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Sample records for biogenic amines

  1. Biogenic amines in beer

    OpenAIRE

    Čiháková, Dagmar

    2016-01-01

    This thesis deals with the technological process of brewing beer, describes the raw materials needed for its production, and points out the useful and harmful substances contained in beer as biogenic amines (BA). Furthermore, there are described the issues of biogenic amines in food and primarily in beer, which is a histamine, putrescine, cadaverine, tyramine and tryptamine. In the practical section BA was determined in lager bottom-fermented beers from local microbreweries and large industri...

  2. Biogenic amines in fermented foods

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Spano, G.; Russo, P.; Lonvaud-Funel, A.; Lucas, P.; Alexandre, H.; Grandvalet, C.; Coton, E.; Coton, M.; Barnavon, L.; Bach, B.; Rattray, F.; Bunte, A.; Magni, C.; Ladero, V.; Alvarez, M.; Fernández, M.; Lopez, P.; Palencia, P.F. de; Corbi, A.; Trip, H.; Lolkema, J.S.

    2010-01-01

    Food-fermenting lactic acid bacteria (LAB) are generally considered to be non-toxic and non-pathogenic. Some species of LAB, however, can produce biogenic amines (BAs). BAs are organic, basic, nitrogenous compounds, mainly formed through decarboxylation of amino acids. BAs are present in a wide rang

  3. Intolerance to dietary biogenic amines: A review

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Jansen, S.C.; Dusseldorp, M. van; Bottema, K.C.; Dubois, A.E.J.

    2003-01-01

    Objective: To evaluate the scientific evidence for purported intolerance to dietary biogenic amines. Data Sources: MEDLINE was searched for articles in the English language published between January 1966 and August 2001. The keyword biogenic amin* was combined with hypersens*, allerg*, intoler*, and

  4. Intolerance to dietary biogenic amines : a review

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Jansen, SC; van Dusseldorp, M; Bottema, KC; Dubois, AEJ

    2003-01-01

    Objective: To evaluate the scientific evidence for purported intolerance to dietary biogenic amines. Data Sources: MEDLINE was searched for articles in the English language published between January 1966 and August 2001. The keyword biogenic amin* was combined with hypersens*, allergen intoler*, and

  5. BIOGENIC AMINES CONTENT IN DIFFERENT WINE SAMPLES

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    Attila Kántor

    2015-02-01

    Full Text Available Twenty-five samples of different Slovak wines before and after filtration were analysed in order to determine the content of eight biogenic amines (tryptamine, phenylalanine, putrescine, cadaverine, histamine, tyramine, spermidine and spermine. The method involves extraction of biogenic amines from wine samples with used dansyl chloride. Ultra-high performance liquid chromatography (UHPLC was used for determination of biogenic amines equipped with a Rapid Resolution High Definition (RRHD, DAD detectors and Extend-C18 LC column (50 mm x 3.0 mm ID, 1.8 μm particle size. In this study the highest level of biogenic amine in all wine samples represent tryptamine (TRM with the highest content 170.9±5.3 mg/L in Pinot Blanc wine. Phenylalanine (PHE cadaverine (CAD, histamine (HIS and spermidine (SPD were not detected in all wines; mainly SPD was not detected in 16 wines, HIS not detected in 14 wines, PHE and CAD not detected in 2 wines. Tyramine (TYR, spermine (SPN and putrescine (PUT were detected in all wines, but PUT and SPN in very low concentration. The worst wine samples with high biogenic amine content were Saint Laurent (BF, Pinot Blanc (S and Pinot Noir (AF.

  6. Biogenic amines in raw and processed seafood

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    Pierina eVisciano

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available The presence of biogenic amines in raw and processed seafood, associated with either time/temperature conditions or food technologies is discussed in the present paper from a safety and prevention point of view. In particular, storage temperature, handling practices, presence of microbial populations with decarboxylase activity and availability of free amino acids are considered the most important factors affecting the production of biogenic amines in raw seafood. On the other hand, some food technological treatments such as salting, ripening, fermentation or marination can increase the levels of biogenic amines in processed seafood. The consumption of high amount of biogenic amines, above all histamine, can result in food borne poisoning which is a worldwide problem. The European Regulation established as maximum limits for histamine, in fishery products from fish species associated with high histidine amounts, values ranging from 100 to 200 mg/kg, while for products which have undergone enzyme maturation treatment in brine, the aforementioned limits rise to 200 and 400 mg/kg. Preventive measures and emerging methods aiming at controlling the production of biogenic amines are also reported for potential application in seafood industries.

  7. Rett syndrome - Stimulation of endogenous biogenic amines

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    Pelligra, R.; Norton, R. D.; Wilkinson, R.; Leon, H. A.; Matson, W. R.

    1992-01-01

    Transient hypercapnic hyperoxemia was induced in two Rett syndrome children by the administration of a gaseous mixture of 80 percent O2 and 20 percent CO2. Time course studies of neurotransmitters and their metabolites showed an immediate and marked increase in central biogenic amine turnover following inhalation of the gas mixture. The increased turnover of biogenic amines was associated with improved clinical changes. This suggests a coupled relationship and provides further support for an etiological role of neurotransmitter dysfunction in Rett syndrome. In a complementary study, elevation of pulmonary CO2 by application of a simple rebreathing device resulted in improvement of abnormal blood gases and elimination of the Cheyne-Stokes-like respiratory pattern of the Rett syndrome. Near normalization of the EEG occurred when a normal respiratory pattern was imposed by means of a respirator. Taken together, these results lead to the preliminary conclusion that cerebral hypoxemia secondary to abnormal respiratory function may contribute to diminished production of biogenic amines in Rett syndrome.

  8. Factors influencing biogenic amines accumulation in dairy products

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    Daniel M. eLinares

    2012-05-01

    Full Text Available Fermented foods are within the food products more often complained of having caused biogenic amines poisoning. Concerning milk-based fermented foods, cheese is the main product likely to contain significant levels of biogenic amines, specially tyramine, histamine and putrescine. Prompted by the increasing awareness of the risks related to dietary uptake of high biogenic amine loads, in this review we report about cheese elaboration and processing technological aspects affecting biogenic amines levels. Synthesis of biogenic amines is possible only when three conditions converge: i availability of the substrate amino acids; ii presence of microorganisms with the appropriate catabolic pathway activated; and iii environmental conditions favorable to the decarboxilation activity. These conditions depend on several factors such as milk treatment (pasteurization, use of starter cultures, NaCl concentration, time and temperature of ripening and preservation, pH… which will be discussed in this chapter.

  9. BIOGENIC AMINES CONTENT IN SELECTED WINES DURING WINEMAKING

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    Radka Flasarová

    2012-02-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this study was to describe the development of selected biogenic amines (histamine; tyramine; phenylethylamine; putrescine; agmatine; and cadaverine during the winemaking in 10 selected species grown in Central Europe in 2008. The analysis was performed using ion-exchange chromatography by the sodium-citrate buffers with the post-column ninhydrin derivatization and photometric detection. A comparison of the content of biogenic amines in red and wine varieties showed that red wines have higher concentrations of biogenic amines.

  10. Biogenic amines in meat and fermented meat products

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    Joanna Stadnik

    2010-09-01

    Full Text Available Recent trends in food quality and safety promote an increasing search for trace compounds that can affect human health. Biogenic amines belong to this group of substances. They can cause distinctive pharmacological, physiological and toxic effects in organisms. Their amounts are usually increasing as a consequence of the use of poor quality raw materials, during controlled or spontaneous microbial fermentation or in the course of food spoilage. The origin of biogenic amines makes them suitable as chemical indicators of the hygienic quality and freshness of some foods being associated to the degree of food fermentation or degradation. The development of appropriate manufacturing technologies to obtain products free or nearly free from biogenic amines is a challenge for the meat industry. This review briefly summarises current knowledge on the biological implications of biogenic amines on human health and collects data on the factors affecting their formation in meat and fermented meat products.

  11. Biogenic amines in italian pecorino cheese.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schirone, Maria; Tofalo, Rosanna; Visciano, Pierina; Corsetti, Aldo; Suzzi, Giovanna

    2012-01-01

    The quality of distinctive artisanal cheeses is closely associated with the territory of production and its traditions. Pedoclimatic characteristics, genetic autochthonous variations, and anthropic components create an environment so specific that it would be extremely difficult to reproduce elsewhere. Pecorino cheese is included in this sector of the market and is widely diffused in Italy (∼62.000t of production in 2010). Pecorino is a common name given to indicate Italian cheeses made exclusively from pure ewes' milk characterized by a high content of fat matter and it is mainly produced in the middle and south of Italy by traditional procedures from raw or pasteurized milk. The microbiota plays a major role in the development of the organoleptic characteristics of the cheese but it can also be responsible for the accumulation of undesirable substances, such as biogenic amines (BA). Bacterial amino acid decarboxylase activity and BA content have to be investigated within the complex microbial community of raw milk cheese for different cheese technologies. The results emphasize the necessity of controlling the indigenous bacterial population responsible for high production of BA and the use of competitive adjunct cultures could be suggested. Several factors can contribute to the qualitative and quantitative profiles of BA's in Pecorino cheese such as environmental hygienic conditions, pH, salt concentration, water activity, fat content, pasteurization of milk, decarboxylase microorganisms, starter cultures, temperature and time of ripening, storage, part of the cheese (core, edge), and the presence of cofactor (pyridoxal phosphate, availability of aminases and deaminases). In fact physico-chemical parameters seem to favor biogenic amine-positive microbiota; both of these environmental factors can easily be modulated, in order to control growth of undesirable microorganisms. Generally, the total content of BA's in Pecorino cheeses can range from about 100-2400

  12. Biogenic amines in wines from three Spanish regions.

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    Landete, José M; Ferrer, Sergi; Polo, Lucía; Pardo, Isabel

    2005-02-23

    One hundred and sixty-three wines from La Rioja, Utiel-Requena, and Tarragona were analyzed to determine if there were any differences in the concentrations of six biogenic amines that are found in these three regions. The influence of grape variety, type of vinification, wine pH, malolactic fermentation, and storage in bottle on biogenic amine concentrations was studied. Results show important differences in putrescine and histamine concentrations among regions, varieties of grape, and type of wine; differences were less appreciable for the remaining biogenic amines studied. Low pH prevented biogenic amine formation. Malolactic fermentation and short storage periods in bottle (3-6 months) showed increases in histamine concentration, whereas longer periods of storage led to a general decrease in histamine. Several strains of lactic acid bacteria were isolated in this work, and their ability to form biogenic amines was assayed in synthetic media, grape must, and wine. Grape varieties, different types of winemaking, pH, and lactic acid bacteria may be responsible for the differences observed in the biogenic amine concentrations of the wines analyzed.

  13. Conditions allowing the formation of biogenic amines in cheese.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Joosten, H.M.L.J.

    1988-01-01

    A study was undertaken to reveal the conditions that allow the formation of biogenic amines in cheese.The starters most commonly used in the Dutch cheese industry do not have decarboxylative properties. Only if the milk or curd is contaminated with non-starter bacteria, amine formation may be observ

  14. Biogenic amines in Italian Pecorino cheese

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    Maria eSchirone

    2012-05-01

    Full Text Available The quality of distinctive artisanal cheeses is closely associated with the territory of production and its traditions. Pedoclimatic characteristics, genetic autochthonous variations and anthropic components create an environment so specific that it would be extremely difficult to reproduce elsewhere. Pecorino cheese is included in this sector of the market and is widely diffused in Italy (approximately 53.727t of production. Pecorino is a common name given to indicate Italian cheeses made exclusively from pure ewes' milk characterized by a high content of fat matter and it is mainly produced in the middle and south of Italy by traditional procedures from raw or thermized milk. The microbiota plays a major role in the development of the organoleptic characteristics of the cheese but it can also be responsible for the accumulation of undesirable substances, such as biogenic amines (BA. Several factors can contribute to the qualitative and quantitative profiles of BA’s in Pecorino cheese such as environmental hygienic conditions, pH, salt concentration, aw, fat content, pasteurization of milk, decarboxylase microorganisms, starter cultures, temperature and time of ripening, storage, part of the cheese (core, edge and the presence of cofactor. Generally, the total content of BA’s can range from about 100-2400 mg/kg, with a prevalence of toxicologically important BA’s, tyramine and histamine. The presence of BA in Pecorino cheeses is becoming increasingly important to consumers and cheese-maker alike, due to the potential threats of toxicity to humans and consequent trade implications.

  15. Relationship between analgesia and turnover of brain biogenic amines.

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    Bensemana, D; Gascon, A L

    1978-10-01

    The analgesic activity of morphine, delta9THC, and sodium salicylate was studied concomitantly with changes in brainstem and cortex turnover of dopamine (DA), noradrenaline (NA), and serotonin (5HT). The results show that a correlation exists between the presence of analgesia and the increased turnover rates of the three biogenic amines. Morphine and sodium salicylate induced analgesia is accompanied by an increased turnover rate of all three biogenic amines; delta9THC-induced analgesia is accompanied by an increased turnover rate of DA and 5HT only. There is, however, no consistent relationship between the degree of analgesia and the degree of change in the turnover rates. The existence of the endogenous morphine-like substances, endorphines, may explain why morphine analgesia is distinct from that of delta9THC and sodium salicylate. The possible relationship between this morphine-like substance and biogenic amines is discussed.

  16. Biogenic amines in smear and mould-ripened cheeses

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    Pavel Pleva

    2014-02-01

    Full Text Available The aim of the study was the monitoring of six biogenic amines (histamine, tyramine, phenylethylamine, tryptamine, putrescine, and cadaverine and two polyamines (spermidine and spermine in 30 samples of dairy products purchased in the Czech Republic, namely in 15 samples of mould-ripened cheeses and in 15 samples of smear-ripened cheeses. A further goal was the microbiological analysis of the individual samples of cheeses (total count of microorganisms, number of enterobacteria, enterococci, lactic acid bacteria, yeasts and moulds. The monitored biogenic amines were analyzed by a high performance liquid chromatography equipped with a UV/VIS DAD detector. The amount of enterobacteria in fresh cheese exceeded 105 CFU.g‑1. In smear-ripened cheese flavourless (Romadur type, the amount was >103 CFU.g-1 and 104-105 CFU.g-1 in smear-ripened cheese with flavour. Biogenic amines were observed in two groups of blue cheeses (white veined cheese and blue veined cheese and smear-ripened cheeses. In both groups, there is a possibility of the presence of biogenic amines because the number of microorganisms and concentration of free amino acids increase during ripening. In ten samples of soft smear-ripening acid cheese and in smear-ripened cheese, the total content of biogenic amines were 22-1000 mg.kg-1 and in 5 samples of these cheeses, it was in range 1000-6000 mg.kg-1. The total amount of biogenic amines in the blue cheeses were in range 40-600 mg.kg-1. The presense of the tyramine was observed in the all analysed cheeses. The tyramine producing strains generated more than 900 mg.kg-1 of this biogenic amine. The production of tryptamine in the analysed cheeses was not proved by this study. The results of this study show that biogenic amines and polyamines are common in cheese. However, in some cases, they can pose a significant health danger for consumers. Any legislative control authority does not monitor them, as they are secondary metabolites even

  17. The Potential of the Yeast Debaryomyces hansenii H525 to Degrade Biogenic Amines in Food

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    Mathias Bäumlisberger

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available Twenty-six yeasts from different genera were investigated for their ability to metabolize biogenic amines. About half of the yeast strains produced one or more different biogenic amines, but some strains of Debaryomyces hansenii and Yarrowia lipolytica were also able to degrade such compounds. The most effective strain D. hanseniii H525 metabolized a broad spectrum of biogenic amines by growing and resting cells. Degradation of biogenic amines by this yeast isolate could be attributed to a peroxisomal amine oxidase activity. Strain H525 may be useful as a starter culture to reduce biogenic amines in fermented food.

  18. Biogenic amines in rhizobia and legume root nodules.

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    Fujihara, Shinsuke

    2009-01-01

    Root-nodule bacteria (rhizobia) are of great importance for nitrogen acquisition through symbiotic nitrogen fixation in a wide variety of leguminous plants. These bacteria differ from most other soil microorganisms by taking dual forms, i.e. a free-living form in soils and a symbiotic form inside of host legumes. Therefore, they should have a versatile strategy for survival, whether inhabiting soils or root nodules formed through rhizobia-legume interactions. Rhizobia generally contain large amounts of the biogenic amine homospermidine, an analog of spermidine which is an essential cellular component in most living systems. The external pH, salinity and a rapid change in osmolarity are thought to be significant environmental factors affecting the persistence of rhizobia. The present review describes the regulation of homospermidine biosynthesis in response to environmental stress and its possible functional role in rhizobia. Legume root nodules, an alternative habitat of rhizobia, usually contain a variety of biogenic amines besides homospermidine and the occurrence of some of these amines is closely associated with rhizobial infections. In the second half of this review, novel biogenic amines found in certain legume root nodules and the mechanism of their synthesis involving cooperation between the rhizobia and host legume cells are also described.

  19. [Metabolism of various biogenic amines in acute viral neuroinfections].

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    Martynenko, I N; Shchegoleva, R A; Ponomarenko, V P; Leshchinskaia, E V; Kodkind, G Kh

    1983-01-01

    The metabolism of biogenic amines was examined in 62 patients with various acute viral neuroinfections. The control group consisted of 57 persons. Depending on the process character and disease period variations of the levels of serotonin, 5-hydroxyindolylacetic acid, coeruloplasmin and histamine were discovered. A comparison of the results obtained with the clinical course of the diseases revealed a certain correlation, especially in patients with acute meningoencephalitis.

  20. Control of biogenic amines in fermented sausages: role of starter cultures

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    Mariluz eLatorre-Moratalla

    2012-05-01

    Full Text Available Biogenic amines show biological activity and exert undesirable physiological effects when absorbed at high concentrations. Biogenic amines are mainly formed by microbial decarboxylation of amino acids and thus are usually present in a wide range of foods, fermented sausages being one of the major biogenic amine sources. The use of selected starter cultures is one of the best technological measures to control aminogenesis during meat fermentation. Although with variable effectiveness, several works show the ability of some starters to render biogenic amine-free sausages. In this paper, the effect of different starter culture is reviewed and the factors determining their performance discussed.

  1. Control of biogenic amines in fermented sausages: role of starter cultures.

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    Latorre-Moratalla, M L; Bover-Cid, Sara; Veciana-Nogués, M T; Vidal-Carou, M C

    2012-01-01

    Biogenic amines show biological activity and exert undesirable physiological effects when absorbed at high concentrations. Biogenic amines are mainly formed by microbial decarboxylation of amino acids and thus are usually present in a wide range of foods, fermented sausages being one of the major biogenic amine sources. The use of selected starter cultures is one of the best technological measures to control aminogenesis during meat fermentation. Although with variable effectiveness, several works show the ability of some starters to render biogenic amine-free sausages. In this paper, the effect of different starter culture is reviewed and the factors determining their performance discussed.

  2. Technological factors affecting biogenic amine content in foods: a review

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    Fausto Gardini

    2016-08-01

    Full Text Available Biogenic amines (BAs are molecules which can be present in foods and, due to their toxicity, can cause adverse effects on the consumers. BAs are generally produced by microbial decarboxylation of amino acids in food products. The most significant BAs occurring in foods are histamine, tyramine, putrescine, cadaverine, tryptamine, 2-phenylethylamine, spermine, spermidine and agmatine. The importance of preventing the excessive accumulation of BAs in food is related to their impact on human health and food quality. Quality criteria in connection with the presence of BAs in food and food products are necessary from a toxicological point of view. This is particularly important in fermented foods in which the massive microbial proliferation required for obtaining specific products is often relater with BA accumulation. In this review, up-to-date information and recent discoveries about technological factors affecting biogenic amine content in foods are reviewed. Specifically, BA forming-microorganism and decarboxylation activity, genetic and metabolic organization of decarboxylases, risk associated to BAs (histamine, tyramine toxicity and other BAs, environmental factors influencing BA formation (temperature, salt concentration, pH. In addition, the technological factors for controlling BA production (use of starter culture, technological additives, effects of packaging, other non-thermal treatments, metabolising BA by microorganisms, effects of pressure treatments on BA formation and antimicrobial substances are addressed.

  3. Concentration of Biogenic Amines in ‘Pinot Noir’ Wines Produced in Croatia

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    Ana Jeromel

    2012-03-01

    Full Text Available The origins of biogenic amines are sound grapes, alcoholic fermentations, malolactic fermentation and microbial activities during wine storage. These biologically produced amines are essential at low concentrations for optimal metabolic and physiological functions in animals, plants and micro-organisms. During alcoholic fermentation the degree of maceration is the first factor that affects the extraction of compounds present in the grape skin, among them aminoacids, precursors of biogenic amines. The aim of the present work was to study the changes of the concentration of biogenic amines in wines made from Vitis vinifera ‘Pinot noir’ from Plešivica (vintage 2009 produced with classical maceration, cold maceration and use of sur lie method. Biogenic amines were quantified using a reversed-phase high performance liquid chromatography (HPLC with fluorescence detection after pre-column derivatization with o-phthalaldehyde (OPA. In ‘Pinot noir’ wines tested, histamine was the most abundant biogenic amine followed by tryptamine and 2-Phenylethylamine. Total amount of biogenic amines ranged from 8.72 mg/L in wines made with classical maceration up to 9.34 mg/L in sur lie wines. In summary, from the results obtained in this study, it can be concluded that sur lie technology can influence the formation of biogenic acids since the release of amino acids is probably more pronounced in wines aged with lees and stirred weekly. No significant differences were found in the concentration of biogenic amines in relation to the used maceration process.

  4. Effect of autochthonous starter cultures on the biogenic amine content of ewe's milk cheese throughout ripening.

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    Renes, E; Diezhandino, I; Fernández, D; Ferrazza, R E; Tornadijo, M E; Fresno, J M

    2014-12-01

    Cheese is among the most commonly implicated foods associated with biogenic amines poisoning. The aim of this study was to evaluate the effects of the type of autochthonous starter culture and ripening time on the concentration of biogenic amines (histamine, tyramine, putrescine, cadaverine, tryptamine, β-phenylethylamine, spermine and spermidine) in cheeses made from pasteurized ewe's milk. 4 cheese batches were made, in duplicate, and ripened for 7 months. The biogenic amines of 40 cheeses were analysed by high performance liquid chromatography. The predominant biogenic amines determined at the end of the ripening time were phenylethylamine, spermine and tryptamine. Together, these accounted for 81% of the total of biogenic amines studied. The type of starter culture used to make the ewe's cheese had a significant effect (p culture made up entirely of Lactococcus lactis subsp. lactis and L. lactis subsp. cremoris or of the same in combination with Lactobacillus plantarum.

  5. Occurrence of biogenic amines in Miso, Japanese traditional fermented soybean paste.

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    Byun, Bo Young; Mah, Jae-Hyung

    2012-12-01

    The objective of this study was to analyze overall contents of biogenic amines in Miso and thereby evaluate the safety of the food. Through HPLC analysis of 22 different Miso products, it was found that most samples had low biogenic amine contents. However, some samples contained both histamine and tyramine close to hazardous levels of the amines, which indicate that the amounts of biogenic amines in Miso are not completely within the safe level for human health. Meanwhile, the biogenic amine contents showed no clear relationship with physicochemical parameters, whereas they revealed a good relationship with the ratio of soybean to other grains used in raw material. Thus, it turned out that biogenic amine contents in Miso are primarily affected by the ratio of raw ingredients, especially soybeans. The aerobic plate counts of Miso samples ranged from 3 to 8 Log CFU/g, and all the strains isolated from Miso samples were found to produce biogenic amines. Most strains were identified to be Bacillus subtilis, often regarded as the predominant contaminant bacteria in Miso, and highly capable of producing tyramine and spermine. Taken together, therefore, this study suggests that variability of biogenic amine contents in Miso are primarily attributed to the ratio of raw ingredients in the food that affects the relative contribution level of bacterial contaminants to the contents.

  6. Biogenic amines at a low level of evolution: Production, functions and regulation in the unicellular Tetrahymena.

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    Csaba, György

    2015-06-01

    The unicellular eukaryote Tetrahymena synthesize, store and secrete biogenic amines (histamine, serotonin, epinephrine, dopamine, melatonin) and also can take up amines from the milieu. It also has (G-protein-coupled) receptors (binding sites) for these amines as well, as second messengers. The factors infuencing the mentioned processes are shown. For certain amines the genes and the coded enzymes are demonstrated. The amines influence phagocytosis, cell division, ciliary regeneration, glucose metabolism and chemotaxis. There are interhormone actions between the amines, and between the amines and other hormones produced by Tetrahymena. The critical review discusses the role of amines in the early stages of evolution and compares this to their functions in mammals. It tries to give answer how and why biogenic amines were selected to hormones, and why new functions formed for them in higher ranked animals, preserving also the ancient ones.

  7. Analysis of Some Biogenic Amines by Micellar Liquid Chromatography

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    Irena Malinowska

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Micellar liquid chromatography (MLC with the use of high performance liquid chromatography (HPLC was used to determine some physicochemical parameters of six biogenic amines: adrenaline, dopamine, octopamine, histamine, 2-phenylethylamine, and tyramine. In this paper, an influence of surfactant’s concentration and pH of the micellar mobile phase on the retention of the tested substances was examined. To determine the influence of surfactant’s concentration on the retention of the tested amines, buffered solutions (at pH 7.4 of ionic surfactant—sodium dodecyl sulfate SDS (at different concentrations with acetonitrile as an organic modifier (0.8/0.2 v/v were used as the micellar mobile phases. To determine the influence of pH of the micellar mobile phase on the retention, mobile phases contained buffered solutions (at different pH values of sodium dodecyl sulfate SDS (at 0.1 M with acetonitrile (0.8/0.2 v/v. The inverse of value of retention factor (1/ versus concentration of micelles ( relationships were examined. Other physicochemical parameters of solutes such as an association constant analyte—micelle (ma—and partition coefficient of analyte between stationary phase and water (hydrophobicity descriptor (swΦ were determined by the use of Foley’s equation.

  8. Biogenic amines formation in Streptococcus thermophilus isolated from home-made natural yogurt.

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    Gezginc, Yekta; Akyol, Ismail; Kuley, Esmeray; Özogul, Fatih

    2013-05-01

    Twelve different biogenic amines formation in 58 isolates of Streptococcus thermophilus from home-made natural yogurt were investigated in histidine (HDB) and lysine decarboxylase broth (LDB). All S. thermophilus isolates had an ability to produce twelve different biogenic amines in HDB and LDB. Most of the S. thermophilus isolates formed low amounts of histamine (1-50 mg/L) from histidine. Apart from one isolate, S. thermophilus produced tyramine at low (47 isolates) and medium (10 isolates) levels. The amount of each specific biogenic amine produced by S. thermophilus was generally lower than 100 mg L(-1). Also, the presence of hdcA gene was investigated using PCR technique and relation between gene and histamine production was conducted in S. thermophilus isolates. This study showed that most of the S. thermophilus isolates have the ability to form biogenic amines, especially histamine, and tyramine, which is an important consideration when selecting strains as starter cultures.

  9. Biogenic amines degradation by malolactic bacteria: towards a potential application in wine

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    Vittorio eCapozzi

    2012-04-01

    Full Text Available Biogenic amines in wine represent a toxicological risk for the health of the consumer, with several trade implications. In this study 26 strains of Lactobacillus plantarum were analysed for their ability to degrade biogenic amines commonly found during wine fermentation. Two strains of L. plantarum were selected in reason of their ability to degrade putrescine and tyramine. The degradation was assessed in vitro, both in presence of the biogenic amines and in presence of the specific chemical precursor and of producer bacteria. The two L. plantarum biotypes were found capable to work synergically. In addition, the survival in wine-like medium and the aptitude to degrade malic acid after alcoholic fermentation of the selected L. plantarum strains was analysed. Our results suggest the potential application of wine L. plantarum strains to design malolactic starter cultures able to degrade biogenic amines in wine.

  10. Metabolism of biogenic amines in acute cerebral ischemia: Influence of systemic hyperglycemia

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    Milovanović Aleksandar

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Dopamine, norepinephrine and serotonin are biogenic amines which are transmitters of the central nervous system. The effects of ischemia on the brain parenchyma depends on many factors, such is the mechanism of blood flow interruption, velocity of the occurring blood flow interruption, duration of an ischemic episode, organization of anatomical structures of the brain blood vessels etc., which all influence the final outcome. During interruption of the brain circulation in experimental or clinical conditions, neurotransmitter metabolism, primarily of biogenic amines, is disturbed. Many researches with various experimental models of complete ischemia reported a decrease in the content of norepinephrine, dopamine and serotonin in the CNS tissue. It was proven that hyperglycemia can drastically increase cerebral injury followed by short-term cerebral ischemia. Considering the fact that biogenic amines (dopamine, norepinephrine and serotonin influence the size of neurologic damage, as well as the fact that in hyperglycemic conditions infarct size (from the morphological aspect is larger relative to normoglycemic status, the intention was to evaluate the role of biogenic amines in occurrence of damage in conditions of hyperglycemia, i.e. in the case of brain apoplexia in diabetics. Analysis of biogenic amines metabolism in states of acute hyperglycemia, as well as analysis of the effects of reversible and irreversible brain ischemia on metabolism of serotonin, dopamine and norepinephrine, showed that acute hyperglycemia slows down serotonin, dopamine and norepinephrine metabolism in the cerebral cortex and n. caudatus. Brain ischemia in normoglycemic animals by itself has no influence on biogenic amines metabolism, but the effect of ischemia becomes apparent during reperfusion. In recirculation, which corresponds to the occurrences in penumbra, release of biogenic amines is uncontrolled and increased. Brain ischemia in acute hyperglycemic animals

  11. Study on biogenic amines in various dry salted fish consumed in China

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, Yanyan; Chen, Yufeng; Li, Laihao; Yang, Xianqing; Yang, Shaoling; Lin, Wanling; Zhao, Yongqiang; Deng, Jianchao

    2016-08-01

    This study was carried out to investigate the biogenic amines (BAs), physicochemical property and microorganisms in dry salted fish, a traditional aquatic food consumed in China. Forty three samples of dry salted fish were gathered from retail and wholesale markets and manufacturers, which had been produced in various regions in China. Cadaverine (CAD) and putrescine (PUT) were quantitatively the most common biogenic amines. About 14% of the samples exceeded the histamine content standards established by the FDA and/or EU. The highest histamine content was found in Silver pomfret ( Pampus argenteus) (347.79 mg kg-1). Five of forty three samples exceeded the acceptable content of TYR (100 mg kg-1), and 23.26% of dried-salted fish contained high contents of biogenic amines (above 600 mg kg-1). In addition, species, regions, pickling processes and drying methods made the physicochemical property, microorganisms and biogenic amines in dry salted fish to be different to some extents. The total plate count (TPC) was much higher than that of total halophilic bacteria in all samples. The biogenic amines, physicochemical property and microbiological counts exhibited large variations among samples. Furthermore, no significant correlation between biogenic amines and physicochemical property and TPC was observed. This study indicated that dry salted fish may still present healthy risk for BAs, depending on the processing methods, storage conditions among others.

  12. Biogenic amines and hygienic quality of lucerne silage

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    Mlejnkova Veronika

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available This experiment examined the influence of two different silage additives of biological (Lactococcus lactis, Lactobacillus plantarum, Enterococcus faecium, enzyme xylanase and chemical (43% formic acid, 30% ammonium formate, 10% propionic acid, 2% benzoic acid types on biogenic amines concentration, nutrient content, fermentation process, and microbiologic indicators in lucerne (Medicago sativa silage after 90 days of fermentation. The biological additive significantly (P < 0.05 increased putrescine (+51%, lactic acid (+11% and protein content (+11% in comparison with control silage. It significantly decreased cadaverine (−29%, histamine (−57%, spermidine (−15%, spermine (−55%, acetic acid (−40%, ethanol (−55%, ammonium (−25% and ash (−9%. After the chemical-additive treatment, greater amounts of histamine and tyramine were recorded. Significant decrease was observed in the concentrations of putrescine (−18%, cadaverine (−55%, spermidine (−47%, spermine (−45%, lactic acid (−16%, acetic acid (−46%, ammonium (−59%, ash (−13% and fat (−24%. Populations of bacteria associated with lactic acid fermentation, moulds, yeasts, enterobacteria and total microorganisms count were also influenced. Both biological and chemical additives can be highly recommended for producing high-quality silages meeting hygienic requirements. In lucerne silage, the chemical preservative showed a stronger effect in achieving the health safety of silage compared to the biological inoculant.

  13. Technological Factors Affecting Biogenic Amine Content in Foods: A Review

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gardini, Fausto; Özogul, Yesim; Suzzi, Giovanna; Tabanelli, Giulia; Özogul, Fatih

    2016-01-01

    Biogenic amines (BAs) are molecules, which can be present in foods and, due to their toxicity, can cause adverse effects on the consumers. BAs are generally produced by microbial decarboxylation of amino acids in food products. The most significant BAs occurring in foods are histamine, tyramine, putrescine, cadaverine, tryptamine, 2-phenylethylamine, spermine, spermidine, and agmatine. The importance of preventing the excessive accumulation of BAs in foods is related to their impact on human health and food quality. Quality criteria in connection with the presence of BAs in food and food products are necessary from a toxicological point of view. This is particularly important in fermented foods in which the massive microbial proliferation required for obtaining specific products is often relater with BAs accumulation. In this review, up-to-date information and recent discoveries about technological factors affecting BA content in foods are reviewed. Specifically, BA forming-microorganism and decarboxylation activity, genetic and metabolic organization of decarboxylases, risk associated to BAs (histamine, tyramine toxicity, and other BAs), environmental factors influencing BA formation (temperature, salt concentration, and pH). In addition, the technological factors for controlling BA production (use of starter culture, technological additives, effects of packaging, other non-thermal treatments, metabolizing BA by microorganisms, effects of pressure treatments on BA formation and antimicrobial substances) are addressed. PMID:27570519

  14. A Review: Microbiological, Physicochemical and Health Impact of High Level of Biogenic Amines in Fish Sauce

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    Muhammad Z. Zaman

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available Problem statement: Biogenic amines are basic nitrogenous compounds present in a wide variety of foods and beverages. Their formations were mainly due to the amino acids decarboxylase activity of certain microorganisms. Excessive intake of biogenic amines could induce many undesirable physiological effects determined by their psychoactive and vasoactive action. Fish sauce which is considered as a good source of dietary protein, amino acids, vitamins and minerals was a popular condiment in Southeast Asian countries. However, it has also been reported that fish sauce contain high amount of amines. Hence, attention should be given to ensure the safety of this product. Approach: A review study was conducted to deliver an overview on the presence of biogenic amines in fish sauce and to discuss the important factors affecting their accumulation. Impact of amines on human health and efforts to reduce their accumulation in fish sauce were also discussed to give a comprehensive view. Results: Histamine, putrescine and cadaverine is the most abundant amines in fish sauce with maximum reported value of 1220, 1257 and 1429 ppm, respectively. Tyramine present in a lesser amount with maximum reported value of 1178 ppm. Other amines such as tryptamine, phenylethylamine, spermine and spermidine were considered as minor amines. However, different profiles of amines were reported in different type of products. This was depended on microbial flora, availability of precursors and physicochemical factors such as temperature, pH, salt, oxygen and sugar concentration. In synergistically supporting physicochemical factors, several microorganisms such as Enterobacteriaceae, Micrococci and Lactobacilli were responsible for biogenic amines formation in fish sauce. Conclusion: Since the formation of amines in fish sauce was a result of many factors, it was almost virtually impossible to control each factor during fermentation. Addition of amines degrading bacteria into fish

  15. Managing your wine fermentation to reduce the risk of biogenic amine formation

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    Anita Yolandi Smit

    2012-03-01

    Full Text Available Biogenic amines are nitrogenous organic compounds produced in wine from amino acid precursors mainly by microbial decarboxylation. The concentration of biogenic amines that can potentially be produced is dependent on the amount of amino acid precursors in the medium, the presence of decarboxylase positive microorganisms and conditions that enable microbial or biochemical activity such as the addition of nutrients to support the alcoholic and malolactic fermentation (MLF inoculated starter cultures. MLF can be conducted using co-inoculation or inoculated after the completion of alcoholic fermentation (AF that may also affect the level of biogenic amine in the wine. This study focussed on the impact the addition of complex commercial yeast and bacterial nutrients and the use of different MLF inoculation scenarios could have on the production of biogenic amine in the wine. Results obtained with wine showed that in this study the amine that was influenced by nutrient addition was histamine. In the synthetic winemaking using 12 different treatments no clear tendencies were observed. It was shown that in certain conditions co-inoculation could reduce the amount of biogenic amines produced.

  16. Biogenic amines in table olives. Analysis by high-performance liquid chromatography.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hornero-Méndez, D; Garrido-Fernández, A

    1994-09-01

    Biogenic amines in fermented vegetables have scarcely been studied. Available data show that in table olives and fermented cucumbers their presence is rare and any determinations made have been restricted mainly to histamine. However, some microorganisms, especially those related to spoilage, found in the fermentation brines of such products may have amino acid decarboxylase activity and give rise to biogenic amines by unusual processes. A method for the simultaneous determination of eight biogenic amines (tryptamine, beta-phenylethylamine, putrescine, cadaverine, histamine, tyramine, spermidine, and spermine) has been developed to study their occurrence in fermented vegetables in more detail. The method consists of extraction of the amines from olive paste with 5% m/v trichloracetic acid and successive transfers into water-saturated n-BuOH and 0.1 mol l-1 HCl. An aliquot of this mixture is dried and derivatized with dansyl chloride. The dansyl derivatives are then analysed by high-performance liquid chromatography. Special emphasis has been given to optimization of the n-BuOH and 0.1 mol l-1 HCl extractions and to the derivatization conditions. By applying this method to the analysis of spoilt olives, the presence of some biogenic amines has been demonstrated. Thus a new method for monitoring the presence of biogenic amines during the fermentation of olives and for detecting anomalous fermentations is envisaged.

  17. Dry fermented sausages of Southern Italy: a comparison of free amino acids and biogenic amines between industrial and homemade products.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leggio, Antonella; Belsito, Emilia L; De Marco, Rosaria; Di Gioia, Maria L; Liguori, Angelo; Siciliano, Carlo; Spinella, Mariagiovanna

    2012-04-01

    This paper compares some important parameters and the free amino acid and biogenic amine contents of cured industrial and homemade meat products. To this aim, industrial and homemade "soppressata" and "salsiccia", typical dry fermented sausages produced in Southern Italy, were analyzed. The homemade sausages showed a higher level of free biogenic amines than that manufactured industrially, most likely because biogenic amine formation in industrial products is limited by the use of starter cultures. The industrial sausages are characterized by a higher total free amino acid content than the homemade products. Overall, free amino acid and biogenic amine contents demonstrated that appreciable differences exist between homemade and industrial sausages.

  18. Biogenic Amines as Quality Marker in Organic and Fair-Trade Cocoa-Based Products

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    Donatella Restuccia

    2016-08-01

    Full Text Available In this study, the quantitative determination of eight biogenic amines (cadaverine, serotonin, histamine, spermidine, spermine, tyramine, putrescine and β-phenylethylamine by an liquid chromatography method with evaporative light scattering detection was performed. The analysis of several samples of conventional, organic and fair trade cocoa-derivatives showed that organic and fair trade samples always contain much lower amine concentrations in comparison with their conventional counterparts, supporting the idea that biogenic amines can be regarded as cocoa quality markers. Irrespective of the kind of sample, results also showed that the most abundant amines were histamine, tyramine, spermidine, putrescine and spermine while β-phenylethylamine, cadaverine and serotonine have been found more rarely, all the amines never reaching dangerous amounts for consumer health. With the aim to confirm the experimental results, clustering analysis was performed on samples and instrumental results using principal component analysis.

  19. Safety assessment of the biogenic amines in fermented soya beans and fermented bean curd.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Juan; Ding, Xiaowen; Qin, Yingrui; Zeng, Yitao

    2014-08-06

    To evaluate the safety of biogenic amines, high performance liquid chromatography (HPLC) was used to evaluate the levels of biogenic amines in fermented soya beans and fermented bean curd. In fermented soya beans, the total biogenic amines content was in a relatively safe range in many samples, although the concentration of histamine, tyramine, and β-phenethylamine was high enough in some samples to cause a possible safety threat, and 8 of the 30 samples were deemed unsafe. In fermented bean curd, the total biogenic amines content was more than 900 mg/kg in 19 white sufu amples, a level that has been determined to pose a safety hazard; putrescine was the only one detected in all samples and also had the highest concentration, which made samples a safety hazard; the content of tryptamine, β-phenethylamine, tyramine, and histamine had reached the level of threat to human health in some white and green sufu samples, and that may imply another potential safety risk; and 25 of the 33 samples were unsafe. In conclusion, the content of biogenic amines in all fermented soya bean products should be studied and appropriate limits determined to ensure the safety of eating these foods.

  20. Cocaine affects foraging behaviour and biogenic amine modulated behavioural reflexes in honey bees

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    Eirik Søvik

    2014-11-01

    Full Text Available In humans and other mammals, drugs of abuse alter the function of biogenic amine pathways in the brain leading to the subjective experience of reward and euphoria. Biogenic amine pathways are involved in reward processing across diverse animal phyla, however whether cocaine acts on these neurochemical pathways to cause similar rewarding behavioural effects in animal phyla other than mammals is unclear. Previously, it has been shown that bees are more likely to dance (a signal of perceived reward when returning from a sucrose feeder after cocaine treatment. Here we examined more broadly whether cocaine altered reward-related behaviour, and biogenic amine modulated behavioural responses in bees. Bees developed a preference for locations at which they received cocaine, and when foraging at low quality sucrose feeders increase their foraging rate in response to cocaine treatment. Cocaine also increased reflexive proboscis extension to sucrose, and sting extension to electric shock. Both of these simple reflexes are modulated by biogenic amines. This shows that systemic cocaine treatment alters behavioural responses that are modulated by biogenic amines in insects. Since insect reward responses involve both octopamine and dopamine signalling, we conclude that cocaine treatment altered diverse reward-related aspects of behaviour in bees. We discuss the implications of these results for understanding the ecology of cocaine as a plant defence compound. Our findings further validate the honey bee as a model system for understanding the behavioural impacts of cocaine, and potentially other drugs of abuse.

  1. BIOGENIC AMINES CONTENT IN SELECTED COMMERCIAL FERMENTED PRODUCTS OF ANIMAL ORIGIN

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    Vendula Pachlová

    2012-08-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this study was to monitor of biogenic amines contents in commercial fermented products, especially various type of ripening cheeses and fermented meat products (15 cheese samples and nine dry fermented meat products obtained from Czech Republic, Slovak Republic, Poland, and Germany. Furthermore, the changes in samples during storage were also observed. The samples were stored at 6±1°C. The samples were taken the first day of storage and the last day of shelf-life. The biogenic amines content was determined using ion-exchange liquid chromatography with post-column derivatization and photometric detection. The content of biogenic amines increased during storage. The highest biogenic amines content at the end of storage was observed in Dutch-type cheeses and in Smear cheeses, in both the concentrations exceeded 1 000 mg.kg-1. Latter mentioned amount may have serious negative impact on consumer health. The lowest concentration of biogenic amines was detected in Blue cheese.

  2. Melatonin is formed during winemaking at safe levels of biogenic amines.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rodriguez-Naranjo, M Isabel; Ordóñez, José L; Callejón, Raquel M; Cantos-Villar, Emma; Garcia-Parrilla, M Carmen

    2013-07-01

    The European Food Safety Authority (EFSA) has accepted health claims for the food constituent melatonin because scientific evidence shows that it is effective at reducing sleep onset latency, and that it alleviates subjective feelings of jet lag. According to risk assessment data published by EFSA in 2011, histamine and tyramine are the most toxic biogenic amines and the ones that most affect food safety. The potential formation of biogenic amines is a concern in fermented foods because of the intense microbial activity. Conversely, Saccharomyces cerevisiase produces melatonin during fermentation in the winemaking process. This study aims to evaluate the production of potentially healthy melatonin and toxic biogenic amines during the winemaking process. To this end, 11 biogenic amines (agmatine, cadaverine, histamine, methylamine, 2-phenylethylamine, putrescine, spermidine, spermine, tyramine, tryptamine and melatonin) have been monitored during the making of 5 monovarietal wines (Merlot, Palomino Fino, Syrah, Tempranillo and Tintilla de Rota). This paper shows that alcoholic and malolactic fermentation plays a crucial role in the formation of these compounds. Bioactive melatonin is formed at safe levels of the other biogenic amines.

  3. Recent trends in the determination of biogenic amines in fermented beverages - A review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ordóñez, José Luis; Troncoso, Ana Maria; García-Parrilla, Maria Del Carmen; Callejón, Raquel Maria

    2016-10-05

    Biogenic amines (BA) are generally considered as a food hazard, even though there is not a threshold for these biomolecules in the European legislation, except for histamine in fishery products. These compounds are formed during the storage and processing of certain foods through microbiological activity, and when present in high concentrations, could have toxicological effects, causing health problems in consumers, especially to sensitive persons. This fact, in addition to the economical concern involved, makes it necessary to control the amounts of biogenic amines in foods. For all these reasons, literature on biogenic amines in different food products, especially in fermented beverages, is extensive. This review provides an overview of the most recent trends in the determination of biogenic amines in fermented beverages focusing on novelty, improvement and optimization of analytical methods. Hence, the different sample treatment procedures (including derivatization), the most important analytical techniques and the most frequent applications are described and discussed. Although biogenic amines have been determined in wine and other fermented beverages for decades, new advancements and technical possibilities have allowed to increase the accuracy and sensitivity of analytical methods, in order to overcome the challenges posed by the complex matrices and their high intrinsic variability. Thus, the different purposes of BA determination (food safety, production process or food microbiology research) and the most widely employed analytical techniques have been reviewed.

  4. New procedure of selected biogenic amines determination in wine samples by HPLC

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Piasta, Anna M.; Jastrzębska, Aneta, E-mail: aj@chem.uni.torun.pl; Krzemiński, Marek P.; Muzioł, Tadeusz M.; Szłyk, Edward

    2014-06-27

    Highlights: • We proposed new procedure for derivatization of biogenic amines. • The NMR and XRD analysis confirmed the purity and uniqueness of derivatives. • Concentration of biogenic amines in wine samples were analyzed by RP-HPLC. • Sample contamination and derivatization reactions interferences were minimized. - Abstract: A new procedure for determination of biogenic amines (BA): histamine, phenethylamine, tyramine and tryptamine, based on the derivatization reaction with 2-chloro-1,3-dinitro-5-(trifluoromethyl)-benzene (CNBF), is proposed. The amines derivatives with CNBF were isolated and characterized by X-ray crystallography and {sup 1}H, {sup 13}C, {sup 19}F NMR spectroscopy in solution. The novelty of the procedure is based on the pure and well-characterized products of the amines derivatization reaction. The method was applied for the simultaneous analysis of the above mentioned biogenic amines in wine samples by the reversed phase-high performance liquid chromatography. The procedure revealed correlation coefficients (R{sup 2}) between 0.9997 and 0.9999, and linear range: 0.10–9.00 mg L{sup −1} (histamine); 0.10–9.36 mg L{sup -1} (tyramine); 0.09–8.64 mg L{sup −1} (tryptamine) and 0.10–8.64 mg L{sup −1} (phenethylamine), whereas accuracy was 97%–102% (recovery test). Detection limit of biogenic amines in wine samples was 0.02–0.03 mg L{sup −1}, whereas quantification limit ranged 0.05–0.10 mg L{sup −1}. The variation coefficients for the analyzed amines ranged between 0.49% and 3.92%. Obtained BA derivatives enhanced separation the analytes on chromatograms due to the inhibition of hydrolysis reaction and the reduction of by-products formation.

  5. Differences between biogenic amine detection by HPLC methods using OPA and dansyl derivates.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alberto, María R; Arena, Mario E; De Nadra, María C Manca

    2004-01-01

    Biogenic amines can be formed and degraded as a result of normal metabolic activity in animals, plants, and microorganisms and are usually produced by the decarboxylation of amino acids. Recent trends in food security are promoting an increasing search for trace compounds that can affect human health. Although they are present in fermented foods and beverages in low quantities, they exhibit interactions with normal human metabolism (e.g., having vasoactive or psychoactive properties) that justify the research on their presence in foods and the possible related toxicological effects that they may cause. Estimation of the biogenic amines histamine, tyramine, agmatine, putrescine, and cadaverine is important not only from the point of view of their toxicity, but also because they can be used as indicators of the degree of freshness or spoilage of food. Until recently, because of the difficulty in detecting and quantifying amines reliably we have had insufficient information about their occurrence in different types of foods and beverages. These problems are related to matrix interference (e.g., the presence of free amino acids) and the low levels at which the amines are found. Early techniques for the determination of biogenic amines in foods were based on thin-layer chromatography. More modern analytical techniques have since been developed that allow the acquisition of reliable quantitative data and better separation/resolution of various amines. The quantitative determination of biogenic amines is generally accomplished by overpressure-layer chromatography, high-performance liquid chromatography (HPLC), and gas chromatography. The use of reverse-phase column and precolumn derivatization was more efficient and faster than the conventional ion-exchange techniques. This study was conducted to evaluate two HPLC derivatization methods for quantitative determination of biogenic amines: the method described by Gonzales de Llano et al. for amino acid analysis and the

  6. Biogenic amine content, histamine-forming bacteria, and adulteration of pork in tuna sausage products.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kung, Hsien-Feng; Tsai, Yung-Hsiang; Chang, Shih-Chih; Hong, Tang-Yao

    2012-10-01

    Twenty-five tuna sausage products were purchased from retail markets in Taiwan. The rates of occurrence of biogenic amines, histamine-forming bacteria, and adulteration by pork and poultry were determined. The average content of various biogenic amines in all tested samples was less than 2.0 mg/100 g (sausage. The fish species in the tuna sausage samples were identified as Thunnus albacares for 22 samples (88%), Thunnus alalunga for 1 sample (4%), and Thunnus thynnus for 1 sample (4%), whereas the remaining sample was identified as Makaira nigricans (blue marlin).

  7. Biogenic amines determination in some traditional cheeses in West Azerbaijan province of Iran

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    Seyed Mehdi Razavi Rohani

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available Biogenic amines (BA are nitrogenous compounds that possess biological activity. The source of production is the microbial decarboxylation of amino acids. This compounds are found in various types of cheese. The aim of this work was to evaluate the BA content of some traditional cheeses in West Azerbaijan province Iran. For this purpose, 70 samples of Koopeh, 10 samples of Lighvan and 5 samples of Red Salmas cheeses were obtained from local supermarkets of different cities of West Azerbaijan province. After preparation of samples, biogenic amines content was evaluated by modified HPLC method. The presence of histamine, cadaverine, putrescine and tyramine in tested cheeses were observed. Total amount of biogenic amines was highest in Red Salmas cheese with 1426.91 ppm. It followed by Lighvan cheese and Koopeh cheese with 1008.98 and 517.71 ppm, respectively. Putrescine, cadaverine, histamine and tyramine were detected in Koopeh cheese at levels up to 156.09, 282.34, 70.80, 8.48 ppm respectively. These amines were detected also in Lighvan cheese at levels up to 277.53, 342.74, 37.58, 351.12 ppm and in Red Salmas cheese samples at levels up to 438.03, 701.05, 105.21, 182.62 ppm, respectively. Large amounts of biogenic amines can indicate non hygienic conditions and contamination of used milk for cheese production.

  8. Inhibitory Effects of Spices on Biogenic Amine Accumulation during Fish Sauce Fermentation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhou, Xuxia; Qiu, Mengting; Zhao, Dandan; Lu, Fei; Ding, Yuting

    2016-04-01

    The presence of high levels of biogenic amines is detrimental to the quality and safety of fish sauce. This study investigated the effects of ethanol extracts of spices, including garlic, ginger, cinnamon, and star anise extracts, in reducing the accumulation of biogenic amines during fish sauce fermentation. The concentrations of biogenic amines, which include histamine, putrescine, tyramine, and spermidine, all increased during fish sauce fermentation. When compared with the samples without spices, the garlic and star anise extracts significantly reduced these increases. The greatest inhibitory effect was observed for the garlic ethanolic extracts. When compared with controls, the histamine, putrescine, tyramine, and spermidine contents and the overall biogenic amine levels of the garlic extract-treated samples were reduced by 30.49%, 17.65%, 26.03%, 37.20%, and 27.17%, respectively. The garlic, cinnamon, and star anise extracts showed significant inhibitory effects on aerobic bacteria counts. Furthermore, the garlic and star anise extracts showed antimicrobial activity against amine producers. These findings may be helpful for enhancing the safety of fish sauce.

  9. Biogenic amines in fish: roles in intoxication, spoilage, and nitrosamine formation--a review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Al Bulushi, Ismail; Poole, Susan; Deeth, Hilton C; Dykes, Gary A

    2009-04-01

    Biogenic amines are non-volatile amines formed by decarboxylation of amino acids. Although many biogenic amines have been found in fish, only histamine, cadaverine, and putrescine have been found to be significant in fish safety and quality determination. Despite a widely reported association between histamine and scombroid food poisoning, histamine alone appears to be insufficient to cause food toxicity. Putrescine and cadaverine have been suggested to potentiate histamine toxicity. With respect to spoilage on the other hand, only cadaverine has been found to be a useful index of the initial stage of fish decomposition. The relationship between biogenic amines, sensory evaluation, and trimethylamine during spoilage are influenced by bacterial composition and free amino acid content. A mesophilic bacterial count of log 6-7 cfu/g has been found to be associated with 5 mg histamine/100 g fish, the Food and Drug Administration (FDA) maximum allowable histamine level. In vitro studies have shown the involvement of cadaverine and putrescine in the formation of nitrosamines, nitrosopiperidine (NPIP), and nitrosopyrrolidine (NPYR), respectively. In addition, impure salt, high temperature, and low pH enhance nitrosamine formation, whereas pure sodium chloride inhibits their formation. Understanding the relationships between biogenic amines and their involvement in the formation of nitrosamines could explain the mechanism of scombroid poisoning and assure the safety of many fish products.

  10. Biogenic amine accumulation in silver carp sausage inoculated with Lactobacillus plantarum plus Saccharomyces cerevisiae.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nie, Xiaohua; Zhang, Qilin; Lin, Shengli

    2014-06-15

    The effect of an amine-negative mixed starter culture (Lactobacillus plantarum ZY40 plus Saccharomyces cerevisiae JM19) on biogenic amine accumulation in fermented silver carp sausage was studied. Microbial counts, pH, titratable acid and free amino acids were also determined. Putrescine, cadaverine and tyramine were the main amines formed during sausage fermentation. The contents of putrescine and cadaverine were greatly reduced by the addition of L. plantarum ZY40 plus S. cerevisiae JM19, whereas tyramine accumulation was enhanced as compared to the control batch. Histamine and spermidine were not affected by the mixed starter culture, and their levels varied slightly throughout the fermentation. Besides, no positive correction between pH, free amino acid content and biogenic amine accumulation were found.

  11. Reduction of Biogenic Amines during Miso Fermentation by Lactobacillus plantarum as a Starter Culture.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Yi-Chen; Kung, Hsien-Feng; Huang, Ya-Ling; Wu, Chien-Hui; Huang, Yu-Ru; Tsai, Yung-Hsiang

    2016-09-01

    Lactobacillus plantarum D-103 isolated from a miso product that possesses amine-degrading activity was used as a starter culture in miso fermentation (25°C for 120 days) in this study. The salt content in control samples (without starter culture) and inoculated samples (inoculated with L. plantarum D-103) remained constant at 10.4% of the original salt concentration throughout fermentation, whereas the pH value decreased from 6.2 to 4.6 during fermentation. The inoculated samples had significantly lower (P culture with amine-degrading activity in miso products was effective in reducing the accumulation of biogenic amines.

  12. Detection and quantification of biogenic amines in fermented food products sold in Botswana.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Magwamba, Clement; Matsheka, Maitshwarelo Ignatius; Mpuchane, Sisai; Gashe, Berhanu Abegaz

    2010-09-01

    The incidence and concentrations associated with four important biogenic amines in leading commercial fermented beverages consumed in Botswana were determined using high-performance liquid chromatography. In 87 sorghum brew and 84 sour milk (madila, amasi) samples tested, putrescine was the most prevalent biogenic amine (63 and 61%, respectively), while histamine was the least prevalent (24 and 8%, respectively). Cadaverine was the most frequently detected biogenic amine in 79 of the commercial sour maize beverage (mageu/mahewu) samples tested (found in 70% of the samples), while tyramine was the least detected (occurring in 3% of the samples). In sorghum brew and sour milk, tyramine was found to be the most concentrated (mean concentration of 2.08 mg/100 ml and 3.2 mg/100 ml, respectively), and histamine was found to be the least concentrated (mean concentration of 0.94 mg/100 ml and 0.31 mg/100 ml, respectively). Overall, the biogenic amine concentrations of all three fermented products were within acceptable limits. However, one sorghum brew sample had a histamine content of 5.8 mg/ 100 ml, which was above the 5.0 mg/100 g allowable limit suggested by the U.S. Food and Drug Administration.

  13. Structure, Function, and Evolution of Biogenic Amine-binding Proteins in Soft Ticks

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mans, Ben J.; Ribeiro, Jose M.C.; Andersen, John F. (NIH)

    2008-08-19

    Two highly abundant lipocalins, monomine and monotonin, have been isolated from the salivary gland of the soft tick Argas monolakensis and shown to bind histamine and 5-hydroxytryptamine (5-HT), respectively. The crystal structures of monomine and a paralog of monotonin were determined in the presence of ligands to compare the determinants of ligand binding. Both the structures and binding measurements indicate that the proteins have a single binding site rather than the two sites previously described for the female-specific histamine-binding protein (FS-HBP), the histamine-binding lipocalin of the tick Rhipicephalus appendiculatus. The binding sites of monomine and monotonin are similar to the lower, low affinity site of FS-HBP. The interaction of the protein with the aliphatic amine group of the ligand is very similar for the all of the proteins, whereas specificity is determined by interactions with the aromatic portion of the ligand. Interestingly, protein interaction with the imidazole ring of histamine differs significantly between the low affinity binding site of FS-HBP and monomine, suggesting that histamine binding has evolved independently in the two lineages. From the conserved features of these proteins, a tick lipocalin biogenic amine-binding motif could be derived that was used to predict biogenic amine-binding function in other tick lipocalins. Heterologous expression of genes from salivary gland libraries led to the discovery of biogenic amine-binding proteins in soft (Ornithodoros) and hard (Ixodes) tick genera. The data generated were used to reconstruct the most probable evolutionary pathway for the evolution of biogenic amine-binding in tick lipocalins.

  14. Biogenic Amine Degradation by Bacillus Species Isolated from Traditional Fermented Soybean Food and Detection of Decarboxylase-Related Genes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eom, Jeong Seon; Seo, Bo Young; Choi, Hye Sun

    2015-09-01

    Biogenic amines in some food products present considerable toxicological risks as potential human carcinogens when consumed in excess concentrations. In this study, we investigated the degradation of the biogenic amines histamine and tyramine and the presence of genes encoding histidine and tyrosine decarboxylases and amine oxidase in Bacillus species isolated from fermented soybean food. No expression of histidine and tyrosine decarboxylase genes (hdc and tydc) were detected in the Bacillus species isolated (B. subtilis HJ0-6, B. subtilis D'J53-4, and B. idriensis RD13-10), although substantial levels of amine oxidase gene (yobN) expression were observed. We also found that the three selected strains, as non-biogenic amineproducing bacteria, were significantly able to degrade the biogenic amines histamine and tyramine. These results indicated that the selected Bacillus species could be used as a starter culture for the control of biogenic amine accumulation and degradation in food. Our study findings also provided the basis for the development of potential biological control agents against these biogenic amines for use in the food preservation and food safety sectors.

  15. Biogenic amine – surfactant interactions at the air-water interface.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Penfold, J; Thomas, R K; Li, P X

    2015-07-01

    The strong interaction between polyamines and anionic surfactants results in pronounced adsorption at the air-water interface and can lead to the formation of layered surface structures. The transition from monolayer adsorption to more complex surface structures depends upon solution pH, and the structure and molecular weight of the polyamine. The effects of manipulating the polyamine molecular weight and structure on the adsorption of the anionic surfactant sodium dodecyl sulphate at the air-water interface are investigated using neutron reflectivity and surface tension, for the biogenic amines putrescine, spermidine and spermine. The results show how changing the number of amine groups and the spacing between the amine groups impacts upon the surface adsorption. At lower pH, 3-7, and for the higher molecular weight polyamines, spermidine and spermine, ordered multilayer structures are observed. For putrescine at all pH and for spermidine and spermine at high pH, monolayer adsorption with enhanced surfactant adsorption compared to the pure surfactant is observed. The data for the biogenic amines, when compared with similar data for the polyamines ethylenediamine, diethylenetriamine and triethylenetetramine, indicate that the spacing between amines groups is more optimal for the formation of ordered surface multilayer structures.

  16. [The content of biogenic amines in canned fish from the Turkish market].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Erkan, N; Helle, N; Ozden, O

    2001-01-01

    This paper describes the determination of biogenic amines in a number of canned fish of the Turkish market by means of HPLC. Over all 39 cans of sardine, tuna, sardel, mackerel, pelamide and trout were tested. The determination of agmatine, cadaverine, histamine, putrescine and tyramine was performed by HPLC with post column derivatization with ortho-phthaldialdehyde. Four samples contained higher amounts of biogenic amines (three sardine samples contained more than 1000 mg/kg histamine) while all other samples were acceptable. These results demonstrate the need of instrumental analyses in the quality control system of Turkish producers of canned fish. The quality of the products at least of some producers has to be improved, e.g. by cooperation between the official food control and the quality assurance system of the producers.

  17. Developmental expression analysis and immunolocalization of a biogenic amine receptor in Schistosoma mansoni

    OpenAIRE

    El-Shehabi, Fouad; Vermeire, Jon J.; Yoshino, Timothy P.; Ribeiro, Paula

    2009-01-01

    A Schistosoma mansoni G-protein coupled receptor (SmGPCR) was previously cloned and shown to be activated by the biogenic amine, histamine. Here we report a first investigation of the receptor’s subunit organization, tissue distribution and expression levels in different stages of the parasite. A polyclonal antibody was produced in rabbits against the recombinant third intracellular loop (il3) of SmGPCR. Western blot studies of the native receptor and recombinant protein expressed in HEK293 c...

  18. BIOGENIC AMINE CONTENT AND CHEMICAL AND PHYSICAL FEATURES OF ITALIAN FORMAGGIO DI FOSSA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S Rea

    2010-06-01

    Full Text Available Formaggio di Fossa is an Italian traditional cheese of the Montefeltro area (Emilia Romagna and Marche regions characterized by a particular step of ripening that is carried out into pits (infossamento borne in the sandstone. Since the XIV century, the inhabitants were used to set food, especially cereals and cheese, into pits to preserve them during winter and to protect them from invaders. The aim of the present work is to study physical and chemical features of this product with particular reference to the presence of the most important biogenic amines ( -Phenylethylamine, putrescine, cadaverine, histamine, tyramine, spermine and spermidine, compared with a control cheese fully ripened in factory. Formaggio di Fossa showed higher values of Aw, pH, humidity, proteins, pH 4,6-soluble nitrogen (NCN and water soluble nitrogen (NPN and much lower amounts of fat. Much higher amounts of total biogenic amines were detected in Formaggio di Fossa than in control cheese, where their concentration was very low. Cadaverine, putrescine and tyramine were the most concentrated biogenic amines. Nevertheless, thyramine was present at levels suggested as compatible with GMPs. Histamine was detected at low amounts, far from potentially toxic levels.

  19. Role of biogenic amines in pathogenesis of dust induced respiratory diseases

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Talakin, Yu.N.; Deinega, V.G.; Gridneva, N.V.; Levitskaya, V.A.

    1987-06-01

    Studies metabolism of biogenic amines, catecholamine, histamine and serotonin and their part in pathophysiologic mechanisms of bronchial obstruction in chronic dust bronchitits of coal miners. Three groups of miners, 50 healthy controls, 200 with pneumoconiosis and 95 with chronic dust bronchitis were tested to determine content in blood of histamine, serotonin, activity of histaminase, monoaminoxidase (MAO), daily elimination in urine of 5-oxyindoleacetic acid, adrenalin, noradrelin, dopamine and dopa. Results processed statistically are shown in a table (changes of indices of metabolism of biogenic amines in blood of coal miners). Healthy miners show increased catabolism of serotonin. During stage 1 pneumoconiosis, evacuation of noradrenalin is increased and emission of dopamine with urine decreases, level of histamine in blood rises, activity of MOA and excretion of 5-oxyindoleacetic acid increase. In chronic dust bronchitis depression of mediator link of sympathetic adrenalin system is augmented, level of histamine of blood rises with lowered histaminopexia. Activity of MAO and evacuation of 5-oxyindoleacetic increase. To evaluate the condition of metabolism of biogenic amines, it is advisable in clinical practice to use informative biochemical criteria in combination with physiologic methods of investigation to conduct provocative and pharmacologic tests in order to approach differentially establishment of a basic curative treatment complex and improve effectiveness of therapy. 16 refs.

  20. Effects of biogenic amines on the testicular development in mud crabs Scylla serrata

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    YE Haihui; HUANG Huiyang; LI Shaojing; WANG Guizhong; LI Qifu

    2006-01-01

    The regulation of three biogenic amines over the reproductive neuroendocrine activity of the male Scylla serrata was investigated by in vivo injection and in vitro incubation. The testicular index, the ratio of the mature sections in testes, and the ratio of Type B cells in androgenic gland were taken as the quantitative indexes. The in vivo injections indicated that: 5-HT can significantly promote the testicular development and the secretion of the androgenic gland in S. serrata; DA can inhibit the testicular development, but no influence on the secretion of the androgenic gland was found; no significant difference was observed between the OA-injected group and the concurrent control group. In vitro incubations showed that: 5-HT can stimulate the secretion of the brain and the thoracic ganglia, thus accelerating that of the androgenic gland; however, neither OA nor DA showed any significant influence on the secretion of the brain and the thoracic ganglionic mass. As to the optic ganglia, the three biogenic amines hardly have any effect on its secretion. It is the first time to report the regulation of biogenic amines over the reproductive neuroendocrine of male crustaceans through vitro experiments.Results corroborate that 5-HT activates the brain and the thoracic ganglia to secret GSH first, then promote the testicular development through the activity of the androgenic gland.

  1. Impact of biogenic amine molecular weight and structure on surfactant adsorption at the air-water interface.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Penfold, Jeffrey; Thomas, Robert K; Li, Peixun

    2016-02-01

    The oligoamines, such as ethylenediamine to pentaethylenetetramine, and the aliphatic biogenic amines, such as putrescine, spermidine and spermine, strongly interact with anionic surfactants, such as sodium dodecylsulfate, SDS. It has been shown that this results in pronounced surfactant adsorption at the air-water interface and the transition from monolayer to multilayer adsorption which depends upon solution pH and oligoamine structure. In the neutron reflectivity, NR, and surface tension, ST, results presented here the role of the oligoamine structure on the adsorption of SDS is investigated more fully using a range of different biogenic amines. The effect of the extent of the intra-molecular spacing between amine groups on the adsorption has been extended by comparing results for cadavarine with putrescine and ethylenediamine. The impact of more complex biogenic amine structures on the adsorption has been investigated with the aromatic phenethylamine, and the heterocyclic amines histamine and melamine. The results provide an important insight into how surfactant adsorption at interfaces can be manipulated by the addition of biogenic amines, and into the role of solution pH and oligoamine structure in modifying the interaction between the surfactant and oligoamine. The results impact greatly upon potential applications and in understanding some of the important biological functions of biogenic amines.

  2. Ultra-performance convergence chromatography (UPC²) method for the analysis of biogenic amines in fermented foods.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gong, Xiao; Qi, Ningli; Wang, Xiaoxi; Lin, Lijing; Li, Jihua

    2014-11-01

    A rapid ultra-performance convergence chromatography (UPC(2)) method for the determination of eight biogenic amines (spermine, spermidine, putrescine, cadaverine, tryptamine, phenylethylamine, histamine and tyramine) in fermented foods was developed. The amines were pre-column derivatized with dansyl chloride and separated on UPC(2) system with a HSS C18 SB column (3.0 × 100 mm, 1.8 μm) using gradient elution with a binary system of CO2 and n-hexane:isopropanol:ammonium hydroxide (70:30:0.15, v/v/v), back pressure of 2,000 psi, flow rate of 2.0 ml/min and DAD detection at 254 nm. The result showed excellent linearity (r=0.9995-1.0000). Limits of detection (LOD) and limits of quantification (LOQ) were 21-67 ng/L and 72-224 ng/L, respectively. Relative standard deviations (RSD) for repeatability and reproducibility were 0.21-0.87% and 1.98-4.02%, respectively. Furthermore, this method was successfully applied to analysis of biogenic amines in Yulu and Sufu samples.

  3. CHANGES IN COUNTS OF MICROORGANISMS AND BIOGENIC AMINES PRODUCTION DURING THE MANUFACTURE OF FERMENTED SAUSAGES POLIČAN

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Libor Kalhotka

    2012-10-01

    Full Text Available Poličan is classic raw fermented sausage with low acidity. Dry fermented sausages Poličan were used for the analysis and drawn once a week during production from ripening chambers of meat-packing plants. Those sausages ripened for 35 days under controlled temperature and humidity conditions. The aim of this article is to evaluate microorganisms accompanying ripening of fermented sausages Poličan and characterize relationships between activity of microorganisms and content of biogenic amines. Lactic acid bacteria are the most important group of microorganisms. Their counts are relatively high already at the beginning of ripening - about 106 CFU.g-1. During the first week of ripening, their numbers increased to 107 CFU.g-1 and has not changed much further. Due to the minimal counts of coliform bacteria and micromycetes at the end of ripening, both series of these products can be considered as good and safe. In freshly made sausages, the amount of biogenic amines was low. Spermidine, spermine and tyramine were quantitatively the most important. During ripening, the content of biogenic amines was increasing. Significant difference in biogenic amines between I. and II. series was found only for tyramine which was detected in difference exceeding 100 mg.kg-1 at the end of ripening. Sausages from II. series with high levels of tyramine may present a risk for sensitive individuals. Due to low levels of biogenic amines, other samples may be regarded as unproblematic.

  4. Development of biogenic amines during the ripening of Italian dry sausages.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Anastasio, Aniello; Draisci, Rosa; Pepe, Tiziana; Mercogliano, Raffaelina; Quadri, Fernanda Delli; Luppi, Giovanni; Cortesi, Maria Luisa

    2010-01-01

    The effect of modification of different chemical and microbiological parameters and the production of biogenic amines (histamine, cadaverine, putrescine, and tyramine) was examined during ripening of various types of typical Italian dry sausages (salami). Water activity decreased from 0.97 to 0.87, and pH reached the lowest value between the 13th and the 20th day of the ripening period, and then increased. Putrescine (up to 122.7 mg/kg) and tyramine (up to 105.9 mg/kg) mean levels showed dominance in comparison with cadaverine (up to 26.1 mg/kg) and histamine (up to 6.2 mg/kg) mean values in all sausage types. The highest putrescine and tyramine concentrations were observed in salami with the largest diameters. This comparative study suggests a good correlation between microbial behavior and amine evolution, particularly tyramine and putrescine, in dry sausage production.

  5. BIOGENIC AMINE CONTENT IN “PECORINO DEL PARCO DI MIGLIARINO - SAN ROSSORE”

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    F. Forzale

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Biogenic amines (BAs can be naturally present in several foods. They are mainly produced in large amounts by amino acid decarboxylases activity of bacteria. The BAs content has been associated to the quality of raw material and to fermentation or spoilage processes. The aim of the present study was to asses the content of BAs (single and total value in the core and in the external part of a Tuscan traditional pecorino cheese. Sixteen “Pecorino del Parco di Migliarino-San Rossore” cheeses belonging to same batch were tested during ripening time, up to 5 months. BAs content was analyzed by an HPLC-UV method. The BAs content was significantly higher in the core than in the external part. Tyramine was the amine most frequently detected and largely quantized, followed by putrescine, histamine and cadaverine.

  6. Concentrations of biogenic amines in fish, squid and octopus and their changes during storage.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hu, Yue; Huang, Zhiyong; Li, Jian; Yang, Hong

    2012-12-15

    The concentrations of seven biogenic amines (BA) were simultaneously determined in 74 samples of fish, squid and octopus, by the method of HPLC coupled with pre-column derivatisation. The relationship between the formation of BA in aquatic products and the growth of microbial flora during storage was also investigated. Results showed that putrescine, cadaverine, histamine and tyramine were the dominant BA in the studied samples, but the concentrations of histamine and tyramine were mostly less than 50 and 100 mgkg(-1), respectively. Freezing can effectively prevent the formation of BA, but the levels of putrescine, cadaverine, histamine and tyramine significantly increased (poctopus strongly and positively correlated with the formation of amines (such as putrescine, cadaverine, histamine and tyramine) during storage, except for histamine in octopus.

  7. Polyvinyl alcohol electrospun nanofibers containing Ag nanoparticles used as sensors for the detection of biogenic amines

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marega, Carla; Maculan, Jenny; Rizzi, Gian Andrea; Saini, Roberta; Cavaliere, Emanuele; Gavioli, Luca; Cattelan, Mattia; Giallongo, Giuseppe; Marigo, Antonio; Granozzi, Gaetano

    2015-02-01

    Polyvinyl alcohol (PVA) electrospun nanofibers containing Ag nanoparticles (NPs) have been deposited on glass substrates. The aim of the work was to test the feasibility of this approach for the detection of biogenic amines by using either the Ag localized surface plasmon resonance quenching caused by the adsorption of amines on Ag NPs or by detecting the amines by surface enhanced Raman spectroscopy (SERS) after adsorption, from the gas phase, on the metal NPs. Two different approaches have been adopted. In the first one an ethanol/water solution containing AgNO3 was used directly in the electrospinning apparatus. In this way, a simple heat treatment of the nanofibers mat was sufficient to obtain the formation of Ag NPs inside the nanofibers and a partial cross-link of PVA. In the second procedure, the Ag NPs were deposited on PVA nanofibers by using the supersonic cluster beam deposition method, so that a beam of pure Ag NPs of controlled size was obtained. Exposure of the PVA mat to the beam produced a uniform distribution of the NPs on the nanofibers surface. Ethylendiamine vapors and volatile amines released from fresh shrimp meat were chemisorbed on the nanofibers mats. A SERS spectrum characterized by a diagnostic Ag-N stretching vibration at 230 cm-1 was obtained. The results allow to compare the two different approaches in the detection of ammines.

  8. Modulation of biogenic amines content by poly(propylene imine) dendrimers in rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ciepluch, Karol; Ziemba, Barbara; Janaszewska, Anna; Appelhans, Dietmar; Klajnert, Barbara; Bryszewska, Maria; Fogel, Wiesława Agnieszka

    2012-09-01

    Biogenic amines and polyamines participate in all vital organism functions, their levels being important function determinants. Studies were performed to check whether repeated administration of poly(propylene imine) (PPI) dendrimers, synthetic macromolecules with diaminobutane core, and peripheral primary amine groups, may influence the endogenous level of amines, as represented by the two of them: spermidine, a natural derivative of diaminobutane, and histamine. The experiment was carried out on Wistar rats. Fourth generation PPI dendrimer, as well as maltotriose-modified fourth generation PPI dendrimers with (a) cationic open sugar shell and (b) neutral dense sugar shell that possess a higher biocompatibility, was used. Applying the combination of column chromatography on Cellex P and spectrofluorimetric assays of o-phthaldialdehyde, the final amine condensation products were employed to analyze tissue spermidine and histamine outside the central nervous system. Furthermore, radioenzymatic assay was used to measure histamine levels in the brain. The obtained results indicate that in some tissues, the endogenous concentrations of histamine and spermidine may be affected by dendrimers depending on their dose and type of dendrimers.

  9. Biogenic amine formation and nitrite reactions in meat batter as affected by high-pressure processing and chilled storage.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ruiz-Capillas, C; Aller-Guiote, P; Carballo, J; Colmenero, F Jiménez

    2006-12-27

    Changes in biogenic amine formation and nitrite depletion in meat batters as affected by pressure-temperature combinations (300 MPa/30 min/7, 20, and 40 degrees C), cooking process (70 degrees C/30 min), and storage (54 days/2 degrees C) were studied. Changes in residual nitrite concentration in raw meat batters were conditioned by the temperature and not by the pressure applied. Cooking process decreased (P batters. High-pressure processing conditions had no effect on the rate of residual nitrite loss throughout the storage. The application of high pressure decreased (P < 0.05) the concentration of some biogenic amines (tyramine, agmatine, and spermine). Irrespective of the high processing conditions, generally, throughout storage biogenic amine levels did not change or increased, although quantitatively this effect was not very important.

  10. Influence of ripening time on the amount of certain biogenic amines in rind and core of cow milk Livno cheese

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Antonela Marijan

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available Determining the levels of biogenic amines in cheese except that it has significance for determining the nutritional value and hygienic accuracy, cheese as food can be used as a parameter to evaluate the conditions of production and/or ripening of products, and particularly in the selection of bacterial cultures. The purpose of this paper was to determine the effect of the ripening process on the amount of biogenic amines in cheese. For this purpose were conducted physico-chemical analysis, determination of biogenic amines and microbiological analysis. During the process of ripening Livno cheese from three different batches was taken one cheese from prime day and 9th, 20th, 29th, 50th, 60th and 105th day. From each cheese two samples were taken, one from the middle and one from the cheese rind. During 105th day of ripening Livno cheese, the presence of triptamin, ß-feniletlamine, putrescine, cadaverine, histamine, tyramine, spermine and spermidine were determinated. The maximum total values of searched biogenic amines were found 105th day, in the middle 184.13 mg/kg and 76.26 mg/kg in the rind of cheese. With an indication that the largest share of value rep¬resent histamine with 43.9 % and tyramine with 38.2 % in the middle, respectively histamine with 31.6 % and tyramine with 31.5 % in the rind of cheese. The values of putrescine and spermine were in small ranges and they are not identified in all samples. The values of histamine and tyramine are almost a third more at 105th than 60th day. There was a significant difference between the middle and the rind of cheese in the values of biogenic amines. Correlation between biogenic amines and microorganisms has not been determined.

  11. Determination of biogenic amines in beer and wine by capillary electrophoresis-tandem mass spectrometry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Daniel, Daniela; Dos Santos, Vagner Bezerra; Vidal, Denis Tadeu Rajh; do Lago, Claudimir Lucio

    2015-10-16

    A capillary electrophoresis-tandem mass spectrometry (CE-MS/MS) method for the simultaneous assessment of nine biogenic amines (spermine, spermidine, putrescine, cadaverine, histamine, phenylethylamine, tryptamine, tyramine, and urocanic acid) in commercial samples of beer and wine is introduced. The samples were submitted to a simple clean-up step with poly(vinylpolypyrrolidone) followed by filtration. Electrophoretic separation in a polyvinyl alcohol (PVA)-coated capillary using 0.5 mol L(-1) acetic acid (pH 2.5) as background electrolyte and detection by electrospray-tandem mass spectrometry was employed. The range of the correlation coefficients of the calibration curves of the analyzed compounds was 0.996-0.999, and the limits of detection and limits of quantification were in the range of 1-2 μg L(-1) and 3-8 μg L(-1), respectively. The recovery values for samples spiked at three concentration levels (0.2, 0.5, and 1.0 mg L(-1)) ranged from 87 to 113% with standard deviation not greater than 5.8%. The use of a PVA-coated silica capillary allows suppressing the electroosmotic flow and, consequently, increasing of the separation efficiency. The method was successfully used to determine biogenic amines in commercial samples of beer and wine.

  12. Validation of a Fluorescence Sensor Microtiterplate for Biogenic Amines in Meat and Cheese.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khairy, Gasser M; Azab, Hassan A; El-Korashy, Sabry A; Steiner, Mark-Steven; Duerkop, Axel

    2016-09-01

    An optical sensor microtiterplate for quantitative analysis of the total content of biogenic amines (TAC) in meat and cheese was developed and validated for the first time. In the plate, a chameleon dye (Py-1) is embedded in a polymeric cocktail which is deposited on the bottom of the wells in a common microtiterplate. On reaction with biogenic amines (BAs), the fluorescence of Py-1 at 620 nm rapidly delivers a precise TAC. After 10 min incubation at 25 °C the determination of the TAC in various (real) samples is possible in high-throughput with a standard microplate reader. The optimized fluorescence method was validated for linearity, sensitivity, accuracy, precision (intraday and inter day repeatability) and recovery using histamine (HIS) as a representative BA. The sensor microtiterplate was successfully applied to quantitatively analyze the TAC in 10 real samples of cheese and meat obtained from various Egyptian markets. The TAC of these real samples obtained by the sensor microtiterplate was validated against the contents of BAs obtained by GC-MS at various times of storage. The data of the sensor microtiterplate agreed well with those of GC-MS. This demonstrates that the sensor microtiterplate is a reliable screening tool for the degradation status of food samples.

  13. Enzyme sensor array for the determination of biogenic amines in food samples

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lange, Jana [University of Greifswald, Institute for Chemistry and Biochemistry (Germany); Wittmann, Christine [Fachhochschule Neubrandenburg, Department of Technology (Germany)

    2002-01-01

    An enzyme sensor array for the simultaneous determination of the three biogenic amines (histamine, tyramine and putrescine) by pattern recognition using an artificial neural network and its application to different food samples is described. A combination of a monoamine oxidase, a tyramine oxidase and a diamine oxidase (with specific activities sufficient for rapid detection) are immobilised each on a separate screen-printed thick-film electrode via transglutaminase and glutaraldehyde to compare these cross-linking reagents with regard to their suitability. To calculate the amount of a specific biogenic amine, the raw data from multichannel software were transferred to a neural network. The sensor array takes 20 min to complete (excluding statistical data analysis) with only one extraction and subsequent neutralisation step required prior to sensor measurement. The lower detection limits with the enzyme sensor were 10 mg/kg for histamine and tyramine, and 5 mg/kg for putrescine with a linear range up to 200 mg/kg for histamine and tyramine and 100 mg/kg for putrescine. The application area of the enzyme sensor array was tested from fish to meat products, sauerkraut, beer, dairy products, wine and further fermented foods and compared with the data of conventional LC analyses (mean correlation coefficient: 0.854). (orig.)

  14. Voluntary drinking of ethanol by the rat: biogenic amines and possible underlying mechanism.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Messiha, F S

    1978-09-01

    The present study evaluates the possible relationship between certain biogenic amine metabolites-produced changes in voluntary drinking of ethyl alcohol (ET) solution by the rat and their in vivo effects on the enzymes primarily involved in the hepatic metabolism of ET, i.e., liver alcohol-(L-ADH) and aldehyde dehydrogenase (L-ALDH). In experiments on voluntary intake of ET solution by the rat, compounds selected were injected, 0.5 mM/kg, IP. Administration of vanillylmandelic acid (VMA) and 5-hydroxyindoleacetic acid (5HIAA) and homovanillic acid (HVA) markedly reduced ET drinking. Similar significant effects were seen after administration of the neutral metabolites of the biogenic amines tested, after injection of metanephrine or 3-methoxy-4-hydroxyphenylpyruvic acid. Threodihydroxyphenylserine but not L-dopa reduced ET intake by the rat. Treatment with peripheral decarboxylase inhibitors, i.e., carbidopa, 50 mg/kg, IP, significantly reduced ET drinking as contrasted with nonsignificant decline in ET consumption following benserazide, 500 mg/kg, IP. In the biochemical study, short-term administration of the compounds selected produced varied effects on L-ADH and L-ADH. It is suggested that alteration of hepatic ADH by the compounds tested might account for the observation reduced ET drinking thereby, indicating the contribution of peripheral sources rather than central factors in mediating the behavioral effects studied.

  15. Succinylated Octopamine Ascarosides and a New Pathway of Biogenic Amine Metabolism in Caenorhabditis elegans*

    Science.gov (United States)

    Artyukhin, Alexander B.; Yim, Joshua J.; Srinivasan, Jagan; Izrayelit, Yevgeniy; Bose, Neelanjan; von Reuss, Stephan H.; Jo, Yeara; Jordan, James M.; Baugh, L. Ryan; Cheong, Micheong; Sternberg, Paul W.; Avery, Leon; Schroeder, Frank C.

    2013-01-01

    The ascarosides, small-molecule signals derived from combinatorial assembly of primary metabolism-derived building blocks, play a central role in Caenorhabditis elegans biology and regulate many aspects of development and behavior in this model organism as well as in other nematodes. Using HPLC-MS/MS-based targeted metabolomics, we identified novel ascarosides incorporating a side chain derived from succinylation of the neurotransmitter octopamine. These compounds, named osas#2, osas#9, and osas#10, are produced predominantly by L1 larvae, where they serve as part of a dispersal signal, whereas these ascarosides are largely absent from the metabolomes of other life stages. Investigating the biogenesis of these octopamine-derived ascarosides, we found that succinylation represents a previously unrecognized pathway of biogenic amine metabolism. At physiological concentrations, the neurotransmitters serotonin, dopamine, and octopamine are converted to a large extent into the corresponding succinates, in addition to the previously described acetates. Chemically, bimodal deactivation of biogenic amines via acetylation and succinylation parallels posttranslational modification of proteins via acetylation and succinylation of l-lysine. Our results reveal a small-molecule connection between neurotransmitter signaling and interorganismal regulation of behavior and suggest that ascaroside biosynthesis is based in part on co-option of degradative biochemical pathways. PMID:23689506

  16. Succinylated octopamine ascarosides and a new pathway of biogenic amine metabolism in Caenorhabditis elegans.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Artyukhin, Alexander B; Yim, Joshua J; Srinivasan, Jagan; Izrayelit, Yevgeniy; Bose, Neelanjan; von Reuss, Stephan H; Jo, Yeara; Jordan, James M; Baugh, L Ryan; Cheong, Micheong; Sternberg, Paul W; Avery, Leon; Schroeder, Frank C

    2013-06-28

    The ascarosides, small-molecule signals derived from combinatorial assembly of primary metabolism-derived building blocks, play a central role in Caenorhabditis elegans biology and regulate many aspects of development and behavior in this model organism as well as in other nematodes. Using HPLC-MS/MS-based targeted metabolomics, we identified novel ascarosides incorporating a side chain derived from succinylation of the neurotransmitter octopamine. These compounds, named osas#2, osas#9, and osas#10, are produced predominantly by L1 larvae, where they serve as part of a dispersal signal, whereas these ascarosides are largely absent from the metabolomes of other life stages. Investigating the biogenesis of these octopamine-derived ascarosides, we found that succinylation represents a previously unrecognized pathway of biogenic amine metabolism. At physiological concentrations, the neurotransmitters serotonin, dopamine, and octopamine are converted to a large extent into the corresponding succinates, in addition to the previously described acetates. Chemically, bimodal deactivation of biogenic amines via acetylation and succinylation parallels posttranslational modification of proteins via acetylation and succinylation of L-lysine. Our results reveal a small-molecule connection between neurotransmitter signaling and interorganismal regulation of behavior and suggest that ascaroside biosynthesis is based in part on co-option of degradative biochemical pathways.

  17. Biogenic amine producing capability of bacterial populations isolated during processing of different types of dry fermented sausages

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. Vincenzini

    2010-04-01

    Full Text Available In order to assess the distribution of the biogenic amine (BA producing capability within the bacterial populations occurring during production of dry fermented sausages, four different types of sausage processing, three with the use of starter cultures and one without, were investigated. All the main bacterial populations involved in the sausage processing showed a diffuse and strain dependent capability to produce BAs. However, quantitative determination of individual BAs produced by the bacterial isolates suggests an important role of enterococci in the accumulation of tyramine, the most abundant biogenic amine found in all investigated sausages.

  18. Use of small diameter column particles to enhance HPLC determination of histamine and other biogenic amines in seafood

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Simat, Vida; Dalgaard, Paw

    2011-01-01

    Pre-column and post-column HPLC derivatization methods were modified and evaluated for the identification and quantification of nine biogenic amines in seafood Two HPLC methods with column particles of 1 8 mu m or 3 mu m in diameter were modified and compared to classical methods using 5 mu m col...

  19. Biogenic amine production by Lactococcus lactis subsp. cremoris strains in the model system of Dutch-type cheese.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Flasarová, Radka; Pachlová, Vendula; Buňková, Leona; Menšíková, Anna; Georgová, Nikola; Dráb, Vladimír; Buňka, František

    2016-03-01

    The aim of this study was to compare the biogenic amine production of two starter strains of Lactococcus lactis subsp. cremoris (strains from the Culture Collection of Dairy Microorganisms - CCDM 824 and CCDM 946) with decarboxylase positive activity in a model system of Dutch-type cheese during a 90-day ripening period at 10°C. During ripening, biogenic amine and free amino acid content, microbiological characteristics and proximate chemical properties were observed. By the end of the ripening period, the putrescine content in both samples with the addition of the biogenic amine producing strain almost evened out and the concentration of putrescine was >800mg/kg. The amount of tyramine in the cheeses with the addition of the strain of CCDM 824 approached the limit of 400mg/kg by the end of ripening. In the cheeses with the addition of the strain of CCDM 946 it even exceeded 500mg/kg. In the control samples, the amount of biogenic amines was insignificant.

  20. Metabolites of Microbial Origin with an Impact on Health: Ochratoxin A and Biogenic Amines

    Science.gov (United States)

    Russo, Pasquale; Capozzi, Vittorio; Spano, Giuseppe; Corbo, Maria R.; Sinigaglia, Milena; Bevilacqua, Antonio

    2016-01-01

    Safety and quality are significant challenges for food; namely, safety represents a big threat all over the world and is one of the most important goal to be achieved in both Western Society and Developing Countries. Wine safety mainly relies upon some metabolites and many of them are of microbial origin. The main goal of this review is a focus on two kinds of compounds (biogenic amines and mycotoxins, mainly Ochratoxin A) for their deleterious effects on health. For each class of compounds, we will focus on two different traits: (a) synthesis of the compounds in wine, with a brief description of the most important microorganisms and factors leading this phenomenon; (b) prevention and/or correction strategies and new trends. In addition, there is a focus on a recent predictive tool able to predict toxin contamination of grape, in order to perform some prevention approaches and achieve safe wine. PMID:27092133

  1. Comparative analysis of the in vitro cytotoxicity of the dietary biogenic amines tyramine and histamine.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Linares, Daniel M; del Rio, Beatriz; Redruello, Begoña; Ladero, Victor; Martin, M Cruz; Fernandez, Maria; Ruas-Madiedo, Patricia; Alvarez, Miguel A

    2016-04-15

    Tyramine and histamine, the most toxic biogenic amines (BA), are often found in high concentrations in certain foods. Prompted by the limited knowledge of BA toxicity, and increasing awareness of the risks associated with high intakes of dietary BA, the in vitro cytotoxicity of tyramine and histamine was investigated. Tyramine and histamine were toxic for HT29 intestinal cell cultures at concentrations commonly found in BA-rich food, as determined by real-time cell analysis. Surprisingly, tyramine had a stronger and more rapid cytotoxic effect than histamine. Their mode of action was also different, while tyramine caused cell necrosis, histamine induced apoptosis. To avoid health risks, the BA content of foods should be reduced and legal limits established for tyramine.

  2. The dietary biogenic amines tyramine and histamine show synergistic toxicity towards intestinal cells in culture.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Del Rio, Beatriz; Redruello, Begoña; Linares, Daniel M; Ladero, Victor; Fernandez, Maria; Martin, Maria Cruz; Ruas-Madiedo, Patricia; Alvarez, Miguel A

    2017-03-01

    Tyramine and histamine are the biogenic amines (BA) most commonly found at high concentrations in food; they may even appear together at toxic concentrations. The present work examines, via real-time cell analysis, whether histamine and tyramine show synergistic toxicity towards intestinal cell cultures. Employing a constant equipotency ratio, their interaction was examined via the combination index (CI) method of Chou & Talalay. Co-treatment with tyramine and histamine was associated with a stronger cytotoxic effect than was treatment with either BA or on its own. Indeed, a synergistic interaction (CIhistamine, at concentrations below the legal limit, increases the cytotoxicity of tyramine at concentrations frequently reached in some foods. The synergistic cytotoxicity of tyramine and histamine should be taken into account when establishing legal limits designed to ensure consumer safety.

  3. PCR detection of foodborne bacteria producing the biogenic amines histamine, tyramine, putrescine, and cadaverine.

    Science.gov (United States)

    de las Rivas, Blanca; Marcobal, Angela; Carrascosa, Alfonso V; Muñoz, Rosario

    2006-10-01

    This study describes an easy PCR method for the detection of foodborne bacteria that potentially produce histamine, tyramine, putrescine, and cadaverine. Synthetic oligonucleotide pairs for the specific detection of the gene coding for each group of bacterial histidine, tyrosine, ornithine, or lysine decarboxylases were designed. Under the conditions used in this study, the assay yielded fragments of 372 and 531 bp from histidine decarboxylase-encoding genes, a 825-bp fragment from tyrosine decarboxylases, fragments of 624 and 1,440 bp from ornithine decarboxylases, and 1,098- and 1,185-bp fragments from lysine decarboxylases. This is the first PCR method for detection of cadaverine-producing bacteria. The method was successfully applied to several biogenic amine-producing bacterial strains.

  4. Biogenic amines formation in high-pressure processed pike flesh (Esox lucius) during storage.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Křížek, Martin; Matějková, Kateřina; Vácha, František; Dadáková, Eva

    2014-05-15

    The effects of vacuum packaging followed by high pressure processing on the shelf-life of fillets of pike (Esox lucius) were examined. Samples were pressure-treated at 300 and 500 MPa and stored at 3.5 and 12 °C for up to 70 days. The content of eight biogenic amines (putrescine, cadaverine, spermidine, spermine, histamine, tyramine, tryptamine and phenylethylamine) were determined. Putrescine showed very good correspondence with the level of applied pressure and organoleptic properties. Polyamines spermidine and spermine did not show statistically significant changes with the level of applied pressure and the time of storage. Increased cadaverine and tyramine contents were found in samples with good sensory signs, stored for longer time and/or kept at 12 °C, thus indicating the loss of freshness. Tryptamine and phenylethylamine were not detected in pressure-treated samples kept at 3.5 °C. Histamine was not detected in samples of good quality.

  5. Recovery of memory following forgetting induced by depletion of biogenic amines.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Quartermain, D; Judge, M E

    1983-02-01

    Following depletion of biogenic amines by reserpine, mice were trained to avoid one compartment of a shuttle box by employing the procedures of Pavlovian fear conditioning. Retention was tested one week later using both an active and a passive measure. A robust amnesia was apparent in reserpine-treated animals on both retention measures. Treatment with the mixed dopamine-serotonin agonist lisuride 30 min prior to the test alleviated the memory loss. Since improved retention in the drug treated mice was indexed by increased response latencies in the passive test and decreased latencies in the active test it is unlikely that the improvement in performance was the result of non-specific effects on activity. The results are consistent with the hypothesis that lisuride treatment before testing facilitates retrieval processes.

  6. Modulation by Biogenic Amines for the Hemocyte Count and Prophenoloxidase Exocytosis via Receptors in Litopenaeus vannamei

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    PAN Luqing; LIU Huijie; YU Jinhong

    2011-01-01

    Hemocyte counts and phenoloxidase (PO) activity were examined after hemolymph being incubated in dopamine (DA),noradrenaline (NE) and serotonin (5-HT).Results showed that all the three biogenic amines (BAs) had a significant impact on total hemocyte count (THC),differential hemocyte count (DHC),and intracelluar and extracelluar phenoloxidase (PO) activity.Among these Bas,DA had the strongest effect on the above parameters,whereas 5-HT had the least effect.Preincubation with D1 receptor antagonist SCH23390,D2 receptor antagonist Sulpiride and 1∶1 admixture of the two could significantly inhibit the effect of DA on these parameters.SCH23390 showed a stronger inhibitory effect than Sulpiride,and the admixture exhibited the strongest effect.These results suggested that the change of hemocyte count and activation of prophenoloxidase (proPO) system in Litopenaeusvannamei hemocyte can be regulated by BAs,and DA modulates the two parameters via its receptors.

  7. Winning fights induces hyperaggression via the action of the biogenic amine octopamine in crickets.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jan Rillich

    Full Text Available Winning an agonistic interaction against a conspecific is known to heighten aggressiveness, but the underlying events and mechanism are poorly understood. We quantified the effect of experiencing successive wins on aggression in adult male crickets (Gryllus bimaculatus by staging knockout tournaments and investigated its dependence on biogenic amines by treatment with amine receptor antagonists. For an inter-fight interval of 5 min, fights between winners escalated to higher levels of aggression and lasted significantly longer than the preceding round. This winner effect is transient, and no longer evident for an inter-fight interval of 20 min, indicating that it does not result from selecting individuals that were hyper-aggressive from the outset. A winner effect was also evident in crickets that experienced wins without physical exertion, or that engaged in fights that were interrupted before a win was experienced. Finally, the winner effect was abolished by prior treatment with epinastine, a highly selective octopamine receptor blocker, but not by propranolol, a ß-adrenergic receptor antagonist, nor by yohimbine, an insect tyramine receptor blocker nor by fluphenazine an insect dopamine-receptor blocker. Taken together our study in the cricket indicates that the physical exertion of fighting, together with some rewarding aspect of the actual winning experience, leads to a transient increase in aggressive motivation via activation of the octopaminergic system, the invertebrate equivalent to the adrenergic system of vertebrates.

  8. Evolution of free amino acids, biogenic amines and n-nitrosoamines throughout ageing in organic fermented beef

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Karolina M. Wójciak

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available Background. In recent years, interest in uncured meat products has grown and studies were carried out on the use of substances which could replace nitrites, such as acid whey. In spite of this problem in fermented meat products, there is no information regarding the effects of prolonged ageing on the formation of chemi- cal (nitrosoamines, biogenic amines, secondary lipid oxidation products and microbiological (L. monocy- togenes, S. aureus, OLD toxicants in fermented beef marinated with acid whey. The aim of this study was to determine the selected pathogenic bacteria, biogenic amines, N-nitrosamines contents in fermented beef subjected to extended ageing. Material and methods. In this study, selected pathogenic bacteria, N-nitrosamines, biogenic amines, amino acids, TBARS values changes during the ageing of fermented beef marinated with acid whey were analyzed in 0-, 2- and 36-month-old samples. Results. The pH values of fermented beef aged for 2 months (5.68, 5.49 and 5.68 respectively were sig- nificantly lower (p < 0.05 than those obtained after the end of the manufacturing ripening period (5.96, 5.97 and 5.74 respectively, which confirmed the effectiveness of the fermentation process of acidification on beef. The high Lactic Acid Bacteria content (5.64–6.30 log cfu/g confirmed this finding. Histamine was not detected in either of the products. The highest concentration of total biogenic amine (i.e. 1159.0 mg/kg was found in fermented beef marinated with acid whey, whereas a total of only 209.8 mg/kg, was observed in control beef with nitrate and nitrite. N-nitrosamines were not detected in any of the ageing beef samples. Conclusion. In this study, marinating beef in acid whey did not inhibit the production of biogenic amines in the samples analyzed. The high concentration of FAAs, the potential precursor of BA, could lead to intense peptidase activity. The results obtained indicate that biogenic amines are not direct precursors

  9. Influence of Thawing Methods and Storage Temperatures on Bacterial Diversity, Growth Kinetics, and Biogenic Amine Development in Atlantic Mackerel

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Onyang, S.; Palmadottir, H.; Tomason, T.;

    2016-01-01

    Limited knowledge is currently available on the influence of fish thawing and subsequent storage conditions on bacterial growth kinetics, succession, and diversity alongside the production of biogenic amines. This study aimed to address these factors during the thawing and subsequent storage...... time of hydrogen sulfide producing bacteria was significantly affected by both thawing methods, and further, the interaction between thawing and storage significantly affected the maximum growth rate of these bacteria. However, the maximum growth rate of Pseudomonas was higher during refrigerated......, and Pseudomonas. Maximum growth rate, population density, and lag time were fitted on the counts using the Baranyi model. The bacterial diversity and succession were based on sequencing of 16S rRNA amplicons, and biogenic amines were quantified on high-pressure liquid chromatography UV. The results show that lag...

  10. Changes in the Content of Biogenic Amines and Fatty Acids in High Pressure-Processed Carp Flesh (Cyprinus carpio).

    Science.gov (United States)

    KříŽek, Martin; Matějkoá, Kateřina; Dadáková, Eva; Špička, Jiří; Vácha, František; Vrchotová, NaděŽda

    2015-08-01

    Biogenic amine and fatty acid contents were determined in vacuum-packed fillets of common carp (Cyprinus carpio). Samples were pressure treated at 300 and 500 MPa and were stored at 3.5 and 12°C for up to 28 days (control, 0 MPa) and 70 days (pressure-treated). The content of eight biogenic amines (putrescine, cadaverine, spermidine, spermine, histamine, tyramine, tryptamine, and phenylethylamine) were determined. Putrescine and cadaverine were influenced by all factors (temperature, pressurization level, and time of storage). Tyramine content was the most sensitive indicator of the improper status of sample; levels exceeding 10 mg/kg indicated both the loss of meat freshness and temperature abuse, in spite of persisting good sensory indices. Neither storage temperature nor pressurization level had a statistically important effect on the contents of fatty acids. Only polyunsaturated fatty acids decreased slightly if the storage time exceeded 42 days.

  11. Effect of wine addition on microbiological characteristics, volatile molecule profiles and biogenic amine contents in fermented sausages.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Coloretti, Fabio; Tabanelli, Giulia; Chiavari, Cristiana; Lanciotti, Rosalba; Grazia, Luigi; Gardini, Fausto; Montanari, Chiara

    2014-03-01

    The aim was to evaluate the effect of wine addition during manufacturing of dry fermented sausages, in terms of safety aspects (biogenic amine accumulation), aroma profile and sensory characteristics. Three batches of salami were produced: without wine addition and with 7.5% or 15% (v/w) of white wine. The fermented sausages showed characteristics that can increase product diversification. Some of the sensory features (i.e. increased salty perception) can represent an important strategy because of the trend to reduce salt intake for health reasons. The presence of wine immediately reduced the pH and is a source of ethanol, which can have an inhibitory effect against undesirable microflora. The microbiological results observed regarding Enterobacteriaceae and enterococci were encouraging. The addition of wine did not negatively affect the ripening time or increase the presence of biogenic amines. The samples containing wine showed reduced concentrations of putrescine.

  12. LC/DAD determination of biogenic amines in serum of patients with diabetes mellitus, chronic urticaria or Hashimoto's thyroiditis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Trifunović-Macedoljan Jelena

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Biogenic amines are integral part of nearly every cell. In present study, we used method of acidic extraction of histamine (His, of polyamines putrescine (Put, spermidine (Spd and catecholamines epinephrine (Epi and norepinephrine (NE from human serum; precolumn derivatization with dansyl chloride, and LC/DAD analysis of the biogenic amines, in aim to monitor differences of their levels in patients with diabetes mellitus, chronic urticaria, and Hashimoto's thyroiditis, compared to healthy subjects, and to observe them as possible markers for immune mediated diseases. Method of retention times was used for determination of serum biogenic amines. We found statistically significant differences in putrescine and histamine levels in diabetes mellitus patients; putrescine, histamine, spermidine and epinephrine levels in chronic urticaria patients compared to healthy controls, and putrescine and spermidine levels in Hashimoto's thyroiditis patients, compared to controls. Norepinephrine was found only in serum of patients with chronic urticaria. The values of recovery, evaluated in controls, varied between 85.7% and 106.7%. The statistically significant changes in putrescine, histamine, spermidine and epinephrine levels in patients compared to healthy people reflects the existence of biochemical disturbances in mentioned immune-mediated diseases.

  13. Binding to extracellular matrix proteins and formation of biogenic amines by food-associated coagulase-negative staphylococci.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Seitter, Marion; Geng, Bettina; Hertel, Christian

    2011-02-28

    In connection with a study on the DNA microarray based detection of genes involved in safety and technologically relevant properties (Seitter (née Resch) et al., 2011), food-associated coagulase-negative staphylococci (CNS) were investigated phenotypically with regard to their ability to bind to the extracellular matrix proteins (ECM) and to produce biogenic amines. The properties have been shown to be involved in the colonization of injured tissue and invasion into host cells as well as in pharmacologic effects on humans, respectively. The CNS exhibited a low, but nevertheless clearly measurable ECM binding capacity, except for strains of Staphylococcus equorum and Staphylococcus succinus, which show a comparable or even higher binding to fibrinogen and fibronectin than that of the control strain Staphylococcus aureus Cowan. Formation of biogenic amines could be often detected in S. carnosus, S. condimenti and S. strains, but rarely in S. equorum and not in S. succinus and S. xylosus strains. Mostly, 2-phenylethylamine, tyramine and tryptamine were formed by resting cells in amounts 100 mg/l) of 2-phenylethylamine and putrescine. This study confirmed the need of consideration of ECM binding and biogenic amine formation in the safety assessment of CNS used in the production of fermented foods.

  14. Reduction of histamine and biogenic amines during salted fish fermentation by Bacillus polymyxa as a starter culture

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yi-Chen Lee

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Bacillus polymyxa D05-1, isolated from salted fish product and possessing amine degrading activity, was used as a starter culture in salted fish fermentation in this study. Fermentation was held at 35°C for 120 days. The water activity in control samples (without starter culture and inoculated samples (inoculated with B. polymyxa D05-1 remained constant throughout fermentation, whereas the pH value rose slightly during fermentation. Salt contents in both samples were constant in the range of 17.5–17.8% during the first 60 days of fermentation and thereafter increased slowly. The inoculated samples had considerably lower levels of total volatile basic nitrogen (p < 0.05 than control samples at each sampling time during 120 days of fermentation. Aerobic bacterial counts in inoculated samples were retarded during the first 60 days of fermentation and thereafter increased slowly, whereas those of control samples increased rapidly with increased fermentation time. However, the aerobic bacterial counts of control samples were significantly higher (p < 0.05 than those of inoculated samples after 40 days of fermentation. In general, overall biogenic amine contents (including histamine, putrescine, cadaverine, and tyramine in the control samples were markedly higher (p < 0.05 than those of the inoculated samples throughout fermentation. After 120 days of fermentation, the histamine and overall biogenic amine contents in the inoculated samples were reduced by 34.0% and 30.0%, respectively, compared to control samples. These results emphasize that the application of starter culture with amines degrading activity in salted fish products was effective in reducing biogenic amine accumulation.

  15. Vaginal Biogenic Amines: Biomarkers of Bacterial Vaginosis or Precursors to Vaginal Dysbiosis?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tiffanie Maree Nelson

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available Bacterial vaginosis (BV is the most common vaginal disorder among reproductive age women. One clinical indicator of BV is a ‘fishy’ odor. This odor has been associated with increases in several biogenic amines (BAs that may serve as important biomarkers. Within the vagina, BA production has been linked to various vaginal taxa, yet their genetic capability to synthesize BAs is unknown. Using a bioinformatics approach, we show that relatively few vaginal taxa are predicted to be capable of producing BAs. Many of these taxa (Dialister, Prevotella, Parvimonas, Megasphaera, Peptostreptococcus, and Veillonella spp. are more abundant in the vaginal microbial community state type (CST IV, which is depleted in lactobacilli. Several of the major Lactobacillus species (L. crispatus, L. jensenii, and L. gasseri were identified as possessing gene sequences for proteins predicted to be capable of putrescine production. Finally, we show in a small cross sectional study of 37 women that the BAs putrescine, cadaverine and tyramine are significantly higher in CST IV over CSTs I and III. These data support the hypothesis that BA production is conducted by few vaginal taxa and may be important to the outgrowth of BV-associated (vaginal dysbiosis vaginal bacteria.

  16. Vitis vinifera juice ameliorates depression-like behavior in mice by modulating biogenic amine neurotransmitters

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Muhammad Aslam

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available The advantageous effects of Vitis vinifera juice on depressive model mice were examined utilizing a blend of behavioral evaluations and biogenic amine neurotransmitter estimations. During the behavioral evaluations, immobility time on the forced swimming test and tail suspension test were measured in unstressed and immobilization-induced stressed mice. V. vinifera juice (4 mL/kg and 8 mL/kg and fluoxetine (20 mg/kg produced a significant decrease in immobility time of both unstressed and stressed mice when compared with their respective saline-treated control groups in both paradigms. Neurotransmitters were measured using high-performance liquid chromatography with electrochemical detector. V. vinifera juice raised the levels of both serotonin (p<0.001 and noradrenalin (p<0.001 in brain tissue. These outcomes give significant mechanistic insights into the protective effect of V. vinifera juice against depressive disorders. Our results showed that V. vinifera juice could relieve depressive manifestations in the rodent model of depression.

  17. Bacteria isolated from Korean black raspberry vinegar with low biogenic amine production in wine.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Song, Nho-Eul; Cho, Hyoun-Suk; Baik, Sang-Ho

    2016-01-01

    A high concentration of histamine, one of the biogenic amines (BAs) usually found in fermented foods, can cause undesirable physiological side effects in sensitive humans. The objective of this study is to isolate indigenous Acetobacter strains from naturally fermented Bokbunja vinegar in Korea with reduced histamine production during starter fermentation. Further, we examined its physiological and biochemical properties, including BA synthesis. The obtained strain MBA-77, identified as Acetobacter aceti by 16S rDNA homology and biochemical analysis and named A. aceti MBA-77. A. aceti MBA-77 showed optimal acidity % production at pH 5; the optimal temperature was 25°C. When we prepared and examined the BAs synthesis spectrum during the fermentation process, Bokbunja wine fermented with Saccharomyces cerevisiae showed that the histamine concentration increased from 2.72 of Bokbunja extract to 5.29mg/L and cadaverine and dopamine was decreased to 2.6 and 10.12mg/L, respectively. Bokbunja vinegar prepared by A. aceti MBA-77 as the starter, the histamine concentration of the vinegar preparation step was decreased up to 3.66mg/L from 5.29mg/L in the wine preparation step. To our knowledge, this is the first report to demonstrate acetic acid bacteria isolated from Bokbunja seed vinegar with low spectrum BA and would be useful for wellbeing vinegar preparation.

  18. Biofilm-forming capacity in biogenic amine-producing bacteria isolated from dairy products.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maria eDiaz

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available Biofilms on the surface of food industry equipment are reservoirs of potentially food-contaminating bacteria - both spoilage and pathogenic. However, the capacity of biogenic amine (BA-producers to form biofilms has remained largely unexamined. BAs are low molecular weight, biologically active compounds that in food can reach concentrations high enough to be a toxicological hazard. Fermented foods, especially some types of cheese, accumulate the highest BA concentrations of all. The present work examines the biofilm-forming capacity of 56 BA-producing strains belonging to three genera and 10 species (12 Enterococcus faecalis, 6 Enterococcus faecium, 6 Enterococcus durans, 1 Enterococcus hirae, 12 Lactococcus lactis, 7 Lactobacillus vaginalis, 2 Lactobacillus curvatus, 2 Lactobacillus brevis, 1 Lactobacillus reuteri and 7 Lactobacillus parabuchneri, all isolated from dairy products. Strains of all the tested species - except for L. vaginalis - were able to produce biofilms on polystyrene and adhered to stainless steel. However, the biomass produced in biofilms was strain-dependent. These results suggest that biofilms may provide a route via which fermented foods can become contaminated by BA-producing microorganisms.

  19. Lactobacillus casei strains isolated from cheese reduce biogenic amine accumulation in an experimental model.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Herrero-Fresno, Ana; Martínez, Noelia; Sánchez-Llana, Esther; Díaz, María; Fernández, María; Martin, Maria Cruz; Ladero, Victor; Alvarez, Miguel A

    2012-07-02

    Tyramine and histamine are the biogenic amines (BAs) most commonly found in cheese, in which they appear as a result of the microbial enzymatic decarboxylation of tyrosine and histidine respectively. Given their toxic effects, their presence in high concentrations in foods should be avoided. In this work, samples of three cheeses (Zamorano, Cabrales and Emmental) with long ripening periods, and that often have high BA concentrations, were screened for the presence of BA-degrading lactic acid bacteria (LAB). Seventeen isolates were found that were able to degrade tyramine and histamine in broth culture. All 17 isolates were identified by 16S rRNA sequencing as belonging to Lactobacillus casei. They were typed by plasmid S1-PFGE and genomic macrorestriction-PFGE analysis. Two strains (L. casei 4a and 5b) associated with high degradation rates for both BAs were selected to test how this ability might affect histamine and tyramine accumulation in a Cabrales-like mini-cheese manufacturing model. The quantification of BAs and the monitoring of the strains' growth over ripening were undertaken by RP-HPLC and qPCR respectively. Both strains were found to reduce histamine and tyramine accumulation. These two strains might be suitable for use as adjunct cultures for reducing the presence of BAs in cheese.

  20. Occurrence of biogenic amines in beers produced with malted organic Emmer wheat (Triticum dicoccum).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mozzon, Massimo; Boselli, Emanuele; Obiedziński, Mieczysław W; Frega, Natale G

    2015-01-01

    Because several groups of microorganisms are able to decarboxylate amino acids, the presence of biogenic amines (BA) can be seen as an index of the microbiological quality of the brewing process. BAs were quantified for the first time in the intermediate products and craft beers produced with malted organic Emmer wheat (Triticum dicoccum) in a small size brewery in order to assess the possible presence of critical control points related to biological hazard in the brewing process. BA levels in beers produced exclusively from malted organic Emmer wheat were between 15.4 and 25.2 mg l(-1) in the samples of light beer (Lt) and between 8.9 and 15.3 mg l(-1) in double malt beers (DM) ready for consumption (the beers stored for 90 days at 1-2°C). Cadaverine and tyramine were the main BAs in the Lt and DM beers, respectively. Increased concentrations of BAs seemed to be more related to the heat treatment of the processing product during mashing and wort boiling, rather than to the fermentation process. Much lower concentrations were found in finished beers obtained from 50% malted organic Emmer wheat and 50% malted barley (up to 3.2 mg l(-1)) or from 30% malted Emmer wheat (up to 8.3 mg l(-1)). Thus, Emmer wheat malt can be a useful alternative to wheat and spelt for the production of beer with a limited content of BA, if the processing technology is kept under control.

  1. Profiles of amino acids and biogenic amines in the plasma of Cri-du-Chat patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Furtado, Danielle Zildeana Sousa; de Moura Leite, Fernando Brunale Vilela; Barreto, Cleber Nunes; Faria, Bernadete; Jedlicka, Leticia Dias Lima; de Jesus Silva, Elisângela; da Silva, Heron Dominguez Torres; Bechara, Etelvino Jose Henriques; Assunção, Nilson Antonio

    2017-03-21

    Cri-du-chat syndrome (CDCS) is a rare innate disease attributed to chromosome 5p deletion characterized by a cat-like cry, craniofacial malformation, and altered behavior of affected children. Metabolomic analysis and a chemometric approach allow description of the metabolic profile of CDCS as compared to normal subjects. In the present work, UHPLC/MS was employed to analyze blood samples withdrawn from CDCS carriers (n=18) and normal parental subjects (n=18), all aged 0-34 years, aiming to set up a representative CDCS profile constructed from 33 targeted amino acids and biogenic amines. Methionine sulfoxide (MetO) was of particular concern with respect to CDCS redox balance. Increased serotonin (3-fold), methionine sulfoxide (2-fold), and Asp levels, and a little lower Orn, citrulline, Leu, Val, Ile, Asn, Gln, Trp, Thr, His, Phe, Met, and creatinine levels were found in the plasma of CDCS patients. Nitrotyrosine and Trp did not differ in normal and CDCS individuals.The accumulated metabolites may reflect, respectively, disturbances in the redox balance, deficient purine biosynthesis, and altered behavior, whereas the amino acid abatement in the latter group may affect the homeostasis of the urea cycle, citric acid cycle, branched chain amino acid synthesis, Tyr and Trp metabolism and amino acid biosynthesis. The identification of enzymatic deficiencies leading to the amino acid burden in CDCS is further required for elucidating its molecular bases and eventually propose specific or mixed amino acid supplementation to newborn patients aiming to balance their metabolism.

  2. Effects of packaging, mineral oil coating, and storage time on biogenic amine levels and internal quality of eggs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Figueiredo, T C; Assis, D C S; Menezes, L D M; Oliveira, D D; Lima, A L; Souza, M R; Heneine, L G D; Cançado, S V

    2014-12-01

    This study was carried out with the aim of evaluating the effects of mineral oil application on eggshells and the use of plastic packages with lids on the physical-chemical and microbiological quality and biogenic amine contents of eggs stored under refrigeration for up to 125 d. A total of 1,920 eggs from 46-wk-old Hyline W36 laying hens were randomly distributed into 4 groups soon after classification: (i) 480 eggs were stored in pulp carton tray packages; (ii) 480 eggs were stored in plastic packages with lids; (iii) 480 eggs were stored in carton packages after the application of mineral oil; and (iv) 480 eggs were stored in plastic packages with lids after the application of mineral oil. The internal quality was measured by Haugh units, by the counts of mesophilic and psychrotrophic microorganisms, by the most probable number of total and thermal-tolerant coliforms, by the counts of molds and yeasts, by the analysis of Salmonella spp. and Staphylococcus spp., and by the levels of biogenic amines in the egg yolk and albumen. The application of mineral oil to the eggshell resulted in higher Haugh unit values throughout storage, and the use of plastic packages altered the internal quality. The application of mineral oil and the use of packaging had no effects on the microbiological and biogenic amine results. Microbiological analyses showed the absence of Salmonella spp., Staphylococcus aureus, thermal-tolerant coliforms, and fungi. However, the highest counts of mesophilic (1.1 × 10(7) cfu/g) and psychrotrophic (6.7 × 10(7) cfu/g) microorganisms were recorded. The highest values of biogenic amines detected and quantified were putrescine (2.38 mg/kg) and cadaverine (7.27 mg/kg) in the egg yolk and putrescine (1.95 mg/kg), cadaverine (2.83 mg/kg), and phenylethylamine (2.57 mg/kg) in the albumen. Despite these results, the biogenic amine levels recorded were considered low and would not be harmful to consumer health.

  3. Characterization of selected Spanish table wine samples according to their biogenic amine content from liquid chromatographic determination.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Romero, Roberto; Sánchez-Viñas, Mercedes; Gázquez, Domingo; Bagur, M Gracia

    2002-07-31

    Pattern recognition techniques, such as principal component analysis, cluster analysis, and linear discriminant analysis, have been applied to samples of red, white, and rosé wines to determine whether some biogenic amines could be considered as chemical descriptors. Eight amines (tryptamine, phenylethylamine, putrescine, cadaverine, histamine, tyramine, spermidine, and spermine) were determined by RP-HPLC, after derivatization with dabsyl chloride. However, only putrescine, cadaverine, histamine, tyramine, spermidine, and spermine were found in the wines analyzed. From the association between variables obtained by principal component analysis and clustering and from the relationship found by linear discriminant analysis, it can be deduced that the amines generated during malolactic fermentation (putrescine, histamine, and tyramine) could be used as chemical descriptors to characterize table wine samples.

  4. Effect of the interaction between a low tyramine-producing Lactobacillus and proteolytic staphylococci on biogenic amine production during ripening and storage of dry sausages.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bover-Cid, S; Izquierdo-Pulido, M; Vidal-Carou, M C

    2001-04-11

    The interaction between tyrosine-decarboxylase and proteolytic activities of a Lactobacillus curvatus and Staphylococcus xylosus, respectively, on biogenic amine production during the ripening and the storage of dry fermented sausages was investigated. Water content, pH, proteolysis parameters, microbial counts, and biogenic amine contents were monitored in spontaneously and starter fermented sausages. The use of proteolytic staphylococci as starter resulted in a higher content of non-protein nitrogen and total free amino acids. Tyramine was the main amine produced in all batches. However, tyrosine-decarboxylase activity of the L. curvatus starter strain was weak and yielded lower amounts of tyramine than those produced by the wild mioroflora in the control batch. Association between tyramine production and proteolysis could only be established in a defectively dried batch. Putrescine and cadaverine accumulation was efficiently reduced in the starter-mediated fermentation, in agreement with the lower development of enterobacteria. Phenylethylamine and tryptamine were only detected in the spontaneously fermented sausages, while histamine, spermine and spermidine did not vary during the ripening. Biogenic amine levels and related parameters showed significant changes during the storage of dry sausages depending on the temperature and the batch. As a general rule, changes in the pH, proteolysis, microbial counts, and biogenic amine contents were stronger at 19 degrees C than at 4 degrees C. The results suggest that refrigeration would be advisable for preventing further accumulation of biogenic amines during the storage of dry fermented sausages.

  5. Structural basis for action by diverse antidepressants on biogenic amine transporters.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Hui; Goehring, April; Wang, Kevin H; Penmatsa, Aravind; Ressler, Ryan; Gouaux, Eric

    2013-11-07

    The biogenic amine transporters (BATs) regulate endogenous neurotransmitter concentrations and are targets for a broad range of therapeutic agents including selective serotonin reuptake inhibitors (SSRIs), serotonin-noradrenaline reuptake inhibitors (SNRIs) and tricyclic antidepressants (TCAs). Because eukaryotic BATs are recalcitrant to crystallographic analysis, our understanding of the mechanism of these inhibitors and antidepressants is limited. LeuT is a bacterial homologue of BATs and has proven to be a valuable paradigm for understanding relationships between their structure and function. However, because only approximately 25% of the amino acid sequence of LeuT is in common with that of BATs, and as LeuT is a promiscuous amino acid transporter, it does not recapitulate the pharmacological properties of BATs. Indeed, SSRIs and TCAs bind in the extracellular vestibule of LeuT and act as non-competitive inhibitors of transport. By contrast, multiple studies demonstrate that both TCAs and SSRIs are competitive inhibitors for eukaryotic BATs and bind to the primary binding pocket. Here we engineered LeuT to harbour human BAT-like pharmacology by mutating key residues around the primary binding pocket. The final LeuBAT mutant binds the SSRI sertraline with a binding constant of 18 nM and displays high-affinity binding to a range of SSRIs, SNRIs and a TCA. We determined 12 crystal structures of LeuBAT in complex with four classes of antidepressants. The chemically diverse inhibitors have a remarkably similar mode of binding in which they straddle transmembrane helix (TM) 3, wedge between TM3/TM8 and TM1/TM6, and lock the transporter in a sodium- and chloride-bound outward-facing open conformation. Together, these studies define common and simple principles for the action of SSRIs, SNRIs and TCAs on BATs.

  6. Roles of biogenic amines in regulating bioluminescence in the Australian glowworm Arachnocampa flava.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rigby, Lisa M; Merritt, David J

    2011-10-01

    The glowworm Arachnocampa flava is a carnivorous fly larva (Diptera) that uses light to attract prey into its web. The light organ is derived from cells of the Malpighian tubules, representing a bioluminescence system that is unique to the genus. Bioluminescence is modulated through the night although light levels change quite slowly compared with the flashing of the better-known fireflies (Coleoptera). The existing model for the neural regulation of bioluminescence in Arachnocampa, based on use of anaesthetics and ligations, is that bioluminescence is actively repressed during the non-glowing phase and the repression is partially released during the bioluminescence phase. The effect of the anaesthetic, carbon dioxide, on the isolated light organ from the present study indicates that the repression is at least partially mediated at the light organ itself rather than less directly through the central nervous system. Blocking of neural signals from the central nervous system through ligation leads to uncontrolled release of bioluminescence but light is emitted at relatively low levels compared with under anaesthesia. Candidate biogenic amines were introduced by several methods: feeding prey items injected with test solution, injecting the whole larva, injecting a ligated section containing the light organ or bathing the isolated light organ in test solution. Using these methods, dopamine, serotonin and tyramine do not affect bioluminescence output. Exposure to elevated levels of octopamine via feeding, injection or bathing of the isolated light organ indicates that it is involved in the regulation of repression. Administration of the octopamine antagonists phentolamine or mianserin results in very high bioluminescence output levels, similar to the effect of anaesthetics, but only mianserin acts directly on the light organ.

  7. Fatty acid composition and biogenic amines in acidified and fermented fish silage: a comparison study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Özyurt, Gülsün; Gökdoğan, Saadet; Şimşek, Ayşe; Yuvka, Ilknur; Ergüven, Merve; Kuley Boga, Esmeray

    2016-01-01

    In the presented study, ensiling of discard fish by acidification or fermentation was evaluated. Klunzinger's ponyfish which is a discard fish was used for the production of fish silage by acidification (3% formic acid for Method FA; 1.5% formic and 1.5% sulphuric acid for Method FASA) and fermentation (Lactobacillus plantarum for Method LP and Streptococcus thermophilus for Method ST). The chemical, microbiological and nutritional properties of the differently preserved fish silages were estimated during a storage period of 60 d at ambient temperature. Compared to the raw material, a slight increase in saturated fatty acids and a slight decrease in polyunsaturated fatty acids were observed in all silages. At the end of the storage period, the aerobic bacteria counts after applying Methods FA, FASA, LP and ST amounted to 2.35, 2.39, 5.77 and 5.43 log cfu/g, respectively. The analysis of thiobarbituric acid revealed that acidification of silages accelerated the lipid oxidation. Nine biogenic amines were found in raw fish and different silages. The initial histamine concentration in raw fish was 0.17 mg/100 g and in all silages it remained at low levels during the storage period. The initial tyramine content was found to be 1.56 mg/100 g in raw fish and increased significantly in all silages. The increase of the tyramine content in fermented silages was considerably higher than in acidified silages (23-48 mg/100 g and 5-10 mg/100 g, respectively). It can be concluded that acidified or fermented fish silage should be considered as potential feed component for animals because of its high nutritional value and appropriate microbiological and chemical quality.

  8. The occurrence of N-nitrosamines, residual nitrite and biogenic amines in commercial dry fermented sausages and evaluation of their occasional relation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    De Mey, Eveline; De Klerck, Katrijn; De Maere, Hannelore; Dewulf, Lore; Derdelinckx, Guy; Peeters, Marie-Christine; Fraeye, Ilse; Vander Heyden, Yvan; Paelinck, Hubert

    2014-02-01

    Regarding food borne intoxications, the accumulation of biogenic amines must be avoided in all kinds of food products. Moreover, biogenic amines can function as precursors for the formation of carcinogenic N-nitrosamines when nitrite is present. To estimate the food safety of the dry fermented sausages available on the Belgian market, a screening of the residual sodium nitrite and nitrate contents, biogenic amines and volatile N-nitrosamine concentrations was performed on 101 samples. The median concentrations of residual NaNO2 and NaNO3 were each individually lower than 20mg/kg. In general, the biogenic amine accumulation remained low at the end of shelf life. Only in one product the amounts of cadaverine and putrescine reached intoxicating levels. Concerning the occurrence of N-nitrosamines, only N-nitrosopiperidine and N-nitrosomorpholine were detected in a high number of samples (resp. 22% and 28%). No correlation between the presence of N-nitrosamines and the biogenic amines content was observed. Although the N-nitrosamines could not been linked to specific product categories, the occurrence of N-nitrosopiperidine could probably be attributed to the use of pepper.

  9. Mastitis Modifies the Biogenic Amines Profile in Human Milk, with Significant Changes in the Presence of Histamine, Putrescine and Spermine

    Science.gov (United States)

    Perez, Marta; Ladero, Victor; Redruello, Begoña; del Rio, Beatriz; Fernandez, Leonides; Rodriguez, Juan Miguel; Martín, Mª Cruz; Fernandez, María; Alvarez, Miguel A.

    2016-01-01

    Biogenic amines (BAs) are low molecular weight nitrogenous organic compounds with different biological activities. Putrescine, spermidine and spermine are essential for the development of the gut and immune system of newborns, and are all found in human milk. Little is known, however, about the role of histamine, tyramine or cadaverine in breast milk. Nor is it known whether mastitis alters the BA composition of milk. The BA profile of human milk, and the influence of mastitis on BA concentrations, were therefore investigated. Putrescine, spermidine and spermine were the main BAs detected. In mastitis-affected milk, the concentrations of putrescine, spermine and histamine were higher. PMID:27584695

  10. Mastitis Modifies the Biogenic Amines Profile in Human Milk, with Significant Changes in the Presence of Histamine, Putrescine and Spermine.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Perez, Marta; Ladero, Victor; Redruello, Begoña; Del Rio, Beatriz; Fernandez, Leonides; Rodriguez, Juan Miguel; Martín, M Cruz; Fernandez, María; Alvarez, Miguel A

    2016-01-01

    Biogenic amines (BAs) are low molecular weight nitrogenous organic compounds with different biological activities. Putrescine, spermidine and spermine are essential for the development of the gut and immune system of newborns, and are all found in human milk. Little is known, however, about the role of histamine, tyramine or cadaverine in breast milk. Nor is it known whether mastitis alters the BA composition of milk. The BA profile of human milk, and the influence of mastitis on BA concentrations, were therefore investigated. Putrescine, spermidine and spermine were the main BAs detected. In mastitis-affected milk, the concentrations of putrescine, spermine and histamine were higher.

  11. Structure and ligand-binding properties of the biogenic amine-binding protein from the saliva of a blood-feeding insect vector of Trypanosoma cruzi

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Xu, Xueqing; Chang, Bianca W. [NIH/NIAID, 12735 Twinbrook Parkway, Rockville, MD 20852 (United States); Mans, Ben J. [NIH/NIAID, 12735 Twinbrook Parkway, Rockville, MD 20852 (United States); Agricultural Research Council, Onderstepoort 0110 (South Africa); Ribeiro, Jose M. C.; Andersen, John F., E-mail: jandersen@niaid.nih.gov [NIH/NIAID, 12735 Twinbrook Parkway, Rockville, MD 20852 (United States)

    2013-01-01

    Biogenic amine-binding proteins mediate the anti-inflammatory and antihemostatic activities of blood-feeding insect saliva. The structure of the amine-binding protein from R. prolixus reveals the interaction of biogenic amine ligands with the protein. Proteins that bind small-molecule mediators of inflammation and hemostasis are essential for blood-feeding by arthropod vectors of infectious disease. In ticks and triatomine insects, the lipocalin protein family is greatly expanded and members have been shown to bind biogenic amines, eicosanoids and ADP. These compounds are potent mediators of platelet activation, inflammation and vascular tone. In this paper, the structure of the amine-binding protein (ABP) from Rhodnius prolixus, a vector of the trypanosome that causes Chagas disease, is described. ABP binds the biogenic amines serotonin and norepinephrine with high affinity. A complex with tryptamine shows the presence of a binding site for a single ligand molecule in the central cavity of the β-barrel structure. The cavity contains significant additional volume, suggesting that this protein may have evolved from the related nitrophorin proteins, which bind a much larger heme ligand in the central cavity.

  12. Brewing effect on levels of biogenic amines in different coffee samples as determined by LC-UV.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Restuccia, Donatella; Spizzirri, U Gianfranco; Parisi, Ortensia I; Cirillo, Giuseppe; Picci, Nevio

    2015-05-15

    Eight biogenic amines (spermine, spermidine, putrescine, histamine, tyramine, phenylethylamine, cadaverine and serotonin) were determined by LC-UV after derivatization with dansyl-chloride in both ground coffee and coffee beverages obtained by different methods. In ground coffee, the most relevant amine was PUT, followed by SPD, HIS, TYR, CAD, SPM, PHE, and SER, with the total BAs content decreasing as the roasting degree increased. In coffee brews, the order was PUT, SPM, TYR, CAD, SPD, PHE, HIS, and SER, but at a very low level in comparison with the amount of BAs determined in roasted ground coffee. Beverages prepared by espresso, capsule, and pod machines had the lowest BAs contents, as a result of the thermal and physical stress imposed on ground coffee by these methods, while mocha contained the highest BAs amounts owing to lower pressure and longer brewing time.

  13. Comparison of the performance of three ion mobility spectrometers for measurement of biogenic amines

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Karpas, Zeev, E-mail: karpas4@netvision.net.il [3QBD, Arad (Israel); Chemistry Department, Nuclear Research Center, Negev, Beer-Sheva 84190 (Israel); Guaman, Ana V., E-mail: aguaman@ibecbarcelona.eu [Departament d' Electronica, Universitat de Barcelona, Marti i Franques 1, 08028 Barcelona (Spain); Artificial Olfaction Lab, Institute for Bioengineering of Catalonia, Baldiri i Rexach, 4-8, 08028 Barcelona (Spain); Pardo, Antonio, E-mail: apardo@el.ub.edu [Departament d' Electronica, Universitat de Barcelona, Marti i Franques 1, 08028 Barcelona (Spain); Marco, Santiago, E-mail: smarco@ibecbarcelona.eu [Departament d' Electronica, Universitat de Barcelona, Marti i Franques 1, 08028 Barcelona (Spain); Artificial Olfaction Lab, Institute for Bioengineering of Catalonia, Baldiri i Rexach, 4-8, 08028 Barcelona (Spain)

    2013-01-03

    Graphical abstract: The response to different amounts of TMA (in {mu}g) that were placed in a headspace vial as a function of time for the VG-Test (top) and the GDA (bottom). Note that the ratio [TMA/(TMA + TEP)] (top) and [TMA/(TMA + RIP)] (bottom) and the clearance time increase with the amount of TMA deposited in the vial. Highlights: Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer First comparison of performance of IMS devices. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Gas-phase ion chemistry affected by operational parameters. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Limits of detection quite similar despite differences in devices. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer LODs determined in controlled continuous flow and in headspace vapor. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Exponential dilution of headspace studies. - Abstract: The performance of three different types of ion mobility spectrometer (IMS) devices: GDA2 with a radioactive ion source (Airsense, Germany), UV-IMS with a photo-ionization source (G.A.S. Germany) and VG-Test with a corona discharge source (3QBD, Israel) was studied. The gas-phase ion chemistry in the IMS devices affected the species formed and their measured reduced mobility values. The sensitivity and limit of detection for trimethylamine (TMA), putrescine and cadaverine were compared by continuous monitoring of a stream of air with a given concentration of the analyte and by measurement of headspace vapors of TMA in a sealed vial. Preprocessing of the mobility spectra and the effectiveness of multivariate curve resolution techniques (MCR-LASSO) improved the accuracy of the measurements by correcting baseline effects and adjusting for variations in drift time as well as enhancing the signal to noise ratio and deconvolution of the complex data matrix to their pure components. The limit of detection for measurement of the biogenic amines by the three IMS devices was between 0.1 and 1.2 ppm (for TMA with the VG-Test and GDA, respectively) and between 0.2 and 0.7 ppm for putrescine and cadaverine

  14. The effects of lactic acid bacteria inoculants and formic acid on the formation of biogenic amines in grass silages.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Steidlová, S; Kalac, P

    2004-06-01

    Silages were prepared in six laboratory experiments from four direct-cut grassland swards and pure swards of perennial ryegrass and false oat with dry matter contents ranging between 180 and 325 g/kg. Grass was fermented at 22 degrees C and silages were stored at the same temperature for 4 months. Untreated silages (negative control) and silages preserved with 3 g/kg of formic acid (positive control) were compared with silages inoculated with commercial strains of Lactobacillus plantarum, Lactobacillus buchneri and a mixed preparation Microsil. The inoculants were applied at a dose of 5.10(6) CFU/g of grass. Seven biogenic amines were extracted from silages with perchloric acid and determined as N-benzamides by micellar electrokinetic capillary chromatography. Common chemical quality parameters of silages were also determined. Tyramine, cadaverine and putrescine were the amines occurring at the highest concentration. As compared to untreated silages, formic acid was most effective to suppress formation of the main amines. Also the inoculants often decreased amine contents significantly (P < 0.05). The inoculants decreased levels of polyamine spermidine more efficiently than formic acid. Contents of histamine, tryptamine and polyamine spermine were very low, commonly below the detection limits.

  15. Identification of a novel enzymatic activity from lactic acid bacteria able to degrade biogenic amines in wine.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Callejón, S; Sendra, R; Ferrer, S; Pardo, I

    2014-01-01

    The main objectives of this study were the search for enzymatic activities responsible for biogenic amine (BA) degradation in lactic acid bacteria (LAB) strains isolated from wine, their identification, and the evaluation of their applicability for reducing BAs in wine. Fifty-three percent of the 76 LAB cell extracts showed activity against a mixture of histamine, tyramine, and putrescine when analyzed in-gel. The quantification of the degrading ability for each individual amine was tested in a synthetic medium and wine. Most of the bacteria analyzed were able to degrade the three amines in both conditions. The highest percentages of degradation in wine were those of putrescine: up to 41% diminution in 1 week. Enzymes responsible for amine degradation were isolated and purified from Lactobacillus plantarum J16 and Pediococcus acidilactici CECT 5930 strains and were identified as multicopper oxidases. This is the first report of an efficient BA reduction in wine by LAB. Furthermore, the identity of the enzymes involved has been revealed.

  16. Effects of ultraviolet light on biogenic amines and other quality indicators of chicken meat during refrigerated storage.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lázaro, C A; Conte-Júnior, C A; Monteiro, M L G; Canto, A C V S; Costa-Lima, B R C; Mano, S B; Franco, R M

    2014-09-01

    Radiation from UV-C has been demonstrated as a potential surface decontamination method in addition to several advantages over regular sanitation methods. However, UV-C radiation possibly affects the physicochemical properties of meat products. To determine the optimum exposure time for bacterial reduction, 39 chicken breasts, inoculated with a pool of Salmonella spp., were submitted to 3 levels of UV-C intensities (0.62, 1.13, and 1.95 mW/cm²) for up to 120 s. After the optimum exposure time of 90 s was determined, changes in the biogenic amines, total aerobic mesophilic bacteria, Enterobacteriaceae, lipid oxidation, pH, and instrumental color were evaluated in 84 chicken breasts that were irradiated (0.62, 1.13, and 1.95 mW/cm²) and stored at 4°C for 9 d. The groups treated with UV-C radiation exhibited an increase in tyramine, cadaverine, and putrescine contents (P meat without negatively affecting the physical and chemical parameters of chicken breast meat. Nonetheless, the increases on the biogenic amines content should be considered as an effect of the UV processing and not as an indicator of bacterial growth.

  17. A UHPLC method for the simultaneous analysis of biogenic amines, amino acids and ammonium ions in beer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Redruello, Begoña; Ladero, Victor; Del Rio, Beatriz; Fernández, María; Martin, M C; Alvarez, Miguel A

    2017-02-15

    This paper reports a novel UHPLC method for simultaneously quantifying nine biogenic amines, 21 amino acids, and ammonium ions, in beer. Precision values of standard curves slopes were lower than 3.4% and recovery was between 85% and 106%, indicating the absence of matrix effect. Linear calibration curves were obtained for analyte concentrations between two and four orders of magnitude (R(2)>0.996). Repeatability tests returned mean variations of 3.2% and 0.5% for beer and a standard solution, respectively. Sensitivity ranged between 0.03mg/L and 0.63mg/L for the biogenic amines, and 0.05mg/L and 5.19mg/L for other compounds. Original data on the habitual presence of ethanolamine in beers are presented. The method allows for more samples to be assayed per unit time, it uses less solvent than other techniques and therefore reduces costs and the associated waste. It could be a valuable tool for monitoring the safety and quality of beers.

  18. Alteration of amino acid and biogenic amine metabolism in hepatobiliary cancers: Findings from a prospective cohort study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stepien, Magdalena; Duarte-Salles, Talita; Fedirko, Veronika; Floegel, Anne; Barupal, Dinesh Kumar; Rinaldi, Sabina; Achaintre, David; Assi, Nada; Tjønneland, Anne; Overvad, Kim; Bastide, Nadia; Boutron-Ruault, Marie-Christine; Severi, Gianluca; Kühn, Tilman; Kaaks, Rudolf; Aleksandrova, Krasimira; Boeing, Heiner; Trichopoulou, Antonia; Bamia, Christina; Lagiou, Pagona; Saieva, Calogero; Agnoli, Claudia; Panico, Salvatore; Tumino, Rosario; Naccarati, Alessio; Bueno-de-Mesquita, H B As; Peeters, Petra H; Weiderpass, Elisabete; Quirós, J Ramón; Agudo, Antonio; Sánchez, María-José; Dorronsoro, Miren; Gavrila, Diana; Barricarte, Aurelio; Ohlsson, Bodil; Sjöberg, Klas; Werner, Mårten; Sund, Malin; Wareham, Nick; Khaw, Kay-Tee; Travis, Ruth C; Schmidt, Julie A; Gunter, Marc; Cross, Amanda; Vineis, Paolo; Romieu, Isabelle; Scalbert, Augustin; Jenab, Mazda

    2016-01-15

    Perturbations in levels of amino acids (AA) and their derivatives are observed in hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC). Yet, it is unclear whether these alterations precede or are a consequence of the disease, nor whether they pertain to anatomically related cancers of the intrahepatic bile duct (IHBC), and gallbladder and extrahepatic biliary tract (GBTC). Circulating standard AA, biogenic amines and hexoses were measured (Biocrates AbsoluteIDQ-p180Kit) in a case-control study nested within a large prospective cohort (147 HCC, 43 IHBC and 134 GBTC cases). Liver function and hepatitis status biomarkers were determined separately. Multivariable conditional logistic regression was used to calculate odds ratios and 95% confidence intervals (OR; 95%CI) for log-transformed standardised (mean = 0, SD = 1) serum metabolite levels and relevant ratios in relation to HCC, IHBC or GBTC risk. Fourteen metabolites were significantly associated with HCC risk, of which seven metabolites and four ratios were the strongest predictors in continuous models. Leucine, lysine, glutamine and the ratio of branched chain to aromatic AA (Fischer's ratio) were inversely, while phenylalanine, tyrosine and their ratio, glutamate, glutamate/glutamine ratio, kynurenine and its ratio to tryptophan were positively associated with HCC risk. Confounding by hepatitis status and liver enzyme levels was observed. For the other cancers no significant associations were observed. In conclusion, imbalances of specific AA and biogenic amines may be involved in HCC development.

  19. Cloning and characterization of a new laccase from Lactobacillus plantarum J16 CECT 8944 catalyzing biogenic amines degradation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Callejón, S; Sendra, R; Ferrer, S; Pardo, I

    2016-04-01

    In our search for degrading activities of biogenic amines (BAs) in lactic acid bacteria, a protein annotated as laccase enzyme was identified in Lactobacillus plantarum J16 (CECT 8944). In this study, the gene of this new laccase was cloned and heterologously overexpressed in Escherichia coli. The recombinant laccase protein was purified and characterized biochemically. The purified laccase showed characteristic spectroscopic properties of blue multicopper oxidases. The enzyme has a molecular weight of ∼ 62.5 kDa and activity toward typical laccase substrates 2,2'-azino-bis(3-ethylbenzothiazoline-6-sulfonic acid) (ABTS) and 2,6-dimethoxyphenol (2,6-DMP). The pH optima on ABTS and 2,6-DMP were 3.5 and 7.0, respectively. Kinetic constants Km and Vmax were of 0.21 mM and 0.54 U/mg for ABTS and 1.67 mM and 0.095 U/mg for 2,6-DMP, respectively. The highest oxidizing activity toward 2,6-DMP was obtained at 60 °C. However, after a preincubation step at 85 °C for 10 min, no residual activity was detected. It has been demonstrated that recombinant L. plantarum laccase oxidizes biogenic amines, mainly tyramine, and thus presents new biotechnological potential for the enzyme in eliminating toxic compounds present in fermented food and beverages.

  20. The evaluation of the three edible tissues of dead adult Chinese mitten crabs (Eriocheir sinensis) freshness in harvest season, based on the analysis of TVBN and biogenic amine

    OpenAIRE

    Yang, Xiaozhen; Zhang, Jinbiao; Cheng, Yongxu

    2016-01-01

    This study was carried out to evaluate the quality of the three edible tissues (muscles, hepatopancreas and gonads) of the male and female Chinese mitten crab (Eriocheir sinensis) in natural harvest season, based on total volatile base nitrogen test (TVBN) and biogenic amines analysis at intervals time of 3 h extended for 24 h during 30 °C storage (a mean ambient temperature in harvest season). In addition, the relationship between the value of TVBN and storage time or main biogenic amine was...

  1. Basic biogenic aerosol precursors: Agricultural source attribution of volatile amines revised

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kuhn, U.; Sintermann, J.; Spirig, C.; Jocher, M.; Ammann, C.; Neftel, A.

    2011-08-01

    Despite recent evidence on an important role of volatile amines in the nucleation of particulate matter, very scarce information is available on their atmospheric abundance and source distribution. Previous measurements in animal housings had identified livestock husbandry as the main amine source, with trimethylamine (TMA) being the key component. This has led to the assumption that the agricultural sources for amines are similar as for ammonia, emitted throughout the cascade of animal excretion, storage and application in the field. In this study, we present the first micrometeorological flux measurements as well as dynamic enclosure experiments showing that the amine source strength from stored slurry is negligible, implying significant consequences for the global amine emission inventory. In the case of cattle, amine production is attributed to the animal's rumination activity and exhalation is suggested to be an important emission pathway, similar to the greenhouse gas methane. Fodder like hay and silage also emits volatile amines, potentially assigning these alkaloid compounds a key function in enhancing particle formation in remote areas.

  2. Effects of plant polyphenols and a-tocopherol on lipid oxidation, microbiological characteristics, and biogenic amines formation in dry-cured bacons

    Science.gov (United States)

    Effects of plant polyphenols (tea polyphenol, grape seed extract, and gingerol) and a-tocopherol on physicochemical parameters, microbiological counts, and biogenic amines were determined in dry-cured bacons at the end of ripening. Results showed that plant polyphenols and a-tocopherol significantly...

  3. Genome Sequence of Lactobacillus saerimneri 30a (Formerly Lactobacillus sp. Strain 30a), a Reference Lactic Acid Bacterium Strain Producing Biogenic Amines

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Romano, Andrea; Trip, Hein; Campbell-Sills, Hugo; Bouchez, Olivier; Sherman, David; Lolkema, Juke S.; Lucas, Patrick M.

    2013-01-01

    Lactobacillus sp. strain 30a (Lactobacillus saerimneri) produces the biogenic amines histamine, putrescine, and cadaverine by decarboxylating their amino acid precursors. We report its draft genome sequence (1,634,278 bases, 42.6% G+C content) and the principal findings from its annotation, which mi

  4. Biogenic amine formation and microbial spoilage in chilled garfish ( Belone belone belone ) - effect of modified atmosphere packaging and previous frozen storage

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Dalgaard, Paw; Madsen, H.L.; Samieian, N.;

    2006-01-01

    Abstract Aims: To evaluate biogenic amine formation and microbial spoilage in fresh and thawed chilled garfish. Methods and Results: Storage trials were carried out with fresh and thawed garfish fillets at 0 or 5oC in air or in modified atmosphere packaging (MAP: 40% CO2 and 60% N2). During storage...

  5. Impact of gluconic fermentation of strawberry using acetic acid bacteria on amino acids and biogenic amines profile.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ordóñez, J L; Sainz, F; Callejón, R M; Troncoso, A M; Torija, M J; García-Parrilla, M C

    2015-07-01

    This paper studies the amino acid profile of beverages obtained through the fermentation of strawberry purée by a surface culture using three strains belonging to different acetic acid bacteria species (one of Gluconobacter japonicus, one of Gluconobacter oxydans and one of Acetobacter malorum). An HPLC-UV method involving diethyl ethoxymethylenemalonate (DEEMM) was adapted and validated. From the entire set of 21 amino acids, multiple linear regressions showed that glutamine, alanine, arginine, tryptophan, GABA and proline were significantly related to the fermentation process. Furthermore, linear discriminant analysis classified 100% of the samples correctly in accordance with the microorganism involved. G. japonicus consumed glucose most quickly and achieved the greatest decrease in amino acid concentration. None of the 8 biogenic amines were detected in the final products, which could serve as a safety guarantee for these strawberry gluconic fermentation beverages, in this regard.

  6. Determination of dansylated amino acids and biogenic amines in Cannonau and Vermentino wines by HPLC-FLD.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tuberoso, Carlo Ignazio Giovanni; Congiu, Francesca; Serreli, Gabriele; Mameli, Stefano

    2015-05-15

    Free amino acids (AA) and biogenic amines (BA) were quantified for the first time in Cannonau and Vermentino wines, the two most popular "Controlled Designation of Origin" wines from Sardinia (Italy). An analytical method for the simultaneous determination of AA and BA was developed, using selective derivatization with dansyl chloride followed by HPLC with fluorescence detection. Thirty-two compounds were identified in the wines analysed. High levels of AA were found, with proline being the most abundant with average levels of 1244 ± 398 and 1008 ± 281 mg/L in Cannonau and Vermentino wines, respectively. BA were detected at average concentrations wines. Histamine was never detected in any Vermentino wines. γ-Aminobutyric acid, 4-hydroxyproline, glycine, leucine+isoleucine and putrescine proved to be useful for differentiating Cannonau wines from Vermentino wines.

  7. Biogenic Amines in Salted Duck Analyzed by TLC Combined with HPLC%TLC和HPLC法相结合分析盐水鸭中的生物胺

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王凤芹; 刘芳; 孟勇; 王道营; 诸永志; 徐为民

    2011-01-01

    The composition and contents of biogenic amines in salted duck were analyzed by thin layer chromatography (TLC) combined with high performance liquid chromatography (HPLC). Six biogenic amines including putrescine, cadaverine, spermidine, spermine, tyramine and 2-phenylethylamine were detected in salted duck samples by TLC. Similarly, six biogenic amines were also detected by HPLC, and the concentration of each biogenic amine was less than 204 ~t g/g. The analytical results obtained by both methods were consistent. Therefore, TLC can be used as an economic and rapid method for the qualitative analysis of biogenic amines in meat products.%应用薄层层析(TLC)和高效液相色谱(HPLC)两种方法分析盐水鸭中生物胺的组成及含量。薄层层析结果显示,盐水鸭样品中存在着腐胺、尸胺、亚精胺、精胺、酪胺和2.苯乙胺;利用高效液相色谱法也检测到了以上6种生物胺,且各生物胺的含量均在204μg/g以下。两种方法结果相吻合,TLC法可以作为肉制品中生物胺定性分析的一种经济便捷的方法。

  8. Protective effect of taurine on the decreased biogenic amine neurotransmitter levels in the brain of mice exposed to arsenic.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Xiaohui; Piao, Fengyuan; Li, Yachen

    2013-01-01

    Arsenic (As) exposure has a toxic effect on the central nervous system, especially on learning and memory. Norepinephrine (NE), dopamine (DA), and serotonin (5-HT) play an important role in learning and memory function of the brain. In the present study, the protective effect of taurine on the disturbed biogenic amine neurotransmitter levels in the mouse brain induced by arsenic was examined. Sixty SPF mice were divided into three groups. The As exposure group was administered with 4 ppm As(2)O(3) through drinking water for 60 days. The protective group was treated with both 4 ppm As(2)O(3) and 150 mg/kg taurine. The control group was given drinking water alone. The levels of NE, DA, and 5-HT were determined by HPLC in the cerebrum and cerebellum of mice. Ultrastructure of synapses in brain tissue of mice was observed in these groups by transmission electron microscopy. The mRNA expressions of dopamine beta hydroxylase (DBH), tyrosine hydroxylase (TH), and tryptophan hydroxylase (TPH) as NE, DA, and 5-HT synzymes were also analyzed by real-time RT-PCR. The results showed that the concentrations of NE, DA, and 5-HT; the number of synaptic vesicles; and the expressions of TH, TPH, and DBH genes in the brains of mice exposed to As alone were significantly decreased. However, administration of taurine significantly alleviated the toxic effect on biochemicals detected in the experiment, compared with that in the brain of mice exposed to As alone. These results indicated that taurine was effective in counteracting the decreased biogenic amine neurotransmitter level and the mRNA expressions of their synzymes induced by arsenic.

  9. The biogenic amine tyramine modulates the adherence of Escherichia coli O157:H7 to intestinal mucosa.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lyte, Mark

    2004-05-01

    The environmental factors that influence the ability of Escherichia coli O157:H7 to attach to the intestinal mucosa are incompletely understood. In the present study, the ability of one of the most common biogenic amines present in food, tyramine, to influence the ability of E. coli O157:H7 to adhere to murine cecal mucosa was examined. Ex vivo full-thickness sheets of murine cecum were mounted in Ussing chambers, which preserved the enteric nervous system innervation of the luminal epithelia and thereby allowed us to achieve a closer approximation of bacterial adherence than would be encountered in vivo. After exposure of the luminal aspect of the cecum to tyramine, E. coli O157:H7 was added for 90 min. The cecal tissue was then removed and washed, and adhered E. coli O157:H7 was enumerated using a selective medium. Tyramine significantly increased E. coli O157:H7 adherence to cecal mucosa when compared to that of controls. The 50% effective concentration of tyramine was 92.6 microM. Specific adrenergic antagonists were then employed to examine whether the effect of tyramine was mediated through alpha- or beta-adrenergic receptors on the intestinal tissue. Pretreatment of tissues with either the alpha-adrenergic receptor antagonist phentolamine or the beta-adrenergic receptor antagonist propranolol prevented the action of tyramine. Measurement of active transepithelial ion transport and ionic permeability in the cecal sheets before and after the addition of tyramine and E. coli O157:H7 did not show any impairment of tissue viability or transepithelial conductance. Further, tyramine did not influence either the growth of E. coli O157:H7 or the expression of the intimin attachment factor. The present findings suggest that biogenic amines, such as tyramine, present within the food matrix influence host susceptibility to E. coli O157:H7 infection.

  10. Impact of salt reduction on biogenic amines, fatty acids, microbiota, texture and sensory profile in traditional blood dry-cured sausages.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Laranjo, Marta; Gomes, Ana; Agulheiro-Santos, Ana Cristina; Potes, Maria Eduarda; Cabrita, Maria João; Garcia, Raquel; Rocha, João Miguel; Roseiro, Luísa Cristina; Fernandes, Maria José; Fraqueza, Maria João; Elias, Miguel

    2017-03-01

    Meat industry needs to reduce salt in their products due to health issues. The present study evaluated the effect of salt reduction from 6% to 3% in two Portuguese traditional blood dry-cured sausages. Physicochemical and microbiological parameters, biogenic amines, fatty acids and texture profiles and sensory panel evaluations were considered. Differences due to salt reduction were perceptible in a faint decline of water activity, which slightly favoured microbial growth. Total biogenic amines content ranged from 88.86 to 796.68mgkg(-1) fresh matter, with higher amounts, particularly of cadaverine, histamine and tyramine, in low-salt products. Still, histamine and other vasoactive amines remained at low levels, thus not affecting consumers' health. Regarding fatty acids, no significant differences were observed due to salt. However, texture profile analysis revealed lower resilience and cohesiveness in low-salt products, although no textural changes were observed by the sensory panel. Nevertheless, low-salt sausages were clearly preferred by panellists.

  11. Biogenic amines in food and their determination methods%食品中的生物胺及其检测方法

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王颖; 邱璠; 韩北忠; 殷丽君

    2011-01-01

    生物胺普遍存在于生物体中,有重要的生理功能.许多天然食品中都含有生物胺.摄入大量生物胺会引起身体不适,严重的还可能危及生命.引起食物中毒的生物胺主要包括组胺和酪胺.此外,存在大量微生物的食品中,生物胺的含量较高,同类食品中生物胺的种类和含量又有很大的变化,这一现象受许多因素影响,如微生物的种类和数量、温度、pH值等.生物胺含量还与食品的腐败变质有关,是食品品质的指示器,因此对于生物胺的检测受到重视.目前检测食品中生物胺含量的方法主要有薄层色谱、气相色谱、毛细管电泳和高效液相色谱.%Biogenic amines (BA) which commonly present in living organisms play important roles in essential functions. Many natural foods contain biogenic amines. Biogenic amines can be produced by microorganisms through the activity of amino acid decarboxylases. Excessive consumption of these amines can be of health concern, even life-threatening. Histamine and tyramine are the main amines which are causative agents in food poisoning episodes. In addition, high microbial counts often lead to considerable accumulation of biogenic amines. However, great fluctuations of amine content are reported in the same type of product. These differences depend on many variables: the composition of microflora, temperature, pH value, and so on. Biogenic amines are indicators of spoilage of food and the analytical methods used for quanti?cation of BA are mainly based on chromato-graphic methods: thin layer chromatography, gas chromatography, capillary electrophoresis and high-performance liquid chromatography.

  12. Effect of spermidine and its metabolites on the activity of pea seedlings diamine oxidase and the problems of biosensing of biogenic amines with this enzyme.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kivirand, K; Sõmerik, H; Oldekop, M-L; Rebane, R; Rinken, T

    2016-01-01

    Spermidine is one of the several biogenic amines, produced during the microbial decarboxylation of proteins. Individual biogenic amines in the formed mixtures are frequently analyzed with oxygen sensor based biosensors, as their content serves as a good biomarker for the determination of food quality. In these biosensors, diamine oxidase from pea seedlings (PSAO), catalyzing the oxidation of various biogenic amines by dissolved oxygen is commonly used for the bio-recognition of amines. However, in the presence of spermidine and/or its metabolite 1,3-diaminopropane, the activity of PSAO and the sensitivity of PSAO-based biosensors decrease due to inhibition. The inhibition constant of soluble spermidine, acting as an inhibiting substrate toward PSAO, was found to be (40±15) mM in freshly prepared solution and (0.28±0.05) mM in solution, incubated 30 days at room temperature. The inhibition constant of 1,3-diaminopropane, acting as a competitive inhibitor, was (0.43±0.12) mM as determined through the oxidation reaction of cadaverine. The metabolic half-life of soluble spermidine was 7 days at room temperature and 186 days at 4 °C. The kinetic measurements were carried out with an oxygen sensor; the composition of the solution of degraded spermidine was analyzed with MS.

  13. Grape yield to soil N-NO3- ratio can explain the different levels of biogenic amines in wine from two vineyards in the AOC Rioja (Spain)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pérez-Álvarez, Eva Pilar; Garde-Cerdán, Teresa; Santamaría, Pilar; García-Escudero, Enrique; Peregrina, Fernando

    2014-05-01

    Plant N status may affect the grape amino acid concentration, which act as precursors in the formation of biogenic amines in wine. Biogenic amines have negative effects on human health and so they reduce the wine quality. The objective of this study was to analyze, at bloom (when the vine N demand peaks) if both the available soil N and the N concentration in the leaf could explain the amino acid concentration in the must as well as the biogenic amines in wines from AOC Rioja. Two plots with cv. Tempranillo (Vitis vinifera L.) vines grafted on R-110 rootstock were chosen: "La Grajera" (2,998 plants ha-1) and "Nájera" (2,849 plants ha-1), both plots with a traditional soil tillage management system and classified according to the American Soil Taxonomy as Typic Haloxerepts and Oxyaquic Xerorthent, respectively. Both soils had a pH higher than 7, a silty loam texture and organic matter values lower than 2%. The climatic conditions were described as semiarid Mediterranean according to the UNESCO aridity index. In each vineyard, three non-adjacent experimental plots with 3 rows of 30 vines each, were set out. No fertilizer was applied during the project. Each plot was sampled in 2009, 2010 and 2011 seasons at bloom, analyzing the available soil N-NO3- at 0-15 and 15-45 cm depth and expressing the results in kg ha-1 by means of the bulk density of soil and the coarse elements content. Also at bloom, 30 leaves per experimental plot were collected and their N concentration was analyzed. At harvest, 200 berries were taken from each plot and the amino acid content in the musts was determined by HPLC. In addition, 100 kg of grapes from each plot were taken in order to elaborate wine according to the AOC Rioja common winemaking practices. When the winemaking process was finished, the concentration of biogenic amines in the wine (histamine, methylamine, ethylamine, tyramine, putrescine, cadeverine, phenylethylamine and isoamylamine) was determined by HPLC. Our results showed

  14. Microbiological properties and biogenic amines of whole pike-perch (Sander lucioperca, linnaeus 1758): a perspective on fish safety during postharvest handling practices and frozen storage.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ehsani, Ali; Jasour, Mohammad Sedigh

    2012-12-01

    The biogenic amines (tyramine, histamine, cadaverine, and puterscine) and microbiological properties (mesophilic, psychrotrophic, and Pseudomonas spp.) of whole pike-perch (Sander lucioperca) was investigated during 2 d prestorage icing and 90 d frozen storage (-24 °C). At the end of ice storage, a noticeable increase only was found for puterscine level (P pike-perch and its concentration varied between 1.75 and 56.95 μg/g; due to a more step-wise increase it was a good quality indicator. At the end of storage, all of the obtained values are below the tolerable maximum amounts based on available regulations. Based on biogenic amines content and microbial load, it could be concluded that pike-perch can be consumed without any health risks after 2 d icing condition and 90 d frozen storage.

  15. Amino Acid and Biogenic Amine Profile Deviations in an Oral Glucose Tolerance Test: A Comparison between Healthy and Hyperlipidaemia Individuals Based on Targeted Metabolomics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Qi; Gu, Wenbo; Ma, Xuan; Liu, Yuxin; Jiang, Lidan; Feng, Rennan; Liu, Liyan

    2016-06-21

    Hyperlipidemia (HLP) is characterized by a disturbance in lipid metabolism and is a primary risk factor for the development of insulin resistance (IR) and a well-established risk factor for cardiovascular disease and atherosclerosis. The aim of this work was to investigate the changes in postprandial amino acid and biogenic amine profiles provoked by an oral glucose tolerance test (OGTT) in HLP patients using targeted metabolomics. We used ultra-high-performance liquid chromatography-triple quadrupole mass spectrometry to analyze the serum amino acid and biogenic amine profiles of 35 control and 35 HLP subjects during an OGTT. The amino acid and biogenic amine profiles from 30 HLP subjects were detected as independent samples to validate the changes in the metabolites. There were differences in the amino acid and biogenic amine profiles between the HLP individuals and the healthy controls at baseline and after the OGTT. The per cent changes of 13 metabolites from fasting to the 2 h samples during the OGTT in the HLP patients were significantly different from those of the healthy controls. The lipid parameters were associated with the changes in valine, isoleucine, creatine, creatinine, dimethylglycine, asparagine, serine, and tyrosine (all p < 0.05) during the OGTT in the HLP group. The postprandial changes in isoleucine and γ-aminobutyric acid (GABA) during the OGTT were positively associated with the homeostasis model assessment of insulin resistance (HOMA-IR; all p < 0.05) in the HLP group. Elevated oxidative stress and disordered energy metabolism during OGTTs are important characteristics of metabolic perturbations in HLP. Our findings offer new insights into the complex physiological regulation of metabolism during the OGTT in HLP.

  16. Ultrasound-assisted dispersive liquid-liquid microextraction combined with high-performance liquid chromatography-fluorescence detection for sensitive determination of biogenic amines in rice wine samples.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huang, Ke-Jing; Wei, Cai-Yun; Liu, Wei-Li; Xie, Wan-Zhen; Zhang, Jun-Feng; Wang, Wei

    2009-09-18

    Ultrasound-assisted dispersive liquid-liquid microextraction coupled with high-performance liquid chromatography-fluorescence detection was used for the extraction and determination of three biogenic amines including octopamine, tyramine and phenethylamine in rice wine samples. Fluorescence probe 2,6-dimethyl-4-quinolinecarboxylic acid N-hydroxysuccinimide ester was applied for derivatization of biogenic amines. Acetonitrile and 1-octanol were used as disperser solvent and extraction solvent, respectively. Extraction conditions including the type of extraction solvent, the volume of extraction solvent, ultrasonication time and centrifuging time were optimized. After extraction and centrifuging, analyte was injected rapidly into high-performance liquid chromatography and then detected with fluorescence. The calibration graph of the proposed method was linear in the range of 5-500 microg mL(-1) (octopamine and tyramine) and 0.025-2.5 microg mL(-1) (phenethylamine). The relative standard deviations were 2.4-3.2% (n=6) and the limits of detection were in the range of 0.02-5 ng mL(-1). The method was applied to analyze the rice wine samples and spiked recoveries in the range of 95.42-104.56% were obtained. The results showed that ultrasound-assisted dispersive liquid-liquid microextraction was a very simple, rapid, sensitive and efficient analytical method for the determination of trace amount of biogenic amines.

  17. High performance liquid chromatography, thin layer chromatography and spectrophotometric studies on the removal of biogenic amines from some Egyptian foods using organic, inorganic and natural compounds.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mohamed, Gehad G; El-Hameed, Azza K Abd; El-Din, A M M Nezam; El-Din, Lara A M M N

    2010-04-01

    This work has been carried out to investigate the conditions which lead to removal of the biogenic amines through the model system. Also, the main goal of this research work is trying to remove biogenic amines; histamine and tyramine, from some Egyptian foods such as tomato, strawberry, banana and mango to prevent their allergy effect. Histamine and tyramine have been affected by pyrogallol, catechol, starch, ascorbic and chlorogenic acids at different levels with different conditions. Some natural additives like glucose, spices, milk, vanillin, starch, orange juice, ascorbic and citric acids, showed an effective effect on disappearance of histamine and tyramine. By studying the effect of some additives on biogenic amines, it was found that tomato showed a decrease in histamine and tyramine concentrations by adding spices. Strawberry and banana showed a clear decrease in histamine and tyramine concentrations by treating them with ascorbic acid. Treating mango by milk led to increase of histamine level while milk with chocolate increases both histamine and tyramine concentrations.

  18. Simultaneous determination of ten biogenic amines in a thymopolypeptides injection using ultra-performance liquid chromatography coupled with electrospray ionization tandem quadrupole mass spectrometry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Yong; Yang, Huaxin; Liao, Haiming; Fan, Huihong; Liang, Chenggang; Deng, Lijuan; Jin, Shaohong

    2013-06-15

    A selective and sensitive ultra-performance liquid chromatography-electrospray ionization tandem mass spectrometry (UPLC-MS) method was developed for the simultaneous determination of ten biogenic amines (tryptamine, 2-phenylethylamine, putrescine, cadaverine, histamine, tyramine, spermidine, adrenaline, dopamine and spermine) in a thymopolypeptides injection from the Chinese market for the first time. Biogenic amines (BAs) were pre-column derivatised by dansyl chloride after direct sample dilution. Dansylated amines were separated on an ACQUITY UPLC BEH Shield RP18 column (2.1mm×150mm I.D., 1.7μm) using a gradient elution. Quantification was done by monitoring fragment ions of each derivative under the MS mode of multiple reaction monitoring (MRM). A satisfactory result of method validation was obtained. The linearity ranged from 0.32 to 1182.9μg/L and the correlation coefficients (r) for all amines were above 0.99. The LOD ranged from 0.08μg/L for 2-phenylethylamine and tyramine to 8.00μg/L for adrenaline; the LOQ ranged from 0.32μg/L for 2-phenylethylamine to 12.12μg/L for dopamine. The recovery ranged from 75.8 to 110.3% after spiking standard solutions of BAs to a sample at three levels. The intra and inter-day precision RSD were 0.78-8.85% and 1.39-9.93% respectively. Eighty-four injections were analyzed by this method. Nine biogenic amines were found in them except adrenaline. Moreover, the relationship between the result of test for depressor substances and the content of BAs was statistically analyzed.

  19. Effect of starter culture, spice mix and storage time and temperature on biogenic amine content of dry fermented sausages.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Komprda, T; Smělá, D; Pechová, P; Kalhotka, L; Stencl, J; Klejdus, B

    2004-08-01

    Two types of dry fermented sausage differing in spicing mixture and the diameter (low content of red pepper+diameter 80 mm, H-sausage; high content of red pepper+diameter 55 mm, P-sausage, respectively) were produced in parallel with two different starter cultures (Pediococcus pentosaceus+Staphylococcus carnosus, B-samples and S. carnosus+Staphylococcus xylosus+Lactobacillus farciminis, F-samples, respectively). The sausages were ripened 21 days and subsequently stored 91 days at the room temperature. Concentration of both most abundant amines, putrescine and tyramine (y; mg/kg DM) increased significantly (P<0.01) in HB-sausage during ripening (x; days): y=2.5+18.13x-0.3144x(2) (R(2)=0.99) and y=0.7+8.17x-0.1130x(2) (R(2)=0.99), and also during storage: y=127.3+5.123x (R(2)=0.79) and y=26.0+3.211x (R(2)=0.74), respectively. At the end of ripening, putrescine (247 mg/kg DM) and tyramine (123 mg/kg DM) content in the HB-sausage was higher (P<0.05) than in the PB-sausage (12 and 9 mg/kg DM, respectively), concentration of either of these amines was negligible (1 mg/kg DM) in either type of F-inoculated sausage. Both starter culture and sausage type influenced significantly (P<0.001) both putrescine and tyramine content in the sausage; starter accounted for 57% and 55% of total variability in putrescine and tyramine content, respectively. Due to the significant (P<0.05) increase of total aerobic counts in the HB-sausage between the end of ripening and the 7th day of storage, followed by the significant (P<0.01) increase of the sum of total biogenic amines between the end of ripening (425 mg/kg DM) and the end of storage (1029 mg/kg DM), the storage of the dry fermented sausages at the room temperature should not be recommended.

  20. Assessment of the genetic polymorphism and biogenic amine production of indigenous Oenococcus oeni strains isolated from Greek red wines.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pramateftaki, P V; Metafa, M; Karapetrou, G; Marmaras, G

    2012-02-01

    In the warm climate country of Greece malolactic fermentation (MLF) has received limited attention. Molecular techniques and High Performance Liquid Chromatography (HPLC) were used to study the genetic polymorphism of autochthonous lactic acid bacteria developing towards the end of spontaneous MLF of Greek red wines and for the assessment of their potential to produce harmful biogenic amines. This research revealed that native Oenococcus oeni isolates are very much adapted to specific winery conditions since the majority of spontaneous MLF were driven mostly or exclusively by a single strain of O. oeni. Native O. oeni strains showed only limited dispersion since cluster analysis uncovered only few common genotypes among indigenous isolates from different wineries. The genotype of a frequently used malolactic starter was more than often detected among autochthonous isolates without nevertheless compromising the biodiversity of natural microflora residing in wineries but rather becoming a part of it. For the majority of the wine samples studied, MLF implementation and storage in bottles resulted in negligible changes on the levels of the BA histamine, tyramine, phenylethylamine, cadaverine as well as of ethylamine, methylamine, isobutylamine. We provide evidence that autochthonous O. oeni isolates can only contribute to putrescine accumulation in Greek wines but still the specific trait behaves as strain-specific with a limited dispersion.

  1. Improved electrochemical detection of biogenic amines in Aplysia using base-hydrolyzed cellulose-coated carbon fiber microelectrodes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marinesco, Stéphane; Carew, Thomas J

    2002-05-30

    A major challenge with electrochemical techniques in vivo, using carbon-fiber microelectrodes, is to achieve sufficient sensitivity to detect the low concentrations of transmitters released by neurons. In particular, when an electrode is inserted into living tissue, its sensitivity is usually substantially decreased as a result of the degradation of the carbon surface by proteins. Here, we show that this decrease can be significantly attenuated by coating the electrode with cellulose acetate. The cellulose film offers a steric barrier that prevents macromolecules from diffusing to the carbon surface and its porosity can be progressively increased by controlled hydrolysis. We compared different cellulose-coated electrodes, either non-hydrolysed or hydrolyzed, in 0.08 N KOH for 10-30 min. We found that dopamine and serotonin detection was blocked by non-hydrolysed cellulose films, but that hydrolysis restored optimal detection similar to uncoated electrodes. Moreover, cellulose films (hydrolyzed for 20 min) significantly diminished electrode degradation in vivo and allowed reliable detection of fast concentration changes with coated electrodes is approximately 20 min with our protocol and carbon fiber electrodes prepared with this method offer improved sensitivity for the detection of biogenic amines.

  2. HPLC quantification of biogenic amines in cheeses: correlation with PCR-detection of tyramine-producing microorganisms.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fernández, María; Linares, Daniel M; Del Río, Beatriz; Ladero, Victor; Alvarez, Miguel A

    2007-08-01

    The consumption of food and beverages containing high amounts of biogenic amines (BA) can have toxicological effects. BA found in foods and beverages are synthesized by the microbial decarboxylation of certain amino acids. This paper reports the concentrations of BAs in a number of commercial cheeses, as determined by HPLC. The cheeses studied were made from raw and pasteurized milk of different origin, and were subjected to different ripening periods. BA concentrations were lower in short ripening period than in long ripening period cheeses, and higher in cheeses made from raw milk than in those made from pasteurized milk. The highest BA concentrations were recorded in blue cheeses made from raw milk. Tyramine was the most commonly recorded and abundant BA. The presence of tyramine-producing bacteria was determined by PCR, and a good correlation obtained between the results of this method and tyramine detection by HPLC. These methods could be used to complement one another in the detection and quantification of tyramine in cheese prevention of tyramine accumulation in cheese.

  3. Is the production of the biogenic amines tyramine and putrescine a species-level trait in enterococci?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ladero, Victor; Fernández, María; Calles-Enríquez, Marina; Sánchez-Llana, Esther; Cañedo, Elena; Martín, M Cruz; Alvarez, Miguel A

    2012-05-01

    Biogenic amines (BA) are toxic nitrogenous compounds that can be accumulated in foods via the microbial decarboxylation of certain amino acids. Lactic acid bacteria (LAB) strains belonging to different species and genera have been described as BA producers and are mainly responsible for their synthesis in fermented foods. It is generally accepted that the capacity to produced BAs is strain-dependent. However, the large number of enterococci identified as BA producers suggests that the aminogenic trait may be a species-level characteristic. Enterococcus faecalis, Enterococcus faecium and Enterococcus durans strains of different origin were analysed to determine their capacity to produce tyramine and putrescine. The presence of the genes responsible for this and the identity of their flanking regions were checked by PCR. The results suggest that tyramine biosynthesis is a species-level characteristic in E. faecalis, E. faecium and E. durans. Putrescine synthesis was found to be a species-level trait of E. faecalis, with production occurring via the agmatine deamination pathway. Some E. faecium strains of human origin also produced putrescine; this trait was probably acquired via horizontal gene transfer.

  4. Biogenic amine production by the wine Lactobacillus brevis IOEB 9809 in systems that partially mimic the gastrointestinal tract stress

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Russo Pasquale

    2012-10-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Ingestion of fermented foods containing high levels of biogenic amines (BA can be deleterious to human health. Less obvious is the threat posed by BA producing organisms contained within the food which, in principle, could form BA after ingestion even if the food product itself does not initially contain high BA levels. In this work we have investigated the production of tyramine and putrescine by Lactobacillus brevis IOEB 9809, of wine origin, under simulated gastrointestinal tract (GIT conditions. Results An in vitro model that simulates the normal physiological conditions in the human digestive tract, as well as Caco-2 epithelial human cell lines, was used to challenge L. brevis IOEB 9809, which produced both tyramine and putrescine under all conditions tested. In the presence of BA precursors and under mild gastric stress, a correlation between enhancement of bacterial survival and a synchronous transcriptional activation of the tyramine and putrescine biosynthetic pathways was detected. High levels of both BA were observed after exposure of the bacterium to Caco-2 cells. Conclusions L. brevis IOEB 9809 can produce tyramine and putrescine under simulated human digestive tract conditions. The results indicate that BA production may be a mechanism that increases bacterial survival under gastric stress.

  5. Handling time misalignment and rank deficiency in liquid chromatography by multivariate curve resolution: Quantitation of five biogenic amines in fish

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pinto, Licarion [Laboratório de Automação e Instrumentação em Química Analítica e Quimiometria (LAQA), Universidade Federal da Paraíba, CCEN, Departamento de Química, Caixa Postal 5093, CEP 58051-970, João Pessoa, PB (Brazil); Díaz Nieto, César Horacio; Zón, María Alicia; Fernández, Héctor [Departamento de Química, Facultad de Ciencias Exactas, Físico-Químicas y Naturales, Universidad Nacional de Río Cuarto, 5800, Río Cuarto (Argentina); Ugulino de Araujo, Mario Cesar, E-mail: laqa@quimica.ufpb.br [Laboratório de Automação e Instrumentação em Química Analítica e Quimiometria (LAQA), Universidade Federal da Paraíba, CCEN, Departamento de Química, Caixa Postal 5093, CEP 58051-970, João Pessoa, PB (Brazil)

    2016-01-01

    Biogenic amines (BAs) are used for identifying spoilage in food. The most common are tryptamine (TRY), 2-phenylethylamine (PHE), putrescine (PUT), cadaverine (CAD) and histamine (HIS). Due to lack of chromophores, chemical derivatization with dansyl was employed to analyze these BAs using high performance liquid chromatography with a diode array detector (HPLC-DAD). However, the derivatization reaction occurs with any primary or secondary amine, leading to co-elution of analytes and interferents with identical spectral profiles, and thus causing rank deficiency. When the spectral profile is the same and peak misalignment is present on the chromatographic runs, it is not possible to handle the data only with Multivariate Curve Resolution and Alternative Least Square (MCR-ALS), by augmenting the time, or the spectral mode. A way to circumvent this drawback is to receive information from another detector that leads to a selective profile for the analyte. To overcome both problems, (tri-linearity break in time, and spectral mode), this paper proposes a new analytical methodology for fast quantitation of these BAs in fish with HPLC-DAD by using the icoshift algorithm for temporal misalignment correction before MCR-ALS spectral mode augmented treatment. Limits of detection, relative errors of prediction (REP) and average recoveries, ranging from 0.14 to 0.50 µg mL{sup −1}, 3.5–8.8% and 88.08%–99.68%, respectively. These are outstanding results obtained, reaching quantification limits for the five BAs much lower than those established by the Food and Agriculture Organization of the United Nations and World Health Organization (FAO/WHO), and the European Food Safety Authority (EFSA), all without any pre-concentration steps. The concentrations of BAs in fish samples ranged from 7.82 to 29.41 µg g{sup −1}, 8.68–25.95 µg g{sup −1}, 4.76–28.54 µg g{sup −1}, 5.18–39.95 µg g{sup −1} and 1.45–52.62 µg g{sup −1} for TRY, PHE, PUT, CAD, and

  6. Determination of biogenic amines in wines by pre-column derivatization and high-performance liquid chromatography coupled to mass spectrometry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    García-Villar, Natividad; Hernández-Cassou, Santiago; Saurina, Javier

    2009-09-01

    A new HPLC method for determining biogenic amines in wines is developed. This method is based on pre-column amine derivatization, further separation of derivatives and on-line hyphenation of HPLC to atmospheric pressure chemical ionization mass spectrometry (APCI-MS). Biogenic amines have been derivatized with 1,2-naphthoquinone-4-sulfonate at 65 degrees C and pH 9.2 for 5 min. The separation of derivatives has been accomplished in a C(18) analytical column using an elution gradient based on increasing the percentage of methanol. Derivatives have been ionized in positive mode and detected by selected ion monitoring. The operating conditions of the APCI-MS system (voltages, temperatures and gases) have been thoroughly optimized to obtain the maximum sensitivity for all analytes. In the selected conditions, APCI-MS spectra display little fragmentation and good signal-to-noise ratio. Depending on the amine characteristics, the main spectral peaks are due to mono- and di-derivative products. Figures of merit of the method have been established under the selected conditions using red wine samples. Recoveries ranging from 94% to 106% have been obtained which prove excellent accuracy of the method in the determination of histamine, putrescine, cadaverine, tryptamine, phenylethylamine, tyramine and serotonin in red wines. The proposed method has been applied to the analysis of commercial wines from different Spanish regions.

  7. 青稞酒发酵过程中生物胺动态变化%Dynamic Changes of Biogenic Amines in Highland Barley Wine during Fermentation

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    杜木英; 陈宗道; 阚建全; Judit BECZNER; Agnes BARATH; Anna HALASZ

    2012-01-01

    In this study,dynamic changes of biogenic amines in highland barley wine during fermentation were investigated.The content of seven different biogenic amines at different fermentation stages was determined using an amino acid analyzer to evaluate the fermentation environment and reasonably control the fermentation process and the quality of final fermentation products.The results showed that highland barley did not contain histamine,but both fermented highland barley and highland barley wine contained histamine.The dynamic change pattern of biogenic amines during fermentation for both traditional fermentation and inoculated fermentation was as follows: putrescine and agmatine contents declined while histamine and tyramine content increased gradually as the fermentation progressed.Tyramine content increased significantly from 2.98μg/g to 5.36μg/g during multi-strain fermentation and from 5.97μg/g to 11.67μg/g by traditional fermentation.The content of other types of biogenic amines and the total biogenic amines did not change significantly during fermentation.The variation of total biogenic amines was 53.44-72.56μg/g,which is within the safe limit of biogenic amines.%对青稞酒发酵过程中生物胺的动态变化规律进行研究。利用氨基酸自动分析液相色谱法测定青稞酒不同发酵阶段中7种生物胺的含量,来评价发酵环境以及控制合理发酵过程和发酵终产物的质量。结果表明:青稞原料中不含组胺,但是青稞酒醅及成品青稞酒中都含有组胺。传统发酵和多菌种发酵两种发酵方式青稞酒的生物胺含量变化规律是:腐胺及胍丁胺的含量变化随着发酵的进行呈下降趋势;组胺及酪胺的含量随发酵进程逐渐上升,尤其是酪胺,上升趋势明显,多菌种发酵由2.98μg/g上升至5.36μg/g,传统发酵由5.97μg/g上升至11.67μg/g。其余各种生物胺含量变化不明显,发酵过程的生物胺总量变化也不显著。本实验检测

  8. Production of biogenic amines by lactic acid bacteria and enterobacteria isolated from fresh pork sausages packaged in different atmospheres and kept under refrigeration.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Curiel, J A; Ruiz-Capillas, C; de Las Rivas, B; Carrascosa, A V; Jiménez-Colmenero, F; Muñoz, R

    2011-07-01

    The occurrence of in vitro amino acid activity in bacterial strains associated with fresh pork sausages packaged in different atmospheres and kept in refrigeration was studied. The presence of biogenic amines in decarboxylase broth was confirmed by ion-exchange chromatography and by the presence of the corresponding decarboxylase genes by PCR. From the 93 lactic acid bacteria and 100 enterobacteria strains analysed, the decarboxylase medium underestimates the number of biogenic amine-producer strains. 28% of the lactic acid bacteria produced tyramine and presented the tdc gene. All the tyramine-producer strains were molecularly identified as Carnobacterium divergens. Differences on the relative abundance of C. divergens were observed among the different packaging atmospheres assayed. After 28 days of storage, the presence of argon seems to inhibit C. divergens growth, while packing under vacuum seems to favour it. Among enterobacteria, putrescine was the amine more frequently produced (87%), followed by cadaverine (85%); agmatine and tyramine were only produced by 13 and 1%, respectively, of the strains analysed. Packing under vacuum or in an atmosphere containing nitrogen seems to inhibit the growth of enterobacteria which produce simultaneously putrescine, cadaverine, and agmatine. Contrarily, over-wrapping or packing in an atmosphere containing argon seems to favour the growth of agmatine producer-enterobacteria. The production of putrescine and cadaverine was associated with the presence of the corresponding amino acid decarboxylase genes. The biogenic amine-producer strains were included in a wide range of enterobacterial species, including Kluyvera intermedia, Enterobacter aerogenes, Yersinia kristensenii, Serratia grimesii, Serratia ficaria, Yersinia rodhei, Providencia vermicola and Obesumbacterium proteus.

  9. Analysis of biogenic amines in wines by salting-out assisted liquid-liquid extraction and high-performance liquid chromatography with fluorimetric detection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ramos, Rui Miguel; Valente, Inês Maria; Rodrigues, José António

    2014-06-01

    Biogenic amines are nitrogenous organic compounds of low molecular weight that are either formed or metabolized in cells of living organisms and can be found in several food products, being produced mainly by amino acid decarboxylation. When ingested in high concentrations they can induce several health problems in humans. In alcoholic beverages, and especially in wine, they are formed during the vinification process as a result of the action of microorganisms. In this work it is proposed a new methodology for the determination of biogenic amines in wines, which includes a sample preparation approach based on salting-out assisted liquid-liquid extraction, the use of dansyl chloride for the derivatization and chromatographic separation by high-performance liquid chromatography with fluorimetric detection. The salting-out effect is used to promote phase separation between water and a water-miscible organic solvent, while improving the extraction of organic or inorganic species. Several extraction parameters were optimized, such as the dansyl chloride concentration, pH and the effects caused by the order in which the extraction and derivatization were performed. Extraction of amines, and consequent detection, depends on the presence of dansyl chloride in solution prior to extraction. The results showed the possibility to simultaneously perform the extraction and the derivatization, making sample preparation easier and less time-consuming. The methodology was successfully applied to the determination of biogenic amines in five wines (white, red and rosé). This method has the potential to be a good alternative to existing methods since it is cheaper, easier and simplifies the sample preparation step.

  10. amines

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Styszko Katarzyna

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available The study investigated the application of char activated with CO2 and impregnated with amines solutions for removal of selected xenobiotics from aqueous solutions. The chars produced from the pyrolysis of waste tires. The solutions of monoethanolamine (MEA, diethanolamine (DEA and polyethylenimine (PEI were used for impregnation of char. The sorption capacity of char impregnated with amines depended on amines chemical properties. The adsorptive removal of mixture of pharmaceuticals residues by modified materials was assessed. BET surface area of materials varied from 36 m2 g−1 to 128 m2 g−1. The highest removal efficiencies up to 99 % were observed for char impregnated with PEI.

  11. Extraction Efficiency of Different Solvents and LC-UV Determination of Biogenic Amines in Tea Leaves and Infusions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Spizzirri, U. Gianfranco; Picci, Nevio

    2016-01-01

    Biogenic amines (BAs), that is, spermine, spermidine, putrescine, histamine, tyramine, β-phenylethylamine, cadaverine, and serotonin, have been determined in several samples of tea leaves, tea infusions, and tea drinks by LC-UV method after derivatization with dansyl chloride. Different extraction solvents have been tested and TCA 5% showed better analytical performances in terms of linearity, recovery percentages, LOD, LOQ, and repeatability than HCl 0.1 M and HClO4 0.1 M and was finally exploited for the quantitative determination of BAs in all samples. In tea leaves total BAs concentration ranged from 2.23 μg g−1 to 11.24 μg g−1 and PUT (1.05–2.25 μg g−1) and SPD (1.01–1.95 μg g−1) were always present, while SER (nd–1.56 μg g−1), HIS (nd–2.44 μg g−1), and SPM (nd–1.64 μg g−1) were detected more rarely. CAD and PHE were determined in few samples at much lower concentrations while none of the samples contained TYR. Tea infusions showed the same trend with total BAs concentrations never exceeding 80.7 μg L−1. Black teas showed higher amounts of BAs than green teas and organic and decaffeinated samples always contained much lower BAs levels than their conventional counterparts. PMID:27555979

  12. Effect of different processes on biogenic amines%不同加工对生物胺影响的研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    赵中辉; 林洪; 李振兴

    2011-01-01

    In order to destroy the structures, inhibit the formations and reduce the concentrations of biogenic amines, changes of seven amines (tyramine, putrescine, cadaverine, histamine, agmatine, spermidine and spermine)were analyzed after different processes by RP-HPLC and post-column derivatization with fluorescence detector( FLD). Results indicated that, none of biogenic amines was destroyed by ultrasonic, microwave and heating.The inhibition rates of ultrasound and potassium sorbate on biogenic amines in Spanish mackerel were 45.89% and 58.36% .respectively.And the removal rates of acetic acid and pickle juice were 17.59% and 27.76%, respectively.In conclusion,biogenic amines could be suppressed by controlling bacteria and be removed by acid extraction,instead of using the technology such as ultrasonic,microwave and heating.%为破坏生物胺结构、抑制生物胺产生、有效去除生物胺,通过HPLC-柱后衍生-FLD检测技术分析了7种生物胺(酪胺、腐胺、尸胺、组胺、胍丁胺、亚精胺、精胺)在不同加工处理后的变化情况.结果表明,超声、微波、加热对生物胺没有破坏作用,超声和山梨酸钾前处理对鲅鱼生物胺的抑制率分别为45.89%和58.36%.醋酸、泡菜汁对生物胺的去除率为17.59%和27.76%.因此,生物胺不能通过超声、微波、加热技术来消除,可以通过控制细菌生长和酸液浸提等方式来抑制和去除.

  13. Evaluation of biogenic amines levels, and biochemical and microbiological characterization of Italian-type salami sold in Rio de Janeiro, Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Luiz Felipe Lopes dos Santos

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available The objective of the present study was to evaluate the levels of biogenic amines (cadaverine, putrescine, tyramine, histamine, spermidine and spermine by high performance liquid chromatography (HPLC and the physicochemical (moisture, lipids, proteins, pH, water activity and fixed mineral residue and microbiological (lactic acid bacteria and aerobic heterotrophic mesophilic bacteria count characteristics of six Italian-type salami brands sold in the city of Niteroi (Rio de Janeiro, Brazil. The salami showed lactic acid bacteria count from 5.7 to 8.6 CFU•mL-1, and heterotrophic mesophilic bacteria count from 5.8 to 8.7 CFU•mL-1. Three brands showed moisture contents above 35% and one brand had protein content below 25%. The mean values obtained for the amines were: 197.43, 143.29, 73.02, 4.52, 90.66 and 36.17 mg•kg-1 for tyramine, putrescine, cadaverine, spermidine, histamine, and spermine respectively. Two brands presented histamine contents above the legal limit established in 100 mg•kg-1. We concluded that the evaluated salami presented a wide variation in the count of the bacterial groups with a predominance of lactic acid bacteria. The moisture contents indicate insufficient drying before commercialization and protein content had values below the minimum limit determined by the Brazilian legislation. Finally, the levels of biogenic amines found could cause adverse reactions in susceptible consumers, depending of the amount and frequency of intake of these products.

  14. Evaluation of Biogenic Amines Levels, and Biochemical and Microbiological Characterization of Italian-type Salami Sold in Rio de Janeiro, Brazil

    Science.gov (United States)

    dos Santos, Luiz Felipe Lopes; Mársico, Eliane Teixeira; Lázaro, César Aquiles; Teixeira, Rose; Doro, Laís

    2015-01-01

    The objective of the present study was to evaluate the levels of biogenic amines (cadaverine, putrescine, tyramine, histamine, spermidine and spermine) by high performance liquid chromatography (HPLC) and the physicochemical (moisture, lipids, proteins, pH, water activity and fixed mineral residue) and microbiological (lactic acid bacteria and aerobic heterotrophic mesophilic bacteria count) characteristics of six Italian-type salami brands sold in the city of Niteroi (Rio de Janeiro, Brazil). The salami showed lactic acid bacteria count from 5.7 to 8.6 CFU•mL-1, and heterotrophic mesophilic bacteria count from 5.8 to 8.7 CFU•mL-1. Three brands showed moisture contents above 35% and one brand had protein content below 25%. The mean values obtained for the amines were: 197.43, 143.29, 73.02, 4.52, 90.66 and 36.17 mg•kg-1 for tyramine, putrescine, cadaverine, spermidine, histamine, and spermine respectively. Two brands presented histamine contents above the legal limit established in 100 mg•kg-1. We concluded that the evaluated salami presented a wide variation in the count of the bacterial groups with a predominance of lactic acid bacteria. The moisture contents indicate insufficient drying before commercialization and protein content had values below the minimum limit determined by the Brazilian legislation. Finally, the levels of biogenic amines found could cause adverse reactions in susceptible consumers, depending of the amount and frequency of intake of these products. PMID:27800400

  15. An in situ derivatization - dispersive liquid-liquid microextraction combined with gas-chromatography - mass spectrometry for determining biogenic amines in home-made fermented alcoholic drinks.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Płotka-Wasylka, Justyna; Simeonov, Vasil; Namieśnik, Jacek

    2016-07-01

    A novel dispersive liquid-liquid microextraction (DLLME) gas chromatography mass-spectrometry (GC-MS) method was developed for the determination of 13 biogenic amines in home-made wine samples. The method allows to simultaneous extraction and derivatization of the amines providing a simple and fast mode of extract enrichment. During the study, two different procedures were examined. Statistical analysis was performed to choose better procedure, as well as the conditions of derivatization reaction. At least, a mixture of methanol (dispersive solvent; 215μL), chloroform (extractive solvent; 400μL), and isobutyl choloroformate (derivatizing reagent; 90μL) was used as extractive/derivatizing reagent, added to 5mL of sample. The addition of mixture of pyridine and HCl was necessary to eliminate the by-products. The proposed method showed good linearity (correlation coefficients >0.9961), good recoveries (from 77 to 105%), and good intra-day precision (below 13%) and inter-day precision (below 10%). Moreover, detection limits were never over 4.1μg/L. The developed method was successfully applied to the analysis of 17 home-made wine samples not regulated by law. All of the biogenic amines analyzed were found in most of the wines.

  16. Determination of biogenic amines in canned fish samples using head-space solid phase microextraction based on nanostructured polypyrrole fiber coupled to modified ionization region ion mobility spectrometry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Parchami, Razieh; Kamalabadi, Mahdie; Alizadeh, Naader

    2017-01-20

    The head-space solid phase microextraction (HS-SPME) was applied to extraction and determination of histamine (HIS), putrescine (PUT), cadaverine (CAD), tyramine (TYR) in canned fish samples by ion mobility spectrometry (IMS) without any derivatization process. HIS and CAD have the same mobilities in nitrogen as buffer gas and their corresponding peaks are severely overlapped in ion mobility spectrum. Peak separation was acquired in the presence of 18-crown-6 vapor as complexation reagent into carrier gas and modified ionization region of IMS (MIR-IMS) at optimum flow rate. The interaction between 18-crown-6 and the mentioned amines forms nanocluster product ions with different cross section areas and ion mobilities. The effects of main extraction parameters on the efficiency of HS-SPME-MIR-IMS were investigated and optimized. Relative standard deviations (RSD%) of the biogenic amines determination at 50μgL(-1) concentration level were obtained in range 5.7%-6.3%. Limits of detection for analytes were in the range of 0.6-1ngg(-1). HS-SPME-MIR-IMS results indicate that the proposed method can be successfully used in biogenic amines analysis in water and food samples. Method validation was conducted by comparing our results with those obtained through GC-MS method.

  17. Effects of plant polyphenols and α-tocopherol on lipid oxidation, microbiological characteristics, and biogenic amines formation in dry-cured bacons.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Yongli; Li, Feng; Zhuang, Hong; Li, Lianghao; Chen, Xiao; Zhang, Jianhao

    2015-03-01

    Effects of plant polyphenols (tea polyphenol [TP], grape seed extract [GSE], and gingerol) and α-tocopherol on physicochemical parameters, microbiological counts, and biogenic amines were determined in dry-cured bacons at the end of ripening. Results showed that plant polyphenols and α-tocopherol significantly decreased pH, thiobarbituric acid reactive substances content, and total volatile basic nitrogen (TVBN) compared with the control (P TVBN, tyramine, 2-phenylethylamine, yeast, and molds. These findings suggest that plant polyphenols, especially TP, could be used to process dry-cured bacons to improve the quality and safety of finished products.

  18. Detection of Biogenic Amines in Xuanwei Ham by HPLC%宣威火腿中生物胺的HPLC测定

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    廖国周; 王桂瑛; 曹锦轩; 程志斌

    2011-01-01

    Biogenic amines content was investigated in Xuanwei ham.Samples were extracted with 0.4 mol/L HClO4,and then derived with dansyl chloride.Separation was achieved using ZORBAX XDB-C18 column and identification,and a quantitative analysis of biogenic amines fraction was carried out using a HPLC system with DAD.Results showed that the linear ranges were 0.5~20 μg/mL,the limit of detection was 0.05~0.1 μg/mL,the recoveries were 81.58%~95.58% and the relative standard deviation were 2.48%~5.85% for eight biogenic amines.Six biogenic amines were detected in Xuanwei ham,the content of β-phenylethylamine,putrescine,cadaverine,tyramine,spermidine and spermine were 0.56 mg/100g,1.45 mg/100g,0.37 mg/100g,3.62 mg/100g,1.26 mg/100g and 4.28 mg/100g,respectively.%以宣威火腿为对象分析其中8种生物胺含量,样品通过0.4 mol/L高氯酸提取后以丹磺酰氯柱前衍生,经ZORBAX XDB-C18柱分离以配备二极管阵列检测器的HPLC对生物胺进行测定。结果表明,该方法中8种生物胺的线性范围为0.5~20μg/mL,检测限为0.05~0.1μg/mL,回收率为81.58%~95.58%,相对标准偏差为2.48%~5.85%,该方法线性范围广,灵敏度和准确度高,可满足定量分析的要求。在宣威火腿中检测出6种生物胺,其中苯乙胺0.56 mg/100g,腐胺1.45 mg/100g,尸胺0.37 mg/100g,酪胺3.62 mg/100g,亚精胺1.26 mg/100g,精胺4.28 mg/100g。

  19. Application of tea polyphenols in combination with 6-gingerol on shrimp paste of during storage: biogenic amines formation and quality determination

    OpenAIRE

    Cai, Luyun; Liu, Shucheng; Sun, Lijun; Wang,Yaling; Ji, Hongwu; Li, Jianrong

    2015-01-01

    Tea polyphenols (TP) have shown antioxidant activity and antimicrobial properties in the food industry. Assessment of anti-oxidation potential of 6-gingerol (GR) has also been verified. As little is known about the use of tea polyphenols either individually or in combination with 6-gingerol in shrimp paste, we aimed to investigate the effect of tea polyphenols combined with 6-gingerol on the biogenic amines inhibition and quality of shrimp paste stored at 25°C for 160 days. The shrimp paste s...

  20. Application of tea polyphenols in combination with 6-gingerol on shrimp paste of during storage: Biogenic amines formation and quality determination

    OpenAIRE

    Jianrong eLi

    2015-01-01

    Tea polyphenols (TP) have shown antioxidant activity and antimicrobial properties in the food industry. Assessment of anti-oxidation potential of 6-gingerol (GR) has also been verified. As little is known about the use of tea polyphenols either individually or in combination with 6-gingerol in shrimp paste, we aimed to investigate the effect of tea polyphenols combined with 6-gingerol on the biogenic amines inhibition and quality of shrimp paste stored at 25 °C for 160 days. The shrimp paste ...

  1. The Effects of Enological Managements on Biogenic Amines in Wines%酿造工艺对葡萄酒中生物胺的影响

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    刘沛通; 蔡花真; 吴广枫; 于可济

    2016-01-01

    生物胺在葡萄酒等发酵食品中普遍存在,含量过高时对葡萄酒品质及安全性有不良作用。酒中生物胺的种类及含量取决于酿酒葡萄和酿酒工艺,综述了抽汁处理、浸渍处理、酒帽管理、酵母及乳酸菌等酿酒工艺对葡萄酒中生物胺的影响,对实际生产中葡萄酒的优质安全酿造提供一定的理论依据。%Biogenic amines have negative effect on the quality and safety of wines. Their contents in wines are influenced by grape and enological managements. The effects of juice-off treatment , cold maceration, cap man-agement, yeast and lactic acid bacteria on biogenic amines in wines were summarized in this article.

  2. 传统中式香肠中生物胺调查研究%A Survery of Biogenic Amines in Chinese Traditional Sausage

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    卢士玲; 徐幸莲; 舒蕊华; 周光宏; 陈艳萍; 孙永明

    2009-01-01

    Eight biogenic amines (BAs) were analyzed in 42 samples of Chinese traditional suasges from 7 provices by reverse phase high performance liquid chromatograph after dansyl chloride precolumn derivation.Tyramine, histamine and total biogenic amines exceed standard of FDA in different extent and phenylethylamine, spermine and putrescine are important composition of BAs as well.The contents of tryptamine and spermidine is basically identical with reported abroad. BAs have significant influence on safety of Chinese traditional sausage.%利用高教液相色谱丹磺酰氯柱前衍生法,检测了从7省(市)取样的42个传统中式香肠中的8种生物胺含量.酪胺、组胺和生物胺总量存在不同程度上超过FDA规定标准的情况;苯乙胺、精胺和腐胺也是影响生物胺总量的重要组成,色胺和亚精胺与国外报道基本一致.生物胺对传统中式香肠安全有重要影响.

  3. Biogenic amines as freshness index of meat wrapped in a new active packaging system formulated with essential oils of Rosmarinus officinalis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sirocchi, Veronica; Caprioli, Giovanni; Cecchini, Cinzia; Coman, Maria Magdalena; Cresci, Alberto; Maggi, Filippo; Papa, Fabrizio; Ricciutelli, Massimo; Vittori, Sauro; Sagratini, Gianni

    2013-12-01

    Biogenic amines (BAs) are considered as an important indicator of freshness and quality of food. In this work, a new active packaging (AP) system for meat that, incorporating essential oil of Rosmarinus officinalis at 4% (w/w), inhibits the increase of BAs and the bacteria involved into their production was developed. BAs were analyzed by a SPE-HPLC-DAD method during the storage time of meat (0-7 d, 4 °C). Results showed that, in each monitored day, Biogenic Amine Index (BAI) expressed in mg kg(-1) is lower in meat wrapped in AP with respect to that packed in polycoupled packaging (PP) (from 19% to 62%). A strong correlation was found between the inhibition of increase of putrescine, cadaverine, histamine and their bacteria producers such as Enterobacteriaceae, Pseudomonas spp. and Brocothrix thermospacta. By exploiting antimicrobial and antioxidant action of essential oil of R. officinalis, the new APs contribute to increase the shelf life of fresh meat and to preserve its important nutrients.

  4. Application of tea polyphenols in combination with 6-gingerol on shrimp paste of during storage: Biogenic amines formation and quality determination

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jianrong eLi

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available Tea polyphenols (TP have shown antioxidant activity and antimicrobial properties in the food industry. Assessment of anti-oxidation potential of 6-gingerol (GR has also been verified. As little is known about the use of tea polyphenols either individually or in combination with 6-gingerol in shrimp paste, we aimed to investigate the effect of tea polyphenols combined with 6-gingerol on the biogenic amines inhibition and quality of shrimp paste stored at 25 °C for 160 days. The shrimp paste samples were assigned into four groups: (1 control; (2 tea polyphenols treatment (0.3%; (3 6-gingerol treatment (0.3%; (4 tea polyphenols (0.15% + 6-gingerol (0.15%. Samples with no addition were used as control. The results indicate that treatment with tea polyphenols + 6-gingerol (TPGR maintained paste appearance, inhibited oxidation of protein and lipids, and reduced microorganism counts compared to control treatment. The efficiency was superior to that of tea polyphenols or 6-gingerol treatment. Furthermore, shrimp paste treated with TPGR also exhibited significantly higher inhibition of biogenic amines. Total amino acids determination proved the efficacy of TPGR by maintaining the more amino acids of shrimp paste during ambient temperature storage. Our study suggests that TPGR might be a promising candidate for fermented foods due to its synergistic effect to maintain products quality and extending their shelf-life.

  5. Application of tea polyphenols in combination with 6-gingerol on shrimp paste of during storage: biogenic amines formation and quality determination.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cai, Luyun; Liu, Shucheng; Sun, Lijun; Wang, Yaling; Ji, Hongwu; Li, Jianrong

    2015-01-01

    Tea polyphenols (TP) have shown antioxidant activity and antimicrobial properties in the food industry. Assessment of anti-oxidation potential of 6-gingerol (GR) has also been verified. As little is known about the use of tea polyphenols either individually or in combination with 6-gingerol in shrimp paste, we aimed to investigate the effect of tea polyphenols combined with 6-gingerol on the biogenic amines inhibition and quality of shrimp paste stored at 25°C for 160 days. The shrimp paste samples were assigned into four groups: (1) control; (2) tea polyphenols treatment (0.3%); (3) 6-gingerol treatment (0.3%); (4) tea polyphenols (0.15%) + 6-gingerol (0.15%). Samples with no addition were used as control. The results indicate that treatment with tea polyphenols + 6-gingerol (TPGR) maintained paste appearance, inhibited oxidation of protein and lipids, and reduced microorganism counts compared to control treatment. The efficiency was superior to that of tea polyphenols or 6-gingerol treatment. Furthermore, shrimp paste treated with TPGR also exhibited significantly higher inhibition of biogenic amines. Total amino acids determination proved the efficacy of TPGR by maintaining the more amino acids of shrimp paste during ambient temperature storage. Our study suggests that TPGR might be a promising candidate for fermented foods due to its synergistic effect to maintain products quality and extending their shelf-life.

  6. 腐乳前酵过程中生物胺含量变化%Content of Biogenic Amines in Sufu During Pre-fermentation

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王颖; 邱璠; 邢茜; 殷丽君

    2011-01-01

    采用丹磺酰氯柱前衍生、HPLC检测腐乳前酵过程中生物胺含量变化;同时,检测多肽、氨基态氮含量的变化。结果表明:在前酵过程中,多肽和氨基态氮的含量均呈增长趋势,生物胺总量的上升趋势与氨基态氮一致,总胺含量分别达到971.1mg/kg和782.0 mg/kg,但两种菌种发酵产物中,各种生物胺含量的变化趋势不尽相同,雅致放射毛霉发酵产物中,尸胺和酪胺含量分别达到460.1 mg/kg、318.5 mg/kg,两者共占生物胺总量的80.2%,其余6种生物胺含量均低于100 mg/kg;少孢根霉发酵产物中,尸胺含量为668.0 mg/kg,占生物胺总量的85.4%,其余7种生物胺含量均低于50 mg/kg。%The aim of this work was to describe the development of selected biogenic amines in sufu,fermented by Actinomucor elegans and Rhizopus oligosporus,respectively.Biogenic amines were determined by HPLC.Peptide and amino nitrogen were detected.The result indicated that the content of peptide and amino nitrogen increased in products fermented by Actinomucor elegans and Rhizopus oligosporus.The sum of eight biogenic amines corresponded with the content of amino nitrogen,and reached 971.1mg/kg and 782.0 mg/kg,respectively.But the dominant amines were different.Content of Cadaverine and Tyramine in product fermented by Actinomucor elegans reached 460.1 mg/kg and 318.5mg/kg,respectively,and the others were lower than 100 mg/kg.Content of Tyramine in product fermented by Rhizopus oligosporus reached 668.0 mg/kg,and the others were lower than 50 mg/kg.

  7. Effects of on-board and dockside handling on the formation of biogenic amines in mahimahi (Coryphaena hippurus), skipjack tuna (Katsuwonus pelamis), and yellowfin tuna (Thunnus albacares).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Staruszkiewicz, Walter F; Barnett, James D; Rogers, Patricia L; Benner, Ronald A; Wong, Lynn L; Cook, John

    2004-01-01

    Consumer illnesses by scombroid poisonings have been a continuing problem for many years. The intoxications follow the ingestion of fish such as tuna and mahimahi that have undergone bacterial decomposition, leading to the formation of biogenic amines. Research studies have concluded that histamine is one of the indicators of scombrotoxic fish and that other amines, such as cadaverine, could be involved in the illnesses. Guidance for the handling of fish on board fishing vessels to prevent the production of scombrotoxic fish has been limited by a lack of data addressing changes that occur in fish from the water to delivery at dockside. In this study, the changes in selected biogenic amines were determined in mahimahi and tuna, which were captured and held in seawater at 25 to 35 degrees C for incubation times up to 18 h. The fillets from the treated fish were sectioned by transverse cuts and analyzed for histamine, cadaverine, and putrescine. Results showed that at 26 degrees C, more than 12 h of incubation were required before a histamine concentration of 50 ppm was reached in mahimahi. At 35 degrees C, 50 ppm histamine formed within 9 h. Similar results were found for skipjack and yellowfin tuna. Histamine concentrations exceeded 500 ppm within an additional 3 h of incubation in mahimahi. At both temperatures, an increase in the concentration of cadaverine preceded an increase in histamine levels. Changes in putrescine concentrations in the fish were less pronounced. The study also demonstrated that histidine decarboxylase activity was retained in some frozen samples of fish and could result in further increases in histamine on thawing.

  8. Study on biogenic amines formation and influencing factors in Chinese rice wine%黄酒中生物胺的形成及其影响因素

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    张凤杰; 薛洁; 王异静; 王德良; 周建弟; 谢广发

    2013-01-01

    The aim of present work was to study the produce of biogenic amines during brewing process for Chinese rice wine, and the influencing factors including raw material, Wheat Qu, seed starter, amino acid, brewing technique and ageing.Biogenic amines were quantified by a pre-column derivatization by high performance liquid chromatography ( HPLC).Putrescine and tryamine were the most prevalent amine.None of amines were detected in water.The aliphatic amines ( putrescine, cadaverine, spermine) were present in glutinous rice and wheat Qu, but the content was not over 6.01 mg/kg.Significantly different contents depended on seed starters (P <0.01) ranging from 16.43 to 87.72mg/L.There was a positive correlation between the content of biogenic amines and total acid, but significant negative correlation between this content and alcohol and the sense organ taste.The total content of biogenic amines during traditional brewing process was higher than that during mechanized brewing process, but both had same change tendency, i.e., increasing in early fermentation period and followed with decreasing, which was the same to bacterial count.Statistically significant increase was found in analyzed amino acids, but there was no correlation between it and the content of biogenic amines.Slight decreases came about during ageing for traditional rice wine, but irregular changes for mechanized rice wine.Overall, total content of biogenic amines ranging from 0.14 to 175.15 mg/L were within the safe level for human health .%采用高效液相色谱技术,分析了黄酒酿造原料、发酵剂和不同年份酒中的生物胺含量,并对传统工艺和机械化生产过程中生物胺含量的变化进行了跟踪分析,剖析了影响生物胺含量的因素.结果表明,腐胺和酪胺是黄酒中的主要生物胺,糯米原料和曲中生物胺含量很低,检出的3种脂肪族生物胺(腐胺、尸胺和精胺)总量不超过6.0lmg/kg;7种酒母中生物胺总含量差异极显著(P<0

  9. Effects of plant polyphenols and a-tocopherol on lipid oxidation, residual nitrites, biogenic amines, and N-nitrosamines formation during ripening and storage of dry-cured bacon

    Science.gov (United States)

    Effects of plant polyphenols (green tea polyphenols (GTP) and grape seed extract (GSE) and a-tocopherol on physicochemical parameters, lipid oxidation, residual nitrite, microbiological counts, biogenic amines, and N-nitrosamines were determined in bacons during dry-curing and storage. Results show ...

  10. Determination of trace biogenic amines with 1,3,5,7-tetramethyl-8-(N-hydroxysuccinimidyl butyric ester)-difluoroboradiaza-s-indacene derivatization using high-performance liquid chromatography and fluorescence detection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gao, Pan-Feng; Guo, Xiao-Feng; Wang, Hong; Zhang, Hua-Shan

    2011-06-01

    A reversed-phase high-performance liquid chromatographic method based on chemical derivatization with fluorescence detection has been developed for analyzing biogenic amines in food and environmental samples. A BODIPY-based fluorescent reagent, 1,3,5,7-tetramethyl-8-(N-hydroxysuccinimidyl butyric ester)-difluoroboradiaza-s-indacene (TMBB-Su), was employed for the derivatization of these biogenic amines at 20 °C for 20 min in pH 7.20 borate buffer after careful investigation of the derivatization conditions including reagent concentration, buffer solution, reaction temperature and reaction time. Separation of biogenic amines with gradient elution was conducted on a C8 column with methanol-tetrahydrofuran-water as mobile phase. The detection limits were obtained in the range from 0.1 to 0.2 nM (signal-to-noise=3). This procedure has been validated using practical samples. The study results demonstrated a potential of employing high-performance liquid chromatography (HPLC) with 1,3,5,7-tetramethyl-8-(N-hydroxysuccinimidyl butyric ester)-difluoroboradiaza-s-indacene labeling as a tool for quantitative analysis of biogenic amines involved in various matrices.

  11. Formation of histamine and biogenic amines in cold-smoked tuna: An investigation of psychrotolerant bacteria from samples implicated in cases of histamine fish poisoning

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Emborg, Jette; Dalgaard, Paw

    2006-01-01

    Two outbreaks and a single case of histamine fish poisoning associated with cold-smoked tuna (CST) were reported in Denmark during 2004. The bacteria most likely responsible for histamine formation in CST implicated in histamine fish poisoning was identified for the first time in this study....... Product characteristics and profiles of biogenic amines in the implicated products were also recorded. In the single poisoning case, psychrotolerant Morganella morganii -like bacteria most likely was responsible for the histamine production in CST with 2.2% ñ 0.6% NaCl in the water phase (WPS......). In outbreak 1, Photobacterium phosphoreum most likely formed the histamine in CST with 1.3% ñ 0.1% WPS. In outbreak 2, which involved 10 persons, the bacteria responsible for histamine formation could not be determined. The measured concentrations of WPS were very low compared with those of randomly collected...

  12. Changes of Biogenic Amines During Processing of Xuanwei Ham%宣威火腿加工过程中生物胺变化规律

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王桂瑛; 殷红; 曹锦轩; 施忠芬; 廖国周

    2012-01-01

    Experimental Xuanwei hams were processed according to traditional processing technology with 40 green hams weighted 9 ~ llkg. Approximately 100 g of muscle from the Biceps femoris and the around the muscles from 5 hams each time was obtained on 24 h, 18 d, 125 d, 250 d and 360 d and then minced. Then biogenic amines content were determined with HPLC. The results showed that tryptamine, phenylethylamine, putrescine, tyramine, cadaverine, spermidine and spermine were detected in Xuanwei ham. The content of spermine was the highest, fol- lowed by that of tyramine and spermidine during the processing period. There were no significant difference in the content of tyramine, spermine and spermine among the various processing stages (P 〉 0.05). The content of phenyle- thylamine and putrescine were increasing during the processing (P 〈 0.05) , at the mid-ripening (250d) stage, the content of phenylethylamine and putrescine were up to the highest level, and then decreasing (P 〉 0.05). The total content of biogenic amines was increasing during the processing period. In the mid-ripening (250d) stage, the con- tent of biogenic amines was up to 1 i. 51 mg/100g. After the mid-ripening stage, the total content of biogenic amines started to decrease (P 〉 O. 05).%用40条重量在9~11 kg的原料腿按照传统工艺加工宣威火腿,分别在腌制前(24 h)、腌制结束(18d)、风干结束(125 d)、成熟中期(250 d)与成熟结束(360 d)这5个加工阶段随机取出5条火腿,以股二头肌为中心取约100 g样品,以HPLC方法测定生物胺含量。结果表明,宣威火腿样品中共检测出7种生物胺,分别是色胺、苯乙胺、腐胺、酪胺、尸胺、亚精胺和精胺。在各个加工阶段,精胺的含量都是最高的,其次是酪胺与亚精胺。酪胺、亚精胺与精胺的含量在5个加工阶段都没有显著变化(P〉0.05)。苯乙胺与腐胺含量显著增加(P〈0.05

  13. Microbial succession of grass carp (Ctenopharyngodon idellus) filets during storage at 4°C and its contribution to biogenic amines' formation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Hang; Luo, Yongkang; Huang, Heping; Xu, Qian

    2014-11-03

    Investigation on the microbial succession of grass carp filets during storage at 4°C was carried out. For identification, 16S rRNA genes of the isolated pure strains were sequenced and analyzed. Acinetobacter was dominant in fresh grass carp. Species from the genera Brevundimonas, Empedobacter, Pseudomonas, Microbacterium, Flavobacterium, Moraxella, Shewanella and Soonwooa were also detected at the initial day. The communities were dominated by Aeromonas and Acinetobacter after 6days. Aeromonas followed by Pseudomonas was the predominant genera at the end of shelf-life of grass carp, while other genera such as Shewanella, Acinetobacter, Flavobacteriaceae and Psychrobacter were present in smaller numbers. We investigated biogenic amines' (BAs) production by six strains isolated from spoiled grass carp filets. Shewanella putrefaciens showed significantly higher abilities to produce putrescine, than those from other genera. Aeromonas veronii revealed a strong ability to produce putrescine and cadaverine. However, Pseudomonas and Acinetobacter showed little ability to produce BAs.

  14. Studies on the immune response and preparation of antibodies against a large panel of conjugated neurotransmitters and biogenic amines: specific polyclonal antibody response and tolerance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huisman, Han; Wynveen, Paul; Setter, Peter W

    2010-02-01

    We described the production and characterization of antibodies against three important groups of neuro-active haptens, e.g., neurotransmitters and biogenic amines. First, from the tryptophane metabolic pathway: tryptamine, serotonin, 5-hydroxy-indole acetic acid, and melatonin. Secondly, the tyrosine metabolic pathway: tyramine, dopamine, dihydroxyphenyl acetic acid, and norepinephrine. Thirdly, antibodies against excitatory and inhibitory neurotransmitters: glycine, glutamate, glutamine, and GABA. Immunogenic conjugates were prepared after linking haptens to carrier proteins. Most antibodies displayed high specificity against corresponding neuro-active haptens conjugated in vitro and in situ in biological specimens, but not to closely related conjugated metabolites, precursors, pharmaceuticals, agonists, antagonists, or free neuro-active haptens. Conjugated norepinephrine was highly tolerant in different animal species and produced incidentally a short specific antibody response.

  15. HPLC Determination of the Major Non-protein Amino Acids and Common Biogenic Amines in Lathyrus sativus Using a Novel Extraction Method

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Ze Yi YAN; Cheng Jin JIAO; Feng Min LI; Yong Min LIANG; Zhi Xiao LI

    2005-01-01

    An assay is presented for simultaneously determining 5 biogenic amines and the major non-protein amino acids: the toxin β-N-oxalyl-L-α,β-diaminopropanoic acid (β-ODAP), its isomer α-ODAP and homoarginine in Lathyrus sativus extracts using the HPLC system after derivatization with para-nitrobenzyloxycarbonyl chloride (PNZ-C1). However, it is more worthy of noting that this paper also describes a new extraction method using 0.2 mol/L HC1O4. The new method has some advantages: shorter extraction-time, simultaneous extraction of free amino acids and polyamines, better inhibiting the isomerization of β-ODAP to α-ODAP, and so on.

  16. 西式发酵香肠中生物胺含量的调查分析%Investigation and Analyse the Content of Biogenic Amines in Western Style Fermented Sausage

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    李榕; 孙杰; 余恒琳

    2015-01-01

    Summarize the biogenic amines species,toxicity,the presence of these compounds in western style fermented sausage.This paper collecting the western style fermented sausage samples ,detecting five species of biogenic amines (Cadaverine,Histamine,Tyramine,Spermidine,Spermine) and four kinds of microbes (Lactobacillus、Micrococcu、Enteric bacteria、Pseudomonadaceae).Analysis the following conclusions:the five species of biogenic amines are widespread in western style fermented sausage;there were a significant correlation between the auantity of Enteric bacteria and the content of biogenic amines;no relationship was found between the the content of biogenic amines and the other microbes.%综述生物胺的种类、危害及在西式发酵香肠中存在的可能,采集了西式发酵香肠的样本,检测了其5种生物胺(尸胺、组胺、酪胺、亚精胺、精胺)及4种微生物(乳酸菌、微球菌、肠细菌、假单胞菌)的含量.经分析得出结论:5种生物胺在西式发酵香肠中普遍存在;肠细菌的数量与生物胺的含量有显著的相关性,未发现其他3种微生物与生物胺含量之间的关系.

  17. Effect of Novel Starter Culture on Reduction of Biogenic Amines, Quality Improvement, and Sensory Properties of Doenjang, a Traditional Korean Soybean Fermented Sauce Variety.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shukla, Shruti; Lee, Jong Suk; Park, Hae-Kyong; Yoo, Jung-Ah; Hong, Sung-Yong; Kim, Jong-Kyu; Kim, Myunghee

    2015-08-01

    To select appropriate microorganisms as starter cultures for the reliable and reproducible fermentation of soybean fermented products of Korean Doenjang, various ratios of fungi (Aspergillus oryzae J, Mucor racemosus 15, M. racemosus 42) combined with Bacillus subtilis TKSP 24 were selected as either single, double, or multiple Meju strains for commercial mass production of Doenjang, followed by analysis of sensory characteristics. In the sensory evaluation, Doenjang BAM15-1 and BAM42-1, which were fermented with multiple strains (1:1:1), showed the highest sensory scores as compared to control. Based on sensory characteristics, 6 Doenjang samples were subjected to quantitative determination of amino acids, free sugars, and organic acids (volatile and nonvolatile) contents, followed by determination of biogenic amines. Total sweet taste amino acid contents were highest in BAM15-1 and BAM42-1 samples (333.7 and 295.8 mg/100 g, respectively) and similar that of control (391.1 mg/100 g). Samples BAM15-1 and BAM42-1 showed the relatively high volatile and nonvolatile organic acid contents (154.24, 192.26, and 71.31, 82.42 mg/100 g, respectively). In addition, BAM15-1 and BAM42-1 showed negligible biogenic amine formation, ranging from 0.00 to 1.02 and 0.00 to 3.92 mg/100 g, respectively. These findings indicate that determination of food components along with sensory and quality attributes using multiple microbial Meju strains as a starter culture may provide substantial results on improved quality fermented Doenjang products.

  18. Changes of biogenic amines and quality indicators of grass carp (Ctenpharyngodon idellus) during chilled storage and effect on biogenic amines during thermal processing%草鱼冷藏过程鱼肉品质与生物胺的变化及热处理对生物胺的影响

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    张月美; 包玉龙; 罗永康; 王航

    2013-01-01

    We investigated the changes in biogenic amines and other quality indicators during chilled storage(4 ℃) and effect of thermal processing on biogenic amines (85 ℃,15 min) of grass carp (Ctenpharyngodon idellus) by observing the drip loss,sensory assessment,total volatile basic nitrogen(TVB-N),total viable counts and content of eight biogenic amines (tryptamine,2-phenylethyl-amine,putrescine,cadaverine,histamine,tyramine,spermidine and spermine).The correlation was analyzed between biogenic amines and quality indicators of grass carp.The resuhs showed that drip loss,TVB-N and total viable counts increased with storage time,which accorded with the changes of sensory scores.The preservation life of grass carp at 4 ℃ was 9 days.During the storage,putrescine and cadaverine changed most significantly that putrescine content reached (17.12 ± 4.40) mg·kg-1 and cadaverine content reached (237.47 ±3.96) mg·kg-1 at 15th day.Besides,cadaverine and putrescine had good correlation with drip loss,sensory assessment,TVB-N and total viable counts.After thermal processing,contents of putrescine,cadaverine,histamine and spermine decreased slightly,saying that thermal processing could not remove the biogenic amines of grass carp effectively.%文章研究了草鱼(Ctenpharyngodon idellus)冷藏过程鱼肉品质与生物胺的变化及热处理对生物胺的影响.将经过前处理的草鱼鱼片于4℃条件下贮藏,对其感官品质、挥发性盐基氮(TVB-N)、菌落总数、汁液流失率以及生物胺等指标进行测定,另外经过85℃、15 min的热处理后对草鱼鱼片的生物胺进行测定,探求其变化规律及草鱼的生物胺与其品质指标的相关性.结果表明,随着贮藏时间的延长,草鱼的汁液流失率、TVB-N、菌落总数均呈现明显的上升趋势,与感官分值的变化趋势相符,草鱼的感官接受极限为9d.草鱼鱼片在冷藏加工过程中变化最显著的生物胺是腐胺和尸胺,第15

  19. 以生物胺变化评价冷藏罗非鱼片腐败进程%Assessment of spoilage progress for chilled tilapia fillets according to biogenic amines changes

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    刘寿春; 钟赛意; 马长伟; 李平兰; 杨信廷

    2012-01-01

    In order to explore the possibility and safety ranges of biogenic amines indicators for evaluating fish spoilage progress, reversed-phase high-performance-liquid-chromatography method was employed to detect the biogenic amines changes of tilapia fillets during chilled storage. The results showed that initial content of monoamines and polyamines in fresh fillets was high, and those of diamines was low. During chilled storage, monoamines and polyamines content showed fluctuating and decreasing trend. Cadaverine and putrescine content were decreased quickly and became the major biogenic amines. The cadaverine and putrescine relative indicators like diamines, biogenic amines index and total biogenic amines showed a similar increasing trend of cadaverine and putrescine. The correlation analysis showed that there were high correlation among cadaverine, putrescine, diamine, biogenic amines index, total biogenic amines with storage time, microbial counts and amine nitrogen. The regression analysis indicated that the relationship among the growth of pseudomonas, enterobacteriaceae and cadaverine and putrescine was inseparable. The indicators of cadaverine, putrescine and diamine could be used for evaluating fillet spoilage progress simply and effectively. Considering the toxicity of histamine and tyramine, biogenic amines index (BA1) were more suitable. The preliminary range of BAI for evaluating spoilage progress of chilled tilapia fillets were as follows: 40 mg/kg, spoiled. These results would offer the basic data for standard limits of biogenic amines in chilled tilapia fillets.%为了探讨生物胺指标评价鱼肉腐败进程的可能性及其安全范围,应用反相高效液相色谱法测定冷藏罗非鱼片贮藏过程的生物胺变化,用以判断鱼片的腐败进程.结果表明:新鲜鱼片初始单胺和多胺总量较高,二胺总量很低.贮藏过程中单胺和多胺波动变化并呈下降趋势,尸胺、腐胺含量快速增加成为主要生物胺.

  20. Determination of biogenic amines in wines by ion-pair liquid chromatography and post-column derivatization with 1,2-naphthoquinone-4-sulphonate.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hlabangana, Leah; Hernández-Cassou, Santiago; Saurina, Javier

    2006-10-13

    A liquid chromatographic method with post-column derivatization for the determination of biogenic amines in wines is proposed. The method is based on the separation of amines by ion-pair chromatography using sodium heptanesulfonate (SHS) and on-line labeling of analytes with 1,2-naphthoquinone-4-sulfonate. The principal factors influencing the separation (acetonitrile and SHS concentration) have been considered for the optimization of the elution gradient through factorial design and multicriteria decision-making. Figures of merit have been established using red wine samples. Detection limits range from 0.2 to 3 mg L(-1), the peak area run-to-run repeatability from 1.6 to 4.6% and the retention time repeatability lower than 1.2%. Recoveries ranging from 92 and 108% prove the accuracy of the method for determining ethanolamine, ethylamine, histamine and tyramine in commercial red wines. The proposed method has been applied to the analysis of wines from different Spanish regions.

  1. Salting-out assisted liquid-liquid extraction for the determination of biogenic amines in fruit juices and alcoholic beverages after derivatization with 1-naphthylisothiocyanate and high performance liquid chromatography.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jain, Archana; Gupta, Manju; Verma, Krishna K

    2015-11-27

    A new method for determining biogenic amines in fruit juices and alcoholic beverages is described involving reaction of biogenic amines with 1-naphthylisothiocyanate followed by extraction of 1-naphthylthiourea derivatives with water-miscible organic solvent acetonitrile when solvents phase separation occurred using ammonium sulphate, a process called salting-out assisted liquid-liquid extraction. The extract was analyzed by high-performance liquid chromatography with UV detection at 254nm. The new reagent avoided many of the inconveniences as observed with existing derivatizing agents, such as dansyl chloride and benzoyl chloride, in regard to their inselectivity, instability, adverse effect of excess reagent, and necessity to remove excess reagent. The procedure has been optimized with respect to reaction time and temperature, water-miscible extraction solvent, and salt for solvents phase separation. Use of reagent as dispersed phase in aqueous medium produced derivatives in high yield. A linear calibration was obtained between the amount of biogenic amines in range 1-1000μgL(-1) and peak areas of corresponding thioureas formed; the correlation coefficient was 0.9965, and the limit of detection and limit of quantification found were 1.1μgL(-1) and 3.2μgL(-1), respectively. The pre-concentration method gave an average enrichment factor of 94. The application of the method has been demonstrated in the determination of biogenic amines in commercial samples of fruit juices and alcoholic beverages. In spiking experiments to real samples, the average recovery found by the present method was 94.5% that agreed well with 95.8% obtained by established comparison methods.

  2. Effects of simultaneous use of methyl jasmonate with other plant hormones on the level of anthocyanins and biogenic amines in seedlings of common buckwheat (Fagopyrum esculentum Moench

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marcin Horbowicz

    2013-04-01

    Full Text Available The aim of the study was to assess the impact of auxin (IAA, gibberellin (GA3 and cytokinin (kinetin, used solely and in combination with methyl jasmonate (MJ, on the accumulation of anthocyanins and biogenic amines in hypocotyls and cotyledons of common buckwheat (Fagopyrum esculentum Moench seedlings. The obtained results indicate that accumulation of anthocyanins in buckwheat seedlings was dependent on the concentration of the phytohormone applied and the tissue studied. The combined use of MJ and IAA, GA3  or kinetin partly reversed the effect of strong inhibition of anthocyanin synthesis by MJ. IAA used solely decreased the level of anthocyanins in de-etiolated buckwheat cotyledons. IAA also caused a reduction of putrescine content, both in hypocotyls and cotyledons of buckwheat seedlings. MJ used alone caused high accumulation of 2-phenylethylamine (PEA in buckwheat cotyledons and hypocotyls. The simultaneous application of MJ and IAA, GA3  or kinetin also stimulated PEA synthesis in buckwheat tissues, however this effect was significantly lower compared to the use of MJ only. A reverse significant correlation between PEA and anthocyanin contents occurred in buckwheat hypocotyls, but not in cotyledons. It was suggested that the deficiency of L-phenylalanine, a substrate for synthesis of 2-phenylethylamine, may be partly responsible for the decline in anthocyanin content in buckwheat hypocotyls under the influence of MJ.

  3. Effect of selected starter cultures on physical, chemical and microbiological characteristics and biogenic amine content in Protected Geographical Indication Ciauscolo salami

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    David Ranucci

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available The aim of the study was to evaluate the biogenic amine (BA content of Ciauscolo salami made with and without the use of a selected started culture. Two batches of salami were made following the guidelines of the Protected Geographical Indications: with and without adding a commercial starter culture made of Lactobacillus plantarum and Staphylococcus xylosus. Six samples of salami per batch were collected at different ripening times (0, 15, 30, 45 and 60 days for physical, chemical and microbiological analyses and for the determination of BA content. No differences were recorded for physical, chemical and microbiological analyses except for Staphylococcus spp. count at the time of casing (T0 and total volatile basic nitrogen (TVBN from 30 days (T2 to the end of the ripening time (60 days, T4. After 60 days of ripening, the use of selected starter culture significantly affected the amount of putrescine (195.15 vs 164.43 mg/100 g in salami without and with starters, respectively, cadaverine (96.95 vs 104.40 mg/100 g in salami without and with starters, respectively, histamine (81.94 vs 69.89 mg/100 g in salami without and with starters, respectively, and spermine (36.88 vs 33.57 mg/100 g in salami without and with starters, respectively. Despite significantly higher values of TVBN, the use of selected starter culture determined no significant effects on the BA content of the products.

  4. Effect of Selected Starter Cultures on Physical, Chemical and Microbiological Characteristics and Biogenic Amine Content in Protected Geographical Indication Ciauscolo Salami.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ranucci, David; Loschi, Anna Rita; Miraglia, Dino; Stocchi, Roberta; Branciari, Raffaella; Rea, Stefano

    2016-01-18

    The aim of the study was to evaluate the biogenic amine (BA) content of Ciauscolo salami made with and without the use of a selected started culture. Two batches of salami were made following the guidelines of the Protected Geographical Indications: with and without adding a commercial starter culture made of Lactobacillus plantarum and Staphylococcus xylosus. Six samples of salami per batch were collected at different ripening times (0, 15, 30, 45 and 60 days) for physical, chemical and microbiological analyses and for the determination of BA content. No differences were recorded for physical, chemical and microbiological analyses except for Staphylococcus spp. count at the time of casing (T0) and total volatile basic nitrogen (TVBN) from 30 days (T2) to the end of the ripening time (60 days, T4). After 60 days of ripening, the use of selected starter culture significantly affected the amount of putrescine (195.15 vs 164.43 mg/100 g in salami without and with starters, respectively), cadaverine (96.95 vs 104.40 mg/100 g in salami without and with starters, respectively), histamine (81.94 vs 69.89 mg/100 g in salami without and with starters, respectively), and spermine (36.88 vs 33.57 mg/100 g in salami without and with starters, respectively). Despite significantly higher values of TVBN, the use of selected starter culture determined no significant effects on the BA content of the products.

  5. 新疆熏马肠中生物胺含量的调查%An Investigation on Biogenic Amines Contents in Xinjiang Smoked Horse Intestines

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    张海萍; 李开雄; 卢壬玲; 李蕊婷; 李宝坤; 唐明祥

    2012-01-01

    A high-performance liquid chromatographic (HPLC) derivatized with dns-cl chloride method was de- veloped for the determination of eight biogenic amines in smoked horse intestines from different countries in Xinjiang. The result showed that BAs content was higher than FDA standard in about 4.6% of the samples. The contents of ty- ramine, tryptamine, and spermidine were more than the standard of safety content in different extent. The contents of putrescine and cadaverine were consistent with that reported by investigators from other countries.%利用高效液相色谱丹磺酰氯柱前衍生法,检测了从新疆自治区4个县市采集的44个熏马肠中8种生物胺含量。结果显示:4.6%熏马肠样品的生物胺(BAs)总量超过FDA规定的1 000 mg/kg限量标准,色胺、酪胺和亚精胺含量在不同程度上超过生物胺安全用量标准,腐胺和尸胺含量与国外报道基本一致。

  6. Comparison of γ-aminobutyric acid and biogenic amine content of different types of ewe’s milk cheese produced in Sardinia, Italy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gavina Manca

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available The bioactive compounds γ-aminobutyric acid (GABA and biogenic amines (BA, together with protein-free amino acids, were measured by high-performance liquid chromatography in ewe’s milk cheeses produced in Sardinia with different technological traits. The study included three types of cheese: Pecorino Sardo PDO, Pecorino and Casu Marzu. Farmhouse Casu Marzu and Pecorino showed GABA content (maximum levels: 1001.3 and 378.1 mg 100 g–1 respectively that had never been found so high in cheese before, suggesting that these types of cheese present ideal conditions to produce GABA. These two types of cheese also showed high levels of BA (their total maximum levels were 1035.7 and 288.0 mg 100 g–1 respectively. Pearson correlation analysis detected significant correlation between GABA and the main BA present in the cheeses (tyramine, cadaverine and putrescine, suggesting that the factors affecting the production of GABA are the same as those influencing BA formation.

  7. Effects of a(w) packaging time and atmosphere composition on aroma profile, biogenic amine content and microbiological features of dry fermented sausages.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tabanelli, Giulia; Montanari, Chiara; Grazia, Luigi; Lanciotti, Rosalba; Gardini, Fausto

    2013-06-01

    The aim was to evaluate the effects of different water contents (corresponding to a(w) 0.940, 0.914, 0.895 and 0.875) of sausages at different times on the characteristics of typical Italian dry fermented sausages packaged under two different modified atmospheres (MAP) (100%N2 or 30%CO2/70%N2). During ripening and storage, samples were analyzed to evaluate pH and aw changes, microbial population, biogenic amine (BA) accumulation and aroma profile. The results showed that during storage under MAP several microbiological and enzymatic activities proceeded, leading to changes in aroma profile. In particular, higher hexanal concentrations in samples at lower aw and significant amounts of acetone, 2-butanone, ethanol and 2-butanol in samples at aw>0.900 were detected. Moreover, data showed modifications in BA content, such as higher accumulation in samples at aw>0.900 in MAP with 100%N2. This behavior depends, in first instance, on the aw of the sausages when packaged.

  8. 柱前衍生HPLC同时测定鱼中多种生物胺及其变化规律%Biogenic Amines in Fish Determined by HPLC with Pre-column Dansylation

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    胡月; 黄志勇

    2012-01-01

    目的:采用高效液相色谱法同时测定鱼中7种生物胺(即色胺、腐胺、尸胺、组胺、酪胺、亚精胺和精胺)的含量,研究在不同贮藏条件下鱼体生物胺的变化规律.方法:样品用5%三-氯乙酸溶液提取后,用丹磺酰氯进行柱前衍生,经C18色谱柱(4.6 mm I.D.×150 mm)分离,用水和乙腈进行梯度洗脱,于波长254 nm处检测.考察大黄鱼和黄鲷在-20、4和25℃贮藏不同时间时生物胺的变化情况.结果:20 min内7种生物胺得到良好的分离,在0.1~20.0 mg/kg范围具有良好的线性关系(r>0.999).生物胺的平均回收率73%~101%,RSD 5.9%~20.1%.所测的7种新鲜海鱼中,除金线鱼具有较高的生物胺含量(170.8 mg/kg)外,其它鱼的生物胺含量很低(3.95~23.63mg/kg).在-20℃条件下大黄鱼和黄鲷中生物胺的总量无显著变化(p<0.05),而在4℃和25℃时,鱼体中的生物胺总量随贮藏时间的延长而增加.其中腐胺、尸胺、组胺和酪胺含量变化敏锐,随着贮藏时间的延长和温度的上升,其含量显著增加(p<0.05).结论:低温贮藏可有效控制鱼体中生物胺的形成.腐胺、尸胺、组胺和酪胺可作为判断鱼体新鲜度的质量指标.%Objective: Seven biogenic amines (including tryptaraine, putrescine, cadaverine, hisamine, tyramine, spermidine and spermine) in fish were simultaneously determined by high-performance liquid chromatograph (HPLC), and the changes of biogenic amines of fish stored at different conditions were investigated. Method: After being extracted with 5% TCA from the aquatic products, the biogenic amines were derived by dansyl chloride before the separation with a C18 column (4.6 mm I.D. xl50 mm). The biogenic amines were eluted using a mixture of water and acetonitrile at a gradient elution program, and were detected at 254 nm. The changes of biogenic amines in the two species of Pseudosci-aena crocea and Dentex tumifrons separately stored at -20 ℃, 4

  9. [Effect of chronic exposure to nitrogen dioxide on biogenic amine levels in the brain of guinea pigs].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Felińska, W; Szkilnik, R; Stanosek, B; Kamiński, M; Ludyga, K; Brus, R

    1985-01-01

    The experiment was carried out on male guinea pigs exposed to NO2 at a constant concentration of 0.1 ppm 24 h daily for 1, 2.5 and 6 months, or NO2 concentration was increased to 0.5 ppm twice daily, between 7:00 and 8:00 AM and 4:00 and 5:00 PM. After the exposure to NO2 was over the animals were killed by decapitation. The cranium was opened and the brain removed, and afterwards at 0 degrees C the left hemisphere was dissected into discrete areas which were then frozen on dry ice and weighed. The tissues were kept for 2-3 days at -20 degrees C, and afterwards the content of noradrenaline, 5-hydroxytryptamine and 5-hydroxyindole-acetic acid was estimated spectrofluorometrically in examined parts of the brain (thalamus--hypothalamus pons + medulla oblongata hippocampus, cortex frontalis). It was shown that the applied NO2 concentrations brought about slight and nonspecific alterations in the content of the investigated amines in guinea pigs' brain.

  10. Flight and walking in locusts-cholinergic co-activation, temporal coupling and its modulation by biogenic amines.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rillich, Jan; Stevenson, Paul A; Pflueger, Hans-Joachim

    2013-01-01

    Walking and flying in locusts are exemplary rhythmical behaviors generated by central pattern generators (CPG) that are tuned in intact animals by phasic sensory inputs. Although these two behaviors are mutually exclusive and controlled by independent CPGs, leg movements during flight can be coupled to the flight rhythm. To investigate potential central coupling between the underlying CPGs, we used the muscarinic agonist pilocarpine and the amines octopamine and tyramine to initiate fictive flight and walking in deafferented locust preparations. Our data illustrate that fictive walking is readily evoked by comparatively lower concentrations of pilocarpine, whereas higher concentrations are required to elicit fictive flight. Interestingly, fictive flight did not suppress fictive walking so that the two patterns were produced simultaneously. Frequently, leg motor units were temporally coupled to the flight rhythm, so that each spike in a step cycle volley occurred synchronously with wing motor units firing at flight rhythm frequency. Similarly, tyramine also induced fictive walking and flight, but mostly without any coupling between the two rhythms. Octopamine in contrast readily evoked fictive flight but generally failed to elicit fictive walking. Despite this, numerous leg motor units were recruited, whereby each was temporarily coupled to the flight rhythm. Our results support the notion that the CPGs for walking and flight are largely independent, but that coupling can be entrained by aminergic modulation. We speculate that octopamine biases the whole motor machinery of a locust to flight whereas tyramine primarily promotes walking.

  11. Flight and walking in locusts-cholinergic co-activation, temporal coupling and its modulation by biogenic amines.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jan Rillich

    Full Text Available Walking and flying in locusts are exemplary rhythmical behaviors generated by central pattern generators (CPG that are tuned in intact animals by phasic sensory inputs. Although these two behaviors are mutually exclusive and controlled by independent CPGs, leg movements during flight can be coupled to the flight rhythm. To investigate potential central coupling between the underlying CPGs, we used the muscarinic agonist pilocarpine and the amines octopamine and tyramine to initiate fictive flight and walking in deafferented locust preparations. Our data illustrate that fictive walking is readily evoked by comparatively lower concentrations of pilocarpine, whereas higher concentrations are required to elicit fictive flight. Interestingly, fictive flight did not suppress fictive walking so that the two patterns were produced simultaneously. Frequently, leg motor units were temporally coupled to the flight rhythm, so that each spike in a step cycle volley occurred synchronously with wing motor units firing at flight rhythm frequency. Similarly, tyramine also induced fictive walking and flight, but mostly without any coupling between the two rhythms. Octopamine in contrast readily evoked fictive flight but generally failed to elicit fictive walking. Despite this, numerous leg motor units were recruited, whereby each was temporarily coupled to the flight rhythm. Our results support the notion that the CPGs for walking and flight are largely independent, but that coupling can be entrained by aminergic modulation. We speculate that octopamine biases the whole motor machinery of a locust to flight whereas tyramine primarily promotes walking.

  12. 国内消费市场葡萄酒与啤酒中生物胺污染水平的分析%Analysis of Biogenic Amines in Wine and Beer in Chinese Markets

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    李志军; 钟其顶; 邢江涛; 熊正河; 吴永宁

    2013-01-01

    In the paper,an improved RP-HPLC method was developed for the quantitation of eight biogenic amines (Tryptamine,Phenylethylamine,Putrescine,Cadaverine,Histamine,Tyramine,Spermidine,and Spermine) in wine and beer.Eight biogenic amines were analyzed in 38 samples of domestic wine,33 samples of wine from eleven countries,and 26 samples of domestic beer.Tryptamine was not found in any of the samples.β-Phenylethylamine,Putrescine,Cadaverine,Histamine,Tyramine,Spennidine,and Spermine were found in the Chinese red wine samples.Most of the red wines presented low concentrations (less than 8 mg/l).Tryptamine was not found in any of the red wine samples.Putrescine was detected in all samples (100%),followed by β-Phenylethylamine (84.2%),Spermidine (60.5%),Histamine (57.8%),Tyramine(57.8%),Cadaverine(47.4%),and Spermine(36.8%).Putrescine and β-Phenylethylamine were found in white wines,meanwhile the other biogenic amines were not found.The mean total biogenic amines in imported wine sample slightly higher than the domestic wine.The primary biogenic amines in Chinese beer were Putrescine,Tyramine,Spermidine,and Cadaverine.These beers presented contents of Histamine lower than 2 mg/L.With the merits of high sensitivity,precision and well repeatability,the method was feasible for the determination of biogenic amines in wine and beer.Domestic wine,beer and wine importing are safe for the lower biogenic amines content in them.%研究建立一种同时检测葡萄酒和啤酒中8种生物胺的高效液相色谱法,对国内消费市场部分葡萄酒和啤酒中生物胺的污染情况进行分析.结果显示:在所有酒类样品中均未检出色胺;从干红葡萄酒中检出其它生物胺,如腐胺检出率100%,其次为β-苯乙胺;干白葡萄酒中的生物胺主要为腐胺,还检出微量的β-苯乙胺,其它生物胺未检出.国产与进口葡萄酒样品中生物腰污染水平无显著差异(P>0.05).啤酒中常见的生物胺是腐胺、

  13. Analysis of Profile of Biogenic Amines in Commercial Wines Made in China%国产葡萄酒中生物胺组成与含量分析

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    李志军; 李晓瑜; 元晓梅

    2016-01-01

    通过对国产葡萄酒产品中生物胺组成和含量的检测分析,了解国产葡萄酒中生物胺含量现状。采用GB/T 5009.208—2008方法,对国内市售的250个国产葡萄酒样品中8种生物胺(色胺、苯乙胺、腐胺、尸胺、组胺、酪胺、精胺和亚精胺)含量进行检测。结果显示,国产葡萄酒样品中8种生物胺含量范围分别为色胺0~32.78 mg/L,苯乙胺0~48.20 mg/L,腐胺0~46.60 mg/L,尸胺0~9.38 mg/L,组胺0~14.37 mg/L,酪胺0~14.60 mg/L,精胺0~12.73 mg/L,亚精胺0~0.50 mg/L;葡萄酒样品中检出率最高和最低的生物胺分别为腐胺和精胺,检出率分别为88.4%和50.0%,组胺检出率为52.8%;98.8%的葡萄酒样品中组胺含量低于10 mg/L,98.0%的葡萄酒样品中酪胺含量低于10 mg/L。同其他种类葡萄酒相比,干红葡萄酒样品中生物胺含量相对较高,但与欧洲葡萄酒传统酿造国家的同类产品含量水平一致。国产葡萄酒中生物胺含量水平符合食品安全要求,具有较好的饮用安全性。%The profile of biogenic amines of different commercial wines made in China was analyzed to show the biogenic amine safety of Chinese wine. Eight biogenic amines ( tryptamine, phenylethylamine, putrescine, cadaverine, histamine, tyramine, spermine, and spermidine ) were analyzed in 250 wine samples made in China using the method of GB/T 5009. 208—2008. In all the samples, the levels of biogenic amines, for tryptamine, phenylethylamine, putrescine, cadaverine, histamine, tyramine, sper﹣mine, and spermidine were 0-32. 78 mg/L, 0-48. 20 mg/L, 0-46. 60 mg/L, 0 -9. 38 mg/L, 0 -14. 37 mg/L, 0-14. 60 mg/L, 0-12. 73 mg/L, and 0-0. 50 mg/L, respectively. The highest detec﹣tion rate and the lowest biogenic amines were putrescine and spermine, respectively 88. 4% and 50. 0%, histamine positive rate was 52. 8%. The amount of histamine and tyramine in most of the samples (98. 8% and 98. 0%) was less than 10 mg/L. The content of biogenic amines in dry

  14. 酿酒工艺对葡萄酒中生物胺的影响%Effects of Different Vintage Technologies on the Formation of Biogenic Amines in Dry Red Wines

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    于英; 李记明; 姜文广; 赵荣华

    2011-01-01

    The effects of different vintage technologies(pectases,yeasts,malolactic bacterias and fermentation temperature) on the formation of biogenic amines(histamine,2-phenylethylamine,tyramine,tryptamine,putrescine, cadaverine,spermidine and spermine) in Cabernet Gernischt wines during vinification were studied using high pressure liquid chromatography.The results showed that biogenic amines were generated mainly from alcoholic fermentation and malo-lactic fermentation during winemaking,and the former had low concentrations of biogenic amines.The concentrations of putrescine and spermine produced during alcoholic fermentation could be controlled by pectases,inoculum concentration of yeast,fermentation temperature.The biogenic amines in dry red wines were produced mostly by malolactic bacterias,and histamine and tryptamine were largely from malo-lactic fermentation.%探讨了不同酿酒工艺对葡萄酒中生物胺(组胺、苯乙胺、酪胺、色胺、腐胺、尸胺、精胺和亚精胺)含量的影响。结果显示,葡萄酒酿造过程中生物胺主要在酒精发酵和苹果酸-乳酸发酵过程产生。酒精发酵过程生成量较少,主要产生腐胺和精胺,果胶酶的使用、酵母接种量、发酵温度等因素可以调节酒精发酵过程生物胺的生成量;乳酸菌是葡萄酒生物胺最主要来源,在苹果酸-乳酸发酵过程中会产生大量的组胺和色胺。

  15. Determination of urinary biogenic amines' biomarker profile in neuroblastoma and pheochromocytoma patients by MEKC method with preceding dispersive liquid-liquid microextraction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miękus, Natalia; Olędzka, Ilona; Plenis, Alina; Kowalski, Piotr; Bień, Ewa; Miękus, Aleksandra; Krawczyk, Małgorzata Anna; Adamkiewicz-Drożyńska, Elżbieta; Bączek, Tomasz

    2016-11-15

    The unbalanced secretion of biogenic amines (BAs) is considered to be a relevant biochemical biomarker in the screening for neuroendocrine tumors, such as: neuroblastoma and pheochromocytoma. However, there is still a need to improve the bioanalytical procedures for BA determination in biological samples due to their instability (photo- and thermosensitivity, easy oxidation) and low concentration in the body fluids. In this study, the primary analytical challenge was to optimize the method of extraction of seven compounds from among BAs and their precursors from urine samples. Several methods based on liquid-liquid extraction (LLE) or solid phase extraction (SPE) techniques were tested. By optimization of the extraction and data analysis using chemometric tool, the dispersive liquid-liquid microextraction (DLLME) has been chosen due to its low solvents consumption, high efficiency of isolation, preconcentration and suitable clean-up of biological matrix. Further, α-cyclodextrin-modified micellar electrokinetic chromatography (MEKC) with ultraviolet detection (UV) has been applied for quantification of the analyzed biologically active compounds with limits of detection (LOD) and limits of quantification (LOQ) at 0.15 and 0.5μgmL(-1), respectively. Finally, the optimized and validated DLLME-MEKC-UV method has been employed for the analysis of real urine samples, obtained from 6 children with neuroendocrine tumors and 6 healthy children. It was stated that concentrations of BA could serve to differentiate between the patients and healthy children. This pilot study indicates that the elaborated fast and sensitive DLLME-MEKC-UV method for determination of panel of biomarkers could be successfully applied in everyday clinical practice to help to confirm the clinical diagnosis of neuroendocrine tumors in children.

  16. Determination of biogenic amines in infusions of tea (Camellia sinensis) by HPLC after derivatization with 9-fluorenylmethoxycarbonyl chloride (Fmoc-Cl).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brückner, H; Flassig, S; Kirschbaum, J

    2012-02-01

    The reagent 9-fluorenylmethoxycarbonyl chloride (Fmoc-Cl) was used for the pre-column derivatization of the biogenic amines (BAs) cadaverine (Cad), histamine (Him), octopamine (Ocp), phenylethylamine (Pea), putrescine (Put), spermidine (Spd), spermine (Spm), tyramine (Tym) and the internal standard 1,6-diaminohexane (Dhx). The resulting Fmoc-derivatives were resolved by high-performance liquid chromatography on a Superspher(©) C(18) column using a binary gradient generated from sodium acetate and acetonitrile. For quantification, the fluorescence of derivatives was used at 263 nm excitation and 313 nm emission wavelength. This approach was applied to free BAs extractable with boiling water from 14 black, 5 green, 1 Oolong, and 1 instant tea. Infusions were prepared by adding 35 ml boiling water to one gram of tea and extracted for 20 min. In the Oolong tea and two black teas, no BAs could be detected. Limits of detection were 0.07-1.0 pmol for BAs at signal-to-noise ratio 3:1. Besides most abundant Tym and Spm lower quantities of Pea, Put, and Spd were detected, albeit not in all teas. Quantities of Tym ranged from 16 to 431 μg Tym/L infusion (1.1-25.3 μg Tym/g tea) and 31 to 319 μg Spm/L infusion (1.5-16.9 μg Spm/g tea). In none of the teas, Him was detected. Owing to the low amounts of free BAs in tea infusions, no health risks are to be expected even on consumption of large quantities of tea as beverage.

  17. Trace Amines and the Trace Amine-Associated Receptor 1: Pharmacology, Neurochemistry, and Clinical Implications

    OpenAIRE

    Yue ePei; Aman eAsif-Malik; Canales, Juan J.

    2016-01-01

    Biogenic amines are a collection of endogenous molecules that play pivotal roles as neurotransmitters and hormones. In addition to the “classical” biogenic amines resulting from decarboxylation of aromatic acids, including dopamine (DA), norepinephrine, epinephrine, serotonin (5-HT), and histamine, other biogenic amines, present at much lower concentrations in the central nervous system (CNS), and hence referred to as “trace” amines (TAs), are now recognized to play significant neurophysiolog...

  18. 传统中式香肠中产生物胺氧化酶菌的分离鉴定%Separation and Identification of the Biogenic Amines-oxidase Productive Strains in Traditional Chinese Sausage

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    邓红梅; 卢士玲; 李开雄

    2012-01-01

    In this study, the method of medium color and oxidase test were used to initially separate the biogenic amines-oxidase productive strains in the fermented sausages. According to the standard of meat fermentation starter culture, we removed the bacteria which did not meet the requirements. For those strains meet the requirements, highperformance liquid was used to detect the ability of oxidation and reduction biogenic amines. Finally, through the comparative 16S rDNA sequences analysis and phylogenetic analysis, we found 4 biogenic amines-oxidase productive strains which meet the fermentation starter culture requirements, one Staphylococcus epidermidis and three Staphylococcus simulans.%结合培养基显色法和氧化酶试验,对发酵香肠中产生物胺氧化酶优势菌进行了初步分离。进而利用肉品发酵剂标准剔除不符合要求的菌株。利用高效液相色谱检测符合要求的产生物胺氧化酶菌株对生物胺的氧化减少能力。最后采用16SrDNA分子鉴定方法,通过同源性比对,得到4株符合发酵剂标准的产生物胺氧化酶菌株,即1株表皮葡萄球菌,3株模仿葡萄球菌。

  19. 两种发酵工艺下低盐固态酱油中生物胺的变化%Changes in biogenic amines during low-salt solid-state fermentation of soy sauce by different technologies

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    钱雨林; 闫寅卓; 李兆杰; 陈晶瑜; 韩北忠

    2012-01-01

    生物胺常被作为衡量食品安全水平的标志.本研究采用高效液相色谱法分别测定2种发酵工艺下低盐固态酱油中生物胺的变化,同时检测分析发酵过程中微生物数量、水分含量、氯化钠含量的变化情况.结果表明,肠道菌的数量与组胺、酪胺的含量积累有密切关系:相较于移位发酵法,采用原池淋浇发酵工艺其发酵末期的酱醅中水分和氯化钠的含量更高;苯乙胺和腐胺是移位发酵工艺主要的生物胺,腐胺、组胺和酪胺是原池淋浇发酵工艺主要的生物胺.%The content of biogenic amines is a quality index which reflects the level of food safety. In this study, the changes in biogenic amines during low-salt solid-state fermentation of soy sauces by two different technologies, two-step fermentation and spraying-extraction fermentation, were investigated by high performance liquid chromatography (HPLC). Changes in microbial counts, water and NaCl contents during soy sauce fermentation were also detected. Results showed that the level of Enterobacteria was relevant to the accumulation of histamine and tyramine. At the end of fermentation, the water and NaCl contents in spraying-extraction fermentation were significantly higher than those in two-step fermentation. Putrescine and P-phenylethylamine were main biogenic amines produced during two-step fermentation, while putrescine, histamine and tyramine were main biogenic amines in spraying-extraction fermentation.

  20. Investigation and Analysis of the Content of Biogenic Amines in Fermented Alcoholic Beverage%发酵型饮料酒中生物胺含量的调查与分析

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    张敬; 赵树欣; 薛洁; 张凤杰; 赵彩云

    2012-01-01

    利用反相高效液相色谱技术,以丹磺酰氯柱前衍生,分析了我国市场中32个啤酒样品、32个葡萄酒样品和12个黄酒样品中生物胺的含量。结果表明,我国啤酒、葡萄酒样品中含有较低的生物胺物质,平均含量分别为4.787 mg/L和11.240 mg/L,黄酒中生物胺含量较高,达到了78.304 mg/L。3种饮料酒含量较多的单体生物胺均为腐胺和酪胺,我国葡萄酒中的组胺含量低于国际现有组胺标准的最低限量要求。不同企业生产的啤酒样品和不同原产地的葡萄酒样品中组胺含量存在显著差异,黄酒样品中生物胺含量为18.603~140.010 mg/L,样品间差异很大。%Biogentic amines were analyzed in thirty two samples of beer,twenty seven samples of wine and twelve samples of Chinese rice wine from the Chinese market,using HPLC detection after pre-column derivatization with dansyl chloride.The results showed that the content of biogentic amines in Chinese beer and wine samples was in a relatively low level,with the average being 4.787 mg/L and 11.240 mg/L respectively.While the samples of rice wine contained a high level of biogenic amines,reaching 78.304 mg/L.The monomer biogenic amines that had a relatively high level of content in the three alcoholic beverage mentioned above were all putrescine and tyramine.The content of histamine in wine from Chinese market is below the minimum requirements of existing international histamine standard.Significant differences in the content of histamine were found both among the samples of beer from different enterprises and the samples of wine with different origins.The content of biogenic amines varied widely among the samples of the rice wine,which ranged from 18.603 mg/L to 140.010 mg/L.

  1. Simultaneous Determination of 8 kinds of Biogenic Amines in Soy Sauce by HPLC%高效液相色谱法同时测定酱油中的8种生物胺

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    邹阳; 赵谋明; 赵海锋

    2012-01-01

    本文建立了高效液相色谱法同时检测酱油中色胺、苯乙胺、腐胺、尸胺、组胺、酪胺、亚精胺和精胺的方法.采用5%三氯乙酸溶液为样品提取溶剂,提取液经丹璜酰氯柱前衍生30 min,最终HPLC进行定性和定量分析.本方法中8种生物胺的线性范围为1.0~50μg/mL,相关系数R2大于0.99,检出限(S/N=3)为0.075~0.3 μg/mL.在添加水平为1.00和5.00 μg/mL时,样品的平均回收率在83%-111%之间,相对标准偏差为0.43%~19.0%.本方法具有线性范围广,灵敏度和准确度高等优点,适用于酱油中生物胺的检测.采用本方法对市售10种酱油进行检测,总生物胺含量的范围为50.82~1898.17 μg/mL,其中酪胺、腐胺和苯乙胺是酱油样品中含量最多的生物胺.%An analytical method for simultaneous determination of trypatamine, phenylethylamine, putrescine, cadaverine, histamine, tyramine, spermidine and spermine in soy sauce by HPLC was developed Biogenic amines in soy sauce were extracted with a mixture of 5% TCA, and then derived with dansyl chloride for 30 min, HPLC was used to qualitative and quantitative analysis. Under the optimal conditions, linear range was 1.0~50 μg/mL for biogenic amines and the correlation coefficient (R2) was greater than 0.99. The limits of detection were in the range of 0.075-0.3 μg/mL. At the spiked levels of 1.00 and 5.00 μg/mL, the average recoveries were 83%~111% with the relative standard deviations of 0.43 %~ 19%. The results showed that the proposed method has a good linearity and sensitivity which is suitable to detect biogenic amines in soy sauce. The established method has been successfully applied to determine biogenic amines in 10 commercial soy sauce samples, and the values of total biogenic amines were in the range of 50.82~1898.17 μg/mL. Tyramine, putrescin and phenylethylamine were found to be predominant amines in soy sauce samples.

  2. Review on Influencing Factors of Biogenic Amines Content in Fermented Sausages%发酵香肠中生物胺含量影响因素的研究进展

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    通力嘎; 靳志敏; 段艳; 靳烨

    2012-01-01

    介绍生物胺的种类、危害及在发酵香肠中存在的可能,重点分析了原料肉、发酵剂、工艺条件(温度、pH值、香肠直径、辅助配料、贮藏条件)等因子对发酵香肠中生物胺含量的影响,并提出了通过控制原料肉的卫生质量、使用优良的发酵剂、控制蛋白质的水解程度、使用添加剂等措施降低发酵香肠中生物胺含量。%The biogenic amines species, toxicity, the presence of these compounds in dry fermented sausages were introduced and the most important factors influencing their accumulation, induding raw materials and starter cultures as well as processing conditions(temperature, pH, diameter of sausages, auxiliary ingredients, storage conditions) were analysed in the study. Moreover, strategies (such as raw materials control development, good starter cultures, proteolytic activity control, additives use) were proposed) to control or reduce the accumulation of biogenic amines.

  3. Screening of Strains with Degradation Activity for Biogenic Amines in Fish Sauce%鱼露中生物胺降解菌的筛选及其特性

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    杨利昆; 付湘晋; 胡叶碧; 周其中; 李滨

    2012-01-01

    In the present study,strains with degradation activity for biogenic amines were screened from naturally fermented fish sauce,and the effects of fermentation time and temperature on the content of biogenic amines were investigated.A total of 10 strains were obtained from natural fish sauce subjected to fermentation for 3 months.After 72 hours of fermentation at 30 ℃,the degradation rate of histamine was in the range of 17.3%-62.2%,and the degradation rate of tyramine was in the range of 12.4%-57.3%.The strain M8 with the highest activity was identified as Kodamaea ohmeri yeast through 26S rDNA sequence and online sequence alignment.Meanwhile,the strain revealed the strongest degradation activity for biogenic amines at 30 ℃.During fermentation,the content of biogenic amines revealed a decrease on the first day and an increase on the second day as well as the highest level on the third day,and then exhibited a decrease trend until the end of fermentation.After 9 days of fermentation at 30 ℃,the contents of histamine and tyramine were reduced to 30.4% and 20.8% of the initial levels,respectively.The strain M8 Kodamaea ohmeri yeast could reveal the best degradation activity for biogenic amines in the presence of 25% salt.Under the optimal conditions,histamine and tyramine were reduced to 35.6% and 27.6%,respectively.%从天然发酵鱼露中筛选具有生物胺降解活性的微生物,并研究发酵时间和发酵温度对其降解生物胺的影响。以天然发酵3个月的鱼露为分离材料,对鱼露中的生物胺降解菌进行分离纯化,获得10株具有生物胺降解活性的微生物。分离到的10株菌株在30℃发酵72h组胺降解率在17.3%~62.2%,酪胺降解率在12.4%~57.3%。其中M8菌株生物胺降解活性最高,经26S rDNA测序及在线序列比对,M8菌株鉴定为奥默柯达酵母。奥默柯达酵母M8在30℃条件下降解生物胺活性最强;其降解生物胺的时间变化规律为发酵第1

  4. 不同温度储藏条件下鲅鱼生物胺变化的研究%Changes of biogenic amines in Spanish mackerel under different temperatures during the storage

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    赵中辉; 林洪; 李振兴

    2011-01-01

    为研究鲭鱼中毒的组胺来源以及温度对鲅鱼生物胺的影响,通过HPLC-柱后衍生-FLD检测技术分析了鲅鱼体内7种生物胺(酪胺、腐胺、尸胺、组胺、胍丁胺、亚精胺、精胺)的含量以及在不同储藏温度的变化情况.结果表明,新鲜鲅鱼肌肉中没有检出组胺.鲅鱼体内生物胺的变化随温度的升高而加快,0℃(冰藏)、4℃、20℃储藏8d的生物胺总量变化范围分别为3.09~6.77、16.28~274.65、154.96~1846.29mg/kg.因此,细菌是引起组胺中毒的主要来源,低温储藏是控制鲅鱼产生生物胺的有效措施.%In order to research on the source of scombroid poisoning and changes of biogenic amines under different temperatures in Spanish mackerel, seven amines ( tyramine, putrescine, cadaverine, histamine, agmatine, spermidine and spermine)were analyzed by RP-HPLC and post-column derivatization with fluorescence detector ( FLD).Then, no histamine was detected in the fresh muscle,which means no histamine from the metabolism of fish become the source of scombroid poisoning.In addition,the higher the temperature was,the faster the formation of total amines was.And the concentrations of total amines during 8 days at 0℃( in ice) ,4℃ and 20℃ were 3.09~ 6.77, 16.28~ 274.65 and 154.96 ~ 1846.29mg/kg, respectively.In conclusion, bacteria were the main source of scombroid poisoning and low- temperature preservation was better to control biogenic amines in Spanish mackerel.

  5. Analytical approach to determining human biogenic amines and their metabolites using eVol microextraction in packed syringe coupled to liquid chromatography mass spectrometry method with hydrophilic interaction chromatography column.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Konieczna, Lucyna; Roszkowska, Anna; Synakiewicz, Anna; Stachowicz-Stencel, Teresa; Adamkiewicz-Drożyńska, Elżbieta; Bączek, Tomasz

    2016-04-01

    Analysis of biogenic amines (BAs) in different human samples provides insight into the mechanisms of various biological processes, including pathological conditions, and thus may be very important in diagnosing and monitoring several neurological disorders and cancerous tumors. In this work, we developed a simple and fast procedure using a digitally controlled microextraction in packed syringe (MEPS) coupled to liquid chromatography mass spectrometry (LC-MS) method for simultaneous determination of biogenic amines, their precursors and metabolites in human plasma and urine samples. The separation of 12 low molecular weight and hydrophilic molecules with a wide range of polarities was achieved with hydrophilic interaction chromatography (HILIC) column without derivatization step in 12 min. MEPS was implemented using the APS sorbent in semi-automated analytical syringe (eVol(®)) and small volume of urine and plasma samples, 5 0µL and 100 μL, respectively. We evaluated important parameters influencing MEPS efficiency, including stationary phase selection, sample pH and volume, number of extraction cycles, and washing and elution volumes. In optimized MEPS conditions, the analytes were eluted by 3 × 50 μL of methanol with 0.1% formic acid. The chromatographic separation of analytes was performed on XBridge Amide™ BEH analytical column (3.0mm × 100 mm, 3.5 µm) using gradient elution with mobile phase consisting of phase A: 10mM ammonium formate buffer in water pH 3.0 and phase B: 10mM ammonium formate buffer in acetonitrile pH 3.0. The LC-HILIC-MS method was validated and, in optimum conditions, presented good linearity in concentration range within 10-2000 ng/mL for all the analytes with a determination coefficient (r(2)) higher than 0.999 for plasma and urine samples. Method recovery ranged within 87.6-104.3% for plasma samples and 84.2-98.6% for urine samples. The developed method utilizing polar APS sorbent along with polar HILIC column was applied for

  6. Determination of Biogenic Amines in Rumen Fluid by Reverse Phase-High Performance Liquid Chromatography%反相高效液相色谱法测定瘤胃液中的生物胺

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王东升; 霍文婕; 朱伟云; 毛胜勇

    2011-01-01

    This study was conducted to establish a method of simultaneously detecting concentration of biogenic amine in rumen fluid by reverse phase-high performance liquid chromatography ( RP-HPLC). Samples were extracted by hydrochloric acid (0. 5 mol/L) , and then derived using dansyl chloride, the mobile phase was a gradient elution program with a binary mixture of acetonitrile and 0. 1 mol/L ammonium acetate and the flow rate was 1 mL/min; the wavelength of UV detector was 254 nm, and the column temperature was 30 t. The method was then used to investigate the effect of diet forage-to-concentrate ratio on concentrations of the five biogenic amines in rumen fluid of goats. The results showed that a good separation of tryptamine, putrescine, methylamine, histamine and tyramine was seen within 40 min, and the average recovery were ranged from 88. 46% to 98. 49% , and the relative standard deviations were less than 10% ; Compared with goats fed low concentrate diet, tryptamine and histamine concentrations in rumen fluid of goats fed high concentrate diet were significantly higher (P 0. 05). The results indicate that this method presented here can be used to determine biogenic amine concentrations in rumen fluid, and concentrations of biogenic amine in rumen fluid of goats can be affected by diet forage-to-concentrate ratio.%本文旨在应用反相高效液相色谱法建立瘤胃液中生物胺的测定方法.样品经0.5 mol/L盐酸提取后,用丹磺酰氯柱前衍生,流动相为乙腈和0.1 mol/L乙酸铵溶液;采用梯度洗脱,流速为1.0 mL/min;紫外检测器波长254 nm,柱温30℃.应用该方法,研究高精料和低精料饲粮条件下瘤胃液中5种生物胺浓度的差异.结果表明:采用该方法,色胺、腐胺、甲胺、组胺和酪胺5种生物胺能在40 min内得到良好地分离,回收率为88.46%~98.49%,相对标准偏差小于10%.在高精料饲粮条件下,饲喂前山羊瘤胃液中的酪胺和甲胺浓度

  7. Studies of the biogenic amine transporters. VII. Characterization of a novel cocaine binding site identified with [125I]RTI-55 in membranes prepared from human, monkey and guinea pig caudate.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rothman, R B; Silverthorn, M L; Glowa, J R; Matecka, D; Rice, K C; Carroll, F I; Partilla, J S; Uhl, G R; Vandenbergh, D J; Dersch, C M

    1998-04-01

    [125I]RTI-55 is a cocaine analog with high affinity for dopamine (DA) and serotonin (5-HT) transporters. Quantitative ligand binding studies revealed a novel high affinity [125I]RTI-55 binding site assayed under 5-HT transporter (SERT) conditions which has low affinity for almost all classic biogenic amine transporter ligands, including high affinity 5-HT transporter inhibitors such as paroxetine, but which retains high affinity for cocaine analogs. This site, termed SERT(site2) for its detection under 5-HT transporter conditions (not for an association with the SERT) occurs in monkey caudate, human caudate, and guinea pig caudate membranes, but not in rat caudate membranes. SERT(site2) is distinguished from the DA transporter (DAT) and SERT by several criteria, including a distinct ligand-selectivity profile, the inability to detect SERT(site2) in cells stably expressing the cloned human DAT, and insensitivity to irreversible ligands which inhibit [125I]RTI-55 binding to the DAT and SERT. Perhaps the most striking finding about SERT(site2) is that a wide range of representative antidepressant agents have very low affinity for SERT(site2). The affinity of cocaine for this site is not very different from the concentration cocaine achieves in the brain at pharmacological doses. Viewed collectively with the observation that ligands with high affinity for SERT(site2) are mostly cocaine analogs, these data lead us to speculate that actions of cocaine which differ from those of classic biogenic amine uptake inhibitors may be mediated in part via SERT(site2).

  8. Growth of Carnobacterium divergens V41 and production of biogenic amines and divercin V41 in sterile cold-smoked salmon extract at varying temperatures, NaCl levels, and glucose concentrations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Connil, Nathalie; Plissoneau, Léon; Onno, Bernard; Pilet, Marie-France; Prévost, Hervé; Dousset, Xavier

    2002-02-01

    A complete factorial design 2(3) was used to study some aspects of Carnobacterium divergens V41 metabolism (growth, biogenic amine production, and divercin V41 production) in sterile cold-smoked salmon extract (SSE) at varying temperatures (3 to 9 degrees C), NaCl levels (2.5 to 6.5%), and glucose concentrations (2 to 6 g liter(-1)). The results showed that temperature and NaCl content were the most influential factors on growth parameters in SSE. Predictive models are suggested for the assessment of C. divergens lag time (t(lag)) and maximum specific growth rate (micro(max)) Among the biogenic amines studied, only tyramine was found to be produced by C. divergens in SSE. Furthermore, we showed that temperature, NaCl, and glucose variations did not greatly affect tyramine and divercin V41 production by the bacteria under the experimental conditions used. Indeed, divercin V41, a bacteriocin from C. divergens V41 that is highly active against some Listeria strains, was produced in SSE even under harsh culture conditions. Similarly, tyramine production in SSE was delayed at 3 degrees C but reached 35 microg ml(-1) in all experiments after 27 days of storage. However, this final tyramine concentration in SSE is low compared with the threshold values of 100 to 800 microg g(-1) reported as the potentially toxic dose in foods. Thus, we have found that C. divergens V41 is a promising strain for the biopreservation of refrigerated cold-smoked salmon.

  9. The Detection of Biogenic Amine in the Fujian Monascus vinegar by using the HPLC%高效液相色谱法测定福建红曲醋的生物胺

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    黄祖新

    2015-01-01

    采用高效液相色谱技术建立检测福建红曲醋中组胺、腐胺、尸胺、精胺、亚精胺、2-苯乙胺、酪胺、色胺共8种生物胺的分析方法。以色谱柱为C-18柱,柱温30℃,流速1.2ml/min,紫外检测波长为254nm,流动相A为超纯水,流动相B为乙腈,采用梯度洗脱方式,检测红曲醋中生物胺。检测限为组胺、尸胺、腐胺为0.05μg/kg;酪胺、亚精胺1.0μg/kg;苯乙胺、色胺为1.5μg/kg;精胺为0.02μg/kg,回收率在93.6%至99.0%之间,相对标准偏差(RSD)在0.14%~0.26%之间。结果表明:高效液相色谱法可以对红曲醋中生物胺进行准确的定性和定量。检测红曲醋样品中生物胺最高含量低于国际的发酵食品的建议限量要求。%We establish optimal detection conditions for the histamine,putrescine,cadaverine,spermine,spermidine, phenethylamine,tyramine and tryptamine in the Fujian monascus vinegar by using the HPLC. The HPLC analysis were car⁃ried out in the C18 column at a temperature of 30℃and a flow rate of 0.8 mL/min,UV-detection at 254nm,in the acetoni⁃trile-water mobile phases. The biogenic amines were separated by gradient elution. The limits of detection (LODs)were 0.05μg/kg(histamine,putrescine,cadaverine),1.0μg/kg(tyramine,spermidine),1.5μg/kg(phenethylamine,trypt⁃amine ),0.02μg/kg(spermine). The recovery of each component was from 93.6%to 99%,RSD from 0.14%to 0.26%. Our result showed that the biogenic amine in the Fujian Monascus vinegar could be precisely detected and quantified ,and the maximum content of biogenic amine in the Fujian Monascus vinegar was lower than the limitation of fermented foods that suggested by the international organization.

  10. Determination of biogenic amines in fermented product from soya beans by high performance liquid chromatography%高效液相色谱法测定大豆发酵制品中的生物胺

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王充; 易少凌

    2015-01-01

    目的:从生物胺角度初步探讨大豆发酵制品的食用安全性,为确定大豆发酵制品的推荐安全摄入水平提供初步参考。方法采用柱前衍生高效液相色谱法检测大豆发酵制品中生物胺的含量,以0.4 mol/L高氯酸为提取液,以丹酰氯为衍生试剂,紫外检测波长254 nm。结果样品组分分离及测定结果重现性较好,豆豉、豆酱、酱油3种大豆发酵制品均有部分品牌组胺含量超过危害作用水平(即500 mg/kg),8个样品中有7种超过100 mg/kg,同类不同品牌大豆发酵制品间组胺含量没有明显差别;色胺均未检出;除组胺外,3种大豆发酵制品中尚可能存在2-苯乙胺、腐胺及尸胺。结论大豆发酵制品的色胺未检出,组胺含量较高,大量食用可能影响人体健康。%ABSTRACT:Objective To assess the security of fermented product from soya beans, and give a reference for their reference intakes. Methods To determine biogenic amines in lobster sauce, soy sauce and soybean paste by high performance liquid chromatography (HPLC), the biogenic amines were extracted with 0.4 mol/L perchloric acid solution, the pre-column derivatising agent was dansyl chloride, the mobile phase was acetonitrile and water (V:V=60:40), and the flow rate was 1.0 mL/min. UV detector was used to determine the biogenic amines, and the wavelength was 254 nm. Results Histamine was found in every kind of the fermented product with soya beans, and the concentration was higher than 500 mg/kg, which was the level in food that would cause harm to human body made by the Food and Drug Administration (FDA) in America. The average concentration of histamine in the fermented product with soya beans determined was 469.19 mg/kg, and different kinds of fermented products with soya beans had almost the same concentration of histamine. While no tryptamine was found in these samples, there were 2-phenylethylamine, putrescine and cadaverine in these fermented product from

  11. Detection of total biogenic amines in foods by chemiluminescence biosensor%化学发光生物传感器检测食品中生物胺总量

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    唐晗; 王晓朋; 吴中波; 万德慧; 刘晓宇

    2014-01-01

    目的:建立快速地有效检测食品中生物胺总量的分析方法。方法用固定化的二胺氧化酶制成酶柱作为生物传感器的识别元件,将微流控芯片与化学发光仪结合作为检测元件,以鲁米诺-铁氰化钾作为化学发光体系,通过流动分析法来检测食品中生物胺的总量。结果当腐胺、组胺、酪胺浓度分别在3~500、2~100、3~200μmol/L时,线性回归方程分别为Y=17.448X+408.93、Y=88.329X+997.13、Y=45.762X+1728.2,相关系数分别为0.9966、0.9937、0.9907,检出限分别为0.7、0.5、0.5μmol/L。另外,本研究对传感器的性能进行了评价。结果显示,在最佳条件下对含有腐胺、组胺、酪胺的溶液分别测定7次,其RSD均小于8%,精密度较好;以腐胺为底物,连续通入鲁米诺和铁氰化钾溶液7次, RSD=1.66%,表现出良好的稳定性;将固定化酶保存在磷酸盐缓冲液中,每10 d测定一次酶活,持续70 d。2个月内固定化二胺氧化酶酶活仅降低了15%,保存时间较长;将传感器用于检测猪肉、鲫鱼和葡萄酒中的生物胺总量,样品中三种胺的添加回收率均在90%~94%之间,回收率较高,适合检测总生物胺。结论此传感器的综合性能良好,适用于食品中生物胺总量的快速检测。%Objective To establish a method for the analysis of the biogenic amines content in foods. Methods A novel micro-fluidic chip-chemiluminescence-enzyme biosensor was designed and assembled to determine the total biogenic amines content in foods. Commercial diamine oxidase was used as biological recognition element of the sensor, the micro-fluidic chip with chemiluminescence analyzer was used as a sensing element, and luminol-ferricyanide was used in chemiluminescence system. Results When the concentration of putrescine, histamine, and tyramine were 3~500, 2~100, 3~200μmol/L, the linear regression equation were Y=17.448X+408.93, Y=88.329X+997.13, Y=45.762X+1728.2, the correlation coefficient

  12. Changes of biogenic amines during processing and storage of Sichuan-style sausage from traditional natural fermentation%传统自然发酵四川香肠加工贮藏过程中生物胺含量变化

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    孙霞; 巩洋; 杨勇; 曾建华; 方秋艳; 万重; 杨敏; 卿丹丹; 李跃文

    2015-01-01

    A method using HPLC to detect the content of biogenic amines including tryptamine,phenylethylamine,putrescine,cadaverine,histamine,tyramine and spermidine in Sichuan-style sausage from traditional natural fermentation during processing and storage was developed.The results showed that only tryptamine,phenylethylamine and spermidine were found in meat raw materials,but 7 kinds of biogenic amines were found after storage for 120 days,Except spermidine,the content of 6 kinds of biogenic amines including tryptamine,phenylethylamine,putrescine,cadaverine,histamine and tyramine were significantly increased during processing(P < 0.01).The mainly biogenic amines in traditional natural fermentation Sichuan-style sausage were tyramine,histamine,cadaverine and putrescine with contents of 153.06,127.90,132.46 and 92.83 mg/kg respectively.These four kinds of biogenic amine accounted for 89.66% of the total biogenic amines.The contents of biogenic amines including tryptamine,phenylethylamine,histamine and tyramine in traditional natural fermentation Sichuan-style sausage were less than 20 mg/100 g.Amount of biogenic amines changed significantly during processing and storage (P < 0.01),wherein the total amount was less than 1 000 mg/kg.%采用高效液相色谱法对传统自然发酵四川香肠加工贮藏过程中生物胺(色胺、苯乙胺、腐胺、尸胺、组胺、酪胺和亚精胺)含量变化进行测定.结果表明:传统自然发酵四川香肠原料肉中只检测出了色胺、苯乙胺和亚精胺,贮藏120天检测出了7种生物胺,除亚精胺外,6种生物胺(色胺、苯乙胺、腐胺、尸胺、组胺和酪胺)的含量在加工过程中均显著增加(P<0.01).传统自然发酵四川香肠中以酪胺、组胺、尸胺和腐胺为主,含量分别达到153.06、127.90、132.46和92.83 mg/kg,4种生物胺占生物胺总量的89.66%.传统自然发酵四川香肠中生物胺(色胺、苯乙胺、组胺和酪胺)含量均低于20 mg/100 g.生物

  13. Determination of eight biogenic amines in merchant pickles by high performance liquid chromatography%高效液相法测定市售腌制蔬菜商品中8种生物胺的含量

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    邢茜; 陈浩; 曲桂芹; 殷丽君

    2013-01-01

    采用丹磺酰氯为衍生试剂,建立反相高效液相色谱法同时测定腌制蔬菜中色胺,β-苯乙胺,腐胺,尸胺,组胺,酪胺,亚精胺和精胺含量的方法.色谱条件:C18色谱柱分离,以水和乙腈为流动相梯度洗脱,流速0.8 mL/min,紫外检测器,检测波长:254 nm.在设定的试验条件下,8种生物胺在30 min内实现了良好的分离,待测生物胺峰面积同其相应浓度呈良好的线性相关性(R2 >0.998).仪器重复性良好(RSD<0.63%),方法重复性在可接收范围内(RSD< 10%),8种生物胺的平均回收率在89.19%~103.02%之间.结果表明生物胺的HPLC检测方法,灵敏度高,精密度和重复性好,可快捷、准确地对腌制蔬菜中的生物胺进行检测.对市售腌制蔬菜样品中的生物胺含量进行了分析,检测出生物胺总量范围在39.38 ~ 628.82 mg/kg,属于目前我国安全标准范围之内.%A reversed-phase high performance liquid chromatographic (HPLC) method was developed for the simultaneous determination of tryptamine,β-phenylethylamine,putrescine,cadaverine,histamine,tyramine,spermidine,and spermine in pickles.The samples in experiment derivatized with dansyl chloride.The chromatographic separation was carried out on a C18 column.The gradient elution program with a mixture of ultrapure water and acetonitrile at the flow rate 0.8 mL/min was used under UV detector with a wavelength of 254 nm.Under this experimental condition,8 amines had a good resolution in 30 min and well linearity(R2 > 0.998) in detection range.The relative standard deviation (RSD) of precision and repeatability were lower than 0.63% and 10% respectively.The average recoveries ranged from 89.19% to 103.02% for all amines.The results showed that,with the merits of high sensitivity,precision and well repeatability,the HPLC method is convenient,rapid and reliable for biogenic amines detection.The contents of biogenic amines were ranging between 39.38 and 628.82 mg/kg in

  14. Changes in Biogenic Amines and ATP-Related Compounds and Their Relation to Other Quality Changes in Common Carp (Cyprinus carpio var. Jian) Stored at 20 and 0°C.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Yuemei; Qin, Na; Luo, Yongkang; Shen, Huixing

    2015-09-01

    Biogenic amines, ATP-related compounds, sensory attributes, total volatile basic nitrogen, microbial flora (total viable bacteria, Pseudomonas, Aeromonas, and H2S-producing bacteria), and free amino acids were determined in common carp (Cyprinus carpio var. Jian) stored at 20 and 0°C. Pseudomonas and H2S-producing bacteria became the dominant bacteria in carp stored at 20 and 0°C, whereas Aeromonas rapidly increased only in carp stored at 0°C. Inosine monophosphate, which is responsible for flavor and freshness, increased to a maximum of 2.37 l mol/g after 12 h at 20°C and to 4.72 l mol/g after 3 days at 0°C. Putrescine and cadaverine were the dominant amines in carp and their concentrations were significantly correlated (P < 0.05) with total volatile basic nitrogen and sensory scores in all samples during the storage. Significant correlations also were observed between histamine and total volatile basic nitrogen and sensory scores only in samples stored at 20°C. Arginine decreased while putrescine increased in all samples. A significant decrease (P < 0.05) in histidine was observed after 24 h of storage, which coincided with an increase in histamine after 36 h in samples stored at 20°C. Hypoxanthine concentrations were significantly correlated with the microbial species (P < 0.01) and sensory scores (P < 0.05) and seems to be a reliable marker for quality of carp fillets stored at 20 and 0°C.

  15. Biogenic amine content in dry fermented sausages as influenced by a producer, spice mix, starter culture, sausage diameter and time of ripening.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Komprda, T; Sládková, P; Dohnal, V

    2009-11-01

    Sixteen types of dry fermented sausages were commercially produced as combinations of two producers (designated K and R), two starter cultures (Pediococcus pentosaceus, C; Lactobacillus curvatus+Staphylococcus carnosus, F), two spicing mixtures (H; P) and two casing diameters (4.5cm, T; 7cm, W), and were sampled at days zero, 14, 28 (end of ripening), 49, 70, 91 and 112 (samples were stored at 15°C and relative humidity of 70% between days 28 and 112). Tyramine and putrescine content (Y, mgkg(-1)) increased (Psausages as compared to the W, H and F counterparts, respectively; content of both amines was lower (Psausages than in the R-sausages. Tyramine content in the sausages at the time interval 28days of ripening+21days of storage was in the range from 170 (KHCU sausage combination) to 382 (RHFS) mgkg(-1).

  16. Aminas biogênicas em macroalgas marinhas do Estado do Ceará, Brasil Biogenic amines in marine macroalgae of the state of Ceará, Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Daniel Barroso de Alencar

    2011-06-01

    Full Text Available Muitas aminas são comumente encontradas em alimentos de origem vegetal e animal, porém apenas um pequeno número é de interesse por produzirem reações adversas se ingeridas e absorvidas no organismo humano. Dentre elas, a histamina e a tiramina podem desencadear sintomas de intoxicação. As algas marinhas são amplamente consumidas pelos povos orientais, e, no Ocidente, seu consumo encontra-se em expansão. O Brasil não tem esta tradição, mas a diversidade de espécies encontradas no litoral brasileiro as torna potencialmente úteis como alimento humano. Para promovê-las com essa finalidade, são necessários estudos químicos e bioquímicos. No presente trabalho, treze espécies de macroalgas marinhas coletadas na praia do Pacheco, no município de Caucaia - CE, foram preliminarmente analisadas quanto à presença de histamina e tiramina por cromatografia líquida de alta eficiência. A identificação destas aminas biogênicas foi feita com base nos tempos de retenção dos padrões comerciais de dicloridrato de histamina e cloridrato de tiramina, comparados com aqueles correspondentes aos mesmos compostos nos extratos algais. Nenhuma das treze espécies estudadas neste trabalho apresentou histamina e/ou tiramina em quantidades capazes de provocar sintomas de intoxicação através do seu consumo.Many amines are commonly found in food of both animal and vegetable origin, however only a small number is of interest since they produce diverse reactions when ingested and absorbed by humans. Among them, histamine and tyramine can cause intoxication symptoms. Marine algae are consumed widely by the eastern civilizations, and in the West, their consumption is expanding. Brazil does not have this tradition, but the diversity of species found throughout the Brazilian coast line make marine algae potentially useful for human ingestion. For such, it is necessary to perform chemical and biochemical studies. In this study, thirteen species of

  17. 3种添加物对咸鱼加工贮藏过程中生物胺的抑制效果%Inhibition Effect of Three Additives on the Formation of Biogenic Amines during Processing and Storage of Salted Fish

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    吴燕燕; 钱茜茜; 李来好; 邓建朝; 杨贤庆; 陈胜军; 林婉玲

    2016-01-01

    In order to inhibit the formation of biogenic amines during the processing and storage of salted fish, three food additives, potassium sorbate, gingerol and lactic acid bacteria, were added into salted fish during processing. The changes in the biogenic amine-forming bacteria and the contents of biogenic amines (putrescine, cadaverine, histamine and tyramine) were determined by biogenic amine-forming bacteria isolation agar and high performance liquid chromatography (HPLC) for the purpose of comparing the inhibition effects of three additives on biogenic amines formation in salted fish. The results showed that all three additives had inhibition effects on the formation of biogenic amines, which reduced the levels of microorganisms and biogenic amines in salted fish during processing and storage. Potassium sorbate had the strongest inhibition effect on putrescine and cadaverine, with percentage inhibition of 65.30% and 69.77%, respectively. Gingerol had the strongest inhibition effect on histamine with percentage inhibition of 76.75%. The inhibition effect on lactic acid bacteria was not as strong as on potassium sorbate and gingerol. On the other hand, all of these three additives had weak inhibition effects on tyramine.%为解决咸鱼加工、贮藏过程中生物胺的安全问题,本研究在咸鱼加工过程分别添加3种食用级添加物(山梨酸钾、姜辣素、混合乳酸菌液),采用生物胺初筛培养基检测产生物胺微生物的变化,高效液相色谱法检测咸鱼中腐胺、尸胺、组胺、酪胺等含量变化,比较3种添加物对咸鱼中生物胺的抑制效果。结果表明:腌制后的咸鱼,在干燥过程和贮藏过程产生物胺菌数量和生物胺含量较高,3种添加物均对咸鱼中生物胺的产生有一定抑制效果。其中,山梨酸钾对咸鱼中腐胺和尸胺的抑制效果最显著,抑制率分别为65.30%和69.77%,姜辣素对咸鱼中组胺的抑制效果最显著,抑制率

  18. 水产品中生物胺的检测与控制技术研究进展%Research progress on the determination methods and control technology of biogenic amines in seafood

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    刘红; 李传勇; 曾志杰; 孙乐常; 高海东; 曹敏杰; 刘光明

    2015-01-01

    生物胺是一类低分子量含氮有机化合物,具有脂肪族、芳香族、杂环结构,广泛存在食品尤其是富含蛋白质的水产品中,大多由微生物来源的氨基酸脱羧酶对氨基酸脱羧后形成。水产品风味独特、营养丰富,备受消费者喜爱,生物胺的存在不仅会影响水产品的品质,还会危害人类的健康,引起过敏性反应。根据生物胺的组成可分为单胺、二胺和多胺,根据其挥发难易程度可分为挥发性胺、非挥发性胺,常见的生物胺有组胺、酪胺、腐胺、尸胺、色胺、苯乙胺、三甲胺、二甲胺等。本文重点介绍了水产品中常见生物胺的色谱、波谱、生物检测方法,以及物理、化学、生物控制技术的最新进展,分析了水产品中生物胺研究的发展趋势,以期为水产品的品质监测与安全控制提供理论基础。%ABSTRACT:Biogenic amines (BAs) are low molecular weight organic nitrogenous compounds bases with aliphatic, aromatic or heterocyclic structures. BAs can be found in many foods especially in seafoods which are full of protein and amino acid and are mainly produced by microbial decarboxylation of amino acids. Seafood is very popular among people due to its unique flavor and rich nutrition. However, the existence of BAs will not only decrease its quality value, but also have a bad effect on human health such as allergic reactions. BAs can be divided into monamine, diamine and polyamine according to their composition and can be classified as volatile amines, non-volatile amines according to the degree of difficulty of their volatile. The common BAs in seafood mainly in-clude histamme, tyramine, putrescine, putrescine, cadaverine, tryptamine, 2-phenylethylamine, spermidine, spermine, trimetilamine, dimetilamine. In this paper, the type of BAs in seafood, the latest research of the determination me-thods of chromatographic, spectral and biological and the control technology

  19. 混合发酵剂对川味香肠发酵成熟过程中生物胺含量变化的影响%Effect of mixed starter cultures on the changes of biogenic amines contents during fermentation and ripening of Sichuan-style sausage

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    孙霞; 杨勇; 巩洋; 杨敏; 卿丹丹; 李跃文; 张雯; 李诚; 胡滨

    2015-01-01

    The Sichuan-style sausage was processed by being inoculated Lactobacillus plantarum, Pediocossus pentosaceus and Staphylococcus as starter cultures (A group).Changes of biogenic amines contents in Sichuan-style sausages during fermentation and ripening were determined by high performance liquid chromatography.The results showed that the contents of biogenic amines including tryptamine, putrescine, cadaverine, histamine, tyramine and spermidine in group A were significantly lower than those in group B (natural fermentation) at the end of ripening, except the content of phenylethylamine (P < 0.01) , which indicated that the mixed starter culture could significantly inhibit the formation of biogenic amines in Sichuan-style sausages during fermentation and ripening (P < 0.01).The contents of biogenic amines were less than 100 mg/kg in group A during fermentation and ripening, except the tyramine content up to 103.05 mg/kg, meanwhile, the content of putrescine, cadaverine, histamine and tyramine were more than 100 mg/kg in group B, which indicated the mixed starter culture could ensure the safety of Sichuan-style sausage.%以植物乳杆菌、戊糖片球菌和葡萄球菌作为发酵剂接种至川味香肠,采用高效液相色谱法测定川味香肠发酵成熟过程中生物胺含量的变化.结果表明:成熟结束时,除苯乙胺外,A组(接种组)中的色胺、腐胺、尸胺、组胺、酪胺和亚精胺的含量显著低于B组(自然发酵组)(P<0.01),说明混合发酵剂能显著抑制川味香肠发酵成熟过程中生物胺的形成(P<0.01).A组香肠在发酵成熟过程中除酪胺含量最高达到103.05 mg/kg外,其余生物胺含量均低于100 mg/kg;B组香肠在发酵成熟过程中腐胺、尸胺、组胺和酪胺含量超过100 mg/kg,因此接种混合发酵剂可以更好地保障川味香肠的安全性.

  20. Studies of the biogenic amine transporters. VI. Characterization of a novel cocaine binding site, identified with [125I]RTI-55, in membranes prepared from whole rat brain minus caudate.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rothman, R B; Silverthorn, M L; Baumann, M H; Goodman, C B; Cadet, J L; Matecka, D; Rice, K C; Carroll, F I; Wang, J B; Uhl, G R

    1995-07-01

    Previous studies showed that the cocaine analog [125I]RTI-55 labels dopamine and serotonergic (5-HT) biogenic amine transporters (BATs) with high affinity. Here we characterized [125I]RTI-55 binding to membranes prepared from whole rat brain minus the caudate nuclei. Paroxetine (50 nM) was used to block [125I]RTI-55 binding to 5-HT transporter sites. Initial experiments identified drugs that displaced [125I]RTI-55 binding with moderately low slope factors. Binding surface analysis of the interaction of 3 beta-(4-chlorophenyl)tropan-2 beta-carboxylic acid phenyl ester hydrochloride (RTI-113) and 3 beta-(4-iodophenyl)tropan-2 beta-carboxylic acid phenyl ester hydrochloride (RTI-122) with [125I]RTI-55 binding sites readily resolved two binding sites for [125I]RTI-55 with Kd values of 0.44 nM and 17 nM and Bmax values of 31 and 245 fmol/mg protein. Potent 5-HT and noradrenergic uptake inhibitors had low affinity for both sites. Whereas cocaine, CFT and WIN35,065-2 were 6.0-, 25- and 14-fold selective for the first site, benztropine, PCP and the novel pyrrole, (+-)-(2RS,3aSR,8bRS)-1,2,3,3a,4,8b-hexahydro- 2-benzyl-1-methylindeno-[1,2-b]pyrrole resorcylate [(+-)-HBMP, formerly called (+-)-RTI-4793-14], were moderately selective for the second site. A single binding site with the characteristics of site 1 was resolved using COS cells transiently expressing the cloned rat dopamine transporter. Lesion studies with 6-hydroxydopamine and 5,7-dihydroxytryptamine were conducted to test the hypothesis that site 1 and site 2 are physically distinct. The data showed that these neurotoxins differentially decreased [125I]RTI-55 binding to sites 1 and 2. The differential distribution of sites 1 and 2 in rat brain provides further support for this hypothesis. Viewed collectively, these data show that [125I]RTI-55 labels a novel binding site in rat brain membranes, termed DATsite2, which is not associated with the classic dopamine, serotonin or norepinephrine transporters.

  1. Determination of biogenic amines in wine by high performance liquid chromatography%高效液相色谱法测定葡萄酒中生物胺的含量

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    沈念原; 王秀芹

    2011-01-01

    葡萄酒是经过发酵而制成的,很容易存在生物胺,对人体可能存在危害,因此本文检测了几种葡萄酒中甲胺、乙胺、色按、腐胺、尸胺、组胺、酪胺和亚精胺的含量.实验选用高效液相色谱仪,紫外检测器,0.l mol/L盐酸溶液提取,丹磺酰氯衍生化的方法进行检测.实验结果表明,此法相关系数大于99.8%,最低检测限在0.55~1.03 μg/L,回收率大于95%,相对标准偏差在6.33%以下.实验结果检测出葡萄酒中甲胺含量为5.53±0.028~6.67±0.04mg/L,乙胺含量为5.41±0.07~6.99±0.19mg/L,色胺含量为10.35±0.068~14.18±0.42mg/L,腐胺含量为9.10±0.28~11.75±0.49mg/L,均在安全标准范围内,可安全食用.%Wine is easy to exist biogenic amines after fermentation and they may be harmful to humans. So this research studied methylamine,ethylamine,tryptamine,putrescine,cadaverine,histamine,tyramine,and spermidine in several kinds of wine. The method involved extraction with 0.1 mol/L HCI solution, pre-column derivatization of the amines with dansyl chloride and subsequent analysis by high-performance liquid chromatography with UV detection. The results showed that the correlation coefficients were greater than 99.8%, the limit of detection was from 0.55μg/L to 1.03μg/L, recovery was more than 95%, relative standard deviations were below 6.33%.Levels of methylamine ethylamine tryptamine putrescine were 5.53 ± 0.028 ~ 6.67 ± 0.04mg/L,5.41 ± 0.07 ~6.99 ± 0.19mg/L,1 0.35 ± 0.068 ~ 14. 1 8 ± 0.42mg/L,9.10 ± 0.28 ~ 11.75 ± 0.49mg/L, respectively. The results were in the safety standards and the wine could be safe to consume.

  2. Determination of biogenic amines in beer by HPLC with pre-column dansylation and study on its forming regularity%柱前衍生-HPLC法测定啤酒中生物胺及其形成规律研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    谷凤霞; 王婷; 李宪臻; 王伟; 郭萍; 俞志敏

    2015-01-01

    建立了柱前衍生-高效液相色谱(HPLC)法同时检测啤酒中8种生物胺的方法,并研究了啤酒酿造原料、酿造过程及腐败菌的生物胺形成规律.样品经5%三氯乙酸溶液提取后,经丹磺酰氯衍生,然后用HPLC进行定性和定量分析.该方法对8种生物胺具有良好的分离效果,并具有线性范围广,精密度和重复性高等优点,适用于啤酒中生物胺的检测.运用该方法对啤酒酿造原料(麦芽和酒花)中生物胺进行检测,发现除β-苯乙胺外其他7种生物胺均有检出,其中色胺和腐胺含量最高.麦汁和发酵过程中主要含有色胺和腐胺,主要来源于原料麦芽.将2株啤酒腐败乳酸菌-乳酸短杆菌(Lactobacillus brevis)BS49和类布氏乳杆菌(Lactobacillus parabuchneri)B S201接入到无菌啤酒中,分析其生物胺形成规律.这2株菌能在啤酒中生长繁殖,并且随着菌体生长啤酒中生物胺含量发生显著变化,接BS49号菌的啤酒中酪胺由0.2 mg/L增加到8 mg/L,接BS201号菌的啤酒中组胺由0.1 mg/L增加到6 mg/L,因此组胺和酪胺可作为判断啤酒在贮藏过程中是否污染乳酸菌的重要指标.%An analytical method for simultaneous determination of 8 biogenic amines in beer by high-performance liquid chromatography (HPLC) has been developed, meanwhile the forming regularity of biogenic amines in brewing material, brewing process and beer spoilage bacteria was studied.After being extracted with 5% TCA and derived with dansyl chloride, biogenic amines in beer were qualitatively and quantitatively analyzed by HPLC.The method of HPLC was conformed with efficient separation, good reproducibility, high sensitivity and wide linear range, which was conducive to analysis of biogenic amines in beer.The established method has been successfully applied to determine biogenic amines in malt and hop.The results showed that the 8 biogenic amines were all detected except β-phenylethyl-amine, and the contents of

  3. Determination of the Biogenic Amines in the Media of Ionic Solution with the Method of Liquid Chromatography%以离子液体为介质生物胺的液相色谱测定

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    玉澜; 卢翠文; 谢济运

    2011-01-01

    [Objective] The testing method of the biogenic amines ( Bas) in food and beverage was developed. [ Method ] The content of Bas in the food and beverage was tested with the dansly chloride as derivatization agent and the room temperature ionic liquid (RILT) as the medium of extraction,enrichment and derivatization. [Result]The testing process included the work of pre-column and chromatographic separation and the ideal condition of derivative was as follows; the dansyl chloride solution,1.5 ml;the buffer(Ph 9.10) ,2.0 ml and the RILT,1.0 ml,which was placed in ultrasonic cleaner for 30 minutes' treatment of ultrasound. Tlie extracted RILT after ultrasonic treatment was injected into the HPLC and six types of Bas were separated within 30 minutes with UV detector( A =254. 16 ran). Three procedures:derivatization,extraction and enrichment were combined in the testing method,which was greatly simple. The ionic solution could effectively promote the separation with good stability and the method was also with good liner range. [Conclusion]This method was quick,simplicity and easy to be operated.%[目的]寻求一种快速、简单、易推广的检测方法采测定食品和饮料中生物胺的含量.[方法]以丹磺酰氯为衍生剂,室温离子液体作为萃取、富集、衍生介质来测定食品和饮料中生物胺的含量.[结果]测定的过程包括柱前工作和色谱分离两部分,得出比较理想的衍生条件:丹磺酰氯溶液1.5ml,pH 9.10缓冲液2.0ml,室温离子液体1.0ml,置于超声清洗器中超声30 min;超声后提取离子液注入HPLC,用UV检测仪(λ=254.16 nm)可以使6种生物胺在30 min内被分离出来.该方法将衍生、萃取和富集3个步骤集于一体,大大地简化了试验,离子液体可以有效地促进分离,稳定性良好,且所建立的方法线性范围良好.[结论]测定食品和饮料中生物胺的含量,以丹磺酰氯为衍生剂,室温离子液体作为萃取、富集、衍生介质是一种快速

  4. CHANGES IN TOTAL VOLATILE BASIC NITROGEN AND BIOGENIC AMINES IN TWO COMMON SPECIES OF MARINE FISH AT HIGH TEMPERATURE%两种常见海水鱼高温贮存过程中挥发性盐基氮和生物胺含量变化

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    张金彪; 杨筱珍; 范朋; 赵柳兰; 王春; 杨志刚; 洪宇航; 成永旭

    2012-01-01

    棘头梅童鱼(Collichthys lucidus)和龙头鱼(Harpodon nehereus)是我国沿海常见的两种小型海水鱼,常被作为水产动物饵料,也可被人类食用.研究检测了这两种鱼在30℃下贮存48h每隔6h的挥发性盐基氮(T-VBN)和9种生物胺(尸胺、腐胺、组胺、酪胺、5-羟色胺、亚精胺、精胺、多巴胺、章鱼胺)的含量变化,并对这两种鱼的T-VBN和生物胺含量与时间的相关性进行分析,为水产品类饵料安全投喂和人类食品安全提供基础资料.结果表明:两种鱼在相同贮存条件中T-VBN和生物胺含量均存在一定差异.T-VBN含量随着贮存时间的延长而逐渐增加,棘头梅童鱼T-VBN含量从0h的8.19 mg/100 g增加到48h的568.05 mg/100 g,龙头鱼从0h的13.16 mg/100 g增加到48h的361.34 mg/100 g,棘头梅童鱼增长值显著高于龙头鱼(P<0.05).在30℃下,棘头梅童鱼和龙头鱼的T-VBN含量分别在10h和12h达到30 mg/100 g,因此,这两种鱼分别在l0h和12h后不推荐食用.在两种鱼的生物胺检测中,含量最高的4种依次是尸胺、腐胺、酪胺和组胺,且有随贮存时间延长含量显著增高的趋势(P<0.05),并在42h内趋于稳定;但是,棘头梅童鱼中尸胺的含量显著高于龙头鱼(P<0.05);章鱼胺、5-羟色胺、亚精胺、精胺含量在两种鱼体内含量较低且均无明显变化(P>0.05);多巴胺在两种鱼体内均未检测到.这两种鱼体内T-VBN、腐胺、尸胺、组胺、酪胺含量与时间的相关性均极其显著(P<0.01).%Collichthys lucidus and Harpodon nehereus are small fishes which are common in the coastal waters of China. They are often fed to aquatic animals, and are also food for human. In this study, total volatile basic nitro-gen(T-VBN)and nine biogenic amines (cadaverine, putrescine, histamine, tyramine, serotonin, spermidine, spermine, dopamine and octopamine) of C. Lucidus and H. Nehereus storage at 30 ℃ were examined in every 6h for 48h. The correlation

  5. Relationship Between Color Parameters and Free Amino Acids and Biogenic Amines of Sliced Cooked Cured Beef Ham%西式蒸煮火腿切片货架期褪色与游离氨基酸和生物胺的关系

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    孙卫青; 周光宏; 徐幸莲

    2014-01-01

    Objective]Discoloration during storage is a key problem that limits the shelf-life of cooked cured meats. The purpose of the experiment is to study the relationship of color parameters and amino acids and biogenic amines of sliced cooked cured beef ham (SCCBH), to reveal the effects of the nitrogen compounds in meat products on the stability of the heme pigment and apparent color, in the hope of providing theoretical guidances for color protection of this type of products. [Method]Color parameters, free amino acids and biological amines of SCCH during storage were examined and factor analysis was used to explain the effect of free amino acids and biogenic amines on the color parameters. Principal component analysis (PCA) was used to extract the principal factor. Varimax orthogonal rotation with Kaiser normalization method was adopted in data analysis. [Result]Eight kinds of biogenic amines and 16 kinds of free amino acids were detected in this experiment. Biological amines showed no significant changes during storage, while, threonine (Thr), valine (Val), methionine (Met), lysine (Lys) and arginine (Arg) changed significantly. The factor analysis results showed that the first principal factor (F1) explained 45.72% of the total variation, and the second (F2) explained 21.52%. F1 was a concentrated reflection of color changes of SCCBH during storage, especially of the redness (a*), Chroma (C) and pigment NO-Heme (NH), and nitrogen compounds directly affecting the apparent color. F2 was mainly expressed the information of the hue and of the nitrogen compounds indirectly affecting apparent redness through the hue (H) or yellowness (b*), these nitrogen compounds mainly contained acidic and alkaline free amino acids. Tyramine (TYR) and spermine (SPM) significantly affected the stability of heme pigment and apparent color of SCCBH, which were shown by a high factor loading value (0.98) in F1. Further, TYR and SPM negatively correlated with the color parameters of SCCBH

  6. Trace Amines and the Trace Amine-Associated Receptor 1: Pharmacology, Neurochemistry, and Clinical Implications.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pei, Yue; Asif-Malik, Aman; Canales, Juan J

    2016-01-01

    Biogenic amines are a collection of endogenous molecules that play pivotal roles as neurotransmitters and hormones. In addition to the "classical" biogenic amines resulting from decarboxylation of aromatic acids, including dopamine (DA), norepinephrine, epinephrine, serotonin (5-HT), and histamine, other biogenic amines, present at much lower concentrations in the central nervous system (CNS), and hence referred to as "trace" amines (TAs), are now recognized to play significant neurophysiological and behavioral functions. At the turn of the century, the discovery of the trace amine-associated receptor 1 (TAAR1), a phylogenetically conserved G protein-coupled receptor that is responsive to both TAs, such as β-phenylethylamine, octopamine, and tyramine, and structurally-related amphetamines, unveiled mechanisms of action for TAs other than interference with aminergic pathways, laying the foundations for deciphering the functional significance of TAs and its mammalian CNS receptor, TAAR1. Although, its molecular interactions and downstream targets have not been fully elucidated, TAAR1 activation triggers accumulation of intracellular cAMP, modulates PKA and PKC signaling and interferes with the β-arrestin2-dependent pathway via G protein-independent mechanisms. TAAR1 is uniquely positioned to exert direct control over DA and 5-HT neuronal firing and release, which has profound implications for understanding the pathophysiology of, and therefore designing more efficacious therapeutic interventions for, a range of neuropsychiatric disorders that involve aminergic dysregulation, including Parkinson's disease, schizophrenia, mood disorders, and addiction. Indeed, the recent development of novel pharmacological tools targeting TAAR1 has uncovered the remarkable potential of TAAR1-based medications as new generation pharmacotherapies in neuropsychiatry. This review summarizes recent developments in the study of TAs and TAAR1, their intricate neurochemistry and

  7. [Metabolism of various biogenic amines in diabetes mellitus].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stoilov, L D; Perelygina, A A

    1981-01-01

    Serotonin (5-HT) and histamine metabolism was studied in 50 patients with diabetes melitus. Simultaneously the blood and urine content of their precursors and metabolites tryptophane, 5-hydroxytryptophane (5-HTP), 5-hydroxyindolylacetic acid (5-HIAA) and histidine was examined. An increase in 5-HT metabolism intensification (the augmented 5-HTP and 5-HT blood levels and enhanced 5-HTP and 5-HIAA excretion with the urine) was determined, whereas the blood and urine contents of histamine and histadine were within normal. Moreover, significantly higher increase in 5-HT blood level and enhanced 5-HIAA excretion with the urine were seen in patients with juvenile diabetes mellitus comparatively to those with insulin-depending type of the disease. Possible significance of changes, being discovered in 5-HT metabolism of patients with diabetes mellitus, in the disease pathogenesis is discussed.

  8. Midgut carcinoids; surgical aspects, biogenic amines and vascular effects

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Vries, Harry de

    2006-01-01

    General introduction Carcinoids are rare slowly growing, neuroendocrine tumors. In 1907 Obendorfer was the first to use the term carcinoid (Karzinoide)1. He described an ileal tumor with a much slower progression than expected from denocarcinomas. The traditional classification of the carcinoids acc

  9. Azo dye decolorization assisted by chemical and biogenic sulfide

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Prato-Garcia, Dorian [Laboratory for Research on Advanced Processes for Water Treatment, Unidad Académica Juriquilla, Instituto de Ingeniería, Universidad Nacional Autónoma de México, Blvd. Juriquilla 3001, Querétaro 76230 (Mexico); Cervantes, Francisco J. [División de Ciencias Ambientales, Instituto Potosino de Investigación Científica y Tecnológica, Camino a la Presa de San José 2055, San Luis Potosí 78216 (Mexico); Buitrón, Germán, E-mail: gbuitronm@ii.unam.mx [Laboratory for Research on Advanced Processes for Water Treatment, Unidad Académica Juriquilla, Instituto de Ingeniería, Universidad Nacional Autónoma de México, Blvd. Juriquilla 3001, Querétaro 76230 (Mexico)

    2013-04-15

    Highlights: ► Azo dyes were reduced efficiently by chemical and biogenic sulfide. ► Biogenic sulfide was more efficient than chemical sulfide. ► There was no competition between dyes and sulfate for reducing equivalents. ► Aromatic amines barely affected the sulfate-reducing process. -- Abstract: The effectiveness of chemical and biogenic sulfide in decolorizing three sulfonated azo dyes and the robustness of a sulfate-reducing process for simultaneous decolorization and sulfate removal were evaluated. The results demonstrated that decolorization of azo dyes assisted by chemical sulfide and anthraquinone-2,6-disulfonate (AQDS) was effective. In the absence of AQDS, biogenic sulfide was more efficient than chemical sulfide for decolorizing the azo dyes. The performance of sulfate-reducing bacteria in attached-growth sequencing batch reactors suggested the absence of competition between the studied azo dyes and the sulfate-reducing process for the reducing equivalents. Additionally, the presence of chemical reduction by-products had an almost negligible effect on the sulfate removal rate, which was nearly constant (94%) after azo dye injection.

  10. Amine Functionalized Porous Network

    KAUST Repository

    Eddaoudi, Mohamed

    2015-05-28

    Amine groups can be introduced in porous materials by a direct (one pot) or post-synthetic modification (PSM) process on aldehyde groups, and the resulting porous materials have increased gas affinity.

  11. Biologically active amines in fermented and non-fermented commercial soybean products from the Spanish market.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Toro-Funes, N; Bosch-Fuste, J; Latorre-Moratalla, M L; Veciana-Nogués, M T; Vidal-Carou, M C

    2015-04-15

    Biologically active amines were determined in commercial soybean products. The antioxidant polyamines were found in both non-fermented and fermented soybean products. Natto and tempeh showed the highest content of polyamines (75-124 and 11-24 mg/kg of spermidine and spermine, respectively). On the other hand, the bacterial-related biogenic amines, tyramine, histamine, tryptamine and β-phenylethylamine, were detected in practically all fermented products with a high variability. The highest contents were found in sufu, tamari and soybean paste. Extremely high tyramine and histamine contents, 1700 and 700 mg/kg, respectively, found in some sufu samples could be unhealthy. However, biogenic amines observed in the other soybean products should not be a risk for healthy consumers. However, individuals who take monoamine and diamine oxidase inhibitors drugs should be strongly recommended to avoid this kind of products in order to suffer no adverse health effects. These biogenic amines were not detected in non-fermented soybean products.

  12. Degradation of biogenetic amines by gamma radiation process and identification by GC/MS

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cardozo, Monique; Souza, Stefania P. de; Lima, Keila dos S.C.; Lima, Antonio L. dos S., E-mail: santoslima@ime.eb.br [Departamento de Quimica - IME, Instituto Militar de Engenharia, RJ (Brazil)

    2011-07-01

    Biogenic amines are low molecular weight organic bases with aliphatic (putrescine, cadaverine, spermine, spermidine), aromatic (tyramine, phenylethylamine) or heterocyclic (histamine, tryptamine) structures that can be found in several foods, in which they are mainly produced by microbial decarboxylation of amino acids. The reasons to control amines in food are their potential toxicity and their use like food quality markers. The consumption of food containing large amounts of biogenic amines can result in allergic reactions, characterized by difficulty in breathing, rash, vomiting, and hypertension. Biogenic amines are also known as possible precursors of carcinogens, such as N-nitrosamines. Traditionally, biogenic amine formation in food has been prevented, primarily by limiting microbial growth. However, control measures to reduce their levels once formed need to be also considered. The biogenic amines are frequently found in high concentrations and not reduced by high-temperature treatment, which makes difficult to use conventional methods of food preservation for this purpose. Food irradiation has been used in many countries for inhibition of sprouting, destruction of food borne insects, extension of shelf life or improvement of the technological of food. Irradiation is also known as a good method for inactivating pathogens and reducing microorganisms in food materials. Furthermore, besides the sanitary purpose, irradiation technology in new trials can be applied to induce radiolysis of toxic contaminants in food products reducing their content. This study has the objective to evaluate the effect of different gamma irradiation doses (1, 3 and 5kGy) in methanol solutions of three different biogenic amines: tryptamine, tyramine and b-phenylethylamine. The solutions were prepared using standard biogenic amines purchased from Sigma-Aldrich Brazil and methanol HPLC grade with a concentration of 100 {mu}g/mL. They were irradiated in Centro Tecnologico do Exercito

  13. Validation of an ultra high pressure liquid chromatographic method for the determination of biologically active amines in food.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Latorre-Moratalla, M L; Bosch-Fusté, J; Lavizzari, T; Bover-Cid, S; Veciana-Nogués, M T; Vidal-Carou, M C

    2009-11-06

    Biologically active amines include the so called biogenic amines, such as histamine, tyramine and cadaverine, and polyamines such as spermidine and spermine. Ultra high pressure liquid chromatography (UHPLC) is a new generation of separation techniques that takes full advantage of chromatographic principles to increase speed flow which drastically reduce analysis time. The aim of the present work was to validate a rapid method of UHPLC to detect the presence of biogenic amines and polyamines in food. Different food matrixes (wine, fish, cheese, and dry fermented sausage) were used in order to test the versatility of the method. The UHPLC method described in this article has been demonstrated as a reliable procedure to determine 12 biogenic amines and polyamines in less than 7min of chromatographic elution. The method provides a satisfactory linearity and chromatographic sensitivity with a detection limit lower than 0.2mg/L and a determination limit falling below 0.3mg/L for all amines. The precision, in terms of relative standard deviation, was lower than 5% and the accuracy, as mean recovery, was between 93% and 98%, depending on the food matrix.

  14. High capacity immobilized amine sorbents

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gray, McMahan L.; Champagne, Kenneth J.; Soong, Yee; Filburn, Thomas

    2007-10-30

    A method is provided for making low-cost CO.sub.2 sorbents that can be used in large-scale gas-solid processes. The improved method entails treating an amine to increase the number of secondary amine groups and impregnating the amine in a porous solid support. The method increases the CO.sub.2 capture capacity and decreases the cost of utilizing an amine-enriched solid sorbent in CO.sub.2 capture systems.

  15. CHITOSE AMINE & BODY ACUPOINTS' COSMETOLOGY

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    TEO Gek Chun

    2002-01-01

    @@ Chitose Amine is a natural substance which the body cells will readily absorb and it helps strengthen the immune system and reduces the cholesterol. Currently. Chitose Amine has been used widely in cosmetics and detoxification foods. The mian therapeutic properties of Chitose Amine in cosmetics are as follow:

  16. Hydrothermal Reactivity of Amines

    Science.gov (United States)

    Robinson, K.; Shock, E.; Hartnett, H. E.; Williams, L. B.; Gould, I.

    2013-12-01

    The reactivity of aqueous amines depends on temperature, pH, and redox state [1], all of which are highly variable in hydrothermal systems. Temperature and pH affect the ratio of protonated to unprotonated amines (R-NH2 + H+ = R-NH3+), which act as nucleophiles and electrophiles, respectively. We hypothesize that this dual nature can explain the pH dependence of reaction rates, and predict that rates will approach a maximum at pH = pKa where the ratio of protonated and unprotonated amines approaches one and the two compounds are poised to react with one another. Higher temperatures in hydrothermal systems allow for more rapid reaction rates, readily reversible reactions, and unique carbon-nitrogen chemistry in which water acts as a reagent in addition to being the solvent. In this study, aqueous benzylamine was used as a model compound to explore the reaction mechanisms, kinetics, and equilibria of amines under hydrothermal conditions. Experiments were carried out in anoxic silica glass tubes at 250°C (Psat) using phosphate-buffered solutions to observe changes in reaction rates and product distributions as a function of pH. The rate of decomposition of benzylamine was much faster at pH 4 than at pH 9, consistent with the prediction that benzylamine acts as both nucleophile and an electrophile, and our estimate that the pKa of benzylamine is ~5 at 250°C and Psat. Accordingly, dibenzylamine is the primary product of the reaction of two benzylamine molecules, and this reaction is readily reversible under hydrothermal conditions. Extremely acidic or basic pH can be used to suppress dibenzylamine production, which also suppresses the formation of all other major products, including toluene, benzyl alcohol, dibenzylimine, and tribenzylamine. This suggests that dibenzylamine is the lone primary product that then itself reacts as a precursor to produce the above compounds. Analog experiments performed with ring-substituted benzylamine derivatives and chiral

  17. Sledování obsahu biogenních aminů a polyaminů při skladování a kuchyňských úpravách jedlých hub.

    OpenAIRE

    PEKÁRKOVÁ, Jana

    2013-01-01

    The target of this thesis was found content of eight biogenic amines and polyamines, specifically putrescine (PUT), spermidine (SPD), spermine (SPM), histamine (HIM), cadaverine (CAD), 2-phenylethylamine (PEA), tyramine (TYM) and tryptamine (TRM) in growed Agaricus hortensis during storage, frozen and heat treatment. There are many information dealing with these amines in the food in this time, but unfortunately data on the content of amines in edible mashrooms in literature are still missing...

  18. “COLATURA DI ALICI “ CETARESE: EVALUATION OF AMINIC PROFILE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A Anastasio

    2008-12-01

    Full Text Available “Colatura d’alici”is a speciality made in Cetara, a clear ,amber-coloured liquid that has sharp taste, prepared with the juice coming from the anchovy salting process. The anchovies are caught in the Gulf of Salerno between the mounths of March and July. The colatura is ready at the beginning of December. Histamine poisoning, a food-borne chemical intoxication caused by the consumption of food containing toxic levels of histamine, is a syndrome commonly associated with the consumption of seafood beloging to the Engraulidae and some fish families. Histamine and biogenic amine levels were determined in “colatura di alici di Cetara”. The amine was separated in a HPLC/FL system. Histamine level were lower than the law limits only in one of the examinated products. A reduction of the histamine and amine levels in colatura cetarese can be obtained using a determinate salt concentrations and changing way of seasoning.

  19. Trace amine-associated receptors are olfactory receptors in vertebrates.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liberles, Stephen D

    2009-07-01

    The mammalian nose is a powerful chemosensor, capable of detecting and distinguishing a myriad of chemicals. Sensory neurons in the olfactory epithelium contain two types of chemosensory G protein-coupled receptors (GPCRs): odorant receptors (ORs), which are encoded by the largest gene family in mammals, and trace amine-associated receptors (TAARs), a smaller family of receptors distantly related to biogenic amine receptors. Do TAARs play a specialized role in olfaction distinct from that of ORs? Genes encoding TAARs are found in diverse vertebrates, from fish to mice to humans. Like OR genes, each Taar gene defines a unique population of canonical sensory neurons dispersed in a single zone of the olfactory epithelium. Ligands for mouse TAARs include a number of volatile amines, several of which are natural constituents of mouse urine, a rich source of rodent social cues. One chemical, 2-phenylethylamine, is reported to be enriched in the urine of stressed animals, and two others, trimethylamine and isoamylamine, are enriched in male versus female urine. Furthermore, isoamylamine has been proposed to be a pheromone that induces puberty acceleration in young female mice. These data raise the possibility that some TAARs are pheromone receptors in the nose, a hypothesis consistent with recent data suggesting that the olfactory epithelium contains dedicated pheromone receptors, separate from pheromone receptors in the vomeronasal organ. Future experiments will clarify the roles of TAARs in olfaction.

  20. From caffeine to fish waste: amine compounds present in food and drugs and their interactions with primary amine oxidase.

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    Olivieri, Aldo

    2011-07-01

    Tissue bound primary amine oxidase (PrAO) and its circulating plasma-soluble form are involved, through their catalytic activity, in important cellular roles, including the adhesion of lymphocytes to endothelial cells during various inflammatory conditions, the regulation of cell growth and maturation, extracellular matrix deposition and maturation and glucose transport. PrAO catalyses the oxidative deamination of several xenobiotics and has been linked to vascular toxicity, due to the generation of cytotoxic aldehydes. In this study, a series of amines and aldehydes contained in food and drugs were tested via a high-throughput assay as potential substrates or inhibitors of bovine plasma PrAO. Although none of the compounds analyzed were found to be substrates for the enzyme, a series of molecules, including caffeine, the antidiabetics phenformin and tolbutamide and the antimicrobial pentamidine, were identified as PrAO inhibitors. Although the inhibition observed was in the millimolar and micromolar range, these data show that further work will be necessary to elucidate whether the interaction of ingested biogenic or xenobiotic amines with PrAO might adversely affect its biological roles.

  1. Biogenic silicate accumulation in sediments, Jiaozhou Bay

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    LI Xuegang; SONG Jinming; DAI Jicui; YUAN Huamao; LI Ning; LI Fengye; SUN Song

    2006-01-01

    It has been widely recognized that low silicate content in seawater is a major limiting factor to phytoplankton primary production in Jiaozhou Bay. However the reason of Si-limitation remains poorly understood. In the present study we measured the biogenic silicate content and discussed the accumulation of silicate in Jiaozhou Bay sediment. The results show that the biogenic silica content in the sediment of the Jiaozhou Bay is obviously much higher than those in the Yellow Sea and the Bohai Sea. The BSi:TN ratios and BSi:16P ratios in the sediment are > 1 and the OC:BSi ratio in sediment is lower than these of Redfield ratio (106:16), indicating that the decomposition rate of OC is much higher than that for BSi in similar conditions. Therefore, the majority of the biogenic silicate was buried and thus did not participate in silicate recycling. Silicate accumulation in sediment may explain why Si limits the phytoplankton growth in the Jiaozhou Bay. Comparing the flux of biogenic silicate from sediments with primary production rate, it can be concluded that only 15.5% of biogenic silicate is hydrolyzed during the journey from surface to bottom in seawater, thus approximate 84.5% of biogenic silicate could reach the bottom. The silicate releasing rate from the sediment to seawater is considerably lower than that of sedimentation of biogenic silicate, indicating silicate accumulation in sediment too. In a word, the silicate accumulation in sediment is the key reason of silicate limiting to phytoplankton growth in Jiaozhou Bay.

  2. Biogenic metals in advanced water treatment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hennebel, Tom; De Gusseme, Bart; Boon, Nico; Verstraete, Willy

    2009-02-01

    Microorganisms can change the oxidation state of metals and concomitantly deposit metal oxides and zerovalent metals on or into their cells. The microbial mechanisms involved in these processes have been extensively studied in natural environments, and researchers have recently gained interest in the applications of microbe-metal interactions in biotechnology. Because of their specific characteristics, such as high specific surface areas and high catalytic reactivity, biogenic metals offer promising perspectives for the sorption and (bio)degradation of contaminants. In this review, the precipitation of biogenic manganese and iron species and the microbial reduction of precious metals, such as palladium, platinum, silver and gold, are discussed with specific attention to the application of these biogenic metals in innovative remediation technologies in advanced water treatment.

  3. Biogenic crust dynamics on sand dunes

    CERN Document Server

    Kinast, Shai; Yizhaq, Hezi; Ashkenazy, Yosef

    2012-01-01

    Sand dunes are often covered by vegetation and biogenic crusts. Despite their significant role in dune stabilization, biogenic crusts have rarely been considered in studies of dune dynamics. Using a simple model, we study the existence and stability ranges of different dune-cover states along gradients of rainfall and wind power. Two ranges of alternative stable states are identified: fixed crusted dunes and fixed vegetated dunes at low wind power, and fixed vegetated dunes and active dunes at high wind power. These results suggest a cross-over between two different forms of desertification.

  4. Synthesis of hydroxyapatite from biogenic wastes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Teerawat Laonapakul

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available Hydroxyapatite (HAp is a major component of human bone, teeth and hard tissue. It is one of only a few bioactive materials. Since HAp is the most widely used ceramic biomaterial, various techniques have been developed to synthesize HAp. In recent years, the use of natural biogenic structures and materials for medical proposes has been motivated by limitations in producing synthetic materials. This article mainly focuses on the use of biogenic wastes to prepare HAp. These include bio-wastes, marine corals, eggshells, seashells and bio-membranes. In the present review, useful information about HAp preparation methodologies has been summarized for further research and development.

  5. Ability of Kocuria varians LTH 1540 To Degrade Putrescine: Identification and Characterization of a Novel Amine Oxidase.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Callejón, Sara; Sendra, Ramón; Ferrer, Sergi; Pardo, Isabel

    2015-04-29

    This work describes the identification and characterization of an amine oxidase from Kocuria varians LTH 1540 (syn. Micrococcus varians) primarily acting on putrescine. Data from MALDI-TOF MS/MS and the identification of Δ(1)-pyrroline as degradation product from putrescine indicate that the enzyme is a flavin-dependent putrescine oxidase (PuO). Properties of partially purified enzyme have been determined. The enzyme oxidizes diamines, putrescine and cadaverine, and, to a lesser extent, polyamines, such as spermidine, but not monoamines. The kinetic constants (Km and Vmax) for the two major substrates were 94 ± 10 μM and 2.3 ± 0.1 μmol/min·mg for putrescine and 75 ± 5 μM and 0.15 ± 0.02 μmol/min·mg for cadaverine. Optimal temperature and pH were 45 °C and 8.5, respectively. Enzyme was stable until 50 °C. K. varians PuO is sensitive to human flavin-dependent amine oxidase inhibitors and carboxyl-modifying compounds. The new enzyme has been isolated from a bacterial starter used in the manufacture of fermented meat. One of the problems of fermented foods or beverages is the presence of toxic biogenic amines produced by bacteria. The importance of this works lies in the description of a new enzyme able to degrade two of the most abundant biogenic amines (putrescine and cadaverine), the use of which could be envisaged to diminish biogenic amines content in foods in the future.

  6. Biogenic amines and their metabolites are differentially affected in the Mecp2-deficient mouse brain

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Villard Laurent

    2011-05-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Rett syndrome (RTT, MIM #312750 is a severe neurological disorder caused by mutations in the X-linked methyl-CpG binding protein 2 (MECP2 gene. Female patients are affected with an incidence of 1/15000 live births and develop normally from birth to 6-18 months of age before the onset of deficits in autonomic, cognitive, motor functions (stereotypic hand movements, impaired locomotion and autistic features. Studies on Mecp2 mouse models, and specifically null mice, revealed morphological and functional alterations of neurons. Several functions that are regulated by bioaminergic nuclei or peripheral ganglia are impaired in the absence of Mecp2. Results Using high performance liquid chromatography, combined with electrochemical detection (HPLC/EC we found that Mecp2-/y mice exhibit an alteration of DA metabolism in the ponto-bulbar region at 5 weeks followed by a more global alteration of monoamines when the disease progresses (8 weeks. Hypothalamic measurements suggest biphasic disturbances of norepinephrine and serotonin at pathology onset (5 weeks that were found stabilized later on (8 weeks. Interestingly, the postnatal nigrostriatal dopaminergic deficit identified previously does not parallel the reduction of the other neurotransmitters investigated. Finally, dosage in cortical samples do not suggest modification in the monoaminergic content respectively at 5 and 8 weeks of age. Conclusions We have identified that the level of catecholamines and serotonin is differentially affected in Mecp2-/y brain areas in a time-dependent fashion.

  7. Histochemical observations of fluorescent biogenic amines in cryostat sections of peripheral and central nervous tissue

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    O. Duarte-Escalante

    1970-06-01

    Full Text Available Relato de modificação da técnica criostático-histoquímica para a verificação da fluorescência das catecolaminas e da serotonina em secções de tecido nervoso central e periférico. São discutidas as vantagens desta modificação técnica em relação a outras propostas para a mesma finalidade.

  8. Behavioral correlates of cerebrospinal fluid amino acid and biogenic amine neurotransmitter alterations in dementia

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Vermeiren, Yannick; Le Bastard, Nathalie; Van Hemelrijck, An; Drinkenburg, Wilhelmus H.; Engelborghs, Sebastiaan; De Deyn, Peter P.

    2013-01-01

    Background: Behavioral and psychological signs and symptoms of dementia (BPSD) are a heterogeneous group of behavioral and psychiatric disturbances occurring in dementia patients of any etiology. Research suggests that altered activities of dopaminergic, serotonergic, (nor)adrenergic, as well as ami

  9. Structural and spectroscopic studies on cadmium complex of a biogenic amine, histamine

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kaştaş, Gökhan; Paşaoğlu, Hümeyra; Karabulut, Bünyamin; Bulut, İclal

    2010-03-01

    A novel histamine-saccharine complex, [Cd(His) 2(Sac) 2], is investigated by X-ray diffraction, infrared (IR) and electron paramagnetic resonance (EPR) spectroscopies. In the complex, histamine has N τ-H tautomeric form. The crystal packing is stabilized by N-H⋯O hydrogen bonds forming R22(16) and R42(4) ring patterns. In EPR study, the angular variation of the spectra of Cu 2+ doped Cd(His) 2(Sac) 2 single crystal shows that two different Cu 2+ complexes are located in different chemical environments. Each environment contains one magnetically distinct Cu 2+ site occupying substitutional position in the lattice. The vibrational investigation has been carried out on the basis of some characteristic IR bands of histamine and saccharine molecules.

  10. Localization of Biogenic Amines in the Foregut of Aplysia californica: Catecholaminergic and Serotonergic Innervation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martínez-Rubio, Clarissa; Serrano, Geidy E.; Miller, Mark W.

    2009-01-01

    This study examined the catecholaminergic and serotonergic innervation of the foregut of Aplysia californica, a model system in which the control of feeding behaviors can be investigated at the cellular level. Similar numbers (15-25) of serotonin-like-immunoreactive (5HTli) and tyrosine hydroxylase-like-immunoreactive (THli) fibers were present in each (bilateral) esophageal nerve (En), the major source of pregastric neural innervation in this system. The majority of En 5HTli and THli fibers originated from the anterior branch (En2), which innervates the pharynx and the anterior esophagus. Fewer fibers were present in the posterior branch (En1), which innervates the majority of the esophagus and the crop. Backfills of the two En branches toward the central nervous system (CNS) labeled a single, centrifugally projecting serotonergic fiber, originating from the metacerebral cell (MCC). The MCC fiber projected only to En2. No central THli neurons were found to project to the En. Surveys of the pharynx and esophagus revealed major differences between their patterns of catecholaminergic (CA) and serotonergic innervation. Whereas THli fibers and cell bodies were distributed throughout the foregut, 5HTli fibers were present in restricted plexi, and no 5HTli somata were detected. Double-labeling experiments in the periphery revealed THli neurons projecting toward the buccal ganglion via En2. Other afferents received dense perisomatic serotonergic innervation. Finally, qualitative and quantitative differences were observed between the buccal motor programs (BMPs) produced by stimulation of the two En branches. These observations increase our understanding of aminergic contributions to the pregastric regulation of Aplysia feeding behaviors. PMID:19330814

  11. [Biogenic amines in the epiphysis and hypothalamus under normal conditions and following ovariectomy].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grishchenko, V I; Koliada, L D; Demidenko, D I

    1977-01-01

    Melatonin content in the epiphysis, serotonin, noradrenaline, dopamine-in the hypothalamus, gonadotropins--in the hypophysis of rats was studied under normal conditions and following ovariectomy; regularly of the estral cycle phases was studied as well. Two series of experiments were conducted on 120 rats with regular estral cycles. The animals were divided into groups according to the estral cycle phase. Melatonin concentration in the epiphysis, serotonin, noradrenaline, dopamine--in the hypothalamus was subject to variations coinciding with the estral cycle phases. Serotonin, noradrenaline, and dopamine content decreased in the hypophysis of ovariectomized rats in comparison with control; melatonin content rose in the epiphysis. There was no complete extinction of the estral cycle in the course of investigation (20 days). The action of castration on the sexual cycle depended on the phase at which the rats were subjected to ovariectomy. A reverse relationship existed between the melatonin content in the epiphysis and serotonin content in the hypothalamus, this serving as one of the important factors in the regulation of the sexual function.

  12. Queen regulates biogenic amine level and nestmate recognition in fire ant, Solenopsis invicta, workers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nestmate recognition is a critical element in social insect organization, providing a means to maintain territoriality and close the colony to parasites and predators. Ants detect the colony chemical label via their antennae and respond to the label mismatch of an intruder with aggressive behavior. ...

  13. Role of ammonia and biogenic amines in intake of grass silage by ruminants.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Os, van M.

    1997-01-01

    In Northern- and Western-Europe, grass silage is a major component in winter feeding rations for ruminants. The intake of ensiled grass is often lower than the intake of hay or the fresh grass of similar digestibility. This intake depression is attributed to the fermentation products present in the

  14. Structural and functional probing of the biogenic amine transporters by fluorescence spectroscopy

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rasmussen, Søren G F; Adkins, Erika M; Carroll, F Ivy

    2003-01-01

    for the clearance of dopamine, norepinephrine, and serotonin from the synaptic cleft. In our studies, we have focused on the serotonin transporter (SERT) for which we have established a purification procedure upon expression of the transporter in Sf-9 insect cells. Importantly, the purified transporter displays...

  15. Species of Staphylococcus and Bacillus isolated from traditional sausages as producers of biogenic amines.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Roberto eBermúdez

    2012-04-01

    Full Text Available Histidine, lysine, ornithine and tyrosine decarboxylase activities were tested in 38 strains of Staphylococcus (15 of Staph. equorum, 11 of Staph. epidermidis, 7 of Staph. saprophyticus, and 5 of Staph. pasteuri and 19 strains of Bacillus (13 of B. subtilis and 6 of B. amyloliquefaciens isolated from two Spanish traditional sausage varieties.The four decarboxylase activities were present in most of the strains studied, but some variability was observed between strains within each microbial species.Accumulation of putrescine and cadaverine was assessed in the culture media of the strains that displayed ornithine and lysine decarboxylase activities. The aminogenic potential of the strains was low, with amounts accumulated lower than 25 mg/L for the putrescine and than 5 mg/L for the cadaverine, with the exception of a strain of Staph. equorum that produced 1415 mg/L of putrescine, and of a strain of Staph. epidermidis that accumulated 977 mg/L of putrescine and 36 mg/L of cadaverine.

  16. Amine-Amine Exchange in Aminium-Methanesulfonate Aerosols

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dawson, Matthew L.; Varner, Mychel E.; Perraud, Veronique M.; Ezell, Michael J.; Wilson, Jacqueline M.; Zelenyuk, Alla; Gerber, Robert B.; Finlayson-Pitts, Barbara J.

    2014-12-18

    Aerosol particles are ubiquitous in the atmosphere and have been shown to impact the Earth’s climate, reduce visibility, and adversely affect human health. Modeling the evolution of aerosol systems requires an understanding of the species and mechanisms involved in particle growth, including the complex interactions between particle- and gas-phase species. Here we report studies of displacement of amines (methylamine, dimethylamine or trimethylamine) in methanesulfonate salt particles by exposure to a different gas-phase amine, using a single particle mass spectrometer, SPLAT II. The variation of the displacement with the nature of the amine suggests that behavior is dependent on water in or on the particles. Small clusters of methanesulfonic acid with amines are used as a model in quantum chemical calculations to identify key structural elements that are expected to influence water uptake, and hence the efficiency of displacement by gas-phase molecules in the aminium salts. Such molecular-level understanding of the processes affecting the ability of gas-phase amines to displace particle-phase aminium species is important for modeling the growth of particles and their impacts in the atmosphere.

  17. Organosulfate Formation in Biogenic Secondary Organic Aerosol

    Science.gov (United States)

    Organosulfates of isoprene, α-pinene, and β-pinene have recently been identified in both laboratory-generated and ambient secondary organic aerosol (SOA). In this study, the mechanism and ubiquity of organosulfate formation in biogenic SOA is investigated by a comprehensive seri...

  18. Formation and Reactivity of Biogenic Iron Microminerals

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Beveridge, Terrance J.; Glasauer, Susan; Korenevsky, Anton; Ferris, F. Grant

    2000-08-08

    The overall purpose of the project is to explore and quantify the processes that control the formation and reactivity of biogenic iron microminerals and their impact on the solubility of metal contaminants. The research addresses how surface components of bacterial cells, extracellular organic material, and the aqueous geochemistry of the DIRB microenvironment impacts the mineralogy, chemical state and micromorphology of reduced iron phases.

  19. Formation and Reactivity of Biogenic Iron Microminerals

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Beveridge, Terrance J.; Ferris, F. Grant

    2001-08-15

    The overall purpose of the project was to explore and quantify the processes that control the formation and reactivity of biogenic iron microminerals and their impact on the solubility of metal contaminants. The research addressed how surface components of bacterial cells, extracellular organic material, and the aqueous geochemistry of the DIRB microenvironment impacts the mineralogy, chemical state and micromorphology of reduced iron phases.

  20. Sub-Antarctic marine aerosol: significant contributions from biogenic sources

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J. Schmale

    2013-03-01

    Full Text Available Biogenic influences on the composition and characteristics of aerosol were investigated on Bird Island (54°00' S, 38°03' W in the South Atlantic during November and December 2010. This remote marine environment is characterised by large seabird and seal colonies. The chemical composition of the submicron particles, measured by an aerosol mass spectrometer (AMS, was 21% non-sea salt sulfate 2% nitrate, 7% ammonium, 22% organics and 47% sea salt including sea salt sulfate. A new method to isolate the sea salt signature from the high-resolution AMS data was applied. Generally, the aerosol was found to be less acidic than in other marine environments due to the high availability of ammonia, from local fauna emissions. By positive matrix factorisation five different organic aerosol (OA profiles could be isolated: an amino acids/amine factor (AA-OA, 18% of OA mass, a methanesulfonic acid OA factor (MSA-OA, 25%, a marine oxygenated OA factor (M-OOA, 40%, a sea salt OA fraction (SS-OA, 7% and locally produced hydrocarbon-like OA (HOA, 9%. The AA-OA was dominant during the first two weeks of November and found to be related with the hatching of penguins in a nearby colony. This factor, rich in nitrogen (C : N ratio = 0.13, has implications for the biogeochemical cycling of nitrogen in the area as particulate matter is often transported over longer distances than gaseous N-rich compounds. The MSA-OA was mainly transported from more southerly latitudes where phytoplankton bloomed. The bloom was identified as one of three sources for particulate sulfate on Bird Island, next to sea salt sulfate and sulfate transported from South America. M-OOA was the dominant organic factor and found to be similar to marine OA observed at Mace Head, Ireland. An additional OA factor highly correlated with sea salt aerosol was identified (SS-OA. However, based on the available data the type of mixture, internal or external, could not be determined. Potassium was not

  1. Sub-Antarctic marine aerosol: dominant contributions from biogenic sources

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J. Schmale

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available Biogenic influences on the composition and characteristics of aerosol were investigated on Bird Island (54°00' S, 38°03' W in the South Atlantic during November and December 2010. This remote marine environment is characterised by large seabird and seal colonies. The chemical composition of the submicron particles, measured by an aerosol mass spectrometer (AMS, was 21% non-sea-salt sulfate, 2% nitrate, 8% ammonium, 22% organics and 47% sea salt including sea salt sulfate. A new method to isolate the sea spray signature from the high-resolution AMS data was applied. Generally, the aerosol was found to be less acidic than in other marine environments due to the high availability of ammonia, from local fauna emissions. By positive matrix factorisation five different organic aerosol (OA profiles could be isolated: an amino acid/amine factor (AA-OA, 18% of OA mass, a methanesulfonic acid OA factor (MSA-OA, 25%, a marine oxygenated OA factor (M-OOA, 41%, a sea spray OA fraction (SS-OA, 7% and locally produced hydrocarbon-like OA (HOA, 9%. The AA-OA was dominant during the first two weeks of November and found to be related with the hatching of penguins in a nearby colony. This factor, rich in nitrogen (N : C ratio = 0.13, has implications for the biogeochemical cycling of nitrogen in the area as particulate matter is often transported over longer distances than gaseous N-rich compounds. The MSA-OA was mainly transported from more southerly latitudes where phytoplankton bloomed. The bloom was identified as one of three sources for particulate sulfate on Bird Island, next to sea salt sulfate and sulfate transported from South America. M-OOA was the dominant organic factor and found to be similar to marine OA observed at Mace Head, Ireland. An additional OA factor highly correlated with sea spray aerosol was identified (SS-OA. However, based on the available data the type of mixture, internal or external, could not be determined. Potassium was not

  2. Amine Swingbed Payload Project Management

    Science.gov (United States)

    Walsch, Mary; Curley, Su

    2013-01-01

    The International Space Station (ISS) has been designed as a laboratory for demonstrating technologies in a microgravity environment, benefitting exploration programs by reducing the overall risk of implementing such technologies in new spacecraft. At the beginning of fiscal year 2010, the ISS program manager requested that the amine-based, pressure-swing carbon dioxide and humidity absorption technology (designed by Hamilton Sundstrand, baselined for the Orion Multi-Purpose Crew Vehicle, and tested at the Johnson Space Center in relevant environments, including with humans, since 2005) be developed into a payload for ISS Utilization. In addition to evaluating the amine technology in a flight environment before the first launch of the Orion vehicle, the ISS program wanted to determine the capability of the amine technology to remove carbon dioxide from the ISS cabin environment at the metabolic rate of the full 6 ]person crew. Because the amine technology vents the absorbed carbon dioxide and water vapor to space vacuum (open loop), additional hardware needed to be developed to minimize the amount of air and water resources lost overboard. Additionally, the payload system would be launched on two separate Space Shuttle flights, with the heart of the payload-the swingbed unit itself-launching a full year before the remainder of the payload. This paper discusses the project management and challenges of developing the amine swingbed payload in order to accomplish the technology objectives of both the open -loop Orion application as well as the closed-loop ISS application.

  3. Amine Swingbed Payload Technology Demonstration

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sweterlitsch, Jeffrey

    2014-01-01

    The Amine Swingbed is an amine-based, vacuum-regenerated adsorption technology for removing carbon dioxide and humidity from a habitable spacecraft environment, and is the baseline technology for the Orion Program’s Multi-Purpose Crew Vehicle (MPCV). It uses a pair of interleaved-layer beds filled with SA9T, the amine sorbent, and a linear multiball valve rotates 270° back and forth to control the flow of air and vacuum to adsorbing and desorbing beds. One bed adsorbs CO2 and H2O from cabin air while the other bed is exposed to vacuum for regeneration by venting the CO2 and H2O. The two beds are thermally linked, so no additional heating or cooling is required. The technology can be applied to habitable environments where recycling CO2 and H2O is not required such as short duration missions.

  4. Complex amine-based reagents

    Science.gov (United States)

    Suslov, S. Yu.; Kirilina, A. V.; Sergeev, I. A.; Zezyulya, T. V.; Sokolova, E. A.; Eremina, E. V.; Timofeev, N. V.

    2017-03-01

    Amines for a long time have been applied to maintaining water chemistry conditions (WCC) at power plants. However, making use of complex reagents that are the mixture of neutralizing and the filmforming amines, which may also contain other organic components, causes many disputes. This is mainly due to lack of reliable information about these components. The protective properties of any amine with regard to metal surfaces depend on several factors, which are considered in this article. The results of applying complex reagents to the protection of heating surfaces in industrial conditions and estimated behavior forecasts for various reagents under maintaining WCC on heat-recovery boilers with different thermal circuits are presented. The case of a two-drum heat-recovery boiler with in-line drums was used as an example, for which we present the calculated pH values for various brands of reagents under the same conditions. Work with different reagent brands and its analysis enabled us to derive a composition best suitable for the conditions of their practical applications in heat-recovery boilers at different pressures. Testing the new amine reagent performed at a CCPP power unit shows that this reagent is an adequate base for further development of reagents based on amine compounds. An example of testing a complex reagent is shown created with the participation of the authors within the framework the program of import substitution and its possible use is demonstrated for maintaining WCC of power-generating units of combined-cycle power plants (CCPP) and TPP. The compliance of the employed reagents with the standards of water chemistry conditions and protection of heating surfaces were assessed. The application of amine-containing reagents at power-generating units of TPP makes it possible to solve complex problems aimed at ensuring the sparing cleaning of heating surfaces from deposits and the implementation of conservation and management of water chemistry condition

  5. Bacterial degradation of monocyclic aromatic amines

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pankaj Kumar Arora

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available Aromatic amines are an important group of industrial chemicals, which are widely used for manufacturing of dyes, pesticides, drugs, pigments, and other industrial products. These compounds have been considered highly toxic to human beings due to their carcinogenic nature. Three groups of aromatic amines have been recognized: monocyclic, polycyclic and heterocyclic aromatic amines. Bacterial degradation of several monocyclic aromatic compounds has been studied in a variety of bacteria, which utilizes monocyclic aromatic amines as their sole source of carbon and energy. Several degradation pathways have been proposed and the related enzymes and genes have also been characterized. Many reviews have been reviewed toxicity of monocyclic aromatic amines; however, there is lack of review on biodegradation of monocyclic aromatic amines. The aim of this review is to summarize bacterial degradation of monocyclic aromatic amines. This review will increase our current understanding of biochemical and molecular basis of bacterial degradation of monocyclic aromatic amines.

  6. Increased biogenic catecholamine and metabolite levels in two patients with malignant catatonia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nisijima K

    2013-08-01

    Full Text Available Koichi Nisijima Department of Psychiatry, Jichi Medical University, Tochigi, Japan Abstract: The pathophysiology of malignant catatonia, a rare life-threatening psychiatric syndrome, has not yet been elucidated. This paper reports on two patients with malignant catatonia who showed elevated urinary or plasma catecholamine levels. Patient 1 had high catecholamine and metabolite levels in a 24-hour urine sample, and patient 2 had elevated plasma catecholamine levels. These findings indicate the presence of peripheral sympathetic nervous system hyperactivity in malignant catatonia. Symptoms of autonomic dysfunction, including tachycardia, labile blood pressure, and diaphoresis, are typical features of malignant catatonia and may be related to the increased levels of biogenic amines in these cases. Although the findings in the present study cannot entirely explain the pathophysiology of malignant catatonia, they do indicate that hyperactivity of the sympathetic nervous system may be involved in the pathology of this condition. Keywords: malignant catatonia, catecholamine levels, neuroleptic malignant syndrome

  7. Biogenic Methane from Coal: The Oxidation Factor

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gallagher, L. K.; Glossner, A. W.; Landkamer, L.; Figueroa, L. A.; Mandernack, K. W.; Munakata Marr, J.

    2011-12-01

    Vast reserves of coal represent an untapped resource that can be used to produce methane gas, a cleaner energy alternative compared to standard fossil fuels. Microorganisms have demonstrated the ability to utilize coal as a carbon source, producing biogenic methane. With increasing demand for cleaner energy resources, understanding and enhancing biogenic methane production has become an area of active research. The conversion of coal to methane by microorganisms has been demonstrated experimentally by a number of research groups, but the state of the coal used as a substrate has not always been reported and may impact biogenic methane production. Microcosm experiments were designed in order to assess how the oxidation state of coal might influence methane production (e.g. as in a dewatered coal-bed natural gas system). Oxidized and un-oxidized coal samples from the Powder River Basin were incubated in microcosms inoculated with an enrichment culture that was derived from coal. Microcosms were characterized by headspace gas analysis, organic acid production, functional gene abundance (qPCR), and pyrosequencing of the 16S rRNA gene. Although the microbial consortium demonstrated the ability to utilize both oxidized and un-oxidized coal as a sole carbon source to generate methane, it was produced in higher quantities from the un-oxidized coal. This microbial community was dominated by Methanobacteriaceae (45%), epsilon-Proteobacteria (32%) and delta-Proteobacteria (13%). The results of this study provide a basis to develop strategies to enhance biogenic methane production from coal, as well as demonstrate the need for careful substrate preparation for inter-study comparisons.

  8. Formation and Reactivity of Biogenic Iron Microminerals

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Beveridge, Terrance J.; Ferris, F. Grant

    1999-06-01

    The overall purpose of the project is to explore and quantify the processes that control the formation and reactivity of biogenic iron microminerals, and the impact of these processes on the solubility of metal contaminants, e.g., uranium, chromium and nickel. The research addresses how surface components of bacterial cells, extracellular organic material, and the aqueous geochemistry of the DIRB microenvironment impacts the mineralogy, chemical state and micromorphology of reduced iron phases.

  9. Polymeric amines and biomedical uses thereof

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Broekhuis, Antonius; Zhang, Youchum; Picchioni, Francesco; Roks, Antonius

    2010-01-01

    The invention relates to the field of polymers and biomedical applications thereof. In particular, it relates to the use of polymeric amines derived from alternating polyketones.Provided is the use of a polymeric amine for modulating or supporting cellular behavior, said polymeric amine being an alt

  10. Discrimination of abiogenic and biogenic alkane gases

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    DAI JinXing; MI JingKui; LI ZhiSheng; HU AnPing; YANG Chun; ZHOU QingHua; SHUAI YanHua; ZHANG Ying; MA ChengHua; ZOU CaiNeng; ZHANG ShuiChang; LI Jian; NI YunYan; HU GuoYi; LUO Xia; TAO ShiZhen; ZHU GuangYou

    2008-01-01

    We have combined the analytical data of the carbon isotope distribution pattern, R/Ra and cliche values of abiogenic and biogenic (referring to the therrnogenic and bacterial or microbial) alkane gases in China with those of alkane gases from USA, Russia, Germany, Australia and other countries. Four discrimination criteria are derived from this comparative study: 1) Carbon isotopic composition is generally greater than -30‰ for abiogenic methane and less than -30‰ for biogenic methane; 2)Abiogenic alkane gases have a carbon isotopic reversal trend (Δ13c1>Δ13c2>Δ13c3>Δ13c4) with Δ13c1>-30‰ in general; 3) Gases with R/Ra>0.5 and Δ13c1- Δ13c2>0 are of abiogenic origin; 4) Gases (methane) with CH4/3He≤106 are of abiogenic origin, whereas gases with CH4/3He≥1011 are of biogenic origin.

  11. Cytotoxicity and genotoxicity of biogenic silver nanoparticles

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lima, R.; Feitosa, L. O.; Ballottin, D.; Marcato, P. D.; Tasic, L.; Durán, N.

    2013-04-01

    Biogenic silver nanoparticles with 40.3 ± 3.5 nm size and negative surface charge (- 40 mV) were prepared with Fusarium oxysporum. The cytotoxicity of 3T3 cell and human lymphocyte were studied by a TaliTM image-based cytometer and the genotoxicity through Allium cepa and comet assay. The results of BioAg-w (washed) and BioAg-nw (unwashed) biogenic silver nanoparticles showed cytotoxicity exceeding 50 μg/mL with no significant differences of response in 5 and 10 μg/mL regarding viability. Results of genotoxicity at concentrations 5.0 and 10.0 ug/mL show some response, but at concentrations 0.5 and 1.0 μg/mL the washed and unwashed silver nanoparticles did not present any effect. This in an important result since in tests with different bacteria species and strains, including resistant, MIC (minimal inhibitory concentration) had good answers at concentrations less than 1.9 μg/mL. This work concludes that biogenic silver nanoparticles may be a promising option for antimicrobial use in the range where no cyto or genotoxic effect were observed. Furthermore, human cells were found to have a greater resistance to the toxic effects of silver nanoparticles in comparison with other cells.

  12. Discrimination of abiogenic and biogenic alkane gases

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2008-01-01

    We have combined the analytical data of the carbon isotope distribution pattern, R/Ra and CH4/3He values of abiogenic and biogenic (referring to the thermogenic and bacterial or microbial) alkane gases in China with those of alkane gases from USA, Russia, Germany, Australia and other countries. Four discrimination criteria are derived from this comparative study: 1) Carbon isotopic composition is generally greater than -30‰ for abiogenic methane and less than -30‰ for biogenic methane; 2) Abiogenic alkane gases have a carbon isotopic reversal trend (δ 13C1> δ 13C2> δ 13C3> δ 13C4) with δ 13C1>-30‰ in general; 3) Gases with R/Ra >0.5 and δ 13C11 δ 13C2>0 are of abiogenic origin; 4) Gases (meth- ane) with CH4/3He≤106 are of abiogenic origin, whereas gases with CH4/3He≥1011 are of biogenic origin.

  13. Advances in heterocyclic ketene aminals

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2002-01-01

    Recent developments in the study of the reactions of heterocyclic ketene aminals are reviewed with the emphases on regioselective alkylation, acylation and glycosylation reactions, and on the aza-ene reactions with α,β-unsaturated compounds, azo and carbonyl compounds. Reactions with 1,3-dipoles and other reagents to synthesize fused heterocycles are also discussed.

  14. Aminering van hydroxyderivaten van halogeenazahetarenen

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Roelfsema, W.A.

    1972-01-01

    In this thesis an introductory investigation is described on the reactivity of hydroxy derivatives of halogenopyridines and a bromohydroxyquinoline towards strong bases.It is a sequel to earlier work on the effect of substituents present in the nucleus of halogenopyridines on the course of amination

  15. Biogenic oxidized organic functional groups in aerosol particles from a mountain forest site and their similarities to laboratory chamber products

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    R. E. Schwartz

    2010-02-01

    Full Text Available Submicron particles collected at Whistler, British Columbia, at 1020 masl during May and June 2008 on Teflon filters were analyzed by Fourier transform infrared (FTIR and X-ray fluorescence (XRF techniques for organic functional groups (OFG and elemental composition. Organic mass (OM ranged from less than 0.5 to 3.1μg m−3, with a project mean and standard deviation of 1.3±1.0 μg m−3 and 0.21±0.16 μg m−3 for OM and sulfate, respectively. On average, organic hydroxyl, alkane, and carboxylic acid groups represented 34%, 33%, and 23% of OM, respectively. Ketone, amine and organosulfate groups constituted 6%, 5%, and <1% of the average organic aerosol composition, respectively. Measurements of volatile organic compounds (VOC, including isoprene and monoterpenes from biogenic VOC (BVOC emissions and their oxidation products (methyl-vinylketone/methacrolein, MVK/MACR, were made using co-located proton transfer reaction mass spectrometry (PTR-MS. We present chemically-specific evidence of OFG associated with BVOC emissions. Positive matrix factorization (PMF analysis attributed 65% of the campaign OM to biogenic sources, based on the correlations of one factor to monoterpenes and MVK/MACR. The remaining fraction was attributed to anthropogenic sources based on a correlation to sulfate. The functional group composition of the biogenic factor (consisting of 32% alkane, 25% carboxylic acid, 2% organic hydroxyl, 16% ketone, and 6% amine groups was similar to that of secondary organic aerosol (SOA reported from the oxidation of BVOCs in laboratory chamber studies, providing evidence that the magnitude and chemical composition of biogenic SOA simulated in the laboratory is similar to that found in actual atmospheric conditions. The biogenic factor OM is also correlated to dust elements, indicating that dust may act as a non-acidic SOA sink. This role is supported by the organic functional group composition and

  16. Biogenic oxidized organic functional groups in aerosol particles from a mountain forest site and their similarities to laboratory chamber products

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    R. E. Schwartz

    2010-06-01

    Full Text Available Submicron particles collected at Whistler, British Columbia, at 1020 m a.s.l. during May and June 2008 on Teflon filters were analyzed by Fourier transform infrared (FTIR and X-ray fluorescence (XRF techniques for organic functional groups (OFG and elemental composition. Organic mass (OM concentrations ranged from less than 0.5 to 3.1 μg m−3, with a project mean and standard deviation of 1.3±1.0 μg m−3 and 0.21±0.16 μg m−3 for OM and sulfate, respectively. On average, organic hydroxyl, alkane, and carboxylic acid groups represented 34%, 33%, and 23% of OM, respectively. Ketone, amine and organosulfate groups constituted 6%, 5%, and <1% of the average organic aerosol composition, respectively. Measurements of volatile organic compounds (VOC, including isoprene and monoterpenes from biogenic VOC (BVOC emissions and their oxidation products (methyl-vinylketone / methacrolein, MVK/MACR, were made using co-located proton transfer reaction mass spectrometry (PTR-MS. We present chemically-specific evidence of OFG associated with BVOC emissions. Positive matrix factorization (PMF analysis attributed 65% of the campaign OM to biogenic sources, based on the correlations of one factor to monoterpenes and MVK/MACR. The remaining fraction was attributed to anthropogenic sources based on a correlation to sulfate. The functional group composition of the biogenic factor (consisting of 32% alkane, 25% carboxylic acid, 21% organic hydroxyl, 16% ketone, and 6% amine groups was similar to that of secondary organic aerosol (SOA reported from the oxidation of BVOCs in laboratory chamber studies, providing evidence that the magnitude and chemical composition of biogenic SOA simulated in the laboratory is similar to that found in actual atmospheric conditions. The biogenic factor OM is also correlated to dust elements, indicating that dust may act as a non-acidic SOA sink. This role is supported by the organic functional

  17. Chemistry of new particle growth in mixed urban and biogenic emissions – insights from CARES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. Setyan

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Regional new particle formation and growth events (NPE were observed on most days over the Sacramento and western Sierra Foothills area of California in June 2010 during the Carbonaceous Aerosols and Radiative Effect Study (CARES. Simultaneous particle measurements at both the T0 (Sacramento, urban site and the T1 (Cool, rural site located ~40 km northeast of Sacramento sites of CARES indicate that the NPE usually occurred in the morning with the appearance of an ultrafine mode centered at ~15 nm (in mobility diameter, Dm, measured by a scanning mobility particle sizer operating in the range 10–858 nm followed by the growth of this mode to ~50 nm in the afternoon. These events were generally associated with southwesterly winds bringing urban plumes from Sacramento to the T1 site. The growth rate was on average higher at T0 (7.1 ± 2.7 nm h−1 than at T1 (6.2 ± 2.5 nm h−1, likely due to stronger anthropogenic influences at T0. Using a high-resolution time-of-flight aerosol mass spectrometer (HR-ToF-AMS, we investigated the evolution of the size-resolved chemical composition of new particles at T1. Our results indicate that the growth of new particles was driven primarily by the condensation of oxygenated organic species and, to a lesser extent, ammonium sulfate. New particles appear to be fully neutralized during growth, consistent with high NH3 concentration in the region. Nitrogen-containing organic ions (i.e., CHN+, CH4N+, C2H3N+, and C2H4N+ that are indicative of the presence of alkyl-amine species in submicrometer particles enhanced significantly during the NPE days, suggesting that amines might have played a role in these events. Our results also indicate that the bulk composition of the ultrafine mode organics during NPE was very similar to that of anthropogenically-influenced secondary organic aerosol (SOA observed in transported urban plumes. In addition, the concentrations of species representative of urban emissions (e.g., black

  18. Formation and Reactivity of Biogenic Iron Microminerals

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Beveridge, Terrance J.; Ferris, F. Grant

    2002-08-10

    Radionuclide and heavy metal contaminants at DOE sites pose immediate and long-term environmental problems. Under the NABIR program, bacteria are being considered for their role in the cycling of these contaminants because they influence many redox reactions in the subsurface. Dissimilatory metal reducing bacteria (DMRB) are particularly important to controlling the biogeochemistry of subsurface environments through enzymatic reduction of iron and manganese minerals. During reduction of FeIII, biogenic FeII phases form at the cell-mineral interface which may profoundly influence metal reduction.

  19. Trace amine-associated receptor 1-Family archetype or iconoclast?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grandy, David K

    2007-12-01

    Interest has recently been rekindled in receptors that are activated by low molecular weight, noncatecholic, biogenic amines that are typically found as trace constituents of various vertebrate and invertebrate tissues and fluids. The timing of this resurgent focus on receptors activated by the "trace amines" (TA) beta-phenylethylamine (PEA), tyramine (TYR), octopamine (OCT), synephrine (SYN), and tryptamine (TRYP) is the direct result of 2 publications that appeared in 2001 describing the cloning of a novel G protein-coupled receptor (GPCR) referred to by their discoverers Borowsky et al. as TA1 and Bunzow et al. as TA receptor 1 (TAR1). When heterologously expressed in Xenopus laevis oocytes and various eukaryotic cell lines, recombinant rodent and human TAR dose-dependently couple to the stimulation of adenosine 3',5'-monophosphate (cAMP) production. Structure-activity profiling based on this functional response has revealed that in addition to the TA, other biologically active compounds containing a 2-carbon aliphatic side chain linking an amino group to at least 1 benzene ring are potent and efficacious TA receptor agonists with amphetamine (AMPH), methamphetamine, 3-iodothyronamine, thyronamine, and dopamine (DA) among the most notable. Almost 100 years after the search for TAR began, numerous TA1/TAR1-related sequences, now called TA-associated receptors (TAAR), have been identified in the genome of every species of vertebrate examined to date. Consequently, even though heterologously expressed TAAR1 fits the pharmacological criteria established for a bona fide TAR, a major challenge for those working in the field is to discern the in vivo pharmacology and physiology of each purported member of this extended family of GPCR. Only then will it be possible to establish whether TAAR1 is the family archetype or an iconoclast.

  20. Biogenic aerosol over the Amazon Basin

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guyon, P.; Mayol-Bracero, O. L.; Matthias-Maser, S.; Godoi, R. H.; van Grieken, R.; Ebert, M.; Huth, J.; Maenhaut, W.; Taylor, P.; Artaxo, P.; Andreae, M. O.

    2002-12-01

    Biogenic particles form the major component of the atmospheric aerosol above and within the vast Amazonian tropical rainforest under non-polluted "background" conditions. We have employed a variety of different analytical techniques in order to try to better characterise the composition and temporal variation of this aerosol fraction. Microscopic examination reveals that many different types of biological particles are present, including fungal and fern spores, pollen grains, microbes, plant debris and insect parts. These forest-derived particles, and the elements, ions and compounds associated with them, are abundant in both the coarse and fine aerosol fractions, with the highest mass concentrations generally in the coarse fraction. There is a distinct increase in their concentrations at ground level at night. This is probably due to the formation of a shallow nocturnal inversion, which reduces dispersion of the aerosol, whilst convective mixing during the day leads to efficient dilution with air from aloft. Preferential nighttime emission of some types of biogenic particles may also contribute to the observed day-night variation.

  1. Methyl chavicol: characterization of its biogenic emission rate

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bouvier-Brown, N.C.; Goldstein, A.H.; Worton, D.R.; Matross, D.M.; Gilman, J.B.; Kuster, W.C.; Welsh-Bon, D.; Warneke, C.; de Gouw, J.A.; Cahill, M.J.; Holzinger, R.

    2009-01-01

    We report measurements of ambient atmospheric mixing ratios for methyl chavicol and determine its biogenic emission rate. Methyl chavicol, a biogenic oxygenated aromatic compound, is abundant within and above Blodgett Forest, a ponderosa pine forest in the Sierra Nevada Mountains of California. Meth

  2. Flotation of kaolinite with dodecyl tertiary amines

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    CAO Xue-feng; LIU Chang-miao; HU Yue-hua

    2009-01-01

    The flotation of kaolinite using a series of tertiary amines (N,N-dimethyl-dodecyl amine (DRN), N,N-diethyl-dodecyl amine (DEN), N,N-dipropyl-dodecyl amine (DPN) and N,N-dibenzyl-bodecyi amine (DBN)) was investigated. The results show that the maximum recoveries of kaolinite for DEN, DPN and DRN are 93%, 88% and 84%, respectively, but that of DBN is very low. On the basis of zeta potential and FT-IR spectra, the ionization of surface hydroxyl and isomorphic exchange of surface ions account for the charging mechanisms of kaolinite surface. The adsorption mechanism of tertiary amines on kaolinite surface is mainly electrostatic. The isoelectric point (IEP) of kaolinite increases from 3.4 to some more positive points after the interaction of kaolinite with the four tertiary amines. The FT-IR spectra of kaolinite change with the presence of some new sharp shapes belonging to the tertiary amines. The inductive electronic effects and space-steric effects of -CH_3, -C_2H_5, -C_3H_7 and -C_7H_7 bonding to N atom result in different collecting power of the four tertiary amines.

  3. Total balance of biogenic fuels for thermal uses; Ganzheitliche Bilanzierung verschiedener biogener Festbrennstoffe zur thermischen Nutzung

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Becher, S.; Kaltschmitt, M. [Stuttgart Univ. (Germany). Inst. fuer Energiewirtschaft und Rationelle Energieanwendung (IER)

    1996-12-31

    In this situation of unfavourable energy price levels, the use of biogenic fuels for power supply can be recommended only if it serves to reduce environmental pollution. Against this background and on the basis of a primary energy balance, the authors attempted a total balance of selected enfironmental effects (global heating and acidification potential) of biomass use as compared to fossil fuel combustion. (orig) [Deutsch] ie Nutzung biogener Festbrennstoffe zur Energienachfragedeckung ist bei dem gegenwaertigen unguenstigen Energiepreisniveau nur dann zu rechtfertigen, wenn es durch die Biomassenutzung zu einer Reduzierung der energiebedingten Umwelteffekte kommt. Vor disem Hintergrund werden ausgehend von der Primaerenergiebilanz ausgewaehlte Umwelteffekte (d.h. das Treibhaus- und das Versauerungspotential) einer Biomassenutzung im Vergleich zu einer Nutzung fossiler Energietraeger ganzheitlich bilanziert. Die wesentlichen Ergebnisse werden zusammengefasst und interpretiert. (orig)

  4. Biogenic catalysis of soil formation on Mars?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bishop, J. L.

    1998-01-01

    The high iron abundance and the weak ferric iron spectral features of martian surface material are consistent with nanophase (nm-sized) iron oxide minerals as a major source of iron in the bright region soil on Mars. Nanophase iron oxide minerals, such as ferrihydrite and schwertmannite, and nanophase forms of hematite and goethite are formed by both biotic and abiotic processes on Earth. The presence of these minerals on Mars does not indicate biological activity on Mars, but it does raise the possibility. This work includes speculation regarding the possibility of biogenic soils on Mars based on previous observations and analyses. A remote sensing goal of upcoming missions should be to determine if nanophase iron oxide minerals, clay silicates and carbonates are present in the martian surface material. These minerals are important indicators for exobiology and their presence on Mars would invoke a need for further investigation and sample return from these sites.

  5. Development of Solid-State Electrochemiluminescence (ECL Sensor Based on Ru(bpy32+-Encapsulated Silica Nanoparticles for the Detection of Biogenic Polyamines

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anna-Maria Spehar-Délèze

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available A solid state electrochemiluminescence (ECL sensor based on Ru(bpy32+-encapsulated silica nanoparticles (RuNP covalently immobilised on a screen printed carbon electrode has been developed and characterised. RuNPs were synthesised using water-in-oil microemulsion method, amino groups were introduced on their surface, and they were characterised by transmission electron microscopy. Aminated RuNPs were covalently immobilised on activate screen-printed carbon electrodes to form a solid state ECL biosensor. The biosensor surfaces were characterised using electrochemistry and scanning electron microscopy, which showed that aminated nanoparticles formed dense 3D layers on the electrode surface thus allowing immobilisation of high amount of Ru(bpy32+. The developed sensor was used for ECL detection of biogenic polyamines, namely spermine, spermidine, cadaverine and putrescine. The sensor exhibited high sensitivity and stability.

  6. Palladium-catalyzed amination of allyl alcohols.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ghosh, Raju; Sarkar, Amitabha

    2011-10-21

    An efficient catalytic amination of aryl-substituted allylic alcohols has been developed. The complex [(η(3)-allyl)PdCl](2) modified by a bis phosphine ligand, L, has been used as catalyst in the reaction that afforded a wide range of allyl amines in good to excellent yield under mild conditions.

  7. Speaking Personally--with Amin Qazi

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ragan, Lawrence

    2016-01-01

    This article provides an interview with Amin Quazi, the founding chief executive officer of Unizin, a university-owned consortium focused on the emerging digital teaching and learning ecosystem. Amin has a bachelor's degree in chemical engineering from The University of Iowa and a master's degree in business administration from the Carlson School…

  8. Method for the production of primary amines

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Baldenius, Kai-Uwe; Ditrich, Klaus; Breurer, Michael; Navickas, Vaidotas; Janssen, Dick; Crismaru, Ciprian; Bartsch, Sebastian

    2014-01-01

    The present invention relates to a novel enzymatically catalyzed method for the production of aliphatic primary amines, which method comprises the enzymatic oxidation of a primary aliphatic alcohol catalyzed by an alcohol dehydrogenase, amination of the resulting oxocompound catalyzed by a transamin

  9. Thermodynamics of mixtures containing amines

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gonzalez, Juan Antonio [G.E.T.E.F. Dpto Termodinamica y Fisica Aplicada, Facultad de Ciencias, Universidad de Valladolid, Valladolid 47071 (Spain)], E-mail: jagl@termo.uva.es; Mozo, Ismael; Garcia de la Fuente, Isaias; Cobos, Jose Carlos [G.E.T.E.F. Dpto Termodinamica y Fisica Aplicada, Facultad de Ciencias, Universidad de Valladolid, Valladolid 47071 (Spain); Riesco, Nicolas [Department of Chemical Engineering, Loughborough University, Loughborough, LE113TU Leicestershire (United Kingdom)

    2008-01-30

    Mixtures with dimethyl or trimethylpyridines and alkane, aromatic compound or 1-alkanol have been examined using different theories: DISQUAC, Flory, the concentration-concentration structure factor, S{sub CC}(0), or the Kirkwood-Buff formalism. DISQUAC represents fairly well the available experimental data, and improves theoretical calculations from Dortmund UNIFAC. Two important effects have been investigated: (i) the effect of increasing the number of methyl groups attached to the aromatic ring of the amine; (ii) the effect of modifying the position of the methyl groups in this ring. The molar excess enthalpy, H{sup E}, and the molar excess volume, V{sup E}, decrease in systems with alkane or methanol as follows: pyridine > 3-methylpyridine > 3,5-dimethylpyridine and pyridine > 2-methylpyridine > 2,4-dimethylpyridine > 2,4,6-trimethylpyridine, which has been attributed to a weakening of the amine-amine interactions in the same sequences. This is in agreement with the relative variation of the effective dipole moment, {mu}-bar, and of the differences between the boiling temperature of a pyridine base and that of the homomorphic alkane. For heptane solutions, the observed H{sup E} variation, H{sup E} (3,5-dimethylpyridine) > H{sup E} (2,4-dimethylpyridine) > H{sup E} (2,6-dimethylpyridine), is explained similarly. Calculations on the basis of the Flory model confirm that orientational effects become weaker in systems with alkane in the order: pyridine > methylpyridine > dimethylpyridine > trimethylpyridine. S{sub CC}(0) calculations show that steric effects increase with the number of CH{sub 3}- groups in the pyridine base, and that the steric effects exerted by methyl groups in positions 2 and 6 are higher than when they are placed in positions 3 and 5. The hydrogen bond energy in methanol mixtures is independent of the pyridine base, and it is estimated to be -35.2 kJ mol{sup -1}. Heterocoordination in these solutions is due in part to size effects. Their

  10. Origin of organism-dependent biogenic silica quartz formation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sato, Kiminori

    2011-12-15

    Organism-dependent biogenic quartz formation in the steady-state environment is a phenomenon that can address the global environmental issues such as diagenetic evolution, biogeochemical cycling, and reservoir formation, but detailed studies have not been performed so far. Here, steady-state quartz formation is studied for amorphous silica of different biogenic origin on the basis of the recently established mechanistic model [Sato et al., J. Phys. Chem. C 2011, 115, 18131]. Amorphous silica originated from rice husks possesses angstrom-scale pores larger by 1.3 Å than those originated from diatom algae. The slight difference of pore size dramatically reduces activation energies of water diffusion by 78% and reactions of water molecules at pore surfaces by 47%, resulting in the reduction of activation energy of biogenic quartz formation by 64%. The present findings evidence that angstrom-scale pores intrinsically residing in the amorphous matrix are the organism-dependent origin of steady-state biogenic quartz formation.

  11. Quantifying amine permeation sources with acid neutralization: calibrations and amines measured in coastal and continental atmospheres

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    N. A. Freshour

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available An acid titration method for quantifying amine permeation rates was used to calibrate an Ambient pressure Proton transfer Mass Spectrometer (AmPMS that monitors ambient amine compounds. The method involves capturing amines entrained in a N2 flow by bubbling it through an acidified solution (~ 10−5 M HCl, and the amines are quantified via changes in solution pH with time. Home-made permeation tubes had permeation rates (typically tens of pmol s−1 that depended on the type of amine and tubing and on temperature. Calibrations of AmPMS yielded sensitivities for ammonia, methyl amine, dimethyl amine, and trimethyl amine that are close to the sensitivity assuming a gas-kinetic, ion-molecule rate coefficient. The permeation tubes were also designed to deliver a reproducible amount of amine to a flow reactor where nucleation with sulfuric acid was studied. The high proton affinity compound dimethyl sulfoxide (DMSO, linked to oceanic environments, was also studied and AmPMS is highly sensitive to it. AmPMS was deployed recently in two field campaigns and mixing ratios are reported for ammonia, alkyl amines, and DMSO and correlations between these species and with particle formation events are discussed.

  12. Organosulfate formation in biogenic secondary organic aerosol.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Surratt, Jason D; Gómez-González, Yadian; Chan, Arthur W H; Vermeylen, Reinhilde; Shahgholi, Mona; Kleindienst, Tadeusz E; Edney, Edward O; Offenberg, John H; Lewandowski, Michael; Jaoui, Mohammed; Maenhaut, Willy; Claeys, Magda; Flagan, Richard C; Seinfeld, John H

    2008-09-11

    Organosulfates of isoprene, alpha-pinene, and beta-pinene have recently been identified in both laboratory-generated and ambient secondary organic aerosol (SOA). In this study, the mechanism and ubiquity of organosulfate formation in biogenic SOA is investigated by a comprehensive series of laboratory photooxidation (i.e., OH-initiated oxidation) and nighttime oxidation (i.e., NO3-initiated oxidation under dark conditions) experiments using nine monoterpenes (alpha-pinene, beta-pinene, d-limonene, l-limonene, alpha-terpinene, gamma-terpinene, terpinolene, Delta(3)-carene, and beta-phellandrene) and three monoterpenes (alpha-pinene, d-limonene, and l-limonene), respectively. Organosulfates were characterized using liquid chromatographic techniques coupled to electrospray ionization combined with both linear ion trap and high-resolution time-of-flight mass spectrometry. Organosulfates are formed only when monoterpenes are oxidized in the presence of acidified sulfate seed aerosol, a result consistent with prior work. Archived laboratory-generated isoprene SOA and ambient filter samples collected from the southeastern U.S. were reexamined for organosulfates. By comparing the tandem mass spectrometric and accurate mass measurements collected for both the laboratory-generated and ambient aerosol, previously uncharacterized ambient organic aerosol components are found to be organosulfates of isoprene, alpha-pinene, beta-pinene, and limonene-like monoterpenes (e.g., myrcene), demonstrating the ubiquity of organosulfate formation in ambient SOA. Several of the organosulfates of isoprene and of the monoterpenes characterized in this study are ambient tracer compounds for the occurrence of biogenic SOA formation under acidic conditions. Furthermore, the nighttime oxidation experiments conducted under highly acidic conditions reveal a viable mechanism for the formation of previously identified nitrooxy organosulfates found in ambient nighttime aerosol samples. We estimate

  13. On Mineral Retrosynthesis of a Complex Biogenic Scaffold

    OpenAIRE

    Ashit Rao; José L Arias; Helmut Cölfen

    2017-01-01

    Synergistic relations between organic molecules and mineral precursors regulate biogenic mineralization. Given the remarkable material properties of the egg shell as a biogenic ceramic, it serves as an important model to elucidate biomineral growth. With established roles of complex anionic biopolymers and a heterogeneous organic scaffold in egg shell mineralization, the present study explores the regulation over mineralization attained by applying synthetic polymeric counterparts (polyethyle...

  14. Geochemical characteristics and origin of light hydrocarbons in biogenic gas

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2010-01-01

    The light hydrocarbon geochemical characteristics of biogenic gases from Sebei 1 gas field in the Qaidam Basin, Baoshan gas field in the Baoshan Basin and Alaxin gas field, Puqian gas pool, Aonan gas pool in the Songliao Basin are studied and the origin is discussed based on the composition and isotope data of gases. The isoalkane contents among light hydrocarbons in natural gas show a negative relationship with δ13C1 values. The isoalkane contents of the gases with δ13C1 values of less than ?60‰ are also high with more than 40% among light hydrocarbons in Sebei 1 gas field and Puqian gas pool. Moreover, the 2,2-dimethylbutane and 2-methylpentane, mainly sourced from bacteria, have predominance among isoalkanes, which suggests that light hydrocarbons in biogenic gases from these gas fields or pools were probably generated by microbial action. However, the cycloalkane contents among light hydrocarbons in biogenic gas are related to δ13C1 values positively. In Alaxin gas field and Aonan gas pool, where δ13C1 values of biogenic gases are less than ?60‰, the average contents of cycloalkane are higher than 44%. Light hydrocarbons among biogenic gases from these gas fields were probably generated by catalysis. The isoalkane and cycloalkane contents among light hydrocarbons from biogenic gases in the Baoshan gas field are both high, which might be generated by these two actions. The results show that the data of light hydrocarbons in biogenic gas can provide important information for understanding the generation mechanisms of light hydrocarbons during geological evolution and identifying biogenic gas and low mature gas.

  15. Abiotic Reductive Immobilization of U(VI) by Biogenic Mackinawite

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Veeramani, Harish; Scheinost, Andreas; Monsegue, Niven; Qafoku, Nikolla; Kukkadapu, Ravi K.; Newville, Mathew; Lanzirotti, Anthony; Pruden, Amy; Murayama, Mitsuhiro; Hochella, Michael F.

    2013-03-01

    During subsurface bioremediation of uranium-contaminated sites, indigenous metal and sulfate-reducing bacteria may utilize a variety of electron acceptors, including ferric iron and sulfate that could lead to the formation of various biogenic minerals in-situ. Sulfides, as well as structural and adsorbed Fe(II) associated with biogenic Fe(II)-sulfide phases, can potentially catalyze abiotic U6+ reduction via direct electron transfer processes. In the present work, the propensity of biogenic mackinawite (Fe1+xS, x = 0 to 0.11) to reduce U6+ abiotically was investigated. The biogenic mackinawite produced by Shewanella putrefaciens strain CN32 was characterized by employing a suite of analytical techniques including TEM, SEM, XAS and Mössbauer analyses. Nanoscale and bulk analyses (microscopic and spectroscopic techniques, respectively) of biogenic mackinawite after exposure to U6+ indicate the formation of nanoparticulate UO2. This study suggests the relevance of Fe(II) and sulfide bearing biogenic minerals in mediating abiotic U6+ reduction, an alternative pathway in addition to direct enzymatic U6+ reduction.

  16. Determination of the biogenic secondary organic aerosol fraction in the boreal forest by NMR spectroscopy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    E. Finessi

    2012-01-01

    terpenes photo-oxidation. The second NMR factor associated with western air masses was linked to biogenic marine sources, and was enriched in low-molecular weight aliphatic amines. Such findings provide evidence of at least two independent sources originating biogenic organic aerosols in Hyytiälä by oxidation and condensation mechanisms: reactive terpenes emitted by the boreal forest and compounds of marine origin, with the latter relatively more important when predominantly polar air masses reach the site.

    This study is an example of how spectroscopic techniques, such as proton NMR, can add functional group specificity for certain chemical features (like aromatics of OA with respect to AMS. They can therefore be profitably exploited to complement aerosol mass spectrometric measurements in organic source apportionment studies.

  17. Interaction energies of CO2·amine complexes: effects of amine substituents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jorgensen, Kameron R; Cundari, Thomas R; Wilson, Angela K

    2012-10-25

    To focus on the identification of potential alternative amine carbon capture compounds, CO(2) with methyl, silyl, and trifluoromethyl monosubstituted and disubstituted amine compounds were studied. Interaction energies of these CO(2)·amine complexes were determined via two methods: (a) an ab initio composite method, the correlation consistent composite approach (ccCA), to determine interaction energies and (b) density functional theories, B3LYP/aug-cc-pVTZ and B97D/aug-cc-pVTZ. Substituent effects on the interaction energies were examined by interchanging electron donating and electron withdrawing substituents on the amine compounds. The calculations suggested two different binding modes, hydrogen bonding and acid-base interactions, which arise from the modification of the amine substituents, echoing previous work by our group on modeling protein·CO(2) interactions. Recommendations have been noted for the development of improved amine scrubber complexes.

  18. Advance in the synthesis of aromatic amine via direct amination

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2002-01-01

    Arylamines are very common and important organic molecules. Acting as important intermediates in medical and chemical industry, they are widely used in the synthesis of pharmaceuticals, dyes, pesticides, rubber additives, isocyanates and heterocyclic compounds. The traditional methods for the synthesis of arylamines include several steps. The production of aniline, for example, includes the following steps: the production of nitro-benzene by the nitration of benzene, and the reduction of the resulting nitro-benzene by catalytic hydrogenation or other reduction ways[1-6]; or the substitution of phenol or chlorbenzene by amino groups, etc.[7-10]. There are several disadvantages for these methods: low atom utilization, strict operation condition, large amount of by-products and serious environmental pollution, which could not afford for the needs of a sustainable civilization. So there has been growing interest in the direct amination to produce arylamines recently. With the direct methods, the multi- step reaction may change into one step, the atom utilization can be evidently improved, and the by-products H2 or/and H2O are harmless to the environment.

  19. Graphite Oxide and Aromatic Amines : Size Matters

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Spyrou, Konstantinos; Calvaresi, Matteo; Diamanti, Evmorfi A. K.; Tsoufis, Theodoros; Gournis, Dimitrios; Rudolf, Petra; Zerbetto, Francesco

    2015-01-01

    Experimental and theoretical studies are performed in order to illuminate, for first time, the intercalation mechanism of polycyclic aromatic molecules into graphite oxide. Two representative molecules of this family, aniline and naphthalene amine are investigated. After intercalation, aniline molec

  20. Amines as occupational hazards for visual disturbance

    Science.gov (United States)

    JANG, Jae-Kil

    2015-01-01

    Various amines, such as triethylamine and N,N-dimethylethylamine, have been reported to cause glaucopsia in workers employed in epoxy, foundry, and polyurethane foam industries. This symptom has been related to corneal edema and vesicular collection of fluid within the corneal subepithelial cells. Exposure to amine vapors for 30 min to several hours leads to blurring of vision, a blue-grey appearance of objects, and halos around lights, that are probably reversible. Concentration-effect relationships have been established. The visual disturbance is considered a nuisance, as it could cause onsite accidents, impair work efficiency, and create difficulties in driving back home. Occupational exposure limits have been established for some amines, but there is shortage of criteria. Volatility factors, such as vapor pressure, should be considered in industrial settings to prevent human ocular risks, while trying to reduce levels of hazardous amines in the atmosphere. PMID:26538000

  1. Multiple amine oxidases in cucumber seedlings.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Percival, F W; Purves, W K

    1974-10-01

    Cell-free extracts of cucumber (Cucumis sativus L. cv. National Pickling) seedlings were found to have amine oxidase activity when assayed with tryptamine as a substrate. Studies of the effect of lowered pH on the extract indicated that this activity was heterogeneous, and three amine oxidases could be separated by ion exchange chromatography. The partially purified enzymes were tested for their activities with several substrates and for their sensitivities to various amine oxidase inhibitors. One of the enzymes may be a monoamine oxidase, although it is inhibited by some diamine oxidase inhibitors. The other two enzymes have properties more characteristic of the diamine oxidases. The possible relationship of the amine oxidases to indoleacetic acid biosynthesis in cucumber seedlings is discussed.

  2. Aromatic amines sources, environmental impact and remediation

    OpenAIRE

    Pereira, Luciana; Mondal, P. K.; Alves, M. M.

    2015-01-01

    Aromatic amines are widely used industrial chemicals as their major sources in the environment include several chemical industry sectors such as oil refining, synthetic polymers, dyes, adhesives, rubbers, perfume, pharmaceuticals, pesticides and explosives. They result also from diesel exhaust, combustion of wood chips and rubber and tobacco smoke. Some types of aromatic amines are generated during cooking, special grilled meat and fish, as well. The intensive use and production of these comp...

  3. Seasonal trends of biogenic terpene emissions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Helmig, Detlev; Daly, Ryan Woodfin; Milford, Jana; Guenther, Alex

    2013-09-01

    Biogenic volatile organic compound (BVOC) emissions from six coniferous tree species, i.e. Pinus ponderosa (Ponderosa Pine), Picea pungens (Blue Spruce), Pseudotsuga menziesii (Rocky Mountain Douglas Fir) and Pinus longaeva (Bristlecone Pine), as well as from two deciduous species, Quercus gambelii (Gamble Oak) and Betula occidentalis (Western River Birch) were studied over a full annual growing cycle. Monoterpene (MT) and sesquiterpene (SQT) emissions rates were quantified in a total of 1236 individual branch enclosure samples. MT dominated coniferous emissions, producing greater than 95% of BVOC emissions. MT and SQT demonstrated short-term emission dependence with temperature. Two oxygenated MT, 1,8-cineol and piperitone, were both light and temperature dependent. Basal emission rates (BER, normalized to 1000μmolm(-2)s(-1) and 30°C) were generally higher in spring and summer than in winter; MT seasonal BER from the coniferous trees maximized between 1.5 and 6.0μgg(-1)h(-1), while seasonal lows were near 0.1μgg(-1)h(-1). The fractional contribution of individual MT to total emissions was found to fluctuate with season. SQT BER measured from the coniferous trees ranged from temperature dependence in emissions modeling, was not found to exhibit discernible growth season trends. A seasonal correction factor proposed by others in previous work to account for a sinusoidal shaped emission pattern was applied to the data. Varying levels of agreement were found between the data and model results for the different plant species seasonal data sets using this correction. Consequently, the analyses on this extensive data set suggest that it is not feasible to apply a universal seasonal correction factor across different vegetation species. A modeling exercise comparing two case scenarios, (1) without and (2) with consideration of the seasonal changes in emission factors illustrated large deviations when emission factors are applied for other seasons than those in which

  4. Enhancing amine terminals in an amine-deprived collagen matrix.

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    Tiong, William H C

    2008-10-21

    Collagen, though widely used as a core biomaterial in many clinical applications, is often limited by its rapid degradability which prevents full exploitation of its potential in vivo. Polyamidoamine (PAMAM) dendrimer, a highly branched macromolecule, possesses versatile multiterminal amine surface groups that enable them to be tethered to collagen molecules and enhance their potential. In this study, we hypothesized that incorporation of PAMAM dendrimer in a collagen matrix through cross-linking will result in a durable, cross-linked collagen biomaterial with free -NH 2 groups available for further multi-biomolecular tethering. The aim of this study was to assess the physicochemical properties of a G1 PAMAM cross-linked collagen matrix and its cellular sustainability in vitro. Different amounts of G1 PAMAM dendrimer (5 or 10 mg) were integrated into bovine-derived collagen matrices through a cross-linking process, mediated by 5 or 25 mM 1-ethyl-3-(3-dimethylaminopropyl) carbodiimide (EDC) in 5 mM N-hydroxysuccinimide (NHS) and 50 mM 2-morpholinoethane sulfonic acid buffer at pH 5.5. The physicochemical properties of resultant matrices were investigated with scanning electron microscopy (SEM), collagenase degradation assay, differential scanning calorimetry (DSC), Fourier transform infrared (FTIR) spectra, and ninhydrin assay. Cellular sustainability of the matrices was assessed with Alamar Blue assay and SEM. There was no significant difference in cellular behavior between the treated and nontreated groups. However, the benefit of incorporating PAMAM in the cross-linking reaction was limited when higher concentrations of either agent were used. These results confirm the hypothesis that PAMAM dendrimer can be incorporated in the collagen cross-linking process in order to modulate the properties of the resulting cross-linked collagen biomaterial with free -NH 2 groups available for multi-biomolecular tethering.

  5. Chemistry of new particle growth in mixed urban and biogenic emissions – insights from CARES

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Setyan, Ari; Song, Chen; Merkel, M.; Knighton, M.; Onasch, Timothy B.; Canagaratna, M. R.; Worsnop, Douglas R.; Wiedensohler, A.; Shilling, John E.; Zhang, Qi

    2014-07-01

    Regional new particle formation and growth events (NPEs) were observed on most days over the Sacramento and western Sierra foothills area of California in June 2010 during the Carbonaceous Aerosols and Radiative Effect Study (CARES). Simultaneous particle measurements at both the T0 (Sacramento, urban site) and the T1 (Cool, rural site located ~40 km northeast of Sacramento) sites of CARES indicate that the NPEs usually occurred in the morning with the appearance of an ultrafine mode at ~15 nm (in mobility diameter, Dm, measured by a mobility particle size spectrometer operating in the range10-858 nm) followed by the growth of this modal diameter to ~50 nm in the afternoon. These events were generally associated with southwesterly winds bringing urban plumes from Sacramento to the T1 site. The growth rate was on average higher at T0 (7.1±2.7 nm h-1) than at T1 (6.2±2.5 nm h-1), likely due to stronger anthropogenic influences at T0. Using a high-resolution time-of-flight aerosol mass spectrometer (HR-ToF-AMS), we investigated the evolution of the size-resolved chemical composition of new particles at T1. Our results indicate that the growth of new particles was driven primarily by the condensation of oxygenated organic species and, to a lesser extent, ammonium sulfate. New particles appear to be fully neutralized during growth, consistent with high NH3 concentration in the region. Nitrogen-containing organic ions (i.e., CHN+, CH4N+,C2H3N+, and C2HN+) that are indicative of the presence of alkyl-amine species in submicrometer particles enhanced significantly during the NPE days, suggesting that amines might have played a role in these events. Our results also indicate that the bulk composition of the ultrafine mode organics during NPEs was very similar to that of anthropogenically influenced secondary organic aerosol (SOA) observed in transported urban

  6. Multilayered Thin Films from Poly(amido amine)s and DNA

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hujaya, S.D.; Engbersen, J.F.J.; Paulusse, J.M.J.

    2015-01-01

    Dip-coated multilayered thin films of poly(amido amine)s (PAAs) and DNA have been developed to provide surfaces with cell-transfecting capabilities. Three types of PAAs, differing in side chain functional groups, were synthesized and characterized for their properties in forming multilayered structu

  7. Accurate determination of aldehydes in amine catalysts or amines by 2,4-dinitrophenylhydrazine derivatization.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barman, Bhajendra N

    2014-01-31

    Carbonyl compounds, specifically aldehydes, present in amine catalysts or amines are determined by reversed-phase liquid chromatography using ultraviolet detection of their corresponding 2,4-dinitrophenylhydrazones. The primary focus has been to establish optimum conditions for determining aldehydes accurately because these add exposure concerns when the amine catalysts are used to manufacture polyurethane products. Concentrations of aldehydes determined by this method are found to vary with the pH of the aqueous amine solution and the derivatization time, the latter being problematic when the derivatization reaction proceeds slowly and not to completion in neutral and basic media. Accurate determination of aldehydes in amines through derivatization can be carried out at an effective solution pH of about 2 and with derivatization time of 20min. Hydrochloric acid has been used for neutralization of an amine. For complete derivatization, it is essential to protonate all nitrogen atoms in the amine. An approach for the determination of an adequate amount of acid needed for complete derivatization has been described. Several 0.2M buffer solutions varying in pH from 4 to 8 have also been used to make amine solutions for carrying out derivatization of aldehydes. These solutions have effective pHs of 10 or higher and provide much lower aldehyde concentrations compared to their true values. Mechanisms for the formation of 2,4-dinitrophenylhydrazones in both acidic and basic media are discussed.

  8. Reductive Amination of Aldehydes and Ketones with Primary Amines by Using Lithium Amidoborane as Reducing Reagent

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    徐维亮; 郑学丽; 吴国涛; 陈萍

    2012-01-01

    A variety of secondary amines were obtained in high isolated yields in the reductive amination of aldehydes and ketones by using lithium amidoborane as reducing agent. Compared to ammonia borane, lithium amidoborane has higher reducibility, and thus, exhibits faster reaction rate.

  9. Determination of amines based on their interaction with QDs: Effect of the formation QD-assemblies

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Carrillo-Carrion, Carolina; Simonet, Bartolome M. [Department of Analytical Chemistry, University of Cordoba, E-14071 Cordoba (Spain); Valcarcel, Miguel, E-mail: qa1meobj@uco.es [Department of Analytical Chemistry, University of Cordoba, E-14071 Cordoba (Spain)

    2011-10-10

    Highlights: {yields} Formation of quantum dots-nanochains assisted by the covalent linking through bifunctional dithiol molecules. {yields} With time, the extent of chain assembly and network formation became enhanced and interconnectivity between chains was observed. {yields} The optical properties changed as a function of the total length of the structure. {yields} Fluorescence response of QDs towards amines was enhanced after the formation of QD-assemblies induced by the presence of dithiol molecules. - Abstract: Assemblies of closed nanoparticles have focused interest because they exhibit new optical and chemical properties. The use of a 1D covalent strategy for quantum dots-assemblies has been proposed in this work as novelty. It was studied the effect of use different dithiols, including aromatic and aliphatic dithiol compounds, on the formation of QDs-assemblies in order to establish the influence of the linker's structure on the geometry of the assemblies, and hence on their properties. As a second part of the work, the changes on analytical response to analytes thanks to the formation of QDs-assemblies when dithiols are added were studied for firs time. For this study, some biogenic amines were selected as target analytes. We observed an improvement of 2.7-4 times in the sensitivity, expressed as slope of the calibration graph, when the dithiols were added to the system obtaining QDs-assemblies.

  10. Biogenic volatile organic compounds - small is beautiful

    Science.gov (United States)

    Owen, S. M.; Asensio, D.; Li, Q.; Penuelas, J.

    2012-12-01

    While canopy and regional scale flux measurements of biogenic volatile organic compounds (bVOCs) are essential to obtain an integrated picture of total compound reaching the atmosphere, many fascinating and important emission details are waiting to be discovered at smaller scales, in different ecological and functional compartments. We concentrate on bVOCs below ground to allelopathy. A gradient of monoterpene concentration was found in soil around Pinus sylvestris and Pinus halepensis, decreasing with distance from the tree. Some compounds (α-pinene, sabinene, humulene and caryophyllene) in mineral soil were linearly correlated with the total amount of each compound in the overlying litter, indicating that litter might be the dominant source of these compounds. However, α-pinene did not fall within the correlation, indicating a source other than litter, probably root exudates. We also show that rhizosphere bVOCs can be a carbon source for soil microbes. In a horizontal gradient from Populus tremula trees, microbes closest to the tree trunk were better enzymatically equipped to metabolise labeled monoterpene substrate. Monoterpenes can also increase the degradation rate in soil of the persistant organic pollutants, likely acting as analogues for the cometabo-lism of polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) Flowers of a ginger species (Alpinia kwangsiensis) and a fig species (Ficus hispida) showed different bVOC signals pre- and post pollination. For Ficus hispida, there are three floral stages of a fig-wasp dependency mechanism: receptive, post pollinator and interfloral. Of 28 compounds detected, transcaryophyllene with trans-β-farnesene were the most important at the receptor stage, trans-caryophyllene was the most abundant at the post-pollinator stage, and isoprene was the most abundant in the interfloral stage. Alpinia kwangsiensis presents two morphologies for the reproductive parts of the flower. The "anaflexistyle" morphology has the flower style lowered in the

  11. Regulatory roles of biogenic amines and juvenile hormone in the reproductive behavior of the western tarnished plant bug (Lygus hesperus)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mating induces behavioral and physiological changes in the plant bug Lygus hesperus Knight (Hemiptera: Miridae). Males enter a post-mating refractory period, lasting 24 hrs, during which they replenish the contents of their accessory glands and seminal vesicles. Females experience a similar loss of ...

  12. Novel structure--function information on biogenic amine transporters revealed by site-directed mutagenesis and alkylation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reith, Maarten E A

    2013-07-01

    The study reported by Wenge and Bönisch in this issue provides critical structural information regarding extracellular loop 2 (EL2) of the human norepinephrine transporter (NET). A systematic search among all 10 cysteine and 13 histidine residues in NET led to His222 in EL2 as the target for N-ethylmaleimide: its alkylation interferes with [(3)H]nisoxetine binding, indicating the part of EL2 containing His 222 reaches back into the protein interior where it prevents access by nisoxetine to its binding site. Thus, EL2 in human NET does much more than conformationally assisting substrate translocation. The present study underscores the importance of site-directed mutagenesis approaches to elucidate structural features that cannot be deduced from crystals of homolog proteins. In the case of NET, the closest crystal structure is that of the homolog LeuT, but EL2 is difficult to align with 22 less loop residues in LeuT than in NET. The present results could only be achieved by the systematic mutagenesis study of all cysteines and all histidines in NET.

  13. A comparison of experience-dependent locomotory behaviors and biogenic amine neurons in nematode relatives of Caenorhabditis elegans

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sternberg Paul W

    2010-02-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Survival of an animal depends on its ability to match its responses to environmental conditions. To generate an optimal behavioral output, the nervous system must process sensory information and generate a directed motor output in response to stimuli. The nervous system should also store information about experiences to use in the future. The diverse group of free-living nematodes provides an excellent system to study macro- and microevolution of molecular, morphological and behavioral character states associated with such nervous system function. We asked whether an adaptive behavior would vary among bacterivorous nematodes and whether differences in the neurotransmitter systems known to regulate the behavior in one species would reflect differences seen in the adaptive behavior among those species. Caenorhabditis elegans worms slow in the presence of food; this 'basal' slowing is triggered by dopaminergic mechanosensory neurons that detect bacteria. Starved worms slow more dramatically; this 'enhanced' slowing is regulated by serotonin. Results We examined seven nematode species with known phylogenetic relationship to C. elegans for locomotory behaviors modulated by food (E. coli, and by the worm's recent history of feeding (being well-fed or starved. We found that locomotory behavior in some species was modulated by food and recent feeding experience in a manner similar to C. elegans, but not all the species tested exhibited these food-modulated behaviors. We also found that some worms had different responses to bacteria other than E. coli. Using histochemical and immunological staining, we found that dopaminergic neurons were very similar among all species. For instance, we saw likely homologs of four bilateral pairs of dopaminergic cephalic and deirid neurons known from C. elegans in all seven species examined. In contrast, there was greater variation in the patterns of serotonergic neurons. The presence of presumptive homologs of dopaminergic and serotonergic neurons in a given species did not correlate with the observed differences in locomotory behaviors. Conclusions This study demonstrates that behaviors can differ significantly between species that appear morphologically very similar, and therefore it is important to consider factors, such as ecology of a species in the wild, when formulating hypotheses about the adaptive significance of a behavior. Our results suggest that evolutionary changes in locomotory behaviors are less likely to be caused by changes in neurotransmitter expression of neurons. Such changes could be caused either by subtle changes in neural circuitry or in the function of the signal transduction pathways mediating these behaviors.

  14. Alteration of amino acid and biogenic amine metabolism in hepatobiliary cancers : Findings from a prospective cohort study

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Stepien, Magdalena; Duarte-Salles, Talita; Fedirko, Veronika; Floegel, Anne; Barupal, Dinesh Kumar; Rinaldi, Sabina; Achaintre, David; Assi, Nada; Tjønneland, Anne; Overvad, Kim; Bastide, Nadia; Boutron-Ruault, Marie Christine; Severi, Gianluca; Kühn, Tilman; Kaaks, Rudolf; Aleksandrova, Krasimira; Boeing, Heiner; Trichopoulou, Antonia; Bamia, Christina; Lagiou, Pagona; Saieva, Calogero; Agnoli, Claudia; Panico, Salvatore; Tumino, Rosario; Naccarati, Alessio; Bueno-de-Mesquita, H. B.; Peeters, Petra H.; Weiderpass, Elisabete; Quirós, J. Ramón; Agudo, Antonio; Sánchez, María José; Dorronsoro, Miren; Gavrila, Diana; Barricarte, Aurelio; Ohlsson, Bodil; Sjöberg, Klas; Werner, Mårten; Sund, Malin; Wareham, Nick; Khaw, Kay Tee; Travis, Ruth C.; Schmidt, Julie A.; Gunter, Marc; Cross, Amanda; Vineis, Paolo; Romieu, Isabelle; Scalbert, Augustin; Jenab, Mazda

    2016-01-01

    Perturbations in levels of amino acids (AA) and their derivatives are observed in hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC). Yet, it is unclear whether these alterations precede or are a consequence of the disease, nor whether they pertain to anatomically related cancers of the intrahepatic bile duct (IHBC), a

  15. CCN activity of aliphatic amine secondary aerosol

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    X. Tang

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Aliphatic amines can form secondary aerosol via oxidation with atmospheric radicals (e.g. hydroxyl radical and nitrate radical. The particle composition can contain both secondary organic aerosol (SOA and inorganic salts. The fraction of organic to inorganic materials in the particulate phase influences aerosol hygroscopicity and cloud condensation nuclei (CCN activity. SOA formed from trimethylamine (TMA and butylamine (BA reactions with hydroxyl radical (OH is composed of organic material of low hygroscopicity (single hygroscopicity parameter, κ ≤ 0.25. Secondary aerosol formed from the tertiary aliphatic amine (TMA with N2O5 (source of nitrate radical, NO3, contains less volatile compounds than the primary aliphatic amine (BA aerosol. TMA + N2O5 form semi-volatile organics in low RH conditions that have κ ~ 0.20, indicative of slightly soluble organic material. As RH increases, several inorganic amine salts are formed as a result of acid-base reactions. The CCN activity of the humid TMA-N2O5 aerosol obeys Zdanovskii, Stokes, and Robinson (ZSR ideal mixing rules. Higher CCN activity (κ > 0.3 was also observed for humid BA+N2O5 aerosols compared with dry aerosol (κ ~ 0.2, as a result of the formation of inorganic salts such as NH4NO3 and butylamine nitrate (C4H11N · HNO3. Compared with TMA, BA+N2O5 reactions produce more volatile aerosols. The BA+N2O5 aerosol products under humid experiments were found to be very sensitive to the temperature within the stream-wise continuous flow thermal gradient CCN counter. The CCN counter, when set above a 21 °C temperature difference, evaporates BA+N2O5 aerosol formed at RH ≥ 30%; κ ranges from 0.4 to 0.7 and is dependent on the instrument supersaturation (ss settings. The aerosol behaves non-ideally, hence simple ZSR rules cannot be applied to the CCN results from the primary aliphatic amine system. Overall, aliphatic amine aerosol systems κ ranges from 0.2 < κ < 0.7. This work indicates that

  16. Brain-specific overexpression of trace amine-associated receptor 1 alters monoaminergic neurotransmission and decreases sensitivity to amphetamine.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Revel, Florent G; Meyer, Claas A; Bradaia, Amyaouch; Jeanneau, Karine; Calcagno, Eleonora; André, Cédric B; Haenggi, Markus; Miss, Marie-Thérèse; Galley, Guido; Norcross, Roger D; Invernizzi, Roberto W; Wettstein, Joseph G; Moreau, Jean-Luc; Hoener, Marius C

    2012-11-01

    Trace amines (TAs) such as β-phenylethylamine, p-tyramine, or tryptamine are biogenic amines found in the brain at low concentrations that have been implicated in various neuropsychiatric disorders like schizophrenia, depression, or attention deficit hyperactivity disorder. TAs are ligands for the recently identified trace amine-associated receptor 1 (TAAR1), an important modulator of monoamine neurotransmission. Here, we sought to investigate the consequences of TAAR1 hypersignaling by generating a transgenic mouse line overexpressing Taar1 specifically in neurons. Taar1 transgenic mice did not show overt behavioral abnormalities under baseline conditions, despite augmented extracellular levels of dopamine and noradrenaline in the accumbens nucleus (Acb) and of serotonin in the medial prefrontal cortex. In vitro, this was correlated with an elevated spontaneous firing rate of monoaminergic neurons in the ventral tegmental area, dorsal raphe nucleus, and locus coeruleus as the result of ectopic TAAR1 expression. Furthermore, Taar1 transgenic mice were hyposensitive to the psychostimulant effects of amphetamine, as it produced only a weak locomotor activation and failed to alter catecholamine release in the Acb. Attenuating TAAR1 activity with the selective partial agonist RO5073012 restored the stimulating effects of amphetamine on locomotion. Overall, these data show that Taar1 brain overexpression causes hyposensitivity to amphetamine and alterations of monoaminergic neurotransmission. These observations confirm the modulatory role of TAAR1 on monoamine activity and suggest that in vivo the receptor is either constitutively active and/or tonically activated by ambient levels of endogenous agonist(s).

  17. Amine permeation sources characterized with acid neutralization and sensitivities of an amine mass spectrometer

    Science.gov (United States)

    Freshour, N. A.; Carlson, K. K.; Melka, Y. A.; Hinz, S.; Panta, B.; Hanson, D. R.

    2014-10-01

    An acid titration method for quantifying amine permeation rates was used to calibrate an Ambient pressure Proton transfer Mass Spectrometer (AmPMS) that monitors ambient amine compounds. The method involves capturing amines entrained in a N2 flow by bubbling it through an acidified solution (~10-5 M HCl), and the amines are quantified via changes in solution pH with time. Home-made permeation tubes had permeation rates (typically tens of pmol s-1) that depended on the type of amine and tubing and on temperature. Calibrations of AmPMS yielded sensitivities for ammonia, methylamine, dimethylamine, and trimethylamine that are close to the sensitivity assuming a gas-kinetic, ion-molecule rate coefficient. The permeation tubes were also designed to deliver a reproducible amount of amine to a flow reactor where nucleation with sulfuric acid was studied. The high proton affinity compound dimethyl sulfoxide (DMSO), linked to oceanic environments, was also studied and AmPMS is highly sensitive to it. AmPMS was deployed recently in two field campaigns and, using these sensitivities, mixing ratios for ammonia and the alkyl amines are derived from the signals. Correlations between these species and with particle formation events are discussed.

  18. Biogenic gases in tropical floodplain river

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maria Victória Ramos Ballester

    2001-06-01

    Full Text Available Analysis of the distribution of biogenic gases in the floodplain of the Mogi-Guaçu River (São Paulo, Brazil enabled the establishment of a "redox hierarchy", in which the main channel was the most oxidizing environment, followed by Diogo Lake, with Infernão Lake having the most reducing conditions of the subsystems evaluated. Diogo Lake exported about 853.4 g C.m-2.year-1, of which, 14.6% was generated from methanogenesis and 36.7% by aerobic respiration. For Infernão Lake, these values were 2016 g C.m-2.year-1, 1.8 % and 41.5 %, respectively. Carbon export by these systems was predominantly in the form of CO2, which was responsible for the release of 728.78 g C.m-2.year-1 at Diogo Lake and 1979.72 g C.m-2. year-1 at Infernão Lake. Such patterns may result from the nature of the hydrological conditions, the action of the hydroperiod, and morphological characteristics of the environment.A análise da distribuição de gases biogênicos na planície de inundação do Rio Mogi Guaçu (São Paulo, Brasil possibilitou o estabelecimento de um gradiente redox para os sistemas aquáticos avaliados, em que o canal principal do rio apresentou-se como o ambiente mais oxidado, seguido da Lagoa do Diogo, e a Lagoa do Infernão apresentando as condições mais redutoras entre os ambientes em questão. A Lagoa do Diogo exporta um total de 853,4 g C.m-2.ano-1, do qual 14,6% é produzido pela metanogênese e 36,7% pela respiração aeróbia. Para a Lagoa do Infernão estes valores foram respectivamente de 2.016 g C.m-2.ano-1, 1,8% e de 41,5%. A exportação de carbono por estes sistemas é realizada, predominantemente na forma de CO2, nos valores de 728,78 g C.m-2.ano-1 para a Lagoa do Diogo e 1.979,72 g C.m-2.ano-1 para a Lagoa do Infernão. Estes padrões parecem estar relacionados com a natureza das condições hidrológicas, com a ação do hidroperíodo e com as características morfológicas do ambiente.

  19. Interaction between hypocrellin and aliphatic amines

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    张曼华; 陈申; 夏万林; 蒋丽金; 陈德文

    1996-01-01

    The interaction of hypocrellin, including hypocrellin A (HA) and hypocrellin B (HB), with aliphatic amines in deaerated solutions has been studied by ESR and nanosecond transient absorption spectra. In polar solvents, the acid-base interaction between hypocrellin and amines was observed without irradiation. The signals of semiquinone radical anions of hypocrellm and the spin-trapping adduct of α-phenyl-N-tertbutyl-ratrone (PNB) with the aminoalkyl radicals have been detected in photoinduced ESR studies. The transient absorption of excited triplet state of HA and semiquinone radical anion of HA have been observed in laser flash photolysis studies.

  20. Use of biogenic sulfide for ZnS precipitation

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Esposito, G.; Veeken, A.; Weijma, J.; Lens, P.N.L.

    2006-01-01

    A 600 ml continuously stirred tank reactor was used to assess the performance of a zinc sulfide precipitation process using a biogenic sulfide solution (the effluent of a sulfate-reducing bioreactor) as sulfide source. In all experiments, a proportional-integral (PI) control algorithm was used to co

  1. Biogenic and synthetic high magnesium calcite - a review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Long, Xia; Ma, Yurong; Qi, Limin

    2014-01-01

    Systematic studies on the Mg distributions, the crystal orientations, the formation mechanisms and the mechanical properties of biogenic high-Mg calcites in different marine organisms were summarized in detail in this review. The high-Mg calcites in the hard tissues of marine organisms mentioned generally own a few common features as follows. Firstly, the Mg distribution is not uniform in most of the minerals. Secondly, high-Mg calcite biominerals are usually composed of nanoparticles that own almost the same crystallographic orientations and thus they behave like single crystals or mesocrystals. Thirdly, the formation of thermodynamically unstable high-Mg calcites in marine organisms under mild conditions is affected by three key factors, that is, the formation of amorphous calcium (magnesium) carbonate precursor, the control of polymorph via biomolecules and the high Mg/Ca ratios in modern sea. Lastly, the existence of Mg ions in the Mg-containing calcite may improve the mechanical properties of biogenic minerals. Furthermore, the key progress in the synthesis of high-Mg calcites in the laboratory based on the formation mechanisms of the biogenic high-Mg calcites was reviewed. Many researchers have realized the synthesis of high-Mg calcites in the laboratory under ambient conditions with the help of intermediate amorphous phase, mixed solvents, organic/inorganic surfaces and soluble additives. Studies on the structural analysis and formation mechanisms of thermodynamically unstable biogenic high-Mg calcite minerals may shed light on the preparation of functional materials with enhanced mechanical properties.

  2. Enantioselective catalytic syntheses of alpha-branched chiral amines

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Brase, S.; Baumann, T.; Dahmen, S.

    2007-01-01

    Chiral amines play a pivotal role in fine chemical and natural product syntheses and the design of novel materials.......Chiral amines play a pivotal role in fine chemical and natural product syntheses and the design of novel materials....

  3. Tertiary amines nucleophilicity in quaternization reaction with benzyl chloride

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ksenia S. Yutilova

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available Quaternization reaction of tertiary amines with benzyl chloride was investigated. Reaction orders with respect to the reactants were determined. Kinetic scheme of quaternization reaction was found to be corresponding to reversible process. An influence of amines basicity and steric factor of alkyl substituent bound to the nitrogen atom on tertiary amines reactivity as nucleophiles was studied. It was shown that the rate constants of direct reaction step may serve as a measure of nucleophilicity of amines.

  4. Modeling biogenic and anthropogenic secondary organic aerosol in China

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hu, Jianlin; Wang, Peng; Ying, Qi; Zhang, Hongliang; Chen, Jianjun; Ge, Xinlei; Li, Xinghua; Jiang, Jingkun; Wang, Shuxiao; Zhang, Jie; Zhao, Yu; Zhang, Yingyi

    2017-01-01

    A revised Community Multi-scale Air Quality (CMAQ) model with updated secondary organic aerosol (SOA) yields and a more detailed description of SOA formation from isoprene oxidation was applied to study the spatial and temporal distribution of SOA in China in the entire year of 2013. Predicted organic carbon (OC), elemental carbon and volatile organic compounds agreed favorably with observations at several urban areas, although the high OC concentrations in wintertime in Beijing were under-predicted. Predicted summer SOA was generally higher (10-15 µg m-3) due to large contributions of isoprene (country average, 61 %), although the relative importance varies in different regions. Winter SOA was slightly lower and was mostly due to emissions of alkane and aromatic compounds (51 %). Contributions of monoterpene SOA was relatively constant (8-10 %). Overall, biogenic SOA accounted for approximately 75 % of total SOA in summer, 50-60 % in autumn and spring, and 24 % in winter. The Sichuan Basin had the highest predicted SOA concentrations in the country in all seasons, with hourly concentrations up to 50 µg m-3. Approximately half of the SOA in all seasons was due to the traditional equilibrium partitioning of semivolatile components followed by oligomerization, while the remaining SOA was mainly due to reactive surface uptake of isoprene epoxide (5-14 %), glyoxal (14-25 %) and methylglyoxal (23-28 %). Sensitivity analyses showed that formation of SOA from biogenic emissions was significantly enhanced due to anthropogenic emissions. Removing all anthropogenic emissions while keeping the biogenic emissions unchanged led to total SOA concentrations of less than 1 µg m-3, which suggests that manmade emissions facilitated biogenic SOA formation and controlling anthropogenic emissions would result in reduction of both anthropogenic and biogenic SOA.

  5. Utilisation of biogenic waste through hydrothermal carbonisation; Nutzung biogener Reststoffe mit hydrothermaler Carbonisierung

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Badoux, Francois [AVA-CO2, Zug (Switzerland)

    2011-03-15

    If deployed properly, biogenic residues and biomass, which could not be used for food production, may serve as a valuable resource, too. The preferred method to do so profitably is hydrothermal carbonization (HTC). The Swiss company AVA-CO2 brought this process to industrial maturity and recently presented an HTC plant in Karlsruhe. Research partner is the Karlsruhe Institute of Technology (KIT). The HTC method processes various types of wet and dry biomass into CO{sub 2}-neutral biocoal with high calorific value or biochar for soil improvement. The process, running at a pressure of 22-25 bar and temperatures of 210-220 C, is robust and exothermic. The industrial-size demonstration plant features a 14-cubic-meter reactor and processes up to 8,400 tons of biomass per year. A typical plant for the industry will consist of 6 to 12 reactors, and thus have an annual capacity of 50,000 up to 100,000 tons of biomass. Thanks to the modular principle, a plant can at any time be increased to any desired capacity level. The HTC plant developed by AVA-CO2 is reliable and can be seamlessly integrated into a client's continuous production processes. (orig.)

  6. Catalytic Amination of Alcohols, Aldehydes, and Ketones

    Science.gov (United States)

    Klyuev, M. V.; Khidekel', M. L.

    1980-01-01

    Data on the catalytic amination of alcohols and carbonyl compounds are examined, the catalysts for these processes are described, and the problems of their effectiveness, selectivity, and stability are discussed. The possible mechanisms of the reactions indicated are presented. The bibliography includes 266 references.

  7. Fate and biodegradability of sulfonated aromatic amines

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Tan, N.C.G.; Leeuwen, van A.; Voorthuizen, van E.M.; Slenders, P.; Prenafeta, F.X.; Temmink, H.; Lettinga, G.; Field, J.A.

    2005-01-01

    Ten sulfonated aromatic amines were tested for their aerobic and anaerobic biodegradability and toxicity potential in a variety of environmental inocula. Of all the compounds tested, only two aminobenzenesulfonic acid (ABS) isomers, 2- and 4-ABS, were degraded. The observed degradation occurred only

  8. Probing tRNA interaction with biogenic polyamines.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ouameur, Amin Ahmed; Bourassa, Philippe; Tajmir-Riahi, Heidar-Ali

    2010-10-01

    Biogenic polyamines are found to modulate protein synthesis at different levels. This effect may be explained by the ability of polyamines to bind and influence the secondary structure of tRNA, mRNA, and rRNA. We report the interaction between tRNA and the three biogenic polyamines putrescine, spermidine, spermine, and cobalt(III)hexamine at physiological conditions, using FTIR spectroscopy, capillary electrophoresis, and molecular modeling. The results indicated that tRNA was stabilized at low biogenic polyamine concentration, as a consequence of polyamine interaction with the backbone phosphate group. The main tRNA reactive sites for biogenic polyamine at low concentration were guanine-N7/O6, uracil-O2/O4, adenine-N3, and 2'OH of the ribose. At high polyamine concentration, the interaction involves guanine-N7/O6, adenine-N7, uracil-O2 reactive sites, and the backbone phosphate group. The participation of the polycation primary amino group, in the interaction and the presence of the hydrophobic contact, are also shown. The binding affinity of biogenic polyamine to tRNA molecule was in the order of spermine > spermidine > putrescine with K(Spm) = 8.7 × 10(5) M(-1), K(Spd) = 6.1 × 10(5) M(-1), and K(Put) = 1.0 × 10(5) M(-1), which correlates with their positively charged amino group content. Hill analysis showed positive cooperativity for the biogenic polyamines and negative cooperativity for cobalt-hexamine. Cobalt(III)hexamine contains high- and low-affinity sites in tRNA with K(1) = 3.2 × 10(5) M(-1) and K(2) = 1.7 × 10(5) M(-1), that have been attributed to the interactions with guanine-N7 sites and the backbone PO(2) group, respectively. This mechanism of tRNA binding could explain the condensation phenomenon observed at high Co(III) content, as previously shown in the Co(III)-DNA complexes.

  9. CCN activity of aliphatic amine secondary aerosol

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tang, X.; Price, D.; Praske, E.; Vu, D.; Purvis-Roberts, K.; Silva, P. J.; Cocker, D. R., III; Asa-Awuku, A.

    2014-01-01

    Aliphatic amines can form secondary aerosol via oxidation with atmospheric radicals (e.g. hydroxyl radical and nitrate radical). The particle composition can contain both secondary organic aerosol (SOA) and inorganic salts. The fraction of organic to inorganic materials in the particulate phase influences aerosol hygroscopicity and cloud condensation nuclei (CCN) activity. SOA formed from trimethylamine (TMA) and butylamine (BA) reactions with hydroxyl radical (OH) is composed of organic material of low hygroscopicity (single hygroscopicity parameter, κ ≤ 0.25). Secondary aerosol formed from the tertiary aliphatic amine (TMA) with N2O5 (source of nitrate radical, NO3), contains less volatile compounds than the primary aliphatic amine (BA) aerosol. TMA + N2O5 form semi-volatile organics in low RH conditions that have κ ~ 0.20, indicative of slightly soluble organic material. As RH increases, several inorganic amine salts are formed as a result of acid-base reactions. The CCN activity of the humid TMA-N2O5 aerosol obeys Zdanovskii, Stokes, and Robinson (ZSR) ideal mixing rules. Higher CCN activity (κ > 0.3) was also observed for humid BA+N2O5 aerosols compared with dry aerosol (κ ~ 0.2), as a result of the formation of inorganic salts such as NH4NO3 and butylamine nitrate (C4H11N · HNO3). Compared with TMA, BA+N2O5 reactions produce more volatile aerosols. The BA+N2O5 aerosol products under humid experiments were found to be very sensitive to the temperature within the stream-wise continuous flow thermal gradient CCN counter. The CCN counter, when set above a 21 °C temperature difference, evaporates BA+N2O5 aerosol formed at RH ≥ 30%; κ ranges from 0.4 to 0.7 and is dependent on the instrument supersaturation (ss) settings. The aerosol behaves non-ideally, hence simple ZSR rules cannot be applied to the CCN results from the primary aliphatic amine system. Overall, aliphatic amine aerosol systems κ ranges from 0.2 systems.

  10. Development of a general non-noble metal catalyst for the benign amination of alcohols with amines and ammonia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cui, Xinjiang; Dai, Xingchao; Deng, Youquan; Shi, Feng

    2013-03-11

    The N-alkylation of amines or ammonia with alcohols is a valuable route for the synthesis of N-alkyl amines. However, as a potentially clean and economic choice for N-alkyl amine synthesis, non-noble metal catalysts with high activity and good selectivity are rarely reported. Normally, they are severely limited due to low activity and poor generality. Herein, a simple NiCuFeOx catalyst was designed and prepared for the N-alkylation of ammonia or amines with alcohol or primary amines. N-alkyl amines with various structures were successfully synthesized in moderate to excellent yields in the absence of organic ligands and bases. Typically, primary amines could be efficiently transformed into secondary amines and N-heterocyclic compounds, and secondary amines could be N-alkylated to synthesize tertiary amines. Note that primary and secondary amines could be produced through a one-pot reaction of ammonia and alcohols. In addition to excellent catalytic performance, the catalyst itself possesses outstanding superiority, that is, it is air and moisture stable. Moreover, the magnetic property of this catalyst makes it easily separable from the reaction mixture and it could be recovered and reused for several runs without obvious deactivation.

  11. Ocean acidification can mediate biodiversity shifts by changing biogenic habitat

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sunday, Jennifer M.; Fabricius, Katharina E.; Kroeker, Kristy J.; Anderson, Kathryn M.; Brown, Norah E.; Barry, James P.; Connell, Sean D.; Dupont, Sam; Gaylord, Brian; Hall-Spencer, Jason M.; Klinger, Terrie; Milazzo, Marco; Munday, Philip L.; Russell, Bayden D.; Sanford, Eric; Thiyagarajan, Vengatesen; Vaughan, Megan L. H.; Widdicombe, Stephen; Harley, Christopher D. G.

    2017-01-01

    The effects of ocean acidification (OA) on the structure and complexity of coastal marine biogenic habitat have been broadly overlooked. Here we explore how declining pH and carbonate saturation may affect the structural complexity of four major biogenic habitats. Our analyses predict that indirect effects driven by OA on habitat-forming organisms could lead to lower species diversity in coral reefs, mussel beds and some macroalgal habitats, but increases in seagrass and other macroalgal habitats. Available in situ data support the prediction of decreased biodiversity in coral reefs, but not the prediction of seagrass bed gains. Thus, OA-driven habitat loss may exacerbate the direct negative effects of OA on coastal biodiversity; however, we lack evidence of the predicted biodiversity increase in systems where habitat-forming species could benefit from acidification. Overall, a combination of direct effects and community-mediated indirect effects will drive changes in the extent and structural complexity of biogenic habitat, which will have important ecosystem effects.

  12. On Mineral Retrosynthesis of a Complex Biogenic Scaffold

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ashit Rao

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available Synergistic relations between organic molecules and mineral precursors regulate biogenic mineralization. Given the remarkable material properties of the egg shell as a biogenic ceramic, it serves as an important model to elucidate biomineral growth. With established roles of complex anionic biopolymers and a heterogeneous organic scaffold in egg shell mineralization, the present study explores the regulation over mineralization attained by applying synthetic polymeric counterparts (polyethylene glycol, poly(acrylic acid, poly(aspartic acid and poly(4-styrenesulfonic acid-co-maleic acid as additives during remineralization of decalcified eggshell membranes. By applying Mg2+ ions as a co-additive species, mineral retrosynthesis is achieved in a manner that modulates the polymorph and structure of mineral products. Notable features of the mineralization process include distinct local wettability of the biogenic organic scaffold by mineral precursors and mineralization-induced membrane actuation. Overall, the form, structure and polymorph of the mineralization products are synergistically affected by the additive and the content of Mg2+ ions. We also revisit the physicochemical nature of the biomineral scaffold and demonstrate the distinct spatial distribution of anionic biomolecules associated with the scaffold-mineral interface, as well as highlight the hydrogel-like properties of mammillae-associated macromolecules.

  13. BAECC Biogenic Aerosols - Effects on Clouds and Climate

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Petäjä, Tuukka [Univ. of Helsinki (Finland); Moisseev, Dmitri [Univ. of Helsinki (Finland); Sinclair, Victoria [Univ. of Helsinki (Finland); O' Connor, Ewan J. [Finnish Meteorological Institute, Helsinki (Finland); Manninen, Antti J. [Univ. of Helsinki (Finland); Levula, Janne [Univ. of Helsinki (Finland); Väänänen, Riikka [Univ. of Helsinki (Finland); Heikkinen, Liine [Univ. of Helsinki (Finland); Äijälä, Mikko [Univ. of Helsinki (Finland); Aalto, Juho [Univ. of Helsinki (Finland); Bäck, Jaana [University of Helsinki, Finland

    2015-11-01

    Biogenic Aerosols - Effects on Clouds and Climate (BAECC)”, featured the U.S. Department of Energy’s Atmospheric Radiation Measurement (ARM) Program’s 2nd Mobile Facility (AMF2) in Hyytiälä, Finland. It operated for an 8-month intensive measurement campaign from February to September 2014. The main research goal was to understand the role of biogenic aerosols in cloud formation. One of the reasons to perform BAECC study in Hyytiälä was the fact that it hosts SMEAR-II (Station for Measuring Forest Ecosystem-Atmosphere Relations), which is one of the world’s most comprehensive surface in-situ observation sites in a boreal forest environment. The station has been measuring atmospheric aerosols, biogenic emissions and an extensive suite of parameters relevant to atmosphere-biosphere interactions continuously since 1996. The BAECC enables combining vertical profiles from AMF2 with surface-based in-situ SMEAR-II observations and allows the processes at the surface to be directly related to processes occurring throughout the entire tropospheric column. With the inclusion of extensive surface precipitation measurements, and intensive observation periods involving aircraft flights and novel radiosonde launches, the complementary observations of AMF2 and SMEAR-II provide a unique opportunity for investigating aerosol-cloud interactions, and cloud-to-precipitation processes. The BAECC dataset will initiate new opportunities for evaluating and improving models of aerosol sources and transport, cloud microphysical processes, and boundary-layer structures.

  14. Catalytic dehydrogenation of amine borane complexes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mohajeri, Nahid (Inventor); Tabatabaie-Raissi, Ali (Inventor); Bokerman, Gary (Inventor)

    2009-01-01

    A method of generating hydrogen includes the steps of providing an amine borane (AB) complex, at least one hydrogen generation catalyst, and a solvent, and mixing these components Hydrogen is generated. The hydrogen produced is high purity hydrogen suitable for PEM fuel cells. A hydrolytic in-situ hydrogen generator includes a first compartment that contains an amine borane (AB) complex, a second container including at least one hydrogen generation catalyst, wherein the first or second compartment includes water or other hydroxyl group containing solvent. A connecting network permits mixing contents in the first compartment with contents in the second compartment, wherein high purity hydrogen is generated upon mixing. At least one flow controller is provided for controlling a flow rate of the catalyst or AB complex.

  15. Organic chemistry. Strain-release amination.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gianatassio, Ryan; Lopchuk, Justin M; Wang, Jie; Pan, Chung-Mao; Malins, Lara R; Prieto, Liher; Brandt, Thomas A; Collins, Michael R; Gallego, Gary M; Sach, Neal W; Spangler, Jillian E; Zhu, Huichin; Zhu, Jinjiang; Baran, Phil S

    2016-01-15

    To optimize drug candidates, modern medicinal chemists are increasingly turning to an unconventional structural motif: small, strained ring systems. However, the difficulty of introducing substituents such as bicyclo[1.1.1]pentanes, azetidines, or cyclobutanes often outweighs the challenge of synthesizing the parent scaffold itself. Thus, there is an urgent need for general methods to rapidly and directly append such groups onto core scaffolds. Here we report a general strategy to harness the embedded potential energy of effectively spring-loaded C-C and C-N bonds with the most oft-encountered nucleophiles in pharmaceutical chemistry, amines. Strain-release amination can diversify a range of substrates with a multitude of desirable bioisosteres at both the early and late stages of a synthesis. The technique has also been applied to peptide labeling and bioconjugation.

  16. Sonophotocatalytic Degradation of Amines in Water

    Science.gov (United States)

    Verman, Mayank; Pankaj

    Hazardous effects of various amines, produced in the environment from the partial degradation of azo dyes and amino acids, adversely affect the quality of human life through water, soil and air pollution and therefore needed to be degraded. A number of such studies are already available in the literature, with or without the use of ultrasound, which have been summarized briefly. The sonochemical degradation of amines and in the combination with a photocatalyst, TiO2 has also been discussed. Similar such degradation studies for ethylamine (EA), aniline (A), diphenylamine (DPA) and naphthylamine (NA) in the presence of ultrasound, TiO2 and rare earths (REs); La, Pr, Nd, Sm and Gd, in aqueous solutions at 20 kHz and 250 W power have been carried out and reported, to examine the combinatorial efficacy of ultrasound in the presence of a photocatalyst and rare earth ions with reactive f-electrons.

  17. Amine chemistry. Update on impact on resin

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bachman, Gregory; Kellogg, Douglas [Siemens Industry, Inc., Rockford, IL (United States). Technology and Lab Services; Wilkes, Marty [Siemens Industry, Inc., Rockford, IL (United States). Water Technologies Div.

    2012-03-15

    Impurity removal in the steam cycle and the associated prevention of corrosion and/or fouling of system components are the goals of ion exchange resins. However, in many instances (such as a switch to amine chemistry or a change in product specifications), resins do not remove, and, in fact, contribute impurities to the steam cycle. This paper reviews recent data compiled to determine the direct and indirect effects of amines on ion exchange resins used in the power industry. Water chemistries have improved in recent years, in large part due to changes in chemistry and resins, but it is necessary to continue to develop products, processes and techniques to reduce impurities and improve overall water chemistry in power plant systems. (orig.)

  18. O—Maltosylation of Heterocyclic Ketene Aminals

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    徐占辉; 黄志镗

    2002-01-01

    The stereoselective synthesis of O-maltosides by reacting benzoyl-substituted heterocyclic ketene aminals 1 or 2 with acetylated maltosyl bromide 3 was investigated.Compounds 1 or 2 reacted with 3 in the presence of mercuric cyanide to give O-maltosides 4 or 5 with E-configuration.While 1 reacted with 3 in the presence of calcium hydride to give O-maltosides 6 with Zconfiguration.

  19. O-Maltosylation of Heterocyclic Ketene Aminals

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    XU,Zhan-Hui(徐占辉); HUANG,Zhi-Tang(黄志镗)

    2002-01-01

    The stereoselective synthesis of O-maltosides by reacting benzoyl-substituted heterocyclic ketene aminals 1 or 2 with acetylated maltosyl bromide 3 was investigated. Compounds 1 or 2 reacted with 3 in the presence of mercuric cyanide to give O-maltosides 4 or 5 with E-configuration. While 1 reacted with 3 in the presence of calcium hydride to give O-maltosides 6 with Zconfiguration.

  20. Amine reactivity with charged sulfuric acid clusters

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bzdek, B. R.; Ridge, D. P.; Johnston, M. V.

    2011-08-01

    The distribution of charged species produced by electrospray of an ammonium sulfate solution in both positive and negative polarities is examined using Fourier transform ion cyclotron resonance mass spectrometry (FTICR-MS). Positively-charged ammonium bisulfate cluster composition differs significantly from negatively-charged cluster composition. For positively-charged clusters all sulfuric acid is neutralized to bisulfate, whereas for negatively-charged clusters the degree of sulfuric acid neutralization is cluster size-dependent. With increasing cluster size (and, therefore, a decreasing role of charge), both positively- and negatively-charged cluster compositions converge toward ammonium bisulfate. The reactivity of negatively-charged sulfuric acid-ammonia clusters with dimethylamine and ammonia is also investigated by FTICR-MS. Two series of negatively-charged clusters are investigated: [(HSO4)(H2SO4)x]- and [(NH4)x(HSO4)x+1(H2SO4)3]-. Dimethylamine substitution for ammonia in [(NH4) x(HSO4) x+1(H2SO4)3]- clusters is nearly collision-limited, and subsequent addition of dimethylamine to neutralize H2SO4 to bisulfate is within one order of magnitude of the substitution rate. Dimethylamine addition to [(HSO4) (H2SO4) x]- clusters is either not observed or very slow. The results of this study indicate that amine chemistry will be evident and important only in large ambient negative ions (>m/z 400), whereas amine chemistry may be evident in small ambient positive ions. Addition of ammonia to unneutralized clusters occurs at a rate that is ~2-3 orders of magnitude slower than incorporation of dimethylamine either by substitution or addition. Therefore, in locations where amine levels are within a few orders of magnitude of ammonia levels, amine chemistry may compete favorably with ammonia chemistry.

  1. Whole cell biotransformation for reductive amination reactions

    OpenAIRE

    Klatte, Stephanie; Lorenz, Elisabeth; Wendisch, Volker F.

    2013-01-01

    Whole cell biotransformation systems with enzyme cascading increasingly find application in biocatalysis to complement or replace established chemical synthetic routes for production of, e.g., fine chemicals. Recently, we established an Escherichia coli whole cell biotransformation system for reductive amination by coupling a transaminase and an amino acid dehydrogenase with glucose catabolism for cofactor recycling. Transformation of 2-keto-3-methylvalerate to l-isoleucine by E. coli cells w...

  2. Iridium- and Ruthenium-Catalyzed N-alkylation of Amines with Alcohols and Amines

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lorentz-Petersen, Linda Luise Reeh

    via folding assisted ligation. One segment was synthesised as the C-terminal thioester by Boc-SPPS and the other segment as a C-terminal acid by Fmoc-SPPS. The sites of mutation were all in the α-helical region of the protein and the mutation choices were alanine and Aib, which both posses a high α...... is environmentally benign as it is performed in the absence of both solvent and additives and the only by-product is ammonia. Additionally, the work-up procedure is a simple distillation of the product directly from the reaction mixture. Synthesis of piperazines In the Madsen group it has previously been...... catalysts have been employed for the N-alkylation of amines with either alcohols or amines. Synthesis of secondary amines Self-condensation of primary amines afforded secondary amines in good to high yields. The reaction is catalyzed by the commercially available [Cp*IrCl2]2 complex. The procedure...

  3. Amine Swingbed Payload Testing on ISS

    Science.gov (United States)

    Button, Amy B.; Sweterlitsch, Jeffrey J.

    2014-01-01

    One of NASA Johnson Space Center's test articles of the amine-based carbon dioxide (CO2) and water vapor sorbent system known as the CO2 And Moisture Removal Amine Swing-bed, or CAMRAS, was incorporated into a payload on the International Space Station (ISS). The intent of the payload is to demonstrate the spacecraft-environment viability of the core atmosphere revitalization technology baselined for the new Orion vehicle. In addition to the air blower, vacuum connection, and controls needed to run the CAMRAS, the payload incorporates a suite of sensors for scientific data gathering, a water save function, and an air save function. The water save function minimizes the atmospheric water vapor reaching the CAMRAS unit, thereby reducing ISS water losses that are otherwise acceptable, and even desirable, in the Orion environment. The air save function captures about half of the ullage air that would normally be vented overboard every time the cabin air-adsorbing and space vacuum-desorbing CAMRAS beds swap functions. The JSC team conducted 1000 hours of on-orbit Amine Swingbed Payload testing in 2013 and early 2014. This paper presents the basics of the payload's design and history, as well as a summary of the test results, including comparisons with prelaunch testing.

  4. Time Resolved Measurements of Primary Biogenic Aerosol Particles in Amazonia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wollny, A. G.; Garland, R.; Pöschl, U.

    2009-04-01

    Biogenic aerosols are ubiquitous in the Earth's atmosphere and they influence atmospheric chemistry and physics, the biosphere, climate, and public health. They play an important role in the spread of biological organisms and reproductive materials, and they can cause or enhance human, animal, and plant diseases. Moreover, they influence the Earth's energy budget by scattering and absorbing radiation, and they can initiate the formation of clouds and precipitation as cloud condensation and ice nuclei. The composition, abundance, and origin of biogenic aerosol particles and components are, however, still not well understood and poorly quantified. Prominent examples of primary biogenic aerosol particles, which are directly emitted from the biosphere to the atmosphere, are pollen, bacteria, fungal spores, viruses, and fragments of animals and plants. During the Amazonian Aerosol Characterization Experiment (AMAZE-08) a large number of aerosol and gas-phase measurements were taken on a remote site close to Manaus, Brazil, during a period of five weeks in February and March 2008. This presented study is focused on data from an ultraviolet aerodynamic particle sizer (UVAPS, TSI inc.) that has been deployed for the first time in Amazonia. In this instrument, particle counting and aerodynamic sizing over the range of 0.5-20 µm are complemented by the measurement of UV fluorescence at 355 nm (excitation) and 420-575 nm (emission), respectively. Fluorescence at these wavelengths is characteristic for reduced pyridine nucleotides (e.g., NAD(P)H) and for riboflavin, which are specific for living cells. Thus particles exhibiting fluorescence signals can be regarded as "viable aerosols" or "fluorescent bioparticles" (FBAP), and their concentration can be considered as lower limit for the actual abundance of primary biogenic aerosol particles. Data from the UVAPS were averaged over 5 minute time intervals. The presence of bioparticles in the observed size range has been

  5. Forensic differentiation of biogenic organic compounds from petroleum hydrocarbons in biogenic and petrogenic compounds cross-contaminated soils and sediments.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Zhendi; Yang, C; Kelly-Hooper, F; Hollebone, B P; Peng, X; Brown, C E; Landriault, M; Sun, J; Yang, Z

    2009-02-13

    "Total petroleum hydrocarbons" (TPHs) or "petroleum hydrocarbons" (PHCs) are one of the most widespread soil pollutants in Canada, North America, and worldwide. Clean-up of PHC-contaminated soils and sediments costs the Canadian economy hundreds of million of dollars annually. Much of this activity is driven by the need to meet regulated levels of PHC in soil. These PHC values are legally required to be assessed using standard methods. The method most commonly used in Canada, specified by the Canadian Council of Ministers of the Environment (CCME), measures the total hydrocarbon concentrations in a soil by carbon range (Fraction 1: C(6)-C(10); Fraction 2: C(10)-C(16), Fraction 3: C(16)-C(34): and Fraction 4: C(34)+). Using the CCME method, all of the materials extractible by a mixture of 1:1 hexane:acetone are considered to be petroleum hydrocarbon contaminants. Many hydrocarbon compounds and other extractible materials in soil, however, may originate from non-petroleum sources. Biogenic organic compounds (BOCs) is a general term used to describe a mixture of organic compounds, including alkanes, sterols and sterones, fatty acids and fatty alcohols, and waxes and wax esters, biosynthesized by living organisms. BOCs are also produced during the early stages of diagenesis in recent aquatic sediments. BOC sources could include vascular plants, algae, bacteria and animals. Plants and algae produce BOCs as protective wax coating that are released back into the sediment at the end of their life cycle. BOCs are natural components of thriving plant communities. Many solvent-extraction methods for assessing soil hydrocarbons, however, such as the CCME method, do not differentiate PHCs from BOCs. The naturally occurring organics present in soils and wet sediments can be easily misidentified and quantified as regulated PHCs during analysis using such methods. In some cases, biogenic interferences can exceed regulatory levels, resulting in remediation of petroleum impacts that

  6. Distribution and accumulation of biogenic silica in the intertidal sediments of the Yangtze Estuary

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    HOU Lijun; LIU Min; XU Shiyuan; YAN Huimin; OU Dongni; CHENG Shubo; LIN Xiao

    2008-01-01

    Sedimentary biogenic silica is known to be all important parameter to understand biogeochemical processes and paleoenviromental records in estuarine and coastal ecosystems. Consequently, it is of great significance to investigate accumulation and distribution of biogenic silica in sediments. The two-step mild acid-mild alkaline extraction procedure was used to leach biogenic silica and its early diagenetic products in intertidal sediments of the Yangtze Estuary. The results showed that total biogenic silica(t-BSi)in the intertidal sediments varied from 237. 7-419. 4 μmol Si/g. while the mild acid leachable silica(Si-HCl)and the mild alkaline leachable silica(Si-Alk)were in the range of 25. 1-72. 9μmol Si/g and 208. 1-350. 4 μmol Si/g. respectively. Significant correlations were observed for the grain size distributions of sediments and different biogenic silica pools in intertidal sediments. This confirms that grain size distribution Can significantly affect biogenic silica contents in sediments. Close relationships of biogenic silica with organic carbon and nitrogen Were also found, reflecting that there is a strong coupling between biogenic silica and organic matter biogeochemical cycles in the intertidal system of the Yangtze Estuary. Additionally, the early diagenetic changes of biogenic silica in sediments are discussed in the present study.

  7. New potential of the reductive alkylation of amines

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gusak, K. N.; Ignatovich, Zh V.; Koroleva, E. V.

    2015-03-01

    Available data on the reductive alkylation of amines with carbonyl compounds — a key method for the preparation of secondary and tertiary amines — are described systematically. The review provides information on the relevant reducing agents and catalysts and on the use of chiral catalysts in stereo- and enantiocontrolled reactions of amine synthesis. The effect of the reactant and catalyst structures on the reaction rates and chemo- and stereo(enantio)selectivity is considered. The bibliography includes 156 references.

  8. Formation and occurrence of biogenic iron-rich minerals

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fortin, Danielle; Langley, Sean

    2005-09-01

    Iron cycling in the Earth's crust depends on redox reactions, which often trigger the precipitation and dissolution of Fe-rich minerals. Microbial activity is also an integral part of iron cycling, through carbon fixation, respiration and passive sorption reactions. Iron oxides formed in close association with bacteria (either as internal or external precipitates) are referred to as biogenic minerals. They form in several types of environments on Earth, from freshwater to marine systems, aquifers, soils and mining impacted systems. Biogenic iron oxides generally occur as nanocrystals and show a wide range of morphology and mineralogy. These minerals form as a result of the direct metabolic activity of bacteria or as a result of passive sorption and nucleation reactions. The metabolic activity of acidophilic and neutrophilic iron-oxidizing bacteria under oxic conditions promotes the oxidation of Fe(II) to Fe(III) and the precipitation of biogenic iron oxides as extracellular precipitates near or on the bacterial cells. Iron oxidation under anoxic conditions can also occur, as a result of the activity of nitrate-reducers and photoautotrophic bacteria using Fe(II) as an electron donor. Secondary Fe-oxide formation has been reported during the microbial reduction of iron oxides. Passive Fe sorption and nucleation onto bacterial cell walls represents another important mechanism leading to iron oxide formation. The surface reactivity of the bacterial surface under environmental pH conditions confers a net negative charge to the cell wall, which leads to the binding of soluble iron and eventually to the precipitation of iron oxides under saturation conditions. Extracellular polymers produced by bacteria can act as a template for iron sorption and Fe-oxide nucleation. Intracellular iron oxide formation has been observed in natural environments. Magnetotactic bacteria produce intracellular magnetosomes, occurring as chains of magnetite crystals within the cells, and an

  9. Biogenic syngenetic pyrite from tuffaceous sedimentary RF3-V rocks

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kozyreva, Irina; Nikulova, Natalia

    2015-04-01

    Biogenic framboidal pyrite was found in intraformational tuffaceous sedimentary gravelites, within basic volcanites (RF3-V) in Subpolar Urals (Sablya Ridge). Pyrite grains (Fe 44.07-44,33, S 50.22-53.31 wt. %) are composed of ball-like microconcretions, sometimes intergrown with crystals of pentagondodecahedron and cubic habit. The microconcretions (20 to 40 mcm) are roundish and composed of microcrystals, which end faces form spherical surface. The nuclei of the microconcretions are represented by frambohedrons 4-5 mcm in size, which are pyritized cells of sulphate-reducing colonial coccoid microfossils. The formation of the frambohedrons occurred synchronously to sedimentation in stagnant reducing environment at interaction of biogenic hydrogen sulphide with water-dissolved iron. The biogenic hydrogen sulphide is reduced by microorganisms in the conditions of free and unrestricted access of dissolved sulphate ions sourced from sulphur of fumarole gases. Iron came from washed-out basic volcanites. The growth of outer radial parts of microconcretions occurred during compaction of sediments in diagenetic stage. The quantity of dissolved sulphate and iron during pyrite formation exceeded possibilitites of bacterial "starters" which resulted in the formation of pyrites of other morphological varieties. This is confirmed by the accretion of concentric rays of the concretions and cubic microcrystals of pyrite in the aggregate grains. The formation of tuffaceous sediments occurred during temporary decrease of volcanic activity in a continuous linear water flow with stagnant areas composed of water-displaced pebbles from underlying metaterrigenous rocks (RF 1-2), which were exposed beyond the development area of volcanic strata, unchanged clasts of recent and synchronously formed basic and medium volcanites with participation of air-driven ashes and influence of volcanic gases in the presence of sulphate-reducing bacteria. The work is financially supported by the Program

  10. Biogenic influence on cloud microphysics over the global ocean

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. Lana

    2012-02-01

    Full Text Available Aerosols have a large potential to influence climate through their effects on the microphysics and optical properties of clouds and, hence, on the Earth's radiation budget. Aerosol-cloud interactions have been intensively studied in polluted air, but the possibility that the marine biosphere plays a role in regulating cloud brightness in the pristine oceanic atmosphere remains largely unexplored. We used 9 yr of global satellite data and ocean climatologies to derive parameterizations of (a production fluxes of sulfur aerosols formed by the oxidation of the biogenic gas dimethylsulfide emitted from the sea surface; (b production fluxes of secondary organic aerosols from biogenic organic volatiles; (c emission fluxes of biogenic primary organic aerosols ejected by wind action on sea surface; and (d emission fluxes of sea salt also lifted by the wind upon bubble bursting. Series of global weekly estimates of these fluxes were correlated to series of cloud droplet effective radius data derived from satellite (MODIS. Similar analyses were conducted in more detail at 6 locations spread among polluted and clean regions of the oceanic atmosphere. The outcome of the statistical analysis was that negative correlation was common at mid and high latitude for sulfur and organic secondary aerosols, indicating both might be important in seeding cloud droplet activation. Conversely, primary aerosols (organic and sea salt showed more variable, non-significant or positive correlations, indicating that, despite contributing to large shares of the marine aerosol mass, they are not major drivers of the variability of cloud microphysics. Uncertainties and synergisms are discussed, and recommendations of research needs are given.

  11. Post-speleogenetic biogenic modification of Gomantong Caves, Sabah, Borneo

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lundberg, Joyce; McFarlane, Donald A.

    2012-07-01

    The Gomantong cave system of eastern Sabah, Malaysia, is well-known as an important site for harvesting edible bird-nests and, more recently, as a tourist attraction. Although the biology of the Gomantong system has been repeatedly studied, very little attention has been given to the geomorphology. Here, we report on the impact of geobiological modification in the development of the modern aspect of the cave, an important but little recognized feature of tropical caves. Basic modeling of the metabolic outputs from bats and birds (CO2, H2O, heat) reveals that post-speleogenetic biogenic corrosion can erode bedrock by between ~ 3.0 mm/ka (1 m/~300 ka) and ~ 4.6 mm/ka (1 m/~200 ka). Modeling at high densities of bats yields rates of corrosion of ~ 34 mm/ka (or 1 m/~30 ka). Sub-aerial corrosion creates a previously undescribed speleological feature, the apse-flute, which is semicircular in cross-section and ~ 80 cm wide. It is vertical regardless of rock properties, developing in parallel but apparently completely independently, and often unbroken from roof to floor. They end at a blind hemi-spherical top with no extraneous water source. Half-dome ceiling conch pockets are remnants of previous apse-fluting. Sub-cutaneous corrosion creates the floor-level guano notch formed by organic acid dissolution of bedrock in contact with guano. Speleogenetic assessment suggests that as much as 70-95% of the total volume of the modern cave may have been opened by direct subaerial biogenic dissolution and biogenically-induced collapse, and by sub-cutaneous removal of limestone, over a timescale of 1-2 Ma.

  12. Emission and Chemical Transformation of Biogenic Volatile Organic Compounds (echo)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Koppmann, R.; Hoffmann, T.; Kesselmeier, J.; Schatzmann, M.

    Forests are complex sources of biogenic volatile organic compounds (VOC) in the planetary boundary layer. The impact of biogenic VOC on tropospheric photochem- istry, air quality, and the formation of secondary products affects our climate on a regional and global scale but is far from being understood. A considerable lack of knowledge exists concerning a forest stand as a net source of reactive trace com- pounds, which are transported directly into the planetary boundary layer (PBL). In particular, little is known about the amounts of VOC which are processed within the canopy. The goal of ECHO, which is presented in this poster, is to investigate these questions and to improve our understanding of biosphere-atmosphere interactions and their effects on the PBL. The investigation of emissions, chemical processing and vertical transport of biogenic VOC will be carried out in and above a mixed forest stand in Jülich, Germany. A large set of trace gases, free radicals and meteorologi- cal parameters will be measured at different heights in and above the canopy, covering concentrations of VOC, CO, O3, organic nitrates und NOx as well as organic aerosols. For the first time concentration profiles of OH, HO2, RO2 und NO3 radicals will be measured as well together with the actinic UV radiation field and photolysis frequen- cies of all relevant radical precursors (O3, NO2, peroxides, oxygenated VOC). The different tasks of the field experiments will be supported by simulation experiments investigating the primary emission and the uptake of VOC by the plants in stirred tank reactors, soil parameters and soil emissions in lysimeter experiments, and the chem- ical processing of the trace gases as observed in and above the forest stand in the atmosphere simulation chamber SAPHIR. The planning and interpretation of the field experiments is supported by simulations of the field site in a wind tunnel.

  13. Amines and amine-related compounds in surface waters: a review of sources, concentrations and aquatic toxicity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Poste, Amanda E; Grung, Merete; Wright, Richard F

    2014-05-15

    This review compiles available information on the concentrations, sources, fate and toxicity of amines and amine-related compounds in surface waters, including rivers, lakes, reservoirs, wetlands and seawater. There is a strong need for this information, especially given the emergence of amine-based post-combustion CO2 capture technologies, which may represent a new and significant source of amines to the environment. We identify a broad range of anthropogenic and natural sources of amines, nitrosamines and nitramines to the aquatic environment, and identify some key fate and degradation pathways of these compounds. There were very few data available on amines in surface waters, with reported concentrations often below detection and only rarely exceeding 10 μg/L. Reported concentrations for seawater and reservoirs were below detection or very low, while for lakes and rivers, concentrations spanned several orders of magnitude. The most prevalent and commonly detected amines were methylamine (MA), dimethylamine (DMA), ethylamine (EA), diethylamine (DEA) and monoethanolamine (MEAT). The paucity of data may reflect the analytical challenges posed by determination of amines in complex environmental matrices at ambient levels. We provide an overview of available aquatic toxicological data for amines and conclude that at current environmental concentrations, amines are not likely to be of toxicological concern to the aquatic environment, however, the potential for amines to act as precursors in the formation of nitrosamines and nitramines may represent a risk of contamination of drinking water supplies by these often carcinogenic compounds. More research on the prevalence and toxicity of amines, nitrosamines and nitramines in natural waters is necessary before the environmental impact of new point sources from carbon capture facilities can be adequately quantified.

  14. Genentech/BiogenIdec递交Rituxan治疗CLL的申请

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2009-01-01

    Genentech和Biogen Idec公司称已向美国食品和药物管理局(FDA)递交了两份补充生物制品许可证申请(sBLAs),申请Rituxan(rituximab)(Ⅰ)联合标准化疗方案用于初洽或已治慢性淋巴细胞白血病(CLL)。如获许可,公司将申请优先审查。

  15. Low-order models of biogenic ocean mixing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dabiri, J. O.; Rosinelli, D.; Koumoutsakos, P.

    2009-12-01

    Biogenic ocean mixing, the process whereby swimming animals may affect ocean circulation, has primarily been studied using order-of-magnitude theoretical estimates and a small number of field observations. We describe numerical simulations of arrays of simplified animal shapes migrating in inviscid fluid and at finite Reynolds numbers. The effect of density stratification is modeled in the fluid dynamic equations of motion by a buoyancy acceleration term, which arises due to perturbations to the density field by the migrating bodies. The effects of fluid viscosity, body spacing, and array configuration are investigated to identify scenarios in which a meaningful contribution to ocean mixing by swimming animals is plausible.

  16. PROSPECTS OF MODIFICATION OF BALNEOLOGICAL REMEDIES WITH BIOGENEOUS METALLS NANOPARTICLES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. B. Mamuchieva

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available The article considers the issues of mineral waters modification with biogeneous metals nanoparticles, since they have extremely important meaning for human's organism and their production in green and biologically compliant form is hard to overestimate. Russian scientists discovered low toxicity of these nanomaterials. So the use of biogeneuos metals in form of nanoparticles allows lowering of their toxicity compared with its use in forms of ions.

  17. Microwave sintering of biogenic hydroxyapatite ceramics for reconstructive surgery

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hanna Tovstonoh

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available Ceramics based on biogenic hydroxyapatite have been produced via a microwave sintering at 1000 °C for 5, 10, 15, 20 and 30 min. It was shown that all of the ceramics studied exhibit volumetric shrinkage (2.3–4.6 %, which increases with increasing sintering time at maximum temperature. It was established that the total porosity did not depend on sintering time at 1000 °C and was equal to 38–40 %. Moreover, in all of the materials an open porosity dominated. The ultimate compression strength was in the range 35–40 MPa.

  18. Extracellular proteins limit the dispersal of biogenic nanoparticles

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moreau, J.W.; Weber, P.K.; Martin, M.C.; Gilbert, B.; Hutcheon, I.D.; Banfield, J.F.

    2007-01-01

    High-spatial-resolution secondary ion microprobe spectrometry, synchrotron radiation-based Fourier-transform infrared spectroscopy, and polyacrylamide gel analysis demonstrated the intimate association of proteins with spheroidal aggregates of biogenic zinc sulfide nanocrystals, an example of extracellular biomineralization. Experiments involving synthetic zinc sulfide nanoparticles and representative amino acids indicated a driving role for cysteine in rapid nanoparticle aggregation. These findings suggest that microbially derived extracellular proteins can limit the dispersal of nanoparticulate metal-bearing phases, such as the mineral products of bioremediation, that may otherwise be transported away from their source by subsurface fluid flow.

  19. Extracellular Proteins Limit the Dispersal of BiogenicNanoparticles

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Moreau, John W.; Weber, Peter K.; Martin, Michael C.; Gilbert,Benjamin; Hutcheon, Ian D.; Banfield, Jillian F.

    2007-04-27

    High spatial-resolution secondaryion microprobespectrometry, synchrotron radiation Fourier-transform infraredspectroscopy and polyacrylamide gel analysis demonstrate the intimateassociation of proteins with spheroidal aggregates of biogenic zincsulfide nanocrystals, an example of extracellular biomineralization.Experiments involving synthetic ZnS nanoparticles and representativeamino acids indicate a driving role for cysteine in rapid nanoparticleaggregation. These findings suggest that microbially-derivedextracellular proteins can limit dispersal of nanoparticulatemetal-bearing phases, such as the mineral products of bioremediation,that may otherwise be transported away from their source by subsurfacefluid flow.

  20. Dietary Phenolic Compounds Interfere with the Fate of Hydrogen Peroxide in Human Adipose Tissue but Do Not Directly Inhibit Primary Amine Oxidase Activity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carpéné, Christian; Hasnaoui, Mounia; Balogh, Balázs; Matyus, Peter; Fernández-Quintela, Alfredo; Rodríguez, Víctor; Mercader, Josep; Portillo, Maria P

    2016-01-01

    Resveratrol has been reported to inhibit monoamine oxidases (MAO). Many substrates or inhibitors of neuronal MAO interact also with other amine oxidases (AO) in peripheral organs, such as semicarbazide-sensitive AO (SSAO), known as primary amine oxidase, absent in neurones, but abundant in adipocytes. We asked whether phenolic compounds (resveratrol, pterostilbene, quercetin, and caffeic acid) behave as MAO and SSAO inhibitors. AO activity was determined in human adipose tissue. Computational docking and glucose uptake assays were performed in 3D models of human AO proteins and in adipocytes, respectively. Phenolic compounds fully inhibited the fluorescent detection of H2O2 generated during MAO and SSAO activation by tyramine and benzylamine. They also quenched H2O2-induced fluorescence in absence of biological material and were unable to abolish the oxidation of radiolabelled tyramine and benzylamine. Thus, phenolic compounds hampered H2O2 detection but did not block AO activity. Only resveratrol and quercetin partially impaired MAO-dependent [(14)C]-tyramine oxidation and behaved as MAO inhibitors. Phenolic compounds counteracted the H2O2-dependent benzylamine-stimulated glucose transport. This indicates that various phenolic compounds block downstream effects of H2O2 produced by biogenic or exogenous amine oxidation without directly inhibiting AO. Phenolic compounds remain of interest regarding their capacity to limit oxidative stress rather than inhibiting AO.

  1. Measurement of gas-phase ammonia and amines in air by collection onto an ion exchange resin and analysis by ion chromatography

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. L. Dawson

    2014-02-01

    Full Text Available Ammonia and amines are common trace gases in the atmosphere and have a variety of both biogenic and anthropogenic sources, with a major contribution coming from agricultural sites. In addition to their malodorous nature, both ammonia and amines have been shown to enhance particle formation from acids such as nitric, sulfuric and methanesulfonic acids, which has implications for visibility, human health and climate. A key component of quantifying the effects of these species on particle formation is accurate gas-phase measurements in both laboratory and field studies. However, these species are notoriously difficult to measure as they are readily taken up on surfaces, including onto glass surfaces from aqueous solution as established in the present studies. We describe here a novel technique for measuring gas-phase ammonia and amines that involves uptake onto a weak cation exchange resin followed by extraction and analysis using ion chromatography. Two variants, one for ppb concentrations in air and the second with lower (ppt detection limits, are described. The latter involves the use of a custom-designed high-pressure cartridge to hold the resin for in-line extraction. These methods avoid the use of sampling lines, which can lead to significant inlet losses of these compounds. They also have the advantages of being relatively simple and inexpensive. The applicability of this technique to ambient air is demonstrated in measurements made near a cattle farm in Chino, CA.

  2. Measurement of gas-phase ammonia and amines in air by collection onto an ion exchange resin and analysis by ion chromatography

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dawson, M. L.; Perraud, V.; Gomez, A.; Arquero, K. D.; Ezell, M. J.; Finlayson-Pitts, B. J.

    2014-08-01

    Ammonia and amines are common trace gases in the atmosphere and have a variety of both biogenic and anthropogenic sources, with a major contribution coming from agricultural sites. In addition to their malodorous nature, both ammonia and amines have been shown to enhance particle formation from acids such as nitric, sulfuric and methanesulfonic acids, which has implications for visibility, human health and climate. A key component of quantifying the effects of these species on particle formation is accurate gas-phase measurements in both laboratory and field studies. However, these species are notoriously difficult to measure as they are readily taken up on surfaces, including onto glass surfaces from aqueous solution as established in the present studies. We describe here a novel technique for measuring gas-phase ammonia and amines that involves uptake onto a weak cation exchange resin followed by extraction and analysis using ion chromatography. Two variants - one for parts per billion concentrations in air and the second with lower (parts per trillion) detection limits - are described. The latter involves the use of a custom-designed high-pressure cartridge to hold the resin for in-line extraction. These methods avoid the use of sampling lines, which can lead to significant inlet losses of these compounds. They also have the advantages of being relatively simple and inexpensive. The applicability of this technique to ambient air is demonstrated in measurements made near a cattle farm in Chino, CA.

  3. Dietary Phenolic Compounds Interfere with the Fate of Hydrogen Peroxide in Human Adipose Tissue but Do Not Directly Inhibit Primary Amine Oxidase Activity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Christian Carpéné

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Resveratrol has been reported to inhibit monoamine oxidases (MAO. Many substrates or inhibitors of neuronal MAO interact also with other amine oxidases (AO in peripheral organs, such as semicarbazide-sensitive AO (SSAO, known as primary amine oxidase, absent in neurones, but abundant in adipocytes. We asked whether phenolic compounds (resveratrol, pterostilbene, quercetin, and caffeic acid behave as MAO and SSAO inhibitors. AO activity was determined in human adipose tissue. Computational docking and glucose uptake assays were performed in 3D models of human AO proteins and in adipocytes, respectively. Phenolic compounds fully inhibited the fluorescent detection of H2O2 generated during MAO and SSAO activation by tyramine and benzylamine. They also quenched H2O2-induced fluorescence in absence of biological material and were unable to abolish the oxidation of radiolabelled tyramine and benzylamine. Thus, phenolic compounds hampered H2O2 detection but did not block AO activity. Only resveratrol and quercetin partially impaired MAO-dependent [14C]-tyramine oxidation and behaved as MAO inhibitors. Phenolic compounds counteracted the H2O2-dependent benzylamine-stimulated glucose transport. This indicates that various phenolic compounds block downstream effects of H2O2 produced by biogenic or exogenous amine oxidation without directly inhibiting AO. Phenolic compounds remain of interest regarding their capacity to limit oxidative stress rather than inhibiting AO.

  4. Amine reactivity with charged sulfuric acid clusters

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    B. R. Bzdek

    2011-08-01

    Full Text Available The distribution of charged species produced by electrospray of an ammonium sulfate solution in both positive and negative polarities is examined using Fourier transform ion cyclotron resonance mass spectrometry (FTICR-MS. Positively-charged ammonium bisulfate cluster composition differs significantly from negatively-charged cluster composition. For positively-charged clusters all sulfuric acid is neutralized to bisulfate, whereas for negatively-charged clusters the degree of sulfuric acid neutralization is cluster size-dependent. With increasing cluster size (and, therefore, a decreasing role of charge, both positively- and negatively-charged cluster compositions converge toward ammonium bisulfate. The reactivity of negatively-charged sulfuric acid-ammonia clusters with dimethylamine and ammonia is also investigated by FTICR-MS. Two series of negatively-charged clusters are investigated: [(HSO4(H2SO4x] and [(NH4x(HSO4x+1(H2SO43]. Dimethylamine substitution for ammonia in [(NH4 x(HSO4 x+1(H2SO43] clusters is nearly collision-limited, and subsequent addition of dimethylamine to neutralize H2SO4 to bisulfate is within one order of magnitude of the substitution rate. Dimethylamine addition to [(HSO4 (H2SO4 x] clusters is either not observed or very slow. The results of this study indicate that amine chemistry will be evident and important only in large ambient negative ions (>m/z 400, whereas amine chemistry may be evident in small ambient positive ions. Addition of ammonia to unneutralized clusters occurs at a rate that is ~2–3 orders of magnitude slower than incorporation of dimethylamine either by substitution or addition

  5. Amine reactivity with charged sulfuric acid clusters

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    B. R. Bzdek

    2011-05-01

    Full Text Available The distribution of ionic species produced by electrospray of an ammonium sulfate solution in both positive and negative polarities is examined using Fourier transform ion cyclotron resonance mass spectrometry (FTICR-MS. Positively-charged ammonium bisulfate cluster composition differs significantly from negatively-charged cluster composition. For positively-charged clusters all sulfuric acid is neutralized to bisulfate, whereas for negatively-charged clusters the degree of sulfuric acid neutralization is cluster size-dependent. With increasing cluster size (and, therefore, a decreasing role of charge, both positively- and negatively-charged cluster compositions converge toward ammonium bisulfate. The reactivity of negatively-charged sulfuric acid-ammonia clusters with dimethylamine and ammonia are also investigated by FTICR-MS. Two series of negatively-charged clusters are investigated: [(HSO4(H2SO4x] and [(NH4x(HSO4x+1(H2SO43]. Dimethylamine substitution for ammonia in [(NH4x(HSO4x+1(H2SO43] clusters is nearly collision-limited, and subsequent addition of dimethylamine to neutralize H2SO4 is within one order of magnitude of the substitution rate. Dimethylamine addition to [(HSO4(H2SO4x]clusters is either not observed or very slow. The results of this study indicate that amine chemistry will be evident and important only in large ambient negative ions (> m/z 400, whereas amine chemistry may be evident in small ambient positive ions. Addition of ammonia to unneutralized clusters occurs at a rate that is ~2–3 orders of magnitude slower than incorporation of dimethylamine either by

  6. Controlling Nitrosamines, Nitramines, and Amines in Amine-Based CO₂ Capture Systems with Continuous Ultraviolet and Ozone Treatment of Washwater.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dai, Ning; Mitch, William A

    2015-07-21

    Formation of nitrosamines and nitramines from reactions between flue gas NOx and the amines used in CO2 capture units has arisen as a significant concern. Washwater scrubbers can capture nitrosamines and nitramines. They can also capture amines, preventing formation of nitrosamines and nitramines downwind by amine reactions with ambient NOx. The continuous application of UV alone, or a combination of UV and ozone to the return line of a washwater treatment unit was evaluated to control the accumulation of nitrosamines, nitramines and amines in a laboratory-scale washwater unit. With model secondary amine solvents ranging from nonvolatile diethanolamine to volatile morpholine, application of 272-537 mJ/cm(2) UV incident fluence alone reduced the accumulation of nitrosamines and nitramines by approximately an order of magnitude. Modeling indicated that the gains achieved by UV treatment should increase over time, because UV treatment converts the time dependence of nitrosamine accumulation from a quadratic to a linear function. Ozone (21 mg/L) maintained low steady-state concentrations of amines in the washwater. While modeling indicated that more than 80% of nitrosamine accumulation in the washwater was associated with reaction of washwater amines with residual NOx, a reduction in nitrosamine accumulation rates due to ozone oxidation of amines was not fully realized because the ozonation products of amines reduced nitrosamine photolysis rates by competing for photons.

  7. Effect of processing on amine formation and the lipid profile of cod (Gadus morhua) roe.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lapa-Guimarães, Judite; Trattner, Sofia; Pickova, Jana

    2011-12-01

    The processing of fish roe leads to changes in its chemical composition, the extent of which depends on the techniques and additives employed. This study aimed to investigate the effects of ripening temperature and the use of sodium benzoate and citric acid on the quality of ripened cod roe, with respect to the contents of volatile base nitrogen (VBN), trimethylamine (TMA), biogenic amines (BA) and on the lipid composition. In comparison with fresh roes, ripened roes presented higher contents of VBN, TMA, BA and the proportion of free fatty acids regardless of the temperature and additives used during the ripening process. The greatest increases were observed in the samples ripened at 17°C without additives, in which histamine was detected at 8.8mg/100g. A low ripening temperature was the main factor responsible for minimising changes in the cod roe composition. The addition of sodium benzoate as a preservative or citric acid to decrease the pH value had a significant effect in maintaining the quality of the cod roes, mainly at high ripening temperature.

  8. Preparation and characterization of amine-functionalized sugarcane bagasse for CO2 capture.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Luo, Shihe; Chen, Siyu; Chen, Shuixia; Zhuang, Linzhou; Ma, Nianfang; Xu, Teng; Li, Qihan; Hou, Xunan

    2016-03-01

    A low-cost solid amine adsorbent for CO2 capture was prepared by using sugarcane bagasse (SB), a dominant agro-industrial residue in the sugar and alcohol industry as raw materials. In this preparation process, acrylamide was grafted on SB, and the grafted fiber was then aminated with different type of amine reagents to introduce primary and secondary amine groups onto the surface of SB fibers. The graft and amination conditions were optimized. The prepared solid amine adsorbent showed remarkable CO2 adsorption capacity and the adsorption capacity of the solid amine adsorbent could reach 5.01 mmol CO2/g at room temperature. The comparison of adsorption capacities of amine fibers aminated with various amination agents demonstrated that fibers aminated with triethylenetetramine would obtain higher adsorption capacities and higher amine efficiency. These adsorbents also showed good regeneration performance, the regenerated adsorbent could maintain almost the same adsorption capacity for CO2 after 10 recycles.

  9. Thermodynamics of organic mixtures containing amines

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gonzalez, Juan Antonio [G.E.T.E.F. Dpto Termodinamica y Fisica Aplicada, Facultad de Ciencias, Universidad de Valladolid, Valladolid 47071 (Spain)]. E-mail: jagl@termo.uva.es; Mozo, Ismael [G.E.T.E.F. Dpto Termodinamica y Fisica Aplicada, Facultad de Ciencias, Universidad de Valladolid, Valladolid 47071 (Spain); Fuente, Isaias Garcia de la [G.E.T.E.F. Dpto Termodinamica y Fisica Aplicada, Facultad de Ciencias, Universidad de Valladolid, Valladolid 47071 (Spain); Cobos, Jose Carlos [G.E.T.E.F. Dpto Termodinamica y Fisica Aplicada, Facultad de Ciencias, Universidad de Valladolid, Valladolid 47071 (Spain)

    2006-02-01

    Binary mixtures containing pyridine (PY), or 2-methylpyridine (2MPY) or 3-methylpyridine (3MPY) or 4-methylpyridine (4MPY) and an organic solvent as benzene, toluene, alkane, or 1-alkanol are investigated in the framework of DISQUAC. The corresponding interaction parameters are reported. The model describes accurately a whole set of thermodynamic properties: vapor-liquid equilibria (VLE), liquid-liquid equilibria (LLE), solid-liquid equilibria (SLE), molar excess Gibbs energies (G{sup E}), molar excess enthalpies (H{sup E}), molar excess heat capacities at constant pressure (C{sub P}{sup E}) and the concentration-concentration structure factor (S{sub CC}(0)). It is remarkable that DISQUAC correctly predicts the W-shaped curve of the C{sub P}{sup E} of the pyridine + n-hexadecane system. The model can be applied successfully to mixtures with strong positive or negative deviations from the Raoult's law. DISQUAC improves the theoretical results from UNIFAC (Dortmund version). The replacement of pyridine by a methylpyridine leads to a weakening of the amine-amine interactions, ascribed to the steric effect caused by the methyl group attached to the aromatic ring. This explains that for a given solvent (alkane, 1-alkanol) H{sup E}(pyridine)>H{sup E}(methylpyridine)

  10. A biogenic volatile organic compounds emission inventory for Yunnan Province

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    WANG Zhi-hui; BAI Yu-hua; ZHANG Shu-yu

    2005-01-01

    The first detailed inventory for volatile organic compounds(VOC) emissions from vegetation over Yunnan Province, China was presented. The spatially and temporally resolved inventory was developed based on a geographic information system (GIS), remote sensing(RS) data and field measurement data, such as digitized land-use data, normalized difference vegetation index (NDVl) and temperature data from direct real-time measurement. The inventory has a spatial resolution of 5 km × 5 km and a time resolution of 1 h.Urban, agriculture, and natural land-use distributions in Yunnan Province were combined with biomass factors for each land-use category to produce a spatially resolved biomass inventory. A biogenic emission inventory was developed by combining the biomass inventory with hourly emission rates for tree, shrub and ground cover species of the study area. Correcting for environmental factors, including light intensity and temperature, a value of 1.1 × 1012 gC for total annual biogenic VOC emissions from Yunnan Province, including 6.1 × 1011 gCfor isoprene, 2.1 × 1011 gC for monoterpenes, and 2.6 × 1011 gC for OVOC was obtained. The highest VOC emissions occurred in the northwestern, southwestern and north region of Yunnan Province. Some uncertainties were also discussed in this study.

  11. Comparative study of biogenic and abiotic iron-containing materials

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cherkezova-Zheleva, Z.; Shopska, M.; Paneva, D.; Kovacheva, D.; Kadinov, G.; Mitov, I.

    2016-12-01

    Series of iron-based biogenic materials prepared by cultivation of Leptothrix group of bacteria in different feeding media ( Sphaerotilus-Leptothrix group of bacteria isolation medium, Adler, Lieske and silicon-iron-glucose-peptone) were studied. Control samples were obtained in the same conditions and procedures but the nutrition media were not infected with bacteria, i.e. they were sterile. Room and low temperature Mössbauer spectroscopy, powder X-ray diffraction (XRD), and infrared spectroscopy (IRS) were used to reveal the composition and physicochemical properties of biomass and respective control samples. Comparative analysis showed differences in their composition and dispersity of present phases. Sample composition included different ratio of nanodimensional iron oxyhydroxide and oxide phases. Relaxation phenomena such as superparamagnetism or collective magnetic excitation behaviour were registered for some of them. The experimental data showed that the biogenic materials were enriched in oxyhydroxides of high dispersion. Catalytic behaviour of a selected biomass and abiotic material were studied in the reaction of CO oxidation. In situ diffuse-reflectance (DR) IRS was used to monitor the phase transformations in the biomass and CO conversion.

  12. Plio-Pleistocene Biogenic Opal Deposition in the Southern Ocean

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kuhn, G.; Gersonde, R.

    2002-12-01

    About 2/3 of the annual supply of silicic acid to the World Ocean is buried in the Southern Ocean as biogenic silica (BSi), formed by diatoms and radiolaria in surface waters and exported to the seafloor. Main BSi accumulation occurs in an area between the sea ice edge and the Polar Front Zone and seems to be steered by a complex interaction of biological and physical parameters governing the modern Southern Ocean ecosystem. Sediment cores recovered during Ocean Drilling Program Leg 177 and expeditions with RV POLARSTERN reveal the history of the opal deposition in the Atlantic and Pacific sector of the Southern Ocean during the Pliocene and the Pleistocene. This period is characterized by distinct changes and variability in global climate and ocean circulation that can be related to the spatial-temporal distribution of BSi deposition on long and short time scales. Changes in ocean circulation, water mass structure, sea ice and climatic variability that impact the distribution of silicic acid and the development of coarsly silicified diatoms (e.g. Actinocyclus ingens, Thalassiosira antarctica, Fragilariopsis kerguelensis), presenting the major carriers of biogenic opal, control past BSi deposition in the Southern Ocean. Major deposition in the area of the modern Southern Ocean opal belt starts at the Plio/Pleistocene transition. Such strong export of BSi and related organic carbon might have reinforced the trend of global cooling observed since the Mid-Pliocene climate optimum.

  13. Manganese carbonates as possible biogenic relics in Archean settings

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rincón-Tomás, Blanca; Khonsari, Bahar; Mühlen, Dominik; Wickbold, Christian; Schäfer, Nadine; Hause-Reitner, Dorothea; Hoppert, Michael; Reitner, Joachim

    2016-07-01

    Carbonate minerals such as dolomite, kutnahorite or rhodochrosite are frequently, but not exclusively generated by microbial processes. In recent anoxic sediments, Mn(II)carbonate minerals (e.g. rhodochrosite, kutnahorite) derive mainly from the reduction of Mn(IV) compounds by anaerobic respiration. The formation of huge manganese-rich (carbonate) deposits requires effective manganese redox cycling in an oxygenated atmosphere. However, putative anaerobic pathways such as microbial nitrate-dependent manganese oxidation, anoxygenic photosynthesis and oxidation in ultraviolet light may facilitate manganese cycling even in an early Archean environment, without the availability of oxygen. In addition, manganese carbonates precipitate by microbially induced processes without change of the oxidation state, e.g. by pH shift. Hence, there are several ways how these minerals could have been formed biogenically and deposited in Precambrian sediments. We will summarize microbially induced manganese carbonate deposition in the presence and absence of atmospheric oxygen and we will make some considerations about the biogenic deposition of manganese carbonates in early Archean settings.

  14. Structural Characterization of Biogenic Manganese Oxides Produced in Sea Water

    Science.gov (United States)

    Webb, S. M.; Bargar, J. R.; Tebo, B. M.

    2003-12-01

    Manganese oxides have been coined as the "scavengers of the sea" and play important roles in both marine and freshwater systems. Natural manganese oxide nanoparticles and grain coatings are ubiquitous in the environment and profoundly impact the quality of sediments via their ability to degrade and sequester contaminants. These oxides are believed to form dominantly via oxidation of Mn(II) by marine and freshwater bacteria and have extremely high sorptive capacities for heavy metals. We have used XANES, EXAFS, and synchrotron (SR)-XRD techniques to study biogenic manganese oxides produced by spores of the marine Bacillus sp., strain SG-1 in seawater as a function of reaction time under fully in-situ conditions. The primary biogenic solid-phase Mn oxide product is a hexagonal layered phyollomanganate with an oxidation state similar to that in delta-MnO2. XRD data show the biooxides to have a phyllomanganate 10 basal plane spacing, suggesting the interlayer is hydrated and contains calcium. As the experiment continues, the initial biooxide changes to show triclinic symmetry. Fits to these EXAFS spectra suggest the octahedral layers have low Mn octahedral site vacancies in the lattice and the latyers bend to accommodate Jahn-Teller distortions creating the change in symmetry. The oxides observed in this study as models of Mn(II) bio-oxidation may be representative of the most abundant manganese oxide phase suspended in the oxic and sub-oxic zones of the oceanic water column.

  15. 78 FR 50135 - Soil Biogenics Ltd., File No. 500-1; Order of Suspension of Trading

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-08-16

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office SECURITIES AND EXCHANGE COMMISSION Soil Biogenics Ltd., File No. 500-1; Order of Suspension of Trading August 14, 2013. It appears to... concerning the securities of Soil Biogenics Ltd. because it has not filed ] any periodic reports since...

  16. Self Assembly of Biogenic Surfactants at Mineral Surfaces and Their Effect on Biological Iron Acquisition

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kraemer, S. M.

    2005-12-01

    Microorganisms exude biogenic surfactants to modify the physical and chemical properties of mineral-water interfaces. Surfactants with negatively charged hydrophilic head groups interact strongly with oppositely charged mineral surfaces such as iron or aluminum oxides. Surfactant self assembly at mineral surfaces can result in the formation of admicelles that have a significant effect on the surface charge and hydrophobicity. These effects are exploited by microorganisms to facilitate attachment to mineral surfaces. Similarly, plants exude surfactants into the rhizosphere and change the surface tension and flow of soil water. Other surface active compounds that are typically found in soils and surface waters are humic substances and fatty acids that are produced by degradation of biomass. In general, surface active compounds are ubiquitous in natural systems. In this study we investigated how surfactants influence bio-mineral interactions using the example of siderophore promoted iron acquisition. Siderophore promoted iron acquisition involves the adsorption of a biogenic iron specific ligand (i.e. the siderophore) to iron oxides and the subsequent siderophore promoted iron oxide dissolution. The hypothesis of this project is that the modification of the iron oxide surface charge and hydrophobicity by adsorbed surfactants will have an important effect on siderophore adsorption and dissolution kinetics. We approached this subject by investigating the adsorption of a natural surfactant (rhamnolipids: RhL) and the synthetic surfactant (sodium dodecyl sulfate: SDS) on goethite (α-FeOOH, a common pedogenic iron oxide) and observing the effect of surfactant self assembly on the properties of the mineral water interface. We observed fast adsorption kinetics at pH 3 and slow adsorption at pH 6. The adsorbed surfactants reversed the surface potential of goethite (as evidenced by electrophoretic mobility measurements) at soluble surfactant concentrations below 10 μM (SDS

  17. Amination of allylic alcohols in water at room temperature.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nishikata, Takashi; Lipshutz, Bruce H

    2009-06-04

    The "trick" to carrying out regiocontrolled aminations of allylic alcohols in water as the only medium is use of a nanomicelle's interior as the organic reaction solvent. When HCO(2)Me is present, along with the proper base and source of catalytic Pd, allylic amines are cleanly formed at room temperature.

  18. Effects of dietary amines on the gut and its vasculature.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Broadley, Kenneth J; Akhtar Anwar, M; Herbert, Amy A; Fehler, Martina; Jones, Elen M; Davies, Wyn E; Kidd, Emma J; Ford, William R

    2009-06-01

    Trace amines, including tyramine and beta-phenylethylamine (beta-PEA), are constituents of many foods including chocolate, cheeses and wines and are generated by so-called 'friendly' bacteria such as Lactobacillus, Lactococcus and Enterococcus species, which are found in probiotics. We therefore examined whether these dietary amines could exert pharmacological effects on the gut and its vasculature. In the present study we examined the effects of tyramine and beta-PEA on the contractile activity of guinea-pig and rat ileum and upon the isolated mesenteric vasculature and other blood vessels. Traditionally, these amines are regarded as sympathomimetic amines, exerting effects through the release of noradrenaline from sympathetic nerve endings, which should relax the gut. A secondary aim was therefore to confirm this mechanism of action. However, contractile effects were observed in the gut and these were independent of noradrenaline, acetylcholine, histamine and serotonin receptors. They were therefore probably due to the recently described trace amine-associated receptors. These amines relaxed the mesenteric vasculature. In contrast, the aorta and coronary arteries were constricted, a response that was also independent of a sympathomimetic action. From these results, we propose that after ingestion, trace amines could stimulate the gut and improve intestinal blood flow. Restriction of blood flow elsewhere diverts blood to the gut to aid digestion. Thus, trace amines in the diet may promote the digestive process through stimulation of the gut and improved gastrointestinal circulation.

  19. Nitrosamine formation in amine scrubbing at desorber temperatures.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fine, Nathan A; Goldman, Mark J; Rochelle, Gary T

    2014-01-01

    Amine scrubbing is a thermodynamically efficient and industrially proven method for carbon capture, but amine solvents can nitrosate in the desorber, forming potentially carcinogenic nitrosamines. The kinetics of reactions involving nitrite and monoethanolamine (MEA), diethanolamine (DEA), methylethanolamine (MMEA), and methyldiethanolamine (MDEA) were determined under desorber conditions. The nitrosations of MEA, DEA, and MMEA are first order in nitrite, carbamate species, and hydronium ion. Nitrosation of MDEA, a tertiary amine, is not catalyzed by the addition of CO2 since it cannot form a stable carbamate. Concentrated and CO2 loaded MEA was blended with low concentrations of N-(2-hydroxyethyl) glycine (HeGly), hydroxyethyl-ethylenediamine (HEEDA), and DEA, secondary amines common in MEA degradation. Nitrosamine yield was proportional to the concentration of secondary amine and was a function of CO2 loading and temperature. Blends of tertiary amines with piperazine (PZ) showed n-nitrosopiperazine (MNPZ) yields close to unity, validating the slow nitrosation rates hypothesized for tertiary amines. These results provide a useful tool for estimating nitrosamine accumulation over a range of amine solvents.

  20. 40 CFR 721.6140 - Dialkyldithiophosphoric acid, aliphatic amine salt.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... Specific Chemical Substances § 721.6140 Dialkyldithiophosphoric acid, aliphatic amine salt. (a) Chemical... as a dialkyldithiophosphoric acid, aliphatic amine salt (P-90-1839) is subject to reporting under... 40 Protection of Environment 30 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Dialkyldithiophosphoric...

  1. ELPI+ measurements of aerosol growth in an amine absorption column

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Mertens, J.; Brachert, L.; Desagher, D.; Thielens, M.L.; Khakharia, P.M.; Goetheer, E.L.V.; Schaber, K.

    2014-01-01

    Recently, studies have appeared pointing out that aerosols can dominate the total amine emission from amine based PCCC pilot plant scale installations. For the design of countermeasure types (upstream or downstream of the PCCC installation), it is crucial to have an idea of the aerosol size distribu

  2. Carbon and hydrogen isotopic composition and generation pathway of biogenic gas in China

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    SHEN Ping; WANG Xiaofeng; XU Yin; SHI Baoguang; XU Yongchang

    2009-01-01

    The carbon and hydrogen isotopic composition of biogenic gas is of great importance for the study of its generation pathway and reservoiring characteristics. In this paper, the formation pathways and reservoiring characteristics of biogenic gas reservoirs in China are described in terms of the carbon and hydrogen isotopic compositions of 31 gas samples from 10 biogenic gas reservoirs. The study shows that the hydrogen isotopic compositions of these biogenic gas reservoirs can be divided into three intervals:δDCH4>-200‰,-250‰<δDCH4<-200‰ and δDCH4<-250‰. The forerunners believed that the main generation pathway of biogenic gas under the condition of continental fresh water is acetic fermentation. Our research results showed that the generation pathway of biogenic gas under the condition of marine facies is typical CO2- reduction, the biogenic gas has heavy hydrogen isotopic composition: its δDCH4 values are higher than -200‰; that the biogenic gas under the condition of continental facies also was generated by the same way, but its hydrogen isotopic composition is lighter than that of biogenetic gas generated under typical marine facies condition: -250‰<δDCH4<-200‰, the δDCH4 values may be related to the salinity of the water medium in ancient lakes. From the relevant data of the Qaidam Basin, it can be seen that the hydrogen isotopic composition of biogenic methane has the same variation trend with increasing salinity of water medium. There are biogenic gas reservoirs formed in transitional regions under the condition of continental facies. These gas reservoirs resulted from both CO2- reduction and acetic fermentation, the formation of which may be related to the non-variant salinity of ancient water medium and the relatively high geothermal gradient, as is the case encountered in the Baoshan Basin. The biogenic gas generating in these regions has light hydrogen isotopic composition: δDCH4<-250‰, and relatively heavy carbon isotopic

  3. Amine Reactivity with Nanoclusters of Sulfuric Acid and Ammonia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Johnston, M. V.; Bzdek, B. R.; DePalma, J.

    2011-12-01

    Alkyl amines have emerged as key species in new particle formation and growth. This interest is reinforced by ambient measurements of amines (e.g. Smith et al., 2010) and enhanced levels of nitrogen (e.g. Bzdek et al., 2011) during growth of newly formed particles. An important mechanism of amine uptake is aminium salt formation, either by substituting for ammonium ions that already exist in the particle or by opening new channels for salt formation that are not favorable with ammonia. This presentation will focus on recent experimental and computational work in our group to study amine uptake into charged nanoclusters of sulfuric acid and ammonia. In the experimental work, clusters are produced by electrospray of an ammonium sulfate solution and then drawn into a Fourier transform ion cyclotron resonance mass spectrometer where a specific cluster is isolated and exposed to amine vapor. We find that amine reactivity is dependent on the size, composition and charge of the isolated cluster. For small clusters of either polarity, all ammonium ions reside on the surface and amine substitution occurs with near unit reaction probability. As the cluster size increases, an ammonium ion can be encapsulated in the center of the cluster, which provides a steric hindrance to amine substitution. Negatively charged clusters are more likely to be acidic than positively charged clusters. For acidic clusters, incoming amine molecules first substitute for preexisting ammonium ions and then add to the cluster until a "neutralized" aminium bisulfate composition is reached. Computational studies of these clusters provide fundamental insight into the thermodynamics and kinetics of amine uptake.

  4. Synthesis and characterization of bisimide amines and bisimide amine-cured epoxy resins

    Science.gov (United States)

    Scola, D. A.

    1983-01-01

    An attempt is made to develop tough, moisture resistant, high char yield epoxy resins by means of novel bisimide amine (BIA) hardener curing agents and a state-of-the-art epoxy resin system. The BIAs are isolated as mixtures containing monomer, oligomer, and polymeric species, and then characterized by elemental analysis and high pressure liquid chromatography. The bisimide amine-cured epoxies (IMEs) were characterized with respect to moisture absorption, thermal properties, and physical and mechanical properties, as well as in the role of matrices in Celion 6000/IME composites. The relative toughness characteristics of each IME formulation was measured by the 10 deg off-axis tensile test, measuring the uniaxial tensile strength, shear strength, and shear-strain-to-failure of the composite systems.

  5. Electrochemical characterization of aminated acrylic conducting polymer

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rashid, Norma Mohammad [School of Chemical Sciences and Food Technology, Faculty of Science and Technology, Lestari Universiti Kebangsaan Malaysia (UKM), 43600 Bangi, Selangor Darul Ehsan (Malaysia); Heng, Lee Yook [School of Chemical Sciences and Food Technology, Faculty of Science and Technology, Lestari Universiti Kebangsaan Malaysia (UKM), 43600 Bangi, Selangor Darul Ehsan (Malaysia); Southeast Asia Disaster Prevention Research Initiative, Lestari Universiti Kebangsaan Malaysia (UKM), 43600 Bangi, Selangor Darul Ehsan (Malaysia); Ling, Tan Ling [Southeast Asia Disaster Prevention Research Initiative, Lestari Universiti Kebangsaan Malaysia (UKM), 43600 Bangi, Selangor Darul Ehsan (Malaysia)

    2015-09-25

    New attempt has been made to synthesize aminated acrylic conducting polymer (AACP) using precursor of phenylvinylsulfoxide (PVS). The process was conducted via the integration of microemulsion and photopolymerization techniques. It has been utilized for covalent immobilization of amino groups by the adding of N-achryiloxisuccinimide (NAS). Thermal eliminating of benzene sulfenic acids from PVS has been done at 250 °C to form electroactive polyacetylene (PA) segment. Characterization of AACP has been conducted using fourier transform infrared (FTIR), scanning electron microscopy (SEM) and linear sweep cyclic voltammetry (CV). A range of 0.3-1.25μm particle size obtained from SEM characterization. A quasi-reversible system performed as shown in electrochemical study.

  6. N-(3-Methylphenylquinoxalin-2-amine monohydrate

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Azila Idris

    2010-09-01

    Full Text Available The quinoxaline system in the title hydrate, C15H13N3·H2O, is roughly planar, the r.m.s. deviation for the 18 non-H atoms being 0.188 Å; this conformation features a short intramolecular C—H...N(pyrazine interaction. In the crystal, the amine H atom forms an N—H...O hydrogen bond to the water molecule, which in turn forms two O—H...N hydrogen bonds to the pyrazine N atoms of different organic molecules. These interactions lead to supramolecular arrays in the bc plane that are two molecules thick; additional π–π interactions stabilize the layers [ring centroid–centroid distance = 3.5923 (7 Å]. The layers stack along the a-axis direction via C—H...π contacts.

  7. Amine scrubbing for CO2 capture.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rochelle, Gary T

    2009-09-25

    Amine scrubbing has been used to separate carbon dioxide (CO2) from natural gas and hydrogen since 1930. It is a robust technology and is ready to be tested and used on a larger scale for CO2 capture from coal-fired power plants. The minimum work requirement to separate CO2 from coal-fired flue gas and compress CO2 to 150 bar is 0.11 megawatt-hours per metric ton of CO2. Process and solvent improvements should reduce the energy consumption to 0.2 megawatt-hour per ton of CO2. Other advanced technologies will not provide energy-efficient or timely solutions to CO2 emission from conventional coal-fired power plants.

  8. Whole cell biotransformation for reductive amination reactions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Klatte, Stephanie; Lorenz, Elisabeth; Wendisch, Volker F

    2014-01-01

    Whole cell biotransformation systems with enzyme cascading increasingly find application in biocatalysis to complement or replace established chemical synthetic routes for production of, e.g., fine chemicals. Recently, we established an Escherichia coli whole cell biotransformation system for reductive amination by coupling a transaminase and an amino acid dehydrogenase with glucose catabolism for cofactor recycling. Transformation of 2-keto-3-methylvalerate to l-isoleucine by E. coli cells was improved by genetic engineering of glucose metabolism for improved cofactor regeneration. Here, we compare this system with different strategies for cofactor regeneration such as cascading with alcohol dehydrogenases, with alternative production hosts such as Pseudomonas species or Corynebacterium glutamicum, and with improving whole cell biotransformation systems by metabolic engineering of NADPH regeneration. PMID:24406456

  9. Biogenic emission measurement and inventories determination of biogenic emissions in the eastern United States and Texas and comparison with biogenic emission inventories

    Science.gov (United States)

    Warneke, C.; de Gouw, J. A.; Del Negro, L.; Brioude, J.; McKeen, S.; Stark, H.; Kuster, W. C.; Goldan, P. D.; Trainer, M.; Fehsenfeld, F. C.; Wiedinmyer, C.; Guenther, A. B.; Hansel, A.; Wisthaler, A.; Atlas, E.; Holloway, J. S.; Ryerson, T. B.; Peischl, J.; Huey, L. G.; Hanks, A. T. Case

    2010-04-01

    During the NOAA Southern Oxidant Study 1999 (SOS1999), Texas Air Quality Study 2000 (TexAQS2000), International Consortium for Atmospheric Research on Transport and Transformation (ICARTT2004), and Texas Air Quality Study 2006 (TexAQS2006) campaigns, airborne measurements of isoprene and monoterpenes were made in the eastern United States and in Texas, and the results are used to evaluate the biogenic emission inventories BEIS3.12, BEIS3.13, MEGAN2, and WM2001. Two methods are used for the evaluation. First, the emissions are directly estimated from the ambient isoprene and monoterpene measurements assuming a well-mixed boundary layer and are compared with the emissions from the inventories extracted along the flight tracks. Second, BEIS3.12 is incorporated into the detailed transport model FLEXPART, which allows the isoprene and monoterpene mixing ratios to be calculated and compared to the measurements. The overall agreement for all inventories is within a factor of 2 and the two methods give consistent results. MEGAN2 is in most cases higher, and BEIS3.12 and BEIS3.13 lower than the emissions determined from the measurements. Regions with clear discrepancies are identified. For example, an isoprene hot spot to the northwest of Houston, Texas, was expected from BEIS3 but not observed in the measurements. Interannual differences in emissions of about a factor of 2 were observed in Texas between 2000 and 2006.

  10. Biogenic synthesis of gold and silver nanoparticles by seed plants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Iyer, R Indira; Panda, Tapobrata

    2014-02-01

    Nanoparticles have an enormous range of biomedical and environmental applications and can be used for development of various nanodevices for diagnostics and drug delivery. Biogenic production of nanoparticles, that is of silver and gold, by seed plants, especially flowering plants, has evoked considerable interest in the last decade. Different organs of plants as well as callus cultures have been used for the production of these metal nanoparticles. It is possible to regulate the geometry of the nanoparticles by modifying the experimental parameters. In many cases the phytosynthesized gold and silver nanoparticles have been demonstrated to be potentially useful for treatment of various diseases. The production of gold and silver nanoparticles by diverse species of seed plants and their biological activity are discussed in this article.

  11. Grain coarsening of calcite: Fundamental mechanisms and biogenic inhibition

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Schultz, Logan Nicholas

    In a saturated solution, submicrometer calcite (CaCO3) crystals recrystallize and coarsen to minimize surface area. The thermodynamic driving force is described by the Gibbs-Thomson equation, but the rates and mechanism are poorly understood. Calcite grain coarsening has many implications...... in industry and nature, but the specific focus of this research project was to understand how small, biogenic calcite particles in chalk have resisted grain coarsening for over 60 million years in saturated reservoir fluids. A new method was developed to produce pure calcite powder that has submicrometer...... coarsening – small grains coarsen by aggregation at high temperatures, followed by Ostwald ripening. Alginate, a model for the acidic polysaccharides produced by coccolithiphores, inhibited coarsening at a steady rate. A Pseudomonas aeruginosa biofilm preserved particles for at least 60 days before...

  12. Development of biogenic VOC emission inventories for the boreal forest

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tarvainen, V.

    2008-07-01

    The volatile organic compounds (VOCs) emitted by vegetation, especially forests, can affect local and regional atmospheric photochemistry through their reactions with atmospheric oxidants. Their reaction products may also participate in the formation and growth of new particles which affect the radiation balance of the atmosphere, and thus climate, by scattering and absorbing shortwave and longwave radiation and by modifying the radiative properties, amount and lifetime of clouds. Globally, anthropogenic VOC emissions are far surpassed by the biogenic ones, making biogenic emission inventories an integral element in the development of efficient air quality and climate strategies. The inventories are typically constructed based on landcover information, measured emissions of different plants or vegetation types, and empirical dependencies of the emissions on environmental variables such as temperature and light. This thesis is focused on the VOC emissions from the boreal forest, the largest terrestrial biome with characteristic vegetation patterns and strong seasonality. The isoprene, monoterpene and sesquiterpene emissions of the most prevalent boreal tree species in Finland, Scots pine, have been measured and their seasonal variation and dependence on temperature and light have been studied. The measured emission data and other available observations of the emissions of the principal boreal trees have been used in a biogenic emission model developed for the boreal forests in Finland. The model utilizes satellite landcover information, Finnish forest classification and hourly meteorological data to calculate isoprene, monoterpene, sesquiterpene and other VOC emissions over the growing season. The principal compounds emitted by Scots pine are DELTA3-carene and alpha-pinene in the south boreal zone and alpha- and beta-pinene in the north boreal zone. The monoterpene emissions are dependent on temperature and have a clear seasonal cycle with high emissions in spring

  13. Ion-induced nucleation of pure biogenic particles

    CERN Document Server

    Kirkby, Jasper; Sengupta, Kamalika; Frege, Carla; Gordon, Hamish; Williamson, Christina; Heinritzi, Martin; Simon, Mario; Yan, Chao; Almeida, João; Tröstl, Jasmin; Nieminen, Tuomo; Ortega, Ismael K; Wagner, Robert; Adamov, Alexey; Amorim, Antonio; Bernhammer, Anne-Kathrin; Bianchi, Federico; Breitenlechner, Martin; Brilke, Sophia; Chen, Xuemeng; Craven, Jill; Dias, antonio; Ehrhart, Sebastian; Flagan, Richard C; Franchin, Alessandro; Fuchs, Claudia; Guida, Roberto; Hakala, Jani; Hoyle, Christopher R; Jokinen, Tuija; Junninen, Heikki; Kangasluoma, Juha; Kim, Jaeseok; Krapf, Manuel; Kürten, andreas; Laaksonen, Ari; Lehtipalo, Katrianne; Makhmutov, Vladimir; Mathot, Serge; Molteni, Ugo; Onnela, antti; Peräkylä, Otso; Piel, Felix; Petäjä, Tuukka; Praplan, Arnaud P; Pringle, Kirsty; Rap, Alexandru; Richards, Nigel A D; Riipinen, Ilona; Rissanen, Matti P; Rondo, Linda; Sarnela, Nina; Schobesberger, Siegfried; Scott, Catherine E; Seinfeld, John H; Sipilä, Mikko; Steiner, Gerhard; Stozhkov, Yuri; Stratmann, Frank; Tomé, Antonio; Virtanen, Annele; Vogel, Alexander L; Wagner, Andrea C; Wagner, Paul E; Weingartner, Ernest; Wimmer, Daniela; Winkler, Paul M; Ye, Penglin; Zhang, Xuan; Hansel, Armin; Dommen, Josef; Donahue, Neil M; Worsnop, Douglas R; Baltensperger, Urs; Kulmala, Markku; Carslaw, Kenneth S; Curtius, Joachim

    2016-01-01

    Atmospheric aerosols and their effect on clouds are thought to be important for anthropogenic radiative forcing of the climate, yet remain poorly understood. Globally, around half of cloud condensation nuclei originate from nucleation of atmospheric vapours. It is thought that sulfuric acid is essential to initiate most particle formation in the atmosphere and that ions have a relatively minor role. Some laboratory studies, however, have reported organic particle formation without the intentional addition of sulfuric acid, although contamination could not be excluded. Here we present evidence for the formation of aerosol particles from highly oxidized biogenic vapours in the absence of sulfuric acid in a large chamber under atmospheric conditions. The highly oxygenated molecules (HOMs) are produced by ozonolysis of $\\alpha$-pinene. We find that ions from Galactic cosmic rays increase the nucleation rate by one to two orders of magnitude compared with neutral nucleation. Our experimental findings are supported...

  14. Emission of Biogenic Volatile Organic Compounds in the Arctic

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lindwall, Frida

    Emissions of biogenic volatile organic compounds (BVOCs) from arctic ecosystems are scarcely studied and the effect of climate change on BVOC emissions even less so. BVOCs are emitted from all living organisms and play a role for atmospheric chemistry. The major part of BVOCs derives from plants...... in the atmosphere. This may warm the climate due to a prolonged lifetime of the potent greenhouse gas methane in the atmosphere. However, oxidized BVOCs may participate in formation or growth of aerosols, which in turn may mitigate climate warming. Climate change in the Arctic, an area characterized by short...... dependent and the emissions will increase in a future warmer climate. The aims of this dissertation were to study BVOC emission rates and blends from arctic ecosystems and to reveal the effect of climate change on BVOC emissions from the Arctic. BVOC emissions were measured in ambient and modified...

  15. Water-soluble primary amine compounds in rural continental precipitation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gorzelska, Krystyna; Galloway, James N.; Watterson, Karen; Keene, William C.

    Procedures for collecting, storing and analysing precipitation samples for organic nitrogen studies were developed. These procedures preserve chemical integrities of the species of interest, allow for up to 3 months storage and quantitative determination of water-soluble primary amine compounds, with the overall error at the 2 nM detection limit of less than 30%. This methodology was applied to study amino compounds in precipitation samples collected over a period of one year in central Virginia. Nitrogen concentrations of 13 amino acids and 3 aliphatic amines were summed to calculate the total amine nitrogen (TAN). The concentration of TAN ranged from below our detection level to 6658 nM, and possibly reflected a seasonal variation in the source strength of the atmospheric amines. Overall, the most commonly occurring amino compounds were methyl amine, ethyl amine, glutamic acid, glycine and serine. On average, the highest overall contribution to the TAN came from arginine, asparagine, glutamine, methyl amine, serine and alanine. However, large qualitative and quantitative variations observed among samples warrant caution in interpretation and application of the averaged values. TAN in Charlottesville precipitation contributed from less than 1 to ca 10% of the ammonium nitrogen level. However, our estimates show that amino compounds may contribute significantly to reduced nitrogen budget in precipitation in remote regions.

  16. Constraining Anthropogenic and Biogenic Emissions Using Chemical Ionization Mass Spectrometry

    Science.gov (United States)

    Spencer, Kathleen M.

    Numerous gas-phase anthropogenic and biogenic compounds are emitted into the atmosphere. These gases undergo oxidation to form other gas-phase species and particulate matter. Whether directly or indirectly, primary pollutants, secondary gas-phase products, and particulate matter all pose health and environmental risks. In this work, ambient measurements conducted using chemical ionization mass spectrometry are used as a tool for investigating regional air quality. Ambient measurements of peroxynitric acid (HO2NO2) were conducted in Mexico City. A method of inferring the rate of ozone production, PO3, is developed based on observations of HO2NO 2, NO, and NO2. Comparison of this observationally based PO3 to a highly constrained photochemical box model indicates that regulations aimed at reducing ozone levels in Mexico City by reducing NOx concentrations may be effective at higher NO x levels than predicted using accepted photochemistry. Measurements of SO2 and particulate sulfate were conducted over the Los Angeles basin in 2008 and are compared to measurements made in 2002. A large decrease in SO2 concentration and a change in spatial distribution are observed. Nevertheless, only a modest reduction in sulfate concentration is observed at ground sites within the basin. Possible explanations for these trends are investigated. Two techniques, single and triple quadrupole chemical ionization mass spectrometry, were used to quantify ambient concentrations of biogenic oxidation products, hydroxyacetone and glycolaldehyde. The use of these techniques demonstrates the advantage of triple quadrupole mass spectrometry for separation of mass analogues, provided the collision-induced daughter ions are sufficiently distinct. Enhancement ratios of hydroxyacetone and glycolaldehyde in Californian biomass burning plumes are presented as are concentrations of these compounds at a rural ground site downwind of Sacramento.

  17. Biophysics of Magnetic Orientation: Radical Pairs, Biogenic Magnetite, or both?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kirschvink, Joe

    2011-03-01

    Two major biophysical mechanisms for magnetoreception in terrestrial animals, one based on biogenic magnetite and another on radical-pair biochemical reactions, have been the subject of experiment and debate for the past 30 years. The magnetite hypothesis has stood the test of time: biogenic magnetite is synthesized biochemically in Bacteria, Protists, and numerous Animal phyla, as well as in some plants. Chains of single-domain crystals have been detected by clean-lab based SQUID magnetometry in animal tissues in all major phyla, followed by high-resolution TEM in selected model organisms, as well as by electrophysiological studies demonstrating the role of the ophthalmic branch of the trigeminal nerve in the magnetoreceptive process. Pulse-remagnetization - configured to uniquely flip the polarity of single-domain ferromagnets - has dramatic effects on the behavior of many birds, honeybees, mole rats, turtles, and bats, to cite a growing list. Magnetite-containing cells in the vicinity of these neurons in fish are now the subject of intense study by our consortium. The existence of a specialized class of magnetite-containing magnetoreceptor cells in animal tissues is no longer controversial. In contrast, less success has been achieved in gaining experimental support across a range of taxa for the radical-pair hypothesis. Although this mechanism was proposed to explain an early observation that birds would not respond to complete inversion of the magnetic vector, many organisms (even some birds) do indeed respond to the field polarity. We also note that few, if any, of these critical experiments have been done using fully double-blind methods. This is joint work with: M. M. Walker (University of Auckland, New Zealand) and M. Winklhofer (LMU Munich, Germany).

  18. Modeling biogenic gas bubbles formation and migration in coarse sand

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ye, S.

    2011-12-01

    Shujun Ye Department of Hydrosciences, School of Earth Sciences and Engineering, Nanjing University, Nanjing 210093, China; sjye@nju.edu.cn Brent E. Sleep Department of Civil Engineering, University of Toronto, Toronto, ON, M5S 1A4 CANADA; sleep@ecf.utoronto.ca Methane gas generation in porous media was investigated in an anaerobic two-dimensional sand-filled cell. Inoculation of the lower portion of the cell with a methanogenic culture and addition of methanol to the bottom of the cell led to biomass growth and formation of a gas phase. The formation, migration, distribution and saturation of gases in the cell were visualized by the charge-coupled device (CCD) camera. Gas generated at the bottom of the cell in the biologically active zone moved upwards in discrete fingers, so that gas phase saturations (gas-filled fraction of void space) in the biologically active zone at the bottom of the cell did not exceed 40-50%, while gas accumulation at the top of the cell produced gas phase saturations as high as 80%. Macroscopic invasion percolation (MIP) at near pore scale[Glass, et al., 2001; Kueper and McWhorter, 1992]was used to model gas bubbles growth in porous media. The nonwetting phase migration pathway can be yielded directly by MIP. MIP was adopted to simulate the expansion, fragmentation, and mobilization of gas clusters in the cell. The production of gas, and gas phash saturations were simulated by a continuum model - compositional simulator (COMPSIM) [Sleep and Sykes, 1993]. So a combination of a continuum model and a MIP model was used to simulate the formation, fragmentation and migration of biogenic gas bubbles. Key words: biogenic gas; two dimensional; porous media; MIP; COMPSIM

  19. Comparison of Solvation Effects on CO2 Capture with Aqueous Amine Solutions and Amine-Functionalized Ionic Liquids.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yamada, Hidetaka

    2016-10-13

    Amines are the most widely utilized chemicals for postcombustion CO2 capture, because the reversible reactions between amines and CO2 through their moderate interaction allow effective "catch and release". Usually, CO2 is dissolved in the form of an anion such as carbamate or bicarbonate. Therefore, the reaction energy diagram is potentially governed to a large extent by the polarity of the surrounding solvent. Herein, we compared aqueous amine solutions and amine-functionalized ionic liquids by investigating their dielectric constants and performing an intrinsic reaction coordinate analysis of the CO2 absorption process. Quantum mechanical calculations at the CCSD(T)/6-311++G(d,p)//B3LYP/6-311++G(d,p) level within the continuum solvation model (SMD/IEF-PCM) revealed contrasting dependencies of C-N bond formation on the dielectric constant in those solutions. Amines react with CO2 on an energy surface that is significantly affected by the dielectric constant in conventional aqueous amine solutions, whereas amine-functionalized anions and CO2 form stable C-N bonds with a comparatively lower activation energy regardless of the dielectric constant.

  20. A new test procedure for biogenic sulfuric acid corrosion of concrete

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vincke; Verstichel; Monteny; Verstraete

    1999-01-01

    A new test method is described for biogenic sulfuric acid corrosion of concrete, more specifically in sewer conditions. The aim of the new test method is the development of an accelerated and reproducible procedure for monitoring the resistance of different types of concrete with regard to biogenic sulfuric acid corrosion. This experimental procedure reflects worst case conditions by providing besides H2S, also an enrichment of thiobacilli and biologically produced sulfur. By simulating the cyclic processes occurring in sewer pipes, significant differences between concrete mixtures could be detected after 51 days. Concrete modified by a styrene-acrylic ester polymer demonstrated a higher resistance against biogenic sulfuric acid attack.

  1. Operation of Marine Diesel Engines on Biogenic Fuels: Modification of Emissions and Resulting Climate Effects

    OpenAIRE

    Petzold, A.; P. Lauer; Fritsche, U.; Hasselbach, J.; Lichtenstern, M.; Schlager, H.; Fleischer, F.

    2011-01-01

    The modification of emissions of climate-sensitive exhaust compounds such as CO2, NOx, hydrocarbons, and particulate matter from medium-speed marine diesel engines was studied for a set of fossil and biogenic fuels. Applied fossil fuels were the reference heavy fuel oil (HFO) and the low-sulfur marine gas oil (MGO); biogenic fuels were palm oil, soybean oil, sunflower oil, and animal fat. Greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions related to the production of biogenic fuels were treated by means of a fue...

  2. Biogenic nanoparticles: copper, copper oxides, copper sulphides, complex copper nanostructures and their applications.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rubilar, Olga; Rai, Mahendra; Tortella, Gonzalo; Diez, Maria Cristina; Seabra, Amedea B; Durán, Nelson

    2013-09-01

    Copper nanoparticles have been the focus of intensive study due to their potential applications in diverse fields including biomedicine, electronics, and optics. Copper-based nanostructured materials have been used in conductive films, lubrification, nanofluids, catalysis, and also as potent antimicrobial agent. The biogenic synthesis of metallic nanostructured nanoparticles is considered to be a green and eco-friendly technology since neither harmful chemicals nor high temperatures are involved in the process. The present review discusses the synthesis of copper nanostructured nanoparticles by bacteria, fungi, and plant extracts, showing that biogenic synthesis is an economically feasible, simple and non-polluting process. Applications for biogenic copper nanoparticles are also discussed.

  3. Study on the Reaction of Benzimidazolium Salt with Amine Compounds

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2003-01-01

    The addition-hydrolysis reaction of benzimidazolium salt with some mono- andbifunctional amine nucleophiles is reported, and a novel method of biomimetic synthesis forformamides and heterocycle compounds is provided.

  4. FTIR Study of Enhanced Polymeric Blend Membrane with Amines

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Asim Mushtaq

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available In this study, research will be carried out to identify the functional group behavior of glassy and rubbery polymeric blend membrane with amines. Polymeric blend membranes with different blending ratios were prepared and the developed membranes were characterized by FTIR to see the effect of blend ratio on different functional groups. The developed membranes are flat dense sheet membrane of 20% wt/wt. The pure and blend membrane polysulfone, polyethersulfone, polyvinyl acetate with different composition, with 10% methyl diethanol amine, mono ethanol amine, diethanol amine are developed with dimethyl acetamide solvent. Fourier Transform Infrared (FTIR spectroscopy was utilized to study the interaction between two polymers and to analyze the type of bonding present. To observed frequencies were assigned to various mode of vibration in terms of fundamentals and combination. These spectral changes indicated the existence of molecular interaction among the enhanced polymeric blends; highlight the compatible nature among each other.

  5. Two simple amine hydrochlorides from the soft coral Lobophytum strictum

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    Parameswaran, P.S.; Naik, C.G.; Das, B.; Kamat, S.Y.

    Two simple amine hydrochlorides, viz., 1-amino-1, 1-dimethyl-3-oxo-butane hydrochloride (1) (Diacetonamine) and 2, 2, 6, 6-tetramethylpiperidone hydrochloride (2) have been isolated from the fraction of the methanolic extract of the soft coral...

  6. Amine reclaiming technologies in post-combustion carbon dioxide capture.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Tielin; Hovland, Jon; Jens, Klaus J

    2015-01-01

    Amine scrubbing is the most developed technology for carbon dioxide (CO2) capture. Degradation of amine solvents due to the presence of high levels of oxygen and other impurities in flue gas causes increasing costs and deterioration in long term performance, and therefore purification of the solvents is needed to overcome these problems. This review presents the reclaiming of amine solvents used for post combustion CO2 capture (PCC). Thermal reclaiming, ion exchange, and electrodialysis, although principally developed for sour gas sweetening, have also been tested for CO2 capture from flue gas. The three technologies all have their strengths and weaknesses, and further development is needed to reduce energy usage and costs. An expected future trend for amine reclamation is to focus on process integration of the current reclaiming technologies into the PCC process in order to drive down costs.

  7. Silver-catalyzed synthesis of amides from amines and aldehydes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Madix, Robert J; Zhou, Ling; Xu, Bingjun; Friend, Cynthia M; Freyschlag, Cassandra G

    2014-11-18

    The invention provides a method for producing amides via the reaction of aldehydes and amines with oxygen adsorbed on a metallic silver or silver alloy catalyst. An exemplary reaction is shown in Scheme 1: (I), (II), (III). ##STR00001##

  8. Amine reclaiming technologies in post-combustion carbon dioxide capture

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Tielin Wang; Jon Hovland; KlauS J.Jens

    2015-01-01

    Amine scrubbing is the most developed technology for carbon dioxide (CO2) capture.Degradation of amine solvents due to the presence of high levels of oxygen and other impurities in flue gas causes increasing costs and deterioration in long term performance,and therefore purification of the solvents is needed to overcome these problems.This review presents the reclaiming of amine solvents used for post combustion CO2 capture (PCC).Thermal reclaiming,ion exchange,and electrodialysis,although principally developed for sour gas sweetening,have also been tested for CO2 capture from flue gas.The three technologies all have their strengths and weaknesses,and further development is needed to reduce energy usage and costs.An expected future trend for amine reclamation is to focus on process integration of the current reclaiming technologies into the PCC process in order to drive down costs.

  9. Isomerization of metastable amine radical cations by dissociation-recombination

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pedersen, Anders Holmen; Nielsen, Christian Benedikt; Bojesen, Gustav;

    2015-01-01

    The metastable molecular ions of primary aliphatic amines branched at C2 can isomerize by cleavage-recombination, thereby facilitating fragmentation reactions that require less energy than simple cleavage of the initial molecular ion. This process complements the reactions described by Audier...... to account for the conspicuous absence of the conventional a-cleavage among the major fragmentation reactions of the metastable molecular ions of primary amines....

  10. Determination of the biogenic secondary organic aerosol fraction in the boreal forest by AMS and NMR measurements

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    E. Finessi

    2011-08-01

    comparison with spectral profiles obtained from laboratory experiments of terpenes photo-oxidation. The second NMR factor associated with western air masses was linked to biogenic marine sources, and was enriched in low-molecular weight aliphatic amines. Such findings provide evidence of at least two independent sources mbox{originating} biogenic organic aerosols in Hyytiälä by oxidation and condensation mechanisms: reactive terpenes emitted by the boreal forest and compounds of marine origin, with the latter relatively more important when predominantly polar air masses reach the site.

    This study is an example of how spectroscopic techniques, such as proton NMR, can add functional group specificity for certain chemical features (like aromatics of OA with respect to AMS. They can therefore be profitably be exploited to complement aerosol mass spectrometric measurements in organic source apportionment studies.

  11. Airborne flux measurements of biogenic isoprene over California

    Science.gov (United States)

    Misztal, P. K.; Karl, T.; Weber, R.; Jonsson, H. H.; Guenther, A. B.; Goldstein, A. H.

    2014-10-01

    Biogenic isoprene fluxes were measured onboard the CIRPAS Twin Otter aircraft as part of the California Airborne Biogenic volatile organic compound (BVOC) Emission Research in Natural Ecosystem Transects (CABERNET) campaign during June 2011. The airborne virtual disjunct eddy covariance (AvDEC) approach used measurements from a proton transfer reaction mass spectrometer (PTR-MS) and a wind radome probe to directly determine fluxes of isoprene over 7400 km of flight paths focusing on areas of California predicted to have the largest emissions. The fast Fourier transform (FFT) approach was used to calculate fluxes of isoprene over long transects of more than 15 km, most commonly between 50 and 150 km. The continuous wavelet transformation (CWT) approach was used over the same transects to also calculate instantaneous isoprene fluxes with localization of both frequency and time independent of non-stationarities. Fluxes were generally measured by flying consistently at 400 m ± 50 m (a.g.l.) altitude, and extrapolated to the surface according to the determined flux divergence determined in the racetrack-stacked profiles. The wavelet-derived surface fluxes of isoprene averaged to 2 km spatial resolution showed good correspondence to basal emission factor (BEF) land-cover data sets used to drive BVOC emission models. The surface flux of isoprene was close to zero over Central Valley crops and desert shrublands, but was very high (up to 15 mg m-2 h-1) above oak woodlands, with clear dependence of emissions on temperature and oak density. Isoprene concentrations of up to 8 ppb were observed at aircraft height on the hottest days and over the dominant source regions. Even though the isoprene emissions from agricultural crop regions, shrublands, and coniferous forests were extremely low, observations at the Walnut Grove tower south of Sacramento demonstrate that isoprene oxidation products from the high emitting regions in the surrounding oak woodlands accumulate at night in

  12. Evolution of cyclonic eddies and biogenic fluxes in the northern Bay of Bengal

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    Nuncio, M.; PrasannaKumar, S.

    of westward propagating Rossby waves. The sediment trap data provided the observational evidence that eddy-induced biological productivity is an important mechanism in the Bay of Bengal that contributes significantly to the mid-depth biogenic flux....

  13. Cloud condensation nuclei (CCN) activity of aliphatic amine secondary aerosol

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tang, X.; Price, D.; Praske, E.; Vu, D. N.; Purvis-Roberts, K.; Silva, P. J.; Cocker, D. R., III; Asa-Awuku, A.

    2014-06-01

    Aliphatic amines can form secondary aerosol via oxidation with atmospheric radicals (e.g., hydroxyl radical and nitrate radical). The particle can contain both secondary organic aerosol (SOA) and inorganic salts. The ratio of organic to inorganic materials in the particulate phase influences aerosol hygroscopicity and cloud condensation nuclei (CCN) activity. SOA formed from trimethylamine (TMA) and butylamine (BA) reactions with hydroxyl radical (OH) is composed of organic material of low hygroscopicity (single hygroscopicity parameter, κ, ≤ 0.25). Secondary aerosol formed from the tertiary aliphatic amine (TMA) with N2O5 (source of nitrate radical, NO3) contains less volatile compounds than the primary aliphatic amine (BA) aerosol. As relative humidity (RH) increases, inorganic amine salts are formed as a result of acid-base reactions. The CCN activity of the humid TMA-N2O5 aerosol obeys Zdanovskii, Stokes, and Robinson (ZSR) ideal mixing rules. The humid BA + N2O5 aerosol products were found to be very sensitive to the temperature at which the measurements were made within the streamwise continuous-flow thermal gradient CCN counter; κ ranges from 0.4 to 0.7 dependent on the instrument supersaturation (ss) settings. The variance of the measured aerosol κ values indicates that simple ZSR rules cannot be applied to the CCN results from the primary aliphatic amine system. Overall, aliphatic amine aerosol systems' κ ranges within 0.2 systems.

  14. STRUCTURAL EFFECT ON VINYL POLYMERIZATION INITIATED WITH AROMATIC TERTIARY AMINE

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    CAO Weixiao; FENG Xinde

    1983-01-01

    The polymerization mechanism of various vinyl monomers in the presence of aromatic tertiary amines has been studied. It was found that the mechanisms of different monomers are varied with the structures of monomers. Those monomers, such as methacrylic esters containing α-CH3 group on the double bond could be polymerized with aromatic tertiary amine in the absence of light,while the monomers without α-CH3 group, such as methyl acrylate, acrylonitrile etc. would polymerize only under light.The structural effects, both of the monomer and the amine, on the rate of photopolymerization were studied. The activities of monomers and amines may be arranged in the following orderMonomer: AN>MA>VA>St Amine: DMT>DMA>DMB>DNAIt is revealed that both the electro-negative group on the double bond of monomer which acts as an acceptor and the electro-positive group on the nitrogen atom of amine which acts as a donor would effectively increase the rate of photopolymerization.

  15. STUDIES ON VINYL POLYMERIZATION WITH INITIATION SYSTEM CONTAINING AMINE DERIVATIVES

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    QIU Kunyuan; ZHANG Jingyi; FENG Xinde(S. T. Voong)

    1983-01-01

    Two main types of amine-containing initiation systems were studied in this work. In the case of MMA polymerization initiated by BPO-amine (DMT, DHET, DMA) redox systems, it was found that the polymerization rate and colour stability of the polymer for different amine systems were in the following order: DMT≈DHET>DMA. Accordingly, BPO-DMT and BPO-DHET are effective initiators. In the case of MEMA polymerization by amine (DMT, DHET, DMA) alone, it was found that the polymerization rate and the percentage of conversion for these different amine systems were in the following order: DMT≥DHET>DMA. The polymerization rate and the percentage of conversion also increased with the increase of DMT concentration. From the kinetic investigation the rate equation of Rp=K [DMT]1/2 [MEMA]3/2 was obtained, and the overall activation energy of polymerization was calculated to be 34.3 KJ/mol (8.2 Kcal/mol). Moreover, the polymerization of MEMA in the presence of DMT was strongly inhibited by hydroquinone, indicating the polymerization being free radical in nature. From these results, the mechanism of MEMA polymerization initiated by amine was proposed.

  16. Amine-functionalized porous silicas as adsorbents for aldehyde abatement.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nomura, Akihiro; Jones, Christopher W

    2013-06-26

    A series of aminopropyl-functionalized silicas containing of primary, secondary, or tertiary amines is fabricated via silane-grafting on mesoporous SBA-15 silica and the utility of each material in the adsorption of volatile aldehydes from air is systematically assessed. A particular emphasis is placed on low-molecular-weight aldehydes such as formaldehyde and acetaldehyde, which are highly problematic volatile organic compound (VOC) pollutants. The adsorption tests demonstrate that the aminosilica materials with primary amines most effectively adsorbed formaldehyde with an adsorption capacity of 1.4 mmolHCHO g(-1), whereas the aminosilica containing secondary amines showed lower adsorption capacity (0.80 mmolHCHO g(-1)) and the aminosilica containing tertiary amines adsorbed a negligible amount of formaldehyde. The primary amine containing silica also successfully abated higher aldehyde VOC pollutants, including acetaldehyde, hexanal, and benzaldehyde, by effectively adsorbing them. The adsorption mechanism is investigated by (13)C CP MAS solid-state NMR and FT-Raman spectroscopy, and it is demonstrated that the aldehydes are chemically attached to the surface of aminosilica in the form of imines and hemiaminals. The high aldehyde adsorption capacities of the primary aminosilicas in this study demonstrate the utility of amine-functionalized silica materials for reduction of gaseous aldehydes.

  17. Heterocyclic amines in meat and meat products

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Aliye BULGAN

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available Heterocyclic amines (HA are the mutagenic/carcinogenic compounds which generate as a result of cooking of red meat, poultry meat and fish fillets at high temperatures. Up to 20 different HAs were detected and classified in the researches that conducted on these types of meats cooked at high temperatures. HAs are the products of Maillard reactions and the Strecker degredation of main precursors such as creatine/creatinine, aminoacid and the polysaccharides. Many physical and chemical factors effect the formation of HAs. Thus, it was reported by many researchers that utilizing coating and marination processes in addition to using natural and synthetic antioxidants and seasonings-plant extracts were effective on inhibiting/decreasing the formation of HAs. Additionally, boiling/steaming and microwave cooking methodologies were recommended instead of barbecuing, grilling or frying to inhibit/decrease the formation of HAs. The HAs formed in meat and meat products and the factors which have effects on the formation of HAs are presented in this review.

  18. ANTIMICROBIAL POTENT OXAZINE-2-AMINE DERIVATIVES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    GANESAMOORTHY THIRUNARAYANAN

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available Objective: To synthesize thirteen effective microbial potent oxazine-2-amine derivatives and evaluate the antimicrobial activities of these compounds. Material and methods: The solvent-free solid fly-ash: H2SO4 catalyzed cyclization of 4-bromo-1-naphthyl chalcones and urea under microwave irradiation technique was utilized for the synthesis of oxazine derivatives. The synthesized oxazines were characterized by their physical constants and spectroscopic data. The Bauer-Kirby disc-diffusion method of measurement of zone of inhibition was used for evaluation antimicrobial activity of synthesized oxazines. Results: The cyclization was effective and this reaction gave more than 80% yield. The catalyst was reused up to five times consecutively without appreciable decreasing of yield. All compounds were active against their microbial strains. Conclusions: This solvent-free synthetic method was effective for the synthesis of oxazine derivatives. The amino, dimethylamino, halogens, methoxy and methyl substituted oxazines shows significant antibacterial activity. Chloro, hydroxy and nitro substituted oxazine derivative have shown significant antifungal activity.

  19. Light Absorption of Biogenic Aerosol Particles in Amazonia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Holanda, B. A.; Artaxo, P.; Ferreira De Brito, J.; Barbosa, H. M.; Andreae, M. O.; Saturno, J.; Pöhlker, C.; Holben, B. N.; Schafer, J.

    2014-12-01

    Aerosol absorption is a key issue in proper calculation of aerosol radiative forcing. Especially in the tropics with the dominance of natural biogenic aerosol and brown carbon, the so called anomalous absorption is of particular interest. A special experiment was designed to study the wavelength dependence of aerosol absorption for PM2.5 as well as for PM10 particles in the wet season in Central Amazonia. Aerosol analysis occurred from May to August 2014, in the ZF2 ecological reservation, situated at about 55 km North of Manaus in very pristine conditions Two 7 wavelengths AE33 Aethalometers were deployed measuring in parallel, but with a PM2.5 and PM10 inlets. Two MAAP (Multiangle Aerosol Absorption Photometer) were operated in parallel with the AE33 exactly at the same PM2.5 and PM10 inlets. Organic and elemental carbon was analyzed using collection with quartz filters and analysis using a Sunset OC/EC analyzer. Aerosol light scattering for 3 wavelengths was measured using Air Photon and TSI Nephelometers. Aerosol size distribution was measured with one TSI SMPS and a GRIMM OPC to have the size range from 10 nm to 10 micrometers. Particles were measured under dry conditions using diffusion dryers. Aerosol optical depth and absorption was also measured with an AERONET sunphotometer operated close to the site. As the experiment was run in the wet season, very low equivalent black carbon (EBC) were measured, with average concentrations around 50 ng/m³ during May, increasing to 130 ng/m³ in June and July. The measurements adjusted for similar wavelengths shows excellent agreement between the MAAP and AE33 for both inlets (PM2.5 and PM10). It was not possible statistically infer absorption from the coarse mode biogenic particles, since the absorption was completely dominated by fine mode particles. AERONET measurements shows very low values of AOD, at 0.17 at 500 nm and 0.13 at 870 nm, with very low absorption AOD values at 0.00086 at 676 nm and 0.0068 at 872 nm

  20. Biogenic hardparts: Difficult archives of the geological past (Invited)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Immenhauser, A.; Schone, B. R.; Hoffmann, R.; Niedermayr, A.

    2013-12-01

    Biomineralized exo- or endoskeletons of fossil marine invertebrates are widespread and diverse components of the Phanerozoic rock record of Earth's past and present oceans. Exoskeletons serve as protection against environmental pressure or predators, whilst endoskeletons can act as support or serve as an attachment for muscles and ligaments and hence as a mechanism for transmitting muscular forces. Biogenic hard parts represent sophisticated products resulting from the hierarchical interaction of inorganic minerals (95%) and macromolecular organic matrices, forming commonly less than 5%. The significance of many biogenic carbonate archives lies in the time-resolved growth patterns and their ability to record ambient environmental conditions in the form of multiple geochemical properties (multi-proxy archives) that have been widely used to assess past oceanic seawater properties. Here, we compile and review published work dealing with crystallization pathways of skeletal hard parts secreted by mollusks (i.e., bivalves and cephalopods) as well as brachiopods as widely used archives of ancient neritic epeiric settings. Bivalves and cephalopods (e.g., extinct ammonoids and belemnites and extant Sepia, Nautilus and Spirula) all form accretionary calcitic, aragonitic or vateritic skeletal hard parts. Despite the fact that mollusks and brachiopods form part of very different branches of the animal phylogenetic tree, their biomineralization strategies are surprisingly similar. Our main focus lies in a critical assessment of the complex pathways of ions and aquo-complexes from their source (seawater) to the final product (biomineral). We do this as an attempt to critically test the commonly held hypothesis that many fossil hard parts precipitated (under favorable conditions and pending subsequent diagenetic alteration) in equilibrium with seawater. Two main observations stand out: (1) the present knowledge on pathways and mechanisms (e.g., ion channel trans-membrane or

  1. Anthropogenic impact on biogenic Si pools in temperate soils

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    W. Clymans

    2011-05-01

    Full Text Available Human land use changes directly affect silica (Si mobilisation and Si storage in terrestrial ecosystems and influence Si export from the continents, although the magnitudes of the impact are unknown. Yet biogenic silica (BSi in soils is an understudied aspect. We have quantified and compared total biogenic (PSia and easily soluble (PSie Si pools at four sites along a gradient of disturbance in southern Sweden. An estimate of the magnitude of change in temperate continental BSi pools due to human disturbance is provided. Land use clearly affects BSi pools and their distribution. Total PSia and PSie for a continuous forested site at Siggaboda Nature Reserve (66 900 ± 22 800 kg SiO2 ha−1 and 952 ± 16 kg SiO2 ha−1 are significantly higher than disturbed land use types from the Råshult Culture Reserve including arable land (28 800 ± 7200 kg SiO2 ha−1 and 239 ± 91 kg SiO2 ha−1, pasture sites (27 300 ± 5980 kg SiO2 ha−1 and 370 ± 129 kg SiO2 ha−1 and grazed forest (23 600 ± 6370 kg SiO2 ha−1 and 346 ± 123 kg SiO2 ha−1. Vertical PSia and PSie profiles show significant (p<0.05 variation among the sites. These differences in size and distribution are interpreted as the long-term effect of reduced BSi replenishment and increased mobilisation of the PSia in disturbed soils. In temperate regions, total PSia showed a 10 % decline since agricultural development (3000BCE. Recent agricultural expansion (after 1700CE has resulted in an average export of 1.1 ± 0.8 Tmol Si yr−1, leading to an annual contribution of ca. 20 % to the global land-ocean Si flux carried by rivers. Human activities clearly exert a long-term influence on Si cycling in soils and

  2. Airborne flux measurements of biogenic volatile organic compounds over California

    Science.gov (United States)

    Misztal, P. K.; Karl, T.; Weber, R.; Jonsson, H. H.; Guenther, A. B.; Goldstein, A. H.

    2014-03-01

    Biogenic Volatile Organic Compound (BVOC) fluxes were measured onboard the CIRPAS Twin Otter aircraft as part of the California Airborne BVOC Emission Research in Natural Ecosystem Transects (CABERNET) campaign during June 2011. The airborne virtual disjunct eddy covariance (AvDEC) approach used measurements from a PTR-MS and a wind radome probe to directly determine fluxes of isoprene, MVK + MAC, methanol, monoterpenes, and MBO over ∼10 000 km of flight paths focusing on areas of California predicted to have the largest emissions of isoprene. The Fast Fourier Transform (FFT) approach was used to calculate fluxes over long transects of more than 15 km, most commonly between 50 and 150 km. The Continuous Wavelet Transformation (CWT) approach was used over the same transects to also calculate "instantaneous" fluxes with localization of both frequency and time independent of non-stationarities. Vertical flux divergence of isoprene is expected due to its relatively short lifetime and was measured directly using "racetrack" profiles at multiple altitudes. It was found to be linear and in the range 5% to 30% depending on the ratio of aircraft altitude to PBL height (z / zi). Fluxes were generally measured by flying consistently at 400 ± 50 m (a.g.l.) altitude, and extrapolated to the surface according to the determined flux divergence. The wavelet-derived surface fluxes of isoprene averaged to 2 km spatial resolution showed good correspondence to Basal Emission Factor (BEF) landcover datasets used to drive biogenic VOC (BVOC) emission models. The surface flux of isoprene was close to zero over Central Valley crops and desert shrublands, but was very high (up to 15 mg m-2 h-1) above oak woodlands, with clear dependence of emissions on temperature and oak density. Isoprene concentrations of up to 8 ppb were observed at aircraft height on the hottest days and over the dominant source regions. While isoprene emissions from agricultural crop regions, shrublands, and

  3. Dynamic Kinetic Asymmetric Amination of Alcohols: From A Mixture of Four Isomers to Diastereo- and Enantiopure α-Branched Amines.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rong, Zi-Qiang; Zhang, Yao; Chua, Raymond Hong Bing; Pan, Hui-Jie; Zhao, Yu

    2015-04-22

    The first dynamic kinetic asymmetric amination of alcohols via borrowing hydrogen methodology is presented. Under the cooperative catalysis by an iridium complex and a chiral phosphoric acid, α-branched alcohols that exist as a mixture of four isomers undergo racemization by two orthogonal mechanisms and are converted to diastereo- and enantiopure amines bearing adjacent stereocenters. The preparation of diastereo- and enantiopure 1,2-amino alcohols is also realized using this catalytic system.

  4. Preparation of tertiary amines by the reaction of iminium ions derived from unsymmetrical aminals with zinc and magnesium organometallics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Werner, Veronika; Ellwart, Mario; Wagner, Andreas J; Knochel, Paul

    2015-04-17

    We report a convenient one-pot preparation of polyfunctional tertiary amines, including various biorelevant phenethylamines or ephedrine derivatives, via the reaction of new functionalized iminium ions with a variety of zinc and magnesium organometallic reagents. These iminium ions were generated from unsymmetrical aminals, obtained by the in situ addition of various amides to Tietze's iminium salt [Me2NCH2(+)CF3COO(-)]. A functionalized aniline, prepared by this method, was converted to a quinolidine via an intramolecular Heck reaction.

  5. Operation of marine diesel engines on biogenic fuels: modification of emissions and resulting climate effects.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Petzold, Andreas; Lauer, Peter; Fritsche, Uwe; Hasselbach, Jan; Lichtenstern, Michael; Schlager, Hans; Fleischer, Fritz

    2011-12-15

    The modification of emissions of climate-sensitive exhaust compounds such as CO(2), NO(x), hydrocarbons, and particulate matter from medium-speed marine diesel engines was studied for a set of fossil and biogenic fuels. Applied fossil fuels were the reference heavy fuel oil (HFO) and the low-sulfur marine gas oil (MGO); biogenic fuels were palm oil, soybean oil, sunflower oil, and animal fat. Greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions related to the production of biogenic fuels were treated by means of a fuel life cycle analysis which included land use changes associated with the growth of energy plants. Emissions of CO(2) and NO(x) per kWh were found to be similar for fossil fuels and biogenic fuels. PM mass emission was reduced to 10-15% of HFO emissions for all low-sulfur fuels including MGO as a fossil fuel. Black carbon emissions were reduced significantly to 13-30% of HFO. Changes in emissions were predominantly related to particulate sulfate, while differences between low-sulfur fossil fuels and low-sulfur biogenic fuels were of minor significance. GHG emissions from the biogenic fuel life cycle (FLC) depend crucially on energy plant production conditions and have the potential of shifting the overall GHG budget from positive to negative compared to fossil fuels.

  6. Characteristics of Carbon Isotopes of Alkane Components and Identification Marks of Biogenic Gases in China

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    戴金星; 陈英

    1994-01-01

    The carbon isotope composition of alkane component in biogenic gases of China has the following characteristics:with the increase of carbon number of the alkane molecules in biogenic gases, (i) the distribution range of the δ13C values and their main frequency sections become narrower, and both the heaviest and the lightest δ13C boundary values shift to their heavier end; (ii) the δ13C values of ethane and propane in biogenic gases present a positive linear relationship and (iii) the values of δ13C1, δ13C2 and δ13C3 tend to become heavier with the increase of heavy alkane component (C2+3) in biogenic gases. The authors studied the relationship between the δ13C values and the amount of heavy alkane components in biogenic gases (δ13C1 -C2+3(%). δ13C2 -C2+3(%) ,δ13C3-C2+3(%) for the first time and set up the interrelated regression equations between δ13C and C2+3 content (C2+3%), and advance that δ13C1< -55‰ and C2+3<0. 5% are two fine marks for identification of biogenic gases of China. δ13C

  7. Tyramine and octopamine independently inhibit serotonin-stimulated aversive behaviors in Caenorhabditis elegans through two novel amine receptors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wragg, Rachel T; Hapiak, Vera; Miller, Sarah B; Harris, Gareth P; Gray, John; Komuniecki, Patricia R; Komuniecki, Richard W

    2007-12-05

    Biogenic amines modulate key behaviors in both vertebrates and invertebrates. In Caenorhabditis elegans, tyramine (TA) and octopamine (OA) inhibit aversive responses to 100%, but not dilute (30%) octanol. TA and OA also abolish food- and serotonin-dependent increases in responses to dilute octanol in wild-type but not tyra-3(ok325) and f14d12.6(ok371) null animals, respectively, suggesting that TA and OA modulated responses to dilute octanol are mediated by separate, previously uncharacterized, G-protein-coupled receptors. TA and OA are high-affinity ligands for TYRA-3 and F14D12.6, respectively, based on their pharmacological characterization after heterologous expression. f14d12.6::gfp is expressed in the ASHs, the neurons responsible for sensitivity to dilute octanol, and the sra-6-dependent expression of F14D12.6 in the ASHs is sufficient to rescue OA sensitivity in f14d12.6(ok371) null animals. In contrast, tyra-3::gfp appears not to be expressed in the ASHs, but instead in other neurons, including the dopaminergic CEP/ADEs. However, although dopamine (DA) also inhibits 5-HT-dependent responses to dilute octanol, TA still inhibits in dop-2; dop-1; dop-3 animals that do not respond to DA and cat-2(tm346) and Pdat-1::ICE animals that lack significant dopaminergic signaling, suggesting that DA is not an intermediate in TA inhibition. Finally, responses to TA and OA selectively desensitize after preexposure to the amines. Our data suggest that although tyraminergic and octopaminergic signaling yield identical phenotypes in these olfactory assays, they act independently through distinct receptors to modulate the ASH-mediated locomotory circuit and that C. elegans is a useful model to study the aminergic modulation of sensory-mediated locomotory behaviors.

  8. HOx Radical Behavior in Urban, Biogenic and Mixed Environments

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cantrell, C. A.; Mauldin, L.; Schardt, N.; Mukherjee, A. D.

    2014-12-01

    The importance of HOx radicals in tropospheric chemistry is well-recognized. These roles include control of the lifetimes of a wide variety of trace gases, and control of photochemical ozone formation. The continued advance in understanding comes from laboratory investigations and field observations especially as part of comprehensive measurement campaigns. We participated in two recent observational campaigns aboard the NSF/NCAR C-130 aircraft platform: NOMADSS (Nitrogen, Oxidants, Mercury and Aerosol Distributions, Sources and Sinks) and FRAPPE (Front Range Atmospheric Pollution and Photochemistry Experiment). During these studies, a wide varieties of air masses were sampled ranging from fresh urban to rural both without and without biogenic influence to marine, and including the impacts of emissions from oil and gas extraction and animal production. Among the wide variety of parameters and species related to tropospheric chemistry that were measured, our group made observations of HOx and related species: OH, HO2, HO2+RO2, H2SO4, and stabilized Criegee intermediates (sCIs) using selected ion chemical ionization mass spectrometry. The paper discusses the functional dependence of these species on other measures of the chemical environment (e.g. NO, VOCs, j-values) as well as comparison of model estimates with the observations.

  9. Biogenic aldehyde determination by reactive paper spray ionization mass spectrometry

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bag, Soumabha; Hendricks, P.I. [Aston Labs, Department of Chemistry, Purdue University, West Lafayette, IN 47907 (United States); Reynolds, J.C. [Centre for Analytical Science, Loughborough University, Loughborough, Leicestershire (United Kingdom); Cooks, R.G., E-mail: cooks@purdue.edu [Aston Labs, Department of Chemistry, Purdue University, West Lafayette, IN 47907 (United States)

    2015-02-20

    Highlights: • In-situ derivatization and simultaneous ionization used to detect aldehydes. • Biogenic aliphatic and aromatic aldehydes reacted with 4-aminophenol. • Derivatized products yield structurally characteristic fragment ions. • This measurement demonstrated using a miniaturized portable mass spectrometer. - Abstract: Ionization of aliphatic and aromatic aldehydes is improved by performing simultaneous chemical derivatization using 4-aminophenol to produce charged iminium ions during paper spray ionization. Accelerated reactions occur in the microdroplets generated during the paper spray ionization event for the tested aldehydes (formaldehyde, n-pentanaldehyde, n-nonanaldehyde, n-decanaldehyde, n-dodecanaldehyde, benzaldehyde, m-anisaldehyde, and p-hydroxybenzaldehyde). Tandem mass spectrometric analysis of the iminium ions using collision-induced dissociation demonstrated that straight chain aldehydes give a characteristic fragment at m/z 122 (shown to correspond to protonated 4-(methyleneamino)phenol), while the aromatic aldehyde iminium ions fragment to give a characteristic product ion at m/z 120. These features allow straightforward identification of linear and aromatic aldehydes. Quantitative analysis of n-nonaldehyde using a benchtop mass spectrometer demonstrated a linear response over 3 orders of magnitude from 2.5 ng to 5 μg of aldehyde loaded on the filter paper emitter. The limit of detection was determined to be 2.2 ng for this aldehyde. The method had a precision of 22%, relative standard deviation. The experiment was also implemented using a portable ion trap mass spectrometer.

  10. Biogenic Emissions of Volatile Organic Compounds by Urban Forests

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    CENTRITTOMauro; LIUShirong; LORETOFrancesco

    2005-01-01

    All plants emit a wide range of volatile compounds, the so-called biogenic volatile organic compounds (BVOC). BVOC emissions have received increased scientific attention in the last two decades because they may profoundly influence the chemical and physical properties of the atmosphere, and may modulate plant tolerance to heat, pollutants, oxidative stress and abiotic stresses, and affect plant-plant and plant-insect interactions. Urban forestry may have a high impact on atmospheric composition, air quality, environment,and quality of life in urban areas. However, few studies have been carried out where the emission of BVOC could have important consequence for the quality of air and contribute to pollution episodes. A screening of BVOC emission by the mixed stand constituting urban forests is therefore required if emissions are to be reliably predicted. Monitoring the emission rates simultaneously with measurements of air quality, plant physiology and micrometeorology on selected urban forests, will allow detailed quantitative information on the inventory of BVOC emissions by urban vegetation to be compiled. This information will make it possible to propose an innovative management of urban vegetation in cities characterised by heavy emissions of anthropogenic pollutants, aiming at the abatement of BVOC emissions through the introduction or selection of non-BVOC emitting species in urban areas subjected to pollution episodes and in the new afforestation areas covering peri-urban parks, green belts and green corridors between peri-urban rural areas and the conurbations.

  11. Ambient Gas-Particle Partitioning of Tracers for Biogenic Oxidation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Isaacman-VanWertz, Gabriel; Yee, Lindsay D.; Kreisberg, Nathan M.; Wernis, Rebecca; Moss, Joshua A.; Hering, Susanne V.; de Sa, Suzanne; Martin, Scot T.; Alexander, Mikaela L.; Palm, Brett B.; Hu, Weiwei; Campuzano-Jost, Pedro; Day, Douglas; Jimenez, Jose L.; Riva, Matthieu; Surratt, Jason D.; Viegas, Juarez; Manzi, Antonio; Edgerton, Eric S.; Baumann, K.; Souza, Rodrigo A.; Artaxo, Paulo; Goldstein, Allen H.

    2016-08-23

    Exchange of atmospheric organic compounds between gas and particle phases is important in the production and chemistry of particle-phase mass but is poorly understood due to a lack of simultaneous measurements in both phases of individual compounds. Measurements of particle- and gas phase organic compounds are reported here for the southeastern United States and central Amazonia. Polyols formed from isoprene oxidation contribute 8% and 15% on average to particle-phase organic mass at these sites but are also observed to have substantial gas-phase concentrations contrary to many models that treat these compounds as nonvolatile. The results of the present study show that the gas-particle partitioning of approximately 100 known and newly observed oxidation products is not well explained by environmental factors (e.g., temperature). Compounds having high vapor pressures have higher particle fractions than expected from absorptive equilibrium partitioning models. These observations support the conclusion that many commonly measured biogenic oxidation products may be bound in low-volatility mass (e.g., accretion products, inorganic organic adducts) that decomposes to individual compounds on analysis. However, the nature and extent of any such bonding remains uncertain. Similar conclusions are reach for both study locations, and average particle fractions for a given compound are consistent within similar to 25% across measurement sites.

  12. A marine biogenic source of atmospheric ice-nucleating particles

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wilson, T. W.; Ladino, L. A.; Alpert, Peter A.; Breckels, M. N.; Brooks, I. M.; Browse, J.; Burrows, Susannah M.; Carslaw, K. S.; Huffman, J. A.; Judd, C.; Kilthau, W. P.; Mason, R. H.; McFiggans, Gordon; Miller, L. A.; Najera, J.; Polishchuk, E. A.; Rae, S.; Schiller, C. L.; Si, M.; Vergara Temprado, J.; Whale, Thomas; Wong, J P S; Wurl, O.; Yakobi-Hancock, J. D.; Abbatt, JPD; Aller, Josephine Y.; Bertram, Allan K.; Knopf, Daniel A.; Murray, Benjamin J.

    2015-09-09

    The formation of ice in clouds is facilitated by the presence of airborne ice nucleating particles1,2. Sea spray is one of the major global sources of atmospheric particles, but it is unclear to what extent these particles are capable of nucleating ice3–11. Here we show that material in the sea surface microlayer, which is enriched in surface active organic material representative of that found in sub-micron sea- spray aerosol12–21, nucleates ice under conditions that occur in mixed-phase clouds and high-altitude ice clouds. The ice active material is likely biogenic and is less than ~0.2 ?m in size. We also show that organic material (exudate) released by a common marine diatom nucleates ice when separated from cells and propose that organic material associated with phytoplankton cell exudates are a candidate for the observed ice nucleating ability of the microlayer samples. By combining our measurements with global model simulations of marine organic aerosol, we show that ice nucleating particles of marine origin are dominant in remote marine environments, such as the Southern Ocean, the North Pacific and the North Atlantic.

  13. The ozonolysis of primary aliphatic amines in fine particles

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J. Zahardis

    2008-02-01

    Full Text Available The oxidative processing by ozone of the particulate amines octadecylamine (ODA and hexadecylamine (HDA is reported. Ozonolysis of these amines resulted in strong NO2 and NO3 ion signals that increased with ozone exposure as monitored by photoelectron resonance capture ionization aerosol mass spectrometry. These products suggest a mechanism of progressive oxidation of the particulate amines to nitroalkanes. Additionally, a strong ion signal at 125 m/z is assigned to the ion NO3 (HNO3. For ozonized mixed particles containing ODA or HDA + oleic acid (OL, with pO3≥3×10–7 atm, imine, secondary amide, and tertiary amide products were measured. These products most likely arise from reactions of amines with aldehydes (for imines and stabilized Criegee intermediates (SCI or secondary ozonides (for amides from the fatty acid. The routes to amides via SCI and/or secondary ozonides were shown to be more important than comparable amide forming reactions between amines and organic acids, using azelaic acid as a test compound. Finally, direct evidence is provided for the formation of a surface barrier in the ODA + OL reaction system that resulted in the retention of OL at high ozone exposures (up to 10−3 atm for 17 s. This effect was not observed in HDA + OL or single component OL particles, suggesting that it may be a species-specific surfactant effect from an in situ generated amide or imine. Implications to tropospheric chemistry, including particle bound amines as sources of oxidized gas phase nitrogen species (e.g.~NO2, NO3, formation of nitrogen enriched HULIS via ozonolysis of amines and source apportionment are discussed.

  14. Secondary aerosol formation from atmospheric reactions of aliphatic amines

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S. M. Murphy

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available Although aliphatic amines have been detected in both urban and rural atmospheric aerosols, little is known about the chemistry leading to particle formation or the potential aerosol yields from reactions of gas-phase amines. We present here the first systematic study of aerosol formation from the atmospheric reactions of amines. Based on laboratory chamber experiments and theoretical calculations, we evaluate aerosol formation from reaction of OH, ozone, and nitric acid with trimethylamine, methylamine, triethylamine, diethylamine, ethylamine, and ethanolamine. Entropies of formation for alkylammonium nitrate salts are estimated by molecular dynamics calculations enabling us to estimate equilibrium constants for the reactions of amines with nitric acid. Though subject to significant uncertainty, the calculated dissociation equilibrium constant for diethylammonium nitrate is found to be sufficiently small to allow for its atmospheric formation, even in the presence of ammonia which competes for available nitric acid. Experimental chamber studies indicate that the dissociation equilibrium constant for triethylammonium nitrate is of the same order of magnitude as that for ammonium nitrate. All amines studied form aerosol when photooxidized in the presence of NOx with the majority of the aerosol mass present at the peak of aerosol growth consisting of aminium (R3NH+ nitrate salts, which repartition back to the gas phase as the parent amine is consumed. Only the two tertiary amines studied, trimethylamine and triethylamine, are found to form significant non-salt organic aerosol when oxidized by OH or ozone; calculated organic mass yields for the experiments conducted are similar for ozonolysis (15% and 5% respectively and photooxidation (23% and 8% respectively. The non-salt organic aerosol formed appears to be more stable than the nitrate salts and does not quickly repartition back to the gas phase.

  15. Secondary aerosol formation from atmospheric reactions of aliphatic amines

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S. M. Murphy

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available Although aliphatic amines have been detected in both urban and rural atmospheric aerosols, little is known about the chemistry leading to particle formation or the potential aerosol yields from reactions of gas-phase amines. We present here the first systematic study of aerosol formation from the atmospheric reactions of amines. Based on laboratory chamber experiments and theoretical calculations, we evaluate aerosol formation from reaction of OH, ozone, and nitric acid with trimethylamine, methylamine, triethylamine, diethylamine, ethylamine, and ethanolamine. Entropies of formation for alkylammonium nitrate salts are estimated by molecular dynamics calculations enabling us to estimate equilibrium constants for the reactions of amines with nitric acid. Though subject to significant uncertainty, the calculated dissociation equilibrium constant for diethylammonium nitrate is found to be sufficiently small to allow for its atmospheric formation, even in the presence of ammonia which competes for available nitric acid. Experimental chamber studies indicate that the dissociation equilibrium constant for triethylammonium nitrate is of the same order of magnitude as that for ammonium nitrate. All amines studied form aerosol when photooxidized in the presence of NOx with the majority of the aerosol mass present at the peak of aerosol growth consisting of aminium (R3NH+ nitrate salts, which repartition back to the gas phase as the parent amine is consumed. Only the two tertiary amines studied, trimethylamine and triethylamine, are found to form significant non-salt organic aerosol when oxidized by OH or ozone; calculated organic mass yields for the experiments conducted are similar for ozonolysis (15% and 5% respectively and photooxidation (23% and 8% respectively. The non-salt organic aerosol formed appears to be more stable than the nitrate salts and does not quickly repartition back to the gas phase.

  16. Mutagenic activity and heterocyclic amine content of the human diet

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Knize, M.G.; Dolbeare, F.A.; Cunningham, P.L.; Felton, J.S.

    1993-01-15

    The mutagenic activity and the mass amount of heterocyclic amines responsible for the mutagenic activity have been measured in some cooked foods. Cooked meats are the predominant source of mutagenic activity in the diet with values ranging from 0 to 10,000 revertants per gram reported in the Ames/Salmonelia test with strain TA98. Several heterocyclic amines are present and have been quantified using solid-phase extraction followed by HPLC. Frying at higher temperatures and for longer times produces the greatest mutagenic response, and concomitantly, the largest amounts of heterocyclic amines. Most of the mutagenic activity in fried meat samples can be accounted for by MelQx, DiMelQx and IQ, although other heterocylic amines are present and PHIP mutagenic activity becomes significant at higher temperatures. Non-meat products such as baked breads can also form significant mutagenic activity, particularly when overcooked. Commercially prepared hamburgers made from meat substitutes such as tofu, wheat gluten or tempeh and fried at 210{degrees}C have up to 10% of the mutagenic activity of a fried beef patty cooked under the same conditions. When detected, amounts of heterocyclic amines in fried beef patties range from a total of 0.35 ng/g for commercial beef hamburgers to 142 ng/g for a beef patty cooked over a barbecue. Dietary intake is expected to have a large range, from less than one microgram per day to over 50 micrograms per day based on current knowledge of known heterocyclic amine chemicals and heterocyclic amine-containing foods.

  17. Polycyclic amines as chloroquine resistance modulating agents in Plasmodium falciparum.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Joubert, Jacques; Kapp, Erika; Taylor, Dale; Smith, Peter J; Malan, Sarel F

    2016-02-15

    Pentacycloundecylamines (PCUs) and adamantane amines, such as NGP1-01 (1) and amantadine, have shown significant channel blocking activities. They are postulated to act as chemosensitizers and circumvent the resistance of the plasmodia parasite against chloroquine (CQ) by inhibiting the p-glycoprotein efflux pump and enabling the accumulation of CQ inside the parasite digestive vacuole. Twelve polycyclic amines containing either a PCU or adamantane amine moiety conjugated to different aromatic functionalities through various tethered linkers were selected based on their channel blocking abilities and evaluated as potential chemosensitizers. Compounds 2, 4, 5 and 10 showed significant voltage-gated calcium channel (VGCC) blocking ability (IC50=0.27-35 μM) and were able to alter the CQ IC50 in differing degrees (45-81%) in the multidrug resistant Plasmodium falciparum Dd2 isolate. Among them, the PCU-dansyl amine compound (4) displayed the best potential to act as a chemosensitizer against the Dd2 strain at a 1 μM concentration (RMI=0.19) while displaying moderate antiplasmodial activity (Dd2 IC50=6.25 μM) and low in vitro cytotoxicity against a mammalian cell line (CHO, IC50=119 μM). Compounds 2 and 10 also showed some promising chemosensitizing abilities (RMI=0.36 and 0.35 respectively). A direct correlation was found between the VGCC blocking ability of these polycyclic amines and their capacity to act as CQ resistance modulating agents.

  18. Choosing amine-based absorbents for CO2 capture.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gomes, João; Santos, Samuel; Bordado, João

    2015-01-01

    CO2 capture from gaseous effluents is one of the great challenges faced by chemical and environmental engineers, as the increase in CO2 levels in the Earth atmosphere might be responsible for dramatic climate changes. From the existing capture technologies, the only proven and mature technology is chemical absorption using aqueous amine solutions. However, bearing in mind that this process is somewhat expensive, it is important to choose the most efficient and, at the same time, the least expensive solvents. For this purpose, a pilot test facility was assembled and includes an absorption column, as well as a stripping column, a heat exchanger between the two columns, a reboiler for the stripping column, pumping systems, surge tanks and all necessary instrumentation and control systems. Some different aquous amine solutions were tested on this facility and it was found that, from a set of six tested amines, diethanol amine is the one that turned out to be the most economical choice, as it showed a higher CO2 loading capacity (0.982 mol of CO2 per mol of amine) and the lowest price per litre (25.70 €/L), even when compared with monoethanolamine, the benchmark solvent, exhibiting a price per litre of 30.50 €/L.

  19. Blue Chitin columns for the extraction of heterocyclic amines from urine samples

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bang, J.; Frandsen, Henrik Lauritz; Skog, K.

    2004-01-01

    During normal cooking of meat, a class of mutagenic/carcinogenic compounds called heterocyclic amines is formed. Heterocyclic amines are rapidly absorbed and metabolised in the human body, and for estimation of the intake of heterocyclic amines, it is useful to determinate their levels in the urine....... Blue Chitin columns were used for the extraction and purification of heterocyclic amines from urine samples spiked with 14 different heterocyclic amines. The samples were analysed using LC-MS. The results show that Blue Chitin columns provide a straightforward and rapid means of extracting heterocyclic...... amines from urine samples, and that Blue Chitin column are also useful in the purification of urinary metabolites....

  20. New amines for the reversible absorption of carbon dioxide from gas mixtures

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Michele Aresta; Angela Dibenedetto [University of Bari, Bari (Italy). Department of Chemistry and METEA Research Center

    2003-07-01

    This paper discusses the use of new amines as a medium for the capture of CO{sub 2} from a gas mixture. The study was carried out comparing the absorption of carbon dioxide by two alkyl-di-amines with that of amines used so far at industrial level, namely mono-ethanolamine (MEA). A known mono silyl-alkyl-amine was also studied for comparison. The absorption of carbon dioxide was studied at different temperatures, in water solution, in organic solvents and using the neat amine. Several cycles of absorption/desorption were carried out. Xerogel solidified amines were also used. 12 refs., 6 figs.

  1. Stable silicon isotope signatures of marine pore waters - Biogenic opal dissolution versus authigenic clay mineral formation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ehlert, Claudia; Doering, Kristin; Wallmann, Klaus; Scholz, Florian; Sommer, Stefan; Grasse, Patricia; Geilert, Sonja; Frank, Martin

    2016-10-01

    Dissolved silicon isotope compositions have been analysed for the first time in pore waters (δ30SiPW) of three short sediment cores from the Peruvian margin upwelling region with distinctly different biogenic opal content in order to investigate silicon isotope fractionation behaviour during early diagenetic turnover of biogenic opal in marine sediments. The δ30SiPW varies between +1.1‰ and +1.9‰ with the highest values occurring in the uppermost part close to the sediment-water interface. These values are of the same order or higher than the δ30Si of the biogenic opal extracted from the same sediments (+0.3‰ to +1.2‰) and of the overlying bottom waters (+1.1‰ to +1.5‰). Together with dissolved silicic acid concentrations well below biogenic opal saturation, our collective observations are consistent with the formation of authigenic alumino-silicates from the dissolving biogenic opal. Using a numerical transport-reaction model we find that approximately 24% of the dissolving biogenic opal is re-precipitated in the sediments in the form of these authigenic phases at a relatively low precipitation rate of 56 μmol Si cm-2 yr-1. The fractionation factor between the precipitates and the pore waters is estimated at -2.0‰. Dissolved and solid cation concentrations further indicate that off Peru, where biogenic opal concentrations in the sediments are high, the availability of reactive terrigenous material is the limiting factor for the formation of authigenic alumino-silicate phases.

  2. Airborne flux measurements of Biogenic Isoprene over California

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Misztal, P.; Karl, Thomas G.; Weber, Robin; Jonsson, H. H.; Guenther, Alex B.; Goldstein, Allen H.

    2014-10-10

    Biogenic Volatile Organic Compound (BVOC) fluxes were measured onboard the CIRPAS Twin Otter aircraft as part of the California Airborne BVOC Emission Research in Natural Ecosystem Transects (CABERNET) campaign during June 2011. The airborne virtual disjunct eddy covariance (AvDEC) approach used measurements from a PTR-MS and a wind radome probe to directly determine fluxes of isoprene, MVK+MAC, methanol, monoterpenes, and MBO over ~10,000-km of flight paths focusing on areas of California predicted to have the largest emissions of isoprene. The Fast Fourier Transform (FFT) approach was used to calculate fluxes over long transects of more than 15 km, most commonly between 50 and 150 km. The Continuous Wavelet Transformation (CWT) approach was used over the same transects to also calculate "instantaneous" fluxes with localization of both frequency and time independent of non-stationarities. Vertical flux divergence of isoprene is expected due to its relatively short lifetime and was measured directly using "racetrack" profiles at multiple altitudes. It was found to be linear and in the range 5% to 30% depending on the ratio of aircraft altitude to PBL height (z/zi). Fluxes were generally measured by flying consistently 1 at 400 m ±50 m (a.g.l.) altitude, and extrapolated to the surface according to the determined flux divergence. The wavelet-derived surface fluxes of isoprene averaged to 2 km spatial resolution showed good correspondence to Basal Emission Factor (BEF) landcover datasets used to drive biogenic VOC (BVOC) emission models. The surface flux of isoprene was close to zero over Central Valley crops and desert shrublands, but was very high (up to 15 mg m-2 h-1) above oak woodlands, with clear dependence of emissions on temperature and oak density. Isoprene concentrations of up to 8 ppb were observed at aircraft height on the hottest days and over the dominant source regions. While isoprene emissions from agricultural crop regions, shrublands, and

  3. Airborne flux measurements of biogenic volatile organic compounds over California

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    P. K. Misztal

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available Biogenic Volatile Organic Compound (BVOC fluxes were measured onboard the CIRPAS Twin Otter aircraft as part of the California Airborne BVOC Emission Research in Natural Ecosystem Transects (CABERNET campaign during June 2011. The airborne virtual disjunct eddy covariance (AvDEC approach used measurements from a PTR-MS and a wind radome probe to directly determine fluxes of isoprene, MVK + MAC, methanol, monoterpenes, and MBO over ∼10 000 km of flight paths focusing on areas of California predicted to have the largest emissions of isoprene. The Fast Fourier Transform (FFT approach was used to calculate fluxes over long transects of more than 15 km, most commonly between 50 and 150 km. The Continuous Wavelet Transformation (CWT approach was used over the same transects to also calculate "instantaneous" fluxes with localization of both frequency and time independent of non-stationarities. Vertical flux divergence of isoprene is expected due to its relatively short lifetime and was measured directly using "racetrack" profiles at multiple altitudes. It was found to be linear and in the range 5% to 30% depending on the ratio of aircraft altitude to PBL height (z / zi. Fluxes were generally measured by flying consistently at 400 ± 50 m (a.g.l. altitude, and extrapolated to the surface according to the determined flux divergence. The wavelet-derived surface fluxes of isoprene averaged to 2 km spatial resolution showed good correspondence to Basal Emission Factor (BEF landcover datasets used to drive biogenic VOC (BVOC emission models. The surface flux of isoprene was close to zero over Central Valley crops and desert shrublands, but was very high (up to 15 mg m−2 h−1 above oak woodlands, with clear dependence of emissions on temperature and oak density. Isoprene concentrations of up to 8 ppb were observed at aircraft height on the hottest days and over the dominant source regions. While isoprene emissions from agricultural crop regions

  4. A Metal and Base-Free Chemoselective Primary Amination of Boronic Acids Using Cyanamidyl/Arylcyanamidyl Radical as Aminating Species: Synthesis and Mechanistic Studies by Density Functional Theory.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chatterjee, Nachiketa; Arfeen, Minhajul; Bharatam, Prasad V; Goswami, Avijit

    2016-06-17

    An efficient, metal and base-free, chemoselective synthesis of aryl-, heteroaryl-, and alkyl primary amines from the corresponding boronic acids has been achieved at ambient temperature mediated by [bis(trifluoroacetoxy)iodo]benzene (PIFA) and N-bromosuccinimide (NBS) using cyanamidyl/arylcyanamidyl radicals as the aminating species. The primary amine compounds were initially obtained as their corresponding ammonium trifluoroacetate salts which, on treatment with aq NaOH, provide the free amines. Finally, the primary amines were isolated through column chromatography over silica-gel using hexane-EtOAc solvent system as the eluent. The reactions are sufficiently fast, completing within 1 h. Quantum chemical calculations in combination with experimental observations validate that the ipso amination of substituted boronic acids involves the formation of cyanamidyl/arylcyanamidyl radical, followed by regiospecific interaction of its nitrile-N center with boron atom of the boronic acids, leading to chemoselective primary amination.

  5. Airborne observations of vegetation and implications for biogenic emission characterization.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hawes, Amy K; Solomon, Susan; Portmann, Robert W; Daniel, John S; Langford, Andrew O; Miller, H LeRoy; Eubank, Charles S; Goldan, Paul; Wiedinmyer, Christine; Atlas, Elliot; Hansel, Armin; Wisthaler, Armin

    2003-12-01

    Measuring hydrocarbons from aircraft represents one way to infer biogenic emissions at the surface. The focus of this paper is to show that complementary remote sensing information can be provided by optical measurements of a vegetation index, which is readily measured with high temporal coverage using reflectance data. We examine the similarities between the vegetation index and in situ measurements of the chemicals isoprene, methacrolein, and alpha-pinene to estimate whether the temporal behavior of the in situ measurements of these chemicals could be better understood by the addition of the vegetation index. Data were compared for flights conducted around Houston in August and September 2000. The three independent sets of chemical measurements examined correspond reasonably well with the vegetation index curves for the majority of flight days. While low values of the vegetation index always correspond to low values of the in situ chemical measurements, high values of the index correspond to both high and low values of the chemical measurements. In this sense it represents an upper limit when compared with in situ data (assuming the calibration constant is adequately chosen). This result suggests that while the vegetation index cannot represent a purely predictive quantity for the in situ measurements, it represents a complementary measurement that can be useful in understanding comparisons of various in situ observations, particularly when these observations occur with relatively low temporal frequency. In situ isoprene measurements and the vegetation index were also compared to an isoprene emission inventory to provide additional insight on broad issues relating to the use of vegetation indices in emission database development.

  6. Biogenic Carbon on Mars: A Subsurface Chauvinistic Viewpoint

    Science.gov (United States)

    Onstott, T. C.; Lau, C. Y. M.; Magnabosco, C.; Harris, R.; Chen, Y.; Slater, G.; Sherwood Lollar, B.; Kieft, T. L.; van Heerden, E.; Borgonie, G.; Dong, H.

    2015-12-01

    A review of 150 publications on the subsurface microbiology of the continental subsurface provides ~1,400 measurements of cellular abundances down to 4,800 meter depth. These data suggest that the continental subsurface biomass is comprised of ~1016-17 grams of carbon, which is higher than the most recent estimates of ~1015 grams of carbon (1 Gt) for the marine deep biosphere. If life developed early in Martian history and Mars sustained an active hydrological cycle during its first 500 million years, then is it possible that Mars could have developed a subsurface biomass of comparable size to that of Earth? Such a biomass would comprise a much larger fraction of the total known Martian carbon budget than does the subsurface biomass on Earth. More importantly could a remnant of this subsurface biosphere survive to the present day? To determine how sustainable subsurface life could be in isolation from the surface we have been studying subsurface fracture fluids from the Precambrian Shields in South Africa and Canada. In these environments the energetically efficient and deeply rooted acetyl-CoA pathway for carbon fixation plays a central role for chemolithoautotrophic primary producers that form the base of the biomass pyramid. These primary producers appear to be sustained indefinitely by H2 generated through serpentinization and radiolytic reactions. Carbon isotope data suggest that in some subsurface locations a much larger population of secondary consumers are sustained by the primary production of biogenic CH4 from a much smaller population of methanogens. These inverted biomass and energy pyramids sustained by the cycling of CH4 could have been and could still be active on Mars. The C and H isotopic signatures of Martian CH4 remain key tools in identifying potential signatures of an extant Martian biosphere. Based upon our results to date cavity ring-down spectroscopic technologies provide an option for making these measurements on future rover missions.

  7. Biogenic carbon fluxes from global agricultural production and consumption

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wolf, Julie; West, Tristram O.; Le Page, Yannick LB; Kyle, G. Page; Zhang, Xuesong; Collatz, George; Imhoff, Marc L.

    2015-10-01

    Quantification of biogenic carbon fluxes from agricultural lands is needed to generate comprehensive bottom-up estimates of net carbon exchange for global and regional carbon monitoring. We estimated global agricultural carbon fluxes associated with annual crop net primary production (NPP), harvested biomass, and consumption of biomass by humans and livestock. These estimates were combined for a single estimate of net carbon exchange (NCE) and spatially distributed to 0.05 degree resolution using MODIS satellite land cover data. Global crop NPP in 2011 was estimated at 5.25 ± 0.46 Pg C yr-1, of which 2.05 ± 0.05 Pg C yr-1 was harvested and 0.54 Pg C yr-1 was collected from crop residues for livestock fodder. Total livestock feed intake in 2011 was 2.42 ± 0.21 Pg C yr-1, of which 2.31 ± 0.21 Pg C yr-1 was emitted as CO2, 0.07 ± 0.01 Pg C yr-1 was emitted as CH4, and 0.04 Pg C yr-1 was contained within milk and egg production. Livestock grazed an estimated 1.27 Pg C yr-1 in 2011, which constituted 52.4% of total feed intake. Global human food intake was 0.57 ± 0.03 Pg C yr-1 in 2011, the majority of which is respired as CO2. Completed global cropland carbon budgets accounted for the ultimate use of ca. 80% of harvested biomass. The spatial distribution of these fluxes may be used for global carbon monitoring, estimation of regional uncertainty, and for use as input to Earth system models.

  8. Biogenic silver nanoparticles: efficient and effective antifungal agents

    Science.gov (United States)

    Netala, Vasudeva Reddy; Kotakadi, Venkata Subbaiah; Domdi, Latha; Gaddam, Susmila Aparna; Bobbu, Pushpalatha; Venkata, Sucharitha K.; Ghosh, Sukhendu Bikash; Tartte, Vijaya

    2016-04-01

    Biogenic synthesis of silver nanoparticles (AgNPs) by exploiting various plant materials is an emerging field and considered green nanotechnology as it involves simple, cost effective and ecofriendly procedure. In the present study AgNPs were successfully synthesized using aqueous callus extract of Gymnema sylvestre. The aqueous callus extract treated with 1nM silver nitrate solution resulted in the formation of AgNPs and the surface plasmon resonance (SPR) of the formed AgNPs showed a peak at 437 nm in the UV Visible spectrum. The synthesized AgNPs were characterized using Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FTIR), Transmission electron microscopy (TEM), and X-ray diffraction spectroscopy (XRD). FTIR spectra showed the peaks at 3333, 2928, 2361, 1600, 1357 and 1028 cm-1 which revealed the role of different functional groups possibly involved in the synthesis and stabilization of AgNPs. TEM micrograph clearly revealed the size of the AgNPs to be in the range of 3-30 nm with spherical shape and poly-dispersed nature; it is further confirmed by Particle size analysis that the stability of AgNPs is due its high negative Zeta potential (-36.1 mV). XRD pattern revealed the crystal nature of the AgNPs by showing the braggs peaks corresponding to (111), (200), (220) and (311) planes of face-centered cubic crystal phase of silver. Selected area electron diffraction pattern showed diffraction rings and confirmed the crystalline nature of synthesized AgNPs. The synthesized AgNPs exhibited effective antifungal activity against Candida albicans, Candida nonalbicans and Candida tropicalis.

  9. Hyperspectral observation of anthropogenic and biogenic pollution in coastal zone

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lavrova, Olga; Loupian, Evgeny; Mityagina, Marina; Uvarov, Ivan

    The work presents results of anthropogenic and biogenic pollution detection in coastal zones of the Black and Caspian Seas based on satellite hyperspetral data provided by the Hyperion and HICO instruments. Techniques developed on the basis of the analysis of spectral characteristics calculated in special points were employed to address the following problems: (a) assessment of the blooming intensity of cyanobacteria and their distribution in bays of western Crimea and discrimination between anthropogenic pollutant discharge events and algae bloom; (b) detection of anthropogenic pollution in Crimean lakes utilized as industrial liquid discharge reservoirs; (c) detection of oil pollution in areas of shelf oil production in the Caspian Sea. Information values of different spectral bands and their composites were estimated in connection with the retrieval of the main sea water components: phytoplankton, suspended matter and colored organic matter, and also various anthropogenic pollutants, including oil. Software tools for thematic hyperspectral data processing in application to the investigation of sea coastal zones and internal water bodies were developed on the basis of the See the Sea geoportal created by the Space Research Institute RAS. The geoportal is focused on the study of processes in the world ocean with the emphasis on the advantages of satellite systems of observation. The tools that were introduced into the portal allow joint analysis of quasi-simultaneous satellite data, in particular data from the Hyperion, HICO, OLI Landsat-8, ETM Landsat-7 and TM Landsat-5 instruments. Results of analysis attempts combining data from different sensors are discussed. Their strong and weak points are highlighted. The study was completed with partial financial support from The Russian Foundation for Basic Research grants # 14-05-00520-a and 13-07-12017.

  10. Reversible and irreversible processing of biogenic olefins on acidic aerosols

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J. Liggio

    2008-04-01

    Full Text Available Recent evidence has suggested that heterogeneous chemistry of oxygenated hydrocarbons, primarily carbonyls, plays a role in the formation of secondary organic aerosol (SOA; however, evidence is emerging that direct uptake of alkenes on acidic aerosols does occur and can contribute to SOA formation. In the present study, significant uptake of monoterpenes, oxygenated monoterpenes and sesquiterpenes to acidic sulfate aerosols is found under various conditions in a reaction chamber. Proton transfer mass spectrometry is used to quantify the organic gases, while an aerosol mass spectrometer is used to quantify the organic mass uptake and obtain structural information for heterogeneous products. Aerosol mass spectra are consistent with several mechanisms including acid catalyzed olefin hydration, cationic polymerization and organic ether formation, while measurable decreases in the sulfate mass on a per particle basis suggest that the formation of organosulfate compounds is also likely. A portion of the heterogeneous reactions appears to be reversible, consistent with reversible olefin hydration reactions. A slow increase in the organic mass after a fast initial uptake is attributed to irreversible reactions, consistent with polymerization and organosulfate formation. Uptake coefficients (γ were estimated for a fast initial uptake governed by the mass accommodation coefficient (α and ranged from 1×10-6-2.5×10-2. Uptake coefficients for a subsequent slower reactive uptake ranged from 1×10-7-1×10-4. These processes may potentially lead to a considerable amount of SOA from the various biogenic hydrocarbons under acidic conditions, which can be highly significant for freshly nucleated aerosols, particularly given the large array of atmospheric olefins.

  11. Reversible and irreversible processing of biogenic olefins on acidic aerosols

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J. Liggio

    2007-08-01

    Full Text Available Recent evidence has suggested that heterogeneous chemistry of oxygenated hydrocarbons, primarily carbonyls, plays a role in the formation of secondary organic aerosol (SOA; however, evidence is emerging that direct uptake of alkenes on acidic aerosols does occur and can contribute to SOA formation. In the present study, significant uptake of monoterpenes, oxygenated monoterpenes and sesquiterpenes to acidic sulfate aerosols is found under various conditions in a reaction chamber. Proton transfer mass spectrometry is used to quantify the organic gases, while an aerosol mass spectrometer is used to quantify the organic mass uptake and obtain structural information for heterogeneous products. Aerosol mass spectra are consistent with several mechanisms including acid catalyzed olefin hydration, cationic polymerization and organic ester formation, while measurable decreases in the sulfate mass on a per particle basis suggest that the formation of organosulfate compounds is also likely. A portion of the heterogeneous reactions appears to be reversible, consistent with reversible olefin hydration reactions. A slow increase in the organic mass after a fast initial uptake is attributed to irreversible reactions, consistent with polymerization and organosulfate formation. Uptake coefficients (γ were estimated for a fast initial uptake governed by the mass accommodation coefficient (α and ranged from 1×10-6–2.5×10−2. Uptake coefficients for a subsequent slower reactive uptake ranged from 1×10-7–1×10-4. These processes are estimated to potentially produce greater than 2.5 μg m−3 of SOA from the various biogenic hydrocarbons under atmospheric conditions, which can be highly significant given the large array of atmospheric olefins.

  12. Reversible and irreversible processing of biogenic olefins on acidic aerosols

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liggio, J.; Li, S.-M.

    2008-04-01

    Recent evidence has suggested that heterogeneous chemistry of oxygenated hydrocarbons, primarily carbonyls, plays a role in the formation of secondary organic aerosol (SOA); however, evidence is emerging that direct uptake of alkenes on acidic aerosols does occur and can contribute to SOA formation. In the present study, significant uptake of monoterpenes, oxygenated monoterpenes and sesquiterpenes to acidic sulfate aerosols is found under various conditions in a reaction chamber. Proton transfer mass spectrometry is used to quantify the organic gases, while an aerosol mass spectrometer is used to quantify the organic mass uptake and obtain structural information for heterogeneous products. Aerosol mass spectra are consistent with several mechanisms including acid catalyzed olefin hydration, cationic polymerization and organic ether formation, while measurable decreases in the sulfate mass on a per particle basis suggest that the formation of organosulfate compounds is also likely. A portion of the heterogeneous reactions appears to be reversible, consistent with reversible olefin hydration reactions. A slow increase in the organic mass after a fast initial uptake is attributed to irreversible reactions, consistent with polymerization and organosulfate formation. Uptake coefficients (γ) were estimated for a fast initial uptake governed by the mass accommodation coefficient (α) and ranged from 1×10-6-2.5×10-2. Uptake coefficients for a subsequent slower reactive uptake ranged from 1×10-7-1×10-4. These processes may potentially lead to a considerable amount of SOA from the various biogenic hydrocarbons under acidic conditions, which can be highly significant for freshly nucleated aerosols, particularly given the large array of atmospheric olefins.

  13. Biogenicity of an Early Quaternary iron formation, Milos Island, Greece.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chi Fru, E; Ivarsson, M; Kilias, S P; Frings, P J; Hemmingsson, C; Broman, C; Bengtson, S; Chatzitheodoridis, E

    2015-05-01

    A ~2.0-million-year-old shallow-submarine sedimentary deposit on Milos Island, Greece, harbours an unmetamorphosed fossiliferous iron formation (IF) comparable to Precambrian banded iron formations (BIFs). This Milos IF holds the potential to provide clues to the origin of Precambrian BIFs, relative to biotic and abiotic processes. Here, we combine field stratigraphic observations, stable isotopes of C, S and Si, rock petrography and microfossil evidence from a ~5-m-thick outcrop to track potential biogeochemical processes that may have contributed to the formation of the BIF-type rocks and the abrupt transition to an overlying conglomerate-hosted IF (CIF). Bulk δ(13) C isotopic compositions lower than -25‰ provide evidence for biological contribution by the Calvin and reductive acetyl-CoA carbon fixation cycles to the origin of both the BIF-type and CIF strata. Low S levels of ~0.04 wt.% combined with δ(34) S estimates of up to ~18‰ point to a non-sulphidic depository. Positive δ(30) Si records of up to +0.53‰ in the finely laminated BIF-type rocks indicate chemical deposition on the seafloor during weak periods of arc magmatism. Negative δ(30) Si data are consistent with geological observations suggesting a sudden change to intense arc volcanism potentially terminated the deposition of the BIF-type layer. The typical Precambrian rhythmic rocks of alternating Fe- and Si-rich bands are associated with abundant and spatially distinct microbial fossil assemblages. Together with previously proposed anoxygenic photoferrotrophic iron cycling and low sedimentary N and C potentially connected to diagenetic denitrification, the Milos IF is a biogenic submarine volcano-sedimentary IF showing depositional conditions analogous to Archaean Algoma-type BIFs.

  14. Emissions of biogenic volatile organic compounds & their photochemical transformation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yu, Zhujun; Hohaus, Thorsten; Tillmann, Ralf; Andres, Stefanie; Kuhn, Uwe; Rohrer, Franz; Wahner, Andreas; Kiendler-Scharr, Astrid

    2015-04-01

    Natural and anthropogenic activities emit volatile organic compounds (VOC) into the atmosphere. While it is known that land vegetation accounts for 90% of the global VOC emissions, only a few molecules' emission factors are understood. Through VOCs atmospheric oxidation intermediate products are formed. The detailed chemical mechanisms involved are insufficiently known to date and need to be understood for air quality management and climate change predictions. In an experiment using a PTR-ToF-MS with the new-built plant chamber SAPHIR-PLUS in Forschungszentrum Juelich, biogenic emissions of volatile organic compounds (BVOC) from Quercus ilex trees were measured. The BVOC emissions were dominated by monoterpenes, minor emissions of isoprene and methanol were also observed with the overall emission pattern typical for Quercus ilex trees in the growing season. Monoterpenes and isoprene emissions showed to be triggered by light. Additionally, their emissions showed clear exponential temperature dependence under constant light condition as reported in literature. As a tracer for leaf growth, methanol emission showed an abrupt increase at the beginning of light exposure. This is explained as instantaneous release of methanol produced during the night once stomata of leaves open upon light exposure. Emission of methanol showed a near linear increase with temperature in the range of 10 to 35 °C. BVOC were transferred from the plant chamber PLUS to the atmospheric simulation chamber SAPHIR, where their oxidation products from O3 oxidation were measured with PTR-ToF-MS. Gas phase oxidation products such as acetone and acetaldehyde were detected. A quantitative analysis of the data will be presented, including comparison of observations to the Master Chemical Mechanism model.

  15. Mineralization of Bacteria in Terrestrial Basaltic Rocks: Comparison With Possible Biogenic Features in Martian Meteorite Allan Hills 84001

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thomas-Keprta, K. L.; McKay, D. S.; Wentworth, S. J.; Stevens, T. O.; Taunton, A. E.; Allen, C. C.; Gibson, E. K., Jr.; Romanek, C. S.

    1998-01-01

    The identification of biogenic features altered by diagenesis or mineralization is important in determining whether specific features in terrestrial rocks and in meteorites may have a biogenic origin. Unfortunately, few studies have addressed the formation of biogenic features in igneous rocks, which may be important to these phenomena, including the controversy over possible biogenic features in basaltic martian meteorite ALH84001. To explore the presence of biogenic features in igneous rocks, we examined microcosms growing in basaltic small-scale experimental growth chambers or microcosms. Microbial communities were harvested from aquifers of the Columbia River Basalt (CRB) group and grown in a microcosm containing unweathered basalt chips and groundwater (technique described in. These microcosms simulated natural growth conditions in the deep subsurface of the CRB, which should be a good terrestrial analog for any putative martian subsurface ecosystem that may have once included ALH84001. Here we present new size measurements and photomicrographs comparing the putative martian fossils to biogenic material in the CRB microcosms. The range of size and shapes of the biogenic features on the CRB microcosm chips overlaps with and is similar to those on ALH84001 chips. Although this present work does not provide evidence for the biogenicity of ALH84001 features, we believe that, based on criteria of size, shape, and general morphology, a biogenic interpretation for the ALH84001 features remains plausible.

  16. Effect of salinity on the biosynthesis of amines in Litopenaeus vannamei and the expression of gill related ion transporter genes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pan, Luqing; Liu, Hongyu; Zhao, Qun

    2014-06-01

    This study examined the effect of salinity on the expression of Na+/K+-ATPase (NKA) α-subunit and vacuolar-type H+-ATPase (V-ATPase) β-subunit gene in the gill of Litopenaeus vannamei. Semi-quantitative reverse transcription-polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR) assay showed that the expression of NKA α-subunit and V-ATPase β-subunit gene was significantly influenced by salinity. It was found that the NKA activity significantly varied with salinity in time and dose dependent manner; whereas the V-ATPase activity did not. The abundance of NKA α-subunit gene transcript increased rapidly when the salinity decreased from 26b to 21, and slowly when the salinity decreased from 26 to 31 within the first 24 h. When the salinity decreased from 26 to 21, the transcription of NKA α-subunit gene in gill epithelium was higher at 12 h than that at 0 h, which was consistent with the result of immunoblotting assay of NKA α-subunit. In addition, salinity had a significant time- and dose-dependent effect on the concentration of biogenic amines in both hemolymph and gill. As compared to other parameters, the concentration of dopamine (DA) and 5-hydroxytryptamine (5-HT) varied in different patterns when the salinity decreased from 26 to 21 or increased from 26 to 31, suggesting that DA and 5-HT played different regulatory roles in osmotic adaption and modulation of shrimp when salinity varies.

  17. Effect of Salinity on the Biosynthesis of Amines in Litopenaeus vannamei and the Expression of Gill Related Ion Transporter Genes

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    PAN Luqing; LIU Hongyu; ZHAO Qun

    2014-01-01

    This study examined the effect of salinity on the expression of Na+/K+-ATPase (NKA) α-subunit and vacuolar-type H+-ATPase (V-ATPase) β-subunit gene in the gill of Litopenaeus vannamei. Semi-quantitative reverse transcription-polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR) assay showed that the expression of NKAα-subunit and V-ATPaseβ-subunit gene was significantly influ-enced by salinity. It was found that the NKA activity significantly varied with salinity in time and dose dependent manner;whereas the V-ATPase activity did not. The abundance of NKAα-subunit gene transcript increased rapidly when the salinity decreased from 26b to 21, and slowly when the salinity decreased from 26 to 31 within the first 24 h. When the salinity decreased from 26 to 21, the transcription of NKAα-subunit gene in gill epithelium was higher at 12 h than that at 0 h, which was consistent with the result of immunoblotting assay of NKAα-subunit. In addition, salinity had a significant time-and dose-dependent effect on the concentration of biogenic amines in both hemolymph and gill. As compared to other parameters, the concentration of dopamine (DA) and 5-hydroxytryptamine (5-HT) varied in different patterns when the salinity decreased from 26 to 21 or increased from 26 to 31, sug-gesting that DA and 5-HT played different regulatory roles in osmotic adaption and modulation of shrimp when salinity varies.

  18. Amine modeling for CO2 capture: internals selection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Karpe, Prakash; Aichele, Clint P

    2013-04-16

    Traditionally, trays have been the mass-transfer device of choice in amine absorption units. However, the need to process large volumes of flue gas to capture CO2 and the resultant high costs of multiple trains of large trayed columns have prompted process licensors and vendors to investigate alternative mass-transfer devices. These alternatives include third-generation random packings and structured packings. Nevertheless, clear-cut guidelines for selection of packings for amine units are lacking. This paper provides well-defined guidelines and a consistent framework for the choice of mass-transfer devices for amine absorbers and regenerators. This work emphasizes the role played by the flow parameter, a measure of column liquid loading and pressure, in the type of packing selected. In addition, this paper demonstrates the significant economic advantage of packings over trays in terms of capital costs (CAPEX) and operating costs (OPEX).

  19. Mechanism of phosphine borane deprotection with amines: the effects of phosphine, solvent and amine on rate and efficiency.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lloyd-Jones, Guy C; Taylor, Nicholas P

    2015-03-27

    The kinetics of borane transfer from simple tertiary phosphine borane adducts to a wide range of amines have been determined. All data obtained, including second-order kinetics, lack of cross-over, and negative entropies of activation for reaction of triphenylphosphine borane with quinuclidine and triethylamine, are consistent with a direct (SN 2-like) transfer process, rather than a dissociative (SN 1-like) process. The identities of the amine, phosphine, and solvent all impact substantially on the rate (k) and equilibrium (K) of the transfer, which in some cases vary by many orders of magnitude. P-to-N transfer is more efficient with cyclic amines in apolar solvents due to reduced entropic costs and ground-state destabilisation. Taken as a whole, the data allow informed optimisation of the deprotection step from the stand-point of rate, or synthetic convenience. In all cases, both reactants should be present at high initial concentration to gain kinetic benefit from the bimolecularity of the process. Ultimately, the choice of amine is dictated by the identity of the phosphine borane complex. Aryl-rich phosphine boranes are sufficiently reactive to allow use of diethylamine or pyrrolidine as a volatile low polarity solvent and reactant, whereas more alkyl-rich phosphines benefit from the use of more reactive amines, such as 1,4-diaza[2.2.2]bicyclooctane (DABCO), in apolar solvents at higher temperatures.

  20. Integration of biogenic emissions in environmental fate, transport, and exposure systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Efstathiou, Christos I.

    Biogenic emissions make a significant contribution to the levels of aeroallergens and secondary air pollutants such as ozone. Understanding major factors contributing to allergic airway diseases requires accurate characterization of emissions and transport/transformation of biogenic emissions. However, biogenic emission estimates are laden with large uncertainties. Furthermore, the current biogenic emission estimation models use low-resolution data for estimating land use, vegetation biomass and VOC emissions. Furthermore, there are currently no established methods for estimating bioaerosol emissions over continental or regional scale, which can impact the ambient levels of pollent that have synergestic effects with other gaseous pollutants. In the first part of the thesis, an detailed review of different approaches and available databases for estimating biogenic emissions was conducted, and multiple geodatabases and satellite imagery were used in a consistent manner to improve the estimates of biogenic emissions over the continental United States. These emissions represent more realistic, higher resolution estimates of biogenic emissions (including those of highly reactive species such as isoprene). The impact of these emissions on tropospheric ozone levels was studied at a regional scale through the application of the USEPA's Community Multiscale Air Quality (CMAQ) model. Minor, but significant differences in the levels of ambient ozone were observed. In the second part of the thesis, an algorithm for estimating emissions of pollen particles from major allergenic tree and plant families in the United States was developed, extending the approach for modeling biogenic gas emissions in the Biogenic Emission Inventory System (BEIS). A spatio-temporal vegetation map was constructed from different remote sensing sources and local surveys, and was coupled with a meteorological model to develop pollen emissions rates. This model overcomes limitations posed by the lack of

  1. Temperature-dependent accumulation mode particle and cloud nuclei concentrations from biogenic sources during WACS 2010

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    L. Ahlm

    2012-10-01

    Full Text Available Submicron aerosol particles collected simultaneously at the mountain peak (2182 m a.s.l. and at a forested mid-mountain site (1300 m a.s.l. on Whistler Mountain, British Columbia, Canada, during June and July 2010 were analyzed by Fourier transform infrared (FTIR spectroscopy for quantification of organic functional groups. Positive matrix factorization (PMF was applied to the FTIR spectra. Three PMF factors associated with (1 combustion, (2 biogenics, and (3 vegetative detritus, were identified at both sites. The biogenic factor was correlated with both temperature and several volatile organic compounds (VOCs. The combustion factor dominated the submicron particle mass during the beginning of the campaign when the temperature was lower and advection was from the Vancouver area, but as the temperature started to rise in early July the biogenic factor came to dominate as a result of increased emissions of biogenic VOCs and thereby increased formation of secondary organic aerosol (SOA. On average, the biogenic factor represented 69% and 49% of the submicron organic particle mass at Whistler Peak and at the mid-mountain site, respectively. The lower fraction at the mid-mountain site was a result of more vegetative detritus there, and also higher influence from local combustion sources.

    The biogenic factor was strongly correlated (r ~ 0.9 to number concentration of particles with diameter (Dp> 100 nm, whereas the combustion factor was better correlated to number concentration of particles with Dp < 100 nm (r~ 0.4. The number concentration of cloud condensation nuclei (CCN was correlated (r ~ 0.7 to the biogenic factor for supersaturations (S of 0.2% or higher, which indicates that particle condensational growth from biogenic vapors was an important factor in controlling the CCN concentration for clouds where S≥0.2%. Both the number concentration of particles with

  2. Temperature-dependent accumulation mode particle and cloud nuclei concentrations from biogenic sources during WACS 2010

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    L. Ahlm

    2013-03-01

    Full Text Available Submicron aerosol particles collected simultaneously at the mountain peak (2182 m a.s.l. and at a forested mid-mountain site (1300 m a.s.l. on Whistler Mountain, British Columbia, Canada, during June and July 2010 were analyzed by Fourier transform infrared (FTIR spectroscopy for quantification of organic functional groups. Positive matrix factorization (PMF was applied to the FTIR spectra. Three PMF factors associated with (1 combustion, (2 biogenics, and (3 vegetative detritus were identified at both sites. The biogenic factor was correlated with both temperature and several volatile organic compounds (VOCs. The combustion factor dominated the submicron particle mass during the beginning of the campaign, when the temperature was lower and advection was from the Vancouver area, but as the temperature started to rise in early July, the biogenic factor came to dominate as a result of increased emissions of biogenic VOCs, and thereby increased formation of secondary organic aerosol (SOA. On average, the biogenic factor represented 69% and 49% of the submicron organic particle mass at Whistler Peak and at the mid-mountain site, respectively. The lower fraction at the mid-mountain site was a result of more vegetative detritus there, and also higher influence from local combustion sources. The biogenic factor was strongly correlated (r~0.9 to number concentration of particles with diameter (Dp> 100 nm, whereas the combustion factor was better correlated to number concentration of particles with Dpr~0.4. The number concentration of cloud condensation nuclei (CCN was correlated (r~0.7 to the biogenic factor for supersaturations (S of 0.2% or higher, which indicates that particle condensational growth from biogenic vapors was an important factor in controlling the CCN concentration for clouds where S≥0.2%. Both the number concentration of particles with Dp>100 nm and numbers of CCN for S≥0.2% were correlated to temperature. Considering the biogenic

  3. Depletion of biogenic amines and enhancement of cholinergic activity in the olfactory bulb and central olfactory connections with chronic methedrine intoxication

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    O. Duarte-Escalante

    1970-06-01

    Full Text Available Em seqüência a estudos anteriores os autores visam, neste relato, a apresentar as alterações histoquímicas que ocorrem no sistema olfatório de gatos nos quais se desenvolveu nítida estereotipia de fungação (sniffing após administração prolongada de metedrina. Foram intoxicados 12 gatos mediante injeções diárias, durante 10 dias, de doses progressivas de metedrina. Os tecidos a examinar (bulbos olfatórios e suas conexões centrais foram preparados histoquimicamente para demonstrar a fluorescência das aminas biogênicas e reações colinérgicas. Mediante algumas modificações à metodologia recomendada por outros pesquisadores, os autores puderam demonstrar a presença de monoaminas e de acetilcolina no bulbo olfatório e de grupos de fibras adrenérgicas curtas e multi-ramificadas que parecem ser conectadas com os neurônios fluorescentes do bulbo olfatório, a partir de onde estabelecem conexões, pelo tracto olfatório medial, com os neurônios do septum e, pelo tracto olfatório lateral, com os neurônios do complexo amigdalóide.

  4. 啤酒中生物胺的产生与控制%Biogenic Amines Produced and Controled in Beer Brewing

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    吴延东

    2003-01-01

    发酵食品中普遍存在有生物胺,适量的生物胺有助于人体正常的生理功能,但过量吸收会引起不良的生理反应.针对啤酒酿造过程中生物胺的产生途径,提出了相应的解决办法.

  5. Subchronic exposure to arsenic disturbed the biogenic amine neurotransmitter level and the mRNA expression of synthetase in mice brains.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, J; Liu, X; Zhao, L; Hu, S; Li, S; Piao, F

    2013-06-25

    Little is known about the influence of arsenic (As) exposure on monoamine neurotransmitters and the underlying mechanisms, although arsenic toxicity on the central nervous system has been well documented. In the present study, the levels of norepinephrine (NE), dopamine (DA), and 5-HT were determined by high performance liquid chromatography in the cerebrum and cerebellum of mice exposed to 1, 2 and 4 ppm As2O3 through drinking water for 60 days. The ultra-structural change of vesicles in the synapses of mice brains was observed by transmission electron microscopy; the mRNA expressions of dopamine beta hydroxylase (DBH), tyrosine hydroxylase (TH) and tryptophan hydroxylase (TPH) as NE, DA and 5-HT synthetases were quantitatively assessed by real time reverse transcription-polymerase chain reaction. It was shown that the concentrations of NE, DA and 5-HT in the cerebrum or cerebellum of mice exposed to As were significantly lower than those in the control group. The number of synaptic vesicles significantly decreased in the brain of mice exposed to As. Moreover, the expressions of TH, TPH and DBH genes were significantly lower in the brains of mice exposed to As than those in the controls. These results suggested that subchronic exposure to As might decrease the concentrations of the three monoamine neurotransmitters in the mouse brain and downregulate TH, TPH and DBH gene expressions. It was also indicated that the decreased concentrations of the three monoamine neurotransmitters in the brain might be related to the down-regulated gene expressions of these synthetases by As.

  6. Studies of the biogenic amine transporters. IV. Demonstration of a multiplicity of binding sites in rat caudate membranes for the cocaine analog [125I]RTI-55.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rothman, R B; Cadet, J L; Akunne, H C; Silverthorn, M L; Baumann, M H; Carroll, F I; Rice, K C; de Costa, B R; Partilla, J S; Wang, J B

    1994-07-01

    The drug 3 beta-[4'-iodophenyl]tropan-2 beta-carboxylic acid methyl ester (RTI-55) is a cocaine congener with high affinity for the dopamine transporter (Kd < 1 nM). The present study characterized [125I]RTI-55 binding to membranes prepared from rat, monkey and human caudates and COS cells transiently expressing the cloned rat dopamine (DA) transporter. Using the method of binding surface analysis, two binding sites were resolved in rat caudate: a high-capacity binding site (site 1, Bmax = 11,900 fmol/mg of protein) and a low-capacity site (site 2, Bmax = 846 fmol/mg of protein). The Kd (or Ki) values of selected drugs at the two sites were as follows: (Ki for high-capacity site and Ki for low-capacity site, respectively): RTI-55 (0.76 and 0.21 nM), 1-[2-diphenyl-methoxy)ethyl]-4-(3-phenylpropyl)piperazine (0.79 and 358 nM), mazindol (37.6 and 631 nM), 2 beta-carbomethoxy-3 beta-(4-fluorophenyl)tropane (45.0 and 540 nM) and cocaine (341 and 129 nM). Nisoxetine, a selective noradrenergic uptake blocker, had low affinity for both sites. Serotonergic uptake blockers had a high degree of selectivity and high affinity for the low-capacity binding site (Ki of citalopram = 0.38 nM; Ki of paroxetine = 0.033 nM). The i.c.v. administration of 5,7-dihydroxytryptamine to rats pretreated with nomifensine (to protect dopaminergic and noradrenergic nerve terminals) selectively decreased the Bmax of site 2, strongly supporting the idea that site 2 is a binding site on the serotonin (5-HT) transporter. This serotonergic lesion also increased the affinity of [125I]RTI-55 for the DA transporter by 10-fold. The ligand selectivity of the caudate 5-HT transporter was different from the [I125]RTI-55 binding site on the 5-HT transporter present in membranes prepared from whole rat brain minus caudate. The [125I]RTI-55 binding to the DA transporter was further resolved into two components, termed sites 1a and 1b, by using human and monkey (Macaca mulatta) caudate membranes but not the membranes prepared from rat caudate or COS cells that transiently expressed the cloned cocaine-sensitive DA transporter complementary DNA. Similar experiments also resolved two components of the caudate 5-HT transporter. Viewed collectively, these data provide evidence that [125I]RTI-55 labels multiple binding sites associated with the DA and 5-HT transporters.

  7. [The combined action of microwave irradiation and hypoxia on the biogenic amine content of the blood in guinea pigs in anaphylactic shock].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Podkovkin, V G

    1992-01-01

    The repeated effect of microwave radiation on guinea pigs was shown to arrest the anaphylactic shock and the related changes in histamine, epinephrine and norepinephrine content in the blood. The long-term adaptation of animals to hypoxia prevented this effect.

  8. EFSA Panel on Biological Hazards (BIOHAZ); Scientific Opinion on Scientific Opinion on risk based control of biogenic amine formation in fermented foods

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hald, Tine

    for healthy individuals not taking monoamino oxidase inhibitor (MAOI) drugs, but 50 mg for those taking third generation MAOI drugs or 6 mg for those taking classical MAOI drugs; and c) for putrescine and cadaverine, the information was insufficient in that respect. Presently, only high-performance liquid...... chromatography (HPLC)-based methods enable simultaneous and high sensitivity quantification of all BA in foods, hence are best suited for monitoring and control purposes. Monitoring of BA concentrations in fermented foods during the production process and along the food chain would be beneficial for controls......-nonproducing starter cultures. Based on limited published information, no adverse health effects were observed after exposure to following BA levels in food (per person per meal): a) 50 mg histamine for healthy individuals, but below detectable limits for those with histamine intolerance; b) 600 mg tyramine...

  9. Successful and unsuccessful approaches to imaging carcinoids: comparison of a radiolabelled tryptophan hydroxylase inhibitor with a tracer of biogenic amine uptake and storage, and a somatostatin analogue

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Macfarlane, D. [Dept. of Nuclear Medicine, Royal Brisbane Hospital, Queensland (Australia); Gonin, J. [Dept. of Nephrology, Indianapolis VA Hospital, IN (United States); Wielandl, D. [Dept. of Nephrology, Indianapolis VA Hospital, IN (United States); Mangner, T. [Dept. of Nuclear Medicine, Children`s Hospital of Detroit, MI (United States); Froelich, J. [Dept. of Radiology, Swedish Medical Center, Englewood, CO (United States); Beierwaltes, W. [Dept. of Nuclear Medicine, St. John`s Hospital, Detroit, MI (United States); Shapirol, B. [Dept. of Nuclear Medicine, St. John`s Hospital, Detroit, MI (United States)

    1996-02-01

    A mouse mastocytoma model was used to determine the biodistribution and tumour uptake of four radiopharmaceuticals developed to target the serotonin synthetic pathway in carcinoid tumours. Three of the compounds were competitive inhibitors of the rate-limiting enzyme of serotonin synthesis, tryptophan hydroxylase. Radiolabelled iodo-DL-phenylalanine (iodine-131 PIPA) was found to have the highest uptake and tumour-to-liver ratio. Four patients with known carcinoid tumours were then injected with 0.5 mCi {sup 131}I-PIPA and imaged at 1, 4, 24 and 48 h post-injection. The radiopharmaceutical, however, failed to localize in the known tumour sites. This result was in contrast to the authors` experience of {sup 131}I- and {sup 123}I-MIBG imaging of carcinoid tumours. Seven patients with known metastatic carcinoid tumours, two patients with symptoms of recurrence following tumour resection, one patient with completely resected disease, and two patients with a flushing syndrome of uncertain aetiology were studied with {sup 131}I-MIBG. Three of the seven patients with known metastatic disease had positive {sup 131}I-MIBG scans. Both patients with clinical evidence of recurrent disease had negative scans, as did the patient who was considered to have had complete resection of her primary tumour. The two patients with idiopathic flushing syndrome also had negative scans. Among seven patients imaged with {sup 123}I-MIBG there were four true-negative scans and one false-negative, the latter in a patient with biochemical and CT evidence of recurrence. In a seventh patient with distant metastases there was variable uptake in some of the lesions. Four patients were studied with indium-111 pentetreotide. Two patients with metastatic carcinoid disease had positive scans, although hepatic metastases were not seen in one. Another two with idiopathic flushing syndrome had normal studies. (orig./MG)

  10. Microbial spoilage and formation of biogenic amines in fresh and thawed modified atmosphere-packed salmon ( Salmo salar ) at 2 degrees C

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Emborg, Jette; Laursen, B.G.; Rathjen, T.;

    2002-01-01

    -2 weeks. Carnobacterium piscicola dominated the spoilage microflora of thawed MAP salmon and probably produced the ca 40 mg kg-1 tyramine detected in this product at the end of its shelf life.Conclusions: Photobacterium phosphoreum dominated the spoilage microflora of fresh MAP salmon but produced only...

  11. The 3,4-dihydroxyphenylacetic acid catabolon, a catabolic unit for degradation of biogenic amines tyramine and dopamine in Pseudomonas putida U.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arcos, Mario; Olivera, Elías R; Arias, Sagrario; Naharro, Germán; Luengo, José M

    2010-06-01

    Degradation of tyramine and dopamine by Pseudomonas putida U involves the participation of twenty one proteins organized in two coupled catabolic pathways, Tyn (tynABFEC tynG tynR tynD, 12 338 bp) and Hpa (hpaR hpaBC hpaHI hpaX hpaG1G2EDF hpaA hpaY, 12 722 bp). The Tyn pathway catalyses the conversion of tyramine and dopamine into 4-hydroxyphenylacetic acid (4HPA) and 3,4-dihydroxyphenylacetic acid (3,4HPA) respectively. Together, the Tyn and Hpa pathways constitute a complex catabolic unit (the 3,4HPA catabolon) in which 3,4HPA is the central intermediate. The genes encoding Tyn proteins are organized in four consecutive transcriptional units (tynABFEC, tynG, tynR and tynD), whereas those encoding Hpa proteins constitute consecutive operons (hpaBC, hpaG1G2EDF, hpaX, hpaHI) and three independent units (hpaA, hpaR and hpaY). Genetic engineering approaches were used to clone tyn and hpa genes and then express them, either individually or in tandem, in plasmids and/or bacterial chromosomes, resulting in recombinant bacterial strains able to eliminate tyramine and dopamine from different media. These results enlarge our biochemical and genetic knowledge of the microbial catabolic routes involved in the degradation of aromatic bioamines. Furthermore, they provide potent biotechnological tools to be used in food processing and fermentation as well as new strategies that could be used for pharmacological and gene therapeutic applications in the near future.

  12. Aminas biogênicas em macroalgas marinhas do Estado do Ceará, Brasil Biogenic amines in marine macroalgae of the state of Ceará, Brazil

    OpenAIRE

    Daniel Barroso Alencar; Kelma Maria dos Santos Pires-Cavalcante; Márcia Barbosa de Sousa; Francisco Arnaldo Viana; Silvana Saker-Sampaio

    2011-01-01

    Muitas aminas são comumente encontradas em alimentos de origem vegetal e animal, porém apenas um pequeno número é de interesse por produzirem reações adversas se ingeridas e absorvidas no organismo humano. Dentre elas, a histamina e a tiramina podem desencadear sintomas de intoxicação. As algas marinhas são amplamente consumidas pelos povos orientais, e, no Ocidente, seu consumo encontra-se em expansão. O Brasil não tem esta tradição, mas a diversidade de espécies encontradas no litoral brasi...

  13. Skin absorption of six performance amines used in metalworking fluids.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roux, Lauriane N; Brooks, James D; Yeatts, James L; Baynes, Ronald E

    2015-05-01

    Every year, 10 million workers are exposed to metalworking fluids (MWFs) that may be toxic. There are four types of MWFs: neat oils and three water-based MWFs (soluble oil, semisynthetic and synthetic), which are diluted with water and whose composition varies according to the mineral oils ratio. MWFs also contain various additives. To determine the absorption of six amines used as corrosion inhibitors and biocides in MWFs, porcine skin flow-through diffusion cell experiments were conducted with hydrophilic ethanolamines (mono-, di- and triethanolamine, MEA, DEA and TEA respectively) and a mixture of lipophilic amines (dibutylethanolamine, dicyclohexylamine and diphenylamine). The six amines were dosed in four vehicles (water and three generic water-based MWF formulations) and analyzed using a scintillation counter or gas chromatography/mass spectrometry. These 24 h studies showed that dermal absorption significantly (P < 0.05) increased from water for the six amines (e.g. 1.15 ± 0.29% dose; DEA in water) compared to other formulations (e.g. 0.13 ± 0.01% dose; DEA in semisynthetic MWF) and absorption was greatest for dibutylethanolamine in all the formulations. The soluble oil formulation tended to increase the dermal absorption of the hydrophilic amines. The permeability coefficient was significantly higher (P < 0.05) with TEA relative to the other hydrophilic amines (e.g. 4.22 × 10(-4) ± 0.53 × 10(-4) cm h(-1) [TEA in synthetic MWF] vs. 1.23 × 10(-4) ± 0.10 × 10(-4) cm h(-1) [MEA in synthetic MWF]), except for MEA in soluble oil formulation. Future research will confirm these findings in an in vivo pig model along with dermatotoxicity studies. These results should help MWF industries choose safer additives for their formulations to protect the health of metalworkers.

  14. Oligocene biogenic siliceous deposits on the slope of the northern South China Sea

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2001-01-01

    The abundance of radiolarian, diatom and sponge spicule and H4SiO4 in pore-waters increase abruptly at the boundary between Early and Late Oligocene (about 30-27.5 Ma) at Site 1148 of the northern South China Sea (SCS), indicating high biogenic silica accumulation during this time. At the same time (about 30-28 Ma), high biogenic silica deposition occurred in the cen tral equatorial Pacific. Comparison of the biogenic silica accumulation at Site 1148 of the SCS with that at Site 929 of the Atlantic verifies that the biogenic silica accumulation between the low lati tude Pacific and Atlantic oceans expresses the evident relationship of compensation during theOligocene. Biogenic silica accumulation decreased in the Atlantic, whereas it increased in the Pa cific at the boundary between the Early and Late Oligocene. It resulted from the formation and presence of North Atlantic deep water (NADW) in the Atlantic basin, indicating an intensive basin-basin fractionation. XRD analysis and SEM observation of the samples from Site 1148 demon strate that most of radiolarian, diatom and sponge spicule have suffered from dissolution and reprecipitation, suggested by the opal-A→opal-CT transformation. As a result of the transformation,porosity increased, but dry and bulk densities decreased, reflecting the consequence of diagenesis on the physical property of sediment.

  15. Sensitivity of global biogenic isoprenoid emissions to climate variability and atmospheric CO2

    Science.gov (United States)

    Naik, Vaishali; Delire, Christine; Wuebbles, Donald J.

    2004-03-01

    Isoprenoids (isoprene and monoterpenes) are the most dominant class of biogenic volatile organic compounds (BVOCs) and have been shown to significantly affect global tropospheric chemistry and composition, climate, and the global carbon cycle. In this study we assess the sensitivity of biogenic isoprene and monoterpene emissions to combined and isolated fluctuations in observed global climate and atmospheric carbon dioxide (CO2) concentration during the period 1971-1990. We integrate surface emission algorithms within the framework of a dynamic global ecosystem model, the Integrated Biospheric Simulator (IBIS), to simulate biogenic fluxes of isoprenoids as a component of the climate-vegetation dynamics. IBIS predicts global land surface isoprene emissions of 454 Tg C and monoterpenes of 72 Tg C annually and captures the spatial and temporal patterns well. The combined fluctuations in climate and atmospheric CO2 during 1971-1990 caused significant interannual and seasonal variability in global biogenic isoprenoid fluxes that was somewhat related to the El Niño-Southern Oscillation. Furthermore, an increasing trend in the simulated emissions was seen during this period that is attributed partly to the warming trend and partly to CO2 fertilization effect. The isolated effect of increasing CO2 during this period was to steadily increase emissions as a result of increases in foliar biomass. These fluctuations in biogenic emissions could have significant impacts on regional and global atmospheric chemistry and the global carbon budget.

  16. Colloidal properties of nanoparticular biogenic selenium govern environmental fate and bioremediation effectiveness.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Buchs, Benjamin; Evangelou, Michael W H; Winkel, Lenny H E; Lenz, Markus

    2013-03-05

    Microbial selenium (Se) bioremediation is based on conversion of water soluble, toxic Se oxyanions to water insoluble, elemental Se. Formed biogenic elemental Se is of nanometer size, hampering straightforward separation from the aqueous phase. This study represents the first systematic investigation on colloidal properties of pure biogenic Se suspensions, linking electrophoretic mobility (ζ-potential) to column settling behavior. It was demonstrated that circumneutral pH, commonly applied in bioremediation, is not appropriate for gravitational separation due to the negative ζ-potential preventing agglomeration. Mono/di/trivalent counter cations and acidity (protons) were used to screen efficiently the intrinsic negative charge of biogenic Se suspensions at circumneutral pH. Fast settling was induced by La(3+) addition in the micromolar range (86.2 ± 3.5% within 0.5 h), whereas considerably higher concentrations were needed when Ca(2+) or Na(+) was used. Colloidal stability was furthermore studied in different model waters. It was demonstrated that surface waters as such represent a fragile system regarding colloidal stability of biogenic Se suspensions (ζ-potential ∼ -30 mV), whereas dissolved organic matter increases colloidal stability. In marine waters, biogenic Se is colloidally destabilized and is thus expected to settle, representing a potential sink for Se during transport in the aquatic environment.

  17. The Effects of Drought on Predictions of Air Quality in Texas: Vegetation and Biogenic Hydrocarbons

    Science.gov (United States)

    McDonald-Buller, E.; Huang, L.; McGaughey, G.; Kimura, Y.; Allen, D.

    2014-12-01

    Biogenic hydrocarbons, primarily isoprene and monoterpenes, are important precursors for tropospheric ozone and secondary organic aerosol formation. Annual biogenic emissions in Texas ranked first within the continental United States in the 2011 National Emission Inventory. In recent years, the effects of drought in Texas have been among the most severe in the southern United States; during 2011, more than 80% of the state was under exceptional drought. Understanding the effects of drought on vegetation and biogenic emissions is important as the state concurrently faces requirements to achieve and maintain attainment with the National Ambient Air Quality Standard (NAAQS) for ozone in several large metropolitan areas. The Model of Emissions of Gases and Aerosols from Nature (MEGAN) has been utilized extensively for the estimation of biogenic emissions on global and regional scales. This research investigates the interannual variability in leaf area index and isoprene and monoterpene emissions estimates from MEGAN in eastern Texas climate regions with diverse climatology and land cover. In MEGAN, the adjustment to emissions from a standardized set of environmental conditions is determined using a multiplication of individual activity factors for leaf age, soil moisture, and the canopy environment. The research also interprets and quantifies differences in environmental activity factors between years with extreme to exceptional drought and average to above average precipitation in eastern Texas and identifies influences on biogenic emissions estimates from MEGAN.

  18. Characterization of biogenic secondary organic aerosols using statistical methods; Charakterisierung Biogener Sekundaerer Organischer Aerosole mit Statistischen Methoden

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Spindler, Christian

    2010-07-01

    Atmospheric aerosols have important influence on the radiation balance of the Earth, on visibility and human health. Secondary organic aerosol is formed from gas-to-particle conversion of oxidized volatile organic compounds. A dominant fraction of the gases originates from plant emissions, making biogenic secondary organic aerosol (BSOA) an especially important constituent of the atmosphere. Knowing the chemical composition of BSOA particles is crucial for a thorough understanding of aerosol processes in the environment. In this work, the chemical composition of BSOA particles was measured with aerosol mass spectrometry and analyzed with statistical methods. The experimental part of the work comprises process studies of the formation and aging of biogenic aerosols in simulation chambers. Using a plant chamber, real tree emissions were used to produce particles in a way close to conditions in forest environments. In the outdoor chamber SAPHIR, OH-radicals were produced from the photooxidation of ozone under illumination with natural sunlight. Here, BSOA was produced from defined mixtures of mono- and sesquiterpenes that represent boreal forest emissions. A third kind of experiments was performed in the indoor chamber AIDA. Here, particles were produced from ozonolysis of single monoterpenes and aged by condensing OH-oxidation products. Two aerosol mass spectrometers (AMS) were used to measure the chemical composition of the particles. One of the instruments is equipped with a quadrupole mass spectrometer providing unit mass resolution. The second instrument contains a time-of-flight mass spectrometer and provides mass resolution sufficient to distinguish different fragments with the same nominal mass. Aerosol mass spectra obtained with these instruments are strongly fragmented due to electron impact ionization of the evaporated molecules. In addition, typical BSOA mass spectra are very similar to each other. In order to get a more detailed knowledge about the mass