polluted air masses arriving at Mace Head have been studied. Baseline air masses show a broad summer minima between June and September for shorter lived species, longer lived species show summer minima in July/August. All species displayed a winter maxima in February. European air masses showed baseline elevated mole fractions for all non-methane hydrocarbons. Largest elevations (of up to 360 ppt for ethane maxima from baseline data were observed in winter maxima, with smaller elevations observed during the summer. Analysis of temporal trends using the Mann-Kendall test showed small (<6 % yr−1 but statistically significant decreases in the butanes and i-pentane between 2005 and 2009 in European air. No significant trends were found for any species in baseline air.

  18. Responses of non-methane biogenic volatile organic compound emissions to climate change in boreal and subarctic ecosystems

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Faubert, P.

    2010-07-01

    Non-methane biogenic volatile organic compound emissions (BVOCs) have important roles in the global atmospheric chemistry but their feedbacks to climate change are still unknown. This thesis reports one of the first estimates of BVOC emissions from boreal and subarctic ecosystems. Most importantly, this thesis assesses the BVOC emission responses to four effects of climate change in these ecosystems: (1) the direct effect of warming, and its indirect effects via (2) water table drawdown, (3) change in the vegetation composition, and (4) enhanced UV-B radiation. BVOC emissions were measured using a conventional chamber method in which the compounds were collected on adsorbent and later analyzed by gas chromatography-mass spectrometry. On a subarctic heath, warming by only 1.9-2.5 degC doubled the monoterpene and sesquiterpene emissions. Such a high increase of BVOC emissions under a conservative warming cannot be predicted by the current models, which underlines the importance of a focus on BVOC emissions from the Subarctic under climate change. On a subarctic peatland, enhanced UV-B did not affect the BVOC emissions but the water table level exerted the major effect. The water table drawdown experimentally applied on boreal peatland microcosms decreased the emissions of monoterpenes and other VOCs (BVOCs with a lifetime>1 d) for the hollows (wet microsites) and that of all BVOC groups for the lawns (moderately wet microsites). The warming treatment applied on the lawn microcosms decreased the isoprene emission. The removal of vascular plants in the hummock (dry microsites) microcosms decreased the emissions of monoterpenes while the emissions between the microcosms covered with Sphagnum moss and bare peat were not different. In conclusion, the results presented in this thesis indicate that climate change has complex effects on the BVOC emissions. These results make a significant contribution to improving the modeling of BVOC emissions for a better understanding of

  19. Non-methane hydrocarbon characteristics of motor vehicular emissions in the Pearl River Delta region

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    Tsai, Wai Yan

    2007-12-01

    Air pollution problem in Hong Kong and the Pearl River Delta (PRD) region has raised much concern from the public in recent years. The primary aim of this research is to use field measurement data to characterize non-methane hydrocarbons (NMHCs) in emission from motor vehicles. Fuel vapor compositions for several commonly used vehicular fuels in Hong Kong, Macau, Guangzhou and Zhuhai were analyzed in 2003, and they are believed to be the first one reported for the PRD region. These profiles were used to study the impact of evaporative loss of the fuels on air quality. From the roadside and tunnel samples collected in the four cities mentioned above from 2000 to 2003, results showed that vehicular engine combustion was a main NMHC source, while gasoline evaporative losses also contributed much to the total NMHC emission, besides, LPG leakage was also found to be significant from the tunnel measurement data collected in Hong Kong. Characteristics of vehicular engine exhaust emissions were also studied. Measurements of diesel emission showed a large influence on the emission profile due to the change of diesel compositions. The E/E ratios implied that gasoline-powered vehicles in Hong Kong were equipped with well functioning catalysts, while those in Guangzhou and Zhuhai, especially the motorcycles, were found dirtier in NMHC emission. Although the E/E ratios showed that private cars in Hong Kong had high combustion efficiency, the existence of significant amounts of unburned gasoline in their exhaust stream pointed out that they still had low fuel economy. From the results of a simple model, it was found that the evaporative losses of gasoline and LPG contributed much to the total NMHC pollution from vehicle. The preliminary results from the dynamometer study conducted in Hong Kong showed large variations of exhaust characteristics for private cars and taxis during different driving speeds. The results can be used as scientific basis for regulatory parties in

  20. Characteristics of atmospheric non-methane hydrocarbons during high PM 10 episodes and normal days in Foshan, China

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guo, Songjun; Tan, Jihua; Ma, Yongliang; Yang, Fumo; Yu, Yongchan; Wang, Jiewen

    2011-08-01

    Atmospheric non-methane hydrocarbons (NMHCs) were firstly studied during high PM 10 episodes and normal days in December 2008 in Foshan, China. Ethyne, ethene, i-pentane, toluene, ethane and propane are six abundant hydrocarbons, accounting for round 80% of total NMHCs. Both diurnal variations and concentration ratios of morning (evening)/afternoon implied vehicular emission for most hydrocarbons. Correlation coefficients (R 2) of ethene, propene, i-butene, benzene, toluene and i-/n-butanes with ethyne were 0.60-0.88 (they were 0.64-0.88 during high PM 10 episode and 0.60-0.85 in normal days) except for ethene and i-butene in normal days, indicating these hydrocarbons are mainly related to vehicular emission. It suggests liquefied petroleum gas (LPG) and natural gas (NG) leakages are responsible for propane and ethane, respectively. The measured mean benzene/toluene (B/T) ratio (wt/wt) was 0.45 ± 0.29 during total sampling periods together with R 2 analysis, again indicating vehicular emission is main contributor to ambient hydrocarbons. And the lower B/T ratio (0.29 ± 0.11) during high PM 10 episodes than that (0.75 ± 0.29) in normal days is likely caused by air transport containing low B/T value (0.23) from Guangzhou as well as solvent application containing toluene in Foshan.

  1. Analysis of Non-Methane Hydrocarbon Data from 2004-2016 in a Subtropical Area close to the Gulf of Mexico

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    Rappenglueck, B.

    2017-12-01

    Speciated C2-C11 non-methane hydrocarbons (NMHC) have been measured online on an hourly basis at Lake Jackson/TX close to the Gulf of Mexico. Altogether 48 NMHCs along with NO, NO2, NOx, O3 have been collected continuously from January 2004-December 2016 under the auspices of the Texas Commission on Environmental Quality. Data was screened for background conditions representing marine wind sectors. The data set represents a combination of marine air masses mixed with local biogenic emissions. The data analysis addresses photochemical processing of air masses as reflected in the relationship of ln(n-butane/ethane) vs. ln(propane/ethane) and ln(i-butane/ethane) vs. ln(n-butane/ethane). In addition, key NMHC relationships for radical chemistry, e.g. i-butane vs n-butane for OH and Cl chemistry and i-pentane vs. n-pentane for NO3 chemistry, are discussed. Seasonal analysis revealed a clear trend with maximum NMHC mixing ratios in winter time and lowest mixing ratios in summer reflecting the impact of photochemical processes in summer. Propene equivalents were highest during summertime, with significant contributions from alkenes, including isoprene. The relation of propane/ethane vs ethane indicates seasonal variation with lowest values (i.e. most aged air masses) in winter.

  2. Top-down constraints on methane and non-methane hydrocarbon emissions in the US Four Corners

    Science.gov (United States)

    Petron, G.; Miller, B. R.; Vaughn, B. H.; Kofler, J.; Mielke-Maday, I.; Sherwood, O.; Schwietzke, S.; Conley, S.; Sweeney, C.; Dlugokencky, E. J.; White, A. B.; Tans, P. P.; Schnell, R. C.

    2017-12-01

    A NASA and NOAA supported field campaign took place in the US Four Corners in April 2015 to further investigate a regional "methane hotspot" detected from space. The Four Corners region is home to the fossil fuel rich San Juan Basin, which extends between SE Colorado and NE New Mexico. The area has been extracting coal, oil and natural gas for decades. Degassing from the Fruitland coal outcrop on the Colorado side has also been reported. Instrumented aircraft, vans and ground based wind profilers were deployed for the campaign with the goal to quantify and attribute methane and non-methane hydrocarbon emissions in the region. A new comprehensive analysis of the campaign data sets will be presented and top-down emission estimates for methane and ozone precursors will be compared with available bottom-up estimates.

  3. Influence of oil and gas emissions on ambient atmospheric non-methane hydrocarbons in residential areas of Northeastern Colorado

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chelsea R. Thompson

    2014-11-01

    Full Text Available Abstract The Northern Front Range (NFR region of Colorado has experienced rapid expansion of oil and gas extraction from shale and tight sands reservoirs in recent years due to advances in hydraulic fracturing technology, with over 25,000 wells currently in operation. This region has also been designated as a federal ozone non-attainment area by the U.S. EPA. High ozone levels are a significant health concern, as are potential health impacts from chronic exposure to primary emissions of non-methane hydrocarbons (NMHC for residents living near wells. From measurements of ambient atmospheric NMHC present in residential areas located in close proximity to wells in Erie, Colorado, we find that mean mole fractions of the C2–C5 alkanes are enhanced by a factor of 18–77 relative to the regional background, and present at higher levels than typically found in large urban centers. When combined with NMHC observations from downtown Denver and Platteville, it is apparent that these compounds are elevated across the NFR, with highest levels within the Greater Wattenberg Gas Field. This represents a large area source for ozone precursors in the NFR. The BTEX aromatic compounds in Erie were comparable to (e.g., benzene or lower than (e.g., toluene, ethylbenzene, xylene in large urban centers, however, benzene was significantly higher in Platteville, and within the range of chronic health-based exposure levels. An initial look at comparisons with data sets from previous years reveal that ambient levels for oil and gas-related NMHC in Erie, as well as further downwind in Boulder, have not decreased, but appear to have been increasing, despite tightening of emissions standards for the oil and gas industries in 2008.

  4. Multi-year levels and trends of non-methane hydrocarbon concentrations observed in ambient air in France

    Science.gov (United States)

    Waked, Antoine; Sauvage, Stéphane; Borbon, Agnès; Gauduin, Julie; Pallares, Cyril; Vagnot, Marie-Pierre; Léonardis, Thierry; Locoge, Nadine

    2016-09-01

    Measurements of 31 non-methane hydrocarbons (NMHCs) were carried out at three urban (Paris, 2003-2014, Strasbourg, 2002-2014 and Lyon, 2007-2014) sites in France over the period of a decade. A trend analysis was applied by means of the Mann-Kendall non-parametric test to annual and seasonal mean concentrations in order to point out changes in specific emission sources and to assess the impact of emission controls and reduction strategies. The trends were compared to those from three rural sites (Peyrusse-Vieille, 2002-2013, Tardière, 2003-2013 and Donon, 1997-2007). The results obtained showed a significant yearly decrease in pollutant concentrations over the study period and for the majority of species in the range of -1 to -7% in accordance with the decrease of NMHC emissions in France (-5 to -9%). Concentrations of long-lived species such as ethane and propane which are recognized as tracers of distant sources and natural gas remained constant. Compounds associated with combustion processes such as acetylene, propene, ethylene and benzene showed a significant decline in the range of -2% to -5% yr-1. These trends are consistent with those recently described at urban and background sites in the northern mid-latitudes and with emission inventories. C7-C9 aromatics such as toluene and xylenes as well as C4-C5 alkanes such as isopentane and isobutane also showed a significant decrease in the range of -3% to -7% yr-1. The decreasing trends in terms of % yr-1 observed at these French urban sites were typically higher for acetylene, ethylene and benzene than those reported for French rural sites of the national observatory of Measurement and Evaluation in Rural areas of trans-boundary Air pollution (MERA). The study also highlighted the difficult choice of a long term sampling site representative of the general trends of pollutant concentrations.

  5. The levels, variation characteristics, and sources of atmospheric non-methane hydrocarbon compounds during wintertime in Beijing, China

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    C. Liu

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available Atmospheric non-methane hydrocarbon compounds (NMHCs were measured at a sampling site in Beijing city from 15 December 2015 to 14 January 2016 to recognize their pollution levels, variation characteristics, and sources. We quantified 53 NMHCs, and the proportions of alkanes, alkenes, acetylene, and aromatics to the total NMHCs were 49.8–55.8, 21.5–24.7, 13.5–15.9, and 9.3–10.7 %, respectively. The variation trends in the NMHC concentrations were basically identical and exhibited remarkable fluctuation, which was mainly ascribed to the variation in meteorological conditions, especially wind speed. The diurnal variations in NMHCs on clear days exhibited two peaks during the morning and evening rush hours, whereas the rush hours' peaks diminished or even disappeared on the haze days, implying that the relative contribution of the vehicular emissions to atmospheric NMHCs depended on the pollution status. Two evident peaks of the propane ∕ propene ratios appeared in the early morning before sun rise and at noontime on clear days, whereas only one peak occurred in the afternoon during the haze days, which were attributed to the relatively fast reactions of propene with OH, NO3, and O3. Based on the chemical kinetic equations, the daytime OH concentrations were calculated to be in the range of 3. 47 × 105–1. 04 × 106 molecules cm−3 on clear days and 6. 42 × 105–2. 35 × 106 molecules cm−3 on haze days. The nighttime NO3 concentrations were calculated to be in the range of 2. 82 × 109–4. 86 × 109 molecules cm−3 on clear days. The correlation coefficients of typical hydrocarbon pairs (benzene ∕ toluene, o-xylene ∕ m,p-xylene, isopentane ∕ n-pentane, etc. revealed that vehicular emissions and coal combustion were important sources for atmospheric NMHCs in Beijing during the wintertime. Five major emission sources for atmospheric NMHCs in Beijing during

  6. The levels, variation characteristics, and sources of atmospheric non-methane hydrocarbon compounds during wintertime in Beijing, China

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Chengtang; Ma, Zhuobiao; Mu, Yujing; Liu, Junfeng; Zhang, Chenglong; Zhang, Yuanyuan; Liu, Pengfei; Zhang, Hongxing

    2017-09-01

    Atmospheric non-methane hydrocarbon compounds (NMHCs) were measured at a sampling site in Beijing city from 15 December 2015 to 14 January 2016 to recognize their pollution levels, variation characteristics, and sources. We quantified 53 NMHCs, and the proportions of alkanes, alkenes, acetylene, and aromatics to the total NMHCs were 49.8-55.8, 21.5-24.7, 13.5-15.9, and 9.3-10.7 %, respectively. The variation trends in the NMHC concentrations were basically identical and exhibited remarkable fluctuation, which was mainly ascribed to the variation in meteorological conditions, especially wind speed. The diurnal variations in NMHCs on clear days exhibited two peaks during the morning and evening rush hours, whereas the rush hours' peaks diminished or even disappeared on the haze days, implying that the relative contribution of the vehicular emissions to atmospheric NMHCs depended on the pollution status. Two evident peaks of the propane / propene ratios appeared in the early morning before sun rise and at noontime on clear days, whereas only one peak occurred in the afternoon during the haze days, which were attributed to the relatively fast reactions of propene with OH, NO3, and O3. Based on the chemical kinetic equations, the daytime OH concentrations were calculated to be in the range of 3. 47 × 105-1. 04 × 106 molecules cm-3 on clear days and 6. 42 × 105-2. 35 × 106 molecules cm-3 on haze days. The nighttime NO3 concentrations were calculated to be in the range of 2. 82 × 109-4. 86 × 109 molecules cm-3 on clear days. The correlation coefficients of typical hydrocarbon pairs (benzene / toluene, o-xylene / m,p-xylene, isopentane / n-pentane, etc.) revealed that vehicular emissions and coal combustion were important sources for atmospheric NMHCs in Beijing during the wintertime. Five major emission sources for atmospheric NMHCs in Beijing during the wintertime were further identified by positive matrix factorization (PMF), including gasoline-related emissions

  7. ACTRIS non-methane hydrocarbon intercomparison experiment in Europe to support WMO GAW and EMEP observation networks

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hoerger, C. C.; Claude, A.; Plass-Duelmer, C.; Reimann, S.; Eckart, E.; Steinbrecher, R.; Aalto, J.; Arduini, J.; Bonnaire, N.; Cape, J. N.; Colomb, A.; Connolly, R.; Diskova, J.; Dumitrean, P.; Ehlers, C.; Gros, V.; Hakola, H.; Hill, M.; Hopkins, J. R.; Jäger, J.; Junek, R.; Kajos, M. K.; Klemp, D.; Leuchner, M.; Lewis, A. C.; Locoge, N.; Maione, M.; Martin, D.; Michl, K.; Nemitz, E.; O'Doherty, S.; Pérez Ballesta, P.; Ruuskanen, T. M.; Sauvage, S.; Schmidbauer, N.; Spain, T. G.; Straube, E.; Vana, M.; Vollmer, M. K.; Wegener, R.; Wenger, A.

    2015-07-01

    The performance of 18 European institutions involved in long-term non-methane hydrocarbon (NMHC) measurements in ambient air within the framework of the Global Atmosphere Watch (GAW) and the European Monitoring and Evaluation Programme (EMEP) was assessed with respect to data quality objectives (DQOs) of ACTRIS (Aerosols, Clouds, and Trace gases Research InfraStructure Network) and GAW. Compared to previous intercomparison studies the DQOs define a novel approach to assess and ensure a high quality of the measurements. Having already been adopted by GAW, the ACTRIS DQOs are demanding with deviations to a reference value of less than 5 % and a repeatability of better than 2 % for NMHC mole fractions above 0.1 nmol mol-1. The participants of the intercomparison analysed two dry gas mixtures in pressurised cylinders, a 30-component NMHC mixture in nitrogen (NMHC_N2) at approximately 1 nmol mol-1 and a whole air sample (NMHC_air), following a standardised operation procedure including zero- and calibration gas measurements. Furthermore, participants had to report details on their instruments and assess their measurement uncertainties. The NMHCs were analysed either by gas chromatography-flame ionisation detection (GC-FID) or by gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (GC-MS). For the NMHC_N2 measurements, 62 % of the reported values were within the 5 % deviation class corresponding to the ACTRIS DQOs. For NMHC_air, generally more frequent and larger deviations to the assigned values were observed, with 50 % of the reported values within the 5 % deviation class. Important contributors to the poorer performance in NMHC_air compared to NMHC_N2 were a more complex matrix and a larger span of NMHC mole fractions (0.03-2.5 nmol mol-1). The performance of the participating laboratories were affected by the different measurement procedures such as the usage of a two-step vs. a one-step calibration, breakthroughs of C2-C3 hydrocarbons in the focussing trap, blank values in zero

  8. Non-methane hydrocarbons (NMHCs) and their contribution to ozone formation potential in a petrochemical industrialized city, Northwest China

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jia, Chenhui; Mao, Xiaoxuan; Huang, Tao; Liang, Xiaoxue; Wang, Yanan; Shen, Yanjie; Jiang, Wanyanhan; Wang, Huiqin; Bai, Zhilin; Ma, Minquan; Yu, Zhousuo; Ma, Jianmin; Gao, Hong

    2016-03-01

    Hourly air concentrations of fifty-three non-methane hydrocarbons (NMHCs) were measured at downtown and suburb of Lanzhou, a petrochemical industrialized city, Northwest China in 2013. The measured data were used to investigate the seasonal characteristics of NMHCs air pollution and their contributions to the ozone formation in Lanzhou. Annually averaged NMHCs concentration was 38.29 ppbv in downtown Lanzhou. Among 53 NMHCs, alkanes, alkenes, and aromatics accounted for 57%, 23% and 20% of the total NMHCs air concentration, respectively. The atmospheric levels of toluene and propane with mean values of 4.62 and 4.56 ppbv were higher than other NMHCs, respectively. The ambient levels of NMHCs in downtown Lanzhou were compared with measured NMHCs data collected at a suburban site of Lanzhou, located near a large-scale petrochemical industry. Results show that the levels of alkanes, alkenes, and aromatics in downtown Lanzhou were lower by factors of 3-11 than that in west suburb of the city. O3-isopleth plots show that ozone was formed in VOCs control area in downtown Lanzhou and NOx control area at the west suburban site during the summertime. Propylene-equivalent (Prop-Equiv) concentration and the maximum incremental reactivity (MIR) in downtown Lanzhou indicate that cis-2-butene, propylene, and m/p-xylene were the first three compounds contributing to ozone formation potentials whereas in the petrochemical industrialized west suburb, ethane, propene, and trans-2-Butene played more important role in the summertime ozone formation. Principal component analysis (PCA) and multiple linear regression (MLR) were further applied to identify the dominant emission sources and examine their fractions in total NMHCs. Results suggest that vehicle emission, solvent usage, and industrial activities were major sources of NMHCs in the city, accounting for 58.34%, 22.19%, and 19.47% of the total monitored NMHCs in downtown Lanzhou, respectively. In the west suburb of the city

  9. Hydrocarbon delineation in Muskeg : distinguishing biogenic from petrogenic sources

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Harris, C. [UMA Engineering Ltd., Victoria, BC (Canada)

    2006-07-01

    The quantification of biogenic versus petrogenic hydrocarbons from an emulsion pipeline in a Muskeg setting in northeastern British Columbia was examined. This presentation provided an introduction and discussion of the challenges in Muskeg environments. It introduced the objectives of the study and the analytical approach. Some supporting literature involving studies on the distribution and origin of hydrocarbons in estuary sediments was also cited. Box plots of the physical and chemical characteristics of soil and chromatograms of gas chromatography flame ionization detector (GC-FID) and gas chromatography mass spectrometry (GC-MS) were presented. Last, the approach to establish a true biogenic source and the recommended analytical program and corrections for biogenic input were discussed. The definition of contaminated peat was introduced. tabs., figs.

  10. Subsurface biogenic gas rations associated with hydrocarbon contamination

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Marrin, D.L.

    1991-01-01

    Monitoring the in situ bioreclamation of organic chemicals in soil is usually accomplished by collecting samples from selected points during the remediation process. This technique requires the installation and sampling of soil borings and does not allow for continuous monitoring. The analysis of soil vapor overlying hydrocarbon-contaminated soil and groundwater has been used to detect the presence of nonaqueous phase liquids (NAPL) and to locate low-volatility hydrocarbons that are not directly detected by more conventional soil gas methods. Such soil vapor sampling methods are adaptable to monitoring the in situ bioremediation of soil and groundwater contamination. This paper focuses on the use of biogenic gas ratio in detecting the presence of crude oil and gasoline in the subsurface

  11. Characterization and speciation of non-methane hydrocarbons (NMHCs) and their implications on the atmosphere of South China

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tang, Jianhui

    2007-12-01

    A large pool of ambient and source NMHC data was obtained for the first time in various environments of South China, extending from less developed Yunnan and Hainan Provinces to more developed Guangdong and Zhejiang Provinces. The source and source regions of these C2-C10 NMHC species were assessed through comparison of the profiles and characteristic ratios of NMHC species in ambient and source samples. Tools such as backward air trajectory and satellite images are utilized. Analysis of NMHC profiles in these regions unveiled that there were complex characteristics of NMHCs involving different extents of contributions from urban vehicular and industrial emissions, local biofuel combustion and biogenic emissions, and biomass burning emissions. At the developed sites, such as Guangzhou in Pearl River Delta (PRD) and Lin'an in Yangtze River Delta (YRD), vehicular and industrial emissions were the major contributors. However, in rural and remote areas such as at Jiangfeng Mountain on Hainan Island and Tengchong Mountain in southwest of China, long-range transports of biomass burning pollution from the SE Asia subcontinent in addition to contributions from in situ biogenic and other local anthropogenic emissions from South China, are important sources of NMHCs in spring. More in depth studies were conducted in the urban sites of Guangzhou and at the rural site of Dinghu Mountain during 2001 to 2005. The levels of toluene increased in Dinghu Mountain but decreased in Guangzhou urban sites, which was contrary to the increase of industrial activities in this region. This was in part due to the implementation of stringent emission standards for polluting industries especially in the urban areas and the relocation of polluting industries from urban to the less developed parts of the PRD. We had found for the first time significant increase of propane levels in the urban air of Guangzhou, due to the introduction of LPG-fueled buses and taxis. The signatures of LPG influence

  12. Source apportionment of ambient non-methane hydrocarbons in Hong Kong: application of a principal component analysis/absolute principal component scores (PCA/APCS) receptor model.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guo, H; Wang, T; Louie, P K K

    2004-06-01

    Receptor-oriented source apportionment models are often used to identify sources of ambient air pollutants and to estimate source contributions to air pollutant concentrations. In this study, a PCA/APCS model was applied to the data on non-methane hydrocarbons (NMHCs) measured from January to December 2001 at two sampling sites: Tsuen Wan (TW) and Central & Western (CW) Toxic Air Pollutants Monitoring Stations in Hong Kong. This multivariate method enables the identification of major air pollution sources along with the quantitative apportionment of each source to pollutant species. The PCA analysis identified four major pollution sources at TW site and five major sources at CW site. The extracted pollution sources included vehicular internal engine combustion with unburned fuel emissions, use of solvent particularly paints, liquefied petroleum gas (LPG) or natural gas leakage, and industrial, commercial and domestic sources such as solvents, decoration, fuel combustion, chemical factories and power plants. The results of APCS receptor model indicated that 39% and 48% of the total NMHCs mass concentrations measured at CW and TW were originated from vehicle emissions, respectively. 32% and 36.4% of the total NMHCs were emitted from the use of solvent and 11% and 19.4% were apportioned to the LPG or natural gas leakage, respectively. 5.2% and 9% of the total NMHCs mass concentrations were attributed to other industrial, commercial and domestic sources, respectively. It was also found that vehicle emissions and LPG or natural gas leakage were the main sources of C(3)-C(5) alkanes and C(3)-C(5) alkenes while aromatics were predominantly released from paints. Comparison of source contributions to ambient NMHCs at the two sites indicated that the contribution of LPG or natural gas at CW site was almost twice that at TW site. High correlation coefficients (R(2) > 0.8) between the measured and predicted values suggested that the PCA/APCS model was applicable for estimation

  13. Source apportionment vs. emission inventories of non-methane hydrocarbons (NMHC in an urban area of the Middle East: local and global perspectives

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    T. Salameh

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available We applied the positive matrix factorization model to two large data sets collected during two intensive measurement campaigns (summer 2011 and winter 2012 at a sub-urban site in Beirut, Lebanon, in order to identify NMHC (non-methane hydrocarbons sources and quantify their contribution to ambient levels. Six factors were identified in winter and five factors in summer. PMF-resolved source profiles were consistent with source profiles established by near-field measurements. The major sources were traffic-related emissions (combustion and gasoline evaporation in winter and in summer accounting for 51 and 74 wt %, respectively, in agreement with the national emission inventory. The gasoline evaporation related to traffic source had a significant contribution regardless of the season (22 wt % in winter and 30 wt % in summer. The NMHC emissions from road transport are estimated from observations and PMF results, and compared to local and global emission inventories. The PMF analysis finds reasonable differences on emission rates, of 20–39 % higher than the national road transport inventory. However, global inventories (ACCMIP, EDGAR, MACCity underestimate the emissions up to a factor of 10 for the transportation sector. When combining emission inventory to our results, there is strong evidence that control measures in Lebanon should be targeted on mitigating the NMHC emissions from the traffic-related sources. From a global perspective, an assessment of VOC (volatile organic compounds anthropogenic emission inventories for the Middle East region as a whole seems necessary as these emissions could be much higher than expected at least from the road transport sector.

  14. Effect of vegetation removal and water table drawdown on the non-methane biogenic volatile organic compound emissions in boreal peatland microcosms

    Science.gov (United States)

    Faubert, Patrick; Tiiva, Päivi; Rinnan, Åsmund; Räty, Sanna; Holopainen, Jarmo K.; Holopainen, Toini; Rinnan, Riikka

    2010-11-01

    Biogenic volatile organic compound (BVOC) emissions are important in the global atmospheric chemistry and their feedbacks to global warming are uncertain. Global warming is expected to trigger vegetation changes and water table drawdown in boreal peatlands, such changes have only been investigated on isoprene emission but never on other BVOCs. We aimed at distinguishing the BVOCs released from vascular plants, mosses and peat in hummocks (dry microsites) and hollows (wet microsites) of boreal peatland microcosms maintained in growth chambers. We also assessed the effect of water table drawdown (-20 cm) on the BVOC emissions in hollow microcosms. BVOC emissions were measured from peat samples underneath the moss surface after the 7-week-long experiment to investigate whether the potential effects of vegetation and water table drawdown were shown. BVOCs were sampled using a conventional chamber method, collected on adsorbent and analyzed with GC-MS. In hummock microcosms, vascular plants increased the monoterpene emissions compared with the treatment where all above-ground vegetation was removed while no effect was detected on the sesquiterpenes, other reactive VOCs (ORVOCs) and other VOCs. Peat layer from underneath the surface with intact vegetation had the highest sesquiterpene emissions. In hollow microcosms, intact vegetation had the highest sesquiterpene emissions. Water table drawdown decreased monoterpene and other VOC emissions. Specific compounds could be closely associated to the natural/lowered water tables. Peat layer from underneath the surface of hollows with intact vegetation had the highest emissions of monoterpenes, sesquiterpenes and ORVOCs whereas water table drawdown decreased those emissions. The results suggest that global warming would change the BVOC emission mixtures from boreal peatlands following changes in vegetation composition and water table drawdown.

  15. Biogenic, biomass and biofuel sources of trace gases in southern Africa

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Otter, LB

    2001-03-01

    Full Text Available Biogenic processes in southern African savannas are estimated to produce 1.0 Tg NO yr(-1), 44.2-87.8 Tg C yr(-1) as non-methane hydrocarbons (NMHCs) and to consume 0.23 Tg CH4 yr(-1). Floodplains and wetlands in southern Africa are estimated...

  16. Measurements of atmospheric hydrocarbons and biogenic emission fluxes in the Amazon boundary layer

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zimmerman, P. R.; Greenberg, J. P.; Westberg, C. E.

    1988-01-01

    Tropospheric mixing ratios of methane, C2-C10 hydrocarbons, and carbon monoxide were measured over the Amazon tropical forest near Manaus, Amazonas, Brazil, in July and August 1985. The measurements, consisting mostly of altitude profiles of these gases, were all made within the atmospheric boundary layer up to an altitude of 1000 m above ground level. Data characterize the diurnal hydrocarbon composition of the boundary layer. Biogenic emissions of isoprene control hydroxyl radical concentrations over the forest. Biogenic emission fluxes of isoprene and terpenes are estimated to be 25,000 micrograms/sq m per day and 5600 micrograms/sq m per day, respectively. This isoprene emission is equivalent to 2 percent of the net primary productivity of the tropical forest. Atmospheric oxidation of biogenic isoprene and terpenes emissions from the Amazon forest may account for daily increases of 8-13 ppb for carbon monoxide in the planetary boundary layer.

  17. Biogenic nonmethane hydrocarbon emissions estimated from tethered balloon observations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Davis, K. J.; Lenschow, D. H.; Zimmerman, P. R.

    1994-01-01

    A new technique for estimating surface fluxes of trace gases, the mixed-layer gradient technique, is used to calculate isoprene and terpene emissions from forests. The technique is applied to tethered balloon measurements made over the Amazon forest and a pine-oak forest in Alabama at altitudes up to 300 m. The observations were made during the dry season Amazon Boundary Layer Experiment (ABLE 2A) and the Rural Oxidants in the Southern Environment 1990 experiment (ROSE I). Results from large eddy simulations of scalar transport in the clear convective boundary layer are used to infer fluxes from the balloon profiles. Profiles from the Amazon give a mean daytime emission of 3630 +/- 1400 micrograms isoprene sq m/h, where the uncertainty represents the standard deviation of the mean of eight flux estimates. Twenty profiles from Alabama give emissions of 4470 +/- 3300 micrograms isoprene sq m/h, 1740 +/- 1060 micrograms alpha-pinene sq m/h, and 790 +/- 560 micrograms beta-pinene sq m/h, respectively. These results are in agreement with emissions derived from chemical budgets. The emissions may be overestimated because of uncertainty about how to incorporate the effects of the canopy on the mixed-layer gradients. The large variability in these emission estimates is probably due to the relatively short sampling times of the balloon profiles, though spatially heterogeneous emissions may also play a role. Fluxes derived using this technique are representative of an upwind footprint of several kilometers and are independent of hydrocarbon oxidation rate and mean advection.

  18. Interactive chemistry in the Laboratoire de Météorologie Dynamique general circulation model: model description and impact analysis of biogenic hydrocarbons on tropospheric chemistry

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    G. A. Folberth

    2006-01-01

    Full Text Available We present a description and evaluation of LMDz-INCA, a global three-dimensional chemistry-climate model, pertaining to its recently developed NMHC version. In this substantially extended version of the model a comprehensive representation of the photochemistry of non-methane hydrocarbons (NMHC and volatile organic compounds (VOC from biogenic, anthropogenic, and biomass-burning sources has been included. The tropospheric annual mean methane (9.2 years and methylchloroform (5.5 years chemical lifetimes are well within the range of previous modelling studies and are in excellent agreement with estimates established by means of global observations. The model provides a reasonable simulation of the horizontal and vertical distribution and seasonal cycle of CO and key non-methane VOC, such as acetone, methanol, and formaldehyde as compared to observational data from several ground stations and aircraft campaigns. LMDz-INCA in the NMHC version reproduces tropospheric ozone concentrations fairly well throughout most of the troposphere. The model is applied in several sensitivity studies of the biosphere-atmosphere photochemical feedback. The impact of surface emissions of isoprene, acetone, and methanol is studied. These experiments show a substantial impact of isoprene on tropospheric ozone and carbon monoxide concentrations revealing an increase in surface O3 and CO levels of up to 30 ppbv and 60 ppbv, respectively. Isoprene also appears to significantly impact the global OH distribution resulting in a decrease of the global mean tropospheric OH concentration by approximately 0.7×105 molecules cm-3 or roughly 8% and an increase in the global mean tropospheric methane lifetime by approximately seven months. A global mean ozone net radiative forcing due to the isoprene induced increase in the tropospheric ozone burden of 0.09 W m-2 is found. The key role of isoprene photooxidation in the global tropospheric redistribution of NOx is demonstrated. LMDz

  19. Organic pollutants in the coastal environment off San Diego, California. 2: Petrogenic and biogenic sources of aliphatic hydrocarbons

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tran, K.; Yu, C.C.; Zeng, E.Y.

    1997-01-01

    The results from the measurements of aliphatic hydrocarbons suggest that hydrocarbons suggest that hydrocarbons in the Point Loma Wastewater Treatment Plant (PLWTP) effluents are mainly petroleum derived; those in the Tijuana River runoff have largely originated from terrestrial plants with visible petroleum contamination; and those in the sea surface microlayer, sediment traps, and sediments at various coastal locations off San Diego have mostly resulted from biogenic contributions with enhanced microbial products in the summer season. Rainfall in the winter season appeared to amplify the inputs from terrestrial higher plants to the coastal areas. The PLWTP discharged approximately 3.85 metric tons of n-alkanes (C 10 -C 35 ) in 1994, well below the level (136 metric tons) estimated in 1979. The input of aliphatic hydrocarbons from the Tijuana River was about 0.101 metric tons in 1994. Diffusion, solubilization, evaporation, and microbial degradation seemed partially responsible for the difference in the concentrations and compositions of aliphatic hydrocarbons in different sample media, although the relative importance of each mechanism cannot be readily discerned from the available data. The results from analyses of aliphatic hydrocarbon compositional indices are generally consistent with those of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons

  20. Fingerprinting of petroleum hydrocarbons (PHC) and other biogenic organic compounds (BOC) in oil-contaminated and background soil samples.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Zhendi; Yang, C; Yang, Z; Hollebone, B; Brown, C E; Landriault, M; Sun, J; Mudge, S M; Kelly-Hooper, F; Dixon, D G

    2012-09-01

    Total petroleum hydrocarbons (TPH) or petroleum hydrocarbons (PHC) are one of the most widespread soil contaminants in Canada, the United States and many other countries worldwide. Clean-up of PHC-contaminated soils costs the Canadian economy hundreds of millions of dollars annually. In Canada, most PHC-contaminated site evaluations are based on the methods developed by the Canadian Council of the Ministers of the Environment (CCME). However, the CCME method does not differentiate PHC from BOC (the naturally occurring biogenic organic compounds), which are co-extracted with petroleum hydrocarbons in soil samples. Consequently, this could lead to overestimation of PHC levels in soil samples. In some cases, biogenic interferences can even exceed regulatory levels (300 μg g(-1) for coarse soils and 1300 μg g(-1) for fine soils for Fraction 3, C(16)-C(34) range, in the CCME Soil Quality Level). Resulting false exceedances can trigger unnecessary and costly cleanup or remediation measures. Therefore, it is critically important to develop new protocols to characterize and quantitatively differentiate PHC and BOC in contaminated soils. The ultimate objective of this PERD (Program of Energy Research and Development) project is to correct the misconception that all detectable hydrocarbons should be regulated as toxic petroleum hydrocarbons. During 2009-2010, soil and plant samples were collected from over forty oil-contaminated and paired background sites in various provinces. The silica gel column cleanup procedure was applied to effectively remove all target BOC from the oil-contaminated sample extracts. Furthermore, a reliable GC-MS method in combination with the derivatization technique, developed in this laboratory, was used for identification and characterization of various biogenic sterols and other major biogenic compounds in these oil-contaminated samples. Both PHC and BOC in these samples were quantitatively determined. This paper reports the characterization

  1. Smog chamber studies on the air chemistry of biogenic hydrocarbons in the presence of ozone, NOx and SO2

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nolting, F.; Zetzsch, C.

    1990-01-01

    The influence of SO 2 on the photochemical degradation processes of the biogenic hydrocarbon α-pinene was studied with respect to the present forest decline. For that purpose premixed air was irradiated with simulated sunlight in laboratory experiments using a modified smog chamber. The performance of a novel semi continuous analyzer for H 2 SO 4 /sulfate was tested for smog chamber studies of the transformation of SO 2 to sulfuric acid and sulfur containing aerosol. An influence of SO 2 on the formation of ozone was not detected. The rates of degradation cannot be described by gas phase reactions alone, and, in addition, they are faster in the presence of humidity. Depending on humidity, 30-50% of the consumed SO 2 can be recovered in the suspended aerosol. In the presence of 60% relative humidity the nearly exclusive product is sulfur aerosol that needs further characterization. (orig.) With 9 figs., 42 refs [de

  2. Shallow Gas Migration along Hydrocarbon Wells-An Unconsidered, Anthropogenic Source of Biogenic Methane in the North Sea.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vielstädte, Lisa; Haeckel, Matthias; Karstens, Jens; Linke, Peter; Schmidt, Mark; Steinle, Lea; Wallmann, Klaus

    2017-09-05

    Shallow gas migration along hydrocarbon wells constitutes a potential methane emission pathway that currently is not recognized in any regulatory framework or greenhouse gas inventory. Recently, the first methane emission measurements at three abandoned offshore wells in the Central North Sea (CNS) were conducted showing that considerable amounts of biogenic methane originating from shallow gas accumulations in the overburden of deep reservoirs were released by the boreholes. Here, we identify numerous wells poking through shallow gas pockets in 3-D seismic data of the CNS indicating that about one-third of the wells may leak, potentially releasing a total of 3-17 kt of methane per year into the North Sea. This poses a significant contribution to the North Sea methane budget. A large fraction of this gas (∼42%) may reach the atmosphere via direct bubble transport (0-2 kt yr -1 ) and via diffusive exchange of methane dissolving in the surface mixed layer (1-5 kt yr -1 ), as indicated by numerical modeling. In the North Sea and in other hydrocarbon-prolific provinces of the world shallow gas pockets are frequently observed in the sedimentary overburden and aggregate leakages along the numerous wells drilled in those areas may be significant.

  3. The effect of gas-phase polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons on the formation and properties of biogenic secondary organic aerosol particles

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zelenyuk, Alla [Pacific Northwest National Laboratory; USA; Imre, Dan G. [Imre Consulting; USA; Wilson, Jacqueline [Pacific Northwest National Laboratory; USA; Bell, David M. [Pacific Northwest National Laboratory; USA; Suski, Kaitlyn J. [Pacific Northwest National Laboratory; USA; Shrivastava, Manish [Pacific Northwest National Laboratory; USA; Beránek, Josef [Pacific Northwest National Laboratory; USA; Alexander, M. Lizabeth [Pacific Northwest National Laboratory; USA; Kramer, Amber L. [Department of Chemistry; Oregon State University; USA; Massey Simonich, Staci L. [Department of Chemistry; Oregon State University; USA; Environmental and Molecular Toxicology; Oregon State University

    2017-01-01

    When secondary organic aerosol (SOA) particles are formed by ozonolysis in the presence of gas-phase polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs), their formation and properties are significantly different from SOA particles formed without PAHs. For all SOA precursors and all PAHs, discussed in this study, the presence of the gas-phase PAHs during SOA formation significantly affects particle mass loadings, composition, growth, evaporation kinetics, and viscosity. SOA particles formed in the presence of PAHs have, as part of their compositions, trapped unreacted PAHs and products of heterogeneous reactions between PAHs and ozone. Compared to ‘pure’ SOA particles, these particles exhibit slower evaporation kinetics, have higher fractions of non-volatile components, like oligomers, and higher viscosities, assuring their longer atmospheric lifetimes. In turn, the increased viscosity and decreased volatility provide a shield that protects PAHs from chemical degradation and evaporation, allowing for the long-range transport of these toxic pollutants. The magnitude of the effect of PAHs on SOA formation is surprisingly large. The presence of PAHs during SOA formation increases mass loadings by factors of two to five, and particle number concentrations, in some cases, by more than a factor of 100. Increases in SOA mass, particle number concentrations, and lifetime have important implications to many atmospheric processes related to climate, weather, visibility, and human health, all of which relate to the interactions between biogenic SOA and anthropogenic PAHs. The synergistic relationship between SOA and PAHs presented here are clearly complex and call for future research to elucidate further the underlying processes and their exact atmospheric implications.

  4. Modeling and direct sensitivity analysis of biogenic emissions impacts on regional ozone formation in the Mexico-U.S. border area.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mendoza-Dominguez, A; Wilkinson, J G; Yang, Y J; Russell, A G

    2000-01-01

    A spatially and temporally resolved biogenic hydrocarbon and nitrogen oxides (NOx) emissions inventory has been developed for a region along the Mexico-U.S. border area. Average daily biogenic non-methane organic gases (NMOG) emissions for the 1700 x 1000 km2 domain were estimated at 23,800 metric tons/day (62% from Mexico and 38% from the United States), and biogenic NOx was estimated at 1230 metric tons/day (54% from Mexico and 46% from the United States) for the July 18-20, 1993, ozone episode. The biogenic NMOG represented 74% of the total NMOG emissions, and biogenic NOx was 14% of the total NOx. The CIT photochemical airshed model was used to assess how biogenic emissions impact air quality. Predicted ground-level ozone increased by 5-10 ppb in most rural areas, 10-20 ppb near urban centers, and 20-30 ppb immediately downwind of the urban centers compared to simulations in which only anthropogenic emissions were used. A sensitivity analysis of predicted ozone concentration to emissions was performed using the decoupled direct method for three dimensional air quality models (DDM-3D). The highest positive sensitivity of ground-level ozone concentration to biogenic volatile organic compound (VOC) emissions (i.e., increasing biogenic VOC emissions results in increasing ozone concentrations) was predicted to be in locations with high NOx levels, (i.e., the urban areas). One urban center--Houston--was predicted to have a slight negative sensitivity to biogenic NO emissions (i.e., increasing biogenic NO emissions results in decreasing local ozone concentrations). The highest sensitivities of ozone concentrations to on-road mobile source VOC emissions, all positive, were mainly in the urban areas. The highest sensitivities of ozone concentrations to on-road mobile source NOx emissions were predicted in both urban (either positive or negative sensitivities) and rural (positive sensitivities) locations.

  5. Hydrocarbons

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1927-02-22

    Coal tar, mineral oils, bitumens, coal extraction products, hydrogenation products of coal, oil schists can be atomized and heated with steam to decompose pyrogenetically and form gases rich in olefins which may be heated with or without pressure and with or without catalysts to produce liquid hydrocarbons of low boiling point, some of which may be aromatic. The apparatus should be lined with copper, silica, or ferrosilicon to prevent contact of the bases with iron which causes deposition of soot. Catalysts used may be metal oxides, silica, graphite, active charcoal, mica, pumice, porcelain, barium carbonate, copper, silver, gold, chromium, boron, or their compounds. At temperatures from 300 to 400/sup 0/C, olefins are produced. At higher temperatures, naphthenes and benzene hydrocarbons are produced.

  6. Hydrocarbon-degrading sulfate-reducing bacteria in marine hydrocarbon seep sediments

    OpenAIRE

    Kleindienst, Sara

    2012-01-01

    Microorganisms are key players in our biosphere because of their ability to degrade various organic compounds including a wide range of hydrocarbons. At marine hydrocarbon seeps, more than 90% of sulfate reduction (SR) is potentially coupled to non-methane hydrocarbon oxidation. Several hydrocarbon-degrading sulfate-reducing bacteria (SRB) were enriched or isolated from marine sediments. However, in situ active SRB remained largely unknown. In the present thesis, the global distribution and a...

  7. The ABAG biogenic emissions inventory project

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carson-Henry, C. (Editor)

    1982-01-01

    The ability to identify the role of biogenic hydrocarbon emissions in contributing to overall ozone production in the Bay Area, and to identify the significance of that role, were investigated in a joint project of the Association of Bay Area Governments (ABAG) and NASA/Ames Research Center. Ozone, which is produced when nitrogen oxides and hydrocarbons combine in the presence of sunlight, is a primary factor in air quality planning. In investigating the role of biogenic emissions, this project employed a pre-existing land cover classification to define areal extent of land cover types. Emission factors were then derived for those cover types. The land cover data and emission factors were integrated into an existing geographic information system, where they were combined to form a Biogenic Hydrocarbon Emissions Inventory. The emissions inventory information was then integrated into an existing photochemical dispersion model.

  8. A Regional Analysis of Non-Methane Hydrocarbons And Meteorology of The Rural Southeast United States

    Science.gov (United States)

    1996-01-01

    Zt is an ARIMA time series. This is a typical regression model , except that it allows for autocorrelation in the error term Z. In this work, an ARMA...data=folder; var residual; run; II Statistical output of 1992 regression model on 1993 ozone data ARIMA Procedure Maximum Likelihood Estimation Approx...at each of the sites, and to show the effect of synoptic meteorology on high ozone by examining NOAA daily weather maps and climatic data

  9. Development of a supercritical fluid extraction-gas chromatography-mass spectrometry method for the identification of highly polar compounds in secondary organic aerosols formed from biogenic hydrocarbons in smog chamber experiments.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chiappini, L; Perraudin, E; Durand-Jolibois, R; Doussin, J F

    2006-11-01

    A new one-step method for the analysis of highly polar components of secondary organic aerosols (SOA) has been developed. This method should lead to a better understanding of SOA formation and evolution since it enables the compounds responsible for SOA formation to be identified. Since it is based on supercritical fluid extraction coupled to gas chromatography-mass spectrometry, it minimizes the analysis time and significantly enhances sensitivity, which makes it suitable for trace-level compounds, which are constituents of SOA. One of the key features of this method is the in situ derivatisation step: an online silylation allowing the measurement of highly polar, polyfunctional compounds, which is a prerequisite for the elucidation of chemical mechanisms. This paper presents the development of this analytical method and highlights its ability to address this major atmospheric issue through the analysis of SOA formed from the ozonolysis of a biogenic hydrocarbon (sabinene). Ozonolysis of sabinene was performed in a 6 m3 Teflon chamber. The aerosol components were derivatised in situ. More than thirty products, such as sabinaketone, sabinic acid and other multifunctional compounds including dicarboxylic acids and oxoacids, were measured. Nine of them were identified and quantified. The sensitivity and the linearity (0.91

  10. Development of a supercritical fluid extraction-gas chromatography-mass spectrometry method for the identification of highly polar compounds in secondary organic aerosols formed from biogenic hydrocarbons in smog chamber experiments

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chiappini, L.; Perraudin, E.; Durand-Jolibois, R.; Doussin, J.F. [Universites Paris, Laboratoire Interuniversitaire des Systemes Atmospheriques, UMR CNRS 7583, Creteil (France)

    2006-11-15

    A new one-step method for the analysis of highly polar components of secondary organic aerosols (SOA) has been developed. This method should lead to a better understanding of SOA formation and evolution since it enables the compounds responsible for SOA formation to be identified. Since it is based on supercritical fluid extraction coupled to gas chromatography-mass spectrometry, it minimizes the analysis time and significantly enhances sensitivity, which makes it suitable for trace-level compounds, which are constituents of SOA. One of the key features of this method is the in situ derivatisation step: an online silylation allowing the measurement of highly polar, polyfunctional compounds, which is a prerequisite for the elucidation of chemical mechanisms. This paper presents the development of this analytical method and highlights its ability to address this major atmospheric issue through the analysis of SOA formed from the ozonolysis of a biogenic hydrocarbon (sabinene). Ozonolysis of sabinene was performed in a 6 m{sup 3} Teflon chamber. The aerosol components were derivatised in situ. More than thirty products, such as sabinaketone, sabinic acid and other multifunctional compounds including dicarboxylic acids and oxoacids, were measured. Nine of them were identified and quantified. The sensitivity and the linearity (0.91 < R < 0.98) of the method were both good and detection limits ranged from 1.2 to 6.4 ng for the investigated compounds. (orig.)

  11. Non-methane biogenic volatile organic compound emissions from boreal peatland microcosms under warming and water table drawdown

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Faubert, P; Tiiva, P; Nakam, TA

    2011-01-01

    assessed the combined effect of warming and water table drawdown on the BVOC emissions from boreal peatland microcosms. We also assessed the treatment effects on the BVOC emissions from the peat soil after the 7-week long experiment. Emissions of isoprene, monoterpenes, sesquiterpenes, other reactive VOCs...

  12. Sensitivity of modeled ozone concentrations to uncertainties in biogenic emissions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Roselle, S.J.

    1992-06-01

    The study examines the sensitivity of regional ozone (O3) modeling to uncertainties in biogenic emissions estimates. The United States Environmental Protection Agency's (EPA) Regional Oxidant Model (ROM) was used to simulate the photochemistry of the northeastern United States for the period July 2-17, 1988. An operational model evaluation showed that ROM had a tendency to underpredict O3 when observed concentrations were above 70-80 ppb and to overpredict O3 when observed values were below this level. On average, the model underpredicted daily maximum O3 by 14 ppb. Spatial patterns of O3, however, were reproduced favorably by the model. Several simulations were performed to analyze the effects of uncertainties in biogenic emissions on predicted O3 and to study the effectiveness of two strategies of controlling anthropogenic emissions for reducing high O3 concentrations. Biogenic hydrocarbon emissions were adjusted by a factor of 3 to account for the existing range of uncertainty in these emissions. The impact of biogenic emission uncertainties on O3 predictions depended upon the availability of NOx. In some extremely NOx-limited areas, increasing the amount of biogenic emissions decreased O3 concentrations. Two control strategies were compared in the simulations: (1) reduced anthropogenic hydrocarbon emissions, and (2) reduced anthropogenic hydrocarbon and NOx emissions. The simulations showed that hydrocarbon emission controls were more beneficial to the New York City area, but that combined NOx and hydrocarbon controls were more beneficial to other areas of the Northeast. Hydrocarbon controls were more effective as biogenic hydrocarbon emissions were reduced, whereas combined NOx and hydrocarbon controls were more effective as biogenic hydrocarbon emissions were increased

  13. Is it clean or contaminated soil? Using petrogenic versus biogenic GC-FID chromatogram patterns to mathematically resolve false petroleum hydrocarbon detections in clean organic soils: a crude oil-spiked peat microcosm experiment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kelly-Hooper, Francine; Farwell, Andrea J; Pike, Glenna; Kennedy, Jocelyn; Wang, Zhendi; Grunsky, Eric C; Dixon, D George

    2013-10-01

    The Canadian Council of Ministers of the Environment (CCME) reference method for the Canada-wide standard (CWS) for petroleum hydrocarbon (PHC) in soil provides chemistry analysis standards and guidelines for the management of contaminated sites. However, these methods can coextract natural biogenic organic compounds (BOCs) from organic soils, causing false exceedences of toxicity guidelines. The present 300-d microcosm experiment used CWS PHC tier 1 soil extraction and gas chromatography-flame ionization detector (GC-FID) analysis to develop a new tier 2 mathematical approach to resolving this problem. Carbon fractions F2 (C10-C16), F3 (C16-C34), and F4 (>C34) as well as subfractions F3a (C16-C22) and F3b (C22-C34) were studied in peat and sand spiked once with Federated crude oil. These carbon ranges were also studied in 14 light to heavy crude oils. The F3 range in the clean peat was dominated by F3b, whereas the crude oils had approximately equal F3a and F3b distributions. The F2 was nondetectable in the clean peat but was a significant component in crude oil. The crude oil–spiked peat had elevated F2 and F3a distributions. The BOC-adjusted PHC F3 calculation estimated the true PHC concentrations in the spiked peat. The F2:F3b ratio of less than 0.10 indicated PHC absence in the clean peat, and the ratio of greater than or equal to 0.10 indicated PHC presence in the spiked peat and sand. Validation studies are required to confirm whether this new tier 2 approach is applicable to real-case scenarios. Potential adoption of this approach could minimize unnecessary ecological disruptions of thousands of peatlands throughout Canada while also saving millions of dollars in management costs. © 2013 SETAC.

  14. Assessing methods to estimate emissions of non-methane organic compounds from landfills

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Saquing, Jovita M.; Chanton, Jeffrey P.; Yazdani, Ramin

    2014-01-01

    The non-methane organic compound (NMOC) emission rate is used to assess compliance with landfill gas emission regulations by the United States Environmental Protection Agency (USEPA). A recent USEPA Report (EPA/600/R-11/033) employed a ratio method to estimate speciated NMOC emissions (i...... and speciated NMOC concentration and flux data from 2012/2013 field sampling of four landfills, an unpublished landfill study, and literature data from three landfills. The ratio method worked well for landfills with thin covers (...

  15. Limitations of microbial hydrocarbon degradation at the Amon mud volcano (Nile deep-sea fan)

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Felden, J.; Lichtschlag, A.; Wenzhöfer, F.; de Beer, D.; Feseker, T.; Pop Ristova, P.; de Lange, G.; Boetius, A.

    2013-01-01

    The Amon mud volcano (MV), located at 1250m water depth on the Nile deep-sea fan, is known for its active emission of methane and non-methane hydrocarbons into the hydrosphere. Previous investigations showed a low efficiency of hydrocarbon-degrading anaerobic microbial communities inhabiting the

  16. Biogenic Emission Sources

    Science.gov (United States)

    Biogenic emissions sources come from natural sources and need to accounted for in photochemical grid models. They are computed using a model which utilizes spatial information on vegetation and land use.

  17. EFFECTS OF NON-METHANE HYDROCARBONS ON LOWER STRATOSPHERIC AND UPPER TROPOSPHERIC 2-D ZONAL AVERAGE MODEL CLIMATOLOGY. (R826384)

    Science.gov (United States)

    The perspectives, information and conclusions conveyed in research project abstracts, progress reports, final reports, journal abstracts and journal publications convey the viewpoints of the principal investigator and may not represent the views and policies of ORD and EPA. Concl...

  18. ACTRIS non-methane hydrocarbon intercomparison experiment in Europe to support WMO GAW and EMEP observation networks

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Hoerger, C. C.; Claude, A.; Plass-Duelmer, C.; Reimann, S.; Eckart, E.; Steinbrecher, R.; Aalto, J.; Arduini, J.; Bonnaire, N.; Cape, J. N.; Colomb, A.; Connolly, R.; Diskova, J.; Dumitrean, P.; Ehlers, C.; Gros, V.; Hakola, H.; Hill, M.; Hopkins, J. R.; Jäger, J.; Junek, R.; Kajos, M. K.; Klemp, D.; Leuchner, M.; Lewis, A. C.; Locoge, N.; Maione, M.; Martin, D.; Michl, K.; Nemitz, E.; O´ Doherty, S.; Pérez Ballesta, P.; Ruuskanen, T. M.; Sauvage, S.; Schmidbauer, N.; Spain, T. G.; Straube, E.; Váňa, Milan; Vollmer, M. K.; Wegener, R.; Wenger, A.

    2015-01-01

    Roč. 8, č. 7 (2015), s. 2715-2736 ISSN 1867-1381 Institutional support: RVO:67179843 Keywords : carbon number concept * organic trace gases * experiment nomhice * ozone precursor * response factors * ambient air * atmosphere * emission Subject RIV: DI - Air Pollution ; Quality Impact factor: 2.989, year: 2015

  19. Release of non-methane organic compounds during simulated landfilling of aerobically pretreated municipal solid waste.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Yuanyuan; Yue, Dongbei; Liu, Jianguo; Lu, Peng; Wang, Ying; Liu, Jing; Nie, Yongfeng

    2012-06-30

    Characteristics of non-methane organic compounds (NMOCs) emissions during the anaerobic decomposition of untreated (APD-0) and four aerobically pretreated (APD-20, APD-39, APD-49, and APD-63) samples of municipal solid waste (MSW) were investigated in laboratory. The cumulative mass of the NMOCs of APD-20, APD-39, APD-49, and APD-63 accounted for 15%, 9%, 16%, and 15% of that of APD-0, respectively. The intensities of the NMOC emissions calculated by dividing the cumulative NMOC emissions by the quantities of organic matter removed (Q(VS)) decreased from 4.1 mg/kg Q(VS) for APD-0 to 0.8-3.4 mg/kg Q(VS) for aerobically pretreated MSW. The lipid and starch contents might have significant impact on the intensity of the NMOC emissions. Alkanes dominated the NMOCs released from the aerobically pretreated MSW, while oxygenated compounds were the chief component of the NMOCs generated from untreated MSW. Aerobic pretreatment of MSW prior to landfilling reduces the organic content of the waste and the intensity of the NMOC emissions, and increases the odor threshold, thereby reducing the environmental impact of landfills. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  20. Emission sources of non-methane volatile organic compounds (NMVOCs) and their contribution to photochemical ozone (O3) formation at an urban atmosphere in western India.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yadav, R.; Sahu, L. K.; Tripathi, N.; Pal, D.

    2017-12-01

    Atmospheric non-methane volatile organic compounds (NMVOCs) were measured at a sampling site in Udaipur city of western India during 2015 to recognize their pollution levels, variation characteristics, sources and photochemical reactivity. The samples were analyzed for NMVOCs using a Gas Chromatograph equipped with Flame Ionization Detector (GC/FID) and Thermal Desorption (TD) system. The main focus on understand the sources responsible for NMVOC emissions, and evaluating the role of the identified sources towards ozone formation. Hourly variations of various NMVOC species indicate that VOCs mixing ratios were influenced by photochemical removal with OH radicals for reactive species, secondary formation for oxygenated VOCs. In general, higher mixing ratios were observed during winter/pre-monsoon and lower levels during the monsoon season due to the seasonal change in meteorological, transport path of air parcel and boundary layer conditions. The high levels of propane (C3H8) and butane (C4H10) show the dominance of LPG over the study location. The correlation coefficients of typical NMVOC pairs (ethylene/propylene, propylene/isoprene, and ethane/propane) depicted that vehicular emission and natural gas leakages were important sources for atmospheric hydrocarbons in Udaipur. Based on the annual data, PMF analysis suggest the source factors namely biomass burning/ bio-fuel, automobile exhaust, Industrial/ natural gas/power plant emissions, petrol/Diesel, gasoline evaporation, and use of liquid petroleum gas (LPG) contribute to NMVOCs loading. The propylene-equivalent and ozone formation potential of NMVOCs have also been calculated in order to find out their OH reactivity and contribution to the photochemical ozone formation.

  1. Operation of Marine Diesel Engines on Biogenic Fuels: Modification of Emissions and Resulting Climate Effects

    OpenAIRE

    Petzold, A.; Lauer, P.; Fritsche, U.; Hasselbach, J.; Lichtenstern, M.; Schlager, H.; Fleischer, F.

    2011-01-01

    The modification of emissions of climate-sensitive exhaust compounds such as CO2, NOx, hydrocarbons, and particulate matter from medium-speed marine diesel engines was studied for a set of fossil and biogenic fuels. Applied fossil fuels were the reference heavy fuel oil (HFO) and the low-sulfur marine gas oil (MGO); biogenic fuels were palm oil, soybean oil, sunflower oil, and animal fat. Greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions related to the production of biogenic fuels were treated by means of a fue...

  2. Determination of mineral oil aromatic hydrocarbons in edible oils and fats by online liquid chromatography-gas chromatography-flame ionization detection - Evaluation of automated removal strategies for biogenic olefins.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nestola, Marco; Schmidt, Torsten C

    2017-07-07

    The determination of mineral oil aromatic hydrocarbons (MOAH) in foodstuffs gained in importance over the last years as carcinogenicity cannot be excluded for certain MOAH. The existence of olefins in foodstuffs, such as edible oils and fats, can be problematic for the determination of MOAH by LC-GC-FID. Removal of these interfering substances by HPLC based on polarity differences is not possible. During gas chromatographic separation heavily overloaded peaks are observed rendering the detection of small mineral oil contaminations almost impossible. Therefore, removal of these olefins is necessary before subjection of the sample to LC-GC-FID. Epoxidation of olefins to increase their polarity proved to be a valuable tool in the past. Precision and trueness of the results as shown in a collaborative trial, however, are relying on exact reaction conditions. Additionally, it is known that certain MOAH are oxidized during epoxidation and therefore get lost. In the scope of this work, hydroboration, bromohydrin reaction, and epoxidation were examined for their potential for derivatization of unsaturated hydrocarbons with increased robustness and higher recovery of MOAH. Epoxidation by meta-chloroperoxybenzoic acid (mCPBA) delivered the best removal of olefins. Factors influencing this reaction were enlightened. Adaption of the reaction conditions and time-controlled automation increased the recovery of polycyclic MOAH. Good precision (RSD r oils spiked with a lubricating mineral oil (at 24.5mg/kg of MOAH). The trueness of the method was verified by analyzing collaborative trial samples. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  3. Emission of the main biogenic volatile organic compounds in France

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Luchetta, L.; Simon, V.; Torres, L.

    2000-01-01

    An estimation of biogenic emissions of the main non-methanic Volatile Organic Compounds (VOCs) due to the forest cover in France has been realized. 32 species representing 98% of French forest have been considered for the estimation. The latter dealt on a net made of 93 irregular spatial grids (Departments) with an average size of 75 km x 75 km. We assigned emission rates and foliar biomass densities specific to each of the 32 species. The environmental variables (temperature, light intensity) have been collected for the whole of French Departments. A special effort was extended so as to use ''Guenther's'' calculation algorithms, and specific emitting factors to species growing in France or in bordering countries. Along the way of the five years (1994-1998) of the study we have calculated the yearly mean of isoprene, mono-terpenes and Other Volatile Organic Compounds (OVOCs) emissions on the scale of the French Departments. At the national level isoprene emission is reckoned at 457 kt yr -1 and represents nearly 49% of the total emission, whereas mono-terpenes with 350 kt yr -1 and OVOCs with 129 kt yr -1 represent respectively 37% and 14% of the total. The yearly biogenic emission of VOCs in France represents virtually half the anthropic source. However in some regions (Mediterranean area) natural emissions can widely exceed anthropic emissions during certain periods. Let's note the whole of our results remains tinged with a great uncertainty because the estimations carried out are presented with correction factors that can reach values comprised between 4 and 7. (author)

  4. Biogenic Emission Inventory System (BEIS)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Biogenic Emission Inventory System (BEIS) estimates volatile organic compound (VOC) emissions from vegetation and nitric oxide (NO) emission from soils. Recent BEIS development has been restricted to the SMOKE system

  5. Diversity of H2/CO2-utilizing acetogenic bacteria from feces of non-methane-producing humans.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bernalier, A; Rochet, V; Leclerc, M; Doré, J; Pochart, P

    1996-08-01

    The purpose of this work was to study H2/CO2-utilizing acetogenic population in the colons of non-methane-producing individuals harboring low numbers of methanogenic archaea. Among the 50 H2-consuming acetogenic strains isolated from four fecal samples and an in vitro semi-continuous culture enrichment, with H2/CO2 as sole energy source, 20 were chosen for further studies. All isolates were Gram-positive strict anaerobes. Different morphological types were identified, providing evidence of generic diversity. All acetogenic strains characterized used H2/CO2 to form acetate as the sole metabolite, following the stoichiometric equation of reductive acetogenesis. These bacteria were also able to use a variety of organic compounds for growth. The major end product of glucose fermentation was acetate, except for strains of cocci that mainly produced lactate. Yeast extract was not necessary, but was stimulatory for growth and acetogenesis from H2/CO2.

  6. Hydropower's Biogenic Carbon Footprint.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Scherer, Laura; Pfister, Stephan

    2016-01-01

    Global warming is accelerating and the world urgently needs a shift to clean and renewable energy. Hydropower is currently the largest renewable source of electricity, but its contribution to climate change mitigation is not yet fully understood. Hydroelectric reservoirs are a source of biogenic greenhouse gases and in individual cases can reach the same emission rates as thermal power plants. Little is known about the severity of their emissions at the global scale. Here we show that the carbon footprint of hydropower is far higher than previously assumed, with a global average of 173 kg CO2 and 2.95 kg CH4 emitted per MWh of electricity produced. This results in a combined average carbon footprint of 273 kg CO2e/MWh when using the global warming potential over a time horizon of 100 years (GWP100). Nonetheless, this is still below that of fossil energy sources without the use of carbon capture and sequestration technologies. We identified the dams most promising for capturing methane for use as alternative energy source. The spread among the ~1500 hydropower plants analysed in this study is large and highlights the importance of case-by-case examinations.

  7. Hydropower's Biogenic Carbon Footprint

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pfister, Stephan

    2016-01-01

    Global warming is accelerating and the world urgently needs a shift to clean and renewable energy. Hydropower is currently the largest renewable source of electricity, but its contribution to climate change mitigation is not yet fully understood. Hydroelectric reservoirs are a source of biogenic greenhouse gases and in individual cases can reach the same emission rates as thermal power plants. Little is known about the severity of their emissions at the global scale. Here we show that the carbon footprint of hydropower is far higher than previously assumed, with a global average of 173 kg CO2 and 2.95 kg CH4 emitted per MWh of electricity produced. This results in a combined average carbon footprint of 273 kg CO2e/MWh when using the global warming potential over a time horizon of 100 years (GWP100). Nonetheless, this is still below that of fossil energy sources without the use of carbon capture and sequestration technologies. We identified the dams most promising for capturing methane for use as alternative energy source. The spread among the ~1500 hydropower plants analysed in this study is large and highlights the importance of case-by-case examinations. PMID:27626943

  8. Aromatic hydrocarbons

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Roder, M.

    1985-01-01

    Papers dealing with radiolysis of aromatic hydrocarbons of different composition (from benzene to terphenyls and hydrocarbons with condensed rings) as well as their mixtures (with alkanes, alkenes, other aromatic hydrocarbons) are reviewed. High radiation stability of aromatic hydrocarbons in condensed phases associated with peculiarities of molecular structure of compounds is underlined. Mechanisms of radiolytic processes, vaues of product yields are considered

  9. An intercomparison of biogenic emissions estimates from BEIS2 and BIOME: Reconciling the differences

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wilkinson, J.G. [Alpine Geophysics, Pittsburgh, PA (United States); Emigh, R.A. [Alpine Geophysics, Boulder, CO (United States); Pierce, T.E. [Atmospheric Characterization and Modeling Division/NOAA, Research Triangle Park, NC (United States)

    1996-12-31

    Biogenic emissions play a critical role in urban and regional air quality. For instance, biogenic emissions contribute upwards of 76% of the daily hydrocarbon emissions in the Atlanta, Georgia airshed. The Biogenic Emissions Inventory System-Version 2.0 (BEIS2) and the Biogenic Model for Emissions (BIOME) are two models that compute biogenic emissions estimates. BEIS2 is a FORTRAN-based system, and BIOME is an ARC/INFO{reg_sign} - and SAS{reg_sign}-based system. Although the technical formulations of the models are similar, the models produce different biogenic emissions estimates for what appear to be essentially the same inputs. The goals of our study are the following: (1) Determine why BIOME and BEIS2 produce different emissions estimates; (2) Attempt to understand the impacts that the differences have on the emissions estimates; (3) Reconcile the differences where possible; and (4) Present a framework for the use of BEIS2 and BIOME. In this study, we used the Coastal Oxidant Assessment for Southeast Texas (COAST) biogenics data which were supplied to us courtesy of the Texas Natural Resource Conservation Commission (TNRCC), and we extracted the BEIS2 data for the same domain. We compared the emissions estimates of the two models using their respective data sets BIOME Using TNRCC data and BEIS2 using BEIS2 data.

  10. Biogenic nanomaterials from photosynthetic microorganisms.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jeffryes, Clayton; Agathos, Spiros N; Rorrer, Gregory

    2015-06-01

    The use of algal cell cultures represents a sustainable and environmentally friendly platform for the biogenic production of nanobiomaterials and biocatalysts. For example, advances in the production of biogeneic nanomaterials from algal cell cultures, such as crystalline β-chitin nanofibrils and gold and silver nanoparticles, could enable the 'green' production of biomaterials such as tissue-engineering scaffolds or drug carriers, supercapacitors and optoelectric materials. The in vivo functionalization, as well as newly demonstrated methods of production and modification, of biogenic diatom biosilica have led to the development of organic-inorganic hybrid catalytic systems as well as new biomaterials for drug delivery, biosensors and heavy-metal adsorbents. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  11. Kinetics of biological methane oxidation in the presence of non-methane organic compounds in landfill bio-covers

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Albanna, Muna; Warith, Mostafa; Fernandes, Leta

    2010-01-01

    In this experimental program, the effects of non-methane organic compounds (NMOCs) on the biological methane (CH 4 ) oxidation process were examined. The investigation was performed on compost experiments incubated with CH 4 and selected NMOCs under different environmental conditions. The selected NMOCs had different concentrations and their effects were tested as single compounds and mixtures of compounds. The results from all experimental sets showed a decrease in CH 4 oxidation capacity of the landfill bio-cover with the increase in NMOCs concentrations. For example, in the experiment using compost with 100% moisture content at 35 deg. C without any NMOCs the V max value was 35.0 μg CH 4 h -1 g wetwt -1 . This value was reduced to 19.1 μg CH 4 h -1 g wetwt -1 when mixed NMOCs were present in the batch reactors under the same environmental conditions. The experimental oxidation rates of CH 4 in the presence of single and mixed NMOCs were modeled using the uncompetitive inhibition model and kinetic parameters, including the dissociation constants, were obtained. Additionally, the degradation rates of the NMOCs and co-metabolic abilities of methanotrophic bacteria were estimated.

  12. Hydrogen generation from biogenic and fossil fuels by autothermal reforming

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rampe, Thomas; Heinzel, Angelika; Vogel, Bernhard

    Hydrogen generation for fuel cell systems by reforming technologies from various fuels is one of the main fields of investigation of the Fraunhofer ISE. Suitable fuels are, on the one hand, gaseous hydrocarbons like methane, propane but also, on the other hand, liquid hydrocarbons like gasoline and alcohols, e.g., ethanol as biogenic fuel. The goal is to develop compact systems for generation of hydrogen from fuel being suitable for small-scale membrane fuel cells. The most recent work is related to reforming according to the autothermal principle — fuel, air and steam is supplied to the reactor. Possible applications of such small-scale autothermal reformers are mobile systems and also miniature fuel cell as co-generation plant for decentralised electricity and heat generation. For small stand-alone systems without a connection to the natural gas grid liquid gas, a mixture of propane and butane is an appropriate fuel.

  13. PC-BEIS: a personal computer version of the biogenic emissions inventory system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pierce, T.E.; Waldruff, P.S.

    1991-01-01

    The US Environmental Protection Agency's Biogenic Emissions Inventory System (BEIS) has been adapted for use on IBM-compatible personal computers (PCs). PC-BEIS estimates hourly emissions of isoprene, α-pinene, other monoterpenes, and unidentified hydrocarbons for any county in the contiguous United States. To run the program, users must provide hourly data on ambient temperature, relative humidity, wind speed, cloud cover, and a code that identifies the particular county. This paper provides an overview of the method used to calculate biogenic emissions, shows an example application, and gives information on how to obtain a copy of the program

  14. Operation of marine diesel engines on biogenic fuels: modification of emissions and resulting climate effects.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Petzold, Andreas; Lauer, Peter; Fritsche, Uwe; Hasselbach, Jan; Lichtenstern, Michael; Schlager, Hans; Fleischer, Fritz

    2011-12-15

    The modification of emissions of climate-sensitive exhaust compounds such as CO(2), NO(x), hydrocarbons, and particulate matter from medium-speed marine diesel engines was studied for a set of fossil and biogenic fuels. Applied fossil fuels were the reference heavy fuel oil (HFO) and the low-sulfur marine gas oil (MGO); biogenic fuels were palm oil, soybean oil, sunflower oil, and animal fat. Greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions related to the production of biogenic fuels were treated by means of a fuel life cycle analysis which included land use changes associated with the growth of energy plants. Emissions of CO(2) and NO(x) per kWh were found to be similar for fossil fuels and biogenic fuels. PM mass emission was reduced to 10-15% of HFO emissions for all low-sulfur fuels including MGO as a fossil fuel. Black carbon emissions were reduced significantly to 13-30% of HFO. Changes in emissions were predominantly related to particulate sulfate, while differences between low-sulfur fossil fuels and low-sulfur biogenic fuels were of minor significance. GHG emissions from the biogenic fuel life cycle (FLC) depend crucially on energy plant production conditions and have the potential of shifting the overall GHG budget from positive to negative compared to fossil fuels.

  15. Biogeochemistry of Halogenated Hydrocarbons

    Science.gov (United States)

    Adriaens, P.; Gruden, C.; McCormick, M. L.

    2003-12-01

    Halogenated hydrocarbons originate from both natural and industrial sources. Whereas direct anthropogenic emissions to the atmosphere and biosphere are often easy to assess, particularly when they are tied to major industrial activities, the attribution of emissions to other human activities (e.g., biomass burning), diffuse sources (e.g., atmospheric discharge, run off), and natural production (e.g., soils, fungi, algae, microorganisms) are difficult to quantify. The widespread occurrence of both alkyl and aryl halides in groundwater, surface water, soils, and various trophic food chains, even those not affected by known point sources, suggests a substantial biogeochemical cycling of these compounds (Wania and Mackay, 1996; Adriaens et al., 1999; Gruden et al., 2003). The transport and reactive fate mechanisms controlling their reactivity are compounded by the differences in sources of alkyl-, aryl-, and complex organic halides, and the largely unknown impact of biogenic processes, such as enzymatically mediated halogenation of organic matter, fungal production of halogenated hydrocarbons, and microbial or abiotic transformation reactions (e.g., Asplund and Grimvall, 1991; Gribble, 1996; Watling and Harper, 1998; Oberg, 2002). The largest source may be the natural halogenation processes in the terrestrial environment, as the quantities detected often exceed the amount that can be explained by human activities in the surrounding areas ( Oberg, 1998). Since biogeochemical processes result in the distribution of a wide range of halogenated hydrocarbon profiles, altered chemical structures, and isomer distributions in natural systems, source apportionment (or environmental forensics) can often only be resolved using multivariate statistical methods (e.g., Goovaerts, 1998; Barabas et al., 2003; Murphy and Morrison, 2002).This chapter will describe the widespread occurrence of halogenated hydrocarbons, interpret their distribution and biogeochemical cycling in light of

  16. Distribution and origin of hydrocarbons in water and sediment in Sao Sebastiao, SP, Brazil

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zanardi, Eliete; Bicego, Marcia Caruso; Miranda, Luiz Bruner de; Weber, Rolf Roland

    1999-01-01

    This study describes the dissolved/dispersed petroleum hydrocarbons (DDPH) in surface water and the origin and distribution of aliphatic and aromatic hydrocarbons in samples from the surface bottom sediments. The main objective was to verify the anthropogenic contribution on the adjacent inner shelf of Sao Sebastiao, taking into account the distribution of hydrographic properties and knowledge of the main circulation. The DDPH concentration range of the 20 samples were from 0.35 to 2.50 m u g . L -1 , characterising this region as slightly affected by the contribution of petroleum hydrocarbons. Considering sediment hydrocarbon results, sites located in the inner shelf were divided into three groups: one with mainly biogenic hydrocarbons, a second one with biogenic and petroleum hydrocarbons and a third with significant contribution of petroleum hydrocarbons. These results show an influence of human activities in the Sao Sebastiao Channel on the surrounding areas of the inner shelf. (Author)

  17. Distribution and origin of hydrocarbons in water and sediment in Sao Sebastiao, SP, Brazil

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zanardi, Eliete [Universidade de Sao Paulo, Instituto Oceanografico, Sao Paulo, SP (Brazil); Bicego, Marcia Caruso; Miranda, Luiz Bruner de; Weber, Rolf Roland [Miami Univ., RSMAS/NAC, Miami, FL (United States)

    1999-04-01

    This study describes the dissolved/dispersed petroleum hydrocarbons (DDPH) in surface water and the origin and distribution of aliphatic and aromatic hydrocarbons in samples from the surface bottom sediments. The main objective was to verify the anthropogenic contribution on the adjacent inner shelf of Sao Sebastiao, taking into account the distribution of hydrographic properties and knowledge of the main circulation. The DDPH concentration range of the 20 samples were from 0.35 to 2.50 {sup m}u{sup g}. L{sup -1}, characterising this region as slightly affected by the contribution of petroleum hydrocarbons. Considering sediment hydrocarbon results, sites located in the inner shelf were divided into three groups: one with mainly biogenic hydrocarbons, a second one with biogenic and petroleum hydrocarbons and a third with significant contribution of petroleum hydrocarbons. These results show an influence of human activities in the Sao Sebastiao Channel on the surrounding areas of the inner shelf. (Author)

  18. Speciation of anthropogenic emissions of non-methane volatile organic compounds: a global gridded data set for 1970–2012

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    G. Huang

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available Non-methane volatile organic compounds (NMVOCs include a large number of chemical species which differ significantly in their chemical characteristics and thus in their impacts on ozone and secondary organic aerosol formation. It is important that chemical transport models (CTMs simulate the chemical transformation of the different NMVOC species in the troposphere consistently. In most emission inventories, however, only total NMVOC emissions are reported, which need to be decomposed into classes to fit the requirements of CTMs. For instance, the Emissions Database for Global Atmospheric Research (EDGAR provides spatially resolved global anthropogenic emissions of total NMVOCs. In this study the EDGAR NMVOC inventory was revised and extended in time and in sectors. Moreover the new version of NMVOC emission data in the EDGAR database were disaggregated on a detailed sector resolution to individual species or species groups, thus enhancing the usability of the NMVOC emission data by the modelling community. Region- and source-specific speciation profiles of NMVOC species or species groups are compiled and mapped to EDGAR processes (detailed resolution of sectors, with corresponding quality codes specifying the quality of the mapping. Individual NMVOC species in different profiles are aggregated to 25 species groups, in line with the common classification of the Global Emissions Initiative (GEIA. Global annual grid maps with a resolution of 0.1°  ×  0.1° for the period 1970–2012 are produced by sector and species. Furthermore, trends in NMVOC composition are analysed, taking road transport and residential sources in Germany and the United Kingdom (UK as examples.

  19. Biogenic Amines in Insect Antennae

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marianna I. Zhukovskaya

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available Insect antenna is a multisensory organ, each modality of which can be modulated by biogenic amines. Octopamine (OA and its metabolic precursor tyramine (TA affect activity of antennal olfactory receptor neurons. There is some evidence that dopamine (DA modulates gustatory neurons. Serotonin can serve as a neurotransmitter in some afferent mechanosensory neurons and both as a neurotransmitter and neurohormone in efferent fibers targeted at the antennal vessel and mechanosensory organs. As a neurohormone, serotonin affects the generation of the transepithelial potential by sensillar accessory cells. Other possible targets of biogenic amines in insect antennae are hygro- and thermosensory neurons and epithelial cells. We suggest that the insect antenna is partially autonomous in the sense that biologically active substances entering its hemolymph may exert their effects and be cleared from this compartment without affecting other body parts.

  20. Geological and geochemical characteristics of the secondary biogenic gas in coalbed gases, Huainan coalfield

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Xiaojun, Zhang; Zhenglin, Cao; Mingxin, Tao; Wanchun, Wang; Jinlong, Ma

    2010-09-15

    The research results show that the compositions of coalbed gases in Huainan coalfield have high content methane, low content heavy hydrocarbons and carbon dioxide, and special dry gas. The evolution coal is at the stage of generation of thermogenic gases, but the d13C1 values within the range of biogenic gas (d13C1 values from -56.7{per_thousand} to -67.9{per_thousand}). The d13C2 value of coalbed gases in Huainan coalfield shows not only the features of the thermogenic ethane, but also the mixed features of the biogenic methane and thermogenic ethane. In geological characteristics, Huainan coalfield has favorable conditions of generation of secondary biogenic gas.

  1. Petroleum hydrocarbons

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Farrington, J.W.; Teal, J.M.; Parker, P.L.

    1976-01-01

    Methods for analysis of petroleum hydrocarbons in marine samples are presented. Types of hydrocarbons present and their origins are discussed. Principles and methods of analysis are outlined. Infrared spectrometry, uv spectrometry, gas chromatography, mass spectroscopy, and carbon 14 measurements are described

  2. Impact of biogenic terpene emissions from Brassica napus on tropospheric ozone over Saxony (Germany): numerical investigation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Renner, Eberhard; Münzenberg, Annette

    2003-01-01

    The role of biogenic emissions in tropospheric ozone production is currently under discussion and major aspects are not well understood yet. This study aims towards the estimation of the influence of biogenic emissions on tropospheric ozone concentrations over Saxony in general and of biogenic emissions from brassica napus in special. MODELLING TOOLS: The studies are performed by utilizing a coupled numerical modelling system consisting of the meteorological model METRAS and the chemistry transport model MUSCAT. For the chemical part, the Euro-RADM algorithm is used. EMISSIONS: Anthropogenic and biogenic emissions are taken into account. The anthropogenic emissions are introduced by an emission inventory. Biogenic emissions, VOC and NO, are calculated within the chemical transport model MUSCAT at each time step and in each grid cell depending on land use type and on the temperature. The emissions of hydrocarbons from forest areas as well as biogenic NO especially from agricultural grounds are considered. Also terpene emissions from brassica napus fields are estimated. SIMULATION SETUP AND METEOROLOGICAL CONDITIONS: The simulations were performed over an area with an extension of 160 x 140 km2 which covers the main parts of Saxony and neighboring areas of Brandenburg, Sachsen-Anhalt and Thuringia. Summer smog with high ozone concentrations can be expected during high pressure conditions on hot summer days. Typical meteorological conditions for such cases were introduced in an conceptual way. It is estimated that biogenic emissions change tropospheric ozone concentrations in a noticeable way (up to 15% to 20%) and, therefore, should not be neglected in studies about tropospheric ozone. Emissions from brassica napus do have a moderate potential to enhance tropospheric ozone concentrations, but emissions are still under consideration and, therefore, results vary to a high degree. Summing up, the effect of brassica napus terpene emissions on ozone concentrations is

  3. Framework for Assessing Biogenic CO2 Emissions from Stationary Sources

    Science.gov (United States)

    This revision of the 2011 report, Accounting Framework for Biogenic CO2 Emissions from Stationary Sources, evaluates biogenic CO2 emissions from stationary sources, including a detailed study of the scientific and technical issues associated with assessing biogenic carbon dioxide...

  4. Intolerance to dietary biogenic amines: A review

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Jansen, S.C.; Dusseldorp, M. van; Bottema, K.C.; Dubois, A.E.J.

    2003-01-01

    Objective: To evaluate the scientific evidence for purported intolerance to dietary biogenic amines. Data Sources: MEDLINE was searched for articles in the English language published between January 1966 and August 2001. The keyword biogenic amin* was combined with hypersens*, allerg*, intoler*, and

  5. Intolerance to dietary biogenic amines : a review

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Jansen, SC; van Dusseldorp, M; Bottema, KC; Dubois, AEJ

    Objective: To evaluate the scientific evidence for purported intolerance to dietary biogenic amines. Data Sources: MEDLINE was searched for articles in the English language published between January 1966 and August 2001. The keyword biogenic amin* was combined with hypersens*, allergen intoler*, and

  6. Hydrocarbon pollution from marinas in estuarine sediments

    Science.gov (United States)

    Voudrias, Evangelos A.; Smith, Craig L.

    1986-03-01

    A measure of the impact of marinas on three Eastern Virginia estuarine creeks was obtained by a study of hydrocarbons in their sediments. Two of the creeks support considerable marine activity, including pleasure boat marinas, boat repair facilities, and commercial fishing operations. The third creek, which served as a control, is seldom used by boats, and is surrounded by marsh and woodland. Sediments from the creeks with marinas contained significantly higher levels of both aromatic and aliphatic hydrocarbons than did the control. Differences in the concentrations of certain oil-pollution indicators, such as the 17α,21β-hopane homologs and phytane, and low molecular weight aromatic hydrocarbons, are indicative of light petroleum fractions. Most of the aromatic hydrocarbons from all creeks, however, appear to have a pyrogenic origin. Although hydrocarbons from three probable origins (petroleum, pyrogenesis, and recent biosynthesis) were detected in all locations, the petroleum-derived and pyrogenic hydrocarbons were of only minor importance relative to the biogenic hydrocarbons in the control creek.

  7. Limitations of microbial hydrocarbon degradation at the Amon mud volcano (Nile deep-sea fan

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J. Felden

    2013-05-01

    Full Text Available The Amon mud volcano (MV, located at 1250 m water depth on the Nile deep-sea fan, is known for its active emission of methane and non-methane hydrocarbons into the hydrosphere. Previous investigations showed a low efficiency of hydrocarbon-degrading anaerobic microbial communities inhabiting the Amon MV center in the presence of sulfate and hydrocarbons in the seeping subsurface fluids. By comparing spatial and temporal patterns of in situ biogeochemical fluxes, temperature gradients, pore water composition, and microbial activities over 3 yr, we investigated why the activity of anaerobic hydrocarbon degraders can be low despite high energy supplies. We found that the central dome of the Amon MV, as well as a lateral mud flow at its base, showed signs of recent exposure of hot subsurface muds lacking active hydrocarbon degrading communities. In these highly disturbed areas, anaerobic degradation of methane was less than 2% of the methane flux. Rather high oxygen consumption rates compared to low sulfide production suggest a faster development of more rapidly growing aerobic hydrocarbon degraders in highly disturbed areas. In contrast, the more stabilized muds surrounding the central gas and fluid conduits hosted active anaerobic hydrocarbon-degrading microbial communities. The low microbial activity in the hydrocarbon-vented areas of Amon MV is thus a consequence of kinetic limitations by heat and mud expulsion, whereas most of the outer MV area is limited by hydrocarbon transport.

  8. Modeling of microbial gas generation: application to the eastern Mediterranean “Biogenic Play”

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Schneider, M.; Dubille, M.; Montadert, L.

    2016-07-01

    Biogenic gas is becoming increasingly important as an exploration target in the petroleum industry because it occurs in geologically predictable circumstances and in large quantities at shallow depths as free gas or gas hydrates. As accumulations of biogenic gas result in a subtle synchronization between early generation and early trapping, we integrated a macroscopic model of microbial gas generation within a 3D basin and petroleum system forward simulator. The macroscopic model is based on a microscopic model, which consists in a 1D sedimentary column that accounts for sedimentation, compaction, Darcy flow and Diffusion flow. The organic carbon is the only non-soluble element considered in this version of the model. The dissolved elements are O2, SO4 2-, H2, CH3COOH, and CH4. Methane is dissolved in water or present as a free phase if its concentration exceeds its solubility at given pressure and temperature. In this microscopic model, the transformation of substrate into biomass is described through a set of logistic equations coupled with the transport equations (advection and diffusion). Based on the microscopic considerations we developed the macroscopic model of low maturity/biogenic gas generation in which hydrocarbons are generated through first order kinetic reactions at low maturity. This macroscopic model is adapted to petroleum system modeling at basin scale with TemisFlow®, which aims to understand and predict hydrocarbon generation, migration, and accumulation. It is composed of: i) A source rock criteria which allow defining the biogenic gas source rocks potential and ii) A kinetic model of methane generation. The previous model has been successfully applied on different basins such as the Carupano Basin from the offshore Venezuela, the Magdalena Delta (offshore Colombia) and the offshore Vietnam where direct observations of low-maturity gas were available. Furthermore, it has been applied in the offshore Lebanon in order to check the viability of

  9. Purifying hydrocarbons

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Demoulins, H D; Garner, F H

    1923-02-07

    Hydrocarbon distillates, including natural gases and vapors produced by cracking hydrocarbon oils, are desulfurized etc. by treating the vapor with an aqueous alkaline solution of an oxidizing agent. The hydrocarbons may be previously purified by sulfuric acid. In examples aqueous solutions of sodium or calcium hydrochlorite containing 1.5 to 5.0 grams per liter of available chlorine and sufficient alkali to give an excess of 0.1 percent in the spent reagent are preheated to the temperature of the vapor, and either sprayed or atomized into the vapors near the outlet of the dephlegmator or fractionating tower, or passed in countercurrent to the vapors through one or a series of scrubbers.

  10. Isolation and characterization of biogenic calcium carbonate ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Biogenic calcium carbonate/phosphate were isolated and characterized from oral bacteria (CPOB). The crystalline nature ... XRD analysis revealed the cubic phase of ... subjected to identify upto genus level according to Bergey's. Manual of ...

  11. Purifying hydrocarbons

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dunstan, A E

    1918-06-03

    Ligroin, kerosene, and other distillates from petroleum and shale oil, are purified by treatment with a solution of a hypochlorite containing an excess of alkali. The hydrocarbon may be poured into brine, the mixture stirred, and an electric current passed through. Heat may be applied.

  12. BIOGENIC AMINES CONTENT IN DIFFERENT WINE SAMPLES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Attila Kántor

    2015-02-01

    Full Text Available Twenty-five samples of different Slovak wines before and after filtration were analysed in order to determine the content of eight biogenic amines (tryptamine, phenylalanine, putrescine, cadaverine, histamine, tyramine, spermidine and spermine. The method involves extraction of biogenic amines from wine samples with used dansyl chloride. Ultra-high performance liquid chromatography (UHPLC was used for determination of biogenic amines equipped with a Rapid Resolution High Definition (RRHD, DAD detectors and Extend-C18 LC column (50 mm x 3.0 mm ID, 1.8 μm particle size. In this study the highest level of biogenic amine in all wine samples represent tryptamine (TRM with the highest content 170.9±5.3 mg/L in Pinot Blanc wine. Phenylalanine (PHE cadaverine (CAD, histamine (HIS and spermidine (SPD were not detected in all wines; mainly SPD was not detected in 16 wines, HIS not detected in 14 wines, PHE and CAD not detected in 2 wines. Tyramine (TYR, spermine (SPN and putrescine (PUT were detected in all wines, but PUT and SPN in very low concentration. The worst wine samples with high biogenic amine content were Saint Laurent (BF, Pinot Blanc (S and Pinot Noir (AF.

  13. Cracking hydrocarbons

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Forwood, G F; Lane, M; Taplay, J G

    1921-10-07

    In cracking and hydrogenating hydrocarbon oils by passing their vapors together with steam over heated carbon derived from shale, wood, peat or other vegetable or animal matter, the gases from the condenser are freed from sulfuretted hydrogen, and preferably also from carbon dioxide, and passed together with oil vapors and steam through the retort. Carbon dioxide may be removed by passage through slaked lime, and sulfuretted hydrogen by means of hydrated oxide of iron. Vapors from high-boiling oils and those from low-boiling oils are passed alternately through the retort, so that carbon deposited from the high-boiling oils is used up during treatment of low-boiling oils.

  14. Distilling hydrocarbons

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bataafsche, N V; de Brey, J H.C.

    1918-10-30

    Hydrocarbons containing a very volatile constituent and less volatile constituents, such as casing-head gases, still gases from the distillation of crude petroleum and bituminous shale are separated into their constituents by rectification under pressure; a pressure of 20 atmospheres and limiting temperatures of 150/sup 0/C and 40/sup 0/C are mentioned as suitable. The mixture may be subjected to a preliminary treatment consisting in heating to a temperature below the maximum rectification temperature at a pressure greater than that proposed to be used in the rectification.

  15. Synthesis of hydroxyapatite from biogenic wastes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Teerawat Laonapakul

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available Hydroxyapatite (HAp is a major component of human bone, teeth and hard tissue. It is one of only a few bioactive materials. Since HAp is the most widely used ceramic biomaterial, various techniques have been developed to synthesize HAp. In recent years, the use of natural biogenic structures and materials for medical proposes has been motivated by limitations in producing synthetic materials. This article mainly focuses on the use of biogenic wastes to prepare HAp. These include bio-wastes, marine corals, eggshells, seashells and bio-membranes. In the present review, useful information about HAp preparation methodologies has been summarized for further research and development.

  16. Biogenic amines and radiosensitivity of solitary cells

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Goncharenko, E.N.

    1978-01-01

    Different stability of cells to ionizing radiation is considered from a position of the ''elevated biochemical radioresistance background'' concept. Experimental evidence presented indicates an important role of endogenic amines (serotonin and histamine) possessing radioprotector properties in the cell radioresistance formation. The concept about their effect as being solely a result of circulatory hypoxia is critically discussed. The experimental results favor the existence of a ''cellular'' component, along with the ''hypoxic'' one, in the mechanism of action of biogenic amines. These compounds can affect the initial stages of peroxide oxidation of lipids, thereby favoring a less intensive oxidation induced by radiation. Biogenic amines can also exert influence on the cyclic nucleotide system

  17. Emissions of hydrocarbons from marine phytoplankton—Some results from controlled laboratory experiments

    Science.gov (United States)

    McKay, W. A.; Turner, M. F.; Jones, B. M. R.; Halliwell, C. M.

    Laboratory experiments have been carried out to help assess and quantify the role of marine phytoplankton in the production of non-methane hydrocarbons. Evidence is presented here that supports the hypothesis that some short-chain hydrocarbons are produced during diatom and dinoflagellate lifecycles. The pattern of their emissions to the air above axenic unicultures of diatoms and dinoflagellates has been followed. The results suggest that ethane, ethene, propane and propene are produced during the autolysis of some phytoplankton, possibly by the oxidation of polyunsaturated lipids released into their culture medium. In contrast, isoprene and hexane appear during phytoplankton growth and are thus most likely produced either directly by the plankton or through the oxidation of exuded dissolved organic carbon.

  18. Microbiological, physicochemical properties and biogenic amine ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Thirty three strained yoghurt samples were collected from local open markets in different provinces of Turkey (Afyon [AF], Aydın [AY], Burdur [B], Isparta [I] and Muğla [M]). Physicochemical and microbiological properties, as well as biogenic amine content, were examined in each of the samples. The dry matter (17.90 to ...

  19. Hydrocarbon oils

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Foorwood, G F; Taplay, J G

    1916-12-12

    Hydrocarbon oils are hydrogenated, cracked, or treated for the removal of sulfur by bringing their vapors mixed with steam at temperatures between 450 and 600/sup 0/C into contact with a form of carbon that is capable of decomposing steam with the production of nascent hydrogen at those temperatures. The forms of carbon used include lamp-black, soot, charcoals derived from wood, cellulose, and lignite, and carbons obtained by carbonizing oil residues and other organic bodies at temperatures below 600/sup 0/C. The process is applied to the treatment of coal oil, shale oil, petroleum, and lignite oil. In examples, kerosene is cracked at 570/sup 0/C, cracked spirit is hydrogenated at 500/sup 0/C, and shale spirit is desulfurized at 530/sup 0/C. The products are led to a condenser and thence to a scrubber, where they are washed with creosote oil. After desulfurization, the products are washed with dilute caustic soda to remove sulfurretted hydrogen.

  20. Hydrocarbon exploration

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lerche, I. (South Carolina Univ., Columbia, SC (United States). Dept. of Geological Sciences)

    1993-01-01

    This special issue of the journal examines various aspects of the on-going search for hydrocarbons, ranging from frontier basins where little data are available, to more mature areas where considerable data are available. The incentives underlying the search for oil are roughly: the social, economic and industrial needs of a nation; the incentive of a corporation to be profitable; and the personal incentives of individuals in the oil industry and governments, which range from financial wealth to power and which are as diverse as the individuals who are involved. From a geopolitical perspective, the needs, requirements, goals, strategies, and philosophies of nations, and groups of nations, also impact on the oil exploration game. Strategies that have been employed have ranged from boycott to austerity and rationing, to physical intervention, to global ''flooding'' with oil by over-production. (author)

  1. Intolerance to dietary biogenic amines: a review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jansen, Sophia C; van Dusseldorp, Marijke; Bottema, Kathelijne C; Dubois, Anthony E J

    2003-09-01

    To evaluate the scientific evidence for purported intolerance to dietary biogenic amines. MEDLINE was searched for articles in the English language published between January 1966 and August 2001. The keyword biogenic amin* was combined with hypersens*, allerg*, intoler*, and adverse. Additionally, the keywords histamine, tyramine, and phenylethylamine were combined with headache, migraine, urticaria, oral challenge, and oral provocation. Articles were also selected from references in relevant literature. Only oral challenge studies in susceptible patients were considered. Studies with positive results (ie, studies in which an effect was reported) were only eligible when a randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled design was used. Eligible positive result studies were further evaluated according to a number of scientific criteria. Studies with negative results (ie, studies in which no effect was reported) were examined for factors in their design or methods that could be responsible for a false-negative outcome. Results of methodologically weak or flawed studies were considered inconclusive. A total of 13 oral challenge studies (5 with positive results and 8 with negative results) were found. Three of them (all with positive results) were considered ineligible. By further evaluation of the 10 eligible studies, 6 were considered inconclusive. The 4 conclusive studies all reported negative results. One conclusive study showed no relation between biogenic amines in red wine and wine intolerance. Two conclusive studies found no effect of tyramine on migraine. One conclusive study demonstrated no relation between the amount of phenylethylamine in chocolate and headache attacks in individuals with headache. The current scientific literature shows no relation between the oral ingestion of biogenic amines and food intolerance reactions. There is therefore no scientific basis for dietary recommendations concerning biogenic amines in such patients.

  2. The biogenic volatile organic compounds emission inventory in France: application to plant ecosystems in the Berre-Marseilles area (France).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Simon, Valérie; Dumergues, Laurent; Ponche, Jean-Luc; Torres, Liberto

    2006-12-15

    An inventory describing the fluxes of volatile organic compounds (VOCs), isoprene and monoterpenes, and other VOCs (OVOCs) from the biosphere to the atmosphere, has been constructed within the framework of the ESCOMPTE project (fiEld experimentS to COnstrain Models of atmospheric Pollution and Transport of Emissions). The area concerned, located around Berre-Marseilles, is a Mediterranean region frequently subject to high ozone concentrations. The inventory has been developed using a fine scale land use database for the year 1999, forest composition statistics, emission potentials from individual plant species, biomass distribution, temperature and light intensity. The seasonal variations in emission potentials and biomass were also taken into account. Hourly meteorological data for 1999 were calculated from ALADIN data and these were used to predict the hourly isoprene, monoterpene and OVOC fluxes for the area on a 1 kmx1 km spatial grid. Estimates of annual biogenic isoprene, monoterpene and OVOC fluxes for the reference year 1999 were 20.6, 38.9 and 13.3 kt, respectively, Quercus pubescens, Quercus ilex, Pinus halepensis and garrigue vegetation are the dominant emitting species of the area. VOC emissions from vegetation in this region contribute approximately 94% to the NMVOC (non-methane volatile organic compounds) of natural origin and are of the same order of magnitude as NMVOC emissions from anthropogenic sources. These results complete the global ESCOMPTE database needed to make an efficient strategy for tropospheric ozone reduction policy.

  3. Aliphatic hydrocarbon and polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbon geochemistry of twelve major rivers in the Northwest Territories

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Backus, S.; Swyripa, M.; Peddle, J.; Jeffries, D.S.

    1995-01-01

    Suspended sediment and water samples collected from twelve major rivers in the Northwest Territories were analyzed for aliphatic hydrocarbons and polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) to assess the sources and transport of hydrocarbons entering the Arctic Ocean. Three stations on the Mackenzie River and one station near the mouth of eleven other northern rivers were selected for sampling. Samples were collected on the Mackenzie River on four occasions to characterize spring, summer and fall flow conditions and once on the remaining eleven rivers during high flow conditions. The Mackenzie River is distinctively different then the other eleven rivers. Naturally occurring hydrocarbons predominate in the river. These hydrocarbons include biogenic alkanes, diagenic PAHs, petrogenic alkanes, and PAHs from oil seeps and/or bitumens. Anthropogenic inputs of PAHs are low as indicated by low concentrations of combustion PAHs. Alkyl PAH distributions indicate that a significant component of the lower molecular weight PAH fraction is petrogenic. The majority of the high molecular weight PAHs, together with the petrogenic PAHs have a principal source in the Mackenzie River

  4. Biogenic gas in the Cambrian-Ordovcian Alum Shale (Denmark and Sweden)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Schulz, H.M.; Wirth, R.; Biermann, S.; Arning, E.T. [Helmholtz-Zentrum Potsdam - Deutsches GeoForschungsZentrum GFZ, Potsdam (Germany); Krueger, M.; Straaten, N. [BGR Hannover (Germany); Bechtel, A. [Montanuniv. Leoben (Austria); Berk, W. van [Technical Univ. of Clausthal (Germany); Schovsbo, N.H. [Geological Survey of Denmark and Greenland - GEUS, Copenhagen (Denmark); Crabtree, Stephen [Gripen Gas (Sweden)

    2013-08-01

    Shale gas is mainly produced from thermally mature black shales. However, biogenic methane also represents a resource which is often underestimated. Today biogenic methane is being produced from the Upper Devonian Antrim Shale in the Michigan Basin which was the most successfully exploited shale gas system during the 1990-2000 decade in the U.S.A. before significant gas production from the Barnett Shale started (Curtis et al., 2008). The Cambro-Ordovician Alum Shale in northern Europe has thermal maturities ranging from overmature in southern areas (Denmark and southern Sweden) to immature conditions (central Sweden). Biogenic methane is recorded during drilling in central Sweden. The immature Alum Shale in central Sweden has total organic carbon (TOC) contents up to 20 wt%. The hydrogen index HI ranges from 380 to 560 mgHC/gTOC at very low oxygen index (OI) values of around 4 mg CO{sub 2}/gTOC, Tmax ranges between 420 - 430 C. The organic matter is highly porous. In general, the Alum Shale is a dense shale with intercalated sandy beds which may be dense due to carbonate cementation. Secondary porosity is created in some sandy beds due to feldspar dissolution and these beds serve as gas conduits. Methane production rates with shale as substrate in the laboratory are dependent on the kind of hydrocarbon-degrading microbial enrichment cultures used in the incubation experiments, ranging from 10-620 nmol/(g*d). In these experiments, the CO{sub 2} production rate was always higher than for methane. Like the northern part of North America, also Northern European has been covered by glaciers during the Pleistocene and similar geological processes may have developed leading to biogenic shale gas formation. For the Antrim Shale one hypothesis suggests that fresh waters, recharged from Pleistocene glaciation and modern precipitation, suppressed basinal brine salinity along the northern margins of the Michigan Basin to greater depths and thereby enhancing methanogenesis

  5. Non-methane organic gas emissions from biomass burning: identification, quantification, and emission factors from PTR-ToF during the FIREX 2016 laboratory experiment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Koss, Abigail R.; Sekimoto, Kanako; Gilman, Jessica B.; Selimovic, Vanessa; Coggon, Matthew M.; Zarzana, Kyle J.; Yuan, Bin; Lerner, Brian M.; Brown, Steven S.; Jimenez, Jose L.; Krechmer, Jordan; Roberts, James M.; Warneke, Carsten; Yokelson, Robert J.; de Gouw, Joost

    2018-03-01

    Volatile and intermediate-volatility non-methane organic gases (NMOGs) released from biomass burning were measured during laboratory-simulated wildfires by proton-transfer-reaction time-of-flight mass spectrometry (PTR-ToF). We identified NMOG contributors to more than 150 PTR ion masses using gas chromatography (GC) pre-separation with electron ionization, H3O+ chemical ionization, and NO+ chemical ionization, an extensive literature review, and time series correlation, providing higher certainty for ion identifications than has been previously available. Our interpretation of the PTR-ToF mass spectrum accounts for nearly 90 % of NMOG mass detected by PTR-ToF across all fuel types. The relative contributions of different NMOGs to individual exact ion masses are mostly similar across many fires and fuel types. The PTR-ToF measurements are compared to corresponding measurements from open-path Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (OP-FTIR), broadband cavity-enhanced spectroscopy (ACES), and iodide ion chemical ionization mass spectrometry (I- CIMS) where possible. The majority of comparisons have slopes near 1 and values of the linear correlation coefficient, R2, of > 0.8, including compounds that are not frequently reported by PTR-MS such as ammonia, hydrogen cyanide (HCN), nitrous acid (HONO), and propene. The exceptions include methylglyoxal and compounds that are known to be difficult to measure with one or more of the deployed instruments. The fire-integrated emission ratios to CO and emission factors of NMOGs from 18 fuel types are provided. Finally, we provide an overview of the chemical characteristics of detected species. Non-aromatic oxygenated compounds are the most abundant. Furans and aromatics, while less abundant, comprise a large portion of the OH reactivity. The OH reactivity, its major contributors, and the volatility distribution of emissions can change considerably over the course of a fire.

  6. Non-methane organic gas emissions from biomass burning: identification, quantification, and emission factors from PTR-ToF during the FIREX 2016 laboratory experiment

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. R. Koss

    2018-03-01

    Full Text Available Volatile and intermediate-volatility non-methane organic gases (NMOGs released from biomass burning were measured during laboratory-simulated wildfires by proton-transfer-reaction time-of-flight mass spectrometry (PTR-ToF. We identified NMOG contributors to more than 150 PTR ion masses using gas chromatography (GC pre-separation with electron ionization, H3O+ chemical ionization, and NO+ chemical ionization, an extensive literature review, and time series correlation, providing higher certainty for ion identifications than has been previously available. Our interpretation of the PTR-ToF mass spectrum accounts for nearly 90 % of NMOG mass detected by PTR-ToF across all fuel types. The relative contributions of different NMOGs to individual exact ion masses are mostly similar across many fires and fuel types. The PTR-ToF measurements are compared to corresponding measurements from open-path Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (OP-FTIR, broadband cavity-enhanced spectroscopy (ACES, and iodide ion chemical ionization mass spectrometry (I− CIMS where possible. The majority of comparisons have slopes near 1 and values of the linear correlation coefficient, R2, of  >  0.8, including compounds that are not frequently reported by PTR-MS such as ammonia, hydrogen cyanide (HCN, nitrous acid (HONO, and propene. The exceptions include methylglyoxal and compounds that are known to be difficult to measure with one or more of the deployed instruments. The fire-integrated emission ratios to CO and emission factors of NMOGs from 18 fuel types are provided. Finally, we provide an overview of the chemical characteristics of detected species. Non-aromatic oxygenated compounds are the most abundant. Furans and aromatics, while less abundant, comprise a large portion of the OH reactivity. The OH reactivity, its major contributors, and the volatility distribution of emissions can change considerably over the course of a fire.

  7. C2-C10 hydrocarbon emissions from a boreal wetland and forest floor

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    H. Hellén

    2006-01-01

    Full Text Available Emissions of various C2-C10 hydrocarbons (VOCs and halogenated hydrocarbons (VHOCs from a boreal wetland and a Scots pine forest floor in south-western Finland were measured by the static chamber technique. Isoprene was the main non-methane hydrocarbon emitted by the wetland, but small emissions of ethene, propane, propene, 1-butene, 2-methylpropene, butane, pentane and hexane were also detected. The isoprene emission from the wetland was observed to follow the commonly-used isoprene emission algorithm. The mean emission potential of isoprene was 224 µg m-2 h-1 for the whole season. This is lower than the emission potentials published earlier; that is probably at least partly due to the cold and cloudy weather during the measurements. No emissions were detected of monoterpenes or halogenated hydrocarbons from the wetland. The highest hydrocarbon emissions from the Scots pine forest floor were measured in spring and autumn. However, only a few measurements were conducted during summer. The main compounds emitted were monoterpenes. Isoprene emissions were negligible. The total monoterpene emission rates varied from zero to 373 µg m-2 h-1. The results indicated that decaying plant litter may be the source for these emissions. Small emissions of chloroform (100-800 ng m-2 h-1, ethene, propane, propene, 2-methylpropene, cis-2-butene, pentane, hexane and heptane were detected. Comparison with Scots pine emissions showed that the forest floor may be an important monoterpene source, especially in spring.

  8. Formation temperatures of thermogenic and biogenic methane

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stolper, D.A.; Lawson, M.; Davis, C.L.; Ferreira, A.A.; Santos Neto, E. V.; Ellis, G.S.; Lewan, M.D.; Martini, Anna M.; Tang, Y.; Schoell, M.; Sessions, A.L.; Eiler, J.M.

    2014-01-01

    Methane is an important greenhouse gas and energy resource generated dominantly by methanogens at low temperatures and through the breakdown of organic molecules at high temperatures. However, methane-formation temperatures in nature are often poorly constrained. We measured formation temperatures of thermogenic and biogenic methane using a “clumped isotope” technique. Thermogenic gases yield formation temperatures between 157° and 221°C, within the nominal gas window, and biogenic gases yield formation temperatures consistent with their comparatively lower-temperature formational environments (<50°C). In systems where gases have migrated and other proxies for gas-generation temperature yield ambiguous results, methane clumped-isotope temperatures distinguish among and allow for independent tests of possible gas-formation models.

  9. Structural investigation of biogenic ferrihydrite nanoparticles dispersion

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Balasoiu, M.; Ishchenko, L.A.; Stolyar, S.V.; Iskhakov, R.S.; Rajkher, Yu.L.; Kuklin, A.I.; Solov'ev, D.V.; Arzumanyan, G.M.; Kurkin, T.S.; Aranghel, D.

    2010-01-01

    Structural properties of biogenic ferrihydrite nanoparticles produced by bacteria Klebsiella oxytoca are investigated. Investigations of morphology and size of particles dispersed in water by means of high-resolution transmission electron microscopy and small angle X-ray scattering measurements were performed. By model calculations followed by fitting procedure the structural parameters of a cylinder of radius R = (4.87 ± 0.02) nm and height L = (2.12 ± 0.04) nm are obtained

  10. Framework for Assessing Biogenic CO2 Emissions from ...

    Science.gov (United States)

    This revision of the 2011 report, Accounting Framework for Biogenic CO2 Emissions from Stationary Sources, evaluates biogenic CO2 emissions from stationary sources, including a detailed study of the scientific and technical issues associated with assessing biogenic carbon dioxide emissions from stationary sources. EPA developed the revised report, Framework for Assessing Biogenic CO2 Emissions from Stationary Sources, to present a methodological framework for assessing the extent to which the production, processing, and use of biogenic material at stationary sources for energy production results in a net atmospheric contribution of biogenic CO2 emissions. Biogenic carbon dioxide emissions are defined as CO2 emissions related to the natural carbon cycle, as well as those resulting from the production, harvest, combustion, digestion, decomposition, and processing of biologically-based materials. The EPA is continuing to refine its technical assessment of biogenic CO2 emissions through another round of targeted peer review of the revised study with the EPA Science Advisory Board (SAB). This study was submitted to the SAB's Biogenic Carbon Emissions Panel in February 2015. http://yosemite.epa.gov/sab/sabproduct.nsf/0/3235dac747c16fe985257da90053f252!OpenDocument&TableRow=2.2#2 The revised report will inform efforts by policymakers, academics, and other stakeholders to evaluate the technical aspects related to assessments of biogenic feedstocks used for energy at s

  11. Cytotoxicity and genotoxicity of biogenic silver nanoparticles

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lima, R; Feitosa, L O; Ballottin, D; Tasic, L; Durán, N; Marcato, P D

    2013-01-01

    Biogenic silver nanoparticles with 40.3 ± 3.5 nm size and negative surface charge (− 40 mV) were prepared with Fusarium oxysporum. The cytotoxicity of 3T3 cell and human lymphocyte were studied by a TaliTM image-based cytometer and the genotoxicity through Allium cepa and comet assay. The results of BioAg-w (washed) and BioAg-nw (unwashed) biogenic silver nanoparticles showed cytotoxicity exceeding 50 μg/mL with no significant differences of response in 5 and 10 μg/mL regarding viability. Results of genotoxicity at concentrations 5.0 and 10.0 ug/mL show some response, but at concentrations 0.5 and 1.0 μg/mL the washed and unwashed silver nanoparticles did not present any effect. This in an important result since in tests with different bacteria species and strains, including resistant, MIC (minimal inhibitory concentration) had good answers at concentrations less than 1.9 μg/mL. This work concludes that biogenic silver nanoparticles may be a promising option for antimicrobial use in the range where no cyto or genotoxic effect were observed. Furthermore, human cells were found to have a greater resistance to the toxic effects of silver nanoparticles in comparison with other cells.

  12. Sub-Antarctic marine aerosol: dominant contributions from biogenic sources

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J. Schmale

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available Biogenic influences on the composition and characteristics of aerosol were investigated on Bird Island (54°00' S, 38°03' W in the South Atlantic during November and December 2010. This remote marine environment is characterised by large seabird and seal colonies. The chemical composition of the submicron particles, measured by an aerosol mass spectrometer (AMS, was 21% non-sea-salt sulfate, 2% nitrate, 8% ammonium, 22% organics and 47% sea salt including sea salt sulfate. A new method to isolate the sea spray signature from the high-resolution AMS data was applied. Generally, the aerosol was found to be less acidic than in other marine environments due to the high availability of ammonia, from local fauna emissions. By positive matrix factorisation five different organic aerosol (OA profiles could be isolated: an amino acid/amine factor (AA-OA, 18% of OA mass, a methanesulfonic acid OA factor (MSA-OA, 25%, a marine oxygenated OA factor (M-OOA, 41%, a sea spray OA fraction (SS-OA, 7% and locally produced hydrocarbon-like OA (HOA, 9%. The AA-OA was dominant during the first two weeks of November and found to be related with the hatching of penguins in a nearby colony. This factor, rich in nitrogen (N : C ratio = 0.13, has implications for the biogeochemical cycling of nitrogen in the area as particulate matter is often transported over longer distances than gaseous N-rich compounds. The MSA-OA was mainly transported from more southerly latitudes where phytoplankton bloomed. The bloom was identified as one of three sources for particulate sulfate on Bird Island, next to sea salt sulfate and sulfate transported from South America. M-OOA was the dominant organic factor and found to be similar to marine OA observed at Mace Head, Ireland. An additional OA factor highly correlated with sea spray aerosol was identified (SS-OA. However, based on the available data the type of mixture, internal or external, could not be determined. Potassium was not

  13. Converting high boiling hydrocarbons

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Terrisse, H; DuFour, L

    1929-02-12

    A process is given for converting high boiling hydrocarbons into low boiling hydrocarbons, characterized in that the high boiling hydrocarbons are heated to 200 to 500/sup 0/C in the presence of ferrous chloride and of such gases as hydrogen, water gas, and the like gases under a pressure of from 5 to 40 kilograms per square centimeter. The desulfurization of the hydrocarbons occurs simultaneously.

  14. Biogenic VOC Emissions from Tropical Landscapes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guenther, A.; Greenberg, J.; Harley, P.; Otter, L.; Vanni Gatti, L.; Baker, B.

    2003-04-01

    Biogenic VOC have an important role in determining the chemical composition of atmosphere. As a result, these compounds are important for visibility, biogeochemical cycling, climate and radiative forcing, and the health of the biosphere. Tropical landscapes are estimated to release about 80% of total global biogenic VOC emissions but have been investigated to lesser extent than temperate regions. Tropical VOC emissions are particularly important due to the strong vertical transport and the rapid landuse change that is occurring there. This presentation will provide an overview of field measurements of biogenic VOC emissions from tropical landscapes in Amazonia (Large-scale Biosphere-atmosphere experiment in Amazonia, LBA) Central (EXPRESSO) and Southern (SAFARI 2000) Africa, Asia and Central America. Flux measurement methods include leaf-scale (enclosure measurements), canopy-scale (above canopy tower measurements), landscape-scale (tethered balloon), and regional-scale (aircraft measurements) observations. Typical midday isoprene emission rates for different landscapes vary by more than a factor of 20 with the lowest emissions observed from degraded forests. Emissions of alpha-pinene vary by a similar amount with the highest emissions associated with landscapes dominated by light dependent monoterpene emitting plants. Isoprene emissions tend to be higher for neotropical forests (Amazon and Costa Rica) in comparison to Africa and Asian tropical forests but considerable differences are observed within regions. Strong seasonal variations were observed in both the Congo and the Amazon rainforests with peak emissions during the dry seasons. Substantial emissions of light dependent monoterpenes, methanol and acetone are characteristic of at least some tropical landscapes.

  15. Secondary biogeneous radiation of human organism

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kuzin, A.M.; Surkenova, G.N.

    1999-01-01

    When studying samples of three types of tissues of alive healthy human organism (hands, surface of breast, hair) it is shown that hair permanently emit secondary biogeneous radiation (SBR) which may registered with biological detectors. The hypothesis is suggested that natural background radiation permanently exciting biopolymers (proteins, nuclei acids) being present in alive organism in condensed state induces permanently present electromagnetic field of SBR which is vitally important for human organism. The field partly extends beyond the organism, where it is registered with sensitive biological detectors [ru

  16. Organic compounds in aerosols from selected European sites - Biogenic versus anthropogenic sources

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alves, Célia; Vicente, Ana; Pio, Casimiro; Kiss, Gyula; Hoffer, Andras; Decesari, Stefano; Prevôt, André S. H.; Minguillón, María Cruz; Querol, Xavier; Hillamo, Risto; Spindler, Gerald; Swietlicki, Erik

    2012-11-01

    Atmospheric aerosol samples from a boreal forest (Hyytiälä, April 2007), a rural site in Hungary (K-puszta, summer 2008), a polluted rural area in Italy (San Pietro Capofiume, Po Valley, April 2008), a moderately polluted rural site in Germany located on a meadow (Melpitz, May 2008), a natural park in Spain (Montseny, March 2009) and two urban background locations (Zurich, December 2008, and Barcelona, February/March 2009) were collected. Aliphatics, polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons, carbonyls, sterols, n-alkanols, acids, phenolic compounds and anhydrosugars in aerosols were chemically characterised by gas chromatography-mass spectrometry, along with source attribution based on the carbon preference index (CPI), the ratios between the unresolved and the chromatographically resolved aliphatics, the contribution of wax n-alkanes, n-alkanols and n-alkanoic acids from plants, diagnostic ratios of individual target compounds and source-specific markers to organic carbon ratios. In spite of transboundary pollution episodes, Hyytiälä registered the lowest levels among all locations. CPI values close to 1 for the aliphatic fraction of the Montseny aerosol suggest that the anthropogenic input may be associated with the transport of aged air masses from the surrounding industrial/urban areas, which superimpose the locally originated hydrocarbons with biogenic origin. Aliphatic and aromatic hydrocarbons in samples from San Pietro Capofiume reveal that fossil fuel combustion is a major source influencing the diel pattern of concentrations. This source contributed to 25-45% of the ambient organic carbon (OC) at the Po Valley site. Aerosols from the German meadow presented variable contributions from both biogenic and anthropogenic sources. The highest levels of vegetation wax components and biogenic secondary organic aerosol (SOA) products were observed at K-puszta, while anthropogenic SOA compounds predominated in Barcelona. The primary vehicular emissions in the Spanish

  17. Aliphatic and polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons in Gulf of Trieste sediments (northern Adriatic): potential impacts of maritime traffic.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bajt, Oliver

    2014-09-01

    The Gulf of Trieste (northern Adriatic) is one of the most urbanized and industrialized areas in the northern Adriatic, with intense maritime traffic experienced at multiple ports. The impact of maritime traffic on contamination by hydrocarbons in this area was assessed. Concentrations of hydrocarbons were higher near the expected contamination sources and still elevated in the adjacent offshore areas. Aliphatic hydrocarbons were mainly of petrogenic origin, with some contribution of biogenic origin. A continuous contamination by aliphatic hydrocarbons and degradation processes were hypothesized. Concentrations of total polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAH) were generally greater near the contamination sources. Compared to the prevailing pyrolytic origin, the petrogenic PAH origin seemed to be less important, but not negligible. Results revealed that intensive maritime traffic is a probable source of contamination by hydrocarbons in the investigated area, which is largely limited to areas near the contamination sources.

  18. Methyl chavicol: characterization of its biogenic emission rate

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bouvier-Brown, N.C.; Goldstein, A.H.; Worton, D.R.; Matross, D.M.; Gilman, J.B.; Kuster, W.C.; Welsh-Bon, D.; Warneke, C.; de Gouw, J.A.; Cahill, M.J.; Holzinger, R.

    2009-01-01

    We report measurements of ambient atmospheric mixing ratios for methyl chavicol and determine its biogenic emission rate. Methyl chavicol, a biogenic oxygenated aromatic compound, is abundant within and above Blodgett Forest, a ponderosa pine forest in the Sierra Nevada Mountains of California.

  19. Ice nuclei in marine air: biogenic particles or dust?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S. M. Burrows

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Ice nuclei impact clouds, but their sources and distribution in the atmosphere are still not well known. Particularly little attention has been paid to IN sources in marine environments, although evidence from field studies suggests that IN populations in remote marine regions may be dominated by primary biogenic particles associated with sea spray. In this exploratory model study, we aim to bring attention to this long-neglected topic and identify promising target regions for future field campaigns. We assess the likely global distribution of marine biogenic ice nuclei using a combination of historical observations, satellite data and model output. By comparing simulated marine biogenic immersion IN distributions and dust immersion IN distributions, we predict strong regional differences in the importance of marine biogenic IN relative to dust IN. Our analysis suggests that marine biogenic IN are most likely to play a dominant role in determining IN concentrations in near-surface-air over the Southern Ocean, so future field campaigns aimed at investigating marine biogenic IN should target that region. Climate-related changes in the abundance and emission of biogenic marine IN could affect marine cloud properties, thereby introducing previously unconsidered feedbacks that influence the hydrological cycle and the Earth's energy balance. Furthermore, marine biogenic IN may be an important aspect to consider in proposals for marine cloud brightening by artificial sea spray production.

  20. Guar Gum Stimulates Biogenic Sulfide Production at Elevated Pressures: Implications for Shale Gas Extraction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nixon, Sophie L; Walker, Leanne; Streets, Matthew D T; Eden, Bob; Boothman, Christopher; Taylor, Kevin G; Lloyd, Jonathan R

    2017-01-01

    Biogenic sulfide production is a common problem in the oil industry, and can lead to costly hydrocarbon processing and corrosion of extraction infrastructure. The same phenomenon has recently been identified in shale gas extraction by hydraulic fracturing, and organic additives in fracturing fluid have been hypothesized to stimulate this process. Constraining the relative effects of the numerous organic additives on microbial metabolism in situ is, however, extremely challenging. Using a bespoke bioreactor system we sought to assess the potential for guar gum, the most commonly used gelling agent in fracturing fluids, to stimulate biogenic sulfide production by sulfate-reducing microorganisms at elevated pressure. Two pressurized bioreactors were fed with either sulfate-amended freshwater medium, or low-sulfate natural surface water, in addition to guar gum (0.05 w/v%) and an inoculum of sulfate-reducing bacteria for a period of 77 days. Sulfide production was observed in both bioreactors, even when the sulfate concentration was low. Analysis of 16S rRNA gene sequences indicate that heterotrophic bacteria closely associated with the genera Brevundimonas and Acinetobacter became enriched early in the bioreactor experiments, followed by an increase in relative abundance of 16S rRNA genes associated with sulfate-reducing bacteria ( Desulfosporosinus and Desulfobacteraceae) at later time points. Results demonstrate that guar gum can stimulate acid- and sulfide-producing microorganisms at elevated pressure, and may have implications for the potential role in microbially induced corrosion during hydraulic fracturing operations. Key differences between experimental and in situ conditions are discussed, as well as additional sources of carbon and energy for biogenic sulfide production during shale gas extraction. Our laboratory approach can be tailored to better simulate deep subsurface conditions in order to probe the role of other fracturing fluid additives and downhole

  1. Guar Gum Stimulates Biogenic Sulfide Production at Elevated Pressures: Implications for Shale Gas Extraction

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nixon, Sophie L.; Walker, Leanne; Streets, Matthew D. T.; Eden, Bob; Boothman, Christopher; Taylor, Kevin G.; Lloyd, Jonathan R.

    2017-01-01

    Biogenic sulfide production is a common problem in the oil industry, and can lead to costly hydrocarbon processing and corrosion of extraction infrastructure. The same phenomenon has recently been identified in shale gas extraction by hydraulic fracturing, and organic additives in fracturing fluid have been hypothesized to stimulate this process. Constraining the relative effects of the numerous organic additives on microbial metabolism in situ is, however, extremely challenging. Using a bespoke bioreactor system we sought to assess the potential for guar gum, the most commonly used gelling agent in fracturing fluids, to stimulate biogenic sulfide production by sulfate-reducing microorganisms at elevated pressure. Two pressurized bioreactors were fed with either sulfate-amended freshwater medium, or low-sulfate natural surface water, in addition to guar gum (0.05 w/v%) and an inoculum of sulfate-reducing bacteria for a period of 77 days. Sulfide production was observed in both bioreactors, even when the sulfate concentration was low. Analysis of 16S rRNA gene sequences indicate that heterotrophic bacteria closely associated with the genera Brevundimonas and Acinetobacter became enriched early in the bioreactor experiments, followed by an increase in relative abundance of 16S rRNA genes associated with sulfate-reducing bacteria (Desulfosporosinus and Desulfobacteraceae) at later time points. Results demonstrate that guar gum can stimulate acid- and sulfide-producing microorganisms at elevated pressure, and may have implications for the potential role in microbially induced corrosion during hydraulic fracturing operations. Key differences between experimental and in situ conditions are discussed, as well as additional sources of carbon and energy for biogenic sulfide production during shale gas extraction. Our laboratory approach can be tailored to better simulate deep subsurface conditions in order to probe the role of other fracturing fluid additives and downhole

  2. Improved provincial emission inventory and speciation profiles of anthropogenic non-methane volatile organic compounds: a case study for Jiangsu, China

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Y. Zhao

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available Non-methane volatile organic compounds (NMVOCs are the key precursors of ozone (O3 and secondary organic aerosol (SOA formation. Accurate estimation of their emissions plays a crucial role in air quality simulation and policy making. We developed a high-resolution anthropogenic NMVOC emission inventory for Jiangsu in eastern China from 2005 to 2014, based on detailed information of individual local sources and field measurements of source profiles of the chemical industry. A total of 56 NMVOCs samples were collected in nine chemical plants and were then analyzed with a gas chromatography – mass spectrometry system (GC-MS. Source profiles of stack emissions from synthetic rubber, acetate fiber, polyether, vinyl acetate and ethylene production, and those of fugitive emissions from ethylene, butanol and octanol, propylene epoxide, polyethylene and glycol production were obtained. Various manufacturing technologies and raw materials led to discrepancies in source profiles between our domestic field tests and foreign results for synthetic rubber and ethylene production. The provincial NMVOC emissions were calculated to increase from 1774 Gg in 2005 to 2507 Gg in 2014, and relatively large emission densities were found in cities along the Yangtze River with developed economies and industries. The estimates were larger than those from most other available inventories, due mainly to the complete inclusion of emission sources and to the elevated activity levels from plant-by-plant investigation in this work. Industrial processes and solvent use were the largest contributing sectors, and their emissions were estimated to increase, respectively, from 461 to 958 and from 38 to 966 Gg. Alkanes, aromatics and oxygenated VOCs (OVOCs were the most important species, accounting for 25.9–29.9, 20.8–23.2 and 18.2–21.0 % to annual total emissions, respectively. Quantified with a Monte Carlo simulation, the uncertainties of annual NMVOC emissions

  3. Improved provincial emission inventory and speciation profiles of anthropogenic non-methane volatile organic compounds: a case study for Jiangsu, China

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhao, Yu; Mao, Pan; Zhou, Yaduan; Yang, Yang; Zhang, Jie; Wang, Shekou; Dong, Yanping; Xie, Fangjian; Yu, Yiyong; Li, Wenqing

    2017-06-01

    Non-methane volatile organic compounds (NMVOCs) are the key precursors of ozone (O3) and secondary organic aerosol (SOA) formation. Accurate estimation of their emissions plays a crucial role in air quality simulation and policy making. We developed a high-resolution anthropogenic NMVOC emission inventory for Jiangsu in eastern China from 2005 to 2014, based on detailed information of individual local sources and field measurements of source profiles of the chemical industry. A total of 56 NMVOCs samples were collected in nine chemical plants and were then analyzed with a gas chromatography - mass spectrometry system (GC-MS). Source profiles of stack emissions from synthetic rubber, acetate fiber, polyether, vinyl acetate and ethylene production, and those of fugitive emissions from ethylene, butanol and octanol, propylene epoxide, polyethylene and glycol production were obtained. Various manufacturing technologies and raw materials led to discrepancies in source profiles between our domestic field tests and foreign results for synthetic rubber and ethylene production. The provincial NMVOC emissions were calculated to increase from 1774 Gg in 2005 to 2507 Gg in 2014, and relatively large emission densities were found in cities along the Yangtze River with developed economies and industries. The estimates were larger than those from most other available inventories, due mainly to the complete inclusion of emission sources and to the elevated activity levels from plant-by-plant investigation in this work. Industrial processes and solvent use were the largest contributing sectors, and their emissions were estimated to increase, respectively, from 461 to 958 and from 38 to 966 Gg. Alkanes, aromatics and oxygenated VOCs (OVOCs) were the most important species, accounting for 25.9-29.9, 20.8-23.2 and 18.2-21.0 % to annual total emissions, respectively. Quantified with a Monte Carlo simulation, the uncertainties of annual NMVOC emissions vary slightly through the years

  4. Characterization of hydrocarbon utilizing fungi from hydrocarbon ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Prof. Ogunji

    isolated fungi could be useful in the bioremediation of hydrocarbon polluted sites. Keywords: ... Technologies such as mechanical force, burying, evaporation, dispersant application, and ..... The effects of drilling fluids on marine bacteria from a.

  5. Light hydrocarbons vertical profiles and fluxes in a french rural area

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kanakidou, M.; Bonsang, B.; Lambert, G.

    By means of manned hot air balloon flights, in July 1986, an experiment was conducted in a rural area of southwest France in order to determine the production at ground level of non-methane hydrocarbons in the C 2-C 6 range. Flux determinations were based on vertical profiles before and after the development of a temperature inversion layer which allowed the measurement of the NMHC accumulation close to ground level. The main species produced in the late afternoon were acetylene, propane, ethene, propene and ethane with production rates of the order of 0.5 to 2 × 10 -4g of C m -2 h -1. Isoprene was found to be the main other unsaturated species also produced. The fluxes and the atmospheric content of the air column before the inversion are consistent with an average OH radical concentration of 2 × 10 6 cm -3.

  6. Composition and Sources of Particulate Matter Measured near Houston, TX: Anthropogenic-Biogenic Interactions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jeffrey K. Bean

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available Particulate matter was measured in Conroe, Texas (~60 km north of downtown Houston, Texas during the September 2013 DISCOVER-AQ campaign to determine the sources of particulate matter in the region. The measurement site is influenced by high biogenic emission rates as well as transport of anthropogenic pollutants from the Houston metropolitan area and is therefore an ideal location to study anthropogenic-biogenic interactions. Data from an Aerosol Chemical Speciation Monitor (ACSM suggest that on average 64 percent of non-refractory PM1 was organic material, including a high fraction (27%–41% of organic nitrates. There was little diurnal variation in the concentrations of ammonium sulfate; however, concentrations of organic and organic nitrate aerosol were consistently higher at night than during the day. Potential explanations for the higher organic aerosol loadings at night include changing boundary layer height, increased partitioning to the particle phase at lower temperatures, and differences between daytime and nighttime chemical processes such as nitrate radical chemistry. Positive matrix factorization was applied to the organic aerosol mass spectra measured by the ACSM and three factors were resolved—two factors representing oxygenated organic aerosol and one factor representing hydrocarbon-like organic aerosol. The factors suggest that the measured aerosol was well mixed and highly processed, consistent with the distance from the site to major aerosol sources, as well as the high photochemical activity.

  7. Interaction of biogenic amines with ethanol.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smith, A A

    1975-01-01

    Ethanol through its primary catabolite, acetaldehyde, competitively inhibits oxidation of aldehyde dehydrogenase substrates. As a consequence biogenic amines form increased quantities of alcohols rather than the corresponding acids. During this biotransformation, condensation reactions between deaminated and intact amines may occur which can yield tetrahydropapaverolines. These compounds are closely related to precursors of opioids which is cause to link ethanol abuse to morphine addiction. There is, however, no pharmacological or clinical evidence suggesting similarities between ethanol dependence or opiod addiction. Acetaldehyde plays an additional role in alkaloidal formation in vitro. Biogenic amines may react with acetaldehyde to form isoquinoline or carboline compounds. Some of these substances have significant pharmacological activity. Furthermore, they may enter neural stores and displace the natural neurotransmitter. Thus, they can act as false neurotransmitters. Some investigators believe that chronic ethanol ingestion leads to significant formation of such aberrant compounds which may then upset autonomic nervous system balance. This disturbance may explain the abnormal sympathetic activity seen in withdrawal. While these ideas about the etiology of alcohol abuse have a definite appeal, they are naturally based on in vitro preliminary work. Much study of the quantitative pharmacology of these compounds in animals is required before judgement can be made as to the merits of the proposed hypotheses. In the meantime, pharmacological studies on the ability of ethanol to depress respiration in the mouse has revealed that unlike opioids or barbituates, respiratory depression induced by ethanol requires the presence in brain of serotonin. This neurotransmitter also mediates the respiratory effects of several other alcohols but curiously, not chloral hydrate, yet this compound is purported to alter biogenic amine metabolism much like ethanol. Thus, the response

  8. Total balance of biogenic fuels for thermal uses; Ganzheitliche Bilanzierung verschiedener biogener Festbrennstoffe zur thermischen Nutzung

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Becher, S.; Kaltschmitt, M. [Stuttgart Univ. (Germany). Inst. fuer Energiewirtschaft und Rationelle Energieanwendung (IER)

    1996-12-31

    In this situation of unfavourable energy price levels, the use of biogenic fuels for power supply can be recommended only if it serves to reduce environmental pollution. Against this background and on the basis of a primary energy balance, the authors attempted a total balance of selected enfironmental effects (global heating and acidification potential) of biomass use as compared to fossil fuel combustion. (orig) [Deutsch] ie Nutzung biogener Festbrennstoffe zur Energienachfragedeckung ist bei dem gegenwaertigen unguenstigen Energiepreisniveau nur dann zu rechtfertigen, wenn es durch die Biomassenutzung zu einer Reduzierung der energiebedingten Umwelteffekte kommt. Vor disem Hintergrund werden ausgehend von der Primaerenergiebilanz ausgewaehlte Umwelteffekte (d.h. das Treibhaus- und das Versauerungspotential) einer Biomassenutzung im Vergleich zu einer Nutzung fossiler Energietraeger ganzheitlich bilanziert. Die wesentlichen Ergebnisse werden zusammengefasst und interpretiert. (orig)

  9. Total balance of biogenic fuels for thermal uses; Ganzheitliche Bilanzierung verschiedener biogener Festbrennstoffe zur thermischen Nutzung

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Becher, S; Kaltschmitt, M [Stuttgart Univ. (Germany). Inst. fuer Energiewirtschaft und Rationelle Energieanwendung (IER)

    1997-12-31

    In this situation of unfavourable energy price levels, the use of biogenic fuels for power supply can be recommended only if it serves to reduce environmental pollution. Against this background and on the basis of a primary energy balance, the authors attempted a total balance of selected enfironmental effects (global heating and acidification potential) of biomass use as compared to fossil fuel combustion. (orig) [Deutsch] ie Nutzung biogener Festbrennstoffe zur Energienachfragedeckung ist bei dem gegenwaertigen unguenstigen Energiepreisniveau nur dann zu rechtfertigen, wenn es durch die Biomassenutzung zu einer Reduzierung der energiebedingten Umwelteffekte kommt. Vor disem Hintergrund werden ausgehend von der Primaerenergiebilanz ausgewaehlte Umwelteffekte (d.h. das Treibhaus- und das Versauerungspotential) einer Biomassenutzung im Vergleich zu einer Nutzung fossiler Energietraeger ganzheitlich bilanziert. Die wesentlichen Ergebnisse werden zusammengefasst und interpretiert. (orig)

  10. Development of oil hydrocarbon fingerprinting and identification techniques

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wang Zhendi; Fingas, Merv F.

    2003-01-01

    Oil, refined product, and pyrogenic hydrocarbons are the most frequently discovered contaminants in the environment. To effectively determine the fate of spilled oil in the environment and to successfully identify source(s) of spilled oil and petroleum products is, therefore, extremely important in many oil-related environmental studies and liability cases. This article briefly reviews the recent development of chemical analysis methodologies which are most frequently used in oil spill characterization and identification studies and environmental forensic investigations. The fingerprinting and data interpretation techniques discussed include oil spill identification protocol, tiered analytical approach, generic features and chemical composition of oils, effects of weathering on hydrocarbon fingerprinting, recognition of distribution patterns of petroleum hydrocarbons, oil type screening and differentiation, analysis of 'source-specific marker' compounds, determination of diagnostic ratios of specific oil constituents, stable isotopic analysis, application of various statistical and numerical analysis tools, and application of other analytical techniques. The issue of how biogenic and pyrogenic hydrocarbons are distinguished from petrogenic hydrocarbons is also addressed

  11. High atmosphere–ocean exchange of semivolatile aromatic hydrocarbons

    KAUST Repository

    González-Gaya, Belén

    2016-05-16

    Polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons, and other semivolatile aromatic-like compounds, are an important and ubiquitous fraction of organic matter in the environment. The occurrence of semivolatile aromatic hydrocarbons is due to anthropogenic sources such as incomplete combustion of fossil fuels or oil spills, and other biogenic sources. However, their global transport, fate and relevance for the carbon cycle have been poorly assessed, especially in terms of fluxes. Here we report a global assessment of the occurrence and atmosphere-ocean fluxes of 64 polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons analysed in paired atmospheric and seawater samples from the tropical and subtropical Atlantic, Pacific and Indian oceans. The global atmospheric input of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons to the global ocean is estimated at 0.09 Tg per month, four times greater than the input from the Deepwater Horizon spill. Moreover, the environmental concentrations of total semivolatile aromatic-like compounds were 10 2 -10 3 times higher than those of the targeted polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons, with a relevant contribution of an aromatic unresolved complex mixture. These concentrations drive a large global deposition of carbon, estimated at 400 Tg C yr -1, around 15% of the oceanic CO2 uptake. © 2016 Macmillan Publishers Limited.

  12. Climate/chemistry feedbacks and biogenic emissions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pyle, John A; Warwick, Nicola; Yang, Xin; Young, Paul J; Zeng, Guang

    2007-07-15

    The oxidizing capacity of the atmosphere is affected by anthropogenic emissions and is projected to change in the future. Model calculations indicate that the change in surface ozone at some locations could be large and have significant implications for human health. The calculations depend on the precise scenarios used for the anthropogenic emissions and on the details of the feedback processes included in the model. One important factor is how natural biogenic emissions will change in the future. We carry out a sensitivity calculation to address the possible increase in isoprene emissions consequent on increased surface temperature in a future climate. The changes in ozone are significant but depend crucially on the background chemical regime. In these calculations, we find that increased isoprene will increase ozone in the Northern Hemisphere but decrease ozone in the tropics. We also consider the role of bromine compounds in tropospheric chemistry and consider cases where, in a future climate, the impact of bromine could change.

  13. Development and Application of a Fast Chromatography Technique for Analysis of Biogenic Volatile Organic Compounds in Plant Emissions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jones, C. E.; Kato, S.; Nakashima, Y.; Yamazakii, S.; Kajii, Y. J.

    2011-12-01

    Biogenic volatile organic compounds (BVOCs) emitted from vegetation constitute the largest fraction (>90 %) of total global non-methane VOC supplied to the atmosphere, yet the chemical complexity of these emissions means that achieving comprehensive measurements of BVOCs, and in particular the less volatile terpenes, is not straightforward. As such, there is still significant uncertainty associated with the contribution of BVOCs to the tropospheric oxidation budget, and to atmospheric secondary organic aerosol (SOA) formation. The rate of BVOC emission from vegetation is regulated by environmental conditions such as light intensity and temperature, and thus can be highly variable, necessitating high time-resolution BVOC measurements. In addition, the numerous monoterpene and sesquiterpene isomers, which are indistinguishable by some analytical techniques, have greatly varying lifetimes with respect to atmospheric oxidants, and as such quantification of each individual isomer is fundamental to achieving a comprehensive characterisation of the impact of BVOCs upon the atmospheric oxidation capacity. However, established measurement techniques for these trace gases typically offer a trade-off between sample frequency and the level of speciation; detailed information regarding chemical composition may be obtained, but with reduced time resolution, or vice versa. We have developed a Fast-GC-FID technique for quantification of a range of monoterpene, sesquiterpene and oxygenated C10 BVOC isomers, which retains the separation capability of conventional gas chromatography, yet offers considerably improved sample frequency. Development of this system is ongoing, but currently a 20 m x 0.18 mm i.d resistively heated metal column is employed to achieve chromatographic separation of thirteen C10-C15 BVOCs, within a total cycle time of ~15 minutes. We present the instrument specifications and analytical capability, together with the first application of this Fast-GC technique

  14. Hydrocarbons and air pollution

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Herz, O.

    1992-01-01

    This paper shows the influence of hydrocarbons vapors, emitted by transports or by volatile solvents using, on air pollution. Hydrocarbons are the principal precursors of photochemical pollution. After a brief introduction on atmospheric chemistry and photochemical reactions, the author describes the french prevention program against hydrocarbons emissions. In the last chapter, informations on international or european community programs for photochemical pollution study are given. 5 figs., 10 tabs

  15. Production of hydrocarbons

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Day, D T; Day, R E

    1920-04-27

    A process is disclosed of converting hydro-carbon oils having high boiling points to hydro-carbon oils having low boiling points, which process comprises adding the oil to be treated to a mass of hydro-carbon oil bearing shale, passing the shale with the oil through a conveyor retort and subjecting the material while in the retort to a heat treatment involving a temperature of at least 500/sup 0/F.

  16. Biogenic amines degradation by microorganisms isolated from cheese

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Irena Butor

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this study was the isolation and characterization of microorganisms able to degrade biogenic amines and their identification. Individual microorganisms were obtained by isolation from commercially available foodstuffs and food produced in the technological laboratories of Faculty of Technology, Tomas Bata University in Zlín and subsequently identified by MALDI-TOF MS. The results of MALDI-TOF MS identification were verified by 16S rRNA sequenation. In this work was studied the ability of 5 bacterial strains positive to biogenic amines degradation isolated from dairy products to decrease biogenic amines content in vitro and quantified reduction in the concentration of biogenic amines tryptamine, β-phenylethylamine, putrescine, cadaverine, histamine and tyramine. The level of degradation (decrease of biogenic amines was determined on the base of the ability to grow in media with biogenic amines as the sole source carbon and nitrogen. The isolated strains with the ability of degradation of one or more biogenic amines were cultured in medium supplemented with relevant biogenic amines, the media derivatized with dansyl chloride and these amines separated by HPLC at a wavelength of 254 nm. From five tested strains identified as Bacillus subtilis, Bacillus pumilus, Enterobacter cloacae, Rhizobium radiobacter and Acinetobacter pitii, isolated from gouda type cheese, the greatest ability of degradation was observed in Bacillus subtilis, which was capable to degrade almost all amount of histamine, cadaverine and putrescine. Other four strains showed a lower rate of degradation than Bacillus subtilis, but the ability to degrade biogenic amines with these microorganisms was still significant.

  17. Model study of the impact of biogenic emission on regional ozone and the effectiveness of emission reduction scenarios over eastern China

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Han, Zhiwei; Matsuda, Kazuhide; Ueda, Hiromasa

    2005-01-01

    The impact of biogenic emission on regional ozone and emission control scenarios has been numerically studied through a series of sensitivity model simulations. A typical episode with elevated ozone over eastern China from 12 to 16 August 2001 was investigated by using a tropospheric chemistry and transport model (TCTM), driven by a non-hydrostatic mesoscale model MM5. The meteorological conditions during this period were characterized by high-pressure systems associated with low wind speeds, high temperatures and clear skies. Afternoon ozone concentrations exceeding 80 parts per billion (ppb) occurred over broad areas of eastern China. There is a generally good agreement between simulation and observation, indicating that the TCTM is able to represent major physical and chemical processes of tropospheric ozone and well reproduce the diurnal and day-to-day variability associated with synoptic conditions. The sensitivity analysis reveals a significant influence of biogenic hydrocarbons on regional ozone. Ozone levels are apparently enhanced by biogenic emission over large areas of eastern China. The largest increase up to 30 ppb in daytime average concentration is found in portions of the middle reaches of the Yangtze River, Yangtze Delta and northeast China. However, the response of ozone to biogenic emission varies spatially, showing more sensitivity in polluted areas than that in clean rural areas. The regimes limited by nitrogen oxides (NO x ) and volatile organic carbon (VOC) in eastern China are further investigated with respect to biogenic emission. Ozone shows a clear tendency to shift from VOC limitation to NO x limitation as it moves from urban and industrial areas to rural areas. Most of the rural areas in southern China tend to be NO x limited, whereas most of the northern parts of China appear to be VOC limited. By considering biogenic emission, ozone tends to become more NO x limited and less VOC limited, both in extent and intensity, over eastern

  18. BIOGENIC AMINES CONTENT IN SELECTED WINES DURING WINEMAKING

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Radka Flasarová

    2012-02-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this study was to describe the development of selected biogenic amines (histamine; tyramine; phenylethylamine; putrescine; agmatine; and cadaverine during the winemaking in 10 selected species grown in Central Europe in 2008. The analysis was performed using ion-exchange chromatography by the sodium-citrate buffers with the post-column ninhydrin derivatization and photometric detection. A comparison of the content of biogenic amines in red and wine varieties showed that red wines have higher concentrations of biogenic amines.

  19. Formation of diamonds out of hydrocarbon gas in the earth's mantle

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Krason, J.; Szymanski, A.; Savkevitch, S.S.

    1991-01-01

    This paper discusses the concept of formation of polycrystalline diamonds being discussed dint he context of a very rapid, dynamic decomposition of the hydrocarbon gas, initially biogenic or thermogenic condensed in gas hydrates, naturally locked and highly compressed in the hosting rocks. Gas hydrates are of solid, ice-like composition, mostly of hydrocarbon. Gas hydrates, composed of polyhedral cages, may have two types of structural forms: the body-centered structure or Structure I (small molecules) and diamond lattice or Structure II (large molecules). The crystal structure of the gas hydrate depends on the geometry of gas molecules. The thermodynamic conditions required for stabilization and preservation of the gas hydrates can be changed. Thus, in this concept, the principal source for at least some diamond deposits can originally be highly condensed hydrocarbons. In this case, if all the above indicated thermodynamic conditions and processes are met, naturally precondensed hydrocarbons can be directly converted into polycrystalline, extremely coherent diamonds

  20. Plasma devices for hydrocarbon reformation

    KAUST Repository

    Cha, Min

    2017-01-01

    Plasma devices for hydrocarbon reformation are provided. Methods of using the devices for hydrocarbon reformation are also provided. The devices can include a liquid container to receive a hydrocarbon source, and a plasma torch configured

  1. Analysis of petroleum hydrocarbons in soil from view of bioremediation process

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mracnova, R.; Sojak, L.; Kubinec, R.; Kraus, A.; Eszenyiova, A.; Ostrovsky, I.

    2002-01-01

    The pollution of the environment by petroleum hydrocarbons is the most often pollution of them all. Nevertheless, hydrocarbons present in environment can be not only of petroleum or anthropogenic origin, but of biogenic as well. Typically the hydrocarbons are presented in the environment as very complex mixtures of individual compounds with very different chemical structure, wide range of the boiling points (∼800 0 C) as well as with the wide range of the number of carbon atoms. Immediately they are spread in any environmental matrix the complex physical, chemical and biochemical reactions start. A lot of methods have been developed and new are permanently in progress for the monitoring and control of petroleum hydrocarbons contamination and/or soils bioremediation. Generally, all methods by whose the hydrocarbons contaminants are determined in GC-FID system do not satisfied recommendations for enough accurate and precise results. Hyphenation of capillary gas chromatography and mass selective detector operated in the selective ion monitoring mode essentially allows detailed specification of non-polar extractable hydrocarbons. Isoprenoid alkanes, alkylhomologues of aromatic hydrocarbons and polycyclic alkanes hopanes-like were investigated as markers for recognition of petroleum and biogenic contamination. C 30 17α(H)21β(H)-hopane (C 30 -hopane) seems to be a suitable marker to identify hydrocarbons origin, to determine composting rates for nonpolar extractable compounds and to calculate real content of non-polar extractable compounds in final composting status on the assumption that the contamination is of mineral oil type. This is the survey into the results obtained in this field published in the literature as well as reached in our laboratory. (author)

  2. Biogenic sulfur compounds and the global sulfur cycle

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Aneja, V.P.; Aneja, A.P.; Adams, D.F.

    1982-01-01

    Field measurements of biogenic sulfur compounds shows a great variation in concentrations and emission rates for H 2 S, DMS, CS 2 and COS. Measurements by the chamber method and estimates from micrometeorological sampling are employed to determine the earth-atmosphere flux of these gases. Much of the variation can be attributed to differences of climate and surface conditions, with marshes being a large source of biogenic sulfur (mean contribution 4 x 10 to the 6th ton/year maximum contribution 142 x 10 to the 6th ton/year). Considering that the estimated biogenic contribution needed to balance the global sulfur cycle ranges from 40- 230 x 10 to the 6th tons/year, the mean values are not sufficient to balance this cycle. Further experimental investigations are suggested in order to characterize the biogenic processes adequately

  3. Quantifying the Global Marine Biogenic Nitrogen Oxides Emissions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Su, H.; Wang, S.; Lin, J.; Hao, N.; Poeschl, U.; Cheng, Y.

    2017-12-01

    Nitrogen oxides (NOx) are among the most important molecules in atmospheric chemistry and nitrogen cycle. The NOx over the ocean areas are traditionally believed to originate from the continental outflows or the inter-continental shipping emissions. By comparing the satellite observations (OMI) and global chemical transport model simulation (GEOS-Chem), we suggest that the underestimated modeled atmospheric NO2 columns over biogenic active ocean areas can be possibly attributed to the biogenic source. Nitrification and denitrification in the ocean water produces nitrites which can be further reduced to NO through microbiological processes. We further report global distributions of marine biogenic NO emissions. The new added emissions improve the agreement between satellite observations and model simulations over large areas. Our model simulations manifest that the marine biogenic NO emissions increase the atmospheric oxidative capacity and aerosol formation rate, providing a closer link between atmospheric chemistry and ocean microbiology.

  4. Plasma devices for hydrocarbon reformation

    KAUST Repository

    Cha, Min Suk

    2017-02-16

    Plasma devices for hydrocarbon reformation are provided. Methods of using the devices for hydrocarbon reformation are also provided. The devices can include a liquid container to receive a hydrocarbon source, and a plasma torch configured to be submerged in the liquid. The plasma plume from the plasma torch can cause reformation of the hydrocarbon. The device can use a variety of plasma torches that can be arranged in a variety of positions in the liquid container. The devices can be used for the reformation of gaseous hydrocarbons and/or liquid hydrocarbons. The reformation can produce methane, lower hydrocarbons, higher hydrocarbons, hydrogen gas, water, carbon dioxide, carbon monoxide, or a combination thereof.

  5. Methane and Benzene in Drinking-Water Wells Overlying the Eagle Ford, Fayetteville, and Haynesville Shale Hydrocarbon Production Areas.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McMahon, Peter B; Barlow, Jeannie R B; Engle, Mark A; Belitz, Kenneth; Ging, Patricia B; Hunt, Andrew G; Jurgens, Bryant C; Kharaka, Yousif K; Tollett, Roland W; Kresse, Timothy M

    2017-06-20

    Water wells (n = 116) overlying the Eagle Ford, Fayetteville, and Haynesville Shale hydrocarbon production areas were sampled for chemical, isotopic, and groundwater-age tracers to investigate the occurrence and sources of selected hydrocarbons in groundwater. Methane isotopes and hydrocarbon gas compositions indicate most of the methane in the wells was biogenic and produced by the CO 2 reduction pathway, not from thermogenic shale gas. Two samples contained methane from the fermentation pathway that could be associated with hydrocarbon degradation based on their co-occurrence with hydrocarbons such as ethylbenzene and butane. Benzene was detected at low concentrations (2500 years, indicating the benzene was from subsurface sources such as natural hydrocarbon migration or leaking hydrocarbon wells. One sample contained benzene that could be from a surface release associated with hydrocarbon production activities based on its age (10 ± 2.4 years) and proximity to hydrocarbon wells. Groundwater travel times inferred from the age-data indicate decades or longer may be needed to fully assess the effects of potential subsurface and surface releases of hydrocarbons on the wells.

  6. Production of biogenic amines in "Salamini italiani alla cacciatora PDO".

    Science.gov (United States)

    Coı X0308 Sson, Jean Daniel; Cerutti, Caterina; Travaglia, Fabiano; Arlorio, Marco

    2004-06-01

    Various fermented and seasoned foods such as cheese, sauerkraut, wine, beer and meat products may contain biogenic amines. The aim of this paper was to describe the presence of some biogenic amines (histamine, tyramine, tryptamine, 2-phenylethylamine) in "Salamini italiani alla cacciatora PDO", a typical fermented-ripened dry sausage widely consumed in Italy. Total level of biogenic amines in commercial samples ranged from 71 to 586 mg kg(-1). The amine recovered in higher concentrations was tyramine (372 mg kg(-1)) followed by histamine (165 mg kg(-1)). The second aim of this work was the quality control of the production in order to determine the parameters influencing the presence of biogenic amines in ripened salami. Sausages sampled for analysis during production, manipulation and ripening showed the presence of tyramine (64.4 mg kg(-1)) only after 15 days of fermentation. All investigated biogenic amines were detected in "Salamini" after 21 days of fermentation. We suggest the control of biogenic as important tool to establish the better condition of preservation of "Salamini italiani alla cacciatore PDO" during their shelf-life.

  7. Biogenic volatile emissions from the soil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peñuelas, J; Asensio, D; Tholl, D; Wenke, K; Rosenkranz, M; Piechulla, B; Schnitzler, J P

    2014-08-01

    Volatile compounds are usually associated with an appearance/presence in the atmosphere. Recent advances, however, indicated that the soil is a huge reservoir and source of biogenic volatile organic compounds (bVOCs), which are formed from decomposing litter and dead organic material or are synthesized by underground living organism or organs and tissues of plants. This review summarizes the scarce available data on the exchange of VOCs between soil and atmosphere and the features of the soil and particle structure allowing diffusion of volatiles in the soil, which is the prerequisite for biological VOC-based interactions. In fact, soil may function either as a sink or as a source of bVOCs. Soil VOC emissions to the atmosphere are often 1-2 (0-3) orders of magnitude lower than those from aboveground vegetation. Microorganisms and the plant root system are the major sources for bVOCs. The current methodology to detect belowground volatiles is described as well as the metabolic capabilities resulting in the wealth of microbial and root VOC emissions. Furthermore, VOC profiles are discussed as non-destructive fingerprints for the detection of organisms. In the last chapter, belowground volatile-based bi- and multi-trophic interactions between microorganisms, plants and invertebrates in the soil are discussed. © 2014 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  8. Biogenic antimicrobial silver nanoparticles produced by fungi.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rodrigues, Alexandre G; Ping, Liu Yu; Marcato, Priscyla D; Alves, Oswaldo L; Silva, Maria C P; Ruiz, Rita C; Melo, Itamar S; Tasic, Ljubica; De Souza, Ana O

    2013-01-01

    Aspergillus tubingensis and Bionectria ochroleuca showed excellent extracellular ability to synthesize silver nanoparticles (Ag NP), spherical in shape and 35 ± 10 nm in size. Ag NP were characterized by transmission electron microscopy, X-ray diffraction analysis, and photon correlation spectroscopy for particle size and zeta potential. Proteins present in the fungal filtrate and in Ag NP dispersion were analyzed by electrophoresis (sodium dodecyl sulfate polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis). Ag NP showed pronounced antifungal activity against Candida sp, frequently occurring in hospital infections, with minimal inhibitory concentration in the range of 0.11-1.75 μg/mL. Regarding antibacterial activity, nanoparticles produced by A. tubingensis were more effective compared to the other fungus, inhibiting 98.0 % of Pseudomonas. aeruginosa growth at 0.28 μg/mL. A. tubingensis synthesized Ag NP with surprisingly high and positive surface potential, differing greatly from all known fungi. These data open the possibility of obtaining biogenic Ag NP with positive surface potential and new applications.

  9. Nitrate radicals and biogenic volatile organic compounds ...

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oxidation of biogenic volatile organic compounds (BVOC) by the nitrate radical (NO3) represents one of the important interactions between anthropogenic emissions related to combustion and natural emissions from the biosphere. This interaction has been recognized for more than 3 decades, during which time a large body of research has emerged from laboratory, field, and modeling studies. NO3-BVOC reactions influence air quality, climate and visibility through regional and global budgets for reactive nitrogen (particularly organic nitrates), ozone, and organic aerosol. Despite its long history of research and the significance of this topic in atmospheric chemistry, a number of important uncertainties remain. These include an incomplete understanding of the rates, mechanisms, and organic aerosol yields for NO3-BVOC reactions, lack of constraints on the role of heterogeneous oxidative processes associated with the NO3 radical, the difficulty of characterizing the spatial distributions of BVOC and NO3 within the poorly mixed nocturnal atmosphere, and the challenge of constructing appropriate boundary layer schemes and non-photochemical mechanisms for use in state-of-the-art chemical transport and chemistry–climate models. This review is the result of a workshop of the same title held at the Georgia Institute of Technology in June 2015. The first half of the review summarizes the current literature on NO3-BVOC chemistry, with a particular focus on recent advances in

  10. A combined plant and reaction chamber setup to investigate the effect of pollution and UV-B radiation on biogenic emissions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Timkovsky, J.; Gankema, P.; Pierik, R.; Holzinger, R.

    2012-12-01

    Biogenic emissions account for almost 90% of total non-methane organic carbon emissions in the atmosphere. The goal of this project is to study the effect of pollution (ozone, NOx) and UV radiation on the emission of real plants. We have designed and built a setup where we combine plant chambers with a reaction chamber (75L volume) allowing the addition of pollutants at different locations. The main analytical tool is a PTR-TOF-MS instrument that can be optionally coupled with a GC system for improved compound identification. The setup is operational since March 2012 and first measurements indicate interesting results, three types of experiments will be presented: 1. Ozonolysis of b-pinene. In this experiment the reaction chamber was flushed with air containing b-pinene at approximate levels of 50 nmol/mol. After ~40 min b-pinene levels reached equilibrium in the reaction chamber and a constant supply of ozone was provided. Within 30 minutes this resulted in a 10 nmol/mol decrease of b-pinene levels in accordance with a reaction rate constant of 1.5*10-17 cm3molec-1s-1 and a residence time of 10 minutes in the reaction chamber. In addition we observed known oxidation products such as formaldehyde, acetone, and nopinone the molar yields of which were also in accordance with reported values. 2. Ozonolysis of biogenic emissions from tomato plants. The air containing the emissions from tomato plants was supplied to the reaction chamber. After adding ozone we observed the decrease of monoterpene concentrations inside the reaction chamber. The observed decrease is consistent for online PTR-MS and GC/PTR-MS measurements. Several ozonolysis products have been observed in the chamber. 3. The effect of UV-B radiation on biogenic emissions of tomato plants. Tomato plants were exposed to UV-B radiation and their emissions measured during and after the treatment. We observed significant changes in the emissions of volatile organic compounds, with specific compounds increasing

  11. Thraustochytrid protists degrade hydrocarbons

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    Raikar, M.T.; Raghukumar, S.; Vani, V.; David, J.J.; Chandramohan, D.

    isolation tubes with crude oil. Three isolates tested showed positive hydrophobicity of cell walls as judged by the Microbial Adhesion to Hydrocarbons (MATH) assay. Addition of Bombay High crude oil to nutrient broth slightly enhanced growth of the protists...

  12. Biogenic amines in Italian Pecorino cheese

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maria eSchirone

    2012-05-01

    Full Text Available The quality of distinctive artisanal cheeses is closely associated with the territory of production and its traditions. Pedoclimatic characteristics, genetic autochthonous variations and anthropic components create an environment so specific that it would be extremely difficult to reproduce elsewhere. Pecorino cheese is included in this sector of the market and is widely diffused in Italy (approximately 53.727t of production. Pecorino is a common name given to indicate Italian cheeses made exclusively from pure ewes' milk characterized by a high content of fat matter and it is mainly produced in the middle and south of Italy by traditional procedures from raw or thermized milk. The microbiota plays a major role in the development of the organoleptic characteristics of the cheese but it can also be responsible for the accumulation of undesirable substances, such as biogenic amines (BA. Several factors can contribute to the qualitative and quantitative profiles of BA’s in Pecorino cheese such as environmental hygienic conditions, pH, salt concentration, aw, fat content, pasteurization of milk, decarboxylase microorganisms, starter cultures, temperature and time of ripening, storage, part of the cheese (core, edge and the presence of cofactor. Generally, the total content of BA’s can range from about 100-2400 mg/kg, with a prevalence of toxicologically important BA’s, tyramine and histamine. The presence of BA in Pecorino cheeses is becoming increasingly important to consumers and cheese-maker alike, due to the potential threats of toxicity to humans and consequent trade implications.

  13. Seasonal trends of biogenic terpene emissions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Helmig, Detlev; Daly, Ryan Woodfin; Milford, Jana; Guenther, Alex

    2013-09-01

    Biogenic volatile organic compound (BVOC) emissions from six coniferous tree species, i.e. Pinus ponderosa (Ponderosa Pine), Picea pungens (Blue Spruce), Pseudotsuga menziesii (Rocky Mountain Douglas Fir) and Pinus longaeva (Bristlecone Pine), as well as from two deciduous species, Quercus gambelii (Gamble Oak) and Betula occidentalis (Western River Birch) were studied over a full annual growing cycle. Monoterpene (MT) and sesquiterpene (SQT) emissions rates were quantified in a total of 1236 individual branch enclosure samples. MT dominated coniferous emissions, producing greater than 95% of BVOC emissions. MT and SQT demonstrated short-term emission dependence with temperature. Two oxygenated MT, 1,8-cineol and piperitone, were both light and temperature dependent. Basal emission rates (BER, normalized to 1000μmolm(-2)s(-1) and 30°C) were generally higher in spring and summer than in winter; MT seasonal BER from the coniferous trees maximized between 1.5 and 6.0μgg(-1)h(-1), while seasonal lows were near 0.1μgg(-1)h(-1). The fractional contribution of individual MT to total emissions was found to fluctuate with season. SQT BER measured from the coniferous trees ranged from emissions modeling, was not found to exhibit discernible growth season trends. A seasonal correction factor proposed by others in previous work to account for a sinusoidal shaped emission pattern was applied to the data. Varying levels of agreement were found between the data and model results for the different plant species seasonal data sets using this correction. Consequently, the analyses on this extensive data set suggest that it is not feasible to apply a universal seasonal correction factor across different vegetation species. A modeling exercise comparing two case scenarios, (1) without and (2) with consideration of the seasonal changes in emission factors illustrated large deviations when emission factors are applied for other seasons than those in which they were experimentally

  14. Purifying hydrocarbon oils

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rostin, H

    1938-08-11

    A process is described for continuously purifying hydrocarbon oils consisting in conducting the vapors of the same at a temperature of 300 to 400/sup 0/C over the oelitic ore minette together with reducing gases in presence of steam the proportion of the reducing gases and steam being such that the sulfur of the hydrocarbons escapes from the reaction chamber in the form of sulfuretted hydrogen without permanent sulfide of iron being formed.

  15. Process for refining hydrocarbons

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Risenfeld, E H

    1924-11-26

    A process is disclosed for the refining of hydrocarbons or other mixtures through treatment in vapor form with metal catalysts, characterized by such metals being used as catalysts, which are obtained by reduction of the oxide of minerals containing the iron group, and by the vapors of the hydrocarbons, in the presence of the water vapor, being led over these catalysts at temperatures from 200 to 300/sup 0/C.

  16. Accounting for urban biogenic fluxes in regional carbon budgets.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hardiman, Brady S; Wang, Jonathan A; Hutyra, Lucy R; Gately, Conor K; Getson, Jackie M; Friedl, Mark A

    2017-08-15

    Many ecosystem models incorrectly treat urban areas as devoid of vegetation and biogenic carbon (C) fluxes. We sought to improve estimates of urban biomass and biogenic C fluxes using existing, nationally available data products. We characterized biogenic influence on urban C cycling throughout Massachusetts, USA using an ecosystem model that integrates improved representation of urban vegetation, growing conditions associated with urban heat island (UHI), and altered urban phenology. Boston's biomass density is 1/4 that of rural forests, however 87% of Massachusetts' urban landscape is vegetated. Model results suggest that, kilogram-for-kilogram, urban vegetation cycles C twice as fast as rural forests. Urban vegetation releases (R E ) and absorbs (GEE) the equivalent of 11 and 14%, respectively, of anthropogenic emissions in the most urban portions of the state. While urban vegetation in Massachusetts fully sequesters anthropogenic emissions from smaller cities in the region, Boston's UHI reduces annual C storage by >20% such that vegetation offsets only 2% of anthropogenic emissions. Asynchrony between temporal patterns of biogenic and anthropogenic C fluxes further constrains the emissions mitigation potential of urban vegetation. However, neglecting to account for biogenic C fluxes in cities can impair efforts to accurately monitor, report, verify, and reduce anthropogenic emissions. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  17. Influence of biogenic gas production on coalbed methane recovery index

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hongyu Guo

    2017-05-01

    Full Text Available In investigating the effect of biogenic gas production on the recovery of coalbed methane (CBM, coal samples spanning different ranks were applied in the microbial-functioned simulation experiments for biogenic methane production. Based on the biogenic methane yield, testing of pore structures, and the isothermal adsorption data of coals used before and after the simulation experiments, several key parameters related to the recovery of CBM, including recovery rate, gas saturation and ratio of critical desorption pressure to reservoir pressure, etc., were calculated and the corresponding variations were further analyzed. The results show that one of the significant functions of microbial communities on coal is possibly to weaken its affinity for methane gas, especially with the advance of coal ranks; and that by enhancing the pore system of coal, which can be evidenced by the increase of porosity and permeability, the samples collected from Qianqiu (Yima in Henan and Shaqu (Liulin in Shanxi coal mines all see a notable increase in the critical desorption pressure, gas saturation and recovery rate, as compared to the moderate changes of that of Guandi (Xishan in Shanxi coal sample. It is concluded that the significance of enhanced biogenic gas is not only in the increase of CBM resources and the improvement of CBM recoverability, but in serving as an engineering reference for domestic coalbed biogenic gas production.

  18. Biogenic amines in dry fermented sausages: a review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Suzzi, Giovanna; Gardini, Fausto

    2003-11-15

    Biogenic amines are compounds commonly present in living organisms in which they are responsible for many essential functions. They can be naturally present in many foods such as fruits and vegetables, meat, fish, chocolate and milk, but they can also be produced in high amounts by microorganisms through the activity of amino acid decarboxylases. Excessive consumption of these amines can be of health concern because their not equilibrate assumption in human organism can generate different degrees of diseases determined by their action on nervous, gastric and intestinal systems and blood pressure. High microbial counts, which characterise fermented foods, often unavoidably lead to considerable accumulation of biogenic amines, especially tyramine, 2-phenylethylamine, tryptamine, cadaverine, putrescine and histamine. However, great fluctuations of amine content are reported in the same type of product. These differences depend on many variables: the quali-quantitative composition of microbial microflora, the chemico-physical variables, the hygienic procedure adopted during production, and the availability of precursors. Dry fermented sausages are worldwide diffused fermented meat products that can be a source of biogenic amines. Even in the absence of specific rules and regulations regarding the presence of these compounds in sausages and other fermented products, an increasing attention is given to biogenic amines, especially in relation to the higher number of consumers with enhanced sensitivity to biogenic amines determined by the inhibition of the action of amino oxidases, the enzymes involved in the detoxification of these substances. The aim of this paper is to give an overview on the presence of these compounds in dry fermented sausages and to discuss the most important factors influencing their accumulation. These include process and implicit factors as well as the role of starter and nonstarter microflora growing in the different steps of sausage production

  19. Biogenic methane potential of marine sediments. Application of chemical thermodynamics

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Arning, E.T.; Schulz, H.M. [Helmholtz Centre Potsdam GFZ, Potsdam (Germany); Berk, W. van [Technical Univ. of Clausthal (Germany). Dept. of Hydrogeology

    2013-08-01

    Accumulations of biogenic methane-dominated gas are widespread and occur in a variety of depositional settings and rock types. However, the potential of biogenic methane remains underexplored. This is mainly due to the fact that quantitative assessments applying numerical modeling techniques for exploration purposes are generally lacking to date. Biogenic methane formation starts in relatively shallow marine sediments below the sulfate reduction zone. When sulfate is exhausted, methanogenesis via the CO{sub 2} reduction pathway is often the dominant biogenic methane formation process in marine sediments (Claypool and Kaplan, 1974). The process can be simplified by the reaction: 2CH{sub 2}O + Ca{sup 2+} + H{sub 2}O {yields} CH{sub 4} + CaCO{sub 3} + 2H{sup +}. The products of early diagenetic reactions initiate coupled equilibrium reactions that induce a new state of chemical equilibrium among minerals, pore water and gas. The driving force of the complex biogeochemical reactions in sedimentary environments during early diagenesis is the irreversible redox-conversion of organic matter. Early diagenetic formation of biogenic methane shortly after deposition ('early diagenesis') was retraced using PHREEQC computer code that is applied to calculate homogenous and heterogeneous mass-action equations in combination with one-dimensional diffusion driven transport (Parkhurst and Appelo, 1999). Our modeling approach incorporates interdependent diagenetic reactions evolving into a diffusive multi-component and multiphase system by means of thermodynamic equilibrium calculations of species distribution (Arning et al., 2011, 2012, 2013). Reaction kinetics of organic carbon conversion is integrated into the set of equilibrium reactions by defining type and amount of converted organic matter in a certain time step. It is the aim (1) to calculate quantitatively thermodynamic equilibrium conditions (composition of pore water, mineral phase and gas phase assemblage) in

  20. Non-enzymatic U(VI) interactions with biogenic mackinawite

    Science.gov (United States)

    Veeramani, H.; Qafoku, N. P.; Kukkadapu, R. K.; Murayama, M.; Hochella, M. F.

    2011-12-01

    Reductive immobilization of hexavalent uranium [U(VI)] by stimulation of dissimilatory metal and/or sulfate reducing bacteria (DMRB or DSRB) has been extensively researched as a remediation strategy for subsurface U(VI) contamination. These bacteria derive energy by reducing oxidized metals as terminal electron acceptors, often utilizing organic substrates as electron donors. Thus, when evaluating the potential for in-situ uranium remediation in heterogeneous subsurface media, it is important to understand how the presence of alternative electron acceptors such as Fe(III) and sulfate affect U(VI) remediation and the long term behavior and reactivity of reduced uranium. Iron, an abundant subsurface element, represents a substantial sink for electrons from DMRB, and the reduction of Fe(III) leads to the formation of dissolved Fe(II) or to reactive biogenic Fe(II)- and mixed Fe(II)/Fe(III)- mineral phases. Consequently, abiotic U(VI) reduction by reactive forms of biogenic Fe(II) minerals could be a potentially important process for uranium immobilization. In our study, the DMRB Shewanella putrefaciens CN32 was used to synthesize a biogenic Fe(II)-bearing sulfide mineral: mackinawite, that has been characterized by XRD, SEM, HRTEM and Mössbauer spectroscopy. Batch experiments involving treated biogenic mackinawite and uranium (50:1 molar ratio) were carried out at room temperature under strict anoxic conditions. Following complete removal of uranium from solution, the biogenic mackinawite was analyzed by a suite of analytical techniques including XAS, HRTEM and Mössbauer spectroscopy to determine the speciation of uranium and investigate concomitant Fe(II)-phase transformation. Determining the speciation of uranium is critical to success of a remediation strategy. The present work elucidates non-enzymatic/abiotic molecular scale redox interactions between biogenic mackinawite and uranium.

  1. MOLECULAR DIAGNOSTIC RATIOS TO ASSESS THE APPORTIONMENT OF PETROLEUM HYDROCARBONS CONTAMINANTION IN MARINE SEDIMENT

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Agung Dhamar Syakti

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available As maritime fulcrum nation, in Indonesia, marine environmental analytical chemistry field is still under developed. So that why, this review paper aims to provide basic understanding of the use some molecular diagnostic indices using n-alkanes indexes and polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs diagnostic ratios to estimate the source of apportionment of the hydrocarbons contamination and origin. The n-alkane chromatograms were then used to characterize the predominance of petrogenic or biogenic either terrestrial or aquatic. Furthermore, characterization allowed to discriminate riverine versus marine input. The occurrence of a broad unresolved complex mixture can be an evidence of biodegraded petroleum residues. For aromatic compounds, the prevalence of petrogenic, pyrolitic, and combustion-derived can be easily plotted by using isomers ratio calculation. This paper thus provides useful information on the hydrocarbon contamination origin, especially in marine sediments. Further researches should be undertaken in order to validate the use of molecular diagnostic ratio with isotopic approach.

  2. Biomass burning - Combustion emissions, satellite imagery, and biogenic emissions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Levine, Joel S.; Cofer, Wesley R., III; Winstead, Edward L.; Rhinehart, Robert P.; Cahoon, Donald R., Jr.; Sebacher, Daniel I.; Sebacher, Shirley; Stocks, Brian J.

    1991-01-01

    After detailing a technique for the estimation of the instantaneous emission of trace gases produced by biomass burning, using satellite imagery, attention is given to the recent discovery that burning results in significant enhancement of biogenic emissions of N2O, NO, and CH4. Biomass burning accordingly has an immediate and long-term impact on the production of atmospheric trace gases. It is presently demonstrated that satellite imagery of fires may be used to estimate combustion emissions, and could be used to estimate long-term postburn biogenic emission of trace gases to the atmosphere.

  3. Determination of Biogenic Amines in Different Shrimp Species for Export

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Myat Myat Thaw; Oo Aung; Aung Myint; Bisswanger, Hans

    2004-06-01

    This study is part of the project on the ''Quality Assurance of Different Shrimp Species for Export''. Local shrimp samples were collected from Ministry of Livestock and Fisheries and various private enterprises. Contents of biogenic amines were determined by using benzoyl chloride derivatization method with HPLC (reverse phase high performance liquid chromatography). Based on the biogenic amines, quality index of shrimps were correlated with freshness index so that the grade of shrimp samples can be classified as excellent, good, and acceptable. All sizes of shrimps such as extra large, large, medium were found to excceptable respectively

  4. Net Ecosystem Fluxes of Hydrocarbons from a Ponderosa Pine Forest in Colorado

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rhew, R. C.; Turnipseed, A. A.; Ortega, J. V.; Smith, J. N.; Guenther, A. B.; Shen, S.; Martinez, L.; Koss, A.; Warneke, C.; De Gouw, J. A.; Deventer, M. J.

    2015-12-01

    Light (C2-C4) alkenes, light alkanes and isoprene (C5H8) are non-methane hydrocarbons that play important roles in the photochemical production of tropospheric ozone and in the formation of secondary organic aerosols. Natural terrestrial fluxes of the light hydrocarbons are poorly characterized, with global emission estimates based on limited field measurements. In 2014, net fluxes of these compounds were measured at the Manitou Experimental Forest Observatory, a semi-arid ponderosa pine forest in the Colorado Rocky Mountains and site of the prior BEACHON campaigns. Three field intensives were conducted between June 17 and August 10, 2014. Net ecosystem flux measurements utilized a relaxed eddy accumulation system coupled to an automated gas chromatograph. Summertime average emissions of ethene and propene were up to 90% larger than those observed from a temperate deciduous forest. Ethene and propene fluxes were also correlated to each other, similar to the deciduous forest study. Emissions of isoprene were small, as expected for a coniferous forest, and these fluxes were not correlated with either ethene or propene. Unexpected emissions of light alkanes were also observed, and these showed a distinct diurnal cycle. Understory flux measurements allowed for the partitioning of fluxes between the surface and the canopy. Full results from the three field intensives will be compared with environmental variables in order to parameterize the fluxes for use in modeling emissions.

  5. Process for desulfurizing hydrocarbons

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1937-04-12

    A process is described for the desulfurization of a mixture of hydrocarbons, and in particular hydrocarbons containing less than 7 atoms of carbon and sulfur compounds of the type of sulfur carbonyl, characterized by the fact that the mixture, preferably in the liquid phase, is brought in contact with a solution of caustic alkali, essentially anhydrous or preferably with a solution of alkali hydroxide in an organic hydroxy nonacid solvent, for example, an alcohol, or with an alkaline alcoholate, under conditions suitable to the formation of hydrogen sulfide which produces a hydrocarbon mixture free from sulfur compounds of the sulfur carbonyl type but containing hydrogen sulfide, and that it is treated, following mixing, having beem submitted to the first treatment, by means of aqueous alkaline hydroxide to eliminate the hydrogen sulfide.

  6. Diurnally resolved particulate and VOC measurements at a rural site: indication of significant biogenic secondary organic aerosol formation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sjostedt, S. J.; Slowik, J. G.; Brook, J. R.; Chang, R. Y.-W.; Mihele, C.; Stroud, C. A.; Vlasenko, A.; Abbatt, J. P. D.

    2011-06-01

    We report simultaneous measurements of volatile organic compound (VOC) mixing ratios including C6 to C8 aromatics, isoprene, monoterpenes, acetone and organic aerosol mass loadings at a rural location in southwestern Ontario, Canada by Proton-Transfer-Reaction Mass Spectrometry (PTR-MS) and Aerosol Mass Spectrometry (AMS), respectively. During the three-week-long Border Air Quality and Meteorology Study in June-July 2007, air was sampled from a range of sources, including aged air from the polluted US Midwest, direct outflow from Detroit 50 km away, and clean air with higher biogenic input. After normalization to the diurnal profile of CO, a long-lived tracer, diurnal analyses show clear photochemical loss of reactive aromatics and production of oxygenated VOCs and secondary organic aerosol (SOA) during the daytime. Biogenic VOC mixing ratios increase during the daytime in accord with their light- and temperature-dependent sources. Long-lived species, such as hydrocarbon-like organic aerosol and benzene show little to no photochemical reactivity on this timescale. From the normalized diurnal profiles of VOCs, an estimate of OH concentrations during the daytime, measured O3 concentrations, and laboratory SOA yields, we calculate integrated local organic aerosol production amounts associated with each measured SOA precursor. Under the assumption that biogenic precursors are uniformly distributed across the southwestern Ontario location, we conclude that such precursors contribute significantly to the total amount of SOA formation, even during the period of Detroit outflow. The importance of aromatic precursors is more difficult to assess given that their sources are likely to be localized and thus of variable impact at the sampling location.

  7. 76 FR 80368 - Notification of Teleconferences of the Science Advisory Board Biogenic Carbon Emissions Panel

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-12-23

    ... Advisory Board Biogenic Carbon Emissions Panel AGENCY: Environmental Protection Agency (EPA). ACTION... Office announces two teleconferences of the SAB Biogenic Carbon Emissions Panel to review EPA's draft... policy, notice is hereby given that the SAB Biogenic Carbon Emissions Panel will hold two public...

  8. Recovery of hydrocarbon oils

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1941-02-10

    A process is disclosed for recovery of hydrocarbon oils, especially lubricating oils or diesel oils, through pressure hydrogenation of distillation, extraction of hydrogenation products from coal or coaly materials or from oils such as mineral oils or tars in liquid phase by use in a reaction vessel of fixed-bed catalysts, characterized in that as starting material is employed material which has been freed of asphaltic and resinous material by hydrogenation refining, vacuum-steam distillation, treatment with hydrogen-rich hydrocarbons (hydroforming), or sulfuric acid.

  9. Anaerobic degradation of propane and butane by sulfate-reducing bacteria enriched from marine hydrocarbon cold seeps.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jaekel, Ulrike; Musat, Niculina; Adam, Birgit; Kuypers, Marcel; Grundmann, Olav; Musat, Florin

    2013-05-01

    The short-chain, non-methane hydrocarbons propane and butane can contribute significantly to the carbon and sulfur cycles in marine environments affected by oil or natural gas seepage. In the present study, we enriched and identified novel propane and butane-degrading sulfate reducers from marine oil and gas cold seeps in the Gulf of Mexico and Hydrate Ridge. The enrichment cultures obtained were able to degrade simultaneously propane and butane, but not other gaseous alkanes. They were cold-adapted, showing highest sulfate-reduction rates between 16 and 20 °C. Analysis of 16S rRNA gene libraries, followed by whole-cell hybridizations with sequence-specific oligonucleotide probes showed that each enrichment culture was dominated by a unique phylotype affiliated with the Desulfosarcina-Desulfococcus cluster within the Deltaproteobacteria. These phylotypes formed a distinct phylogenetic cluster of propane and butane degraders, including sequences from environments associated with hydrocarbon seeps. Incubations with (13)C-labeled substrates, hybridizations with sequence-specific probes and nanoSIMS analyses showed that cells of the dominant phylotypes were the first to become enriched in (13)C, demonstrating that they were directly involved in hydrocarbon degradation. Furthermore, using the nanoSIMS data, carbon assimilation rates were calculated for the dominant cells in each enrichment culture.

  10. Biogenic volatile organic compounds - small is beautiful

    Science.gov (United States)

    Owen, S. M.; Asensio, D.; Li, Q.; Penuelas, J.

    2012-12-01

    While canopy and regional scale flux measurements of biogenic volatile organic compounds (bVOCs) are essential to obtain an integrated picture of total compound reaching the atmosphere, many fascinating and important emission details are waiting to be discovered at smaller scales, in different ecological and functional compartments. We concentrate on bVOCs below ground to plant species, and can be extracted from decaying litter. Naturally occurring monoterpenes in the rhizosphere provide a specialised carbon source for micro-organisms, helping to define the micro-organism community structure, and impacting on nutrient cycles which are partly controlled by microorganisms. Naturally occurring monoterpenes in the soil system could also affect the aboveground structure of ecosystems because of their role in plant defence strategies and as mediating chemicals in allelopathy. A gradient of monoterpene concentration was found in soil around Pinus sylvestris and Pinus halepensis, decreasing with distance from the tree. Some compounds (α-pinene, sabinene, humulene and caryophyllene) in mineral soil were linearly correlated with the total amount of each compound in the overlying litter, indicating that litter might be the dominant source of these compounds. However, α-pinene did not fall within the correlation, indicating a source other than litter, probably root exudates. We also show that rhizosphere bVOCs can be a carbon source for soil microbes. In a horizontal gradient from Populus tremula trees, microbes closest to the tree trunk were better enzymatically equipped to metabolise labeled monoterpene substrate. Monoterpenes can also increase the degradation rate in soil of the persistant organic pollutants, likely acting as analogues for the cometabo-lism of polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) Flowers of a ginger species (Alpinia kwangsiensis) and a fig species (Ficus hispida) showed different bVOC signals pre- and post pollination. For Ficus hispida, there are three

  11. Coupling spectroscopic and chromatographic techniques for evaluation of the depositional history of hydrocarbons in a subtropical estuary

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Martins, César C.; Doumer, Marta E.; Gallice, Wellington C.; Dauner, Ana Lúcia L.; Cabral, Ana Caroline; Cardoso, Fernanda D.

    2015-01-01

    Spectroscopic and chromatographic techniques can be used together to evaluate hydrocarbon inputs to coastal environments such as the Paranaguá estuarine system (PES), located in the SW Atlantic, Brazil. Historical inputs of aliphatic hydrocarbons (AHs) and polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) were analyzed using two sediment cores from the PES. The AHs were related to the presence of biogenic organic matter and degraded oil residues. The PAHs were associated with mixed sources. The highest hydrocarbon concentrations were related to oil spills, while relatively low levels could be attributed to the decrease in oil usage during the global oil crisis. The results of electron paramagnetic resonance were in agreement with the absolute AHs and PAHs concentrations measured by chromatographic techniques, while near-infrared spectroscopy results were consistent with unresolved complex mixture (UCM)/total n-alkanes ratios. These findings suggest that the use of a combination of techniques can increase the accuracy of assessment of contamination in sediments. - Highlights: • Historical inputs of hydrocarbons in a subtropical estuary were evaluated. • Spectroscopic and chromatographic methods were used in combination. • High hydrocarbon concentrations were related to anthropogenic activities. • Low hydrocarbon levels could be explained by the 1970s global oil crisis. - Spectroscopic and chromatographic techniques could be used together to evaluate hydrocarbon inputs to coastal environments

  12. Conditions allowing the formation of biogenic amines in cheese

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Joosten, H.M.L.J.

    1988-01-01

    A study was undertaken to reveal the conditions that allow the formation of biogenic amines in cheese.

    The starters most commonly used in the Dutch cheese industry do not have decarboxylative properties. Only if the milk or curd is contaminated with non-starter bacteria, amine

  13. Biogenic volatile organic compound (VOC) emissions from forests in Finland

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lindfors, V.; Laurila, T.

    2000-01-01

    We present model estimates of biogenic volatile organic compound (VOC) emissions from the forests in Finland. The emissions were calculated for the years 1995-1997 using the measured isoprene and monoterpene emission factors of boreal tree species together with detailed satellite land cover information and meteorological data. The three-year average emission is 319 kilotonnes per annum, which is significantly higher than the estimated annual anthropogenic VOC emissions of 193 kilotonnes. The biogenic emissions of the Finnish forests are dominated by monoterpenes, which contribute approximately 45% of the annual total. The main isoprene emitter is the Norway spruce (Picea abies) due to its high foliar biomass density. Compared to the monoterpenes, however, the total isoprene emissions are very low, contributing only about 7% of the annual forest VOC emissions. The isoprene emissions are more sensitive to the meteorological conditions than the monoterpene emissions, but the progress of the thermal growing season is clearly reflected in all biogenic emission fluxes. The biogenic emission densities in northern Finland are approximately half of the emissions in the southern parts of the country. (orig.)

  14. Azo dye decolorization assisted by chemical and biogenic sulfide

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Prato-Garcia, Dorian [Laboratory for Research on Advanced Processes for Water Treatment, Unidad Académica Juriquilla, Instituto de Ingeniería, Universidad Nacional Autónoma de México, Blvd. Juriquilla 3001, Querétaro 76230 (Mexico); Cervantes, Francisco J. [División de Ciencias Ambientales, Instituto Potosino de Investigación Científica y Tecnológica, Camino a la Presa de San José 2055, San Luis Potosí 78216 (Mexico); Buitrón, Germán, E-mail: gbuitronm@ii.unam.mx [Laboratory for Research on Advanced Processes for Water Treatment, Unidad Académica Juriquilla, Instituto de Ingeniería, Universidad Nacional Autónoma de México, Blvd. Juriquilla 3001, Querétaro 76230 (Mexico)

    2013-04-15

    Highlights: ► Azo dyes were reduced efficiently by chemical and biogenic sulfide. ► Biogenic sulfide was more efficient than chemical sulfide. ► There was no competition between dyes and sulfate for reducing equivalents. ► Aromatic amines barely affected the sulfate-reducing process. -- Abstract: The effectiveness of chemical and biogenic sulfide in decolorizing three sulfonated azo dyes and the robustness of a sulfate-reducing process for simultaneous decolorization and sulfate removal were evaluated. The results demonstrated that decolorization of azo dyes assisted by chemical sulfide and anthraquinone-2,6-disulfonate (AQDS) was effective. In the absence of AQDS, biogenic sulfide was more efficient than chemical sulfide for decolorizing the azo dyes. The performance of sulfate-reducing bacteria in attached-growth sequencing batch reactors suggested the absence of competition between the studied azo dyes and the sulfate-reducing process for the reducing equivalents. Additionally, the presence of chemical reduction by-products had an almost negligible effect on the sulfate removal rate, which was nearly constant (94%) after azo dye injection.

  15. The secondary biogenic radiation of gamma-irradiated human blood

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kuzin, A.M.; Surkenova, G.N.; Budagovskij, A.V.; Gudi, G.A.

    1997-01-01

    The sample of blood freshly taken from healthy men were gamma-irradiated with a dose of 10 Gy. It was shown that after the treatment the blood gained the capacity to emit secondary biogenic radiation. Emission lasted for some hours, passed through quartz-glass curette and was revealed by stimulating influence on biological detector (sprouting seeds)

  16. Use of biogenic sulfide for ZnS precipitation

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Esposito, G.; Veeken, A.; Weijma, J.; Lens, P.N.L.

    2006-01-01

    A 600 ml continuously stirred tank reactor was used to assess the performance of a zinc sulfide precipitation process using a biogenic sulfide solution (the effluent of a sulfate-reducing bioreactor) as sulfide source. In all experiments, a proportional-integral (PI) control algorithm was used to

  17. Biogenic amine formation and bacterial contribution in Natto products.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Bitna; Byun, Bo Young; Mah, Jae-Hyung

    2012-12-01

    Twenty-one Natto products currently distributed in Korea were analysed for biogenic amine contents and tested to determine physicochemical and bacterial contributions to biogenic amine formation. Among them, nine products (about 43%) had β-phenylethylamine or tyramine contents greater than the toxic dose (30mg/kg and 100mg/kg, respectively) of each amine, although no products showed total amounts of biogenic amines above the harmful level (1000mg/kg), which indicates that the amounts of biogenic amines in some Natto products are not within the safe level for human health. From four different Natto products, that contained noticeable levels of β-phenylethylamine and tyramine, 80 bacterial strains were isolated. All the strains were identified to be Bacillus subtilis and highly capable of producing β-phenylethylamine and tyramine. Therefore, it seems likely that the remarkable contents of β-phenylethylamine and tyramine in Natto predominantly resulted from the strains highly capable of producing those amines present in the food. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  18. Optrode for sensing hydrocarbons

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miller, H.; Milanovich, F.P.; Hirschfeld, T.B.; Miller, F.S.

    1988-09-13

    A two-phase system employing the Fujiwara reaction is provided for the fluorometric detection of halogenated hydrocarbons. A fiber optic is utilized to illuminate a column of pyridine trapped in a capillary tube coaxially attached at one end to the illuminating end of the fiber optic. A strongly alkaline condition necessary for the reaction is maintained by providing a reservoir of alkali in contact with the column of pyridine, the surface of contact being adjacent to the illuminating end of the fiber optic. A semipermeable membrane caps the other end of the capillary tube, the membrane being preferentially permeable to the halogenated hydrocarbon and but preferentially impermeable to water and pyridine. As the halogenated hydrocarbon diffuses through the membrane and into the column of pyridine, fluorescent reaction products are formed. Light propagated by the fiber optic from a light source, excites the fluorescent products. Light from the fluorescence emission is also collected by the same fiber optic and transmitted to a detector. The intensity of the fluorescence gives a measure of the concentration of the halogenated hydrocarbons. 5 figs.

  19. Catalyst for hydrocarbon conversion

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Duhaut, P.; Miquel, J.

    1975-01-01

    A description is given for a catalyst and process for hydrocarbon conversions, e.g., reforming. The catalyst contains an alumina carrier, platinum, iridium, at least one metal selected from uranium, vanadium, and gallium, and optionally halogen in the form of metal halide of one of the aforesaid components. (U.S.)

  20. Formation of Nano-crystalline Todorokite from Biogenic Mn Oxides

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Feng, X.; Zhu, M; Ginder-Vogel, M; Ni, C; Parikh, S; Sparks, D

    2010-01-01

    Todorokite, as one of three main Mn oxide phases present in oceanic Mn nodules and an active MnO{sub 6} octahedral molecular sieve (OMS), has garnered much interest; however, its formation pathway in natural systems is not fully understood. Todorokite is widely considered to form from layer structured Mn oxides with hexagonal symmetry, such as vernadite ({delta}-MnO{sub 2}), which are generally of biogenic origin. However, this geochemical process has not been documented in the environment or demonstrated in the laboratory, except for precursor phases with triclinic symmetry. Here we report on the formation of a nanoscale, todorokite-like phase from biogenic Mn oxides produced by the freshwater bacterium Pseudomonas putida strain GB-1. At long- and short-range structural scales biogenic Mn oxides were transformed to a todorokite-like phase at atmospheric pressure through refluxing. Topotactic transformation was observed during the transformation. Furthermore, the todorokite-like phases formed via refluxing had thin layers along the c* axis and a lack of c* periodicity, making the basal plane undetectable with X-ray diffraction reflection. The proposed pathway of the todorokite-like phase formation is proposed as: hexagonal biogenic Mn oxide {yields} 10-{angstrom} triclinic phyllomanganate {yields} todorokite. These observations provide evidence supporting the possible bio-related origin of natural todorokites and provide important clues for understanding the transformation of biogenic Mn oxides to other Mn oxides in the environment. Additionally this method may be a viable biosynthesis route for porous, nano-crystalline OMS materials for use in practical applications.

  1. The relationship between Al and Si in biogenic silica as determined by PIXE and XAS

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Beck, L.; Gehlen, M.; Flank, A.-M.; Bennekom, A.J. van; Beusekom, J.E.E. van

    2002-01-01

    Biogenic silica, one of the major constituents of marine sediments, is a potentially powerful paleoceanographic tool, revealing information on past productivity. Interpreting the sedimentary records of the biogenic silica requires, however, an understanding of its preservation. Dissolution of biogenic silica is controlled by the presence of trace elements such as Al. The work in this paper focuses on the association of Al and Si in biogenic silica. The composition and the atomic structure of cultured and natural diatoms were determined by using PIXE and XAS techniques. This study provides the first evidence for a structural association of Al and Si in biogenic silica

  2. Is climate influenced by biogenic atmospheric sulfur compounds. Beeinflussen biogene atmosphaerische Schwefelverbindungen das Klima

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Georgii, H W

    1990-01-01

    About 10 years ago, traces of gaseous sulfur compounds were detected in the atmosphere which are of mainly biogenic origin and are formed in large areas in the oceans by phytoplankton. Continental sources, too, are important. These gases - dimethyl sulfide, carbon bisulfide and carbonyl sulfide - provide an important, if not the main, part to the natural sulfur budget of the atmosphere. While dimethyl sulfide and carbon bisulfide are quickly oxidized in the lower atmosphere forming sulfate particles in the process, carbonyl sulfide is an inert gas which is oxidized only after reaching the stratosphere. Lately, the relevance of these trace components to climate is being discussed. Conceivably, they might influence the radiation budget of the earth via the formation of aerosol particles: While, in the case of dimethyl sulfide, these would change the microphysical parameters of maritime clouds, an increase in the production of carbonyl sulfide would entail a strengthening of the stratospheric sulfate particle layer. Both processes might have a stabilizing effect on the climate as they act in opposite direction to the much discussed greenhouse effect. (orig.).

  3. Biogenic methane leakage on the Aquitaine Shelf: fluid system characterization from source to emission

    Science.gov (United States)

    Michel, Guillaume; Dupré, Stéphanie; Baltzer, Agnès; Imbert, Patrice; Ehrhold, Axel; Battani, Anne; Deville, Eric

    2017-04-01

    The recent discovery of biogenic methane emissions associated with methane-derived authigenic carbonate mounds along the Aquitaine Shelf edge offshore SW France (140 to 220 m water depth) questions about the initiation and temporal evolution of this fluid system (80 km N-S and 8 km E-W). Based on a multi-data study (including multibeam echosounder, subbottom profiler, single channel sparker seismic, 80 traces air gun seismic data and well cuttings and logs), different scenarii are proposed for the organic matter source levels and migration pathways of the methane. Several evidence of the presence of gas are observed on seismic data and interpreted to be linked to the biogenic system. Single channel sparker seismic lines exhibit an acoustic blanking (between 75-100 ms TWT below seafloor and the first multiple) below the present-day seepage area and westwards up to 8 km beyond the shelf-break. An air gun seismic line exhibits chaotic reflections along 8 km below the seepage area from the seabed down to 700 ms TWT below seafloor. Based on 1) the local geothermal gradient about 26 °C/km and 2) the window for microbial methanogenesis ranging from 4 to 56 °C, the estimation of the bottom limit for biogenic generation window is about 1.5 km below seafloor. Cuttings from 3 wells of the area within the methanogenesis window show average TOC (Total Organic Carbon) of 0.5 %; however, one well shows some coal levels with 30-35 % TOC in the Oligocene between 1490 and 1540 m below seafloor. Geochemical analysis on crushed cuttings evidenced heavy hydrocarbons up to mid-Paleogene, while shallower series did not evidence any. In the first scenario, we propose that methane is sourced from the Neogene prograding system. The 0.5% average TOC is sufficient to generate a large volume of methane over the thickness of this interval (up to 1 km at the shelf break area). In the second scenario, methane would be sourced from the Oligocene coals; however their spatial extension with regard

  4. Biogenic emissions from Pinus halepensis: a typical species of the Mediterranean area

    Science.gov (United States)

    Simon, V.; Dumergues, L.; Solignac, G.; Torres, L.

    2005-03-01

    Volatile organic compounds (VOCs) emissions by vegetation present in the Mediterranean area are not well known. They may contribute with anthropogenic VOC emissions to the tropospheric ozone formation that reaches important level in the European Mediterranean region. The present work, carried out as part of the European ESCOMPTE project «fiEld experimentS to COnstrain Models of atmospheric Pollution and Transport of Emissions», adds a new contribution to the inventory of the main natural hydrocarbons sources likely to participate in the ozone production. The corresponding measurement campaign was conducted in La Barben, a site close to Marseilles (France), with the aim to quantify the terpenic emission pattern and the behaviour of Pinus halepensis, an important Mediterranean species slightly studied. The determination of biogenic emissions from P. halepensis was done by the enclosure of an intact branch in a Teflon cuvette. Main emitted monoterpenes were β trans-ocimene and linalool. The total monoterpenic emission rates thus recorded were found to reach maximum values around 30 μg g dry weight-1 h -1. The normalized emission rates calculated at 30 °C and 1000 μmol m -2 s -1 with Guenther's algorithm was 14.76, 8.65 and 4.05 μg g dry weight-1 h -1, respectively, for the total monoterpenes, β trans-ocimene and linalool.

  5. Distilling hydrocarbons, etc

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Turner, C

    1917-11-23

    In the fractional or destructive distillation of hydrocarbon oils or other liquids, the pressure in the still is raised and lowered alternately. The still is closed to raise the pressure, and is opened to lower the pressure rapidly solely by expansion of the vapors. The operation is effected without intermittent cooling, except such as may occur during the lowering of the pressure. In distilling hydrocarbon oil, pressure steam is blown into the oil until the pressure reaches 5 lb/in./sup 2/. The vapor outlet is then opened until the pressure falls to 2 lb/in./sup 2/, whereupon the vapor outlet is closed and steam is again admitted. The operation is continued until the steam, which is of 20 lb pressure, no longer effects distillation; after this stage, superheated steam is used.

  6. Distilling hydrocarbon oils

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tausz, J

    1924-07-16

    Hydrocarbon oils such as petroleum, shale oils, lignite or coal tar oils are purified by distilling them and collecting the distillate in fractions within narrow limits so that all the impurities are contained in one or more of the narrow fractions. In distilling ligroin obtained by destructive distillation of brown coal, it is found that the coloring and resin-forming constituents are contained in the fractions distilling over at 62 to 86/sup 0/C and 108/sup 0/C. The ligroin is purified, therefore, by distillating in an apparatus provided with an efficient dephlegmotor and removing these two fractions. The distillation may be carried out wholly or in part under reduced pressure, and fractions separated under ordinary pressure may be subsequently distilled under reduced pressure. The hydrocarbons may be first separated into fractions over wider limits and the separate fractions be subjected to a further fractional distillation.

  7. Nuclear explosives and hydrocarbons

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cohen, P

    1971-10-01

    A nuclear explosive 12 in. in diam and producing very little tritium is feasible in France. Such a device would be well adapted for contained nuclear explosions set off for the purpose of hydrocarbon storage or stimulation. The different aspects of setting off the explosive are reviewed. In the particular case of gas storage in a nuclear cavity in granite, it is demonstrated that the dose of irradiation received is extremely small. (18 refs.)

  8. Treatment of hydrocarbon oils

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1936-02-22

    A process is described for refining a mixture of liquid hydrocarbons containing harmful substances, this process permitting the operation, which consists in treating the liquid mixture at a temperature higher than 200/sup 0/C with a solid catalyst of phosphoric acid, consisting of phosphoric acid deposited on a solid support of the type of metallurgical coke, for a time sufficient to convert the harmful components to inoffensive substances.

  9. Cracking hydrocarbon oils

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Seigle, A A.F.M.

    1922-12-20

    Hydrocarbon oils such as petroleum, peat, shale, or lignite oils, heavy tars, resin oils, naphthalene oils, etc., are vaporized by being fed from a tank through a preheater to the lower part of a vertical annular retort heated by a flame projected down the central cavity from a burner. The oil vapors rise through annular passages formed by disks, on which are placed chips of copper, iron, aluminum, etc., to act as catalysts.

  10. High boiling point hydrocarbons

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pier, M

    1929-04-29

    A process is given for the production of hydrocarbons of high boiling point, such as lubricating oils, from bituminous substances, such as varieties of coal, shale, or other solid distillable carbonaceous materials. The process consists of treating the initial materials with organic solvents and then subjecting the products extracted from the initial materials, preferably directly, to a reducing treatment in respect to temperature, pressure, and time. The reduction treatment is performed by means of hydrogen under pressure.

  11. Direct hydrocarbon fuel cells

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barnett, Scott A.; Lai, Tammy; Liu, Jiang

    2010-05-04

    The direct electrochemical oxidation of hydrocarbons in solid oxide fuel cells, to generate greater power densities at lower temperatures without carbon deposition. The performance obtained is comparable to that of fuel cells used for hydrogen, and is achieved by using novel anode composites at low operating temperatures. Such solid oxide fuel cells, regardless of fuel source or operation, can be configured advantageously using the structural geometries of this invention.

  12. Modeling Global Biogenic Emission of Isoprene: Exploration of Model Drivers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alexander, Susan E.; Potter, Christopher S.; Coughlan, Joseph C.; Klooster, Steven A.; Lerdau, Manuel T.; Chatfield, Robert B.; Peterson, David L. (Technical Monitor)

    1996-01-01

    Vegetation provides the major source of isoprene emission to the atmosphere. We present a modeling approach to estimate global biogenic isoprene emission. The isoprene flux model is linked to a process-based computer simulation model of biogenic trace-gas fluxes that operates on scales that link regional and global data sets and ecosystem nutrient transformations Isoprene emission estimates are determined from estimates of ecosystem specific biomass, emission factors, and algorithms based on light and temperature. Our approach differs from an existing modeling framework by including the process-based global model for terrestrial ecosystem production, satellite derived ecosystem classification, and isoprene emission measurements from a tropical deciduous forest. We explore the sensitivity of model estimates to input parameters. The resulting emission products from the global 1 degree x 1 degree coverage provided by the satellite datasets and the process model allow flux estimations across large spatial scales and enable direct linkage to atmospheric models of trace-gas transport and transformation.

  13. Biomass burning: Combustion emissions, satellite imagery, and biogenic emissions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Levine, J.S.; Cofer, W.R III; Rhinehart, R.P.; Cahoon, D.R. J.; Winstead, E.L.; Sebacher, S.; Sebacher, D.I.; Stocks, B.J.

    1991-01-01

    This chapter deals with two different, but related, aspects of biomass burning. The first part of the chapter deals with a technique to estimate the instantaneous emissions of trace gases produced by biomass burning using satellite imagery. The second part of the chapter concerns the recent discovery that burning results in significantly enhanced biogenic emissions of N 2 O, NO, and CH 4 . Hence, biomass burning has both an immediate and long-term impact on the production of trace gases to the atmosphere. The objective of this research is to better assess and quantify the role of this research is to better assess and quantify the role and impact of biomass as a driver for global change. It will be demonstrated that satellite imagery of fires may be used to estimate combustion emissions and may in the future be used to estimate the long-term postburn biogenic emissions of trace gases to the atmosphere

  14. Biogenic volatile organic compounds in the Earth system.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Laothawornkitkul, Jullada; Taylor, Jane E; Paul, Nigel D; Hewitt, C Nicholas

    2009-01-01

    Biogenic volatile organic compounds produced by plants are involved in plant growth, development, reproduction and defence. They also function as communication media within plant communities, between plants and between plants and insects. Because of the high chemical reactivity of many of these compounds, coupled with their large mass emission rates from vegetation into the atmosphere, they have significant effects on the chemical composition and physical characteristics of the atmosphere. Hence, biogenic volatile organic compounds mediate the relationship between the biosphere and the atmosphere. Alteration of this relationship by anthropogenically driven changes to the environment, including global climate change, may perturb these interactions and may lead to adverse and hard-to-predict consequences for the Earth system.

  15. The effect of preparation of biogenic sorbent on zinc sorption

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jana Jenčárová

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this study is to prepare biogenic sulphides by using bacteria for the removal of zinc cations from their solutions. Theproduction was realized in a bioreactor under anaerobic conditions at 30 °C. Sorbents were prepared by sulphate-reducing bacteria indifferent nutrient medium modifications, under two modes of bacteria cultivation. Created precipitates of iron sulphides were removedfrom the liquid phase of the cultivation medium by filtration, dried and used for the sorption experiments.

  16. On Mineral Retrosynthesis of a Complex Biogenic Scaffold

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ashit Rao

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available Synergistic relations between organic molecules and mineral precursors regulate biogenic mineralization. Given the remarkable material properties of the egg shell as a biogenic ceramic, it serves as an important model to elucidate biomineral growth. With established roles of complex anionic biopolymers and a heterogeneous organic scaffold in egg shell mineralization, the present study explores the regulation over mineralization attained by applying synthetic polymeric counterparts (polyethylene glycol, poly(acrylic acid, poly(aspartic acid and poly(4-styrenesulfonic acid-co-maleic acid as additives during remineralization of decalcified eggshell membranes. By applying Mg2+ ions as a co-additive species, mineral retrosynthesis is achieved in a manner that modulates the polymorph and structure of mineral products. Notable features of the mineralization process include distinct local wettability of the biogenic organic scaffold by mineral precursors and mineralization-induced membrane actuation. Overall, the form, structure and polymorph of the mineralization products are synergistically affected by the additive and the content of Mg2+ ions. We also revisit the physicochemical nature of the biomineral scaffold and demonstrate the distinct spatial distribution of anionic biomolecules associated with the scaffold-mineral interface, as well as highlight the hydrogel-like properties of mammillae-associated macromolecules.

  17. BAECC Biogenic Aerosols - Effects on Clouds and Climate

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Petäjä, Tuukka [Univ. of Helsinki (Finland); Moisseev, Dmitri [Univ. of Helsinki (Finland); Sinclair, Victoria [Univ. of Helsinki (Finland); O' Connor, Ewan J. [Finnish Meteorological Institute, Helsinki (Finland); Manninen, Antti J. [Univ. of Helsinki (Finland); Levula, Janne [Univ. of Helsinki (Finland); Väänänen, Riikka [Univ. of Helsinki (Finland); Heikkinen, Liine [Univ. of Helsinki (Finland); Äijälä, Mikko [Univ. of Helsinki (Finland); Aalto, Juho [Univ. of Helsinki (Finland); Bäck, Jaana [University of Helsinki, Finland

    2015-11-01

    Biogenic Aerosols - Effects on Clouds and Climate (BAECC)”, featured the U.S. Department of Energy’s Atmospheric Radiation Measurement (ARM) Program’s 2nd Mobile Facility (AMF2) in Hyytiälä, Finland. It operated for an 8-month intensive measurement campaign from February to September 2014. The main research goal was to understand the role of biogenic aerosols in cloud formation. One of the reasons to perform BAECC study in Hyytiälä was the fact that it hosts SMEAR-II (Station for Measuring Forest Ecosystem-Atmosphere Relations), which is one of the world’s most comprehensive surface in-situ observation sites in a boreal forest environment. The station has been measuring atmospheric aerosols, biogenic emissions and an extensive suite of parameters relevant to atmosphere-biosphere interactions continuously since 1996. The BAECC enables combining vertical profiles from AMF2 with surface-based in-situ SMEAR-II observations and allows the processes at the surface to be directly related to processes occurring throughout the entire tropospheric column. With the inclusion of extensive surface precipitation measurements, and intensive observation periods involving aircraft flights and novel radiosonde launches, the complementary observations of AMF2 and SMEAR-II provide a unique opportunity for investigating aerosol-cloud interactions, and cloud-to-precipitation processes. The BAECC dataset will initiate new opportunities for evaluating and improving models of aerosol sources and transport, cloud microphysical processes, and boundary-layer structures.

  18. Hydrocarbon pollution in the sediment from the Jarzouna-Bizerte coastal area of Tunisia (Mediterranean Sea).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zrafi-Nouira, I; Khedir-Ghenim, Z; Zrafi, F; Bahri, R; Cheraeif, I; Rouabhia, M; Saidane-Mosbahi, D

    2008-06-01

    This study investigated the presence and origin of hydrocarbon pollution in industrial waste water sediments found near the Jarzouna (Bizerte, Tunisia) oil refinery. Analyses of surface sediments (layer 1) and deep sediments (layer 2) showed that Total Hydrocarbon (TH) concentrations ranged from 602 +/- 7.638 microg/g in layer-1 to 1270 +/- 2.176 microg/g in layer-2. The results suggest that the deeper the sediment, the higher the level of total hydrocarbon found. The sedimentary Non Aromatic Hydrocarbon (NAH) and Aromatic Hydrocarbon (AH) concentrations ranged from 66.22 +/- 1.516 to 211.82 +/- 10.670 microg/g for NAH, and from 13.84 +/- 0.180 to 115.60 +/- 2.479 microg/g for AH. The high variability of these concentrations was associated with the location of the sediment collection sites. Aliphatic biomarker analysis revealed petroleum contamination close to the refinery rejection site, and biogenic sources further away. Petroleum contamination may be associated with increased industrial activity in the area of Jarzouna-Bizerte in the Mediterranean Sea.

  19. Methanogenic degradation of petroleum hydrocarbons in subsurface environments remediation, heavy oil formation, and energy recovery.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gray, N D; Sherry, A; Hubert, C; Dolfing, J; Head, I M

    2010-01-01

    Hydrocarbons are common constituents of surface, shallow, and deep-subsurface environments. Under anaerobic conditions, hydrocarbons can be degraded to methane by methanogenic microbial consortia. This degradation process is widespread in the geosphere. In comparison with other anaerobic processes, methanogenic hydrocarbon degradation is more sustainable over geological time scales because replenishment of an exogenous electron acceptor is not required. As a consequence, this process has been responsible for the formation of the world's vast deposits of heavy oil, which far exceed conventional oil assets such as those found in the Middle East. Methanogenic degradation is also a potentially important component of attenuation in hydrocarbon contamination plumes. Studies of the organisms, syntrophic partnerships, mechanisms, and geochemical signatures associated with methanogenic hydrocarbon degradation have identified common themes and diagnostic markers for this process in the subsurface. These studies have also identified the potential to engineer methanogenic processes to enhance the recovery of energy assets as biogenic methane from residual oils stranded in petroleum systems. Copyright 2010 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  20. Measuring Trace Hydrocarbons in Silanes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lesser, L. A.

    1984-01-01

    Technique rapid and uses standard analytical equipment. Silane gas containing traces of hydrocarbons injected into carrier gas of moist nitrogen having about 0.2 percent water vapor. Carrier, water and silane pass through short column packed with powdered sodium hydroxide which combines moisture and silane to form nonvolatile sodium silicate. Carrier gas free of silane but containing nonreactive hydrocarbons, pass to silica-gel column where chromatographic separation takes place. Hydrocarbons measured by FID.

  1. Time Resolved Measurements of Primary Biogenic Aerosol Particles in Amazonia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wollny, A. G.; Garland, R.; Pöschl, U.

    2009-04-01

    Biogenic aerosols are ubiquitous in the Earth's atmosphere and they influence atmospheric chemistry and physics, the biosphere, climate, and public health. They play an important role in the spread of biological organisms and reproductive materials, and they can cause or enhance human, animal, and plant diseases. Moreover, they influence the Earth's energy budget by scattering and absorbing radiation, and they can initiate the formation of clouds and precipitation as cloud condensation and ice nuclei. The composition, abundance, and origin of biogenic aerosol particles and components are, however, still not well understood and poorly quantified. Prominent examples of primary biogenic aerosol particles, which are directly emitted from the biosphere to the atmosphere, are pollen, bacteria, fungal spores, viruses, and fragments of animals and plants. During the Amazonian Aerosol Characterization Experiment (AMAZE-08) a large number of aerosol and gas-phase measurements were taken on a remote site close to Manaus, Brazil, during a period of five weeks in February and March 2008. This presented study is focused on data from an ultraviolet aerodynamic particle sizer (UVAPS, TSI inc.) that has been deployed for the first time in Amazonia. In this instrument, particle counting and aerodynamic sizing over the range of 0.5-20 µm are complemented by the measurement of UV fluorescence at 355 nm (excitation) and 420-575 nm (emission), respectively. Fluorescence at these wavelengths is characteristic for reduced pyridine nucleotides (e.g., NAD(P)H) and for riboflavin, which are specific for living cells. Thus particles exhibiting fluorescence signals can be regarded as "viable aerosols" or "fluorescent bioparticles" (FBAP), and their concentration can be considered as lower limit for the actual abundance of primary biogenic aerosol particles. Data from the UVAPS were averaged over 5 minute time intervals. The presence of bioparticles in the observed size range has been

  2. Fractional separation of hydrocarbon vapours

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1937-07-10

    A process is described for converting higher boiling hydrocarbons to lower boiling hydrocarbons by subjecting them at elevated temperatures to a conversion operation, then separating the higher and lower boiling fractions. The separation takes place while the reaction products are maintained in the vapor phase by contact with a mass of solid porous material which has little or no catalytic activity but does have a preferential absorption property for higher boiling hydrocarbons so that the lower boiling part of the reaction products pass through the separation zone while the heavier hydrocarbons are retained. The separation is accomplished without substantial loss of heat of these reaction products.

  3. Distribution of aliphatic hydrocarbons, polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons and organochlorinated pollutants in deep-sea sediments of the Southern Cretan margin, Eastern Mediterranean Sea: a baseline assessment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mandalakis, Manolis; Polymenakou, Paraskevi N; Tselepides, Anastasios; Lampadariou, Nikolaos

    2014-07-01

    Deep sediments from the southern Cretan margin were analyzed to establish baseline levels for various types of organic pollutants before the anticipated intensification of anthropogenic activities. The total concentration of aliphatic hydrocarbons (ΣAH:326-3758ngg(-1), dry weight) was similar to those reported for deep sediments of the western Mediterranean Sea, while considerably lower levels were measured for polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (ΣPAH:9-60ngg(-1)). Source-diagnostic ratios suggested that the aliphatic hydrocarbons in sediments were mainly of terrestrial biogenic origin, while polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons stemmed from the deposition of long-range transported combustion aerosols. Among the organochlorinated compounds analyzed, β-hexachlorocyclohexane (β-HCH:222-7052pgg(-1)), 1,1,1-trichloro-2,2-bis(4-chlorophenyl)ethane (p,p'-DDT:37-2236pgg(-1)) and polychlorinated biphenyls (ΣPCB:38-1182pgg(-1)) showed the highest abundance in sediments. The presence of HCHs and PCBs was attributed to historical inputs that have undergone extensive weathering, whereas an ongoing fresh input was suggested for p,p'-DDT. Multiple linear regression analysis revealed that the levels of the various pollutants in sediments were controlled by different factors, but with organic carbon content playing a prominent role in most cases. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  4. 40K in the Black Sea: a proxy to estimate biogenic sedimentation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gulin, S.B.; Gulina, L.V.; Sidorov, I.G.; Proskurnin, V.Yu.; Duka, M.S.; Moseichenko, I.N.; Rodina, E.A.

    2014-01-01

    An approach to estimate the rate of biogenic sedimentation in the Black Sea using the naturally occurring radionuclide 40 K has been considered. It allows assessment of the contribution of suspended matter of biological origin to the overall sediment accumulation in the Black Sea coastal, shelf and deep-water areas. Based upon this method, a relationship between the biogenic fraction of the seabed sediments and the water depth has been established with a view to differentiating the contributions of allochthonous and autochthonous suspended matter to the sedimentation rate. Overall, 40 K can be considered as an easily applicable proxy to assess sedimentation rate of biogenic fraction of particulate matter in marine environments. - Highlights: • 40 K-based approach was developed to assess biogenic sedimentation in the Black Sea. • 40 K-derived relationship between biogenic sedimentation and water depth was traced. • 40 K is an easily applicable proxy to estimate rate of biogenic sedimentation in sea

  5. Process for preparing hydrocarbons

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Krauch, C; Anther, E; Pier, M

    1926-04-07

    A process is described for the conversion of coal of all kinds, wood, oil, shale, as well as other carbonaceous materials into liquid hydrocarbons in two steps, characterized by treatment of the coal and so forth with a stream of hydrogen or hydrogen-containing gases at raised temperatures and raised pressures and producing a tarry product which, after separation of the ashlike residue, is converted by a further treatment, in the presence of catalysts, with hydrogen or hydrogen-containing gases at raised temperature and pressure, largely into low-boiling products.

  6. Recovering valuable liquid hydrocarbons

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pier, M

    1931-06-11

    A process for recovering valuable liquid hydrocarbons from coking coal, mineral coal, or oil shale through treatment with hydrogen under pressure at elevated temperature is described. Catalysts and grinding oil may be used in the process if necessary. The process provides for deashing the coal prior to hydrogenation and for preventing the coking and swelling of the deashed material. During the treatment with hydrogen, the coal is either mixed with coal low in bituminous material, such as lean coal or active coal, as a diluent or the bituminous constituents which cause the coking and swelling are removed by extraction with solvents. (BLM)

  7. Hydrogen production from hydrocarbons

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Docekal, J

    1986-01-01

    Hydrogen is an important feed stock for chemical and petroleum industries, in addition to being considered as the energy carrier of the future. At the present time the feed stock hydrogen is mainly manufactured from hydrocarbons using steam reforming. In steam reforming two processes are employed, the conventional process and PSA (pressure swing adsorption) process. These two processes are described and compared. The results show that the total costs and the maintenance costs are lower for the PSA process, the capital outlay is lower for the conventional process, and the operating costs are similar for the two processes.

  8. Hydrocarbon contamination of coastal sediments from the Sfax area (Tunisia), Mediterranean Sea.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Louati, A; Elleuch, B; Kallel, M; Saliot, A; Dagaut, J; Oudot, J

    2001-06-01

    The coastal area off the city of Sfax (730,000 inhabitants), well-known for fisheries and industrial activities, receives high inputs of organic matter mostly anthropogenic. Eighteen stations were selected in the vicinity of the direct discharge of industrial sewage effluents in the sea in order to study the spatial distribution of the organic contamination. Surface sediments sampled in the shallow shelf were analysed for hydrocarbons by Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy, gas chromatography and gas chromatography/mass spectrometry. Total hydrocarbon distributions revealed high contamination as compared to other coastal Mediterranean sites, with an average concentration of 1865 ppm/dry weight sediment. Gas chromatographic distribution patterns, values of unresolved mixture/n-alkane ratio and distributions of steranes and hopanes confirmed a petroleum contamination of the Arabian light crude oil type. Biogenic compounds were also identified with a series of short-chain carbon-numbered n-alkenes in the carbon range 16-24.

  9. Control of Biogenic Amines in Fermented Sausages: Role of Starter Cultures

    Science.gov (United States)

    Latorre-Moratalla, M.L.; Bover-Cid, Sara; Veciana-Nogués, M.T.; Vidal-Carou, M.C.

    2012-01-01

    Biogenic amines show biological activity and exert undesirable physiological effects when absorbed at high concentrations. Biogenic amines are mainly formed by microbial decarboxylation of amino acids and thus are usually present in a wide range of foods, fermented sausages being one of the major biogenic amine sources. The use of selected starter cultures is one of the best technological measures to control aminogenesis during meat fermentation. Although with variable effectiveness, several works show the ability of some starters to render biogenic amine-free sausages. In this paper, the effect of different starter culture is reviewed and the factors determining their performance discussed. PMID:22586423

  10. Control of biogenic amines in fermented sausages: role of starter cultures

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mariluz eLatorre-Moratalla

    2012-05-01

    Full Text Available Biogenic amines show biological activity and exert undesirable physiological effects when absorbed at high concentrations. Biogenic amines are mainly formed by microbial decarboxylation of amino acids and thus are usually present in a wide range of foods, fermented sausages being one of the major biogenic amine sources. The use of selected starter cultures is one of the best technological measures to control aminogenesis during meat fermentation. Although with variable effectiveness, several works show the ability of some starters to render biogenic amine-free sausages. In this paper, the effect of different starter culture is reviewed and the factors determining their performance discussed.

  11. LBA-ECO TG-02 Biogenic VOC Emissions from Brazilian Amazon Forest and Pasture Sites

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — ABSTRACT: This data set reports concentrations of biogenic volatile organic compounds (BVOCs) collected from tethered balloon-sampling platforms above selected...

  12. LBA-ECO TG-02 Biogenic VOC Emissions from Brazilian Amazon Forest and Pasture Sites

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — This data set reports concentrations of biogenic volatile organic compounds (BVOCs) collected from tethered balloon-sampling platforms above selected forest and...

  13. Determination of biogenic component in waste and liquid fuels by the 14C method

    OpenAIRE

    Krajcar Bronić, Ines; Barešić, Jadranka; Horvatinčić, Nada

    2015-01-01

    Intensive use of fossil fuels for energy production and transport during 20th century caused an increase of CO2 concentration in the atmosphere. The increase of CO2 concentration can be slowed down by the use of biogenic materials for energy production and/or transport. One of the method for determination of the fraction of the biogenic component in any type of fuel or waste is the 14C method, which is based on different content of 14C in biogenic and in fossil component: while the biogenic c...

  14. Determination of polynuclear hydrocarbons

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lodge, Jr, J P

    1963-01-01

    At the present time, the method of choice for the determination of polynuclear hydrocarbons appears to be the following, (a) extraction of the benzene-soluble fraction from the gross collected particulate matter, (b) one pass through a chromatographic column of partially deactivated alumina, (c) spectral examination of the fractions and (d) the application of appropriate chemical tests as indicated by the previous step. Using this method, the presence of pyrene, fluoranthene, one of the benzofluorenes, chrysens, benz(a)anthracene, benzo(a)pyrene, benzo(e)pyrene, benzo(k)fluoranthene, anthanthrene, and coronene was demonstrated in the air of numerous American cities, and benzo(a)pyrene was measured at some 130 sites. Invaluable as such accurate determinations may be for research purposes, they are still too costly and time-consuming for routine survey purposes. While studies on the subject are by no means complete, they indicate the validity of piperonal chloride test as a general index of polycyclic hydrocarbons. This procedure is described in this paper. 7 references.

  15. Hydrocarbons: source of energy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Imarisio, G.; Frias, M.; Bemtgen, J.M.

    1989-01-01

    Hydrocarbons are at present the single most important source of energy, since they are the most versatile and widely used. It is expected that their importance will extend well into the next century and therefore it is essential to provide for all those improvements which will extend their availability and usefulness. The sub-programme ''Optimization of the production and utilization of hydrocarbons'' (within the Non-Nuclear Energy R and D Programme of the European Communities) is pursuing a number of R and D topics aimed at the above-mentioned results. It is implemented by means of shared-cost R and D contracts. At this first Seminar held in Lyon (France) from 21-23 September, 1988, all contractors of the sub-programme presented the state of progress of their R and D projects. These proceedings comprise all the papers presented at the Seminar. The section on oilfield exploration includes a report of work on the interpretation of nuclear logs by means of mathematical models. (author)

  16. Steam hydrocarbon cracking and reforming

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Golombok, M.

    2004-01-01

    Many industrial chemical processes are taught as distinct contrasting reactions when in fact the unifying comparisons are greater than the contrasts. We examine steam hydrocarbon reforming and steam hydrocarbon cracking as an example of two processes that operate under different chemical reactivity

  17. A refined method for the calculation of the Non-Methane Volatile Organic Compound emission estimate from Domestic Solvent Usage in Ireland from 1992 to 2014 - A case study for Ireland

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barry, Stephen; O'Regan, Bernadette

    2016-08-01

    This study describes a new methodology to calculate Non-Methane Volatile Organic Compounds from Domestic Solvent Use including Fungicides over the period 1992-2014. Improved emissions data compiled at a much more refined level can help policy-makers develop more effective policy's to address environmental issues. However, a number of problems were found when member states attempt to use national statistics for Domestic Solvent Use including Fungicides. For instance, EMEP/EEA (2013) provides no guidance regarding which activity data should be used, resulting in emission estimates being potentially inconsistent and un-comparable. Also, previous methods and emission factors described in the EMEP/EEA (2013) guidebook do not exactly match data collected by state agencies. This makes using national statistics difficult. In addition, EMEP/EEA (2013) use broader categories than necessary (e.g. Cosmetics Aerosol/Non Aerosol) to estimate emissions while activity data is available at a more refined level scale (e.g. Personal Cleaning Products, Hair Products, Cosmetics, Deodorants and Perfumes). This can make identifying the drivers of emissions unclear. This study builds upon Tzanidakis et al. (2012) whereby it provides a method for collecting activity data from state statistics, developed country specific emission factors based on a survey of 177 Irish products and importantly, used a new method to account for the volatility of organic compounds found in commonly available domestic solvent containing products. This is the first study to account for volatility based on the characteristics of organic compounds and therefore is considered a more accurate method of accounting for emissions from this emission source. The results of this study can also be used to provide a simple method for other member parties to account for the volatility of organic compounds using sectorial adjustment factors described here. For comparison purposes, emission estimates were calculated using the

  18. Arsenic removal from acidic solutions with biogenic ferric precipitates

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ahoranta, Sarita H., E-mail: sarita.ahoranta@tut.fi [Department of Chemistry and Bioengineering, Tampere University of Technology, P.O. Box 541, FI-33101 Tampere (Finland); Kokko, Marika E., E-mail: marika.kokko@tut.fi [Department of Chemistry and Bioengineering, Tampere University of Technology, P.O. Box 541, FI-33101 Tampere (Finland); Papirio, Stefano, E-mail: stefano.papirio@unicas.it [Department of Chemistry and Bioengineering, Tampere University of Technology, P.O. Box 541, FI-33101 Tampere (Finland); Özkaya, Bestamin, E-mail: bozkaya@yildiz.edu.tr [Department of Chemistry and Bioengineering, Tampere University of Technology, P.O. Box 541, FI-33101 Tampere (Finland); Department of Environmental Engineering, Yildiz Technical University, Davutpasa Campus 34220, Esenler, Istanbul (Turkey); Puhakka, Jaakko A., E-mail: jaakko.puhakka@tut.fi [Department of Chemistry and Bioengineering, Tampere University of Technology, P.O. Box 541, FI-33101 Tampere (Finland)

    2016-04-05

    Highlights: • Continuous and rapid arsenic removal with biogenic jarosite was achieved at pH 3.0. • Arsenic removal was inefficient below pH 2.4 due to reduced Fe–As co-precipitation. • As(V) had better sorption characteristics than As(III). • Biogenic jarosite adsorbed arsenic more effectively than synthetic jarosite. - Abstract: Treatment of acidic solution containing 5 g/L of Fe(II) and 10 mg/L of As(III) was studied in a system consisting of a biological fluidized-bed reactor (FBR) for iron oxidation, and a gravity settler for iron precipitation and separation of the ferric precipitates. At pH 3.0 and FBR retention time of 5.7 h, 96–98% of the added Fe(II) precipitated (99.1% of which was jarosite). The highest iron oxidation and precipitation rates were 1070 and 28 mg/L/h, respectively, and were achieved at pH 3.0. Subsequently, the effect of pH on arsenic removal through sorption and/or co-precipitation was examined by gradually decreasing solution pH from 3.0 to 1.6 (feed pH). At pH 3.0, 2.4 and 1.6, the highest arsenic removal efficiencies obtained were 99.5%, 80.1% and 7.1%, respectively. As the system had ferric precipitates in excess, decreased arsenic removal was likely due to reduced co-precipitation at pH < 2.4. As(III) was partially oxidized to As(V) in the system. In shake flask experiments, As(V) sorbed onto jarosite better than As(III). Moreover, the sorption capacity of biogenic jarosite was significantly higher than that of synthetic jarosite. The developed bioprocess simultaneously and efficiently removes iron and arsenic from acidic solutions, indicating potential for mining wastewater treatment.

  19. Post-speleogenetic biogenic modification of Gomantong Caves, Sabah, Borneo

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lundberg, Joyce; McFarlane, Donald A.

    2012-07-01

    The Gomantong cave system of eastern Sabah, Malaysia, is well-known as an important site for harvesting edible bird-nests and, more recently, as a tourist attraction. Although the biology of the Gomantong system has been repeatedly studied, very little attention has been given to the geomorphology. Here, we report on the impact of geobiological modification in the development of the modern aspect of the cave, an important but little recognized feature of tropical caves. Basic modeling of the metabolic outputs from bats and birds (CO2, H2O, heat) reveals that post-speleogenetic biogenic corrosion can erode bedrock by between ~ 3.0 mm/ka (1 m/~300 ka) and ~ 4.6 mm/ka (1 m/~200 ka). Modeling at high densities of bats yields rates of corrosion of ~ 34 mm/ka (or 1 m/~30 ka). Sub-aerial corrosion creates a previously undescribed speleological feature, the apse-flute, which is semicircular in cross-section and ~ 80 cm wide. It is vertical regardless of rock properties, developing in parallel but apparently completely independently, and often unbroken from roof to floor. They end at a blind hemi-spherical top with no extraneous water source. Half-dome ceiling conch pockets are remnants of previous apse-fluting. Sub-cutaneous corrosion creates the floor-level guano notch formed by organic acid dissolution of bedrock in contact with guano. Speleogenetic assessment suggests that as much as 70-95% of the total volume of the modern cave may have been opened by direct subaerial biogenic dissolution and biogenically-induced collapse, and by sub-cutaneous removal of limestone, over a timescale of 1-2 Ma.

  20. Bioaccumulation of petroleum hydrocarbons in arctic amphipods in the oil development area of the Alaskan Beaufort Sea.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Neff, Jerry M; Durell, Gregory S

    2012-04-01

    An objective of a multiyear monitoring program, sponsored by the US Department of the Interior, Bureau of Ocean Energy Management was to examine temporal and spatial changes in chemical and biological characteristics of the Arctic marine environment resulting from offshore oil exploration and development activities in the development area of the Alaskan Beaufort Sea. To determine if petroleum hydrocarbons from offshore oil operations are entering the Beaufort Sea food web, we measured concentrations of hydrocarbons in tissues of amphipods, Anonyx nugax, sediments, Northstar crude oil, and coastal peat, collected between 1999 and 2006 throughout the development area. Mean concentrations of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAH), saturated hydrocarbons (SHC), and sterane and triterpane petroleum biomarkers (StTr) were not significantly different in amphipods near the Northstar oil production facility, before and after it came on line in 2001, and in amphipods from elsewhere in the study area. Forensic analysis of the profiles (relative composition and concentrations) of the 3 hydrocarbon classes revealed that hydrocarbon compositions were different in amphipods, surface sediments where the amphipods were collected, Northstar crude oil, and peat from the deltas of 4 North Slope rivers. Amphipods and sediments contained a mixture of petrogenic, pyrogenic, and biogenic PAH. The SHC in amphipods were dominated by pristane derived from zooplankton, indicating that the SHC were primarily from the amphipod diet of zooplankton detritus. The petroleum biomarker StTr profiles did not resemble those in Northstar crude oil. The forensic analysis revealed that hydrocarbons in amphipod tissues were not from oil production at Northstar. Hydrocarbons in amphipod tissues were primarily from their diet and from river runoff and coastal erosion of natural diagenic and fossil terrestrial materials, including seep oils, kerogens, and peat. Offshore oil and gas exploration and development

  1. PROSPECTS OF MODIFICATION OF BALNEOLOGICAL REMEDIES WITH BIOGENEOUS METALLS NANOPARTICLES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. B. Mamuchieva

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available The article considers the issues of mineral waters modification with biogeneous metals nanoparticles, since they have extremely important meaning for human's organism and their production in green and biologically compliant form is hard to overestimate. Russian scientists discovered low toxicity of these nanomaterials. So the use of biogeneuos metals in form of nanoparticles allows lowering of their toxicity compared with its use in forms of ions.

  2. Extracellular Proteins Limit the Dispersal of BiogenicNanoparticles

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Moreau, John W.; Weber, Peter K.; Martin, Michael C.; Gilbert,Benjamin; Hutcheon, Ian D.; Banfield, Jillian F.

    2007-04-27

    High spatial-resolution secondaryion microprobespectrometry, synchrotron radiation Fourier-transform infraredspectroscopy and polyacrylamide gel analysis demonstrate the intimateassociation of proteins with spheroidal aggregates of biogenic zincsulfide nanocrystals, an example of extracellular biomineralization.Experiments involving synthetic ZnS nanoparticles and representativeamino acids indicate a driving role for cysteine in rapid nanoparticleaggregation. These findings suggest that microbially-derivedextracellular proteins can limit dispersal of nanoparticulatemetal-bearing phases, such as the mineral products of bioremediation,that may otherwise be transported away from their source by subsurfacefluid flow.

  3. Carbon nanomaterial based electrochemical sensors for biogenic amines

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yang, Xiao; He, Xiulan; Li, Fangping; Fei, Junjie; Feng, Bo; Ding, Yonglan

    2013-01-01

    This review describes recent advances in the use of carbon nanomaterials for electroanalytical detection of biogenic amines (BAs). It starts with a short introduction into carbon nanomaterials such as carbon nanotubes, graphene, nanodiamonds, carbon nanofibers, fullerenes, and their composites. Next, electrochemical sensing schemes are discussed for various BAs including dopamine, serotonin, epinephrine, norepinephrine, tyramine, histamine and putrescine. Examples are then given for methods for simultaneous detection of various BAs. Finally, we discuss the current and future challenges of carbon nanomaterial-based electrochemical sensors for BAs. The review contains 175 references. (author)

  4. Pulmonary extraction of biogenic amines during septic shock

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kerstein, M.D.; Kohler, J.; Gould, S.; Moseley, P.

    1982-01-01

    The effect of live Escherichia coli on the pulmonary extraction of the biogenic amines 14 C 5-hydroxytryptamine, (5-HT) and 3 H-epinephrine was investigated. The labeled isotopes were injected into a central venous catheter and collected from an aortic catheter. One hundred per cent of the labeled epinephrine was recovered in the control and septic state. Only 32.8 +/- 3.6% SEM of the 5-hydroxytryptamine was recovered before sepsis and 42.5 +/- 4.9% SEM after sepsis. During sepsis, mean arterial pressure fell to 58 mm Hg from 121 mm Hg. Pulmonary shunt increased from .7 +/- .05 SEM to .33 +/- .09 SEM

  5. Are biogenic emissions a significant source of summertime atmospheric toluene in the rural Northeastern United States?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. L. White

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available Summertime atmospheric toluene enhancements at Thompson Farm in the rural northeastern United States were unexpected and resulted in a toluene/benzene seasonal pattern that was distinctly different from that of other anthropogenic volatile organic compounds. Consequently, three hydrocarbon sources were investigated for potential contributions to the enhancements during 2004–2006. These included: (1 increased warm season fuel evaporation coupled with changes in reformulated gasoline (RFG content to meet US EPA summertime volatility standards, (2 local industrial emissions and (3 local vegetative emissions. The contribution of fuel evaporation emission to summer toluene mixing ratios was estimated to range from 16 to 30 pptv d−1, and did not fully account for the observed enhancements (20–50 pptv in 2004–2006. Static chamber measurements of alfalfa, a crop at Thompson Farm, and dynamic branch enclosure measurements of loblolly pine trees in North Carolina suggested vegetative emissions of 5 and 12 pptv d−1 for crops and coniferous trees, respectively. Toluene emission rates from alfalfa are potentially much larger as these plants were only sampled at the end of the growing season. Measured biogenic fluxes were on the same order of magnitude as the influence from gasoline evaporation and industrial sources (regional industrial emissions estimated at 7 pptv d−1 and indicated that local vegetative emissions make a significant contribution to summertime toluene enhancements. Additional studies are needed to characterize the variability and factors controlling toluene emissions from alfalfa and other vegetation types throughout the growing season.

  6. Secondary organic aerosol origin in an urban environment: influence of biogenic and fuel combustion precursors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Minguillón, M C; Pérez, N; Marchand, N; Bertrand, A; Temime-Roussel, B; Agrios, K; Szidat, S; van Drooge, B; Sylvestre, A; Alastuey, A; Reche, C; Ripoll, A; Marco, E; Grimalt, J O; Querol, X

    2016-07-18

    Source contributions of organic aerosol (OA) are still not fully understood, especially in terms of quantitative distinction between secondary OA formed from anthropogenic precursors vs. that formed from natural precursors. In order to investigate the OA origin, a field campaign was carried out in Barcelona in summer 2013, including two periods characterized by low and high traffic conditions. Volatile organic compound (VOC) concentrations were higher during the second period, especially aromatic hydrocarbons related to traffic emissions, which showed a marked daily cycle peaking during traffic rush hours, similarly to black carbon (BC) concentrations. Biogenic VOC (BVOC) concentrations showed only minor changes from the low to the high traffic period, and their intra-day variability was related to temperature and solar radiation cycles, although a decrease was observed for monoterpenes during the day. The organic carbon (OC) concentrations increased from the first to the second period, and the fraction of non-fossil OC as determined by (14)C analysis increased from 43% to 54% of the total OC. The combination of (14)C analysis and Aerosol Chemical Speciation Monitor (ACSM) OA source apportionment showed that the fossil OC was mainly secondary (>70%) except for the last sample, when the fossil secondary OC only represented 51% of the total fossil OC. The fraction of non-fossil secondary OC increased from 37% of total secondary OC for the first sample to 60% for the last sample. This enhanced formation of non-fossil secondary OA (SOA) could be attributed to the reaction of BVOC precursors with NOx emitted from road traffic (or from its nocturnal derivative nitrate that enhances night-time semi-volatile oxygenated OA (SV-OOA)), since NO2 concentrations increased from 19 to 42 μg m(-3) from the first to the last sample.

  7. Inflammatory responses to secondary organic aerosols (SOA generated from biogenic and anthropogenic precursors

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    W. Y. Tuet

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available Cardiopulmonary health implications resulting from exposure to secondary organic aerosols (SOA, which comprise a significant fraction of ambient particulate matter (PM, have received increasing interest in recent years. In this study, alveolar macrophages were exposed to SOA generated from the photooxidation of biogenic and anthropogenic precursors (isoprene, α-pinene, β-caryophyllene, pentadecane, m-xylene, and naphthalene under different formation conditions (RO2 + HO2 vs. RO2 + NO dominant, dry vs. humid. Various cellular responses were measured, including reactive oxygen and nitrogen species (ROS/RNS production and secreted levels of cytokines, tumor necrosis factor-α (TNF-α and interleukin-6 (IL-6. SOA precursor identity and formation condition affected all measured responses in a hydrocarbon-specific manner. With the exception of naphthalene SOA, cellular responses followed a trend where TNF-α levels reached a plateau with increasing IL-6 levels. ROS/RNS levels were consistent with relative levels of TNF-α and IL-6, due to their respective inflammatory and anti-inflammatory effects. Exposure to naphthalene SOA, whose aromatic-ring-containing products may trigger different cellular pathways, induced higher levels of TNF-α and ROS/RNS than suggested by the trend. Distinct cellular response patterns were identified for hydrocarbons whose photooxidation products shared similar chemical functionalities and structures, which suggests that the chemical structure (carbon chain length and functionalities of photooxidation products may be important for determining cellular effects. A positive nonlinear correlation was also detected between ROS/RNS levels and previously measured DTT (dithiothreitol activities for SOA samples. In the context of ambient samples collected during summer and winter in the greater Atlanta area, all laboratory-generated SOA produced similar or higher levels of ROS/RNS and DTT activities. These results

  8. Canada's hydrocarbon processing evolution

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wise, T.H.; Horton, R.

    2000-01-01

    The development of petroleum refining, petrochemicals and natural gas industries in Canada are discussed together with future issues and prospects. Figures give data on (a) refined products trade 1998; (b) refining capacity; (c) product demand 1980-1999; (d) refinery crude runs and capacity; (e) refining and marketing, historical returns 1993-1999; (f) processing power index for Canada and USA; (g) ethylene capacity; (eye) Montreal petrochemical capacities; (j) Sarnia petrochemical capacities in 2000; (k) Alberta petrochemicals capacities 2001; (l) ethylene net equivalent trade; (m) ethylene costs 1999 for W. Canada and other countries. It was concluded that the hydrocarbon processing business continues to expand in Canada and natural gas processing is likely to increase. Petrochemicals may expand in W. Canada, possibly using feed stock from the Far North. Offshore developments may stimulate new processing on the E. Coast

  9. Hydrogenating gaseous hydrocarbons

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nicolardot, P L.F.

    1930-08-06

    Gaseous hydrocarbons obtained by the destructive distillation of carbonaceous materials are simultaneously desulfurized and hydrogenated by passing them at 350 to 500/sup 0/C, mixed with carbon monoxide and water vapor over lime mixed with metallic oxides present in sufficient amount to absorb the carbon dioxide as it is formed. Oxides of iron, copper, silver, cobalt, and metals of the rare earths may be used and are mixed with the lime to form a filling material of small pieces filling the reaction vessel which may have walls metallized with copper and zinc dust. The products are condensed and fixed with absorbents, e.g. oils, activated carbon, silica gels. The metallic masses may be regenerated by a hot air stream and by heating in inert gases.

  10. Treating hydrocarbon oils

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Scott, R; MacIvor, W

    1869-09-01

    The treatment of hydrocarbon oils, such as coal or shale oils, paraffin oils, and petroleum, either in the crude or more or less refined state has the object of reducing the specific gravity and otherwise improving the qualities of such oils. The oil to be treated is put into any ordinary still and distilled. The vapor escaping during the distillation is passed through one or more heating vessels or chambers and exposed to the heat necessary to produce the change. The heating vessels or chambers may be made of metal, clay, or any other material adapted to endure heat, and they may be made of any desired form, or they may be constituted of a coil of metal pipes or a series of tubes such as are used for heating air for blast furnaces.

  11. Climate variability and trends in biogenic emissions imprinted on satellite observations of formaldehyde from SCIAMACHY and OMI sounders

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stavrakou, Trissevgeni; Müller, Jean-François; Bauwens, Maite; De Smedt, Isabelle; Van Roozendael, Michel

    2017-04-01

    Biogenic hydrocarbon emissions (BVOC) respond to temperature, photosynthetically active radiation, leaf area index, as well as to factors like leaf age, soil moisture, and ambient CO2 concentrations. Isoprene is the principal contributor to BVOC emissions and accounts for about half of the estimated total emissions on the global scale, whereas monoterpenes are also significant over boreal ecosystems. Due to their large emissions, their major role in the tropospheric ozone formation and contribution to secondary organic aerosols, BVOCs are highly relevant to both air quality and climate. Their oxidation in the atmosphere leads to the formation of formaldehyde (HCHO) at high yields. Satellite observations of HCHO abundances can therefore inform us on the spatial and temporal variability of the underlying sources and on their emission trends. The main objective of this study is to investigate the interannual variability and trends of observed HCHO columns during the growing season, when BVOC emissions are dominant, and interpret them in terms of BVOC emission flux variability. To this aim, we use the MEGAN-MOHYCAN model driven by the ECMWF ERA-interim meteorology to calculate bottom-up BVOC fluxes on the global scale (Müller et al. 2008, Stavrakou et al. 2014) over 2003-2015, and satellite HCHO observations from SCIAMACHY (2003-2011) and OMI (2005-2015) instruments (De Smedt et al. 2008, 2015). We focus on mid- and high-latitude regions of the Northern Hemisphere in summertime, as well as tropical regions taking care to exclude biomass burning events which also lead to HCHO column enhancements. We find generally a very strong temporal correlation (>0.7) between the simulated BVOC emissions and the observed HCHO columns over temperate and boreal ecosystems. Positive BVOC emission trends associated to warming climate are found in almost all regions and are well corroborated by the observations. Furthermore, using OMI HCHO observations over 2005-2015 as constraints in

  12. Biogenic emissions of isoprenoids and NO in China and comparison to anthropogenic emissions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tie Xuexi; Li Guohui; Ying, Zhuming; Guenther, Alex; Madronich, Sasha

    2006-01-01

    In this study, a regional dynamical model (WRF) is used to drive biogenic emission models to calculate high resolution (10 x 10 km) biogenic emissions of isoprene (C 5 H 8 ), monoterpenes (C 1 H 16 ), and nitric oxide (NO) in China. This high resolution biogenic inventory will be available for the community to study the effect of biogenic emissions on photochemical oxidants in China. The biogenic emissions are compared to anthropogenic emissions to gain insight on the potential impact of the biogenic emissions on tropospheric chemistry, especially ozone production in this region. The results show that the biogenic emissions in China exhibit strongly diurnal, seasonal, and spatial variations. The isoprenoid (including both isoprene and monoterpenes) emissions are closely correlated to tree density and strongly vary with season and local time. During winter (January), the biogenic isoprenoid emissions are the lowest, resulting from lower temperature and solar radiation, and highest in summer (July) due to higher temperature and solar radiation. The biogenic NO emissions are also higher during summer and lower during winter, but the magnitude of the seasonal variation is smaller than the emissions of isoprene and monoterpenes. The biogenic emissions of NO are widely spread out in the northern, eastern, and southern China regions, where high-density agricultural soil lands are located. Both biogenic NO and isoprenoid emissions are very small in western China. The calculated total biogenic emission budget is smaller than the total anthropogenic VOC emission budget in China. The biogenic isoprenoid and anthropogenic VOC emissions are 10.9 and 15.1 Tg year -1 , respectively. The total biogenic and anthropogenic emissions of NO are 5.9 and 11.5 Tg(NO) year -1 , respectively. The study shows that in central eastern China, the estimated biogenic emissions of isoprenoids are very small, and the anthropogenic emissions of VOCs are dominant in this region. However, in

  13. Biogenic emissions of isoprenoids and NO in China and comparison to anthropogenic emissions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tie, Xuexi; Li, Guohui; Ying, Zhuming; Guenther, Alex; Madronich, Sasha

    2006-12-01

    In this study, a regional dynamical model (WRF) is used to drive biogenic emission models to calculate high resolution (10x10 km) biogenic emissions of isoprene (C(5)H(8)), monoterpenes (C(10)H(16)), and nitric oxide (NO) in China. This high resolution biogenic inventory will be available for the community to study the effect of biogenic emissions on photochemical oxidants in China. The biogenic emissions are compared to anthropogenic emissions to gain insight on the potential impact of the biogenic emissions on tropospheric chemistry, especially ozone production in this region. The results show that the biogenic emissions in China exhibit strongly diurnal, seasonal, and spatial variations. The isoprenoid (including both isoprene and monoterpenes) emissions are closely correlated to tree density and strongly vary with season and local time. During winter (January), the biogenic isoprenoid emissions are the lowest, resulting from lower temperature and solar radiation, and highest in summer (July) due to higher temperature and solar radiation. The biogenic NO emissions are also higher during summer and lower during winter, but the magnitude of the seasonal variation is smaller than the emissions of isoprene and monoterpenes. The biogenic emissions of NO are widely spread out in the northern, eastern, and southern China regions, where high-density agricultural soil lands are located. Both biogenic NO and isoprenoid emissions are very small in western China. The calculated total biogenic emission budget is smaller than the total anthropogenic VOC emission budget in China. The biogenic isoprenoid and anthropogenic VOC emissions are 10.9 and 15.1 Tg year(-1), respectively. The total biogenic and anthropogenic emissions of NO are 5.9 and 11.5 Tg(NO) year(-1), respectively. The study shows that in central eastern China, the estimated biogenic emissions of isoprenoids are very small, and the anthropogenic emissions of VOCs are dominant in this region. However, in

  14. Hydrocarbons, PCBs and DDT in the NW Mediterranean deep-sea fish Mora moro

    Science.gov (United States)

    Solé, Montserrat; Porte, Cinta; Albaigés, Joan

    2001-02-01

    Data on aliphatic and polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs), polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) and DDTs in the deep-sea fish Mora moro are reported in relation to the animal's weight/size and tissues (muscle, liver, digestive tube and gills). Fish samples were collected in the Gulf of Lions (NW Mediterranean) at an approximate depth of 1000 m. The concentrations of these organic pollutants followed the trend musclelipid content of the organs. No clear bioaccumulation dependence on fish weight/size was observed for gills, digestive tube and liver when the fat contents of these tissues were taken into account. However, the concentrations in muscle decreased with size, possibly implying a simple dilution effect by the increase of body weight. Hydrocarbons, and particularly PAHs, were strongly depleted in all tissues with respect to organochlorinated compounds if compared with the amounts present in bottom waters and sediment. Smaller specimens displayed for most pollutants qualitatively different patterns than larger fish, which could be attributed to their particular habitat/diet. The aliphatic hydrocarbon profiles suggested that Mora moro was exposed to a more predominant intake of biogenic rather than petrogenic hydrocarbons. The entrance and storage organs exhibited characteristic PAH and PCB distributions, reflecting different bioaccumulation and metabolic pathways. Compared with the profiles currently found in surface fish species, a relatively higher contribution of heavier components, namely hepta- and octochlorinated PCBs, and 4-6-ringed PAHs, was found in the deep-sea fish.

  15. Factors Influencing Biogenic Amines Accumulation in Dairy Products

    Science.gov (United States)

    Linares, Daniel M.; del Río, Beatriz; Ladero, Victor; Martínez, Noelia; Fernández, María; Martín, María Cruz; Álvarez, Miguel A.

    2012-01-01

    Fermented foods are among the food products more often complained of having caused episodes of biogenic amines (BA) poisoning. Concerning milk-based fermented foods, cheese is the main product likely to contain potentially harmful levels of BA, specially tyramine, histamine, and putrescine. Prompted by the increasing awareness of the risks related to dietary uptake of high biogenic amine loads, in this review we report all those elaboration and processing technological aspects affecting BA biosynthesis and accumulation in dairy foods. Improved knowledge of the factors involved in the synthesis and accumulation of BA should lead to a reduction in their incidence in milk products. Synthesis of BA is possible only when three conditions converge: (i) availability of the substrate amino acids; (ii) presence of microorganisms with the appropriate catabolic pathway activated; and (iii) environmental conditions favorable to the decarboxylation activity. These conditions depend on several factors such as milk treatment (pasteurization), use of starter cultures, NaCl concentration, time, and temperature of ripening and preservation, pH, temperature, or post-ripening technological processes, which will be discussed in this chapter. PMID:22783233

  16. Comparative study of biogenic and abiotic iron-containing materials

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cherkezova-Zheleva, Z., E-mail: zzhel@ic.bas.bg; Shopska, M., E-mail: shopska@ic.bas.bg; Paneva, D. [Bulgarian Academy of Sciences, Institute of Catalysis (Bulgaria); Kovacheva, D. [Bulgarian Academy of Sciences, Institute of General and Inorganic Chemistry (Bulgaria); Kadinov, G.; Mitov, I. [Bulgarian Academy of Sciences, Institute of Catalysis (Bulgaria)

    2016-12-15

    Series of iron-based biogenic materials prepared by cultivation of Leptothrix group of bacteria in different feeding media (Sphaerotilus-Leptothrix group of bacteria isolation medium, Adler, Lieske and silicon-iron-glucose-peptone) were studied. Control samples were obtained in the same conditions and procedures but the nutrition media were not infected with bacteria, i.e. they were sterile. Room and low temperature Mössbauer spectroscopy, powder X-ray diffraction (XRD), and infrared spectroscopy (IRS) were used to reveal the composition and physicochemical properties of biomass and respective control samples. Comparative analysis showed differences in their composition and dispersity of present phases. Sample composition included different ratio of nanodimensional iron oxyhydroxide and oxide phases. Relaxation phenomena such as superparamagnetism or collective magnetic excitation behaviour were registered for some of them. The experimental data showed that the biogenic materials were enriched in oxyhydroxides of high dispersion. Catalytic behaviour of a selected biomass and abiotic material were studied in the reaction of CO oxidation. In situ diffuse-reflectance (DR) IRS was used to monitor the phase transformations in the biomass and CO conversion.

  17. Biogenic magnetite as a primary remanence carrier in limestone deposits

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chang, Shih-Bin R.; Kirschvink, Joseph L.; Stolz, John F.

    1987-06-01

    Studies on the microbial communities and magnetic phases of samples collected from carbonate oozes at Sugarloaf Key, FL, U.S.A. and calcareous laminated sediments from Laguna Figueroa, Baja California, Mexico have revealed the existence of magnetotactic bacteria and ultrafine-grained single domain magnetite in both environments. Magnetotactic bacteria were identified by light and electron microscopy. The single domain magnetite was detected by coercivity spectra analysis with a SQUID magnetometer and examined under the transmission electron microscope. The similarity, in terms of size and shape, between the single domain magnetite found in these sediments and the magnetite observed in the bacterial magnetosome from enriched cultures indicates the ultrafine-grained magnetite in these two marine environments was biologically formed. These results, combined with the common occurrences of ultrafine-grained magnetite in limestone deposits detected rock magnetically, suggest biogenic magnetite may be present and contribute to the magnetic remanence in these rocks. Several Cambrian limestone samples, separately collected from Siberia, China, and Kazakhstan, were examined for the presence of bacterial magnetite. Samples from the Lower Cambrian Sinskian Formation at Siberia Platform were found to contain both a large amount of apparently bacterial magnetite particles and a very stable primary magnetic component. Post-Cambrian diagenesis does not seem to affect the microgranulometry of these apparently bacterial magnetite crystals or the magnetic remanence carried by them. Assessing the potential role of biogenic magnetite as a primary remanence carrier in other Phanerozoic limestone deposits ought to be further pursued.

  18. Technological factors affecting biogenic amine content in foods: a review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fausto Gardini

    2016-08-01

    Full Text Available Biogenic amines (BAs are molecules which can be present in foods and, due to their toxicity, can cause adverse effects on the consumers. BAs are generally produced by microbial decarboxylation of amino acids in food products. The most significant BAs occurring in foods are histamine, tyramine, putrescine, cadaverine, tryptamine, 2-phenylethylamine, spermine, spermidine and agmatine. The importance of preventing the excessive accumulation of BAs in food is related to their impact on human health and food quality. Quality criteria in connection with the presence of BAs in food and food products are necessary from a toxicological point of view. This is particularly important in fermented foods in which the massive microbial proliferation required for obtaining specific products is often relater with BA accumulation. In this review, up-to-date information and recent discoveries about technological factors affecting biogenic amine content in foods are reviewed. Specifically, BA forming-microorganism and decarboxylation activity, genetic and metabolic organization of decarboxylases, risk associated to BAs (histamine, tyramine toxicity and other BAs, environmental factors influencing BA formation (temperature, salt concentration, pH. In addition, the technological factors for controlling BA production (use of starter culture, technological additives, effects of packaging, other non-thermal treatments, metabolising BA by microorganisms, effects of pressure treatments on BA formation and antimicrobial substances are addressed.

  19. Biogenic silica in space and time in sediments of Central Indian Ocean

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    Pattan, J.N.; Gupta, S.M.; Mudholkar, A.V.; Parthiban, G.

    rate averages 2.25 x 10/5 g.cm/2.y/1 and it is contributed from 33 to 50% of the total silica. Higher biogenic silica content of the surface sediment is well correlated with Mn, Cu and Ni concentration of the overlying manganese nodules. Higher biogenic...

  20. DEVELOPMENT OF SEASONAL AND ANNUAL BIOGENIC EMISSIONS INVENTORIES FOR THE U.S. AND CANADA

    Science.gov (United States)

    The report describes the development of a biogenic emissions inventory for the U.S. and Canada, to assess the role of biogenic emissions in ozone formation. Emission inventories were developed at hourly and grid (1/4 x 116 degree) level from input data at the same scales. Emissio...

  1. Estimation of biogenic volatile organic compounds emissions in subtropical island--Taiwan.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chang, Ken-Hui; Chen, Tu-Fu; Huang, Ho-Chun

    2005-06-15

    Elevated tropospheric ozone is harmful to human health and plants. It is formed through the photochemical reactions involving volatile organic compounds (VOCs) and nitrogen oxides (NO(x)). The elevated ozone episodes occur mainly in summer months in the United States, while the high-ozone episodes frequently occur during the fall in Taiwan. The unique landscape of Taiwan produces tremendous amounts of biogenic VOCs in the mountain regions that are adjacent to concentrated urban areas. The urban areas, in turn, generate prodigious amounts of anthropogenic emissions. Biogenic VOC emissions have direct influence on tropospheric ozone formation. To explore the air quality problems in Taiwan, this study attempts to develop a biogenic VOC emission model suitable for air quality applications in Taiwan. The emission model is based on the Biogenic Emissions Inventory System Version 2 and coupled with a detailed Taiwan land use database. The 1999 total Taiwan biogenic VOC emissions were estimated at 214,000 metric tons. The emissions of isoprene, monoterpenes, and other VOCs were about 37.2%, 30.4%, and 32.4% of total biogenic VOC emissions, respectively. The annual total biogenic VOC emission per unit area was more than two times the value of that in any European country, implying that detailed emissions estimates in any size of region will benefit the global biogenic emission inventories.

  2. 78 FR 50135 - Soil Biogenics Ltd., File No. 500-1; Order of Suspension of Trading

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-08-16

    ... SECURITIES AND EXCHANGE COMMISSION Soil Biogenics Ltd., File No. 500-1; Order of Suspension of Trading August 14, 2013. It appears to the Securities and Exchange Commission that there is a lack of current and accurate information concerning the securities of Soil Biogenics Ltd. because it has not filed [[Page 50136

  3. Biogenic amine content, histamine-forming bacteria, and adulteration of pork in tuna sausage products.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kung, Hsien-Feng; Tsai, Yung-Hsiang; Chang, Shih-Chih; Hong, Tang-Yao

    2012-10-01

    Twenty-five tuna sausage products were purchased from retail markets in Taiwan. The rates of occurrence of biogenic amines, histamine-forming bacteria, and adulteration by pork and poultry were determined. The average content of various biogenic amines in all tested samples was less than 2.0 mg/100 g (Makaira nigricans (blue marlin).

  4. Biogenic Carbon Fraction of Biogas and Natural Gas Fuel Mixtures Determined with 14C

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Palstra, Sanne W. L.; Meijer, Harro A. J.

    2014-01-01

    This study investigates the accuracy of the radiocarbon-based calculation of the biogenic carbon fraction for different biogas and biofossil gas mixtures. The focus is on the uncertainty in the C-14 reference values for 100% biogenic carbon and on the C-13-based isotope fractionation correction of

  5. Mastocytosis and adverse reactions to biogenic amines and histamine-releasing foods : what is the evidence?

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Viieg-Boerstra, BJ; van der Heide, S; Elberink, JNGO; Kluin-Nelemans, JC; Dubois, AEJ

    2005-01-01

    Background: It has been suggested that normal concentrations of biogenic amines and 'histamine-releasing foods' may exacerbate symptoms in mastocytosis. The purpose of this study was to look for scientific evidence in the literature on diets restricted in biogenic amines and histamine-releasing

  6. Constraining biogenic silica dissolution in marine sediments: a comparison between diagenetic models and experimental dissolution rates

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Khalil, K.; Rabouille, C.; Gallinari, M.; Soetaert, K.E.R.; DeMaster, D.J.; Ragueneau, O.

    2007-01-01

    The processes controlling preservation and recycling of particulate biogenic silica in sediments must be understood in order to calculate oceanic silica mass balances. The new contribution of this work is the coupled use of advanced models including reprecipitation and different phases of biogenic

  7. 76 FR 61100 - Notification of a Public Meeting of the Science Advisory Board Biogenic Carbon Emissions Panel

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-10-03

    ... demonstrated expertise in forestry, agriculture, measurement and carbon accounting methodologies, land use... draft Accounting Framework for Biogenic CO 2 Emissions from Stationary Sources (September 2011). DATES... review EPA's draft Accounting Framework for Biogenic CO 2 Emissions from Stationary Sources (September...

  8. High Pressure Preignition Chemistry of Hydrocarbons and Hydrocarbon Mixtures

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Cernansky, N.P

    1998-01-01

    .... The research program entailed mechanistic studies examining the oxidation chemistry of single-component hydrocarbons and ignition studies examining the overall ignition of pure single component fuels and fuel blends...

  9. Growth of hydrocarbon utilizing microorganisms

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    Bhosle, N.B.; Mavinkurve, S.

    Two isolates from marine mud having broad spectrum hydrocarbon utilizing profile were identified as Arthrobacter simplex and Candida tropicalis.Both the organisms grew exponentially on crude oil. The cell yield of the organisms was influenced...

  10. Process for treating hydrocarbons, etc

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1933-09-15

    A process is described for treating simultaneously bituminous substances and hydrocarbon oils for the production of low-boiling hydrocarbons and volatilization of the bituminous substances, characterized by the fact that it consists of heating a current of charge constituted by a mixture of the bituminous substances and hydrocarbon oils, to a high temperature, passing the heated current into a zone of extended reaction where the vapors are separated from the liquid or solid residue to favor transformation of the liquid hydrocarbons and volatilization of the bituminous substances, owing to the utilization of a heating agent carried to a high temperature being brought in contact with the heated charge in order to communicate its heat to the charge, while this later presents itself as relatively fine pellet or in the condition of distinct particles, particularly separated from one another.

  11. Characterization of hydrocarbons, halocarbons and carbonyls in the atmosphere of Hong Kong.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guo, H; Lee, S C; Louie, P K K; Ho, K F

    2004-12-01

    Ambient air quality measurements of 156 species including 39 alkanes, 32 alkenes, 2 alkynes, 24 aromatic hydrocarbons, 43 halocarbons and 16 carbonyls, were carried out for 120 air samples collected at two sampling stations (CW and TW) in 2001 throughout Hong Kong. Spatial variations of volatile organic compounds (VOCs) in the atmosphere were investigated. Levels of most alkanes and alkenes at TW site were higher than that at the CW site, while the BTEX concentrations at the two sites were close. The BTEX ratios at CW and TW were 1.6:10.1:1.0:1.6 and 2.1:10.8:1.0:2.0, respectively. For major halogenated hydrocarbons, the mean concentrations of chloromethane, CFCs 12 and 22 did not show spatial variations at the two sites. However, site-specific differences were observed for trichloroethene and tetrachloroethene. Furthermore, there were no significant differences for carbonyls such as formaldehyde, acetaldehyde and acetone between the two sites. The levels of selected hydrocarbons in winter were 1-5 times that in summer. There were no common seasonal trends for carbonyls in Hong Kong. The ambient level of formaldehyde, the most abundant carbonyl, was higher in summer. However, levels of acetaldehyde, acetone and benzaldehyde in winter were 1.6-3.8 times that in summer. The levels of CFCs 11 and 12, and chloromethane in summer were higher than that in winter. Strong correlation of most hydrocarbons with propene and n-butane suggested that the primary contributors of hydrocarbons were vehicular emissions in Hong Kong. In addition, gasoline evaporation, use of solvents, leakage of liquefied petroleum gas (LPG), natural gas leakage and other industrial emissions, and even biogenic emissions affected the ambient levels of hydrocarbons. The sources of halocarbons were mainly materials used in industrial processes and as solvents. Correlation analysis suggested that photochemical reactions made significant contributions to the ambient levels of carbonyls in summer whereas

  12. Predicting hydrocarbon release from soil

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Poppendieck, D.; Loehr, R.C.

    2002-01-01

    'Full text:' The remediation of hazardous chemicals from soils can be a lengthy and costly process. As a result, recent regulatory initiatives have focused on risk-based corrective action (RBCA) approaches. Such approaches attempt to identify the amount of chemical that can be left at a site with contaminated soil and still be protective of human health and the environment. For hydrocarbons in soils to pose risk to human heath and the environment, the hydrocarbons must be released from the soil and accessible to microorganisms, earthworms, or other higher level organisms. The sorption of hydrocarbons to soil can reduce the availability of the hydrocarbon to receptors. Typically in soils and sediments, there is an initial fast release of a hydrocarbon from the soil to the aqueous phase followed by a slower release of the remaining hydrocarbon to the aqueous phase. The rate and extent of slow release can influence aqueous hydrocarbon concentrations and the fate and transport of hydrocarbons in the subsurface. Once the fast fraction of the chemical has been removed from the soil, the remaining fraction of a chemical may desorb at a rate that natural mechanisms can attenuate the released hydrocarbon. Hence, active remediation may be needed only until the fast fraction has been removed. However, the fast fraction is a soil and chemical specific parameter. This presentation will present a tier I type protocol that has been developed to quickly estimate the fraction of hydrocarbons that are readily released from the soil matrix to the aqueous phase. Previous research in our laboratory and elsewhere has used long-term desorption (four months) studies to determine the readily released fraction. This research shows that a single short-term (less than two weeks) batch extraction procedure provides a good estimate of the fast released fraction derived from long-term experiments. This procedure can be used as a tool to rapidly evaluate the release and bioavailability of

  13. Hydrocarbon removal with constructed wetlands

    OpenAIRE

    Eke, Paul Emeka

    2008-01-01

    Wetlands have long played a significant role as natural purification systems, and have been effectively used to treat domestic, agricultural and industrial wastewater. However, very little is known about the biochemical processes involved, and the use of constructed treatment wetlands in the removal of petroleum aromatic hydrocarbons from produced and/or processed water. Wastewaters from the oil industry contain aromatic hydrocarbons such as benzene, toluene, ethylbenzene and x...

  14. Bioassay of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Van Kirk, E.A.

    1980-08-01

    A positive relationship was found between the photodynamic activity of 24 polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons versus published results on the mutagenicity, carcinogenicity, and initiation of unscheduled DNA synthesis. Metabolic activation of benzo(a)pyrene resulted in detection of increased mutagenesis in Paramecium tetraurelia as found also in the Ames Salmonella assay. The utility of P. tetraurelia as a biological detector of hazardous polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons is discussed.

  15. Catalytic pyrolysis of hydrocarbons

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Vail' eva, N A; Buyanov, R A

    1979-01-01

    Catalytic pyrolysis of petroleum fractions (undecane) was performed with the object of clarifying such questions as the mechanism of action of the catalyst, the concepts of activity and selectivity of the catalyst, the role of transport processes, the temperature ranges and limitations of the catalytic process, the effect of the catalyst on secondary processes, and others. Catalysts such as quartz, MgO, Al/sub 2/O/sub 3/, were used. Analysis of the experimental findings and the fact that the distribution of products is independent of the nature of the surface, demonstrate that the pyrolysis of hydrocarbons in the presence of catalysts is based on the heterogeneous-homogeneous radical-chain mechanism of action, and that the role of the catalysts reduces to increasing the concentration of free radicals. The concept of selectivity cannot be applied to catalysts here, since they do not affect the mechanism of the unfolding of the process of pyrolysis and their role consists solely in initiating the process. In catalytic pyrolysis the concepts of kinetic and diffusive domains of unfolding of the catalytic reaction do not apply, and only the outer surface of the catalyst is engaged, whereas the inner surface merely promotes deletorious secondary processes reducing the selectivity of the process and the activity of the catalyst. 6 references, 2 figures.

  16. Electrostatically atomised hydrocarbon sprays

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yule, A.J.; Shrimpton, J.S.; Watkins, A.P.; Balachandran, W.; Hu, D. [UMIST, Manchester (United Kingdom). Thermofluids Division, Dept. of Mechanical Engineering

    1995-07-01

    A burner using an electrostatic method to produce and control a fuel spray is investigated for non-burning sprays. The burner has a charge injection nozzle and the liquid flow rate and charge injection rate are varied using hydrocarbon liquids of differing viscosities, surface tensions and electrical conductivities (kerosene, white spirit and diesel oil). Droplet size distributions are measured and it is shown how the dropsize, spray pattern, breakup mechanism and breakup length depend on the above variables, and in particular on the specific charge achieved in the spray. The data are valuable for validating two computer models under development. One predicts the electric field and flow field inside the nozzle as a function of emitter potential, geometry and flow rate. The other predicts the effect of charge on spray dispersion, with a view to optimizing spray combustion. It is shown that electrostatic disruptive forces can be used to atomize oils at flow rates commensurate with practical combustion systems and that the charge injection technique is particularly suitable for highly resistive liquids. Possible limitations requiring further research include the need to control the wide spray angle, which may provide fuel-air mixtures too lean near the nozzle, and the need to design for maximum charge injection rate, which is thought to be limited by corona breakdown in the gas near the nozzle orifice. 30 refs., 15 figs., 1 tab.

  17. HYDROCARBONS RESERVES IN VENEZUELA

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gonzalez Cruz, D.J.

    2007-07-01

    Venezuela is an important player in the energy world, because of its hydrocarbons reserves. The process for calculating oil and associated gas reserves is described bearing in mind that 90% of the gas reserves of Venezuela are associated to oil. Likewise, an analysis is made of the oil reserves figures from 1975 to 2003. Reference is also made to inconsistencies found by international experts and the explanations offered in this respect by the Ministry of Energy and Petroleum (MENPET) and Petroleos de Venezuela (PDVSA) regarding the changes that took place in the 1980s. In turn, Hubbert's Law is explained to determine peak production of conventional oil that a reservoir or field will reach, as well as its relationship with remaining reserves. Emphasis is placed on the interest of the United Nations on this topic. The reserves of associated gas are presented along with their relationship with the different crude oils that are produced and with injected gas, as well as with respect to the possible changes that would take place in the latter if oil reserves are revised. Some recommendations are submitted so that the MENPET starts preparing the pertinent policies ruling reserves. (auth)

  18. Evaluation of hydrocarbon potential

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cashman, P.H.; Trexler, J.H. Jr.

    1992-01-01

    Task 8 is responsible for assessing the hydrocarbon potential of the Yucca Mountain vincinity. Our main focus is source rock stratigraphy in the NTS area in southern Nevada. (In addition, Trexler continues to work on a parallel study of source rock stratigraphy in the oil-producing region of east central Nevada, but this work is not funded by Task 8.) As a supplement to the stratigraphic studies, we are studying the geometry and kinematics of deformation at NTS, particularly as these pertain to reconstructing Paleozoic stratigraphy and to predicting the nature of the Late Paleozoic rocks under Yucca Mountain. Our stratigraphic studies continue to support the interpretation that rocks mapped as the open-quotes Eleana Formationclose quotes are in fact parts of two different Mississippian units. We have made significant progress in determining the basin histories of both units. These place important constraints on regional paleogeographic and tectonic reconstructions. In addition to continued work on the Eleana, we plan to look at the overlying Tippipah Limestone. Preliminary TOC and maturation data indicate that this may be another potential source rock

  19. Analysis of carbon stable isotope to determine the origin and migration of gaseous hydrocarbon in the Brazilian sedimentary basins

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Takaki, T.; Rodrigues, R.

    1986-01-01

    The carbon isotopic composition of natural gases to determine the origin and gaseous hydrocarbon migration of Brazilian sedimentar basins is analysed. The carbon isotopic ratio of methane from natural gases depends on the process of gas formation and stage of organic matter maturation. In the geochemical surface exploration the biogenic gases are differentiated from thermogenic gases, because the last one is isotopically heavier. As the isotopic composition of methane has not changed during migration, the migrated gases from deeper and more mature source rocks are identified by its relative 13 C enrichment. The methane was separated from chromatography and and the isotopic analysis was done with mass spectrometer. (M.C.K.) [pt

  20. Development of biogenic VOC emission inventories for the boreal forest

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tarvainen, V.

    2008-07-01

    The volatile organic compounds (VOCs) emitted by vegetation, especially forests, can affect local and regional atmospheric photochemistry through their reactions with atmospheric oxidants. Their reaction products may also participate in the formation and growth of new particles which affect the radiation balance of the atmosphere, and thus climate, by scattering and absorbing shortwave and longwave radiation and by modifying the radiative properties, amount and lifetime of clouds. Globally, anthropogenic VOC emissions are far surpassed by the biogenic ones, making biogenic emission inventories an integral element in the development of efficient air quality and climate strategies. The inventories are typically constructed based on landcover information, measured emissions of different plants or vegetation types, and empirical dependencies of the emissions on environmental variables such as temperature and light. This thesis is focused on the VOC emissions from the boreal forest, the largest terrestrial biome with characteristic vegetation patterns and strong seasonality. The isoprene, monoterpene and sesquiterpene emissions of the most prevalent boreal tree species in Finland, Scots pine, have been measured and their seasonal variation and dependence on temperature and light have been studied. The measured emission data and other available observations of the emissions of the principal boreal trees have been used in a biogenic emission model developed for the boreal forests in Finland. The model utilizes satellite landcover information, Finnish forest classification and hourly meteorological data to calculate isoprene, monoterpene, sesquiterpene and other VOC emissions over the growing season. The principal compounds emitted by Scots pine are DELTA3-carene and alpha-pinene in the south boreal zone and alpha- and beta-pinene in the north boreal zone. The monoterpene emissions are dependent on temperature and have a clear seasonal cycle with high emissions in spring

  1. Sustainable use of biogenic fuels resources through industrial synergies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Schuech, Andrea; Nelles, Michael; Nassour, Abdallah

    2017-01-01

    The term industrial symbiosis is used when traditionally separate companies and industries work together in a collective approach to physically exchange materials, energy, water and by-products with a mutual competitive advantage. Aim of the European project ''UBIS - Urban Baltic Industrial Symbiosis'' (INTERREG South-Baltic Programme) is to use biogenic resources as well as waste and residues sustainable in industrial symbiosis and to reduce emissions at the same time. Even if a lot has already been achieved in this area, there are still many unused material flows and there are possibilities to use them even more efficiently. In the project existing collaborations will be investigated as well as new ones identified and evaluated. This article introduces the UBIS project and provides an insight into the subject of industrial symbiosis as well examples described.

  2. Emissions of biogenic sulfur gases from northern bogs and fens

    Science.gov (United States)

    Demello, William Zamboni; Hines, Mark E.; Bayley, Suzanne E.

    1992-01-01

    Sulfur gases are important components of the global cycle of S. They contribute to the acidity of precipitation and they influence global radiation balance and climate. The role of terrestrial sources of biogenic S and their effect on atmospheric chemistry remain as major unanswered questions in our understanding of the natural S cycle. The role of northern wetlands as sources and sinks of gaseous S by measuring rates of S gas exchange as a function of season, hydrologic conditions, and gradients in tropic status was investigated. Experiments were conducted in wetlands in New Hampshire, particularly a poor fen, and in Mire 239, a poor fen at the Experimental Lakes Area (ELA) in Ontario. Emissions were determined using Teflon enclosures, gas cryotrapping methods and gas chromatography (GC) with flame photometric detection. Dynamic (sweep flow) and static enclosures were employed which yielded similar results. Dissolved S gases and methane were determined by gas stripping followed by GC.

  3. The influence of biogenic atmospheric sulfur compounds on climate

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Georgii, H -W [University of Frankfurt am Main, Frankfurt am Main (Germany). Dept. of Meteorology and Geophysics

    1993-09-01

    The author reviews research so far into sulphur compounds occurring in the atmosphere, namely dimethylsulfide (DMS) and carbonyl sulphide (COS). He explains how the sulphate particles formed by oxidation of DMS with OH radicals act as cloud condensation nuclei which in turn leads to enhanced formation of precipitation. Increase of cloud droplet density leads also to an increase of cloud albedo. The hypothesis of carbonyl sulphide as a precursor for stratospheric sulphate particles is discussed, along with evidence of model calculations showing that the increase of COS flux in the stratosphere leads to an increase in density of stratospheric aerosols and to slight global cooling, particularly compensating for the warming caused by the greenhouse effect. Although the influence of biogenic sulphur gases on climate is still speculative due to lack of information of the source, strength and global trend of these gases, the author advocates they deserve special attention since they may contribute to the stabilization of our climate. 16 refs., 5 figs.

  4. Emission of Biogenic Volatile Organic Compounds in the Arctic

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lindwall, Frida

    , emitted in order to communicate within and between trophic levels and as protection against biotic and abiotic stresses, or as byproducts. Some BVOCs are very reactive, and when entering the atmosphere they rapidly react with for example hydroxyl radicals and ozone, affecting the oxidative capacity......Emissions of biogenic volatile organic compounds (BVOCs) from arctic ecosystems are scarcely studied and the effect of climate change on BVOC emissions even less so. BVOCs are emitted from all living organisms and play a role for atmospheric chemistry. The major part of BVOCs derives from plants...... in the atmosphere. This may warm the climate due to a prolonged lifetime of the potent greenhouse gas methane in the atmosphere. However, oxidized BVOCs may participate in formation or growth of aerosols, which in turn may mitigate climate warming. Climate change in the Arctic, an area characterized by short...

  5. Impact of biogenic emissions on feedbacks in the climate system

    Science.gov (United States)

    Krüger, Olaf

    2017-04-01

    Impact of biogenic emissions on feedbacks in the climate system Bio-geophysical feedback between marine or continental ecosystems and the atmosphere potentially can alter climate change. A prominent feedback loop which is under discussion since 1983 bases on the emission of biologically produced gases - molecular oxygen, sulphur containing compounds and possibly isoprene, supersaturated in oceanic waters - into the marine troposphere. These by-products of phytoplankton metabolism lead to aerosol production and procure sustained influence on climate via modulation of cloud optical properties. In this contribution some findings related to the above mentioned climate processes are presented with special emphasis on marine ecosystems. A comparison of marine and continental ecosystems is made and different processes with major impact on feedbacks in the climate system are discussed.

  6. Ion-induced nucleation of pure biogenic particles

    CERN Document Server

    Kirkby, Jasper; Sengupta, Kamalika; Frege, Carla; Gordon, Hamish; Williamson, Christina; Heinritzi, Martin; Simon, Mario; Yan, Chao; Almeida, João; Tröstl, Jasmin; Nieminen, Tuomo; Ortega, Ismael K; Wagner, Robert; Adamov, Alexey; Amorim, Antonio; Bernhammer, Anne-Kathrin; Bianchi, Federico; Breitenlechner, Martin; Brilke, Sophia; Chen, Xuemeng; Craven, Jill; Dias, antonio; Ehrhart, Sebastian; Flagan, Richard C; Franchin, Alessandro; Fuchs, Claudia; Guida, Roberto; Hakala, Jani; Hoyle, Christopher R; Jokinen, Tuija; Junninen, Heikki; Kangasluoma, Juha; Kim, Jaeseok; Krapf, Manuel; Kürten, andreas; Laaksonen, Ari; Lehtipalo, Katrianne; Makhmutov, Vladimir; Mathot, Serge; Molteni, Ugo; Onnela, antti; Peräkylä, Otso; Piel, Felix; Petäjä, Tuukka; Praplan, Arnaud P; Pringle, Kirsty; Rap, Alexandru; Richards, Nigel A D; Riipinen, Ilona; Rissanen, Matti P; Rondo, Linda; Sarnela, Nina; Schobesberger, Siegfried; Scott, Catherine E; Seinfeld, John H; Sipilä, Mikko; Steiner, Gerhard; Stozhkov, Yuri; Stratmann, Frank; Tomé, Antonio; Virtanen, Annele; Vogel, Alexander L; Wagner, Andrea C; Wagner, Paul E; Weingartner, Ernest; Wimmer, Daniela; Winkler, Paul M; Ye, Penglin; Zhang, Xuan; Hansel, Armin; Dommen, Josef; Donahue, Neil M; Worsnop, Douglas R; Baltensperger, Urs; Kulmala, Markku; Carslaw, Kenneth S; Curtius, Joachim

    2016-01-01

    Atmospheric aerosols and their effect on clouds are thought to be important for anthropogenic radiative forcing of the climate, yet remain poorly understood. Globally, around half of cloud condensation nuclei originate from nucleation of atmospheric vapours. It is thought that sulfuric acid is essential to initiate most particle formation in the atmosphere and that ions have a relatively minor role. Some laboratory studies, however, have reported organic particle formation without the intentional addition of sulfuric acid, although contamination could not be excluded. Here we present evidence for the formation of aerosol particles from highly oxidized biogenic vapours in the absence of sulfuric acid in a large chamber under atmospheric conditions. The highly oxygenated molecules (HOMs) are produced by ozonolysis of $\\alpha$-pinene. We find that ions from Galactic cosmic rays increase the nucleation rate by one to two orders of magnitude compared with neutral nucleation. Our experimental findings are supported...

  7. The MUMBA campaign: measurements of urban, marine and biogenic air

    Science.gov (United States)

    Paton-Walsh, Clare; Guérette, Élise-Andrée; Kubistin, Dagmar; Humphries, Ruhi; Wilson, Stephen R.; Dominick, Doreena; Galbally, Ian; Buchholz, Rebecca; Bhujel, Mahendra; Chambers, Scott; Cheng, Min; Cope, Martin; Davy, Perry; Emmerson, Kathryn; Griffith, David W. T.; Griffiths, Alan; Keywood, Melita; Lawson, Sarah; Molloy, Suzie; Rea, Géraldine; Selleck, Paul; Shi, Xue; Simmons, Jack; Velazco, Voltaire

    2017-06-01

    The Measurements of Urban, Marine and Biogenic Air (MUMBA) campaign took place in Wollongong, New South Wales (a small coastal city approximately 80 km south of Sydney, Australia) from 21 December 2012 to 15 February 2013. Like many Australian cities, Wollongong is surrounded by dense eucalyptus forest, so the urban airshed is heavily influenced by biogenic emissions. Instruments were deployed during MUMBA to measure the gaseous and aerosol composition of the atmosphere with the aim of providing a detailed characterisation of the complex environment of the ocean-forest-urban interface that could be used to test the skill of atmospheric models. The gases measured included ozone, oxides of nitrogen, carbon monoxide, carbon dioxide, methane and many of the most abundant volatile organic compounds. The aerosol characterisation included total particle counts above 3 nm, total cloud condensation nuclei counts, mass concentration, number concentration size distribution, aerosol chemical analyses and elemental analysis.The campaign captured varied meteorological conditions, including two extreme heat events, providing a potentially valuable test for models of future air quality in a warmer climate. There was also an episode when the site sampled clean marine air for many hours, providing a useful additional measure of the background concentrations of these trace gases within this poorly sampled region of the globe. In this paper we describe the campaign, the meteorology and the resulting observations of atmospheric composition in general terms in order to equip the reader with a sufficient understanding of the Wollongong regional influences to use the MUMBA datasets as a case study for testing a chemical transport model. The data are available from PANGAEA (pangaea.de/10.1594/PANGAEA.871982" target="_blank">http://doi.pangaea.de/10.1594/PANGAEA.871982).

  8. Polycyclic Aromatic Hydrocarbons

    Science.gov (United States)

    Salama, Farid

    2010-01-01

    Carbonaceous materials play an important role in space. Polycyclic Aromatic Hydrocarbons (PAHs) are a ubiquitous component of the carbonaceous materials. PAHs are the best-known candidates to account for the IR emission bands. They are also thought to be among the carriers of the diffuse interstellar absorption bands (DIBs). PAH ionization states reflect the ionization balance of the medium while PAH size, composition, and structure reflect the energetic and chemical history of the medium. A major challenge is to reproduce in the laboratory the physical conditions that exist in the emission and absorption interstellar zones. The harsh physical conditions of the ISM -low temperature, collisionless, strong UV radiation fields- are simulated in the laboratory by associating a molecular beam with an ionizing discharge to generate a cold plasma expansion. PAH ions and radicals are formed from the neutral precursors in an isolated environment at low temperature and probed with high-sensitivity cavity ringdown spectroscopy in the NUV-NIR range. Carbon nanoparticles are also formed during the short residence time of the precursors in the plasma and are characterized with time-offlight mass spectrometry. These experiments provide unique information on the spectra of large carbonaceous molecules and ions in the gas phase that can now be directly compared to interstellar and circumstellar observations (IR emission bands, DIBs, extinction curve). These findings also hold great potential for understanding the formation process of interstellar carbonaceous grains. We will review recent progress in the experimental and theoretical studies of PAHs, compare the laboratory data with astronomical observations and discuss the global implications.

  9. Impacts of biogenic emissions of VOC and NOx on tropospheric ozone during summertime in eastern China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Qin'geng; Han, Zhiwei; Wang, Tijian; Zhang, Renjian

    2008-05-20

    This study is intended to understand and quantify the impacts of biogenic emissions of volatile organic compounds (VOC) and nitrogen oxides (NO(x)) on the formation of tropospheric ozone during summertime in eastern China. The model system consists of the non-hydrostatic mesoscale meteorological model (MM5) and a tropospheric chemical and transport model (TCTM) with the updated carbon-bond chemical reaction mechanism (CBM-IV). The spatial resolution of the system domain is 30 km x 30 km. The impacts of biogenic emissions are investigated by performing simulations (36 h) with and without biogenic emissions, while anthropogenic emissions are constant. The results indicate that biogenic emissions have remarkable impacts on surface ozone in eastern China. In big cities and their surrounding areas, surface ozone formation tends to be VOC-limited. The increase in ozone concentration by biogenic VOC is generally 5 ppbv or less, but could be more than 10 ppbv or even 30 ppbv in some local places. The impacts of biogenic NO(x) are different or even contrary in different regions, depending on the relative availability of NO(x) and VOC. The surface ozone concentrations reduced or increased by the biogenic NO(x) could be as much as 10 ppbv or 20 ppbv, respectively. The impacts of biogenic emissions on ozone aloft are generally restricted to the boundary layer and generally more obvious during the daytime than during the nighttime. This study is useful for understanding the role of biogenic emissions and for planning strategies for surface ozone abatement in eastern China. Due to limitations of the emission inventories used and the highly non-linear nature of zone formation, however, some uncertainties remain in the results.

  10. Biogenic origin of coalbed gas in the northern Gulf of Mexico Coastal Plain, U.S.A.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Warwick, Peter D.; Hackley, Paul C. [U.S. Geological Survey, 956 National Center, Reston, VA 20192 (United States); Breland, F. Clayton Jr. [Louisiana Department of Natural Resources, 617 North 3rd Street, Baton Rouge, LA 70802 (United States)

    2008-10-02

    coal gases primarily are generated in saline formation water by bacterial reduction of CO{sub 2}. Shallow (< 150 m) Wilcox coal beds containing freshwater have little or no biogenic gas. Molecular and isotopic analyses of gas samples collected from conventional gas and oil wells suggests that both biogenic and thermogenic gases are present in and adjacent to the Wilcox intervals that contain biogenic coal gases. Oil, probably sourced from thermally mature, down-structural-dip parts of the Wilcox Group, is produced from sandstones within the coal-bearing interval. Gas chromatograms of C{sub 10+} saturated hydrocarbons from Wilcox oils show a depletion of n-alkanes probably resulting from biodegradation of the oil. Isotopic composition of the gases associated with the oils is of mixed themogenic and biogenic origin (average {delta}{sup 13}C{sub CH4} = - 44.4 permille VPDB, and average {delta}D{sub CH4} = - 182.4 permille VSMOW). (author)

  11. Sustainable use of biogenic fuels resources through industrial synergies; Nachhaltige energetische Nutzung biogener Ressourcen durch industrielle Synergien

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Schuech, Andrea [Rostock Univ. (Germany). Professur Abfall- und Stoffstromwirtschaft; Nelles, Michael [Rostock Univ. (Germany). Agrar- und Umweltwissenschaftliche Fakultaet; Nassour, Abdallah

    2017-08-01

    The term industrial symbiosis is used when traditionally separate companies and industries work together in a collective approach to physically exchange materials, energy, water and by-products with a mutual competitive advantage. Aim of the European project ''UBIS - Urban Baltic Industrial Symbiosis'' (INTERREG South-Baltic Programme) is to use biogenic resources as well as waste and residues sustainable in industrial symbiosis and to reduce emissions at the same time. Even if a lot has already been achieved in this area, there are still many unused material flows and there are possibilities to use them even more efficiently. In the project existing collaborations will be investigated as well as new ones identified and evaluated. This article introduces the UBIS project and provides an insight into the subject of industrial symbiosis as well examples described.

  12. Syntrophic biodegradation of hydrocarbon contaminants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gieg, Lisa M; Fowler, S Jane; Berdugo-Clavijo, Carolina

    2014-06-01

    Anaerobic environments are crucial to global carbon cycling wherein the microbial metabolism of organic matter occurs under a variety of redox conditions. In many anaerobic ecosystems, syntrophy plays a key role wherein microbial species must cooperate, essentially as a single catalytic unit, to metabolize substrates in a mutually beneficial manner. Hydrocarbon-contaminated environments such as groundwater aquifers are typically anaerobic, and often methanogenic. Syntrophic processes are needed to biodegrade hydrocarbons to methane, and recent studies suggest that syntrophic hydrocarbon metabolism can also occur in the presence of electron acceptors. The elucidation of key features of syntrophic processes in defined co-cultures has benefited greatly from advances in 'omics' based tools. Such tools, along with approaches like stable isotope probing, are now being used to monitor carbon flow within an increasing number of hydrocarbon-degrading consortia to pinpoint the key microbial players involved in the degradative pathways. The metagenomic sequencing of hydrocarbon-utilizing consortia should help to further identify key syntrophic features and define microbial interactions in these complex communities. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  13. Production of light hydrocarbons, etc. [from heavy hydrocarbons

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1937-10-07

    A process is given for the production of light hydrocarbons of the gasoline type and, if desired, of the middle-oil type, from liquid or fusible heavy or medium heavy hydrocarbon materials. The process comprises subjecting the said initial materials in the first stage to catalytic hydrofining, separating the lower boiling constituents and the hydrogenating gas from the resulting products and then subjecting the higher boiling constituents in a second stage to a splitting destructive hydrogenation and then recycling substantially the entire reaction mixture obtained in the second stage to the frst stage.

  14. Petroleum Hydrocarbon Profiles of Water and Sediment of Algoa Bay, Eastern Cape, South Africa

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Abiodun O. Adeniji

    2017-10-01

    Full Text Available Petroleum hydrocarbon profiles of water and sediment samples of Algoa Bay in the Eastern Cape Province of South Africa were assessed using standard analytical procedures. Water (from surface and bottom levels and sediment samples were collected from five locations in the bay from February to June 2016. Extraction of the petroleum hydrocarbons from the water and sediment samples collected was achieved using liquid-liquid and Soxhlet extraction techniques, respectively, followed by column clean up. Target compounds were analytically determined with gas chromatography–flame ionization detector (GC-FID and quantified by integrating the areas of both the resolved and unresolved components. Physicochemical properties of the water samples were also determined on site using a SeaBird 19plusV2 CTD SBE 55 device. Estimated limit of detection, limit of quantitation and relative standard deviation for the 35 n-alkane standards ranged from 0.06 to 0.13 μg/L, 0.30 to 0.69 μg/L and 3.61 to 8.32%, respectively. Results showed that total petroleum hydrocarbon (TPH varied from 45.07 to 307 μg/L in the water and 0.72 to 27.03 mg/kg in the sediments. The mean concentrations of TPH in both the water and sediment samples from Algoa Bay revealed a slight level of pollution. The diagnostic indices used showed that the hydrocarbons in the area were from both biogenic and anthropogenic sources. Hence, there is need for adequate regulation and control of all activities contributing to the levels of petroleum hydrocarbon in the marine environment for the safety of human, aquatic and wild lives in the area.

  15. Petroleum Hydrocarbon Profiles of Water and Sediment of Algoa Bay, Eastern Cape, South Africa.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Adeniji, Abiodun O; Okoh, Omobola O; Okoh, Anthony I

    2017-10-20

    Petroleum hydrocarbon profiles of water and sediment samples of Algoa Bay in the Eastern Cape Province of South Africa were assessed using standard analytical procedures. Water (from surface and bottom levels) and sediment samples were collected from five locations in the bay from February to June 2016. Extraction of the petroleum hydrocarbons from the water and sediment samples collected was achieved using liquid-liquid and Soxhlet extraction techniques, respectively, followed by column clean up. Target compounds were analytically determined with gas chromatography-flame ionization detector (GC-FID) and quantified by integrating the areas of both the resolved and unresolved components. Physicochemical properties of the water samples were also determined on site using a SeaBird 19plusV2 CTD SBE 55 device. Estimated limit of detection, limit of quantitation and relative standard deviation for the 35 n -alkane standards ranged from 0.06 to 0.13 μg/L, 0.30 to 0.69 μg/L and 3.61 to 8.32%, respectively. Results showed that total petroleum hydrocarbon (TPH) varied from 45.07 to 307 μg/L in the water and 0.72 to 27.03 mg/kg in the sediments. The mean concentrations of TPH in both the water and sediment samples from Algoa Bay revealed a slight level of pollution. The diagnostic indices used showed that the hydrocarbons in the area were from both biogenic and anthropogenic sources. Hence, there is need for adequate regulation and control of all activities contributing to the levels of petroleum hydrocarbon in the marine environment for the safety of human, aquatic and wild lives in the area.

  16. The genetic source and timing of hydrocarbon formation in gas hydrate reservoirs in Green Canyon, Block GC955

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moore, M. T.; Darrah, T.; Cook, A.; Sawyer, D.; Phillips, S.; Whyte, C. J.; Lary, B. A.

    2017-12-01

    Although large volumes of gas hydrates are known to exist along continental slopes and below permafrost, their role in the energy sector and the global carbon cycle remains uncertain. Investigations regarding the genetic source(s) (i.e., biogenic, thermogenic, mixed sources of hydrocarbon gases), the location of hydrocarbon generation, (whether hydrocarbons formed within the current reservoir formations or underwent migration), rates of clathrate formation, and the timing of natural gas formation/accumulation within clathrates are vital to evaluate economic potential and enhance our understanding of geologic processes. Previous studies addressed some of these questions through analysis of conventional hydrocarbon molecular (C1/C2+) and stable isotopic (e.g., δ13C-CH4, δ2H-CH4, δ13C-CO2) composition of gases, water chemistry and isotopes (e.g., major and trace elements, δ2H-H2O, δ18O-H2O), and dissolved inorganic carbon (δ13C-DIC) of natural gas hydrate systems to determine proportions of biogenic and thermogenic gas. However, the effects from contributions of mixing, transport/migration, methanogenesis, and oxidation in the subsurface can complicate the first-order application of these techniques. Because the original noble gas composition of a fluid is preserved independent of microbial activity, chemical reactions, or changes in oxygen fugacity, the integration of noble gas data can provide both a geochemical fingerprint for sources of fluids and an additional insight as to the uncertainty between effects of mixing versus post-genetic modification. Here, we integrate inert noble gases (He, Ne, Ar, and associated isotopes) with these conventional approaches to better constrain the source of gas hydrate formation and the residence time of fluids (porewaters and natural gases) using radiogenic 4He ingrowth techniques in cores from two boreholes collected as part of the University of Texas led UT-GOM2-01 drilling project. Pressurized cores were extracted from

  17. Production of hydrocarbons, especially ethylene

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1952-01-17

    The invention has for its object a process for the production of gaseous nonsaturated hydrocarbons, particularly ethylene and aromatic hydrocarbons, by starting with hydrocarbon oils entirely of paraffinic nature or their fractions, which consists in putting the separated products in contact with solid inert material especially with porous nonmetallic inert material or of heavy metals or their alloys, maybe in a finely divided state or in the form, of pieces or chips, at a temperature above 500/sup 0/C, or better between 600 and 700/sup 0/C at a velocity per hour of 0.6 to 3.0, and preferably 0.75 to 1.5 parts per volume of products per each part of space volume of catalyst.

  18. Enrichment of light hydrocarbon mixture

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang,; Dali, [Los Alamos, NM; Devlin, David [Santa Fe, NM; Barbero, Robert S [Santa Cruz, NM; Carrera, Martin E [Naperville, IL; Colling, Craig W [Warrenville, IL

    2010-08-10

    Light hydrocarbon enrichment is accomplished using a vertically oriented distillation column having a plurality of vertically oriented, nonselective micro/mesoporous hollow fibers. Vapor having, for example, both propylene and propane is sent upward through the distillation column in between the hollow fibers. Vapor exits neat the top of the column and is condensed to form a liquid phase that is directed back downward through the lumen of the hollow fibers. As vapor continues to ascend and liquid continues to countercurrently descend, the liquid at the bottom of the column becomes enriched in a higher boiling point, light hydrocarbon (propane, for example) and the vapor at the top becomes enriched in a lower boiling point light hydrocarbon (propylene, for example). The hollow fiber becomes wetted with liquid during the process.

  19. Production of hydrocarbons of value

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1931-06-16

    A process is described for the production of hydrocarbons of great value by treating with heat and pressure carbonaceous materials such as coals, tars, mineral oils, and products of distillation and transformation of these materials, also for the refining with heat and pressure of mixed liquid hydrocarbons by means of hydrogen gas, preferably in the presence of catalysts, consisting in using as the hydrogenating gas that obtained by gasification of combustible solids after partial or complete cleaning at atmospheric or elevated pressures, by means of solid adsorbents, chemical agents or catalysts, or mixtures of these agents, the hydrocarbons being characterized by strong unsaturation, and the presence of oxygen, sulfur compounds, and oxides of nitrogen.

  20. Process of distilling heavy hydrocarbons

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1929-12-03

    This invention has for its object the distillation of heavy liquid hydrocarbons for the purpose of obtaining lighter hydrocarbons stable and immediately salable for fuels in combustion motors. The process is distinguished by the fact that the heavy hydrocarbon is distilled by means of heating to a temperature in keeping with the nature of the material to be treated up to 350/sup 0/C under pressure or without pressure the distillation being carried out on catalysts containing successively nickel, copper, and iron (3 parts of nickel, 1 part of copper, and 1 part of iron), the vapors produced by this distillation being exposed in turn to the action of catalysts of the same nature and in the same proportion.

  1. Characterization of biogenic ferrihydrite nanoparticles by means of SAXS, SRD and IBA methods

    Science.gov (United States)

    Balasoiu, M.; Kichanov, S.; Pantelica, A.; Pantelica, D.; Stolyar, S.; Iskhakov, R.; Aranghel, D.; Ionescu, P.; Badita, C. R.; Kurkin, S.; Orelovich, O.; Tiutiunikov, S.

    2018-03-01

    Investigations of biogenic ferrihydrite nanoparticles produced by bacteria Klebsiella oxytoca by applying small angle X-ray scattering, synchrotron radiation diffraction and ion beam analysis methods are reviewed. Different experimental data processing methods are used and analyzed.

  2. A comparison between acoustic properties and heat effects in biogenic (magnetosomes) and abiotic magnetite nanoparticle suspensions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Józefczak, A.; Leszczyński, B.; Skumiel, A.; Hornowski, T.

    2016-01-01

    Magnetic nanoparticles show unique properties and find many applications because of the possibility to control their properties using magnetic field. Magnetic nanoparticles are usually synthesized chemically and modification of the particle surface is necessary. Another source of magnetic nanoparticles are various magnetotactic bacteria. These biogenic nanoparticles (magnetosomes) represent an attractive alternative to chemically synthesized iron oxide particles because of their unique characteristics and a high potential for biotechnological and biomedical applications. This work presents a comparison between acoustic properties of biogenic and abiotic magnetite nanoparticle suspensions. Experimental studies have shown the influence of a biological membrane on the ultrasound properties of magnetosomes suspension. Finally the heat effect in synthetic and biogenic magnetite nanoparticles is also discussed. The experimental study shows that magnetosomes present good heating efficiency. - Highlights: • A biogenic and abiotic magnetite nanoparticle suspensions are investigated. • A comparison between ultrasonic properties and heat effects is presented. • Magnetosomes and abiotic magnetite nanoparticles exhibit good heating efficiency.

  3. Biogenic amines degradation by malolactic bacteria: towards a potential application in wine

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vittorio eCapozzi

    2012-04-01

    Full Text Available Biogenic amines in wine represent a toxicological risk for the health of the consumer, with several trade implications. In this study 26 strains of Lactobacillus plantarum were analysed for their ability to degrade biogenic amines commonly found during wine fermentation. Two strains of L. plantarum were selected in reason of their ability to degrade putrescine and tyramine. The degradation was assessed in vitro, both in presence of the biogenic amines and in presence of the specific chemical precursor and of producer bacteria. The two L. plantarum biotypes were found capable to work synergically. In addition, the survival in wine-like medium and the aptitude to degrade malic acid after alcoholic fermentation of the selected L. plantarum strains was analysed. Our results suggest the potential application of wine L. plantarum strains to design malolactic starter cultures able to degrade biogenic amines in wine.

  4. Biogenic silica in tidal freshwater marsh sediments and vegetation (Schelde estuary, Belgium)

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Struyf, E.; van Damme, S.; Gribsholt, B.; Middelburg, J.J.; Meire, P.

    2005-01-01

    To date, estuarine ecosystem research has mostly neglected silica cycling in freshwater intertidal marshes. However, tidal marshes can store large amounts of biogenic silica (BSi) in vegetation and sediment. BSi content of the typical freshwater marsh plants Phragmites australis, Impatiens

  5. Preparing valuable hydrocarbons by hydrogenation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pier, M

    1930-08-22

    A process is described for the preparation of valuable hydrocarbons by treatment of carbonaceous materials, like coal, tars, minerals oils, and their distillation and conversion products, and for refining of liquid hydrocarbon mixture obtained at raised temperature and under pressure, preferably in the presence of catalysts, by the use of hydrogen-containing gases, purified and obtained by distilling solid combustibles, characterized by the purification of the hydrogen-containing gases being accomplished for the purpose of practically complete removal of the oxygen by heating at ordinary or higher pressure in the presence of a catalyst containing silver and oxides of metals of group VI of the periodic system.

  6. Purifying and regenerating hydrocarbon oils

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1931-11-19

    Hydrocarbons are freed from sulfur-containing compounds, colloidal asphaltic bodies and unstable unsaturated substances by treatment with a small amount of dilute sulfuric acid and a salt of a trivalent cation, such as ferric chloride or sulfate. Hydrocarbons specified are petroleum, crude benzol, low temperature tars, shale oil or vapor-phase cracked spirit. Motor spirit or lubricating oil distillates are refined and finally distilled. The acid reagent may be regenerated by filtering through sand or asbestos. Used lubricating oils may be treated similarly and after removal of refining agent, the oil is heated with an adsorbent and decolorizing material and then filtered.

  7. Hydrocarbons cocktails of the future

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anon.

    2004-01-01

    This publication of the Areva Group, a world nuclear industry leader, provides information on the energy in many domains. This issue deals with the CO 2 pollution exchange, the carbon sinks to compensate the CO 2 , the green coal as an innovative solution, an outsize dam in China, the solar energy progresses in France and the french medicine academy in favor of Nuclear. A special chapter is devoted to the hydrocarbons of the future, artificial chemical combination created from constituents of hydrocarbons and derived from various sources. (A.L.B.)

  8. Integration of chemical scrubber with sodium hypochlorite and surfactant for removal of hydrocarbons in cooking oil fume

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cheng, Hsin-Han; Hsieh, Chu-Chin

    2010-01-01

    There are many types of technologies to control cooking oil fumes (COFs), but current typical technologies, such as electrostatic precipitator, conventional scrubber, catalyst, or condenser, are unable to efficiently remove the odorous materials present in COFs which are the primary cause of odor-complaint cases. There is also a lack of information about using sodium hypochlorite (NaOCl) and surfactants to remove contaminants in COFs, and previous studies lack on-site investigations in restaurants. This study presents a chemical scrubber integrated with an automatic control system (ACS) to treat hydrocarbons (HCs) in COFs, and to monitor non-methane HCs (NMHC) and odor as indicators for its efficiency evaluation. The chemical scrubber effectively treats hydrophobic substances in COFs by combining surfactant and NaOCl under optimal operational conditions with NHMC removal efficiency as high as 85%. The mass transfer coefficient (K L a) of NMHC was enhanced by 50% under the NaOCl and surfactant conditions, as compared to typical wet scrubber. Further, this study establishes the fuzzy equations of the ACS, including the relationship between the removal efficiency and K L a, liquid/gas ratio, pH and C NaOCl .

  9. Integration of chemical scrubber with sodium hypochlorite and surfactant for removal of hydrocarbons in cooking oil fume

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cheng, Hsin-Han [Graduate School of Engineering Science and Technology, National Yunlin University of Science and Technology, Touliu, Yunlin, Taiwan (China); Hsieh, Chu-Chin, E-mail: hsiehcc@yuntech.edu.tw [Department of Environmental and Safety Engineering, National Yunlin University of Science and Technology, Touliu, Yunlin, Taiwan (China)

    2010-10-15

    There are many types of technologies to control cooking oil fumes (COFs), but current typical technologies, such as electrostatic precipitator, conventional scrubber, catalyst, or condenser, are unable to efficiently remove the odorous materials present in COFs which are the primary cause of odor-complaint cases. There is also a lack of information about using sodium hypochlorite (NaOCl) and surfactants to remove contaminants in COFs, and previous studies lack on-site investigations in restaurants. This study presents a chemical scrubber integrated with an automatic control system (ACS) to treat hydrocarbons (HCs) in COFs, and to monitor non-methane HCs (NMHC) and odor as indicators for its efficiency evaluation. The chemical scrubber effectively treats hydrophobic substances in COFs by combining surfactant and NaOCl under optimal operational conditions with NHMC removal efficiency as high as 85%. The mass transfer coefficient (K{sub L}a) of NMHC was enhanced by 50% under the NaOCl and surfactant conditions, as compared to typical wet scrubber. Further, this study establishes the fuzzy equations of the ACS, including the relationship between the removal efficiency and K{sub L}a, liquid/gas ratio, pH and C{sub NaOCl}.

  10. Environmental forensic principals for sources allocation of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    O'Sullivan, G.; Martin, E.; Sandau, C.D.

    2008-01-01

    Polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAH) are organic compounds which include only carbon and hydrogen with a fused ring structure containing at least two six-sided benzene rings but may also contain additional fused rings that are not six-sided. The environmental forensic principals for sources allocation of PAHs were examined in this presentation. Specifically, the presentation addressed the structure and physiochemical properties of PAHs; sources and sinks; fate and behaviour; analytical techniques; conventional source identification techniques; and toxic equivalent fingerprinting. It presented a case study where residents had been allegedly exposed to dioxins, PAHs and metals released from a railroad tie treatment plant. The classification of PAHs is governed by thermodynamic properties such as biogenic, petrogenic, and pyrogenic properties. A number of techniques were completed, including chemical fingerprinting; molecular diagnostic ratios; cluster analysis; principal component analysis; and TEF fingerprinting. These techniques have shown that suspected impacted sites do not all share similar PAH signatures indicating the potential for various sources. Several sites shared similar signatures to background locations. tabs., figs

  11. Occurrence and sources of aliphatic hydrocarbons in surface soils from Riyadh city, Saudi Arabia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ahmed I. Rushdi

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Soil particles contain a variety of anthropogenic and natural organic components derived from many sources such as industrial and traffic fossil fuel emissions and terrestrial biota. The organic contents of soil and sand from the Arabian region have not fully characterized. Thus, samples of fine soil particles (sieved to <125 μM were collected from the Riyadh area in November 2006 (late summer and February 2007 (late winter. The samples were extracted with a mixture of dichloromethane/hexane and analyzed by gas chromatography–mass spectroscopy (GCMS in order to characterize the chemical composition and sources of aliphatic hydrocarbons. The results showed that both anthropogenic and natural biogenic inputs were the major sources of the aliphatic hydrocarbons in these extracts. Vehicular emission products and discarded plastics were the major anthropogenic sources in the fine particles of the soils and ranged from 64% to 96% in November 2006 and from 70% to 92% in February 2007. Their tracers were n-alkanes, hopanes, sterane, plasticizers and UCM. Vegetation was also a major natural source of hydrocarbon compounds in samples ranging from ∼0% to18% in November 2006 and from 1% to 13% in February 2007 and included n-alkanes and triterpenoids.

  12. Biogenic hardparts: Difficult archives of the geological past (Invited)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Immenhauser, A.; Schone, B. R.; Hoffmann, R.; Niedermayr, A.

    2013-12-01

    Biomineralized exo- or endoskeletons of fossil marine invertebrates are widespread and diverse components of the Phanerozoic rock record of Earth's past and present oceans. Exoskeletons serve as protection against environmental pressure or predators, whilst endoskeletons can act as support or serve as an attachment for muscles and ligaments and hence as a mechanism for transmitting muscular forces. Biogenic hard parts represent sophisticated products resulting from the hierarchical interaction of inorganic minerals (95%) and macromolecular organic matrices, forming commonly less than 5%. The significance of many biogenic carbonate archives lies in the time-resolved growth patterns and their ability to record ambient environmental conditions in the form of multiple geochemical properties (multi-proxy archives) that have been widely used to assess past oceanic seawater properties. Here, we compile and review published work dealing with crystallization pathways of skeletal hard parts secreted by mollusks (i.e., bivalves and cephalopods) as well as brachiopods as widely used archives of ancient neritic epeiric settings. Bivalves and cephalopods (e.g., extinct ammonoids and belemnites and extant Sepia, Nautilus and Spirula) all form accretionary calcitic, aragonitic or vateritic skeletal hard parts. Despite the fact that mollusks and brachiopods form part of very different branches of the animal phylogenetic tree, their biomineralization strategies are surprisingly similar. Our main focus lies in a critical assessment of the complex pathways of ions and aquo-complexes from their source (seawater) to the final product (biomineral). We do this as an attempt to critically test the commonly held hypothesis that many fossil hard parts precipitated (under favorable conditions and pending subsequent diagenetic alteration) in equilibrium with seawater. Two main observations stand out: (1) the present knowledge on pathways and mechanisms (e.g., ion channel trans-membrane or

  13. Analysis of Biogenic Amines by GC/FID and GC/MS

    OpenAIRE

    Nakovich, Laura

    2003-01-01

    Low levels of biogenic amines occur naturally, but high levels (FDA sets 50 ppm of histamine in fish as the maximum allowable level) can lead to scombroid poisoning. Amines in general are difficult to analyze by Gas Chromatography (GC) due to their lack of volatility and their interaction with the GC column, often leading to significant tailing and poor reproducibility. Biogenic amines need to be derivatized before both GC and HPLC analyses. The objective of this research was to devel...

  14. Global comparison reveals biogenic weathering as driven by nutrient limitation at ecosystem scale

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boy, Jens; Godoy, Roberto; Dechene, Annika; Shibistova, Olga; Amir, Hamid; Iskandar, Issi; Fogliano, Bruno; Boy, Diana; McCulloch, Robert; Andrino, Alberto; Gschwendtner, Silvia; Marin, Cesar; Sauheitl, Leopold; Dultz, Stefan; Mikutta, Robert; Guggenberger, Georg

    2017-04-01

    A substantial contribution of biogenic weathering in ecosystem nutrition, especially by symbiotic microorganisms, has often been proposed, but large-scale in vivo studies are still missing. Here we compare a set of ecosystems spanning from the Antarctic to tropical forests for their potential biogenic weathering and its drivers. To address biogenic weathering rates, we installed mineral mesocosms only accessible for bacteria and fungi for up to 4 years, which contained freshly broken and defined nutrient-baring minerals in soil A horizons of ecosystems along a gradient of soil development differing in climate and plant species communities. Alterations of the buried minerals were analyzed by grid-intersection, confocal lascer scanning microscopy, energy-dispersive X-ray spectroscopy, and X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy on the surface and on thin sections. On selected sites, carbon fluxes were tracked by 13C labeling, and microbial community was identified by DNA sequencing. In young ecosystems (protosoils) biogenic weathering is almost absent and starts after first carbon accumulation by aeolian (later litter) inputs and is mainly performed by bacteria. With ongoing soil development and appearance of symbiotic (mycorrhized) plants, nutrient availability in soil increasingly drove biogenic weathering, and fungi became the far more important players than bacteria. We found a close relation between fungal biogenic weathering and available potassium across all 16 forested sites in the study, regardless of the dominant mycorrhiza type (AM or EM), climate, and plant-species composition. We conclude that nutrient limitations at ecosystem scale are generally counteracted by adapted fungal biogenic weathering. The close relation between fungal weathering and plant-available nutrients over a large range of severely contrasting ecosystems points towards a direct energetic support of these weathering processes by the photoautotrophic community, making biogenic weathering a

  15. Study of hydrocarbons in bottom sediments of the northern Dvina River-White Sea geochemical barrier during spring flood. Volume 2

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nemirovskaya, I.; Shevchenko, V.

    2007-01-01

    The Northern Dvina in Northern Russia is the main river of the White Sea reservoir. The water discharge is 108 km 3 per year. With active shipping and several large pulp and paper mills that operate in the region, the river is a supplier of polluting substances. Weathered oil and pyrogenic compounds dominate the composition of hydrocarbons. During flooding, the Northern Dvina - Dvina Bay geochemical barrier becomes a filter, which prevents pollutants from penetrating to the White Sea. This paper summarized data on the concentration and composition of hydrocarbons, aliphatic hydrocarbons (AHC) and polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAH) in the marine water and bottom sediments at the mouth of the Northern Dvina/White Sea. Nearly similar concentrations of organic compounds were found in the Northern Dvina River water and in the near-mouth White Sea water area. However, their distribution conforms to the marginal filter rules. Natural terrigenous hydrocarbon compounds were found to dominate in all forms. Biogenic autochthonous hydrocarbons were detected in the near-shore areas and in the outer zone of the marginal filter of the Northern Dvina River, where PAH are formed together with AHC. 20 refs., 2 tabs., 4 figs

  16. BIOREMEDIATION OF A PETROLEUM-HYDROCARBON

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    ES OBE

    under field conditions in the bioremediation of a petroleum- hydrocarbon polluted ... an accelerated biodegradation of petroleum hydrocarbons in a polluted agricultural soil ..... 12) Jackson, M.L. Soil chemical analysis. ... biological assay. 3 rd.

  17. Total Petroleum Hydrocarbons (TPH): ToxFAQs

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... a state: This map displays locations where Total Petroleum Hydrocarbons (TPH) is known to be present. On ... I get more information? ToxFAQs TM for Total Petroleum Hydrocarbons (TPH) ( Hidrocarburos Totales de Petróleo (TPH) ) August ...

  18. [Development of biogenic VOC emissions inventory with high temporal and spatial resolution].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hu, Y; Zhang, Y; Xie, S; Zeng, L

    2001-11-01

    A new method was developed to estimate biogenic VOC emissions with high temporal and spatial resolution by use of Mesoscale Meteorology Modeling System Version5 (MM5). In this method, the isoprene and monoterpene standard emission factors for some types of tree in China were given and the standard VOC emission factors and seasonally average densities of leaf biomass for all types of vegetation were determined. A biogenic VOC emissions inventory in South China was established which could meet the requirement of regional air quality modeling. Total biogenic VOC emissions in a typical summer day were estimated to be 1.12 x 10(4) metric tons in an area of 729 km x 729 km of South China. The results showed the temporal and spatial distributions of biogenic VOC emission rates in this area. The results also showed that the geographical distribution of biogenic VOC emission rates depended on vegetation types and their distributions and the diurnal variation mainly depended on the solar radiation and temperature. The uncertainties of estimating biogenic VOC emissions were also discussed.

  19. Biogenic amines in the meat of hunted pheasant and hare during the course of storage

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zdeňka Hutařová

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Venison is becoming more and more interesting for consumers. Although treatment procedures of hunted game differ from slaughtered livestock, the hygienic quality of game meat must still be ensured. Potential indicators of meat hygienic quality include the content of biogenic amines. The aim of the present study was to assess the content and changes of biogenic amines in the muscles of selected kinds of small game (common pheasant and brown hare during storage, and based on the obtained results, to assess the hygienic quality of the meat. Biogenic amines (putrescine, cadaverine, histamine, tyramine, phenylethylamine, and tryptamine in the breast and thigh muscles separated by reverse phase liquid chromatography and consequently were detected using tandem mass spectrometry. Based on the determined content of biogenic amines, both pheasant and hare meats complied with values of high quality meat. The sum of biogenic amines did not exceed the value of 5 mg/kg after 7 days at 0 °C or 7 °C in pheasant meat, and after 21 days at 0 °C or after 14 days at 7 °C in brown hare meat. The biogenic amine content and the speed of their formation in venison can be very helpful for the evaluation of both meat hygienic quality and safety of these foods during storage.

  20. Characterization of a large biogenic secondary organic aerosol event from eastern Canadian forests

    Science.gov (United States)

    Slowik, J. G.; Stroud, C.; Bottenheim, J. W.; Brickell, P. C.; Chang, R. Y.-W.; Liggio, J.; Makar, P. A.; Martin, R. V.; Moran, M. D.; Shantz, N. C.; Sjostedt, S. J.; van Donkelaar, A.; Vlasenko, A.; Wiebe, H. A.; Xia, A. G.; Zhang, J.; Leaitch, W. R.; Abbatt, J. P. D.

    2010-03-01

    Measurements of aerosol composition, volatile organic compounds, and CO are used to determine biogenic secondary organic aerosol (SOA) concentrations at a rural site 70 km north of Toronto. These biogenic SOA levels are many times higher than past observations and occur during a period of increasing temperatures and outflow from Northern Ontario and Quebec forests in early summer. A regional chemical transport model approximately predicts the event timing and accurately predicts the aerosol loading, identifying the precursors as monoterpene emissions from the coniferous forest. The agreement between the measured and modeled biogenic aerosol concentrations contrasts with model underpredictions for polluted regions. Correlations of the oxygenated organic aerosol mass with tracers such as CO support a secondary aerosol source and distinguish biogenic, pollution, and biomass burning periods during the field campaign. Using the Master Chemical Mechanism, it is shown that the levels of CO observed during the biogenic event are consistent with a photochemical source arising from monoterpene oxidation. The biogenic aerosol mass correlates with satellite measurements of regional aerosol optical depth, indicating that the event extends across the eastern Canadian forest. This regional event correlates with increased temperatures, indicating that temperature-dependent forest emissions can significantly affect climate through enhanced direct optical scattering and higher cloud condensation nuclei numbers.

  1. XENOBIOTICS AND BIOGENIC ELEMENTS IN RAW COW'S MILK

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Agnieszka Greń

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available Normal 0 21 false false false SK X-NONE X-NONE This paper presents the concentration some toxic and biogenic elements in milk from Nitra region. The aim of this investigation was to evaluate 30 samples of raw milk with fat contents 3.8% obtained from milk machine in the Nitra region. Samples were analyzed for metal contents using atomic absorption spectrophotometry (AAS. In comparison with maximum acceptable concentration for milk in the food codex of the Slovak republic, the level of contamination with cadmium was exceeded and reached the value 0.221 µg.ml-1. The copper content ranged from 1.201 µg.ml-1 to 5.810 µg.ml-1 and the average concentration reached 3.793 µg.ml-1.  Iron had an average of 1.824 µg.ml-1. Overall in all milk samples high correlations were found. Between positive correlation (0.7019 and negative correlation between of nickel and potassium concentration in raw milk (-0.72 was found. doi:10.5219/246

  2. Analysis of irradiated biogenic amines by computational chemistry and spectroscopy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Oliveira, Jorge L.S.P.; Borges Junior, Itamar; Cardozo, Monique; Souza, Stefania P.; Lima, Antonio L.S.; Lima, Keila S.C.

    2011-01-01

    Biogenic Amines (B A) are nitrogenous compounds able to cause food poisoning. In this work, we studied the tyramine, one of the most common BA present in foods by combining experimental measured IR (Infrared) and GC/MS (Gas Chromatograph / Mass Spectrometry) spectra and computational quantum chemistry. Density Functional Theory (DFT) and the Deformed Atoms in Molecules (DMA) method was used to compute the partition the electronic densities in a chemically-intuitive way and electrostatic potentials of molecule to identify the acid and basic sites. Trading pattern was irradiated using a Cs 137 radiator, and each sample was identified by IR and GC/MS. Calculated and experimental IR spectra were compared. We observed that ionizing gamma irradiation was very effective in decreasing the population of standard amine, resulting in fragments that could be rationalized through the quantum chemistry calculations. In particular, we could locate the acid and basic sites of both molecules and identify possible sites of structural weaknesses, which allowed to propose mechanistic schemes for the breaking of chemical bonds by the irradiation. Moreover, from this work we hope it will be also possible to properly choose the dose of gamma irradiation which should be provided to eliminate each type of contamination. (author)

  3. Bounce behavior of freshly nucleated biogenic secondary organic aerosol particles

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. Virtanen

    2011-08-01

    Full Text Available The assessment of the climatic impacts and adverse health effects of atmospheric aerosol particles requires detailed information on particle properties. However, very limited information is available on the morphology and phase state of secondary organic aerosol (SOA particles. The physical state of particles greatly affects particulate-phase chemical reactions, and thus the growth rates of newly formed atmospheric aerosol. Thus verifying the physical phase state of SOA particles gives new and important insight into their formation, subsequent growth, and consequently potential atmospheric impacts. According to our recent study, biogenic SOA particles produced in laboratory chambers from the oxidation of real plant emissions as well as in ambient boreal forest atmospheres can exist in a solid phase in size range >30 nm. In this paper, we extend previously published results to diameters in the range of 17–30 nm. The physical phase of the particles is studied by investigating particle bounce properties utilizing electrical low pressure impactor (ELPI. We also investigate the effect of estimates of particle density on the interpretation of our bounce observations. According to the results presented in this paper, particle bounce clearly decreases with decreasing particle size in sub 30 nm size range. The comparison measurements by ammonium sulphate and investigation of the particle impaction velocities strongly suggest that the decreasing bounce is caused by the differences in composition and phase of large (diameters greater than 30 nm and smaller (diameters between 17 and 30 nm particles.

  4. Emissions of biogenic sulfur gases from Alaskan tundra

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hines, Mark E.; Morrison, Michael C.

    1992-01-01

    Results of sulfur emission measurements made in freshwater and marine wetlands in Alaskan tundra during the Arctic Boundary Layer Expedition 2A (ABLE 3A) in July 1988 are presented. The data indicate that this type of tundra emits very small amounts of gaseous sulfur and, when extrapolated globally, accounts for a very small percentage of the global flux of biogenic sulfur to the atmosphere. Sulfur emissions from marine sites are up to 20-fold greater than fluxes from freshwater habitats and are dominated by dimethyl sulfide (DMS). Highest emissions, with a mean of 6.0 nmol/sq m/h, occurred in water-saturated wet meadow areas. In drier upland tundra sites, highest fluxes occurred in areas inhabited by mixed vegetation and labrador tea at 3.0 nmol/sq m/h and lowest fluxes were from lichen-dominated areas at 0.9 nmol/sq m/h. DMS was the dominant gas emitted from all these sites. Emissions of DMS were highest from intertidal soils inhabited by Carex subspathacea.

  5. PTR-MS in environmental research: biogenic VOCs

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Beauchamp, J.; Grabmer, W.; Graus, M.; Wisthaler, A.; Hansel, A.

    2004-01-01

    Proton-transfer-reaction mass spectrometry (PTR-MS) is a chemical ionization mass spectrometry technique that allows for on-line measurements of volatile organic compounds (VOCs) at pptV levels. This well established analytical tool has been used in a broad variety of research, including the investigation of VOCs in various foods (e.g. for quality control or food degradation studies), as well as being used as a tool for non-invasive medical diagnostics (e.g. human breath analysis). In addition to these fields of study, PTR-MS has been widely used in environmental research, from trace gas analysis in the troposphere to VOC emissions from plants. Participation in two field campaigns (BEWA and ECHO - both part of the German AFO 2000 program) by the Institute of Ion Physics involved a variety of investigations for monitoring biogenic emissions. These included the technique of disjunct eddy covariance for flux measurements above a forest canopy, C-13 carbon labelling experiments to follow carbon use in a plant, and stress-induced VOC emission investigations to gain understanding of how plants react to stress (e.g. ozone exposure). A selection of results from these investigations will be discussed in this presentation. (author)

  6. Photochemistry of biogenic emissions over the Amazon forest

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jacob, Daniel J.; Wofsy, Steven C.

    1988-01-01

    The boundary layer chemistry over the Amazon forest during the dry season is simulated with a photochemical model. Results are in good agreement with measurements of isoprene, NO, ozone, and organic acids. Photochemical reactions of biogenic isoprene and NOx can supply most of the ozone observed in the boundary layer. Production of ozone is very sensitive to the availability of NOx, but is insensitive to the isoprene source strength. High concentrations of total odd nitrogen (NOy) are predicted for the planetary boundary layer, about 1 ppb in the mixed layer and 0.75 ppb in the convective cloud layer. Most of the odd nitrogen is present as PAN-type species, which are removed by dry deposition to the forest. The observed daytime variations of isoprene are explained by a strong dependence of the isoprene emission flux on sun angle. Nighttime losses of isoprene exceed rates of reaction with NO3 and O3 and appear to reflect dry-deposition processes. The 24-hour averaged isoprene emission flux is calculated to be 38 mg/sq m per day. Photooxidation of isoprene could account for a large fraction of the CO enrichment observed in the boundary layer under unpolluted conditions and could constitute an important atmospheric source of formic acid, methacrylic acid, and pyruvic acid.

  7. HOx Radical Behavior in Urban, Biogenic and Mixed Environments

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cantrell, C. A.; Mauldin, L.; Schardt, N.; Mukherjee, A. D.

    2014-12-01

    The importance of HOx radicals in tropospheric chemistry is well-recognized. These roles include control of the lifetimes of a wide variety of trace gases, and control of photochemical ozone formation. The continued advance in understanding comes from laboratory investigations and field observations especially as part of comprehensive measurement campaigns. We participated in two recent observational campaigns aboard the NSF/NCAR C-130 aircraft platform: NOMADSS (Nitrogen, Oxidants, Mercury and Aerosol Distributions, Sources and Sinks) and FRAPPE (Front Range Atmospheric Pollution and Photochemistry Experiment). During these studies, a wide varieties of air masses were sampled ranging from fresh urban to rural both without and without biogenic influence to marine, and including the impacts of emissions from oil and gas extraction and animal production. Among the wide variety of parameters and species related to tropospheric chemistry that were measured, our group made observations of HOx and related species: OH, HO2, HO2+RO2, H2SO4, and stabilized Criegee intermediates (sCIs) using selected ion chemical ionization mass spectrometry. The paper discusses the functional dependence of these species on other measures of the chemical environment (e.g. NO, VOCs, j-values) as well as comparison of model estimates with the observations.

  8. Emission and role of biogenic volatile organic compounds in biosphere

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Saleem, A.R.

    2013-01-01

    Plants are an essential part of the biosphere. Under the influence of climate change, plants respond in multiple ways within the ecosystem. One such way is the release of assimilated carbon back to the atmosphere in form of biogenic volatile organic compounds (BVOCs), which are produced by plants and are involved in plant growth, reproduction, defense and other . These compounds are emitted from vegetation into the atmosphere under different environmental situations. Plants produce an extensive range of BVOCs, including isoprenoids, sequisterpenes, aldehydes, alcohols and terpenes in different tissues above and below the ground. The emission rates vary with various environmental conditions and the plant growth stage in its life span.BVOCs are released under biotic and abiotic stress changes, like heat, drought, land-use changes, higher atmospheric CO concentrations, increased UV radiation and insect or disease attack. Plants emit BVOCs in atmosphere in order to avoid stress, and adapt to harsh circumstances. These compounds also have a significant role in plant-plant interaction, communication and competition. BVOCs have the ability to alter atmospheric chemistry; they readily react with atmospheric pollutant gases under high temperature and form tropospheric ozone, which is a potent air pollutant for global warming and disease occurrence. BVOCs may be a cause of photochemical smog and increase the stay of other GHGs in the atmosphere. Therefore, further study is required to assess the behavior of BVOCs in the biosphere as well as the atmosphere. (author)

  9. Concentration of floating biogenic material in convergence zones

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dandonneau, Yves; Menkes, Christophe; Duteil, Olaf; Gorgues, Thomas

    Some organisms that live just below the sea surface (the neuston) are known more as a matter of curiosity than as critical players in biogeochemical cycles. The hypothesis of this work is that their existence implies that they receive some food from an upward flux of organic matter. The behaviour of these organisms and of the associated organic matter, hereafter mentioned as floating biogenic material (FBM) is explored using a global physical-biogeochemical coupled model, in which its generation is fixed to 1% of primary production, and decay rate is of the order of 1 month. The model shows that the distribution of FBM should depart rapidly from that of primary production, and be more sensitive to circulation patterns than to the distribution of primary production. It is trapped in convergence areas, where it reaches concentrations larger by a factor 10 than in divergences, thus enhancing and inverting the contrast between high and low primary productivity areas. Attention is called on the need to better understand the biogeochemical processes in the first meter of the ocean, as they may impact the distribution of food for fishes, as well as the conditions for air-sea exchange and for the interpretation of sea color.

  10. Biogenic volatile organic compound emissions from vegetation fires.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ciccioli, Paolo; Centritto, Mauro; Loreto, Francesco

    2014-08-01

    The aim of this paper was to provide an overview of the current state of the art on research into the emission of biogenic volatile organic compounds (BVOCs) from vegetation fires. Significant amounts of VOCs are emitted from vegetation fires, including several reactive compounds, the majority belonging to the isoprenoid family, which rapidly disappear in the plume to yield pollutants such as secondary organic aerosol and ozone. This makes determination of fire-induced BVOC emission difficult, particularly in areas where the ratio between VOCs and anthropogenic NOx is favourable to the production of ozone, such as Mediterranean areas and highly anthropic temperate (and fire-prone) regions of the Earth. Fire emissions affecting relatively pristine areas, such as the Amazon and the African savannah, are representative of emissions of undisturbed plant communities. We also examined expected BVOC emissions at different stages of fire development and combustion, from drying to flaming, and from heatwaves coming into contact with unburned vegetation at the edge of fires. We conclude that forest fires may dramatically change emission factors and the profile of emitted BVOCs, thereby influencing the chemistry and physics of the atmosphere, the physiology of plants and the evolution of plant communities within the ecosystem. © 2014 The Authors. Plant, Cell & Environment published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  11. A marine biogenic source of atmospheric ice-nucleating particles

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wilson, T. W.; Ladino, L. A.; Alpert, Peter A.; Breckels, M. N.; Brooks, I. M.; Browse, J.; Burrows, Susannah M.; Carslaw, K. S.; Huffman, J. A.; Judd, C.; Kilthau, W. P.; Mason, R. H.; McFiggans, Gordon; Miller, L. A.; Najera, J.; Polishchuk, E. A.; Rae, S.; Schiller, C. L.; Si, M.; Vergara Temprado, J.; Whale, Thomas; Wong, J P S; Wurl, O.; Yakobi-Hancock, J. D.; Abbatt, JPD; Aller, Josephine Y.; Bertram, Allan K.; Knopf, Daniel A.; Murray, Benjamin J.

    2015-09-09

    The formation of ice in clouds is facilitated by the presence of airborne ice nucleating particles1,2. Sea spray is one of the major global sources of atmospheric particles, but it is unclear to what extent these particles are capable of nucleating ice3–11. Here we show that material in the sea surface microlayer, which is enriched in surface active organic material representative of that found in sub-micron sea- spray aerosol12–21, nucleates ice under conditions that occur in mixed-phase clouds and high-altitude ice clouds. The ice active material is likely biogenic and is less than ~0.2 ?m in size. We also show that organic material (exudate) released by a common marine diatom nucleates ice when separated from cells and propose that organic material associated with phytoplankton cell exudates are a candidate for the observed ice nucleating ability of the microlayer samples. By combining our measurements with global model simulations of marine organic aerosol, we show that ice nucleating particles of marine origin are dominant in remote marine environments, such as the Southern Ocean, the North Pacific and the North Atlantic.

  12. Leishmanicidal Activity of Biogenic Fe3O4 Nanoparticles

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mehrdad Khatami

    2017-11-01

    Full Text Available Abstract: Due to the multiplicity of useful applications of metal oxide nanoparticles (ONPs in medicine are growing exponentially, in this study, Fe3O4 (iron oxide nanoparticles (IONPs were biosynthesized using Rosemary to evaluate the leishmanicidal efficiency of green synthesized IONPs. This is the first report of the leishmanicidal efficiency of green synthesized IONPs against Leishmania major. The resulting biosynthesized IONPs were characterized by ultraviolet-visible spectroscopy (UV-Vis, X-ray diffraction (XRD, transmission electron microscopy (TEM, and Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FTIR. The leishmanicidal activity of IONPS was studied via 3-4,5-dimethylthiazol-2-yl-2,5-diphenyltetrazolium bromide (MTT assay. The results showed the fabrication of the spherical shape of monodisperse IONPs with a size 4 ± 2 nm. The UV-visible spectrophotometer absorption peak was at 334 nm. The leishmanicidal activity of biogenic iron oxide nanoparticles against Leishmania major (promastigote was also studied. The IC50 of IONPs was 350 µg/mL. In this report, IONPs were synthesized via a green method. IONPs are mainly spherical and homogeneous, with an average size of about 4 nm, and were synthesized here using an eco-friendly, simple, and inexpensive method.

  13. Addressing biogenic greenhouse gas emissions from hydropower in LCA.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hertwich, Edgar G

    2013-09-03

    The ability of hydropower to contribute to climate change mitigation is sometimes questioned, citing emissions of methane and carbon dioxide resulting from the degradation of biogenic carbon in hydropower reservoirs. These emissions are, however, not always addressed in life cycle assessment, leading to a bias in technology comparisons, and often misunderstood. The objective of this paper is to review and analyze the generation of greenhouse gas emissions from reservoirs for the purpose of technology assessment, relating established emission measurements to power generation. A literature review, data collection, and statistical analysis of methane and CO2 emissions are conducted. In a sample of 82 measurements, methane emissions per kWh hydropower generated are log-normally distributed, ranging from micrograms to 10s of kg. A multivariate regression analysis shows that the reservoir area per kWh electricity is the most important explanatory variable. Methane emissions flux per reservoir area are correlated with the natural net primary production of the area, the age of the power plant, and the inclusion of bubbling emissions in the measurement. Even together, these factors fail to explain most of the variation in the methane flux. The global average emissions from hydropower are estimated to be 85 gCO2/kWh and 3 gCH4/kWh, with a multiplicative uncertainty factor of 2. GHG emissions from hydropower can be largely avoided by ceasing to build hydropower plants with high land use per unit of electricity generated.

  14. Fungal spores overwhelm biogenic organic aerosols in a midlatitudinal forest

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    C. Zhu

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available Both primary biological aerosol particles (PBAPs and oxidation products of biogenic volatile organic compounds (BVOCs contribute significantly to organic aerosols (OAs in forested regions. However, little is known about their relative importance in diurnal timescales. Here, we report biomarkers of PBAP and secondary organic aerosols (SOAs for their diurnal variability in a temperate coniferous forest in Wakayama, Japan. Tracers of fungal spores, trehalose, arabitol and mannitol, showed significantly higher levels in nighttime than daytime (p < 0.05, resulting from the nocturnal sporulation under near-saturated relative humidity. On the contrary, BVOC oxidation products showed higher levels in daytime than nighttime, indicating substantial photochemical SOA formation. Using tracer-based methods, we estimated that fungal spores account for 45 % of organic carbon (OC in nighttime and 22 % in daytime, whereas BVOC oxidation products account for 15 and 19 %, respectively. To our knowledge, we present for the first time highly time-resolved results that fungal spores overwhelmed BVOC oxidation products in contributing to OA especially in nighttime. This study emphasizes the importance of both PBAPs and SOAs in forming forest organic aerosols.

  15. Effective viscosity of confined hydrocarbons

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sivebæk, Ion Marius; Samoilov, V.N.; Persson, B.N.J.

    2012-01-01

    We present molecular dynamics friction calculations for confined hydrocarbon films with molecular lengths from 20 to 1400 carbon atoms. We find that the logarithm of the effective viscosity ηeff for nanometer-thin films depends linearly on the logarithm of the shear rate: log ηeff=C-nlog γ̇, where...

  16. Discovery of Widespread Biogenic Methane Emissions and Authigenic Carbonate Mound-like Structures at the Aquitaine Shelf (Bay of Biscay)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dupré, S.; Loubrieu, B.; Scalabrin, C.; Ehrhold, A.; Gautier, E.; Ruffine, L.; Pierre, C.; Battani, A.; Le Bouffant, N.; Berger, L.

    2014-12-01

    Biscay, France): a biogenic origin or the expression of hydrocarbon leakage? Continental Shelf Research, doi:10.1016/j.csr.2014.07.004

  17. Hydrocarbon source apportionment for the 1996 Paso del Norte Ozone Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fujita, E M

    2001-08-10

    The 1996 Paso del Norte (PdN) ozone study was conducted to improve current understanding of the significant meteorological and air quality processes that lead to high concentrations of ozone in El Paso, Texas (USA) and Ciudad Juárez, Chihuahua (Mexico). Two-hour canister samples were collected five times daily at 05.00-07.00 h, 07.00-09.00 h, 09.00-11.00 h, 11.00-13.00 h, and 15.00-17.00 h MST during intensive study periods at one urban and one rural site on each side of the border. An automated gas chromatograph was operated at one site in central El Paso. Source profiles (the fractional chemical composition of emissions) from motor vehicles, gasoline, liquefied petroleum gas, and commercial natural gas were combined with source profiles from other studies for input to the Chemical Mass Balance (CMB) receptor model to apportion the measured non-methane hydrocarbons (NMHC) to sources. On-road vehicle emissions accounted for one-half to two-thirds of the NMHC in Ciudad Juárez and El Paso with the highest contributions occurring during the morning and afternoon commute periods. Emissions from diesel exhaust contributed approximately 2-3% of NMHC in Ciudad Juárez and less than 2% in El Paso. The average sum of liquid gasoline and gasoline vapor increased during the day in Ciudad Juárez from 2% at 06.00 h to approximately 12% at 16.00 h. Diurnal and day-of-the-week patterns in the liquid gasoline contributions are essentially identical to the corresponding patterns for motor vehicle exhaust, which suggest that a large fraction of the liquid gasoline contribution may be associated with tailpipe emissions rather than evaporative emissions from motor vehicles or industrial sources. Including the sum of the two sources put the upper limit for tailpipe contributions at 60-70% of NMHC.

  18. Hydrocarbon source apportionment for the 1996 Paso del Norte Ozone Study

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fujita, E.M. [Desert Research Institute, 2215 Raggio Parkway, Reno, NV 89506-0220 (United States)

    2001-08-10

    The 1996 Paso del Norte (PdN) ozone study was conducted to improve current understanding of the significant meteorological and air quality processes that lead to high concentrations of ozone in El Paso, Texas (USA) and Ciudad Juarez, Chihuahua (Mexico). Two-hour canister samples were collected five times daily at 05.00-07.00 h, 07.00-09.00 h, 09.00-11.00 h, 11.00-13.00 h, and 15.00-17.00 h MST during intensive study periods at one urban and one rural site on each side of the border. An automated gas chromatograph was operated at one site in central El Paso. Source profiles (the fractional chemical composition of emissions) from motor vehicles, gasoline, liquefied petroleum gas, and commercial natural gas were combined with source profiles from other studies for input to the Chemical Mass Balance (CMB) receptor model to apportion the measured non-methane hydrocarbons (NMHC) to sources. On-road vehicle emissions accounted for one-half to two-thirds of the NMHC in Ciudad Juarez and El Paso with the highest contributions occurring during the morning and afternoon commute periods. Emissions from diesel exhaust contributed approximately 2-3% of NMHC in Ciudad Juarez and less than 2% in El Paso. The average sum of liquid gasoline and gasoline vapor increased during the day in Ciudad Juarez from 2% at 06.00 h to approximately 12% at 16.00 h. Diurnal and day-of-the-week patterns in the liquid gasoline contributions are essentially identical to the corresponding patterns for motor vehicle exhaust, which suggest that a large fraction of the liquid gasoline contribution may be associated with tailpipe emissions rather than evaporative emissions from motor vehicles or industrial sources. Including the sum of the two sources put the upper limit for tailpipe contributions at 60-70% of NMHC.

  19. Non-aromatic hydrocarbons in surface sediments near the Pearl River estuary in the South China Sea

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gao Xuelu; Chen Shaoyong; Xie Xueliang; Long Aimin; Ma Fujun

    2007-01-01

    Surface sediment samples at 4 sites along an offshore transect from outer continental shelf off the Pearl River estuary to the shelf slope region of the northern South China Sea, have been analyzed for total organic carbon (TOC), total nitrogen (TN), solvent extractable organic matter (EOM) and non-aromatic hydrocarbons. TOC, TN and EOM show distinct spatial variations. Their highest values are all recorded at the shelf slope region. EOM varies from 18.70-38.58 μg g -1 dry sediment and accounts for 0.20-0.72% of the TOC contents. The non-aromatic hydrocarbons are an important fraction of EOM. Their contents range from 3.43-7.06 μg g -1 dry sediment. n-Alkanes with carbon number ranging from 15-38 are identified. They derive from both biogenic and petrogenic sources in different proportions. Results of isoprenoid hydrocarbons, hopanes and steranes also suggest possible petroleum contamination. - Anthropogenic activities have influences on the composition of non-aromatic hydrocarbons in the surface sediments of the northern South China Sea outer continental shelf

  20. Biodegradation of petroleum hydrocarbons in hypersaline environments

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Luiz Fernando Martins

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available Literature on hydrocarbon degradation in extreme hypersaline media presents studies that point to a negative effect of salinity increase on hydrocarbonoclastic activity, while several others report an opposite tendency. Based on information available in the literature, we present a discussion on the reasons that justify these contrary results. Despite the fact that microbial ability to metabolize hydrocarbons is found in extreme hypersaline media, indeed some factors are critical for the occurrence of hydrocarbon degradation in such environments. How these factors affect hydrocarbon degradation and their implications for the assessment of hydrocarbon biodegradation in hypersaline environments are presented in this review.

  1. Process for separating liquid hydrocarbons from waxes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sowa, F J

    1948-03-08

    A process is described for the separation of liquid hydrocarbons from waxes comprising adding to a mixture of liquid hydrocarbons and waxes a sufficient quantity of an organo-silicon compound to cause the separation of the hydrocarbon and wax. The organo-silicon compounds are selected from the class of organic silicanes and their hydrolysis products and polymers. The silicanes have the formula R/sub y/SiX/sub z/, in which R is a saturated or unsaturated hydrocarbon radical, X is a halogen or another hydrocarbon radical or an -OR group, y has a value 1, 2, or 3 and z has a value 1, 2, or 3.

  2. Contribution of biogenic emissions to the formation of ozone and particulate matter in the eastern United States.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pun, Betty K; Wu, Shiang-Yuh; Seigneur, Christian

    2002-08-15

    As anthropogenic emissions of ozone (O3) precursors, fine particulate matter (PM2.5), and PM2.5 precursors continue to decrease in the United States, the fraction of O3 and PM2.5 attributable to natural sources may become significant in some locations, reducing the efficacy that can be expected from future controls of anthropogenic sources. Modeling studies were conducted to estimate the contribution of biogenic emissions to the formation of O3 and PM2.5 in Nashville/TN and the northeastern United States. Two approaches were used to bound the estimates. In an anthropogenic simulation, biogenic emissions and their influence at the domain boundaries were eliminated. Contributions of biogenic compounds to the simulated concentrations of O3 and PM2.5 were determined by the deviation of the concentrations in the anthropogenic case from those in the base case. A biogenic simulation was used to assess the amounts of O3 and PM2.5 produced in an environment free from anthropogenic influences in emissions and boundary conditions. In both locations, the contribution of biogenic emissions to O3 was small (production of O3 was much more sensitive to biogenic emissions in urban areas (22-34%). Therefore, the effects of biogenic emissions on O3 manifested mostly via their interaction with anthropogenic emissions of NOx. In the anthropogenic simulations, the average contribution of biogenic and natural sources to PM2.5 was estimated at 9% in Nashville/TN and 12% in the northeast domain. Because of the long atmospheric lifetimes of PM2.5, the contribution of biogenic/natural PM2.5 from the boundary conditions was higher than the contribution of biogenic aerosols produced within the domain. The elimination of biogenic emissions also affected the chemistry of other secondary PM2.5 components. Very little PM2.5 was formed in the biogenic simulations.

  3. Development and validation of an LC?MS/MS method for the determination of biogenic amines in wines and beers

    OpenAIRE

    Nalazek-Rudnicka, Katarzyna; Wasik, Andrzej

    2017-01-01

    Abstract Biogenic amines are group of organic, basic, nitrogenous compounds that naturally occur in plant, microorganism, and animal organisms. Biogenic amines are mainly produced through decarboxylation of amino acids. They are formed during manufacturing of some kind of food and beverages such as cheese, wine, or beer. Histamine, cadaverine, agmatine, tyramine, putrescine, and ?-phenylethylamine are the most common biogenic amines found in wines and beers. This group of compounds can be tox...

  4. Tolerance of Antarctic soil fungi to hydrocarbons

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hughes, Kevin A.; Bridge, Paul; Clark, Melody S. [British Antarctic Survey, Natural Environment Research Council, High Cross, Madingley Road, Cambridge CB3 0ET (United Kingdom)

    2007-01-01

    Little is known about the effects of hydrocarbons and fuel oil on Antarctic filamentous fungi in the terrestrial Antarctic environment. Growth of fungi and bacteria from soils around Rothera Research Station (Adelaide Island, Antarctic Peninsula) was assessed in the presence of ten separate aromatic and aliphatic hydrocarbons [marine gas oil (MGO), dodecane, hexadecane, benzoic acid, p-hydroxybenzoic acid, toluene, phenol, biphenyl, naphthalene and m- and p-xylenes with ethylbenzene]. Aromatic hydrocarbons inhibited soil microbial growth more than aliphatic hydrocarbons. Soil microorganisms from a moss patch, where little previous impact or hydrocarbon contamination had occurred, were less tolerant of hydrocarbons than those from high impact sites. Fungal growth rates of Mollisia sp., Penicillium commune, Mortierella sp., Trichoderma koningii, Trichoderma sp. and Phoma herbarum were assessed in the presence of hydrocarbons. Generally, aromatic hydrocarbons inhibited or stopped hyphal extension, though growth rates increased with some aliphatic hydrocarbons. Hyphal dry weight measurements suggested that Mortierella sp. may be able to use dodecane as sole carbon and energy source. Hydrocarbon-degrading Antarctic fungi may have use in future hydrocarbon spill bioremediation. (author)

  5. An approach for verifying biogenic greenhouse gas emissions inventories with atmospheric CO2 concentration data

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ogle, Stephen M; Davis, Kenneth; Lauvaux, Thomas; Miles, Natasha L; Richardson, Scott; Schuh, Andrew; Cooley, Dan; Breidt, F Jay; West, Tristram O; Heath, Linda S; Smith, James E; McCarty, Jessica L; Gurney, Kevin R; Tans, Pieter; Denning, A Scott

    2015-01-01

    Verifying national greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions inventories is a critical step to ensure that reported emissions data to the United Nations Framework Convention on Climate Change (UNFCCC) are accurate and representative of a country’s contribution to GHG concentrations in the atmosphere. Furthermore, verifying biogenic fluxes provides a check on estimated emissions associated with managing lands for carbon sequestration and other activities, which often have large uncertainties. We report here on the challenges and results associated with a case study using atmospheric measurements of CO 2 concentrations and inverse modeling to verify nationally-reported biogenic CO 2 emissions. The biogenic CO 2 emissions inventory was compiled for the Mid-Continent region of United States based on methods and data used by the US government for reporting to the UNFCCC, along with additional sources and sinks to produce a full carbon balance. The biogenic emissions inventory produced an estimated flux of −408 ± 136 Tg CO 2 for the entire study region, which was not statistically different from the biogenic flux of −478 ± 146 Tg CO 2 that was estimated using the atmospheric CO 2 concentration data. At sub-regional scales, the spatial density of atmospheric observations did not appear sufficient to verify emissions in general. However, a difference between the inventory and inversion results was found in one isolated area of West-central Wisconsin. This part of the region is dominated by forestlands, suggesting that further investigation may be warranted into the forest C stock or harvested wood product data from this portion of the study area. The results suggest that observations of atmospheric CO 2 concentration data and inverse modeling could be used to verify biogenic emissions, and provide more confidence in biogenic GHG emissions reporting to the UNFCCC. (letter)

  6. Effect of storage conditions on the biogenic amine content in wild boar meat

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zdeňka Hutařová

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Hygienic quality of game meat depends on many factors during and after hunting. Freshness of meat is connected with the concentration of biogenic amines which is related to meat spoilage. The aim of this study was to assess changes in concentration of biogenic amines in raw meat of wild boar (n = 20, mean age 1–2 years during storage at different temperatures. Carcases of wild boars hunted in winter 2012 in hunting districts of south Moravia were stored unskinned during 21 days at various temperatures (0, 7 and 15 °C. Concentrations of biogenic amines (putrescine, cadaverine, tyramine, tryptamine, phenylethylamine, histamine, spermine and spermidine were determined in the shoulder and leg muscles by high-performance liquid chromatography in combination with triple quadrupole tandem mass spectrometry. Good hygienic quality was maintained when wild boar carcasses were stored for a maximum of 14 days at 0 °C (content of biogenic amines in 3 meat samples exceed the limit of 5 mg/kg on day 21 of storage or a maximum of 7 days at 7 °C (content of biogenic amines in 4 meat samples exceed the limit of 5 mg/kg on day 14 of storage. The temperature of 15 °C should be considered as unsuitable storage temperature if good hygienic quality of game meat during storage is to be guaranteed (content of biogenic amines in 2 meat samples exceed the limit of 5 mg/kg already on day 7 of storage. The study brings new information about the biogenic amine content and its changes in wild boar meat during the storage period of 21 days.

  7. Stable silicon isotope signatures of marine pore waters - Biogenic opal dissolution versus authigenic clay mineral formation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ehlert, Claudia; Doering, Kristin; Wallmann, Klaus; Scholz, Florian; Sommer, Stefan; Grasse, Patricia; Geilert, Sonja; Frank, Martin

    2016-10-01

    Dissolved silicon isotope compositions have been analysed for the first time in pore waters (δ30SiPW) of three short sediment cores from the Peruvian margin upwelling region with distinctly different biogenic opal content in order to investigate silicon isotope fractionation behaviour during early diagenetic turnover of biogenic opal in marine sediments. The δ30SiPW varies between +1.1‰ and +1.9‰ with the highest values occurring in the uppermost part close to the sediment-water interface. These values are of the same order or higher than the δ30Si of the biogenic opal extracted from the same sediments (+0.3‰ to +1.2‰) and of the overlying bottom waters (+1.1‰ to +1.5‰). Together with dissolved silicic acid concentrations well below biogenic opal saturation, our collective observations are consistent with the formation of authigenic alumino-silicates from the dissolving biogenic opal. Using a numerical transport-reaction model we find that approximately 24% of the dissolving biogenic opal is re-precipitated in the sediments in the form of these authigenic phases at a relatively low precipitation rate of 56 μmol Si cm-2 yr-1. The fractionation factor between the precipitates and the pore waters is estimated at -2.0‰. Dissolved and solid cation concentrations further indicate that off Peru, where biogenic opal concentrations in the sediments are high, the availability of reactive terrigenous material is the limiting factor for the formation of authigenic alumino-silicate phases.

  8. Biogenic Carbon on Mars: A Subsurface Chauvinistic Viewpoint

    Science.gov (United States)

    Onstott, T. C.; Lau, C. Y. M.; Magnabosco, C.; Harris, R.; Chen, Y.; Slater, G.; Sherwood Lollar, B.; Kieft, T. L.; van Heerden, E.; Borgonie, G.; Dong, H.

    2015-12-01

    A review of 150 publications on the subsurface microbiology of the continental subsurface provides ~1,400 measurements of cellular abundances down to 4,800 meter depth. These data suggest that the continental subsurface biomass is comprised of ~1016-17 grams of carbon, which is higher than the most recent estimates of ~1015 grams of carbon (1 Gt) for the marine deep biosphere. If life developed early in Martian history and Mars sustained an active hydrological cycle during its first 500 million years, then is it possible that Mars could have developed a subsurface biomass of comparable size to that of Earth? Such a biomass would comprise a much larger fraction of the total known Martian carbon budget than does the subsurface biomass on Earth. More importantly could a remnant of this subsurface biosphere survive to the present day? To determine how sustainable subsurface life could be in isolation from the surface we have been studying subsurface fracture fluids from the Precambrian Shields in South Africa and Canada. In these environments the energetically efficient and deeply rooted acetyl-CoA pathway for carbon fixation plays a central role for chemolithoautotrophic primary producers that form the base of the biomass pyramid. These primary producers appear to be sustained indefinitely by H2 generated through serpentinization and radiolytic reactions. Carbon isotope data suggest that in some subsurface locations a much larger population of secondary consumers are sustained by the primary production of biogenic CH4 from a much smaller population of methanogens. These inverted biomass and energy pyramids sustained by the cycling of CH4 could have been and could still be active on Mars. The C and H isotopic signatures of Martian CH4 remain key tools in identifying potential signatures of an extant Martian biosphere. Based upon our results to date cavity ring-down spectroscopic technologies provide an option for making these measurements on future rover missions.

  9. Visual discrimination transfer and modulation by biogenic amines in honeybees.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vieira, Amanda Rodrigues; Salles, Nayara; Borges, Marco; Mota, Theo

    2018-05-10

    For more than a century, visual learning and memory have been studied in the honeybee Apis mellifera using operant appetitive conditioning. Although honeybees show impressive visual learning capacities in this well-established protocol, operant training of free-flying animals cannot be combined with invasive protocols for studying the neurobiological basis of visual learning. In view of this, different attempts have been made to develop new classical conditioning protocols for studying visual learning in harnessed honeybees, though learning performance remains considerably poorer than that for free-flying animals. Here, we investigated the ability of honeybees to use visual information acquired during classical conditioning in a new operant context. We performed differential visual conditioning of the proboscis extension reflex (PER) followed by visual orientation tests in a Y-maze. Classical conditioning and Y-maze retention tests were performed using the same pair of perceptually isoluminant chromatic stimuli, to avoid the influence of phototaxis during free-flying orientation. Visual discrimination transfer was clearly observed, with pre-trained honeybees significantly orienting their flights towards the former positive conditioned stimulus (CS+), thus showing that visual memories acquired by honeybees are resistant to context changes between conditioning and the retention test. We combined this visual discrimination approach with selective pharmacological injections to evaluate the effect of dopamine and octopamine in appetitive visual learning. Both octopaminergic and dopaminergic antagonists impaired visual discrimination performance, suggesting that both these biogenic amines modulate appetitive visual learning in honeybees. Our study brings new insight into cognitive and neurobiological mechanisms underlying visual learning in honeybees. © 2018. Published by The Company of Biologists Ltd.

  10. Particle size dependence of biogenic secondary organic aerosol molecular composition

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tu, Peijun; Johnston, Murray V.

    2017-06-01

    Formation of secondary organic aerosol (SOA) is initiated by the oxidation of volatile organic compounds (VOCs) in the gas phase whose products subsequently partition to the particle phase. Non-volatile molecules have a negligible evaporation rate and grow particles at their condensation rate. Semi-volatile molecules have a significant evaporation rate and grow particles at a much slower rate than their condensation rate. Particle phase chemistry may enhance particle growth if it transforms partitioned semi-volatile molecules into non-volatile products. In principle, changes in molecular composition as a function of particle size allow non-volatile molecules that have condensed from the gas phase (a surface-limited process) to be distinguished from those produced by particle phase reaction (a volume-limited process). In this work, SOA was produced by β-pinene ozonolysis in a flow tube reactor. Aerosol exiting the reactor was size-selected with a differential mobility analyzer, and individual particle sizes between 35 and 110 nm in diameter were characterized by on- and offline mass spectrometry. Both the average oxygen-to-carbon (O / C) ratio and carbon oxidation state (OSc) were found to decrease with increasing particle size, while the relative signal intensity of oligomers increased with increasing particle size. These results are consistent with oligomer formation primarily in the particle phase (accretion reactions, which become more favored as the volume-to-surface-area ratio of the particle increases). Analysis of a series of polydisperse SOA samples showed similar dependencies: as the mass loading increased (and average volume-to-surface-area ratio increased), the average O / C ratio and OSc decreased, while the relative intensity of oligomer ions increased. The results illustrate the potential impact that particle phase chemistry can have on biogenic SOA formation and the particle size range where this chemistry becomes important.

  11. Particle size dependence of biogenic secondary organic aerosol molecular composition

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    P. Tu

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available Formation of secondary organic aerosol (SOA is initiated by the oxidation of volatile organic compounds (VOCs in the gas phase whose products subsequently partition to the particle phase. Non-volatile molecules have a negligible evaporation rate and grow particles at their condensation rate. Semi-volatile molecules have a significant evaporation rate and grow particles at a much slower rate than their condensation rate. Particle phase chemistry may enhance particle growth if it transforms partitioned semi-volatile molecules into non-volatile products. In principle, changes in molecular composition as a function of particle size allow non-volatile molecules that have condensed from the gas phase (a surface-limited process to be distinguished from those produced by particle phase reaction (a volume-limited process. In this work, SOA was produced by β-pinene ozonolysis in a flow tube reactor. Aerosol exiting the reactor was size-selected with a differential mobility analyzer, and individual particle sizes between 35 and 110 nm in diameter were characterized by on- and offline mass spectrometry. Both the average oxygen-to-carbon (O ∕ C ratio and carbon oxidation state (OSc were found to decrease with increasing particle size, while the relative signal intensity of oligomers increased with increasing particle size. These results are consistent with oligomer formation primarily in the particle phase (accretion reactions, which become more favored as the volume-to-surface-area ratio of the particle increases. Analysis of a series of polydisperse SOA samples showed similar dependencies: as the mass loading increased (and average volume-to-surface-area ratio increased, the average O ∕ C ratio and OSc decreased, while the relative intensity of oligomer ions increased. The results illustrate the potential impact that particle phase chemistry can have on biogenic SOA formation and the particle size range where this chemistry becomes

  12. Hyperspectral observation of anthropogenic and biogenic pollution in coastal zone

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lavrova, Olga; Loupian, Evgeny; Mityagina, Marina; Uvarov, Ivan

    The work presents results of anthropogenic and biogenic pollution detection in coastal zones of the Black and Caspian Seas based on satellite hyperspetral data provided by the Hyperion and HICO instruments. Techniques developed on the basis of the analysis of spectral characteristics calculated in special points were employed to address the following problems: (a) assessment of the blooming intensity of cyanobacteria and their distribution in bays of western Crimea and discrimination between anthropogenic pollutant discharge events and algae bloom; (b) detection of anthropogenic pollution in Crimean lakes utilized as industrial liquid discharge reservoirs; (c) detection of oil pollution in areas of shelf oil production in the Caspian Sea. Information values of different spectral bands and their composites were estimated in connection with the retrieval of the main sea water components: phytoplankton, suspended matter and colored organic matter, and also various anthropogenic pollutants, including oil. Software tools for thematic hyperspectral data processing in application to the investigation of sea coastal zones and internal water bodies were developed on the basis of the See the Sea geoportal created by the Space Research Institute RAS. The geoportal is focused on the study of processes in the world ocean with the emphasis on the advantages of satellite systems of observation. The tools that were introduced into the portal allow joint analysis of quasi-simultaneous satellite data, in particular data from the Hyperion, HICO, OLI Landsat-8, ETM Landsat-7 and TM Landsat-5 instruments. Results of analysis attempts combining data from different sensors are discussed. Their strong and weak points are highlighted. The study was completed with partial financial support from The Russian Foundation for Basic Research grants # 14-05-00520-a and 13-07-12017.

  13. Online measurement of biogenic organic acids in the boreal forest using atmospheric pressure chemical ionization mass spectrometry (APCI-MS)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vogel, A. L.; Brüggemann, M.; ńijälä, M.; Ehn, M.; Junninen, H.; Corrigan, A. L.; Petäjä, T.; Worsnop, D. R.; Russell, L. M.; Kulmala, M.; Williams, J.; Hoffmann, T.

    2012-04-01

    Emission of biogenic volatile organic compounds (BVOCs) by vegetation in the boreal forest and their subsequent atmospheric oxidation leads to the formation of secondary organic aerosol (SOA) which has important impacts on climate and human health. Oxidation of BVOCs produces a variety of mostly unidentified species in oxygenated organic aerosol (OOA). Presently aerosol mass spectrometers (AMS) are able to determine quantitative information about the relative oxygen to carbon content of organic aerosols and thereby reveal the photochemical age and volatility of organic aerosol by distinguishing between low volatile oxygenated organic aerosol (LV-OOA), semivolatile oxygenated organic aerosol (SV-OOA) and hydrocarbon like organic aerosol (HOA)[1]. However, the AMS can usually not be used to measure and quantify single organic compounds such as individual biogenic organic marker compounds. Here we show the results of online measurements of gas and particle phase biogenic acids during HUMPPA-COPEC 2010 at Hyytiälä, Finland. This was achieved by coupling a self built miniature Versatile Aerosol Concentration Enrichment System (mVACES) as described by Geller et al. [2] with an Atmospheric Pressure Chemical Ionization Ion Trap Mass Spectrometer (APCI IT MS; Hoffmann et al., [3]). The benefits of the on-line APCI-MS are soft ionization with little fragmentation compared to AMS, high measurement frequency and less sampling artifacts than in the common procedure of taking filter samples, extraction and detection with LC-MS. Furthermore, the ion trap of the instrument allows MS/MS experiments to be performed by isolation of single m/z ratios of selected molecular species. By subsequent addition of energy, the trapped ions form characteristic fragments which enable structural insight on the molecular level. Comparison of APCI-MS data to AMS data, acquired with a C-ToF-AMS [4], revealed a good correlation coefficient for total organics and sulphate. Furthermore, data show

  14. Biogenic origin of coalbed gas in the northern Gulf of Mexico Coastal Plain, U.S.A

    Science.gov (United States)

    Warwick, Peter D.; Breland, F. Clayton; Hackley, Paul C.

    2008-01-01

    . Shallow (gas.Molecular and isotopic analyses of gas samples collected from conventional gas and oil wells suggests that both biogenic and thermogenic gases are present in and adjacent to the Wilcox intervals that contain biogenic coal gases. Oil, probably sourced from thermally mature, down-structural-dip parts of the Wilcox Group, is produced from sandstones within the coal-bearing interval. Gas chromatograms of C10+ saturated hydrocarbons from Wilcox oils show a depletion of n-alkanes probably resulting from biodegradation of the oil. Isotopic composition of the gases associated with the oils is of mixed themogenic and biogenic origin (average δ13CCH4 = − 44.4‰ VPDB, and average δDCH4 = − 182.4‰ VSMOW).

  15. Hydrocarbon Rocket Technology Impact Forecasting

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stuber, Eric; Prasadh, Nishant; Edwards, Stephen; Mavris, Dimitri N.

    2012-01-01

    Ever since the Apollo program ended, the development of launch propulsion systems in the US has fallen drastically, with only two new booster engine developments, the SSME and the RS-68, occurring in the past few decades.1 In recent years, however, there has been an increased interest in pursuing more effective launch propulsion technologies in the U.S., exemplified by the NASA Office of the Chief Technologist s inclusion of Launch Propulsion Systems as the first technological area in the Space Technology Roadmaps2. One area of particular interest to both government agencies and commercial entities has been the development of hydrocarbon engines; NASA and the Air Force Research Lab3 have expressed interest in the use of hydrocarbon fuels for their respective SLS Booster and Reusable Booster System concepts, and two major commercially-developed launch vehicles SpaceX s Falcon 9 and Orbital Sciences Antares feature engines that use RP-1 kerosene fuel. Compared to engines powered by liquid hydrogen, hydrocarbon-fueled engines have a greater propellant density (usually resulting in a lighter overall engine), produce greater propulsive force, possess easier fuel handling and loading, and for reusable vehicle concepts can provide a shorter turnaround time between launches. These benefits suggest that a hydrocarbon-fueled launch vehicle would allow for a cheap and frequent means of access to space.1 However, the time and money required for the development of a new engine still presents a major challenge. Long and costly design, development, testing and evaluation (DDT&E) programs underscore the importance of identifying critical technologies and prioritizing investment efforts. Trade studies must be performed on engine concepts examining the affordability, operability, and reliability of each concept, and quantifying the impacts of proposed technologies. These studies can be performed through use of the Technology Impact Forecasting (TIF) method. The Technology Impact

  16. Microbial production of gaseous hydrocarbons

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fukuda, Hideo

    1987-10-20

    Microbial production of ethylene, isobutane and a saturated gaseous hydrocarbon mixture was described. Microbial ethylene production was studied with Penicillium digitatum IFO 9372 and a novel pathway of the ethylene biosynthesis through alpha-ketoglutarate was proposed. Rhodotorula minuta IFO 1102 was selected for the microbial production of isobutane and the interesting actions of L-leucine and L-phenylalanine for the isobutane production were found. It was finally presented about the microbial production of a saturated gaseous hydrocarbon mixture with Rhizopus japonicus IFO 4758 was described. A gas mixture was produced through a chemical reaction of SH compounds and some cellular component such as squalene under aerobic conditions. (4 figs, 7 tabs, 41 refs)

  17. Scottish hydrocarbons: Borders and bounty

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Roberts, John

    1999-01-01

    On 6 May, the people of Scotland will vote for the country's first parliament in almost three centuries. One issue is expected to arouse particularly strong views: the question of North Sea oil and gas, and who benefits from its production and taxation. Most of these hydrocarbons lie in the northern half of the British Isles, but drawing boundaries to settle contentious issues such as oil and gas fields is not an easy task. And, if boundaries were to be drawn, then a scarcely less contentious subject arises: just how much cash might an independent Scotland expect to receive? Reading between the lines it's clear that in hard cash terms, were Scotland to be independent whilst still retaining the vast bulk of North Sea oilfields, depressed prices would ensure that hydrocarbon tax revenues would be unlikely to constitute a particularly impressive addition to the Scottish Treasury. (UK)

  18. Treatment of hydrocarbon oil vapours

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lamplough, F

    1923-03-01

    An apparatus for treating hydrocarbon vapors for the purpose of preventing dehydrogenation is disclosed which comprises in combination a cooling tower having a vapor inlet at the bottom and a vapor outlet at the top, means to direct the entering vapors laterally in a plurality of jets against an interior side wall or walls of the tower and means to constrain the condensate to gravitate down the tower in the interior wall or walls against which the encountering vapor is forced to impinge.

  19. Deep desulfurization of hydrocarbon fuels

    Science.gov (United States)

    Song, Chunshan [State College, PA; Ma, Xiaoliang [State College, PA; Sprague, Michael J [Calgary, CA; Subramani, Velu [State College, PA

    2012-04-17

    The invention relates to processes for reducing the sulfur content in hydrocarbon fuels such as gasoline, diesel fuel and jet fuel. The invention provides a method and materials for producing ultra low sulfur content transportation fuels for motor vehicles as well as for applications such as fuel cells. The materials and method of the invention may be used at ambient or elevated temperatures and at ambient or elevated pressures without the need for hydrogen.

  20. Impact of biogenic emissions on ozone formation in the Mediterranean area - a BEMA modelling study

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Thunis, P.; Cuvelier, C.

    2000-01-01

    The aim of this modelling study is to understand and quantify the influence of biogenic volatile organic compound (BVOC) emissions on the formation of tropospheric ozone in the Burriana area (north of Valencia) on the east coast of Spain. The mesoscale modelling system used consists of the meteorology/transport module TVM and the chemical reaction mechanism RACM. The results of the model simulations are validated and compared with the data collected during the biogenic emissions in the mediterranean area (BEMA) field campaign that took place in June 1997. Anthropogenic and biogenic emission inventories have been constructed with an hourly resolution. Averaged (over the land area and over 24 h) emission fluxes for AVOC, anthropogenic NO x , BVOC and biogenic NO x are given by 16.0, 9.9, 6.2, and 0.7 kg km -2 day -1 , respectively. The impact of biogenic emissions is investigated on peak ozone values by performing simulations with and without biogenic emissions; while keeping anthropogenic emissions constant. The impact on ozone formation is also studied in combination with some anthropogenic emissions reduction strategies, i.e. when anthropogenic VOC emissions and/or NO x emissions are reduced. A factor separation technique is applied to isolate the impact due to biogenic emissions from the overall impact due to biogenic and anthropogenic emissions together. The results indicate that the maximum impact of biogenic emissions on ozone formation represents at the most 10 ppb, while maximum ozone values are of the order of 100 ppb. At different locations the maximum impact is reached at different times of the day depending on the arrival time of the sea breeze. It is also shown that this impact does not coincide in time with the maximum simulated ozone concentrations that are reached over the day. By performing different emission reduction scenarios, BVOC impacts are found to be sensitive mainly to NO x , and not to AVOC. Finally, it is shown that amongst the various

  1. Source rock hydrocarbons. Present status

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Vially, R.; Maisonnier, G.; Rouaud, T.

    2013-01-01

    This report first presents the characteristics of conventional oil and gas system, and the classification of liquid and gaseous non conventional hydrocarbons, with the peculiar case of coal-bed methane. The authors then describe how source rock hydrocarbons are produced: production of shale oils and gases (horizontal drilling, hydraulic fracturing, exploitation) and of coal-bed methane and coal mine methane. In the next part, they address and discuss the environmental impact of source rock hydrocarbon production: installation footprint, water resource management, drilling fluids, fracturing fluids composition, toxicity and recycling, air pollution, induced seismicity, pollutions from other exploitation and production activities. They propose an overview of the exploitation and production of source rock gas, coal-bed gas and other non conventional gases in the world. They describe the current development and discuss their economic impacts: world oil context and trends in the USA, in Canada and other countries, impacts on the North American market, on the world oil industry, on refining industries, on the world oil balance. They analyse the economic impacts of non conventional gases: development potential, stakes for the world gas trade, consequence for gas prices, development opportunities for oil companies and for the transport sector, impact on CO 2 emissions, macro-economic impact in the case of the USA

  2. Safety assessment of the biogenic amines in fermented soya beans and fermented bean curd.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Juan; Ding, Xiaowen; Qin, Yingrui; Zeng, Yitao

    2014-08-06

    To evaluate the safety of biogenic amines, high performance liquid chromatography (HPLC) was used to evaluate the levels of biogenic amines in fermented soya beans and fermented bean curd. In fermented soya beans, the total biogenic amines content was in a relatively safe range in many samples, although the concentration of histamine, tyramine, and β-phenethylamine was high enough in some samples to cause a possible safety threat, and 8 of the 30 samples were deemed unsafe. In fermented bean curd, the total biogenic amines content was more than 900 mg/kg in 19 white sufu amples, a level that has been determined to pose a safety hazard; putrescine was the only one detected in all samples and also had the highest concentration, which made samples a safety hazard; the content of tryptamine, β-phenethylamine, tyramine, and histamine had reached the level of threat to human health in some white and green sufu samples, and that may imply another potential safety risk; and 25 of the 33 samples were unsafe. In conclusion, the content of biogenic amines in all fermented soya bean products should be studied and appropriate limits determined to ensure the safety of eating these foods.

  3. Cocaine affects foraging behaviour and biogenic amine modulated behavioural reflexes in honey bees

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eirik Søvik

    2014-11-01

    Full Text Available In humans and other mammals, drugs of abuse alter the function of biogenic amine pathways in the brain leading to the subjective experience of reward and euphoria. Biogenic amine pathways are involved in reward processing across diverse animal phyla, however whether cocaine acts on these neurochemical pathways to cause similar rewarding behavioural effects in animal phyla other than mammals is unclear. Previously, it has been shown that bees are more likely to dance (a signal of perceived reward when returning from a sucrose feeder after cocaine treatment. Here we examined more broadly whether cocaine altered reward-related behaviour, and biogenic amine modulated behavioural responses in bees. Bees developed a preference for locations at which they received cocaine, and when foraging at low quality sucrose feeders increase their foraging rate in response to cocaine treatment. Cocaine also increased reflexive proboscis extension to sucrose, and sting extension to electric shock. Both of these simple reflexes are modulated by biogenic amines. This shows that systemic cocaine treatment alters behavioural responses that are modulated by biogenic amines in insects. Since insect reward responses involve both octopamine and dopamine signalling, we conclude that cocaine treatment altered diverse reward-related aspects of behaviour in bees. We discuss the implications of these results for understanding the ecology of cocaine as a plant defence compound. Our findings further validate the honey bee as a model system for understanding the behavioural impacts of cocaine, and potentially other drugs of abuse.

  4. Wound healing applications of biogenic colloidal silver and gold nanoparticles: recent trends and future prospects.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ovais, Muhammad; Ahmad, Irshad; Khalil, Ali Talha; Mukherjee, Sudip; Javed, Rabia; Ayaz, Muhammad; Raza, Abida; Shinwari, Zabta Khan

    2018-05-01

    Nanotechnology has emerged as a prominent scientific discipline in the technological revolution of this millennium. The scientific community has focused on the green synthesis of metal nanoparticles as compared to physical and chemical methods due to its eco-friendly nature and high efficacy. Medicinal plants have been proven as the paramount source of various phytochemicals that can be used for the biogenic synthesis of colloidal silver and gold nanoparticles as compared to other living organisms, e.g., microbes and fungi. According to various scientific reports, the biogenic nanoparticles have shown promising potential as wound healing agents. However, not a single broad review article was present that demonstrates the wound healing application of biogenic silver and gold nanoparticles. Foreseeing the overall literature published, we for the first time intended to discuss the current trends in wound healing via biogenic silver and gold nanoparticles. Furthermore, light has been shed on the mechanistic aspects of wound healing along with futuristic discussion on the faith of biogenic silver and gold nanoparticles as potential wound healing agents.

  5. Characterization of biogenic secondary organic aerosols using statistical methods; Charakterisierung Biogener Sekundaerer Organischer Aerosole mit Statistischen Methoden

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Spindler, Christian

    2010-07-01

    Atmospheric aerosols have important influence on the radiation balance of the Earth, on visibility and human health. Secondary organic aerosol is formed from gas-to-particle conversion of oxidized volatile organic compounds. A dominant fraction of the gases originates from plant emissions, making biogenic secondary organic aerosol (BSOA) an especially important constituent of the atmosphere. Knowing the chemical composition of BSOA particles is crucial for a thorough understanding of aerosol processes in the environment. In this work, the chemical composition of BSOA particles was measured with aerosol mass spectrometry and analyzed with statistical methods. The experimental part of the work comprises process studies of the formation and aging of biogenic aerosols in simulation chambers. Using a plant chamber, real tree emissions were used to produce particles in a way close to conditions in forest environments. In the outdoor chamber SAPHIR, OH-radicals were produced from the photooxidation of ozone under illumination with natural sunlight. Here, BSOA was produced from defined mixtures of mono- and sesquiterpenes that represent boreal forest emissions. A third kind of experiments was performed in the indoor chamber AIDA. Here, particles were produced from ozonolysis of single monoterpenes and aged by condensing OH-oxidation products. Two aerosol mass spectrometers (AMS) were used to measure the chemical composition of the particles. One of the instruments is equipped with a quadrupole mass spectrometer providing unit mass resolution. The second instrument contains a time-of-flight mass spectrometer and provides mass resolution sufficient to distinguish different fragments with the same nominal mass. Aerosol mass spectra obtained with these instruments are strongly fragmented due to electron impact ionization of the evaporated molecules. In addition, typical BSOA mass spectra are very similar to each other. In order to get a more detailed knowledge about the mass

  6. Hydrocarbon Reserves: Abundance or Scarcity

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2005-07-01

    IFP and the OAPEC jointly organize a regular international seminar dealing with world oil-related problems appearing in the news. For the first time, this seminar has been opened to oil and gas company specialists, service companies, research centers and independents. This year's theme concerns oil and gas reserves: are they abundant or are we headed towards the shortages announced by some experts? This theme is especially topical in that: oil and gas currently meet two thirds of world energy needs and almost completely dominate the transport sector; the reserves declared by the OAPEC countries account for nearly half of world reserves; the price of a barrel of oil went through the roof in 2004; world energy demand is growing fast and alternative sources of energy are far from ready to take over from oil and gas in the next few decades. Since the reserves correspond to the volume it is technically and economically viable to produce, the seminar has, of course, dealt with the technical and economic questions that arise in connection with exploration and production, but it has also considered changes in the geopolitical context. Presentations by the leading companies of the OAPEC countries and by the IFP group were completed by presentation from the International Energy Agency (IEA), the United States Geological Survey (USGS), the IHS Energy Group, Total and Gaz de France. This document gathers the transparencies of the following presentations: Hydrocarbon reserves in OAPEC members countries: current and future (M. Al-Lababidi); Non OAPEC liquid reserves and production forecasts (Y. Mathieu); World oil and gas resources and production outlook (K. Chew); Global investments in the upstream (F. Birol); Total's policy in the oil and gas sector (C. de Margerie); Gaz de France's policy in the oil and gas sector (J. Abiteboul); NOC/IOC's opportunities in OPEC countries (I. Sandrea); Relationships between companies, countries and investors: How they may impact on the growth

  7. Hydrocarbon Reserves: Abundance or Scarcity

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2005-01-01

    IFP and the OAPEC jointly organize a regular international seminar dealing with world oil-related problems appearing in the news. For the first time, this seminar has been opened to oil and gas company specialists, service companies, research centers and independents. This year's theme concerns oil and gas reserves: are they abundant or are we headed towards the shortages announced by some experts? This theme is especially topical in that: oil and gas currently meet two thirds of world energy needs and almost completely dominate the transport sector; the reserves declared by the OAPEC countries account for nearly half of world reserves; the price of a barrel of oil went through the roof in 2004; world energy demand is growing fast and alternative sources of energy are far from ready to take over from oil and gas in the next few decades. Since the reserves correspond to the volume it is technically and economically viable to produce, the seminar has, of course, dealt with the technical and economic questions that arise in connection with exploration and production, but it has also considered changes in the geopolitical context. Presentations by the leading companies of the OAPEC countries and by the IFP group were completed by presentation from the International Energy Agency (IEA), the United States Geological Survey (USGS), the IHS Energy Group, Total and Gaz de France. This document gathers the transparencies of the following presentations: Hydrocarbon reserves in OAPEC members countries: current and future (M. Al-Lababidi); Non OAPEC liquid reserves and production forecasts (Y. Mathieu); World oil and gas resources and production outlook (K. Chew); Global investments in the upstream (F. Birol); Total's policy in the oil and gas sector (C. de Margerie); Gaz de France's policy in the oil and gas sector (J. Abiteboul); NOC/IOC's opportunities in OPEC countries (I. Sandrea); Relationships between companies, countries and investors: How they may impact on the growth

  8. Hydrocarbon Reserves: Abundance or Scarcity

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2005-07-01

    IFP and the OAPEC jointly organize a regular international seminar dealing with world oil-related problems appearing in the news. For the first time, this seminar has been opened to oil and gas company specialists, service companies, research centers and independents. This year's theme concerns oil and gas reserves: are they abundant or are we headed towards the shortages announced by some experts? This theme is especially topical in that: oil and gas currently meet two thirds of world energy needs and almost completely dominate the transport sector; the reserves declared by the OAPEC countries account for nearly half of world reserves; the price of a barrel of oil went through the roof in 2004; world energy demand is growing fast and alternative sources of energy are far from ready to take over from oil and gas in the next few decades. Since the reserves correspond to the volume it is technically and economically viable to produce, the seminar has, of course, dealt with the technical and economic questions that arise in connection with exploration and production, but it has also considered changes in the geopolitical context. Presentations by the leading companies of the OAPEC countries and by the IFP group were completed by presentation from the International Energy Agency (IEA), the United States Geological Survey (USGS), the IHS Energy Group, Total and Gaz de France. This document gathers the transparencies of the following presentations: Hydrocarbon reserves in OAPEC members countries: current and future (M. Al-Lababidi); Non OAPEC liquid reserves and production forecasts (Y. Mathieu); World oil and gas resources and production outlook (K. Chew); Global investments in the upstream (F. Birol); Total's policy in the oil and gas sector (C. de Margerie); Gaz de France's policy in the oil and gas sector (J. Abiteboul); NOC/IOC's opportunities in OPEC countries (I. Sandrea); Relationships between companies, countries and investors: How they may

  9. Triple oxygen isotopes in biogenic and sedimentary carbonates

    Science.gov (United States)

    Passey, Benjamin H.; Hu, Huanting; Ji, Haoyuan; Montanari, Shaena; Li, Shuning; Henkes, Gregory A.; Levin, Naomi E.

    2014-09-01

    The 17O anomaly (Δ17O) of natural waters has been shown to be sensitive to evaporation in a way analogous to deuterium excess, with evaporated bodies of water (e.g., leaf waters, lake waters, animal body waters) tending to have lower Δ17O than primary meteoric waters. In animal body water, Δ17O relates to the intake of evaporated waters, evaporative effluxes of water, and the Δ17O value of atmospheric O2, which itself carries signatures of global carbon cycling and photochemical reactions in the stratosphere. Carbonates have the potential to record the triple oxygen isotope compositions of parent waters, allowing reconstruction of past water compositions, but such investigations have awaited development of methods for high-precision measurement of Δ17O of carbonate. We describe optimized methods based on a sequential acid digestion/reduction/fluorination approach that yield Δ17O data with the high precision (∼0.010‰, 1σ) needed to resolve subtle environmental signals. We report the first high-precision Δ17O dataset for terrestrial carbonates, focusing on vertebrate biogenic carbonates and soil carbonates, but also including marine invertebrates and high-temperature carbonates. We determine apparent three-isotope fractionation factors between the O2 analyte derived from carbonate and the parent waters of the carbonate. These in combination with appropriate temperature estimates (from clumped isotope thermometry, or known or estimated body temperatures) are used to calculate the δ18O and Δ17O of parent waters. The clearest pattern to emerge is the strong 17O-depletion in avian, dinosaurian, and mammalian body water (from analyses of eggshell and tooth enamel) relative to meteoric waters, following expected influences of evaporated water (e.g., leaf water) and atmospheric O2 on vertebrate body water. Parent waters of the soil carbonates studied here have Δ17O values that are similar to or slightly lower than global precipitation. Our results suggest

  10. Observations of oxidation products above a forest imply biogenic emissions of very reactive compounds

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    R. Holzinger

    2005-01-01

    Full Text Available Vertical gradients of mixing ratios of volatile organic compounds have been measured in a Ponderosa pine forest in Central California (38.90° N, 120.63° W, 1315m. These measurements reveal large quantities of previously unreported oxidation products of short lived biogenic precursors. The emission of biogenic precursors must be in the range of 13-66µmol m-2h-1 to produce the observed oxidation products. That is 6-30 times the emissions of total monoterpenes observed above the forest canopy on a molar basis. These reactive precursors constitute a large fraction of biogenic emissions at this site, and are not included in current emission inventories. When oxidized by ozone they should efficiently produce secondary aerosol and hydroxyl radicals.

  11. Carbon-14 based determination of the biogenic fraction of industrial CO(2) emissions - application and validation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Palstra, S W L; Meijer, H A J

    2010-05-01

    The (14)C method is a very reliable and sensitive method for industrial plants, emission authorities and emission inventories to verify data estimations of biogenic fractions of CO(2) emissions. The applicability of the method is shown for flue gas CO(2) samples that have been sampled in 1-h intervals at a coal- and wood-fired power plant and a waste incineration plant. Biogenic flue gas CO(2) fractions of 5-10% and 48-50% have been measured at the power plant and the waste incineration plant, respectively. The reliability of the method has been proven by comparison of the power plant results with those based on carbon mass input and output data of the power plant. At industrial plants with relatively low biogenic CO(2) fraction (<10%) the results need to be corrected for sampled (14)CO(2) from atmospheric air. Copyright 2009 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  12. BOREAS TGB-5 Biogenic Soil Emissions of NO and N2O

    Science.gov (United States)

    Levine, J. S.; Winstead, E. L.; Parsons, D. A. B.; Scholes, M. C.; Cofer, W. R.; Cahoon, D. R.; Sebacher, D. I.; Scholes, R. J.; Hall, Forrest G. (Editor); Conrad, Sara K. (Editor)

    2000-01-01

    The BOReal Ecosystem-Atmosphere Study Trace Gas Biogeochemistry (BOREAS TGB)-5 team made several measurements of trace gas concentrations and fluxes at various NSA sites. This data set contains biogenic soil emissions of nitric oxide and nitrous oxide that were measured over a wide range of spatial and temporal site parameters. Since very little is known about biogenic soil emissions of nitric oxide and nitrous oxide from the boreal forest, the goal of the measurements was to characterize the biogenic soil fluxes of nitric oxide and nitrous oxide from black spruce and jack pine areas in the boreal forest. The diurnal variation and monthly variation of the emissions was examined as well as the impact of wetting through natural or artificial means. Temporally, the data cover mid-August 1993, June to August 1994, and mid-July 1995. The data are provided in tabular ASCII files. The data files are available on a CD-ROM (see document number 20010000884).

  13. Effect of gamma irradiation on the activity of some microorganisms producing biogenic amines in some foods

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    AL-Bassiony, K.R.A

    2009-01-01

    The effect of gamma irradiation on the proximate chemical composition ( moisture content , protein , fat, ash) chemical freshness tests (TBA, TVB-N, TMA, FAN, ph) and microbiological changes (total bacterial count, proteolytic bacteria, Enterobacteriaceae, moulds and yeasts counts) occurred in sardine fish and pastirma during cold storage at (4 ± 1 degree C) were fully investigated. Furthermore, the bacterial activity causing the formation of biogenic amines were also studied. In addition, the determination of biogenic amines in sardine fish and pastirma produced by these bacteria were explored. The effects of irradiation doses (1, 3 and 5 kGy) which were applied as a trial to reduce biogenic amines formation in sardine fish and pastirma were also investigated. In addition, the effect of the tested irradiation doses (1, 3 and 5 kGy) on organoleptic properties of the treated sardine fish and pastirma were determined.

  14. Condensed-phase biogenic-anthropogenic interactions with implications for cold cloud formation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Charnawskas, Joseph C; Alpert, Peter A; Lambe, Andrew T; Berkemeier, Thomas; O'Brien, Rachel E; Massoli, Paola; Onasch, Timothy B; Shiraiwa, Manabu; Moffet, Ryan C; Gilles, Mary K; Davidovits, Paul; Worsnop, Douglas R; Knopf, Daniel A

    2017-08-24

    Anthropogenic and biogenic gas emissions contribute to the formation of secondary organic aerosol (SOA). When present, soot particles from fossil fuel combustion can acquire a coating of SOA. We investigate SOA-soot biogenic-anthropogenic interactions and their impact on ice nucleation in relation to the particles' organic phase state. SOA particles were generated from the OH oxidation of naphthalene, α-pinene, longifolene, or isoprene, with or without the presence of sulfate or soot particles. Corresponding particle glass transition (T g ) and full deliquescence relative humidity (FDRH) were estimated using a numerical diffusion model. Longifolene SOA particles are solid-like and all biogenic SOA sulfate mixtures exhibit a core-shell configuration (i.e. a sulfate-rich core coated with SOA). Biogenic SOA with or without sulfate formed ice at conditions expected for homogeneous ice nucleation, in agreement with respective T g and FDRH. α-pinene SOA coated soot particles nucleated ice above the homogeneous freezing temperature with soot acting as ice nuclei (IN). At lower temperatures the α-pinene SOA coating can be semisolid, inducing ice nucleation. Naphthalene SOA coated soot particles acted as ice nuclei above and below the homogeneous freezing limit, which can be explained by the presence of a highly viscous SOA phase. Our results suggest that biogenic SOA does not play a significant role in mixed-phase cloud formation and the presence of sulfate renders this even less likely. However, anthropogenic SOA may have an enhancing effect on cloud glaciation under mixed-phase and cirrus cloud conditions compared to biogenic SOA that dominate during pre-industrial times or in pristine areas.

  15. Uncertainty in biogenic isoprene emissions and its impacts on tropospheric chemistry in East Asia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Han, K M; Park, R S; Kim, H K; Woo, J H; Kim, J; Song, C H

    2013-10-01

    In this study, the accuracy of biogenic isoprene emission fluxes over East Asia during two summer months (July and August) was examined by comparing two tropospheric HCHO columns (ΩHCHO) obtained from the SCIAMACHY sensor and the Community Multi-scale Air Quality (CMAQ v4.7.1) model simulations, using three available biogenic isoprene emission inventories over East Asia: i) GEIA, ii) MEGAN and iii) MOHYCAN. From this comparative analysis, the tropospheric HCHO columns from the CMAQ model simulations, using the MEGAN and MOHYCAN emission inventories (Ω(CMAQ, MEGAN) and Ω(CMAQ, MOHYCAN)), were found to agree well with the tropospheric HCHO columns from the SCIAMACHY observations (Ω(SCIA)). Secondly, the propagation of such uncertainties in the biogenic isoprene emission fluxes to the levels of atmospheric oxidants (e.g., OH and HO2) and other atmospheric gaseous/particulate species over East Asia during the two summer months was also investigated. As the biogenic isoprene emission fluxes decreased from the GEIA to the MEGAN emission inventories, the levels of OH radicals increased by factors of 1.39 and 1.75 over Central East China (CEC) and South China, respectively. Such increases in the OH radical mixing ratios subsequently influence the partitioning of HO(y) species. For example, the HO2/OH ratios from the CMAQ model simulations with GEIA isoprene emissions were 2.7 times larger than those from the CMAQ model simulations based on MEGAN isoprene emissions. The large HO2/OH ratios from the CMAQ model simulations with the GEIA biogenic emission were possibly due to the overestimation of GEIA biogenic isoprene emissions over East Asia. It was also shown that such large changes in HO(x) radicals created large differences on other tropospheric compounds (e.g., NO(y) chemistry) over East Asia during the summer months. Copyright © 2013 The Authors. Published by Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  16. The impact of anthropogenic and biogenic emissions on surface ozone concentrations in Istanbul.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Im, Ulas; Poupkou, Anastasia; Incecik, Selahattin; Markakis, Konstantinos; Kindap, Tayfun; Unal, Alper; Melas, Dimitros; Yenigun, Orhan; Topcu, Sema; Odman, M Talat; Tayanc, Mete; Guler, Meltem

    2011-03-01

    Surface ozone concentrations at Istanbul during a summer episode in June 2008 were simulated using a high resolution and urban scale modeling system coupling MM5 and CMAQ models with a recently developed anthropogenic emission inventory for the region. Two sets of base runs were performed in order to investigate for the first time the impact of biogenic emissions on ozone concentrations in the Greater Istanbul Area (GIA). The first simulation was performed using only the anthropogenic emissions whereas the second simulation was performed using both anthropogenic and biogenic emissions. Biogenic NMVOC emissions were comparable with anthropogenic NMVOC emissions in terms of magnitude. The inclusion of biogenic emissions significantly improved the performance of the model, particularly in reproducing the low night time values as well as the temporal variation of ozone concentrations. Terpene emissions contributed significantly to the destruction of the ozone during nighttime. Biogenic NMVOCs emissions enhanced ozone concentrations in the downwind regions of GIA up to 25ppb. The VOC/NO(x) ratio almost doubled due to the addition of biogenic NMVOCs. Anthropogenic NO(x) and NMVOCs were perturbed by ±30% in another set of simulations to quantify the sensitivity of ozone concentrations to the precursor emissions in the region. The sensitivity runs, as along with the model-calculated ozone-to-reactive nitrogen ratios, pointed NO(x)-sensitive chemistry, particularly in the downwind areas. On the other hand, urban parts of the city responded more to changes in NO(x) due to very high anthropogenic emissions. Copyright © 2010 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  17. Effects of storage temperature on biogenic amine concentrations in meat of uneviscerated pheasants (Phasianus colchicus

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zdeňka Hutařová

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this study was to determine the hygienic quality of the pheasants reared for high-quality meat production by the biogenic amine concentrations in their meat. The content of biogenic amines was measured in the meat of sixty male pheasants killed by pithing and stored uneviscerated for 21 days under different storage temperatures (0 °C, 7 °C and 15 °C. The samples of breast and thigh muscles of pheasant were tested at weekly intervals. Biogenic amines were analysed by reverse phase liquid chromatography and detected by tandem mass spectrometry. Concentrations of biogenic amines (except spermin and spermidin in thigh muscle were higher than in breast muscle. Highly significant difference (P < 0.01 was found in tyramine (5.80 mg/kg and 1.38 mg/kg for thigh and breast muscle, respectively, cadaverine (40.80 mg/kg and 14.43 mg/kg for thigh and breast muscle, respectively, putrescine (13.42 mg/kg and 3.16 mg/kg for thigh and breast muscle, respectively and histamine (5.51 mg/kg and 1.70 mg/kg for thigh and breast muscle, respectively concentrations after 21 days of storage at 15 °C. This study provides information on the dynamics of biogenic amine formation in pheasant meat during 21 days of storage at different temperatures. Based on our results, we can recommend storing pithed uneviscerated pheasants at 0–7°C for up to 21 days, or at 15 °C for up to 7 days. Concentrations of biogenic amines gained in our study can be helpful in evaluating freshness and hygienic quality of the pheasant game meat.

  18. Effects of Spartina alterniflora invasion on biogenic elements in a subtropical coastal mangrove wetland.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yu, Xiaoqing; Yang, Jun; Liu, Lemian; Tian, Yuan; Yu, Zheng

    2015-02-01

    The invasion by exotic cordgrass (Spartina alterniflora) has become one of the most serious and challenging environmental and ecological problems in coastal China because it can have adverse effects on local native species, thereby changing ecosystem processes, functions, and services. In this study, 300 surface sediments were collected from 15 stations in the Jiulong River Estuary, southeast China, across four different seasons, in order to reveal the spatiotemporal variability of biogenic elements and their influencing factors in the subtropical coastal mangrove wetland. The biogenic elements including carbon, nitrogen, and sulfur (C, N, and S) were determined by an element analyzer, while the phosphorus (P) was determined by a flow injection analyzer. The concentrations of biogenic elements showed no significant differences among four seasons except total phosphorus (TP); however, our ANOVA analyses revealed a distinct spatial pattern which was closely related with the vegetation type and tidal level. Values of total carbon (TC) and total nitrogen (TN) in the surface sediment of mangrove vegetation zones were higher than those in the cordgrass and mudflat zones. The concentrations of TC, TN, TP, and total sulfur (TS) in the high tidal zones were higher than those in the middle and low tidal zones. Redundancy analysis (RDA) revealed that tidal level, vegetation type, and season had some significant influence on the distribution of biogenic elements in the Jiulong River Estuary, by explaining 18.2, 7.7, and 4.9 % of total variation in the four biogenic elements, respectively. In conclusion, S. alterniflora invasion had substantial effects on the distributions of biogenic elements in the subtropical coastal wetland. If regional changes in the Jiulong River Estuary are to persist and much of the mangrove vegetation was to be replaced by cordgrass, there would be significant decreases on the overall storage of C and N in this coastal zone. Therefore, the native

  19. Hydrocarbons biodegradation and evidence of mixed petroleum ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Chromatographic analysis of extracts from the Cross River system show evidence of variable composition of biogenic n-alkane profile with dominance of terrigenous over aquatic organic matter present (LHC/SHC-0.36-10.57) at upstream location reflecting the natural background levels and marked levels of petroleum ...

  20. Experimental assessment of the liquefaction resistance of calcareous biogenous sands

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sandoval Eimar

    2012-10-01

    Full Text Available

    ABSTRACT

    Liquefaction is a phenomenon in which soils, typically sands, suddenly loose a substantial amount of their shear strength and stiffness, this often triggered by large-magnitude earthquakes. Most liquefaction research has focused on silicate-based sands and not on other sand types, such as calcareous biogenous sands Calcareous sands are usually composed of skeletal or non-skeletal remains of marine organisms, with unique characteristics in terms of their mineralogy surface roughness, particle shape, crushability, and intraparticle porosity. The unique characteristics of calcareous sands suggest that their geotechnical engineering behaviour can be substantially different compared to that of terrigenous sands, including their behaviour under seismic loading, which have not been very well studied

    This paper presents the results of an experimental programme aimed at studying the cyclic liquefaction resistance of uncemented calcareous biogenous sands retrieved from south-western Puerto Rico Evaluation of liquefaction potential involved a comprehensive set of isotropically consolidated undrained cyclic triaxial tests on reconstituted samples of this calcareous sand. The programme also included tests on Ottawa terrigenous silica sand samples prepared and tested in similar conditions for comparison purposes.

    In general, the experimental results showed that Cabo Rojo calcareous sands had higher liquefaction resistance compared to Ottawa silica sands tested under similar conditions. Important differences between calcareous and silica sands regarding pore pressure generation characteristics and axial strain accumulation were also observed


  1. Comparison of U and Np uptake on biogenic and abiotic ferrihydrite by XAFS

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Krawczyk-Baersch, Evelyn [Helmholtz-Zentrum Dresden-Rossendorf e.V., Dresden (Germany). Biogeochemistry; Schmeide, Katja [Helmholtz-Zentrum Dresden-Rossendorf e.V., Dresden (Germany). Surface Processes; Kvashnina, Kristina O.; Rossberg, Andre; Scheinost, Andreas C. [Helmholtz-Zentrum Dresden-Rossendorf e.V., Dresden (Germany). Molecular Structures

    2017-06-01

    XAS spectra of U and Np sorption biogenic ferrihydrite samples were compared to abiotic samples. The k{sup 3}-weighted χ-spectrum and its Fourier-transform of the studied biogenic ferrihydrite sample bears close resemblance to the bidentate edge-sharing innersphere sorption {sup 1}E complex, which is the main sorption species on abiotic ferrihydrite. Based on the shell fit analysis, the distances of the coordination shells U-O{sub eq}, U-O{sub ax}, and U-Fe are similar to those determined for abiotic ferrihydrite samples.

  2. Enhanced biogenic emissions of nitric oxide and nitrous oxide following surface biomass burning

    Science.gov (United States)

    Anderson, Iris C.; Levine, Joel S.; Poth, Mark A.; Riggan, Philip J.

    1988-01-01

    Recent measurements indicate significantly enhanced biogenic soil emissions of both nitric oxide (NO) and nitrous oxide (N2O) following surface burning. These enhanced fluxes persisted for at least six months following the burn. Simultaneous measurements indicate enhanced levels of exchangeable ammonium in the soil following the burn. Biomass burning is known to be an instantaneous source of NO and N2O resulting from high-temperature combustion. Now it is found that biomass burning also results in significantly enhanced biogenic emissions of these gases, which persist for months following the burn.

  3. Proportion of biogenic carbon in flue gas by carbon 4 measurement

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lehtomaeki, J.; Antson, O.; Jungner, H.

    2006-01-01

    The rules of EU's emissions trading system promote the decrease of fossile emissions. The usefulness of using waste fuels in emissions trading depends on the proportion of biogenic component. Companies need to verify the amount of renewable energy from produced energy or emissions. It can be estimated that the demand on emission measurement devices and services is large and increasing in EU and later also in the whole world. This project aims to clarify the possibilities and restrictions of C-14 isotope method in determining biogenic and fossile part of recycled fuel. (orig.)

  4. Comparison of U and Np uptake on biogenic and abiotic ferrihydrite by XAFS

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Krawczyk-Baersch, Evelyn; Schmeide, Katja; Kvashnina, Kristina O.; Rossberg, Andre; Scheinost, Andreas C.

    2017-01-01

    XAS spectra of U and Np sorption biogenic ferrihydrite samples were compared to abiotic samples. The k 3 -weighted χ-spectrum and its Fourier-transform of the studied biogenic ferrihydrite sample bears close resemblance to the bidentate edge-sharing innersphere sorption 1 E complex, which is the main sorption species on abiotic ferrihydrite. Based on the shell fit analysis, the distances of the coordination shells U-O eq , U-O ax , and U-Fe are similar to those determined for abiotic ferrihydrite samples.

  5. USER'S GUIDE TO THE PERSONAL COMPUTER VERSION OF THE BIOGENIC EMISSIONS INVENTORY SYSTEM (PC-BEIS2)

    Science.gov (United States)

    The document is a user's guide for an updated Personal Computer version of the Biogenic Emissions Inventory System (PC-BEIS2), allowing users to estimate hourly emissions of biogenic volatile organic compounds (BVOCs) and soil nitrogen oxide emissions for any county in the contig...

  6. Effect of biogenic carbon inventory on the life cycle assessment of bioenergy: challenges to the neutrality assumption

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Wiloso, E.I.; Heijungs, R.; Huppes, G.; Fang, K.

    2016-01-01

    Biogenic carbon is defined as carbon contained in biomass that is accumulated during plant growth. In spite of the considerable progress towards the inventory of biogenic carbon in the life cycle assessment (LCA) of bioenergy in policy guidelines, many scientific articles tend to give no

  7. Changes in biogenic amine concentrations in meat of eviscerated pheasants (Phasianus colchicus during storage at 7 °C

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zdeňka Hutařová

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available In our study, we tested biogenic amine concentrations in 20 eviscerated pheasants killed by pithing (the slaughtering technique in which the spinal cord of the animals is severed and their brain is destroyed and stored at 7 °C for 21 days. Biogenic amine concentrations in breast and thigh muscles were analysed by reverse phase liquid chromatography. In the thigh muscle, the highest increases during the storage time were found in cadaverine (20.17 ± 18.66 mg/kg, putrescine (4.39 ± 4.17 mg/kg and tyramine (15.20 ± 16.88 mg/kg concentrations. Changes of biogenic amine concentrations in the breast muscle were minimal during the whole storage time. The concentration of biogenic amines in meat is associated with the presence of contaminating microorganisms. For that reason, biogenic amines are often used as markers of meat spoilage in various livestock species. Based on our results, the biogenic amines cadaverine, putrescine and tyramine may be considered the main indicators of hygienic quality of pheasant meat. We can recommend storing pithed pheasants treated by evisceration no longer than for seven days at 7 °C. After that period, biogenic amine concentrations in meat begin to change. The main significance of this study lies in the extension of the lack information about the content of biogenic amines in the meat of eviscerated pithed pheasant and also about changes of their concentrations during the course of storage.

  8. Study on the regional and global rise in NO{sub x} and non-methane hydrocarbon concentrations in the upper troposphere and lower stratosphere as a consequence of airplane emissions. Final report; Untersuchungen zur regionalen und globalen Erhoehung der NO{sub x}- und Nichtmethankohlenwasserstoff-Konzentrationen in der oberen Troposphaere und der unteren Stratosphaere infolge Flugzeugemissionen. Abschlussbericht

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rohrer, F

    1996-01-05

    In this project a chemical mechanism was developed for the upper troposphere which permits examining the photochemical formation of ozone. Using this mechanism it was found that at medium latitudes (at 10 km altitude in June) hydroxyl radical concentration and the rate of photochemical ozone formation to which it is coupled depend on NO{sub x} concentrations in a strongly non-linear manner, peaking at 110 ppt NO{sub x} and 200 pp NO{sub x}, respectively. Regarding the assessment of the effects of air traffic it was thus shown that in attempting to forecast changes in ozone concentration one must not only take aviation-related changes in NO{sub x} concentrations into account but also the forecasted absolute concentrations of NO{sub x}. The measured data were interpreted by combining a simplified model of NO{sub x} reactions with an existing three-dimensional transport model and comparing the measured and the calculated vertical NO profiles. It can be said that the 3D chemical transport model supplies realistic tropospheric NO{sub x} ratios at least for medium latitudes (49 to 56 N) in the months of May, June, July, December, and January. At these latitudes the tropospheric NO{sub x} budget is mainly governed by anthropogenic emissions. (orig./KW) [Deutsch] In diesem Projekt wurde ein Chemiemechanismus fuer die obere Troposphaere entwickelt, der es erlaubt, die photochemische Ozonbildung zu untersuchen. Mit diesem Mechanismus konnte fuer mittlere noerdliche Breiten (fuer 10 km Hoehe, Juni) gezeigt werden, dass die Hydroxylradikalkonzentration und die damit gekoppelte photochemische Ozonbildungsrate in stark nichtlinearer Weise von der Stickoxidkonzentration abhaengen und bei etwa 110 ppt NO{sub x} (bezw. 200 ppt NO{sub x} fuer die Ozonbildungsrate) ein Maximum durchlaufen. Fuer die Beurteilung der Auswirkungen des Flugverkehrs konnte deswegen gezeigt werden, dass die Voraussagen ueber Ozonveraenderungen nicht nur von der Aenderung der Stickoxidkonzentration durch den Flugverkehr abhaengen, sondern auch von den vorhergesagten Absolutkonzentrationen der Stickoxide. Fuer die Interpretation der Messdaten wurde ein vorhandenes 3 dimensionales Transportmodell mit einer einfachen Chemie der Stickoxide versehen und die gemessenen Vertikalprofile von NO mit berechneten verglichen. Es kann gesagt werden, dass das 3D-chemische Transportmodell realistische Stickoxidmischungsverhaeltnisse in der Troposphaere in mittleren Breiten (49 N bis 56 N) in den Monaten Mai, Juni und Juli sowie November, Dezember und Januar liefert. In diesen Breiten wird das troposphaerische Budget der Stickoxide hauptsaechlich durch anthropogene Emissionen bestimmt. (orig./KW)

  9. Detection of hydrocarbons in irradiated foods

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Miyahara, Makoto; Maitani, Tamio; Saito, Akiko; Kamimura, Tomomi; Nagasawa, Taeko; Kobayashi, Yasuo; Ito, Hitoshi

    2003-01-01

    The hydrocarbon method for the detection of irradiated foods is now recognized as the international technique. This method is based on radiolysis of fatty acids in food to give hydrocarbons. In order to expand this technique's application, ten foods (butter, cheese, chicken, pork, beef, tuna, dry shrimp, avocado, papaya, and mango) were irradiated in the range from 0.5 to 10 kGy and the hydrocarbons in them were detected. Recoveries of the hydrocarbons from most foods were acceptable (38-128%). Some hydrocarbons were found in non-irradiated foods, particularly, in butter, cheese, tuna, and shrimp. Seven irradiated foods, butter, cheese, chicken, beef, pork, tuna, dry shrimp, and avocado were detectable at their practical doses by measuring the appropriate marker hydrocarbons. In most case, marker hydrocarbon will be 1,7-hexadecadiene. However, the marker hydrocarbons produced only in irradiated foods varied from food to food; therefore, it is necessary to check a specific irradiated food for marker hydrocarbons. On the other hand, two irradiated foods (papaya and mango which were irradiated at their practical doses) were difficult to distinguish from non-irradiated foods using this method. (author)

  10. Detection of hydrocarbons in irradiated foods

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Miyahara, Makoto; Maitani, Tamio [National Inst. of Health Sciences, Tokyo (Japan); Saito, Akiko; Kamimura, Tomomi; Nagasawa, Taeko [Kitasato Univ., Sagamihara, Kanagawa (Japan). School of Allied Health Sciences; Kobayashi, Yasuo; Ito, Hitoshi [Japan Atomic Energy Research Inst., Takasaki, Gunma (Japan). Takasaki Radiation Establishment

    2003-06-01

    The hydrocarbon method for the detection of irradiated foods is now recognized as the international technique. This method is based on radiolysis of fatty acids in food to give hydrocarbons. In order to expand this technique's application, ten foods (butter, cheese, chicken, pork, beef, tuna, dry shrimp, avocado, papaya, and mango) were irradiated in the range from 0.5 to 10 kGy and the hydrocarbons in them were detected. Recoveries of the hydrocarbons from most foods were acceptable (38-128%). Some hydrocarbons were found in non-irradiated foods, particularly, in butter, cheese, tuna, and shrimp. Seven irradiated foods, butter, cheese, chicken, beef, pork, tuna, dry shrimp, and avocado were detectable at their practical doses by measuring the appropriate marker hydrocarbons. In most case, marker hydrocarbon will be 1,7-hexadecadiene. However, the marker hydrocarbons produced only in irradiated foods varied from food to food; therefore, it is necessary to check a specific irradiated food for marker hydrocarbons. On the other hand, two irradiated foods (papaya and mango which were irradiated at their practical doses) were difficult to distinguish from non-irradiated foods using this method. (author)

  11. Natural biogenic solid fuels - environmentally relevant characteristics and possible influences. Final report; Naturbelassene biogene Festbrennstoffe - umweltrelevante Eigenschaften und Einflussmoeglichkeiten. Abschlussbericht

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hartmann, H; Boehm, T; Maier, L [Bayerische Landesanstalt fuer Landtechnik, Friesing-Weihenstephan (Germany). Arbeitsgruppe Festbrennstoffe

    2000-09-01

    , Weizenstroh und Weizenganzpflanzen. Eine Datenbank fuer naturbelassene biogene Festbrennstoffe wurde errichtet. Hierfuer wurde ein relationales Datenbankmodell gewaehlt. Dessen Struktur wurde so angelegt, dass neben den eigentlichen Messgroessen auch eine Vielzahl weiterer Eigenschaften und Informationen zum Brennstoff sowie seine Herkunftsmerkmale und die verwendeten Analyseverfahren festgehalten werden konnten. Die in den eigenen Versuchsserien zustande gekommenen Analyseergebnisse wurden durch weitere Daten aus einer umfangreichen Recherche (Befragung) sowie aus Literaturangaben ergaenzt, so dass insgesamt ca. 1.238 Datensaetze (Stand April 1999) zusammengetragen werden konnten. (orig.)

  12. Fishmeal with different levels of biogenic amines in Aquafeed: Comparison of feed protein quality, fish growth performance, and metabolism

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jasour, Mohammad Sedigh; Wagner, Liane; Sundekilde, Ulrik Kræmer

    2018-01-01

    The current study investigated the effects of fishmeal quality (low (LB) and high (HB) levels of endogenous biogenic amines) and feed extrusion temperatures (100 and 130 °C) on protein oxidation indicators and amino acids racemization (AAR) in extruded fish feed. Furthermore, the study investigated......, secondary oxidation products, and racemized methionine correlated positively with a low content of biogenic amines, whereas the primary oxidation product, protein hydroperoxides, and in vivo AAs digestibility correlated positively with high content of biogenic amines. At an extrusion temperature of 100 °C......, the growth performance of the fish decreased when the content of biogenic amines increased. In contrast, at an extrusion temperature of 130 °C, the growth performance was unaffected by the level of biogenic amines. The latter could be a consequence of the higher level of protein oxidation of LB fishmeal...

  13. Halogenated hydrocarbons - an environmental problem

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Schoeler, H F; Thofern, E

    1984-01-01

    The paper provides a survey of the incidence of highly volatile halogenated hydrocarbons in ground, surface and drinking water as well as in the snows of Western Germany. Almost the entire production of chlorinated solvents is released into the environment. The absorption media are mostly soil, water and atmosphere. Whereas in the atmosphere elimination reactions take place, solvents that have passed the soil get into the ground water owing to their persistence and can cause considerable pollutions of drinking water. Moreover haloforms may occur in drinking water, which are produced during chlorine disinfection of pre-treated water.

  14. Catalytic treatment of hydrocarbon oils

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1940-02-23

    A process is described for increasing the octane number of a hydrocarbon oil. The substance is subjected under pressure to a temperature between 800 and 1100/sup 0/C. Catalysts include metal compounds of Groups IV, V, Vi, or VIII (Group VI is perferred). Experiments are performed under a hydrogen atmosphere. Reaction time, temperature, pressure, and partial pressure of the hydrogen are adjusted so that there will be no net hydrogen consumption. The reaction gases (including the products) are recycled in whole or in part to supply the hydrogen gas required.

  15. Catalytic cracking of hydrocarbon oils

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1940-09-12

    A process is described for the vapor phase catalytic cracking of hydrocarbon oils boiling substantially in the gas oil range. The reaction takes place in the presence of a solid catalyst between 700 to 900/sup 0/F under pressure between atmospheric and 400 psi. A gas containing between 20 and 90 mol % of free hydrogen is used. The reaction is allowed to proceed until consumption of the free begins. The reaction is discontinued at that point and the catalyst is regenerated for further use.

  16. Performance of a Throttle Cycle Refrigerator with Nitrogen-Hydrocarbon and Argon-Hydrocarbon Mixtures

    Science.gov (United States)

    Venkatarathnam, G.; Senthil Kumar, P.; Srinivasa Murthy, S.

    2004-06-01

    Throttle cycle refrigerators are a class of vapor compression refrigerators that can provide refrigeration at cryogenic temperatures and operate with refrigerant mixtures. The performance of our prototype refrigerators with nitrogen-hydrocarbon, nitrogen-hydrocarbon-helium and argon-hydrocarbon refrigerant mixtures is presented in this paper.

  17. Fingerprinting analysis and characterization of hydrocarbons in sediments of the Pearl River Delta in China

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yang, C.; Wang, Z.; Hollebone, B.; Yang, Z.; Brown, C.; Landriault, M.; Peng, X.

    2009-01-01

    This paper reported on a study that used gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (GC-MS) and gas chromatography flame ionization detection (GC-FID) to investigate and characterize the contamination in southern China's Pearl River Delta, with particular reference to contamination from petroleum,n-alkanes, polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs), biomarkers and diamondoid compounds. Forensic analysis of sediments was necessary in order to decode the contamination history and evaluate the contamination level of the aquatic ecosystem. The contamination of the Pearl River Delta sediment was derived from various inputs, including petrogenic, biogenic and pyrogenic sources. However, in addition to identifying PAHs and biomarker terpanes and steranes, the detection of trace diamondoid compounds in the sediments demonstrated that the pollution in the river was derived partially from petroleum sources. Diamondoids are a class of saturated hydrocarbons that consist of three-dimensionally fused cyclohexane rings. They occur naturally in source rocks, crude oils, intermediate petroleum distillates, and finished petroleum products. They are more resistant to biodegradation than most other petroleum compounds such as n-alkanes. As such, they can play an important role in identifying and characterizing petroleum contamination in the environment. It was concluded that the petroleum contamination in the Pearl River Delta is attributed to the mixture of medium to heavy petroleum residues. 31 refs., 6 tabs., 4 figs

  18. Decontamination of hydrocarbon contaminated soil

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Smith, A.J.

    1991-01-01

    This patent describes the method of treating hydrocarbon contaminated soil. It comprises forming the soil into a flowing particulate stream, forming an aqueous liquid mixture of water and treating substance that reacts with hydrocarbon to form CO 2 and water, dispersing the liquid mixture into the particulate soil stream to wet the particulate, allowing the substance to react with the wetted soil particulate to thereby form CO 2 and water, thereby the resultant soil is beneficially treated, the stream being freely projected to dwell at a level and then fall, and the dispersing includes spraying the liquid mixture into the projected stream at the dwell, the substance consisting of natural bacteria, and at a concentration level in the mixture of between 100 to 3,000 PPM of bacteria to water, the soil forming step including impacting the soil to reduce it to particles less than about 1 inches in cross dimension, and including forming the wetting particulate into a first layer on a surface to allow the substance to react

  19. Hydrocarbon production with nuclear explosives

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wade Watkins, J.

    1970-01-01

    The tremendous energy of nuclear explosives and the small dimensions of the explosive package make an ideal combination for drill-hole explosive emplacement in deep, thick hydrocarbon deposits. Potential applications exist in fracturing low permeability natural-gas and petroleum formations for stimulating production, fracturing oil shale to permit in situ retorting, and creating storage chimneys for natural gas, liquefied petroleum gas, petroleum, petroleum products, helium, and other fluids. Calculations show, for example, that less than 100 shots per year would be needed to stabilize the natural gas reserves to production ratio. Under the Government-industry Plowshare program, two experiments, Projects Gasbuggy and Rulison, were conducted to stimulate natural gas production from low-permeability formations. Incomplete information indicates that both were technically successful. Potential problems associated with the use of nuclear explosives for underground engineering applications are radioactive contamination, maximum yield limitations, high costs of detonating contained nuclear explosives, and adverse public opinion. Results at Project Gasbuggy and other considerations indicated that the problem of radioactive contamination was about as predicted and not an insurmountable one. Also, it was demonstrated that shots at adequate depths could be detonated without appreciable damage to existing surface and subsurface buildings, natural features, and equipment. However, costs must be reduced and the public must be better informed before these techniques can be widely used in field operations. On the basis of present knowledge, the potential of nuclear-explosive stimulation of hydrocarbon production appears good. Additional field experiments will be required to adequately explore that potential. (author)

  20. Hydrocarbon production with nuclear explosives

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wade Watkins, J [Petroleum Research, Bureau of Mines, U.S. Department of the Interior, Washington, DC (United States)

    1970-05-01

    The tremendous energy of nuclear explosives and the small dimensions of the explosive package make an ideal combination for drill-hole explosive emplacement in deep, thick hydrocarbon deposits. Potential applications exist in fracturing low permeability natural-gas and petroleum formations for stimulating production, fracturing oil shale to permit in situ retorting, and creating storage chimneys for natural gas, liquefied petroleum gas, petroleum, petroleum products, helium, and other fluids. Calculations show, for example, that less than 100 shots per year would be needed to stabilize the natural gas reserves to production ratio. Under the Government-industry Plowshare program, two experiments, Projects Gasbuggy and Rulison, were conducted to stimulate natural gas production from low-permeability formations. Incomplete information indicates that both were technically successful. Potential problems associated with the use of nuclear explosives for underground engineering applications are radioactive contamination, maximum yield limitations, high costs of detonating contained nuclear explosives, and adverse public opinion. Results at Project Gasbuggy and other considerations indicated that the problem of radioactive contamination was about as predicted and not an insurmountable one. Also, it was demonstrated that shots at adequate depths could be detonated without appreciable damage to existing surface and subsurface buildings, natural features, and equipment. However, costs must be reduced and the public must be better informed before these techniques can be widely used in field operations. On the basis of present knowledge, the potential of nuclear-explosive stimulation of hydrocarbon production appears good. Additional field experiments will be required to adequately explore that potential. (author)

  1. Unsaturated medium hydrocarbons pollution evaluation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Di Luise, G.

    1991-01-01

    When the so called porous unsaturated medium, that's the vertical subsoil section between both the ground and water-table level, is interested by a hydrocarbons spill, the problem to evaluate the pollution becomes difficult: considering, essentially, the natural coexistence in it of two fluids, air and water, and the interactions between them. This paper reports that the problems tend to increase when a third fluid, the pollutant, immiscible with water, is introduced into the medium: a three-phases flow, which presents several analogies with the flow conditions present in an oil-reservoir, will be established. In such a situation, it would be very useful to handle the matter by the commonly used parameters in the oil reservoirs studies such as: residual saturation, relative permeability, phases mobility, to derive a first semiquantitative estimation of the pollution. The subsoil pollution form hydrocarbons agents is one of the worldwide more diffused causes of contamination: such events are generally referable to two main effects: accidental (oil pipeline breakdowns, e.g.), and continuous (underground tanks breaks, industrial plants leakages, e.g.)

  2. Production of hydrogen from hydrocarbons

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lohmueller, R

    1984-03-01

    Hydrocarbons are the preferred starting materials for the industrial production of hydrogen. Most hydrogen is produced by steam reforming of light hydrocarbons. Partial oxidation of heavy oil and residue is used for the production of H/sub 2/ and synthesis gas in large plants. In both cases gas purification was improved. Hydrogen-rich gases like coke oven gas, refinery-offgas, and offgases from the chemical and petrochemical industry have high potential for becoming a major source of hydrogen. Processes for recovering H/sub 2/ (and by-products) are condensation and rectification at low temperatures and, most attractive and versatile for the production of very pure H/sub 2/, adsorption (PSA). The environmental impact of H/sub 2/ production lies mainly in the emission of CO/sub 2/ and heat. Other forms of pollution can be considerably reduced by conventional methods. The economy of H/sub 2/ production depends essentially on price and availability of the raw materials.

  3. The electrostatic atomization of hydrocarbons

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kelly, A J

    1984-06-01

    Exploitation of the unique and potentially beneficial characteristics of electrostatic atomization in combustion systems has foundered upon the inability of two element, diode devices to operate at flow rates that are larger than a fraction of a millilitre per second. This restriction has been attributed to the high innate electrical resistivity of hydrocarbon fuels. A discussion of proposed electrostatic fuel atomizers and their limitations is presented from the vantage of a recently developed theory of electrostatic spraying. Comparison of theory and experiment reveals the existence of a 'constant of spraying' and the presence of an operational regime in which low charge density droplet development is possible. Operation with hydrocarbons in this regime occurs when the mean droplet size is greater than or equal to 10 ..mu..m and fluid viscosity is below about 250 cp. The resulting spray has a mean droplet size that is functionally dependent only upon the free charge density level of the fluid. Consequently there is no theoretical impediment to the attainment of high flow rate electrostatic atomization with fluids of arbitrary conductivity. Implementation is achieved by a general class of electrostatic spray devices which employ direct charge injection. The Spray Triode, a submerged field-emission electron gun, represents a particularly simple member of this new class of atomizer. Among the Spray Triode operational characteristics to be discussed is insensitivity to spray fluid properties and flow rate.

  4. Effect of garlic, black seed and Biogen as immunostimulants on the ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Three dosage levels of black seed, garlic and commercial Biogen were administered for three months in summer and six months in winter to test their stimulation effect on growth, survival and response to challenge infection in Oreochromis niloticus. At the end of summer, no significant difference was observed in the growth ...

  5. Magnetically-modified natural biogenic iron oxides for organic xenobiotics removal

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Šafařík, Ivo; Filip, J.; Horská, Kateřina; Nowakova, M.; Tuček, J.; Šafaříková, Miroslava; Hashimoto, H.; Takada, J.; Zbořil, R.

    2015-01-01

    Roč. 12, č. 2 (2015), s. 673-682 ISSN 1735-1472 R&D Projects: GA MŠk(CZ) LH11111; GA MŠk LH12190 Institutional support: RVO:67179843 Keywords : Biogenic iron oxides * Leptothrix ochracea * Magnetic fluid * Magnetic adsorbents * Xenobiotics Subject RIV: EI - Biotechnology ; Bionics Impact factor: 2.344, year: 2015

  6. Crystal and fine structural transformation of Heat-treated biogenic manganese oxide

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Kimura, N.; Hashimoto, H.; Miyata, N.; Nishina, Y.; Kusano, Y.; Ikeda, Y.; Nakanishi, Y.; Fujii, T.; Šafařík, Ivo; Šafaříková, Miroslava; Takada, J.

    2013-01-01

    Roč. 60, č. 3 (2013), s. 92-98 ISSN 0532-8799 R&D Projects: GA MŠk(CZ) LH11111 Institutional support: RVO:67179843 Keywords : microorganisms * biogenic manganese oxides * phase transitions * nano-sheets * microstructures Subject RIV: EH - Ecology, Behaviour

  7. From urban municipalities to polar bioremediation: the characterisation and contribution of biogenic minerals for water treatment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Freidman, Benjamin L; Northcott, Kathy A; Thiel, Peta; Gras, Sally L; Snape, Ian; Stevens, Geoff W; Mumford, Kathryn A

    2017-06-01

    Minerals of biological origin have shown significant potential for the separation of contaminants from water worldwide. This study details the contribution of biologically derived minerals to water treatment operations, with a focus on filtration media from urban municipalities and remote cold regions. The results support biofilm-embedded iron and manganese to be the building blocks of biogenic mineral development on activated carbon and nutrient-amended zeolites. The presence of similar iron and manganese oxidising bacterial species across all filter media supports the analogous morphologies of biogenic minerals between sites and suggests that biological water treatment processes may be feasible across a range of climates. This is the first time the stages of biogenic mineral formation have been aligned with comprehensive imaging of the biofilm community and bacterial identification; especially with respect to cold regions. Where biogenic mineral formation occurs on filter media, the potential exists for enhanced adsorption for a range of organic and inorganic contaminants and improved longevity of filter media beyond the adsorption or exchange capacities of the raw material.

  8. Nitrate radicals and biogenic volatile organic compounds: oxidation, mechanisms, and organic aerosol

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oxidation of biogenic volatile organic compounds (BVOC) by the nitrate radical (NO3) represents one of the important interactions between anthropogenic emissions related to combustion and natural emissions from the biosphere. This interaction has been recognized for more than 3 d...

  9. Radiocarbon AMS determination of the biogenic component in CO2 emitted from waste incineration

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Calcagnile, L.; Quarta, G.; D’Elia, M.; Ciceri, G.; Martinotti, V.

    2011-01-01

    The thermal utilization of waste for energy production is gaining importance in European countries. Nevertheless, the combustion of waste leads to significant CO 2 emissions in the atmosphere which, depending on the fraction of biogenic and fossil materials, have to be only partially accounted for the national greenhouse gas inventory. For this reason the development of proper methodologies for the measurement of the biogenic fraction in the combusted waste is an active research field. In fact the determination of the radiocarbon concentration in the carbon dioxide stack emissions allows to have a direct indication of the biogenic component in the burned fuel. We present the results of the AMS radiocarbon analyses carried out on carbon dioxide sampled at the stack of three power plants located in Northern Italy burning natural gas, landfill biogas and SRF (Solid Recovered Fuel) derived from MSW (Municipal Solid Waste). The sampling apparatus and the applied processing protocols are described together with the calculation procedures used to determine, from the measured radiocarbon concentrations, the proportion of biogenic and fossil component in the flue gas and in the combusted fuel. The results confirm the high potentialities of this approach in the analysis of industrial CO 2 emissions.

  10. An approach for verifying biogenic greenhouse gas emissions inventories with atmospheric CO2 concentration data

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stephen M Ogle; Kenneth Davis; Thomas Lauvaux; Andrew Schuh; Dan Cooley; Tristram O West; Linda S Heath; Natasha L Miles; Scott Richardson; F Jay Breidt; James E Smith; Jessica L McCarty; Kevin R Gurney; Pieter Tans; A Scott. Denning

    2015-01-01

    Verifying national greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions inventories is a critical step to ensure that reported emissions data to the United Nations Framework Convention on Climate Change (UNFCCC) are accurate and representative of a country's contribution to GHG concentrations in the atmosphere. Furthermore, verifying biogenic fluxes provides a check on estimated...

  11. UNITED STATES LAND USE INVENTORY FOR ESTIMATING BIOGENIC OZONE PRECURSOR EMISSIONS

    Science.gov (United States)

    The U.S. Geological Survey's (USGS) Earth Resources Observation System (EROS) Data Center's (EDC) 1-km classified land cover data are combined with other land use data using a Geographic Information System (GIS) to create the Biogenic Emissions Landcover Database (BELD). The land...

  12. Future changes in biogenic isoprene emissions: how might they affect regional and global atmospheric chemistry?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Christine Wiedinmyer; Xuexi Tie; Alex Guenther; Ron Neilson; Claire. Granier

    2006-01-01

    Isoprene is emitted from vegetation to the atmosphere in significant quantities, and it plays an important role in the reactions that control tropospheric oxidant concentrations. As future climatic and land-cover changes occur, the spatial and temporal variations, as well as the magnitude of these biogenic isoprene emissions, are expected to change. This paper presents...

  13. Carbon-14 based determination of the biogenic fraction of industrial CO2 emissions : Application and validation

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Palstra, S. W. L.; Meijer, H. A. J.

    The C-14 method is a very reliable and sensitive method for industrial plants, emission authorities and emission inventories to verify data estimations of biogenic fractions of CO2 emissions. The applicability of the method is shown for flue gas CO2 samples that have been sampled in I-h intervals at

  14. Worldwide biogenic soil NOx emissions inferred from OMI NO2 observations

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Vinken, G.C.M.; Boersma, K.F.; Maasakkers, J.D.; Adon, M.; Martin, R.V.

    2014-01-01

    Biogenic NOx emissions from soils are a large natural source with substantial uncertainties in global bottom-up estimates (ranging from 4 to 15 Tg N yr-1). We reduce this range in emission estimates, and present a top-down soil NOx emission inventory for 2005 based on retrieved tropospheric NO2

  15. Worldwide biogenic soil NOx emissions inferred from OMI NO2 observations.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Vinken, G.C.M.; Boersma, K.F.; Maasakkers, J.D.; Adon, M.; Martin, R.V.

    2014-01-01

    Biogenic NOx emissions from soils are a large natural source with substantial uncertainties in global bottom-up estimates (ranging from 4 to 15 Tg N yr-1). We reduce this range in emission estimates, and present a top-down soil NOx emission inventory for 2005 based on retrieved tropospheric NO2

  16. Evidence of intensified biogenic silica recycling in the Black Sea after 1970

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mousing, Erik Askov; Adjou, Mohamed; Ellegaard, Marianne

    2015-01-01

    140 years and show that siliceous protists became significantly more dissolved after the late 1960s indicating a reduction of the silicate pool preserved in the deep sea sediment. We hypothesize that the decline in the dissolution state is caused by increased recycling of biogenic silica in the water...

  17. Land use change affects biogenic silica pool distribution in a subtropical soil toposequence

    Science.gov (United States)

    Unzué-Belmonte, Dácil; Ameijeiras-Mariño, Yolanda; Opfergelt, Sophie; Cornelis, Jean-Thomas; Barão, Lúcia; Minella, Jean; Meire, Patrick; Struyf, Eric

    2017-07-01

    Land use change (deforestation) has several negative consequences for the soil system. It is known to increase erosion rates, which affect the distribution of elements in soils. In this context, the crucial nutrient Si has received little attention, especially in a tropical context. Therefore, we studied the effect of land conversion and erosion intensity on the biogenic silica pools in a subtropical soil in the south of Brazil. Biogenic silica (BSi) was determined using a novel alkaline continuous extraction where Si / Al ratios of the fractions extracted are used to distinguish BSi and other soluble fractions: Si / Al > 5 for the biogenic AlkExSi (alkaline-extractable Si) and Si / Al soils depending on the slope of the study site (10-53 %), with faster depletion in steeper sites. We show that higher erosion in steeper sites implies increased accumulation of biogenic Si in deposition zones near the bottom of the slope, where rapid burial can cause removal of BSi from biologically active zones. Our study highlights the interaction of erosion strength and land use for BSi redistribution and depletion in a soil toposequence, with implications for basin-scale Si cycling.

  18. Evolution of cyclonic eddies and biogenic fluxes in the northern Bay of Bengal

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    Nuncio, M.; PrasannaKumar, S.

    in the sediment trap location. Cyclonic eddy-induced down ward biogenic flux in the sediment trap location was larger than the amplitude, ~40 mg m-2 d-1, of the seasonal cycle. The magnitude of the peak episodic fluxes were one...

  19. Biogenic silica microfossils in sediments of the Permian - Carboniferous Unayzah Formation, Saudi Arabia

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Garming, J.F.L.; Franks, S.G.; Cremer, H.; Abbink, O.A.

    2010-01-01

    Biogenic silica particles (BSPs) have been discovered in sediments of the Permian - Carboniferous Unayzah Formation of Saudi Arabia. The BSPs are extracted from sediments that are generally barren of macro- or microfossils. BSPs have been found in the Basal Khuff Clastics (BKC), and the Unayzah A,

  20. Foliar leaching, translocation, and biogenic emission of 35S in radiolabeled loblolly pines

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Garten, C.T. Jr.

    1990-01-01

    Foliar leaching, basipetal (downward) translocation, and biogenic emission of sulfur (S), as traced by 35 S, were examined in a field study of loblolly pines. Four trees were radiolabeled by injection with amounts of 35 S in the 6-8 MBq range, and concentrations in needle fall, stemflow, throughfall, and aboveground biomass were measured over a period of 15-20 wk after injection. The contribution of dry deposition to sulfate-sulfur (SO 4 2- -S) concentrations in net throughfall (throughfall SO 4 2- -S concentration minus that in incident precipitation) beneath all four trees was > 90%. Calculations indicated that about half of the summertime SO 2 dry deposition flux to the loblolly pines was fixed in the canopy and not subsequently leached by rainfall. Based on mass balance calculations, 35 S losses through biogenic emissions from girdled trees were inferred to be 25-28% of the amount injected. Estimates based on chamber methods and mass balance calculations indicated a range in daily biogenic S emission of 0.1-10 μg/g dry needles. Translocation of 35 S to roots in nongirdled trees was estimated to be between 14 and 25% of the injection. It is hypothesized that biogenic emission and basipetal translocation of S (and not foliar leaching) are important mechanisms by which forest trees physiologically adapt to excess S in the environment

  1. Inhibitory Effects of Spices on Biogenic Amine Accumulation during Fish Sauce Fermentation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhou, Xuxia; Qiu, Mengting; Zhao, Dandan; Lu, Fei; Ding, Yuting

    2016-04-01

    The presence of high levels of biogenic amines is detrimental to the quality and safety of fish sauce. This study investigated the effects of ethanol extracts of spices, including garlic, ginger, cinnamon, and star anise extracts, in reducing the accumulation of biogenic amines during fish sauce fermentation. The concentrations of biogenic amines, which include histamine, putrescine, tyramine, and spermidine, all increased during fish sauce fermentation. When compared with the samples without spices, the garlic and star anise extracts significantly reduced these increases. The greatest inhibitory effect was observed for the garlic ethanolic extracts. When compared with controls, the histamine, putrescine, tyramine, and spermidine contents and the overall biogenic amine levels of the garlic extract-treated samples were reduced by 30.49%, 17.65%, 26.03%, 37.20%, and 27.17%, respectively. The garlic, cinnamon, and star anise extracts showed significant inhibitory effects on aerobic bacteria counts. Furthermore, the garlic and star anise extracts showed antimicrobial activity against amine producers. These findings may be helpful for enhancing the safety of fish sauce. © 2016 Institute of Food Technologists®

  2. Biogenic carbon in combustible waste: waste composition, variability and measurement uncertainty.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Larsen, Anna W; Fuglsang, Karsten; Pedersen, Niels H; Fellner, Johann; Rechberger, Helmut; Astrup, Thomas

    2013-10-01

    Obtaining accurate data for the contents of biogenic and fossil carbon in thermally-treated waste is essential for determination of the environmental profile of waste technologies. Relations between the variability of waste chemistry and the biogenic and fossil carbon emissions are not well described in the literature. This study addressed the variability of biogenic and fossil carbon in combustible waste received at a municipal solid waste incinerator. Two approaches were compared: (1) radiocarbon dating ((14)C analysis) of carbon dioxide sampled from the flue gas, and (2) mass and energy balance calculations using the balance method. The ability of the two approaches to accurately describe short-term day-to-day variations in carbon emissions, and to which extent these short-term variations could be explained by controlled changes in waste input composition, was evaluated. Finally, the measurement uncertainties related to the two approaches were determined. Two flue gas sampling campaigns at a full-scale waste incinerator were included: one during normal operation and one with controlled waste input. Estimation of carbon contents in the main waste types received was included. Both the (14)C method and the balance method represented promising methods able to provide good quality data for the ratio between biogenic and fossil carbon in waste. The relative uncertainty in the individual experiments was 7-10% (95% confidence interval) for the (14)C method and slightly lower for the balance method.

  3. APPLICATION OF COMPUTER-AIDED TOMOGRAPHY TO VISUALIZE AND QUANTIFY BIOGENIC STRUCTURES IN MARINE SEDIMENTS

    Science.gov (United States)

    We used computer-aided tomography (CT) for 3D visualization and 2D analysis ofmarine sediment cores from 3 stations (at 10, 75 and 118 m depths) with different environmentalimpact. Biogenic structures such as tubes and burrows were quantified and compared among st...

  4. Impacts of Interannual Variability in Biogenic VOC Emissions near Transitional Ozone Production Regimes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Geddes, J.

    2017-12-01

    Due to successful NOx emission controls, summertime ozone production chemistry in urban areas across North America is transitioning from VOC-limited to increasingly NOx-limited. In some regions where ozone production sensitivity is in transition, interannual variability in surrounding biogenic VOC emissions could drive fluctuations in the prevailing chemical regime and modify the impact of anthropogenic emission changes. I use satellite observations of HCHO and NO2 column density, along with a long-term simulation of atmospheric chemistry, to investigate the impact of interannual variability in biogenic isoprene sources near large metro areas. Peak emissions of isoprene in the model can vary by up to 20-60% in any given year compared to the long term mean, and this variability drives the majority of the variability in simulated local HCHO:NO2 ratios (a common proxy for ozone production sensitivity). The satellite observations confirm increasingly NOx-limited chemical regimes with large interannual variability. In several instances, the model and satellite observations suggest that variability in biogenic isoprene emissions could shift summertime ozone production from generally VOC- to generally NOx- sensitive (or vice versa). This would have implications for predicting the air quality impacts of anthropogenic emission changes in any given year, and suggests that drivers of biogenic emissions need to be well understood.

  5. CHARACTERIZATION OF BIOGENIC, INTERMEDIATE AND PHYSICOGENIC SOIL AGGREGATES OF AREAS IN THE BRAZILIAN ATLANTIC FOREST

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    JÚLIO CÉSAR FEITOSA FERNANDES

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Aggregate formation and stability are related to soil quality, contributing significantly to the carbon storage and nutrient maintenance capacities of the soil. Soil aggregates are formed by two different process: physicogenic, related to moistening and drying cycles and input of organic matter; and biogenic, related to the action of macrofauna organisms and roots. The objective this work was to classify aggregates according to their formation process, quantify and compare organic carbon contents in humic substances and assess the stability of aggregates formed by different processes, in areas with different coverage in the Mid Paraiba Valley, Pinheiral, State of Rio de Janeiro, Brazil. Aggregated soil samples were collected at a depth of 0-10 cm, in a Cambisol (Cambissolo Háplico Tb Distrófico under four plant covers: secondary forest in advanced (SFAS, medium (SFMS and initial (SFIS successional stages and managed mixed pasture (MMP. Aggregates were classified and identified into three morphological classes (physicogenic, biogenic and intermediate. The variables evaluated were mean weight diameter (MWD and geometric mean diameter (GMD of aggregates, chemical fractions of organic matter, total organic carbon (TOC and humic substances: humin (C-HUM humic acid (C-FAH and fulvic acid (C-FAF. Biogenic aggregates were found in smaller quantities and showed higher TOC, C-HUM and C-FAH, compared to intermediate and physicogenic aggregates. Thus, biogenic aggregates have potential to be used as soil quality indicators for structured environments, which are able to maintain its intrinsic formation processes.

  6. TETHERED BALLOON MEASUREMENTS OF BIOGENIC VOCS IN THE ATMOSPHERIC BOUNDARY LAYER

    Science.gov (United States)

    Measurements of biogenic volatile organic compounds (BVOCs) have been made on a tethered balloon platform in eleven field deployments between 1985 and 1996. A series of balloon sampling packages have been developed for these campaigns and they have been used to describe boundary ...

  7. Synthesis and Surface-Specific Analysis of Molecular Constituents Relevant to Biogenic Secondary Organic Aerosol Material

    Science.gov (United States)

    Be, A. G.; Upshur, M. A.; Chase, H. M.; Geiger, F.; Thomson, R. J.

    2017-12-01

    Secondary organic aerosol (SOA) particles formed from the oxidation of biogenic volatile organic compounds (BVOCs) remain a principal, yet elusive, class of airborne particulate matter that impacts the Earth's radiation budget. Given the characteristic molecular complexity comprising biogenic SOA particles, chemical information selective to the gas-aerosol interface may be valuable in the investigation of such systems, as surface considerations likely dictate the phenomena driving particle evolution mechanisms and climate effects. In particular, cloud activation processes may be parameterized using the surface tension depression that coincides with partitioning of surface-active organic species to the gas-droplet interface. However, the extent to which surface chemical processes, such as cloud droplet condensation, are influenced by the chemical structure and reactivity of individual surface-active molecules in SOA particles is largely unknown. We seek to study terpene-derived organic species relevant to the surfaces of biogenic SOA particles via synthesis of putative oxidation products followed by analysis using surface-selective physicochemical measurements. Using dynamic surface tension measurements, considerable differences are observed in the surface tension depression of aqueous pendant droplets that contain synthetically prepared ozonolysis products derived from abundant terpene precursors. Furthermore, sum frequency generation spectroscopy is utilized for comparison of the surface vibrational spectral responses of synthesized reference compounds with those observed for laboratory aerosol toward probing the surface composition of SOA material. Such ongoing findings highlight the underlying importance of molecular structure and reactivity when considering the surface chemistry of biogenic terpene-derived atmospheric aerosols.

  8. Primary biodegradation of petroleum hydrocarbons in seawater

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Comber, M.I.H.; Den Haan, K.H.; Djemel, N.; Eadsforth, C.V.; King, D.; Paumen, M.L.; Parkerton, T.; Dmytrasz, B.

    2012-12-15

    This report describes primary biodegradation experiments performed to determine the persistence of higher molecular weight petroleum hydrocarbons in seawater. Results from the biodegradation experiments show that the majority of tested petroleum hydrocarbons have half-lives in seawater less than 60 days.

  9. Mechanistic model for microbial growth on hydrocarbons

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mallee, F M; Blanch, H W

    1977-12-01

    Based on available information describing the transport and consumption of insoluble alkanes, a mechanistic model is proposed for microbial growth on hydrocarbons. The model describes the atypical growth kinetics observed, and has implications in the design of large scale equipment for single cell protein (SCP) manufacture from hydrocarbons. The model presents a framework for comparison of the previously published experimental kinetic data.

  10. Identification and Characterisation of Major Hydrocarbons in ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Identification and Characterisation of Major Hydrocarbons in Thermally Degraded Low Density Polyethylene Films. ... There were alkanes, alkenes, halogenated alkanes, and very few aromatics in the liquid product and, the hydrocarbons were observed to range between C10 - C27. The FTIR and GC-MS results show the ...

  11. Molecular characterization of autochthonous hydrocarbon utilizing ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Prof. Ogunji

    Materials and Methods ... culturable hydrocarbon utilizing bacteria (HUB) were enumerated by vapour phase ... hydrocarbon utilizing bacterial isolates by boiling method according to ... obtained in this investigation are consistent with past field studies (Kostka et ... Microbial and other related changes in a Niger sediment.

  12. Versatility of hydrocarbon production in cyanobacteria.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xie, Min; Wang, Weihua; Zhang, Weiwen; Chen, Lei; Lu, Xuefeng

    2017-02-01

    Cyanobacteria are photosynthetic microorganisms using solar energy, H 2 O, and CO 2 as the primary inputs. Compared to plants and eukaryotic microalgae, cyanobacteria are easier to be genetically engineered and possess higher growth rate. Extensive genomic information and well-established genetic platform make cyanobacteria good candidates to build efficient biosynthetic pathways for biofuels and chemicals by genetic engineering. Hydrocarbons are a family of compounds consisting entirely of hydrogen and carbon. Structural diversity of the hydrocarbon family is enabled by variation in chain length, degree of saturation, and rearrangements of the carbon skeleton. The diversified hydrocarbons can be used as valuable chemicals in the field of food, fuels, pharmaceuticals, nutrition, and cosmetics. Hydrocarbon biosynthesis is ubiquitous in bacteria, yeasts, fungi, plants, and insects. A wide variety of pathways for the hydrocarbon biosynthesis have been identified in recent years. Cyanobacteria may be superior chassis for hydrocabon production in a photosynthetic manner. A diversity of hydrocarbons including ethylene, alkanes, alkenes, and terpenes can be produced by cyanobacteria. Metabolic engineering and synthetic biology strategies can be employed to improve hydrocarbon production in cyanobacteria. This review mainly summarizes versatility and perspectives of hydrocarbon production in cyanobacteria.

  13. 33 CFR 157.166 - Hydrocarbon emissions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 2 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Hydrocarbon emissions. 157.166 Section 157.166 Navigation and Navigable Waters COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY (CONTINUED... Crude Oil Washing (COW) System on Tank Vessels Cow Operations § 157.166 Hydrocarbon emissions. If the...

  14. Hydrocarbon formation mechanism during uranium monocarbide hydrolysis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ermolaev, M.I.; Tishchenko, G.V.

    1979-01-01

    The hydrolysis of uranium monocarbide in oxidative media and in the presence of excessive hydrogen in statu nascendi has been investigated. It was found that oxydants promote the formation of elementary carbon, while in the presence of hydrogen the yield of light C-C hydrocarbons increases. EPR data confirm the radical mechanism of hydrocarbons formation during the decomposition of uranium monocarbide

  15. George A. Olah, Carbocation and Hydrocarbon Chemistry

    Science.gov (United States)

    dropdown arrow Site Map A-Z Index Menu Synopsis George A. Olah, Carbocation and Hydrocarbon Chemistry George Olah received the 1994 Nobel Prize in Chemistry "for his contribution to carbocation chemistry" and his 'role in the chemistry of hydrocarbons. In particular, he developed superacids

  16. New Technique Of Determination Of Biogenic Fraction In Liquid Fuels By The 14C Method

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Krajcar Bronic, I.; Baresic, J.; Horvatincic, N.; Kristof, R.; Kozar Logar, J.

    2015-01-01

    According to the EU Directive 2009/28/EC all (liquid) fuels have to contain at least 10 percent of bio-fuel, i.e., blend of biogenic origin, by 2020. 14C method is the most reliable method of determination of the biogenic fraction in fuels and various measurement techniques can be applied. A technique of direct measurement of the 14C content in liquid fuel is simple and fast but has main disadvantage: different liquid colours cause different quenching and changes in the measurement efficiency. Here we have described a new technique that uses liquids of different colours to construct modern and background calibration curves, MCC and BCC, respectively, by measuring count rates and SQP values of various modern and fossil liquids. Several types of fossil fuel, pure benzine and benzene (used as 14C-free background for 14C dating) were used for BCC, and various brands of domestic oil (vegetable, sunflower, olive, pumpkin), bioethanol and benzene prepared from modern samples were used MCC construction. The procedure for the unknown sample consists of: 1) measurement of the count rate and the SQP value, 2) calculation of background and modern count rates corresponding to the measured SQP value based on the BCC and MCC curves, respectively, and 3) the ratio of net count rates of the unknown sample and the modern net count rate at the same SQP represents the fraction of the biogenic component in the liquid. All samples should be measured under the same conditions. In our case these are: UltimaGold F scintillator, the ratio sample:scintillator (10 mL:10 mL), low-potassium glass vials of 20 mL volume, spectra recorded by LSC Quantulus and evaluated in the window 124 - 570. Lowest detectable biogenic fraction is 0.5 %. The technique depends neither on the fossil matrix or the biogenic additive types. The results are in good agreement with those obtained by different evaluation technique. (author).

  17. The Labrador Sea during the Last Glacial Maximum: Calcite dissolution or low biogenic carbonate fluxes?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marshall, Nicole; de Vernal, Anne; Mucci, Alfonso; Filippova, Alexandra; Kienast, Markus

    2017-04-01

    Low concentrations of biogenic carbonate characterize the sediments deposited in the Labrador Sea during the last glaciation. This may reflect poor calcite preservation and/or low biogenic carbonate productivity and fluxes. Regional bottom water ventilation was reduced during the Last Glacial Maximum (LGM), so the calcite lysocline might have been shallower than at present in the deep Labrador Sea making dissolution of calcite shells in the deep Labrador Sea possible. To address the issue, a multi-proxy approach based on micropaleontological counts (coccoliths, foraminifers, palynomorphs) and biogeochemical analyses (alkenones) was applied in the investigation of core HU2008-029-004-PC recovered in the northwestern Labrador Sea. Calcite dissolution indices based on the relative abundance benthic foraminifera shells to their organic linings as well as on fragmentation of planktonic foraminifera shells were used to evaluate changes in calcite dissolution/ preservation since the LGM. In addition, the ratio of the concentrations of coccoliths, specifically of the alkenone-producer Emiliania huxleyi, and alkenones (Emiliania huxleyi: alkenones) was explored as a potential new proxy of calcite dissolution. A sharp increase in coccoliths, foraminifers and organic linings from nearly none to substantial concentrations at 12 ka, reflect a jump to significantly greater biogenic fluxes at the glacial-interglacial transition. Furthermore, conventional dissolution indices (shells/linings of benthic foraminifera and fragmentation of planktic foraminifers) reveal that dissolution is not likely responsible for the lower glacial abundances of coccoliths and foraminifers. Only the low Emiliania huxleyi: alkenones ratios in glacial sediments could be interpreted as evidence of increased dissolution during the LGM. Given the evidence of allochthonous alkenone input into the glacial Labrador Sea, the latter observations must be treated with caution. Overall, the records indicate that

  18. Recent trends in the determination of biogenic amines in fermented beverages – A review

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ordóñez, José Luis; Troncoso, Ana Maria; García-Parrilla, Maria Del Carmen; Callejón, Raquel Maria, E-mail: rcallejon@us.es

    2016-10-05

    Biogenic amines (BA) are generally considered as a food hazard, even though there is not a threshold for these biomolecules in the European legislation, except for histamine in fishery products. These compounds are formed during the storage and processing of certain foods through microbiological activity, and when present in high concentrations, could have toxicological effects, causing health problems in consumers, especially to sensitive persons. This fact, in addition to the economical concern involved, makes it necessary to control the amounts of biogenic amines in foods. For all these reasons, literature on biogenic amines in different food products, especially in fermented beverages, is extensive. This review provides an overview of the most recent trends in the determination of biogenic amines in fermented beverages focusing on novelty, improvement and optimization of analytical methods. Hence, the different sample treatment procedures (including derivatization), the most important analytical techniques and the most frequent applications are described and discussed. Although biogenic amines have been determined in wine and other fermented beverages for decades, new advancements and technical possibilities have allowed to increase the accuracy and sensitivity of analytical methods, in order to overcome the challenges posed by the complex matrices and their high intrinsic variability. Thus, the different purposes of BA determination (food safety, production process or food microbiology research) and the most widely employed analytical techniques have been reviewed. - Highlights: • A critical review on analytical methods for BA in fermented beverages is presented. • Recent sample treatments and analytical techniques are described and discussed. • A previous derivatization is needed in most liquid chromatographic methods. • BA determination is related to food safety, production process or microbiology research.

  19. The impact of drawing on the biogenic amines content in meat of pithed pheasant

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zdeňka Hutařová

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available With the increasing popularity of game meat, greater emphasis is being placed on ensuring high hygienic quality of this food. Biogenic amines are among possible indicators of the hygienic quality of meat. The aim of this study was to monitor biogenic amine concentrations in the muscle tissues of pheasants (n = 20 killed by pithing and treated by drawing (guts are removed from the body cavity through the cloaca using a specially fashioned hook. The pheasants’ bodies were stored hanged by the neck for 21 days at ±7 °C. Breast and thigh muscle samples were collected at weekly intervals (day 1, 7, 14 and 21 of storage. Biogenic amines (putrescine, cadaverine, tyramine, histamine, tryptamine and phenylethylamine were analysed by reverse phase liquid chromatography and detected by tandem mass spectrometry. In breast muscle, the most evident change was noted in the concentration of cadaverine (0.026 and 1.070 mg/kg for storage day 1 and 21, respectively and tyramine (0.001 and 0.958 mg/kg for storage day 1 and 21, respectively. Throughout the storage period, the concentration of 5 mg/kg (indicating a loss of high hygienic quality of meat was not exceeded by any of the assessed biogenic amines. In thigh muscle, the concentration indicating high hygienic quality of meat was exceed after 14 days of storage in the case of cadaverine, tyramine and putrescine (at the end of storage their concentrations were 9.058, 10.708 and 3.345 mg/kg, respectively. Hygienic quality of thigh muscle decreased faster compared to breast muscle. This study brings new information about the content of biogenic amines in the meat of pithed pheasants treated by drawing.

  20. Biocompatibility assessment of rice husk-derived biogenic silica nanoparticles for biomedical applications

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Alshatwi, Ali A., E-mail: alshatwi@ksu.edu.sa; Athinarayanan, Jegan; Periasamy, Vaiyapuri Subbarayan

    2015-02-01

    Synthetic forms of silica have low biocompatibility, whereas biogenic forms have myriad beneficial effects in current toxicological applications. Among the various sources of biogenic silica, rice husk is considered a valuable agricultural biomass material and a cost-effective resource that can provide biogenic silica for biomedical applications. In the present study, highly pure biogenic silica nanoparticles (bSNPs) were successfully harvested from rice husks using acid digestion under pressurized conditions at 120 °C followed by a calcination process. The obtained bSNPs were subjected to phase identification analysis using X-ray diffraction, which revealed the amorphous nature of the bSNPs. The morphologies of the bSNPs were observed using transmission electron microscopy (TEM), which revealed spherical particles 10 to 30 nm in diameter. Furthermore, the biocompatibility of the bSNPs with human lung fibroblast cells (hLFCs) was investigated using a viability assay and assessing cellular morphological changes, intracellular ROS generation, mitochondrial transmembrane potential and oxidative stress-related gene expression. Our results revealed that the bSNPs did not have any significant incompatibility in these in vitro cell-based approaches. These preliminary findings suggest that bSNPs are biocompatible, could be the best alternative to synthetic forms of silica and are applicable to food additive and biomedical applications. - Highlights: • Simple, rapid and convenient process • Amorphous and spherical with 10–30 nm size SiO{sub 2} nanoparticles were fabricated. • Biogenic silica nanoparticles showed biocompatibility. • bSNPs are an alternative to synthetic forms of silica.

  1. Recent trends in the determination of biogenic amines in fermented beverages – A review

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ordóñez, José Luis; Troncoso, Ana Maria; García-Parrilla, Maria Del Carmen; Callejón, Raquel Maria

    2016-01-01

    Biogenic amines (BA) are generally considered as a food hazard, even though there is not a threshold for these biomolecules in the European legislation, except for histamine in fishery products. These compounds are formed during the storage and processing of certain foods through microbiological activity, and when present in high concentrations, could have toxicological effects, causing health problems in consumers, especially to sensitive persons. This fact, in addition to the economical concern involved, makes it necessary to control the amounts of biogenic amines in foods. For all these reasons, literature on biogenic amines in different food products, especially in fermented beverages, is extensive. This review provides an overview of the most recent trends in the determination of biogenic amines in fermented beverages focusing on novelty, improvement and optimization of analytical methods. Hence, the different sample treatment procedures (including derivatization), the most important analytical techniques and the most frequent applications are described and discussed. Although biogenic amines have been determined in wine and other fermented beverages for decades, new advancements and technical possibilities have allowed to increase the accuracy and sensitivity of analytical methods, in order to overcome the challenges posed by the complex matrices and their high intrinsic variability. Thus, the different purposes of BA determination (food safety, production process or food microbiology research) and the most widely employed analytical techniques have been reviewed. - Highlights: • A critical review on analytical methods for BA in fermented beverages is presented. • Recent sample treatments and analytical techniques are described and discussed. • A previous derivatization is needed in most liquid chromatographic methods. • BA determination is related to food safety, production process or microbiology research.

  2. New procedure of selected biogenic amines determination in wine samples by HPLC

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Piasta, Anna M.; Jastrzębska, Aneta, E-mail: aj@chem.uni.torun.pl; Krzemiński, Marek P.; Muzioł, Tadeusz M.; Szłyk, Edward

    2014-06-27

    Highlights: • We proposed new procedure for derivatization of biogenic amines. • The NMR and XRD analysis confirmed the purity and uniqueness of derivatives. • Concentration of biogenic amines in wine samples were analyzed by RP-HPLC. • Sample contamination and derivatization reactions interferences were minimized. - Abstract: A new procedure for determination of biogenic amines (BA): histamine, phenethylamine, tyramine and tryptamine, based on the derivatization reaction with 2-chloro-1,3-dinitro-5-(trifluoromethyl)-benzene (CNBF), is proposed. The amines derivatives with CNBF were isolated and characterized by X-ray crystallography and {sup 1}H, {sup 13}C, {sup 19}F NMR spectroscopy in solution. The novelty of the procedure is based on the pure and well-characterized products of the amines derivatization reaction. The method was applied for the simultaneous analysis of the above mentioned biogenic amines in wine samples by the reversed phase-high performance liquid chromatography. The procedure revealed correlation coefficients (R{sup 2}) between 0.9997 and 0.9999, and linear range: 0.10–9.00 mg L{sup −1} (histamine); 0.10–9.36 mg L{sup -1} (tyramine); 0.09–8.64 mg L{sup −1} (tryptamine) and 0.10–8.64 mg L{sup −1} (phenethylamine), whereas accuracy was 97%–102% (recovery test). Detection limit of biogenic amines in wine samples was 0.02–0.03 mg L{sup −1}, whereas quantification limit ranged 0.05–0.10 mg L{sup −1}. The variation coefficients for the analyzed amines ranged between 0.49% and 3.92%. Obtained BA derivatives enhanced separation the analytes on chromatograms due to the inhibition of hydrolysis reaction and the reduction of by-products formation.

  3. Photodynamic activity of polycyclic hydrocarbon

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Epstein, S S

    1963-01-01

    Exposure of Paramecium caudatum to suspensions of 3,4-benzopyrene, followed by long wave ultraviolet irradiation, results in cell death at times related, inter alia, to carcinogen concentration. Prior to death, the cells exhibit progressive immobilization and blebbing. This photodynamic response is a sensitized photo-oxidation, as it is oxygen-dependent and inhibited by anti-oxidants, such as butylated hydroxy anisole and ..cap alpha..-tocopherol. Protection is also afforded by other agents, including Tweens, tryptophan and certain fractions of plasma proteins. No evidence was found for the involvement of peroxides or sulfhydryl groups. The correlations between photodynamic toxicity and carcinogenicity in a large series of polycyclic hydrocarbons is under investigation. Assays of air extracts for photodynamic toxicity are in progress. Significant toxicity has been found in oxygenated besides aromatic fractions.

  4. Distribution of hydrocarbon-utilizing microorganisms and hydrocarbon biodegradation potentials in Alaskan continental shelf areas

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Roubal, G.; Atlas, R.M.

    1978-01-01

    Hydrocarbon-utilizing microogranisms were enumerated from Alaskan continental shelf areas by using plate counts and a new most-probable-number procedure based on mineralization of 14 C-labeled hydrocarbons. Hydrocarbon utilizers were ubiquitously distributed, with no significant overall concentration differences between sampling regions or between surface water and sediment samples. There were, however, significant seasonal differences in numbers of hydrocarbon utilizers. Distribution of hydrocarbon utilizers within Cook Inlet was positively correlated with occurrence of hydrocarbons in the environment. Hydrocarbon biodegradation potentials were measured by using 14 C-radiolabeled hydrocarbon-spiked crude oil. There was no significant correlation between numbers of hydrocarbon utilizers and hydrocarbon biodegradation potentials. The biodegradation potentials showed large seasonal variations in the Beaufort Sea, probably due to seasonal depletion of available nutrients. Non-nutrient-limited biodegradation potentials followed the order hexadecane > naphthalene >> pristane > benzanthracene. In Cook Inlet, biodegradation potentials for hexadecane and naphthalene were dependent on availability of inorganic nutrients. Biodegradation potentials for pristane and benzanthracene were restricted, probably by resistance to attack by available enzymes in the indigenous population

  5. Ozone, OH and NO3 sink terms at a coniferous forest site in Central Germany: Role of biogenic VOCs

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bonn, B.; Bourtsoukidis, S.; Haunold, W.; Sitals, R.; Jacobi, S.

    2012-04-01

    Oxidation capacities of ecosystems are important to facilitate an ecosystem feedback on oxidation stress and in order to survive. We have conducted seasonal ambient measurements of a series of biogenic VOCs using a plant enclosure technique and determined the ambient levels of ozone, NOx as well as basic meteorological parameters at a managed spruce forest site in Central Germany (Mt. Kleiner Feldberg). The site is 810 m a.s.l. and faces distinct anthropogenic contributions from the Rhine-Main-area including the airport and major traffic routes in from the southeast. The opposite direction is moderately polluted and can be classified as Central German background condition. Since atmospheric chemistry and pollutants become very important especially for this site, which is the most polluted one in Germany with respect to ozone we approximated the sink terms for the atmospheric oxidation agents of interest at this site, i.e ozone, OH and NO3 using the measurements and box model steady state calculations for intermediate species not measured directly between the first of April and the start of November 2011. BVOC measurements were obtained with PTR-MS every 36 s and averaged for 30 min intervals afterwards to facilitate the inclusion of the monitoring data of the Hessian Agency for the Environment and Geology (HLUG) in Wiesbaden, Germany: temperature, humidity, global radiation, ozone and NOx. Analysis was performed with Matlab (Mathworks Inc.) and included the gas-phase chemistry set-up described by the Master Chemical Mechanism (MCM, v3, [1]). This resulted in the following outcome for sinks of oxidants: Ozone: Significant contributions were found for mono- and sesquiterpenes as well as for NOx. The individual contributions vary notably with the time of the day and the year and the emission strength of biogenic VOCs. Especially for the early season in April sesquiterpene reactions dominated the sink by up to 80% during nighttime, while NOx reactions dominated the

  6. Tropospheric chemistry of natural hydrocarbons, aldehydes, and peroxy radicals: Their connections to sulfuric acid production and climate effects

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gaffney, J.S.; Marley, N.A.

    1993-05-01

    Recent work has shown that natural hydrocarbon emissions can significantly affect the levels of urban and regional tropospheric ozone. We report on the reactivities of these biogenic trace gases, particularly isoprene, focusing on their importance in the production of aldehydes and peroxy radicals, leading to increased levels of hydrogen over regional forests. Hydrogen peroxide can lead to the wet oxidation of sulfur dioxide to acidic sulfate in aerosols, fogs, and clouds. In turn, acidic sulfate can act to as a light scattering aerosol and a source of cloud condensation nuclei (CCN), potentially leading to global cooling. Aerosol sulfate and other dissolved organic and inorganic compounds can also play important roles as a greenhouse species in the lower troposphere

  7. Early Post-Irradiation Changes in the Metabolism of Biogenic Amines; Les Changements Precoces du Metabolisme des Amines Biogenes apres Irradiation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Deanovic, Z [Institut Rudjer Boskovic, Zagreb, Yugoslavia (Croatia)

    1971-03-15

    There is accumulating evidence for the radiation-induced release of biogenic amines from their body stores. Having in mind the high patho-physiological activity of these ''local'' hormones and ''neuro-hormones'', it is reasonable to assume that they play an important role in the pathogenesis of the acute radiation syndrome. Under these pathological conditions the possible synergic and antagonistic effects of biogenic amines due to their complex interactions must be taken into consideration. The extent and dose-dependence of post-irradiation changes in the metabolism of histamine, serotonin, catecholamines and acetylcholine will be examined regarding particularly the search for biochemical indicators of radiation injury. The determination of bio-amines and their metabolites in urine seems to be a suitable method for following up those metabolic changes which could be of a biodosimetrical and/or prognostical value. Data published on this subject, obtained in experimental animals as well as in man, have been reviewed and the applicability of these tests is discussed. (author) [French] Des preuves se sont accumulees, qui demontrent que les amines biogenes sont liberees de leurs depots sous l'effet des rayonnements ionisants. Etant donne la grande activite pathophysiologique de ces hormones 'locales' et 'neurohormones', il est raisonnable de considerer que ces substances biogenes jouent un role important dans la pathogenese du syndrome aigu d'irradiation. Dans ces conditions pathologiques il faut tenir compte des effets synergiques et antagonistes des bio-amines, lies a des interactions compliquees. Les changements metaboliques en fonction de la dose recue font l'objet d'un examen qui englobe les alterations quantitatives de .'histamine, de la serotonine, des catecholamines et de l'acetylcholine et dont l'objectif est la recherche sur des indicateurs biochimiques de la lesion provoquee par l'irradiation. L'analyse des bio-amines et de leurs metabolites dans les urines

  8. Biogenic emissions of greenhouse gases caused by arable and animal agriculture. Task 3. Overall biogenic greenhouse gas emissions from agriculture. National Inventories

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hensen, A.

    1999-12-01

    The aim of the concerted action 'Biogenic Emissions of Greenhouse Gases Caused by Arable and Animal Agriculture' is to obtain an overview of the current knowledge on the emissions of greenhouse gases related to agricultural activities. This task 3 report summarises the activities that take place in the Netherlands with respect to agriculture emission inventories. This 'national' report was compiled using information from a number of Dutch groups. Therefore, from a national point of view the compilation does not contain new information. The paper can however be useful for other European partners to get an overview of how emission estimates are obtained in the Netherlands. 14 p

  9. High-temperature removal of sulphur for biogenic gas products; Hochtemperatur-Entschwefelung fuer biogene Produktgase. Design und Optimierung - Schlussbericht/Jahresbericht

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Schildhauer, T.; Biollaz, S.

    2009-12-15

    This final report for the Swiss Federal Office of Energy (SFOE) presents the results of a project concerning the development of basics ideas on the design and optimisation of high-temperature methods for the removal of sulphur from biogenic gas products. Tests made as part of the 'Methane from Wood' project at pilot installations in Switzerland and Austria are discussed. Low temperature and high-temperature methods are examined and discussed. A number of sulphur compounds were tested. Also, experiments made using nickel, HDS and CPO catalysers are discussed.

  10. Detection of irradiated meats by hydrocarbon method

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Goto, Michiko; Miyakawa, Hiroyuki; Fujinuma, Kenji; Ozawa, Hideki

    2005-01-01

    Meats, for example, lamb, razorback, wild duck and turkey were irradiated by gamma ray, and the amounts of hydrocarbons formed from fatty acids were measured. Since C 20:0 was found from wild duck and turkey. C 1-18:1 was recommended for internal standard. Good correlation was found between the amount of hydrocarbons and the doses of gamma irradiation. This study shows that such hydrocarbons induced after radiation procedure as C 1,7-16:2 , C 8-17:1 , C 1-14:1 , and C 15:0 may make it possible to detect irradiated lamb, razorback, wild duck and turkey. (author)

  11. Process for recovery of liquid hydrocarbons

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Millar, J.F.; Cockshott, J.E.

    1978-04-11

    Methane is recovered as a gas for discharge to a pipeline from a gas stream containing methane and heavier hydrocarbons, principally ethane and propane. Separation is accomplished by condensing the heavier hydrocarbons and distilling the methane therefrom. A liquid product (LPG) comprising the heavier hydrocarbons is subsequently recovered and transferred to storage. Prior to being discharged to a pipeline, the recovered methane gas is compressed and in undergoing compression the gas is heated. The heat content of the gas is employed to reboil the refrigerant in an absorption refrigeration unit. The refrigeration unit is used to cool the LPG prior to its storage.

  12. Method of recovering hydrocarbons from oil shale

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Walton, D.K.; Slusser, M.S.

    1970-11-24

    A method is described for recovering hydrocarbons from an oil-shale formation by in situ retorting. A well penetrating the formation is heated and gas is injected until a pressure buildup within the well is reached, due to a decrease in the conductivity of naturally occurring fissures within the formation. The well is then vented, in order to produce spalling of the walls. This results in the formation of an enlarged cavity containing rubberized oil shale. A hot gas then is passed through the rubberized oil shale in order to retort hydrocarbons and these hydrocarbons are recovered from the well. (11 claims)

  13. The offshore hydrocarbon releases (HCR) database

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bruce, R.A.P.

    1995-01-01

    Following Cullen Recommendation 39 which states that: ''The regulatory body should be responsible for maintaining a database with regard to hydrocarbon leaks, spills, and ignitions in the Industry and for the benefit of Industry'', HSE Offshore Safety Division (HSE-OSD) has now been operating the Hydrocarbon Releases (HCR) Database for approximately 3 years. This paper deals with the reporting of Offshore Hydrocarbon Releases, the setting up of the HCR Database, the collection of associated equipment population data, and the main features and benefits of the database, including discussion on the latest output information. (author)

  14. Waste Plastic Converting into Hydrocarbon Fuel Materials

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sarker, Moinuddin; Mamunor Rashid, Mohammad; Molla, Mohammad

    2010-09-15

    The increased demand and high prices for energy sources are driving efforts to convert organic compounds into useful hydrocarbon fuels. Although much of this work has focused on biomass, there are strong benefits to deriving fuels from waste plastic material. Natural State Research Inc. (NSR) has invented a simple and economically viable process to decompose the hydrocarbon polymers of waste plastic into the shorter chain hydrocarbon of liquid fuel (patent pending). The method and principle of the production / process will be discussed. Initial tests with several widely used polymers indicate a high potential for commercialization.

  15. Conversion of hydrocarbon oils into motor fuels

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1937-11-09

    The abstract describes a process for producing lower boiling hydrocarbon motor fuels with a starting material of wide boiling range composed primarily of hydrocarbon oils boiling substantially above the boiling range of the desired product. Separate catalytic and pyrolytic conversion zones are simultaneously maintained in an interdependent relationship. Higher boiling constituents are separated from residual constituents by fractionation while desirable reaction conditions are maintained. All or at least a portion of the products from the catalytic and pyrolytic conversion zones are blended to yield the desired lower boiling hydrocarbons or motor fuels.

  16. Biogenic precipitation of manganese oxides and enrichment of heavy metals at acidic soil pH

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mayanna, Sathish; Peacock, Caroline L.; Schäffner, Franziska; Grawunder, Anja; Merten, Dirk; Kothe, Erika; Büchel, Georg

    2014-05-01

    The precipitation of biogenic Mn oxides at acidic pH is rarely reported and poorly understood, compared to biogenic Mn oxide precipitation at near neutral conditions. Here we identified and investigated the precipitation of biogenic Mn oxides in acidic soil, and studied their role in the retention of heavy metals, at the former uranium mining site of Ronneburg, Germany. The site is characterized by acidic pH, low carbon content and high heavy metal loads including rare earth elements. Specifically, the Mn oxides were present in layers identified by detailed soil profiling and within these layers pH varied from 4.7 to 5.1, Eh varied from 640 to 660 mV and there were enriched total metal contents for Ba, Ni, Co, Cd and Zn in addition to high Mn levels. Using electron microprobe analysis, synchrotron X-ray diffraction and X-ray absorption spectroscopy, we identified poorly crystalline birnessite (δ-MnO2) as the dominant Mn oxide in the Mn layers, present as coatings covering and cementing quartz grains. With geochemical modelling we found that the environmental conditions at the site were not favourable for chemical oxidation of Mn(II), and thus we performed 16S rDNA sequencing to isolate the bacterial strains present in the Mn layers. Bacterial phyla present in the Mn layers belonged to Firmicutes, Actinobacteria and Proteobacteria, and from these phyla we isolated six strains of Mn(II) oxidizing bacteria and confirmed their ability to oxidise Mn(II) in the laboratory. The biogenic Mn oxide layers act as a sink for metals and the bioavailability of these metals was much lower in the Mn layers than in adjacent layers, reflecting their preferential sorption to the biogenic Mn oxide. In this presentation we will report our findings, concluding that the formation of natural biogenic poorly crystalline birnessite can occur at acidic pH, resulting in the formation of a biogeochemical barrier which, in turn, can control the mobility and bioavailability of heavy metals in

  17. Uncertainty in biogenic isoprene emissions and its impacts on tropospheric chemistry in East Asia

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Han, K.M.; Park, R.S. [School of Environmental Science and Engineering, Gwangju Institute of Science and Technology (GIST), Gwangju, 500-712 (Korea, Republic of); Advanced Environmental Monitoring Research Center (ADEMRC), Gwangju Institute of Science and Technology (GIST), Gwangju, 500-712 (Korea, Republic of); Kim, H.K.; Woo, J.H. [Department of Advanced Technology Fusion, Konkuk University, 1 Hwayang dong, Gwangjin-gu, Seoul, 143-701 (Korea, Republic of); Kim, J. [Department of Atmospheric Sciences, Yonsei University, 134 Sinchon-dong, Seodaemoon-gu, Seoul, 120-749 (Korea, Republic of); Song, C.H., E-mail: chsong@gist.ac.kr [School of Environmental Science and Engineering, Gwangju Institute of Science and Technology (GIST), Gwangju, 500-712 (Korea, Republic of); Advanced Environmental Monitoring Research Center (ADEMRC), Gwangju Institute of Science and Technology (GIST), Gwangju, 500-712 (Korea, Republic of)

    2013-10-01

    In this study, the accuracy of biogenic isoprene emission fluxes over East Asia during two summer months (July and August) was examined by comparing two tropospheric HCHO columns (Ω{sub HCHO}) obtained from the SCIAMACHY sensor and the Community Multi-scale Air Quality (CMAQ v4.7.1) model simulations, using three available biogenic isoprene emission inventories over East Asia: i) GEIA, ii) MEGAN and iii) MOHYCAN. From this comparative analysis, the tropospheric HCHO columns from the CMAQ model simulations, using the MEGAN and MOHYCAN emission inventories (Ω{sub CMAQ,} {sub MEGAN} and Ω{sub CMAQ,} {sub MOHYCAN}), were found to agree well with the tropospheric HCHO columns from the SCIAMACHY observations (Ω{sub SCIA}). Secondly, the propagation of such uncertainties in the biogenic isoprene emission fluxes to the levels of atmospheric oxidants (e.g., OH and HO{sub 2}) and other atmospheric gaseous/particulate species over East Asia during the two summer months was also investigated. As the biogenic isoprene emission fluxes decreased from the GEIA to the MEGAN emission inventories, the levels of OH radicals increased by factors of 1.39 and 1.75 over Central East China (CEC) and South China, respectively. Such increases in the OH radical mixing ratios subsequently influence the partitioning of HO{sub y} species. For example, the HO{sub 2}/OH ratios from the CMAQ model simulations with GEIA isoprene emissions were 2.7 times larger than those from the CMAQ model simulations based on MEGAN isoprene emissions. The large HO{sub 2}/OH ratios from the CMAQ model simulations with the GEIA biogenic emission were possibly due to the overestimation of GEIA biogenic isoprene emissions over East Asia. It was also shown that such large changes in HO{sub x} radicals created large differences on other tropospheric compounds (e.g., NO{sub y} chemistry) over East Asia during the summer months. - Highlights: • GEIA isoprene emissions were possibly overestimated over East Asia.

  18. Uncertainty in biogenic isoprene emissions and its impacts on tropospheric chemistry in East Asia

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Han, K.M.; Park, R.S.; Kim, H.K.; Woo, J.H.; Kim, J.; Song, C.H.

    2013-01-01

    In this study, the accuracy of biogenic isoprene emission fluxes over East Asia during two summer months (July and August) was examined by comparing two tropospheric HCHO columns (Ω HCHO ) obtained from the SCIAMACHY sensor and the Community Multi-scale Air Quality (CMAQ v4.7.1) model simulations, using three available biogenic isoprene emission inventories over East Asia: i) GEIA, ii) MEGAN and iii) MOHYCAN. From this comparative analysis, the tropospheric HCHO columns from the CMAQ model simulations, using the MEGAN and MOHYCAN emission inventories (Ω CMAQ, MEGAN and Ω CMAQ, MOHYCAN ), were found to agree well with the tropospheric HCHO columns from the SCIAMACHY observations (Ω SCIA ). Secondly, the propagation of such uncertainties in the biogenic isoprene emission fluxes to the levels of atmospheric oxidants (e.g., OH and HO 2 ) and other atmospheric gaseous/particulate species over East Asia during the two summer months was also investigated. As the biogenic isoprene emission fluxes decreased from the GEIA to the MEGAN emission inventories, the levels of OH radicals increased by factors of 1.39 and 1.75 over Central East China (CEC) and South China, respectively. Such increases in the OH radical mixing ratios subsequently influence the partitioning of HO y species. For example, the HO 2 /OH ratios from the CMAQ model simulations with GEIA isoprene emissions were 2.7 times larger than those from the CMAQ model simulations based on MEGAN isoprene emissions. The large HO 2 /OH ratios from the CMAQ model simulations with the GEIA biogenic emission were possibly due to the overestimation of GEIA biogenic isoprene emissions over East Asia. It was also shown that such large changes in HO x radicals created large differences on other tropospheric compounds (e.g., NO y chemistry) over East Asia during the summer months. - Highlights: • GEIA isoprene emissions were possibly overestimated over East Asia. • Using MEGAN or MOHYCAN emissions in CMAQ well captured

  19. Quantification of Biogenic Magnetite by Synchrotron X-ray Microscopy During the PETM

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, H.; Wang, J.; Kent, D. V.; Chen-Wiegart, Y. C. K.

    2014-12-01

    Exceptionally large biogenic magnetite crystals, including spearhead-like and spindle-like ones up to 4 microns, have been reported in clay-rich sediments recording the ~56 Ma Paleocene-Eocene thermal maximum (PETM) and carbon isotope excursion (CIE) in a borehole at Ancora, NJ and along with magnetotactic bacteria (MTB) chains, were suggested [Schumann et al. 2008 PNAS; Kopp et al. 2009 Paleoceanography] to account for the distinctive single domain (SD) rock magnetic properties of these sediments [Lanci et al. 2002 JGR]. However, because uncalibrated magnetic extraction techniques were used to provide material for TEM imaging of the biogenic magnetite, it is difficult to quantitatively analyze their concentration in the bulk clay. In this study, we use a synchrotron transmission X-ray microscope to image bulk CIE clay. We first take mosaic images of sub-millimeter-sized bulk clay samples, in which we can identify many of the various types of giant biogenic magnetite crystals, as well as several other types of iron minerals, such as pyrite framboids, siderite, and detrital magnetite. However, limited by the instrument resolution (~50 nm), we are not able to identify MTB chains let alone isolated magnetic nanoparticles that may be abundant the clay. To quantitatively estimate the concentration of the giant biogenic magnetite, we re-deposited the bulk clay sample in an alcohol solution on a silicon nitride membrane for 2D X-ray scans. After scanning a total area of 0.55 mm2 with average clay thickness of 4 μm, we identified ~40 spearheads, ~5 spindles and a few elongated rods and estimated their total magnetization as SD particles to be less than about 10% of the mass normalized clay for the scanned area. This result suggests that the giant biogenic magnetite is not a major source of the SD signal for the clay and is in good agreement with rock magnetic analyses using high-resolution first-order reversal curves and thermal fluctuation tomography on bulk CIE clay

  20. Patterns and sources of particle-phase aliphatic and polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons in urban and rural sites of western Greece

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kalaitzoglou, Maria; Terzi, Eleni; Samara, Constantini

    Particle-bound aliphatic and polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (AHs and PAHs, respectively) were determined in the ambient air of the Eordea basin, in western Greece, where intensive coal burning for power generation takes place. Thirteen PAHs, n-alkanes (C 14-C 35), hopanes, and isoprenoid hydrocarbons (pristane and phytane) were determined in the total suspended particles collected from the atmosphere of four sites within the basin receiving potential impacts from various sources, such as fly ash, coal mining, automobile traffic, domestic heating, and agricultural or refuse burning. The same organic species were also determined in the fly ash generated in power stations, and in particulate emissions from open burning of biomass (dry corn leaves) and refuse burning. Organic particle sources were resolved using concentration diagnostic ratios and factor analysis (FA). A multivariate statistical receptor model (Absolute Principal Component Analysis, APCA) was finally employed to estimate the contribution of identified sources to the measured concentrations of organic pollutants. Four major sources for ambient PAHs and AHs were identified displaying variable contribution in different sites: (a) fossil fuel combustion, (b) biogenic emissions, (c) refuse burning, and (d) oil residues. Fuel combustion was the major source of ambient PAHs and an important source of n-alkanes in the range C 21-C 28. Oil residues were found to be the major source of low molecular weight n-alkanes (particularly the C 14-C 16), and an important source of pristane, phytane and UCM. Biogenic sources were primarily responsible for the high molecular weight n-alkanes explaining almost the entire concentration levels of homologues >C 32. Biomass burning was particularly important for the C 23-C 26n-alkanes. Despite the vicinity of certain sampling sites to power stations, coal fly ash was not identifiable as a source for ambient PAHs and AHs.

  1. Monitoring of Hydrocarbons in Sediment and Biota Related to Oil and Gas Development in Near- and Off-Shore Areas of the Arctic Beaufort Sea, Alaska

    Science.gov (United States)

    Durell, G.; Hardin, J.; Libby, S.

    2016-02-01

    There is increasing interest in extracting oil and gas from offshore environments of Alaska. The Arctic Nearshore Impact Monitoring in Development Area (ANIMIDA) project, started in 1999, has been producing information to evaluate potential effects of oil and gas activities in the Alaskan Beaufort Sea. ANIMIDA was preceded by the Beaufort Sea Monitoring Program. Monitoring has mostly been in pre-drilling locations, but also during development and production periods. Surveys were conducted to assess bottom sediment, sediment cores, suspended sediment, and biota for polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAH), saturated hydrocarbons, biological and petroleum markers, and geophysical parameters. The concentrations measured in sediments and biota were at or near background throughout most of the Beaufort Sea. There were no significant differences between exploration, production, and background locations, and the concentrations were consistently below those of ecological concern. For instance, TPAH in sediment ranged from below 100 to about 1,000 µg/kg and were controlled primarily by sediment characteristics (e.g., grain size and organic carbon). Hydrocarbons in sediments were from petrogenic, pyrogenic, and biogenic sources. Small areas with indications of input of anthropogenic chemicals were identified by sensitive diagnostic analysis techniques and are possibly associated with historic exploratory drilling and vessels. Sediment cores indicate a uniform historical deposition of hydrocarbons, although some evidence of past drilling activities were observed. Fish, amphipods, and clams contained background levels of hydrocarbons and showed no evidence of effects from accumulation of contaminants; TPAH concentrations were below 100 µg/kg in most biota. Noteworthy interannual fluctuations were observed for PAH concentrations in sediment and biota, likely due to winnowing of sediment fines by large storms and annual variations in river discharges. Significant natural sources

  2. Datasets used in the manuscript titled "Nitrate radicals and biogenic volatile organic compounds: oxidation, mechanisms and organic aerosol"

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Environmental Protection Agency — This dataset documents that all of the data used in the manuscript "Nitrate radicals and biogenic volatile organic compounds: oxidation, mechanisms, and organic...

  3. The role of biogenic structures on the biogeochemical functioning of mangrove constructed wetlands sediments - A mesocosm approach

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Penha-Lopes, Gil; Kristensen, Erik; Flindt, Mogens; Mangion, Perrine; Bouillon, Steven; Paula, Jose

    2010-01-01

    Benthic metabolism (measured as CO 2 production) and carbon oxidation pathways were evaluated in 4 mangrove mesocosms subjected daily to seawater or 60% sewage in the absence or presence of mangrove trees and biogenic structures (pneumatophores and crab burrows). Total CO 2 emission from darkened sediments devoid of biogenic structures at pristine conditions was comparable during inundation (immersion) and air exposure (emersion), although increased 2-7 times in sewage contaminated mesocosms. Biogenic structures increased low tide carbon gas emissions at contaminated (30%) and particularly pristine conditions (60%). When sewage was loaded into the mesocosms under unvegetated and planted conditions, iron reduction was substituted by sulfate reduction and contribution of aerobic respiration to total metabolism remained above 50%. Our results clearly show impacts of sewage on the partitioning of electron acceptors in mangrove sediment and confirm the importance of biogenic structures for biogeochemical functioning but also on greenhouse gases emission.

  4. EARTH, WIND AND FIRE: BUILDING METEOROLOGICALLY-SENSITIVE BIOGENIC AND WILDLAND FIRE EMISSION ESTIMATES FOR AIR QUALITY MODELS

    Science.gov (United States)

    Emission estimates are important for ensuring the accuracy of atmospheric chemical transport models. Estimates of biogenic and wildland fire emissions, because of their sensitivity to meteorological conditions, need to be carefully constructed and closely linked with a meteorolo...

  5. Photochemically consumed hydrocarbons and their relationship with ozone formation in two megacities of China

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chang, C.; Wang, J.; Liu, S.; Shao, M.; Zhang, Y.; Zhu, T.; Shiu, C.; Lai, C.

    2010-12-01

    Two on-site continuous measurements of ozone and its precursors in two megacities of China were carried out in an urban site of Beijing and a suburban site near Guangzhou in the Pearl River Delta (PRD) to estimate precursor consumption and to assess its relationship with oxidant (O3+NO2) formation level. An observation-based method (OBM) with the precursor consumption concept was adopted to assess the relationship between oxidant production and amounts of photochemically consumed non-methane hydrocarbons (NMHCs). In this approach, the ratio of ethylbenzene to m,p-xylenes was used to estimate the degree of photochemical processing, as well as the amounts of photochemically consumed NMHCs by reacting with OH. By trying to correlate the observed oxidant with the observed NMHC concentration, the two areas both revealed nearly no to low correlation between them. However, it existed fair to good correlations (R2=0.68 for Beijing, 0.53 for PRD) between the observed oxidant level and the degree of photochemical processing (ethylbenzene/m,p-xylenes). Furthermore, after taking the approach of consumption to estimate the consumed amounts of NMHCs, an interesting finding reveals that the definite correlation existed between the observed oxidant level and the total consumed NMHCs. The good correlations (R2=0.83 for Beijing, 0.81 for PRD) implies that the ambient oxidant level correlated to the amount of consumed NMHCs. The results of the two megacities in China by using the OBM with the precursor consumption concept can provide another pathway to explore the relationship between photochemically produced oxidant and consumed precursors, and will be helpful to validate model results and to reduce uncertainty of model predictions. However, the method has some room for uncertainty, as injection of fresh precursor emissions and additional boundary ozone involved, etc. could affect the estimation of consumed NMHCs and observed oxidant levels. Assistance of approaches in assessing the

  6. Radiolysis of hydrocarbons in liquid phase (Modern state of problem)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Saraeva, V.V.

    1986-01-01

    Problems of ionizing radiation effect on hydrocarbons and hydrocarbon systems in a liquid phase are considered. Modern representations on the mechanism of hydrocarbon radiolysis are presented. Electron moderation and ion-electron pair formation, behaviour of charged particles, excited states, radical formation and their reactions are discussed. Behaviour of certain hydrocarbon classes: alkanes, cyclic hydrocarbons, olefines, aromatic hydrocarbons as well as different hydrocarbon mixtures is considered in detail. Radiation-chemical changes in organic coolants and ways of increasing radiation resistance are considered. Polyphenyl compounds are noted to be most perspective here

  7. Method for the conversion of hydrocarbon charges

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Whittam, T V

    1976-11-11

    The basis of the invention is the application of defined zeolites as catalysts to hydrocarbon conversion processes such as reformation, isomerization, dehydrocyclization, and cracking. By charging the zeolite carrier masses with 0.001 to 5% metal of the 8th group of the periodic system, preferably noble metals, a wide region of applications for the catalysts is achieved. A method for the isomerization of an alkyl benzene (or mixture of alkyl benzenes) in the liquid or gas phase under suitable temperature, pressure and flow-rate conditions, as well as in the presence of a cyclic hydrocarbon, is described as preferential model form of the invention; furthermore, a method for the reformation of a hydrocarbon fraction boiling in the gasoline or benzene boiling region and a method for the hydrocracking of hydrocarbon charge (e.g. naphtha, kerosine, gas oils) are given. Types of performance of the methods are explained using various examples.

  8. Using microorganisms to aid in hydrocarbon degradation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Black, W.; Zamora, J.

    1993-01-01

    Aliphatic hydrocarbons are threatening the potable water supply and the aquatic ecosystem. Given the right microbial inhabitant(s), a large portion of these aliphatic hydrocarbons could be biodegraded before reaching the water supply. The authors' purpose is to isolate possible oil-degrading organisms. Soil samples were taken from hydrocarbon-laden soils at petroleum terminals, a petroleum refinery waste-treatment facility, a sewage-treatment plant grease collector, a site of previous bioremediation, and various other places. Some isolates known to be good degraders were obtained from culture collection services. These samples were plated on a 10w-30 multigrade motor oil solid medium to screen for aliphatic hydrocarbon degraders. The degrading organisms were isolated, identified, and tested (CO 2 evolution, BOD, and COD) to determine the most efficient degrader(s). Thirty-seven organisms were tested, and the most efficient degraders were Serratia marcescens, Escherichia coli, and Enterobacter agglomerans

  9. Volatilisation of aromatic hydrocarbons from soil

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lindhardt, B.; Christensen, T.H.

    1996-01-01

    The non-steady-state fluxes of aromatic hydrocarbons were measured in the laboratory from the surface of soils contaminated with coal tar Four soil samples from a former gasworks site were used for the experiments. The fluxes were quantified for 11 selected compounds, 4 mono- and 7 polycyclic...... aromatic hydrocarbons, for a period of up to 8 or 16 days. The concentrations of the selected compounds in the soils were between 0.2 and 3,100 mu g/g. The study included the experimental determination of the distribution coefficient of the aromatic hydrocarbons between the sorbed phase and the water under...... saturated conditions. The determined distribution coefficients showed that the aromatic hydrocarbons were more strongly sorbed to the total organic carbon including the coal tar pitch - by a factor of 8 to 25 - than expected for natural organic matter. The fluxes were also estimated using an analytical...

  10. Recovering low-boiling hydrocarbons, etc

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pier, M

    1934-10-03

    A process is described for the recovery of low-boiling hydrocarbons of the nature of benzine through treatment of liquid carbonaceous materials with hydrogen under pressure at raised temperature, suitably in the presence of catalysts. Middle oils (practically saturated with hydrogen) or higher boiling oils at a temperature above 500/sup 0/ (with or without the addition of hydrogen) containing cyclic hydrocarbons not saturated with hydrogen are changed into low boiling hydrocarbons of the nature of benzine. The cracking takes place under strongly hydrogenating conditions (with the use of a strongly active hydrogenating catalyst or high pressure) at temperatures below 500/sup 0/. If necessary, the constituents boiling below 200/sup 0/ can be reconverted into cyclic hydrocarbons partially saturated with hydrogen. (BLM)

  11. Determination of polynuclear aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) in ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    AJB SERVER

    2006-11-02

    Nov 2, 2006 ... Several water bodies in the Niger Delta region of Nigeria where extensive crude oil ..... hydrocarbons (PAHs) in fish from the Red Sea Coast of Yemem. ... smoked meat products and smoke flavouring food additives. J.

  12. Population dynamics and distribution of hydrocarbon utilizing ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Bacillus species was found to be present in all the soil samples analysed ... The presence of these organisms in soils contaminated with spent and unspent lubricating oil ... hydrocarbon utilizing bacteria, bioremediation, enrichment medium,

  13. Collision data involving hydro-carbon molecules

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tawara, H.; Itikawa, Y.; Nishimura, H.; Tanaka, H.; Nakamura, Y.

    1990-07-01

    Hydro-carbon molecules are abundantly produced when graphites are used as internal wall materials of hydrogen plasmas and strongly influence properties of low temperature plasmas near the edges as well as those of high temperature plasmas at the center. In this report, following simple description of the production mechanisms of hydro-carbon molecules under the interactions between graphite and hydrogen plasma, the present status of collision data for hydro-carbon molecules by electron impact is discussed and the relevant data are summarized in a series of figures and tables. It should also be noted that, in addition to fusion plasmas, these hydrocarbon data compiled here are quite useful in other applications such as plasma chemistry and material processing. (author)

  14. Biogenic carbon in combustible waste: Waste composition, variability and measurement uncertainty

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Larsen, Anna Warberg; Fuglsang, Karsten; Pedersen, Niels H.

    2013-01-01

    described in the literature. This study addressed the variability of biogenic and fossil carbon in combustible waste received at a municipal solid waste incinerator. Two approaches were compared: (1) radiocarbon dating (14C analysis) of carbon dioxide sampled from the flue gas, and (2) mass and energy......, the measurement uncertainties related to the two approaches were determined. Two flue gas sampling campaigns at a full-scale waste incinerator were included: one during normal operation and one with controlled waste input. Estimation of carbon contents in the main waste types received was included. Both the 14C...... method and the balance method represented promising methods able to provide good quality data for the ratio between biogenic and fossil carbon in waste. The relative uncertainty in the individual experiments was 7–10% (95% confidence interval) for the 14C method and slightly lower for the balance method....

  15. Development and Characterization of Sr-Containing Glass-Ceramic Composites Based on Biogenic Hydroxyapatite

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kuda, Oleksii; Pinchuk, Nataliia; Bykov, Oleksandr; Tomila, Tamara; Olifan, Olena; Golovkova, Maryna

    2018-05-01

    Composite materials based on hydroxyapatite are widely used for bone tissue engineering. There is evidence of a positive effect of the presence of strontium in osteoplastic materials in the case of a Ca/Sr certain ratio. To examine the effect of the addition of Sr2+, a study was made by introducing it into the material composition based on biogenic hydroxyapatite and sodium borosilicate glass (50/50% wt.). The strontium was introduced into the composition in an amount of 1% wt. Composite materials were obtained at final sintering temperatures of 780 °C and a sintering time of 1 h. The effect of additions of glass phase and strontium affect changes in the crystal lattice of biogenic hydroxyapatite was investigated with the help of X-ray phase analysis, IR spectroscopy. Also the behavior of composites in vitro in physiological solution was studied.

  16. Biogenic Amines as Quality Marker in Organic and Fair-Trade Cocoa-Based Products

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Donatella Restuccia

    2016-08-01

    Full Text Available In this study, the quantitative determination of eight biogenic amines (cadaverine, serotonin, histamine, spermidine, spermine, tyramine, putrescine and β-phenylethylamine by an liquid chromatography method with evaporative light scattering detection was performed. The analysis of several samples of conventional, organic and fair trade cocoa-derivatives showed that organic and fair trade samples always contain much lower amine concentrations in comparison with their conventional counterparts, supporting the idea that biogenic amines can be regarded as cocoa quality markers. Irrespective of the kind of sample, results also showed that the most abundant amines were histamine, tyramine, spermidine, putrescine and spermine while β-phenylethylamine, cadaverine and serotonine have been found more rarely, all the amines never reaching dangerous amounts for consumer health. With the aim to confirm the experimental results, clustering analysis was performed on samples and instrumental results using principal component analysis.

  17. Magnetic particles-based biosensor for biogenic amines using an optical oxygen sensor as a transducer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pospiskova, K.; Sebela, M.; Safarik, I.; Kuncova, G.

    2013-01-01

    We have developed a fibre optic biosensor with incorporated magnetic microparticles for the determination of biogenic amines. The enzyme diamine oxidase from Pisum sativum was immobilized either on chitosan-coated magnetic microparticles or on commercial microbeads modified with a ferrofluid. Both the immobilized enzyme and the ruthenium complex were incorporated into a UV-cured inorganic-organic polymer composite and deposited on a lens that was connected, by optical fibres, to an electro-optical detector. The enzyme catalyzes the oxidation of amines under consumption of oxygen. The latter was determined by measuring the quenched fluorescence lifetime of the ruthenium complex. The limits of detection for the biogenic amines putrescine and cadaverine are 25-30 μmol L -1 , and responses are linear up to a concentration of 1 mmol L -1 . (author)

  18. A web accessible resource for investigating cassava phenomics and genomics information: BIOGEN BASE.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jayakodi, Murukarthick; Selvan, Sreedevi Ghokhilamani; Natesan, Senthil; Muthurajan, Raveendran; Duraisamy, Raghu; Ramineni, Jana Jeevan; Rathinasamy, Sakthi Ambothi; Karuppusamy, Nageswari; Lakshmanan, Pugalenthi; Chokkappan, Mohan

    2011-01-01

    The goal of our research is to establish a unique portal to bring out the potential outcome of the research in the Casssava crop. The Biogen base for cassava clearly brings out the variations of different traits of the germplasms, maintained at the Tapioca and Castor Research Station, Tamil Nadu Agricultural University. Phenotypic and genotypic variations of the accessions are clearly depicted, for the users to browse and interpret the variations using the microsatellite markers. Database (BIOGEN BASE - CASSAVA) is designed using PHP and MySQL and is equipped with extensive search options. It is more user-friendly and made publicly available, to improve the research and development of cassava by making a wealth of genetics and genomics data available through open, common, and worldwide forum for all individuals interested in the field. The database is available for free at http://www.tnaugenomics.com/biogenbase/casava.php.

  19. [Distribution of biogenic amines in the hippocampal formation in the rabbit].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Budantsev, A Iu; Gur'ianova, A D

    1975-06-01

    The hippocampal formation (the hippocampus and the dentate fascia) of the rabbit was studied by histochemical fluorescent method of Falk to determine localization of monoaminergic terminals containing biogenic amines: noradrenalin, dophamine and serotonin. It was shown that monoaminenergic terminals in the hippocampus were in two zones of afferent terminations: in the zone of ending of the perforating way (str. lacunosum-moleculare of fields CA1 and CA2; str. moleculare of the dentate fascia) and in the subgranular zone of the hilum where a part of septofimbrial way terminated on granular neurons of the dentate fascia, the main cellular elements of the hipocampus (pyramidal, granular and basket cells of the hippocampus) did not contain biogenic amines.

  20. Zeolitic catalytic conversion of alcohols to hydrocarbons

    Science.gov (United States)

    Narula, Chaitanya K.; Davison, Brian H.; Keller, Martin

    2018-04-10

    A method for converting an alcohol to a hydrocarbon, the method comprising contacting said alcohol with a metal-loaded zeolite catalyst at a temperature of at least 100.degree. C. and up to 550.degree. C., wherein said alcohol can be produced by a fermentation process, said metal is a positively-charged metal ion, and said metal-loaded zeolite catalyst is catalytically active for converting said alcohol to said hydrocarbon.

  1. Formation of hydrocarbons by bacteria and algae

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tornabene, T.G.

    1980-12-01

    A literature review has been performed summarizing studies on hydrocarbon synthesis by microorganisms. Certain algal and bacterial species produce hydrocarbons in large quantities, 70 to 80% of dry cell mass, when in a controlled environment. The nutritional requirements of these organisms are simple: CO/sub 2/ and mineral salts. The studies were initiated to determine whether or not microorganisms played a role in petroleum formation. 90 references. (DMC)

  2. Nitrocarburizing in ammonia-hydrocarbon gas mixtures

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pedersen, Hanne; Christiansen, Thomas; Somers, Marcel A. J.

    2011-01-01

    The present work investigates the possibility of nitrocarburising in ammonia-acetylene-hydrogen and ammonia-propene-hydrogen gas mixtures, where unsaturated hydrocarbon gas is the carbon source during nitrocarburising. Consequently, nitrocarburising is carried out in a reducing atmosphere...... microscopy and X-ray diffraction analysis. It is shown that the use of unsaturated hydrocarbon gas in nitrocarburising processes is a viable alternative to traditional nitrocarburising methods....

  3. Nitrocarburising in ammonia-hydrocarbon gas mixtures

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pedersen, Hanne; Christiansen, Thomas; Somers, Marcel A. J.

    2010-01-01

    The present work investigates the possibility of nitrocarburising in ammonia-acetylene-hydrogen and ammoniapropene- hydrogen gas mixtures, where unsaturated hydrocarbon gas is the carbon source during nitrocarburising. Consequently, nitrocarburising is carried out in a reducing atmosphere...... microscopy and X-ray diffraction analysis. It is shown that the use of unsaturated hydrocarbon gas in nitrocarburising processes is a viable alternative to traditional nitrocarburising methods....

  4. The future of oil and hydrocarbon man

    CERN Document Server

    Campbell, Colin

    1999-01-01

    Man appeared on the planet about four million years ago, and by 1850 numbered about one billion Ten came Hydrocarbon man. World population has since increased six-fold. After the oil price shocks of the 1970s, people asked "when will production peak?". It is not easy to answer this question because of the very poor database. Reserves and the many different hydrocarbon categories are poorly defined, reporting practices are ambiguous, revisions are not backdated...

  5. Zeolitic catalytic conversion of alochols to hydrocarbons

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Narula, Chaitanya K.; Davison, Brian H.; Keller, Martin

    2017-01-03

    A method for converting an alcohol to a hydrocarbon, the method comprising contacting said alcohol with a metal-loaded zeolite catalyst at a temperature of at least 100.degree. C. and up to 550.degree. C., wherein said alcohol can be produced by a fermentation process, said metal is a positively-charged metal ion, and said metal-loaded zeolite catalyst is catalytically active for converting said alcohol to said hydrocarbon.

  6. Birds and polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons

    Science.gov (United States)

    Albers, P.H.

    2006-01-01

    Polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAH) are present throughout the global environment and are produced naturally and by activities of humans. Effects of PAH on birds have been determined by studies employing egg injection, egg immersion, egg shell application, single and multiple oral doses, subcutaneous injection, and chemical analysis of field-collected eggs and tissue. The four-to six-ring aromatic compounds are the most toxic to embryos, young birds, and adult birds. For embryos, effects include death, developmental abnormalities, and a variety of cellular and biochemical responses. For adult and young birds, effects include reduced egg production and hatching, increased clutch or brood abandonment, reduced growth, increased organweights, and a variety of biochemical responses. Trophic level accumulation is unlikely. Environmental exposure to PAH in areas of high human population or habitats affected by recent petroleum spills might be sufficient to adversely affect reproduction. Evidence of long-term effects of elevated concentrations of environmental PAH on bird populations is very limited and the mechanisms of effect are unclear.

  7. PROTONATED POLYCYCLIC AROMATIC HYDROCARBONS REVISITED

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ricca, Alessandra; Bauschlicher, Charles W. Jr; Allamandola, Louis J.

    2011-01-01

    We reconsider the contribution that singly protonated polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs; HPAH + s) might make to the Class A component of the 6.2 μm interstellar emission feature in light of the recent experimental measurements of protonated naphthalene and coronene. Our calculations on the small HPAH + s have a band near 6.2 μm, as found in experiment. While the larger HPAH + s still have emission near 6.2 μm, the much larger intensity of the band near 6.3 μm overwhelms the weaker band at 6.2 μm, so that the 6.2 μm band is barely visible. Since the large PAHs are more representative of those in the interstellar medium, our work suggests that large HPAH + s cannot be major contributors to the observed emission at 6.2 μm (i.e., Class A species). Saturating large PAH cations with hydrogen atoms retains the 6.2 μm Class A band position, but the rest of the spectrum is inconsistent with observed spectra.

  8. Polycyclic hydrocarbons - occurrence and determination

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Drzewicz, P.

    2007-01-01

    Polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) are a special group of atmospheric contaminants included in the persistent toxic substances (PTS) and also in the volatile organic compounds (VOC) groups. PAHs are present in the atmosphere and their origin can be due to anthropogenic activities. The main source of emission of PAH is the combustion of fossil fuels. Their specific characteristics, high volatility, mutagenic and carcinogenic power, easily transportable for long distances with the wind, make them important contaminants despite of the fact that they are present at very low concentrations. The report provides a review of main analytical methods applied in the determination of PAH in air. Special attention was devoted to heterocyclic PAH which contain one or more heteroatom (sulphur, oxygen, nitrogen) in the multiple-fused ring. The presence of heterocyclic PAH requires very complex, laborious and long lasting sample separation methods before analysis. In some cases, application of different temperature programs in gas chromatography allows to determine PAH and heterocyclic PAH in gaseous samples without sample pretreatment. Gas chromatography methods for the determination of PAH and heterocyclic PAH in the gas from combustion of light heating oil has been optimized. (author) [pl

  9. Dewaxing hydrocarbon oils. [British patent

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1933-06-23

    In dewaxing hydrocarbon oils such as residium stocks, overhead distillates and crude petroleum or shale oils, by admixing with a liquefied normally gaseous solvent, such as liquefied propane, and cooling to crystallize the wax, the rate of crystallization diminishes rapidly when a certain temperature in an example about 20/sup 0/F is reached. The diminution is prevented during further cooling by removing solvent by evaporation at such a rate that the proporation of solvent in the oil solvent component is maintained at about that existing at the temperature at which the alteration in the rate of crystallization takes place. The evaporation is effected by adjusting the pressure on the mixture, preferably in stages. Solvents for coloring matters and asphaltic compounds, such as carbon disulfide sulfur dioxide, methyl chloride or butyl alcohol may be added to the mixture before crystallization. Chilled solvent may be added to the chilled mixture before separation of the wax in a centrifuge, in order to increase the difference in specific gravity between the wax and the oil-solvent component.

  10. Methyl chavicol: characterization of its biogenic emission rate, abundance, and oxidation products in the atmosphere

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    N. C. Bouvier-Brown

    2009-03-01

    Full Text Available We report measurements of ambient atmospheric mixing ratios for methyl chavicol and determine its biogenic emission rate. Methyl chavicol, a biogenic oxygenated aromatic compound, is abundant within and above Blodgett Forest, a ponderosa pine forest in the Sierra Nevada Mountains of California. Methyl chavicol was detected simultaneously by three in-situ instruments – a gas chromatograph with mass spectrometer detector (GC-MS, a proton transfer reaction mass spectrometer (PTR-MS, and a thermal desorption aerosol GC-MS (TAG – and found to be abundant within and above Blodgett Forest. Methyl chavicol atmospheric mixing ratios are strongly correlated with 2-methyl-3-buten-2-ol (MBO, a light- and temperature-dependent biogenic emission from the ponderosa pine trees at Blodgett Forest. Scaling from this correlation, methyl chavicol emissions account for 4–68% of the carbon mass emitted as MBO in the daytime, depending on the season. From this relationship, we estimate a daytime basal emission rate of 0.72–10.2 μgCg−1 h−1, depending on needle age and seasonality. We also present the first observations of its oxidation products (4-methoxybenzaldehyde and 4-methyoxy benzene acetaldehyde in the ambient atmosphere. Methyl chavicol is a major essential oil component of many plant species. This work suggests that methyl chavicol plays a significant role in the atmospheric chemistry of Blodgett Forest, and potentially other sites, and should be included explicitly in both biogenic volatile organic carbon emission and atmospheric chemistry models.

  11. Biogenic Properties of Deep Waters from the Black Sea Reduction (Hydrogen Sulphide) Zone for Marine Algae

    OpenAIRE

    Polikarpov, Gennady G.; Lazorenko, Galina Е.; Тereschenko, Natalya N.

    2015-01-01

    Abstract Generalized data of biogenic properties investigations of the Black Sea deep waters from its reduction zone for marine algae are presented. It is shown on board and in laboratory that after pre-oxidation of hydrogen sulphide by intensive aeration of the deep waters lifted to the surface of the sea, they are ready to be used for cultivation of the Black Sea unicellular, planktonic, and multicellular, benthic, algae instead of artificial medium. Naturally balanced micro- and macroeleme...

  12. Significance of Future Biogenic and Fire Emissions on Regional Aerosol Burden

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lim, A.; Tai, A. P. K.; Val Martin, M.

    2017-12-01

    Land-use and land cover changes have been found to substantially affect atmospheric aerosols and climate worldwide1,2, but the complex mechanisms and pathways involved in the interactions between terrestrial processes and aerosols are not well understood. Here we use a global coupled aerosol chemistry-climate-land model (CESM with CAM5 using Modal Aerosol Module 3 and CLM4.5 in Satellite Phenology mode) to investigate how aerosols respond to future climate and land-use changes, and in turn, affects cloud cover and other hydrometeorological variables in the long term. Time-sliced simulations are conducted for a base year (2000) as a base case; then three future projected scenarios for year 2050 driven by land-use and climate projections following the Representative Concentration Pathways RCP8.53 are conducted. The first scenario considers future projected biogenic emissions, allowing us to investigate the effect of increased plant activity and enhanced biogenic emissions due to future land-use and climate on aerosol burden. The second scenario considers future biomass burning emissions, allowing us to investigate the effect of increased biomass burning emissions due to future land-use and climate on aerosol burden. The third scenario combines the projected changes in the two emissions. We find that both biogenic and biomass burning emissions contribute significantly to local aerosol and cloud condensation nuclei (CCN) concentrations. The contribution from biogenic emissions to local aerosol burden is smaller in magnitude (10% to 20%), but the effects are ubiquitous in many places globally. Meanwhile, the contribution from biomass burning emissions can be much higher in magnitude (63%)4, but concentrated in heavily burned regions and occurs only during burning season. Effects of both emissions are not additive since a larger flux of emissions causes greater deposition. The resulting further impacts of land-use change on regional hydrometeorology are also explored

  13. Quantitative laboratory measurements of biogeochemical processes controlling biogenic calcite carbon sequestration.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zendejas, Frank; Lane, Todd W.; Lane, Pamela D.

    2011-01-01

    The purpose of this LDRD was to generate data that could be used to populate and thereby reduce the uncertainty in global carbon cycle models. These efforts were focused on developing a system for determining the dissolution rate of biogenic calcite under oceanic pressure and temperature conditions and on carrying out a digital transcriptomic analysis of gene expression in response to changes in pCO2, and the consequent acidification of the growth medium.

  14. Biogenic Hydroxyapatite: A New Material for the Preservation and Restoration of the Built Environment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Turner, Ronald J; Renshaw, Joanna C; Hamilton, Andrea

    2017-09-20

    Ordinary Portland cement (OPC) is by weight the world's most produced man-made material and is used in a variety of applications in environments ranging from buildings, to nuclear wasteforms, and within the human body. In this paper, we present for the first time the direct deposition of biogenic hydroxyapatite onto the surface of OPC in a synergistic process which uses the composition of the cement substrate. This hydroxyapatite is very similar to that found in nature, having a similar crystallite size, iron and carbonate substitution, and a semi-crystalline structure. Hydroxyapatites with such a structure are known to be mechanically stronger and more biocompatible than synthetic or biomimetic hydroxyapatites. The formation of this biogenic hydroxyapatite coating therefore has significance in a range of contexts. In medicine, hydroxyapatite coatings are linked to improved biocompatibility of ceramic implant materials. In the built environment, hydroxyapatite coatings have been proposed for the consolidation and protection of sculptural materials such as marble and limestone, with biogenic hydroxyapatites having reduced solubility compared to synthetic apatites. Hydroxyapatites have also been established as effective for the adsorption and remediation of environmental contaminants such as radionuclides and heavy metals. We identify that in addition to providing a biofilm scaffold for nucleation, the metabolic activity of Pseudomonas fluorescens increases the pH of the growth medium to a suitable level for hydroxyapatite formation. The generated ammonia reacts with phosphate in the growth medium, producing ammonium phosphates which are a precursor to the formation of hydroxyapatite under conditions of ambient temperature and pressure. Subsequently, this biogenic deposition process takes place in a simple reaction system under mild chemical conditions and is cheap and easy to apply to fragile biological or architectural surfaces.

  15. Amino Acids and Biogenic Amines Evolution during the Estufagem of Fortified Wines

    OpenAIRE

    Vanda Pereira; Ana C. Pereira; Juan P. Pérez Trujillo; Juan Cacho; José C. Marques

    2015-01-01

    The current study was focused on the impact of accelerated ageing (heating step) on the amino acid and biogenic amine profiles of fortified wines. In this sense, three Madeira wines from two commonly used grape varieties (one red and the other white) were analysed during the heating, at standard (45°C, 3 months) and overheating (70°C, 1 month) conditions, following a precolumn derivatization procedure using iodoacetic acid, o-phthaldialdehyde, and 2-mercaptoethanol, carried out in the injecti...

  16. Concentration of Biogenic Amines in ‘Pinot Noir’ Wines Produced in Croatia

    OpenAIRE

    Ana Jeromel; Karin Kovačević Ganić; Stanka Herjavec; Marin Mihaljević; Ana Marija Jagatić Korenika; Ivana Rendulic; Marijana Čolić

    2014-01-01

    The origins of biogenic amines are sound grapes, alcoholic fermentations, malolactic fermentation and microbial activities during wine storage. These biologically produced amines are essential at low concentrations for optimal metabolic and physiological functions in animals, plants and micro-organisms. During alcoholic fermentation the degree of maceration is the first factor that affects the extraction of compounds present in the grape skin, among them aminoacids, precursors of bioge...

  17. Content of biogenic amines in Lemna minor (common duckweed) growing in medium contaminated with tetracycline.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baciak, Michał; Sikorski, Łukasz; Piotrowicz-Cieślak, Agnieszka I; Adomas, Barbara

    2016-11-01

    Aquatic plants are continuously exposed to a variety of stress factors. No data on the impact of antibiotics on the biogenic amines in duckweed (Lemna minor) have been available so far, and such data could be significant, considering the ecological role of this plant in animal food chains. In the tissues of control (non-stressed) nine-day-old duckweed, the following biogenic amines were identified: tyramine, putrescine, cadaverine, spermidine and spermine. Based on the tetracycline contents and the computed EC values, the predicted toxicity units have been calculated. The obtained results demonstrated phytoxicity caused by tetracycline in relation to duckweed growth rate, yield and the contents of chlorophylls a and b. The carotenoid content was not modified by tetracycline. It was found that tetracycline as a water pollutant was a stress factor triggering an increase in the synthesis of amines. Tetracycline at 19, 39 and 78μM concentrations increased biogenic amine synthesis by 3.5 times. Although the content of tyramine increased fourteen times with the highest concentration of the drug (and of spermidine - only three-fold) the increase of spermidine was numerically the highest. Among the biogenic amines the most responsive to tetracycline were spermine and tyramine, while the least affected were putrescine and spermidine. Despite putrescine and spermidine being the least sensitive, their sum of contents increased five-fold compared to the control. These studies suggest that tetracycline in water reservoirs is taken up by L. minor as the antibiotic clearly modifies the metabolism of this plant and it may likely pose a risk. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  18. Gigantism in unique biogenic magnetite at the Paleocene-Eocene Thermal Maximum

    OpenAIRE

    Schumann, Dirk; Raub, Timothy D.; Kopp, Robert E.; Guerquin-Kern, Jean-Luc; Wu, Ting-Di; Rouiller, Isabelle; Smirnov, Aleksey V.; Sears, S. Kelly; Lücken, Uwe; Tikoo, Sonia M.; Hesse, Reinhard; Kirschvink, Joseph L.; Vali, Hojatollah

    2008-01-01

    We report the discovery of exceptionally large biogenic magnetite crystals in clay-rich sediments spanning the Paleocene-Eocene Thermal Maximum (PETM) in a borehole at Ancora, New Jersey. Aside from previously-described abundant bacterial magnetofossils, electron microscopy reveals novel spearhead-like and spindle-like magnetite up to 4 μm long and hexaoctahedral prisms up to 1.4 μm long. Similar to magnetite produced by magnetotactic bacteria, these single-crystal particles exhibit chemical...

  19. Studies of the influence of soil biogenic acidity on podzol formation

    OpenAIRE

    Yashin, Ivan; Vasenev, Ivan; Valentini, Ricardo; Petukhova, Anastasiya; Kogut, Lubov

    2013-01-01

    The paper with a review and generalization of data analysis on the principal forms of soil biogenic acidity is based on research into representative podzols and podzoluvisols with combined parent materials and boreal (taiga) ecosystems at the Central Forest Biosphere Reserve (CFBR) (Tver region), Forest Experimental Station of RSAU (FES) (Moscow) and LAMP Experimental plot in Taiga park of Petrozavodsk. Long-term monitoring of acidity forms was performed by the authors during 2002-2012. Two p...

  20. Flight initiation and maintenance deficits in flies with genetically altered biogenic amine levels

    OpenAIRE

    Brembs, Björn; Christiansen, F.; Pflüger, J.; Duch, C.

    2007-01-01

    Insect flight is one of the fastest, most intense and most energy-demanding motor behaviors. It is modulated on multiple levels by the biogenic amine octopamine. Within the CNS, octopamine acts directly on the flight central pattern generator, and it affects motivational states. In the periphery, octopamine sensitizes sensory receptors, alters muscle contraction kinetics, and enhances flight muscle glycolysis. This study addresses the roles for octopamine and its precursor tyramine in flight ...

  1. Effect of salt-tolerant yeast of Candida versatilis and Zygosaccharomyces rouxii on the production of biogenic amines during soy sauce fermentation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Qi, Wei; Hou, Li-Hua; Guo, Hong-Lian; Wang, Chun-Ling; Fan, Zhen-Chuan; Liu, Jin-Fu; Cao, Xiao-Hong

    2014-06-01

    This study aimed to enhance and improve the quality and safety of soy sauce. In the present work, the change of biogenic amines, such as histamine, tyramine, cadaverine, spermidine, was examined by the treatment of Candida versatilis and Zygosaccharomyces rouxii, and the influence of salt-tolerant yeast on biogenic amines was analysed during the whole fermentation process. The results showed that the content of biogenic amines was elevated after yeast treatment and the content of biogenic amines was influenced by using yeast. The dominating biogenic amine in soy sauce was tyramine. At the end of fermentation, the concentrations of biogenic amines produced by Zygosaccharomyces rouxii and Candida versatilis in the soy mash were 122.71 mg kg(-1) and 69.96 mg kg(-1) . The changes of biogenic amines in high-salt liquid soy mash during fermentation process indicated that a variety of biogenic amines were increased in the fermentation ageing period, which may be due to amino acid decarboxylation to form biogenic amines by yeast decarboxylase. The fermentation period of soy sauce should be longer than 5 months because biogenic amines began to decline after this time period. © 2013 Society of Chemical Industry.

  2. Biodegradation of petroleum hydrocarbons at low temperatures

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Whyte, L. G.; Greer, C W.

    1999-01-01

    Bioremediation of contaminated Arctic sites has been proposed as the logistically and economically most favorable solution despite the known technical difficulties. The difficulties involve the inhibition of pollutants removal by biodegradation below freezing temperatures and the relative slowness of the process to remove enough hydrocarbon pollutants during the above-freezing summer months. Despite these formidable drawbacks, biodegradation of hydrocarbon contaminants is possible even in below-zero temperatures, especially if indigenous psychrophilic and psychrotropic micro-organism are used. This paper reports results of a study involving several hydrocarbon-degrading psychrotropic bacteria and suggests bioaugmentation with specific cold-adapted organisms and/or biostimulation with commercial fertilizers for enhancing degradation of specific contaminants in soils from northern Canada. An evaluation of the biodegradation potential of hydrocarbon contaminated soils in the high Arctic suggested that the contaminated soils contained sufficient numbers of cold-adapted hydrocarbon-degrading bacteria and that the addition of fertilizer was sufficient to enhance the level of hydrocarbon degradation at low ambient summer temperatures. 9 refs., 2 tabs., 3 figs

  3. Development and validation of an LC-MS/MS method for the determination of biogenic amines in wines and beers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nalazek-Rudnicka, Katarzyna; Wasik, Andrzej

    2017-01-01

    Biogenic amines are group of organic, basic, nitrogenous compounds that naturally occur in plant, microorganism, and animal organisms. Biogenic amines are mainly produced through decarboxylation of amino acids. They are formed during manufacturing of some kind of food and beverages such as cheese, wine, or beer. Histamine, cadaverine, agmatine, tyramine, putrescine, and β -phenylethylamine are the most common biogenic amines found in wines and beers. This group of compounds can be toxic at high concentrations; therefore, their control is very important. Analysis of biogenic amines in alcoholic drinks (beers and wines) was carried out by HPLC-MS/MS after their derivatization with p -toluenesulfonyl chloride (tosyl chloride). The developed method has been applied for analysis of seventeen biogenic amines in twenty-eight samples of lager beers and in twelve samples of different homemade wines (white grape, red grape, strawberry, chokeberry, black currant, plum, apple, raspberry, and quince). The developed method is sensitive and repeatable for majority of the analytes. It is versatile and can be used for the determination of biogenic amines in various alcoholic beverages.

  4. Unraveling the atomic structure of biogenic silica: evidence of the structural association of Al and Si in diatom frustules

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gehlen, M.; Beck, L.; Calas, G.; Flank, A.-M.; Van Bennekom, A. J.; Van Beusekom, J. E. E.

    2002-05-01

    We used X-ray absorption spectroscopy at the Al K-edge to investigate the atomic structure of biogenic silica and to assess the effect of Al on its crystal chemistry. Our study provides the first direct evidence for a structural association of Al and Si in biogenic silica. In samples of cultured diatoms, Al is present exclusively in fourfold coordination. The location and relative intensity of X-ray absorption near-edge structure (XANES) features suggests the structural insertion of tetrahedral Al inside the silica framework synthesized by the organism. In diatom samples collected in the marine environment, Al is present in mixed six- and fourfold coordination. The relative intensity of XANES structures indicates the coexistence of structural Al with a clay component, which most likely reflects sample contamination by adhering mineral particles. Extended X-ray absorption fine structure spectroscopy has been used to get Al-O distances in biogenic silica of cultured diatoms, confirming a tetrahedral coordination. Because of its effect on solubility and reaction kinetics of biogenic silica, the structural association between Al and biogenic silica at the stage of biosynthesis has consequences for the use of sedimentary biogenic silica as an indicator of past environmental conditions.

  5. Postprandial Differences in the Amino Acid and Biogenic Amines Profiles of Impaired Fasting Glucose Individuals after Intake of Highland Barley

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Liyan Liu

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this study was to measure the postprandial changes in amino acid and biogenic amine profiles in individuals with impaired fasting glucose (IFG and to investigate the changes of postprandial amino acid and biogenic amine profiles after a meal of highland barley (HB. Firstly, 50 IFG and 50 healthy individuals were recruited for the measurement of 2 h postprandial changes of amino acid and biogenic amine profiles after a glucose load. Secondly, IFG individuals received three different loads: Glucose (GL, white rice (WR and HB. Amino acid and biogenic amine profiles, glucose and insulin were assayed at time zero and 30, 60, 90 and 120 min after the test load. The results showed fasting and postprandial amino acid and biogenic amine profiles were different between the IFG group and the controls. The level of most amino acids and their metabolites decreased after an oral glucose tolerance test, while the postprandial level of γ-aminobutyric acid (GABA increased significantly in IFG individuals. After three different test loads, the area under the curve for glucose, insulin, lysine and GABA after a HB load decreased significantly compared to GL and WR loads. Furthermore, the postprandial changes in the level of GABA between time zero and 120 min during a HB load were associated positively with 2 h glucose and fasting insulin secretion in the IFG individuals. Thus, the HB load produced low postprandial glucose and insulin responses, which induced changes in amino acid and biogenic amine profiles and improved insulin sensitivity.

  6. Influence on wine biogenic amine composition of modifications to soil N availability and grapevine N by cover crops.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pérez-Álvarez, Eva P; Garde-Cerdán, Teresa; Cabrita, Maria João; García-Escudero, Enrique; Peregrina, Fernando

    2017-11-01

    Vineyard soil management can modify the nitrogen soil availability and, therefore, grape amino acid content. These compounds are precursors of biogenic amines, which have negative effects on wine quality and human health. The objective was to study whether the effect of conventional tillage and two cover crops (barley and clover) on grapevine nitrogen status could be related to wine biogenic amines. Over 4 years, soil NO 3 - -N, nitrogen content in leaf and wine biogenic amine concentration were determined. Barley reduced soil NO 3 - -N availability and clover increased it. In 2011, at bloom, nitrogen content decreased with barley treatment in both blade and petiole. In 2012, nitrogen content in both leaf tissues at bloom was greater with clover than with tillage and barley treatments. Also, total biogenic amines decreased in barley with respect to tillage and clover treatments. There were correlations between some individual and total biogenic amine concentrations with respect to nitrogen content in leaf tissues. Wine biogenic amine concentration can be affected by the grapevine nitrogen status, provoked by changes in the soil NO 3 - -N availability with both cover crop treatments. © 2017 Society of Chemical Industry. © 2017 Society of Chemical Industry.

  7. Life Cycle Assessment of age-related environmental impact of biogenic hydraulic fluids; Life Cycle Assessment der alterungsbedingten Umweltvertraeglichkeit biogener Hydraulik-Schmierstoffe

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bressling, Jana

    2012-07-01

    Biogenic hydraulic fluids, based on synthetic esters (category: HEES), have an excellent environmental profile in the unused state, so that they are typically classified into water hazard class 1 or as ''not hazardous to water''. During storage at room temperature and tribological application, occurring chemical and toxicological changes take no account in the classification of lubricants until now. However, the ageing and oxidation stability gets increasing importance, since it determines the service life of lubricants in tribological systems in addition to the storage time. Since it always comes to direct and uncontrolled entries into the environment in case of accidents or hydraulic leaks, it is essential to assess whether there is an environmental hazard by waste oils. With an increased use of biogenic hydraulic fluids in environmentally sensitive areas, thus the need for an appropriate monitoring and assessment approach as part of a Life Cycle Assessment (LCA). The aquatic and miniaturised test procedures applied in this work with the Water Soluble Fraction (WSF) concept, allows a simple and quick screening of age-related ecotoxic potential of lubricants by oxidative processes and tribological application. For detection of genotoxic potential the umu-test is a suitable indicator test to detect geno- and cytotoxic effects by oxidative reactions. The determination of biodegradability is essential for the assessment of the environmental impact of hydraulic fluids. The optimised biodegradability test system ''O2/CO2-Headspace Test'' has proved itself as a suitable procedure for the investigation of biogenic lubricants within the scope of a LCA and shows therefore a comparable method of the required test procedures for the assignment of ecolabels. In addition, the combination of biological test procedures and chemical analysis allows a comprehensive investigation of effects and causes of age-related changes of hydraulic

  8. Biogenic iron mineralization at Iron Mountain, CA with implications for detection with the Mars Curiosity rover

    Science.gov (United States)

    Williams, Amy J.; Sumner, Dawn Y.; Alpers, Charles N.; Campbell, Kate M.; Nordstrom, D. Kirk

    2014-01-01

    (Introduction) Microbe-mineral interactions and biosignature preservation in oxidized sulfidic ore bodies (gossans) are prime candidates for astrobiological study. Such oxidized iron systems have been proposed as analogs for some Martian environments. Recent studies identified microbial fossils preserved as mineral-coated filaments. This study documents microbially-mediated mineral biosignatures in hydrous ferric oxide (HFO) and ferric oxyhydroxysulfates (FOHS) in three environments at Iron Mountain, CA. We investigated microbial community preservation via HFO and FOHS precipitation and the formation of filamentous mineral biosignatures. These environments included 1) actively precipitating (1000's yrs), naturally weathered HFO from in situ gossan, and 3) remobilized iron deposits, which contained lithified clastics and zones of HFO precipitate. We used published biogenicity criteria as guidelines to characterize the biogenicity of mineral filaments. These criteria included A) an actively precipitating environment where microbes are known to be coated in minerals, B) presence of extant microbial communities with carbon signatures, C) structures observable as a part of the host rock, and D) biological morphology, including cellular lumina, multiple member population, numerous taxa, variable and 3-D preservation, biological size ranges, uniform diameter, and evidence of flexibility. This study explores the relevance and detection of these biosignatures to possible Martian biosignatures. Similar filamentous biosignatures are resolvable by the Mars Hand Lens Imager (MAHLI) onboard the Mars Science Laboratory (MSL) rover, Curiosity, and may be identifiable as biogenic if present on Mars.

  9. Transformation and Crystallization Energetics of Synthetic and Biogenic Amorphous Calcium Carbonate

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Radha, A. V. [Peter A. Rock Thermochemistry Lab. and Nanomaterials in the Environment, Agriculture, and Technology Organized Research Unit (NEAT ORU), Univ. of California, Davis, CA (United States); Forbes, Tori Z. [Peter A. Rock Thermochemistry Lab. and Nanomaterials in the Environment, Agriculture, and Technology Organized Research Unit (NEAT ORU), Univ. of California, Davis, CA (United States); Killian, Christopher E. [Univ. of Wisconsin, Madison, WI (United States); Gilbert, P.U.P.A [Univ. of Wisconsin, Madison, WI (United States); Navrotsky, Alexandra [Peter A. Rock Thermochemistry Lab. and Nanomaterials in the Environment, Agriculture, and Technology Organized Research Unit (NEAT ORU), Univ. of California, Davis, CA (United States)

    2010-01-01

    Amorphous calcium carbonate (ACC) is a metastable phase often observed during low temperature inorganic synthesis and biomineralization. ACC transforms with aging or heating into a less hydrated form, and with time crystallizes to calcite or aragonite. The energetics of transformation and crystallization of synthetic and biogenic (extracted from California purple sea urchin larval spicules, Strongylocentrotus purpuratus) ACC were studied using isothermal acid solution calorimetry and differential scanning calorimetry. Transformation and crystallization of ACC can follow an energetically downhill sequence: more metastable hydrated ACC → less metastable hydrated ACC→anhydrous ACC ~ biogenic anhydrous ACC→vaterite → aragonite → calcite. In a given reaction sequence, not all these phases need to occur. The transformations involve a series of ordering, dehydration, and crystallization processes, each lowering the enthalpy (and free energy) of the system, with crystallization of the dehydrated amorphous material lowering the enthalpy the most. ACC is much more metastable with respect to calcite than the crystalline polymorphs vaterite or aragonite. The anhydrous ACC is less metastable than the hydrated, implying that the structural reorganization during dehydration is exothermic and irreversible. Dehydrated synthetic and anhydrous biogenic ACC are similar in enthalpy. The transformation sequence observed in biomineralization could be mainly energetically driven; the first phase deposited is hydrated ACC, which then converts to anhydrous ACC, and finally crystallizes to calcite. The initial formation of ACC may be a first step in the precipitation of calcite under a wide variety of conditions, including geological CO₂ sequestration.

  10. Influence of the modulated two-step synthesis of biogenic hydroxyapatite on biomimetic products' surface

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miculescu, Florin; Mocanu, Aura Cătălina; Stan, George E.; Miculescu, Marian; Maidaniuc, Andreea; Cîmpean, Anisoara; Mitran, Valentina; Voicu, Stefan Ioan; Machedon-Pisu, Teodor; Ciocan, Lucian Toma

    2018-04-01

    Processing calcium-rich natural resources, such as marble and mussel seashells, into biomimetic products could constitute an environmentally-friendly and economically sustainable alternative given their geographical widespread. Hitherto, their value for biomedicine was demonstrated only for seashells, with the technological exploitation approaches still facing challenges with respect to the identification of generic synthesis parameters capable to allow the reproducible and designed synthesis of calcium phosphate at an industrial-ready level. In this study was targeted the optimization of Rathje synthesis method for the fabrication of biogenic calcium phosphates, by conveniently adjusting the chemical composition of employed reagents. It was shown that post-synthesis heat-treatment of compacted powders is the key step for inducing structural transformations suitable to attain biomimetic products for reconstructive orthopedic applications. The sintered materials have been multi-parametricallyevaluated from morpho-compositional, structural, wettability, mechanical and cytocompatibility points of view and the results have been cross-examined and discussed. Convenient and efficient preparation routes to produce biogenic hydroxyapatite have been identified. The functional performances of the as-prepared biogenic ceramics endorse their use as a solid and inexpensive alternative source material for the fabrication of various bone regenerative products and implant coatings.

  11. Amino Acids and Biogenic Amines Evolution during the Estufagem of Fortified Wines

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vanda Pereira

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available The current study was focused on the impact of accelerated ageing (heating step on the amino acid and biogenic amine profiles of fortified wines. In this sense, three Madeira wines from two commonly used grape varieties (one red and the other white were analysed during the heating, at standard (45°C, 3 months and overheating (70°C, 1 month conditions, following a precolumn derivatization procedure using iodoacetic acid, o-phthaldialdehyde, and 2-mercaptoethanol, carried out in the injection loop prior to RP-HPLC-FLD detection. Eighteen amino acids were identified, with arginine being the most abundant. An important decrease of the amino acid levels was detected during the standard heating (up to 30%, enhanced up to 61% by the temperature increase. Cysteine, histidine, and asparagine revealed the greatest decreases at 45°C. Conversely, some amino acids, such as asparagine, slightly increased. Four biogenic amines were identified but always in trace amounts. Finally, it was observed that the accelerated ageing did not favour the biogenic amine development. The results also indicate that the heating process promotes the amino acid transformation into new ageing products.

  12. Direct radiative feedback due to biogenic secondary organic aerosol estimated from boreal forest site observations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lihavainen, Heikki; Asmi, Eija; Aaltonen, Veijo; Makkonen, Ulla; Kerminen, Veli-Matti

    2015-01-01

    We used more than five years of continuous aerosol measurements to estimate the direct radiative feedback parameter associated with the formation of biogenic secondary organic aerosol (BSOA) at a remote continental site at the edge of the boreal forest zone in Northern Finland. Our upper-limit estimate for this feedback parameter during the summer period (ambient temperatures above 10 °C) was −97 ± 66 mW m −2 K −1 (mean ± STD) when using measurements of the aerosol optical depth (f AOD ) and −63 ± 40 mW m −2 K −1 when using measurements of the ‘dry’ aerosol scattering coefficient at the ground level (f σ ). Here STD represents the variability in f caused by the observed variability in the quantities used to derive the value of f. Compared with our measurement site, the magnitude of the direct radiative feedback associated with BSOA is expected to be larger in warmer continental regions with more abundant biogenic emissions, and even larger in regions where biogenic emissions are mixed with anthropogenic pollution. (letter)

  13. Neogene biogenic sediments of onshore Peru: part I, sedimentology and stratigraphy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Marty, R.C.; Dunbar, R.B.; Baker, P.

    1985-01-01

    The Sechura (approx.6/sup 0/S) and Pisco (approx.14/sup 0/S) Basins of onshore Peru contain Miocene diatom and phosphate rich sediments which sharply contrast with underlying clastics. In the Sechura Basin the Miocene clastic Mancora, Heath and Montera Formations are overlain by the Zapallal Formation which grades upwards from a weakly biogenic base into fairly pure diatomites (biogenic silica >20%) and ore grade phosphorite (P/sub 2/O/sub 5/>20%). Biogeneic content decreases in the eastern basin as clastic content increases. The base of the Zapallal Formation has been dated at between 12.2 and 14.0 mybp using radiolaria correlated to magnetic stratigraphy by Theyer, et al (1978), and the phosphatic section yields dates of between 8.0 and 11.2 my. In the Pisco Basin the Eocene clastic Paracas Formation is overlain unconformably by the Miocene Pisco Formation which contains a basal sequence of cross-bedded clastics, tuffs, and partially recrystallized diatomites; a phosphorite bearing middle sequence; and a diatom rich top. Current direction from the cross beds of the basal Pisco Formation indicate a generally southerly transport direction but with considerable directional variability. This may be related to the Peru under-current which shows highly variable strength and direction near 15/sup 0/S.

  14. Diclofenac and 2‐anilinophenylacetate degradation by combined activity of biogenic manganese oxides and silver

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meerburg, Francis; Hennebel, Tom; Vanhaecke, Lynn; Verstraete, Willy; Boon, Nico

    2012-01-01

    Summary The occurrence of a range of recalcitrant organic micropollutants in our aquatic environment has led to the development of various tertiary wastewater treatment methods. In this study, biogenic manganese oxides (Bio‐MnOx), biogenic silver nanoparticles (Bio‐Ag0) and ionic silver were used for the oxidative removal of the frequently encountered drug diclofenac and its dechlorinated form, 2‐anilinophenylacetate (APA). Diclofenac was rapidly degraded during ongoing manganese oxidation by Pseudomonas putida MnB6. Furthermore, whereas preoxidized Bio‐MnOx, Bio‐Ag0 and Ag+ separately did not show any removal capacity for diclofenac, an enhanced removal occurred when Bio‐MnOx and silver species were combined. Similar results were obtained for APA. Finally, a slow removal of diclofenac but more rapid APA degradation was observed when silver was added to manganese‐free P. putida biomass. Combining these results, three mechanisms of diclofenac and APA removal could be distinguished: (i) a co‐metabolic removal during active Mn2+ oxidation by P. putida; (ii) a synergistic interaction between preoxidized Bio‐MnOx and silver species; and (iii) a (bio)chemical process by biomass enriched with silver catalysts. This paper demonstrates the use of P. putida for water treatment purposes and is the first report of the application of silver combined with biogenic manganese for the removal of organic water contaminants. PMID:22221449

  15. MICROBIOTA AND BIOGENIC AMINES VARIATION OF CHICKEN MEAT; COMPARISON BETWEEN WHITE AND RED MEAT

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Octavian Baston

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Chicken meat freshness is in permanent attention for all partners involved in food chain. In this paper we want to highlight the variation of microbiota (psychrotrophic and total viable count and the variation of biogenic amines in chicken red and white meat. We compared the two anatomical parts of chicken because they have different metabolism, and after cutting from the carcasses they can suffer microbial contamination in the process. The purpose of the study is the evaluation of refrigerated white and red chicken meat (breast and legs quality using biogenic amines and microbiota. The psychrotrophic microorganisms were initially around a value of 4 log CFU/cm2 in both anatomical parts, when total viable count were determined around a value of 5 log CFU/cm2. The microbial load growth until the seventh day, predominant for chicken breast being the psychrotrophic microorganisms, and for chicken legs remaining the total viable count. We studied the most five well-known biogenic amines: histamine, cadaverine, putrescin, spermine and spermidine. Theirs variation during storage was as follows: histamine increased slowly, spermine decreased, spermidine decreased, cadaverine and putrescin increased. Cadaverine was not detected until the fifth day for both chicken legs and breasts and putrescin was not detected until third day and only for chicken legs.

  16. Selection of nutrient used in biogenic healing agent for cementitious materials

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tziviloglou, Eirini; Wiktor, Virginie; Jonkers, Henk M.; Schlangen, Erik

    2017-06-01

    Biogenic self-healing cementitious materials target on the closure of micro-cracks with precipitated inorganic minerals originating from bacterial metabolic activity. Dormant bacterial spores and organic mineral compounds often constitute a biogenic healing agent. The current paper focuses on the investigation of the most appropriate organic carbon source to be used as component of a biogenic healing agent. It is of great importance to use an appropriate organic source, since it will firstly ensure an optimal bacterial performance in terms of metabolic activity, while it should secondly affect the least the properties of the cementitious matrix. The selection is made among three different organic compounds, namely calcium lactate, calcium acetate and sodium gluconate. The methodology that was used for the research was based on continuous and non-continuous oxygen consumption measurements of washed bacterial cultures and on compressive strength tests on mortar cubes. The oxygen consumption investigation revealed a preference for calcium lactate and acetate, but an indifferent behaviour for sodium gluconate. The compressive strength on mortar cubes with different amounts of either calcium lactate or acetate (up to 2.24% per cement weight) was not or it was positively affected when the compounds were dissolved in the mixing water. In fact, for calcium lactate the increase in compressive strength reached 8%, while for calcium acetate the maximum strength increase was 13.4%.

  17. Distribution of particle-phase hydrocarbons, PAHs and OCPs in Tianjin, China

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, Shui-Ping; Tao, Shu; Zhang, Zhi-Huan; Lan, Tian; Zuo, Qian

    Aliphatic hydrocarbons, polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) and organochlorine pesticides (OCPs) were determined in the total suspended particles (TSP) collected from 13 different locations in Tianjin, China, where intensive coal burning for domestic heating in winter takes place and a large quantity of pesticides had been produced and applied. Carbon preference index (CPI), carbon number maximum (C max) of n-alkane and plant wax index (%wax C n) indicate that n-alkanes come from both biogenic and petrogenic sources, and biogenic source contributes more n-alkanes in autumn than in winter. Petroleum biomarkers as indicators of petrogenic source such as hopanes and steranes were also detected in both seasons' samples. The sum of 16 PAH concentrations (∑PAH) ranged from 69.3 to 2170 ng m -3 in winter and from 7.01 to 40.0 ng m -3 in autumn. Seasonal variations were mainly attributed to the difference in coal combustion emission and meteorological conditions. The results of a source diagnostic analysis suggest that PAHs in TSP mainly come from coal combustion. Seven OCPs (four hexachlorohexanes (HCHs) and three dichlorodipheny-trichloroethane and metabolites (DDTs)) were detected in most samples. Concentrations of the sum of α-, β-, δ- and γ-HCH (∑HCH) and the sum of p, p'-DDT, p, p'-DDD and p, p'-DDE (∑DDT) in autumn varied in the ranges of 0.002-0.9 ng m -3 and 0.025-2.21 ng m -3 with the average±standard deviation values of 0.127±0.241 ng m -3 and 0.239±0.546 ng m -3, respectively. In winter, ∑HCH and ∑DDT in TSP ranged from 0.071 to 5.35 ng m -3 and from 0.416 to 3.14 ng m -3 with the average±standard deviation values 1.05±1.88 ng m -3 and 0.839±0.713 ng m -3, respectively. Both of the illegal application of technical HCH and DDT and the volatilization from topsoil contributed to the particle-phase contents of HCHs and DDTs in the atmosphere.

  18. Measurements of Primary Biogenic Aerosol Particles with an Ultraviolet Aerodynamic Particle Sizer (UVAPS) During AMAZE-08

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wollny, A. G.; Garland, R.; Pöschl, U.

    2008-12-01

    Biogenic aerosols are ubiquitous in the Earth's atmosphere and they influence atmospheric chemistry and physics, the biosphere, climate, and public health. They play an important role in the spread of biological organisms and reproductive materials, and they can cause or enhance human, animal, and plant diseases. Moreover, they influence the Earth's energy budget by scattering and absorbing radiation, and they can initiate the formation of clouds and precipitation as cloud condensation and ice nuclei. The composition, abundance, and origin of biogenic aerosol particles and components are, however, still not well understood and poorly quantified. Prominent examples of primary biogenic aerosol particles, which are directly emitted from the biosphere to the atmosphere, are pollen, bacteria, fungal spores, viruses, and fragments of animals and plants. During the AMazonian Aerosol CharacteriZation Experiment (AMAZE-08) a large number of aerosol and gas-phase measurements were taken on a remote site close to Manaus, Brazil, during a period of five weeks in February and March 2008. The presented study is focused on data from an ultraviolet aerodynamic particle sizer (UVAPS, TSI inc.) that has been deployed for the first time in Amazonia. In this instrument, particle counting and aerodynamic sizing over the range of 0.5-20 μm are complemented by the measurement of UV fluorescence at 355 nm (excitation) and 420-575 nm (emission), respectively. Fluorescence at these wavelengths is characteristic for reduced pyridine nucleotides (e.g., NAD(P)H) and for riboflavin, which are specific for living cells. Thus particles exhibiting fluorescence signals can be regarded as 'viable aerosols' or 'fluorescent bioparticles' (FBAP), and their concentration can be considered as lower limit for the actual abundance of primary biogenic aerosol particles. First data analyses show a pronounced peak of FBAP at diameters around 2-3 μm. In this size range the biogenic particle fraction was

  19. Comparison of regional and global land cover products and the implications for biogenic emission modeling.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huang, Ling; McDonald-Buller, Elena; McGaughey, Gary; Kimura, Yosuke; Allen, David T

    2015-10-01

    Accurate estimates of biogenic emissions are required for air quality models that support the development of air quality management plans and attainment demonstrations. Land cover characterization is an essential driving input for most biogenic emissions models. This work contrasted the global Moderate Resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer (MODIS) land cover product against a regional land cover product developed for the Texas Commissions on Environmental Quality (TCEQ) over four climate regions in eastern Texas, where biogenic emissions comprise a large fraction of the total inventory of volatile organic compounds (VOCs) and land cover is highly diverse. The Model of Emissions of Gases and Aerosols from Nature (MEGAN) was utilized to investigate the influences of land cover characterization on modeled isoprene and monoterpene emissions through changes in the standard emission potential and emission activity factor, both separately and simultaneously. In Central Texas, forest coverage was significantly lower in the MODIS land cover product relative to the TCEQ data, which resulted in substantially lower estimates of isoprene and monoterpene emissions by as much as 90%. Differences in predicted isoprene and monoterpene emissions associated with variability in land cover characterization were primarily caused by differences in the standard emission potential, which is dependent on plant functional type. Photochemical modeling was conducted to investigate the effects of differences in estimated biogenic emissions associated with land cover characterization on predicted ozone concentrations using the Comprehensive Air Quality Model with Extensions (CAMx). Mean differences in maximum daily average 8-hour (MDA8) ozone concentrations were 2 to 6 ppb with maximum differences exceeding 20 ppb. Continued focus should be on reducing uncertainties in the representation of land cover through field validation. Uncertainties in the estimation of biogenic emissions associated with

  20. An Estimate of Biogenic Emissions of Volatile Organic Compounds during Summertime in China (7 pp).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Heinrich, Almut

    2007-01-01

    and Aim. An accurate estimation of biogenic emissions of VOC (volatile organic compounds) is necessary for better understanding a series of current environmental problems such as summertime smog and global climate change. However, very limited studies have been reported on such emissions in China. The aim of this paper is to present an estimate of biogenic VOC emissions during summertime in China, and discuss its uncertainties and potential areas for further investigations. This study was mainly based on field data and related research available so far in China and abroad, including distributions of land use and vegetations, biomass densities and emission potentials. VOC were grouped into isoprene, monoterpenes and other VOC (OVOC). Emission potentials of forests were determined for 22 genera or species, and then assigned to 33 forest ecosystems. The NCEP/NCAR reanalysis database was used as standard environmental conditions. A typical summertime of July 1999 was chosen for detailed calculations. The biogenic VOC emissions in China in July were estimated to be 2.3×1012gC, with 42% as isoprene, 19% as monoterpenes and 39% as OVOC. About 77.3% of the emissions are generated from forests and woodlands. The averaged emission intensity was 4.11 mgC m-2 hr-1 for forests and 1.12 mgC m-2 hr-1 for all types of vegetations in China during the summertime. The uncertainty in the results arose from both the data and the assumptions used in the extrapolations. Generally, uncertainty in the field measurements is relatively small. A large part of the uncertainty mainly comes from the taxonomic method to assign emission potentials to unmeasured species, while the ARGR method serves to estimate leaf biomass and the emission algorithms to describe light and temperature dependence. This study describes a picture of the biogenic VOC emissions during summertime in China. Due to the uneven spatial and temporal distributions, biogenic VOC emissions may play an important role in the