WorldWideScience

Sample records for biogas

  1. biogas

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    2015-01-01

    Functions for working with biogas data. Both low- and high-level functions are included for carrying out common tasks for analysis of biogas and related data. Molar mass and calculated oxygen demand (COD') can be determined from a chemical formula. Measured gas volume can be corrected for water...... vapor and to (possibly user-defined) standard temperature and pressure. Gas composition, cumulative production, or other variables can be interpolated to a specified time. Cumulative biogas and methane production (and rates) can be calculated using volumetric, manometric, or gravimetric methods for any...... be summarized in several different ways (e.g., omitting normalization) using the same function. Lastly, biogas and methane production can be predicted from substrate composition and additional, optional data....

  2. Biogas barometer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The energy recovery of biogas has kept on increasing in the European Union in 2013: +10.2%. Almost 13.4 million tep (tonnes of oil equivalent) of biogas primary energy was produced but the growth of the biogas sector is decreasing (it was 16.9% between 2011 and 2012). The growth for the coming years is expected to fall further because of political decisions in some countries to limit the use of land for farming purposes and to manage the biogas sector more efficiently. Germany ranks first for the production of biogas primary energy with 6717 ktep followed by United Kingdom with 1824 ktep. 2 tables give the production of electricity and heat from biogas in the E.U. member states in 2012 and 2013. The total production of electricity and heat from biogas in the E.U. in 2013 reached 53327 GWh and 432 ktep respectively. A list reviews the most significant companies working in Europe in the sector of methanation, 10 companies are listed among which 2 are Italian: AB Energy (Gruppo AB), BTS Italia and 8 are German: MT Energie, Envitec Biogas AG, Biogas Weser-Ems, Planet Biogastechnik, Schmack Biogas GmbH, Weltec Biopower GmbH, UTS Biogastechnik (Anaergia Group), Bioconstruct and BTS Italia. (A.C.)

  3. Biogas utilization

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Moser, M.A. [Resource Conservation Management, Inc., Berkeley, CA (United States)

    1996-01-01

    Options for successfully using biogas depend on project scale. Almost all biogas from anaerobic digesters must first go through a gas handling system that pressurizes, meters, and filters the biogas. Additional treatment, including hydrogen sulfide-mercaptan scrubbing, gas drying, and carbon dioxide removal may be necessary for specialized uses, but these are complex and expensive processes. Thus, they can be justified only for large-scale projects that require high-quality biogas. Small-scale projects (less than 65 cfm) generally use biogas (as produced) as a boiler fuel or for fueling internal combustion engine-generators to produce electricity. If engines or boilers are selected properly, there should be no need to remove hydrogen sulfide. Small-scale combustion turbines, steam turbines, and fuel cells are not used because of their technical complexity and high capital cost. Biogas cleanup to pipeline or transportation fuel specifications is very costly, and energy economics preclude this level of treatment.

  4. Biogas processing

    OpenAIRE

    Kudláč, Adam

    2010-01-01

    The diploma thesis includes proposals suitable for usage of the technologies for clearing the biogas into a quality of substitute natural gas (SNG). The most suitable technology is chosen for the clearing the biogas out of the septic tanks of the laboratory for biologically decomposable waste treatment at Institute of process and environmental engineering. There is a calculation , a proposal and a realisation of the experimental unit for clearing the biogas performed.

  5. EU Agro Biogas Project

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Amon, T.; Mayr, H.; Eder, M.; Hobbs, P.; Rao Ravella, S.; Roth, U.; Niebaum, A.; Doehler, H.; Weiland, P.; Abdoun, E.; Moser, A.; Lyson, M.; Heiermann, M.; Plöchl, M.; Budde, J.; Schattauer, A.; Suarez, T.; Möller, H.; Ward, A.; Hillen, F.; Sulima, P.; Oniszk-Polplawska, A.; Krampe, P.; Pastorek, Z.; Kara, J.; Mazancova, J.; Dooren, van H.J.C.; Wim, C.; Gioelli, F.; Balsari, P.

    2009-01-01

    EU-AGRO-BIOGAS is a European Biogas initiative to improve the yield of agricultural biogas plants in Europe, to optimise biogas technology and processes and to improve the efficiency in all parts of the production chain from feedstock to biogas utilisation. Leading European research institutions and

  6. BIOGAS TECHNOLOGY

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    D.B. SALUNKHE

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available Due to scarcity of petroleum and coal it threatens supply of fuel throughout the world also problem of their combustion leads to research in different corners to get access the new sources of energy, like renewable energy resources. Solar energy, wind energy, different thermal and hydro sources of energy, biogas are all renewable energy resources. But, biogas is distinct from other renewable energies because of its characteristics of using, controlling and collecting organic wastes and at the same time producing fertilizer and water for use in agricultural irrigation. Biogas does not have any geographical limitations nor does it require advanced technology for producing energy, also it is very simple to use and apply. Anaerobic digestion is controlled biological degradation process which allows efficient capturing & utilization of biogas (approximately 60% methane and 40% carbon dioxide for energy generation. Anaerobic digestion of food waste is achievable but different types, composition of food waste results in varying degrees of methane yields, and thus the effects of mixing various types of food waste and their proportions should be determined on case by case basis.

  7. EU Agro Biogas Project

    OpenAIRE

    Amon, T.; Mayr, H.; M. Eder; Hobbs, P.; Rao Ravella, S.; Roth, U.; Niebaum, A.; Doehler, H.; Weiland, P.; Abdoun, E.; A. Moser; Lyson, M.; Heiermann, M.; Plöchl, M.; Budde, J.

    2009-01-01

    EU-AGRO-BIOGAS is a European Biogas initiative to improve the yield of agricultural biogas plants in Europe, to optimise biogas technology and processes and to improve the efficiency in all parts of the production chain from feedstock to biogas utilisation. Leading European research institutions and universities are cooperating with key industry partners in order to work towards sustainable biogas production in Europe. Fourteen partners from eight European countries are involved in the EU-AGR...

  8. Biogas from ley crops

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This report describes the cost of producing biogas from energy crops. Five process systems, sized 0.25-8 MW are studied. The cultivation of biogas-crops is made in three regions in Sweden. Also valued are the positive cultivation effects obtained when cereal dominated crop rotation is broken by biogas crops. 8 refs, 40 figs, 10 tabs

  9. New Networks for Biogas

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Eekelen, R. van [Kiwa Gas Technology B. V., Apeldoorn (Netherlands)

    2012-06-15

    The study of 'New Networks for Biogas' main goal is to reduce the uncertainties associated with the design choices for biogas network configurations. Supplementary to the objective an overview of the state-of-the-art on the design, operations and maintenance of biogas networks in Europe is given.

  10. Biogas and biofuels barometer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    European union countries are becoming more and more interested by the characteristics of biogas in terms of environment and energy production and are developing their proper channels of valorization according to their potential. In this way, biogas production reached nearly 5,3 million tons oil equivalent in 2006, representing a 13,6% increase with respect to 2005. Statistical data are provided on the primary energy production of biogas, the electricity production from biogas, gross heat production from biogas, and the representative firms of the biogas sector. In a second part the biofuels barometer is presented. The agricultural environment and landscape of the European Union countries is redefined a little more each year by energy crops for biofuel production. According to the first estimates for 2006, biofuel consumption reached 5,38 Mtoe last year in the EU, corresponding to a 1,8% share of the total consumption of fuels devoted to transport. (A.L.B.)

  11. Energy recovering and biogas

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In spite of the advantages of the methanation and the biogas valorization, the France is one of the european countries where these energy recovery techniques have less developed. Liquid industrial effluents, sewage sludges, waste waters, oils or vinification residues can be processed to produce biogas. In this innovative context biogas combustion installations will have to anticipate the regulations on CO2 emissions. (A.L.B.)

  12. Integrated biogas systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Amaratunga, M.

    1980-01-01

    Integrated biogas systems as alternatives to fossil fuels in Sri Lanka are considered from standpoints of population growth, land availability, and employment opportunities. Agricultural practices would be improved by use of chemical fertilizers, and health/nutrition problems be alleviated by using biogas systems. Fuel for cooking and rural industries will become more easily available; water weeds, such as water hyacinth and salvinia which pose a threat to waterways and rice paddy lands could be used for the production of biogas and fertilizers. A concept of an integrated biogas system comprising photosynthesis and anaerobic degradation processes to produce food and energy is presented.

  13. Basic Data on Biogas

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2012-07-01

    Renewable gases such as biogas and biomethane are considered as key energy carrier when the society is replacing fossil fuels with renewable alternatives. In Sweden, almost 80 % of the fossil fuels are used in the transport sector. Therefore, the focus in Sweden has been to use the produced biogas in this sector as vehicle gas. Basic Data on Biogas contains an overview of production, utilisation, climate effects etc. of biogas from a Swedish perspective. The purpose is to give an easy overview of the current situation in Sweden for politicians, decision makers and interested public. 1.4 TWh of biogas is produced annually in Sweden at approximately 230 facilities. The 135 wastewater treatment plants that produce biogas contribute with around half of the production. In order to reduce the sludge volume, biogas has been produced at wastewater treatment plants for decades. New biogas plants are mainly co-digestion plants and farm plants. The land filling of organic waste has been banned since 2005, thus the biogas produced in landfills is decreasing.

  14. Farm Biogas Handbook; Gaardsbiogashandbok

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Christensson, Kjell; Bjoernsson, Lovisa; Dahlgren, Stefan; Eriksson, Peter; Lantz, Mikael; Lindstroem, Johanna; Mickelaaker, Maria

    2009-04-15

    A very large share of the total raw material potential for biogas production will be found within the agriculture. The raw material potential of manure in Sweden amounts to 4 - 6 TWh. Within the agriculture there is moreover a big potential in the form of residues from plant cultivation and non-food crops (approximately 7 TWh) that can to be used for biogas production. The potential for biogas production from only residues and manure is around 8-10 TWh. An increased biogas production within the agriculture would give significant environmental effects. Among other things manure, that today is leaking methane gas to the atmosphere, can be fermented, and trough this process the methane losses will be reduced. When the produced biogas replaces fossil fuel, an overall environmental effect will be reached, that is highly significant. This manual deals with biogas plants for agriculture and such plants that do not have extensive transports of different raw materials, as manure, wastes etc. One of the starting points for this manual's set-up is a course plan that Biogas Syd made for the courses they give to farmers, advisors and others. The manual illustrates important aspects in planning and construction of biogas plants, from raw material and technology to dimensioning of plant, use of biogas and planning of local gas grids. We also think it is important to illustrate the legislation that encompasses construction work and operation of a biogas plant. Investment costs are also illustrated, but the book does not give any extensive economic calculations, since we believe that such calculations need their own manual in the form of calculation examples, based on various conditions. The final section is called 'Biogas on farm - from idea to reality' where the entire process from analysis and pre-planning to monitoring and control of plant during operation is briefly described

  15. Electricity from biogas

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Biogas is a medium-Btu methane and carbon dioxide mix produced by bacterial decomposition of organic matter. Its sources include landfills, waste water sludges, and animal wastes. It can fuel energy applications, of which electricity generation is a frequently-preferred option. The greatest current U.S. biogas recovery and energy use is at landfills, where biogas at about 80 landfill sites fuels a total of approximately 300 MWe. Wastewater treatment plants and confined animal waste management systems support additional electric power production. Generation of electricity from biogas can present difficulties due to the generally small scale of the generating facility, variable energy content of the gas, fluctuating availability, contaminant problems, and often-demanding control needs. However, such difficulties are being successfully addressed and economics for electricity generation are often favorable as biogas can be essentially open-quotes freeclose quotes fuel. Biogas recovery and use has the additional advantage of mitigating a potent greenhouse gas. Biogas from U.S. landfills alone could fuel about 1% of U.S. electrical generation while giving climate change benefit equivalent to reducing CO2 emissions in the electricity sector by more than 10%. Growth in landfill gas use will be facilitated by recent regulations, advances in equipment, and improved management techniques such as open-quotes controlled landfillingclose quotes. The potential for biogas recovery and electricity production from sewage sludges, animal wastes and other organic resources such as agricultural residues is uncertain but probably exceeds the estimate for landfills

  16. DEVELOPMENT TRENDS OF BIOGAS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mariana DUMITRU

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available All over the world, researches are made in order to improve the technologies, the operational and process stability and performance of biogas plants, because the world markets for biogas increased considerably in Europe and all over the world. In this paper we studied the most important parameters related to a biogas plant, starting from the ecologic landfill of Cristian, Sibiu, a landfill which storages industrial and household waste. In this respect, we studied operational parameters, such as organic load and hydraulic retention time, and parameters for evaluation of a biogas plant. Also, we made a case study concerning the evaluation of used waters in the landfill described above under the aspect of pollution sources, way of treatment and evacuation mode of used waters. The existing biomass resources everywhere in the world can give us an idea of the global potential of biogas production, which is not exploited to its capacity, especially in our country.

  17. BiogasMotor; BiogasMotor

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Roubaud, A.; Favrat, D.

    2002-07-01

    This final report for the Swiss Federal Office of Energy (SFOE) presents the results of tests made at the Swiss Federal Institute of Technology in Lausanne with an unscavenged prechamber ignition system on a 150 kW co-generation engine fuelled with biogas. The engine's performance in terms of fuel conversion efficiency was observed and the reduction potential for exhaust emissions to a level below the Swiss limits was verified. The tests made, which used natural gas mixed with CO{sub 2} as simulated biogas fuel, are described. The results of the tests, including figures on NO{sub x}, CO and HC emissions, are presented and discussed. The authors conclude that biogas engines with unscavenged prechamber ignition could provide a significant boost in energy conversion efficiency whilst keeping emissions within the tough Swiss limits.

  18. Use of biogas in agriculture

    OpenAIRE

    Hejný, František

    2012-01-01

    Biogas results from anaerobic fermentation of organic substances either in oxygen atmosphere or non-oxygen atmosphere, depending on decomposition stage. Composition of Biogas is different, depends mainly on development of fermentation and additional important factors. The most important for Biogas is the maximum contents of methane. Biogas stations exploit Biogas for production of electric energy and heat energy by means of congregational units and there is also possibility to generate c...

  19. Biologische Entschwefelung von Biogas

    OpenAIRE

    Schneider, Ralf

    2009-01-01

    Ziel dieser Arbeit ist die Erhöhung von Abbauleistung und Stabilität des biologischen Abbaus von Schwefelwasserstoff (H2S) in Biotropfkörpern zur Entschwefelung von Biogas. Für die Nutzung von Biogas ist häufig eine Reduktion des H2S-Gehalts erforderlich. Üblicherweise wird H2S von aeroben Mikroorganismen bei Zugabe von Luft zum Biogas entweder direkt im Biogasreaktor oder in nachgeschalteten Biotropfkörpern zu Schwefel und Schwefelsäure oxidiert. In der Praxis auftretende Schwankungen der H2...

  20. Biogas barometer 2011

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Biogas energy recovery for both electricity and heat application has increased in the European Union in 2011 (compared to 2010): +18% for gross electricity production from biogas and +16% for the gross heat production from biogas. The magnitude of the reduction (-7%) in the primary energy figures between 2010 and 2011 can be played down as it can be explained by a change in reporting method of the main producer country, Germany. Germany has taken the lead by far in the E.U. for the production of primary energy of biogas and its uses for heat or electricity production. Among the 13 most representative firms in the anaerobic digestion (methanization) sector in Europe, 8 are German. New markets are starting to emerge but the economic crisis and regulatory restrictions do not augur well of their expansion

  1. Energy crops for biogas

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This investigation aims at describing the effects on cropping systems, containing a.o. leguminosae plant leys for biogas production. Problems treated are effects on soil physics, circulation of crop nutrients, use of chemical pesticides, preceding crop effects, and the possibility of utilizing catch crops for methane production. It is observed that the studied biogas-crop sequences gives positive effects on soil structure, reduced need for artificial fertilizers and chemical pesticides. 26 refs, 28 tabs

  2. Terpenes removal from biogas; Terpenenverwijdering uit biogas

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Schulze, P.; Holstein, J.; De Haan, HR.; Vlap, H. [DNV KEMA, Arnhem (Netherlands)

    2013-06-15

    Biogas may contain unwanted and harmful components, including aromatic hydrocarbons such as terpenes. These terpenes (organic oils) are mainly present in citrus peel and plant residues; that is why especially raw biogas from organic waste digestion plants contains high concentrations of terpenes. If terpenes end up in the gas grid (with the injected biomethane) there is a risk that plastics (PE pipes) lose their mechanical properties by absorbing liquids or extracting ethereal plasticizers. This can lead to embrittlement greatly lowering the reliability of the piping. In addition, soft components are als o affected (gaskets and rubber O-rings). Besides the impact on the integrity of the gas grid, terpenes also mask the odor of natural gas odorants such as THT. This impedes the detection of gas leaks which is a significant security risk. Furthermore, the presence of terpenes in biogas leads to fouling of equipment used for the drying of biomethane, as well as contamination of adsorption liquids and membranes used in the upgrading process. Currently, terpenes are removed by activated carbon filters. The tool life of such a filter can be relatively short if terpene concentrations are high in the biogas; this results in a significant increase of the operational costs, due to the replacement of the carbon. This study looked at alternative techniques for removing much of the terpenes from biogas in a simple, efficient and cheap way. In a workshop with stakeholders two techniques were chosen to be tested on laboratory scale in order to demonstrate the proof of principle. These techniques are photo-oxydation and a gas scrubbing. Of all investigated techniques for the removal of limonene the application of UV radiation seems to be the most promising option because of the simplicity of the process, the high efficiency (up to 94%), the comparable operational costs with activated carbon (6.7 to 9.5 euro/kg limonene removed, compared to 10 euro/kg limonene removed for activated

  3. Experiences with biogas in Denmark

    OpenAIRE

    Bundgaard, Sirid Sif; Kofoed-Wiuff, Anders

    2014-01-01

    This report is primarily based on the work of the Danish biogas task force, which was established as a result of the Energy Agreement of 22 March 2012. The purpose of the taskforce is to examine and support concrete biogas projects in order to facilitate the projected biogas development up to 2020.The focus of the task force was on the practical integration of the new biogas production in energy system, including the utilization of gas, the necessary infrastructure and contractual relationshi...

  4. Biogas building directions

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Eggeling, G.; Guldager, R.; Hilliges, G.; Tietjen, C.; Werner, U.; Guldager, H.; Sasse, L.

    The purpose of this book is to approach the people living and working in the rural regions of developing countries with a technology enabling them to use their resources by their proper means in a way that they dispose of a cheap and inexhaustible source of energy and fertilizer. These building directives for biogas plants shall concretely give the fundamental information for the use of this technology and be a practical support in do-it-yourself construction of biogas plants by its intelligible way of description owing to designs and popular language. These directives are part of a work performed by German and Indian experts during two years working up the biogas technology in countries of the Third World and in industrial countries. The regulations have been discussed at an international workshop in Bremen with more than 60 experts from countries of all continents meeting to discuss the application of biogas plants. The result has been documented in the ''Report on the International Biogas-Workshop Bremen''.

  5. Biogas technology in Pakistan

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Although biomethanation is a mature technology its implementation is paradoxically only partly a success in Pakistan. Biogas plants on family farms can be economical but seldom are so in Pakistan. Either the investment cost has been high or satisfactory performance of the process could not be maintained or in some case for a short period of time only. It is, however, concluded that biogas plants, if correctly operated and maintained, may prove to be appropriate to the technical abilities and economic capacity of Pakistani farmers. It can get a change to be disseminated in rural areas. Biogas technology is appropriate to the ecological and economic demands of the future. With the potential from existing cattle population only, 3 to 4 million family size biogas plants may be installed in Pakistan which can substitute of considerable part of rural fuel wood demand for their daily household energy requirements. A large amount of dung is burnt every year by households which if put in the biogas plant, may provide a considerable amount of energy along with organic fertilizer could be saved from being burned at the same time. On the basis of available data from the livestock excluding agriculture residue (50% collectivity-1991), in terms of fuel substitution, this would be equivalent to 1200 million litres of kerosene at worth economic value of 9021 million rupees saving in the form of gas and 821 million rupees as additional fertilizer value annually. (LN)

  6. Basic data biogas Germany. Solid fuels, biofuels, biogas; Basisdaten Bioenergie Deutschland. Festbrennstoffe - Biokraftstoffe - Biogas

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2012-08-15

    The brochure ''Basic data biogas Germany'' gives statistical information about (a) renewable energies: primary energy consumption, power generation, energy supply, avoidance of greenhouse gases; (b) Solid fuels: energetic utilization, wood pellets, energy consumption, comparison to heating oil; (c) Biofuels: consumption, bioethanol, biodiesel, vegetable oils; (d) Biogas: biogas power plants, energy content, production, legal aspects.

  7. Basic data biogas Germany. Solid fuels, biofuels, biogas; Basisdaten Bioenergie Deutschland. Festbrennstoffe, Biokraftstoffe, Biogas

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2011-09-15

    The brochure ''Basic data biogas Germany'' gives statistical information about (a) renewable energies: primary energy consumption, power generation, energy supply, avoidance of greenhouse gases; (b) Solid fuels: energetic utilization, wood pellets, energy consumption, comparison to heating oil; (c) Biofuels: consumption, bioethanol, biodiesel, vegetable oils; (d) Biogas: biogas power plants, energy content, production, legal aspects.

  8. Biogas Plant in MUAS

    OpenAIRE

    Varapnickaite, Ernesta

    2015-01-01

    The first and the most important aim is to find out if it is profitable to build a biogas plant in MUAS. Biogas plant has already proved that it is efficient way to use waste and make additional energy for heating and electricity. However in MUAS we have limited amount of biowaste so I will investigate how much energy would ir be possible to get. The second aim is to learn what is the best way to use the energy from the plant – if it should be used in all buildings for electricity and heating...

  9. Biogas: quo vadis?

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This article takes a look at the situation in Switzerland with respect to the use of biogas and the potential available for its increased use. The sharp increase of biogas production in Switzerland and its use for the production of heat, electrical power and methane for the gas mains is reviewed. The large potential for additional biomass is discussed. The political will to increase the use of renewable forms of energy in Switzerland, security of supply and regional added value are discussed. The article discusses the current situation as well as trends concerning substrates, systems and products

  10. Experiences with biogas in Denmark

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bundgaard, Sirid Sif; Kofoed-Wiuff, Anders

    This report is primarily based on the work of the Danish biogas task force, which was established as a result of the Energy Agreement of 22 March 2012. The purpose of the task force is to examine and support concrete biogas projects in order to facilitate the projected biogas development up to 2020....... The focus of the task force was on the practical integration of the new biogas production in energy system, including the utilization of gas, the necessary infrastructure and contractual relationships. The aim was to ensure effective and appropriate integration of biogas in the Danish energy supply, which...... was consistent with the policy objectives, both in regards to current challenges for specific biogas plants and the role of biogas flexible renewable energy form on longer term. The task force's final report was published in 2014....

  11. Biogas document; Dossier Biogaz

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Verchin, J.C.; Servais, C. [Club BIOGAZ, 94 - Arcueil (France)

    2002-06-01

    In this document concerning the biogas, the author presents this renewable energy situation in 2001-2002, the concerned actors, the accounting of the industrial methanization installations in France, the three main chains of process for industrial wastes and two examples of methanization implementation in a paper industry and in a dairy. (A.L.B.)

  12. Biogas in the natural gas distribution network; Biogas til nettet

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kvist Jensen, T.

    2009-05-15

    With the Danish 'Thorsoe Biogas Plant' as reference case, an assessment of the possibility of using the existing natural gas distribution network for distributing biogas was carried out. Technologies for and cost of upgrading biogas to natural gas quality are presented. Furthermore, a socio-economic analysis has been performed, including the Danish financial conditions, the market models, and the role of the natural gas distribution companies.

  13. Biogas in Vietnam : a proposed business model in biogas sector

    OpenAIRE

    Phan, Thi Thanh Thao

    2011-01-01

    The purpose of this thesis was to discover a biogas opportunity in the Mekong Delta area in Vietnam. The discussed biogas production is derived from organic waste and targeted to fullfill the demand for gas for cooking in condition of non-pipeline system. However, different products from this production were introduced to maximize the technology profitability. Another aim was to propose a business model to foreign investors who own advanced technologies in biogas production. Qualitative r...

  14. Empirical Study on Factors Affecting Biogas Production

    OpenAIRE

    Prasad, Ravita D.

    2012-01-01

    In Fiji, biogas has a huge potential to be one of the energy providers for cooking in rural areas but currently its use is very minimal. Main component of biogas is methane which releases energy when combusted. This paper mainly presents the factors that affect biogas production using experimental study. The first section presents an overview on what is biogas, types of biogas digesters present, and some background on the current use of biogas in Fiji. The second section of the paper describe...

  15. Biogas energy development in Slovenia

    OpenAIRE

    Bojnec, Štefan; Papler, Drago

    2013-01-01

    This paper analyses the development of the biogas energy production and use in Slovenia. The major concern is given to ecological, economic and technical determinants in decision making process for selection among alternative biogas energy production plants and use of energy for heating and electricity. The investments into the biogas plants have reduced ecological problems from large environmental polluters in urban and rural areas. Among them are sewage systems, food wastes, wastes from lar...

  16. Biogas Opportunities Roadmap Progress Report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    None, None

    2015-12-01

    In support of the Obama Administration's Climate Action Plan, the U.S. Department of Energy, the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency, and U.S. Department of Agriculture jointly released the Biogas Opportunities Roadmap Progress Report, updating the federal government's progress to reduce methane emissions through biogas systems since the Biogas Opportunities Roadmap was completed by the three agencies in July 2014. The report highlights actions taken, outlines challenges and opportunities, and identifies next steps to the growth of a robust biogas industry.

  17. Biogas barometer; barometre biogaz

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Anon.

    2010-11-15

    The biogas sector has never before aroused so much attention as it does today. Elected officers and investors' interest has been fired by the gradual introduction of regulatory restrictions on the treatment of organic waste and the renewable energy commitments recently made by the European Union Member States. The biogas sector is gradually deserting its core activities of waste cleanup and treatment and getting involved in energy production, with so much enthusiasm that in some countries its scope of action has extended to using energy crops. Across the European Union, the sector's progress is as clear as daylight, as in 2009, primary energy growth leapt by a further 4.3 per cent. (author)

  18. Profile and perceptions of biogas as automobile fuel : A study of Svensk Biogas

    OpenAIRE

    Larsson, Anneli

    2008-01-01

    From an environmental- and health perspective, biogas and other biomass-based fuels have several advantages; nevertheless the majority of motorists fill their cars with petroleum-based fuels. This thesis is designed to explore the profile of biogas in relation to its perceptions. It is a study concerning the communication between the biogas producing company Svensk Biogas and their biogas users and non biogas users. To obtain a thorough understanding of the profile and perceptions of biogas a...

  19. Bacterial Contamination of Biogas

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Mrázek, Jakub; Čermáková, J.; Tenkrát, D.; Kopečný, Jan; Fliegerová, Kateřina

    Smolenice : IAP, Slovak Academy of Sciences, Košice, 2011. s. 11-11. ISBN 978-80-968618-6-6. [7th International Symposium on Anaerobic Microbiology. 15.6.2011-18.6.2011, Smolenice] R&D Projects: GA ČR GPP503/10/P394; GA MZe QI92A286 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z50450515 Keywords : biogas * bacterium Subject RIV: EE - Microbiology, Virology

  20. Biogas - the calculable energy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kith, Károly; Nagy, Orsolya; Balla, Zoltán; Tamás, András

    2015-04-01

    EU actions against climate change are rising energy prices, both have emphasized the use of renewable energy,increase investments and energy efficiency. A number of objectives formulated in the EC decree no. 29/2009 by 2020. This document is based on the share of renewable energies in energy consumption should be increased to 20% (EC, 2009). The EU average is 20% but the share of renewables vary from one member state to another. In Hungary in 2020, 14.65% renewable energy share is planned to be achieved. According to the latest Eurostat data, the share of renewable energy in energy consumption of the EU average was 14.1%, while in Hungary, this share was 9.6% in 2012. (EUROSTAT, 2014). The use of renewable energy plant level is influenced by several factors. The most important of these is the cost savings and efficiency gains. Hungarian investments in renewable energy production usually have high associated costs and the payback period is substantially more than five years, depending on the support rate. For example, the payback period is also influenced by the green electricity generated feed prices, which is one of the lowest in Hungary compared the Member States of the European Union. Consequently, it is important to increase the production of green energy. Nowadays, predictable biogas energy is an outstanding type of decentralized energy production. It follows directly that agricultural by-products can be used to produce energy and they also create jobs by the construction of a biogas plant. It is important to dispose of and destroy hazardous and noxious substances in energy production. It follows from this that the construction of biogas plants have a positive impact, in addition to green energy which is prepared to reduce the load on the environment. The production of biogas and green electricity is one of the most environment friendly forms of energy production. Biogas production also has other important ecological effects, such as the substitution of

  1. Biogas: A renewable energy source

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Biogas refers to a gas produced by the biological breakdown of organic matter in the absence of oxygen. Biogas can be used as a fuel in any country for any heating purpose such as cooking. By means of digesters, the energy in the gas can be converted to electricity and heat. Biogas like natural gas can also be used to power motor vehicle. Biogas is a renewable fuel which qualifies it for a renewable energy subsidy. It is non-toxic, environment-friendly and serve as a means of combating global warming. Biogas is presently being used in U.S.A, U.K, China, Sweden, Brazil, and India amongst others for domestic purposes, transportation and power generation. In this regard, this paper discusses biogas production. It also presents a model design of domestic biogas plant suitable for Nigerian households. The paper recommends that Nigerian Government should intensify efforts in educating the masses on this novel technology for a sustainable global development. A biogas plant designed for Nigerian household discussed in this paper is also recommended.

  2. Process control in biogas plants

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Holm-Nielsen, Jens Bo; Oleskowicz-Popiel, Piotr

    2013-01-01

    Efficient monitoring and control of anaerobic digestion (AD) processes are necessary in order to enhance biogas plant performance. The aim of monitoring and controlling the biological processes is to stabilise and optimise the production of biogas. The principles of process analytical technology...

  3. The potential of biogas energy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Biogas technology has been known about for a long time, but in recent years the interest in it has significantly increased, especially due to the higher costs and the rapid depletion of fossil fuels as well as their environmental considerations. The main objective of the present study is to investigate the potential of biogas energy in the 15 European Union (EU) countries and in Turkey, which is seeking admission to the EU and is trying to meet EU environmental standards. Biogas energy potential of the 15 EU countries is estimated to be about 800 PJ. Besides this, Turkey's annual animal waste potential is obtained to be about 11.81 million tons with a biogas energy equivalent of 53.6 PJ. It is expected that this study will be helpful in developing highly applicable and productive planning for energy policies towards the optimum utilization of biogas energy. (author)

  4. Biogas from lignocellulosic biomass

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Berglund Odhner, Peter; Schabbauer, Anna [Grontmij AB, Stockholm (Sweden); Sarvari Horvath, Ilona; Mohseni Kabir, Maryam [Hoegskolan i Boraas, Boraas (Sweden)

    2012-01-15

    Grontmij AB has cooperated with the University of Boraas to evaluate the technological and economical possibilities for biogas production from substrates containing lignocellulose, such as forest residues, straw and paper. The state of knowledge regarding biogas production from cellulosic biomass has been summarized. The research in the field has been described, especially focusing on pretreatment methods and their results on increased gas yields. An investigation concerning commercially available pretreatment methods and the cost of these technologies has been performed. An economic evaluation of biogas production from lignocellulosic materials has provided answers to questions regarding the profitability of these processes. Pretreatment with steam explosion was economically evaluated for three feedstocks - wood, straw and paper - and a combination of steam explosion and addition of NaOH for paper. The presented costs pertain to costs for the pretreatment step as it, in this study, was assumed that the pretreatment would be added to an existing plant and the lignocellulosic substrates would be part of a co-digestion process. The results of the investigation indicate that it is difficult to provide a positive net result when comparing the cost of pretreatment versus the gas yield (value) for two of the feedstocks - forest residues and straw. This is mainly due to the high cost of the raw material. For forest residues the steam pretreatment cost exceeded the gas yield by over 50 %, mainly due to the high cost of the raw material. For straw, the production cost was similar to the value of the gas. Paper showed the best economic result. The gas yield (value) for paper exceeded the pretreatment cost by 15 %, which makes it interesting to study paper further.

  5. Special file: biogas

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    With some graphs indicating the number and types of existing and projected biogas production units, a first article outlines that the development rate is presently too low to be able to reach objectives defined for 2020. A second article comments the results of a benchmark study performed by the ADEME on the biogas sector status in European countries (a map indicates the levels of production and electricity purchase tariffs, the evolution of development conditions, and the types of financial support). In an interview, a GrDF manager in charge of strategy discusses the GrDF strategy on biomethane, the future management of gas networks, the operation of existing biomethane injection sites, future projects, the management of consumption variations, and the issue of biomethane injection tariff. An article then presents an experiment made by farmers in western France who gathered about a methanization site with a unit of injection of biomethane into the natural gas network. The assessment of another experiment (a Methanea methanization unit operated by two farmers in the Ain district) is then presented. The next article gives an overview of the various possibilities proposed by the legal framework for the contract between input providers and the methanization unit operator. Different assessment tools are then presented: Flash BMP (a fast and affordable method of measurement of the biochemical methane potential or BMP to perform feasibility studies), and a software for the precise assessment of the profitability of a methanization unit. In an interview, a member of Weltec Biopower proposes a brief overview of services and products proposed by this company which installs biogas and bio-methanization every where in the world. A last article addresses the recent evolutions and progress of certification of French digestates

  6. Treatment of Biogas for Use as Energy

    OpenAIRE

    Koller, J.

    2010-01-01

    The biogas generated in biogas plants offers significant potential for the production of energy from renewable energy sources. The number biogas plants in the Czech Republic is expected to exceed one hundred in the near future. Substrates from agriculture, industry and municipal wastes are used for biogas production. Biogas plants usually use co-generation units to generate electricity and heat. Increased effectiveness can be achieved by using heat as a source of energy for producing renewabl...

  7. Natural attenuation of biogas in landfill covers

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In the risk evaluation of uncontrolled biogas emissions from landfills, the process of natural attenuation in landfill covers assumes a very important role. The capacity of biogas oxidation in the cover soils seems to be the most important control to mitigate the biogas emission during the aftercare period when the biogas collection system might fail. In the present paper laboratory experiences on lab columns to study the biogas oxidation are discussed

  8. Biogas production from different grass

    OpenAIRE

    Liubarskij, Vladimir; Mahnert, Pia; Heiermann, Monika; Linke, Bernd

    2006-01-01

    The importance of forage as a feed supply for dairy and beef cattle stocks is decreasing. Therefore, interest is rising in alternative use of grasslands. An ecologically sound option is the anaerobic digestion of the biomass as co-substrates in biogas plants. Three fresh and ensiled grass species were investigated in lab-scale batch experiments at 35 °C to determine their maximum biogas production potential. The volatile solid-based biogas and methane yield were observed to be in the range...

  9. Biogas production and biogas as vehicle fuel - Swedish experiences

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lindberg, A.E. [VBB Viak AB, Stockholm (Sweden)

    1997-08-01

    In Sweden there are totally about 220 biogas plants in operation. The major part of these plants (134) are represented by sewage sludge treatment facilities at waste water treatment plants. At 60 sites the biogas is generated from landfills or cell digesters at landfills. In 1996, the amount produced had a total energy content of about 1,35 TWh (or 4 900 PJ). (EG)

  10. Nitrogen availability of biogas residues

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    El-Sayed Fouda, Sara

    2011-09-07

    The objectives of this study were to characterize biogas residues either unseparated or separated into a liquid and a solid phase from the fermentation of different substrates with respect to their N and C content. In addition, short and long term effects of the application of these biogas residues on the N availability and N utilization by ryegrass was investigated. It is concluded that unseparated or liquid separated biogas residues provide N at least corresponding to their ammonium content and that after the first fertilizer application the C{sub org}:N{sub org} ratio of the biogas residues was a crucial factor for the N availability. After long term application, the organic N accumulated in the soil leads to an increased release of N.

  11. BIOGAS PRODUCTION FROM CATCH CROPS

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Molinuevo-Salces, Beatriz; Larsen, Søren U.; Ahring, Birgitte Kiær;

    2014-01-01

    Catch crop cultivation combined with its use for biogas production would increase renewable energy production in the form of methane, without interfering with the production of food and fodder crops. The low biomass yield of catch crops is the main limiting factor for using these crops as co......-substrate in manure-based biogas plants and the profit obtained from the sale of biogas barely compensates for the harvest costs. A new agricultural strategy to harvest catch crops together with the residual straw of the main crop was investigated to increase the biomass and thereby the methane yield per hectare...... biomass. Leaving the straw on the field until harvest of the catch crop in the autumn could benefit biogas production due to the organic matter degradation of the straw taking place on the field during the autumn months. This new agricultural strategy may be a good alternative to achieve economically...

  12. Monitoring of biogas test plants

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Holm-Nielsen, Jens Bo; Esbensen, Kim H.

    2011-01-01

    Most studies reported in the literature have investigated near infrared spectroscopy (NIR) in laboratory-scale or minor pilot biogas plants only; practically no other studies have examined the potential for meso-scale/full-scale on-line process monitoring. The focus of this study is on a meso......-scale biogas test plant implementation of process analytical technologies (PAT) to develop multivariate calibration/prediction models for anaerobic digestion (AD) processes. A 150 L bioreactor was fitted with a recurrent loop at which NIR spectroscopy and attendant reference sampling were carried out. In all...... realistic bioreactor scales, it is necessary to obtain a fairly constant level of volatile fatty acid (VFA) concentration, which furthers a stable biogas production. Uncontrolled VFA contents have a significant negative impact on biogas production; VFA concentrations should not exceed 5–6000 mg/L lest...

  13. Biogas production from lignocellulosic materials

    OpenAIRE

    Li SUN

    2015-01-01

    Lignocellulosic materials such as agricultural plant residues are widely available in large amounts and can be used for production of biogas without the risk of competition for arable land. However, the intricate structure of lignocellulose, a major component of the plant cell wall, limits microbial degradation and consequently results in low degradation rate and low biogas yield. The aim of this thesis was to investigate microbial communities engaged in the degradation of lignocellulose and ...

  14. Decentralized power generation from biogas

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Areva Bioenergies proposes ready-to-use biogas production and valorization units that use industrial effluents (liquid effluents, spent water, solid wastes). Biogas valorization is performed through cogeneration plants with an output power of 500 kW to 10 MW. This brochure presents Areva's global offer in methanation projects (support, engineering, optimization). Areva Bioenergies counts 20 dual-purpose power plants in operation or under construction in the world which represent an installed power of 220 MW

  15. Collective biogas plants

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Papers contributed to the European seminar on collective biogas plants held at Herning, Denmark on October 22-23 under the auspices of the Commission of the European Communities, Directorate-General for Energy (DG XVII) are presented. Within the framework of the THERMIE programme, a network of OPETs (Organizations for the Promotion of Energy Technologies) was set up in order to disseminate information on new energy technologies throughout the European communities. The potential for further implementation of centralized capacity for the conversion of animal manures and other organic wastes to bio-fuels, not only in central and eastern Europe but also in the developing countries, is discussed in addition to the relevant technologies. Actual biomass conversion plants are described and details are given on operational experience and plant management. Agricultural, economic and policy aspects are also dealt with. (AB)

  16. Combined utilization of biogas and natural gas

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The Danish natural gas network has been established during the past 10 years. Running parallel with this a small but growing production of biogas from centralized biogas plants and landfills has been developed. The annual biogas production is expected to keep growing and increase tenfold in the next 25 year period with a reduction of green house gas emissions as one of the important incentives. The last years' development and expansion of the Danish biogas sector has shown a need for combined utilization of biogas and natural gas. If larger volumes of biogas are present, upgrading and distribution by the natural gas network may be an alternative to combined utilization. (au) 12 refs

  17. The commercialization of biogas production

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Currently there are ten large collective biogas plants and ten smaller farm plants operating in Denmark. During the last five years, biogas technology has undergone extensive technological development. The developmental process is supported by a public R and D programme and a follow-up programme for full-scale demonstration plants. Most plants still need considerable income increases before a final conclusion can be reached as to whether it is possible to achieve a profit from a corporate economic viewpoint. All plants have received investment grants. Gas production is in most cases reliable, especially due to the admixture of easily convertible organic waste as a supplement to the slurry supplies. Profitable collective biogas plants are within reach, even without investment grants. The total intake of biomass must be supplemented by 10 to 25 per cent easily convertible organic waste so that the minimum gas production reaches 30 to 35 m3 per m3 of biomass. Plants based solely on animal manure are not profitable. Energy from the biogas has to be sold at prices corresponding to consumer prices, which include Danish energy taxes. Collective biogas plants in Denmark appear to be approaching a commercial breakthrough. The concept of a collective biogas plant has been developed to address the energy-related, environmentally-related and agricultural problems. (AB)

  18. Efficient Heat Use from Biogas CHP Plants. Case Studies from Biogas Plants in Latvia

    OpenAIRE

    Dzene, Ilze; Slotiņa, Lāsma

    2013-01-01

    This paper is focusing on efficient heat use from biogas plants. It gives an overview about various biogas heat use options and specifically addresses biogas heat use market in Latvia. In the end three examples from typical agricultural biogas plants in Latvia and their heat use plans are described.

  19. Biogas Koczala. Biogas project in Koczala. Feasibility study. Technical report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The present production of district heating in Koczala is based on coal. The district heating system is worn out technically and economically and according to the 2001 Energy Plan of Koczala the district heating plant shall be converted to a combination of a biogas fired CHP and a wood chip boiler. The overall objective of this project is to access the feasibility and viability construction an operation of a biogas plant owned by the co-operative agricultural company, Poldanor S.A. The feasibility study includes: 1) Availability of organic waste in the Koczala area, 2) Possibilities of using energy crops in the biogas plant, 3) Possibilities of receiving grants from the Polish National Fund for Environmental Protection, the new EU regional funds and through the joint implementation market (CO2 quotas), 4) Alternative locations of the biogas plant and the CHP unit, 5) Alternative strategies for selling electricity and heat, 6) Organisational issues (ownership). This report concludes that implementing the biogas project is environmentally and financially feasible and viable. If organic waste and/or maize silage can be provided and gasified without problems, the plant can supply as well the Koczala farm as the fodder mill with steam and heat, and also supply Koczala district heating system with approx. 75% of yearly heat consumption. Furthermore, electricity is supplied to the fodder mill and the public grid. (BA)

  20. Biogas and methanation; Biogaz et methanisation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Vachey, C.

    2000-05-01

    This paper recalls the methanation principle, biochemical phenomenon which occurs in closed wall, where the organic matter is transformed in biogas. It presents the biogas valorization channels and their advantages. (A.L.B.)

  1. The biogas; Le biogaz se detend

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rigaud, Ch.; Laffargue, C.; Zebboud, I

    2007-05-15

    Mixed of methane and carbon dioxide the biogas can be produced by many sources for the heat or the electricity production and the fuel production. This document aims to better understand the biogas, its characteristics, its valorization, the plants concerned, the installations and the regulation. It provides also an example of a biogas power plant and the biogas use in the farms. (A.L.B.)

  2. Biogas everywhere; Biogaz a tous les etages

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Couturier, Ch. [SOLAGRO, 31 - Toulouse (France); Pegret-Rosa, A.S.; Leca, Ch. [CLERC, 93 - Montreuil (France); Adlec, E. [Club Biogaz, 94 - Arcueil (France)

    2009-01-15

    Since the publication in July 2006 of the new purchase tariff of electricity produced by biogas, the methanation channel is increasing. In the past ten years the number of biogas plants from domestic wastes, passed from 1 to 20. This document presents an economic analysis of the different sources of biogas, the performances and the injection of biogas in the public network of the gas utilities. (A.L.B.)

  3. Biogas production from a systems analytical perspective

    OpenAIRE

    Berglund, Maria

    2006-01-01

    Anaerobic digestion and the production of biogas can provide an efficient means of meeting several objectives concerning energy, environmental and waste management policy. Interest in biogas is increasing, and new facilities are being built. There is a wide range of potential raw material, and both the biogas and digestates produced can be used in many different applications. The variation in raw materials and digestion processes contributes to the flexibility of biogas production systems, bu...

  4. BIOGAS-ECONOMICAL SIGNIFICANCE AND GENERATION THEREOF

    OpenAIRE

    Kazimierz Brodowicz

    1983-01-01

    The paper presents a review of worldwide and domestic knowledge in the field of biogas generation techniques. To this there are discussed the basic fermentation processes being resonsible for biogas generation and actually used typical systems therefor presented.Particular attention has been paid to energetic aspects of the biogas. The generalization of biogas production would render possible large scale utilization of the biomass which is useless for other purposes but still renewable as a s...

  5. Evaluation of biogas quality from home biogas pits installed in central Vietnam

    OpenAIRE

    Štěpánek, Pavel

    2013-01-01

    Abstract Biomass or biogas, they are an essential component of the energy sources used in the conditions of the Vietnamese countryside due to its availability and relatively low investment costs. This thesis is focused on the quality and quantity of biogas produced from home biogas plants installed in Central Vietnam. In this thesis is shown the description of the fermentation process, its final product is biogas. The thesis describes the types of home biogas digesters, which are used ...

  6. Biogas utilization: Experimental investigation on biogas flameless combustion in lab-scale furnace

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Highlights: • High costs of biogas purification and low calorific value of biogas are the main obstacles of biogas utilization. • The energy of biogas can be extracted by flameless combustion without any modification in burner or combustion system. • The efficiency of biogas flameless combustion and conventional combustion were 53% and 32% respectively. • The temperature inside the biogas flameless chamber is uniform. • In biogas flameless combustion, NOx and CO2 formation decrease drastically in comparison with traditional combustion. - Abstract: Biogas generated in the anaerobic digestion of biomass and organic wastes by micro-organisms can be applied for heating, transportation and power generation as a renewable energy source. However, low calorific value (LCV) of biogas is one the most important bottlenecks of biogas conversion into electrical or thermal energy. Indeed, the presence of corrosive gases such as H2S and water vapor in biogas components makes some dilemmas in biogas purification and utilization. In order to obtain the efficient biogas utilization method, different biogas resources, physical and chemical properties of biogas and biogas combustion characteristics should be considered. In this paper biogas was utilized in lab-scale flameless combustion furnace and the performance of flameless combustion chamber fueled by biogas has been presented. Results demonstrated that flameless combustion is one of the best feasible strategies for biogas utilization. Uniformity of temperature in the flameless furnace increases the durability of refractory and related equipment. Simplicity of the flameless burner, pollutant formation reduction and fuel consumption decreases are the main causes of biogas flameless combustion supremacy

  7. Biogas and Hydrogen Systems Market Assessment

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Milbrandt, Anelia [National Renewable Energy Lab. (NREL), Golden, CO (United States); Bush, Brian [National Renewable Energy Lab. (NREL), Golden, CO (United States); Melaina, Marc [National Renewable Energy Lab. (NREL), Golden, CO (United States)

    2016-03-31

    This analysis provides an overview of the market for biogas-derived hydrogen and its use in transportation applications. It examines the current hydrogen production technologies from biogas, capacity and production, infrastructure, potential and demand, as well as key market areas. It also estimates the production cost of hydrogen from biogas and provides supply curves at a national level and at point source.

  8. Biogas from by-products; Biogas aus Nebenprodukten

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mack, Andreas [Eisenmann Anlagenbau GmbH und Co. KG, Boeblingen (Germany)

    2013-01-15

    The Italian sugar producer Co.Pro.B. (Minerbio, Italy) looked for an industrially experienced plant engineer for the biogas process in order to utilize energetically the by-products from the processing of sugar beets. Co.Pro.B. found the German environmental technology specialist Eisenmann Anlagenbau GmbH and Co. KG (Boeblingen, Federal Republic of Germany). After a planning and building period of only six months, even three biogas plants with plug-flow fermentation were brought on line in the provinces Bologna and Padua in autumn 2012.

  9. Integrated rural industrialization through biogas

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Role of biogas in rural industrialization in India is explained. The Khadi and Village Industries Commission has installed over 2 lakhs (0.2 million) biogas plants during the last 30 years. A 15 cu.m. capacity plant costs Rs. 35,000/-. It produces 65 tons bio-manure worth Rs. 13,000/- in a year and fuel gas equivalent to 3,285 litres of kerosene worth Rs. 9855/-. It provides employment to 300 man days. In addition to serving as a source of energy and manure, it reduces deforestation, solves rural sanitation problem and maintain environmental equilibrium. Industrial activities suitable for rural areas and which can use biogas as a source of power are indicated. (M.G.B.)

  10. Methanogenesis in Thermophilic Biogas Reactors

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ahring, Birgitte Kiær

    1995-01-01

    Methanogenesis in thermophilic biogas reactors fed with different wastes is examined. The specific methanogenic activity with acetate or hydrogen as substrate reflected the organic loading of the specific reactor examined. Increasing the loading of thermophilic reactors stabilized the process...... as indicated by a lower concentration of volatile fatty acids in the effluent from the reactors. The specific methanogenic activity in a thermophilic pilot-plant biogas reactor fed with a mixture of cow and pig manure reflected the stability of the reactor. The numbers of methanogens counted by the most...... against Methanothrix soehngenii or Methanothrix CALS-I in any of the thermophilic biogas reactors examined. Studies using 2-14C-labeled acetate showed that at high concentrations (more than approx. 1 mM) acetate was metabolized via the aceticlastic pathway, transforming the methyl-group of acetate...

  11. Biogas production from catch crops

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Molinuevo-Salces, Beatriz; Larsen, Søren U.; Ahring, Birgitte Kiær;

    2013-01-01

    Manure-based biogas plants in Denmark are dependent on high yielding biomass feedstock in order to secure economically feasible operation. The aim of this study was to investigate the potential of ten different catch crop species or mixtures as feedstock for biogas production in co......, being in the ranges of 1.4–3.0 t ha−1 and 0.3–1.7 t ha−1 for Holstebro and Aabenraa, respectively. Specific methane yields were in the range of 229–450 m3 t−1 of VS. Methane yields per hectare of up to 800 m3 ha−1 were obtained, making catch crops a promising source of feedstock for manure-based biogas...

  12. Technical improvements with biogas plants

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Perwanger, A.

    In theory and practice, science aims at smooth operation of biogas plants at a good cost/benefit ratio by improving plant design and introducing more effective process techniques. For several years now, experience gained with the construction and operation of over 40 biogas plants are evaluated at the Landtechnik Weihenstephan in co-operation with manufacturing companies and committed farmers. By means of elementary drawings, 10 differently designed biogas plants are explained in greater detail concerning their technical features (structure, efficiency, function) which comprise, too, a through-flow facility, separate gasometer, mechanical stirrer, construction and refitting of such plants by the user, a rotary reactor floating in a water tank, a small-sized gas cupola and a flexible foil hood. With optimum process technology, there are still some issues left unanswered like e.g. suitable process temperature and intensity of stirrer.

  13. Membrane Separation for Biogas Purification

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Morávková, Lenka; Kárászová, Magda; Sedláková, Zuzana; Šimčík, Miroslav; Vejražka, Jiří; Izák, Pavel

    Praha : Česká společnost průmyslové chemie, 2015, s. 28 /p65./. ISBN 978-80-86238-73-9. [mezinárodní chemicko-technologická konference (ICCT 2015) /3./. Mikulov (CZ), 13.04.2015-15.04.2015] R&D Projects: GA TA ČR TE01020080; GA MŠk(CZ) LD13018 Institutional support: RVO:67985858 Keywords : membrane separation * biogas purification * biogas purification Subject RIV: CI - Industrial Chemistry, Chemical Engineering

  14. Liquid Membranes for Biogas Upgrading

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Poloncarzová, Magda; Vejražka, Jiří; Izák, Pavel

    Toruň: Nicolaus Copernicus University, 2010 - (Kujawski, W.), s. 78 ISBN N. [International Scientific Conference on Pervaporation and Vapor Permeation. Toruň (PL), 18.04.2010-21.04.2010] Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z40720504 Keywords : biogas * biomass * ecological fuel Subject RIV: CC - Organic Chemistry http://www.pv.chem.umk.pl

  15. Testing and optimising biogas plants

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Perwanger, A.

    1984-01-01

    The long-term output of biogas systems studied in practice of an average just under 1 cbm gross of biogas per GV and day is below the forecast levels. Only very few plants showed higher output in the long term. This makes it even more important to show ways of improving process control and reducing building costs for the system. As a result of comparative practical studies in connection with corresponding experiments in the laboratory, it has already been possible to find a number of proposals for improvements. For instance, raising substrate performance with substrate dilution, cost-reducing and functionally safe construction of systems with a gas-dome mounted on top and the possibility of simple biogas production in the final storage unit with low-cost voluminous gas storage at the same time. The latter solution has the advantage of allowing the fermentation substrate to be anaerobically treated all year round, the N-losses would be lower by contrast with open slurry storage, and that any ecologically relevant regulations about odeur control and slurry storage at the farm could be complied with absolutely safely and with the additional use of biogas.

  16. Technical improvements of biogas plants

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Perwanger, A.

    1983-01-01

    Experience in the construction and operation of more than 40 new biogas plants in Bavaria has shown that gas-tightness, corrosion resistance and prevention of obstruction are the most important points. Gas-tightness was a problem especially in brick or concrete fermenters.

  17. Biogas infrastructures from farm to regional scale, prospects of biogas transport grids

    OpenAIRE

    Hengeveld, E.J.; Bekkering, J.; Gemert, W.J.T. van; Broekhuis, A.A.

    2016-01-01

    The volume of biogas produced in agricultural areas is expected to increase in coming years. An increasing number of local and regional initiatives show a growing interest in decentralized energy production, wherein biogas can play a role. Biogas transport from production sites to user, i.e. a CHP, boiler or an upgrading installation, induces a scale advantage and an efficiency increase. Therefore the exploration of the costs and energy use of biogas transport using a dedicated infrastructure...

  18. Processing biogas; Biogas-Aufbereitung. Methanverlust von 1%: technisch moeglich

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Judex, J.

    2009-07-01

    This article takes a look at the results of a study made at the Institute of Bio-technology at the Zurich University of Applied Sciences and the Paul Scherrer Institute PSI. The study was made at the wastewater treatment plant in Emmen, Switzerland, on methane losses in the processing of biogas to give it natural gas quality. The avoidance of methane losses - methane is a greenhouse gas - is discussed and various technologies used in the processing of biogas generated from organic waste digestion are examined. The installations at the wastewater treatment plant in Emmen are commented on and the measurement concept and equipment used are described. The results and observations made are also presented in graphical form.

  19. Biogas Filter Based on Local Natural Zeolite Materials

    OpenAIRE

    Satriyo Krido Wahono; Wahyu Anggo Rizal

    2014-01-01

    UPT BPPTK LIPI has created a biogas filter tool to improve the purity of methane in the biogas. The device shaped cylindrical tube containing absorbent materials which based on local natural zeolite of Indonesia. The absorbent has been activated and modified with other materials. This absorbtion material has multi-adsorption capacity for almost impurities gas of biogas. The biogas  filter increase methane content of biogas for 5-20%. The biogas filter improve the biogas’s performance such as ...

  20. Energy efficient model for biogas production in farm scale

    OpenAIRE

    Huopana, Tuomas

    2011-01-01

    Energy efficient solutions for six farm biogas production was found by calculating mass and energy balance in different scenarios. Raw materials in biogas production were cow manure and grass silage that were produced in these farms. There were calculated mass and energy balances on average for one year biogas prouduction that consisted of grass silage production, raw material transportation and biogas production in the biogas plant. In addition, direct greenhouse gases from biogas production...

  1. Biogas from farms will be tomorrow's fuel

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This final report for the Swiss Federal Office of Energy presents the results of a preliminary study on the technical, logistical and economic possibilities of agricultural biogas production for use as motor fuel. The study was made for a geographically limited region in the Swiss Canton of Lucerne. The reason for the choice of this area - which exhibits a high density of cattle and fowl - and its high potential for the production of biogas from animal excrements are discussed. The economic viability of three possible variants of biogas usage are discussed - its use as a fuel for electricity generation, the processing of the biogas and its injection into the natural gas mains and storage of the biogas in compressed-gas cylinders. Also, the relevance of biogas production in terms of environmental protection is emphasised - ammonia emissions from liquid manure poses a serious problem for the region. Further, political and market development aspects are discussed

  2. Biogas infrastructures from farm to regional scale, prospects of biogas transport grids

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hengeveld, E.J.; Bekkering, J.; Gemert, W.J.T. van; Broekhuis, A.A.

    2016-01-01

    The volume of biogas produced in agricultural areas is expected to increase in coming years. An increasing number of local and regional initiatives show a growing interest in decentralized energy production, wherein biogas can play a role. Biogas transport from production sites to user, i.e. a CHP,

  3. Dry-Wet Fermentation for Biogas Production

    OpenAIRE

    Ahlhaus, M; Barz, M; Vogel, T.

    2008-01-01

    At present biogas plants produce biogas mainly from slurry by liquid fermentation. But the low substrate digestation of herbaceous biomass by liquid fermentation permits to use only a low amount of herbaceous biomass. Since April 2007 the collaborative project entitled “Development of a combined dry-wet fermentation process to produce biogas from herbaceous biomass substrates” is conducted at the Laboratory for Integrated Energy Systems of the University of Applied Sciences in ...

  4. Cavitation for improved sludge conversion into biogas

    OpenAIRE

    Stoop, A.H.; Bakker, T.W.; Kramer, H.J.M.

    2015-01-01

    In several studies the beneficial influence of pre-treatment of waste activated sludge with cavitation on the biogas production was demonstrated. It is however, still not fully certain whether this effect should be mainly contributed to an increase in conversion rate of organics into biogas by anaerobic bacteria, and how much cavitation increases the total biogas yield. An increase in yield is only the case if cavitation can further disrupt otherwise inaccessible cell membrane structures and ...

  5. Biogas in Romanian Agriculture, Present and Perspectives

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Teodor Vintila

    2011-05-01

    Full Text Available In this work we have made a review of data available concerning the potential and technologies available to be applied in Romania to produce biogas in agricultural sector. Biogas application is especially interesting for medium and large farms, concentrated on specific surfaces, where a proper substrate collection can be organized. Reviewing data presenting the theoretical potential for livestock manure in Romania, we found that over 17 mil. MWh of energy from biogas can be provided in one year. It is estimated that only half of the theoretical energy potential is technically usable by biogas investments. As for the crops residues, has been shown that the theoretical biogas potential is 76,7 mil. MWh/year. However, there is a long way to be done in Romania to reach this potential, as in the present, the entire production of biogas is from industrial and municipal landfill and slurries - there are no operational on-farm biogas plants. Despite the high potential in terms of biogas production from agricultural sources, Romania has among the lowest biogas production in Europe. Although currently there are several biogas plants (not in agricultural sector totaling an installed capacity of only 4 MW, and producing in 2010 only 19 GWh electric power, the target for 2020 in Romania is 195 MWel. installed power, with an output of 950 GW electric power. The main cause of the actual situation is the lack of economic incentives similar to those offered by countries as Germany. Without a review of relevant legislation, the progress of the biogas sector in Romania will be limited. Furthermore, the development of low-cost technologies available to Romanian farmers will contribute to the development of production of renewable energy from biogas and other biofuels.

  6. Improvement of Biogas Production by Bioaugmentation

    OpenAIRE

    Kovács, K. L.; Ács, N.; E. Kovács; Wirth, R.; Rákhely, G.; Orsolya Strang; Zsófia Herbel; Bagi, Z.

    2012-01-01

    Biogas production technologies commonly involve the use of natural anaerobic consortia of microbes. The objective of this study was to elucidate the importance of hydrogen in this complex microbial food chain. Novel laboratory biogas reactor prototypes were designed and constructed. The fates of pure hydrogen-producing cultures of Caldicellulosiruptor saccharolyticus and Enterobacter cloacae were followed in time in thermophilic and mesophilic natural biogas-producing communities, respective...

  7. Appraisal of domestic biogas plants in Bangladesh

    OpenAIRE

    Kabir, H.; Palash, M S; Bauer, S

    2012-01-01

    Bangladesh. Biogas activities in Bangladesh have been expanding to meet the needs of alternative energy sources and reduce of the country dependence on biomass energy. Biogas is viewed an innovative and most promising option toward a partial mitigation of the existing energy problems in Bangladesh. This study examined the cost-capacity relationships of biogas plant use while considering the financial and economic feasibility with several decision making tools. Data were collected from 150 sma...

  8. Dissemination and Problems of African Biogas Technology

    OpenAIRE

    Cyimana Mulinda; Qichun Hu; Ke Pan

    2013-01-01

    The present status of biogas technology in Africa was briefly reviewed focusing on biogas market potential, stake-holders, investments and bottlenecks. Africa is endowed with important biomass reserve considered as a potential for anaerobic digestion. However, the over reliance on wood and fossil fuels remains significantly overwhelming. This is due to the number of challenges in the field which led to underestimate at some extent the benefits of biogas technology. Unreliable and ineffic...

  9. Biogas in Romanian Agriculture, Present and Perspectives

    OpenAIRE

    Teodor Vintila; Simina Neo

    2011-01-01

    In this work we have made a review of data available concerning the potential and technologies available to be applied in Romania to produce biogas in agricultural sector. Biogas application is especially interesting for medium and large farms, concentrated on specific surfaces, where a proper substrate collection can be organized. Reviewing data presenting the theoretical potential for livestock manure in Romania, we found that over 17 mil. MWh of energy from biogas can be provided in one ye...

  10. ORGANIC WASTE USED IN AGRICULTURAL BIOGAS PLANTS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Joanna Kazimierowicz

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available Treatment of organic waste is an ecological and economical problem. Searching method for disposal of these wastes, interest is methane fermentation. The use of this process in agricultural biogas plants allows disposal of hazardous waste, obtaining valuable fertilizer, while the production of ecologically clean fuel – biogas. The article presents the characteristics of organic waste from various industries, which make them suitable for use as substrates in agricultural biogas plants.

  11. ORGANIC WASTE USED IN AGRICULTURAL BIOGAS PLANTS

    OpenAIRE

    Joanna Kazimierowicz

    2014-01-01

    Treatment of organic waste is an ecological and economical problem. Searching method for disposal of these wastes, interest is methane fermentation. The use of this process in agricultural biogas plants allows disposal of hazardous waste, obtaining valuable fertilizer, while the production of ecologically clean fuel – biogas. The article presents the characteristics of organic waste from various industries, which make them suitable for use as substrates in agricultural biogas plants.

  12. Risk assessment of biogas in kitchens

    OpenAIRE

    Leroux, Carole; Modelon, Hugues; Rousselle, Christophe; Bellenfant, Gaël; Ramalho, Olivier; Jaeg, Jean-Paul; Zdanevitch, Isabelle; Naja, Ghinwa M.

    2009-01-01

    The health risk associated with human exposure to pollutants while using biogas for cooking was assessed following the methodology described by the US - National Research Council. Information of hazardous compounds and compositions of several biogas types were extracted from scientific literature. Compositions were dependent on the biogas origin (production process). First, a quantitative approach was conducted to identify substances with a high health risk based on their Human Toxicity Value...

  13. Distributed power generation using biogas fuelled microturbines

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This research sought to analyse the market for small scale biogas fuelled distributed power generation, to demonstrate the concept of a biogas fuelled microturbine using the Capstone microturbine in conjunction with an anaerobic digester, and undertake a technico-economic evaluation of the biogas fuelled microturbine concept. Details are given of the experimental trials using continuous and batch digesters, and feedstocks ranging from cow and pig slurries to vegetable wastes and municipal solid waste. The yields of methane are discussed along with the successful operation of the microturbine with biogas fuels, and anaerobic digestion projects

  14. Distributed power generation using biogas fuelled microturbines

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pointon, K.; Langan, M.

    2002-07-01

    This research sought to analyse the market for small scale biogas fuelled distributed power generation, to demonstrate the concept of a biogas fuelled microturbine using the Capstone microturbine in conjunction with an anaerobic digester, and undertake a technico-economic evaluation of the biogas fuelled microturbine concept. Details are given of the experimental trials using continuous and batch digesters, and feedstocks ranging from cow and pig slurries to vegetable wastes and municipal solid waste. The yields of methane are discussed along with the successful operation of the microturbine with biogas fuels, and anaerobic digestion projects.

  15. Promotion and marketing of the biogas way

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The biological process of anaerobic digestion is used primarily as a tool for waste treatment. It also produces energy in the form of biogas - a feature by which it is often called the biogas technology. This paper outlines special features of this process, together with other advantages and disadvantages of applying the AD or the biogas technology, to satisfy ever increasing regulatory requirements and public concerns over pollution at both global and local levels. The paper then gives suggestions which could be implemented at the Commission, national and regional levels to propagate the implementation of the biogas technology. (au)

  16. Biogas for heat, power and motor fuel

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This article examines the use of biogas in Switzerland and reviews the Swiss statistics for 2008 on the use of biogas for heat, power and motor fuel. The use of biogas for these purposes is quoted as having substantially increased in the last few years. The author expects this trend to continue as prices for fossil fuels rise and as a result of various government incentives. Several sources of biogas are briefly reviewed and figures are quoted on their potentials. The statistics are reviewed in detail and figures are presented in graphical and tabular form

  17. Electricity and heat from biogas

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In this paper author deals with utilisation of biological wastes for heat and electricity production. Total quantity of dung in Slovakia in calculation on production of dry mass is 120.000 t yearly, what corresponds to yearly production of biogas 43,530 ths. cubic meters yearly. Energetic equivalent of utilizable excrements of economic animals is 972.5 TJ yearly. Some cogeneration units in the Slovak Republic are described

  18. Swine lagoon biogas utilization system

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gettier, S.W.; Roberts, M. [Carroll`s Foods of Va., Inc., Waverly, VA (United States)

    1994-12-31

    A project was conceived to design and build a system to recover methane from pig manure with covered anaerobic lagoon technology. Covered lagoon technology lends itself both to new lagoon construction and to retrofit designs on existing anaerobic lagoons. A two cell passive in-ground digester/lagoon system was designed for a 600 sow feeder pig farm. The digester was covered with a flexible fabric cover made of 30 mil XR-5. The biogas has 1,100 ppm hydrogen sulfide. For the first month of operation 473 cubic feet of biogas per hour has been recovered from the digester 24 hours per day. At this gas flow the engine turns an induction generator to produce 17.1 KW per hour. A little over 80% of the farm`s electrical needs are generated with methane from swine manure. On an annual basis there will be 150,000 KWh of electricity produced from 4.3 million cubic feet of biogas.

  19. Small-scale upgrading and refinement of biogas; Smaaskalig uppgradering och foeraedling av biogas

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Blom, Helena; Mccann, Michael; Westman, Johan (Poeyry SwedPower AB, Stockholm (Sweden))

    2012-02-15

    Small-scale upgrading and refinement of biogas is a report which aims to compile the state of knowledge in small-scale biogas upgrading. The project have been a collaboration with Agrovaest and Energy Farm and was funded by the Foundation for Agricultural Research, Western Goetaland and the Agriculture Department. The technology available for small scale upgrade has been examined from the technical and economic standpoint. An economic comparison has been made and the production of upgraded biogas has been estimated for different raw gas flows. The work also contains information related to biogas production, upgrading and a comparison of liquid biogas, DME and Ecopar-diesel

  20. Establishment of a biogas grid and interaction between a biogas grid and a natural gas grid

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kvist, T.

    2011-01-15

    The project has aimed to clarify the advantages and disadvantages of a large biogas net in Ringkoebing Skjern municipality in Denmark, which wants to become self-sufficient in renewable energy by 2020. It is estimated that the biogas potential in the municipality is about. 60 mill. m3 methane gas a year. Half of the methane will be generated by digesting 80 % of the area's slurry, while the other half will be produced from energy crops. It will require an area equivalent to 5 % of the municipality's farmland. The idea is to establish decentralized 60-80 and 1-3 large centralized biogas plants, and that the produced biogas is distributed to natural gas-fired decentralized power plants. Based on this framework, a number of issues for the establishment of a biogas net have been investigated. These are: - the relation between biogas production and demand; - biogas compared to the overall energy system, - purification and measurement of biogas; - conversion of natural gas-fired power plants to biogas; - the value of biogas for cogeneration plants; - design of a biogas distribution net; - ownership and accountability; - potential business models. (LN)

  1. Evaluation of biogas of waste from poultry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Most of the farms, the waste of agricultural production do not receive adequate treatment for the stabilization of organic matter and reduce its pollution potential. The anaerobic digestion is an alternative for the treatment of waste, as well as allowing the reduction of pollution potential and the health risks of waste to a minimum, promotes the generation of biogas used as a heat source for various uses on the farm. Thus, the aim of this work was to evaluate the biogas production efficiency from the chicken waste. For the supply of biodigesters, adopted the total solids content of 8% and discontinuous supply system. The biogas potential was determined on the basis of their daily production and explosive rate. It was observed that the biogas production started 24 hours after the start of supplying the digesters. The maximum biogas production was approximately 0.87 L after the ninth and the 54th day starting the digestion process. The average daily production of biogas generated from bird manure was 0.022 L, while the cumulative 0.91 L after 72 days of digestion. The explosive rate of biogas generated by poultry origin residues peaked at 51% after 32 days of the start of the digestion process. In this analysis, we found the presence of methane in the biogas produced in all substrates tested after 24 h of digestion, because it’s burning in the presence of an ignition source (Fire). (full text)

  2. Biogas plant in Järna

    OpenAIRE

    Schäfer, Winfried; Granstedt, Artur; Evers, Lars

    2005-01-01

    The Biodynamic Research Institute in Järna developed an on-farm biogas plant integrated within the highly self-supporting farm organism, Skilleby-Yttereneby, one of the farms studied in the BERAS project. The biogas plant digests dairy cattle manure and organic residues originating from the farm and the surrounding food processing units.

  3. Biogas i økologisk jordbrug

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Østergård, Hanne

    2011-01-01

    Klumme: Hvilke faktorer har størst betydning for udbredelse af biogas-teknologien? Offentlige tilskud er svaret fra en rundspørge.......Klumme: Hvilke faktorer har størst betydning for udbredelse af biogas-teknologien? Offentlige tilskud er svaret fra en rundspørge....

  4. Forecasting the potential of Danish biogas production

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bojesen, Mikkel; Skov-Petersen, Hans; Gylling, Morten

    , except for those farms which are in the largest state class. Regional differences in development trends were documented. The strategic objective of the model is to provide data for the spatial assessment of the potential of biogas production which can form the basis for a location analysis for future...... biogas plants....

  5. Biogas production from water hyacinth (eichhornia crassipes)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The formation of biogas by anaerobic digestion of water hyacinth (Eichhornia crassipes) has been investigated in simple laboratory digesters. Seed material was obtained from the rumen contents of a goat. Under conditions where the mass of seed material exceeded the water hyacinth feed, the maximum rate of biogas production was obtained within one to two days of each addition of feed material. The maximum amount of biogas produced, 0.33 m3kg-1 dry matter was obtained at 40 deg. C with a slight decrease in total production at 35 deg. C. The total biogas produced at 45 deg. C (0.12 m3kg-1 dry matter) was less than that at 30 deg. C (0.16 m3kg-1). Regular additions of small amounts of feed material produced a more uniform rate of biogas production (author)

  6. Biogas plant and pollution: a research study

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The present condition of 24,501 biogas plants out of the existing plants in Madhya Pradesh, has been surveyed. In this survey, 1500 biogas plants in 432 village in 168 development blocks of all 45 districts in the state were inspected and discussions were held with the beneficiaries. From this study it was found that due to popular belief in pollution from biogas plants, there were obstacles in many places for construction and operation of such plants. With the objective to find the extent of pollution from such plants, animal dung in the same quantity was treated in compost pits and biogas plants and observations were made as to which give out more polluting gases to the atmosphere. The study indicated that compost pits emit 6.2 fold more polluting gases to the atmosphere. This indicates that there should be no bar on construction of biogas plants on the basis of pollution. (author). 9 refs., 5 tabs., 9 figs

  7. Numerical investigation of biogas flameless combustion

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Highlights: • Fuel consumption decreases from 3.24 g/s in biogas conventional combustion to 1.07 g/s in flameless mode. • The differences between reactants and products temperature intensifies irreversibility in traditional combustion. • The temperature inside the chamber is uniform in biogas flameless mode and exergy loss decreases in this technique. • Low O2 concentration in the flameless mode confirms a complete and quick combustion process in flameless regime. - Abstract: The purpose of this investigation is to analyze combustion characteristics of biogas flameless mode based on clean technology development strategies. A three dimensional (3D) computational fluid dynamic (CFD) study has been performed to illustrate various priorities of biogas flameless combustion compared to the conventional mode. The effects of preheated temperature and wall temperature, reaction zone and pollutant formation are observed and the impacts of combustion and turbulence models on numerical results are discussed. Although preheated conventional combustion could be effective in terms of fuel consumption reduction, NOx formation increases. It has been found that biogas is not eligible to be applied in furnace heat up due to its low calorific value (LCV) and it is necessary to utilize a high calorific value fuel to preheat the furnace. The required enthalpy for biogas auto-ignition temperature is supplied by enthalpy of preheated oxidizer. In biogas flameless combustion, the mean temperature of the furnace is lower than traditional combustion throughout the chamber. Compared to the biogas flameless combustion with uniform temperature, very high and fluctuated temperatures are recorded in conventional combustion. Since high entropy generation intensifies irreversibility, exergy loss is higher in biogas conventional combustion compared to the biogas flameless regime. Entropy generation minimization in flameless mode is attributed to the uniform temperature inside the chamber

  8. Liquid membrane purification of biogas

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Majumdar, S.; Guha, A.K.; Lee, Y.T.; Papadopoulos, T.; Khare, S. (Stevens Inst. of Tech., Hoboken, NJ (United States). Dept. of Chemistry and Chemical Engineering)

    1991-03-01

    Conventional gas purification technologies are highly energy intensive. They are not suitable for economic removal of CO{sub 2} from methane obtained in biogas due to the small scale of gas production. Membrane separation techniques on the other hand are ideally suited for low gas production rate applications due to their modular nature. Although liquid membranes possess a high species permeability and selectivity, they have not been used for industrial applications due to the problems of membrane stability, membrane flooding and poor operational flexibility, etc. A new hollow-fiber-contained liquid membrane (HFCLM) technique has been developed recently. This technique overcomes the shortcomings of the traditional immobilized liquid membrane technology. A new technique uses two sets of hydrophobic, microporous hollow fine fibers, packed tightly in a permeator shell. The inter-fiber space is filled with an aqueous liquid acting as the membrane. The feed gas mixture is separated by selective permeation of a species through the liquid from one fiber set to the other. The second fiber set carries a sweep stream, gas or liquid, or simply the permeated gas stream. The objectives (which were met) of the present investigation were as follows. To study the selective removal of CO{sub 2} from a model biogas mixture containing 40% CO{sub 2} (the rest being N{sub 2} or CH{sub 4}) using a HFCLM permeator under various operating modes that include sweep gas, sweep liquid, vacuum and conventional permeation; to develop a mathematical model for each mode of operation; to build a large-scale purification loop and large-scale permeators for model biogas separation and to show stable performance over a period of one month.

  9. CO2 balance in production of energy based on biogas

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielsen, Per Sieverts; Holm-Nielsen, J.B.

    1997-01-01

    Biogas is an essential biomass source for achieving a reduction of CO2 emission by 50% in year 2030 in Denmark. The physical potential for biogas production in Denmark is more than 10 times the present biogas production in Denmark. In Denmark the largest part of the biogas production is produced at...... of increased transportation distances at large biogas plants on the total CO2 balance of the biogas plant. The advantage of constructing large biogas plants is the cost-effective possibility of using industrial organic waste to increase biogas production. In some cases co-fermentation increases...... biogas production up 100%. The present study evaluate optimal transportation strategies for biogas plants taking CO2 balances into account....

  10. Biogas production from thin stillage

    OpenAIRE

    Moestedt, Jan

    2015-01-01

    The biogas plant in Norrköping (Tekniska verken i Linköping AB, publ.), Sweden, operates with thin stillage, a residue from bio-ethanol fermentation, as the main feedstock. Thin stillage is energy-rich due to its high protein content, but due to its high nitrogen and sulphate content is a somewhat complicated feedstock. The high nitrogen concentration results in inhibition of the microbial process and also selects for nitrogen-tolerant, but slow-growing, syntrophic acetate-oxidising bacteria ...

  11. The Development of Biogas Technology in Denmark: Achievements & Obstacles

    OpenAIRE

    Sannaa, Mohamed Najib

    2004-01-01

    Denmark is one of the most advanced countries in biogas technology. This country added several improvements to the biogas process in order to increase the biogas yield and thereby improve the economical profitability. Consequently, this project studied the developments of biogas technology in Denmark. The study includes a historical progress of biogas plants since 1970s; the different problems interrupted the expansion of this technology and the actions taken to overcome these obstacles. This...

  12. The economics of biogas in Denmark

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jacobsen, Brian H.; Laugesen, Frederik Møller; Dubgaard, Alex

    2014-01-01

    Denmark has been one of the leading European Countries in using Biogas for Combined Heat and Power (CHP), since the 1980s. However, in the last two decades, the increase has been limited. A new energy policy aimed at increasing the profitability of biogas was introduced in the spring of 2012....... The analysis here shows that the new agreement will improve the profitability of biogas plants and increase the biogas production although the political ambition of an increase from 4 PJ to 17 PJ by 2020 seems unlikely. The analysis shows that biogas plants can be profitable even if the input is a mix....... The analysis shows that the profit from upgrading biogas is only to be preferred if the sales price of heat or the amount sold are relatively low. The socioeconomic analyses show that the costs of biogas as a measure to reduce CO2 emissions are around €151 per tonne CO2 (€85‐266 per ton) and that using maize...

  13. Improvement of Biogas Production by Bioaugmentation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    K. L. Kovács

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Biogas production technologies commonly involve the use of natural anaerobic consortia of microbes. The objective of this study was to elucidate the importance of hydrogen in this complex microbial food chain. Novel laboratory biogas reactor prototypes were designed and constructed. The fates of pure hydrogen-producing cultures of Caldicellulosiruptor saccharolyticus and Enterobacter cloacae were followed in time in thermophilic and mesophilic natural biogas-producing communities, respectively. Molecular biological techniques were applied to study the altered ecosystems. A systematic study in 5-litre CSTR digesters revealed that a key fermentation parameter in the maintenance of an altered population balance is the loading rate of total organic solids. Intensification of the biogas production was observed and the results corroborate that the enhanced biogas productivity is associated with the increased abundance of the hydrogen producers. Fermentation parameters did not indicate signs of failure in the biogas production process. Rational construction of more efficient and sustainable biogas-producing microbial consortia is proposed.

  14. Fuels made from agricultural biomass - (biogas) alternative types(Alternativne vrste goriva iz poljoprivredne biomase - biogas)

    OpenAIRE

    Jovanovska, Vangelica; Jovanovski, Nikola; Sovreski, Zlatko; Pop-Andonov, Goran; Sinani, Feta

    2013-01-01

    Biogas is a typical "product" of urban discharges, which has a great negative environmental impact. To avoid this negative effect, it can be burnt at very high temperatures, producing smoke emissions composed of CO2. A useful alternative is to use biogas as fuel to feed co-generation plants, producing electricity. At the moment biogas is used as fuel, introducing it directly in the combustion chamber. Nevertheless the heterogeneity of the gas stresses the engine, reducing its life. The new te...

  15. Production of metahnol from biogas; Herstellung von Methanol aus Biogas

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Marquard-Moellenstedt, T.; Baumgart, F.; Specht, M. [Zentrum fuer Sonnenenergie- und Wasserstoff-Forschung Baden-Wuerttemberg, Stuttgart (Germany)

    2002-07-01

    An experimental facility for production of methanol from biogas was designed, constructed and operated at the author's institution, the ZSW. Apart from demonstrating the process and reducing the plant's complexity, the investigations focused on an analysis of the energy and mass flow in order to obtain information on the efficiency of decentralized methanol production systems. The process comprises essentially two stages: Biogas reforming and methanol synthesis. In the reforming concept chosen, the reaction enthalpy for steam reforming is provided by flameles oxidation of the fuel gas. Efficiencies of more than 70% were achieved in the small-scale reformers for synthesis gas production. Owing to the reduced complexity of the plant, methanol synthesis was designed as a ''one-through' process with power generation from the remainder of the synthesis gas. Efficiencies of 25% were achieved for methanol production and about 60% for combined methanol and residual synthesis gas. An efficiency of 33% was achieved for cogeneration of methanol and electric power. [German] Der Einsatz von Biomasse zur Herstellung synthetischer Kraftstoffe erfordert neue Technologien fuer dezentrale Kleinanlagen, da aus logistischen Gruenden die Biomassennutzung auf das lokale Aufkommen begrenzt ist. Am ZSW wurde erstmals eine Versuchsanlage zur Herstellung von Methanol aus Biogas konzipiert, aufgebaut und betrieben. Neben der Demonstration des Gesamtprozesses und der Reduzierung der Anlagenkomplexitaet ist die Analyse der Stoff- und Energiestroeme ein wesentliches Ziel des Projektes und ermoeglicht Aussagen ueber die Effizienz dezentraler Methanolanlagen. Das Verfahren besteht im Wesentlichen aus den zwei Prozessschritten Biogasreformierung und Methanolsynthese. Bei dem gewaehlten neuen Reformierungskonzept wird die Reaktionsenthalpie fuer die Dampfreformierung durch flammenlose Oxidation des Brenngases bereitgestellt. Bezogen auf das erzeugte Synthesegas wurden fuer

  16. The perspectives of the French biogas market

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    After having outlined that France is the fourth European producer of biogas, that regulatory evolutions have been adopted in 2012 to support the market, and that operators are trying to take place on this market, this document proposes the table of content of a market study which addresses the following topics: definition, resources and valorisation modes, legal framework and support measures taken by public authorities, investments, costs and profitability of a biogas project, current status of production and valorisation of biogas in France and market perspectives, presentation of main actors and of their development strategies

  17. BIOGAS STATIONS AND THEIR ENVIRONMENTAL IMPACTS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vladimir Lapčik

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available The article summarizes the authors’ experience with environmental impact assessment in branch of biogas plants. The introductory part of the paper describes legislative obligations of the Czech Republic concerning the fulfilment of the European Union’s limits as for utilization of renewable energy resources. The next parts of the paper deal with an impact analysis of biogas plants on the environment. The final part of the paper deals with experience with implementation of the environmental impact assessment process in the field of biogas plants in the Czech Republic.

  18. Biogas, the renewable energy of territories

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A set of articles outlines the essential role of 'green gas' in energy transition, discusses the emergence of a European bio-methane sector with a standard harmonisation, proposes an interview of the person in charge of strategy and territories for GrDF who addresses the building up of operation rules for the biogas sector, comments various aspects of biogas financing, comments the relationships between heat, electricity and fuel within a rural project in Brittany, describes a project of extraction and use of methane from waste waters, and presents a process of liquefaction developed by Cryostar as a possible valorisation of biogas

  19. Farm scale biogas concepts in Europe

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wellinger, A. [Nova Energie, Ettenhausen (Switzerland)

    1997-08-01

    The near future of farm scale biogas production looks bright as long as the high electricity prices are maintained by political will and subsidies remain higher than approx. 20%. If in all the number of biogas plants is growing as it is in Germany (Within the last two years about 200 new plants have been built) then biogas will add its share to a nuclear power free electricity production, as does wind energy in Germany, Holland or Denmark. The standard for manure digesters is set. There is still some way to go for solid waste digesters. However, first inputs have been given. (EG) 10 refs.

  20. Biogas supply to the natural gas supply grid. Study; Einspeisung von Biogas in das Erdgasnetz. Studie

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Klinski, S. [DBI Gas- und Umwelttechnik GmbH, Leipzig (Germany)

    2006-07-01

    Biogas supply to the public gas grid is a new option discussed in the most recent publication of Fachagentur Nachwachsende Rohstoffe (FNR) e.V. The biogas is purified, upgraded to natural gas quality and fed into an existing gas grid. Once there, it can be transported across long distances and also used for electric power generation at the consumer side. The study investigates inhowfar and in what instances this method is feasible and promising. It discusses the technical background and the regional potential of biogas. Seven model biogas systems are presented as examples. (orig.)

  1. Harvesting biogas from wastewater sludge and food waste

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chua, K. H.; Cheah, W. L.; Tan, C. F.; Leong, Y. P.

    2013-06-01

    Wastewater sludge and food waste are good source of biogas. Anaerobic treatment of slude and food waste able to produce biogas which is a potential renewable energy source. This study looks into the potential biogas generation and the effects of temperature on biogas generation. A lab scale reactor was used to simulate the biogas generation. The results show that wastewater sludge able to produced upto 44.82 ml biogas/kg of sludge. When mixed with food waste at a ratio of 30:70 (food waste), the biogas generated were 219.07 ml/kg of waste. Anaerobic of food waste alone produced biogas amount to 59.75 ml/kg of food waste. Anaerobic treatment also reduces the volume of waste. The effect of temperature shows that higher temperature produces more biogas than lower temperature.

  2. Harvesting biogas from wastewater sludge and food waste

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wastewater sludge and food waste are good source of biogas. Anaerobic treatment of slude and food waste able to produce biogas which is a potential renewable energy source. This study looks into the potential biogas generation and the effects of temperature on biogas generation. A lab scale reactor was used to simulate the biogas generation. The results show that wastewater sludge able to produced upto 44.82 ml biogas/kg of sludge. When mixed with food waste at a ratio of 30:70 (food waste), the biogas generated were 219.07 ml/kg of waste. Anaerobic of food waste alone produced biogas amount to 59.75 ml/kg of food waste. Anaerobic treatment also reduces the volume of waste. The effect of temperature shows that higher temperature produces more biogas than lower temperature.

  3. Effective green manuring via biogas production

    OpenAIRE

    Nykänen, Arja; Kymäläinen, Maritta; Lemola, Riitta

    2011-01-01

    The preliminary results show that the benefit from anaerobic digestion of the green manure leys seem to be based more on biogas energy production than for higher yields after anaerobic digestion. The N leaching risk is under determination.

  4. Storage of catch crops to produce biogas

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Molinuevo-Salces, Beatriz; Ahring, Birgitte Kiær; Uellendahl, Hinrich

    2014-01-01

    Catch crop biomass is a promising co-substrate for manure-based biogas plants in Denmark since the cultivation of catch crops is mandatory to retain nutrients in the soil, contributing to protect the aquatic environment. In general, the growth period for catch crops is from harvest of the previous...... crop in July-August to the end of the growing season and harvest in late October. Hence, for use of the biomass in biogas production there is a need for storage of the biomass. Storage as silage would guarantee the availability of the feedstock for biogas production during the whole year. A proper...... ensiling process determines the storage loss and the quality of the final silage and, thus, the possible use of it as a substrate for biogas production. Moreover, silage has been considered as a pre-treatment since it partially hydrolyses organic matter improving cellulose convertibility. Since a large...

  5. Drijfmest verliest snel zijn waarde voor biogas

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Buisonjé, de F.E.; Verheijen, R.

    2014-01-01

    Drijfmest moet zo snel mogelijk de vergister in. Alleen een snelle vergisting levert een maximale hoeveelheid biogas op. Uit onderzoek blijkt dat het biogaspotentieel van drijfmest maandelijks met zo’n 30 procent afneemt.

  6. Cavitation for improved sludge conversion into biogas

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stoop, A. H.; Bakker, T. W.; Kramer, H. J. M.

    2015-12-01

    In several studies the beneficial influence of pre-treatment of waste activated sludge with cavitation on the biogas production was demonstrated. It is however, still not fully certain whether this effect should be mainly contributed to an increase in conversion rate of organics into biogas by anaerobic bacteria, and how much cavitation increases the total biogas yield. An increase in yield is only the case if cavitation can further disrupt otherwise inaccessible cell membrane structures and long chain organic molecules. In this study the influence of hydrodynamic cavitation on sludge that was already digested for 30 days was investigated. The total biogas yield could indeed be increased. The effect of the backpressure behind the venturi tube on the yield could not yet be established.

  7. Solanum Tuberosum Supplementation for Biogas Production

    OpenAIRE

    Pradip B. Acharya; Prateek Shilpkar

    2015-01-01

    Production of biogas using animal dung is well documented. Nutritional supplement enhances microbial activity and ultimately results in increase biogas production. Solanum tuberosum (potato) is a vegetable crop grown in most parts of world. It is a rich source of carbohydrate starch and many minerals. Present experiment was conducted in 5L capacity glass digester bottles filled with mixture of buffalo dung and water at 5.3% total solids. A total of six sets were prepared, three as control and...

  8. White Earth Biomass/Biogas Feasibility Study

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Triplett, Michael

    2015-03-12

    The White Earth Nation examined the feasibility of cost savings and fossil energy reduction through the installation of biogas/biomass boiler at the tribal casino. The study rejected biogas options due to availability and site constraints, but found a favorable environment for technical and financial feasibility of installing a 5 MMBtu hot water boiler system to offset 60-70 percent of current fuel oil and propane usage.

  9. Energy Efficiency Evaluation of two Biogas Plants

    OpenAIRE

    Nordlander, Eva; Holgersson, Jenny; Thorin, Eva; Thomassen, Martin; Yan, Jinyue

    2011-01-01

    Anaerobic digestion for biogas production is a promising renewable energy technology whichcan be used to achieve environmental goals set in the European Union and other regions. Thereare however many improvements that can still be made to the process. Furthermore, there arealternative energy conversion processes that compete for some of the substrates used inanaerobic digestion. Energy efficiency could therefore be a tool for measuring and comparingthe performance of biogas plants. This study...

  10. BIOGAS STATIONS AND THEIR ENVIRONMENTAL IMPACTS

    OpenAIRE

    Marta Lapčikova; Vladimir Lapčik

    2011-01-01

    The article summarizes the authors’ experience with environmental impact assessment in branch of biogas plants. The introductory part of the paper describes legislative obligations of the Czech Republic concerning the fulfilment of the European Union’s limits as for utilization of renewable energy resources. The next parts of the paper deal with an impact analysis of biogas plants on the environment. The final part of the paper deals with experience with implementation of the environmental im...

  11. Agricultural Potential for Biogas Production in Croatia

    OpenAIRE

    Biljana Kulišić; Vjekoslav Par

    2009-01-01

    Biogas is renewable energy source with strong local character as its production depends on availability and type of feedstock at a certain location. Utilisation of slurry, manure and beddings from cattle, pig, horse, poultry and other animal breeding together with energy rich substrates such as crops and other organic materials as biogas substrates creates an interesting option both from technical and economic perspective. Other materials suitable for anaerobic digestion are comprised of vari...

  12. Increase of Bio-Gas Power Potential

    OpenAIRE

    V. Sednin; О. Kraetskaya; I. Prokoрenia

    2014-01-01

    The paper presents a review of industrial technologies for obtaining gas-synthesis which is applicable for bio-gas enrichment process. Comparative characteristics are given in the paper. The paper thoroughly considers a technology of dry methane conversion as the most expedient variant recommended for the application in this case. The bio-gas enrichment carried out during its production expands possibilities and efficiency of its application.

  13. Biodeterioration of cementitious materials in biogas digester

    OpenAIRE

    Voegel, C.; Bertron, A.; Erable, B

    2015-01-01

    In biogas production plants, concrete structures suffer chemical and biological attacks during the anaerobic digestion process. The attack on concrete may be linked to the effects of (i) organic acids; (ii) ammonium and CO2 co-produced by the microorganisms’ metabolisms; and (iii) the bacteria’s ability to form biofilms on the concrete surface. In a context of biogas industry expansion, the mechanisms of concrete deterioration need to be better understood in order to propose innovative, effic...

  14. Monitoring of sulfur dioxide emission resulting from biogas utilization on commercial pig farms in Taiwan.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Su, Jung-Jeng; Chen, Yen-Jung

    2015-01-01

    The objective of this work tends to promote methane content in biogas and evaluate sulfur dioxide emission from direct biogas combustion without desulfurization. Analytical results of biogas combustion showed that combustion of un-desulfurized biogas exhausted more than 92% of SO₂ (P desulfurized biogas (P desulfurize biogas before any applications. PMID:25404540

  15. Biogas Filter Based on Local Natural Zeolite Materials

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Satriyo Krido Wahono

    2014-02-01

    Full Text Available UPT BPPTK LIPI has created a biogas filter tool to improve the purity of methane in the biogas. The device shaped cylindrical tube containing absorbent materials which based on local natural zeolite of Indonesia. The absorbent has been activated and modified with other materials. This absorbtion material has multi-adsorption capacity for almost impurities gas of biogas. The biogas  filter increase methane content of biogas for 5-20%. The biogas filter improve the biogas’s performance such as increasing methane contents, increasing heating value, reduction of odors, reduction of corrosion potential, increasing the efficiency and stability of the generator.

  16. Mechanism of zeolite activity in biogas co-digestion

    OpenAIRE

    Hansson, Anna

    2011-01-01

    Biogas is a source of renewable energy and is produced at anaerobic conditions. The gas consists mainly of methane (55-70 %) and carbon dioxide (30-45 %). Biogas can be used as vehicle fuel after the gas has been upgraded to a methane content of approximately 97 %. There are several companies in Sweden producing biogas. Svensk biogas AB in Linköping is one of the largest. The company has two biogas production plants; one in Linköping and one in Norrköping. To meet the surge demand for biogas ...

  17. The health aspects of biogas as an energy source

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Data on the positive health impacts of biogas as fuel for rural household cooking have been collected from three villages near Bombay, one of which used traditional firewood as cooking fuel, one used biogas plants, and the third used biogas plants connected to latrines. The study illustrates the advantages of the use of biogas compared to wood, dung-cakes and crop residues. The biogas plants in the villages selected for study have been in operation for three or four years. Short-time studies show positive advantages of the use of biogas as fuel. (author)

  18. Solanum Tuberosum Supplementation for Biogas Production

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pradip B. Acharya

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available Production of biogas using animal dung is well documented. Nutritional supplement enhances microbial activity and ultimately results in increase biogas production. Solanum tuberosum (potato is a vegetable crop grown in most parts of world. It is a rich source of carbohydrate starch and many minerals. Present experiment was conducted in 5L capacity glass digester bottles filled with mixture of buffalo dung and water at 5.3% total solids. A total of six sets were prepared, three as control and three as test. Control sets were fed daily with buffalo dung water mixture throughout the period of experimentation, i.e. 80 days, whereas in test, from 51st day onward digesters were filled with mixture of dung and boiled potato with water. Feed was added daily in the amount of 120mL upto 80 days from beginning. On first day 12 mL fresh digested biogas slurry from running biogas plant was also added in all the digesters as inoculum. From 41th day onward biogas production was recorded by water displacement method and compared. Results reveal that in test digesters addition of potato shows an immediate and long lasting effect and increases biogas production between 90.48 and 192.86% higher than control sets.

  19. Replacing Natural Gas by Biogas — Determining the Bacterial Contamination of Biogas by PCR

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jiřina Čermáková

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available A promising way of using biogas is to upgrade it to natural gas, which is referred to as Substitute Natural Gas (SNG or biomethane. Biomethane, or biogas, is produced by biological processes of harnessing the ability of microorganisms to degrade organic material to methane. Some of the microorganisms are aerosolized from the digester into the biogas; afterwards a bio-film is formed that attaches to the surfaces of the distribution pipes, and can find it was to the place where the end use of biogas takes place. This paper deals with the detection of microbial species in biogas, their influenceon corrosion and the potential risk that diseases can be spread via biogas using molecular techniques. Using molecular methods, we found that raw biogas contains about 8 million microorganisms per m3, which is most likely the result of microbial transmission from the anaerobic digestion process. Some bacterial species may contribute to the corrosion of pipelines and equipment; others are opportunistic pathogens that can cause toxic reactions. However, most bacterial species, more than 40 % in biogas, are still unknown, as is their influence on the digestion process and on human health. Further studies are needed to better understand the behavior of microorganisms in anaerobic digestion and to preventmicrobial-influenced corrosion and microbial dissemination.

  20. The production and use of biogas in 2012; Produktion och anvaendning av biogas aar 2012

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2013-07-01

    This report presents an annual survey on the production and use of biogas. The survey aims to provide policy makers, industry associations, researchers, journalists, municipalities and the general public information on annual production and use of biogas. Statistics are used as the basis for Sweden's overall reporting of renewable energy to the EU and as a basis in various government investigations. In the present study, a total of 242 biogas-production plants have been identified in Sweden. These produced a total of 1,589 GWh of energy. The 242 biogas-producing plants were distributed by 135 wastewater treatment plants, 55 landfills, 26 farm biogas plants, 21 co-digestion plants and five industrial plants. The main substrates for biogas production were different types of waste such as sewage sludge, manure, source separated food waste and waste from butchers and food industries. Energy crops constituted a very small fraction of the total substrate similarly no. The geographic distribution shows that most of the biogas production was centered in a few counties. Skaane, Stockholm and Vaestra Goetaland accounted for over 50 % of the country's biogas production.

  1. Biogas composition and engine performance, including database and biogas property model

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bruijstens, A.J.; Beuman, W.P.H.; Molen, M. van der; Rijke, J. de; Cloudt, R.P.M.; Kadijk, G.; Camp, O.M.G.C. op den; Bleuanus, W.A.J.

    2008-01-01

    In order to enable this evaluation of the current biogas quality situation in the EU; results are presented in a biogas database. Furthermore the key gas parameter Sonic Bievo Index (influence on open loop A/F-ratio) is defined and other key gas parameters like the Methane Number (knock resistance)

  2. Residual biogas yield of digestate from agricultural biogas plants; Restgaspotenzial in Gaerresten aus landwirtschaftlichen Biogasanlagen

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lehner, Andreas; Effenberger, Mathias; Kissel, Rainer; Gronauer, Andreas [Bayerische Landesanstalt fuer Landwirtschaft, Freising (Germany). Arbeitsgruppe Biogastechnologie und Reststoffmanagement

    2009-07-01

    To evaluate the residual biogas yield during storage, biogas tests at a temperature of 22 C were performed with samples of liquid digested residue from 15 agricultural biogas plants (BGP). Values of residual biogas yield between 0.3 and 1.3 % with respect to the biogas yield from the raw input materials were measured. For the two one-stage BGP, the value was about 1.2 %. For the two-stage plants, a residual biogas yield (RBY) of 0.9 % was determined as opposed to 0.4 % for the three-stage plants. With a single exception, the RBY was clearly below 1.0 % if the overall hydraulic retention time in the BGP was equal to or larger than 100 days. For the majority of samples, the residual biogas yield showed a positive correlation with the level of volatile fatty acids in the digestate. Since the real conditions in storage tanks cannot be simulated with a simple batch-test, the results are not representative for the actual biogas production and potential methane emissions from the digestate during open storage. (orig.)

  3. The progress and prospects of rural biogas production in China

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Biogas production is an important aspect of China's energy strategy. After decades’ application and research, China biogas has achieved considerable accomplishments. This study presents the progress and prospect of biogas technologies and industry in China. Two biogas patterns exist in China, that is, household-scaled digester for scattered farmers and biogas plant for centralized biogas production. Household-scaled digester which is simple and practical has been widely used and fully developed. Biogas plants have being sprung up with different materials, process and biogas utilization technologies. By the end of 2010, 38.51 million household-scaled digesters, and 27,436 large- and medium-scaled biogas plants for agricultural wastes were built. The calculation result of biogas potential from agricultural wastes shows that those used raw materials account for only 1.90% of the total availability. Chinese government promulgated several laws and policies, and gave financial supports to promote the development of biogas. However, some problems such as inferior equipment technology, imperfect policy incentive hamper its wide application and promotion. With the rapid development of economy and the improvement of rural living condition, China biogas industry is expected to advance toward orientation of scalization, industrialization and commercialization. - Highlights: ► Developing progress of biogas production in China is evaluated comprehensively. ► Status of biogas industrialization is estimated. ► New problems which occurred during rural biogas construction were analyzed. ► Biogas production potentials from agricultural wastes in China were calculated. ► Prospect of China rural biogas is expected.

  4. Biogas from algae, seaweed and seagrass?; Biogas aus Algen, Tang und Seegras?

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Schneider, Holger [Fachhochschule Flensburg (Germany)

    2011-07-01

    Algae, seaweed and sea grass are discussed again and again as alternative sources for raw materials for agricultural biogas plants. The author of the contribution under consideration reports on the identification and optimization of the biogas potential of microalgae, macroalgae and flotsam (mixture of seaweed, seaweed, and so on). Algae, seaweed and sea grass can be fermented into biogas by means of an anaerobic process. The specific yield of biogas is small. The processing of these substrates requires a technical adjustment of the biogas plants. Thus, the effective use of these substrates will continue to fall. The achievable benefit highly depends on the location of the facilities and on the available substrates with the corresponding specific gas yields. The economic efficiency of these substrates in agricultural systems must be examined in each case.

  5. Enhanced biogas recovery by applying post-digestion in large-scale centralized biogas plants

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Angelidaki, Irini; Hejnfelt, Anette; Ellegaard, L.

    2006-01-01

    The main objective of this study was to investigate the degradation efficiency of centralized biogas plants and provide guidance for the design of more efficient digester and post-digestion systems. These centralized biogas plants in Denmark digest manure together with organic waste from the food...... industry to generate biogas, which is used for electricity and thermal energy. A total of 20 such plants are currently active in Denmark, most of which were included in the investigation. From the plants, samples were obtained from various steps of the process. Samples were analysed and the residual biogas...... potential determined by batch post-digestion at various temperature levels. Results were correlated with plant characteristics and production statistics in order to judge the efficiency of various digestion concepts. A simplified model based on a two-step biogas production process was developed...

  6. Influence of different practices on biogas sustainability

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Biogas production and use are generally regarded as a sustainable practice that can guarantee high greenhouse gas (GHG) savings. However, the actual carbon footprint of biogas is strongly influenced by several factors. The aim of this study is to analyse the environmental performance of different biogas to electricity scenarios. Two criticalities are identified as important: the choice of feedstock and the operational practice concerning the digestate. Maize, manure and co-digestion of them are the different feedstocks chosen. Maize has higher yields, but its cultivation has to be accounted for, which consists of 28–42% of the GHG emissions of the whole process of producing electricity. Manure is considered a residue and as a result benefits from no production stage, but also from avoided emissions from the normal agricultural practice of storing it in the farm and spreading it as fertiliser, but has lower methane yields. Co-digestion combines the benefits and disadvantages of the two different feedstocks. Digestate storage in open or closed tanks and further use as fertiliser is analysed. The environmental impact analysis shows that a substantial reduction of GHG emissions can be achieved with closed digestate storage. The GHG emissions savings vary from about 3% in the maize pathways with open storage up to 330% in the manure pathway with closed storage. The biogas pathways, though, have worse environmental performances in all other environmental impacts considered but ozone depletion potential when compared to the European electricity average mix. -- Highlights: ► Biogas sustainability depends on the feedstock and the digestate management. ► Closed storage is strongly recommended. ► Taking into consideration credits is recommended. ► The biogas pathways GHG emissions can be lower than the ones of the reference system. ► Biogas pathways have higher impact in eutrophication, ecotoxicity and PM potentials

  7. Optimized construction of biogas plants; Optimierte Bauweise fuer Biogasanlagen

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2012-09-19

    Within the conference of the International Trade Fair for Biogas Plant Technology at 21st February, 2012 in Berlin, the following lectures were held: (1) Optimized dimensions of containers for small systems of liquid manure (Manfred Thalmann); (2) Microferm mini biogas plants (Bart Brouwer); (3) Fermentation of stackable biomass in rural biogas plant - The DeNaBa system (Christian Deterding); (4) The Sauter Biogas System for the fermentation of liquid manure, solid dung, and other residual materials (Stefan Sauter); (5) Bio-electricity: Controllable power generation by means of biogas plants (Matthias Sonnleitner); (6) Reduction of the effort and increase of the yield using UDR fixed bed technology (Alfred van den Berg); (7) Prestressed concrete container for biogas plants: Area of application - quality - options (Harald Feldmann); (8) Corrosion protection of agricultural and communal biogas plants (Michael Normann); (9) Fundamentals of efficient and effective flow generation in biogas plants (Kay Rotalski); (10) Rotary piston screw pistons and eccentric screw pumps (Thorsten Gilles).

  8. Potential for sustainable energy with biogas from sewage purification

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Insight is given into the possibility to produce biogas from sewage purification plants in the Netherlands. Attention is paid to the estimated potential of sustainable energy from biogas, the economic effectiveness of several scenarios, the critical success factors and bottlenecks

  9. Use of Polish-bred maize hybrids for biogas production

    OpenAIRE

    Zbigniew PODKÓWKA; Lucyna PODKÓWKA

    2015-01-01

    The suitability for biogas production of silages from selected Polish-bred maize hybrids was investigated. Biogas and methane yield of silages was 513 – 703 and 339 – 443 Ndm3•kg-1 ODM. Hybrids were characterized by a high methane content in biogas (over 63%). Differences were found in biogas and methane production from different maize varieties. The highest-yielding hybrids were SMH 1785 and KBK 11149.

  10. Economic viability of biogas technology in a Bangladesh village

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    We estimate energy consumption for domestic cooking and biogas energy resources for 21 clusters of households in a village. Data were analyzed on a cluster basis, with investments shared. Under the present conditions, biogas technology would not be economically viable. Economic analysis involving viability tools including additional benefits of biogas technology indicate that creating a market for local biogas would make such a project feasible. (Author)

  11. Biogas upgrading to biomethane. Proceedings; Biogasaufbereitung zu Biomethan. Tagungsband

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2008-12-05

    Within the 6th Hanauer Dialogue 'Biogas upgrading to biomethane' at 21st February, 2008, the following lectures were held: (a) Processing of biogas - an introduction (Michael Beil); (b) The climate protecting targets of the Federal Republic of Germany: Which role will play the upgrading of biogas, and which legal boundary conditions are created by the Federal Government? (Uwe Holzhammer); (c) Future strategy: CH{sub 4} grids (Juergen Schmid); (d) Biogas upgrading and biomethane utilization in Sweden (Anneli Petersson); (e) Biogas upgrading and utilization of bio methane in Switzerland (Arthur Wellinger); (f) Biogas upgrading by means of pressure swing adsorption (Alfons Schulte-Schulze Berndt); (g) Biogas upgrading by means of pressurized water washing (Ulf Richter); (h) Biogas upgrading for feeding in public grids. The case of biogas plant Bruck a.d. Leitha (Michael Harasek); (i) Biogas upgrading by means of chemical absorption according to the LP Cooab process (Jerome van Beek); (j) Practical experiences in unpressurized amine washing MT bio methane (Karsten Wuensche); (k) Biogas upgrading by means of organic physical washing with HAASE biogas amplifiers (Roland Kahn); (l) Upgrading using cryogenic technology; the GPP registered -system (Jeroen de Pater); (m) Micro Gas Distribution Systems: Alternatives to biogas upgrading and grid injection (Michael Beil, Bernd Krautkremer); (n) Feeding of exchange gas. The case of project Straelen and Kerpen (Frank Schaefer); (o) Feeding of biogas from the view of grid operators (Norbert Nordmeyer); BIOGASMAX: Biogas as Vehicle Fuel - Market Expansion to 2020 Air Quality (Michael Beil, Uwe Hoffstede); (p) Study: Feeding of biogas into the natural gas distribution system (Fachagentur Nachwachsende Rohstoffe).

  12. Yield and Quality of Biogas from Anaerobic Fermentation of Grass

    OpenAIRE

    Poláček, Jan

    2014-01-01

    Biogas is generally considered as a renewable source of energy. In fact, however, it is biodegradable organic material, that makes this source of energy renewable. Biogas is, then, the final product of anaerobic fermentation of these materials. Because energetically the most valuable component of biogas is methane (CH4) its relative volume stands as the measure of biogas quality. The process of anaerobic fermentation was characterized in the first part of this thesis. Organic materials ar...

  13. Gas Permeation Processes in Biogas Upgrading: A Short Review

    OpenAIRE

    Kárászová, M. (Magda); Sedláková, Z.; Izák, P. (Pavel)

    2015-01-01

    Biogas upgrading is a widely studied and discussed topic. Many different technologies have been employed to obtain biomethane from biogas. Methods like water scrubbing or pressure swing adsorption are commonly used and can be declared as well established. Membrane gas permeation found its place among the biogas upgrading methods some years ago. Here, we try to summarize the progress in the implementation of gas permeation in biogas upgrading. Gas permeation has been already accepted as a comm...

  14. Study of Biogas Production with Organic Rubbish as Producing Material

    OpenAIRE

    Santosa Santosa; Sandra Sandra; Omil Charmyn Chatib; Asep Dian Prima

    2015-01-01

    This research had done at Production and Agricultural Machines and Equipments Management Laboratory at Agricultural Engineering, Faculty of Agricultural Technology, Andalas University, Padang City from November 2011 to March 2012. It intent to study about biogas physics parameters (to know about when the first time it producing biogas, biogas volume and pressure, relative humidity (RH), enviroment temperature, biogas energy) and chemical parameter such as producing material acidity degree (pH...

  15. Biogas as a way to attract renewable energy

    OpenAIRE

    Kardasz, Piotr

    2013-01-01

    The subject of the following article is biogas plant, which is an installation for the production of biogas. Biogas can be used to produce electricity, heat and fuels. Produced by the fermentation of biomass materials that can be used (mainly waste from agricultural, animal and food industry), sediments, sewage treatment and municipal waste lying in landfills. Depending on the type of feedstock used in biogas technology may be different, but the basic elements of the system of administration ...

  16. Sustainable supply of biogas in Germany; Nachhaltige Biogasbereitstellung in Deutschland

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Erler, Ronny [DBI - Gastechnologisches Institut gGmbH, Freiberg (Germany). Bereich Biogastechnologie; Ball, Thomas; Kiefer, Joachim [Technologiezentrum Wasser (Germany). Abt. Grundwasser und Boden; Dresen, Boris [Fraunhofer-Institut UMSICHT (Germany). Themenbereich Ressourcenmanagement; Koeppel, Wolfgang [DVGW-Forschungsstelle Karlsruhe (Germany). Gruppe Systeme und Netze

    2013-04-15

    The supply of certain substrates for biogas production is partly controversial discussed: 'Tank-or-plate' discussions, maize cultivation of the landscape and so forth. The research project 'Potential study for the sustainable production and supply of gaseous, renewable energy in Germany (Biogas Atlas)' examines the potentials of biogas production under consideration of various sustainability factors.

  17. Optimization of biogas production from manure

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kaparaju, Prasad Laxmi-Narasimha; Boe, Kanokwan; Buendia, Inmaculada M.;

    The main objective of the project was to improve biogas production from manures. This objective was addressed by investigating 1) the effect of different reactor configurations, 2) operational procedures, aiming to selectively retain/return degradable material in the reactor and 3) different...... process at 90/10, 80/20, 70/30, 50/50 or 30/70% volume distribution could produce 11-17.8% more biogas compared to single CSTR process under similar operating conditions. The increased biogas production was mainly from the second reactor of the serial process, which accounted for 16-18% of the total...... biogas production. At 13/87 ratio, no significant increase in biogas production was noticed. Both single and serial CSTR processes were stable when operated 90/10, 80/20, 70/30 or 50/50% volume distributions and also during an organic pulse load (19.6 to 65.3 g/l reactor volume). Results from pilot...

  18. Monitoring and controlling the biogas process

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ahring, B.K.; Angelidaki, I. [The Technical Univ. of Denmark, Dept. of Environmental Science and Engineering, Lyngby (Denmark)

    1997-08-01

    Many modern large-scale biogas plants have been constructed recently, increasing the demand for proper monitoring and control of these large reactor systems. For monitoring the biogas process, an easy to measure and reliable indicator is required, which reflects the metabolic state and the activity of the bacterial populations in the reactor. In this paper, we discuss existing indicators as well as indicators under development which can potentially be used to monitor the state of the biogas process in a reactor. Furthermore, data are presented from two large scale thermophilic biogas plants, subjected to temperature changes and where the concentration of volatile fatty acids was monitored. The results clearly demonstrated that significant changes in the concentration of the individual VFA occurred although the biogas production was not significantly changed. Especially the concentrations of butyrate, isobutyrate and isovalerate showed significant changes. Future improvements of process control could therefore be based on monitoring of the concentration of specific VFA`s together with information about the bacterial populations in the reactor. The last information could be supplied by the use of modern molecular techniques. (au) 51 refs.

  19. Biogas in agriculture. Status and prospects. Proceedings; Biogas in der Landwirtschaft. Stand und Perspektiven. Tagungsband

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2011-07-01

    Within the congress of the Agency for Renewable Resources (Guelzow, Federal Republic of Germany) and the Association for Technology and Structures in Agriculture (Darmstadt, Federal Republic of Germany) at 20th-21st September, 2011 in Goettingen (Federal Republic of Germany) the following lectures and posters were presented: (1) Perspectives of using biogas as a part of the German power supply (Stefan Rauh); (2) Development of biogas in Europe (Marc Fleureck); (3) Biology of methanogenic archaea and its significance for the microbial process control in biogas plants (Helmut Koenig); (4) Efficiency and behaviour of enzymes in the biogas process (Monika Heiermann); (5) Trace elements in NaWaRo biogas plants for balancing substrate limited deficiency symptoms and stabilizing the fermentation process (Hans Oechsner); (6) EEG - Actual developments for biogas (Ulrich Keymer); (7) Utilization of thermal energy from cogeneration in the practice - Experiences from the view of an environmental expert (Michael Hub); (8) Innovations in the legal aspects of the production and utilization of biogas (Hartwig von Bredow); (9) Damages and deficiencies at biogas plants (Waldemar Gruber); (10) Learning from accidents, damages and their causes as well as their correctives in the operation of biogas plants - Reports from the practice (Wolfgang Horst Stachowitz); (11) Causes and avoidance of container damages by means of biocorrosion (Jan Kuever); (12) Anaerobic degradation of cellulosic substrates - Bionic implementation of the forestomach sysem of a ruminant (Dirk Weichgrebe); (13) Fermentation of renewable raw materials in the up flow procedure (Jan Mumme); (14) Two-phase pressure fermentation for feeding into natural gas grids (Andreas Lemmer); (15) Requirements and potential of sugar beets for fermentation (Christa Hoffmann); (16) Innovation in the area of power beets (Andreas von Felde); (17) Optimization of manuring with fermentation residues in order to reduce the nitrogen

  20. Analysis of operational methane emissions from pressure relief valves from biogas storages of biogas plants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reinelt, Torsten; Liebetrau, Jan; Nelles, Michael

    2016-10-01

    The study presents the development of a method for the long term monitoring of methane emissions from pressure relief valves (PRV(1)) of biogas storages, which has been verified during test series at two PRVs of two agricultural biogas plants located in Germany. The determined methane emission factors are 0.12gCH4kWhel(-1) (0.06% CH4-loss, within 106days, 161 triggering events, winter season) from biogas plant A and 6.80/7.44gCH4kWhel(-1) (3.60/3.88% CH4-loss, within 66days, 452 triggering events, summer season) from biogas plant B. Besides the operational state of the biogas plant (e.g. malfunction of the combined heat and power unit), the mode of operation of the biogas flare, which can be manually or automatically operated as well as the atmospheric conditions (e.g. drop of the atmospheric pressure) can also affect the biogas emission from PRVs. PMID:26944456

  1. Production and use of biogas year 2009; Produktion och anvaendning av biogas aar 2009

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    2010-11-15

    In the present study, a total of 230 biogas-producing sites were identified. These produced a total of 1363 GWh of energy. The 230 biogas-producing plants were distributed in 136 sewage treatment plants, 57 landfills, 21 co-digestion plants, four industries and 12 farm sites. The number of upgrading plants amounted to 38 and at seven locations injection of upgraded biogas into the natural gas network took place. 44% of the biogas generated in sewage treatment plants, 25% were produced in landfills, 22% of co-digestion plants, 8% in industrial plants and 1% on farm installations. The total biogas production in 2009 was slightely higher than last year, but the division between the different plant types has changed. Production increased for co-digestion plants and farm installations, while production was relatively unchanged for sewage treatment plants. Production in landfills and industrial sites decreased compared with 2008. A larger proportion of the biogas came to use in 2009 compared with previous years. 667 GWh (49%) was used for heating, which also includes heat loss, 488 GWh (36%) were upgraded, 64 GWh (5%) of electricity was generated and 135 GWh (10%) was torched. The main substrates for biogas production were different types of waste such as sewage sludge, source separated food waste and waste from food industry. In addition to biogas, co-digestion plants and the farm plants together produced 537 403 tonnes (wet weight) biofertilizer, and the waste water treatment plants 214 000 tonnes (dry weight) sludge. The provincial breakdown shows that biogas production was greatest in metropolitan areas

  2. Biogas. Present situation and future potential; Biogas. Nulaege och framtida potential

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nordberg, Ulf [Swedish Inst. of Agricultural and Environmental Engineering, Uppsala (Sweden)

    2006-12-15

    The report contains a general overview of present technology concerning production of biogas through anaerobic breakdown of easily recycled organic material as well as implementation areas for biogas. The work has been done in three parts: description of present situation, technical limitations and development efforts, synthesis. In Sweden there are more than 220 biogas plants for handling crops, sludge and organic residue material. Production of biogas occurs primarily at sewage treatment plants and landfills. Total capacity in 2004 was approx. 300,000 m{sup 3} anaerobic chamber volume, of which approx. 73% was utilised. Planned increase in capacity was approx. 125,000 m{sup 3} or approx. 42%.The substrate brought to the plants was comprised of approx. 45% manure, 30% offal, 10% biowaste from households and 15% other substrates. Calculations based on the energy content of input substrate indicate that approx. 10% of the gas was from manure, 65% from offal, 25% from household waste and 5% from other substrates. In 2005 a total of 1,5 TWh of biogas was produced in Sweden. Biogas is used primarily for heating purposes followed by use as vehicle fuel and in electricity production. More than 55 GWh is torched away. Sewage treatment plants are not included. Interest in using biogas as fuel has increased. The theoretical biogas potential in Sweden has been calculated to be 14-17 TWh per year, of which approx. 80% is found in agriculturally related biomass. Approximately 3 TWh originates from various types of household and industrial waste. Generally it can be said that there is a large potential for improvement and increased efficiency within the whole chain of substrate collection, preparatory treatment of substrates, operational control of biogas plants, upgrade/treatment and use of gas as well as spreading and use of biofertilizer. The greatest increase in substrate will come from the amount of crops from the agricultural sector. The contacts between farmers and plant

  3. Safety and nutritional evaluation of biogas residue left after the production of biogas from wastewater

    OpenAIRE

    Baoguo Bian; Lvmu Li; Xiongyuan Si; Bin Li; Wenjie Guo; Hua Mu; Xiaoling Ding; Fazhi Xu

    2015-01-01

    We investigated the safety and nutritional value of biogas residue left after the production of biogas from wastewater. In Exp. 1, ninety- six female mice were selected for acute oral toxicity testing and randomly allocated to 4 treatment groups, which received distilled water (control) or the biogas residue solution at 1 g/mL, 5 g/mL, or 15 g/mL. Activity levels and serum biochemical parameters were measured after 24 hours. In Exp. 2, eighty mice were divided into 2 treatment groups for suba...

  4. Biogas Digester with Simple Solar Heater

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kh S Karimov

    2012-10-01

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT: In this research work, the design, fabrication and investigation of a biogas digester with simple solar heater are presented. For the solar heater, a built-in reverse absorber type heater was used. The maximum temperature (50°C inside the methane tank was taken as a main parameter for the design of the digester. Then, the energy balance equation for the case of a static mass of fluid being heated was used to model the process. The parameters of thermal insulation of the methane tank were also included in the calculations. The biogas digester consisted of a methane tank with built-in solar reverse absorber heater to harness the radiant solar energy for heating the slurry comprising of different organic wastes (dung, sewage, food wastes etc.. The methane tank was initially filled to 70% of its volume with organic wastes from the GIK institute’s sewage. The remaining volume was filled with sewage and cow dung from other sources. During a three month period (October-December, 2009 and another two month period (February-March, 2010, the digester was investigated. The effects of solar radiation on the absorber, the slurry’s temperature, and the ambient temperature were all measured during these investigations. It was found that using sewage only and sewage with cow dung in the slurry resulted in retention times of four and two weeks, respectively. The corresponding biogas produced was 0.4 m3 and 8.0 m3, respectively. Finally, this paper also elaborates on the upgradation of biogas through the removal of carbon dioxide, hydrogen sulphide and water vapour, and also the process of conversion of biogas energy into electric powerABSTRAK: Kajian ini membentangkan rekabentuk, fabrikasi dan penyelidikan tentang pencerna biogas dengan pemanas solar ringkas. Sebagai pemanas solar, ia dilengkapkan dengan penyerap pemanas beralik. Suhu maksimum(50oC di dalam tangki metana telah diambil sebagai parameter utama rekabentuk pencerna. Dengan menggunakan

  5. Effect of pressure on biogas production

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ahmet ERYAŞAR

    2009-02-01

    Full Text Available In facilities in which biogas systems are installed biogas is not produced and consumed simultaneously. Therefore, biogas produced when there is no consumption should be stored. Low pressure gasometers with 1- 1,5 kPa value are preferred in the rural area and when needed pressurizer is added to the system. When the pressure which gas production and usage require is provided by natural ways without usage of an added pressurizer, a respectively high pressure atmosphere can be seen. In this study, the effects of different low pressures on anaerobic fermentation of cattle manure were experimentally analyzed. Fermentation experiment which was carried out with 9 reactors with fed-batch type, 3 parallels in pressures of 19.6 kPa, 9.5 kPa and 1.5 kPa continued 60 days at 35 ºC. The acquired experimental data was subjected to LSD test in P

  6. The optimal size for biogas plants

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The costs of biogas and electricity production from maize silage in relation to plant size are investigated in this paper. A survey of manufacturers' engineering data was conducted to derive a reliable relationship between the capacity of a combined heat and power (CHP) unit and its electrical efficiency. Then a model was developed to derive cost curves for the unit costs of biogas and electricity production and for the transport costs for maize silage and biogas slurry. The least-cost plant capacity depends to a great extent on the local availability of silage maize, and ranges in the model calculations from 575 to 1150 kWel. Finally, the paper deals with the optimum operating plant size due to the investment support available and the graduated tariff for green electricity in Austria. (author)

  7. Sustainable Biomass Resources for Biogas Production

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Meyer, Ane Katharina Paarup

    The aim of this thesis was to identify and map sustainable biomass resources, which can be utilised for biogas production with minimal negative impacts on the environment, nature and climate. Furthermore, the aim of this thesis was to assess the resource potential and feasibility of utilising...... such biomasses in the biogas sector. Sustainability in the use of biomass feedstock for energy production is of key importance for a stable future food and energy supply, and for the functionality of the Earths ecosystems. A range of biomass resources were assessed in respect to sustainability, availability...... from 39.3-66.9 Mtoe, depending on the availability of the residues. Grass from roadside verges and meadow habitats in Denmark represent two currently unutilised sources. If utilised in the Danish biogas sector, the results showed that the resources represent a net energy potential of 60,000 -122,000 GJ...

  8. Domestic biogas development in developing countries

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Communities that rely mostly on agriculture and livestock farming in developing countries can face strong pressure related to: - Energy access: for instance, in Africa, it is estimated that 68% of the population live without clean cooking facilities [1]. Energy access plays a key role in poverty alleviation. - Resources depletion: if a household uses firewood for cooking purposes, forests depletion in some areas makes firewood collection tougher. - Climate change mitigation: agriculture (i.e. the production of crop and livestock products) accounts for 13.5%2 of the global GHG emissions, and extensive systems are sometimes blamed for being less efficient than intensive ones when it comes to climate change mitigation (given that the later involve lower direct emissions per kg of product). In this context, access to clean and sustainable energy through domestic biogas production can help rural communities alleviate current pressures on the environment. In an urban context, domestic biogas in developing countries is also considered as a means for improving hygiene conditions (especially when it comes to public washrooms issues). This report only focuses on domestic biogas development within the frame of small scale agriculture and livestock production (i.e. in rural areas). The main objective of this document is to provide domestic biogas project developers with relevant information on the key issues to have in mind regarding national integration of such projects. This document gives a general presentation of domestic biogas and its main environmental, social and economic benefits. It also browses the main aspects one should have in mind (checklist) in order to assess local risks and opportunities for domestic biogas development

  9. Ultrasound assisted biogas production from landfill leachate

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Highlights: • Effect of low frequency ultrasound pretreatment on leachate was investigated. • Three different ultrasound energy inputs (200, 400 and 600 W/l) was applied. • Low-frequency ultrasound treatment increased soluble COD in landfill leachate. • Application of ultrasound to leachate increased biogas production about 40%. • Application of ultrasound to leachate increased total methane production rate about 20%. - Abstract: The aim of this study is to increase biogas production and methane yield from landfill leachate in anaerobic batch reactors by using low frequency ultrasound as a pretreatment step. In the first part of the study, optimum conditions for solubilization of organic matter in leachate samples were investigated using various sonication durations at an ultrasound frequency of 20 kHz. The level of organic matter solubilization during ultrasonic pretreatment experiments was determined by calculating the ratio of soluble chemical oxygen demand (sCOD) to total chemical oxygen demand (tCOD). The sCOD/tCOD ratio was increased from 47% in raw leachate to 63% after 45 min sonication at 600 W/l. Non-parametric Friedman’s test indicated that ultrasonic pretreatment has a significant effect on sCOD parameter for leachate (p < 0.05). In the second part of the study, anaerobic batch reactors were operated for both ultrasonically pretreated and untreated landfill leachate samples in order to assess the effect of sonication on biogas and methane production rate. In anaerobic batch reactor feed with ultrasonically pretreated leachate, 40% more biogas was obtained compared to the control reactor. For statistical analysis, Mann–Whitney U test was performed to compare biogas and methane production rates for raw and pretreated leachate samples and it has been found that ultrasonic pretreatment significantly enhanced biogas and methane production rates from leachate (p < 0.05) in anaerobic batch reactors. The overall results showed that low frequency

  10. Ultrasound assisted biogas production from landfill leachate

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Oz, Nilgün Ayman, E-mail: nilgunayman@comu.edu.tr; Yarimtepe, Canan Can

    2014-07-15

    Highlights: • Effect of low frequency ultrasound pretreatment on leachate was investigated. • Three different ultrasound energy inputs (200, 400 and 600 W/l) was applied. • Low-frequency ultrasound treatment increased soluble COD in landfill leachate. • Application of ultrasound to leachate increased biogas production about 40%. • Application of ultrasound to leachate increased total methane production rate about 20%. - Abstract: The aim of this study is to increase biogas production and methane yield from landfill leachate in anaerobic batch reactors by using low frequency ultrasound as a pretreatment step. In the first part of the study, optimum conditions for solubilization of organic matter in leachate samples were investigated using various sonication durations at an ultrasound frequency of 20 kHz. The level of organic matter solubilization during ultrasonic pretreatment experiments was determined by calculating the ratio of soluble chemical oxygen demand (sCOD) to total chemical oxygen demand (tCOD). The sCOD/tCOD ratio was increased from 47% in raw leachate to 63% after 45 min sonication at 600 W/l. Non-parametric Friedman’s test indicated that ultrasonic pretreatment has a significant effect on sCOD parameter for leachate (p < 0.05). In the second part of the study, anaerobic batch reactors were operated for both ultrasonically pretreated and untreated landfill leachate samples in order to assess the effect of sonication on biogas and methane production rate. In anaerobic batch reactor feed with ultrasonically pretreated leachate, 40% more biogas was obtained compared to the control reactor. For statistical analysis, Mann–Whitney U test was performed to compare biogas and methane production rates for raw and pretreated leachate samples and it has been found that ultrasonic pretreatment significantly enhanced biogas and methane production rates from leachate (p < 0.05) in anaerobic batch reactors. The overall results showed that low frequency

  11. Renewable Hydrogen Potential from Biogas in the United States

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Saur, G.; Milbrandt, A.

    2014-07-01

    This analysis updates and expands upon previous biogas studies to include total potential and net availability of methane in raw biogas with respect to competing demands and includes a resource assessment of four sources of biogas: (1) wastewater treatment plants, including domestic and a new assessment of industrial sources; (2) landfills; (3) animal manure; and (4) a new assessment of industrial, institutional, and commercial sources. The results of the biogas resource assessment are used to estimate the potential production of renewable hydrogen from biogas as well as the fuel cell electric vehicles that the produced hydrogen might support.

  12. BIOGAS UPGRADING PROCESSES FOR THE PRODUCTION OF NATURAL GAS SUBSTITUTE

    OpenAIRE

    Čekanova, Patricia; Jasminska, Natalia; Brestovič, Tomaš; Schvarzbacherova, Eva

    2011-01-01

    Biogas from anaerobic digestion of biological wastes is a renewable energy resource. It has been used to provide heat, shaft power and electricity. Typical biogas contains 50-65% methane (CH4), 30-45% carbon dioxide (CO2), moisture and traces of hydrogen sulphide (H2S). Presence of CO2 and H2S in biogas affects engine performance adversely. Reducing CO2 and H2S content will significantly improve quality of biogas. In this work, a method for biogas scrubbing and CH4 enrichment is presented. Ch...

  13. Pipeline construction for the biogas feeding; Rohrleitungsbau fuer die Biogaseinspeisung

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Glueck, Silvio [STREICHER Anlagenbau GmbH und Co. KG, Gommern (Germany)

    2013-02-01

    Biogas as a renewable and thus as an environmentally compatible energy source is advancing fast. The worldwide greatest biogas infeed plants are located in Guestrow (Federal Republic of Germany) and Schwedt (Federal Republic of Germany). But now Lower Bavaria also develops its own biogas supply. Since June 2012, biogas is fed into the regular power network between Osterhofen (Federal Republic of Germany) and Plattling (Federal Republic of Germany). This power plant is in operation since September, 2012. The contribution under consideration presents an insight into the sophisticated construction of lines of the biogas infeed plant.

  14. Macro algae as substrate for biogas production

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Møller, Henrik; Sarker, Shiplu; Gautam, Dhan Prasad;

    Algae as a substrate for biogas is superior to other crops since it has a much higher yield of biomass per unit area and since algae grows in the seawater there will be no competition with food production on agricultural lands. So far, the progress in treating different groups of algae as a source...... of energy is promising. In this study 5 different algae types were tested for biogas potential and two algae were subsequent used for co-digestion with manure. Green seaweed, Ulva lactuca and brown seaweed Laminaria digitata was co-digested with cattle manure at mesophilic and thermophilic condition...

  15. 10. Biogas conference Dresden. Anaerobic treatment of biological wastes. Proceedings

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The biogas conference in Dresden will be held for the tenth time and is still the only conference in Germany, which focuses on the production of biogas solely from waste. This year, the implementation of paragraph 11 of the Recycling and Waste Management Act and the amendment of the Renewable Energies Act (EEG) in 2014, the chances of the waste management biogas technology will be spotlighted here. The efficiency and wise use of the end products of the biogas production - the biogas and fermentation residues are equally critical for the success of biogas technology as the emission reduction of biogas plants. In this context, the biogas technology will also be dependent in the future on legal requirements and funding instruments such as the EEG. For the technical implementation, the development of reliable system concepts with specific sinking biogas and electricity supply costs and with greater flexibility in terms of launching needs-based biogas and electricity production. The contributions in this paper discuss possible solutions and implementations from the perspective of politics, associations, research and practice. Innovative topics will be discussed, which will be decisive for the future of biogas production from organic wastes.

  16. Investigation of thermal integration between biogas production and upgrading

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Highlights: • Identify thermal characteristics of amine-based biogas upgrading for waste heat recovery. • Identify thermal characteristics of AD biogas production as sink for heat recovery. • Evaluation of thermal integration between biogas production and upgrading to improve overall energy efficiency. • Cost analysis applied for the economic feasibility of the thermal integration. • Using the principles of target design and system integration for connected thermal processes. - Abstract: Thermal integration of anaerobic digestion (AD) biogas production with amine-based chemical absorption biogas upgrading has been studied to improve the overall efficiency of the intergraded system. The thermal characteristics have been investigated for industrial AD raw biogas production and amine-based chemical absorption biogas upgrading. The investigation provides a basic understanding for the possibilities of energy saving through thermal integration. The thermal integration is carried out through well-defined cases based on the thermal characteristics of the biogas production and the biogas upgrading. The following factors are taken into account in the case study: thermal conditions of sub-systems, material and energy balances, cost issues and main benefits. The potential of heat recovery has been evaluated to utilise the waste heat from amine-based upgrading process for the use in the AD biogas production. The results show that the thermal integration has positive effects on improving the overall energy efficiency of the integrated biogas plant. Cost analysis shows that the thermal integration is economically feasible

  17. Perspectives on Spatial Decision Support Concerning Location of Biogas Production

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bojesen, Mikkel

    Biogas production is a contemporary important topic in many agri-intensive countries, among these Denmark, where biogas has received increasingly political and scholarly awareness during recent years. The Danish government has set an ambition that 50% of the livestock slurry should by 2020 by used...... in biogas production. This ambition requires that more than 20 new large scale centralised biogas plants are built. The location of these plants is associated with a number of externalities and uncertainties and the existing biogas sector struggles to establish itself as a viable energy producing...... sector. Meanwhile planners and decision makers struggle to find sustainable locations that comprehensively balance the multiple concerns the location of biogas facilities includes. This PhD project examines how spatial decision support models can be used to ensure sustainable locations of future biogas...

  18. Critical evaluation of substitution of natural gas by biogas

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Biogas use in Germany's distribution grid is regulated by the federal integrated energy and climate program. The key measures that influence the biogas feed-in include core regulation; changes to the act grating feed-in preference for electricity generated from renewable energies; regulation for heat supply from renewable energies; and regulations regarding biofuels. A critical evaluation of substitution of natural gas by biogas was presented. Specific topics that were discussed included aims and measures; potential; usage pathways for biogas; efficiency criteria of usage pathways; and location analysis. The presentation also discussed the parameters of raw biogas and regular distribution grid; a process chain for biogas upgrading; and criteria for process evaluation. It was concluded that costs and environmental relevance of biogas-processing can be compared over the complete life cycle for various pathways and configurations. This represented an excellent and very flexible planning tool. Subsidies and related measures could be focussed on the most efficient pathways. tabs., figs.

  19. Energy recovery from the urban solid wastes biogas; Recupero energetico del biogas da discariche di RSU

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Comolli, P.C.; Giambelli, G. [Milan Politecnico, Milan (Italy). Dipt. di Energetica

    1999-12-01

    This paper is focused on the exploitation of biogas produced by anaerobic fermentation in landfills. It is part of an extensive research on the use of urban solid wastes for energy production. Special stress is laid on the environmental benefit and the significant energetic contribution, with specific reference to electric power generation, and on the need of strict laws to develop the exploitation of biogas. [Italian] L'articolo, tratto da un'ampia ricerca sull'utilizzazione energetica dei rifiuti solidi urbani, incentra la sua attenzione sull'utilizzo dei biogas prodotto dalla fermentazione anaerobica nelle discariche. Si sottolineano il vantaggio ambientale e il significativo apporto energetico, con particolare riferimento alla produzione di energia elettrica, nonche' la necessita' di piu' rigore normativo per sviluppare l'utilizzo energetico del biogas.

  20. A new combined process for biological desulphurisation of biogas; Neue Verfahrenskombination zur biologischen Entschwefelung von Biogas

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sayder, Bettina; Strauch, Sabine; Krassowski, Joachim; Kabasci, Stephan; Genzowsky, Kristoffer [Fraunhofer-Institut fuer Umwelt-, Sicherheits- und Energietechnik UMSICHT, Oberhausen (Germany)

    2010-07-01

    A new process developed by Fraunhofer UMSICHT is presented. The process comprises a gas purification stage in which the fermentation residue of the biogas plant is utilized. The fermentation residue is then regenerated in a downstream activation pond.

  1. Methods for preparing biogas in fuel quality; Verfahren zur Aufbereitung von Biogas in Kraftstoffqualitaet

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Prehn, Sascha [Forschungszentrum Verbrennungsmotoren Thermodynamik Rostock GmbH, Rostock (Germany); Wichmann, Volker; Harndorf, Horst

    2012-07-01

    Biogas is obtained from renewable raw materials. Due to its high methane concentration it is suitable as an alternative fuel. In order to provide biogas as a fuel equivalent to natural gas it must be converted into bio-methane. The quality of bio-methane is subject to high demands which are defined in the paper of DVGW G260 and G262 for feeding it into the public gas grid. Criteria for the use of bio-methane as a fuel in combustion engines are defined in DIN 51621. In addition to the separation of carbondioxide and water, biogas has to comply limited values of hydrogen sulfide and other trace gases. This paper gives an overview of various process steps of biogas treatment considering technical and economical aspects. (orig.)

  2. Supply and Demand on Vehicle Fuel Biogas in the Biogas East Region; Utbud och efterfraagan paa fordonsgas i Biogas Oest Regionen

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jonerholm, Katarina; Millers-Dalsjoe, Daina; Ganga Parada, Celeste (Sweco Environment AB, Stockholm (Sweden))

    2010-02-15

    This study identifies the current production, demand and distribution of biogas for vehicle fuel Biogas in Eastern Region of Sweden including the counties of Stockholm, Uppsala, Vaestmanland, Soedermanland, Oerebro and Oestergoetland. The study also provides projections of future production, distribution and demand to the year 2020, and for a discussion on the conditions necessary for sustainability of biogas vehicle fuel in the region. Forecast for biogas production by the year 2020 include biogas anaerobic digestion, where the existing sewage treatment plant (WWTP) with digester, as well as existing and planned facilities in the digestion region accounts for the largest biogas production. Inquiry does not include the gasification of biomass or the import of substrates from for digestion of the region. The results of the investigation are summarized and the entire region, and county

  3. Biogas in Burkina Faso. Influential factors of biogas projects in rural areas of Burkina Faso

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Aschaber, Andreas

    2010-07-01

    Full text: Burkina Faso is among the poorest countries in the world. The energy situation in Burkina Faso is among the most critical issues which need to be addressed in the country. The electrical power grid is insufficient and only available in urban centers. Consequently wood and charcoal is used in order to meet the basic needs for heating, cooking, and lightning by the majority of the population. The resulting overuse of natural energy resources in Burkina Faso has been causing massive deforestation and desertification on the one hand and on the other hand scarcity in fuel wood availability. According to a recent feasibility study of the GTZ, biogas is thought to be one of the most sustainable solutions for developing energy self sufficiency in rural areas of Burkina Faso. Biogas is not a new concept in Burkina Faso, as the first biogas plants were already installed in the 70's. Recently a national biogas program and the activity of various NGOs lead to a rejuvenation of attempts to establish biogas in Burkina Faso. Although biogas has a long history in Burkina Faso, no significant breakthrough of this technology has happened so far. None of the biogas plants built during the last 40 years have been operational for a long time. This contribution presents a study aimed to analyze the partial success and failures of the attempts to install biogas plants so far. The study was conducted in May 2009 as part of a project for a model application of the technology in the frame of University cooperation between Austria (University of Innsbruck) and Burkina Faso (Universite Polytechnique du Bobo Dioulasso). During the field study four sites of existing biogas plants were visited, five interviews with experts conducted and two focus groups with potential users in a rural setting were conducted. The systemic approach, including technical as well as socioeconomic aspects, yielded a wealth of factors which can potentially influence the success of biogas projects in

  4. Biogas. Plants, raw materials, products. 7. rev. ed.; Biogas. Pflanzen, Rohstoffe, Produkte

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2011-08-15

    In order to save fossil fuels and to stopp the climate change, a gradual shift to renewable energies is necessary. The federal government has aimed to a modern, environmental friendly, sustainable and secure energy supply by means of the expansion of renewable energies. Bioenergy plays a central role in the future. Biogas for renewable energies will play a special role. Biogas can be used for simultaneous production of electricity and heat, as a fuel and as a substitute for natural gas.

  5. Biogas - a new energy source saves fossil resources; Biogas - mit neuer Energie Ressourcen schonen

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Thoss, C. (comp.)

    2001-07-01

    The new German Renewable Energy Sources Act (EEG) of 2000 made conditions for biogas more favourable - small wonder, as the German Biogas Association (Fachverband Biogas e.V.) co-operated with written expert opinions and many discussions with decision-makers. The subjects discussed at the 10th Biogas Conference reflect the current situation and will provide a basis for committee work in 2001. [German] Im Jahr 2000 haben sich die gesetzlichen Rahmenbedingungen fuer den Biogasbereich mit dem Inkrafttreten des erneuerbaren Energiegesetz (EEG) sehr positiv entwickelt. Der Fachverband Biogas e.V. hat mit schriftlichen Stellungnahmen und in vielen Gespraechen mit Entscheidungstraegern diese Bedingungen mitgestaltet. In Zukunft gibt es noch viele Aufgaben fuer eine effektive Interessenvertretung der Biogasbranche auf Laender- und Bundesebene. Die Themen, die auf der 10. Biogastagung diskutiert werden, spiegeln die Fragen wieder, die unter Experten derzeit intensiv diskutiert werden. Die Ergebnisse des Erfahrungsaustausches auf dieser Tagung werden die Grundlage fuer die Arbeit der Gremien im Fachverband Biogas im Jahr 2001 sein. Mit dem vorliegenden Tagungsband ist es gelungen, die Basis fuer die fachlichen Gespraeche waehrend und nach der Tagung schaffen. (orig.)

  6. Purification of Raw Biogas to Biomethane Quality.

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Izák, Pavel; Kárászová, Magda; Vejražka, Jiří; Sedláková, Zuzana

    -: -, 2015, s. 1-2. ISBN N. [Conference on Sustainable Development of Energy, Water and Environment Systems /10./. Dubrovnik (HR), 27.09.2015-02.10.2015] R&D Projects: GA ČR GA14-12695S Institutional support: RVO:67985858 Keywords : pilot plant operating * raw biogas * membranes Subject RIV: CI - Industrial Chemistry, Chemical Engineering

  7. Small-scale household biogas digesters

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bruun, Sander; Jensen, Lars Stoumann; Khanh Vu, Van Thi;

    2014-01-01

    -scale digesters and their biogas production, this corresponds to methane losses of 4.5 Tg yr -1 or about 1% of global emissions or 10% as much as emissions from rice production. Further poliferation of small-scale digesters could therefore contribute significantly to global emissions of methane. It is therefore...

  8. Identification of microbial populations in biogas

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Čermáková, J.; Mrázek, Jakub; Fliegerová, Kateřina; Tenkrát, D.

    2011-01-01

    Roč. 3, č. 0 (2011), s. 53-58. ISSN 1804-2058 R&D Projects: GA ČR GPP503/10/P394 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z50450515 Keywords : biogas * PCR * microorganisms Subject RIV: EH - Ecology, Behaviour

  9. Can Anaerobic Fungi Improve Biogas Production?

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Fliegerová, Kateřina; Mrázek, Jakub; Štrosová, Lenka; Procházka, J.

    Edinburgh : Elsevier, 2010. s. 1-1. [IMC9 (9th International mycological congress): The biology of Fungi. 01.08.2010 - 06.08.2010, Edinburgh] Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z50450515 Keywords : anaerobic fungi * biogas production Subject RIV: EH - Ecology, Behaviour

  10. Recent developments in Chinese agricultural biogas production

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Xin Xiang [Chinese Ministry of Agriculture (China). Centre of Energy and Environmental Protection; Mang, H.P. [Chinese Academy of Agricultural Engineering (China)]|[Centrum fuer Internationale Migration und Entwicklung (CIM), Frankfurt am Main (Germany)

    2007-07-01

    China is still largely rural, with abundant biomass resources including agricultural residues, and animal wastes amounting to about 2.5 billion tons per annum. The first National Strategy for Renewable Rural Biomass Energy Development has developed a strategy which will provide a framework for a sustainable utilization of these resources as well as develop additional resources for renewable energy reduction. To comply with these regulations, under current economic and regulatory conditions, the least-cost response for mist agro-enterprises will be the installation of conventional, ''end of pipe'' waste treatment facilities. The results of an International Seminar on Biogas for Poverty and Sustainable Development in Beijing (Peoples Republic of China) in October 2005 came up with the following strategies for large scale biogas plant implementation: (a) Integration of biogas electricity generation in national feed-in-grid strategies and village electrification; (b) Create models for biogas grids; (c) Testing clear rules for Renewable Energy laws application; (d) Promotion of large scale industrial and community plants; (e) Integration of bio-organic waste and septic/faecal sludge collection system.

  11. Biogas production: current state and perspectives.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Weiland, Peter

    2010-01-01

    Anaerobic digestion of energy crops, residues, and wastes is of increasing interest in order to reduce the greenhouse gas emissions and to facilitate a sustainable development of energy supply. Production of biogas provides a versatile carrier of renewable energy, as methane can be used for replacement of fossil fuels in both heat and power generation and as a vehicle fuel. For biogas production, various process types are applied which can be classified in wet and dry fermentation systems. Most often applied are wet digester systems using vertical stirred tank digester with different stirrer types dependent on the origin of the feedstock. Biogas is mainly utilized in engine-based combined heat and power plants, whereas microgas turbines and fuel cells are expensive alternatives which need further development work for reducing the costs and increasing their reliability. Gas upgrading and utilization as renewable vehicle fuel or injection into the natural gas grid is of increasing interest because the gas can be used in a more efficient way. The digestate from anaerobic fermentation is a valuable fertilizer due to the increased availability of nitrogen and the better short-term fertilization effect. Anaerobic treatment minimizes the survival of pathogens which is important for using the digested residue as fertilizer. This paper reviews the current state and perspectives of biogas production, including the biochemical parameters and feedstocks which influence the efficiency and reliability of the microbial conversion and gas yield. PMID:19777226

  12. Biogas Purification up to Final Product

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yu. Losiuk

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available The paper considers main technological methods for biogas purification from impurities that permit to increase energy value of the product and decrease its corrosion activity.  While evaluating economic efficiency due to introduction of the corresponding purification technology, in addition, it is necessary to take into account an ecological factor.

  13. Bio-gas production from alligator weeds

    Science.gov (United States)

    Latif, A.

    1976-01-01

    Laboratory experiments were conducted to study the effect of temperature, sample preparation, reducing agents, light intensity and pH of the media, on bio-gas and methane production from the microbial anaerobic decomposition of alligator weeds (Alternanthera philoxeroides. Efforts were also made for the isolation and characterization of the methanogenic bacteria.

  14. Opinions on biogas in organic farming

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Heiske, Stefan; Østergård, Hanne

    2011-01-01

    The application of biogas technologies in organic farming involves many considerations: Benefits like improved fertilizer supply and fossil fuel savings are opposed to concerns about economical risks and incompliance with organic principles. A questionnaire developed by Risø DTU gives an idea about...

  15. Recent updates on biogas production - a review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ilona Sárvári Horváth

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available One of the greatest challenges facing the societies now and in the future is the reduction of green house gas emissions and thus preventing the climate change. It is therefore important to replace fossil fuels with renewable sources, such as biogas. Biogas can be produced from various organic waste streams or as a byproduct from industrial processes. Beside energy production, the degradation of organic waste through anaerobic digestion offers other advantages, such as the prevention of odor release and the decrease of pathogens. Moreover, the nutrient rich digested residues can be utilized as fertilizer for recycling the nutrients back to the fields. However, the amount of organic materials currently available for biogas production is limited and new substrates as well as new effective technologies are therefore needed to facilitate the growth of the biogas industry all over the world. Hence, major developments have been made during the last decades regarding the utilization of lignocellulosic biomass, the development of high rate systems, and the application of membrane technologies within the anaerobic digestion process in order to overcome the shortcomings encountered. The degradation of organic material requires a synchronized action of different groups of microorganisms with different metabolic capacities. Recent developments in molecular biology techniques have provided the research community with a valuable tool for improved understanding of this complex microbiological system, which in turn could help optimize and control the process in an effective way in the future.

  16. Agricultural Potential for Biogas Production in Croatia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Biljana Kulišić

    2009-12-01

    Full Text Available Biogas is renewable energy source with strong local character as its production depends on availability and type of feedstock at a certain location. Utilisation of slurry, manure and beddings from cattle, pig, horse, poultry and other animal breeding together with energy rich substrates such as crops and other organic materials as biogas substrates creates an interesting option both from technical and economic perspective. Other materials suitable for anaerobic digestion are comprised of various residues from agriculture (crops and vegetables, residues from food processing industry and energy crops (maize silage, grass and similar.Primary reason for biogas production is economic gain from energy production and/or organic waste management that adds value to agriculture and food processing residues that would otherwise be treated as waste.The purpose of the paper is to provide an overview of biogas production potential of Croatia at the level of statistical administrative units NUTS1 and NUTS2, excluding energy crops growing and agro-food imports but including the seasonality of substrate availability.

  17. Biogas desulfurization using autotrophic denitrification process.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bayrakdar, Alper; Tilahun, Ebrahim; Calli, Baris

    2016-01-01

    The aim of this study was to evaluate the performance of an autotrophic denitrification process for desulfurization of biogas produced from a chicken manure digester. A laboratory scale upflow fixed bed reactor (UFBR) was operated for 105 days and fed with sodium sulfide or H2S scrubbed from the biogas and nitrate as electron donor and acceptor, respectively. The S/N ratio (2.5 mol/mol) of the feed solution was kept constant throughout the study. When the UFBR was fed with sodium sulfide solution with an influent pH of 7.7, about 95 % sulfide and 90 % nitrate removal efficiencies were achieved. However, the inlet of the UFBR was clogged several times due to the accumulation of biologically produced elemental sulfur particles and the clogging resulted in operational problems. When the UFBR was fed with the H2S absorbed from the biogas and operated with an influent pH of 8-9, around 98 % sulfide and 97 % nitrate removal efficiencies were obtained. In this way, above 95 % of the H2S in the biogas was removed as elemental sulfur and the reactor effluent was reused as scrubbing liquid without any clogging problem. PMID:26428238

  18. Progress in biogas. Biogas production from agricultural biomass and organic residues. Pt. 1 and 2. Proceedings (oral presentations and poster presentations); Fortschritt beim Biogas. Biogas aus landwirtschaftlicher Biomasse and organischen Reststoffen. T. 1 und 2. Tagungsband. Vortraege and Poster

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2007-07-01

    Within the International Conference ''Progress in Biogas - Biogas production from agricultural biomass and organic residues'' at the University Hohenheim (Stuttgart, Federal Republic of Germany) from 18th to 21st September, 2007, the following lectures were held: (1) Global relevance and potential of bioenergy for regional development; (2) Biogas electricity for France feed-in tariff and some other things to know before entering French market; (3) Policy drivers and future prospects for on-farm anaerobic digestion in Northern Ireland; (4) Biogas in Belgium, a swot analysis; (5) Status and prospects of biogas energy use in Ukraine; (6) Recent developments in Chinese agricultural biogas production; (7) Opportunities for agricultural based biogas systems in the province of Ontario, Canada; (8) Pre-treatment and digestion of separated collected household waste in Sweden; (9) To the problem of monitoring measures and prophylaxis measures with the utilization of organic residual substances in biological gas facilities from hygienic view; (10) Fermenting residues from biological gas facilities - nutrients and pollutants, possibilities of application in the agriculture; (11) Treatment and utilization of fermentation residues; (12) Potential of residual gas of NaWaRo feeded biogas plants in Baden-Wuerttemberg; (13) Operating analytics of biogas plants to improve efficiency and to ensure process stability; (14) The potential of biogas and electric power production from subproducts in the sugar and alcohol industries by the application of anaerobic digestion; (15) Co-digestion plant in dairy cattle farm in Emilia Romagna region (Italy); (16) Facing operational problems in a biodigeser in Yuvientsa - Amazonian Region of Ecuador; (17) Biogas plant instead of milk cow - payment and occupation with the use of grassilage; (18) Biogas in ecologic agriculture - experiences from 3 years of fermentation of grass-clover ley; (19) Combined solar-biogas basis for the

  19. Trace compounds affecting biogas energy utilisation - A review

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rasi, S., E-mail: saija.rasi@gmail.com [University of Jyvaeskylae, Department of Biological and Environmental Science, P.O. Box 35, FI-40014 (Finland); Laentelae, J.; Rintala, J. [University of Jyvaeskylae, Department of Biological and Environmental Science, P.O. Box 35, FI-40014 (Finland)

    2011-11-15

    Highlights: {yields} In regards to trace compounds, landfill gases are the most studied biogases. {yields} More strict requirements are set for biogas purity with new biogas applications. {yields} With traditional applications, small variations in biogas quality are acceptable. {yields} New requirements set challenges on raw material control and biogas quality. {yields} In this study, variations in analysing methods and biogas quality are discussed. - Abstract: This paper investigates the trace compounds affecting energy utilisation in biogas that come from different production sites. With biogas being more widely used in different energy applications more interest has arisen for the specific composition of biogas. In traditional energy applications, methane and hydrogen sulphide contents have had the most influence when energy utilisation application has been considered. With more advanced processes also the quantity and quality of trace compounds is more important. In regards to trace compounds, it was found that the concentrations and the variations of volatile organic compounds (VOCs) can be high in different landfills, especially, with compounds originating from the biological degradation process (like aromatics and terpenes) as seasonal variations affect the biological degradation. Trace compounds produced by direct volatilisation (halogenated and silicon compounds) show a smaller seasonal variation. Halogenated compounds are rarely present in high concentrations in waste water treatment plant (WWTP) biogas, but the concentrations of organic silicon compounds and their variation is high. Organic silicon compounds are usually detected only in low concentrations in co-digestion plant biogas, when no WWTP sludge is used as a raw material.

  20. Trace compounds affecting biogas energy utilisation - A review

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Highlights: → In regards to trace compounds, landfill gases are the most studied biogases. → More strict requirements are set for biogas purity with new biogas applications. → With traditional applications, small variations in biogas quality are acceptable. → New requirements set challenges on raw material control and biogas quality. → In this study, variations in analysing methods and biogas quality are discussed. - Abstract: This paper investigates the trace compounds affecting energy utilisation in biogas that come from different production sites. With biogas being more widely used in different energy applications more interest has arisen for the specific composition of biogas. In traditional energy applications, methane and hydrogen sulphide contents have had the most influence when energy utilisation application has been considered. With more advanced processes also the quantity and quality of trace compounds is more important. In regards to trace compounds, it was found that the concentrations and the variations of volatile organic compounds (VOCs) can be high in different landfills, especially, with compounds originating from the biological degradation process (like aromatics and terpenes) as seasonal variations affect the biological degradation. Trace compounds produced by direct volatilisation (halogenated and silicon compounds) show a smaller seasonal variation. Halogenated compounds are rarely present in high concentrations in waste water treatment plant (WWTP) biogas, but the concentrations of organic silicon compounds and their variation is high. Organic silicon compounds are usually detected only in low concentrations in co-digestion plant biogas, when no WWTP sludge is used as a raw material.

  1. A review of the biogas industry in China

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This article presents an overview of the development and future perspectives of the Chinese biogas industry. The development of the industry has the potential to improve the rural environment and produce significant amounts of sustainable energy for China. Barriers to the development are the relatively weak environmental policies, imperfect financial policies and lack of long-term follow-up services. The rapid economic development of China has also seen a development in the scales of biogas plants constructed. Although the technology has been improved, this review has identified problems in the construction and operation of Chinese biogas plants, particularly in the efficiency of household systems. All levels of China's government acknowledge this and recent biogas projects have more focus on quality and less on the quantity. The intention is to gradually introduce stricter environmental policies, to provide better service systems, improve the financial policies that support the construction and follow-up service of biogas projects, promote the use of standardized engineering equipment and materials and standards for plant construction and production. This will promote the development of biogas projects at various scales further, and reduce the dependency on fossil fuels and emissions of greenhouse gases. - Highlights: → The biogas industry in China has great developing potential and necessity. → Barriers to the development of biogas industry in China were included in the article. → All scales of Biogas plants in China have developed rapidly in recent years. → Measures to promote the development of biogas projects further in China were proposed.

  2. Changed market conditions for biogas production; Foeraendrade marknadsvillkor foer biogasproduktion

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Colnerud Granstroem, Sigrid; Gaaverud, Henrik; Glimhall, Alexandra

    2010-10-15

    The Swedish gas market consists mainly of the natural gas network that extends through the southwestern Sweden, and the local biogas markets. Biogas share of the Swedish gas market is growing steadily. The fact that the Swedish gas net is limited and fragmented forms an obstacle for biogas use to expand. That the gas market as a whole, natural gas included, must develop and expand is therefore a prerequisite for the large potential for Swedish Biogas to be realized. This in contrast with the ultimate objective to completely replace natural gas in the Swedish gas market. When policy changes are made in order to support biogas it is crucial for long-term competitiveness of biogas that these changes should not impact the natural gas market and hinder its development. Such a scenario would ultimately mean that also biogas development opportunities deteriorate. Biogas operations encounter three main problems that prevent or impede its expansion in the gas market. First, the potential for profitability in biogas production must be enhanced. Second, natural gas and biogas markets should be more integrated with each other. Thirdly, the biogas must be distributed in a cost-effective manner. The present investigation aims to supplement the Natural Gas Act with special provisions which takes into account the input and transmission of biogas. In addition to the production of biogas, it is now the producer's responsibility to clean the gas from water vapor, hydrogen sulfide and carbon dioxide and to augment the calorific value of the gas to the standard of Danish natural gas quality by propane addition and to ensure that the physical connection to network is available. There are thus a number of options available for shifting demarcation between biogas production and network operations. Short-term competitiveness of biogas would be strengthened most if purification and spiking the gas with propane and the connection to the network was imposed on network owners. In the

  3. Energy systems analysis of biogas systems; Energianalys av biogassystem

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Berglund, Maria; Boerjesson, Paal

    2003-05-01

    The aim of this study was to calculate the net energy output and energy efficiency, from a life-cycle perspective and for Swedish conditions, in anaerobic digestion of various raw materials. Our calculations are based on literature reviews concerning the total primary energy input required for the production of biogas (i.e. direct and indirect energy inputs, e.g. when producing and distributing diesel fuels, electricity, fertilisers) as well as the biogas yield from various raw materials. Our analyses include handling and transportation of raw materials, operation of the biogas plants, and transportation and spreading of digested residues, as well as the biogas yield from manure, ley crops, tops and leaves of sugar beets, straw, municipal organic waste, slaughter waste, and grease separator sludge. All calculations concern individual raw materials. The net energy input required to run a biogas system (i.e. centralised biogas plant) typically corresponds to approximately 20-40% of the energy content in the produced biogas. Theoretically, the raw materials could be transported for some 200 km (manure) up to 700 km (slaughter waste) before the net energy output becomes negative. The variations in energy efficiency between studied biogas systems depend mainly on the type of raw material studied and the calculation methods used. Raw materials with high water content and low biogas yield (e.g. manure) require rather large energy inputs compared to the amount of biogas produced. Energy demanding handling of the raw materials, such as ley crops, could correspond to as much as approximately 40% of the net energy input. Varying energy efficiency in different parts of the biogas system, but most of all, changes in the biogas yield, could considerably affect the total net energy output. In general, operation of the biogas plant is the most energy demanding process in the biogas systems, corresponding to some 40-80% of the net energy input in the biogas systems. This implies

  4. Problems in the Biogas Construction in Weihui City and Development Strategies

    OpenAIRE

    Wang, Yilun; Yuan, Chao; Zhang, Qian; Tan, Jinfang; ZHAO, PENG

    2013-01-01

    Taking the demonstration biogas construction city in Henan Province — Weihui City as the survey and research city, we give an overview of the industrial and agricultural base and current situation of biogas development in Weihui City, and analyze the main problems in biogas construction, such as simple development mode of biogas adopted by rural households, laggard construction of large and medium-sized biogas projects, unsound service system for biogas development and failure to comprehens...

  5. Technical-economical analysis of the Saveh biogas power plant

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Giti Taleghani; Akbar Shabani Kia [Atomic Energy Organization of Iran, Tehran (Iran). Center for Development of New Energies

    2005-03-01

    The resource limitation of fossil fuels and the problems arising from their combustion has led to widespread research on the accessibility of new and renewable energy resources. Solar, wind, thermal and hydro sources, and finally biogas are among these renewable energy resources. But what makes biogas distinct from other renewable energies is its importance in controlling and collecting organic waste material and at the same time producing fertilizer and water for use in agricultural irrigation. Unlike other forms of renewable energy, biogas neither has any geographical limitations and required technology for producing energy and nor is it complex or monopolistic. Considering the ever increasing amount of different types of organic waste materials (about 15 million tonnes) in Iran, working on the control of waste material and biogas production becomes inevitable. In this paper, biogas and the benefits from its production are discussed, as is the technical-economic analysis of the Saveh biogas power plant as a case study. (author)

  6. Use of biogas in PEM fuel cells; Einsatz von Biogas in PEM-Brennstoffzellen

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Scholz, Volkhard; Schmersahl, Ralf; Ellner, Janine (comps.)

    2009-06-15

    This research project was dedicated to two problems: 1. What demands must biogas meet in order to conform to the specifications of PEM fuel cell systems and permit safe operation? 2. How must a fuel cell system be designed and operated in order to be well-adapted to the special features of biogas as opposed to natural gas? For this purpose biogas samples were taken from laboratory-scale and commercial plants and analysed by gas chromatography using various substrates and methods. By combining this with the use of a mass spectroscopy detector (GC-MS system) it was possible to perform a qualitative and quantitative analysis of sulphurious trace gases in the biogas which might cause damage to the fuel cell system. Investigations were performed on an experimental reformer using either modelled or native biogas of different compositions, the intent being to obtain information for the design of the individual process stages. The two operating parameters steam-methane ratio (or S/C ratio) and reforming temperature were varied to optimise parameter settings in terms of energy efficiency. By linking the reformer to a 500 W fuel cell it was possible confirm the suitability of the reformed biogas for use in fuel cells. [German] In diesm Forschungsvorhaben werden zwei Fragestellungen bearbeitet: 1. Welche Anforderungen ergeben sich an das Biogas, um den Spezifikationen von PEM-Brennstoffzellensystemen zu genuegen und eine sicheren Betrieb zu ermoeglichen? 2. Wie muss das Brennstoffzellensystem ausgelegt und gefuehrt werden, um den Besonderheiten von Biogas im Vergleich zu Erdgas Rechnung zu tragen? Dazu wurden Biogasproben aus Labor- und Praxisanlagen unter Beruecksichtigung unterschiedlicher Substrate und Verfahren gaschromatisch analysiert. Die Kopplung mit einem massenspektroskopischen Detektor (GC-MS System) ermoeglicht dabei die Qualifizierung und Quantifizierung der vorhandenen schwefelhaltigen Spurengase, die eine Schaedigung von Brennstoffzellenanlagen verursachen. Die

  7. The conversion of renewable biogas source into energy; A conversao da fonte renovavel biogas em energia

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Coelho, Suani Teixeira; Velazquez, Silvia Maria Stortini Gonzalez; Martins, Osvaldo Stella; Abreu, Fernando Castro de [Universidade de Sao Paulo (USP), SP (Brazil). Inst. de Eletrotecnica e Energia]|[Centro Nacional de Referencia em Biomassa (CENBIO), Sao Paulo, SP (Brazil)]. E-mails: suani@iee.usp.br; sgvelaz@iee.sup.br; omartins@iee.usp.br; fcabreu@iee.usp.br

    2006-07-01

    This article intend to present some considerations directed to electricity generation with small systems (micro turbine and conventional engines ), using biogas generated by sewage treatment process in SABESP (Basic Sanitation Company of Sao Paulo State), located at Barueri, Brazil. This project, pioneer in Latin America, is being accomplished together with BUN - Biomass Users Network of Brazil (proponent), in association with CENBIO - Biomass Reference National Center (executer), with patronage of FINEP / CT-ENERG (financial backer), by means of Convention No: 23.01.0653.00, regarding to ENERG-BIOG Project - Installation and Tests of an Electric Energy Generation Demonstration Unit from Biogas Sewage Treatment. The study is being done at Barueri Sewage Treatment Plant.This plant operate with anaerobic digestion process, which has as mainly products biogas (composed mainly by methane) and sludge. Part of the methane produced at the anaerobic process is burnt in a boiler being used to increase digesters temperature. The rest of the methane is burnt in flare to reduce the impacts caused by gases emissions. This article presents some technical, financial and environmental project results, related to the exploitation of sewer biogas for power generation, as well as bigger details about generation systems (biogas micro turbine), used in the facility. (author)

  8. Life cycle analysis of biogas from residues; Livscykelanalys av biogas fraan restprodukter

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tufvesson, Linda; Lantz, Mikael [Dep. for Miljoe- och Energisystem, Lunds Tekniska Hoegskola, Lund (Sweden)

    2012-06-15

    The purpose of this study is to carry out life cycle assessments for different biogas systems where biogas is produced from different residues. The investigated residues are distiller's waste, rapeseed cake, whey permeate, concentrated whey permeate, fodder milk, fish residues, bakery residues and glycerol. The environmental impact categories included are climate change, eutrophication, acidification, photochemical ozone creation potential, particles and energy balance. The calculations include emissions from technical systems, especially the energy input in various operations and processes. A general conclusion is that all studied residues are very well suited for production of biogas if there is no demand for them as animal feed today. All biogas systems also reduce the emissions of greenhouse gases compared to petrol and diesel and meet the requirements presented in the EU renewable energy directive (RED). The results of the study also show that the investigated biogas systems are complex and many different parameters affect the result. These parameters are both integrated in the life cycle assessment method, but also in the inventory data used.

  9. ANALYSIS OF EXERGY PARAMETERS OF BIOGAS POWER PLANT

    OpenAIRE

    Denysova A.E.; Ngo Minh Hieu

    2014-01-01

    The techniques of an exergy analysis concerning various circuits of biogas units, which allows replacing traditional energy resources and improving environmental conditions, has been presented. The heat schemes of biogas units were proposed, and analysis of their effectiveness was made. The comparison of different cycle parameters of various biogas units (i.e. a combustion turbine unit, a combined cycle gas turbine unit with gas discharges into the boiler and a combined cycle gas turbine with...

  10. Mini digester and biogas production from plant biomass

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    P. Vindis

    2009-08-01

    Full Text Available Purpose: The aim of the paper is to present the construction of a mini digester for biogas production from different agriculture plant biomass and other organic wastes. The amount of biogas production (methane is observed by the mini digester.Design/methodology/approach: The mini digester consisting of twelve units was built and some measurements with agriculture plant biomass were performed according to DIN 38414 part 8. Four tests simultaneously with three repetitions can be performed.Findings: With the mini digester the amount of biogas production is observed. The parameters such as biogas production and biogas composition from maize and sugar beet silage in certain ratio were measured and calculated. The highest biogas and methane yield was 493 NI kg VS-1 or 289 NI CH4 kg VS-1.Research limitations/implications: The scope of substrates for the anaerobic digestion process is on the increase so the interest in the use of the biogas as a source of a renewable energy is very high. With mini digester it is possible to observe the amount of biogas (methane production and so the most suitable plant giving the maximum methane yield, can be determined.Practical implications: The aim of biogas as renewable source of energy is to replace fossil fuels with sustainable energy production systems and to fulfil the requirements of the Kyoto Protocol. On big farms the liquid manure and different energy crops can be used for biogas production. That can improve the economical efficiency of the farm and reduce the CO2 emissions.Originality/value: Mini digester for biogas production was built as special equipment. The quality of produced biogas is determined with a gas analyser GA 45.

  11. Analysis of different substrates for processing into biogas

    OpenAIRE

    B. Mursec; P. Vindis; M. Janzekovic; M. Brus; F. Cus

    2009-01-01

    Purpose: The main target is to produce as much biogas as possible with highest possible biomethane content from crops representing the principal fuel for driving the gas motors and electric generators and, consequently, production of electricity.Design/methodology/approach: The biogas production was measured by a mini digester according to the German standard DIN 38414, Part 8. It was effected in the mesophilic temperature range. The biogas production from six different energy crops and pig s...

  12. Methods and apparatus for hydrogen based biogas upgrading

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    2013-01-01

    The present invention relates to an anaerobic process for biogas upgrading and hydrogen utilization comprising the use of acidic waste as co-substrate.In this process,H2 and CO2 will be converted to CH4, which will result in lower CO2 content in the biogas. The invention relates to both in situ a...... ex situ methods of biogas upgrading. The invention further relates to a bioreactor comprising hollow fibre membranes....

  13. Economic and Ecological Aspects of Biogas Scene in China

    OpenAIRE

    Nie, Pingping

    2010-01-01

    The following points should be noted for economic and ecological aspects of the biogas scene in China: biogas as one of the most popular renewable energies, which has already proved to be a prosperous development for both households and livestock farms. The Chinese government pays attention to biogas utilization and greenhouse gas emission reduction by constantly amending the Renewable Energy Law and increasing the amount of bonus. As a part of these measures, more and more cooperation betw...

  14. Improvement of the Biogas Production Process : Explorative project (EP1)

    OpenAIRE

    Karlsson, Anna; Björn, Annika; Sepehr, Shakeri Yekta; Svensson, Bo

    2014-01-01

    There are several ways to improve biogas production in anaerobic digestion processes and a number of strategies may be chosen. Increased organic loading in existing plants will in most cases demand the introduction of new substrate types. However, to substantially increase the Swedish biogas production new, large-scale biogas plants digesting new substrate types need to be established. Better utilization of existing digester volumes can be linked to:  Increase of organic loading rates and/or ...

  15. Biogas : Animal Waste That Can be Alternative Energy Source

    OpenAIRE

    Tuti Haryati

    2006-01-01

    Biogas is a renewable energy which can be used as alternative fuel to replace fossil fuel such as oil and natural gas . Recently, diversification on the use of energy has increasingly become an important issue because the oil sources are depleting . Utilization of agricultural wastes for biogas production can minimize the consumption of commercial energy source such as kerosene as well as the use of firewood . Biogas is generated by the process of organic material digestion by certain anaerob...

  16. Biogas Production Potential from Waste in Timis County

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Teodor Vintila

    2012-05-01

    Full Text Available This work is a study of biogas production potential using as substrate the residues generated in the agricultural activities and the organic fraction from municipal wastes collected in Timis County. Data available in regional and national statistics have been reported to Timis County and used to calculate the potential quantity of biogas to be produced by anaerobic fermentation using as fermentable substrate residues generated in various human activities. To estimate the electric and thermal energy potential of the biogas, we considered the productivity of an average biogas plant couplet with a CHP unit with an efficiency of 40% net electric and 40% net thermal output and functioning 7500 hours per year. Processing data for the biogas production potential from livestock manure in Romania, we found that over 500 GWh of energy from biogas can be provided in one year. It is estimated that only half of the theoretical energy potential is technically usable by biogas investments. As for the crops residues, has been shown that the theoretical biogas potential is over 2900 GWh/year. Wastewater sludge can be converted in around 1700MWh/year, and the organic wastes available from municipal wastes can provide over 137 GWh/year. Another potential for renewable energy production in Timis County is the arable land uncultivated yearly, which can be used to cultivate energy crops, as raw material for biogas providing over 2800 GWh/year. All this quantity of biogas can be converted in numerous CHP biogas plants totaling an installed power of over 340 MWel. This potential can contribute to reach the target for 2020 in Romania to build biogas plants totaling at least 195 MWel. installed power, with an output of 950 GW electric power. 

  17. Biogas Potential in the United States (Fact Sheet)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    2013-10-01

    Biogas has received increased attention as an alternative energy source in the United States. The factsheet provides information about the biogas (methane) potential from various sources in the country (by county and state) and estimates the power generation and transportation fuels production (renewable natural gas) potential from these biogas sources. It provides valuable information to the industry, academia and policy makers in support of their future decisions.

  18. A tool for analyzing the sustainability of biogas production chains

    OpenAIRE

    Pierie, Frank; Broekhuijsen, J.; Gemert, W.J.T. van; Moll, H.C.

    2014-01-01

    Abstract written for an poster presentation at the EBA conference in Alkmaar. The flexibility of biogas makes it a very capable load balancer within decentralized smart energy systems. However, within this context the sustainability of biogas production is not fully understood. What is needed is a tool for analyzing the ustainability of biogas production pathways. The main goal, of this research is to design a transparent flexible planning tool capable determining the sustainability of decent...

  19. Impact of Biogas Technology in the Development of Rural Population

    OpenAIRE

    Sakhawat Ali1; Naseem Zahra; Zahida Nasreen3; Shumaila Usman4

    2013-01-01

    Biogas technology is useful technology to produce a renewable, high-quality fuel i.e. biogas. In Rural areas people use biomass fuels (firewood and dried dung) for meeting their energy utilization demands. This demand is fulfilled by deforestation and land degradation which results in different health and societal problems and also cause excessive emission of greenhouse gases. The rural population of developing countries is in dire need of biogas for cooking, lighting, heating and feedstock e...

  20. Biogas Tinja Manusia dalam Perspektif Fiqih-Kimia

    OpenAIRE

    Wawan Juandi Muhyiddin Khatib Ummi Khoiriyah

    2014-01-01

    Energy is one of the most important factors to global prosperity. The dependence on fossil fuels as primary energy source has led to global climate change, environmental degradation, and human health problems. In order to reduce dependence on commercial energy, steps have been taken to develop an alternative source, such as biogas. Biogas was a gas produced from biological activities in anaerobic fermentation processes and as a renewable energy. Biogas is one form of the alternative energy. I...

  1. Socio-economic Analysis of Centralised Biogas Plants

    OpenAIRE

    Nielsen, L.H.; Hjort-Gregersen, K.

    2002-01-01

    The development of biogas technology in Denmark has been widely encouraged by the government over the last 15 years. The overall reasons for the government concern has been the increasing awareness that centralised biogas plants make a significant contribution to solve a range of problems in the fields of energy, agriculture and environment. This has been documented through related monitoring and R & D activities. To achieve a satisfactory evaluation of centralised biogas plants, a thorough s...

  2. Microbiologic handbook for biogas plants; Mikrobiologisk handbok foer biogasanlaeggningar

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jarvis, Aasa; Schnuerer, Anna

    2009-05-15

    There is today great interest in the biogas process. The reason for interest is that this process offers an opportunity to stabilize and reduce various types of organic waste, while also generating clean renewable energy in the form of biogas. Purified biogas is a good alternative to gasoline and diesel as motor fuel and can also be used for heating and electricity production. Behind efficient biogas production lies a complex microbiological process. For biogas to be formed many different species of microorganisms have to be active. A disturbance of this teamwork leads to a reduction in biogas production or in the worst case that the process stops. In order to operate a biogas process in an efficient manner, it is necessary to have knowledge of the underlying microbiology and how microorganisms function. Today Swedish biogas plants have personnel with great technical knowledge, while the biological knowledge often is more limited. It has been difficult to find appropriate Swedish language literature in the field. This handbook aims to increase the microbiological expertise of staff at the biogas plants and thus to facilitate the stable operation and optimization of gas production

  3. Distribution forms for biogas and natural gas in Sweden

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Since biogas and natural gas basically have the same characteristics, they can be distributed in the same system. In the parts of the country where there is an extensive natural gas distribution network, the infrastructure for natural gas can be used for distribution of biogas. In order to increase the use of renewable energy, it is a political ambition to increase the share of biogas in the natural gas network, and, in the long run, entirely replace natural gas with biogas. Much of biogas production in the country is, however, not reached by the existing natural gas network, and this is also the case for a large part of the potential for future biogas production. In these areas the gas is transported in more or less extensive local gas distribution networks and by truck in compressed or liquid form. Transport of compressed and liquefied gas is efficient in some cases and development of these systems is an ongoing process. A number of facilities are planned for production of large quantities of biogas, several hundred GWh/year, through digestion and gasification processes. These plants will be located either in conjunction with major gas consumers or in the vicinity of the existing natural gas grid. The potential for biogas production is, however, present throughout the country and in order to meet market demand biogas requires efficient distribution systems

  4. Study on biogas premixed charge diesel dual fuelled engine

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This paper presents an experimental investigation of a small IDI biogas premixed charge diesel dual fuelled CI engine used in agricultural applications. Engine performance, diesel fuel substitution, energy consumption and long term use have been concerned. The attained results show that biogas-diesel dual fuelling of this engine revealed almost no deterioration in engine performance but lower energy conversion efficiency which was offset by the reduced fuel cost of biogas over diesel. The long term use of this engine with biogas-diesel dual fuelling is feasible with some considerations

  5. The benefits of biogas as a livestock waste management technology

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Putra, Ahmad Romadhoni Surya; Liu, Zhen; Lund, Mogens

    2014-01-01

    neighbor matching (NNM) to measure the benefits of adopting biogas technology. The results indicated that the biogas adopters were the farmers who had a longer formal education; owned more cattle; had better access to information about the technology and better access to the biogas installation’s aid...... synergies between crop farming, livestock, and household in terms of mixed crop and livestock farming, as an Integrated Farming System (IFS) practice, at the farm household level. Although the biogas technology provided the alternative energy source for the household, the specific benefits as an energy...

  6. Promoting use of bio-gas in India

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Biogas is a single energy source with multiple benefits. Biogas is an environment friendly cheap fuel for rural areas. Fuel-gas from organic materials like cattle dung, night-soil, poultry droppings, sludge, waste water etc., without destroying their manurial value, accrues many social benefits particularly for women and children. Biogas plant improve rural sanitation, life style of rural folks and reduce pressure on forests. Biogas slurry offers a cheap, entirely organic and indigenous alternative fertilizer. Rural electrification at a reasonable cost is possible by using the available crop residues and other biomass waste. This waste can yield wealth by using it to produce energy for the industry and for homes. (author)

  7. Realtime control of biogas reactors. Technical report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Poulsen, Allan K.

    2010-12-15

    In this project several online methods were connected to a biogas pilot plant designed and built by Xergi A/S (Foulum, Denmark). The pilot plant was composed of two stainless steel tanks used as substrate storage and as digester, respectively. The total volume of the reactor tank was 300 L, the working volume 200 L and the headspace volume 100 L. The process temperature in the biogas reactor was maintained at 52 {+-} 0.5 deg. C during normal operating conditions. The biogas production was measured with a flow meter and a controller was used for automatic control of temperature, effluent removal, feeding and for data logging. A NIRS (near infrared spectrometer) was connected to a recurrent loop measuring on the slurry while a {mu}-GC (micro gas chromatograph) and a MIMS (membrane inlet mass spectrometer) enabled online measurements of the gas phase composition. During the project period three monitoring campaigns were accomplished. The loading rate of the biogas reactor was increased stepwise during the periods while the process was monitored. In the first two campaigns the load was increased by increasing the mass of organic material added to the reactor each day. However, this increasing amount changed the retention time in the reactor and in order to keep the retention time constant an increasing amount of inhibitor of the microbial process was instead added in the third campaign and as such maintaining a constant organic load mass added to the reactor. The effect is similar to an increase in process load, while keeping the load of organic material and hence retention time constant. Methods have been developed for the following online technologies and each technology has been evaluated with regard to future use as a tool for biogas process monitoring: 1) {mu}-GC was able to quantitative monitor important gas phase parameters in a reliable, fast and low-maintenance way. 2) MIMS was able to quantitative monitor gas phase composition in a reliable and fast manner

  8. Biogas. The oldest form of renewable energy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Biomass is the oldest form of renewable energy known and human kind have been making good use of it since fire was discovered. Using biomass as economically viable source of energy presents rather difficult challenge, but one that is increasingly seen as having real potential as an alternative to fossil fuels. Typical biomass sources are wood, agricultural residues, cultivated energy crops, industry and municipal organic waste and animal manure. Converting biomass to energy can be done in several ways: direct combustion, gasification, anaerobic digestion, steam reforming etc. Biogas is a product of anaerobic digestion and it consists mostly of methane (60%). For this process, the most commonly used source is animal manure, which is digested under special conditions in anaerobic digesters. Biogas can be used for electricity production, hot water needs, spatial heating, cooking, etc. (Original)

  9. 2nd generation biogas. BioSNG

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The substitution of natural gas by a renewable equivalent is an interesting option to reduce the use of fossil fuels and the accompanying greenhouse gas emissions, as well as from the point of view of security of supply. The renewable alternative for natural gas is green natural gas, i.e. gaseous energy carriers produced from biomass comprising both biogas and Synthetic Natural Gas (SNG). Via this route can be benefited from all the advantages of natural gas, like the existing dense infrastructure, trade and supply network, and natural gas applications. In this presentation attention is paid to the differences between first generation biogas and second generation bioSNG; the market for bioSNG: grid injection vs. transportation fuel; latest update on the lab- and pilot-scale bioSNG development at ECN; and an overview is given of ongoing bioSNG activities worldwide

  10. The economics of biogas in Denmark

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jacobsen, Brian H.; Laugesen, Frederik Møller; Dubgaard, Alex

    2013-01-01

    . Even without an investment subsidy of 30%, the case 2012, is profitable. Financing the biogas plants is a challenge. The interest used of 4.25% requires bank guaranties which in practice can be hard to get. Using a more likely interest of 7-8% reduces the yearly profit to 400.000 €. The socioeconomic....... The upgrading, including pressure adjustment, is 0.16 € per m3 methane. The analysis shows that the profit from upgrading biogas is only to be preferred if the sales prices of heat are very low. The socioeconomic cost of upgrading is, in most cases, not better than CPH. In order to reduce the cost of reducing...

  11. Macro algae as substrate for biogas production

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Møller, Henrik; Sarker, Shiplu; Gautam, Dhan Prasad;

    Algae as a substrate for biogas is superior to other crops since it has a much higher yield of biomass per unit area and since algae grows in the seawater there will be no competition with food production on agricultural lands. So far, the progress in treating different groups of algae as a source...... of energy is promising. In this study 5 different algae types were tested for biogas potential and two algae were subsequent used for co-digestion with manure. Green seaweed, Ulva lactuca and brown seaweed Laminaria digitata was co-digested with cattle manure at mesophilic and thermophilic condition...... thermophilic treatment of Laminaria produced an average of 142 L CH4/kgVS, Ulva yielded around 122 L/kgVS. Overall, it was found that algae are promising substrates for co-digestion with cattle manure and besides producing energy algae can remove substantial amounts of nutrients from the water environment that...

  12. Biogas in Portugal: status and public policies

    OpenAIRE

    Ferreira, Miguel; Malico, Isabel; Marques, Isabel Paula

    2009-01-01

    Portugal has recently implemented a number of measures and monitoring mechanisms that seek to promote renewable energy sources as a way of protecting the environment and assuring a sustainable development. In its policy for renewable energies, 39% of the electricity from renewable energy sources was defined as target for 2010. Biogas arises as a useful energy source by its direct conversion into heat and electricity or by injection into a natural gas network. This work reviews the Portuguese ...

  13. BIOGAS POTENTIAL OF ORGANIC WASTE IN NIGERIA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chima C. Ngumah

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available With the growing demerits of fossil fuels - its finitude and its negative impact on the environment and public health - renewable energy is becoming a favoured emerging alternative. For over a millennium anaerobic digestion (AD has been employed in treating organic waste (biomass. The two main products of anaerobic digestion, biogas and biofertilizer, are very important resources. Since organic wastes are always available and unavoidable too, anaerobic digestion provides an efficient means of converting organic waste to profitable resources. This paper elucidates the potential benefits of organic waste generated in Nigeria as a renewable source of biofuel and biofertilizer. The selected organic wastes studied in this work are livestock wastes (cattle excreta, sheep and goat excreta, pig excreta, poultry excreta; and abattoir waste, human excreta, crop residue, and municipal solid waste (MSW. Using mathematical computation based on standard measurements, Nigeria generates about 542.5 million tons of the above selected organic waste per annum. This in turn has the potential of yielding about 25.53 billion m³ of biogas (about 169 541.66 MWh and 88.19 million tons of biofertilizer per annum. Both have a combined estimated value of about N 4.54 trillion ($ 29.29 billion. This potential biogas yield will be able to completely displace the use of kerosene and coal for domestic cooking, and reduce the consumption of wood fuel by 66%. An effective biogas programme in Nigeria will also remarkably reduce environmental and public health concerns, deforestation, and greenhouse gas (GHG emissions.

  14. Muligheder for biogas i Odsherred Kommune

    OpenAIRE

    Nielsen, Simone Grüner Veber

    2014-01-01

    The project is based on the following problem statement “Which resources can be included in the planning process for implementation of a biogas plant in Odsherred Kommune and how can the barriers of the implementation be overcome?”. I have based the project on nine supplementary biomasses to manure. I have prioritised the biomass based on the five listed sustainability criteria: quantity, gas potential, economy, technology and environment. The comparison of the biomasses is shown in a resourc...

  15. BIOGAS POTENTIAL OF ORGANIC WASTE IN NIGERIA

    OpenAIRE

    Chima C. Ngumah; Jude N. Ogbulie; Justina C. Orji; Ekpewerechi S. Amadi

    2013-01-01

    With the growing demerits of fossil fuels - its finitude and its negative impact on the environment and public health - renewable energy is becoming a favoured emerging alternative. For over a millennium anaerobic digestion (AD) has been employed in treating organic waste (biomass). The two main products of anaerobic digestion, biogas and biofertilizer, are very important resources. Since organic wastes are always available and unavoidable too, anaerobic digestion provides an efficient means ...

  16. Advanced Conversion of Organic Waste into Biogas

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Offenbacher, Elmar [BDI-BioEnergy International AG, Grambach/Graz (Austria)

    2012-11-01

    Day by day, every human generates significant amounts of organic waste that most of the time ends on landfills. Disposing of organic residues is not just a waste of energy resources but also a burden to the environment as anthropogenic emissions of greenhouse gases are produced. In contrast to waste combustion that can't generate any energy out of organic waste but the contrary, anaerobic digestion is the most suitable technology for the sustainable and efficient conversion of all kind of organic waste into valuable biogas. Biogas generated from organic waste typically consists of 55-60% methane (CH{sub 4}) and provides an energy content of more than 20 MJ/Nm{sup 3}. The average biogas yield is around 150 Nm{sup 3} per ton of organic waste that can be converted into 350 kW of electricity plus the same amount of process heat. In other words a typical household could recover about one twentieth of its power consumption just out of the organic waste it is producing. Anaerobic digestion significantly reduces the amount of waste going to landfill as well as the uncontrolled emissions of methane. The BDI High Load Hybrid Reactor merges the core concepts of CSTR and UASB fermenters while providing a two phase anaerobic digestion system. The first process step accommodates hydrolysis and acidification to break down the complex organic molecules into simple sugars, amino acids, and fatty acids under acid conditions. In the second stage acetic acids are finally converted into methane (CH{sub 4}), carbon dioxide (CO{sub 2}) and water. This two-phase concept ensures maximum yield of biogas generated, paired with high loading rates and feedstock flexibility.

  17. BIOGAS POTENTIAL OF ORGANIC WASTE IN NIGERIA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chima C. Ngumah

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available With the growing demerits of fossil fuels - its finitude and its negative impact on the environment and public health - renewable energy is becoming a favoured emerging alternative. For over a millennium anaerobic digestion (AD has been employed in treating organic waste (biomass. The two main products of anaerobic digestion, biogas and biofertilizer, are very important resources. Since organic wastes are always available and unavoidable too, anaerobic digestion provides an efficient means of converting organic waste to profitable resources. This paper elucidates the potential benefits of organic waste generated in Nigeria as a renewable source of biofuel and biofertilizer. The selected organic wastes studied in this work are livestock wastes (cattle excreta, sheep and goat excreta, pig excreta, poultry excreta; and abattoir waste, human excreta, crop residue, and municipal solid waste (MSW. Using mathematical computation based on standard measurements, Nigeria generates about 542.5 million tons of the above selected organic waste per annum. This in turn has the potential of yielding about 25.53 billion m³ of biogas (about 169 541.66 MWh and 88.19 million tons of biofertilizer per annum. Both have a combined estimated value of about N 4.54 trillion ($ 29.29 billion. This potential biogas yield will be able to completely displace the use of kerosene and coal for domestic cooking, and reduce the consumption of wood fuel by 66%. An effective biogas programme in Nigeria will also remarkably reduce environmental and public health concerns, deforestation, and greenhouse gas (GHG emissions.

  18. Purification of Biogas by Means of Membranes

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Poloncarzová, Magda; Vejražka, Jiří; Izák, Pavel

    Praha : Process Engineering Publisher, 2010, s. 563. ISBN 978-80-02-02247-3. [International Congress of Chemical and Process Engineering CHISA 2010 and 7th European Congress of Chemical Engineering ECCE-7 /19./. Prague (CZ), 28.08.2010-01.09.2010] Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z40720504 Keywords : biogas * membranes * permeability Subject RIV: CI - Industrial Chemistry, Chemical Engineering www.chisa.cz/2010, www.ecce7.com

  19. Biogas Purification by Water-Swollen Membrane

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Sedláková, Zuzana; Morávková, Lenka; Kárászová, Magda; Izák, Pavel

    Bratislava : Slovak Society of Chemical Engineering, 2015 - (Markoš, J.), s. 70 ISBN 978-80-89475-14-8. [International Conference of Slovak Society of Chemical Engineering /42./. Tatranské Matliare (SK), 25.05.2015-29.05.2015] R&D Projects: GA MŠk(CZ) LD13018 Institutional support: RVO:67985858 Keywords : biogas purification * water-swollen membrane * bio-methane Subject RIV: CI - Industrial Chemistry, Chemical Engineering

  20. Condensing Water Membrane for Biogas Upgrading

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Kárászová, Magda; Vejražka, Jiří; Veselý, Václav; Izák, Pavel

    - : -, 2011 - (Kujawski, W.; Jarzynka, K.), 96 /P16/ ISBN N. [International Scientific Conference on Pervaporation, Vapor Permeation and Membrane Distillation. Toruň (PL), 08.09.2011-11.09.2011] R&D Projects: GA ČR GAP106/10/1194 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z40720504 Keywords : biogas * gas permeation * ionic liquid Subject RIV: CI - Industrial Chemistry, Chemical Engineering

  1. Biogas production from mediterranean crop silages

    OpenAIRE

    Carvalho, L.; Di Berardino, Santino; Duarte, E.

    2011-01-01

    Anaerobic digestion has proven to be an efficient way for the production of a renewable fuel. The aim of this work was to study the potential use of two crop silages, yellow lupine (Lupinus luteus L.) and oilseed radish (Raphanus sativus var. oleifera cv. Pegletta), for the production of biogas through the process of anaerobic digestion. The use of yellow lupine was due to its capacity for nitrogen fixation, reducing the fertilization needs for the succeeding crop cycle and reducing also the ...

  2. Using of digestate of agricultural biogas stations

    OpenAIRE

    VERNER, Dušan

    2010-01-01

    This work deals with problems of agricultural biogas stations with the focus on using of final product of anaerobic fermentation, digestate, on agricultural soil. It evaluates its fertilizing effect in comparison to industrial fertilizers. The results showed that the fertilizing effect can improve economy of growing plants, however it depends on quality of digestate, constitution of base input material and technology of processing. It is not possible to use digestate anytime, it depends on gr...

  3. The future of biogas in Europe 1997

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Holm-Nielsen, J.B. [ed.

    1997-08-01

    The European Waste to Energy network is part of the ALTENER Programme 1997. The prime objectives of the network are the development and dissemination of strategies for promotion, implementation and commercial exploration of opportunities in energy from waste and biomass resources. During 1997 special attention is paid to energy conversion from municipal solid waste, biogas production from animal manure and organic waste, and wood residuals for energy production. (au)

  4. Energy balance of algal biogas production

    OpenAIRE

    Milledge, J.J.; Heaven, S.

    2014-01-01

    A mechanistic energy balance model was successfully developed for the production of biogas from the anaerobic digestion of micro-algal biomass from raceways. The energy balance model was used to consider the energetic viability of a number of production scenarios, and to identify the most critical parameters affecting net energy production. The output of the model demonstrated that no single method of harvesting studied (centrifugation, settlement or flocculation), produced a sufficiently gr...

  5. BIOGAS KINETICS OF RECYCLING PAPER PACKAGING

    OpenAIRE

    Марчевський, Віктор Миколайович; Воронін, Леонід Григорович; Смірнова, Віталіна Анатоліївна

    2015-01-01

    One of the main objectives of developed countries is rational and economical use of energy. Despite the low development level of renewable energy today and disadvantages of energy strategy, Ukraine has good preconditions for further development of renewable energy and in particular bioenergy. Hundreds of tons of waste paper packaging are annually produced in Ukraine. Time of decomposition of paper packaging is from 1 to 400 years in the case of exclusion of film and foil lamination. Biogas re...

  6. The Usage of Biogas in Fuel Cell Systems; Utilizacion de Biogas en Pilas de Combustible

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Perez Martinez, M.; Cuesta Santianes, M. J.; Nunez Crespi, S.; Cabrera Jimenez, J. A.

    2008-08-06

    The usage of biogas in fuel cell systems is nowadays considered as a promising alternative for energy production worldwide as it involves the use of a valuable residual biomass resource that could enable the obtention of combined heat, cold and power generation very efficiently, while additionally avoiding greenhouse gas emissions to the atmosphere. Both development lines (biogas and fuel cells) and their associated technologies are receiving a great support from the different states, pioneer countries being Japan and U.S.A. The objective of this study is to make a detail analysis of the state of the art of biogas-powered fuel cell systems worldwide. Most representative players in the field are identified through the search of the scientific publications, projects and patent documents in which they are involved. (Author) 18 refs.

  7. Life cycle assessment of flexibly fed biogas processes for an improved demand-oriented biogas supply.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ertem, Funda Cansu; Martínez-Blanco, Julia; Finkbeiner, Matthias; Neubauer, Peter; Junne, Stefan

    2016-11-01

    This paper analyses concepts to facilitate a demand oriented biogas supply at an agricultural biogas plant of a capacity of 500kWhel, operated with the co-digestion of maize, grass, rye silage and chicken manure. In contrast to previous studies, environmental impacts of flexible and the traditional baseload operation are compared. Life Cycle Assessment (LCA) was performed to detect the environmental impacts of: (i) variety of feedstock co-digestion scenarios by substitution of maize and (ii) loading rate scenarios with a focus on flexible feedstock utilization. Demand-driven biogas production is critical for an overall balanced power supply to the electrical grid. It results in lower amounts of emissions; feedstock loading rate scenarios resulted in 48%, 20%, 11% lower global warming (GWP), acidification (AP) and eutrophication potentials, and a 16% higher cumulative energy demand. Substitution of maize with biogenic-waste regarding to feedstock substitution scenarios could create 10% lower GWP and AP. PMID:27522120

  8. BIOGAS PRODUCTION FROM WASTE TO ANIMAL

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    EDVAL LUIZ BATISTA DOS SANTOS

    2013-08-01

    Full Text Available Climate change is a current issue. Greenhouse gas emissions (GGEs are changing the atmosphere physio-chemical characteristics also affecting biosphere natural balance and life quality on Earth. The search for renewable and clean source is an alternative to reverse, control and attenuate the problems caused by greenhouse gases. Biomass is one of the major energy sources available in rural and agribusiness areas. Anaerobic biological degradation of organic material present in solid agricultural waste generates a gaseous mixture of methane (CH4 and carbon dioxide (CO2, called biogas. It is possible to use its energy potential through the burning and obtaining of thermal energy. Biogas generation offers producers a renewable energy source of optimum performance which supports external electric expenses and provides clean energy as well as adequate distribution of generated effluent. Biogas usage is a large energetic potential concerning small and medium-sized farms. This paper aims at observing how this kind of energy can help the control of GGE emissions, adequate animal waste disposal as well dumping and especially the generation of clean and renewable energy. It also intends to answer questions about this technology aiming to help producers to take advantages of such technique by decreasing electric energy costs providing an economical development as well as improvement on local and national energetic area.

  9. Climate balance of biogas upgrading systems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    One of the numerous applications of renewable energy is represented by the use of upgraded biogas where needed by feeding into the gas grid. The aim of the present study was to identify an upgrading scenario featuring minimum overall GHG emissions. The study was based on a life-cycle approach taking into account also GHG emissions resulting from plant cultivation to the process of energy conversion. For anaerobic digestion two substrates have been taken into account: (1) agricultural resources and (2) municipal organic waste. The study provides results for four different upgrading technologies including the BABIU (Bottom Ash for Biogas Upgrading) method. As the transport of bottom ash is a critical factor implicated in the BABIU-method, different transport distances and means of conveyance (lorry, train) have been considered. Furthermore, aspects including biogas compression and energy conversion in a combined heat and power plant were assessed. GHG emissions from a conventional energy supply system (natural gas) have been estimated as reference scenario. The main findings obtained underlined how the overall reduction of GHG emissions may be rather limited, for example for an agricultural context in which PSA-scenarios emit only 10% less greenhouse gases than the reference scenario. The BABIU-method constitutes an efficient upgrading method capable of attaining a high reduction of GHG emission by sequestration of CO2.

  10. Biogas - Austrian experiences and Croatian needs

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Organic rest after processing within the biogas plan operation do not pollute the environment and may be used as a first class fertilizers; and additionally they can be used as biogas in cogeneration operation of head and current, in which case one head of cattle would provide at least 1.7 kWh of electrical energy and 3.4 kWh of heat each day. In such cases that the pig's manure is being released unprocessed from a farm operation into the ecological environment; and for the heating generation on the farm one of the standard unrenewable fuels is being consumed, a double harm has been effected - one that can be measured and the other which can not even be estimated: pollution of fresh air, water and flora life supply. In a careful estimate Austria provides premises for 40000 biogas processing plants which would generate 3.6 Billion kWh of electric energy within the cogeneration operations. What about Croatia? (author)

  11. Potential for energy production and use from biogas in Brazil; Potencial de aproveitamento energetico do biogas no Brasil

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zanette, Andre Luiz

    2009-12-15

    Biogas, produced from anaerobic digestion of organic matter in domestic, industrial and rural wastewaters and residuals, represent an alternative and renewable source of energy, with growing use worldwide. In Brazil, high population and its spatial concentration and expressive agricultural and agricultural-industrial production indicate a substantial potential of biogas production. The results presented in this work show a potential of biogas production of almost 2 billion cubic feet a day of CH{sub 4}. Viability of biogas production and use depends substantially on project scale. Generally, biogas projects are viable from landfills and domestic wastewater treatment for populations higher than 50,000 inhabitants and swine and dairy farms with at least 5,000 and 1,000 animals, respectively. Biogas is also competitive when compared to fossil fuels used in industry and transport. Despite incentive mechanisms for biogas production and use, like Clean Development Mechanism and renewable and alternative sources of energy incentives in Brazil, several regulatory, institutional, economical and technological barriers difficult the effective employment of biogas in Brazil. Thus, this work indicates the need of better coordination among different governmental levels, private sector and research and development institutions and effective policy formulation to promote a better employment of biogas in Brazil. (author)

  12. Effect of Water Volume and Biogas Volumetric Flowrate in Biogas Purification Through Water Scrubbing Method

    OpenAIRE

    Hendry Sakke Tira; Yesung Allo Padang; Mirmanto; Rio Cristovan Mantiri

    2014-01-01

    Energy supply is a crucial issue in the world in the last few years. The increase in energy demand caused by population growth and resource depletion of world oil reserves provides determination to produce and to use renewable energies. One of the them is biogas. However, until now the use of biogas has not yet been maximized because of its poor purity. According to the above problem, the research has been carried out using the method of water absorption. Under this method it is expected that...

  13. Progress in biogas. Biogas production from agricultural biomass and organic residues. Pt. 1 and 2. Proceedings (oral presentations and poster presentations); Fortschritt beim Biogas. Biogas aus landwirtschaftlicher Biomasse and organischen Reststoffen. T. 1 und 2. Tagungsband. Vortraege and Poster

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2007-07-01

    Within the International Conference ''Progress in Biogas - Biogas production from agricultural biomass and organic residues'' at the University Hohenheim (Stuttgart, Federal Republic of Germany) from 18th to 21st September, 2007, the following lectures were held: (1) Global relevance and potential of bioenergy for regional development; (2) Biogas electricity for France feed-in tariff and some other things to know before entering French market; (3) Policy drivers and future prospects for on-farm anaerobic digestion in Northern Ireland; (4) Biogas in Belgium, a swot analysis; (5) Status and prospects of biogas energy use in Ukraine; (6) Recent developments in Chinese agricultural biogas production; (7) Opportunities for agricultural based biogas systems in the province of Ontario, Canada; (8) Pre-treatment and digestion of separated collected household waste in Sweden; (9) To the problem of monitoring measures and prophylaxis measures with the utilization of organic residual substances in biological gas facilities from hygienic view; (10) Fermenting residues from biological gas facilities - nutrients and pollutants, possibilities of application in the agriculture; (11) Treatment and utilization of fermentation residues; (12) Potential of residual gas of NaWaRo feeded biogas plants in Baden-Wuerttemberg; (13) Operating analytics of biogas plants to improve efficiency and to ensure process stability; (14) The potential of biogas and electric power production from subproducts in the sugar and alcohol industries by the application of anaerobic digestion; (15) Co-digestion plant in dairy cattle farm in Emilia Romagna region (Italy); (16) Facing operational problems in a biodigeser in Yuvientsa - Amazonian Region of Ecuador; (17) Biogas plant instead of milk cow - payment and occupation with the use of grassilage; (18) Biogas in ecologic agriculture - experiences from 3 years of fermentation of grass-clover ley; (19) Combined solar-biogas basis for the

  14. Arsenic volatilization in model anaerobic biogas digesters

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Highlights: • Arsenic is volatilized form all model anaerobic digesters, including the non-treated ones. • Volatile As species can be identified and quantified in all digesters. • Non-arsenic treated digesters volatilization rates are higher than Roxarsone treated ones. - Abstract: Arsenic is a class 1 non-threshold carcinogen which is highly ubiquitous. Arsenic undergoes many different transformations (biotic or abiotic) between and within environmental compartments, leading to a number of different chemical species possessing different properties and toxicities. One specific transformation is As biotic volatilization which is coupled with As biomethylation and has been scarcely studied due to inherent sampling issues. Arsenic methylation/volatilization is also linked with methanogenesis and occurs in anaerobic environments. In China, rice straw and animal manure are very often used to produce biogas and both can contain high amounts of As, especially if the rice is grown in areas with heavy mining or smelting industries and if Roxarsone is fed to the animals. Roxarsone is an As-containing drug which is widely used in China to control coccidian intestinal parasites, to improve feed efficiency and to promote rapid growth. Previous work has shown that this compound degrades to inorganic As under anaerobic conditions. In this study the focus is on biotic transformations of As in small microcosms designed as biogas digester models (BDMs) using recently validated As traps, thus, enabling direct quantification and identification of volatile As species. It is shown that although there was a loss of soluble As in the BDMs, their conditions favored biomethylation. All reactors produced volatile As, especially the monomethylarsonic acid spiked ones with 413 ± 148 ng As (mean ± SD, n = 3) which suggest that the first methylation step, from inorganic As, is a limiting factor. The most abundant species was trimethylarsine, but the toxic arsine was present in the

  15. DRY NONHEATED ANAEROBIC BIOGAS FERMENTATION USING AGED BEEF CATTLE MANURE

    Science.gov (United States)

    Biogas production at beef cattle feedlots is hard to justify because of the large amounts of dilution water required and the high cost to design and operate conventional water-based digestion systems. Laboratory and field experiments were conducted to determine the feasibility of producing biogas us...

  16. Individual acceptance of the biogas innovation: A structural equation model

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The rapid spread of biogas production in Germany has resulted in an increased public debate over this new business branch. Today the production of biogas is much more controversially debated than several years ago. At the same time it could be proven that even among farmers themselves the acceptance of biogas production in some regions is somewhat dampened due to accompanying “collateral damages”. Therefore, the goal of this paper is to identify relevant influencing factors that determine the acceptance of the innovation “biogas” among farmers by applying a causal analysis. Initial results among the five investigated determinants show that not only an individual attitude toward biogas but also the farmers' personal innovativeness strongly and significantly influences an individual's acceptance of the innovation “biogas”. -- Highlights: •Strong expansion of biogas production based on renewable resources in Germany since 2004. •Low acceptance of biogas production in some regions. •Identification of influencing factors that determine the individual acceptance of the biogas innovation among German farmers. •Compared to existing studies, personal innovativeness was taken into account in the causal model. •Results are important for the further expansion of biogas production in Germany as well as in other countries

  17. Bioenergy Consumption and Biogas Potential in Cambodian Households

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jyrki Luukkanen

    2013-04-01

    Full Text Available Residential bioenergy consumption and bioenergy resources based on by-products of residential agricultural production and animal husbandry have been analyzed statistically, based on a nationwide residential livelihood and energy survey conducted in Cambodia in 2009. Furthermore, the potential for biomethanation, residential biogas consumption and small-scale power generation for non-electrified rural areas has been assessed. Household potential of biogas substrates in Cambodia, based on nationally representative data has not been presented earlier. This paper proposes mixtures of substrates for biogas production for various livelihood zones of Cambodia. The occurrence of biomass suitable for biomethanation is most favorable in unelectrified rural areas, except for fishing villages. The theoretical daily biogas potential from animal dung and rice husk appears to be promising for households in unelectrified rural villages, both for household digesters and units designed for small-scale electricity generation. Theoretical CH4 content of biogas was 63.9% and specific biogas yield 0.41 Nm3/kg for households in unelectrified villages. Based on the survey, the energy content of biogas potential is 25.5 PJ per year. This study shows that biogas has nationally significant technical potential in Cambodia.

  18. Transportbrandstof uit biogas geeft hoger rendement en verduurzaamt

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kasper, G.J.

    2013-01-01

    Bij vergisting van mest ontstaat biogas dat met een WKK kan worden omgezet in elektriciteit en warmte. Probleem is vaak dat de warmte onvoldoende benut wordt. Het opwerken van biogas tot transportbrandstof kan een oplossing hiervoor zijn, waarbij gelet moet worden op schaalgrootte van vergisting, ty

  19. Sustainability effects of household-scale biogas in rural China

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Gosens, J.; Lu Yonglong,; He Guizhen,; Bluemling, B.; Beckers, T.A.M.

    2013-01-01

    Households in rural China rely heavily on low quality fuels which results in reduced quality of life and environmental degradation. This study assesses the comparative contribution of household scale biogas installations to the broad set of sustainability objectives in the Chinese biogas policy fram

  20. DEVELOPMENT OF AN AFFORDABLE FAMILY-SCALE BIOGAS GENERATOR

    Science.gov (United States)

    From laboratory experiments we calculated that our system would have to deliver 262 liters/hr of biogas to cook a meal. Biogas produced by slurries of various wastes was measured with a two liter bench-top digester system designed by the team. Gas volume was measured by displa...

  1. Energy Efficiency of Biogas Produced from Different Biomass Sources

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Malaysia has different sources of biomass like palm oil waste, agricultural waste, cow dung, sewage waste and landfill sites, which can be used to produce biogas and as a source of energy. Depending on the type of biomass, the biogas produced can have different calorific value. At the same time the energy, being used to produce biogas is dependent on transportation distance, means of transportation, conversion techniques and for handling of raw materials and digested residues. An energy systems analysis approach based on literature is applied to calculate the energy efficiency of biogas produced from biomass. Basically, the methodology is comprised of collecting data, proposing locations and estimating the energy input needed to produce biogas and output obtained from the generated biogas. The study showed that palm oil and municipal solid waste is two potential sources of biomass. The energy efficiency of biogas produced from palm oil residues and municipal solid wastes is 1.70 and 3.33 respectively. Municipal solid wastes have the higher energy efficiency due to less transportation distance and electricity consumption. Despite the inherent uncertainties in the calculations, it can be concluded that the energy potential to use biomass for biogas production is a promising alternative.

  2. A tool for analyzing the sustainability of biogas production chains

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Pierie, Frank; Broekhuijsen, J.; Gemert, W.J.T.; Moll, H.C.

    2014-01-01

    Abstract written for an poster presentation at the EBA conference in Alkmaar. The flexibility of biogas makes it a very capable load balancer within decentralized smart energy systems. However, within this context the sustainability of biogas production is not fully understood. What is needed is a t

  3. An Introduction to Biogas Production on the Farm.

    Science.gov (United States)

    National Center for Appropriate Technology, Butte, MT.

    This three-section report provides introductory information about biogas production and its application to farm environments. The first section discusses the various components of a biogas production system (a system that converts organic wastes into a usable form of energy), explains the system's benefits and liabilities, and provides a brief…

  4. The social organization of agricultural biogas production and use

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    While for wind, solar energy or hydropower, energy supply happens directly from the source to the wind wheels, hydropower turbines or solar panels, in the case of biogas, energy production cannot directly take from the energy source, organic matter, but depends on the institutional structures and farmers′ practices involved for making energy available. With the production of bioenergy in rural areas, practices within agriculture are transformed, requiring new ways of organizing production processes. Research has left the question largely unanswered of how agricultural biogas production and use are – and can best be – organized within rural society. Which kinds of social organization exist, how are these embedded in existing agricultural institutions and practices, and how do these systems function? Under which conditions may the different kinds of social organization of biogas production and use work sustainably? This introduction article to the Special Issue “The social organization of agricultural biogas production and use” presents a framework for analysing the different kinds of social organization of biogas production and use presented hereafter. Analysis parameters are the supply network, distribution network, distribution of benefits, social boundaries of the system (accessibility) and scale. Using these parameters, the Special Issue articles are outlined. - Highlights: • Through agricultural institutions and farmers′ practices, biogas is made available. • Scale, supply and delivery network distinguish biogas infrastructural systems. • Access and benefit distribution are key for a biogas system′s sustainability

  5. BIOGAS PRODUCTION FROM TOFU LIQUID WASTE ON TREATED AGRICULTURAL WASTES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Budy Rahmat

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available The Tofu Liquid Waste (TLW as a pollution might be processed into biogas which was environmentally friendly and had potential to replace burning wood or oil. However, the waste could not directly be employed as the biogas substrate due to the high nitrogen content which was not suitable to the methanogen microorganism on the biogas digester and did not produce biogas. It was therefore necessary to adapt the carbon-nitrogen ratio in TLW with the addition of other organic materials that had a lower nitrogen content so it would be a suitable substrate for generating biogas. The research was aimed to evaluate the addition of the other organic material on the TLW to increase the biogas production. The results showed that TLW combined with sheep dung, cabbage waste, bamboo leaves and paddy straw respectively produced biogas as much as 14,183, 7,250, 2,400, 895 cm3 in 20 days. The 4 treatments gave the same quality of biogas, which was determined using the water boiling test. The pH fluctuation during the process was in the right pH for anaerobic digestion, thus it was not the limiting factor.

  6. Anaerobic digestion: biodegradability and biogas production of model wastes

    OpenAIRE

    Lausund, Erlend

    2014-01-01

    Anaerobic digestion is a desirable treatment practice in terms of minimizing volume, treating of pollutants and biogas production. In this thesis model wastes have been investigated with respect to biogas and methane production in order to find out what wastes are suitable for anaerobic digestion, and discussing ways to further the research to optimize the production of renewable energy.

  7. Energy Efficiency of Biogas Produced from Different Biomass Sources

    Science.gov (United States)

    Begum, Shahida; Nazri, A. H.

    2013-06-01

    Malaysia has different sources of biomass like palm oil waste, agricultural waste, cow dung, sewage waste and landfill sites, which can be used to produce biogas and as a source of energy. Depending on the type of biomass, the biogas produced can have different calorific value. At the same time the energy, being used to produce biogas is dependent on transportation distance, means of transportation, conversion techniques and for handling of raw materials and digested residues. An energy systems analysis approach based on literature is applied to calculate the energy efficiency of biogas produced from biomass. Basically, the methodology is comprised of collecting data, proposing locations and estimating the energy input needed to produce biogas and output obtained from the generated biogas. The study showed that palm oil and municipal solid waste is two potential sources of biomass. The energy efficiency of biogas produced from palm oil residues and municipal solid wastes is 1.70 and 3.33 respectively. Municipal solid wastes have the higher energy efficiency due to less transportation distance and electricity consumption. Despite the inherent uncertainties in the calculations, it can be concluded that the energy potential to use biomass for biogas production is a promising alternative.

  8. PRELIMINARY STUDY ON BIOGAS PRODUCTION OF BIOGAS FROM MUNICIPAL SOLID WASTE (MSW LEACHATE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    WAN AZLINA WAN AB KARIM GHANI

    2009-12-01

    Full Text Available Laboratory-scale digesters were operated to study the effect of leachate chemical oxygen demand strength on biogas (methane production. Three sets of experiment were performed using municipal solid waste leachate slurry with two different chemical oxygen demand strength strengths namely 3000 and 21000 mg/L (referred as low and high strength, respectively. The experiments were conducted at a controlled temperature of 35°C and pH ranging from 6.8 to 7.3 over 20 days period. The process performance was evaluated based on the biogas production and pollutants removal efficiencies. Results showed that the high and low strength samples performed quite similarly but with different biogas production rate observed. The biochemical oxygen demand in the effluent removed up to 80%, but the performance of other parameters such as chemical oxygen demand, total suspended solid and volatile suspended solid was slightly decreased which contributes 33 to 46%, 21 to 37% and 20 to 35%, respectively. From this study, it can be concluded that this method not only contributed to renewable biogas production but also improved the effluent quality.

  9. Energy utilization from landfill biogas; Aproveitamento energetico do biogas de aterros sanitarios

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Candiani, Giovano [Universidade Federal do ABC, Santo Andre, SP (Brazil). Programa de Pos-Graduacao em Energia; Hoffmann, Gustavo; Silva, Elissandro Rocha da; Moreira, Joao M.L.; Tomioka, Jorge

    2008-07-01

    Landfills for solid waste disposal are used in Brazil and in most of countries in the world. The organic part of the solid wastes produces gas out of the decomposition of its organic content. This gas, named biogas and mostly made of carbon dioxide and methane, may be collected and used as an energy source due the methane presence. In this work we analyze the possible energy utilization of landfill biogas in Brazil in which the organic content of the solid waste is about 60%. The use of biogas as energy source can reduce the greenhouse gas emissions and improve the sanitation conditions of landfills. Moreover, it allows financial gains through selling of energy and carbon credits. In order to make possible the biogas utilization it is necessary to recognize the differences among the many landfills which exist in the country. There are the large and small landfills. The large ones usually have good instrumentation and gas exhaustion systems while the small ones have passive exhaustion systems and very few field instrumentation. The small landfills need to improve their instrumentation system and to incorporate exhaustion systems. (author)

  10. Biogas utilization as flammable for internal combustion engine

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In this work the energetic potential stored in form of generated biogas of organic industrial wastes treatment is analyzed. Biogas utilization as flammable at internal combustion engine coupled to electrical energy generating is studied in the Wastewater Treatment Plant of Bucaramanga city (Colombia). This Plant was designed for 160.000 habitants treatment capacity, 1300 m3/h wealth, 170 BDO/m3 residues concentration and 87% process efficiency. The plant generate 2.000 m3/d of biogas. In laboratory trials was worked with biogas originating from Treatment Plant, both without purifying and purified, and the obtained results were compared with both yields determined with 86-octanes gasoline and natural gas. The analysis of pollutant by-products generated in combustion process as leak gases, present corrosive compounds and not desirable. elements in biogas composition are included

  11. Comparative evaluation of different types of biogas suitable for tropical country

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sahu, S.N.; Gbagbo, J.K.N.; Aneke, F.U.

    1997-04-01

    The biogas technology - anaerobic digestion - is described together with different types of biogas plants suitable for tropical countries. Cost-benefit analysis of establishing biogas plants, financial support options, and the benefits of using biogas as an energy source in rural areas are presented. (LN)

  12. Identifikasi Potensi Produksi Biogas dari Limbah Cair Tahu dengan Reaktor Upflow Anaerobic Sludge Blanket (UASB)

    OpenAIRE

    WAGIMAN

    2007-01-01

    Limbah cair tahu mengandung bahan organik sehingga dapat digunakansebagai bahan baku produksi biogas. Sebagai produk samping sistempengolahan limbah secara anaerobik, biogas masih belum banyak dikajinilai tambahnya. Penelitian ini bertujuan untuk mengevaluasi potensilimbah cair tahu sebagai bahan baku produksi biogas dengan menggunkanreaktor Upflow Anaerobic Sludge Blanket (UASB). Dari aspek teknik dilihat laju produksi biogas dan laju degadasi bahan organik (COD), sedangkan dari sisi ekonomi...

  13. Energy and Greenhouse gas balances of the utilisation of biogas for energy

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielsen, Per Sieverts; Karlsson, Kenneth Bernard; Holm-Nielsen, Jens Bo

    1998-01-01

    implementation programmes has been on development of technologies for joint biogas plants, where more than one farm supplies the animal slurry. The joint biogas plants are dependent on industrial organic wastes to obtain high biogas yields for making the biogas plant economical. The industrial organic waste will...

  14. Comparative evaluation of different types of biogas suitable for tropical country

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The biogas technology - anaerobic digestion - is described together with different types of biogas plants suitable for tropical countries. Cost-benefit analysis of establishing biogas plants, financial support options, and the benefits of using biogas as an energy source in rural areas are presented. (LN)

  15. Performance optimization of the Växtkraft biogas production plant

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Highlights: ► Pre-treatment of ley crop can increase the biogas plant performance. ► Membrane filtration can increase the capacity of the biogas plant. ► Mechanical pre-treatment of the ley crop shows the highest energy efficiency. ► Using a distributor to spread the residues as fertilizer show promising results. -- Abstract: All over the world there is a strong interest and also potential for biogas production from organic residues as well as from different crops. However, to be commercially competitive with other types of fuels, efficiency improvements of the biogas production process are needed. In this paper, results of improvements studies done on a full scale co-digestion plant are presented. In the plant organic wastes from households and restaurants are mixed and digested with crops from pasture land. The areas for improvement of the plant addressed in this paper are treatment of the feed material to enhance the digestion rate, limitation of the ballast of organics in the water stream recirculated in the process, and use of the biogas plant residues at farms. Results from previous studies on pre-treatment and membrane filtration of recirculated process water are combined for an estimation of the total improvement potential. Further, the possibility of using neural networks to predict biogas production using historical data from the full-scale biogas plant was investigated. Results from an investigation using the process residues as fertilizer are also presented. The results indicate a potential to increase the biogas yield from the process with up to over 30% with pre-treatment of the feed and including membrane filtration in the process. Neural networks have the potential to be used for prediction of biogas production. Further, it is shown that the residues from biogas production can be used as fertilizers but that the emission of N2O from the fertilized soil is dependent on the soil type and spreading technology.

  16. Sustainability effects of household-scale biogas in rural China

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Households in rural China rely heavily on low quality fuels which results in reduced quality of life and environmental degradation. This study assesses the comparative contribution of household scale biogas installations to the broad set of sustainability objectives in the Chinese biogas policy framework, which targets household budget, fuel collection workload, forest degradation, indoor air quality and health, renewable energy supply, and climate change. A household survey was used to determine how biogas affected consumption levels of crop residues, fuel wood, coal, LPG, and electricity. Biogas users were found to reduce consumption of biomass fuels but not coal. Although LPG is not a highly commonly used fuel in rural China, biogas users nearly cease to use it altogether. A big reduction in fuel wood consumption results in strongly reduced workload and forest degradation. Although household scale biogas has alleviated all sustainability issues targeted by Chinese policies, low quality fuel use remains abundant, even in households using biogas. Continued promotion of the construction of biogas installations is advisable, but additional policies are needed to ensure higher quality heating energy supply and cleaner uses of biomass fuels. - Highlights: ► Household biogas alleviated all sustainability issues targeted by policy. ► Biogas users consume less biomass fuels, much less LPG, but similar amounts of coal. ► Strongest sustainability effects are reduced workload and forest degradation. ► Household budget effects are slight as commercial cooking fuel use is limited. ► Low quality fuel use remains abundant and further policy efforts are needed

  17. 15. Annual Meeting on biogas and bioenergy in agriculture. Proceedings; 15. Jahrestagung Biogas und Bioenergie in der Landwirtschaft. Tagungsband

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2006-07-01

    The volume contains besides the general statements on environmental protection and energy savings in the future and biogas as great potential for the rural development the following contributions in four parts: 1. political enveloping conditions: biogas usage within the frame of the the new EEG; state of biogas usage in Baden-Wuerttemberg; practical experiences end perspectives for the biogas development; renewable raw materials from the view of environmenmental protection; 2. gas utilization: the bioenergy village Mauenheim - model for the rural area; compression ignition gas engines with biogenic ignition oils; realization and economic performance of gas engines with biogas; microgasturbines - engineering and chances, gas processing and feeding into the gas network; 3. substrate: influence of the energy plant agriculture on the regional structures; biogas plants: substrate control by TS sensing; fermentation of fusaria contaminated corn; substrate contracts in the view of revenue and contract legacy; energy plants agriculture in Baden-Wuerttemberg; 4. process biology: comparison of dry and wet fermentation; fundamentals, process stability analytical possibilities; start-up of a biogas plant; biogas process with external hydrolysis; problems in the fermenter - inhibitors and auxiliaries.

  18. Problems in the Biogas Construction in Weihui City and Development Strategies

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Yilun; WANG; Chao; YUAN; Qian; ZHANG; Jinfang; TAN; Peng; ZHAO

    2013-01-01

    Taking the demonstration biogas construction city in Henan Province-Weihui City as the survey and research city, we give an overview of the industrial and agricultural base and current situation of biogas development in Weihui City, and analyze the main problems in biogas construction, such as simple development mode of biogas adopted by rural households, laggard construction of large and medium-sized biogas projects, unsound service system for biogas development and failure to comprehensively use biogas resources. According to the practical work experience, we sum up the following.

  19. Biogas in the agriculture. State of the art. Proceedings; Biogas in der Landwirtschaft. Stand und Perspektiven. Tagungsband

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2009-07-01

    Within the meeting of the Association for Technology and Structures in Agriculture (Darmstadt, Federal Republic of Germany) and the Agency for Renewable Resources (Guelzow, Federal Republic of Germany) between 15th and 16th September, 2009, in Weimar the following lectures were held: (1) Results of the actual biogas measurement II (Peter Weiland); (2) Agitators in biogas plants - Technology with central significance (Kay Rostalski); (3) How much energy is needed by a biogas fermenter? (Ludwig Heinloth); (4) The fermentation concept of Rueckert NatUrgas GmbH (Claus Rueckert, Dominique Pfeufer); (5) Experiences from the construction for the practice of the company MT-Energie GmbH (Bodo Drescher); (6) Fermenter/technology concept of Schmack Biogas AG (Thomas Moeeslinger); (7) Transport of biomass - How much does the logistics of Guelle and Co. cost? (Thore Toews); (8) Which factors determine the efficiency of biogas plants? (Gerd Reinhold); (9) Microbial diversity in biogas reactors in the fermentation of renewable raw materials (Michael Klocke et al.); (10) What do additives and ingredients contribute to the optimisation of the production of biogas? (Udo Hoelker); (11) Process optimisation - An interaction between technology and microbiology (Andreas Gronauer et al.); (12) Emissions at the production of biogas - an analysis if the environmental relevance (Joachim Clemens et al.); (13) Support systems for energy plants - Consequences to soil and environment (Matthias Willms et al.); (14) How ecological is biogas? (Sven Gaertner); (15) Biogas plant - Analysis of construction and operation from licensing view (Hans-Walter Schneichel); (16) Biogas plants - Analysis of construction and operation from contractual legal view (Florian Valentin); (17) Biogasplants - Analysis of construction and operation from remuneration legal view (Helmut Loibl); (18) Process and costs of treatment of residues of fermentation (Sebastian Wulf, Helmut Doehler); (19) How do residues of

  20. Production of liquid biogas at the biowaste treatment plant Amtzell; Gewinnung von fluessigem Biogas an der Bioabfallbehandlungsanlage Amtzell

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bojahr, Armin [Gesellschaft fuer Umwelttechnik Bojahr mbH und Co. KG, Berg (Germany)

    2013-10-01

    The fermentation plant in Amtzell will be extended to increase the throughput of bio waste. In this context an extension of the gas utilization plant is also required. The produced biogas will be partly transferred to the existing combined heat and power plant. The remaining part of biogas will be used in an proposed GPP-Plus {sup registered} --plant to produce liquid bio methane (LBG). In the LBG gaining process the raw biogas will have to be dried in several steps, de-sulphured, compressed and cooled. Following this process and due to different physical characteristics of the ingredients, the contaminants will be removed from the biogas and the main ingredients, carbon dioxide and methane, separated from each other. Carbon dioxide as well as the methane are then available in liquid form and can be put onto the market. This method of using biogas can utilize almost 100% of its energy potential. (orig.)

  1. A review of chemical absorption of carbon dioxide for biogas upgrading

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Fouad RH Abdeen; Maizirwan Mel; Mohammed Saedi Jami; Sany Izan Ihsan; Ahmad Faris Ismail

    2016-01-01

    Significant attention has been given to biogas production, purification and upgrading as a renewable and clean fuel supplement. Biogas is a product of an anaerobic digestion process comprising methane, carbon dioxide, and trace amounts of other gases. Biogas purification removes trace gases in biogas for safe utilisation. Biogas upgrading produces methane-rich biogas by removing bulk carbon dioxide from the gas mixture. Several carbon dioxide removal techniques can be applied for biogas upgrading. However, chemical absorption of carbon dioxide for biogas upgrading is of special significance due to its operation at ambient or near ambient temperature and pressure, thus reducing energy consumption. This paper reviews the chemical absorption of carbon dioxide using amine scrubbing, caustic solvent scrubbing, and amino acid salt solution scrubbing. Each of these tech-niques for biogas upgrading is discussed. The paper concludes that an optimised implementation of the chemical absorption techniques for biogas upgrading requires further research.

  2. Biogas - Energy from the agricultural sector

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Swiss agriculture produces biomass in the form of manure, crop residue or specifically grown biomass energy crops. There are a variety of procedures available to make use of this biomass. The right choice depends on the type of biomass and the energy end-product. For example thermal energy use, power generation or biogenetic fuels require physical, thermo-chemical or biological conversion. The following reports presents an overview of existing technologies, gives details of selected case studies on agricultural biogas production and discusses the importance of agricultural biomass energy use for the attainment of Swiss climate protection targets. (author)

  3. Research report Organofinery biogas production AAU

    OpenAIRE

    Molinuevo-Salces, Beatriz; Fernandez, Maria Santamaria; Uellendahl, Hinrich

    2015-01-01

    Organically grown red clover was investigated as a resource for organic feed by combination of protein extraction and anaerobic digestion of the sub-products. Extraction of proteins revealed a very favorable amino acid composition for the use as poultry feed. The residual 89% of organic matter, as solid press cake and brown juice was subjected to anaerobic digestion to produce biogas and fertilizer. Specific methane yields of 225±62 and 487±30 ml CH4/g VS were obtained for press cake and brow...

  4. Environmental systems analysis of biogas systems; Miljoeanalys av biogassystem

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Boerjesson, Paal; Berglund, Maria

    2003-05-01

    The purpose of this study is to analyse various biogas systems from an environmental point of view. The analyses are based on a systems analysis approach and an energy perspective. Biogas systems included are based on various combinations of substrates and final use of the biogas (heat, power and transportation fuel). The overall aims are to calculate fuel cycle emissions, quantify indirect environmental effects when various reference systems are replaced (e.g. current systems for waste treatment, agricultural production and energy generation), and to present data, calculations and results in a clear and transparent way, making the study useful for other environmental systems analyses. A general conclusion is that the environmental impact from biogas systems can vary significantly due to such factors as which substrate, energy service and reference system are chosen, and if indirect environmental effects and the need of systems enlargement are considered. The introduction of biogas systems normally leads to a reduced contribution of greenhouse gases, with some exceptions such as when biogas is used for heat and the alternative is combustion of the biomass. Biogas from manure seems to result in particularly large reductions due to indirect benefits in the form of reduced leakage of methane compared with conventional methods for handling and storing manure. A prerequisite is, however, that the losses of methane are small or that methane is combusted and thus converted into carbon dioxide. This study shows that the losses of methane can be up to 8-26%, due to what kind of biogas system is studied, before the contribution of greenhouse gases exceeds the contribution from reference systems based on fossil fuels. The contribution of emissions that leads to eutrophication and acidification is almost always reduced when biogas systems are introduced. The indirect environmental benefits could be significant for biogas based on sugar beet tops when leaving the beet tops at

  5. Waste(d) potential : a socio-technical analysis of biogas production and use in Sweden

    OpenAIRE

    Olsson, Linda; Fallde, Magdalena

    2015-01-01

    This paper takes a socio-technical perspective on Swedish biogas production and use, in order to identify characteristics which may improve and increase biogas production. Biogas could potentially reduce greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions from Swedish road transport by 25%, and to that end transport policy endorses the use of biogas as vehicle fuel. Currently, however, only a small fraction of the biogas production potential is utilised. By analysing how social and technological context has influ...

  6. Biogas Production in Dairy Farming in Indonesia: A Challenge for Sustainability

    OpenAIRE

    Jatmiko Wahyudi; Tb. Benito Achmad Kurnani; Joy Clancy

    2015-01-01

    Biogas plays an important role in supporting and ensuring the dairy farming sector remains sustainable. Biogas technology is not only as a method to dispose dairy farming waste but also benefiting economically, socially and environmentally. Biogas technology has been introduced since 1970s and many biogas programmes have been implemented in Indonesia. However compare to other countries like China and India, the dissemination of biogas technology in Indonesia runs quite slowly. There are sever...

  7. Biogas in Portugal: status and public policies in a European context

    OpenAIRE

    Ferreira, Miguel; Marques, Isabel Paula; Malico, Isabel

    2012-01-01

    The current status and legal framework of biogas production in Portugal are analyzed and compared to that of five other European countries, characterized by wide-ranging diversity of substrates and biogas applications. With this comparison, and with the calculation of the biogas energy potential in Portugal, the authors want to assess the significance of developing the Portuguese biogas sector. This study illustrates that the highest biogas feed-in tariffs are applied in the countries with a ...

  8. Biogas : its potential as an energy source in rural households with particular emphasis on China

    OpenAIRE

    Zhang, Ping

    2012-01-01

    Abstract This thesis is based on a literature review to analyze various aspects of biogas technology and address resource requirements and multiple values of biogas technology for rural household in developing countries. Biogas technology has been developed and widely used to produce a renewable, high-quality fuel, biogas. However, the development of biogas technology significantly differs over the world, particularly between developing countries and developed countri...

  9. A perspective on the potential role of biogas in smart energy grids

    OpenAIRE

    Persson, Tobias; MURPHY Jerry; JANNASCH Anna-Karin; AHERN Eoin; LIEBETRAU Jan; TROMMLER Marcus; TOYAMA Jeferson

    2015-01-01

    This report documents the potential role of biogas in smart energy grids. Biogas systems can facilitate increased proportions of variable renewable electricity on the electricity grid through use of two different technologies: • Demand driven biogas systems which increase production of electricity from biogas facilities at times of high demand for electricity, or store biogas temporarily at times of low electricity demand. • Power to gas systems when demand for electricity is less th...

  10. Biogas Power Plants in Poland—Structure, Capacity, and Spatial Distribution

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Daniela Szymańska

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available This paper presents the analysis and evaluation of biogas power plant capacity in Poland based on the generic structure and energy production. These issues are also presented from the point of view of the obtained energy and biogas energy production in Poland against selected European Union countries. The paper also indicates a significant diversity in the spatial distribution of biogas plants in Poland. It also discusses the importance of biogas plants as one of the elements of bottom-up development of the second tier administrative units. There are 231 biogas power plants in Poland (as of 2013, which are based on biogas from landfill sites, biogas from wastewater treatment plants, and agricultural biogas. The generic structure of biogas power plants in Poland is dominated by power plants based on biogas from landfill. Despite the fact that Poland has large resources of agricultural substrate, there are very few biogas power plants based on agricultural biogas. There are no biogas power plants in almost 60% of poviats in Poland, despite the fact that every poviat in Poland has enough of this substrate at its disposal. This article contributes innovative elements to existing knowledge on biogas power plants in Poland, thanks to its comprehensive treatment of the problem of biogas power plants in Poland and because it urges local authorities and local communities to behave more ecologically, as well as promoting endogenous factors of the economic development of a given region.

  11. Stirring and hydraulic retention time in biogas plant digesters

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kamarad, L.; Bochmann, G.; Kirchmayr, R. [University of Natural Resources and Life Sciences Vienna, Tulln (Austria). Dept. IFA; Pohn, S.; Harasek, M. [Vienna Univ. of Technology (Austria). Inst. of Chemical Engineering

    2010-07-01

    The quality of the mixing affects directly the hydraulic residence time of the feed substrates in the digester, homogeneity of the agitated material, biogas yield and total energy consumption of biogas plants. In practice, in most of the biogas plants the own energy demand is 4-10 % of the total produced electric energy. The majority of this energy (>60%) is needed only for running the agitators. Generally two basic types of stirrer systems are used in agricultural biogas plants. The high speed stirrers (typically propeller-stirrers) are applied for digesters with lower total solids content. Common application is for substrates like maize silage and manure. If the total solids content in the biogas slurry rises (e.g. over 10% TS) or if substrates with fibrous material and a tendency to form a surface layer are used it is preferable to install slow speed stirrers (typically paddle-stirrers) with a horizontal or vertical axis of rotation. In practice, both types are often combined to get a larger range of operating possibilities. Operating experiences showed that slow speed stirrers are less energy demanding than high speed stirrers (Laaber et al., 2007). The objective of this study is to investigate the real retention time of substrate material in anaerobic digesters by two biogas plants using different stirring systems, substrates, operation temperatures and total solids content (TS) in the biogas slurry.

  12. A Critical Assessment of Microbiological Biogas to Biomethane Upgrading Systems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rittmann, Simon K-M R

    2015-01-01

    Microbiological biogas upgrading could become a promising technology for production of methane (CH(4)). This is, storage of irregular generated electricity results in a need to store electricity generated at peak times for use at non-peak times, which could be achieved in an intermediate step by electrolysis of water to molecular hydrogen (H(2)). Microbiological biogas upgrading can be performed by contacting carbon dioxide (CO(2)), H(2) and hydrogenotrophic methanogenic Archaea either in situ in an anaerobic digester, or ex situ in a separate bioreactor. In situ microbiological biogas upgrading is indicated to require thorough bioprocess development, because only low volumetric CH(4) production rates and low CH(4) fermentation offgas content have been achieved. Higher volumetric production rates are shown for the ex situ microbiological biogas upgrading compared to in situ microbiological biogas upgrading. However, the ex situ microbiological biogas upgrading currently suffers from H(2) gas liquid mass transfer limitation, which results in low volumetric CH(4) productivity compared to pure H(2)/CO(2) conversion to CH(4). If waste gas utilization from biological and industrial sources can be shown without reduction in volumetric CH(4) productivity, as well as if the aim of a single stage conversion to a CH(4) fermentation offgas content exceeding 95 vol% can be demonstrated, ex situ microbiological biogas upgrading with pure or enrichment cultures of methanogens could become a promising future technology for almost CO(2)-neutral biomethane production. PMID:26337846

  13. Impact of Biogas Technology in the Development of Rural Population

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Biogas technology is useful technology to produce a renewable, high-quality fuel i.e. biogas. In Rural areas people use biomass fuels (firewood and dried dung) for meeting their energy utilization demands. This demand is fulfilled by deforestation and land degradation which results in different health and societal problems and also cause excessive emission of greenhouse gases. The rural population of developing countries is in dire need of biogas for cooking, lighting, heating and feedstock etc. The biogas production derives from various agricultural resources, such as manure and harvest remains enormously available. Biogas technology represents a sustainable way to produce energy for household, particularly in developing countries. It can be cost-effective and environment friendly technology for the people in rural areas. So, Biogas can be a best substitute of biomass fuels for use in rural areas. This review evaluates the use of biogas in developing rural areas and glances at problems and challenges as well as benefits and success factors. (author)

  14. Enhanced biogas yield from energy crops with rumen anaerobic fungi

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Prochazka, Jindrich; Zabranska, Jana; Dohanyos, Michal [Department of Water Technology and Environmental Engineering, Faculty of Environmental Technology, Institute of Chemical Technology in Prague, Prague (Czech Republic); Mrazek, Jakub; Strosova, Lenka; Fliegerova, Katerina [Laboratory of Anaerobic Microbiology, Institute of Animal Physiology and Genetics, CAS, v.v.i., Prague (Czech Republic)

    2012-06-15

    Anaerobic fungi (AF) are able to degrade crop substrates with higher efficiency than commonly used anaerobic bacteria. The aim of this study was to investigate ways of use of rumen AF to improve biogas production from energy crops under laboratory conditions. In this study, strains of AF isolated from feces or rumen fluid of cows and deer were tested for their ability to integrate into the anaerobic bacterial ecosystem used for biogas production, in order to improve degradation of substrate polysaccharides and consequently the biogas yield. Batch culture, fed batch culture, and semicontinuous experiments have been performed using anaerobic sludge from pig slurry fermentation and different kinds of substrates (celluloses, maize, and grass silage) inoculated by different genera of AF. All experiments showed a positive effect of AF on the biogas yield and quality. AF improved the biogas production by 4-22%, depending on the substrate and AF species used. However, all the cultivation experiments indicated that rumen fungi do not show long-term survival in fermenters with digestate from pig slurry. The best results were achieved during fed batch experiment with fungal culture Anaeromyces (KF8), in which biogas production was enhanced during the whole experimental period of 140 days. This result has not been achieved in semicontinuous experiment, where increment in biogas production in fungal enriched reactor was only 4% after 42 days. (copyright 2012 Wiley-VCH Verlag GmbH and Co. KGaA, Weinheim)

  15. Impact of Biogas Technology in the Development of Rural Population

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sakhawat Ali1

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available Biogas technology is useful technology to produce a renewable, high-quality fuel i.e. biogas. In Rural areas people use biomass fuels (firewood and dried dung for meeting their energy utilization demands. This demand is fulfilled by deforestation and land degradation which results in different health and societal problems and also cause excessive emission of greenhouse gases. The rural population of developing countries is in dire need of biogas for cooking, lighting, heating and feedstock etc. The biogas production derives from various agricultural resources, such as manure and harvest remains enormously available. Biogas technology represents a sustainable way to produce energy for household, particularly in developing countries. It can be cost-effective and environment friendly technology for the people in rural areas. So, Biogas can be a best substitute of biomass fuels for use in rural areas. This review evaluates the use of biogas in developing rural areas and glances at problems and challenges as well as benefits and success factors.

  16. Biogas technology in Cienfuegos: energy, environmental, economic and social impacts

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Promote the use of biogas is endorsed in the Guidelines 131 and 247 of the Economic and Social Policy of the Party and the Revolution element. The aim was to promote the construction and good practices in the use, operation and maintenance of biogas digesters in the province of Cienfuegos. The study of the design features of each type of digester, according to criteria of constructability, amount of manure, energy demand and geometry was performed. Un-practical theory for the design and construction of various types of biogas digesters compendium was prepared. Calculations for the conceptual and basic design fixed dome biogas digesters Circular Square and engineering were performed. The detailed engineering projects of different capacities biodigesters were developed. The results showed a progression of exponential growth in the number biodigesters for the past 4 years. This growth was accompanied by strong job training, technical advice and disclosure. Energy, environmental, economic and social impacts of the use of biogas in Cienfuegos were significant. At year end 2013, 80 biogas digesters in operation produced 429.1 m3 / day of biogas, which allowed replacing 78.3 t / year of fossil fuel equivalent disburse stop 43563.55 USD / year, stop pouring 3488.8 t / year of residual polluting the environment and stop emitting into the atmosphere 46.5 t / year of methane, equivalent to 1069.5 of carbon dioxide (CO2) equivalent dioxide. (full text)

  17. Biogas reforming process investigation for SOFC application

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Highlights: • Mathematical model of fuel processor and experimental validation was made. • Simulations made to find syngas composition varying fuel processor operating conditions. • Experimental tests were carried out on SOFC mono-cell to obtain polarization curves. • The best conditions for SOFC/fuel processor integrated systems were defined. - Abstract: In recent years, research efforts on fuel cells have been addressed on the development of multifuel reformers with particular emphasis toward the potential use of non-traditional fuels. Among these, biogas is considered very promising to be used as syngas source for fuel cell system applications. The interest on this hydrogen source is focused mainly to supply high temperature fuel cells (HTFC). This paper reports a wide experimental research investigation on SOFC device supplied by syngas produced with different biogas reforming processes (steam reforming, autothermal reforming and partial oxidation). Thermodynamic simulations have been performed to determine the reformed gas composition varying process, reaction temperature and steam to carbon – oxygen to carbon ratios. Syngas mixtures obtained were experimentally tested in order to evaluate the performance of a SOFC mono-cell. Furthermore, an analysis of the combination: fuel processor with a SOFC stack has been determined in order to assess the total energy efficiency

  18. Biogas Production From Cassava Starch Effluent Using Microalgae As Biostabilisator

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    B. Budiyono

    2011-07-01

    Full Text Available The rapid growing of Indonesian population is emerging several critical national issues i.e. energy, food, environmental, water, transportation, as well as law and human right. As an agricultural country, Indonesia has abundant of biomass wastes such as agricultural wastes include the cassava starch wastes. The problem is that the effluent from cassava starch factories is released directly into the river before properly treatment. It has been a great source of pollution and has caused environmental problems to the nearby rural population. The possible alternative to solve the problem is by converting waste to energy biogas in the biodigester. The main problem of the biogas production of cassava starch effluent is acid forming-bacteria quickly produced acid resulting significantly in declining pH below the neutral pH and diminishing growth of methane bacteria. Hence, the only one of the method to cover this problem is by adding microalgae as biostabilisator of pH. Microalgae can also be used as purifier agent to absorb CO2.The general objective of this research project was to develop an integrated process of biogas production and purification from cassava starch effluent by using biostabilisator agent microalgae. This study has been focused on the used of urea, ruminant, yeast, microalgae, the treatment of gelled and ungelled feed for biogas production, pH control during biogas production using buffer Na2CO3, and feeding management in the semi-continuous process of biogas production. The result can be concluded as follows: i The biogas production increased after cassava starch effluent and yeast was added, ii Biogas production with microalgae and cassava starch effluent, yeast, ruminant bacteria, and urea were 726.43 ml/g total solid, iii Biogas production without  microalgae was 189 ml/g total solid.

  19. Manure management practices on biogas and non-biogas pig farms in developing countries - using livestock farms in Vietnam as an example

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Cu, T. T. T.; Cuong, P. H.; Hang, L. T.;

    2012-01-01

    This survey was carried out to study animal manure management on livestock farms with biogas technology (biogas farms) and without (non-biogas farms) in the areas surrounding the Vietnamese cities Hanoi and Hue. The objective of the study was to assess the contribution of biogas production...... to a better environment as well as to recognize the problems with livestock manure management on small-scale farms. On all the farms included in the study more than one manure management technology was used, i.e. composting, separation of manure, biogas production and discharge of liquid manure to recipients...... such as public sewers or ponds. On biogas farms, most of the manure collected was used for bio-digestion. The farmers used the fermented manure (digestate) as a source of nutrients for crops, but on more than 50% of the interviewed biogas farms digestate was discharged to the environment. On non-biogas farms...

  20. Environmental perspectives on using cast seaweed for biogas production

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Fredenslund, Anders Michael; Møller, Henrik Bjarne; Christensen, Thomas Budde;

    a mixed substrate biogas plant. Continuously fed reactor experiments showed that the intended mix of substrate including cast seaweed could be used as raw material for a biogas plant in thermophilic operation. The environmental analysis suggests existence of several positive benefits of utilizing......Solrød Municipality, Denmark is working towards building a biogas plant utilizing locally available organic wastes including cast seaweed, which is collected each year, since the local inhabitants see this material as a nuisance. A preliminary study suggested favorable conditions for contstructing...

  1. Biogas generation in anaerobic wastewater treatment under tetracycline antibiotic pressure

    OpenAIRE

    Meiqing Lu; Xiaojun Niu; Wei Liu; Jun Zhang; Jie Wang; Jia Yang; Wenqi Wang; Zhiquan Yang

    2016-01-01

    The effect of tetracycline (TC) antibiotic on biogas generation in anaerobic wastewater treatment was studied. A lab-scale Anaerobic Baffled Reactor (ABR) with three compartments was used. The reactor was operated with synthetic wastewater in the absence of TC and in the presence of 250 μg/L TC for 90 days, respectively. The removal rate of TC, volatile fatty acids (VFAs), biogas compositions (hydrogen (H2), methane (CH4), carbon dioxide (CO2)), and total biogas production in each compartment...

  2. Rancang Bangun Alat Penghasil Biogas dari Plastik Polietilen

    OpenAIRE

    Latif

    2011-01-01

    Biogas is a gas the can be produced from anaerobic fermentation of organic matters such as animal or human’s feces, agricultural wastes, or their combination in a digester. In this research the biogas was produced from mixture of cow dung and paddy hay. The aim of this research was to design of a drift biogas producer which was easy to be assembled, cheap, and had a best performance. The result of this experiment showed that the polyethylene digester had a: capacity of 0,25 m3, wet volume 0,2...

  3. Rancang Bangun Konverter Biogas untuk Motr Bensin Silinder Tunggal

    OpenAIRE

    Desrial; Dyah Wulandani

    2014-01-01

    The need for energy continues to increase along with the increase of population in Indonesia. This is in contrast with the fact that the main oil energy source is reducing day by. To overcome this problem renewable energy sources such as biogas becomes very important. Methane content in the biogas ranged between 60-65 %, where the value is large enough to be used as an energy source replacement of gasoline. The purpose of this study is to design a converter that is capable to perform biogas a...

  4. Biogas Production on Demand Regulated by Butyric Acid Addition

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kasper, K.; Schiffels, J.; Krafft, S.; Kuperjans, I.; Elbers, G.; Selmer, T.

    2016-03-01

    Investigating effects of volatile fatty acids on the biogas process it was observed that butyric acid can be used for transient stimulation of the methane production in biogas plants operating with low energy substrates like cattle manure. Upon addition of butyrate the methane output of the reactors doubled within 24 h and reached almost 3-times higher methane yields within 3-4 days. Butyrate was quantitatively eliminated and the reactors returned to the original productivity state within 3 days when application of butyrate was stopped. The opportunity to use butyrate feeding for increased biogas production on demand is discussed.

  5. Analysis of problems with dry fermentation process for biogas production

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pilát, Peter; Patsch, Marek; Jandačka, Jozef

    2012-04-01

    The technology of dry anaerobic fermentation is still meeting with some scepticism, and therefore in most biogas plants are used wet fermentation technology. Fermentation process would be not complete without an optimal controlled condition: dry matter content, density, pH, and in particular the reaction temperature. If is distrust of dry fermentation eligible it was on the workplace of the Department of Power Engineering at University of Zilina built an experimental small-scale biogas station that allows analysis of optimal parameters of the dry anaerobic fermentation, in particular, however, affect the reaction temperature on yield and quality of biogas.

  6. Biogas Barometer - EurObserv'ER - November 2014

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The expansion of biogas energy usage has continued across the European Union. According to EurObserv'ER, about 13. 4 million tonnes oil equivalent (Mtoe) of biogas primary energy were produced during 2013, which is 1.2 Mtoe more than in 2012 representing a 10.2% growth. However, the biogas sector's momentum was more sluggish than in 2012 (16.9% between 2011 and 2012, giving an additional 1.8 Mtoe) and it is expected to lose some of its impetus in 2014 in a number of countries whose sector expansion controlling policy changes will limit the future use of energy crops

  7. Impact of government subsidies on household biogas use in rural China

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In this paper, we evaluate empirically the impact of biogas subsidies on household biogas energy use in rural China. Special attention was given to the problem of sample selection bias in assessing the impact of subsidies on biogas energy use because biogas subsidies often change the propensity for installing biogas digesters. Using data from a large-scale household survey, the results indicate that biogas subsidies did promote the construction of biogas digesters. The results suggest that a 10 percentage point increase in subsidy-cost ratio would lead to a 3% increase in digester installations. We also found that biogas subsidies correlated negatively with average time of digester use. A 10 percentage point increase in the subsidy-cost ratio would result in a 4.3% reduction in the average working time of digesters. These results suggest that the net effect of the current subsidy policy on rural household biogas use was near-negligible. Indeed, a 10 percentage point increase in the subsidy-cost ratio resulted in a mere 1.15% increase in biogas use. These findings indicate that biogas subsidies have possibly not been targeted effectively at households that would actually prefer to use biogas energy. - Highlights: • We evaluate empirically the impact of biogas subsidies on household biogas energy use in rural China. • Results indicate that biogas subsidies did promote the construction of biogas digesters. • We also find that biogas subsidies were correlated negatively with average time of digester use. • The results suggest that the net effect of the current subsidy policy on rural household biogas use was near-negligible. • A 10 percentage point increase in the subsidy-cost ratio leads to merely 1.15% increases in biogas use

  8. Biogas - And energy gushes forth from wastes. In Montpellier, everything is good to produce biogas

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    As Germany is a European leader in the production of biogas (two thirds of the European production), France is third with 10 per cent of the European total. This production represents 190 MW of electric power produced in 200 installations. In 2020 this production should reach 625 MW with 1500 production units. Now, these units are being developed in cattle breeding effluent processing installations. Since November 2011, it is possible to inject biogas in natural gas networks. Many projects are also present in the industrial sector. Regional productions and some main actors are indicated. But the equipment is generally imported and projects often face resistance from the population. A second article presents the French greatest site of organic waste processing (Ametyst) and evokes some negative reactions of the neighbourhood

  9. Integration of biogas in the natural gas grid: Thermodynamic characterization of a biogas-like mixture

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Highlights: • Accurate density data of a 4 components synthetic biogas-like mixture are presented. • Experimental data are compared with the densities calculated from the GERG-2008 equation of state. • Relative deviations in density were within a 0.2% band at temperatures above 300 K. • Densities at T = 275 K and pressures around 10 MPa showed higher deviations. - Abstract: The composition of biogas may vary significantly due to the diversity of production sources, making it essential to have a detailed knowledge of their thermophysical properties in order to develop and validate methods for the estimation of density, heat capacity and calorific value of biogas and biomethane. In this work the thermodynamic behavior of a synthetic biogas-like mixture, composed of methane (50%), carbon dioxide (35%), nitrogen (10%) and carbon monoxide (5%), is studied through accurate (p, ρ, T) experimental data obtained by using a single sinker densimeter with magnetic suspension coupling. The mixture was prepared by the gravimetric method at the Spanish National Metrology Institute (Centro Español de Metrología, CEM) and the accurate density measurements have been performed in the temperature range from (275 to 400) K and pressures up to 20 MPa. This work is part of the research project ‘Metrology for Biogas’ supported by the European Metrology Research Program. Experimental data are compared with the densities calculated with the GERG-2008 equation of state. The deviation between experimental and estimated densities is within a ±0.2% band at all temperatures, except at the lower temperature, 275 K, and pressures from (6 to 15) MPa, which shows a higher deviation

  10. High-temperature pretreatment of biogas substrate by using district heating to increase the biogas production; Hoegtemperaturfoerbehandling av biogassubstrat med fjaerrvaerme foer oekad biogasproduktion

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Del Pilar Castillo, Maria; Ascue, Johnny [JTI, Uppsala (Sweden); Olsson, Marcus; Henriksson, Gunilla; Nordman, Roger [SP, Boraas (Sweden)

    2011-12-15

    In this study, we have shown that pre-heating sludge from a waste water treatment plant can give a higher biogas production rate. However, pretreatment showed no effect on substrate from a biogas plant at the conditions tested in this study. The study has also shown that there is potential of using district heating in the biogas industry for thermal pretreatment of sludge.

  11. Socio-economic evaluation of selected biogas technologies

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Moeller, F.; Martinsen, L.

    2013-05-15

    Financial and welfare economic analyses are conducted of 15 different biogas production scenarios that vary in terms of plant size and type of input. All considered scenarios lead to welfare economic losses. Overall welfare economic GHG reduction costs seem to increase with increasing crop/crop material share of input, and although the costs vary significantly across scenarios they are quite high for all scenarios. The financial analyses suggest that biogas production generally will be financially profitable for the agricultural sector and local CHP facilities but unprofitable for the biogas plants and the State. Seen from a policy perspective the results highlights the importance of designing regulatory instruments in a way that create incentives for private actors to engage in welfare economically desirable biogas production activities while discouraging the expansion of welfare economically undesirable activities. (Author)

  12. Orthogonal Test About Biogas Upgrading by Pressured Water Scrubbing

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    HUANG Li; JIAO Youzhou; LEI Tingzhou; ZHANG Quanguo

    2010-01-01

    Biogas is a kind of regenerable energy which is inexpensive and friendly to the environment, but the potential of biogas is difficult to develop fully in China, for most biogas have badly qualities and the utilization of it is monotonous. The suitable operation term about biogas upgrading by pressurized water scrubbing was researched through the orthogonal test in this study. Two sorts of scrubber packing included the random multidimensional hollow sphere packing and the structured screen packing were also used, and the effects of experiment factors included packing, water temperature, gas flow speed, water flow speed and washing pressure were studied. The results showed that better effect was got when the screen structured packing was used; all the five test factors affected the processing significantly in the arrange as before and had better and better significant effects.

  13. Environmental Consequences of Future Biogas Technologies based on Separated Slurry

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hamelin, Lorie; Wesnæs, Marianne; Wenzel, Henrik;

    2011-01-01

    This consequential life cycle assessment study highlights the key environmental aspects of producing biogas from separated pig and cow slurry, a relatively new but probable scenario for future biogas production, as it avoids the reliance on constrained carbon cosubstrates. Three scenarios involving...... different slurry separation technologies have been assessed and compared to a business-as-usual reference slurry management scenario. The results show that the environmental benefits of such biogas production are highly dependent upon the efficiency of the separation technology used to concentrate the...... volatile solids in the solid fraction. The biogas scenario involving the most efficient separation technology resulted in a dry matter separation efficiency of 87% and allowed a net reduction of the global warming potential of 40%, compared to the reference slurry management. This figure comprises the...

  14. Energetic utilization of biogas arising of sanitary landfills

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The biogas is the gaseous product that is obtained from the fermentation of biodegradable organic matter; this process is known as anaerobic digestion. In this exposition, the formation process of biogas is described in its three continuos phases: 1. Hydrolysis phase, 2. Phase of acid generation and the acetic acid generation and 3. Phase of methane generation. Also, the biogas composition (methane, carbon dioxide, hydrogen, nitrogen, oxygen and traces) is present. Different types of anaerobic digestion as discontinuous digestion, continuo digestion, digestion with suspended biomass, digestion with adhered biomass, and digestion of two phases are shown. Finally, the process that occur in a landfill and its different phases of aerobic and anaerobic decomposition, are describe from its initial stage until the biogas generation

  15. Mobilising the market potential of biogas installations in Switzerland

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This final report for the Swiss Federal Office of Energy (SFOE) presents the results of a preliminary study that aimed to provide a synthesis of all available knowledge on obstacles to the construction of agricultural and commercial/industrial biogas installations and promotional factors. Social, political and cultural factors are examined that can promote or hinder the introduction of the technology and comparison is made to the introduction of organic farming methods in agriculture. In particular, an 'adoption/diffusion' model is looked at. A second part of the report deals with the economic findings and deals with the economic viability of biogas installations and the investments and costs involved. Here, too, economic factors that promote or hinder the use of biogas are examined. Finally, the various players and factors influencing the Swiss biogas scene are looked at and the findings of the study are summarised

  16. Biogas Production Modelling: A Control System Engineering Approach

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stollenwerk, D.; Rieke, C.; Dahmen, M.; Pieper, M.

    2016-03-01

    Due to the Renewable Energy Act, in Germany it is planned to increase the amount of renewable energy carriers up to 60%. One of the main problems is the fluctuating supply of wind and solar energy. Here biogas plants provide a solution, because a demand-driven supply is possible. Before running such a plant, it is necessary to simulate and optimize the process feeding strategy. Current simulation models are either very detailed like the ADM 1, which leads to very long optimization runtimes or not accurate enough to handle the biogas production kinetics. Therefore this paper provides a new model of a biogas plant, which is easy to parametrize but also has the needed accuracy for the output prediction. It is based on the control system approach of system identification and validated with laboratory results of a real biogas production testing facility.

  17. Life cycle assessment of agricultural biogas production systems

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lansche, J.; Muller, J. [Hohenheim Univ., Stuttgart (Germany). Inst. of Agricultural Engineering, Tropical and Subtropical Group

    2010-07-01

    Agricultural activities are large contributors to anthropogenic greenhouse gas emissions. This paper discussed the effectiveness of reducing agricultural emissions by using liquid manure to produce biogas. When using this technique, greenhouse gas emissions from manure storage are avoided and renewable energy is generated as heat and electricity in combined heat and power plants. The purpose of this study was to evaluate the environmental impacts of biogas production systems based on the methods of life cycle assessment. The traditional use of agricultural manures was compared with conventional energy production. The Gabi 4.3 software was used to create a model to evaluate the biogas production systems according to their environmental impact. In addition to the global warming potential, other impact categories were also used to evaluate the effects of the systems in eutrophication and acidification. It was concluded that environmental benefits can be obtained in terms of greenhouse gas emissions compared to electricity production from biogas with the typical German marginal electricity mix.

  18. The effect of landfill biogas on vegetal growth

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sanchez-Yañez Juan Manuel

    2012-08-01

    Full Text Available The plants carry out the gaseous exchange during the photosynthesis and the respiration, however the stomal opening of the leaves or the flow through lenticels in the root are not selective, the anthropogenic biogas emissions enter to vegetable tissues altering its normal physiology. In landfill sites roots plants are exposed to a flow of a variable concentration of biogas, mainly composed by methane (CH4 50-60% and carbon dioxide (CO2 40-55%, product of the anaerobic digestion of the organic fraction of municipal solid waste (MSW. Biogas, according to its concentration and exposure time is likely to exert a negative effect on plant root growth; however, the mechanism is largely unknown. The aim of this revision was to revise the state of the art of the negative effect of biogas on plants that are close to landfill sites.

  19. Biogas industry, multi-faceted and essential for the future

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In France, biogas industry will play a key role is the coming energy transition, both in terms of activity and employment. According to the white book of the Biogas Club of the Energy-Environment Technical Association (ATEE), which synthesizes the present-day situation and the recommendations of professionals concerning the future of projects - in particular the methanation ones, this role is going to occupy a strategic position. Projects will have various sizes and several studies have analysed the conditions of their technical optimization and profitability. Whatever biogas origin, a proper exploitation is of prime importance to reach efficiency. This dossier presents in 10 articles an overview of the development of biogas industry in France, from the regulatory aspects to some examples of methanation facilities and the use of methane in cogeneration units and transportation systems

  20. Life cycle assessment of agricultural biogas production systems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Agricultural activities are large contributors to anthropogenic greenhouse gas emissions. This paper discussed the effectiveness of reducing agricultural emissions by using liquid manure to produce biogas. When using this technique, greenhouse gas emissions from manure storage are avoided and renewable energy is generated as heat and electricity in combined heat and power plants. The purpose of this study was to evaluate the environmental impacts of biogas production systems based on the methods of life cycle assessment. The traditional use of agricultural manures was compared with conventional energy production. The Gabi 4.3 software was used to create a model to evaluate the biogas production systems according to their environmental impact. In addition to the global warming potential, other impact categories were also used to evaluate the effects of the systems in eutrophication and acidification. It was concluded that environmental benefits can be obtained in terms of greenhouse gas emissions compared to electricity production from biogas with the typical German marginal electricity mix.

  1. Analysis of problems with dry fermentation process for biogas production

    OpenAIRE

    Jandačka Jozef; Patsch Marek; Pilát Peter

    2012-01-01

    The technology of dry anaerobic fermentation is still meeting with some scepticism, and therefore in most biogas plants are used wet fermentation technology. Fermentation process would be not complete without an optimal controlled condition: dry matter content, density, pH, and in particular the reaction temperature. If is distrust of dry fermentation eligible it was on the workplace of the Department of Power Engineering at University of Zilina built an experimental small-scale biogas statio...

  2. Barrier to adoption of biogas technology in south sulawesi

    OpenAIRE

    Baba, Syahdar

    2014-01-01

    The objective of this research was to identify factors that barrier to adoption of biogas technology by cattle farmer in South Sulawesi. The population was all of beef cattle farmers who have implemented biogas technology in Barru, Bulukumba, Enrekang and Sinjai Regency. The type of digester has implemented was fixed dome with different digester material i.e plastic, fiber and concrete. The first stage of the research using delbecq methode. The key question was what is the barrier of bi...

  3. Energy crops for biogas plants. Thuringia; Energiepflanzen fuer Biogasanlagen. Thueringen

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Biertuempfel, A.; Bischof, R.; Conrad, M. (and others)

    2012-06-15

    In the brochure under consideration the Agency for Renewable Resources (Guelzow-Pruezen, Federal Republic of Germany) reports on the support of the implementation of different plant cultures in structure of plantations and crop rotation systems of companies under consideration of the Federal State Thuringia. The main chapters of this brochure are: Crops for the production of biogas; implementation in plantations; ensilage and biogas yields; economy of the cultivation of energy plants.

  4. Biogas Production from Energy Crops and Agriculture Residues

    OpenAIRE

    Wang, Guangtao

    2010-01-01

    In this thesis, the feasibility of utilizing energy crops (willow and miscanthus) and agriculture residues (wheat straw and corn stalker) in an anaerobic digestion process for biogas production was evaluated. Potential energy crops and agriculture residues were screened according to their suitability for biogas production. Moreover, pretreatment of these biomasses by using wet explosion method was studied and the effect of the wet explosion process was evaluated based on the increase of (a) s...

  5. Evaluation of different strategies to maximize biogas production from algae

    OpenAIRE

    Costa, J.C.; Oliveira, J. V. M.; Alves, M.M.

    2013-01-01

    Seaweeds (macroalgae) are a promising substrate for biogas production due to the high percentage of carbohydrates and high growth rate. Therefore, the biogas produced from the anaerobic digestion of seaweeds is a sustainable and renewable alternative source of bioenergy. Seaweeds are available in coastal areas and may also be produced in aquacultures. This work presents results of the biochemical methane potential (BMP) of the wild seaweed, Gracilaria vermiculophylla, as well as the effect of...

  6. Performance optimization of the Växtkraft biogas production plant

    OpenAIRE

    Thorin, Eva; Lindmark, Johan; Nordlander, Eva; Odlare, Monica; Dahlquist, Erik; Kastensson, Jan; Leksell, Niklas; Pettersson, Carl-Magnus

    2012-01-01

    All over the world there is a strong interest and also potential for biogas production from organic residues as well as from different crops. However, to be commercially competitive with other types of fuels, efficiency improvements of the biogas production process are needed. In this paper, results of improvements studies done on a full scale co-digestion plant are presented   In the plant organic wastes from households and restaurants are mixed and digested with crops from graze land. The a...

  7. Pretreaments of Chinese Agricultural residues to increase biogas production

    OpenAIRE

    Wang, Yu

    2010-01-01

    Development of biological conversion of lignocellulosic biomass to biogas is one approach to utilize straw comprehensively. However, high lignin contents of lignocellulosic materials results in low degradation. The main aim of this study was to investigate the appropriate pre-treatment to increase biogas production from Chinese agricultural residues. In this study, Chinese corn stalk, rice plant and wheat straw were evaluated as substrates by applying three different pre-treatments. The inves...

  8. Energy crops for biogas plants. Saxony; Energiepflanzen fuer Biogasanlagen. Sachsen

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Biertuempfel, A.; Buttlar, C. von; Conrad, M. [and others

    2012-08-15

    In the brochure under consideration the Agency for Renewable Resources (Guelzow-Pruezen, Federal Republic of Germany) reports on the support of the implementation of different plant cultures in structure of plantations and crop rotation systems of companies under consideration of the Federal State Saxony. The main chapters of this brochure are: Crops for the production of biogas; implementation in plantations; ensilage and biogas yields; economy of the cultivation of energy plants.

  9. Biogas Production Potential from Waste in Timis County

    OpenAIRE

    Teodor Vintila; Simina Neo; Cornelia Vintilă

    2012-01-01

    This work is a study of biogas production potential using as substrate the residues generated in the agricultural activities and the organic fraction from municipal wastes collected in Timis County. Data available in regional and national statistics have been reported to Timis County and used to calculate the potential quantity of biogas to be produced by anaerobic fermentation using as fermentable substrate residues generated in various human activities. To estimate the electric and thermal ...

  10. Energy balance of different organic biogas farming systems

    OpenAIRE

    Helbig, S; Küstermann, B; Hülsbergen, K.-J.

    2008-01-01

    The ecological impact of biogas plants depends on their integration into a given farming system. Therefore only farm-specific and no general statements are possible. In this paper, two different concepts of biogas production for an organic cash crop farm have been energetically balanced using a model software. The analysis of input and efficient use of fossil energy carriers provides information on the environmental relevance of the farm operations. Apart from this, renewable energy productio...

  11. Mini digester and biogas production from plant biomass

    OpenAIRE

    P. Vindis; B. Mursec; C. Rozman; M. Janzekovic; F. Cus

    2009-01-01

    Purpose: The aim of the paper is to present the construction of a mini digester for biogas production from different agriculture plant biomass and other organic wastes. The amount of biogas production (methane) is observed by the mini digester.Design/methodology/approach: The mini digester consisting of twelve units was built and some measurements with agriculture plant biomass were performed according to DIN 38414 part 8. Four tests simultaneously with three repetitions can be performed.Find...

  12. Biogas production with the use of mini digester

    OpenAIRE

    P. Vindis; B. Mursec; C. Rozman; M. Janzekovic; F. Cus

    2008-01-01

    Purpose: of this paper is to present the construction of a mini digester for biogas production from different energy plants and organic wastes. With the mini digester the amount of biogas production (methane) is observed.Design/methodology/approach: Firstly, the mini digester consisting of twelve units was built and secondly some measurements with energy plants were performed. The measurements were performed with mini digester according to DIN 38414 part 8. Four tests simultaneously with...

  13. Bioenergy Consumption and Biogas Potential in Cambodian Households

    OpenAIRE

    Jyrki Luukkanen; Risto Raiko; Suvisanna Mustonen

    2013-01-01

    Residential bioenergy consumption and bioenergy resources based on by-products of residential agricultural production and animal husbandry have been analyzed statistically, based on a nationwide residential livelihood and energy survey conducted in Cambodia in 2009. Furthermore, the potential for biomethanation, residential biogas consumption and small-scale power generation for non-electrified rural areas has been assessed. Household potential of biogas substrates in Cambodia, based on natio...

  14. Biogas production through the syntrophic acetate-oxidising pathway

    OpenAIRE

    Westerholm, Maria

    2012-01-01

    Biogas produced from wastes, residues and energy crops has promising potential to reduce greenhouse gas emissions and to secure future energy supply. Methane is the energy-rich component of biogas, and is formed as the end product during degradation of organic material without oxygen (anaerobic). Acetate is an important intermediate in anaerobic degradation and can be converted to methane through two pathways: aceticlastic methanogenesis and syntrophic acetate oxidation (SAO). SAO is a two-st...

  15. Ultrasound-Enhanced Biogas Production from Different Substrates

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    González-Fernández, Cristina; Timmers, Rudolphus Antonius; Ruiz, Begona;

    2015-01-01

    Among the biofuel production processes using different substrates, the biogas generation process is one of the simplest. Compared with bioethanol or biodiesel production processes, anaerobic digestion is a process where all the organic matter (carbohydrates, lipids and proteins) can be biologically...... production. The present chapter is dedicated to providing a review of ultrasound pretreatment applied to different substrates (lignocelullosic materials, manures, sludge and microalgae). The advantages and constraints, that ultrasound pretreatment exhibit towards biogas production, are discussed and compared...

  16. Simulation, optimization and instrumentation of agricultural biogas plants

    OpenAIRE

    Wolf, Christian

    2013-01-01

    During the last two decades, the production of renewable energy by anaerobic digestion (AD) in biogas plants has become increasingly popular due to its applicability to a great variety of organic material from energy crops and animal waste to the organic fraction of Municipal Solid Waste (MSW), and to the relative simplicity of AD plant designs. Thus, a whole new biogas market emerged in Europe, which is strongly supported by European and national funding and remuneration schemes. Nevertheles...

  17. Biogas facility in horizontal cylindrical construction with separated gasometer

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Perwanger, A.

    1981-09-03

    A biogas facility is described with the fermenting vessel taking the form of a horizontal cylinder. A pump switches on automatically at regular intervals to remove the floating and sinking layers. An automatic pH-gauge is coupled either to the inoculant-containing vessel or to the sewage inlet. The fermenting vessel is heated by means of tube coils, and the biogas formed is collected in a wet gasometer.

  18. Biogas barometer - EurObserv'ER - December 2012

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    +18,2 % biogas electricity production growth in 2011. Biogas energy recovery for both electricity and heat application has increased in the European Union. The magnitude of the reduction in the primary energy figure can be played down as it can be explained by a change in reporting method of the main producer country, Germany. New markets are starting to emerge in its footsteps, but the economic crisis and regulatory restrictions do not auger well for their expansion

  19. Biogas - Bioenergy potential in East Africa

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1997-12-31

    The workshop is part of the project: `Energy production from Sisal Waste in East Africa` sponsored by the Danish Energy Agency, an agency under the Danish Ministry of Environment and Energy. This project has been carried out in close cooperation between the Danish Technological Institute and University of Dar es Salaam, Applied Microbiology Unit, who has also taken care of the practical arrangement. The main objectives of the workshop was: To present the ongoing research in East Africa on biogas production from organic residues; To get an overview of political and administrative issues related to promotion and implementation of renewable energy facilities in East Africa; To discuss appropriate set-ups for bioenergy facilities in East Africa. (au)

  20. Biogas - Bioenergy potential in East Africa

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The workshop is part of the project: 'Energy production from Sisal Waste in East Africa' sponsored by the Danish Energy Agency, an agency under the Danish Ministry of Environment and Energy. This project has been carried out in close cooperation between the Danish Technological Institute and University of Dar es Salaam, Applied Microbiology Unit, who has also taken care of the practical arrangement. The main objectives of the workshop was: To present the ongoing research in East Africa on biogas production from organic residues; To get an overview of political and administrative issues related to promotion and implementation of renewable energy facilities in East Africa; To discuss appropriate set-ups for bioenergy facilities in East Africa. (au)

  1. Vitreous membranes used in the biogas purification

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In the present work 10 vitreous membranes with different masses of zinc oxide (ZnO(s)) and particle diameters charcoal (DPC) are used in the purification of biogas. The porosity and tortuosity of the membranes is obtained, showing the variation with respect to the composition thereof. From these structural features specific flow of H2S(g) is obtained which is transferred using the Fick's diffusion equation in the membranes and its value increases with increasing mass of ZnO(s). By X-ray diffraction membrane made with 3.16 g of ZnO(s) forming zinc sulfide it is shown, so we can say that the removal of H2S(g) occurs by a process of absorption with chemical reaction in the membranes. (Author)

  2. Biogas and bioethanol production in organic farming

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Oleskowicz-Popiel, P.

    2010-08-15

    The consumer demand for environmentally friendly, chemical free and healthy products, as well as concern regarding industrial agriculture's effect on the environment has led to a significant growth of organic farming. On the other hand, organic farmers are becoming interested in direct on-farm energy production which would lead them to independency from fossil fuels and decrease the greenhouse gas emissions from the farm. In the presented work, the idea of biogas and bioenergy production at the organic farm is investigated. This thesis is devoted to evaluate such a possibility, starting from the characterization of raw materials, through optimizing new processes and solutions and finally evaluating the whole on-farm biorefinery concept with the help of a simulation software. (LN)

  3. A PILOT PLANT FOR THE BIOGAS PRODUCTION

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. Omrani

    1988-08-01

    Full Text Available Manure and Putreseible garbage are some of the main sources of pathogenic germs in countryside’s. On the other hand, demand for fertilizer and energy increases in rural areas every day. To study Potential of cow manure for these requirements a 16,5m3 pilot plant was designed and constructed as fermentation tank near animal husbandry of karaj Agriculture Faculty. Some 260kg cow manure and water with the ratio of 4 and 7 was fed to fermentation tank every day. Average daily biogas production was 3.4m3, which was burned successfully in a gas range. Gas production was reduced by 86% during coldest winter days. Design for control of gas pressure and reservation of excessive gas was successful. Concentration of nitrate in sludge increased by 1.6 folds compared to row material. Some bacteria and Parasites were reduced drastically.

  4. Life cycle assessment of biogas upgrading technologies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Starr, Katherine; Gabarrell, Xavier; Villalba, Gara; Talens, Laura; Lombardi, Lidia

    2012-05-01

    This article evaluates the life cycle assessment (LCA) of three biogas upgrading technologies. An in-depth study and evaluation was conducted on high pressure water scrubbing (HPWS), as well as alkaline with regeneration (AwR) and bottom ash upgrading (BABIU), which additionally offer carbon storage. AwR and BABIU are two novel technologies that utilize waste from municipal solid waste incinerators - namely bottom ash (BA) and air pollution control residues (APC) - and are able to store CO(2) from biogas through accelerated carbonation processes. These are compared to high pressure water scrubbing (HPWS) which is a widely used technology in Europe. The AwR uses an alkaline solution to remove the CO(2) and then the solution - rich in carbonate and bicarbonate ions - is regenerated through carbonation of APC. The BABIU process directly exposes the gas to the BA to remove and immediately store the CO(2), again by carbonation. It was determined that the AwR process had an 84% higher impact in all LCA categories largely due to the energy intensive production of the alkaline reactants. The BABIU process had the lowest impact in most categories even when compared to five other CO(2) capture technologies on the market. AwR and BABIU have a particularly low impact in the global warming potential category as a result of the immediate storage of the CO(2). For AwR, it was determined that using NaOH instead of KOH improves its environmental performance by 34%. For the BABIU process the use of renewable energies would improve its impact since accounts for 55% of the impact. PMID:22230660

  5. Explosion characteristics of synthesised biogas at various temperatures

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Biogas is considered as a valuable source of renewable energy. Indeed, it can be turned into useful energy (heat, electricity, fuel) and can contribute to reduce greenhouse gas emissions. Knowledge of its safety characteristics is a very important practical issue. Experimental investigation of synthesised biogas explosion characteristics was conducted in a 20-L sphere at various temperatures (30-70deg. C) and at atmospheric pressure. The studied biogas was made of 50% methane (CH4) and 50% carbon dioxide (CO2). It was also saturated with humidity: this composition is frequently met in digesters during waste methanisation. There are two inert gases in biogas: water vapour and carbon dioxide. Its vapour water content rises along with temperature. The presence of these inert gases modifies considerably biogas characteristics compared to the ones of pure methane: explosion limits are lowered and beyond 70deg. C, water vapour content is sufficient to inert the mixture. Furthermore, explosion violence (estimated with the maximum rate of pressure rise values (dp/dt)max) is three times lower for biogas than for pure methane at ambient temperature

  6. Rancang Bangun Konverter Biogas untuk Motr Bensin Silinder Tunggal

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Desrial

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available The need for energy continues to increase along with the increase of population in Indonesia. This is in contrast with the fact that the main oil energy source is reducing day by. To overcome this problem renewable energy sources such as biogas becomes very important. Methane content in the biogas ranged between 60-65 %, where the value is large enough to be used as an energy source replacement of gasoline. The purpose of this study is to design a converter that is capable to perform biogas and air mixing for optimum use of biogas in gasoline engine. The main parts of biogas converter are the venturi, choke valves , throttle valves, as well as the coupler to the engine. Testing was done by applying converter on a gasoline engine with biogas fuel. Engine performance was tested using a dynamometer and the results are compared with the performance of the motor using gasoline fuel. Test results show that the optimal power is achieved at 0979 kW at 3146 rpm and a torque of 4.3 Nm, while the motor power with gasoline kW and a torque of 1.86 Nm at 6:21.

  7. Biogas : Animal Waste That Can be Alternative Energy Source

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tuti Haryati

    2006-09-01

    Full Text Available Biogas is a renewable energy which can be used as alternative fuel to replace fossil fuel such as oil and natural gas . Recently, diversification on the use of energy has increasingly become an important issue because the oil sources are depleting . Utilization of agricultural wastes for biogas production can minimize the consumption of commercial energy source such as kerosene as well as the use of firewood . Biogas is generated by the process of organic material digestion by certain anaerobe bacteria activity in aerobic digester . Anaerobic digestion process is basically carried out in three steps i.e. hydrolysis, acidogenic and metanogenic . Digestion process needs certain condition such as C : N ratio, temperature, acidity and also digester design . Most anaerobic digestions perform best at 32 - 35°C or at 50 - 55°C, and pH 6 .8 - 8 . At these temperatures, the digestion process essentially converts organic matter in the present of water into gaseous energy . Generally, biogas consists of methane about 60 - 70% and yield about 1,000 British Thermal Unit/ft 3 or 252 Kcal/0.028 m3 when burned . In several developing countries, as well as in Europe and the United States, biogas has been commonly used as a subtitute environmental friendly energy . Meanwhile, potentially Indonesia has abundant potential of biomass waste, however biogas has not been used maximally .

  8. Solar biogas digester with built-in reverse absorber heater

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In this work the design, fabrication and investigation of a solar biogas digester with built-in RAH (Reverse Absorber Heater) is presented. The maximum temperature (50 deg. C) inside of the methane tank was taken as a main parameter at the design of the digester. Using energy balance equation for the case of a static mass of fluid being heated; the parameters of thermal insulation of the methane tank were counted. The biogas digester is consisting of methane tank with built-in solar RAH to utilize solar energy for the heating of the slurry prepared from the different organic wastes (dung, sewage, food wastes etc). The methane tank was filled up to 70% of volume by organic wastes of the GIK Institute sewage, firstly, and secondly, by sewage and cow dung as well. During three months (October-December, 2009) and two months (February-March, 2010) the digester was investigated. The solar irradiance incident to the absorber, slurry's temperature and ambient temperature were measured. It was found that using sewage only and sewage with cow dung the retention times was 4 weeks and two weeks respectively and biogas quantity produced was 0.4 and 8.0 m 3 respectively. In addition, biogas upgradation scheme for removal of carbon dioxide, hydrogen sulphide and water vapor from biogas and conversion of biogas energy conversion into electric power is also discussed. (author)

  9. Flame Stabilization on Microscopic Scale of Wet Biogas with Microflame

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ida, Tamio; Fuchihata, Manabu; Mizuno, Satoru

    Harvesting, transportation, energy conversion and the high-efficient utilization, cascade method and market formation besides become with the indispensable element in order to utilize the biomass resource. There are two type biogases; it is gasified gas from dried biomass by partially combustion and wet biogas from wet biomass by methane fermentation, especially from the livestock excrement resources. This paper discusses an experimental study for flame stabilization on microscopic scale with wet biogas (mainly 0.6CH4+0.4CO2). In this study, the microflame with the wet biogas fuels are formed by the diffusion flame on the coppered straight pipes of inner diameter 0.02mm ˜ 1.5mm. This study is obtained stability mapping on microscopic scale of formed microflame by wet biogas fuels. The flame stability limit conditions on microscopic scale of wet biogas is drawn with blow off and extinction flame double limit lines. It is suggested that minimum mixing spatial scale change by the each mixing ratio of the wet biogas.

  10. Solar Biogas Digester with Built-In Reverse Absorber Heater

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Khasan S. Karimov

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available In this work the design, fabrication and investigation of a solar biogas digester with built-in RAH (Reverse Absorber Heater is presented. The maximum temperature (50 o C inside of the methane tank was taken as a main parameter at the design of the digester. Using energy balance equation for the case of a static mass of fluid being heated; the parameters of thermal insulation of the methane tank were counted. The biogas digester is consisting of methane tank with built-in solar RAH to utilize solar energy for the heating of the slurry prepared from the different organic wastes (dung, sewage, food wastes etc. The methane tank was filled up to 70% of volume by organic wastes of the GIK Institute sewage, firstly, and secondly, by sewage and cow dung as well. During three months (October-December, 2009 and two months (February-March, 2010 the digester was investigated. The solar irradiance incident to the absorber, slurry's temperature and ambient temperature were measured. It was found that using sewage only and sewage with cow dung the retention times was 4 weeks and two weeks respectively and biogas quantity produced was 0.4 and 8.0 m 3 respectively. In addition, biogas upgradation scheme for removal of carbon dioxide, hydrogen sulphide and water vapor from biogas and conversion of biogas energy conversion into electric power is also discussed.

  11. Biogas as a fuel source for SOFC co-generators

    Science.gov (United States)

    Van herle, Jan; Membrez, Yves; Bucheli, Olivier

    This study reports on the combination of solid oxide fuel cell (SOFC) generators fueled with biogas as renewable energy source, recoverable from wastes but at present underexploited. From a mobilisable near-future potential in the European Union (EU-15) of 17 million tonnes oil equivalent (Mtoe), under 15% appears to be converted today into useful heat and power (2 Mtoe). SOFCs could improve and promote the exploitation of biogas on manifold generation sites as small combined heat and power (5-50 kW el), especially for farm and sewage installations, raising the electrical conversion efficiency on such reduced and variable power level. Larger module packs of the high temperature ceramic converter would also be capable of operating on contaminated fuel of low heating value (less than 40% that of natural gas) which can emanate from landfill sites (MW-size). Landfill gas delivers 80% of current world biogas production. This document compiles and estimates biogas data on actual production and future potential and presents the thermodynamics of the biogas reforming and electrochemical conversion processes. A case study is reported of the energy balance of a small SOFC co-generator operated with agricultural biogas, the largest potential source.

  12. Emergy Analysis of Biogas Systems Based on Different Raw Materials

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yang Wang

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Environmental pollution and energy crisis restrict the development of China, and the utilization of renewable technology is an effective strategy to alleviate the damage. Biogas engineering has rapidly developed attributes to solve environmental problems and create a renewable energy product biogas. In this paper, two different biogas plants’ materials were analyzed by emergy method. One of them is a biogas project whose degraded material is feces (BPF system, and the other is the one whose degraded material is corn straw (BPC system. As a result, the ecological-economic values of BPF and BPC are $28,300/yr and $8,100/yr, respectively. Considering currency, environment, and human inputs, both of the biogas projects have the ability of disposing waste and potential for development. The proportion of biogas output is much more than fertilizer output; so, fertilizer utilization should be emphasized in the future. In comparison, BPF is better than BPC in the aspects of ecological-economic benefits, environmental benefits, and sustainability. The reason is the difficulty of corn straw seasonal collection and degradation. Thus it is proposed that BPC should be combined with the other raw materials.

  13. Prospects for expanded utilization of biogas in Germany

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The prospects for expanded utilization of biogas systems in German was analysed, by identifying the operational and policy factors affecting the complete chain of processes from implementation process for biogas plants, through to biogas production and utilization. It was found that the Renewable Energies Act (EEG) and energy tax reliefs provide bases for the support of expanded utilization. Upgrading of biogas to natural gas quality for utilization in the transportation sector was arguably the most promising technology that could support rapid utilization expansion. Sustainable deployment of biogas systems in light of the unstable feedstock prices and availability, and the need for subsidy-free operation in the long term requires; enhancement of feedstock flexibility and quality characteristics to maximise gas yield, and optimisation of the anaerobic digestion process management. Assessment of energy balance and potential environmental impacts of the integrated process chain provides a holistic assessment of sustainability. The results also support the development and foster of policies and framework for development of biogas as environmentally friendly energy resource, among a mix of renewable energy sources, hence, compete favourably with fossil fuels to enhance the prospects for expanded utilization. (author)

  14. Explosion characteristics of synthesised biogas at various temperatures

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dupont, L. [Institut National de l' Environnement Industriel et des Risques, Parc Technologique Alata, BP2, Verneuil-en-Halatte (France)]. E-mail: laurent.dupont@ineris.fr; Accorsi, A. [Institut National de l' Environnement Industriel et des Risques, Parc Technologique Alata, BP2, Verneuil-en-Halatte (France)]. E-mail: antoinette.accorsi@ineris.fr

    2006-08-25

    Biogas is considered as a valuable source of renewable energy. Indeed, it can be turned into useful energy (heat, electricity, fuel) and can contribute to reduce greenhouse gas emissions. Knowledge of its safety characteristics is a very important practical issue. Experimental investigation of synthesised biogas explosion characteristics was conducted in a 20-L sphere at various temperatures (30-70deg. C) and at atmospheric pressure. The studied biogas was made of 50% methane (CH{sub 4}) and 50% carbon dioxide (CO{sub 2}). It was also saturated with humidity: this composition is frequently met in digesters during waste methanisation. There are two inert gases in biogas: water vapour and carbon dioxide. Its vapour water content rises along with temperature. The presence of these inert gases modifies considerably biogas characteristics compared to the ones of pure methane: explosion limits are lowered and beyond 70deg. C, water vapour content is sufficient to inert the mixture. Furthermore, explosion violence (estimated with the maximum rate of pressure rise values (dp/dt){sub max}) is three times lower for biogas than for pure methane at ambient temperature.

  15. Factors affecting process temperature and biogas production in small-scale rural biogas digesters in winter in northern Vietnam

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Cuong, Pham Hung; Vu, C.C.; Sommer, Sven G.;

    2014-01-01

    and 180 cm, biogas production and methane (CH4) concentration in biogas from August to February. In parallel the temperature of the air (100 cm above ground), in the slurry mixing tank and in the soil (10, 100, 140, and 180 cm depth) was measured by thermocouple. The influent amount was measured daily...... and the influent chemical composition was measured monthly during the whole experimental period. Seasonal variations in air temperature significantly affected the temperature in the soil, mixing tank and digester. Consequently, biogas production, which is temperature dependent, was influenced by the...... season. The main factors determining the internal temperature in the digesters were insulation with Styrofoam, air temperature and temperature of slurry in the mixing tank. Biogas production is low due to the cold climate conditions in winter in Northern Vietnam, but the study proved that storing slurry...

  16. Performance of a cycle Otto engine using biogas; Desempenho de um motor ciclo Otto utilizando biogas como combustivel

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Souza, Juliano de [Universidade Estadual do Oeste do Parana (UNIOESTE), Cascavel, PR (Brazil). Centro de Ciencias Exatas e Tecnologicas], e-mail: jsouza@unioeste.br; Souza, Samuel N. Melegari de [Universidade Estadual do Oeste do Parana (UNIOESTE), Cascavel, PR (Brazil)], e-mail: ssouza@unioeste.br; Machado, Paulo Romeu M. [Universidade Federal de Santa Maria (UFSM), RS (Brazil). Dept. de Engenharia Mecanica

    2004-07-01

    The rising of the oil prices is increasing the search for alternative fuels. Brazil has a great availability of biogas from anaerobic digestion in the rural area, urban waste in the landfills and treatment of the municipal sewer. In this work were evaluated in dynamometer a cycle Otto engine using biogas, and were obtained the characteristics curves of torque and power. First was done the evidence test with gasoline, biogas and natural gas, using commercial systems for this fuels, using as comparison for other tests. After has been done tests for some combinations of ignition point, mixer of gas and compression tax. By the analysis of the results has been concluded that the better results for power and torque using biogas as fuel were with a tax compression of 12,5:1, gas mixer long and ignition point advanced in 45 deg. (author)

  17. Guide biogas. From production to utilization. 5. compl. rev. ed.; Leitfaden Biogas. Von der Gewinnung zur Nutzung

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2010-07-01

    The book under consideration is a guide for biogas and consists of the following contributions: (a) Targets of the guide (M. Kaltschmitt); (b) Fundamentals of anaerobic fermentation (J. Friehe); (c) Systems engineering for supplying biogas (J. Postel); (d) Description of selected substrates (J. Friehe); (e) Operation of biogas plants (J. Liebetrau); (f) Gas processing and possibilities of utilization (M. Wetthaeuser); (g) Legal and administrative framework conditions (H. von Bredow); (g) Economy (S. Hartmann); (h) Company organisation (G. Reinhold); (i) Quality and utilization of fermentation residues (H. Doehler); (j) Implementation of a project (E. Fischer); (k) Position and significance of biogas as a renewable energy resource in Germany (M. Kaltschmitt); (l) Project examples (J. Friehe).

  18. Progress in biogas II - Biogas production from agricultural biomass and organic residues. Pt. 1. Proceedings; Progress in Biogas II - Biogasproduktion aus landwirtschaftlicher Biomasse und organischen Reststoffen. T. 1. Tagungsband

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2011-08-12

    Within the International Congress at the University of Hohenheim (Stuttgart, Federal Republic of Germany) from 29th March to 1st April, 2011, the following lectures were held: (1) Biogas in Europe (F. Scholwin); (2) Biogas development in China: International Cooperation to up-scale the technology (Z. Li); (3) The methane to markets initiative and opportunities for livestock manure digesters in the United states (C. Voell); (4) Biogas for sanitation in Africa - experiences from creating a sustainable market 2003 to 2010 (M. Lebofa); (5) Are biogas plants in Baden-Wuerttemberg efficient? (M. Stanull); (6) The Estonian theoretical and practical biogas production potential and economically feasible feed-in-tariff for renewable electricity for micro CHP using biogas (A. Oja); (7) Biomass potentials for biogas utilization and the effects on sustainability in Kalugo (P. Fiedler); (8) An Integrated Energy System applied to Milking Dairy Cows (I. Bywater); (9) WINUBIO-Alternative technology to improve Austria's biogas capacity (V. Steinmueller); (10) Interdisciplinary approaches to advances in sustainable biogas production in Europe (S. Kusch); (11) Problems encountered in disseminating biogas technology in Uganda (G. Mabudo); (12) reasons to the success to biogas program in Nepal (K. Dawadi); (13) Effects of increasing biomass production for energetic utilization on soil fertility in the German Federal State on Brandenburg (J. Zimmer); (14) Biogas plants as part of sustainable development within peasant family farms in Germany - Interim results of an empirical field study (A. Bischoff); (15) Life cycle assessment of heat and power generation in biogas fed combined heat and power plants under German conditions (J. Lansche); (16) Biogas from lignocellulosic biomass: interest of pretreatments (H. Carrere); (17) Effect of physical and thermal pre-treatments on biogas yield of some agricultural by-products (P. Balsari); (18) Extrusion pre-treatment of green waste for

  19. Combustion of Biogas Released from Palm Oil Mill Effluent and the Effects of Hydrogen Enrichment on the Characteristics of the Biogas Flame

    OpenAIRE

    Seyed Ehsan Hosseini; Ghobad Bagheri; Mostafa Khaleghi; Mazlan Abdul Wahid

    2015-01-01

    Biogas released from palm oil mill effluent (POME) could be a source of air pollution, which has illustrated negative effects on the global warming. To protect the environment from toxic emissions and use the energy of POME biogas, POME is conducted to the closed digestion systems and released biogas is captured. Since POME biogas upgrading is a complicated process, it is not economical and thus new combustion techniques should be examined. In this paper, POME biogas (40% CO2 and 60% CH4) has...

  20. International scientific conference biogas science 2009. Vol. 1. Lectures; Internationale Wissenschaftstagung Biogas Science 2009. Bd. 1. Vortraege

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2009-12-15

    Within the international conference of the Bavarian State Research Center for Agriculture (Munich, Federal Republic of Germany) at 2nd to 4th December, 2009, in Erding (Federal Republic of Germany), the following lectures were held: (1) Significance of the sector biogas within the scope of renewable energies (P. Schuesseler); (2) Anaerobic digestion, a superior renewable energy degradation method (G. Lettinga); (3) Trends of the biogas technology - Challenges for the practice (J. Pellmeyer); (4) Extensification of cultivation procedures for the production of biogas substrates (K. Deiglmayer et al.); (5) Approaches for the optimization of crop rotations for biogas plants at Bavarian conditions of cultivation (E. Sticksel et al.); (6) Development and comparison of site specific production systems for energy crops (Ch. Strauss et al.); (7) Which type of maize is useful for the production of biogas? (B. Eder et al.); (8) Fermentation of interim fruits, food stocks and residues of harvest: Review on the possibilities of power generation and avoidance of direct and indirect emissions of climatic gases (W. Stinner et al.); (9) Optimization of anaerobic fermentation by means of mineral additives (H. Heuwinkel et al.); (10) The accuracy of the measurement of gas yields of substrates using the batch method (H. Heuwinkel et al.); (11) Combined mechanical-enzymatic pre-treatment of an improved digestion of substrates during the fermentation of renewable raw materials (D. Schiedr et al.); (12) Anaerobic semi-continuous co-digestion of dairy cattle manure and agricultural residues: Effect of operational parameters (E. Alkaya et al.); (13) Do hydrolytic enzymes enhance methane formation of agricultural feedstock? (T. Suarez Quinones et al.); (14) DAUMEN-Energy ''Design fo Separation and Augmented Methanisation of Fibres Substrates - Contribution to sustainable biogas production'' (P. Stopp et al.); (15) Continuous two-phase solid-state anaerobic digestion

  1. Feeding biogas onto the national gas grid - Technical and economical aspects on omitting propane addition; Inmatning av biogas paa naturgasnaetet - Tekniska och ekonomiska aspekter paa slopad propantillsats

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nelsson, Corfitz

    2012-07-01

    Biogas injection into the natural gas grid is a common practice in Sweden today. In order to condition the biogas to the quality matching the natural gas, propane (approx. 8 %) is injected in the biogas. This is a costly procedure which also introduces fossil components into a renewable gas flow. Because of this, it is desired to terminate the propane injection and inject biogas straight into the gas grid. This might affect certain customers and will affect billing procedures and this study has briefly examined the impact of injection of biogas in the gas grid without propane addition. The main findings are: 1. It seems technically possible to inject biogas without propane into the gas grid. Attention has to be paid to the quality requirements of certain sensitive customers, but most customers can accept the quality variations. 2. It is recommended that the minimum methane content of injected biogas is raised to 98 %. This might affect the operation and choice of upgrading equipment and will have to be evaluated from both a technical and an economical viewpoint in each case. 3. Downgrading the natural gas to biogas quality by air injection is not an option. 4. In order to make simplify billing procedures, the geographic location of biogas site injecting gas into the distribution network is crucial. The biogas site should be placed as close to the transmission network as possible. Further, two case studies concerning biogas injection into the transmission network are briefly discussed.

  2. Beets for biogas. News from the laboratory and practice; Rueben fuer Biogas. Neues aus Labor und Praxis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jeche, Ulrike [KWS Saat AG, Einbeck (Germany). Vertrieb Zuckerruebe Deutschland und Oesterreich; Schaffner, Sebastian

    2011-07-01

    Being a multi-talented crop, sugar beets are increasingly convincing biogas plant owners with their positive properties. In a mixture of substrates, they are a perfect partner for biogas production as they can push gas yield. In breeding, the experts mainly focus on increasing dry matter yield. There is a close correlation with sugar yield. The market already offers a multitude of highly performing sugar beet varieties for most diverse cropping conditions. The beets are harvested and transported from the field to the biogas plant with harvesting and transport technology which has proved its efficiency for many years. Other than harvested for other purposes, sugar beet for biogas production are stripped of their leaves instead of being topped. Stocking sugar beet at the biogas plant is a quite demanding issue. Sugar beets may be stocked as ensiled, whole beet, as pulp, or as crushed beet in mixed silage. There is a whole range of most diverse storage and crushing concepts. When used as a substrate for biogas production, sugar beet mostly need to be cleaned and stones need to be discarded before feeding the beets into the digester. In the meanwhile, the market offers a large choice of cleaning technique to pave the ways for sugar beets as a substrate. (orig.)

  3. Performance of the biogas project in Ziyang sugar factory

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dezhao He [Chengdu Biogas Research Inst., Chengdu (China)

    2000-07-01

    Located in Houjiaping town, Ziyang county, Ziyang Sugar Factory was installed in 1958 as a state enterprise, which mainly processes sugar cane to produce sugar. Sideline products include alcohol and paper. Nowadays, its daily capacity of sugar cane extraction is 1,000 tons and potable alcohol production is 15 - 20 tons. Its annual output value is 25 million Yuan. This plant is one of the backbones in Sichuan sugar cane processing enterprises. The biogas project of the Ziyang Sugar Factory was one of the large biogas installations in China, completed during the Seventh Five-year Plan. The distillery wastewater (slops) from the alcoholic fermentation process of starch (fresh potato, dry potato, kernel and Chinese sorghum) and sugar molasses as substrates is disposed of. The slop has a low pH, a high organic concentration, a high content of suspended solids, a dark colour and a high temperature. Its daily discharge quantity is 200 tons corresponding to 2/3 of total wastewater in that plant. It is a serious source of water pollution when it is directly discharged into Tuojiang River. Therefore, due to its high concentration of polluting substances, anaerobic treatment of distillery wastewater has been decided. This is the first case of wastewater treatment in Nudging city. The construction of this biogas installation started in July 1987. On November 25, 1988, the digester began to produce biogas. Up to now, the digesters have properly operated for more than one year. Besides its use as daily household fuel for the 810 employees, biogas is also supplied to the plant cafeteria as cooking fuel and to some production purposes within the plant, which has achieved obvious economic benefits. The designed capacity of daily biogas production for this biogas plant is 3,000 - 4,000 m{sup 3}. (orig.)

  4. Analysis of different substrates for processing into biogas

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    B. Mursec

    2009-12-01

    Full Text Available Purpose: The main target is to produce as much biogas as possible with highest possible biomethane content from crops representing the principal fuel for driving the gas motors and electric generators and, consequently, production of electricity.Design/methodology/approach: The biogas production was measured by a mini digester according to the German standard DIN 38414, Part 8. It was effected in the mesophilic temperature range. The biogas production from six different energy crops and pig slurry was measured in the laboratory of the Faculty of Agriculture and Life Sciences. In six trial fields the monocultures such as maize, sorghum, amaranth, sunflower, Jerusalem artichoke and sugar beet were grown.Findings: The highest biomethane production was achieved with the sunflower substrate (283 Nl/kgVS, followed by the sorghum substrate (188 Nl/kgVS and maize (187 Nl/kgVS. The amaranth substrate produced 225 Nl/kgVS and the Jerusalem artichoke 115 Nl/kgVS. The least amount of biomethane was produced from the sugar beet (95 Nl/kgVS.Research limitations/implications: The basic structure of the laboratory device is welded from stainless steel (inox and is limited by the following dimensions: 2500 mm length, 1000 mm height and 350 mm width. The device consists of twelve units of fermentors ensuring four tests simultaneously with three replications and assuring high accuracy of results.Practical implications: The test fermentors serve to test the biogas production from different energy crops and other materials of organic origin. The results reached serve to plan the electricity production in the biogas production plant.Originality/value: The mini digesters simulated in laboratory the actual state from the biogas production plant. Anaerobic fermentation was introduced and the biogas to be processed into electricity was produced.

  5. Experimental and economical evaluation of a novel biogas digester

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Highlights: • Textile biogas digester was tested with synthetic nutrients and MSW. • Economical evaluation was made with replacement of LPG and kerosene. • The investment is positive until the price of fuel goes down. • Sensitivity analysis was performed to check the stability of the digester. - Abstract: Many developing countries face an energy demand to satisfy the daily needs of the people. Household biogas digesters are among the interesting solutions to meet the energy demands for cooking and lighting, and at the same time taking care of the kitchen wastes. In this study, a novel textile-based biogas digester was developed. The digester was evaluated for biogas production from a synthetic nutrient and an organic fraction of municipal solid waste (OFMSW) as substrates for more than a year. The obtained biogas productivity in both experiments was 570 L/kgVS/day, which indicates that the digester is as efficient in handling of OFMSW as the synthetic nutrients. Based on the obtained biogas production data, the techno-economic evaluation and sensitivity analysis for the process were performed, replacing LPG and kerosene consumption with biogas in households. A 2-m3 digester can supply the fuel needed for cooking for a family of 4–6 people. The sum of investment and 15-years operational costs of this digester was 656 USD, which can be compared with 1455 USD for subsidized-LPG and 975 USD for kerosene, respectively. The results from the sensitivity analysis show that it was a positive investment, unless the price of kerosene goes down to less than 0.18 USD/L

  6. Biogas recovery from waste organic materials: a comparative experimental study

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Full text: Biogas production from organic waste is already traditional method for treatment of agricultural waste with simultaneous energy recovery in the form of biogas. However, biogas can also be produced efficiently treating organic waste from beverage industries and biodiesel production. In the latter case, huge amounts of crude glycerol are released posing severe problems with their treatment. The main obstacle to the efficient waste treatment by anaerobic digestion is the sensitivity of the methanogenic bacteria toward pH variations. When the digester is overloaded, high concentrations of organic acids are produced damping the activity of methanogenes. This problem can be overcome by separating the digester into different compartments, enabling the development of the consecutive processes of hydrolysis, acidogenesis and methanogenesis in different spaces.; In the present study results of biogas production from poultry litter, stillage from ethanol production, and crude glycerol from biodiesel manufacturing are presented. The experiments were carried out in a continuous baffled anaerobic reactor. It was established that the process with glycerol utilization was too sensitive toward the loading because of intensive acid formation as intermediates. The process with stillage as substrate was stable and well steered for months with very high biogas yield (350 I/kg COD) at high production rate, i.e. up to 4 wd'. The microbial profiles, the pH values and the intermediate concentrations along the reactor were determined and correlated with the biogas yield. Different microbial strains and profiles for the different substrates were observed. In the case of glycerol digestion, almost one bacterial genus, i.e. Klebsiella sp., was detected besides the methanogenes, which enables to make speculations about the pathway of competitive intermediate, biogas, and final products formation

  7. Development of a biogas purifier for rural areas in Japan

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kimura, Y.; Hinata, T. [Hokkaido Central Agricultural Experiment Station, Hokkaido (Japan); Yasui, S. [Zukosha Co. Ltd., Obihiro, Hokkaido (Japan); Noguchi, N. [Hokkaido Univ., Sapporo, Hokkaido (Japan); Tsukamoto, T. [IHI Shibaura. Co. Ltd., Obihiro, Hokkaido (Japan); Imai, T. [Green Plan Co. Ltd., Sapporo, Hokkaido (Japan); Kanai, M. [Air Water Co. Ltd, Sakai, Osaka (Japan); Matsuda, Z. [Hokuren Agricultural Research Center, Sapporo, Hokkaido (Japan)

    2010-07-01

    Although the biogas that is currently produced for dairy farms in Japan is a carbon-neutral energy, its use is restricted to farming areas only because there is no effective method of transporting unused biogas. There is a need for establishing practical methods for biogas removal from operating systems. In this study, a gas separation membrane was used in order to modify biogas to city gas 12A specifications, and to develop a biogas purifier equipped with a device to fill high pressure purified gas into cylinders to be taken outside the farming area. The objective was to expand the use of biogas produced from stand-alone gas plants. The amount of purified gas produced at a newly created refining-compression-filling (RCF) facility was approximately 97.0 Nm{sup 3}/day, for a raw material amount of about 216.0 Nm{sup 3}/day. The heat quantity of the purified gas was 38.9 MJ/Nm{sup 3}, which was within city gas 12A specifications. A total of 14.3 cylinders were filled each day with the manufactured purified gas. Test calculations along with a simulation exercise revealed that it would be possible to provide purified gas to approximately 6 per cent of common residences in a town in northern Japan. It was concluded that the newly created RCF facility allowed the modification of carbon-neutral biogas to conform to city gas 12A specifications, and allowed the transport of this gas out of the farming area.

  8. The Success of Biogas Plants in Nepal: A Note on Gender

    OpenAIRE

    Opdam, J. Hans M.

    1997-01-01

    This article describes a successful programme to disseminate biogas plants in Nepal, and summarises the findings of various studies on the impact of the biogas technology on the quality of life of women.

  9. PRELIMINARY STUDY ON BIOGAS PRODUCTION OF BIOGAS FROM MUNICIPAL SOLID WASTE (MSW) LEACHATE

    OpenAIRE

    WAN AZLINA WAN AB KARIM GHANI; AZNI IDRIS

    2009-01-01

    Laboratory-scale digesters were operated to study the effect of leachate chemical oxygen demand strength on biogas (methane) production. Three sets of experiment were performed using municipal solid waste leachate slurry with two different chemical oxygen demand strength strengths namely 3000 and 21000 mg/L (referred as low and high strength, respectively). The experiments were conducted at a controlled temperature of 35°C and pH ranging from 6.8 to 7.3 over 20 days period. The process perfor...

  10. Progress in biogas II - Biogas production from agricultural biomass and organic residues. Pt. 1. Proceedings; Progress in Biogas II - Biogasproduktion aus landwirtschaftlicher Biomasse und organischen Reststoffen. T. 1. Tagungsband

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2011-08-12

    Within the International Congress at the University of Hohenheim (Stuttgart, Federal Republic of Germany) from 29th March to 1st April, 2011, the following lectures were held: (1) Biogas in Europe (F. Scholwin); (2) Biogas development in China: International Cooperation to up-scale the technology (Z. Li); (3) The methane to markets initiative and opportunities for livestock manure digesters in the United states (C. Voell); (4) Biogas for sanitation in Africa - experiences from creating a sustainable market 2003 to 2010 (M. Lebofa); (5) Are biogas plants in Baden-Wuerttemberg efficient? (M. Stanull); (6) The Estonian theoretical and practical biogas production potential and economically feasible feed-in-tariff for renewable electricity for micro CHP using biogas (A. Oja); (7) Biomass potentials for biogas utilization and the effects on sustainability in Kalugo (P. Fiedler); (8) An Integrated Energy System applied to Milking Dairy Cows (I. Bywater); (9) WINUBIO-Alternative technology to improve Austria's biogas capacity (V. Steinmueller); (10) Interdisciplinary approaches to advances in sustainable biogas production in Europe (S. Kusch); (11) Problems encountered in disseminating biogas technology in Uganda (G. Mabudo); (12) reasons to the success to biogas program in Nepal (K. Dawadi); (13) Effects of increasing biomass production for energetic utilization on soil fertility in the German Federal State on Brandenburg (J. Zimmer); (14) Biogas plants as part of sustainable development within peasant family farms in Germany - Interim results of an empirical field study (A. Bischoff); (15) Life cycle assessment of heat and power generation in biogas fed combined heat and power plants under German conditions (J. Lansche); (16) Biogas from lignocellulosic biomass: interest of pretreatments (H. Carrere); (17) Effect of physical and thermal pre-treatments on biogas yield of some agricultural by-products (P. Balsari); (18) Extrusion pre-treatment of green waste for

  11. Biogas Power Plants in Poland—Structure, Capacity, and Spatial Distribution

    OpenAIRE

    Daniela Szymańska; Aleksandra Lewandowska

    2015-01-01

    This paper presents the analysis and evaluation of biogas power plant capacity in Poland based on the generic structure and energy production. These issues are also presented from the point of view of the obtained energy and biogas energy production in Poland against selected European Union countries. The paper also indicates a significant diversity in the spatial distribution of biogas plants in Poland. It also discusses the importance of biogas plants as one of the elements of bottom-up dev...

  12. Agricultural biogas plants – a chance for diversification of agriculture in Poland

    OpenAIRE

    Chodkowska-Miszczuk, Justyna; Szymańska, Daniela

    2013-01-01

    The aim of the analysis is to present the implementation and development of agricultural biogas plants as a chance for diversification of agriculture in Poland. The main exogenous and endogenous determinants of the development of agriculture biogas plants in Poland were indicated. It is an attempt to present agricultural biogas plants in terms of their spatial distribution as well as the installed capacity and efficiency of agricultural biogas installations. Moreover, the feedstock structure ...

  13. ENHANCEMENT OF BIOGAS PRODUCTION POTENTIAL FOR ANAEROBIC CO-DIGESTION OF WASTEWATER USING DECANTER CAKE

    OpenAIRE

    Thaniya Kaosol; Narumol Sohgrathok

    2012-01-01

    The wastewater from agro-industry treated with the biological treatment cannot produce the biogas because of its low COD level and its low organic content. In this research, the co-digestion with decanter cake will improve the biogas yield and biogas production of wastewater. The effect of three parameters (i.e., type of wastewater, mixing and mesophilic temperature) will be evaluated in batch digesters under anaerobic condition. Moreover, the study determines the biogas production potential ...

  14. ENHANCEMENT OF BIOGAS PRODUCTION POTENTIAL FOR ANAEROBIC CO-DIGESTION OF WASTEWATER USING DECANTER CAKE

    OpenAIRE

    Thaniya Kaosol; Narumol Sohgrathok

    2013-01-01

    The wastewater from agro-industry treated with the biological treatment cannot produce the biogas because of its low COD level and its low organic content. In this research, the co-digestion with decanter cake will improve the biogas yield and biogas production of wastewater. The effect of three parameters (i.e., type of wastewater, mixing and mesophilic temperature) will be evaluated in batch digesters under anaerobic condition. Moreover, the study determines the biogas production potential ...

  15. Biogas Production from Household Wastes : A Quantitative Feasibility Study for Student Apartments in Albano

    OpenAIRE

    Önder, Deniz

    2013-01-01

    Biogas is an environmentally friendly energy source with great importance for sustainable development. The purpose of this study is to determine the feasibility of setting up a biogas plant at the student housing area planned at Albano in Stockholm. The possibility of attaining self-sustainability in Albano is also investigated. After compiling the processes for converting household waste into biogas through a literature study, a quantitative feasibility study of setting up a biogas plant is ...

  16. COMPARISON BETWEEN BIOGAS PRODUCTION FROM MANURE OF LAYING HENERS AND BROILERS

    OpenAIRE

    Srećko Kukić; Branimir Bračun; Davor Kralik; Robert T. Burns; Slavko Rupčić; Daria Jovičić

    2010-01-01

    Biogas plants that process raw materials from agriculture, such as poultry manure,are one of the most significant applications of anaerobic fermentation. In Asiancountries, particularly in China, India, Nepal and Vietnam, there are several millionvery simple, small biogas plants that produce gas for household cooking and lighting.In Europe and North America a number of agricultural biogas plants now, areincreasing daily, a few thousand biogas plants exist, most of which use moderntechnologies...

  17. The contribution of Slovenian biogas plants to the reduction of agricultural sector green house emissions

    OpenAIRE

    Romana MARINŠEK LOGAR; Neža NOVAK; Vodovnik, Maša

    2015-01-01

    Agriculture is a source of emissions of the greenhouse gas methane into the environment. These emissions can be reduced by appropriate storage of animal slurry and manure, with proper fertilization and processing of organic agricultural waste into biogas, where methane is captured and used as an energy source. Biogas is a renewable source of energy that is produced by microbial anaerobic digestion in biogas plants. As a substrate in biogas plants using different types of organic biomass such ...

  18. The impact of mesophilic and thermophilic anaerobic digestion on biogas production

    OpenAIRE

    P. Vindis; B. Mursec; M. Janzekovic; F. Cus

    2009-01-01

    Purpose: of this paper is to compare mesophilic and thermophilic anaerobic digestion of three maize varieties. Parameters such as biogas production and biogas composition from maize silage were measured and calculated. The amount of biogas production (methane) was observed by the mini digester.Design/methodology/approach: Biogas production and composition in mesophilic (35 degrees C) and thermophilic (55 degrees C) conditions were measured and compared. The measurements were performed with mi...

  19. Life cycle assessment of biogas from separated slurry

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hamelin, L.; Wesnaes, M.; Wenzel, H. (Univ. of Southern Denmark, Odense (Denmark)); Molt Petersen, B. (Aarhus Univ.. Faculty of Agricultural Sciences, Aarhus (Denmark))

    2010-07-01

    The environmental aspects of biogas production based on pre-treated slurry from fattening pigs and dairy cows have been investigated in a life cycle perspective. The pre-treatment consists of concentrating the slurry using a separation technology. Significant environmental benefits, compared to the status quo slurry management, can be obtained for both pig and cow slurry, especially regarding reductions of the contributions to global warming, but the results depend to a large extent on the efficiency of the separation technology. Adding separation after the biogas plant can contribute to a more efficient management of the phosphorus, and this has also been investigated. Based on the results of the study it can be concluded that: 1) The environmental benefits of biogas from separated slurry are very dependent upon the separation efficiency (for carbon, nitrogen and phosphorous). This particularly applies for carbon, as the separation efficiency defines the extent to which the degradable carbon contained in the slurry is transferred to the biogas plant. Efficient separation can be obtained by using polymer, but also by using a suitable separation technology. It could be mentioned that the decanter centrifuge used has a rather high efficiency of transferring volatile solids (VS) to the fibre fraction also without the use of polymer. 2) Biogas production from separated slurry can lead to significant reductions in the contributions to global warming, provided that the 'best available technologies' described in the report are used. That includes, among others: - a covered and short time storage of the fibre fraction before entering the biogas plant, - a 2-step biogas production where the post-digestion tank is covered with air-tight cover, - a covered storage of the degassed fibre fraction The benefits are also highly dependent upon the source of energy substituted by the biogas. 3) Based on evidences from reviewed studies, the cationic polyacrylamide polymer

  20. Continuous dry fermentation of swine manure for biogas production

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chen, Chuang; Zheng, Dan [Biogas Institute of Ministry of Agriculture, Chengdu 610041 (China); Liu, Gang–Jin [Biogas Institute of Ministry of Agriculture, Chengdu 610041 (China); Bioprocess Control AB, Scheelevägen 22, 223 63 Lund (Sweden); Deng, Liang–Wei, E-mail: dengliangwei@caas.cn [Biogas Institute of Ministry of Agriculture, Chengdu 610041 (China); Laboratory of Development and Application of Rural Renewable Energy, Ministry of Agriculture, Chengdu 610041 (China); Southwest Collaborative Innovation Center of Swine for Quality & Safety, Chengdu 611130 (China); Long, Yan; Fan, Zhan–Hui [Biogas Institute of Ministry of Agriculture, Chengdu 610041 (China)

    2015-04-15

    Highlights: • Continuous dry fermentation of swine manure for biogas production is feasible. • The feedstock TS concentration exerted a significant impact on biogas production. • Influences of ammonia and digestate liquidity were investigated in this study. • The results showed that the feedstock TS of swine manure should not exceed 30%. - Abstract: A down plug-flow anaerobic reactor (DPAR) was designed for the feasibility study on continuous dry fermentation of swine manure without any additional stirring. Using fresh swine manure as the feedstock with TS concentration (w/w) of 20%, 25%, 30%, and 35%, stable volumetric biogas production rates of 2.40, 1.92, 0.911, and 0.644 L·(L d){sup −1} and biogas yields of 0.665, 0.532, 0.252, and 0.178 L g{sup −1}VS were obtained respectively, and the TS degradation rates were 46.5%, 45.4%, 53.2%, and 55.6%, respectively. With the increase of feedstock TS concentration, the concentration of ammonia nitrogen grew up to the maximum value of 3500 mg L{sup −1}. Biogas production was obviously inhibited when the concentration of ammonia nitrogen was above 3000 mg L{sup −1}. The maximal volumetric biogas production rate of 2.34 L·(L d){sup −1} and biogas yield of 0.649 L g{sup −1}VS were obtained with TS concentration of 25% at 25 °C without inhibition. Liquidity experiments showed that TS concentration of digestate could be less than 15.8%, and the flow rate of digestate more than 0.98 m s{sup −1} when the feedstock TS concentration was less than 35%, which indicated the digestate could be easily discharged from a DPAR. Therefore, it is feasible to conduct a continuous dry fermentation in a DPAR using fresh swine manure as the feedstock with TS concentration less than 35%, whereas the feedstock TS concentration should not exceed 30% to achieve the maximal biogas production rate and biogas yield.

  1. Continuous dry fermentation of swine manure for biogas production

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Highlights: • Continuous dry fermentation of swine manure for biogas production is feasible. • The feedstock TS concentration exerted a significant impact on biogas production. • Influences of ammonia and digestate liquidity were investigated in this study. • The results showed that the feedstock TS of swine manure should not exceed 30%. - Abstract: A down plug-flow anaerobic reactor (DPAR) was designed for the feasibility study on continuous dry fermentation of swine manure without any additional stirring. Using fresh swine manure as the feedstock with TS concentration (w/w) of 20%, 25%, 30%, and 35%, stable volumetric biogas production rates of 2.40, 1.92, 0.911, and 0.644 L·(L d)−1 and biogas yields of 0.665, 0.532, 0.252, and 0.178 L g−1VS were obtained respectively, and the TS degradation rates were 46.5%, 45.4%, 53.2%, and 55.6%, respectively. With the increase of feedstock TS concentration, the concentration of ammonia nitrogen grew up to the maximum value of 3500 mg L−1. Biogas production was obviously inhibited when the concentration of ammonia nitrogen was above 3000 mg L−1. The maximal volumetric biogas production rate of 2.34 L·(L d)−1 and biogas yield of 0.649 L g−1VS were obtained with TS concentration of 25% at 25 °C without inhibition. Liquidity experiments showed that TS concentration of digestate could be less than 15.8%, and the flow rate of digestate more than 0.98 m s−1 when the feedstock TS concentration was less than 35%, which indicated the digestate could be easily discharged from a DPAR. Therefore, it is feasible to conduct a continuous dry fermentation in a DPAR using fresh swine manure as the feedstock with TS concentration less than 35%, whereas the feedstock TS concentration should not exceed 30% to achieve the maximal biogas production rate and biogas yield

  2. Anaerobic digestion foaming in full-scale biogas plants: A survey on causes and solutions

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kougias, Panagiotis; Boe, Kanokwan; O-Thong, Sompong;

    2014-01-01

    Anaerobic digestion foaming is a common operation problem in biogas plants with negative impacts on the biogas plants economy and environment. A survey of 16 Danish full-scale biogas plants on foaming problems revealed that most of them had experienced foaming in their processes up to three times...

  3. Biogas Upgrading Using SOEC with a Ni-ScYSZ Electrode

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ebbesen, Sune Dalgaard; Bøgild Hansen, John; Mogensen, Mogens Bjerg

    2013-01-01

    Biogas consists mainly of CH4, CO2 and small amounts of H2S. The value of biogas will increase significantly if it is upgraded to pipeline quality by converting CO2 and H2O in the biogas to CO and H2 using a Solid Oxide Electrolysis Cell (SOEC) followed by methanation. The Ni-ScYSZ-cermet electrode...

  4. Biogas production on organic farms: Sustainable energy and better nutrient cycling

    OpenAIRE

    Grieb, Beatrice; Zerger, Uli

    2014-01-01

    Biogas production in organic farming is an approach to combine renewable energy and organic farming with numerous positive impacts on the farming system. In Germany biogas on organic farms has a long tradition, now the EU Project “SUSTAINGAS” aims at promotion of this issue on an EU-level. In this context a description of organic biogas was established.

  5. Biogas in Portugal: Status and public policies in a European context

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The current status and legal framework of biogas production in Portugal are analyzed and compared to that of five other European countries, characterized by wide-ranging diversity of substrates and biogas applications. With this comparison, and with the calculation of the biogas energy potential in Portugal, the authors want to assess the significance of developing the Portuguese biogas sector. This study illustrates that the highest biogas feed-in tariffs are applied in the countries with a more developed sector. In Portugal, despite the fact that the organic effluents are a relevant energy source (873 Mm3 biogas per year; 4889 GW h yr−1) and that new feed-in tariffs were established, biogas valorisation is still at an early stage. The importance of anaerobic digestion was only recognized in 2007 and the present installed power is about 10% of the potential electrical power (229 MW). Therefore, it is desirable to strengthen the national and regional biogas market. - Highlights: ► This work is a contribution to promote the development of national biogas sector. ► Current state of biogas production in EU is presented: five countries are considered. ► Portuguese legal framework on biogas is compared to other European countries. ► Organic effluents produced in Portugal are by themselves a relevant source of energy. ► The biogas sector in Portugal is still at an early stage of growth.

  6. Chongqing focus on the development of general situation and proposal of biogas engineering of new technologies

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    邹建

    2014-01-01

    Chongqing attaches great importance to the development of clean, renewable energy, the development of centralized biogas industry as to promote energy structure transformation, improve resource utilization strategy level, promote sustainable economic and social development. This paper introduces the definition, construction of centralized biogas new technology engineering, focus on development status and mode, biogas new technology engineering problems, and puts forward suggestions of sustainable development.

  7. The Biogas/Biofertilizer Business Handbook. Third Edition. Appropriate Technologies for Development. Reprint R-48.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arnott, Michael

    This book describes one approach to building and operating biogas systems. The biogas systems include raw material preparation, digesters, separate gas storage tanks, use of the gas to run engines, and the use of the sludge as fertilizer. Chapters included are: (1) "Introduction"; (2) "Biogas Systems are Small Factories"; (3) "The Raw Materials of…

  8. GlidArc-assisted production of synthesis gas from biogas

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    We present an emerging biogas reformer based on a direct use of high-voltage discharges (called GlidArc) that strike in the flow of such widely available and renewable feedstock without any gas separation or purification. A poor biogas (containing only 35 - 50 vol.% of methane) is partially converted into hydrogen and carbon monoxide (SynGas). Such enhanced biogas can, for example, be used as gaseous fuel in Internal Combustion Engines, be considered as source of Hydrogen for PEM fuel cells or be directly consumed in some specific Fuel Cells. Any level of impurities is accepted for our reformer where the discharges provide all energy and catalytic assistance for endothermic process of so-called 'dry' reforming of CH4 + CO2 into H2 + CO. Our tests with simulated biogas are performed in a 1.4-L reactor working at atmospheric pressure at up to 0.6 kW electric power. Such input is fully sufficient to process a flow of a poor biogas carrying up to 7 kW of thermal power. (author)

  9. Biogas production from cattle manure by anaerobic digestion

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Full text: In order to deal with the energy shortage problem, we are searching for more alternative energy resources especially renewable or sustainable. Biogas is one of the solutions in dealing with the energy shortage problem. Biogas is a type of energy resources derives from organic matter during the process called anaerobic digestion. The biogas produced is mainly consisting of methane and carbon dioxide. In this research, diluted cattle manure (1:1 ration with water) was inoculated with palm oil mill (POME) activated sludge at the ratio of 1:5 and placed in a 10 liter bioreactor. The temperature and pH in the bioreactor was regulated at 6.95 and 53 degree Celsius, respectively to enhance the anaerobic digestion process. Parameters such as chemical oxygen demand, biochemical oxygen demand, total solid, volatile solid, ammonia nitrogen (NH3-N), methane (CH4) and the volume of biogas generated was monitored for effectiveness of the treatment of cattle manure via anaerobic digestion. The total volume of biogas produced in this study is 80.25 liter in 29 days while being able to treat the COD content up to 52 %. (author)

  10. Barriers to the development of the biogas industry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Barriers to the development of Canada's biogas industry were explored with the aim of resolving conflicting regulatory issues related to biogas. Four biogas farm systems are currently operating in Ontario, and funding for a further 20 systems is available. However, most projects have been blocked before construction, and other projects continue to be delayed by grid connection and power purchase issues. Planning permission, zoning, environmental regulations, and property taxation issues are also currently challenging the development of the industry. The use of off-farm waste for the plants has also caused planning problems and delays. Land used to transform or manufacture electricity will soon be included in the industrial tax class. The installation of generation capacity may also alter property values. The use of fats, oils, and greases also requires complicated monitoring and processing procedures. Obtaining certificates for waste handling is difficult and time-consuming. Biogas plants also face significant transmission constraints. Prospective generators are required to determine if their local sub-stations have spare capacity. Generators are also required to pay for all the costs associated with their connection to the grid. Connection to Hydro One is more expensive than connections to other distribution companies in Canada, and there are no existing connection standards. Biogas system operators also face difficulties with rural connections. The cost of anti-islanding protection is high. It was concluded that grid access is the key to renewable energy development in Ontario. tabs., figs

  11. Local acceptance of existing biogas plants in Switzerland

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    After the Swiss government's decision to decommission its five nuclear power plants by 2035, energy production from wind, biomass, biogas and photovoltaic is expected to increase significantly. Due to its many aspects of a direct democracy, high levels of public acceptance are necessary if a substantial increase in new renewable energy power plants is to be achieved in Switzerland. A survey of 502 citizens living near 19 biogas plants was conducted as the basis for using structural equation modeling to measure the effects of perceived benefits, perceived costs, trust towards the plant operator, perceived smell, information received and participation options on citizens’ acceptance of “their” biogas plant. Results show that local acceptance towards existing biogas power plants is relatively high in Switzerland. Perceived benefits and costs as well as trust towards the plant operator are highly correlated and have a significant effect on local acceptance. While smell perception and information received had a significant effect on local acceptance as well, no such effect was found for participation options. Reasons for the non-impact of participation options on local acceptance are discussed, and pathways for future research are presented. - Highlights: • Acceptance of biogas plants by local residents in Switzerland is relatively high. • Local acceptance is highly affected by perceived outcomes and citizens’ trust. • Smell perception increases perceived costs and reduces perceived benefits and trust. • Information offers reduce perceived costs and increase trust and perceived benefits. • Participation offers do not have any effect on local acceptance

  12. Implementing Biogas Technology Project in Malvar, Batangas, Philippines

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Juvy G. Mojares

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available This study sought to determine the environmental and social impacts of the biogas technology project of the municipal government of Malvar, Batangas, Philippines, through the Municipal Environment and Natural Resources Office. Document analysis and interview were employed in this study. Results showed that heat and electricity generation from biogas decreased dependency on electricity and fuel oil.In terms of social impacts, the biogas technology contributed to socio-economic improvement of the barangay in the form of job creation, technological and skills transfer through training in biogas production, contribution to continuous pursuing of energy neutrality and encouraged sustainability development at the community level. Aside from these, the technology was a source of organic fertilizer for the farming community of Malvar. It is recommended that commercial farms be strictly monitored and ordinances be imposed on them specifically on the use of biogas technology. The municipal government could partner with GOs and NGOs providing grant or equipment for such technology. For the monitoring of backyard farms, develop close coordination with barangay officials, if it does not work, plan a consultative meeting with agencies concerned to explain the hazards of improper disposal of hog wastes.

  13. Energy balance model of a SOFC cogenerator operated with biogas

    Science.gov (United States)

    Van herle, Jan; Maréchal, F.; Leuenberger, S.; Favrat, D.

    A small cogeneration system based on a Solid Oxide Fuel Cell (SOFC) fed on the renewable energy source biogas is presented. An existing farm biogas production site (35 m 3 per day), currently equipped with a SOFC demonstration stack, is taken for reference. A process flow diagram was defined in a software package allowing to vary system operating parameters like the fuel inlet composition, reforming technology, stack temperature and stack current (or fuel conversion). For system reforming simplicity, a base case parameter set was defined as the fuel inlet of 60% CH 4:40% CO 2 mixed with air in a 1:1 ratio, together with 800 °C operating temperature and 80% fuel conversion. A model stack, consisting of 100 series elements of anode supported electrolyte cells of 100 cm 2 each, was calculated to deliver 3.1 kW el and 5.16 kW th from an input of 1.5 N m 3/h of biogas (8.95 kW LHV), corresponding to 33.8 and 57.6% electrical and thermal efficiencies (Lower Heating Values (LHVs)), respectively. The incidence on the efficiencies of the model system was examined by the variation of a number of parameters such as the CO 2 content in the biogas, the amount of air addition to the biogas stream, the addition of steam to the fuel inlet, the air excess ratio λ and the stack operating temperature, and the results discussed.

  14. Biogas. Biofuels. Urban waste. Solid biomass

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The European production of primary energy from biogas reached 7.5*106 toe in 2008, it means a 4.4% increase on 2007. The bio-fuel consumption rose to 10.5 Mtoe in 2008, i.e. 2.5 Mtoe more than in 2007, this 31.4% growth seems relatively slow when compared with previous performances of 45.7% (between 2006 and 2007) and 70.9% (between 2005 and 2006). Primary energy production by combustion of renewable municipal solid waste in the European Union rose slightly in 2008 by 3% over 2007 to reach 6806 ktoe. The solid biomass that is made up of wood and its waste in addition to organic and animal waste was one of renewable energy production's safe bets. The primary energy production from this sector rose by 4.6% and reached 70292 ktoe. In all the renewable energy sources we have reviewed Germany ranks first in terms of global production. (A.C.)

  15. Biogas desulfurization and biogas upgrading using a hybrid membrane system--modeling study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Makaruk, A; Miltner, M; Harasek, M

    2013-01-01

    Membrane gas permeation using glassy membranes proved to be a suitable method for biogas upgrading and natural gas substitute production on account of low energy consumption and high compactness. Glassy membranes are very effective in the separation of bulk carbon dioxide and water from a methane-containing stream. However, the content of hydrogen sulfide can be lowered only partially. This work employs process modeling based upon the finite difference method to evaluate a hybrid membrane system built of a combination of rubbery and glassy membranes. The former are responsible for the separation of hydrogen sulfide and the latter separate carbon dioxide to produce standard-conform natural gas substitute. The evaluation focuses on the most critical upgrading parameters like achievable gas purity, methane recovery and specific energy consumption. The obtained results indicate that the evaluated hybrid membrane configuration is a potentially efficient system for the biogas processing tasks that do not require high methane recoveries, and allows effective desulfurization for medium and high hydrogen sulfide concentrations without additional process steps. PMID:23168631

  16. Biogas and carbon credit market; Biogas e o mercado de creditos de carbono

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pecora, Vanessa; Figueiredo, Natalie J.V.; Coelho, Suani T.; Velazquez, Silvia M.S.G. [Centro Nacional de Referencia em Biomassa (CENBIO/IEE/USP), Sao Paulo, SP (Brazil)

    2008-07-01

    Biogas is formed from degradation of the organic matter and it is typically composed by carbon dioxide and methane gas, this last one being a greenhouse effect gas (GHG) with global warming potential approximately 20 times bigger when compared to carbon dioxide. Brazil has a great potential of energetic use of biogas, in sewer treatment, rural residues such as pig breeding and, mainly, in the treatment of urban solid residues. Its energetic conversion can be presented as a viable and efficient solution to the great volume of produced residues, since it reduces the methane emissions, at the same time that it produces electric energy. In this context, the good use of solid residues explores a resource of renewable energy and, therefore, it is susceptible of receiving the Certified Emissions Reduction (RCE) regarding the CDM, since it contributes to the environment preservation. The perspective of sale of RCE's improves the attractiveness of the business, due to the opportunities of diversification of the Brazilian energetic matrix, besides representing a decentralized way of energy generation, diminishing the dependence of local concessionaires. (author)

  17. Economic and ecological evaluation of biogas plant configurations for a demand oriented biogas supply for flexible power generation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hahn, Henning

    2015-07-01

    The transformation of the power supply towards renewable energy (RE) sources will depend on a large scale of fluctuating RE sources, primarily of wind energy and photovoltaics. However, the variable power generation of these renewable sources will lead to an increased need of flexible power producers in order to balance differences between energy generation and consumption. Among the different types of RE sources, biogas plants have the advantage that their input biomass and the produced biogas can be stored and electricity can consequently be generated on demand. Since electricity from biogas has not been used to balance fluctuations of intermittent RE in the past, new concepts are required. These concepts should be able to meet the requirements of highly renewable electricity systems and to supply biogas according to the varying demand for long-and short-term balance power generation. In this regard, this thesis focused on the identification of biogas plant concepts for flexible power generation, as well as on ranking them regarding their economic and life cycle performance.

  18. Biodigestion of the aquatics plants mixtures and biogas production; Biodigestao de misturas de plantas aquaticas e producao de biogas

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pereira, Roberto Guimaraes; Abreu, Fernando Luiz Barbuda de; Fernandes Filho, Jorge; Pereira, Maria Cristina Duarte Eiras [Universidade Federal Fluminense (UFF), Niteroi, RJ (Brazil). Dept. de Engenharia Mecanica. Programa de Pos-Graduacao em Engenharia Mecanica]. E-mail: temrobe@vm.uff.br; Melo, Ricardo Bichara de [Light Servicos de Eletricidade S.A., Rio de Janeiro, RJ (Brazil). Gerencia de Estudos e Gestao de Geracao]. E-mail: rbmelo@light.com.br

    2004-07-01

    Several systems of generating electricity using water storage reservoirs. One problem that occurs constantly in these reservoirs is the accumulation of aquatic plants, such as Eichhornia crassipes, Eichhornia azurea, Pistia stratiotes and Salvinia that may cause serious problems for the system. Periodically, the biomass must be removed and disposed of appropriate form, so that does not cause contamination of soil, groundwater or allowing the proliferation of vectors. One possible destination is the use of biomass in a process of biodigestion, resulting in biogas. The bench of biodigester used in the experiment of biodigestion of aquatic plants is composed of a reactor containing the biomass, where the biogas is produced and a reservoir for the monitoring the production of biogas. The reactor is located inside a container containing water that can be heated by an electrical resistance, with the aim of maintaining the temperature inside the reactor around 35 deg C. The results of analysis of gas of the reactor was obtained using a gas chromatograph to CG MASTER of double ionization detector with a flame and thermal conductivity. These results show a percentage of 50% of methane in the biogas. Also, were analyzed the biomass in the biodigester for determination of humidity, total organic matter, waste mineral and organic carbon. The process of biodigestion of the mixture of aquatic plants: Eichhornia crassipes, Eichhornia azurea and Pistia stratiotes and Salvinia shows potential for obtaining biogas, with considerable levels of methane, in order to facilitate its recovery.

  19. Economic and ecological evaluation of biogas plant configurations for a demand oriented biogas supply for flexible power generation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The transformation of the power supply towards renewable energy (RE) sources will depend on a large scale of fluctuating RE sources, primarily of wind energy and photovoltaics. However, the variable power generation of these renewable sources will lead to an increased need of flexible power producers in order to balance differences between energy generation and consumption. Among the different types of RE sources, biogas plants have the advantage that their input biomass and the produced biogas can be stored and electricity can consequently be generated on demand. Since electricity from biogas has not been used to balance fluctuations of intermittent RE in the past, new concepts are required. These concepts should be able to meet the requirements of highly renewable electricity systems and to supply biogas according to the varying demand for long-and short-term balance power generation. In this regard, this thesis focused on the identification of biogas plant concepts for flexible power generation, as well as on ranking them regarding their economic and life cycle performance.

  20. Biogas recirculation for simultaneous calcium removal and biogas purification within an expanded granular sludge bed system treating leachate.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Luo, Jinghuan; Lu, Xueqin; Liu, Jianyong; Qian, Guangren; Lu, Yongsheng

    2014-12-01

    Biogas, generated from an expanded granular sludge bed (EGSB) reactor treating municipal solid waste (MSW) leachate, was recirculated for calcium removal from the leachate via a carbonation process with simultaneous biogas purification. Batch trials were performed to optimize the solution pH and imported biogas (CO2) for CaCO3 precipitation. With applicable pH of 10-11 obtained, continuous trials achieved final calcium concentrations of 181-375 mg/L (removal efficiencies≈92.8-96.5%) in the leachate and methane contents of 87.1-91.4% (purification efficiencies≈65.4-82.2%) in the biogas. Calcium-balance study indicates that 23-986 mg Ca/d was released from the bio-system under the carbonized condition where CaCO3 precipitating was moved outside the bioreactor, whereas 7918-9517 mg Ca/d was trapped into the system for the controlled one. These findings demonstrate that carbonation removal of calcium by biogas recirculation could be a promising alternative to pretreat calcium-rich MSW leachate and synergistically to improve methane content. PMID:25310868

  1. Chemical absorption of H2S for biogas purification

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Horikawa M.S.

    2004-01-01

    Full Text Available This work presents an experimental study of purification of a biogas by removal of its hydrogen sulphide (H2S content. The H2S was removed by means of chemical absorption in an iron-chelated solution catalyzed by Fe/EDTA, which converts H2S into elemental sulphur (S. Preparation of the catalyst solution and the results of biogas component absorption in the catalyst solution (0.2 mol/L are presented. These results are compared with those for physical absorption into pure water under similar conditions. Experimental results demonstrate that, under the same experimental conditions, a higher percentage of H2S can be removed in the catalytic solution than in water. In a continuous counter current using adequate flow-rate phases contact at room temperature and low gas pressure, the results demonstrate that is possible to totally remove the H2S from the biogas with the prepared catalytic solution.

  2. Methane losses in biogas processing; Methanverluste bei der Biogasaufbereitung

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Baum, S.; Baier, U. [ZHAW, Zuercher Hochschule fuer Angewandte Wissenschaften, IBT Institut fuer Biotechnologie, Fachgruppe Umweltbiotechnologie, Waedenswil (Switzerland); Judex, J.; Biollaz, S.; Schneebeli, J. [PSI, Paul Scherrer Institut, Villigen (Switzerland)

    2008-11-15

    This report for the Swiss Federal Office of Energy (SFOE) by the Paul Scherrer Institute PSI and the Zurich University of Applied Sciences, Switzerland, presents the results of a study made on methane losses that occur during the processing of biogas to provide natural gas quality. Such losses are considered as possibly compromising the environmental advantages offered by the feeding-in of processed biogas into the national gas mains. This processing involves the removal of carbon dioxide from the biogas. The state-of-the-art in this area is discussed, relevant factors and analysis methods are looked at. An overview of methods used to prevent methane losses is presented. The results of investigations made at an installation in Lucerne, Switzerland, are presented and discussed.

  3. PURIFICATION AND ENRICHMENT OF BIOGAS IN ASH-WATER MIXTURE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andrzej Brudniak

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available Biogas, produced in an aerobic digestion process, is a mixture of gases, and that is why its inexpensive and effective valorisation is essential. Research on this process is necessary in order to use biogas as a renewable energy source. The aim of this thesis is to present methods of biogas purification and enrichment in the fly ash - water mixture, that is generated on the base of fly ash produced during burning coal in power industry. Experience presented that the fly ash absorbs CO2 and H2S, even in conventional conditions. The absorption efficiency depends not only on the chemical composition of the ash but also on its physical properties. There was also a strong neutralization of alkaline waste combustion.

  4. Microalgal Cultivation in Treating Liquid Digestate from Biogas Systems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xia, Ao; Murphy, Jerry D

    2016-04-01

    Biogas production via anaerobic digestion (AD) has rapidly developed in recent years. In addition to biogas, digestate is an important byproduct. Liquid digestate is the major fraction of digestate and may contain high levels of ammonia nitrogen. Traditional processing technologies (such as land application) require significant energy inputs and raise environmental risks (such as eutrophication). Alternatively, microalgae can efficiently remove the nutrients from digestate while producing high-value biomass that can be used for the production of biochemicals and biofuels. Both inorganic and organic carbon sources derived from biogas production can significantly improve microalgal production. Land requirement for microalgal cultivation is estimated as 3% of traditional direct land application of digestate. PMID:26776247

  5. LED-Absorption-QEPAS Sensor for Biogas Plants

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Michael Köhring

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available A new sensor for methane and carbon dioxide concentration measurements in biogas plants is presented. LEDs in the mid infrared spectral region are implemented as low cost light source. The combination of quartz-enhanced photoacoustic spectroscopy with an absorption path leads to a sensor setup suitable for the harsh application environment. The sensor system contains an electronics unit and the two gas sensors; it was designed to work as standalone device and was tested in a biogas plant for several weeks. Gas concentration dependent measurements show a precision better than 1% in a range between 40% and 60% target gas concentration for both sensors. Concentration dependent measurements with different background gases show a considerable decrease in cross sensitivity against the major components of biogas in direct comparison to common absorption based sensors.

  6. AMMONOX-Ammonia for enhancing biogas yield & reducing NOx

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gavala, Hariklia N.; Kristensen, P.G.; Paamand, K.;

    2013-01-01

    The continuously increasing demand for renewable energy sources renders anaerobic digestion to one of the most promising technologies for renewable energy production. Due to the animal production intensification, manure is being used as the primary feedstock for most of the biogas plants. However......, biogas plants digesting liquid manure alone are not economically viable due to the relatively low organic content of the manure, usually 3-5%.Thus, their economical profitable operation relies partly on increasing the methane yield from manure, and especially of its solid fraction, usually called...... of innovative ammonia recovery technology and c) the coupling of the excess ammonia obtained from manure with the catalytic elimination of NOx emissions when the biogas is used for subsequent electricity generation with gas engines....

  7. Biogas production from the aquatic weed Pistia (Pistia stratiotes)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Abbasi, S.A.; Nipaney, P.C. (Pondicherry (Central) Univ. (IN). Salim Ali School of Ecology); Panholzer, M.B. (Institute for Environmental Research, Graz (AT))

    1991-01-01

    Pistia stratiotes, an aquatic weed, was investigated as a substrate for biogas production in batch digestion. An inoculum was necessary to obtain biogas production form the weed. With Pistia,only production of carbon dioxide alone was high during the first five days of digestion but began to level off thereafter. With inoculated Pistia, a high rate of biogas production was sustained for nearly 10 days and the average methane content was 58%-68%. The digesters charged with Pistia alone had significant concentrations of propionic, butyric, isobutyric, valeric, and isovaleric acids. These acids were not present in detectable concentrations, in the digesters running with inoculated Pistia, except during the first 4 days of the digestion when propionic acid was formed. When an inoculum was added to a 'soured' digester the performance of the latter improved dramatically. (author).

  8. Integration of biogas in municipal energy planning and supply

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nedergaard, N.; Oertenblad, H. [Herning Municipal Utilities, Herning (Denmark)

    1997-08-01

    The first biogas plants in Denmark were based on local initiatives and a great deal of idealism. The break through with technically well functioning plants came at the end of the 80`ies. The plants were based on animal manure, and the development came together with the growing environmental demands and the legislation concerning storage capacity and distribution of the manure. This contributed to an increasing interest in joint biogas plants, mainly from the agricultural sector, but also from the industry. Today Denmark has 19 biogas plants in operation, all based on manure co-digested with wastes from the food industry, and 15 farm-scale plants. Only three of the joint plants are owned by a municipality, one plant in Aarhus and two in Herning. (au)

  9. Biogas plasticization coupled anaerobic digestion: batch test results.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schimel, Keith A

    2007-06-01

    Biogas has unique properties for improving the biodegradability of biomass solids during anaerobic digestion (AD). This report presents batch test results of the first investigation into utilizing biogas plasticization to "condition" organic polymers during active digestion of waste activated sludge (WAS). Preliminary design calculations based on polymer diffusion rate limitation are presented. Analysis of the 20 degrees C batch test data determined the first order (k(1)) COD conversion coefficient to be 0.167 day(-1) with a maximum COD utilization rate of 11.25 g L(-1) day(-1). Comparison of these batch test results to typical conventional AD performance parameters showed orders of magnitude improvement. These results show that biogas plasticization during active AD could greatly improve renewable energy yields from biomass waste materials such as MSW RDF, STP sludges, food wastes, animal manure, green wastes, and agricultural crop residuals. PMID:17054122

  10. Biogas plants in EEG. 4. new rev. and enl. ed.

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    With the EEG 2014, the legislature has created a complete revision of all the RES plants. Specifically for biogas plants fundamental changes have been made with the maximum rated power or a new landscape conservation concept. For new biogas plants the legislator arranges not only a much lower remuneration, but also the direct marketing as a rule, which entails fundamental changes in the overall compensation system by itself. The new edition of this highly regarded standard work revives the extensive practical experience to EEG 2009, 2012 and 2014 in detail and in particular and takes into account the large number of newly issued clearinghouses decisions and judgments. All current legal issues and challenges of biogas plants can be found comprehensively presented here.

  11. Survey of market hindrances in the agricultural biogas area

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This final report for the Swiss Federal Office of Energy presents the results of a survey made under 150 farmers in Switzerland concerning the promotion of agricultural biogas installations. Using the results of the survey, the authors classify the hindrances found to be standing in the way of further propagation of biogas installations in the farming sector. These include information deficits in the farming community as well as a lack of information at the local authority level, in agricultural education and amongst those institutions with interests in the local exploitation of organic wastes. The report gives details on the farms surveyed, lists the questions posed and reviews the answers given. It also draws conclusions on the degree to which the farmers are informed, through which channels the information flows and also assesses the factors mentioned that hinder the construction of biogas installations. Suggestions are made on measures that can be taken to improve the situation

  12. Biogas recovery from microwave heated sludge by anaerobic digestion

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2010-01-01

    Biogas generated from sewage sludge,livestock waste,and food waste by anaerobic digestion is a valuable renewable energy resource.However,conventional anaerobic digestion is not an efficient process.A long hydraulic retention time and low biogas recovery rate hinder the applications of those resources.An effective pretreatment method to destroy sludge microbial cells has been one of the major concerns regarding improvement of the biogas production.This article focuses on the effects of microwave heating on sludge anaerobic digestion.Volatile suspended solid(VSS) and chemical organic demand solubilization of heated sludge were investigated.Microwave heating was found to be a rapid and efficient process for releasing organic substrates from sludge.The increase of organic dissolution ratio was not obvious when holding time was over 5 min with microwave heating.The effect of the VSS solubilization was primarily dependent on heating temperature.The highest value of VSS dissolving ratio,36.4%,was obtained at 170°C for 30 min.The COD dissolving ratio was about 25% at 170°C.Total organic carbon of treated sludge liquor was 1.98 and 2.73 g/L at 150°C and 170°C for 5 min,respectively.A biochemical methane potential(BMP) test of excess sludge and a mixture of primary and excess sludge demonstrated an increase in biogas production.The total biogas from microwave treated mixture sludge increased by 12.9% to 20.2% over control after 30 days of digestion.Biogas production was 11.1% to 25.9% higher for excess sludge than for untreated sludge.The VS removal ratios of mixture sludge and excess sludge were 12% and 11% higher,respectively,compared to the untreated sludge.

  13. Thermal Simulation of Biogas Plants Using Mat Lab

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shaheen.M.Sain

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available The major prerequisite for the optimum production of methane from a biogas plant is the sustenance of digester temperature within the narrow limits (300C-350C. It is experimentally investigated that, the MIT biogas plant is not maintaining optimum temperature, this decreases the efficiency and increases the detention time for charge. To maintain the plant in optimum temperature, it is necessary to find out the heat losses from the biogas plant and the external energy inputs need to operate the plant. Rate of gas yield, and the detention time (time necessary to anaerobically digest organic wastes in a biogas reactor, are favorable functions of the temperature in the digester. A thermal simulation for MIT biogas plant has developed using matlab in order to understand the heat transfer from the slurry and the gas holder to the surrounding earth and air respectively. The computation has been performed when the slurry is maintained at 200C and 300C, optimum temperature of anaerobic fermentation. If the slurry is considered to be at 350C, the optimum temperature of anaerobic fermentation, the total heat loss from the plant is higher than the heat loss when the slurry is maintained at 200C. The heat calculations provide an appraisal for the heat which has to be supplied by external means to compensate for the net heat losses which occur if the slurry is to be maintained at 350C. A solar system with auxiliary electric heater is designed for maintaining the slurry at 350C.In conclusion; the results of thermal analysis are used to define a strategy for operating biogas plant at optimum temperatures. .

  14. Experimental studies of flame stability limits of biogas flame

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Highlights: ► Premixed biogas flame stability for RTBs was studied on different conditions. ► An unusual “float off” phenomenon was observed. ► Decrease of port diameter or gas temperature or methane content motivates lifting. ► Increase of methane content or gas temperature or port diameter motivates yellow tipping. ► Lifting curves become straight lines when semi-logarithmic graph paper is applied. - Abstract: Flame stability of premixed biogas flame for Reference Test Burner (RTB) was investigated. In this study, six kinds of test gases were used to simulate biogas in which CO2 volume fraction varied from 30% to 45%. A series of experiments were conducted on two RTBs with different port diameters and at different outlet unburned mixture temperatures. It was found that the lifting and yellow tipping limits show similar trends regardless of the biogas components, port diameters and mixture temperatures. A “float off” phenomenon could be observed at low gas flow rate and low primary air ratio. Low mixture temperature, small ports and high CO2 concentration in biogas can lead to the unstable condition of “float off”. The lifting limits are enhanced with an increase of port diameter or mixture temperature and with a decrease of CO2 concentration. The yellow tipping limits are extended with an increase of CO2 concentration and with a decrease of mixture temperature or port diameter. In addition, the lifting limit curve becomes a straight line when semi-logarithmic graph paper is applied. The intercept increases with a decrease of the CO2 concentration in biogas and with an increase of port diameter or gas temperature.

  15. Investigations on the efficiency of the Bavarian biogas pilot plants using Data Envelopment Analysis; Untersuchungen zur Effizienz der Bayerischen Biogas-Pilotanlagen mittels Data Envelopment Analysis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Djatkov, D.; Effenberger, M.; Lehner, A.; Gronauer, A. [Bayerische Landesanstalt fuer Landwirtschaft (LfL), Freising (Germany). Inst. fuer Landtechnik und Tierhaltung

    2009-07-01

    In the course of the present study it was possible to show that Data Envelopment Analysis (DEA) is in principle a suitable means of assessing the relative efficiency of biogas plants. The results were plausible in most cases from an expert viewpoint. Efficiency indicators resulting from DEA can be used to create a ranking of the biogas plants under study. However, the absolute efficiency values are not directly comparable, i.e. they cannot be interpreted on a cardinal scale. In order to arrive at a comprehensive assessment of the energy efficiency and environmental effects of a biogas plant it is necessary to include one more important parameter, namely methane yield. However this would mean splitting the DEA procedure into at least two parts: an analysis of the processes of biogas production and an analysis of biogas utilisation. Performing a complete and comprehensive assessment of the efficiency of biogas plants on the basis of one single parameter is therefore not possible.

  16. Key factors for achieving profitable biogas production from agricultural waste and sustainable biomass

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Molinuevo-Salces, Beatriz; Larsen, Søren U.; Biswas, Rajib;

    2013-01-01

    Based on numerous investigations on increasing the biogas yield of manure, a new concept was developed to increase the economical operation of manure based biogas plants by combining up concentration of manure with a more specific treatment of the recalcitrant lignocellulosic fiber fraction...... by implementing the treatment on the digested solid fraction. Catch crops have been identified as a sustainable co-substrate for biogas production with a high biogas potential. For exploiting this biomass for profitable biogas production, the biomass yield per hectare, harvest costs, TS concentration and specific...

  17. Biogas Upgrading Using SOEC with a Ni-ScYSZ Electrode

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ebbesen, Sune Dalgaard; Bøgild Hansen, John; Mogensen, Mogens Bjerg

    2013-01-01

    Biogas consists mainly of CH4, CO2 and small amounts of H2S. The value of biogas will increase significantly if it is upgraded to pipeline quality by converting CO2 and H2O in the biogas to CO and H2 using a Solid Oxide Electrolysis Cell (SOEC) followed by methanation. The Ni-ScYSZ-cermet electrode...... is, however, active for steam reforming of CH4, but sulphur traces in the biogas reduce the steam reforming activity. It is proven that sulphur stops steam reforming activity whereas the electrochemistry is only affected to a limited degree, showing that up-grading of biogas using SOEC with Ni...

  18. Sulphur binding in biogas plants using ferric salts; Schwefelbindung in Biogasanlagen mittels Eisensalzen

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Preissler, Daniel; Lemmer, Andreas [Hohenheim Univ., Stuttgart (Germany). Landesanstalt fuer Agrartechnik und Bioenergie; Drochner, Ulrich; Oechsner, Hans; Jungbluth, Thomas

    2010-07-01

    Almost all biogas utilization methods aim for a preferably low hydrogen sulphide content of the biogas, to avoid corrosive damages to the biogas plant components. The studies presented here show that in the biogas process hydrogen sulphide can be released not only during the conversion of organic bonded sulphur, but also through the conversion of elemental sulphur, which was previously formed during the biological desulphurisation. In the second section of the experiment, through the insertion of iron salts in the fermentation substrate, it was possible to clearly reduce the hydrogen sulphide content of the biogas by basic stoichiometric dosage. Iron sulphate however was proved to be inappropriate. (orig.)

  19. Market research on biogas valorizations and methanization. Final report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This market research aims at giving an overview of the existing methanization installations and of their dynamics in France, at assessing biogas production and use, at analyzing the methanization market, and at defining development perspectives for this sector by 2020. Based on a survey of methanization installations, on interviews with many actors of this sector, and on a seminar organized on this topic, this report presents and comments market data for biogas valorization and methanization in different sectors: household, agricultural, and industrial and waste water processing plants. It comments evolution trends by 2020 for these sectors, and the role that the emerging sector of centralized methanization could have in the years to come

  20. Evaluation of Biogas Production Yields of Different Waste Materials

    OpenAIRE

    Bahtiyar Ozturk

    2012-01-01

    Biogas production from three different sources namely, cattle manure, cheese whey and blood, which have different characteristics, were investigated comparatively. Biogas production rates of 0.63, 0,72 and 0,64 l min-1 m-3 were obtained from the digestion of manure, co-digestion of manure-cheese whey and manure-blood, respectively, at 35±2 oC. Phosphorus () and volatile solid materials (VSM) are important for anaerobic bacteria as much as C:N ratio. A 54% of reduction in VSM and a 52 % reduct...

  1. Development of a biogas planning tool for project owners

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Fredenslund, Anders Michael; Kjær, Tyge

    A spreadsheet model was developed, which can be used as a tool in the initial phases of planning a centralized biogas plant in Denmark. The model assesses energy production, total plant costs, operational costs and revenues and effect on greenhouse gas emissions. Two energy utilization alternatives...... are considered: Combined heat and power and natural gas grid injection. The main input to the model is the amount and types of substrates available for anaerobic digestion. By substituting the models’ default values with more project specific information, the model can be used in a biogas projects...

  2. Dynamic biogas upgrading based on the Sabatier process

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jurgensen, Lars; Ehimen, Ehiazesebhor Augustine; Born, Jens;

    2015-01-01

    This study aimed to investigate the feasibility of substitute natural gas (SNG) generation using biogas from anaerobic digestion and hydrogen from renewable energy systems. Using thermodynamic equilibrium analysis, kinetic reactor modeling and transient simulation, an integrated approach for the...... operation of a biogas-based Sabatier process was put forward, which was then verified using a lab scale heterogenous methanation reactor. The process simulation using a kinetic reactor model demonstrated the feasibility of the production of SNG at gas grid standards using a single reactor setup. The Wobbe...

  3. Energy efficient method for energy recovery from biogas production

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A new method for biogas heating, cooling and drying has been developed. The method is based on two channel counter flow where recuperation happens. Biogas cooling is done with the dried colder flow to get the gas below the dew point temperature and allow it to condensate, but heating is done with humid hot gas flow from bioreactor. The system is being tested both experimentally and numerically by mathematical modelling. A previously developed 1D model has been implemented in MATLAB and calculations made for experimental setup. The results are also compared to 3D model made with ANSYS/CFX software. Keywords: Experimental verification, mathematical modelling, counter flow, bioreactor

  4. Microbial analysis in biogas reactors suffering by foaming incidents

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kougias, Panagiotis; De Francisci, Davide; Treu, Laura;

    2014-01-01

    Foam formation can lead to total failure of digestion process in biogas plants. In the present study, possible correlation between foaming and the presence of specific microorganisms in biogas reactors was elucidated. The microbial ecology of continuous fed digesters overloaded with proteins......, or decrease the surface tension of the media, increased their relative abundance after foam formation. Finally, a microorganism similar to widely known foaming bacteria (Nocardia and Desulfotomaculum) was found to increase its relative abundance in all reactors once foam was observed, regardless of the used...

  5. Animal manure for biogas production - what happens to the soil?

    OpenAIRE

    Løes, Anne-Kristin; Johansen, Anders; Pommeresche, Reidun; Riley, Hugh

    2011-01-01

    Utilizing animal slurry to produce biogas may reduce fossil fuel usage and emissions of greenhouse gases. However, there is limited information on how the recycling of digested slurry as a fertilizer impacts soil fertility in the long run. This is of concern because organic matter in the slurry is converted to methane, which escapes the on-farm carbon cycle. In 2010, a study of this question was initiated on the organic research farm in Tingvoll, Norway. So far, a biogas plant has been built,...

  6. Solar Biogas Digester with Built-In Reverse Absorber Heater

    OpenAIRE

    Karimov, Khasan S.; Muhammad Abid

    2013-01-01

    In this work the design, fabrication and investigation of a solar biogas digester with built-in RAH (Reverse Absorber Heater) is presented. The maximum temperature (50 o C) inside of the methane tank was taken as a main parameter at the design of the digester. Using energy balance equation for the case of a static mass of fluid being heated; the parameters of thermal insulation of the methane tank were counted. The biogas digester is consisting of methane tank with built-in solar RAH to utili...

  7. The Biogas: the era of its use begins in Colombia

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The sanitary fillers are susceptible of becoming important biogas sources when breaking down the fraction present in them. International experiences demonstrate with success the extraction of this fuel and their later transformation in caloric or electric energy, being this last one that of more application for their versatility of transport and use. The methane is one of the direct responsible of the greenhouse effect and the major biogas component, reason for which is necessary to capture it and to negotiate it for its elimination. This sanitary situation its to its importance like allows to reach an objective double that consists on reducing the atmospheric contamination, producing energy

  8. The effect of landfill biogas on vegetal growth

    OpenAIRE

    Sanchez-Yañez Juan Manuel; Baltierra-Trejo Eduardo; Márquez-Benavides Liliana

    2012-01-01

    The plants carry out the gaseous exchange during the photosynthesis and the respiration, however the stomal opening of the leaves or the flow through lenticels in the root are not selective, the anthropogenic biogas emissions enter to vegetable tissues altering its normal physiology. In landfill sites roots plants are exposed to a flow of a variable concentration of biogas, mainly composed by methane (CH4) 50-60% and carbon dioxide (CO2) 40-55%, product of the anaerobic digestion of the o...

  9. Biogas: the support arrangement is extended to hybrid valorization installations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This document presents and contains three decrees which authorize the hybrid valorization of biogas, i.e. by production of electricity and of bio-methane which is injected in natural gas networks, in order to support the development of methanization. Prospect development, tariff and contract duration are briefly discussed. The decrees address the contracting conditions between bio-methane producers and natural gas providers, purchase conditions for the electricity produced by biogas installations, purchase conditions of bio-methane injected in natural gas networks. The document also contains the discussion the Commission of energy regulation about the first decree

  10. The economic and environmental feasibility of biogas buses in Liege

    OpenAIRE

    Mostert, Martine; Limbourg, Sabine

    2013-01-01

    Everyday, many students at the University of Liège have to drive to the Sart-Tilman village to attend their courses. These journeys are responsible for the emission of harmful particles which have negative impacts on climate and human health. This paper analyzes the economic and environmental feasibility of using biogas buses for public transport in Liège. The idea of implementing biogas buses is based on the proposed recycling of organic waste by the company INTRADEL, which manages and treat...

  11. The role of transportation and co-fermentation in the CO2 balance for utilisation of biogas for energy

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielsen, Per Sieverts; Karlsson, Kenneth Bernard; Holm-Nielsen, Jens Bo

    1998-01-01

    Biogas is an essential biomass source for achieving a reduction of CO2 emission by 50% in year 2030 in Denmark. The physical potential for biogas production in Denmark is more than 10 times the present biogas production in Denmark. In Denmark the largest part of the biogas production is produced at...... of increased transportation distances at large biogas plants on the total CO2 balance of the biogas plant. The advantage of constructing large biogas plants is the cost-effective possibility of using industrial organic waste to increase biogas production. In some cases co-fermentation increases...... biogas production up 100%. The present study evaluate optimal transportation strategies for biogas plants taking CO2 balances into account....

  12. Life cycle assessment of coupling household biogas production to agricultural industry: A case study of biogas-linked persimmon cultivation and processing system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Biogas plant construction has been boosted in rural China not only due to the immediate merit from biogas production but also the succeeding benefit from by-product utilization in agro-industry, both of which are significant strategies to address energy shortage and global warming issues. However, little work has been done to evaluate the coupling of biogas projects to traditional agrosystems from a life-cycle perspective, which is most important in process and system optimization in different senses. By taking persimmon cultivation and processing with supports from a household biogas plant as a case study, this study conducts a life cycle assessment of coupling biogas production to agro-industry in terms of energy, environmental and economic performance. The results suggest that each production stage following the biogas/digestate utilization chain (biogas operation-persimmon cultivation-product processing) is beneficial across all three aspects. However, a tradeoff only exists in utilizing digestate as top-dressing and employing biogas utilization as engine fuel, while biogas application in fresh-keeping and digestate reuse as base fertilizer fails to increase either energy production or greenhouse gas mitigation. The coupled system can be hopefully optimized through increasing fermentation efficiency and joint operation of biogas digesters. -- Highlights: •Biogas/digestate utilization is overall beneficial in all production stages. •Each bioresource application may not be profitable in all respects. •Tradeoffs in using biogas and digestate vary among different utilization ways. •Multi-user operation and fermentation efficiency elevation optimize system

  13. A Study Of Biogas Production From Rice Straw In An Underground Digester

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The rising cost of petroleum products, the growing world population with diminishing resources and increasing wastes has brought about the need for sourcing alternative resources in order to bring about sustainable development. In this regard. this research was conceived to innovate design and construction of a biogas digester and to study the production of biogas from rice straw. An underground biogas digester was designed. Constructed and tested. The test digestion produced biogas yield of 0.020 M/KXg from green cow dung. In the study of biogas production from rice straw, four bench digesters of one d m3 (I litre) each were used. The bench digester produced biogas yields of 0.0149 m3/kg of rice straw, 0.0389 m3/kg of a mixture of rice straw and cow dung and 0.0792 m3/kg of cow dung. Scaled up digestion of rice straw in the underground digester gave biogas yield of 7.37 x 104 m3/kg. The biogas produced from rice straw was found to contain 38.52% of carbon dioxide and no hydrogen sulphide. It was concluded that the biogas generation from rice straw was encouraging, but scale up yields was low. The limiting factors on biogas production from rice straw with the effect of digester design or biogas production are presented and discussed

  14. The contribution of Slovenian biogas plants to the reduction of agricultural sector green house emissions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Romana MARINŠEK LOGAR

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Agriculture is a source of emissions of the greenhouse gas methane into the environment. These emissions can be reduced by appropriate storage of animal slurry and manure, with proper fertilization and processing of organic agricultural waste into biogas, where methane is captured and used as an energy source. Biogas is a renewable source of energy that is produced by microbial anaerobic digestion in biogas plants. As a substrate in biogas plants using different types of organic biomass such as animal manure and slurry, crop residues, spoilt silage, waste from food processing industry and biodegradable industrial and municipal waste. Biogas can be used to produce heat and electricity or purified to biomethane as a fuel for vehicles. Digestate can be used as a high-quality fertilizer. Biogas as a renewable energy source represents a replacement for fossil fuels, thus reducing greenhouse gas emissions from fossil sources. The system of financial supports for electricity produced from biogas is applied in Slovenia. There were 24 operating biogas plants in Slovenia in year 2014. Slovenian biogas plants currently produce the majority of biogas from energy crops. As only the minority of biogas is produced from animal excrements we will primarily support the development of agricultural microbiogas plants that will use animal excrements and organic waste biomass from agri-food sector as substrates.

  15. COMPARISON BETWEEN BIOGAS PRODUCTION FROM MANURE OF LAYING HENERS AND BROILERS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Srećko Kukić

    2010-06-01

    Full Text Available Biogas plants that process raw materials from agriculture, such as poultry manure,are one of the most significant applications of anaerobic fermentation. In Asiancountries, particularly in China, India, Nepal and Vietnam, there are several millionvery simple, small biogas plants that produce gas for household cooking and lighting.In Europe and North America a number of agricultural biogas plants now, areincreasing daily, a few thousand biogas plants exist, most of which use moderntechnologies, anaerobic fermentation. The aim of this paper is to determine thepossibility of biogas production from poultry manure with 10% of total solids andthrough the segments of the quality and quantity, determine the content of totalsolids (DM, volatile solids (OM, and the amount and composition of biogas. Theaim was also to justify the use of poultry manure in biogas production and itsapplication for specific purposes Laboratory research showed that 1 kg of poultrymanure produced 25 l of biogas, and pig slurry in combination with 10% of poultrymanure produced 47.01 l of biogas during the 40 days of anaerobic fermentationunder mezofilic conditions. Production of biogas has a good potential for developmentin Croatia, especially in the continental part. Usages of this technology aremultiple because of the fact that the Republic of Croatia imports most of the energy.Usage of biogas would reduce the import of certain energy and thus reduce energydependence; it would increase the number of employers and ease the obligation ofCroatia toward EU in replacing some fossil fuels with renewable ones.

  16. Evaluation and optimization of nutritional and environmental impact of biogas residues

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    On the basis of the dynamic growth of biogas plants in Germany the fertilization with biogas residues has obtained an important role for recirculation of plant nutrients, particularly with regard to nitrogen. In this work the effect of N nutrition with biogas residues was assessed in a 3-year on-field trial conducted at four sites throughout Bavaria. The fertilizing effects were tested by varying rate and time of biogas residues application, using different application techniques and the addition of nitrification inhibitors on several crops. The biogas residues achieved mineral fertilizer equivalents of 30 - 45 %. Overall, the untreated biogas residues showed a slightly increased N efficiency compared to cattle manure, whereas particularly site-dependent differences resulted in large differences in N efficiency of biogas residues.

  17. Life cycle assessment of biogas production in small-scale household digesters in Vietnam

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Vu, T.K.V.; Vu, D.Q.; Jensen, Lars Stoumann;

    2015-01-01

    where there is an excess of biogas which is intentionally released. A sensitivity analysis showed that biogas digesters could be a means of reducing global warming if methane emissions can be kept low. In terms of eutrophication, farms with biogas digesters had 3 to 4 times greater impacts. In order to......Small-scale household digesters have been promoted across Asia as a sustainable way of handling manure. The major advantages are that they produce biogas and reduce odor. However their disadvantages include the low recycling of nutrients, because digestate is dilute and therefore difficult to...... transport, and the loss of biogas as a result of cracks and the intentional release of excess biogas. In this study, life cycle assessment (LCA) methodology was used to assess the environmental impacts associated with biogas digesters in Vietnam. Handling 1,000 kg of liquid manure and 100 kg of solid manure...

  18. Integrated biogas upgrading and hydrogen utilization in an anaerobic reactor containing enriched hydrogenotrophic methanogenic culture

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Luo, Gang; Angelidaki, Irini

    2012-01-01

    the existing natural gas grid. The current study presents a new biological method for biogas upgrading in a separate biogas reactor, containing enriched hydrogenotrophic methanogens and fed with biogas and hydrogen. Both mesophilic- and thermophilic anaerobic cultures were enriched to convert CO2 to CH4...... by PCR–DGGE. Nonetheless, they all belonged to the order Methanobacteriales, which can mediate hydrogenotrophic methanogenesis. Biogas upgrading was then tested in a thermophilic anaerobic reactor under various operation conditions. By continuous addition of hydrogen in the biogas reactor, high degree......Biogas produced by anaerobic digestion, is mainly used in a gas motor for heat and electricity production. However, after removal of CO2, biogas can be upgraded to natural gas quality, giving more utilization possibilities, such as utilization as autogas, or distant utilization by using...

  19. Energy and Greenhouse gas balances of the utilisation of biogas for energy

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielsen, Per Sieverts; Karlsson, Kenneth Bernard; Holm-Nielsen, Jens Bo

    The utilisation of biogas for energy is an important part of the Danish energy plan for reducing Danish emissions of greenhouse gases. Implementation programmes for new biogas plants have been in operation since 1990, promoted by the Ministry of Environment and Energy. The focus of the...... biogas for energy. Two different Danish joint biogas plants are evaluated with the aim of determining the role of transportation and co-fermentation on the energy and the balance of greenhouse gases from the biogas fuel cycle......., however, be the scarce factor in a further development of the joint biogas plants in Denmark. The purpose of the present study is related to the discussion on the role of transportation in the biogas fuel chain. Transportation plays a central role in the assessment of environmental advantages of utilising...

  20. 17. Annual meeting on biogas and bioenergy in agriculture. Lectures; 17. Jahrestagung Biogas und Bioenergie in der Landwirtschaft. Vortraege

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2008-07-01

    Within the 17th annual meeting at 9th to 10th December, 2008, at the energy centre Wolpertshausen (Federal Republic of Germany), the following lectures were held: (1) Energy - But how? Biogas and bioenergy in the agriculture (Winfried Binder); (2) Models for ecologically useful concepts at agricultural biogas plants (Dr. Manfred Dederer); (3) Innovative and deserving promotion concepts of utilization of heat at fermentation plants in Baden-Wuerttemberg (Konrad Raab); (4) Utilization of heat and strengthening of the regional value-added chain from the view of a franconian plant operator (Christian Endress); (5) Perspectives of an energetic utilization of materials for landscape conservation (Christof Thoss); (6) Meadow grass steps on the accelerator (Peter Stiegler); (7) Biogas from grass: Experiences from northern Germany (Jens Geveke); (8) Experience report of an agricultural biogas plant - Fermentation of grass and effective utilization (Thomas Rott); (9) State of the art of the fermentation of bio waste in a batch process (Jakovos Theodoridis); (10) Integration of a continuous dry fermentation plant into an existing compost heap - an experience report (Michael Buchheit): (11) Coldness from heat: Providing coldness with ammonia / water refrigerating absorbers (Sebastian Zuerich); (12) Current state the Renewable Energy Resources Act 2009 (Otto K. Koerner); (13) The eco-auditor in the Renewable Energy Resources Act 2009 (Peter Vassen); (14) Greenhouse-gas emissions from biogas plants (Carsten Cuhls); (15) Management of crashes and crisis at biogas plants (Anton-Rupert Baumann); (16) SINNRGIE brilliantly simple (Sauter); (17) Fermentation of grass-clover ley in ecological agriculture (Hans Holland).

  1. Cost effective and economic method for cultivation of Chlorella pyrenoidosa for the simultaneous treatment of biogas digester wastewater and biogas production

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rohit Sharma

    2015-02-01

    Full Text Available Microalgae have recently received a lot of attention as a new biomass source for the production of bio fuels and for the treatment of waste water. In this work, Chlorella pyrenoidosa was cultivated in biogas digester wastewater. The growth kinetics of the algae as well as the bio-remediation effect on the waste water was studied. The Chlorella pyrenoidosa can utilize the nitrogen content present in biogas digester wastewater as a substrate for its growth. The growth of microalgae was found to follow the Monod growth model satisfactorily. Under the optimal condition in biogas waste water medium of microalgae, a maximum biomass of 1.5 gm/l was obtained in fifteen days. The net specific growth rate of microalgae Chlorella pyrenoidosa was found to be 0.1 D −1. The growing algae also removed 76 % of nitrate nitrogen (NO3-N from the biogas wastewater. Treated Biogas waste water can be further used for the anaerobic digestion of algal biomass for the production of biogas. This suggests that the cultivation of Chlorella pyrenoidosa in biogas wastewater would be efficient, saving water as well as producing digestible biomass. Thus, on one hand the biogas waste water is being treated and on the other, the alga is showing substantial growth. The same algal species can then be used to produce biogas or other corresponding bio fuel.

  2. Process optimization of biogas production at Nemščak biogas plant by pre-treatment of the substrate and combining with waste sludge

    OpenAIRE

    Žitek, Filip

    2015-01-01

    The purpose of this thesis is to increase the amount of biogas produced by pre-treatment of the substrate and combining with waste sludge. For anaerobic digestion of different substrates, we used a pilot reactor to determine the biogas potential at Nemščak biogas plant. The pilot reactor was built in 2009 for the purpose of testing new substrates in the process of biogas production. The pilot reactor has a working volume of 2000 litres; there is a gas tank above it with the volume of 500 litr...

  3. Evaluation of the energetic equivalence of goat manure biogas; Avaliacao da equivalencia energetica do biogas de esterco de caprinos

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Canafistula, Francisco Jose Firmino; Carvalho, Paulo Cesar Marques de [Universidade Federal do Ceara (UFC), Fortaleza, CE (Brazil). Dept. de Engenharia Eletrica], e-mails: firmino@ufc.br, carvalho@dee.ufc.br

    2008-07-01

    The present paper shows the results of a research about a new production system model based on goats; part of the animals manure is used for biogas production. The biogas is used as fuel for water pumping for the irrigation of the animals pasture. For the viability of the project, a photovoltaic powered electrified fence was used. Additional to the positive results of sustainability, innovative solutions were developed for sizing, optimization and costs reduction by the use of digesters in small rural communities of the semi-arid of the Brazilian Northeast Region. (author)

  4. The clean biogas like an renewable energy source; El biogas limpio como fuente de energia renovable

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Blanco Ortega, J.

    2008-07-01

    The aim of the project is to find an optimal solution to clearing the biogas and remove the H2 S from it. The solution has to be efficient, rentable and easy to use. There are many solutions, but there is not one standard solution indeed the efficiency depends on many different influences e.g. the type of manure or kind of waste. Common solutions; aeration, ferrum- chloride, blood and absorption have been studied and advanced in Scandinavian region. This kind of energy result easy to implement it in system with a big amount of manure, such as, cows and pigs farms, and it needs a little invest to do it possible. (Author)

  5. Biogas desulfurization with doped activated carbon; Feinentschwefelung von Biogas mit dotierter Aktivkohle

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rossow, Silvana; Goetze, Toralf [AdFiS systems GmbH, Teterow (Germany); Deerberg, Goerge [Fraunhofer Inst. fuer Umwelt-, Sicherheits- und Energietechnik UMSICHT, Oberhausen (Germany); Kanswohl, Norbert [Rostock Univ. (Germany). Lehrstuhl fuer Abfall- und Stoffstromwirtschaft; Nelles, Michael [Rostock Univ. (Germany). Lehrstuhl fuer Technologie und Verfahrenstechniken der umweltgerechten Landbewirtschaftung

    2009-07-01

    Doped activated carbon is a special developed activated carbon for the desulfurization of biogas. Because of its special properties it is able to bond a big amount of hydrogen sulfide. After many laboratory tests it was possible to demonstrate the performance of doped activated carbon for desulfurization in practical use The advantages and the specific functioning of doped activated carbon for desulfurization were here exactly as in previous laboratory studies. Despite fluctuating boundary conditions a continuous complete desulfurization was possible. By using the desulfurization system the concentration of hydrogen sulfide is lowered to less than 1 ppm. The damages or interferences that are often caused by hydrogen sulfide could not be identified. A directly visible positive impact of the full desulfurization is the doubling of oil using time. (orig.)

  6. Vitreous membranes used in the biogas purification; Membranas vitreas empleadas en la purificacion de biogas

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ortega Viera, L.; Rodriguez Munoz, S.; Fernandez Santana, E.; Martines Ramirez, Y.; Crespo Artigas, A.; Viera Gallardo, Y.

    2016-05-01

    In the present work 10 vitreous membranes with different masses of zinc oxide (ZnO(s)) and particle diameters charcoal (DPC) are used in the purification of biogas. The porosity and tortuosity of the membranes is obtained, showing the variation with respect to the composition thereof. From these structural features specific flow of H{sub 2}S(g) is obtained which is transferred using the Fick's diffusion equation in the membranes and its value increases with increasing mass of ZnO(s). By X-ray diffraction membrane made with 3.16 g of ZnO(s) forming zinc sulfide it is shown, so we can say that the removal of H{sub 2}S(g) occurs by a process of absorption with chemical reaction in the membranes. (Author)

  7. Energy use of biogas hampered by the presence of siloxanes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Siloxanes are widely used in industrial processes and consumer products. Some of them reach the wastewater. Siloxanes are not decomposed in the activated sludge process and partly concentrate in the sludge. During anaerobic digestion of the sludge, they volatilise into the formed biogas. Combustion of silicon containing gases, e.g., when producing electricity, produces, however, the abrasive microcrystalline silica that has chemical and physical properties similar to those of glass and causes serious damage to gas engines, heat exchangers and catalytic exhaust gas treatment systems. The growing consumption of silicones and siloxanes and the subsequent increased concentration in wastewater, together with the increasing interest in the production of biogas and 'green energy' in sewage treatment plants, has created significant concern about the presence of siloxanes and the related damage (fouling etc.) in the biogas beneficiation equipment. The present paper, therefore, reviews the fundamentals of siloxanes and the current problems of the associated fouling. Moreover, it summarizes the useable methods for siloxane abatement from biogas and makes some recommendations towards preventive actions

  8. The future of anaerobic digestion and biogas utilization

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Holm-Nielsen, J.B.; Al Seadi, T.; Oleskowicz-Popiel, Piotr

    2009-01-01

    and to redistribute the excess of nutrients from manure and to optimize their recycling. Anaerobic digestion of animal manure and slurries offers several benefits by improving their fertilizer qualities, reducing odors and pathogens and producing a renewable fuel – the biogas. The EU policies concerning renewable...

  9. The future of anaerobic digestion and biogas utilisation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Holm-Nielsen, Jens Bo; Al Seadi, Teodorita; Oleskowicz-Popiel, Piotr

    2009-01-01

    and to redistribute the excess of nutrients from manure and to optimize their recycling. Anaerobic digestion of animal manure and slurries offers several benefits by improving their fertilizer qualities, reducing odors and pathogens and producing a renewable fuel - the biogas. The EU policies concerning renewable...

  10. Enhanced biogas yield from energy crops with rumen anaerobic fungi

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Procházka, J.; Mrázek, Jakub; Štrosová, Lenka; Fliegerová, Kateřina; Zábranská, J.; Dohányos, M.

    2012-01-01

    Roč. 12, č. 3 (2012), s. 343-351. ISSN 1618-0240 R&D Projects: GA ČR GPP503/10/P394; GA MZe QI92A286 Institutional support: RVO:67985904 Keywords : Anaerobic digestion * Anaerobic fungi * Biogas yield Subject RIV: EI - Biotechnology ; Bionics Impact factor: 1.633, year: 2012

  11. Biogas - Use in Dual Fuel Diesel Engines and Particulate Emissions

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mustafi, Nirendra N.; Raine, Robert R.; Bansal, Pradeep K. [Univ. of Auckland (New Zealand). Dept. of Mechanical Engineering

    2006-07-15

    Biogas is an alternative renewable gaseous fuel for diesel engines and could substitute a considerable amount of diesel fuel. The aims of this study are to review the published researches on biogas-diesel dual fuel engines and to identify future research needs. Of the engine work already published, most concerns spark-ignited engines. A detailed analysis of the previous studies on biogas-operated diesel engines is presented. Significant research gaps are noticed in the area of exhaust emissions, especially the particulate matter (PM) emissions for biogas-diesel dual fuel engines. A preliminary experiment is conducted to measure the PM emissions of a direct injection (DI) diesel engine. PM emissions are measured and analyzed by filter, light scattering photometer (LSP) and visual methods. Natural gas is used as a primary fuel. The Filter method imparts slightly higher PM emissions at high load than diesel operation. However, the LSP shows lower values for dual fuel operation. The filter appearance for dual fuel operation is found to be significantly different compared to diesel operation. This indicates a significant variation in the physical and chemical characteristics of the PM formed in both cases.

  12. Combined biogas and bi oethanol production in organic farming

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bio energy production from local bio resources has a great potential. It is important to reduce dependency on fossil fuels and decrease green house gas emission in organic agriculture (OA). Both biogas and bio ethanol can be produced in OA and significantly contribute to the sustain ability of organic farms. The presented study is part of the Bio Concerns project. (Author)

  13. PlanET Biogastechnik : community biogas case study

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Riepma, C. [Ontario Sustainable Energy Association, Toronto, ON (Canada)

    2008-07-01

    PlanET Biogastechnik was founded a decade ago and constitutes a joint venture between Germany and Holland. PlanET refers to the planning of energy technology. This PowerPoint presentation focused on a PlanET on-farm digester located east of Amsterdam. It presented the technical features of the biogas plant which is owned by 4 farmers. The primary inputs include oats, rye, sunflowers, grass and corn. The facility employs 140 people and has over 100 anaerobic digesters (ADs) in operation. It includes a 1.5 km biogas pipeline into Amsterdam where the biogas is used in a dairy. Carbon dioxide (CO{sub 2}) is not removed at the on-farm digester. A 526 kW Engine Genset at the dairy produces both electricity and hot water for dairy operations. The rate for renewable electricity in Amsterdam is high enough to justify the cost of renewable energy crops. The facility uses a standard procedure for electrical interconnection. This paper also addressed the issue of incentives for biogas generation, biosecurity among farms and economic viability. 10 figs.

  14. Development, Operation, and Future Prospects for Implementing Biogas Plants

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lybæk, Rikke

    2014-01-01

    technology are emphasized: its capacity as a renewable energy and GHG-avoiding technology, and as a waste processing and environmental technology. It is argued that biogas can provide a future platform for the use of household waste and other types of organic materials (gas boosters) to enhance gas yield...

  15. Biogas upgrading technologies:Energetic analysis and environmental impact assessment

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Yajing Xu; Ying Huang; Bin Wu; Xiangping Zhang; Suojiang Zhang

    2015-01-01

    Biogas upgrading for removing CO2 and other trace components from raw biogas is a necessary step before the biogas to be used as a vehicle fuel or supplied to the natural gas grid. In this work, three technologies for biogas upgrading, i.e., pressured water scrubbing (PWS), monoethanolamine aqueous scrubbing (MAS) and ionic liquid scrubbing (ILS), are studied and assessed in terms of their energy consumption and environmental impacts with the process simulation and green degree method. A non-random-two-liquid and Henry's law property method for a CO2 separation system with ionic liquid 1-butyl-3-methylimidazolium bis(trifluoromethylsulfonyl)imide ([bmim][Tf2N]) is established and verified with experimental data. The assessment results indicate that the specific energy consumption of ILS and PWS is almost the same and much less than that of MAS. High purity CO2 product can be obtained by MAS and ILS methods, whereas no pure CO2 is recovered with the PWS. For the environmental aspect, ILS has the highest green degree production value, while MAS and PWS produce serious environmental impacts.

  16. User's forum biogas plants; Anwenderforum Biogasanlagen

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Krautkremer, Bernd (ed.) [Fraunhofer IWES, Hanau (Germany)

    2011-07-01

    Within the user's forum of the Ostbayerische Technologie-Transfer-Institut e.V. (Regensburg, Federal Republic of Germany) at 23rd November, 2011 in the congress and cultural centre in Regensburg (Federal Republic of Germany), the following lectures were held: (1) EEG amendment - impact on biomass conversion plants (Manuel Maciejczyk); (2) Biogas - financing and economic efficiency (Joerg-Uwe Fischer); (3) Acceptance of biomass conversion plants - Results from the project image analyses biogas (Sabine Strauch); (4) Optimized logistics of biomass conversion plants (Helmut Doehler); (5) Ecologic and economic improvements of agricultural biomass conversion plants (Matthias Sonnleitner); (6) Practice report biomass conversion plants, experiences from the working group biogas of Maschinenring Kassel (Klaus Anduschus); (7) Prevention of accidents and safety engineering of biomass conversion plants (Anselm Lenz); (8) Fermentation of biological wastes in Germany (Thomas Raussen); (9) New small biomass conversion plants - Modular plants for the utilization of residual materials and/or thermal utilization (Ulrich Schmack); (10) Biogas, wind gas, solar gas - electricity storage by coupling of power distribution systems and natural gas distribution systems (Michael Sterner).

  17. The Fuzzy WOD Model with application to biogas plant location

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Franco, Camilo; Bojesen, Mikkel; Hougaard, Jens Leth;

    2014-01-01

    be expressed by degrees of intensity in which the alternatives satisfy the given criteria. Hence, such degrees can be gradually expressed either by unique values or by intervals, in order to fully represent the characteristics of each alternative. This paper examines the selection of biogas plant...

  18. Experimental Investigation of Biogas Reforming in Gliding Arc Plasma Reactors

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    P. Thanompongchart

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Biogas is an important renewable energy source. Its utilization is restricted to vicinity of farm areas, unless pipeline networks or compression facilities are established. Alternatively, biogas may be upgraded into synthetic gas via reforming reaction. In this work, plasma assisted reforming of biogas was investigated. A laboratory gliding arc plasma setup was developed. Effects of CH4/CO2 ratio (1, 2.33, 9, feed flow rate (16.67–83.33 cm3/s, power input (100–600 W, number of reactor, and air addition (0–60% v/v on process performances in terms of yield, selectivity, conversion, and energy consumption were investigated. High power inputs and long reaction time from low flow rates, or use of two cascade reactors were found to promote dry reforming of biogas. High H2 and CO yields can be obtained at low energy consumption. Presence of air enabled partial oxidation reforming that produced higher CH4 conversion, compared to purely dry CO2 reforming process.

  19. Investigation of scale economies for African biogas installations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Biogas technology can serve as a means to overcome energy poverty, which poses a constant barrier to economic development in Africa. This technology can be built on a wide range of scales, and conventional financial wisdom is that larger installations have advantages resulting from economies of scale. This study analyses the statistical evidence bearing on the existence of economies of scale in the small to medium scale production and use of biogas to support faster estimation (at the order of magnitude level) of investment costs for different plant sizes. Investment cost data were gathered for 21 biogas plants in the 4-100 m3 range built since 1999 in eight African countries. Statistical regression indicates diseconomies of scale in the size range of the biogas industry investigated with a cost capacity factor (n) of 1.20 (R2 = 0.90). The cost capacity factor obtained is notably greater than the conventionally used 0.6 factor rule. The result illustrates that the average cost size relationship is statistically significant with ±40% average estimating error

  20. Effective Purification of Biogas by Condensing-Liquid Membrane

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Poloncarzová, Magda; Vejražka, Jiří; Veselý, Václav; Izák, Pavel

    2010-01-01

    Roč. 50, č. 3 (2010), s. 669-671. ISSN 1433-7851 R&D Projects: GA MPO FR-TI1/245 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z40720504 Keywords : biogas purification * condensing liquid * gas permeation Subject RIV: CI - Industrial Chemistry, Chemical Engineering Impact factor: 12.730, year: 2010

  1. Biogas generation in anaerobic wastewater treatment under tetracycline antibiotic pressure

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lu, Meiqing; Niu, Xiaojun; Liu, Wei; Zhang, Jun; Wang, Jie; Yang, Jia; Wang, Wenqi; Yang, Zhiquan

    2016-06-01

    The effect of tetracycline (TC) antibiotic on biogas generation in anaerobic wastewater treatment was studied. A lab-scale Anaerobic Baffled Reactor (ABR) with three compartments was used. The reactor was operated with synthetic wastewater in the absence of TC and in the presence of 250 μg/L TC for 90 days, respectively. The removal rate of TC, volatile fatty acids (VFAs), biogas compositions (hydrogen (H2), methane (CH4), carbon dioxide (CO2)), and total biogas production in each compartment were monitored in the two operational conditions. Results showed that the removal rate of TC was 14.97–67.97% in the reactor. The presence of TC had a large negative effect on CH4 and CO2 generation, but appeared to have a positive effect on H2 production and VFAs accumulation. This response indicated that the methanogenesis process was sensitive to TC presence, but the acidogenesis process was insensitive. This suggested that the presence of TC had less influence on the degradation of organic matter but had a strong influence on biogas generation. Additionally, the decrease of CH4 and CO2 generation and the increase of H2 and VFAs accumulation suggest a promising strategy to help alleviate global warming and improve resource recovery in an environmentally friendly approach.

  2. Quality Assessment of solid waste used for obtaining biogas

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The solid residuals are in our days an important factor in the processes of recycling of materials, composting and obtaining of biogas, however, sometimes doesn't keep in mind the quality of these for their productive acting. Therefore the present work has as objective, in the peculiar case of the biogas production, to propose a method to evaluate the quality of the solid residuals used in the biogas process starting from the biodegradable organic fraction contained in these. For the investigative development of the work theoretical methods were used as the hypothetical-deductive method, the systemic one, the structural-functional one and empiric methods as the scientific observation and the mensuration. The results of their application, although discreet still, have been evidenced in the evaluation of the quality of the solid residuals in the plant of recycling -composting of the City of Holguin in the compost production. The main conclusion to which you can arrive with the carried out investigation is that the evaluation of the quality of the solid residuals is important to make studies of feasibility in the design and implementation of new projects of recycling units, composting and biogas. (author)

  3. Analytical investigation of the thermal optimization of biogas plants

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The economic efficiency of biogas plants is more difficult to display with recent legal regulations than with bonus tariff systems of previous EEG amendments. To enhance efficiency there are different options, often linked with further investments. Direct technical innovations with fast economic yields need exact evaluation of limiting conditions. Within this article the heat sector of agricultural biogas plants is studied. So far scarcely considered, especially the improvement of on-site thermal energy consumption promises a high optimisation. Data basis are feeding protocols and temperature measurements of input substrates, biogas, environment etc., also documentations of on-site thermal consumption over 10 years. Analyzing first results of measurements and primary equilibrations shows, that maintenance of biogas process temperature consumes most thermal energy and therefore has the greatest potential of improvement. Passive and active insulation of feed systems and heat recovery from secondary fermenter liquids are identified as first optimization measures. Depending on amount and temperature raise of input substrates, saving potentials of more than hundred megawatt hours per year were calculated.

  4. The social organization of agricultural biogas production and use

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bluemling, B.; Mol, A.P.J.; Tu, Q.

    2013-01-01

    While for wind, solar energy or hydropower, energy supply happens directly from the source to the wind wheels, hydropower turbines or solar panels, in the case of biogas, energy production cannot directly take from the energy source, organic matter, but depends on the institutional structures and fa

  5. Purification of Raw Biogas by Supported Liquid Membranes

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Izák, Pavel; Kárászová, Magda; Sedláková, Zuzana; Morávková, Lenka; Šolcová, Olga

    Praha : Česká společnost průmyslové chemie, 2014, s. 16. ISBN 978-80-86238-61-6. [mezinárodní chemicko-technologická konference /2./. Mikulov (CZ), 07.04.2014-09.04.2014] Institutional support: RVO:67985858 Keywords : membrane separation * raw biogas * gas mixture Subject RIV: CA - Inorganic Chemistry

  6. Effective Purification of Biogas by a Condensing-Liquid Membrane

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Poloncarzová, Magda; Vejražka, Jiří; Veselý, Václav; Izák, Pavel

    Bratislava : Slovak Society of Chemical Engineering, 2011 - (Markoš, J.), s. 102 ISBN 978-80-227-3503-2. [International Conference of Slovak Society of Chemical Engineering /38./. Tatranské Matliare (SK), 23.05.2011-27.05.2011] Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z40720504 Keywords : membrane * condensing liquid membrane * biogas Subject RIV: CI - Industrial Chemistry, Chemical Engineering

  7. Biogas production on dairy farms: A Croatia case study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nikola Bilandžija

    2013-03-01

    Full Text Available In order to determine the differences in the production and composition of biogas as well as the quality of digested residue from anaerobic digestion of the raw materials generated by dairy farms in Croatia, investigations were undertaken in the biogas laboratory facility of the Faculty of Agriculture. The investigated raw materials were: dairy manure, corn silage, haylage and equal-measure mix (1/3 of all raw materials. For each substrate, three runs of experiments were performed with the same overall hydraulic retention time (40 days and temperature of digestion (35 °C in mesophilic conditions. The investigations found that the most efficient production of biogas was from corn silage. As for biogas composition, it was acceptable in all investigated samples both in energy and environmental terms. Digested residues, which are mildly alkaline, have low dry matter content. About 70 % of dry matter content is organic. On the basis of N:P:K analysis and the analysis of biogenic elements values and heavy metal values, it can be concluded that digested residues of all input raw materials can be used in agricultural production.

  8. External effects related to biogas and wind power

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ibsen, Liselotte Schleisner; Nielsen, Per Sieverts

    1998-01-01

    will focus on estimates of externalities related to wind and biogas energy supplies using the ExternE methodology developed in a major study launched by the European Comission. External costs are the costs imporsed on society that are not included in the market price (e.g. effects of air pollution on health......, buildings, crops, forests and global warming, emissions of noise etc.)....

  9. Air Quality, Climate and Economic Impacts of Biogas Management Technologies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Anaerobically digested organic waste (e.g. manure, sewage, and municipal solid waste) produces biogas, a source of renewable energy. A recent analysis indicates that the technical resource in California could produce nearly 93 billion cubic feet per year of biomethane from availa...

  10. Biogas energy production from tropical biomass wastes by anaerobic digestion

    Science.gov (United States)

    Anaerobic digestion (AD) is an attractive technology in tropical regions for converting locally abundant biomass wastes into biogas which can be used to produce heat, electricity, and transportation fuels. However, investigations on AD of tropical forestry wastes, such as albizia biomass, and food w...

  11. Serial CSTR digester configuration for improving biogas production from manure

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Boe, Kanokwan; Angelidaki, Irini

    2009-01-01

    A new configuration of manure digesters for improving biogas production has been investigated in laboratory scale. A single thermophilic continuous-flow stirred tank reactor (CSTR) operated with a hydraulic retention time (HRT) of 15 days was compared to a serial CSTR configuration with volume di...

  12. ANALYSIS OF EXERGY PARAMETERS OF BIOGAS POWER PLANT

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Denysova A.E.

    2014-08-01

    Full Text Available The techniques of an exergy analysis concerning various circuits of biogas units, which allows replacing traditional energy resources and improving environmental conditions, has been presented. The heat schemes of biogas units were proposed, and analysis of their effectiveness was made. The comparison of different cycle parameters of various biogas units (i.e. a combustion turbine unit, a combined cycle gas turbine unit with gas discharges into the boiler and a combined cycle gas turbine with a high-temperature vapor generator and a reheating stage was made, and the comparison of their exergy characteristics was carried out. The results of exergy analysis had demonstrated that the cycle of biogas CCGT (combined cycle gas turbine with a reheating stage and using a high-pressure steam generator is the most effective, that can be explained by the fact that the thermal energy proportions of combustion products, accounting for the steam cycle and the gas cycle are approximately equal, comparing to conventional combined cycle gas turbine units.

  13. Measurements on and simulations of a biogas-fuelled bus

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mathematical models for torque/fuel consumption and emissions have been studied for a biogas-fuelled bus used in urban traffic in Linkoeping, Sweden. It is noted that the cycle ECE R-49 is not representative for city buses, but that the Braunschweig cycle gives rather good agreement. 2 refs, 37 figs

  14. Biogas generator development in Israel gets first orders

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1982-08-01

    Having successfully demonstrated full size biogas digestion demonstration plants, Israel Kibbutz Industries Association has now procured an Italian contract worth about $330,000. Negotiations on the possible supply of additional systems are said to be in progress with interested parties in France, Mexico and the US.

  15. Production of biogas from municipal solid waste with domestic sewage.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Elango, D; Pulikesi, M; Baskaralingam, P; Ramamurthi, V; Sivanesan, S

    2007-03-01

    In this study, experiments were conducted to investigate the production of biogas from municipal solid waste (MSW) and domestic sewage by using anaerobic digestion process. The batch type of reactor was operated at room temperature varying from 26 to 36 degrees C with a fixed hydraulic retention time (HRT) of 25 days. The digester was operated at different organic feeding rates of 0.5, 1.0, 2.3, 2.9, 3.5 and 4.3kg of volatile solids (VS)/m(3) of digester slurry per day. Biogas generation was enhanced by the addition of domestic sewage to MSW. The maximum biogas production of 0.36m(3)/kg of VS added per day occurred at the optimum organic feeding rate of 2.9kg of VS/m(3)/day. The maximum reduction of total solids (TS) (87.6%), VS (88.1%) and chemical oxygen demand (COD) (89.3%) occurred at the optimum organic loading rate of 2.9kg of VS/m(3)/day. The quality of biogas produced during anaerobic digestion process was 68-72%. PMID:16914265

  16. First experience gained with new biogas plants and their profitability

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Perwanger, A.

    1981-01-01

    A brief survey on more recent biogas plants in Bavaria is given which are serviced by the Landtechnik Weihenstephan. Investment cost, profitability, modes of construction and function as well as possible means and methods of heat recovery and gas storage are demonstrated with the individual plants located at different farms.

  17. Methanation and energy recovery from biogas: mutually beneficial?

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Biogas is credited with a development potential of 18 million tons of oil equivalent by 2020 for the European Union. In terms of scale, this corresponds to the quantity of natural gas consumed today in France. Ten per cent of these resources are today being used, with wide variations from one country to another. If we compare this production to the population levels, it is the Northern European countries of Denmark, Sweden and the Netherlands which emerge at the top of the list. Recovery of biogas is proportionally three times higher in these states than in France or in Belgium and six times that of Southern Europe. At a time when biogas appears in the European 'campaign for takeoff' as a sector likely to produce 'MW' in the short term, the identification of factors (including subsidies, purchase prices for energy and tax incentives) that have influenced the growth of methanation and recovery of biogas in certain countries hold valuable lessons for us all. (authors)

  18. BIOGAS PROCTION FROM ANAEROBIC CO-DIGESTION OF COW DUNG AND ORGANIC WASTES (NAPIER PAK CHONG I AND FOOD WASTE IN THAILAND: TEMPERATURE EFFECT ON BIOGAS PRODUCT

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lertluck Saitawee

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Biogas production has been attracting increasing attention as a biofuel of the future because biogas technology not only constitutes a biofuel source, but also can be applied in the various environmental pollutants. Anaerobic digestion of high solid slurries (such as food waste and cow dung is typically performed in continuously reactor (by force substrate flow to avoid problems with a thick floating layer or large amounts of sediments. Temperature also seems to have profound influence on the biogas production. The objective of the study was to identify the optimum biogas production for anaerobic co-digestion of cow dung and organic wastes (napierpakchong I and food waste. Influence of temperature (psyhrophilic temperature 25°C and thermoplilic temperature 45°C and active biogas process on single substrate (food waste feed and co-digestion of cow dung and organic wastes (napierpakchong I and food waste was used, within the reactor was studies in 1.80 cm high over a 45 day. Results showed that best digestion was achieved when digested of cow dung, napierpakchong I and food waste on 1:1:1 and thermoplilic temperature. Maximum biogas production (R4, biogas yield, methane content and %VS reduction was found that 70 L/day, 70 L/VS feed, 65 and 80%, respectively. The result showed that the biogas production increased progressively withhigher temperature.The increased in biogas production in thermophilic temperature and psyhrophilic temperature could be up 28.01 and 26%, respectively. The biogas yield increased 12.5% of co-digestion system, which compared to thermophilic temperature and psyhrophilic temperature (R4 and R2. This behavior might be due to the higher degradability. Therefore, temperature of digester can be used effectively as an operating strategy to optimize biogas production.

  19. A case study for biogas generation from covered anaerobic ponds treating abattoir wastewater: Investigation of pond performance and potential biogas production

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Highlights: • We report on the performance of a novel covered anaerobic pond system. • Potential biogas production was estimated using BioWin modelling software. • Ponds maintained stable operation; however, accumulation of crust was an issue. • Modelling indicated that biogas yield can be influenced by decomposition efficiency. • Configuration and operation of ponds can also impact potential biogas production. - Abstract: Covered anaerobic ponds offer significant advantages to the red meat processing industry by capturing methane rich gas as a fuel source for bioenergy while reducing greenhouse gas emissions (GHG). This paper presents the results of a novel-designed anaerobic pond system at an Australian abattoir in relation to pond performance and potential biogas production. Key findings in assessing the effectiveness of the system revealed that the covered ponds are capable of efficient wastewater decomposition and biogas production. The primary issue with the covered ponds at the abattoir was the build-up of fat/crust that prevented the accurate measurement of biogas and effective use of the cover. In the absence of field biogas data the novel application of the computer modelling software BioWin® was carried out to simulate chemical oxygen demand (COD) removal rates and subsequent biogas yield. The unique parameter used to fit field data was the fraction of the inlet COD due to a superficial crust which did not follow anaerobic digestion. Field data effluent COD removal rates were matched to simulated rates predicted by BioWin when measured influent COD was reduced to 30%. Biogas modelling results suggest significant variation in the economic benefit of biogas energy, with the quantity of biogas potentially varying tenfold (from 328 m3/d to 3284 m3/d) depending on site factors such as pond efficiency, pond configuration and operational practices

  20. Ecological and economic evaluation of biogas from intercrops

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Niemetz, Nora; Kettl, Karl-Heinz [Graz Univ. of Technology (Austria). Inst. for Process and Particle Engineering

    2012-12-01

    Biogas made from main crops (e.g., corn) is commonly used for producing electricity and heat. Nevertheless, the production of energy from monocultures is highly unsustainable and not truly renewable. Since neither monocultures nor food competition are desirable, intercrops can be used to increase the yield per hectare instead of leaving agricultural fields unplanted for soil regeneration. The extra biomass can be used for biogas production. In a case study, the economic as well as the ecological feasibility of biogas production using intercrops, cattle manure, grass and corn silage as feedstocks for fermenters was analyzed. The set-up for the case study included different feedstock combinations as well as spatial distributions of substrate supply and heat demand for modeling and optimization. Using the process network synthesis, an optimum structure was generated representing the most economical technology constellation which included transport of substrates, heat and biogas (when applicable). The ecological evaluation was carried out by using the sustainable process index method. The application of both methodologies to different scenarios allowed a constellation to be found which is economically feasible while entailing low ecological pressure. It is demonstrated that the production of intercrops for producing biogas has so far not been regarded as a viable option by the farmers due to a variety of barriers. Sensitization is needed to emphasize that planting intercrops holds many advantages like positive effects on soil regeneration and raised nitrogen fixation, as well as increased biomass output per hectare and, last but not least, it allows the production of energy without conflicts between food and energy production. (orig.)

  1. Production of bio-gas from maize cobs

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Leke, Luter [College of Physical Sciences, University of Aberdeen, AB24 3UE, Aberdeen (United Kingdom); Department of Chemistry, Benue State University, P M B 102119, Makurdi (Nigeria); Ogbanje, Anne Ada [Department of Chemistry, Benue State University, P M B 102119, Makurdi (Nigeria); Department of Renewable Energy, Energy Commission of Nigeria, Garki-Abuja (Nigeria); Terfa, Dekaa Henry [Department of Chemistry, Benue State University, P M B 102119, Makurdi (Nigeria); Ikyaagba, Tyoalumun [College of Physical Sciences, University of Aberdeen, AB24 3UE, Aberdeen (United Kingdom)

    2013-07-01

    Anaerobic digestion of energy crop residues and wastes is of increasing interest in order to reduce greenhouse gas emissions and to facilitate a sustainable development of energy supply. Production of biogas provides a versatile carrier of renewable energy, as methane can be used for replacement of fossil fuels in both heat and power generation as vehicle fuel. Biogas fuel production from blends of biological wastes such as Cow rumen liquor (CL), Poultry droppings (PD), and Goat Faeces (GF) with Maize cobs (M) were studied. 20 g of each inoculum was mixed with 100g of degraded maize cobs in the first three digesters while the fourth contained CL 10g, PD 10 g, and M 100 g. 100 g of M alone in the fifth digester served as the control. The blends were subjected to anaerobic digestion for 10 days on the prevailing atmospheric ambient temperature and pressure conditions. Physiochemical properties of the blends such as moisture content, crude protein, ash, fat, crude fibre, carbohydrate content, C/N ratio, and pH were also determined. Results of the daily performances of each system showed that maize cobs (M) alone had cumulative biogas yield of 1.50 cm3 while those of the blends (MCL, MPD, MGF and MCLPD) were 6.11 cm3, 3.05 cm3, 2.50 cm3, and 63.00 cm3 respectively, pH and C/N ratio affected the biogas yield of the systems significantly. These results indicate that the low biogas production from maize cobs can be enhanced significantly by blending with cow rumen liquor and poultry droppings.

  2. Renewable energy. Part 6. Biomass and biogas, substitute fuels, wind power; Erneuerbare Energien. Bd. 6. Biomasse und Biogas, Ersatzbrennstoffe, Windenergie

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Thome-Kozmiensky, Karl J.; Beckmann, Michael

    2011-07-01

    The authors of the book under consideration report on the technical implementation of projects to produce electricity and heat from renewable energies. In particular, the issues biomass, production and utilization of biogas, materials recycling and energy recovery of substitute fuels and wind energy are discussed.

  3. Conversion of diesel generator groups for utilization of biogas; Conversao de grupos geradores diesel para utilizacao de biogas

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tavares, Gabriel Maial; Almeida, Silvio Carlos Anibal de [Universidade Federal do Rio de Janeiro (DEM/UFRJ), RJ (Brazil). Dept. de Engenharia Mecanica; Fernandes, Rodrigo Martins; Batista, Victor Manuel Oliveira [ENELTEC - Energia Eletrica e Tecnologia, Rio de Janeiro, RJ (Brazil)], E-mail: rodrigo@eneltec.com.br

    2010-07-01

    This work presents the energy generation through the biogas driven generators integrated to the energy networks, and focuses the nationalization of control technology used in that type of plant, The domain of control technology embraces the network frequency control and the torque generated by the driving machine, reducing production, maintenance and calibration costs and consequently eliminating the expenses of import tributes of the system.

  4. Proceedings of the 1. annual Canadian farm and food biogas conference and exhibition

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This conference provided a forum for researchers, farmers, and electric utility operators to discuss issues related to the growth of Canada's biogas industry. Many farmers are now exploring methods of producing biogas from agricultural wastes using anaerobic digestion technologies. However, regulatory problems continue to stall the growth of the fledgling biogas industry. In addition, many biogas plants face challenges related to ensuring reliable grid connections. European and American perspectives on biogas development were presented at the conference along with issues related to provincial and federal regulations and policies. Technologies and strategies for connecting biogas systems with other power systems were presented. The conference was divided into 11 sessions and 2 plenary sessions: (1) B1 grid connection solutions; (2) B2D energy crops and other plant-based co-substrates; (3) B2E Ontario biogas today; (4) B3D mixed materials; (5) B3E siting, odour and safety; (6) B4D economics and policy issues; (7) B4E genset performance and efficiency panel; (8) B5D case studies of food or farm biogas systems; (9) B5E case studies of farm-based systems; (10) B6D biogas next steps; and (11) B6E biogas in an urban setting. The conference featured 42 presentations, of which 5 have been catalogued separately for inclusion in this database. A set of 12 poster presentations were also presented, as well as several networking forums. tabs., figs

  5. Assessment of energy performance in the life-cycle of biogas production

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Energy balances are analysed from a life-cycle perspective for biogas systems based on 8 different raw materials. The analysis is based on published data and relates to Swedish conditions. The results show that the energy input into biogas systems (i.e. large-scale biogas plants) overall corresponds to 20-40% (on average approximately 30%) of the energy content in the biogas produced. The net energy output turns negative when transport distances exceed approximately 200 km (manure), or up to 700 km (slaughterhouse waste). Large variations exist in energy efficiency among the biogas systems studied. These variations depend both on the properties of the raw materials studied and on the system design and allocation methods chosen. The net energy output from biogas systems based on raw materials that have high water content and low biogas yield (e.g. manure) is relatively low. When energy-demanding handling of the raw materials is required, the energy input increases significantly. For instance, in a ley crop-based biogas system, the ley cropping alone corresponds to approximately 40% of the energy input. Overall, operation of the biogas plant is the most energy-demanding process, corresponding to 40-80% of the energy input into the systems. Thus, the results are substantially affected by the assumptions made about the allocation of a plant's entire energy demand among raw materials, e.g. regarding biogas yield or need of additional water for dilution

  6. Assessing the economic aspects of biogas plants. A case study in rural Bangladesh

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Energy crisis has become one of the most concerning issues throughout the world including emerging developing country like Bangladesh. Scientific community has unequivocally agreed that renewable energy is the only solution to face this challenge. A number of researches on renewable energy (e.g., solar, wind, hydro energy and biogas) have been carried out in Bangladesh. So far, biogas and solar energy has been proved to be the best alternative to meet the daily energy demand. However, Bangladesh could achieve more success with biogas in rural areas if socioeconomic, technical and regulatory issues were addressed appropriately. This study analyzed not only these factors but also (i) the present situation of the biogas production, (ii) ways to improve the efficiency and economic benefits of small-scale or farm-scale biogas production, (iii) existing problem associated with small-scale/farms-scale biogas production, (iv) reason behind not using and not using of biogas by the people nearby the user of biogas, (v) economic benefits of small biogas plants and (vi) the ways to improve efficiency by intervening feed stock quality and composition of the small-scale/farms-scale biogas plants.

  7. Renewable energies. Vol. 2. Surrogate fuels, biomass and biogas, solar and wind energy; Erneuerbare Energien. Bd. 2. Ersatzbrennstoffe, Biomasse und Biogas, Solar- und Windenergie

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Thome-Kozmiensky, Karl J.; Beckmann, Michael

    2009-07-01

    The book on renewable energies, vol.2, surrogate fuels, biomass and biogas, solar and wind energy, covers the following chapters: analytics and sampling concerning the biogenic carbon content of surrogate fuels; processing of surrogate fuels for the energetic utilization; energetic utilization of surrogate fuels; energetic utilization of biomass; fermentation and biogas; solar energy (solar thermal power plant, photovoltaics); wind energy.

  8. Electric power generation potential from the biogas in sewer treatment stations; Potencial de geracao eletrica a partir do biogas em estacoes de tratamento de esgotos (ETE)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Albuquerque, Viriatus de; Magrini, Alessandra; Szklo, Alexandre Salem [Universidade Federal do Rio de Janeiro (UFRJ), RJ (Brazil). Coordenacao dos Programas de Pos-graduacao de Engenharia. Programa de Planejamento Energetico

    2004-07-01

    This paper evaluates the brazilian potential of electric power generation from the biogas originated in the home sewage treatment process, applying anaerobic digesters. The energy utilization of the biogas generated in sewage treatment stations (STS) contributes to the viabilization the sanitation and improve the sanitation sector in Brazil.

  9. Biogas in Lusaka ? Feasibility study: Possibilities to extract and utilise biogas from municipal solid waste in Lusaka, Zambia

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hermansson, Emma; Nelson, Sara

    2000-07-01

    The objective of this study was to investigate possibilities to extract and utilise biogas from municipal solid waste in Lusaka, considering environmental, financial, technological and social aspects. The outcome provided three recommendations: 1 - a new landfill with biocells. The only legal tipping site in Lusaka has been condemned and there are plans for the construction of a new landfill. We recommend that the new site should be a sanitary landfill with full gas and leachate management. Thus, the costs for extracting biogas would be included in the investments for the landfill. It would be advisable to start with a simple end-use application during a running-in period when the technique and organisation is tested. Utilising the gas for internal heating or in a nearby industry will probably be the easiest and cheapest choice. 2 - a pilot project in a high-density area for co-dispersal of latrine and putrescibles. The sanitary conditions in high-density areas, where pit-latrines are the principal sanitary method, are insufficient. It is of great importance to master the situation in order to avoid further epidemics and water pollution. Compared to other solutions we consider a fermentation digester to be the best alternative. The main purpose for this pilot plant would, at least in the initial stage, be to investigate whether this method is a feasible solution for the problems with pit latrines. The aim of the end-use application could then merely be to demonstrate and inform the public about biogas. 3 - further investigations regarding the possibilities to extract and utilise biogas in industries and from manure, The estimated biogas potential from industries and manure and droppings from livestock and chickens is much bigger than from municipal solid waste and should be exploited. The end-use applications would probably be for internal use (heat and/or electricity). This was not investigated any further in our study.

  10. Online monitoring and control of the biogas process

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Boe, K.

    2006-07-01

    The demand for online monitoring and control of biogas process is increasing, since better monitoring and control system can improve process stability and enhance process performance for better economy of the biogas plants. A number of parameters in both the liquid and the gas phase have been suggested as process indicators. These include gas production, pH, alkalinity, volatile fatty acids (VFA) and hydrogen. Of these, VFA is the most widely recognised as a direct, relevant measure of stability. The individual, rather than collective VFA concentrations are recognised as providing significantly more information for diagnosis. However, classic on-line measurement is based on filtration, which suffers from fouling, especially in particulate or slurry wastes. In this project, a new online VFA monitoring system has been developed using gas-phase VFA extraction to avoid sample filtration. The liquid sample is pumped into a sampling chamber, acidified, added with salt and heated to extract VFA into the gas phase before analysis by GC-FID. This allows easy application to manure. Sample and analysis time of the system varies from 25-40 min. depending on the washing duration. The sampling frequency is fast enough for the dynamic of a manure digester, which is in the range of several hours. This system has been validated over more than 6 months and had shown good agreement with offline VFA measurement. Response from this sensor was compared with other process parameters such as biogas production, pH and dissolved hydrogen during overload situations in a laboratory-scale digester, to investigate the suitability of each measure as a process indicator. VFA was most reliable for indicating process imbalance, and propionate was most persistent. However, when coupling the online VFA monitoring with a simple control for automatic controlling propionate level in a digester, it was found that propionate decreased so slow that the biogas production fluctuated. Therefore, it is more

  11. Potential biodiesel and biogas production from corncob by anaerobic fermentation and black soldier fly.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Wu; Li, Qing; Zheng, Longyu; Wang, Yuanyuan; Zhang, Jibin; Yu, Ziniu; Zhang, Yanlin

    2015-10-01

    Bioenergy has become attractive as alternatives of gradually exhausted fossil fuel. Obtaining high grade bioenergy from lignocellulose is attractive that can gradually meet the demand. This study reported biogas and biodiesel were produced from corncob by a two-step bioprocess, biogas was produced from corncob by anaerobic fermentation, then biogas residue was converted by black soldier fly larvae, and then biodiesel was produced from larvae grease. 86.70 L biogas was obtained from 400 g corncob with the accumulation of biogas yield of 220.71 mL/g VS(added) by anaerobic digestion. Besides, 3.17 g of biodiesel was produced from grease after inoculating black soldier fly larvae into 400 g biogas residue. Meanwhile, the results showed that the addition of black soldier fly larvae could be effective for the degradation of lignocellulose and the accumulation of grease. PMID:26210140

  12. An integrated prediction and optimization model of biogas production system at a wastewater treatment facility.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Akbaş, Halil; Bilgen, Bilge; Turhan, Aykut Melih

    2015-11-01

    This study proposes an integrated prediction and optimization model by using multi-layer perceptron neural network and particle swarm optimization techniques. Three different objective functions are formulated. The first one is the maximization of methane percentage with single output. The second one is the maximization of biogas production with single output. The last one is the maximization of biogas quality and biogas production with two outputs. Methane percentage, carbon dioxide percentage, and other contents' percentage are used as the biogas quality criteria. Based on the formulated models and data from a wastewater treatment facility, optimal values of input variables and their corresponding maximum output values are found out for each model. It is expected that the application of the integrated prediction and optimization models increases the biogas production and biogas quality, and contributes to the quantity of electricity production at the wastewater treatment facility. PMID:26295443

  13. Biogas and biofuels barometer; Le barometre du biogaz et des biocarburants

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Anon

    2007-05-15

    European union countries are becoming more and more interested by the characteristics of biogas in terms of environment and energy production and are developing their proper channels of valorization according to their potential. In this way, biogas production reached nearly 5,3 million tons oil equivalent in 2006, representing a 13,6% increase with respect to 2005. Statistical data are provided on the primary energy production of biogas, the electricity production from biogas, gross heat production from biogas, and the representative firms of the biogas sector. In a second part the biofuels barometer is presented. The agricultural environment and landscape of the European Union countries is redefined a little more each year by energy crops for biofuel production. According to the first estimates for 2006, biofuel consumption reached 5,38 Mtoe last year in the EU, corresponding to a 1,8% share of the total consumption of fuels devoted to transport. (A.L.B.)

  14. Hydrogen sulfide removal from livestock biogas by a farm-scale bio-filter desulfurization system.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Su, J-J; Chang, Y-C; Chen, Y-J; Chang, K-C; Lee, S-Y

    2013-01-01

    A farm-scale biogas desulfurization system was designed and tested for H2S removal efficiency from livestock biogas. This work assesses the H2S removal efficiency of a novel farm-scale biogas bio-desulfurization system (BBS) operated for 350 days on a 1,000-head pig farm. Experimental data demonstrated that suitable humidity and temperature can help sulfur-oxidizing bacteria to form active bio-films on the bio-carriers. The daily average removal rate increased to 879.16 from 337.75 g-H2S/d with an average inlet H2S concentration of 4,691 ± 1,532 mg/m(3) in biogas. Thus, the overall (0-350 days) average H2S removal efficiency exceeded 93%. The proposed BBS overcomes limitations of H2S in biogas when utilizing pig farm biogas for power generation and other applications. PMID:23508153

  15. Analysis of small-scale biogas utilization systems on Ontario cattle farms

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The production of biogas through the anaerobic digestion of cattle manure and its subsequent use in the generation of electricity on larger farms in Ontario is currently economically attractive. This is a result of the Ontario Feed-In Tariff (FIT) program, which provides incentivized rates for the production of electricity from biogas. Although larger farms can take advantage of the higher rates for electricity, there are substantially more smaller farms for which individually designed and engineered biogas systems would be prohibitively expensive. By employing the concept of modular biogas plants, this analysis evaluates the economics of small-scale biogas utilization systems. Dairy farms with at least 33 animals and beef farms with at least 78 animals can operate economically attractive biogas systems. This analysis shows that approximately 9000 additional Ontario cattle farms would be able to take advantage of the FIT program, which would add 120 MWe of renewable energy capacity to the Ontario electrical grid. (author)

  16. Biogas and mineral fertiliser production from plant residues of phytoremediation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chu, Thi Thu Ha

    2011-07-01

    The former uranium mining site in Ronneburg, Thuringia, Germany was known as a big source of uranium with more than 113,000 tons of uranium mined from 1946 to 1990. This area has been remediated since the nineties of the last century. However, nowadays the site in Ronneburg is still specially considered because of the heterogeneous contamination by many heavy metals and the vegetation can be affected. Three plant species including Indian mustard - Brassica juncea L., triticale - x. Triticosecale Wittmaek and sunflower - Helianthus annuus L. were seeded as accumulators of heavy metals and radionuclides in the phytoremediation process in 2009 and 2010 in Ronneburg. The subsequent utilization of the plant residues after phytoremediation is of special consideration. Batch fermentation of harvested plant materials under the mesophilic condition showed that all of the investigated plant materials had much higher biogas production than liquid cow manure except triticale root, of which biogas yield per volatile solid was not significantly higher than the one of sludge. The highest biogas yields (311 L{sub N}/kg FM and 807 L{sub N}/kg VS) were achieved from the spica of triticale after 42 days of retention of anaerobic digestion. Triticale shoot residues generated higher biogas and methane yields than the previously reported triticale materials that were harvested from the uncontaminated soil Triticale was considered as the highest potential species in biogas production, beside the best growth ability on the acidic soil at the test field site with highest biomass production. Biogas yield of Indian mustard shoot was also high but dramatically varied from 2009 to 2010. Digestates after anaerobic digestion of plant residues contained various macronutrients such as nitrogen, potassium, phosphorus and sulphur, and various micronutrients such as iron, manganes, zinc, etc. The accumulation levels of heavy metals in the investigated plant materials were not the hindrance factors

  17. Sustainable energy management in industry of Republic of Serbia: Biogas power plants advantages

    OpenAIRE

    Golušin Mirjan; Dodić Siniša; Vučurović Damjan; Jovanović Larisa; Munitlak-Ivanović Olja

    2012-01-01

    This paper reviews the specifics of energy policy in Serbia on the example of designing a biogas power plant. The biogas power plant is designed in accordance with the existing energy policy that recognizes producers of energy from renewable sources as This paper reviews the previously performed analysis in the sphere of energy consumption, which served as the basis for creating a new corporate energy policy. The paper presents an analysis of biogas power plant output (electrical and thermal ...

  18. Enhanced biogas production from rice straw with various pretreatment : a review

    OpenAIRE

    Fahriya Puspita Sari; Budiyono Budiyono

    2014-01-01

    Rice straw is one of organic material that can be used for sustainable production of bioenergy and biofuels such as biogas (about 50-75% CH4 and 25-50% CO2). Out of all bioconversion technologies for biogas production, anaerobic digestion (AD) is a most cost-effective bioconversion technology that has been implemented worldwide for commercial production of electricity, heat, and compressed natural gas (CNG) from organic materials. However, the utilization of rice straw for biogas production v...

  19. Enhancing methane production in a farm-scale biogas production system

    OpenAIRE

    Kaparaju, Prasad

    2003-01-01

    This work highlights the application of biogas technology in a farm biogas system to generate renewable energy and to reduce environmental impacts and GHG emissions from high strength organic wastes ranging from agricultural, animal wastes and agro-industrial organic wastes. In addition, the thesis also emphasizes various measures to enhance methane production especially in a farm-scale biogas production system through co-digestion of manure and industrial organic waste/energy crops and recov...

  20. Justification of investment projects of biogas systems by the sensitivity analysis

    OpenAIRE

    Perebijnos Vasilij Ivanovich; Gavrish Valerij Ivanovich

    2015-01-01

    Methodical features of sensitivity analysis application for evaluation of biogas plants investment projects are shown in the article. Risk factors of the indicated investment projects have been studied. Methodical basis for the use of sensitivity analysis and calculation of elasticity coefficient has been worked out. Calculation of sensitivity analysis and elasticity coefficient of three biogas plants projects, which differ in direction of biogas transformation: use in co-generation plant, ap...