WorldWideScience

Sample records for biogas plants process

  1. Process control in biogas plants

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Holm-Nielsen, Jens Bo; Oleskowicz-Popiel, Piotr

    2013-01-01

    Efficient monitoring and control of anaerobic digestion (AD) processes are necessary in order to enhance biogas plant performance. The aim of monitoring and controlling the biological processes is to stabilise and optimise the production of biogas. The principles of process analytical technology...

  2. Processing biogas plant digestates into value-added products - BIOVIRTA

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Paavola, T. (MTT Agrifood Research Finland, Jokioinen (Finland)), e-mail: teija.paavola@mtt.fi; Torniainen, M. (Finnish Food Safety Authority, EVIRA, Helsinki (Finland)), e-mail: merja.torniainen@evira.fi; Kaparaju, P. (Jyvaeskylae Univ. (Finland)), e-mail: prasad.kaparaju@jyu.fi (and others)

    2011-11-15

    The objective of BIOVIRTA project is to develop technologies and practices with which digestates, originating from anaerobic digestion of different organic wastes and by-products can be refined to value-added and safe products for various end-uses. It is expected that the operational preconditions for biogas plants will be significantly enhanced when the end-products are proven safe and applicable. Selection of the raw materials for anaerobic co-digestion is the main operational strategy that could influence the nutrient content in the digestate. This has been clearly established in the laboratory and full-scale studies with various digestates originating from different raw materials. The nutrient content in the digestate also affects the opportunities to produce refined digestate products. In this project, the possibilities for several processing technologies, e.g. mechanical separation, stripping, and struvite production have been intensively evaluated for the production of different digestate products. Their mass balances have also been estimated. The feasibility for the use of the digestate products has been assessed based on their chemical and hygienic quality and for various end-uses, including as organic fertiliser and/or soil improver in crop production. The results of these field-experiments showed that the yield of barley fertilised with digestate products was comparable to inorganic fertilisers. (orig.)

  3. Near-infrared spectroscopy for process and substrate supervision of a full-scale biogas plant

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jacobi, Hans Fabian

    2012-07-01

    Aim of this study was to investigate the possible use of near-infrared spectroscopy in the supervision of the biogas production process or parts thereof. It was examined, whether the surveillance of (a) the process and (b) substrate was feasible. The following tasks were accomplished to this end: 1. Development, construction and assembly of suitable NIRS-metrology, development of proper control-software as well as of strategies for data acquisition and data handling, 2. calculation and validation of regression models on the basis of acquired spectra and reference data for (a) suitable parameters of the biogas process, (b) composition and biogas potential of the substrate, 3. calculation of continuous time series of all parameters in order to prove the possibility of continuous surveillance, 4. integrated processing of continuously calculated biogas potentials together with plant data for the prediction of the biogas production behavior of the biogas plant. A near-infrared spectrometer was installed and equipped with NIR-measuring heads of own design and construction on a full-scale agricultural biogas plant. For 500 days spectra were continuously logged at (a) a pipe flowed through by fermenter slurry and (b) the feeding station, where silage passed. Based on regularly withdrawn reference samples and the corresponding spectra regression models were calibrated for the several constituents. Continuously logged spectra were used to calculate time series with the aid of the regression models for each constituent. Models and time series were established for the following parameters: (a) process parameters: volatile fatty acids, acetic acid, propionic acid, dry matter, volatile solids; (b) substrate parameters: dry matter, volatile solids, crude fiber, crude fat, crude protein, nitrogen-free extracts, experimentally assessed biogas potential, theoretically assessed biogas potential. Despite the partially low quality of the models it was possible to follow the course of

  4. Codigestion of manure and industrial organic waste at centralized biogas plants: process imbalances and limitations

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bangsø Nielsen, Henrik; Angelidaki, Irini

    2008-01-01

    The present study focuses on process imbalances in Danish centralized biogas plants treating manure in combination with industrial waste. Collection of process data from various full-scale plants along with a number of interviews showed that imbalances occur frequently. High concentrations...

  5. Monitoring of biogas test plants

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Holm-Nielsen, Jens Bo; Esbensen, Kim H.

    2011-01-01

    Most studies reported in the literature have investigated near infrared spectroscopy (NIR) in laboratory-scale or minor pilot biogas plants only; practically no other studies have examined the potential for meso-scale/full-scale on-line process monitoring. The focus of this study is on a meso......-scale biogas test plant implementation of process analytical technologies (PAT) to develop multivariate calibration/prediction models for anaerobic digestion (AD) processes. A 150 L bioreactor was fitted with a recurrent loop at which NIR spectroscopy and attendant reference sampling were carried out. In all...... realistic bioreactor scales, it is necessary to obtain a fairly constant level of volatile fatty acid (VFA) concentration, which furthers a stable biogas production. Uncontrolled VFA contents have a significant negative impact on biogas production; VFA concentrations should not exceed 5–6000 mg/L lest...

  6. ORGANIC WASTE USED IN AGRICULTURAL BIOGAS PLANTS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Joanna Kazimierowicz

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available Treatment of organic waste is an ecological and economical problem. Searching method for disposal of these wastes, interest is methane fermentation. The use of this process in agricultural biogas plants allows disposal of hazardous waste, obtaining valuable fertilizer, while the production of ecologically clean fuel – biogas. The article presents the characteristics of organic waste from various industries, which make them suitable for use as substrates in agricultural biogas plants.

  7. ORGANIC WASTE USED IN AGRICULTURAL BIOGAS PLANTS

    OpenAIRE

    Joanna Kazimierowicz

    2014-01-01

    Treatment of organic waste is an ecological and economical problem. Searching method for disposal of these wastes, interest is methane fermentation. The use of this process in agricultural biogas plants allows disposal of hazardous waste, obtaining valuable fertilizer, while the production of ecologically clean fuel – biogas. The article presents the characteristics of organic waste from various industries, which make them suitable for use as substrates in agricultural biogas plants.

  8. Planning for Biogas Plant in Denmark

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Landt, Cristina C.; Gaarsmand, Regin; Palsberg, Aske

    2016-01-01

    This article is about establishing biogas in Denmark in the region of Zealand, the challenges that are related to this establishment and how to overcome this challenges. The article highlights three reasons for these challenges: 1) Regulation, 2) The municipal planning and 3) Involved various...... stakeholders. It investigates how these challenges affected the process and were overcome in the establishment of Solrod Biogas. In terms of ownership and biomass input, this biogas plant is unique compared to other Danish biogas plants. The biogas plant is based on organic by-products from local industries...... and seaweed. The plant solves an essential environmental issue for the municipality and citizens who were affected by the smell of rotten seaweed washed up in Koge Bay. The seaweed is used as input; this solves several problems at the same time. The method used to establish Solrod Biogas was an integrated...

  9. Enhanced biogas recovery by applying post-digestion in large-scale centralized biogas plants

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Angelidaki, Irini; Hejnfelt, Anette; Ellegaard, L.

    2006-01-01

    The main objective of this study was to investigate the degradation efficiency of centralized biogas plants and provide guidance for the design of more efficient digester and post-digestion systems. These centralized biogas plants in Denmark digest manure together with organic waste from the food...... industry to generate biogas, which is used for electricity and thermal energy. A total of 20 such plants are currently active in Denmark, most of which were included in the investigation. From the plants, samples were obtained from various steps of the process. Samples were analysed and the residual biogas...... potential determined by batch post-digestion at various temperature levels. Results were correlated with plant characteristics and production statistics in order to judge the efficiency of various digestion concepts. A simplified model based on a two-step biogas production process was developed...

  10. Efficient Heat Use from Biogas CHP Plants. Case Studies from Biogas Plants in Latvia

    OpenAIRE

    Dzene, Ilze; Slotiņa, Lāsma

    2013-01-01

    This paper is focusing on efficient heat use from biogas plants. It gives an overview about various biogas heat use options and specifically addresses biogas heat use market in Latvia. In the end three examples from typical agricultural biogas plants in Latvia and their heat use plans are described.

  11. Efficiency of biogas plants; Effizienz von Biogasanlagen

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Haupt, T.; Kraft, E. [Bauhaus-Universitaet Weimar (Germany). Fachbereich Bauingenieurwesen

    2007-02-15

    A stable biological process is a requisite for an efficient operation of biogas plants. Due to increasing flexible conditions, especially in agriculture, higher demands concerning the process performance arising. A sophisticated approach to different procedures seems to be useful. Regarding wet fermentation plants efficient control algorithms on basis of a simple model are of special interest. Analyses to figure the dynamic process behaviour via online measurements represent one possibility. For batch-operated dry fermentation processes, as most suitable application in agriculture, it is more to establish optimal start conditions. The inquiry of master data dealing with the influence of physical parameters of packed beds on the biogas yield has a valueable contingent on that. (orig.)

  12. Microbiologic handbook for biogas plants; Mikrobiologisk handbok foer biogasanlaeggningar

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jarvis, Aasa; Schnuerer, Anna

    2009-05-15

    There is today great interest in the biogas process. The reason for interest is that this process offers an opportunity to stabilize and reduce various types of organic waste, while also generating clean renewable energy in the form of biogas. Purified biogas is a good alternative to gasoline and diesel as motor fuel and can also be used for heating and electricity production. Behind efficient biogas production lies a complex microbiological process. For biogas to be formed many different species of microorganisms have to be active. A disturbance of this teamwork leads to a reduction in biogas production or in the worst case that the process stops. In order to operate a biogas process in an efficient manner, it is necessary to have knowledge of the underlying microbiology and how microorganisms function. Today Swedish biogas plants have personnel with great technical knowledge, while the biological knowledge often is more limited. It has been difficult to find appropriate Swedish language literature in the field. This handbook aims to increase the microbiological expertise of staff at the biogas plants and thus to facilitate the stable operation and optimization of gas production

  13. Improvement of the Biogas Production Process : Explorative project (EP1)

    OpenAIRE

    Karlsson, Anna; Björn, Annika; Sepehr, Shakeri Yekta; Svensson, Bo

    2014-01-01

    There are several ways to improve biogas production in anaerobic digestion processes and a number of strategies may be chosen. Increased organic loading in existing plants will in most cases demand the introduction of new substrate types. However, to substantially increase the Swedish biogas production new, large-scale biogas plants digesting new substrate types need to be established. Better utilization of existing digester volumes can be linked to:  Increase of organic loading rates and/or ...

  14. Monitoring and controlling the biogas process

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ahring, B.K.; Angelidaki, I. [The Technical Univ. of Denmark, Dept. of Environmental Science and Engineering, Lyngby (Denmark)

    1997-08-01

    Many modern large-scale biogas plants have been constructed recently, increasing the demand for proper monitoring and control of these large reactor systems. For monitoring the biogas process, an easy to measure and reliable indicator is required, which reflects the metabolic state and the activity of the bacterial populations in the reactor. In this paper, we discuss existing indicators as well as indicators under development which can potentially be used to monitor the state of the biogas process in a reactor. Furthermore, data are presented from two large scale thermophilic biogas plants, subjected to temperature changes and where the concentration of volatile fatty acids was monitored. The results clearly demonstrated that significant changes in the concentration of the individual VFA occurred although the biogas production was not significantly changed. Especially the concentrations of butyrate, isobutyrate and isovalerate showed significant changes. Future improvements of process control could therefore be based on monitoring of the concentration of specific VFA`s together with information about the bacterial populations in the reactor. The last information could be supplied by the use of modern molecular techniques. (au) 51 refs.

  15. Development of instrumentation systems as a base for control of digestion process stability in full-scale agricultural and industrial biogas plants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kujawski, O; Steinmetz, H

    2009-01-01

    This article deals with the analysis of instrumentation from three modern German full-scale biogas plants with different inputs and typical process engineering concepts for German conditions. The measured results from each plant and the suitability of the instrumentation used are evaluated and assessed. Conclusions are also made about improving the use and architecture of the instrumentation. The analysis results show which benefits and optimum combination of on-line and off-line instrumentation could result for the control and automation of industrial and agricultural biogas plants.

  16. Investigation of factors influencing biogas production in a large-scale thermophilic municipal biogas plant

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Weiss, Agnes; Jerome, Valerie; Freitag, Ruth [Bayreuth Univ. (Germany). Chair for Process Biotechnology; Burghardt, Diana; Likke, Likke; Peiffer, Stefan [Bayreuth Univ. (Germany). Dept. of Hydrology; Hofstetter, Eugen M. [RVT Process Equipment GmbH, Steinwiesen (Germany); Gabler, Ralf [BKW Biokraftwerke Fuerstenwalde GmbH, Fuerstenwalde (Germany)

    2009-10-15

    A continuously operated, thermophilic, municipal biogas plant was observed over 26 months (sampling twice per month) in regard to a number of physicochemical parameters and the biogas production. Biogas yields were put in correlation to parameters such as the volatile fatty acid concentration, the pH and the ammonium concentration. When the residing microbiota was classified via analysis of the 16S rRNA genes, most bacterial sequences matched with unidentified or uncultured bacteria from similar habitats. Of the archaeal sequences, 78.4% were identified as belonging to the genus Methanoculleus, which has not previously been reported for biogas plants, but is known to efficiently use H{sub 2} and CO{sub 2} produced by the degradation of fatty acids by syntrophic microorganisms. In order to further investigate the influence of varied amounts of ammonia (2-8 g/L) and volatile fatty acids on biogas production and composition (methane/CO{sub 2}), laboratory scale satellite experiments were performed in parallel to the technical plant. Finally, ammonia stripping of the process water of the technical plant was accomplished, a measure through which the ammonia entering the biogas reactor via the mash could be nearly halved, which increased the energy output of the biogas plant by almost 20%. (orig.)

  17. Anaerobic digestion foaming in full-scale biogas plants: A survey on causes and solutions

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kougias, Panagiotis; Boe, Kanokwan; O-Thong, Sompong;

    2014-01-01

    Anaerobic digestion foaming is a common operation problem in biogas plants with negative impacts on the biogas plants economy and environment. A survey of 16 Danish full-scale biogas plants on foaming problems revealed that most of them had experienced foaming in their processes up to three times...

  18. Biogas plant Brelingen under self-construction

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Meier, K.

    Since July 1981, the first biogas plant of the biogas group of Hannover has been in operation. The plant has not only been constructed by means of self-construction method using partly used components (direct recycling), but it shall also make possible a biologically optimal and low cost gas production for heat generation as far as its operating method is concerned. The design of the plant is described and some of the first results are presented.

  19. Risk and insurance management for biogas plants

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Haerig, M. [Marsh GmbH, Duesseldorf (Germany)

    2007-07-01

    The continuing negative experiences of insurers with biogas plants make it difficult for operators to get appropriate insurance cover. There are different reasons for this big number of damages. Especially in the beginning components have been rebuilt for biogas without sufficient experiences. Other damages have emerged due to improper or disregardful plant management. For that reason the insurers' standards for the biogas plant and the plant management have risen up. The following report deals with experiences of insurance for biogas plants and the resulting consequences. For that reason Marsh carried out a research project and analyzed all reported claims in the All Risk Insurance. The necessary technical minimum requirements for installation and operation are geared to the experiences with damages. But they also account for the interests of the insured. (orig.)

  20. Production of liquid biogas at the biowaste treatment plant Amtzell; Gewinnung von fluessigem Biogas an der Bioabfallbehandlungsanlage Amtzell

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bojahr, Armin [Gesellschaft fuer Umwelttechnik Bojahr mbH und Co. KG, Berg (Germany)

    2013-10-01

    The fermentation plant in Amtzell will be extended to increase the throughput of bio waste. In this context an extension of the gas utilization plant is also required. The produced biogas will be partly transferred to the existing combined heat and power plant. The remaining part of biogas will be used in an proposed GPP-Plus {sup registered} --plant to produce liquid bio methane (LBG). In the LBG gaining process the raw biogas will have to be dried in several steps, de-sulphured, compressed and cooled. Following this process and due to different physical characteristics of the ingredients, the contaminants will be removed from the biogas and the main ingredients, carbon dioxide and methane, separated from each other. Carbon dioxide as well as the methane are then available in liquid form and can be put onto the market. This method of using biogas can utilize almost 100% of its energy potential. (orig.)

  1. Isolation of lactic acid-forming bacteria from biogas plants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bohn, Jelena; Yüksel-Dadak, Aytül; Dröge, Stefan; König, Helmut

    2017-02-20

    Direct molecular approaches provide hints that lactic acid bacteria play an important role in the degradation process of organic material to methanogenetic substrates in biogas plants. However, their diversity in biogas fermenter samples has not been analyzed in detail yet. For that reason, five different biogas fermenters, which were fed mainly with maize silage and manure from cattle or pigs, were examined for the occurrence of lactic acid-forming bacteria. A total of 197 lactic acid-forming bacterial strains were isolated, which we assigned to 21 species, belonging to the genera Bacillus, Clostridium, Lactobacillus, Pediococcus, Streptococcus and Pseudoramibacter-related. A qualitative multiplex system and a real-time quantitative PCR could be developed for most isolates, realized by the selection of specific primers. Their role in biogas plants was discussed on the basis of the quantitative results and on physiological data of the isolates.

  2. The contribution of Slovenian biogas plants to the reduction of agricultural sector green house emissions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Romana MARINŠEK LOGAR

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Agriculture is a source of emissions of the greenhouse gas methane into the environment. These emissions can be reduced by appropriate storage of animal slurry and manure, with proper fertilization and processing of organic agricultural waste into biogas, where methane is captured and used as an energy source. Biogas is a renewable source of energy that is produced by microbial anaerobic digestion in biogas plants. As a substrate in biogas plants using different types of organic biomass such as animal manure and slurry, crop residues, spoilt silage, waste from food processing industry and biodegradable industrial and municipal waste. Biogas can be used to produce heat and electricity or purified to biomethane as a fuel for vehicles. Digestate can be used as a high-quality fertilizer. Biogas as a renewable energy source represents a replacement for fossil fuels, thus reducing greenhouse gas emissions from fossil sources. The system of financial supports for electricity produced from biogas is applied in Slovenia. There were 24 operating biogas plants in Slovenia in year 2014. Slovenian biogas plants currently produce the majority of biogas from energy crops. As only the minority of biogas is produced from animal excrements we will primarily support the development of agricultural microbiogas plants that will use animal excrements and organic waste biomass from agri-food sector as substrates.

  3. Optimized construction of biogas plants; Optimierte Bauweise fuer Biogasanlagen

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2012-09-19

    Within the conference of the International Trade Fair for Biogas Plant Technology at 21st February, 2012 in Berlin, the following lectures were held: (1) Optimized dimensions of containers for small systems of liquid manure (Manfred Thalmann); (2) Microferm mini biogas plants (Bart Brouwer); (3) Fermentation of stackable biomass in rural biogas plant - The DeNaBa system (Christian Deterding); (4) The Sauter Biogas System for the fermentation of liquid manure, solid dung, and other residual materials (Stefan Sauter); (5) Bio-electricity: Controllable power generation by means of biogas plants (Matthias Sonnleitner); (6) Reduction of the effort and increase of the yield using UDR fixed bed technology (Alfred van den Berg); (7) Prestressed concrete container for biogas plants: Area of application - quality - options (Harald Feldmann); (8) Corrosion protection of agricultural and communal biogas plants (Michael Normann); (9) Fundamentals of efficient and effective flow generation in biogas plants (Kay Rotalski); (10) Rotary piston screw pistons and eccentric screw pumps (Thorsten Gilles).

  4. Monitoring of biogas plants - experiences in laboratory and full scale

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    B. Habermann

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available To control and regulate the biogas process there are online process parameters and offline process parameters, which basically don’t differ between pilot biogas plants and industrial biogas plants. Generally, temperature, pH-value, volume flow rate and sometimes redox potential are measured online. An online-measurement of the dissolved volatile fatty acids and an online-detection of dissolved hydrogen both directly in the liquid phase as well as near-infrared spectroscopy are under development. FOS/TAC-analysis is the most common offline-analysis of the biogas process and normally it is carried out by the plant operator directly at the biogas plant. For example dry matter, organic dry matter, nitrogen and fatty acids are other analyses, which are carried out but by a laboratory. Microbiological analyses of biogas plants are very expensive and time-consuming and are therefore in Germany very rare. Microbiological analyses are mainly for research purposes. For example the Fluorescence in situ Hybridiation (FISH is used for characterization of the populations. Electric-optical measurement should be established as a new method to investigate the vitality of the methane producing microorganisms. In a cooperation project, which is promoted by the German ministry for technology, between IASP and Chair of Bioprocess Engineering at TU Berlin, this method is proper investigated using a device from the firm EloSystems. The microorganisms are brought in an electrical field of different frequencies. In this field the microorganisms direct themselves differently according to their physiological state. At the end of this project an early detection of process disturbance will be possible with the help of this method. In this presentation the result of the first tests are presented.

  5. EU Agro Biogas Project

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Amon, T.; Mayr, H.; Eder, M.; Hobbs, P.; Rao Ravella, S.; Roth, U.; Niebaum, A.; Doehler, H.; Weiland, P.; Abdoun, E.; Moser, A.; Lyson, M.; Heiermann, M.; Plöchl, M.; Budde, J.; Schattauer, A.; Suarez, T.; Möller, H.; Ward, A.; Hillen, F.; Sulima, P.; Oniszk-Polplawska, A.; Krampe, P.; Pastorek, Z.; Kara, J.; Mazancova, J.; Dooren, van H.J.C.; Wim, C.; Gioelli, F.; Balsari, P.

    2009-01-01

    EU-AGRO-BIOGAS is a European Biogas initiative to improve the yield of agricultural biogas plants in Europe, to optimise biogas technology and processes and to improve the efficiency in all parts of the production chain from feedstock to biogas utilisation. Leading European research institutions and

  6. CONSIDERATIONS OVER A BIOGAS PLANT COMPONENTS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mariana DUMITRU

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available This paper starts from the conviction that one of the main environmental problems of today’s society is the continuously increasing production of organic wastes. In many countries, sustainable waste management have become major political priorities in order to reduce pollution and greenhouse gas emissions and to avoid, as much as possible, global climate changes. This problem becomes more and more present in our country too. Production of biogas through anaerobic digestion of animal manure and slurries as well as of a wide range of digestible organic wastes, converts these substrates into renewable energy and offers a natural fertiliser for agriculture. That is why we consider that biogas plants will be more and more used in the future. In this paper we show the different stages which must be operated in a biogas plant and the problems which can be met in each of them.

  7. Comparative review of foam formation in biogas plants and ruminant bloat

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Moeller, Lucie; Goersch, Kati; Zehnsdorf, Andreas; Mueller, Roland Arno [UFZ - Helmholtz Centre for Environmental Research, Leipzig (Germany). Environmental and Biotechnology Centre; Neuhaus, Juergen [Leipzig Univ. (Germany). Inst. of Bacteriology and Mycology

    2012-12-15

    This review gives an overview of the current knowledge concerning the problem of foam formation in the process of anaerobic digestion in biogas plants that utilize renewable resources or biogenic waste material for biogas production. Process upsets in biogas production induced by foam formation can have a negative impact on the efficiency of biogas plants. The foam can block gas pipes and cause severe damage to the bioreactor equipment, ranging from a failure of the feeders to a damage of the roof of the biogas plant. The most common foam removal methods - stirring in the foam, adding anti-foaming agents, diminishing substrate feeding, and altering the biogas reactor management - are not always successful. However, the reasons for the excessive foam formation during the biogas production process have not yet been elucidated in detail. In contrast, foam building in the rumen of ruminants as a cause for bloat has been studied thoroughly. In general, the interaction between proteins, polysaccharides (mucilage), and small plant particles is assumed to be the crucial factor. As the fermentation process in the rumen has many similarities with the biogas production process, the current research results on bloat in ruminants are summarized and compared with the process of foaming in biogas plants. (orig.)

  8. Study of the Process of Hydraulic Mixing in Anaerobic Digester of Biogas Plant

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Karaeva Julia V.

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available Two systems of hydraulic mixing in a vertical cylindrical anaerobic digester: standard and modernised are discussed in the paper. Numerical investigations that were carried out are focused on a study of hydrodynamic processes in an aerobic digester using two various systems of hydraulic mixing as well as on analysis of the efficiency of methane fermentation process accomplished under different geometric parameters of an anaerobic digester and systems of hydraulic mixing.

  9. GlidArc-assisted processing of biogas

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Czernichowski, A.; Wesolowska, K. (ECP, La Ferte St Aubin (France)), Email: echph@wanadoo.fr

    2009-07-01

    Power generation or chemical applications of biogas can be difficult when CH{sub 4} content is too low and / or in the presence of sulphur compounds. We therefore propose two reformers based on electric discharges (GlidArc) that strike directly either in a poor biogas or in waste CO{sub 2} + H{sub 2}S mixture generated during biogas cleaning. Direct application of GlidArc discharges to the poor biogas enhances its flammability through a partial conversion of CH{sub 4} + CO{sub 2} into hydrogen and carbon monoxide (synthesis gas). Any level of sulphur (and other impurities) is accepted. Roughly 40 % of injected electric power is transferred into upgraded biogas as its additional chemical enthalpy. A few percent of resultant H{sub 2} and CO inside the biogas makes it more flammable, and therefore better to fuel an engine or gas turbine. As a result of biogas purification via amines-washing technologies, one gets concentrated pollutants in CO{sub 2} matrix. Instead of classical neutralisation, we propose H{sub 2}Svalorisation through the SulfArc process converting all H{sub 2}S into additional amounts of synthesis gas, while neutral elemental sulphur is removed from the system. Generated syngas can be injected into the main biogas flow to enhance its flammability. (orig.)

  10. CONTROL PARAMETERS FOR UNDERSTANDING AND PREVENTING PROCESS IMBALANCES IN BIOGAS PLANTS. EMPHAS IS ON VFA DYNAMICS

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bangsø Nielsen, Henrik

    H. The experiments were carried out in lab-scale thermophilic continuously stirred tank reactors (CSTR) treating livestock waste. The imbalances included inhibition by long chain fatty acids (LCFA), inhibition by ammonia, organic overloading with proteins and organic overloading with industrial waste, i.e. meat...... out on the basis of the methane production or on the basis of fluctuations in the concentration of propionate. The experiment confirmed that propionate is a useful parameter for (1) indication of process imbalances and (2) for regulation and optimization of the anaerobic digestion process in CSTRs....... In order to gain a better insight in the activity of the propionate degraders under different operational conditions the kinetic parameters of propionate degradation by biomass from 10 CSTRs differing in temperature, hydraulic retention time (HRT) and substrates were estimated in batch substrate...

  11. Instrumentation, control and automation for biogas plants - a full-scale example

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wiese, J. [EnerCess GmbH, Bad Oeynhausen (Germany)

    2007-07-01

    Biogas plants win more and more importance, because of numerous ecological advantages. That means, the biogas production cycle is an integrated system of resources utilization, organic waste treatment, nutrient recycling and redistribution, and renewable energy production, which creates numerous energetic, environmental and agricultural benefits. In these plants biogas can be produced by using numerous different input substrates: Farm products: cattle and pork liquid manure, wheat, poultry excrements, maize etc.; Organic waste (primarily from food industries): canteen kitchens, food markets, viniculture, brewery, distillery etc.; Sewage sludge from wastewater treatment plants. The processes in biogas plants are similar to processes, which are well known for many decades in anaerobic wastewater/sludge treatment. But up to now, the level of instrumentation, control and automation (ICA) of full-scale biogas systems is still low. I.e. most plants are black box systems which can be analyzed and/or optimized only difficultly. Consequently, the practice shows that many biogas plants are operated suboptimal. Furthermore, for economic reasons more and more plants are operated in a critical (load) range. I.e. there is a high danger of a plant breakdown, which can cause high financial deficits. This situation is mainly caused by the fact, that most of biogas plants are still rather small plants. E.g., the average electricity production capacity of approx. 2,000 biogas plants in Germany is only approx. 125 kWel. But, as a result of technical progress and permanently rising prices for non-renewable energy, biogas plants become more and more economic reasonable. Furthermore, because of the economies of scale law more and more larger plants are built (250 - 2,000 kWel). In case of larger plants, the costs for ICA are only a small part of the total investment costs (5 - 10 %). On larger plants the operators are also usually full-time workers, which can fully concentrate upon the

  12. Biogas and mineral fertiliser production from plant residues of phytoremediation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chu, Thi Thu Ha

    2011-07-01

    The former uranium mining site in Ronneburg, Thuringia, Germany was known as a big source of uranium with more than 113,000 tons of uranium mined from 1946 to 1990. This area has been remediated since the nineties of the last century. However, nowadays the site in Ronneburg is still specially considered because of the heterogeneous contamination by many heavy metals and the vegetation can be affected. Three plant species including Indian mustard - Brassica juncea L., triticale - x. Triticosecale Wittmaek and sunflower - Helianthus annuus L. were seeded as accumulators of heavy metals and radionuclides in the phytoremediation process in 2009 and 2010 in Ronneburg. The subsequent utilization of the plant residues after phytoremediation is of special consideration. Batch fermentation of harvested plant materials under the mesophilic condition showed that all of the investigated plant materials had much higher biogas production than liquid cow manure except triticale root, of which biogas yield per volatile solid was not significantly higher than the one of sludge. The highest biogas yields (311 L{sub N}/kg FM and 807 L{sub N}/kg VS) were achieved from the spica of triticale after 42 days of retention of anaerobic digestion. Triticale shoot residues generated higher biogas and methane yields than the previously reported triticale materials that were harvested from the uncontaminated soil Triticale was considered as the highest potential species in biogas production, beside the best growth ability on the acidic soil at the test field site with highest biomass production. Biogas yield of Indian mustard shoot was also high but dramatically varied from 2009 to 2010. Digestates after anaerobic digestion of plant residues contained various macronutrients such as nitrogen, potassium, phosphorus and sulphur, and various micronutrients such as iron, manganes, zinc, etc. The accumulation levels of heavy metals in the investigated plant materials were not the hindrance factors

  13. Anaerobic digestion foaming in full-scale biogas plants: a survey on causes and solutions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kougias, P G; Boe, K; O-Thong, S; Kristensen, L A; Angelidaki, I

    2014-01-01

    Anaerobic digestion foaming is a common operation problem in biogas plants with negative impacts on the biogas plants economy and environment. A survey of 16 Danish full-scale biogas plants on foaming problems revealed that most of them had experienced foaming in their processes up to three times per year. Foaming incidents often lasted from one day to three weeks, causing 20-50% biogas production loss. One foaming case at Lemvig biogas plant has been investigated and the results indicated that the combination of feedstock composition and mixing pattern of the reactor was the main cause of foaming in this case. Moreover, no difference in bacterial communities between the foaming and non-foaming reactors was observed, showing that filamentous bacteria were not the main reason for foaming in this case.

  14. Innovative test method for the estimation of the foaming tendency of substrates for biogas plants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moeller, Lucie; Eismann, Frank; Wißmann, Daniel; Nägele, Hans-Joachim; Zielonka, Simon; Müller, Roland A; Zehnsdorf, Andreas

    2015-07-01

    Excessive foaming in anaerobic digestion occurs at many biogas plants and can cause problems including plugged gas pipes. Unfortunately, the majority of biogas plant operators are unable to identify the causes of foaming in their biogas reactor. The occurrence of foaming is often related to the chemical composition of substrates fed to the reactor. The consistency of the digestate itself is also a crucial part of the foam formation process. Thus, no specific recommendations concerning substrates can be given in order to prevent foam formation in biogas plants. The safest way to avoid foaming is to test the foaming tendency of substrates on-site. A possible solution is offered by an innovative foaming test. With the help of this tool, biogas plant operators can evaluate the foaming disposition of new substrates prior to use in order to adjust the composition of substrate mixes.

  15. Biogas production from Eichhornia crassipes aquatic plant; Producao de biogas a partir da planta aquatica Eichhornia crassipes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pereira, Roberto Guimaraes; Silva, Jose Goncalves da; Fernandes Filho, Jorge; Pereira, Maria Cristina Duarte Eiras [Universidade Federal Fluminense (UFF), Niteroi, RJ (Brazil). Dept. de Engenharia Mecanica. Programa de Pos-Graduacao em Engenharia Mecanica]. E-mail: temrobe@vm.uff.br; Melo, Ricardo Bichara de [Light Servicos de Eletricidade S.A., Rio de Janeiro, RJ (Brazil)]. E-mail: rbmelo@light.com.br

    2004-07-01

    Virtually all plants and waste plants and animals may in some way be used as an energy source. The anaerobic digestion of these materials is an option, resulting in the biogas. Besides the gas obtained in the process, is produced, inside the biodigester, an excellent fertilizer. The aquatic plant Eichhornia crassipes is found in large quantities in various water bodies, such as reservoirs, lakes and ponds, becoming mostly often a big problem and it is necessary its systematic removal of water. The bench biodigester used in the experiment of biodigestion of aquatic plants is composed of a reactor containing the biomass, where the biogas is produced, and a reservoir to monitor the production of biogas. The reactor is located within a receptacle containing water that can be heated by an electrical resistance, with the purpose of maintaining the temperature inside the reactor around 35 deg C. The results of analysis of gas of the reactor made in a gas chromatograph to CG MASTER of double ionization detector with a flame and thermal conductivity, show a percentage of 50% of methane in the biogas. The process of biodigestion of aquatic plant Eichhornia crassipes shows potential to obtain biogas, with considerable levels of methane in order to make its exploitation. Also, were analyzed the biomass in the biodigester for determination of humid, total organic matter, mineral and organic carbon residue.

  16. Comparative life cycle assessment of biogas plant configurations for a demand oriented biogas supply for flexible power generation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hahn, Henning; Hartmann, Kilian; Bühle, Lutz; Wachendorf, Michael

    2015-03-01

    The environmental performance of biogas plant configurations for a demand - oriented biogas supply for flexible power generation is comparatively assessed in this study. Those configurations indicate an increased energy demand to operate the operational enhancements compared to conventional biogas plants supplying biogas for baseload power generation. However, findings show that in contrast to an alternative supply of power generators with natural gas, biogas supplied on demand by adapted biogas plant configurations saves greenhouse gas emissions by 54-65 g CO(2-eq) MJ(-1) and primary energy by about 1.17 MJ MJ(-1). In this regard, configurations with flexible biogas production profit from reduced biogas storage requirements and achieve higher savings compared to configurations with continuous biogas production. Using thicker biogas storage sheeting material reduces the methane permeability of up to 6m(3) d(-1) which equals a reduction of 8% of the configuration's total methane emissions.

  17. Effects of fuel processing methods on industrial scale biogas-fuelled solid oxide fuel cell system for operating in wastewater treatment plants

    Science.gov (United States)

    Farhad, Siamak; Yoo, Yeong; Hamdullahpur, Feridun

    The performance of three solid oxide fuel cell (SOFC) systems, fuelled by biogas produced through anaerobic digestion (AD) process, for heat and electricity generation in wastewater treatment plants (WWTPs) is studied. Each system has a different fuel processing method to prevent carbon deposition over the anode catalyst under biogas fuelling. Anode gas recirculation (AGR), steam reforming (SR), and partial oxidation (POX) are the methods employed in systems I-III, respectively. A planar SOFC stack used in these systems is based on the anode-supported cells with Ni-YSZ anode, YSZ electrolyte and YSZ-LSM cathode, operated at 800 °C. A computer code has been developed for the simulation of the planar SOFC in cell, stack and system levels and applied for the performance prediction of the SOFC systems. The key operational parameters affecting the performance of the SOFC systems are identified. The effect of these parameters on the electrical and CHP efficiencies, the generated electricity and heat, the total exergy destruction, and the number of cells in SOFC stack of the systems are studied. The results show that among the SOFC systems investigated in this study, the AGR and SR fuel processor-based systems with electrical efficiency of 45.1% and 43%, respectively, are suitable to be applied in WWTPs. If the entire biogas produced in a WWTP is used in the AGR or SR fuel processor-based SOFC system, the electricity and heat required to operate the WWTP can be completely self-supplied and the extra electricity generated can be sold to the electrical grid.

  18. Application of Aquatic Plants to The Post-processing of Biogas Project%水生植物在沼气工程后处理中的应用

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    李劲廷; 蒲小东

    2012-01-01

    针对沼气工程中的厌氧(沼气)-自然处理模式,文章阐释了水生植物的概念,分析了水生植物在沼气工程后处理中的净水机理及运用,并对水生植物在沼气工程后处理中的选配提出了相应的建议.%For the anaerobic (biogas)-natural post treatment model in the biogaa project, this paper briefly explained the concept of aquatic plants, analyzed the mechanism and application of aquatic plants for the post-processing of biogas project. Corresponding aquatic plants matching the biogas project were proposed.

  19. Hygiene and sanitation requirements in Danish biogas plants

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bendixen, H.J.

    1997-08-01

    According to Danish regulations, systematic pathogen reducing treatment is required, when industrial by-products and waste products, and urban waste, ie garbage from households and sewage sludge, are processed, before being used - without restrictions - as fertilizers on agricultural land. An adequate pathogen reducing effect (PRE) can be achieved in the digestion tanks and sanitation tanks of the biogas plants, provided they are operated correctly and respect the criteria of the official requirements. The FS-method is a microbiological indicator method based on faecal streptococci (enterococci) (FS). It may be used to check the sanitation effect achieved by the treatment in a tank. The effect is expressed numerically by the log{sub 10}-reduction of the numbers of FS measured in the biomass before and after treatment. The PRE was examined in 10 large-scale biogas plants during a period of 2-3 years. It was demonstrated that properly directed and well-functioning thermophilic digestion tanks ensure the removal of most pathogenic microorganisms from organic waste and slurry. The removal of pathogens by the treatment in mesophilic digestion tanks is incomplete. Systematic studies of the processes of inactivation of bacteria and virus in slurry and in animal tissues gave evidence that the PRE is enhanced in the microbiological environment of thermophilic digestion tanks. The sanitation criteria, ie combinations of temperature/time, for the processing of biomass in digestion tanks and sanitation tanks in biogas plants are specified. (au) 19 refs.

  20. A concise biogas plant construction suitable for Ghana and other tropical countries

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gbagbo, J.K.N.

    1997-04-01

    This report is intended to be used by people in the field of biogas for workshops, technicians, teachers to educate as well as to carry out hands on constructions in Ghana and other tropical countries. Chapter 1, discusses the biogas technology, what a biogas plant is, and how it functions. Chapter 2, describes the entire process. Chapter 3, discusses the necessary conditions for fermentation. Chapter 4, the measuring parameters for monitoring the system. Chapter 5, describes the various types of biogas plants suitable for tropical countries. Chapter 6, describes a planning guide for Ghana and other tropical countries. Chapter 7, discusses digester sizing and finally, Chapter 8, describes a concise biogas plant construction suitable for the rural areas of Ghana and other tropical countries. (au)

  1. Biodigestion of the aquatics plants mixtures and biogas production; Biodigestao de misturas de plantas aquaticas e producao de biogas

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pereira, Roberto Guimaraes; Abreu, Fernando Luiz Barbuda de; Fernandes Filho, Jorge; Pereira, Maria Cristina Duarte Eiras [Universidade Federal Fluminense (UFF), Niteroi, RJ (Brazil). Dept. de Engenharia Mecanica. Programa de Pos-Graduacao em Engenharia Mecanica]. E-mail: temrobe@vm.uff.br; Melo, Ricardo Bichara de [Light Servicos de Eletricidade S.A., Rio de Janeiro, RJ (Brazil). Gerencia de Estudos e Gestao de Geracao]. E-mail: rbmelo@light.com.br

    2004-07-01

    Several systems of generating electricity using water storage reservoirs. One problem that occurs constantly in these reservoirs is the accumulation of aquatic plants, such as Eichhornia crassipes, Eichhornia azurea, Pistia stratiotes and Salvinia that may cause serious problems for the system. Periodically, the biomass must be removed and disposed of appropriate form, so that does not cause contamination of soil, groundwater or allowing the proliferation of vectors. One possible destination is the use of biomass in a process of biodigestion, resulting in biogas. The bench of biodigester used in the experiment of biodigestion of aquatic plants is composed of a reactor containing the biomass, where the biogas is produced and a reservoir for the monitoring the production of biogas. The reactor is located inside a container containing water that can be heated by an electrical resistance, with the aim of maintaining the temperature inside the reactor around 35 deg C. The results of analysis of gas of the reactor was obtained using a gas chromatograph to CG MASTER of double ionization detector with a flame and thermal conductivity. These results show a percentage of 50% of methane in the biogas. Also, were analyzed the biomass in the biodigester for determination of humidity, total organic matter, waste mineral and organic carbon. The process of biodigestion of the mixture of aquatic plants: Eichhornia crassipes, Eichhornia azurea and Pistia stratiotes and Salvinia shows potential for obtaining biogas, with considerable levels of methane, in order to facilitate its recovery.

  2. Analysis of operational methane emissions from pressure relief valves from biogas storages of biogas plants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reinelt, Torsten; Liebetrau, Jan; Nelles, Michael

    2016-10-01

    The study presents the development of a method for the long term monitoring of methane emissions from pressure relief valves (PRV(1)) of biogas storages, which has been verified during test series at two PRVs of two agricultural biogas plants located in Germany. The determined methane emission factors are 0.12gCH4kWhel(-1) (0.06% CH4-loss, within 106days, 161 triggering events, winter season) from biogas plant A and 6.80/7.44gCH4kWhel(-1) (3.60/3.88% CH4-loss, within 66days, 452 triggering events, summer season) from biogas plant B. Besides the operational state of the biogas plant (e.g. malfunction of the combined heat and power unit), the mode of operation of the biogas flare, which can be manually or automatically operated as well as the atmospheric conditions (e.g. drop of the atmospheric pressure) can also affect the biogas emission from PRVs.

  3. Development of large and medium size biogas plants

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kejun Yang; Datong Zhang [Chengdu Biogas Research Inst. (China)

    2000-07-01

    Anaerobic wastewater treatment has expanded from a few (scraped sludge, animal manure, distillery wastewater and the wastewater from slaughter houses) to more than 200 kinds of wastewaters from several industries such as pharmacy, food, and chemicals. According to incomplete statistics, up to now more than 2,000 large and medium-scale biogas plants have been constructed. They provide biogas to 54,000 households as daily fuel. About 300 biogas power stations have been installed. (orig.)

  4. Innovative test method for the estimation of the foaming tendency of substrates for biogas plants

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Moeller, Lucie, E-mail: lucie.moeller@ufz.de [UFZ – Helmholtz Centre for Environmental Research, Centre for Environmental Biotechnology, Permoserstrasse 15, 04318 Leipzig (Germany); Eismann, Frank, E-mail: info@antoc.de [Eismann & Stöbe GbR, GeoPark, Geb. A12, Bautzner Strasse 67, 04347 Leipzig (Germany); Wißmann, Daniel, E-mail: d.s.wissmann@gmx.de [University of Hohenheim, State Institute of Agricultural Engineering and Bioenergy (LA740), Garbenstrasse 9, 70599 Stuttgart (Germany); Nägele, Hans-Joachim, E-mail: hajo.naegele@uni-hohenheim.de [University of Hohenheim, State Institute of Agricultural Engineering and Bioenergy (LA740), Garbenstrasse 9, 70599 Stuttgart (Germany); Zielonka, Simon, E-mail: simon.zielonka@uni-hohenheim.de [University of Hohenheim, State Institute of Agricultural Engineering and Bioenergy (LA740), Garbenstrasse 9, 70599 Stuttgart (Germany); Müller, Roland A., E-mail: roland.mueller@ufz.de [UFZ – Helmholtz Centre for Environmental Research, Centre for Environmental Biotechnology, Permoserstrasse 15, 04318 Leipzig (Germany); Zehnsdorf, Andreas, E-mail: andreas.zehnsdorf@ufz.de [UFZ – Helmholtz Centre for Environmental Research, Centre for Environmental Biotechnology, Permoserstrasse 15, 04318 Leipzig (Germany)

    2015-07-15

    Graphical abstract: Display Omitted - Highlights: • Foaming in biogas plants depends on the interactions between substrate and digestate. • Foaming tests enable the evaluation of substrate foaming tendency in biogas plants. • Leipzig foam tester enables foaming tests of substrates prior to use. - Abstract: Excessive foaming in anaerobic digestion occurs at many biogas plants and can cause problems including plugged gas pipes. Unfortunately, the majority of biogas plant operators are unable to identify the causes of foaming in their biogas reactor. The occurrence of foaming is often related to the chemical composition of substrates fed to the reactor. The consistency of the digestate itself is also a crucial part of the foam formation process. Thus, no specific recommendations concerning substrates can be given in order to prevent foam formation in biogas plants. The safest way to avoid foaming is to test the foaming tendency of substrates on-site. A possible solution is offered by an innovative foaming test. With the help of this tool, biogas plant operators can evaluate the foaming disposition of new substrates prior to use in order to adjust the composition of substrate mixes.

  5. Development, Operation, and Future Prospects for Implementing Biogas Plants

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lybæk, Rikke

    2014-01-01

    , as is the case of biomass from nature conservation, straw, deep litter, etc. Further, the chapter discusses whether or not biogas technology can create new job opportunities in rural areas that lack development. Economic results from operating centralized biogas plants in Denmark now also stress the importance...

  6. Metaproteomics of complex microbial communities in biogas plants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Heyer, Robert; Kohrs, Fabian; Reichl, Udo; Benndorf, Dirk

    2015-09-01

    Production of biogas from agricultural biomass or organic wastes is an important source of renewable energy. Although thousands of biogas plants (BGPs) are operating in Germany, there is still a significant potential to improve yields, e.g. from fibrous substrates. In addition, process stability should be optimized. Besides evaluating technical measures, improving our understanding of microbial communities involved into the biogas process is considered as key issue to achieve both goals. Microscopic and genetic approaches to analyse community composition provide valuable experimental data, but fail to detect presence of enzymes and overall metabolic activity of microbial communities. Therefore, metaproteomics can significantly contribute to elucidate critical steps in the conversion of biomass to methane as it delivers combined functional and phylogenetic data. Although metaproteomics analyses are challenged by sample impurities, sample complexity and redundant protein identification, and are still limited by the availability of genome sequences, recent studies have shown promising results. In the following, the workflow and potential pitfalls for metaproteomics of samples from full-scale BGP are discussed. In addition, the value of metaproteomics to contribute to the further advancement of microbial ecology is evaluated. Finally, synergistic effects expected when metaproteomics is combined with advanced imaging techniques, metagenomics, metatranscriptomics and metabolomics are addressed.

  7. A PILOT PLANT FOR THE BIOGAS PRODUCTION

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. Omrani

    1988-08-01

    Full Text Available Manure and Putreseible garbage are some of the main sources of pathogenic germs in countryside’s. On the other hand, demand for fertilizer and energy increases in rural areas every day. To study Potential of cow manure for these requirements a 16,5m3 pilot plant was designed and constructed as fermentation tank near animal husbandry of karaj Agriculture Faculty. Some 260kg cow manure and water with the ratio of 4 and 7 was fed to fermentation tank every day. Average daily biogas production was 3.4m3, which was burned successfully in a gas range. Gas production was reduced by 86% during coldest winter days. Design for control of gas pressure and reservation of excessive gas was successful. Concentration of nitrate in sludge increased by 1.6 folds compared to row material. Some bacteria and Parasites were reduced drastically.

  8. Environmental implications of biomethanation in conventional biogas plants

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Khoiyangbam, R.S. [D.M. College of Science, Imphal-795 001, Manipur (India). Dept. of Environmental Science

    2011-07-01

    In India biomethanation in conventional biogas plants have been proposed as one of the appropriate alternative sources of energy which can counter the escalating demand of fossil fuels. The number of installation of biogas plants is increasing rapidly and the trend is expected to continue at least for the foreseeable future. Biogas plants like many other energy generating technologies are not absolutely free from environmental problems. Environmental impacts related to biomethanation may range from localized health effects due to air, water, soil and pathogenic contamination to global warming at the global scale. The probable health and environmental impacts of energy production in conventional biogas plants have not been fully understood or well documented. A comprehensive assessment seems essential to make this energy source more viable and sustainable. The current article discusses the various positive and negative environmental implications associated with biomethanation and also tries to highlight some mitigation options.

  9. Energy crops for biogas plants. Thuringia; Energiepflanzen fuer Biogasanlagen. Thueringen

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Biertuempfel, A.; Bischof, R.; Conrad, M. (and others)

    2012-06-15

    In the brochure under consideration the Agency for Renewable Resources (Guelzow-Pruezen, Federal Republic of Germany) reports on the support of the implementation of different plant cultures in structure of plantations and crop rotation systems of companies under consideration of the Federal State Thuringia. The main chapters of this brochure are: Crops for the production of biogas; implementation in plantations; ensilage and biogas yields; economy of the cultivation of energy plants.

  10. Energy crops for biogas plants. Saxony; Energiepflanzen fuer Biogasanlagen. Sachsen

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Biertuempfel, A.; Buttlar, C. von; Conrad, M. [and others

    2012-08-15

    In the brochure under consideration the Agency for Renewable Resources (Guelzow-Pruezen, Federal Republic of Germany) reports on the support of the implementation of different plant cultures in structure of plantations and crop rotation systems of companies under consideration of the Federal State Saxony. The main chapters of this brochure are: Crops for the production of biogas; implementation in plantations; ensilage and biogas yields; economy of the cultivation of energy plants.

  11. Online monitoring and control of the biogas process

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Boe, K.

    2006-07-01

    The demand for online monitoring and control of biogas process is increasing, since better monitoring and control system can improve process stability and enhance process performance for better economy of the biogas plants. A number of parameters in both the liquid and the gas phase have been suggested as process indicators. These include gas production, pH, alkalinity, volatile fatty acids (VFA) and hydrogen. Of these, VFA is the most widely recognised as a direct, relevant measure of stability. The individual, rather than collective VFA concentrations are recognised as providing significantly more information for diagnosis. However, classic on-line measurement is based on filtration, which suffers from fouling, especially in particulate or slurry wastes. In this project, a new online VFA monitoring system has been developed using gas-phase VFA extraction to avoid sample filtration. The liquid sample is pumped into a sampling chamber, acidified, added with salt and heated to extract VFA into the gas phase before analysis by GC-FID. This allows easy application to manure. Sample and analysis time of the system varies from 25-40 min. depending on the washing duration. The sampling frequency is fast enough for the dynamic of a manure digester, which is in the range of several hours. This system has been validated over more than 6 months and had shown good agreement with offline VFA measurement. Response from this sensor was compared with other process parameters such as biogas production, pH and dissolved hydrogen during overload situations in a laboratory-scale digester, to investigate the suitability of each measure as a process indicator. VFA was most reliable for indicating process imbalance, and propionate was most persistent. However, when coupling the online VFA monitoring with a simple control for automatic controlling propionate level in a digester, it was found that propionate decreased so slow that the biogas production fluctuated. Therefore, it is more

  12. Design and testing of mini-size biogas plant

    Science.gov (United States)

    Randjawali, Erwin; Waris, Abdul

    2016-08-01

    Biogas is a renewable source of energy which is developed to fulfill the energy needs of the society. Two important aspects of the biogas itself is biogas plant and starter. This research aims to design a mini-sized biogas plant which can be use effectively to produce the alternative energy, and also to examine the difference quality of biogas which is produced from slurry which was given starter and slurry which was not given starter. In this study, a mini-sized biogas plant has been designed, and tested for two different types of slurry. Ratio of cow dung : water : starter of the first slurry is 3 : 2 : 0.003 (The starter which was used in this study is Green Phoskko), and for the second type of slurry, ratio of cow dung : water is 3 : 2, but in this second type, the slurry was not given a starter. Cattle dung used in this study is stored in advance for one week, two weeks, and three weeks, before use. Result of this study showed that the first type of slurry produce biogas in a faster time than the second type of slurry. Also, the amount of gas obtained from the first slurry is more than the second type of slurry. It can be seen from the length of time which is takes to burn the gas produced from the first slurry much longer than the second type of slurry.

  13. Global warming mitigation potential of biogas plants in India.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pathak, H; Jain, N; Bhatia, A; Mohanty, S; Gupta, Navindu

    2009-10-01

    Biogas technology, besides supplying energy and manure, provides an excellent opportunity for mitigation of greenhouse gas (GHG) emission and reducing global warming through substituting firewood for cooking, kerosene for lighting and cooking and chemical fertilizers. A study was undertaken to calculate (1) global warming mitigation potential (GMP) and thereby earning carbon credit of a family size biogas plant in India, (2) GMP of the existing and target biogas plants in the country and (3) atmospheric pollution reduction by a family size biogas plant. The GMP of a family size biogas plant was 9.7 t CO(2) equiv. year( - 1) and with the current price of US $10 t( - 1) CO(2) equiv., carbon credit of US $97 year( - 1) could be earned from such reduction in greenhouse gas emission under the clean development mechanism (CDM). A family size biogas plant substitutes 316 L of kerosene, 5,535 kg firewood and 4,400 kg cattle dung cake as fuels which will reduce emissions of NOx, SO(2), CO and volatile organic compounds to the atmosphere by 16.4, 11.3, 987.0 and 69.7 kg year( - 1), respectively. Presently 3.83 million biogas plants are operating in the country, which can mitigate global warming by 37 Mt CO(2) equiv. year( - 1). Government of India has a target of installing 12.34 million biogas plants by 2010. This target has a GMP of 120 Mt CO(2) equiv. year( - 1) and US $1,197 million as carbon credit under the CDM. However, if all the collectible cattle dung (225 Mt) produced in the country is used, 51.2 million family size biogas plants can be supported which will have a GMP of 496 Mt of CO(2) equiv. year( - 1) and can earn US $4,968 million as carbon credit. The reduction in global warming should encourage policy makers to promote biogas technology to combat climate change and integration of carbon revenues will help the farmers to develop biogas as a profitable activity.

  14. Local biogas producer; Bodenstaendiges Biogas

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wiedemann, Karsten

    2010-02-15

    MT-Energie is a manufacturer of industrial process plants seated in the German state of Niedersachsen. After a period of steep growth, the company is now entering the biogas business and intends to supply biogas into the public gas grid. (orig.)

  15. Comparison of VFA titration procedures used for monitoring the biogas process

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lützhøft, Hans-Christian Holten; Boe, Kanokwan; Fang, Cheng;

    2014-01-01

    Titrimetric determination of volatile fatty acids (VFAs) contents is a common way to monitor a biogas process. However, digested manure from co-digestion biogas plants has a complex matrix with high concentrations of interfering components, resulting in varying results when using different...... (GC) analysis. Two of the procedures are commonly used in biogas plants and two are discussed in literature. The results showed that the optimal titration results were obtained when 40mL of four times diluted digested manure was gently stirred (200rpm). Results from samples with different VFA...

  16. Anaerobic digestion of different feedstocks: impact on energetic and environmental balances of biogas process.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bacenetti, Jacopo; Negri, Marco; Fiala, Marco; González-García, Sara

    2013-10-01

    The possibility of limiting the global warming is strictly linked to the reduction of GHG emissions. Renewable energy both allows reducing emissions and permits to delay fossil fuel depletion. The anaerobic digestion of animal manure and energy crops is a promising way of reducing GHG emissions. In Italy agricultural biogas production was considerably increased; nowadays there are about 520 agricultural biogas plants. The increasing number of biogas plants, especially of those larger than 500 kW(e) (electrical power), involves a high consumption of energy crops, large transport distances of biomass and digestate and difficulties on thermal energy valorization. In this study the energetic (CED) and environmental (GHG emissions) profiles associated with the production of electricity derived from biogas have been identified. Three biogas plants located in Northern Italy have been analyzed. The study has been carried out considering a cradle-to-grave perspective and thus, special attention has been paid on the feedstock production and biogas production process. The influences on the results taking into account different plant sizes and feeding rate has been assessed in detail. Energy analysis was performed using the Cumulative Energy Demand method (CED). The climate change was calculated for a 100-year time frame based on GHG emissions indicated as CO2 equivalents (eq) and defined by the IPCC (2006). In comparison to the fossil reference system, the electricity production using biogas saves GHG emissions from 0.188 to 1.193 kg CO2eq per kWh(e). Electricity supply from biogas can also contribute to a considerable reduction of the use of fossil energy carriers (from -3.97 to 10.08 MJ(fossil) per kWh(e)). The electricity production from biogas has a big potential for energy savings and reduction of GHG emissions. Efficient utilization of the cogenerated heat can substantially improve the GHG balance of electricity production from biogas.

  17. Energy efficiency and climate efficiency of biogas plants with processing and supply of biogas utilizing silage maize. Investigations at the biogas plant of HSE AG in Darmstadt-Wixhausen; Energie- und Klimaeffizienz von Biogasanlagen mit Biogasaufbereitung und -einspeisung unter Nutzung von Silomais. Untersuchungen am Beispiel der Biogasanlage der HSE AG in Darmstadt-Wixhausen

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hundt, Baerbel

    2010-07-12

    After the introduction of the German Renewable Energies Act (EEG), a real boom in the biogas sector in Germany took place. As most biogas plants have, until now, been an integrated part of a farm, the biogas produced is converted directly on site. This often leads to an insufficient use of the heat produced due to the isolated location of farms. However, if the biogas is upgraded, fed into a nearby natural gas grid and transported to a location with an existing heat sink, the heat produced can be used in an optimal way. Using the example of the biogas plant in Darmstadt-Wixhausen, the present study analyses how energy and climate efficient biogas plants are, which factors have the greatest influence on the results of energy and greenhouse-gas balances and finally how uncertain the results of life cycle assessments can be. As a result of its sophisticated heat utilization concept, the Darmstadt-Wixhausen biogas plant comes off very well from the point of view of the energy balance. The net energy gain is 4.5, the specific cumulative energy demand amounts to 1.68 MJ/MJ{sub end} {sub energie} and the energetic amortization time is 4.46 years. Regarding the greenhouse gas balance, this plant comes off rather badly due to greenhouse gas savings of only 46.8 % and due to specific greenhouse gas emissions of 72.51 g CO{sub 2eq}/MJ{sub end} {sub energie}, which range in scales similar to those of natural gas fired block heat and power plants. Amongst the most sensitive parameters related to the energy balance is the electricity consumed by the plant itself, especially the electricity demand of the upgrading technology, the silage losses and the methane yield of the used substrate. The greenhouse gas balance is additionally strongly influenced by the parameters ''methane losses'', ''nitrous oxide-emissions'' and ''grassland ploughing''. If the methane losses are reduced to a minimum by closing the digistate storage

  18. Causes for inhibitions of biogas process; Aarsager til haemning af biogasprocessen

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2001-11-01

    It is the aim of the project to map reasons to inhibition of the biogas process. Inhibition of Danish common biogas plants in the last 5 years will be investigated in order to try to find the exact reason to the interruption of the process. Scientific literature will be investigated to describe the different reason for inhibition. The results of the project will be published in a report, an article and a popularized paper. (EHS)

  19. Consequential environmental life cycle assessment of a farm-scale biogas plant.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Van Stappen, Florence; Mathot, Michaël; Decruyenaere, Virginie; Loriers, Astrid; Delcour, Alice; Planchon, Viviane; Goffart, Jean-Pierre; Stilmant, Didier

    2016-06-15

    Producing biogas via anaerobic digestion is a promising technology for meeting European and regional goals on energy production from renewable sources. It offers interesting opportunities for the agricultural sector, allowing waste and by-products to be converted into bioenergy and bio-based materials. A consequential life cycle assessment (cLCA) was conducted to examine the consequences of the installation of a farm-scale biogas plant, taking account of assumptions about processes displaced by biogas plant co-products (power, heat and digestate) and the uses of the biogas plant feedstock prior to plant installation. Inventory data were collected on an existing farm-scale biogas plant. The plant inputs are maize cultivated for energy, solid cattle manure and various by-products from surrounding agro-food industries. Based on hypotheses about displaced electricity production (oil or gas) and the initial uses of the plant feedstock (animal feed, compost or incineration), six scenarios were analyzed and compared. Digested feedstock previously used in animal feed was replaced with other feed ingredients in equivalent feed diets, designed to take account of various nutritional parameters for bovine feeding. The displaced production of mineral fertilizers and field emissions due to the use of digestate as organic fertilizer was balanced against the avoided use of manure and compost. For all of the envisaged scenarios, the installation of the biogas plant led to reduced impacts on water depletion and aquatic ecotoxicity (thanks mainly to the displaced mineral fertilizer production). However, with the additional animal feed ingredients required to replace digested feedstock in the bovine diets, extra agricultural land was needed in all scenarios. Field emissions from the digestate used as organic fertilizer also had a significant impact on acidification and eutrophication. The choice of displaced marginal technologies has a huge influence on the results, as have the

  20. Fertiliser products from biogas plants; Biokaasulaitosten lopputuotteet lannoitevalmisteina

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Marttinen, S.; Paavola, T.; Ervasti, S. [and others

    2013-02-01

    limitations, a balancing period of five years is required resulting in the same amount of fertiliser used as with the organic fertiliser as the sole nitrogen source. Liquid fertilisers with high concentration of ammonium nitrogen should be applied by injection and solid fertilisers should be mulched immediately after surface application in order to minimise nitrogen losses via ammonia evaporation. The use of end-products from biogas plants in plant nutrition do not significantly increase the microbiological activity of field soils. Thus, the measurement of stability is not necessary in agricultural use. No significant phytotoxicity was detected, either. The products are not toxic in the concentrations used in plant nutrition. The substrates of biogas plants may contain pathogens and organic compounds originating from humans, animals and plants. In order to ensure high quality of the products the following should be considered; choice of substrates, efficient pre-treatment (e.g. particle size), optimisation of the digestion process (esp. temperature and time) and prevention of bypass and cross-contamination. Based on the results of this study, properly treated end-products from biogas plants may be considered safe fertiliser products. (orig.)

  1. Agricultural biogas plants in Spain. State of the art and perspectives; Landwirtschaftliche Biogasanlagen in Spanien. Stand und Perspektiven

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Blanco, D.; Escapa, A. [Bioenergia y Desarrollo Tecnologico (BYDT), Leon (Portugal)

    2011-03-15

    The contribution under consideration reports on the state of the art and perspectives of the agricultural biogas plans in Spain. The potential for agricultural biogas results from: (a) 49 million tons of residual substances per year from animal husbandry (biogas potential: 2,400 millions m{sup 3} annually); (b) 27 million tons of residual substances per year from the plant production (biogas potential: 5,000 millions m{sup 3} annually); (c) 3.3 million tons of residual substances per year from meat production (biogas potential: 100 millions m{sup 3} annually); (d) 0.5 million tons of residual substances per year from the fish processing (biogas potential: 43 millions m{sup 3} annually); (e) 3.1 million tons of residual substances per year from the milk-processing industry (biogas potential: 125,5 millions m{sup 3} annually). The author describes examples of project within the range of agricultural biogas plants and the most important legal milestones affecting the development of the biogas utilization.

  2. Thermal Simulation of Biogas Plants Using Mat Lab

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shaheen.M.Sain

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available The major prerequisite for the optimum production of methane from a biogas plant is the sustenance of digester temperature within the narrow limits (300C-350C. It is experimentally investigated that, the MIT biogas plant is not maintaining optimum temperature, this decreases the efficiency and increases the detention time for charge. To maintain the plant in optimum temperature, it is necessary to find out the heat losses from the biogas plant and the external energy inputs need to operate the plant. Rate of gas yield, and the detention time (time necessary to anaerobically digest organic wastes in a biogas reactor, are favorable functions of the temperature in the digester. A thermal simulation for MIT biogas plant has developed using matlab in order to understand the heat transfer from the slurry and the gas holder to the surrounding earth and air respectively. The computation has been performed when the slurry is maintained at 200C and 300C, optimum temperature of anaerobic fermentation. If the slurry is considered to be at 350C, the optimum temperature of anaerobic fermentation, the total heat loss from the plant is higher than the heat loss when the slurry is maintained at 200C. The heat calculations provide an appraisal for the heat which has to be supplied by external means to compensate for the net heat losses which occur if the slurry is to be maintained at 350C. A solar system with auxiliary electric heater is designed for maintaining the slurry at 350C.In conclusion; the results of thermal analysis are used to define a strategy for operating biogas plant at optimum temperatures. .

  3. Application of a qualitative image analysis on the evaluation of microbial process parameters of biogas plants; Einsatz einer quantitativen Bildanalyse zur Beurteilung mikrobieller Prozessparameter von Biogasanlagen

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kim, Yong Sung; Scherer, Paul [Hamburg Univ. of Applied Sciences, Hamburg-Bergedorf (Germany). Faculty of Life Sciences

    2013-10-01

    To evaluate efficiency and microbial activity of biogas or anaerobic waste water treatment plants, the number of microorganisms per gram or per milliliter is supposed to be a crucial factor. Since some years ago our research group at HAW-Hamburg has struggled to develop a simple and rapid technique for quantification and classification of environmental microbes with a semi-automatic digital image analysis. For detection of methanogens, the methanogenic fluorescence coenzyme F420 was used, which represents the vitality of methanogens. Furthermore this technique has been supplemented with morphological classification resulting in a Quantitative Microscopic Fingerprinting (QMF). The technique facilitates to find out microbial reasons for some problems of reactor performances. In addition QMF allows differentiating between H{sub 2}-CO{sub 2} and acetate consuming methanogens according to their morphology. At the moment, this study focusses on some relationships between QMF and plant operation parameters. As an example, a thermophilic biogas plant fed by 65% liquid cow manure, maize silage, grass silage and solid cow manure was analyzed for more than 22 weeks. Here some basic background and methodical procedures were presented as well as validation of this technique. (orig.)

  4. Killing of salmonella in the biogas process; Abtoetung von Salmonellen im Biogasprozess

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Froeschle, Bianca; Lebuhn, Michael

    2012-08-15

    Pathogenic Salmonella are used in ordinances as an indicator for assessing microbial reduction in biogas plants and for the epidemic-hygienic condition of digestate. This brochure presents results of a study that examined the hygienic effect of the biogas process on Salmonella. [German] Krankheitserregende Salmonellen werden in relevanten Rechtsverordnungen als Indikator zur Beurteilung der Keimreduzierung in Biogasanlagen und des seuchenhygienischen Zustands von Gaerresten herangezogen. Die vorliegende Broschuere stellt Ergebnisse einer Studie dar, die die hygienisierende Wirkung des Biogasprozesses auf Salmonellen untersuchte.

  5. Influence of DNA isolation method on the investigation of archaeal diversity and abundance in biogas plants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Theiss, Juliane; Rother, Michael; Röske, Kerstin

    2016-09-01

    Various methods are available for DNA isolation from environmental samples. Because the chemical and biological composition of samples such as soil, sludge, or plant material is different, the effectiveness of DNA isolation can vary depending on the method applied and thus, have a substantial effect on the results of downstream analysis of the microbial community. Although the process of biogas formation is being intensely investigated, a systematic evaluation of kits for DNA isolation from material of biogas plants is still lacking. Since no DNA isolation kit specifically tailored for DNA isolation from sludge of biogas plants is available, this study compares five commercially available kits regarding their influence on downstream analyses such denaturing gradient gel electrophoresis (DGGE) and quantitative real-time PCR (qPCR). The results show that not all kits are equally suited for the DNA isolation from samples of different biogas plants, but highly reproducible DGGE fingerprints as well as qPCR results across the tested samples from biogas reactors using different substrate compositions could be produced using selected kits.

  6. Formation and suppression of foam in biogas plants; Bildung von Schaum in Biogasanlagen und seine Bekaempfung

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Moeller, Lucie [Helmholtz-Zentrum fuer Umweltforschung, Leipzig (Germany); Goersch, Kati; Zehnsdorf, Andreas

    2012-07-01

    Excessive foaming in the process of anaerobic digestion is one of the most common disorders of the biological stage of the biogas production process. Especially biogas plants treating biogenic residues and waste materials are affected. A survey of fifteen operators of waste-utilizing biogas plants in Saxony, Saxony-Anhalt and Thuringia showed that 80 % of the operators have already had problems with excessive foam formation in their biogas reactor. More than half of them complained about regular foam events. The consequences of excessive foam formation may vary depending on the extent of foaming. They range from extra costs for anti-foaming agents to cleaning and repair costs in case of construction defects. Foam in the reactor may have many causes. They involve the careless application of risk substrates, inadequate plant management or technical errors and accidents. Mostly, the direct cause of foaming remains unclear. Although foam formation in the biogas reactor is a very common phenomenon, only little research has been done in this field until now. (orig.)

  7. Polyphasic analyses of methanogenic archaeal communities in agricultural biogas plants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nettmann, E; Bergmann, I; Pramschüfer, S; Mundt, K; Plogsties, V; Herrmann, C; Klocke, M

    2010-04-01

    Knowledge of the microbial consortia participating in the generation of biogas, especially in methane formation, is still limited. To overcome this limitation, the methanogenic archaeal communities in six full-scale biogas plants supplied with different liquid manures and renewable raw materials as substrates were analyzed by a polyphasic approach. Fluorescence in situ hybridization (FISH) was carried out to quantify the methanogenic Archaea in the reactor samples. In addition, quantitative real-time PCR (Q-PCR) was used to support and complete the FISH analysis. Five of the six biogas reactors were dominated by hydrogenotrophic Methanomicrobiales. The average values were between 60 to 63% of archaeal cell counts (FISH) and 61 to 99% of archaeal 16S rRNA gene copies (Q-PCR). Within this order, Methanoculleus was found to be the predominant genus as determined by amplified rRNA gene restriction analysis. The aceticlastic family Methanosaetaceae was determined to be the dominant methanogenic group in only one biogas reactor, with average values for Q-PCR and FISH between 64% and 72%. Additionally, in three biogas reactors hitherto uncharacterized but potentially methanogenic species were detected. They showed closest accordance with nucleotide sequences of the hitherto unclassified CA-11 (85%) and ARC-I (98%) clusters. These results point to hydrogenotrophic methanogenesis as a predominant pathway for methane synthesis in five of the six analyzed biogas plants. In addition, a correlation between the absence of Methanosaetaceae in the biogas reactors and high concentrations of total ammonia (sum of NH(3) and NH(4)(+)) was observed.

  8. LED-Absorption-QEPAS Sensor for Biogas Plants

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Michael Köhring

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available A new sensor for methane and carbon dioxide concentration measurements in biogas plants is presented. LEDs in the mid infrared spectral region are implemented as low cost light source. The combination of quartz-enhanced photoacoustic spectroscopy with an absorption path leads to a sensor setup suitable for the harsh application environment. The sensor system contains an electronics unit and the two gas sensors; it was designed to work as standalone device and was tested in a biogas plant for several weeks. Gas concentration dependent measurements show a precision better than 1% in a range between 40% and 60% target gas concentration for both sensors. Concentration dependent measurements with different background gases show a considerable decrease in cross sensitivity against the major components of biogas in direct comparison to common absorption based sensors.

  9. LED-Absorption-QEPAS Sensor for Biogas Plants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Köhring, Michael; Böttger, Stefan; Willer, Ulrike; Schade, Wolfgang

    2015-05-22

    A new sensor for methane and carbon dioxide concentration measurements in biogas plants is presented. LEDs in the mid infrared spectral region are implemented as low cost light source. The combination of quartz-enhanced photoacoustic spectroscopy with an absorption path leads to a sensor setup suitable for the harsh application environment. The sensor system contains an electronics unit and the two gas sensors; it was designed to work as standalone device and was tested in a biogas plant for several weeks. Gas concentration dependent measurements show a precision better than 1% in a range between 40% and 60% target gas concentration for both sensors. Concentration dependent measurements with different background gases show a considerable decrease in cross sensitivity against the major components of biogas in direct comparison to common absorption based sensors.

  10. Conceptual design of an integrated hydrothermal liquefaction and biogas plant for sustainable bioenergy production

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hoffmann, Jessica; Rudra, Souman; Toor, Saqib

    2013-01-01

    Initial process studies carried out in Aspen Plus on an integrated thermochemical conversion process are presented herein. In the simulations, a hydrothermal liquefaction (HTL) plant is combined with a biogas plant (BP), such that the digestate from the BP is converted to a biocrude in the HTL pr...... grid or for CHP. An estimated 62–84% of the biomass energy can be recovered in the biofuels.......Initial process studies carried out in Aspen Plus on an integrated thermochemical conversion process are presented herein. In the simulations, a hydrothermal liquefaction (HTL) plant is combined with a biogas plant (BP), such that the digestate from the BP is converted to a biocrude in the HTL...... process. This biorefinery concept offers a sophisticated and sustainable way of converting organic residuals into a range of high-value biofuel streams in addition to combined heat and power (CHP) production. The primary goal of this study is to provide an initial estimate of the feasibility...

  11. The effect of electron acceptors on biogas production from tannery sludge of a Mexican wastewater plant

    Science.gov (United States)

    Effluents from the leather processing plants generally are discharged into rivers or are used to irrigate farmland. The biogas production from the digestion of sludge produced could be used as alternative sources for energy and power generation. A study was carried out to examine the effects of vari...

  12. The Success of Biogas Plants in Nepal: A Note on Gender

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Opdam, J. Hans M.

    1997-01-01

    This article describes a successful programme to disseminate biogas plants in Nepal, and summarises the findings of various studies on the impact of the biogas technology on the quality of life of women.

  13. biogas

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    2015-01-01

    Functions for working with biogas data. Both low- and high-level functions are included for carrying out common tasks for analysis of biogas and related data. Molar mass and calculated oxygen demand (COD') can be determined from a chemical formula. Measured gas volume can be corrected for water...... vapor and to (possibly user-defined) standard temperature and pressure. Gas composition, cumulative production, or other variables can be interpolated to a specified time. Cumulative biogas and methane production (and rates) can be calculated using volumetric, manometric, or gravimetric methods for any...... be summarized in several different ways (e.g., omitting normalization) using the same function. Lastly, biogas and methane production can be predicted from substrate composition and additional, optional data....

  14. Economic and technical viability of the biogas generation from vinaceus in an ethanol plant; Viabilidade tecnica, economica, da geracao de biogas a partir de vinhaca em uma usina de etanol

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Vianna, Luiz Felipe Peres; Almeida, Silvio Carlos Anibal de [Universidade Federal do Rio de Janeiro (DEM/EP/UFRJ), RJ (Brazil). Escola Politecnica. Dept. de Engenharia Mecanica; Pinto, Marcio Schittini; Pereira, Luiz Felipe Herrmann Telles [Acesa Bioenergia, Rio de Janeiro, RJ (Brazil)], Emails: maschittini@acesabioenergia.com; lfpereira@acesabioenergia.com

    2010-07-01

    This paper analyses the technical viability of use of vinaceus for biogas production. This paper developed by the Mechanical Engineering Department of UFRJ and the ACESA Bioenergy enterprise, analyses the generation and processing of biogas produced from bio digestion of the vinaceus. The chosen place for the study was the Mandu ethanol plant, located at Guaira, Sao Paulo, Brazil.

  15. Alternatives for handling of digestate from large biogas plants; Foeraedling av roetrest fraan storskaliga biogasanlaeggningar

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Aarsrud, Peter (Kretsloppskontoret Goeteborg (Sweden)); Bisaillon, Mattias (Profu (Sweden)); Hellstroem, Hanna; Henriksson, Gunilla (SP, Boraas (Sweden)); Jakobsson, Emma; Jarlsvik, Tisse; Martinsson, Ulf (Goeteborg Energi (Sweden)); Jensen, Carl (Renova (Sweden)); Johansson, Lars-Gunnar (Biogas Vaest/LRF (Sweden)); Kanerot, Mija (Boraas Energi och Miljoe (Sweden)); Ling, Daniel (Laeckeby Water (Sweden))

    2010-07-01

    Biogas plants located in city environments are becoming increasingly common in Sweden. More and more municipalities are electing to collect food waste for treatment in a biogas plant. The environment target of treating 35 % all organic waste biologically try to obtain from municipalities. Certain demands are placed on biogas plants and their system environments if they are to be able to treat food waste successfully. Firstly, there needs to be a use for the nutrient-rich biofertilizer product, and secondly it must be possible to clean the reject water before it is released to the recipient. The goal of the project is to conduct a system analysis from the economic and environmental perspectives to investigate what is the best alternative for dealing with the digestate and reject water for two biogas plants located in city environments. The plants used as the point of departure for the study are a planned biogas plant in Gothenburg and an existing biogas plant in Boraas. The plant in Boraas is planned to be included in an energy combine with ethanol production. The target group for the project comprises biogas plants built in city environments with the purpose of treating food waste, but also other plants that treat organic waste in a digester, e.g., sludge from sewage treatment works. Table 1 below shows the results for each technology studied. [Table 1 Results from system analysis.] The results of the system analysis show that the best alternative for Gothenburg, both from an economical point of view and when considering the climate impact, is to transport and spread the un-dewatered digestate directly onto arable land. On the basis of acidification and eutrophication potentials, the best alternative is to treat the reject water with the DeAmmon process. From the economic perspective, the best alternative for Boraas is to continue with the treatment method used today at the plant, that is, SBR. From the perspective of climate impact, the best alternative is to

  16. Life cycle assessment of flexibly fed biogas processes for an improved demand-oriented biogas supply.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ertem, Funda Cansu; Martínez-Blanco, Julia; Finkbeiner, Matthias; Neubauer, Peter; Junne, Stefan

    2016-11-01

    This paper analyses concepts to facilitate a demand oriented biogas supply at an agricultural biogas plant of a capacity of 500kWhel, operated with the co-digestion of maize, grass, rye silage and chicken manure. In contrast to previous studies, environmental impacts of flexible and the traditional baseload operation are compared. Life Cycle Assessment (LCA) was performed to detect the environmental impacts of: (i) variety of feedstock co-digestion scenarios by substitution of maize and (ii) loading rate scenarios with a focus on flexible feedstock utilization. Demand-driven biogas production is critical for an overall balanced power supply to the electrical grid. It results in lower amounts of emissions; feedstock loading rate scenarios resulted in 48%, 20%, 11% lower global warming (GWP), acidification (AP) and eutrophication potentials, and a 16% higher cumulative energy demand. Substitution of maize with biogenic-waste regarding to feedstock substitution scenarios could create 10% lower GWP and AP.

  17. Biogas production from coumarin-rich plants--inhibition by coumarin and recovery by adaptation of the bacterial community.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Popp, Denny; Schrader, Steffi; Kleinsteuber, Sabine; Harms, Hauke; Sträuber, Heike

    2015-09-01

    Plants like sweet clover (Melilotus spp.) are not suitable as fodder for cattle because of harmful effects of the plant secondary metabolite coumarin. As an alternative usage, the applicability of coumarin-rich plants as substrates for biogas production was investigated. When coumarin was added to continuous fermentation processes codigesting grass silage and cow manure, it caused a strong inhibition noticeable as decrease of biogas production by 19% and increase of metabolite concentrations to an organic acids/alkalinity ratio higher than 0.3(gorganic acids) gCaCO3 (-1). Microbial communities of methanogenic archaea were dominated by the genera Methanosarcina (77%) and Methanoculleus (11%). This community composition was not influenced by coumarin addition. The bacterial community analysis unraveled a divergence caused by coumarin addition correlating with the anaerobic degradation of coumarin and the recovery of the biogas process. As a consequence, biogas production resumed similar to the coumarin-free control with a biogas yield of 0.34 LN g(volatile solids) (-1) and at initial metabolite concentrations (∼ 0.2 g(organic acids) gCaCO3 (-1)). Coumarin acts as inhibitor and as substrate during anaerobic digestion. Hence, coumarin-rich plants might be suitable for biogas production, but should only be used after adaptation of the microbial community to coumarin.

  18. Energy and substance conversion in biogas plants. Results of measurement investigations of agricultural biogas plants in the Rheinland; Energie- und Stoffumsetzung in Biogasanlagen. Ergebnisse messtechnischer Untersuchungen an landwirtschaftlichen Biogasanlagen im Rheinland

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Besgen, S.

    2005-08-15

    The current data situation on biogas technology is not extensive and is mainly based on laboratory testing. This was the starting point for a pilot project and the dissertation at hand, where data was collected from four agricultural biogas plants during a period of two years. These four plants are equipped with extensive measurement technology and are run under mesophilic temperature conditions. They utilize manure, renewable primary products and organic waste products. The measurements carried out cover balancing, i.e. determining the gas-output, production and usage of energy, as well as process analysis. The latter investigates parameters which permit statements on stability of the fermentation process and on the substances of contents of the substrate. Input and output of the plants were quantified during the measurement periods. Input is defined as organic substance, output as the production of electricity and heat from burning biogas in block-type thermal power stations. Concerning the latter, the thermal and electrical efficiency factor was calculated, indicating also the respective fuel oil proportion. Furthermore, the process energy demand in form of electricity and heat for running the plants was analysed. It was possible to define the quality of the biogas produced as well as the quantity of individual substrates based on standard gas calculations. The measurement programme gained valuable data for the practical use of biogas plants. The results will be helpful for planning and designing these plants. (orig.)

  19. Biogas from fibrous digestate and wood. New lignin extraction (LX) process for energy and raw material production from plant residues; Biogas aus ''ausgegorenem'' Gaerrest und Holz. Das neue Lignin-Extraktions-(LX)-Verfahren zur Energie- und Rohstoffproduktion aus pflanzlichen Reststoffen

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Streffer, R.M.F. [maxbiogas GmbH, Marienwerder (Germany)

    2011-07-01

    75% of plant biomass on earth is made of cellulose and lignine, the lignocelluloses. In a simplified view the lignin wraps in plant biomass the substances easily degraded by microorganisms like cellulose. The LX process utilizes plant biomass and separates it to lignine and pretreated LX-substrate with a reduced lignine content, which is fed back to the fermentation process to be degraded. Combining a biogas plant with the LX process allows even the degradation of fibrous plant parts and it is possible to digest wood. E.g. the fibrous digest is fermented more efficient than maize silage. The LX process has therefore the potential to be able to produce in future economically either energy as wells as resources form plant residues. (orig.) [German] 75% der pflanzlichen Biomasse auf der Welt bestehen aus Zellulose und Lignin, der Lignocellulose. Lignin umhuellt, vereinfacht beschrieben, im pflanzlichen Substrat die leicht durch Mikroorganismen abbaubaren Stoffe, wie Zellulose. Das LX-Verfahren verwertet pflanzliche Biomasse und erzeugt daraus Lignin und stark im Ligningehalt reduziertes, sogenanntes ''aufgeschlossenes'', LX-Substrat, dass dann dem weiteren Abbauprozess zugefuehrt wird. Kombiniert man zum Beispiel eine Biogasanlage mit dem LX-Verfahren, so koennen selbst faserige Pflanzenbestandteile und erstmalig auch Holz vergoren werden. Beispielsweise wird ''ausgegorener'' Gaerrest effizienter fermentiert als Maissilage. Damit hat das LX-Verfahren das Potenzial, kuenftig sowohl Energie als auch Rohstoffe aus pflanzlichen Reststoffen wirtschaftlich herstellen zu koennen.

  20. Analytical investigation of the thermal optimization of biogas plants; Analytische Untersuchung der thermischen Optimierung von Biogasanlagen

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Knauer, Thomas [Rostock Univ. (Germany). Lehrstuhl Abfall- und Stoffstromwirtschaft; Ing. Buero Energietechnik, Niebuell (Germany); Scholwin, Frank [Institut fuer Biogas, Kreislaufwirtschaft und Energie, Weimar (Germany); Nelles, Michael [Rostock Univ. (Germany). Lehrstuhl Abfall- und Stoffstromwirtschaft; DBFZ Deutsches Biomasseforschungszentrum gemeinnuetzige GmbH, Leipzig (Germany)

    2015-07-01

    The economic efficiency of biogas plants is more difficult to display with recent legal regulations than with bonus tariff systems of previous EEG amendments. To enhance efficiency there are different options, often linked with further investments. Direct technical innovations with fast economic yields need exact evaluation of limiting conditions. Within this article the heat sector of agricultural biogas plants is studied. So far scarcely considered, especially the improvement of on-site thermal energy consumption promises a high optimisation. Data basis are feeding protocols and temperature measurements of input substrates, biogas, environment etc., also documentations of on-site thermal consumption over 10 years. Analyzing first results of measurements and primary equilibrations shows, that maintenance of biogas process temperature consumes most thermal energy and therefore has the greatest potential of improvement. Passive and active insulation of feed systems and heat recovery from secondary fermenter liquids are identified as first optimization measures. Depending on amount and temperature raise of input substrates, saving potentials of more than hundred megawatt hours per year were calculated.

  1. CONTEXT MATTERS: THE IMPORTANCE OF MARKET CHARACTERISTICS IN THE VOLATILITY OF FEEDSTOCK COSTS FOR BIOGAS PLANTS.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mertens, A; Van Meensel, J; Mondelaers, K; Buysse, J

    2015-01-01

    Recently, biogas plant managers in Flanders face increased financial uncertainty. Between 2011 and 2012, 20% of the Flemish biogas plants went bankrupt. Difficulties in obtaining feedstock at stable and affordable prices is one reason why the biogas sector struggles. In literature, contracting is often proposed as a way to decrease the volatility of the feedstock costs. However, these studies generally do not consider the context in which the biogas plant manager needs to buy the feedstock. Yet, this context could be of specific importance when biogas plant managers are in competition with other users of the same biomass type. Silage maize is an example of such a feedstock, as it is both used by dairy farmers and biogas plant managers. Using a combination of qualitative research and agent-based modelling, we investigated the effect of specific characteristics of the silage maize market on the acquisition of local silage maize by biogas plant managers. This paper details the institutional arrangements of the silage maize market in Flanders and the results of a scenario analysis, simulating three different scenarios. As shown by the results, the time of entry into the market, as well as the different institutional arrangements used by the biogas plant managers as opposed to dairy farmers could explain the difficulties in obtaining a stable supply of local silage maize by biogas plants. Our findings can help to develop mitigation strategies addressing these difficulties.

  2. Biogas Production from Sugarcane Waste: Assessment on Kinetic Challenges for Process Designing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Janke, Leandro; Leite, Athaydes; Nikolausz, Marcell; Schmidt, Thomas; Liebetrau, Jan; Nelles, Michael; Stinner, Walter

    2015-08-31

    Biogas production from sugarcane waste has large potential for energy generation, however, to enable the optimization of the anaerobic digestion (AD) process each substrate characteristic should be carefully evaluated. In this study, the kinetic challenges for biogas production from different types of sugarcane waste were assessed. Samples of vinasse, filter cake, bagasse, and straw were analyzed in terms of total and volatile solids, chemical oxygen demand, macronutrients, trace elements, and nutritional value. Biochemical methane potential assays were performed to evaluate the energy potential of the substrates according to different types of sugarcane plants. Methane yields varied considerably (5-181 Nm³·tonFM(-1)), mainly due to the different substrate characteristics and sugar and/or ethanol production processes. Therefore, for the optimization of AD on a large-scale, continuous stirred-tank reactor with long hydraulic retention times (>35 days) should be used for biogas production from bagasse and straw, coupled with pre-treatment process to enhance the degradation of the fibrous carbohydrates. Biomass immobilization systems are recommended in case vinasse is used as substrate, due to its low solid content, while filter cake could complement the biogas production from vinasse during the sugarcane offseason, providing a higher utilization of the biogas system during the entire year.

  3. Solar assisted biogas plants: Pt. 4. Optimum area for blackening and double glazing over a fixed-dome biogas plant

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jayashankar, B.C.; Kishor, J.; Goyal, I.C.; Sawhney, R.L.; Sodha, M.S.

    The economic analysis of a fixed-dome biogas plant of rated capacity 8 m/sup 3/, above which a part of the ground is blackened and doubly glazed in the cold climate of Srinagar is presented. Blackening and glazing of the ground cannot alone maintain the slurry temperature at 35/sup 0/C, which is the optimum temperature in the mesophilic range for the anaerobic digestion of cattle dung, and so a part of the biogas must be burnt. The electrical simulation experiments have been performed to determine the loss or gain of heat from the underground biodigestor to the ambient atmosphere through the ground if a part of the ground above is blackened and double glazed. Economic analysis of the system shows that the optimum area to be blackened and glazed would have a radius 1.5 times that of the biodigestor.

  4. Methane losses in biogas processing; Methanverluste bei der Biogasaufbereitung

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Baum, S.; Baier, U. [ZHAW, Zuercher Hochschule fuer Angewandte Wissenschaften, IBT Institut fuer Biotechnologie, Fachgruppe Umweltbiotechnologie, Waedenswil (Switzerland); Judex, J.; Biollaz, S.; Schneebeli, J. [PSI, Paul Scherrer Institut, Villigen (Switzerland)

    2008-11-15

    This report for the Swiss Federal Office of Energy (SFOE) by the Paul Scherrer Institute PSI and the Zurich University of Applied Sciences, Switzerland, presents the results of a study made on methane losses that occur during the processing of biogas to provide natural gas quality. Such losses are considered as possibly compromising the environmental advantages offered by the feeding-in of processed biogas into the national gas mains. This processing involves the removal of carbon dioxide from the biogas. The state-of-the-art in this area is discussed, relevant factors and analysis methods are looked at. An overview of methods used to prevent methane losses is presented. The results of investigations made at an installation in Lucerne, Switzerland, are presented and discussed.

  5. Energy potential and alternative usages of biogas and sludge from UASB reactors: case study of the Laboreaux wastewater treatment plant.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rosa, A P; Conesa, J A; Fullana, A; Melo, G C B; Borges, J M; Chernicharo, C A L

    2016-01-01

    This work assessed the energy potential and alternative usages of biogas and sludge generated in upflow anaerobic sludge blanket reactors at the Laboreaux sewage treatment plant (STP), Brazil. Two scenarios were considered: (i) priority use of biogas for the thermal drying of dehydrated sludge and the use of the excess biogas for electricity generation in an ICE (internal combustion engine); and (ii) priority use of biogas for electricity generation and the use of the heat of the engine exhaust gases for the thermal drying of the sludge. Scenario 1 showed that the electricity generated is able to supply 22.2% of the STP power demand, but the thermal drying process enables a greater reduction or even elimination of the final volume of sludge to be disposed. In Scenario 2, the electricity generated is able to supply 57.6% of the STP power demand; however, the heat in the exhaust gases is not enough to dry the total amount of dehydrated sludge.

  6. Farm Biogas Handbook; Gaardsbiogashandbok

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Christensson, Kjell; Bjoernsson, Lovisa; Dahlgren, Stefan; Eriksson, Peter; Lantz, Mikael; Lindstroem, Johanna; Mickelaaker, Maria

    2009-04-15

    A very large share of the total raw material potential for biogas production will be found within the agriculture. The raw material potential of manure in Sweden amounts to 4 - 6 TWh. Within the agriculture there is moreover a big potential in the form of residues from plant cultivation and non-food crops (approximately 7 TWh) that can to be used for biogas production. The potential for biogas production from only residues and manure is around 8-10 TWh. An increased biogas production within the agriculture would give significant environmental effects. Among other things manure, that today is leaking methane gas to the atmosphere, can be fermented, and trough this process the methane losses will be reduced. When the produced biogas replaces fossil fuel, an overall environmental effect will be reached, that is highly significant. This manual deals with biogas plants for agriculture and such plants that do not have extensive transports of different raw materials, as manure, wastes etc. One of the starting points for this manual's set-up is a course plan that Biogas Syd made for the courses they give to farmers, advisors and others. The manual illustrates important aspects in planning and construction of biogas plants, from raw material and technology to dimensioning of plant, use of biogas and planning of local gas grids. We also think it is important to illustrate the legislation that encompasses construction work and operation of a biogas plant. Investment costs are also illustrated, but the book does not give any extensive economic calculations, since we believe that such calculations need their own manual in the form of calculation examples, based on various conditions. The final section is called 'Biogas on farm - from idea to reality' where the entire process from analysis and pre-planning to monitoring and control of plant during operation is briefly described

  7. Conceptual design of an integrated hydrothermal liquefaction and biogas plant for sustainable bioenergy production.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hoffmann, Jessica; Rudra, Souman; Toor, Saqib S; Holm-Nielsen, Jens Bo; Rosendahl, Lasse A

    2013-02-01

    Initial process studies carried out in Aspen Plus on an integrated thermochemical conversion process are presented herein. In the simulations, a hydrothermal liquefaction (HTL) plant is combined with a biogas plant (BP), such that the digestate from the BP is converted to a biocrude in the HTL process. This biorefinery concept offers a sophisticated and sustainable way of converting organic residuals into a range of high-value biofuel streams in addition to combined heat and power (CHP) production. The primary goal of this study is to provide an initial estimate of the feasibility of such a process. By adding a diesel-quality-fuel output to the process, the product value is increased significantly compared to a conventional BP. An input of 1000 kg h(-1) manure delivers approximately 30-38 kg h(-1) fuel and 38-61 kg h(-1) biogas. The biogas can be used to upgrade the biocrude, to supply the gas grid or for CHP. An estimated 62-84% of the biomass energy can be recovered in the biofuels.

  8. Economic analysis of anaerobic digestion - A case of Green power biogas plant in The Netherlands

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Gebrezgabher, S.A.; Meuwissen, M.P.M.; Prins, B.A.M.; Oude Lansink, A.G.J.M.

    2010-01-01

    One of the key concerns of biogas plants is the disposal of comparatively large amounts of digestates in an economically and environmentally sustainable manner. This paper analyses the economic performance of anaerobic digestion of a given biogas plant based on net present value (NPV) and internal r

  9. The Fuzzy WOD Model with application to biogas plant location

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Franco, Camilo; Bojesen, Mikkel; Hougaard, Jens Leth

    2014-01-01

    The decision of choosing a facility location among possible alternatives can be understood as a multi-criteria problem where the solution depends on the available knowledge and the means of exploiting it. In this sense, knowledge can take various forms, where the imprecise nature of information can...... be expressed by degrees of intensity in which the alternatives satisfy the given criteria. Hence, such degrees can be gradually expressed either by unique values or by intervals, in order to fully represent the characteristics of each alternative. This paper examines the selection of biogas plant location...

  10. Influence of biogas flow rate on biomass composition during the optimization of biogas upgrading in microalgal-bacterial processes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Serejo, Mayara L; Posadas, Esther; Boncz, Marc A; Blanco, Saúl; García-Encina, Pedro; Muñoz, Raúl

    2015-03-03

    The influence of biogas flow rate (0, 0.3, 0.6, and 1.2 m(3) m(-2) h(-1)) on the elemental and macromolecular composition of the algal-bacterial biomass produced from biogas upgrading in a 180 L photobioreactor interconnected to a 2.5 L external bubbled absorption column was investigated using diluted anaerobically digested vinasse as cultivation medium. The influence of the external liquid recirculation/biogas ratio (0.5 biogas, was also evaluated. A L/G ratio of 10 was considered optimum to support CO2 and H2S removals of 80% and 100%, respectively, at all biogas flow rates tested. Biomass productivity increased at increasing biogas flow rate, with a maximum of 12 ± 1 g m(-2) d(-1) at 1.2 m(3) m(-2) h(-1), while the C, N, and P biomass content remained constant at 49 ± 2%, 9 ± 0%, and 1 ± 0%, respectively, over the 175 days of experimentation. The high carbohydrate contents (60-76%), inversely correlated to biogas flow rates, would allow the production of ≈100 L of ethanol per 1000 m(3) of biogas upgraded under a biorefinery process approach.

  11. STUDIES CONCERNING THE UTILISATION OF DIGESTATE IN BIOGAS PLANTS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mariana DUMITRU

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available This paper aims to expose the many possibilities of using digestate in biogas plants and the advantages of its using. In agricultural animal farms is produced a big quantity of animal manure, which must be adequate managed, mainly as fertiliser. The most advantageous solution of using animal manure and slurry is using it in biogas plants, where, due to degradation of organic matter, digestate is easier to pump and easier to apply as fertiliser, with reduced need of stirring, compared to untreated slurry. The researches made showes that digestate has lower C/N ratio, compared to raw manure. This property means that digestate has a better effect in fertilisation with Nitrogen on short term. The paper also shows the effects of digestate application on soil, compared to compost application of digestate as fertiliser, must be done on the basis of a fertiliser plan. The fertiliser plan with digestate is elaborated for each agricultural farm, according to the type of crop.

  12. Characterisation and treatment of VOCs in process water from upgrading facilities for compressed biogas (CBG).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nilsson Påledal, S; Arrhenius, K; Moestedt, J; Engelbrektsson, J; Stensen, K

    2016-02-01

    Compression and upgrading of biogas to vehicle fuel generates process water, which to varying degrees contains volatile organic compounds (VOCs) originating from the biogas. The compostion of this process water has not yet been studied and scientifically published and there is currently an uncertainty regarding content of VOCs and how the process water should be managed to minimise the impact on health and the environment. The aim of the study was to give an overview about general levels of VOCs in the process water. Characterisation of process water from amine and water scrubbers at plants digesting waste, sewage sludge or agricultural residues showed that both the average concentration and composition of particular VOCs varied depending on the substrate used at the biogas plant, but the divergence was high and the differences for total concentrations from the different substrate groups were only significant for samples from plants using waste compared to residues from agriculture. The characterisation also showed that the content of VOCs varied greatly between different sampling points for same main substrate and between sampling occasions at the same sampling point, indicating that site-specific conditions are important for the results which also indicates that a number of analyses at different times are required in order to make an more exact characterisation with low uncertainty. Inhibition of VOCs in the anaerobic digestion (AD) process was studied in biomethane potential tests, but no inhibition was observed during addition of synthetic process water at concentrations of 11.6 mg and 238 mg VOC/L.

  13. THE IMPACT OF EXTRUSION ON THE BIOGAS AND BIOMETHANE YIELD OF PLANT SUBSTRATES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Krzysztof Pilarski

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available The objective of the present work was to determine the effect of pretreatment by extrusion on the biogas and biomethane yield of lignocellulosic substrates such as maize silage and maize straw silage. The biogas yields of the substrates before and after treatment were compared. Moreover, energy efficiency of pretreatment by extrusion was analyzed in order to assess the applicability of the process in an agricultural biogas plant. Extrusion tests were carried out in a short single-screw extruder KZM-2 in which the length-to-diameter ratio of the screw was 6:1 and rotational speed was 200 rpm. The biogas yield tests of the plant substrates after extrusion were carried out in a laboratory scale, using 15 biofermenters operated in a periodic manner, at a constant temperature of 39°C (mesophilic digestion and controlled pH conditions. The gas-emission analysis was performed using a certified gas analyzer from Geotech GA5000. Pretreatment by extrusion was observed to improve the quantity of methane generated: in terms of fresh matter for maize silage subjected to extrusion, the methane yield was 16.48% higher than that of the non-extruded silage. On the other hand, maize straw silage after extrusion gave 35.30% more methane than did the same, non-extruded, material. Differences in yields relative to dry organic matter are also described in this paper. Taking into account the amount of energy that is spent on pretreatment and the generated amount of methane, the energy balance for the process gives an idea of the economics of the operation. For maize silage, energy efficiency was lower by 13.21% (-553.2 kWh/Mg, in contrast to maize straw silage, where the increase in energy was 33.49% (678.4 kWh/Mg. The obtained results indicate that more studies on the pretreatment and digestion of maize silage are required in order to improve the efficiency of its use for making biogas. To fully utilize its potential, it is necessary to know thoroughly the effect of

  14. DEVELOPMENT TRENDS OF BIOGAS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mariana DUMITRU

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available All over the world, researches are made in order to improve the technologies, the operational and process stability and performance of biogas plants, because the world markets for biogas increased considerably in Europe and all over the world. In this paper we studied the most important parameters related to a biogas plant, starting from the ecologic landfill of Cristian, Sibiu, a landfill which storages industrial and household waste. In this respect, we studied operational parameters, such as organic load and hydraulic retention time, and parameters for evaluation of a biogas plant. Also, we made a case study concerning the evaluation of used waters in the landfill described above under the aspect of pollution sources, way of treatment and evacuation mode of used waters. The existing biomass resources everywhere in the world can give us an idea of the global potential of biogas production, which is not exploited to its capacity, especially in our country.

  15. Status and prospects for household biogas plants in Ghana – lessons, barriers, potential, and way forward

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Edem Cudjoe Bensah, Moses Mensah, Edward Antwi

    2011-09-01

    Full Text Available Ghana is a country faced with pressing developmental challenges on energy, sanitation, environment and agriculture. The development of a large scale, enterprise-based biogas programme in Ghana will improve sanitation, produce clean energy, reduce greenhouse gas emissions, promote nutrient recovery, and create jobs. While aforementioned benefits of biogas are known, the biogas industry is still not growing at rates that would enable its impact on sanitation, agriculture and energy usage to be felt, owing to challenges such as low awareness creation and poor biogas supply chain, lack of well-trained personnel, poor follow-up services, and high cost of biogas digesters – USD 235- 446 per cubic meter. This paper looks at the chronology of biogas developmental in Ghana, technical and market potential of household biogas plants, strengths and weaknesses of main biogas service providers, human resource development, quality issues, and risks involved in developing a large scale household biogas programme. From the paper, the technical and market potential of dung-based, household biogas digesters in Ghana are estimated at 162,066 and 16,207 units respectively. In order to take full advantage of biogas technology, the paper recommends the development of standardized digesters, increase in awareness programmes on the life-long benefits of biogas systems, introduction of flexible payment schemes, and stepping-up of follow-up services. Finally, there is an urgent need for a "promoter" who will engage all stakeholders to ensure that a national action plan on biogas technology is initiated and implemented.

  16. Status and prospects for household biogas plants in Ghana: lessons, barriers, potential, and way forward

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bensah, Edem Cudjoe [Chemical Engineering Department, Kumasi Polytecnic, Kumasi (Ghana); Mensah, Moses [Chemical Engineering Department, KNUST, PMB, Kumasi (Ghana); Antwi, Edward [Mechanical Engineering Department, Kumasi Polytechnic, Kumasi (Ghana)

    2011-07-01

    Ghana is a country faced with pressing developmental challenges on energy, sanitation, environment and agriculture. The development of a large scale, enterprise-based biogas programme in Ghana will improve sanitation, produce clean energy, reduce greenhouse gas emissions, promote nutrient recovery, and create jobs. While aforementioned benefits of biogas are known, the biogas industry is still not growing at rates that would enable its impact on sanitation, agriculture and energy usage to be felt, owing to challenges such as low awareness creation and poor biogas supply chain, lack of well-trained personnel, poor follow-up services, and high cost of biogas digesters -- USD 235- 446 per cubic meter. This paper looks at the chronology of biogas developmental in Ghana, technical and market potential of household biogas plants, strengths and weaknesses of main biogas service providers, human resource development, quality issues, and risks involved in developing a large scale household biogas programme. From the paper, the technical and market potential of dung-based, household biogas digesters in Ghana are estimated at 162,066 and 16,207 units respectively. In order to take full advantage of biogas technology, the paper recommends the development of standardized digesters, increase in awareness programmes on the life-long benefits of biogas systems, introduction of flexible payment schemes, and stepping-up of follow-up services. Finally, there is an urgent need for a 'promoter' who will engage all stakeholders to ensure that a national action plan on biogas technology is initiated and implemented.

  17. Increased utilisation of existing biogas plants; Oekat utnyttjande av befintliga biogasanlaeggningar

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lantz, Mikael

    2007-09-15

    The purpose of this study is to analyse how existing biogas plants in Sweden could be utilised more efficiently, by increase the organic loading rate, and to calculate the cost efficiency of such measures. Biogas plants treating sewage sludge are currently operated with low organic loading rates and it is likely that there could be a considerable potential of increased utilisation of existing capacity. However, disposal costs of digested sewage sludge have a great impact on the economic result. Thus, the cost must be low, below 200 - 850 SEK/tonne DS, for co-digestion of sewage sludge and organic household waste to be economic competitive, compared to building of a new reactor. For co-digestion plants, using manure and organic waste as feedstock, it is not possible to say whether it is more economic to increase the utilisation of existing capacity or to increase the reactor volume. Therefore, more specific studies are required for individual plants and cases. Regarding the need for a more sophisticated monitoring and control of the biogas process, it can be established that the utilisation of sewage sludge digestion plants could be increased considerably without exceptionally high organic loading rates, thus probably without any additional monitoring and control. However, indicated prices for such applications are probably acceptable compared to establishing a new reactor. For co-digestion plants, the scope for investments is smaller and more dependent on the alternative cost for new reactors. Also, any process disturbances, which may appear even at low organic loading rates, could be very costly and result in costs in the same range as for monitoring and control equipment. Finally, the reader should observe that the analyses conducted here assume that funding and physical space for additional reactors is available at the existing site. If not, there could be situations where it is economic interesting to increase the organic loading rate although cost estimates

  18. The internal sphere of influence of peasant family farms in using biogas plants as part of sustainable development in rural areas of Germany

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bischoff, Anke [Technische Univ. Berlin (Germany). Postgraduate Program Microenergy Systems

    2011-07-01

    Within the last decade the biogas branch has become an important economic sector in Germany. It consists of several hundred companies, including manufacturers and providers of plant components and entire plants as well as service providers, operators, etc. Many arguments are used to support a further and rapid expansion of biogas plants in Germany. They are centered around the many potentials of biogas plants, among them the biogas plants' capability to support sustainable development processes, especially in rural areas. The major challenge in realizing such aims partly springs from the several unwelcome side effects which accompany the fast and steady growth of biogas plants in both quantity and capacity. The presented PhD project shows the actions and significance of family farms in Germany in order to successfully master the complex challenge of using the operation of biogas plants for multilayered sustainable development processes in rural areas. The internal sphere of influence family farms use to do so comprises of inter alia deciding factors of action such as unfolding synergies, mobilizing endogenous resources as well as sustaining self-determined innovativeness. Furthermore it includes making use of a farm's ability to self-regulate. In this way the surveyed family farms pursue strategies which reflect a regrounding in a peasant type of agriculture - a development which has been observed as a current repeasantization worldwide. The PhD project is methodologically based on holistic approaches using a sample of family farm case studies. (orig.)

  19. Hygiene Aspects of the Biogas Process with Emphasis on Spore-Forming Bacteria

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bagge, Elisabeth

    2009-07-01

    Biogas is a renewable source of energy which can be obtained from processing of biowaste. The digested residues can be used as fertiliser. Biowaste intended for biogas production contains pathogenic micro-organisms. A pre-pasteurisation step at 70 deg C for 60 min before anaerobic digestion reduces non spore-forming bacteria such as Salmonella spp. To maintain the standard of the digested residues it must be handled in a strictly hygienic manner to avoid recontamination and re-growth of bacteria. The risk of contamination is particularly high when digested residues are transported in the same vehicles as the raw material. However, heat treatment at 70 deg C for 60 min will not reduce spore-forming bacteria such as Bacillus spp. and Clostridium spp. Spore-forming bacteria, including those that cause serious diseases, can be present in substrate intended for biogas production. The number of species and the quantity of Bacillus spp. and Clostridium spp. in manure, slaughterhouse waste and in samples from different stages during the biogas process were investigated. The number of species of clostridia seemed to decrease following digestion, likewise the quantity. However, Bacillus spp. seemed to pass unaffected through the biogas process. In laboratory-scale experiments the effects on clostridia during pasteurisation and digestion were investigated. Pathogenic clostridia were inoculated in substrates from homogenisation tanks and digester tanks. The inoculated clostridia remained after pasteurisation, but the impacts of digestion differ between different species. Culture followed by identification of C. chauvoei by PCR in samples from cattle died from blackleg, is faster and safer than culture followed by biochemical identification of C. chauvoei. However, for environmental samples the PCR method is not practically applicable for detection of C. chauvoei. To avoid spreading of diseases via biogas plants when digested residues are spread on arable land, a pasteurisation

  20. Recommendations for a metrological equipment of agricultural biogas plants; Empfehlungen fuer die messtechnische Ausstattung landwirtschaftlicher Biogasanlagen

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Effenberger, Mathias; Aschmann, Volker [Bayerische Landesanstalt fuer Landwirtschaft (LfL), Freising (Germany). Inst. fuer Landtechnik und Tierhaltung; Herb, Cornelius [Agraferm Technologies AG, Pfaffenhofen (Germany); Helm, Markus [Gutachtergemeinschaft Biogas GmbH, Freising (Germany); Mueller, Josef Sebastian [ABB Automation Products GmbH (Germany)

    2012-11-01

    Any modern biogas plant cannot exist with measurement technology entirely. Operators of smaller biogas plants often are afraid of additional costs of measuring equipment, and have doubts about the necessity and reliability of measurement components. Under this aspect, the contribution under consideration reports on the appropriate selection and evaluation of the measurement technology for biogas plants. The most important metrological components are described and evaluated in the light of expert knowledge and practical experiences as well as in the light of selected bibliographical references.

  1. Regulation and optimization of the biogas process: Propionate as a key parameter

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bangsø Nielsen, Henrik; Uellendahl, Hinrich; Ahring, Birgitte Kiær

    2007-01-01

    The use of volatile fatty acids (VFA) as process indicators in biogas reactors treating manure together with industrial waste was studied. At a full-scale biogas plant, an online VFA sensor was installed in order to study VFA dynamics during stable and unstable operation. During stable operation......, a process breakdown caused by organic overloading with meat and bone meal and lipids was indicated by changes in propionate concentration 12-18 days before a decrease in methane production was observed. Furthermore, a more efficient and stable utilization of the substrate was observed when propionate.......6 to 2.9 mM. A process disturbance caused by overloading with industrial waste was reflected by a significant increase in all VFA concentrations. During the recovery of the process, the return of propionate back to the steady-state level was 2-3 days slower than any other VFA and propionate could best...

  2. Microfiltration and ultrafiltration as a post-treatment of biogas plant digestates for producing concentrated fertilizers

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Camilleri Rumbau, Maria Salud; Norddahl, Birgir; Wei, Jiang

    2015-01-01

    Biogas plant digestate liquid fractions can be concentrated by microfiltration and ultrafiltration. Two types of microfiltration membranes (polysulphone (PS) and surface-modified polyvinylidene fluoride (PVDF)) were used to process digestate liquid fractions, and to assess their applicability...... PVDF membranes. However, during the filtration process, as fouling built up, the permeate flux behavior of the two membranes became very similar. During the concentration of digestate liquid fractions, the microfiltration PS membrane and the ultrafiltration PES membrane achieved the highest phosphorus...... membranes might be a good strategy for recovering phosphorus from digestate liquid fractions. Further research leading to adequate cleaning procedures, for microfiltration PS and PVDF membranes treating digestate liquid fractions though, are needed....

  3. Dynamic biogas upgrading based on the Sabatier process

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jurgensen, Lars; Ehimen, Ehiazesebhor Augustine; Born, Jens;

    2015-01-01

    This study aimed to investigate the feasibility of substitute natural gas (SNG) generation using biogas from anaerobic digestion and hydrogen from renewable energy systems. Using thermodynamic equilibrium analysis, kinetic reactor modeling and transient simulation, an integrated approach...... for the operation of a biogas-based Sabatier process was put forward, which was then verified using a lab scale heterogenous methanation reactor. The process simulation using a kinetic reactor model demonstrated the feasibility of the production of SNG at gas grid standards using a single reactor setup. The Wobbe...... index, CO2 content and calorific value were found to be controllable by the H2/CO2 ratio fed the methanation reactor. An optimal H2/CO2 ratio of 3.45–3.7 was seen to result in a product gas with high calorific value and Wobbe index. The dynamic reactor simulation verified that the process start...

  4. Enhancing identified circular economic benefits related to the deployment off Solrød biogas plant

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lybæk, Rikke

    This paper investigates how experiences from the deployment of Solrød biogas plant in Denmark - a large scale centralized biogas plant - can assist future biogas technologies in achieving Circular Economic benefits. Departing from a theoretical understanding of Circular Economy provided by Ellen...... MacArthur Foundation, the paper analysis three areas being; 1) Biogas production, 2) Nitrogen, Phosphor & GHG, 3) Re-cycle/cascade materials, and consequently elaborate on the environmental benefits obtained, as far as CO2 emission reductions from biogas production substituting fossil fuels, improved...... water quality and hence reduced Green House Gas (GHG) emissions due to lower nitrogen spills, and re-cycling of nutrient on farmland recovering finite resources and improving crop yield. Economic spin-off effects are presented, as far as new jobs created in the local community. Learning from Solrød...

  5. Potential of Biogas Power Plant Produced by Anaerobic Digestion of Biodegradable Materials

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nur Shuhada Ghazali

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available Biogas typically refers to a gas produced by the breakdown of organic matter in the absence of oxygen. It is a renewable energy source, like solar and wind energy. Furthermore, biogas can be produced from regionally available raw materials and recycled waste and is environmentally friendly and CO2 neutral. Biogas is produced by the anaerobic digestion or fermentation of biodegradable materials such as manure, sewage, municipal waste, green waste, plant material, and crops. Biogas comprises primarily methane (CH4 and carbon dioxide (CO2 and may have small amounts of hydrogen sulphide (H2S, moisture and siloxanes. The gases methane, hydrogen, and carbon monoxide (CO can be combusted or oxidized with oxygen. This energy release allows biogas to be used as a fuel. Biogas can be compressed, much like natural gas, and used to power motor vehicles. Biogas is a renewable fuel so it qualifies for renewable energy subsidies in some parts of the world. Biogas can also be cleaned and upgraded to natural gas standards when it becomes bio methane. This paper will discuss the potential of biogas in order to provide a clean, easily controlled source of renewable energy from organic waste materials for a small labour input, replacing firewood or fossil fuels which are becoming more expensive as supply falls behind demand.

  6. Biogas. Plants, raw materials, products. 7. rev. ed.; Biogas. Pflanzen, Rohstoffe, Produkte

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2011-08-15

    In order to save fossil fuels and to stopp the climate change, a gradual shift to renewable energies is necessary. The federal government has aimed to a modern, environmental friendly, sustainable and secure energy supply by means of the expansion of renewable energies. Bioenergy plays a central role in the future. Biogas for renewable energies will play a special role. Biogas can be used for simultaneous production of electricity and heat, as a fuel and as a substitute for natural gas.

  7. Use of the Sabatier Process for Dynamic Biogas Upgrading in Northern Germany

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jurgensen, Lars; Ehimen, Ehiazesebhor Augustine; Born, Jens

    2014-01-01

    Approximately 8000 farm scale biogas plants are present in Germany which produce electricity (mainly using energy crops as substrates) . The potential role of biogas plants in energy systems penetrated by high amounts of fluctuating renewable energy production is discussed in this paper. Today th...

  8. Determination of methane emission rates on a biogas plant using data from laser absorption spectrometry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Groth, Angela; Maurer, Claudia; Reiser, Martin; Kranert, Martin

    2015-02-01

    The aim of the work was to establish a method for emission control of biogas plants especially the observation of fugitive methane emissions. The used method is in a developmental stage but the topic is crucial to environmental and economic issues. A remote sensing measurement method was adopted to determine methane emission rates of a biogas plant in Rhineland-Palatinate, Germany. An inverse dispersion model was used to deduce emission rates. This technique required one concentration measurement with an open path tunable diode laser absorption spectrometer (TDLAS) downwind and upwind the source and basic wind information, like wind speed and direction. Different operating conditions of the biogas plant occurring on the measuring day (December 2013) could be represented roughly in the results. During undisturbed operational modes the methane emission rate averaged 2.8 g/s, which corresponds to 4% of the methane gas production rate of the biogas plant.

  9. Economic Evaluation of Different Size of Biogas Plants in Chhattisgarh (India

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kumar Shailendra

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available In order to determine the working efficiency and economical size of biogas plants in respect of house hold cattle and family members, a study was carried out during 2007-08 in Chhattisgarh State, India. Fifteen blocks were selected randomly covering 117 biogas plants. Out of them, 99 plants (85 % were found in working condition for which economic analysis was carried out. Survey results revealed that economically different sizes of biogas plants i.e. 2- 8 m3 were useful in the study area. On an average, the whole initial investment could be recovered in an about 3- 8 years. The annual income of different size of biogas plants from 2 m3, 3 m3, 4 m3, 6 m3 and 8 m3 will be Rs 3620, Rs 5273.6, Rs 4215, Rs 4565 and Rs 4612, respectively. The cost of operations of different size of biogas plants (2-8 m3 were observed in the range 2.73- 4.0 Rs/h. The size of most economical biogas plant was 3 m3 (B/C= 1.23 followed by 2 m3 (B/C= 1.06.

  10. Monitoring and documentation of practice biogas plants; Monitoring und Dokumentation von Praxis-Biogasanlagen

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ebertseder, Florian; Kissel, Rainer; Lehner, Andreas; Rivera Gracia, Eunice; Bachmaier, Hans; Effenberger, Mathias

    2012-09-15

    The aim of the project is to extend the data base for the evaluation of biogas plants in terms of functionality and reliability of the technical equipment, the stability and efficiency of the fermentation process as well as the energy utilization. For the presented studies six companies were selected as examples. [German] Ziel des Projektes ist die Erweiterung der Datengrundlage zur Bewertung von Biogasanlagen hinsichtlich der Funktionalitaet und Zuverlaessigkeit der technischen Einrichtungen, der Stabilitaet und Leistungsfaehigkeit des Gaerprozesses sowie der Energieverwertung. Fuer die in diesem Bericht vorgestellten Untersuchungen wurden sechs Betriebe beispielhaft ausgewaehlt.

  11. Recycling of cattle dung, biogas plant-effluent and water hyacinth in vermiculture

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Balasubramanian, P.R.; Bai, R.K. [Madurai Kamaraj Univ. (India)

    1995-08-01

    The efficiency of recycling cattle dung, anaerobically digested cattle dung (biogas plant-effluent) and water hyacinth (Eichhornia crassipes) by culture of the earthworm Megascolex sp. was studied. The growth of the earthworms was increased by 156, 148 and 119% in soil supplemented with water hyacinth, cattle dung and biogas plant-effluent, respectively. The growth rate of the earthworms was increased significantly by raw cattle dung and water hyacinth over that by biodigested slurry. (author)

  12. Energy crops for biogas plants. Lower Saxony; Energiepflanzen fuer Biogasanlagen. Niedersachsen

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Aurbacher, J.; Benke, M.; Formowitz, B. (and others)

    2012-06-15

    In the brochure under consideration the Agency for Renewable Resources (Guelzow-Pruezen, Federal Republic of Germany) reports on the support of the implementation of different plant cultures in structure of plantations and crop rotation systems of companies under consideration of the Federal State Lower Saxony. The main chapters of this brochure are: Crops for the production of biogas; implementation in plantations; ensilage and biogas yields; economy of the cultivation of energy plants.

  13. Theoretical and experimental investigations of thermal conditions of household biogas plant

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhelykh, Vasil; Furdas, Yura; Dzeryn, Oleksandra

    2016-06-01

    The construction of domestic continuous bioreactor is proposed. The modeling of thermal modes of household biogas plant using graph theory was done. The correction factor taking into account with the influence of variables on its value was determined. The system of balance equations for the desired thermal conditions in the bioreactor was presented. The graphical and analytical capabilities were represented that can be applied in the design of domestic biogas plants of organic waste recycling.

  14. Effects of biogas digestate on soil properties and plant growth

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gulyás, Miklós; Füleky, György

    2013-04-01

    Farming methods and food industries generate large amounts manure and other useful raw materials that need safe disposal. Following the international trends great numbers of biogas plants were opened during the last few years in Hungary. However this issue presents a number of new questions, including the subsequent use of anaerobic fermentation residues. So far we have only limited information about it's agricultural applications. Farmers and authorities are very skeptic because feedstocks are very different so the endproduct will be different, too. However, this endproduct can be applied as fertilizer. The aim of our work is to determine the effects of this product in plant-soil system. Digestate contains high amount of nitrogen which is present mainly ammonium form and this form can cause root depression and lower germination rates. Pot experiments were established with different rates of nitrogen content (80 kg ha-1N, 120 kg ha-1N, 170 kg ha-1N, and control). Maximum rates were determine by the Nitrate Directive. Soil moisture was 60% of maximum of water capacity. Digestate and distilled water were homogenized and added to 200g loamy soil. Rye-grass (Lolium perenne) was applied as a test plant. Treatments were randomized design and 10 replications. Three pot from each treatment were used to observe the germination and progress of plants. We investigated the effect of the digestate on nitrate- and ammonium-ion content of soil. The amount of nitrate- and ammonium-N of soil was determine with distillation. The ammonium-N levels increased with the doses on the first day but on the sixth-seventh day this amount totally falled down, because NH4-N transformed to NO3-N. Nitrate level increased continuously untill the tenth day, later decreased as the result of the plant and microbes consumption. The increasing doses inhibited the germination and root development of the plants. We experienced fewer roots, which were different form control.

  15. Determination of volatile organic compounds from biowaste and co-fermentation biogas plants by single-sorbent adsorption.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Salazar Gómez, J I; Lohmann, H; Krassowski, J

    2016-06-01

    Characterisation of biogases is normally dedicated to the online monitoring of the major components methane and carbon dioxide and, to a lesser extent, to the determination of ammonia and hydrogen sulphide. For the case of Volatile Organic Compounds (VOCs), much less attention is usually paid, since such compounds are normally removed during gas conditioning and with exception of sulphur compounds and siloxanes represent a rather low risk to conventional downstream devices but could be a hindrance for fuel cells. However, there is very little information in the literature about the type of substances found in biogases generated from biowaste or co-fermentation plants and their concentration fluctuations. The main aim of this study was to provide information about the time dependencies of the VOCs in three biogas plants spread out through Germany from autumn until summer, which have different process control, in order to assess their potential as biofuels. Additionally, this study was an attempt to establish a correlation between the nature of the substrates used in the biogas plants and the composition of the VOCs present in the gas phase. Significant time-dependent variations in concentration were observed for most VOCs but only small changes in composition were observed. In general, terpenes and ketones appeared as the predominant VOCs in biogas. Although for substances such as esters, sulphur-organic compounds and siloxanes the average concentrations observed were rather low, they exhibited significant concentration peaks. The second biogas plant which operates with dry fermentation was found to contain the highest levels of VOCs. The amount of total volatile organic compounds (TVOCs) for the first, second and third biogas plants ranged from 35 to 259 mg Nm(-3), 291-1731 mg Nm(-3) and 84-528 mg Nm(-3), respectively.

  16. Codigestion of manure and organic wastes in centralized biogas plants: status and future trends.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Angelidaki, I; Ellegaard, L

    2003-01-01

    Centralized biogas plants in Denmark codigest mainly manure, together with other organic waste such as industrial organic waste, source sorted household waste, and sewage sludge. Today 22 large-scale centralized biogas plants are in operation in Denmark, and in 2001 they treated approx 1.2 million tons of manure as well as approx 300,000 of organic industrial waste. Besides the centralized biogas plants there are a large number of smaller farm-scale plants. The long-term energy plan objective is a 10-fold increase of the 1998 level of biogas production by the year 2020. This will help to achieve a target of 12-14% of the national energy consumption being provided by renewable energy by the year 2005 and 33% by the year 2030. A major part of this increase is expected to come from new centralized biogas plants. The annual potential for biogas production from biomass resources available in Denmark is estimated to be approx 30 Peta Joule (PJ). Manure comprises about 80% of this potential. Special emphasis has been paid to establishing good sanitation and pathogen reduction of the digested material, to avoid risk of spreading pathogens when applying the digested manure as fertilizer to agricultural soils.

  17. Formation and suppression of foam in biogas plants. Practical experiences; Bildung von Schaum in Biogasanlagen und seine Bekaempfung. Erfahrungen aus der Praxis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Moeller, Lucie; Goersch, Kati; Mueller, Roland A.; Zehnsdorf, Andreas [Helmholtz-Zentrum fuer Umweltforschung - UFZ, Leipzig (Germany). Umwelt- und Biotechnologisches Zentrum

    2012-07-01

    Foam formation during the anaerobic digestion may have negative impact on the economics of a biogas plant. This problem concerns especially those biogas plants, which utilize biogenic waste for biogas production. Eighteen operators of waste treating biogas plants from Saxony, Saxony-Anhalt and Thuringia have been surveyed. The aim of the enquiry was collecting experience about the foam formation in biogas reactors and about the foam fighting tasks in practice. (orig.)

  18. Effect of temperature and active biogas process on passive separation of digested manure

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kaparaju, Prasad Laxmi-Narasimha; Angelidaki, Irini

    2008-01-01

    separation was achieved when digested manure was allowed to settle at 55 degrees C with active biogas process (pre-incubated at 55 degrees C) compared to separation at 55 degrees C without active biogas process (autoclaved at 120 degrees C, for 20 min) or at 10 degrees C with active biogas process. Maximum...... solids separation was noticed 24 h after settling in column incubated at 55 degrees C, with active biogas process. Microbiological analyses revealed that proportion of Archaea and Bacteria, absent in the autoclaved material, varied with incubation temperature, time and sampling depth. Short rod shaped...

  19. Treatment of digestate from a co-digestion biogas plant by means of vacuum evaporation: tests for process optimization and environmental sustainability.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chiumenti, A; da Borso, F; Chiumenti, R; Teri, F; Segantin, P

    2013-06-01

    Vacuum evaporation consists in the boiling of a liquid substrate at negative pressure, at a temperature lower than typical boiling temperature at atmospheric conditions. Condensed vapor represents the so called condensate, while the remaining substrate represents the concentrate. This technology is derived from other sectors and is mainly dedicated to the recovery of chemicals from industrial by-products, while it has not been widely implemented yet in the field of agricultural digestate treatment. The present paper relates on experimental tests performed in pilot-scale vacuum evaporation plants (0.100 and 0.025 m(3)), treating filtered digestate (liquid fraction of digestate filtered by a screw-press separator). Digestate was produced by a 1 MWe anaerobic digestion plant fed with swine manure, corn silage and other biomasses. Different system and process configurations were tested (single-stage and two-stage, with and without acidification) with the main objectives of assessing the technical feasibility and of optimizing process parameters for an eventual technology transfer to full scale systems. The inputs and outputs of the process were subject to characterization and mass and nutrients balances were determined. The vacuum evaporation process determined a relevant mass reduction of digestate. The single stage configuration determined the production of a concentrate, still in liquid phase, with a total solid (TS) mean concentration of 15.0%, representing, in terms of mass, 20.2% of the input; the remaining 79.8% was represented by condensate. The introduction of the second stage allowed to obtain a solid concentrate, characterized by a content of TS of 59.0% and representing 5.6% of initial mass. Nitrogen balance was influenced by digestate pH: in order to limit the stripping of ammonia and its transfer to condensate it was necessary to reduce the pH. At pH 5, 97.5% of total nitrogen remained in the concentrate. This product was characterized by very high

  20. An integrated metagenome and -proteome analysis of the microbial community residing in a biogas production plant.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ortseifen, Vera; Stolze, Yvonne; Maus, Irena; Sczyrba, Alexander; Bremges, Andreas; Albaum, Stefan P; Jaenicke, Sebastian; Fracowiak, Jochen; Pühler, Alfred; Schlüter, Andreas

    2016-08-10

    To study the metaproteome of a biogas-producing microbial community, fermentation samples were taken from an agricultural biogas plant for microbial cell and protein extraction and corresponding metagenome analyses. Based on metagenome sequence data, taxonomic community profiling was performed to elucidate the composition of bacterial and archaeal sub-communities. The community's cytosolic metaproteome was represented in a 2D-PAGE approach. Metaproteome databases for protein identification were compiled based on the assembled metagenome sequence dataset for the biogas plant analyzed and non-corresponding biogas metagenomes. Protein identification results revealed that the corresponding biogas protein database facilitated the highest identification rate followed by other biogas-specific databases, whereas common public databases yielded insufficient identification rates. Proteins of the biogas microbiome identified as highly abundant were assigned to the pathways involved in methanogenesis, transport and carbon metabolism. Moreover, the integrated metagenome/-proteome approach enabled the examination of genetic-context information for genes encoding identified proteins by studying neighboring genes on the corresponding contig. Exemplarily, this approach led to the identification of a Methanoculleus sp. contig encoding 16 methanogenesis-related gene products, three of which were also detected as abundant proteins within the community's metaproteome. Thus, metagenome contigs provide additional information on the genetic environment of identified abundant proteins.

  1. Planning of biogas plants. A question of co-operation and negotiation; Planering av biogasanlaeggningar. En fraaga om samverkan och foerhandling

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Khan, Jamil

    2003-04-01

    During the last years there has been an increased interest in Sweden to build biogas reactors. The planning of a biogas plant brings about the need for co-operation between a variety of actors. Furthermore, there are a number of different issues that need to be dealt with. To build a biogas plant is thus a rather complicated thing to do. The aim of this report is to increase the knowledge about the processes that precede a decision to build a biogas plant, in order to try to facilitate the planning of future projects. The report is based on case studies of the planning of two biogas plants in Sweden and the empirical material consists of interviews with key persons as well as written documents. In the study, three parallel processes are identified and analysed, which are all crucial to carry through a project. These are the project planning process, the political process and the application process. The most important result of the study is that there is not only one way to carry through a project and that the choice of strategy depends on the character of the project and the different questions that need to be handled. Examples of other results are: the importance of an early and continuous dialogue with the political leadership, the necessity to build an organisation for the co-operation between key actors and that the project leaders should be flexible and open to changes in the project throughout the planning process.

  2. An innovative bioelectrochemical-anaerobic digestion-coupled system for in-situ ammonia recovery and biogas enhancement: process performance and microbial ecology

    OpenAIRE

    Zhang, Yifeng; Angelidaki, Irini

    2014-01-01

    Ammonia (NH4+/NH3) inhibition during anaerobic digestion process is one of the most frequent problems existing in biogas plants, resulting in unstable process and reduced biogas production. In this study, we developed a novel hybrid system, consisted of a submersed microbial resource recovery cell (SMRC) and a continuous stirred tank reactor (CSTR), to prevent ammonia toxicity during anaerobic digestion by in-situ ammonia recovery and electricity production. In batch experiment, the ammonia c...

  3. Insights to the internal sphere of influence of peasant family farms in using biogas plants as part of sustainable development in rural areas of Germany

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bischoff, Anke [Technische Univ. Berlin (Germany). Postgraduate Program Microenergy Systems

    2012-12-15

    Within the last decade, the biogas branch has become an important economic sector in Germany. Many arguments are used to support a further and rapid expansion of local biogas plants in both quantity and capacity. They are centered on the potential of biogas plants for supporting rural sustainable development processes. On the other side, the national biogas praxis is accompanied by several unwelcome and partly severe side effects. This contrast has given rise to research on how to master the complex challenge of operating biogas plants as part of overall sustainable development processes in rural Germany. The research presented in this article is mainly based on the extended case study method. It gives insight into the respective actions and significance of family farms that proactively use and develop their internal sphere of influence. These farms do so by embracing deciding factors of action such as unfolding synergies, mobilizing endogenous resources, as well as sustaining continuous innovativeness. Furthermore, they make use of a farm's capacity for self-regulation. The strategies of the surveyed family farms reflect a regrounding in a peasant type of agriculture - a development which has currently been observed as a worldwide repeasantization. Given Germany's rapid decline of family farms over the past several decades, the future role of the farms in mastering the complex challenge of supporting overall sustainable development processes, e.g., with biogas plants as a technical link, is uncertain. Making use of current repeasantization processes for expanding the sustainable use of biogas plants is an approach which, to date, seems to be hardly noticed and considerably underestimated. (orig.)

  4. Siting Conflicts in Renewable Energy Projects in Sweden: Experiences From the Siting of a Biogas Plant

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Khan, Jamil

    2001-05-01

    This paper seeks to contribute to an increased understanding of what characterises conflicts regarding the siting of renewable energy facilities. The paper starts out with a brief introduction to different types of renewable energy and the conflicts they might generate as well as a discussion about the differences and similarities in comparison with conflicts over more controversial issues, such as nuclear plants, chemical factories and the construction of roads. The main part of the paper discusses the results from a case study on a failed attempt to site a biogas plant in southern Sweden. The results show that there was a lack of public participation in the early stages of planning, and that peoples negative perceptions of the possibilities to influence the decision-making and of the attitude of the developer, contributed to the development of a public opposition and a polarisation of the conflict. There is also a discussion about the reasons for a shift in the political support for the project and about the role of the legislation in shaping planning processes that either handle conflicts or make them worse. The paper concludes with the observation that the biogas case, in many ways, resembled traditional siting conflicts and that further research is needed to explore the nature of different renewable energy siting conflicts.

  5. Promotion of biogas plant application in the Mekong Delta of Vietnam

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nguyen, Vo Chau Ngan

    2012-06-11

    The study focuses on waste management in the Mekong Delta of Vietnam (MD) through the application of biogas plants to livestock and agricultural waste treatment. As the biggest ''rice bowl'' in the country, the MD produces more than 50% of the national aquaagricultural production, in which livestock sector contributes more than 20% of agricultural growth. The increasing livestock sector, however, has been attributed to the environmental problems, particularly in relation to the free discharge of waste/wastewater into the water open sources in the region. Such the environmental problems have become more serious in the rural areas of the MD where the water from the canal network is used as the main water supply sources to the 60% of local communities. Biogas technology was introduced as an environmentally-friendly treatment for animal and human wastes in the MD in the 1980s. Nonetheless, the number of biogas plants already constructed is considerably limited in comparison to the actual demand on livestock waste treatment in the region. The study, therefore, aims at seeking for possible solutions to promote the widespread application of biogas plants in the MD in order to help improve the sanitary condition of the local communities. In this study, a survey of 110 farmers was conducted in the three provinces of the MD. The farmers included biogas user households, non-biogas user households, and biogas masons. The interviews with the three groups of farmers provided profound and comprehensive information on the actual application and demand of biogas plants in the MD. Accordingly, a large number of the local people have acknowledged the great benefits of biogas application. However, the interviews revealed that there are some impediments to the development of biogas plants in the region such as high investment cost, shortage of input to biogas plants, and limited possibilities of application of by-products from biogas plants. In an attempt to search

  6. Potential for Producing Biogas from Agricultural Waste in Rural Plants in Poland

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Magdalena Muradin

    2014-08-01

    Full Text Available This article is an overview of the current situation as well as future prospects for biogas production in rural plants in Poland. Our research has focused on the management of agricultural waste. While Poland’s agriculture and its local food industry have substantial potential, many barriers persist to the development not only of biogas plants but also in every other renewable source of energy. The main obstacles have to do with politically motivated economic factors. Our interest has been in larger plants having sufficient capacities to produce in excess of 500 kW of electricity. The paper also presents a case study of a biogas plant supply by organic, agrifood waste mixed with silage.

  7. Process control of anaerobic biogas fermentation. Process control systems based on microcontroller based computational intelligence; Prozessfuehrung der anaerobe Biogasfermentation. Prozessfuehrungssysteme auf Basis mikrocontrollerbasierter Computational Intelligence

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kramer, K.D. [Hochschule Harz, Wernigerode (Germany); Patzwahl, S.; Nacke, T.

    2005-07-01

    This article presents three system variants for the process control and monitoring of anaerobic biogas fermentation. All three systems were created using a self-developed software called ''EmCoSoft'' and a design process and were tested as microcontroller-based solutions. Strategies of computational intelligence (including Fuzzy Logic and Artificial Neuronal Networks) were considered most suitable for generating system core algorithms and were put to use. Experiments for generating process data and test sequences for each of the system variants were performed on well-equipped laboratory biogas plants.

  8. Purification of anaerobic digestion biogas from a wastewater treatment plant for its use as bio fuel; Purificacion del biogas de digestion anaerobia de una depuradora de aguas residuales para uso como biocombustible

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Osorio Robles, F.; Torres Rojo, J. C.; Sanchez Bas, M.; Moya Sanchez, N.

    2009-07-01

    The first phase of the investigation whose results are presented in this article, consists on the optimization of the biogas desulphurization. In our case this process was made by chemical way. Besides the scrubbing towers, the pilot plant used included filters of activated carbon at the end of the line. The H{sub 2}S inflow concentrations were quite high. After the carried out rehearsals, the effluent biogas from the scrubbing towers presents a H{sub 2}S concentration less than 1 ppm and zero or undetectable values of up to fifty eight analyzed trace elements. (Author) 12 refs.

  9. Process for increased biogas production and energy efficient hygienisation of sludge; Process foer oekad biogasproduktion och energieffektiv hygienisering av slam

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rogstrand, Gustav; Olsson, Henrik; Andersson Chan, Anneli; Johansson, Niklas; Edstroem, Mats

    2012-07-01

    In Sweden there is a need to increase biogas production to meet the rising demand for biomethane as vehicle fuel but the amount of domestically available biomass to digest is limited. One way to help meet current and future demand for methane is to enhance the digestion of the substrates that are currently utilized. Vaexjoe municipality in southern Sweden is in the process of upgrading their facilities for biogas production at the Sundet waste water treatment plant. Their aim is to produce more biogas in order to meet the demand from an increasing methane-based local transit fleet. This is the backdrop to a joint project between JTI and Vaexjoe municipality where JTI's mobile pilot plant was used to study the possibility of extracting more biogas from the existing sewage sludge. In the future, Vaexjoe municipality also plans to co-digest source separated municipal organics with the sewage sludge, which will likely result in stricter demands in terms of hygienization of all utilized substrates. The goal of the project at hand was to demonstrate the possibility to produce more than enough additional biogas from existing sewage sludge to yield a net energy profit even with the added energy demand of ensuring the hygienic quality of the digestate through conventional pasteurization. Although the project was focused on the conditions at Sundet waste water treatment plant, the issues dealt with are general and the results are relevant to many waste water treatment plants in Sweden. The research, conducted between June 2011 and January 2012 were divided into two trials. The two trials, described schematically in Figure 1, represented two possible process configurations designed to reach the goal stated above. The key component of both process configurations is the addition of a post-digestion step to the existing single-step digestion process. In trial 1 the additional feature of dewatering between the two digestion steps served to reduce energy demand for

  10. Methane emissions from digestate at an agricultural biogas plant.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baldé, Hambaliou; VanderZaag, Andrew C; Burtt, Stephen D; Wagner-Riddle, Claudia; Crolla, Anna; Desjardins, Raymond L; MacDonald, Douglas J

    2016-09-01

    Methane (CH4) emissions were measured over two years at an earthen storage containing digestate from a mesophilic biodigester in Ontario, Canada. The digester processed dairy manure and co-substrates from the food industry, and destroyed 62% of the influent volatile solids (VS). Annual average emissions were 19gCH4m(-3)d(-1) and 0.27gCH4kg(-1)VSd(-1). About 76% of annual emissions occurred from June to October. Annual cumulative emissions from digestate corresponded to 12% of the CH4 produced within the digester. A key contributor to CH4 emissions was the sludge layer in storage, which contained as much VS as the annual discharge from the digester. These findings suggest that digestate management provides an opportunity to further enhance the benefits of biogas (i.e. reducing CH4 emissions compared to undigested liquid manure, and producing renewable energy). Potential best practices for future study include complete storage emptying, solid-liquid separation, and storage covering.

  11. The effect of hygienic treatment on the microbial flora of biowaste at biogas plants

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bagge, E.; Sahlstroem, L.; Albihn, A. [National Veterinary Institute, Uppsala (Sweden). Dept. of Bacteriology

    2005-12-15

    In Sweden, full-scale, commercial biogas plants (BGP), which process low-risk animal waste, operate a separate pre-pasteurisation at 70{sup o}C for 60 min as required by EEC regulation 1774/2002. The purpose of this study was to establish if, during pasteurisation and further processing and handling in full-scale BGPs, pathogens in biowaste could be sufficiently reduced to allow its use on arable land. Four BGPs were sampled on six occasions during 1 year. Sampling was performed from six locations during biogas production. The samples being analysed quantitatively to detect indicator bacteria (Escherichia coli, Enterococcus spp. and coliforms) and spore-forming bacteria (Clostridium spp. and Bacillus spp.) and qualitatively for bacterial pathogens (salmonella, listeria, campylobacter and VTEC O157). Salmonella was the most frequently isolated pathogen before pasteurisation In general, the treatment adequately reduced both indicator and pathogenic bacteria. Spore-forming bacteria were not reduced. However, recontamination and regrowth of bacteria in biowaste was frequently noted after pasteurisation and digestion. (author)

  12. Development of an in-line process viscometer for the full-scale biogas process.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mönch-Tegeder, Matthias; Lemmer, Andreas; Hinrichs, Jörg; Oechsner, Hans

    2015-02-01

    An in-line viscometer was developed to determine the rheological properties of biogas slurries at a full-scale biogas plant. This type of viscometer allows the investigation of flow characteristics without additional pretreatment and has many advantageous aspects in contrast to the rotational viscometer. Various effects were studied: alterations in the feedstock structure, increasing total solid (TS) of the slurry and the disintegration of the feedstock on the rheological properties. The results indicate that the Power-Law model is sufficient for the description of the flow curve of biogas slurries. Furthermore, the use of more fibrous materials increases in viscosity. The increase in TS of 10.1-15.1% resulted in a sharp increase of the viscosity. The mechanical disintegration of the feedstock positively influenced the rheological properties, but the effects were more apparent at higher TS.

  13. Insights into the annotated genome sequence of Methanoculleus bourgensis MS2(T), related to dominant methanogens in biogas-producing plants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maus, Irena; Wibberg, Daniel; Stantscheff, Robbin; Stolze, Yvonne; Blom, Jochen; Eikmeyer, Felix-Gregor; Fracowiak, Jochen; König, Helmut; Pühler, Alfred; Schlüter, Andreas

    2015-05-10

    The final step of the biogas production process, the methanogenesis, is frequently dominated by members of the genus Methanoculleus. In particular, the species Methanoculleus bourgensis was identified to play a role in different biogas reactor systems. The genome of the type strain M. bourgensis MS2(T), originally isolated from a sewage sludge digestor, was completely sequenced to analyze putative adaptive genome features conferring competitiveness within biogas reactor environments to the strain. Sequencing and assembly of the M. bourgensis MS2(T) genome yielded a chromosome with a size of 2,789,773 bp. Comparative analysis of M. bourgensis MS2(T) and Methanoculleus marisnigri JR1 revealed significant similarities. The absence of genes for a putative ammonium uptake system may indicate that M. bourgensis MS2(T) is adapted to environments rich in ammonium/ammonia. Specific genes featuring predicted functions in the context of osmolyte production were detected in the genome of M. bourgensis MS2(T). Mapping of metagenome sequences derived from a production-scale biogas plant revealed that M. bourgensis MS2(T) almost completely comprises the genetic information of dominant methanogens present in the biogas reactor analyzed. Hence, availability of the M. bourgensis MS2(T) genome sequence may be valuable regarding further research addressing the performance of Methanoculleus species in agricultural biogas plants.

  14. Utilization of auxiliary means for the enhancement of the efficiency and stability of the biogas process; Einsatz von Hilfsmitteln zur Steigerung der Effizienz und Stabilitaet des Biogasprozesses

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2011-07-01

    Within the Guelzow expert discussions at 29th September 2010 in Guelzow (Federal Republic of Germany) the following lectures were held: (1) State of the promotional work of the FNR on the subject auxiliary means - open questions (Petra Schuesseler); (2) Utilization of auxiliary means in the biogas production - Survey and experiences from laboratory and practice (Konrad Koch); (3) ORGA - test: Development of a test procedure for the practical evaluation of the fermentation biology of NaWaRo biogas plants (Nils Engler); (3) Investigations for the utilization of minerals in biogas plants - Significance of minerals for anaerobic microorganisms and causes for concentration differences in biogas fermentation plants (Andreas Lemmer); (4) Quantification of the efficiency of mineral biogas additives at the fermentation of renewable raw materials and their verification in the practice (Dirk Wagner); (5) Optimization of processes by means of enzymes in biogas plants (Monika Heiermann); (6) Utilization of microorganisms for the enhancement of the gas yield (Doris Schmack); (7) Results of the discussion and summary (Petra Schuesseler).

  15. Effects of EEG amendment on the market for biogas plants; EEG-Novelle veraendert Markt fuer Biogasanlagen

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2011-10-15

    The expected effects of the amendment of the EEG 2012 are causing a great regarding the development of the market in 2012 and the upcoming years. Even before the amendment had been decided by the Bundestag, the manufacturers of biogas plants were expecting a degradation of funding. Therefore many project engineers try to take their biogas plants in operation in 2011. For that reason the number of biogas plants is increasing to 10,000 plants until 2020 in Germany. The effects of EEG amendment on the market for biogas plants are analysed and presented in detail in the current conducted study ''Biogas in Germany until 2030 (3rd edition): Market development, strategies and concepts regarding the EEG amendment 2012'' by trend:research. (orig.)

  16. Comparative genotyping of Clostridium thermocellum strains isolated from biogas plants: genetic markers and characterization of cellulolytic potential.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Koeck, Daniela E; Zverlov, Vladimir V; Liebl, Wolfgang; Schwarz, Wolfgang H

    2014-07-01

    Clostridium thermocellum is among the most prevalent of known anaerobic cellulolytic bacteria. In this study, genetic and phenotypic variations among C. thermocellum strains isolated from different biogas plants were determined and different genotyping methods were evaluated on these isolates. At least two C. thermocellum strains were isolated independently from each of nine different biogas plants via enrichment on cellulose. Various DNA-based genotyping methods such as ribotyping, RAPD (Random Amplified Polymorphic DNA) and VNTR (Variable Number of Tandem Repeats) were applied to these isolates. One novel approach - the amplification of unknown target sequences between copies of a previously discovered Random Inserted Mobile Element (RIME) - was also tested. The genotyping method with the highest discriminatory power was found to be the amplification of the sequences between the insertion elements, where isolates from each biogas plant yielded a different band pattern. Cellulolytic potentials, optimal growth conditions and substrate spectra of all isolates were characterized to help identify phenotypic variations. Irrespective of the genotyping method used, the isolates from each individual biogas plant always exhibited identical patterns. This is suggestive of a single C. thermocellum strain exhibiting dominance in each biogas plant. The genotypic groups reflect the results of the physiological characterization of the isolates like substrate diversity and cellulase activity. Conversely, strains isolated across a range of biogas plants differed in their genotyping results and physiological properties. Both strains isolated from one biogas plant had the best specific cellulose-degrading properties and might therefore achieve superior substrate utilization yields in biogas fermenters.

  17. New type of dry substances content meter using microwaves for application in biogas plants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nacke, Thomas; Brückner, Kathleen; Göller, Arndt; Kaufhold, Sebastian; Nakos, Xenia; Noack, Stephan; Stöber, Heinrich; Beckmann, Dieter

    2005-11-01

    Dry substances (DS) are an important index for monitoring and controlling anaerobic co-digestion in biogas plants. We have developed and tested an online meter that measures suspended solids by means of the reflection coefficient of an exiting microwave signal, which is dependent on the dielectric properties of the suspensions. Intelligent models based on partial least squares regression (PLSR) and artificial neural network (ANN) for calibration allow exact and reproducible measurements under different circumstances. This measuring method is appropriate for contactless and online measurements of dry substance contents in biogas plants in a large range from 2-14%.

  18. Presence of Siloxanes in the Biogas of a Wastewater Treatment Plant Separation in Condensates and Influence of the Dose of Iron Chloride on its Elimination

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mariano, García [Empresa Mixta de Aguas Residuales de Alicante, S.A. (EMARASA) (Spain); Daniel, Prats; Arturo, Trapote, E-mail: atj@ua.es [University Institute of Water and Environmental Sciences, University of Alicante (Spain)

    2015-12-21

    The siloxanes present in the biogas produced during anaerobic digestion damage the mechanism of cogeneration equipment and, consequently, negatively affect the energy valorization process. For this reason, the detection and elimination of these silicon-derived chemical compounds are a priority in the management of cogeneration facilities. In this regard, the objectives of this paper are, firstly, to characterize the siloxanes in the biogas and, secondly, to qualitatively evaluate the influence of the dose of iron chloride on its elimination. The research was performed at the Rincón de León Wastewater Treatment Plant (Alicante, Spain). The outflow biogas of the digesters and of the pressurized gasometers was sampled and analyzed. The results obtained made it possible to demonstrate, firstly, the absence of linear siloxanes and that, of the cyclic siloxanes, the predominant type was decamethylcyclopentasiloxane, and, secondly, that the addition of iron chloride in the digesters significantly reduces the siloxane content in the biogas. Additionally, it was demonstrated that the process of compression of the biogas, with the elimination of condensates, also produces significant reductions in the concentration of siloxanes in the biogas.

  19. A bioprocess for the remediation of anaerobically digested molasses spentwash from biogas plant and simultaneous production of lactic acid

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Shibu, A.R.; Kumar, V.; Wati, L.; Chaudhary, K.; Singh, D. [Department of Microbiology, CCS Haryana Agricultural Univ., Hisar (India); Nigam, P. [Biotechnology Research Group, University of Ulster (United Kingdom)

    1999-04-01

    A bacterial isolate LAB-1 identified as Lactobacillus casei was cultivated in a fermentation medium containing biogas plant effluent. This effluent was generated after anaerobic digestion of molasses spentwash in biogas fermenters. In the bioremediation process of this very dark coloured effluent through the cultivation of L. casei, decrease in effluent`s colour of 49 and 52% and reduction in COD level up to 54 and 57% were achieved using bacterial cells in free and immobilised system, respectively, in 5 days batch cultivation. During this process of bioremediation, a metabolite lactic acid was produced by this bacterial isolate with the yield of 10.9 and 11.3 mg/ml, in free and immobilised cells fermentation, respectively. (orig.) With 3 figs., 2 tabs., 14 refs.

  20. Biogas plants with 300 GWh yearly production - system, technology and economy; Biogasanlaeggningar med 300 GWh aarsproduktion - system, teknik och ekonomi

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Benjaminsson, Johan; Linne, Marita [BioMil AB, Lund (Sweden)

    2007-09-15

    Systems, techniques and economy have been analysed for biogas plants with more than 300 GWh annual energy productions. There is so far no such concept in Sweden but in Germany, a so called biogas park with 450 GWh annual biogas production will be set in operation by autumn 2007. Substratum for 300 GWh gas production are crops which corresponds to a acreage need of 6,000-11,000 hectares for silage crops such as maize or grass. If the gas production is based on corn, the acreage need is about 14 000 hectares. That means that biogas production from silage gives a higher energy outcome per hectare in comparison to grain. According to calculations, grain affects the gas price more than silage. However, grain is easy available at the world market which can be related to digestion of silage that means long term contracts with farmers nearby the biogas plant in addition to a complex logistic system for supply. The grain price by end of 2006 affects the gas price with about 0,38 kr/kWh. Large scale harvesting and transportation of silage in addition to a system for different crops to be harvested and transported directly to the digestion chamber admit reduced handling cost. Silage is expected to affect the gas price with about 0,28 kr/kWh. The price development of grain and silage can be expected to follow each other. The grain prices for 2008 seems to be higher than the notations for 2006/2007. Developed technique for digestion of grain admits 6 kg DMo/m{sup 3} chamber volume, 24 hours. That means reduced size of the digestion chamber in comparison to conventional digestion technique. In Germany where silage is the main substratum, two stage digestion with a first laying chamber admits 4 kg DMo/m{sup 3} chamber volume, 24 hours and DM-content of 12 %. The specific digestion cost for crops is about 0,13 kr/kWh. Huge amounts of digestion residue have to be handled. Dewatering makes sense since the digestion process needs additional water. The phosphorous solid fraction can

  1. Successfull operation of biogas plants. Data acquisition as a basis of successful optimization measures; Erfolgreicher Betrieb von Biogasanlagen. Datenerfassung als Grundlage erfolgreicher Optimierungsmassnahmen

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2012-09-19

    Within the 2nd Bayreuth expert meeting on biomass at 6th June, 2012 in Bayreuth (Federal Republic of Germany), the following lectures were held: (1) Presentation of the activities in the bio energy sector of the Landwirtschaftliche Lehranstalt Bayreuth (Rainer Prischenk); (2) State of the art of utilizing biogas in Oberfranken from the view of FVB e.V. (Wolfgang Holland Goetz); (3) Optimization of the plant operation by means of an intelligent control (Christian Seier); (4) Process optimization by means of identification of losses of biogas and evaluation of the load behaviour and emission behaviour of gas engines (Wolfgang Schreier); (5) Data acquisition and implementation of optimization measures from the point of view of an environmental verifier (Thorsten Grantner); (6) Economic analysis and optimization by means of the Lfl program BZA Biogas (Josef Winkler); (7) Detailed data acquisition as a necessary basis of the process optimization (Timo Herfter); (8) Case examples of the biologic support of biogas plants and their correct evaluation (Birgit Pfeifer); (9) A systematic acquisition of operational data as a basis for the increase of efficiency using the Praxisforschungsbiogasanlage of the University Hohenheim (Hans-Joachim Naegele); (10) Practical report: The biogas plant Sochenberg towards 100% utilization of energy (Uli Bader).

  2. Solar greenhouse assisted biogas plant in hilly region - A field study

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Vinoth Kumar, K.; Kasturi Bai, R. [Department of Bio-Energy, School of Energy, Environment and Natural Resources, Madurai Kamaraj University, Madurai 625 021, Tamil Nadu (India)

    2008-10-15

    The present study was undertaken with the objective of evaluating plastic as an alternative material for biogas plant on a par with conventional brick material. The field study was carried out for one year (October, 2005-September, 2006) in a small hamlet at Nilgiris incorporating solar energy to study its influence on biogas production. During summer (April-June) the temperature reaches to the maximum of 21-25 C and the minimum of 10-12 C. During winter (October-December), the temperature available is maximum of 16-21 C and minimum of 2 C. The solar insolation in the study area ranges from 250 to 600 W/m{sup 2}. This study involves the control conventional Deenabandhu model (Indian standard model prevailing in most part of India made of masonry structure only) and the experimental plastic tank with greenhouse canopy of similar capacity. Our previous work [Vinoth Kumar, K., Kasturi Bai, R., 2005. Plastic biodigesters - a systematic study. Energy for Sustainable Development 9 (4), 40-49] on lab scale digester made from plastic material was compared over other materials and the results gave us much confidence to carry out further study on pilot scale. In continuation, a semi-continuous study was conducted for one year with the retention time of 55 days. The gas generated from the biogas plants was utilized for cooking (burner) and lighting (lamp) purposes. The yearly average slurry temperatures recorded during the study period was 26.3 and 22.4 C in experimental and control biogas plants against ambient temperature of 17.0 C. The yearly average greenhouse chamber temperature recorded was 29.1 C in the experimental biogas plant. The yearly average gas yield from the experimental and control biogas plants were 39.1 and 34.6 l kg{sup -1}day{sup -1} respectively. Gas productions in the winter season registered lower than other months. It can be concluded that the solar greenhouse assisted plastic biogas plant can be efficiently adopted with minor modifications in hilly

  3. NIRS-aided monitoring and prediction of biogas yields from maize silage at a full-scale biogas plant applying lumped kinetics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jacobi, H Fabian; Ohl, Susanne; Thiessen, Eiko; Hartung, Eberhard

    2012-01-01

    The aim of this study was to apply near-infrared spectroscopy (NIRS), available biogas plant data and lumped degradation kinetics to predict biogas production (BPr) of maize silage. A full-scale agricultural biogas plant was equipped with NIRS-metrology at the feeding station. Continuously NIR-spectra were collected for 520 d. Substrate samples were analyzed by means of feedstuff analysis. Biogas potential of the samples was calculated from the laboratory analysis results and for a sample-subset practically assessed by "Hohenheim biogas tests". NIRS-regression-models for all mentioned parameters were calibrated. Continuously gathered spectra, NIRS-models, actual plant-feeding data and degradation kinetics were used to calculate time-series of theoretically expectable BPr. Results were validated against measured gas quantity. Determination coefficients between calculated and measured BPr were up to 58.2%. This outcome was mainly due to the positive correlation between BPr and input amount since the substrate was very homogeneous. The use of NIRS seems more promising for plants with stronger substrate heterogeneity.

  4. Biogas utilization

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Moser, M.A. [Resource Conservation Management, Inc., Berkeley, CA (United States)

    1996-01-01

    Options for successfully using biogas depend on project scale. Almost all biogas from anaerobic digesters must first go through a gas handling system that pressurizes, meters, and filters the biogas. Additional treatment, including hydrogen sulfide-mercaptan scrubbing, gas drying, and carbon dioxide removal may be necessary for specialized uses, but these are complex and expensive processes. Thus, they can be justified only for large-scale projects that require high-quality biogas. Small-scale projects (less than 65 cfm) generally use biogas (as produced) as a boiler fuel or for fueling internal combustion engine-generators to produce electricity. If engines or boilers are selected properly, there should be no need to remove hydrogen sulfide. Small-scale combustion turbines, steam turbines, and fuel cells are not used because of their technical complexity and high capital cost. Biogas cleanup to pipeline or transportation fuel specifications is very costly, and energy economics preclude this level of treatment.

  5. Detection of Clostridium botulinum in liquid manure and biogas plant wastes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Neuhaus, Jürgen; Schrödl, Wieland; Shehata, Awad A; Krüger, Monika

    2015-09-01

    Biogas plants have been considered as a source for possible amplification and distribution of pathogenic bacteria capable of causing severe infections in humans and animals. Manure and biogas wastes could be sources for spore-forming bacteria such as Clostridium botulinum. In the present study, 24 liquid manure and 84 biogas waste samples from dairies where the majority of the cows suffered from chronic botulism were investigated for the presence of botulinum neurotoxins (BoNT) and C. botulinum spores. The prevalence of BoNT/A, B, C, D, and E in biogas wastes was 16.6, 8.3, 10.7, 7.1, and 10.8 %, respectively, while in manure, the prevalence was 0.0, 0.0, 0.0, 8.3, and 4.1 %, respectively. After enrichment of samples in reinforced cultural medium, they were tested for C. botulinum BoNT/A, B, C, D, and E using ELISA (indirect C. botulinum detection). The prevalence of C. botulinum type A, B, C, D, and E samples in biogas wastes was 20.2, 15.5, 19, 10.7, and 34.8 %, respectively, while the prevalence in liquid manure was 0.0, 0.0, 0.0, 8.3, and 12.5 %, respectively. In conclusion, the occurrence of BoNT and C. botulinum spores in biogas waste of diseased animals indicates an increased and underestimated hygienic risk. Application of digestates from biogas fermentations as fertilizers could lead to an accumulation of long lifespan spores in the environment and could be a possible health hazard.

  6. Plant cultivation aspects of biogas production in organic farming; Pflanzenbauliche Aspekte der Biogasproduktion im oekologischen Landbau

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Schwab, Bernhard [Amt fuer Ernaehrung Landwirtschaft und Forsten, Bamberg (Germany); Miller, Hubert [Biolandhof Miller (Germany)

    2012-11-01

    The authors of the contribution under consideration report on plant cultivation aspects of biogas production in organic farming. The power generation, the economic aspects of this operating sector, the potential impact on the performance of crop production as well as soil fertility are considered.

  7. ANALYSIS OF ELECTROMAGNETIC FIELDS AND NOISE IN THE AREA OF AGRICUL-TURAL BIOGAS PLANT

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Paweł A. Mazurek

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available Electro-magnetic and acoustic fields were analysed at the bioenergy and biogas production plant of 0.999 MW operational power, localized in Piaski. Measured values were compared with valid national norms and did not exceed limiting values in zones of people’s permanent residence.

  8. Theoretical and experimental investigations of thermal conditions of household biogas plant

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zhelykh Vasil

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available The construction of domestic continuous bioreactor is proposed. The modeling of thermal modes of household biogas plant using graph theory was done. The correction factor taking into account with the influence of variables on its value was determined. The system of balance equations for the desired thermal conditions in the bioreactor was presented.

  9. Replacement of cowdung by fermentation of aquatic and terrestrial plants for use as fuel, fertilizer and biogas plant feed

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Das, C.R.; Ghatnekar, S.D.

    1979-01-01

    With 85% of the entire Indian population living in villages and 98% of the household energy requirement of the rural population demanded for cooking, research was undertaken on the supply of biomass for those Indians who do not have cattle. This research was carried out on the fermentation of aquatic and terrestrial plants for use in biogas generation. The plants utilized for biogas generation are: water hyacinth, water lettuce, African payal, duck weed, water spinach, cattail ramban, ipil-ipil, morning glory, paragrass, purple nutsedge, and durva grass.

  10. The opportunity of rising efficiency at biogas plants without BHKW; Moeglichkeit der Effizienzsteigerung bei Biogasanlagen ohne BHKW

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wemken, Klaus; Dietz, Juergen [Bundesanstalt fuer Landwirtschaft und Ernaehrung (BLE), Bonn (Germany)

    2013-10-01

    The following is a presentation of a sustainably environment-friendly and economically viable alternative to a standard biogas plant operated pursuant to the German Renewable Energies Act (EEG) 2012. It aims to archive maximum efficiency in both the production and the direct use of biogas within regional energy networks and makes funding pursuant to the EEG unnecessary. There are aspects of the alternative: - The biogas plant is operated without CHP and without district heating. - Users obtain biogas via the gas line without energetic losses. - Biogas production is possible according to seasonal needs. - CO{sub 2} in biogas is a valuable raw material. Adding hydrogen, from excess photovoltaic (PV) or wind energy, results in biomethane/synthetic natural gas. - In a PV or wind energy network, a biogas plant without CHP, excluding district heating, and with the CO{sub 2} contained in the biogas methanised, can contribute to - regional need-oriented, effective and affordable energy supplies, - reduced biomass cultivation area (up to 65% less), i.e. to a positive ''plant-tank-balance'', - the relief of energy transmission networks. (orig.)

  11. Innovative CO{sub 2} separation process for biogas upgrading using polymeric resins; Innovatives CO{sub 2}-Abscheideverfahren zur Biogasaufbereitung mit Hilfe von Polymerharzen

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Harrivelle, Carole; Safai, Daniel; Raab, Katharina; Klein, Barbara [Stuttgart Univ. (Germany). Abt. Brennstoffe und Rauchgasreinigung; Scheffknecht, Guenter

    2016-08-01

    Upgraded biogas can be injected into the natural gas grid. The Institute of Combustion and Power Plant Technology (IFK) is investigating several innovative biogas upgrading processes with the aim to develop treatment methods adapted for small biogas plants. This paper presents a process to separate CO{sub 2} from CH{sub 4} by concentration swig adsorption using an amine functionalized polymer resin. The experiments were carried out at a continuous laboratory scale plant. The results are compared with previous experiments from earlier work at the IFK. The new resin shows a significant increase of working capacity and CH{sub 4} purity as well as a decrease of CH{sub 4} loss.

  12. Foam formation in a downstream digester of a cascade running full-scale biogas plant: Influence of fat, oil and grease addition and abundance of the filamentous bacterium Microthrix parvicella.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lienen, T; Kleyböcker, A; Verstraete, W; Würdemann, H

    2014-02-01

    The microbial community composition in a full-scale biogas plant fed with sewage sludge and fat, oil and grease (FOG) was investigated over a 15-month period, including two foam formation events. Addition of FOG as a substrate in the biogas plant together with high abundances of Microthrix parvicella were found to promote foam formation in the downstream digester of a cascade of two biogas digesters. Genetic fingerprinting and quantitative PCR (qPCR) indicated a higher abundance of M. parvicella in the digester, when the digestion process was accompanied by excessive foaming relative to the reference digesters without disturbance. The creation of foam depended on the introduced proportion of FOG and the abundance of M. parvicella. Furthermore, shifts in the abundance of M. parvicella in the biogas plant were observed within the 15-month monitoring period corresponding to its seasonal abundance in the sludge of the wastewater treatment plant (WWTP).

  13. Energy plants increasingly important. Scientific results and practical experiences on the production of biogas plants and short rotation coppices. Symposium; Energiepflanzen im Aufwind. Wissenschaftliche Ergebnisse und praktische Erfahrungen zur Produktion von Biogaspflanzen und Feldholz. Fachtagung

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Heiermann, M.; Scholz, V.; Foltan, H. (comps.)

    2007-05-15

    The conference proceedings contain 15 contributions on energy plants: energy plant production in Germany - developments and research activities; potentials and constraints of cultivating energy crops; environmental aspects of production and utilization of energy plants; costs of energy crop supply; crops for the biogas production in the territory of Brandenburg; mixed cropping systems on sandy soils - alternative cropping strategies; impact of ensiling process on biogas production - recent research results; solid state anaerobic digestion of renewable biomass sources - state of research and development; energy crops as feedstock in a biogas plant; proffer and demand of wood fuel in the State of Brandenburg; regulatory framework of growing short rotation coppice; mechanization of SRC production; 20 years of short rotation coppice; willow production and marketing in Denmark; short rotation coppice production in Italy.

  14. Evaluation of methanogenic activity of biogas plant slurry on ossein factory wastes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chellapandi, P; Uma, L

    2012-01-01

    The objective of the present work was to evaluate the ossein factory wastes, which include primary clarified bone waste (PCBW) and sinews for methane production, by monitoring methanogenic activity of predigested biogas plant slurry. A specific methanogenic activity of biogas plant slurry (anaerobic seed) was measured at 38 degrees C using different proportions of ossein factory wastes in an assay medium. The pH of slurry was intensively maintained until course of digestion. A moderate proportion of both substrates showed a maximum methane production at 20 days of incubation in batch mode. However, a maximum cumulative methane yield achieved by biogas plant slurry on PCBW was low as compared to sinews. The best organic matter degradation was achieved even at a high proportion of ossein factory wastes used in digesters. These substitutes would be useful, without seriously reducing total gas production, for methane production if they partially mixed with cattle dung. As a result of this preliminary study, we suggest that ossein factory wastes are potential alternative sources for biogas production in ossein factory.

  15. Energy crops for biogas plants. Bavaria; Energiepflanzen fuer Biogasanlagen. Bayern

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Aigner, A.; Biertuempel, A.; Conrad, M. (and others)

    2012-08-15

    For agriculturists in Bavaria (Federal Republic of Germany), the brochure under consideration provides recommendations on alternative crop rotation systems. With the help of these alternative cultivation systems, crop rotation with high yields in combination with high diversity, diversification and sustainability can be realized. Subsequently to the presentation of energy crops for the production of biogas, recommendations for the design of crop rotation are given. Other chapters of this booklet deal with ensilage and gas yields as well as the economics of energy crop cultivation.

  16. Future biogas plants. New systems and their economic potential; Fremtidens biogasfaellesanlaeg. Nye anlaegskoncepter og oekonomisk potentiale

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Christensen, Johannes; Hjort-Gregersen, K.; Uellendahl, H.; Ahring, B.K.; Lau Baggesen, D.; Stockmarr, A.; Moeller, Henrik B.; Birkmose, T.

    2007-06-15

    The main objective of the project was the identification and analysis of new technical concepts for centralized biogas plants, which would make them less dependant on organic waste supplies, and thus be economically self sustained mainly on manure supplies. The analyses have been carried out as system analyses, where plant concepts have been evaluated in connection with agricultural areas. 8 scenarios where analyzed, of which 2 were reference scenarios. (au)

  17. Economical and ecological benchmarking of biogas plant configurations for flexible power generation in future power supply systems; Oekonomisches und oekologisches Benchmarking von Biogasanlagenkonfigurationen zur flexiblen Verstromung in zukuenftigen Stromversorgungssystemen

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hahn, Henning [Fraunhofer Institut fuer Windenergie und Energiesystemtechnik (IWES), Kassel (Germany). Bereich Energieverfahrenstechnik

    2016-08-01

    With the share of intermittent renewable energies within the electricity system rising, balancing services from dispatchable power plants are of increasing importance. This study comparatively assesses the environmental and economic performance of biogas plant configurations, supplying biogas on demand for flexible power generation. A cost analysis of five configurations based on biogas storing and flexible biogas production concepts has been carried out. Results show that additional flexibility costs for a biogas supply of 8 hours per day range between 2 Euro to 11 Euro MWh{sup -1} and for a 72 hour period without biogas demand from 9 Euro to 19 Euro MWh{sup -1}. While biogas storage concepts were identified as favorable short-term supply configurations, flexible biogas production concepts profit from reduced storage requirements at plants with large biogas production capacities or for longer periods without biogas demand [1, 2]. Flexible biogas plant configurations indicate an increased energy demand to operate the operational enhancements compared to conventional biogas plants supplying biogas for baseload power generation. However, findings show that in contrast to an alternative supply of power generators with natural gas, biogas supplied on demand by adapted biogas plant configurations saves greenhouse gas emissions by 54 to 65 g CO{sub 2-eq} MJ{sup -1} and primary energy by about 1.17 MJ MJ{sup -1}. In this regard, configurations with flexible biogas production profit from reduced biogas storage requirements and achieve higher savings compared to configurations with continuous biogas production [1, 3].

  18. Viability of various weed seeds in anaerobic conditions (biogas plant)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hansen, S.; Hansen, J.

    1983-04-01

    Seeds from different weeds, Urtica urens L. (nettle), Solanum nigrum L. (nightshade), Avena fatua L. (wild oat-grass), Brassica napus L. (rape), Chenopodium album L. (goose-foot), were put into small polyester net bags, which were placed in biogas reactors containing cattle manure. These ''biogas reactors'' were placed at different temperatures . Net bags were taken out after 4.5, 10.5, 21.5, 38 and 53 days, and the seeds were tested for their viability by germination tests and the tetrazolium method. Concerning all seeds it was manifested that the viability decreased very steeply at 35degC. Most of the seeds had a T/sub 50/ at 2-5 days; Chenopodium album L seeds had a T/sub 50/ at 16 days. After 4.5 days it was not possible to find living Avena fatua L seeds. The decrease in viability was less steep at 20degC and even less steep at 2degC.

  19. Degradation and detoxification of tar water from a gasification plant in a biogas reactor

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Angelidaki, I.; Torry-Smith, M.; Petersen, L.; Ahring, B.K. [Denmarks Technical Univ., Dept. of Environmental Science and Engineering, Lyngby (Denmark)

    1998-08-01

    During gasification of biomass, toxic tar and tar-water (TW) are produced. The produced TW is saturated by soluble phenolic compound. In this project we have attempted detoxification of the produced TW by either wet oxidation where the TW is heated under pressure and addition of excess oxygen, and then subsequent treatment of the formed wet oxidized product in a biogas reactor. Alternatively, we treated the TW directly in a biogas reactor. Reduction in phenolic compounds, which constitute the major toxic compounds in TW, was used as a success parameter evaluating the detoxification of TW. The TW could successfully be degraded in a biogas reactor when co-digested with manure at a concentration up to 5%. Wet oxidized tar water (WOTW) could be degraded when added at a concentration of 30%. A biogas potential of approx. 0.19 L CH/g-VS was achieved for both the TW and WOTW. The biogas production per kg waste was 30 and 10 L CH/kg waste for the TW and the WOTW, respectively. The reason for the much lower methane production of the WOTW was that a large part of the organic content of the TW was converted to carbon dioxide during the wet oxidation process. The effluent concentrations of phenolic were in all cases much lower than the concentrations found in normally in undigested manure, showing that biomethanation of toxic wastes in co-digestion with manure could be an easy and cheap way to detoxify specific toxic wastes. (au)

  20. Implementation of online volatile fatty acids sensor for control and optimization of anaerobic process for low cost biogas production from manure. Project report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Boe, K.; Angelidaki, I.

    2010-10-15

    Proper monitoring and control can improve process stability and enhance process performance for better economy of the biogas plants. Volatile fatty acid (VFA) is the most widely recognized as a direct, relevant measure of stability. Classic on-line measurement of individual VFA is based on filtration, which suffers from fouling when applied with manure slurries. A VFA sensor developed at DTU Environment, based on headspace chromatography technique could avoid the problems from particulate matters. In this work, the sensor had been implemented for online monitoring of the lab-scale and the pilot-scale manure digester. The industrial prototype of the VFA sensor and sample acquisition system has been constructed and implemented at a pilot scale biogas plant, located at Lundtofte, DTU. The VFA sensor has shown very satisfying results in terms of sensitivity and reliability for monitoring the biogas process. Moreover, the online VFA and biogas registration data were used as process indicators for automatic control of the biogas reactor. The results from control experiments confirmed that the combination of biogas production, total VFA concentration and propionate concentration could effectively reflect the dynamic state of the process which was very crucial for automatic control. Due to the standardized analyzing condition (pH<2, temperature>70 deg. C), the sensor responses were not affected by the manure composition (TS, VS or the addition of extra organics), which made these results representative for implementing in the full-scale biogas plant where some industrial organic wastes were added to increase the biogas production. During the project period, the sensor design and construction had been modified and tested several times to improve the robustness. However, the implementation of the sensor in full-scale biogas plant would need some further development such as improvement of mechanical design and further up-scaling depending on the dry solid content in the

  1. Future biogas plants. New plant outlines and economic potential; Fremtidens biogasfaellesanlaeg. Nye anlaegskoncepter og oekonomisk potentiale

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Christensen, Johannes (ed.)

    2006-06-16

    The Working Paper is the first joint reporting from a project aiming at identifying new outlines for joint biogas plants with profitable operation mainly based on slurry. So far a pre-requisition for profitable operation has been supply of 20-25% organic waste as supplement to the slurry, partly because organic waste increases gas production, and partly to collect recipient fee. The new outlines, which are analysed, represent different combinations of technology for separation, pre-treatment and re-circulation, including separation at each separate farm and separation of degassed slurry. Simultaneously with an increased gas yield, a number of synergy effects are achieved, which can contribute to ensure an environmentally friendly distribution and use of the nutrients, especially in areas with large concentrations of animal husbandry. (BA)

  2. Western waterweed (Elodea nuttallii) as a co-substrate for biogas plants; Schmalblaettrige Wasserpest (Elodea nuttallii) als Cosubstrat fuer Biogasanlagen

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zehnsdorf, Andreas [Helmholtz-Zentrum fuer Umweltforschung - UFZ, Leipzig (Germany). Arbeitsgruppe Bioprozesstechnik; Korn, Ulrich; Pieper, Bernd [Dr. Pieper Technologie- und Produktentwicklung GmbH (Germany); Proeter, Juergen; Naumann, Dirk [Deutsches BiomasseForschungsZentrum gemeinnuetzige GmbH (Germany). Arbeitsgruppe Substratcharakterisierung und -management; Seirig, Michael [Helmholtz-Zentrum fuer Umweltforschung - UFZ, Leipzig (Germany). Umwelt- und Biotechnologisches Zentrum; Roenicke, Helmut [Helmholtz-Zentrum fuer Umweltforschung - UFZ, Leipzig (Germany). Arbeitsgruppe Planktonoekologie

    2011-07-01

    Western waterweed (Elodea nuttallii) grows vigorously in bodies of water in Germany and hinders in many places their recreational use. For this reason, this aquatic plant is now often harvested and subsequently disposed of as organic waste. As a possible alternative use, the harvested Elodea biomass can also be used as co-substrate in biogas plants. As the digestion of western waterweed alone in a laboratory biogas plant led to a reduction of the biogas yield of over 50 %, Elodea was used in combination with maize silage. A mix of 30 % Elodea and 70 % maize silage produced a biogas yield of 580 standard litres per kilogram of organic dry matter. In addition, the aquatic plant and maize were readily ensilable, which made it easy to store and ensured that it was ready to use over a longer period of time. (orig.)

  3. Regulation and optimization of the biogas process: Propionate as a key parameter

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nielsen, Henrik Bangsoe; Uellendahl, Hinrich; Ahring, Birgitte Kiaer [Bioprocess Science and Technology, BioCentrum-DTU, Building 227, Technical University of Denmark, DK-2800 Lyngby (Denmark)

    2007-11-15

    The use of volatile fatty acids (VFA) as process indicators in biogas reactors treating manure together with industrial waste was studied. At a full-scale biogas plant, an online VFA sensor was installed in order to study VFA dynamics during stable and unstable operation. During stable operation acetate increased significantly during the feeding periods from a level of 2-4 to 12-17 mM, but the concentration generally dropped to about the same level as before feeding. The fluctuations in the propionate were more moderate than for acetate but the average level rose during 1 week of operation from 0.6 to 2.9 mM. A process disturbance caused by overloading with industrial waste was reflected by a significant increase in all VFA concentrations. During the recovery of the process, the return of propionate back to the steady-state level was 2-3 days slower than any other VFA and propionate could best describe the normalizing of the process. In a lab-scale continuously stirred tank reactor experiment, with manure as main substrate, the prospective of using either propionate concentration or methane production as single process indicators was studied. Propionate was found to be the best indicator. Thus, a process breakdown caused by organic overloading with meat and bone meal and lipids was indicated by changes in propionate concentration 12-18 days before a decrease in methane production was observed. Furthermore, a more efficient and stable utilization of the substrate was observed when propionate was used as process indicator. (author)

  4. An evaluation of a farm scale biogas plant with a micro turbine for combined heat and power production; Utvaerdering av gaardsbiogasanlaeggning med mikroturbin foer kraftvaermeproduktion

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Brown, Nils; Edstroem, Mats; Hansson, Mikael (Swedish Inst. of Agricultural and Environmental Engineering, Uppsala (Sweden)); Algerbo, Per-Anders (HIR Malmoehus, Bjaerred (Sweden))

    2010-03-15

    The purpose of this study was to: To evaluate a farm scale biogas plant digesting energy and nutrient rich substrates at a high organic loading rate and biogas production using the biogas for combined heat and power production with a micro turbine. Put together technical, biological and economical documentation which can help farmers to investigate presumption to invest in a farm scale biogas plant for heat and power production. The farm scale biogas plant has an active digester volume of 450 m3 and the process temperature is ca 37 deg C. A micro turbine with 105 kW electrical and 160 kW thermal power is used for heat and power production. The produced electricity is sold to the grid and the heat is used on the farm for drying grain and heating two houses. The plant is digesting poultry manure and 2 substrates from the agriculture industry. All together the plant is digesting 3140 metric tons of substrates/yr and the substrates costs 160 k SEK/yr. Total investment for the plant is 4.7 M SEK. Produced head reduces the oil consumption at the farm with 15 m3 (value 100 k SEK/yr). There is a surplus of heat production of 600 MWh/yr. The production cost for the electricity is close to 0,66 SEK/kWh based on a value of the digestate of 100 SEK/ton together with an investment subsidy of 30 %. The production cost for the electricity is strongly depending on the value of the digestate. Hagavik is a crop production farm based on organic farming. If the valuation of the digestate is reduced to 50 SEK/ton, the production cost for the electricity increases to approx. 0.84 SEK/kWh (1 SEK is about 0.14 USD)

  5. Detailed monitoring of two biogas plants and mechanical solid-liquid separation of fermentation residues.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bauer, Alexander; Mayr, Herwig; Hopfner-Sixt, Katharina; Amon, Thomas

    2009-06-01

    The Austrian "green electricity act" (Okostromgesetz) has led to an increase in biogas power plant size and consequently to an increased use of biomass. A biogas power plant with a generating capacity of 500 kW(el) consumes up to 38,000 kg of biomass per day. 260 ha of cropland is required to produce this mass. The high water content of biomass necessitates a high transport volume for energy crops and fermentation residues. The transport and application of fermentation residues to farmland is the last step in this logistic chain. The use of fermentation residues as fertilizer closes the nutrient cycle and is a central element in the efficient use of biomass for power production. Treatment of fermentation residues by separation into liquid and solid phases may be a solution to the transport problem. This paper presents detailed results from the monitoring of two biogas plants and from the analysis of the separation of fermentation residues. Furthermore, two different separator technologies for the separation of fermentation residues of biogas plants were analyzed. The examined biogas plants correspond to the current technological state of the art and have designs developed specifically for the utilization of energy crops. The hydraulic retention time ranged between 45.0 and 83.7 days. The specific methane yields were 0.40-0.43 m(3)N CH(4) per kg VS. The volume loads ranged between 3.69 and 4.00 kg VS/m(3). The degree of degradation was between 77.3% and 82.14%. The screw extractor separator was better suited for biogas slurry separation than the rotary screen separator. The screw extractor separator exhibited a high throughput and good separation efficiency. The efficiency of slurry separation depended on the dry matter content of the fermentation residue. The higher the dry matter content, the higher the proportion of solid phase after separation. In this project, we found that the fermentation residues could be divided into 79.2% fluid phase with a dry matter

  6. The Optimum Mesophilic Temperature of Batch Process Biogas Production from Animal-based Wastes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Osita Obineche Obiukwu

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available The optimum mesophilic temperature of biogas production from blends The optimum temperature of biogas production from blends of animal-based wastes was determined under controlled heat supply to the digester in a batch digestion process. Cow Dung (CD and Poultry Droppings (PD were blended in the ratio of CD: PD: 1:3. The digester was operated at average ambient temperature of 30°C as baseline. Biogas production from the waste blends was monitored under the temperatures of 32 to 45°C. Results obtained indicate maximum cumulative gas yield was observed at the temperature of 40°C. The 40°C temperature gave the highest biogas yield of 2685 mL followed by the 35°C temperature with the cumulative yield of 2535 mL. The ambient temperature of 30°C had the least cumulative biogas yield of 185 mL. These results indicate that increased and steady biogas production can be achieved under the optimum mesophilic temperature of 40°C when these animal-based wastes are digested in batch digestion process.

  7. Biogas plants in EEG. 4. new rev. and enl. ed.; Biogasanlagen im EEG

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Loibl, Helmut; Maslaton, Martin; Bredow, Hartwig von; Walter, Rene (eds.)

    2016-08-01

    With the EEG 2014, the legislature has created a complete revision of all the RES plants. Specifically for biogas plants fundamental changes have been made with the maximum rated power or a new landscape conservation concept. For new biogas plants the legislator arranges not only a much lower remuneration, but also the direct marketing as a rule, which entails fundamental changes in the overall compensation system by itself. The new edition of this highly regarded standard work revives the extensive practical experience to EEG 2009, 2012 and 2014 in detail and in particular and takes into account the large number of newly issued clearinghouses decisions and judgments. All current legal issues and challenges of biogas plants can be found comprehensively presented here. [German] Mit dem EEG 2014 hat der Gesetzgeber eine komplette Neuregelung fuer alle EEG-Anlagen geschaffen. Speziell fuer Biogasanlagen wurden mit der Hoechstbemessungsleistung oder einem neuen Landschaftspflegebegriff grundlegende Aenderungen vorgenommen. Fuer neue Biogasanlagen ordnet der Gesetzgeber nicht nur eine deutlich geringere Verguetung, sondern zudem die Direktvermarktung als Regelfall an, was grundlegende Veraenderungen des gesamten Verguetungssystems nach sich zieht. Die Neuauflage dieses vielbeachteten Standardwerks greift die umfangreichen Praxiserfahrungen zum EEG 2009, 2012 und 2014 detailliert auf und beruecksichtigt insbesondere auch die Vielzahl der neu ergangenen Clearingstellenentscheidungen und Urteile. Alle aktuellen rechtlichen Themen und Herausforderungen bei Biogasanlagen finden Sie hier umfassend dargestellt.

  8. Biogas generation and use at a dairy-cattle plant; Biogaserzeugung und -verwertung auf einer Milchviehanlage

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jaekel, K. [Saechsische Landesanstalt fuer Landwirtschaft, Leipzig (Germany); Eichert, H. [Hochschule fuer Technik und Wirtschaft, Zwickau (Germany); Ackermann, J. [Hochschule fuer Technik und Wirtschaft, Zwickau (Germany)

    1996-12-31

    At a dairy-cattle plant of the Lungwitztal agrarian co-operative society in Saxony (approximately 1000 head of cattle), a biogas-fuelled cogeneration plant with an electric power output of 220 kilowatts and a thermal power output of 350 kilowatts went operational in 1995. The article reports the operating experience so far gathered, first data concerning the energy budget (the plant`s own power demand, power fed into the grid, use potential) as well as first results regarding the influence of the mixed substrate used (cattle manure with irregular admixtures of chicken dung, molasses, fatty water) on biogas production. (orig.) [Deutsch] Auf einer Milchviehanlage der Agrargenossenschaft Lungwitztal e.g. in Sachsen (rund 1000 GVE) wurde 1995 ein Biogas-BHKW mit einer Leistung von 220 kW elektrisch und 350 kW thermisch in Betrieb genommen. Es werden die bisherigen Betriebserfahrungen, erste Ergebnisse zur Energiebilanz (Eigenbedarf, Netzeinspeisung, Nutzungspotential) sowie zum Einfluss des eingesetzten Mischsubstrates (Rinderguelle mit unregelmaessigen Zuschlaegen von Huehnerkot, Melasse, Fettwasser) auf die Biogasproduktion vorgestellt. (orig.)

  9. District heating for increased biogas production. Technical and economical evaluation of district heating as heating source in biogas processes; Fjaerrvaerme foer utoekad biogasproduktion. Teknisk och ekonomisk utvaerdering av fjaerrvaerme foer uppvaermning av biogasprocesser

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lundqvist, Per (AaF-Consult AB, Stockholm (Sweden))

    2009-11-15

    This report presents a technical evaluation, the potential and an economical evaluation of the increased net biogas production by using district heating as energy supply for different types of biogas production units. The study presents generalized results for different plant sizes. The district heating is considered as replacement of the heat produced by burning biogas in a hot-water boiler. Hence more biogas could be available for upgrading to fuel-gas quality to be used in vehicles as a renewable fuel. The study is aimed at biogas producers, district heating and combined heat and power (CHP) companies. Biogas has a composition of mostly methane (about 65 %) and carbon dioxide (about 35 %) and small amounts of other gases e.g. sulphur dioxide (H{sub 2}S). Biogas up-grading is a process where the methane content is increased to about 97 % by removing most of the other gases in e.g. an absorption unit. The Swedish biogas is mainly produced in several sewage treatment plants and some co-digestion units but is also collected from dumps. Biogas is produced by anaerobic microorganisms at temperatures of about 36 and 55 deg C which correspond to the thermal optimum for mesophile and thermophile bacteria respectively. Co-digestion of animal material which e.g. is contained in collected organic household waste has to be pasteurized at 70 deg C for 1h according to EU-regulations. Such regulations may also be introduced to the sludge from municipal sewage treatment plants. Due to the fact that the process temperature is higher than the temperature of the substrate (sludge or organic waste material) as well as the outdoor temperature, both heating of the incoming substrate and compensation of heat losses are required. Traditionally most of the biogas has been burnt to generate the necessary heat for the process and premises at the plant. The excess gas has been burnt in a torch. In recent years the biogas produced in Sweden has found increased use as a renewable vehicle fuel

  10. A membrane based process for the upgrading of biogas to substituted natural gas (SNG) and recovery of carbondioxide for industrial use

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Norddahl, Birgir; dePreez, Jan

    2007-01-01

    A low pressure carbon molecular sieve (CMS) membrane based process to upgrade biogas from anaerobic digestion of agricultural waste to a substitute natural gas (SNG) has been tested on a pilot scale. The data extracted from the pilot plant was used to estimate membrane permeance and ideal...

  11. GAS TURBINE ENGINES CONSUMING BIOGAS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Е. Ясиніцький

    2011-04-01

    Full Text Available A problem of implementation of biofuel for power plants of big capacity was considered in thisarticle. Up to date in the world practice a wide implementation of biogas plants of low and medialcapacity are integrated. It is explained by the big amount of enterprises in which relatively smallvolumes of organic sediment excrete in the process of its activity. An emphasis of article is on thatenterprises, which have big volumes of sediments for utilizing of which module system of medialcapacity biogas plants are non-effective. The possibility of using biogas and biomethane as a fuelfor gas turbine engine is described. The basic problems of this technology and ways of its solutionsare indicated. Approximate profitability of biogas due to example of compressor station locatednearby poultry factory was determined also. Such factors as process characteristics of engine withcapacity of 5 MW, approximate commercial price for natural gas and equipment costs due toofficial sources of “Zorg Ukraine” company was taken into consideration. The necessity forproviding researches on influence of biogas on the process characteristics of gas turbine engine andits reliability, constructing modern domestic purification system for biogas was shown.

  12. Progress in biogas. Biogas production from agricultural biomass and organic residues. Pt. 1 and 2. Proceedings (oral presentations and poster presentations); Fortschritt beim Biogas. Biogas aus landwirtschaftlicher Biomasse and organischen Reststoffen. T. 1 und 2. Tagungsband. Vortraege and Poster

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2007-07-01

    Within the International Conference ''Progress in Biogas - Biogas production from agricultural biomass and organic residues'' at the University Hohenheim (Stuttgart, Federal Republic of Germany) from 18th to 21st September, 2007, the following lectures were held: (1) Global relevance and potential of bioenergy for regional development; (2) Biogas electricity for France feed-in tariff and some other things to know before entering French market; (3) Policy drivers and future prospects for on-farm anaerobic digestion in Northern Ireland; (4) Biogas in Belgium, a swot analysis; (5) Status and prospects of biogas energy use in Ukraine; (6) Recent developments in Chinese agricultural biogas production; (7) Opportunities for agricultural based biogas systems in the province of Ontario, Canada; (8) Pre-treatment and digestion of separated collected household waste in Sweden; (9) To the problem of monitoring measures and prophylaxis measures with the utilization of organic residual substances in biological gas facilities from hygienic view; (10) Fermenting residues from biological gas facilities - nutrients and pollutants, possibilities of application in the agriculture; (11) Treatment and utilization of fermentation residues; (12) Potential of residual gas of NaWaRo feeded biogas plants in Baden-Wuerttemberg; (13) Operating analytics of biogas plants to improve efficiency and to ensure process stability; (14) The potential of biogas and electric power production from subproducts in the sugar and alcohol industries by the application of anaerobic digestion; (15) Co-digestion plant in dairy cattle farm in Emilia Romagna region (Italy); (16) Facing operational problems in a biodigeser in Yuvientsa - Amazonian Region of Ecuador; (17) Biogas plant instead of milk cow - payment and occupation with the use of grassilage; (18) Biogas in ecologic agriculture - experiences from 3 years of fermentation of grass-clover ley; (19) Combined solar-biogas basis for the

  13. Devising an energy saving technology for a biogas plant as a part of the cogeneration system

    OpenAIRE

    Чайковська, Євгенія Євстафіївна

    2015-01-01

    The paper suggests an operation technology for a biogas plant that allows setting a heating medium temperature at the inlet to the heat exchanger built in a digester and measuring the heating medium temperature at the outlet. An integrated system for assessing the varied temperature of digestion (that is based on mathematical and logical modeling within the cogeneration system) secures a continuous gas outlet, a timely unloading of fermented mash and loading of a fresh matter. For this purpos...

  14. Biogas production from UASB and polyurethane carrier reactors treating sisal processing wastewater

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rubindamayugi, M.S.T.; Salakana, L.K.P. [Univ. of Dar es Salaam, Faculty of Science, Applied Microbiology Unit (Tanzania, United Republic of)

    1997-12-31

    The fundamental benefits which makes anaerobic digestion technology (ADT) attractive to the poor developing include the low cost and energy production potential of the technology. In this study the potential of using UASB reactor and Polyurethane Carrier Reactor (PCR) as pollution control and energy recovery systems from sisal wastewater were investigated in lab-scale reactors. The PCR demonstrated the shortest startup period, whereas the UASB reactor showed the highest COD removal efficiency 79%, biogas production rate (4.5 l biogas/l/day) and process stability than the PCR under similar HRT of 15 hours and OLR of 8.2 g COD/l/day. Both reactor systems became overloaded at HRT of 6 hours and OLR of 15.7 g COD/l/day, biogas production ceased and reactors acidified to pH levels which are inhibiting to methanogenesis. Based on the combined results on reactor performances, the UASB reactor is recommended as the best reactor for high biogas production and treatment efficiency. It was estimated that a large-scale UASB reactor can be designed under the same loading conditions to produce 2.8 m{sup 3} biogas form 1 m{sup 3} of wastewater of 5.16 kg COD/m{sup 3}. Wastewater from one decortication shift can produce 9,446 m{sup 3} og biogas. The energy equivalent of such fuel energy is indicated. (au)

  15. Increasing biogas production from sewage sludge anaerobic co-digestion process by adding crude glycerol from biodiesel industry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nartker, Steven; Ammerman, Michelle; Aurandt, Jennifer; Stogsdil, Michael; Hayden, Olivia; Antle, Chad

    2014-12-01

    In an effort to convert waste streams to energy in a green process, glycerol from biodiesel manufacturing has been used to increase the gas production and methane content of biogas within a mesophilic anaerobic co-digestion process using primary sewage sludge. Glycerol was systematically added to the primary digester from 0% to 60% of the organic loading rate (OLR). The optimum glycerol loading range was from 25% to 60% OLR. This resulted in an 82-280% improvement in specific gas production. Following the feeding schedule described, the digesters remained balanced and healthy until inhibition was achieved at 70% glycerol OLR. This suggests that high glycerol loadings are possible if slow additions are upheld in order to allow the bacterial community to adjust properly. Waste water treatment plant operators with anaerobic digesters can use the data to increase loadings and boost biogas production to enhance energy conversion. This process provides a safe, environmentally friendly method to convert a typical waste stream to an energy stream of biogas.

  16. Sicilian potential biogas production

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Antonio Comparetti

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available This study is aimed at predicting the Sicilian potential biogas production, using the Organic Fraction of Municipal Solid Waste (OFMSW, animal manure and food industry by-products, in a region where only one biogas plant using MSW and one co-digestion plant are nowadays available. The statistical data about OFMSW, the number of animals bred in medium and large farms and the amounts of by-products of food processing industries were evaluated, in order to compute the Sicilian potential biogas and energy production. The OFMSW produced in Sicily, that is 0.8 million tons ca. per year (37% of MSW, could be used in a bio-reactor, together with other raw materials, for Anaerobic Digestion (AD process, producing biogas and “digestate”. Moreover, 3.03 million tons ca. of manure, collected in medium and large animal husbandry farms (where cows, pigs and poultry are bred, and 350 thousand tons ca. of by-products, collected in food processing industries (pomace from olive oil mills and grape marc from wineries, might be used for AD process. The Sicilian potential biogas production from the AD of the above raw materials is 170.2 millions of m3, that is equal to 1023.4 GWh of energy per year, of which 484 GWh from animal manure, 303 GWh from OFMSW and 236.4 GWh from food industry by-products. The highest biogas production is in the province of Palermo (35.6 millions of m3, Ragusa (30.8 millions of m3 and Catania (22.8 millions of m3, having a potential energy production of 213.8, 185 and 137 GWh, respectively.

  17. Increase of anaerobic degradation of particulate organic matter in full-scale biogas plants by mechanical maceration

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hartmann, Hinrich; Angelidaki, Irini; Ahring, Birgitte Kiær

    2000-01-01

    Different concepts of implementation of mechanical pretreatment for enhancing the biogas potential from fibers in manure feedstock were evaluated by sampling before and after macerators at different biogas plants and from a fiber separation unit. An increase of the biogas potential of up to 25......% by pretreatment of the whole feed in the macerator before the reactor was observed. implementation concepts with a treatment of the fibers alone after separation from the manure showed to be not efficient due to a low recovery of organic matter in the fibers by the separation unit. The low operational costs...

  18. BIOGAS STATIONS AND THEIR ENVIRONMENTAL IMPACTS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vladimir Lapčik

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available The article summarizes the authors’ experience with environmental impact assessment in branch of biogas plants. The introductory part of the paper describes legislative obligations of the Czech Republic concerning the fulfilment of the European Union’s limits as for utilization of renewable energy resources. The next parts of the paper deal with an impact analysis of biogas plants on the environment. The final part of the paper deals with experience with implementation of the environmental impact assessment process in the field of biogas plants in the Czech Republic.

  19. Biogas upgrading to biomethane. Proceedings; Biogasaufbereitung zu Biomethan. Tagungsband

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2008-12-05

    Within the 6th Hanauer Dialogue 'Biogas upgrading to biomethane' at 21st February, 2008, the following lectures were held: (a) Processing of biogas - an introduction (Michael Beil); (b) The climate protecting targets of the Federal Republic of Germany: Which role will play the upgrading of biogas, and which legal boundary conditions are created by the Federal Government? (Uwe Holzhammer); (c) Future strategy: CH{sub 4} grids (Juergen Schmid); (d) Biogas upgrading and biomethane utilization in Sweden (Anneli Petersson); (e) Biogas upgrading and utilization of bio methane in Switzerland (Arthur Wellinger); (f) Biogas upgrading by means of pressure swing adsorption (Alfons Schulte-Schulze Berndt); (g) Biogas upgrading by means of pressurized water washing (Ulf Richter); (h) Biogas upgrading for feeding in public grids. The case of biogas plant Bruck a.d. Leitha (Michael Harasek); (i) Biogas upgrading by means of chemical absorption according to the LP Cooab process (Jerome van Beek); (j) Practical experiences in unpressurized amine washing MT bio methane (Karsten Wuensche); (k) Biogas upgrading by means of organic physical washing with HAASE biogas amplifiers (Roland Kahn); (l) Upgrading using cryogenic technology; the GPP registered -system (Jeroen de Pater); (m) Micro Gas Distribution Systems: Alternatives to biogas upgrading and grid injection (Michael Beil, Bernd Krautkremer); (n) Feeding of exchange gas. The case of project Straelen and Kerpen (Frank Schaefer); (o) Feeding of biogas from the view of grid operators (Norbert Nordmeyer); BIOGASMAX: Biogas as Vehicle Fuel - Market Expansion to 2020 Air Quality (Michael Beil, Uwe Hoffstede); (p) Study: Feeding of biogas into the natural gas distribution system (Fachagentur Nachwachsende Rohstoffe).

  20. The Biogas from bio-energy electrical power plant of Nuevo Leon; Central electrica de biogas de bioenergia de Nuevo Leon

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Arvizu F, Jose L [Instituto de Investigaciones Electricas, Cuernavaca, Morelos (Mexico); Saldana M, Jaime L [Sistemas de Energia Internacional S.A. de C.V. (Mexico)

    2005-07-01

    The biogas from bio-energy electrical power plant of Nuevo Leon represents, in all the national territory, the first experience on the advantage of biogas emitted by the sanitary landfills for the generation of electrical energy. Therefore, one of the specific objectives of this paper is the one of diffusion and reproduction of the same one in other cities of Mexico and Latin America. The project is framed within the world-wide policies on the control of emissions for the reduction of the greenhouse effect gases (GEG) and its impact in the global climatic change. The gas emitted by the trash sanitary landfills, commonly known as biogas, is a gas mixture derived from the decomposition of the organic matter of the municipal trash by microorganisms in anaerobic conditions. Biogas generated in the sanitary landfills has a methane content of 55% and a 35% of carbon dioxide. The balance 10% is made up of water steam, hydrogen, nitrogen, oxygen, hydrogen sulfur and other gases in minimum amounts. [Spanish] La Central Electrica de Biogas de Bioenergia de Nuevo Leon representa, en todo el territorio nacional, la primera experiencia sobre el aprovechamiento del biogas emitido por los rellenos sanitarios para la generacion de energia electrica. Por esta razon, uno de los objetivos especificos de este trabajo es la de difusion y reproduccion del mismo en otras ciudades de Mexico y Latinoamerica. El proyecto esta enmarcado dentro de las politicas mundiales sobre el control de emisiones para la reduccion de los gases de efecto invernadero (GEI) y su impacto en el cambio climatico global. El gas emitido por la basura dispuesta en los rellenos sanitarios, comunmente conocido como biogas, es una mezcla de gases derivado de la descompensacion de la materia organica de la basura municipal por microorganismos en condiciones anaerobias. El biogas generado en los rellenos sanitarios tiene un contenido de metano del 55% y un 35% de bioxido de carbono. El 10% restante se compone de vapor

  1. Optimized production of vehicle gas - an environmental and energy system analyses of Soederaasens biogas plant.; Systemoptimerad produktion av fordonsgas - En miljoe- och energisystemanalys av Soederaasens biogasanlaeggning

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lantz, Mikael; Ekman, Anna; Boerjesson, Paal

    2009-06-15

    In this study, an environmental and energy system analysis for a specific biogas plant is presented as well as suggestions and cost calculations for measures that could be implemented in order to optimise the system. The overarching purpose is also to present a model for similar studies of specific biogas plants. The analysis performed includes direct effects such as use of energy and emissions from the production of biogas, upgrading to vehicle gas, transport of substrate and digestate and storage and handling of digestate. Furthermore, indirect effects such as reduced methane leaching from conventional storage of manure, replacement of mineral fertilizers with digestate etc. are included as well. The energy balance for production and distribution of vehicle gas from Soederaasens biogas plant is calculated to 5,5 which could be compared to the energy balance for ethanol from wheat which is normally between 2 and 3. The greenhouse gas emissions are 16 gram CO{sub 2}-ekv./kWh, approximately 95 % lower compared to gasoline. In comparison, ethanol from wheat and RME reduce the emissions with some 80 % and 65 % respectively. The result is mainly affected of the methane leakage from the upgrading plant, reduced emissions of N{sub 2}O when digestate replaces mineral fertilizers and the assumptions made of how the electricity used in the system was produced. Regarding eutrophication, the emissions are calculated to 6 gram NO{sub 3}--ekv./kWh, primarily originating from storage and handling of digestate, which is somewhat lower than the reported emissions from production of ethanol and RME. Covering the digestate storages and produce process heat with wood chips, measures estimated to be cost neutral or even profitable for the biogas producer, is calculated to reduce the emissions of greenhouse gases to -13 gram/kWh. If all measures identified would be implemented, the emissions are reduced with 120 % with an extra cost of some 0.01 SEK/kWh vehicle gas

  2. Accounting of greenhouse gas emissions of a biogas plant. Results from the practice; Bilanzierung der Treibhausgasemissionen einer Biogasanlage. Ergebnisse aus der Praxis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Reckmann, Karoline [Union Agricole Holding AG, Pinneberg (Germany); Fritz, Thomas; Lasar, Ansgar

    2014-08-01

    The assessment of greenhouse gas emissions for biogas plants aims at providing valuable data in order to identify set screws for improvements. Most measurements potentially reducing CO{sub 2}-emissions also help improving the profitability of the biogas plant. The current study therefore aimed at quantifying the environmental impacts of biogas plants. To that end, greenhouse gas emissions were assessed using data of a company-owned 776 kW biogas plant located in Wahlstedt, Schleswig-Holstein, Germany. Fermentation substrates are maize, grass and cattle manure. Specific greenhouse gas emissions of 282 g CO{sub 2}-eq per kWh{sub el} have been calculated.

  3. Compost and residues from biogas plant as potting substrates for salt-tolerant and salt-sensitive plants

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cam Van, Do Thi

    2013-08-01

    Compost and residues from biogas plant have been increasingly recognized as potting substrates in horticulture. To investigate the suitability of both materials to grow salt tolerant plants in 2010 a pot experiment was conducted in the greenhouse of INRES-Plant nutrition, University of Bonn. Ryegrass (Lolium perenne L.), rape (Brassica napus) and sunflower (Helianthus annuus) were chosen as experimental plants. To reduce the high salt content compost and residues from biogas plant were leached. To improve physical characteristics of raw materials, additives including Perlite, Styromull, Hygromull, Lecaton, Peat, Cocofiber were incorporated into compost or residues from biogas plant with the volumetric ratio of 4:1. Plant growth (DM) and nutrient uptake (N, P, K, Mg, Ca, Na and S) of the experimental plants grown in compost-based or residue-based substrates with and without additives and standard soil as a control were determined. Preliminary results reveal that origin compost and residues from biogas plant without leaching are suitable potting substrates for those plants. For compost leaching may not be recommended while for residues from biogas plant the effect of leaching was not distinct and needs further investigations. The incorporation of additives into the basic materials partially resulted in higher plant dry matter yield and nutrient uptake. However, differences between the additives on both parameters were mainly insignificant. Incorporation of Hygromull or Peat, especially into residues from biogas plant favored plant growth and enhanced total nutrient uptake. In 2011, pot experiments were continued with the salt-sensitive ornamental plants, Pelargonium (Pelargonium zonale Toro) and Salvia (Salvia splendens). Two separate experiments were carried out for the mixtures of compost and additives (SPS standard soil type 73 based on Peat, Hygromull or Cocofiber) with different volumetric ratios (4:1, 1:1, 1:4) and the mixtures of Peat incorporated with small

  4. A fuzzy approach to a multiple criteria and Geographical Information System for decision support on suitable locations for biogas plants

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Franco, Camilo; Bojesen, Mikkel; Hougaard, Jens Leth

    2015-01-01

    The purpose of this paper is to model the multi-criteria decision problem of identifying the most suitable facility locations for biogas plants under an integrated decision support methodology. Here the Geographical Information System (GIS) is used for measuring the attributes of the alternatives...... frame for identifying the most suitable locations for biogas facilities, taking into account the most relevant criteria for the social, economic and political dimensions....

  5. A review on palm oil mill biogas plant wastewater treatment using coagulation-ozonation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dexter, Z. D.; Joseph, C. G.; Zahrim, A. Y.

    2016-06-01

    Palm oil mill effluent (POME) generated from the palm oil industry is highly polluted and requires urgent attention for treatment due to its high organic content. Biogas plant containing anaerobic digester is capable to treat the high organic content of the POME while generating valuable biogas at the same time. This green energy from POME is environmental-friendly but the wastewater produced is still highly polluted and blackish in colour. Therefore a novel concept of combining coagulation with ozonation treatment is proposed to treat pollution of this nature. Several parameters should be taken under consideration in order to ensure the effectiveness of the hybrid treatment including ozone dosage, ozone contact time, pH of the water or wastewater, coagulant dosage, and mixing and settling time. This review paper will elucidate the importance of hybrid coagulation-ozonation treatment in producing a clear treated wastewater which is known as the main challenge in palm oil industry

  6. Boosting biogas yield of anaerobic digesters by utilizing concentrated molasses from 2nd generation bioethanol plant

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sarker, Shiplu [Department of Renewable Energy, Faculty of Engineering and Science, University of Agder, Grimstad-4879 (Norway); Moeller, Henrik Bjarne [Department of Biosystems Engineering, Faculty of Science and Technology, Aarhus University, Research center Foulum, Blichers Alle, Post Box 50, Tjele-8830 (Denmark)

    2013-07-01

    Concentrated molasses (C5 molasses) from 2nd generation bioethanol plant has been investigated for enhancing productivity of manure based digesters. A batch study at mesophilic condition (35+- 1 deg C) showed the maximum methane yield from molasses as 286 LCH4/kgVS which was approximately 63% of the calculated theoretical yield. In addition to the batch study, co-digestion of molasses with cattle manure in a semi-continuously stirred reactor at thermophilic temperature (50+- 1 deg C) was also performed with a stepwise increase in molasses concentration. The results from this experiment revealed the maximum average biogas yield of 1.89 L/L/day when 23% VSmolasses was co-digested with cattle manure. However, digesters fed with more than 32% VSmolasses and with short adaptation period resulted in VFA accumulation and reduced methane productivity indicating that when using molasses as biogas booster this level should not be exceeded.

  7. Boosting biogas yield of anaerobic digesters by utilizing concentrated molasses from 2nd generation bioethanol plant

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shiplu Sarker, Henrik Bjarne Møller

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Concentrated molasses (C5 molasses from 2nd generation bioethanol plant has been investigated for enhancing productivity of manure based digesters. A batch study at mesophilic condition (35±1C showed the maximum methane yield from molasses as 286 LCH4/kgVS which was approximately 63% of the calculated theoretical yield. In addition to the batch study, co-digestion of molasses with cattle manure in a semi-continuously stirred reactor at thermophilic temperature (50±1°C was also performed with a stepwise increase in molasses concentration. The results from this experiment revealed the maximum average biogas yield of 1.89 L/L/day when 23% VSmolasses was co-digested with cattle manure. However, digesters fed with more than 32% VSmolasses and with short adaptation period resulted in VFA accumulation and reduced methane productivity indicating that when using molasses as biogas booster this level should not be exceeded.

  8. Biotechnological intensification of biogas production

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bagi, Z.; Acs, N.; Balint, B.; Horvath, L.; Dobo, K.; Perei, K.R.; Rakhely, G.; Kovacs, K.L. [Szeged Univ. (Hungary). Dept. of Biotechnology; Hungarian Academy of Sciences, Szeged (Hungary). Inst. of Biophysics

    2007-08-15

    The importance of syntrophic relationships among microorganisms participating in biogas formation has been emphasized, and the regulatory role of in situ hydrogen production has been recognized. It was assumed that the availability of hydrogen may be a limiting factor for hydrogenotrophic methanogens. This hypothesis was tested under laboratory and field conditions by adding a mesophilic (Enterobacter cloacae) or thermophilic hydrogen-producing (Caldicellulosyruptor saccharolyticus) strain to natural biogas-producing consortia. The substrates were waste water sludge, dried plant biomass from Jerusalem artichoke, and pig manure. In all cases, a significant intensification of biogas production was observed. The composition of the generated biogas did not noticeably change. In addition to being a good hydrogen producer, C. saccharolyticus has cellulolytic activity; hence, it is particularly suitable when cellulose-containing biomass is fermented. The process was tested in a 5-m{sup 3} thermophilic biogas digester using pig manure slurry as a substrate. Biogas formation increased at least 160-170% upon addition of the hydrogen-producing bacteria as compared to the biogas production of the spontaneously formed microbial consortium. Using the hydrogenase-minus control strain provided evidence that the observed enhancement was due to interspecies hydrogen transfer. The on-going presence of C. saccharolyticus was demonstrated after several months of semicontinuous operation. (orig.)

  9. ASSESSMENT OF THE BIODIVERSITY OF SAMPLES USED FOR ISOLATION OF MICROBIAL STRAINS CAPABLE OF CONVERTING STRAW DESTINED AS A SUBSTRATE FOR BIOGAS PLANT

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Krystyna Cybulska

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available In biogas plants, almost any type of organic matter can be used as a substrate to produce biogas. To make the process of methane fermentation more effective, these materials are pretreated. This applies in particular to a group of difficult substrates. Straw, due to its hemicellulose structure and saturation, is hardly fermented by biogas reactor microorganisms. The methods of post-harvest residue preparation for anaerobic digestion being applied so far are expensive, while their application has a negative effect on methanoegenic bacteria. Therefore, the microorganisms being able to degrade straw hemicellulose structure, utilisation of which could precede the proper fermentation process, have been searched for. This paper presents the results of microbial biodiversity analysis in the environmental samples being lupin, cereal, rape and maize straw as well as hay and haylage at different degradation stages. The analysis of biodiversity will help at a further stage of study to isolate active microbial strains showing cellulolytic, hemicellulolytic or ligninolytic activity which are desirable in the process of straw biodegradation. Analysis of the microbial count was performed by the method of deep inoculation on different microbiological culture media. The conducted tests include determination of the number of fungi, bacteria and actinomycetes. The results obtained confirm the usefulness of the analysed samples for isolation of microbial strains capable of converting straw preceding the biogas production.

  10. A dynamic model for calculating methane emissions from digestate based on co-digestion of animal manure and biogas crops in full scale German biogas plants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Muha, Ivo; Linke, Bernd; Wittum, Gabriel

    2015-02-01

    The focus of this work is the development of a model for the estimation of methane emissions for storage tanks of biogas plants. Those can be estimated depending on (i) hydraulic retention time in the digester, (ii) an arbitrary removal rate of the digestate from the storage tank and (iii) arbitrary temperature conditions in the storage tank. Furthermore, the model is capable of considering an arbitrary mixture of manure and crops in the input material. The model was validated by data from 21 full scale biogas plants in Germany digesting cow manure and crops. A realistic scenario for the removal rate and temperature conditions in the storage tank was then investigated and special emphasis was given to the effect of hydraulic retention time and proportion of crops in the mixture on the input VS methane yield from the digester and the storage tank.

  11. Feeding biogas into the natural gas network; Einspeisung von Biogas ins Erdgasnetz

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hunziker, P.

    2005-07-01

    This article discusses how the existing use of biogas from the regional sewage treatment plant in Lucerne, Switzerland, has been extended to feed the biogas into the normal natural gas supply mains. The biogas has previously been used to fuel combined heat and power units that provide electricity and heating energy for dwellings in the region. The article describes how excess biogas from sewage treatment has been conditioned for feeding into the area's natural gas network. The use of an eco-balance tool in the choice of the most ecological means of using the biogas is described. The process steps used to purify the biogas are examined, as are the investment costs and yearly operational expenditure for the operation of the installations.

  12. Biogas Production through the Anaerobic Digestion of Date Palm Tree Wastes - Process Optimization

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fahad Y. Al-Juhaimi

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available A process for the production of biogas through the anaerobic digestion (AD of date palm tree waste (DPTW was developed. The effects of different substrate pretreatments and operating conditions on the yield of biogas and on the chemical composition of DPTW before and after AD were studied. The best results were obtained using alkali pretreatment, with a particle size of 2 to 5 mm, a C:N ratio of 30:1, a digestion temperature of 40 °C, an initial pH of 7.0, and a volatile solids concentration of approximately 10%. The production of flammable biogas containing up to 50% methane started after about one week of operation and continued for approximately 11 weeks. The highest average biogas yield obtained was 342.2 L gas/kg of volatile solids fed to the digester. The highest maximum and average volumetric biogas production rates obtained were 674.5 and 404.4 L/m3 of digester volume per day, respectively. After digestion, there was up to a 58% reduction in the organic matter content of the substrate. Reductions in the contents of cellulose, hemicellulose, and soluble organic compounds were 68.7, 73.4, and 71.9%, respectively, while the ash and lignin contents remained mostly constant. The remaining sludge contained nutrient minerals and some organic matter which qualifies it as a potential soil fertilizer for crop production.

  13. Design and scale-up of an oxidative scrubbing process for the selective removal of hydrogen sulfide from biogas

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Krischan, J., E-mail: jutta_krischan@hotmail.com [Vienna University of Technology, Institute of Chemical Engineering, Getreidemarkt 9/166, 1060 Vienna (Austria); Makaruk, A., E-mail: aleksander.makaruk@tuwien.ac.at [Vienna University of Technology, Institute of Chemical Engineering, Getreidemarkt 9/166, 1060 Vienna (Austria); Harasek, M., E-mail: michael.harasek@tuwien.ac.at [Vienna University of Technology, Institute of Chemical Engineering, Getreidemarkt 9/166, 1060 Vienna (Austria)

    2012-05-15

    Highlights: Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Alkaline oxidative scrubbing proved for biogas desulfurization Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Effect of operating conditions on hydrogen sulfide removal efficiency. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Minimization of caustic and oxidant consumption. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Process control via pH, redox potential and conductivity measurement. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Investigation of long-term behavior of pilot plant operation. - Abstract: Reliable and selective removal of hydrogen sulfide (H{sub 2}S) is an essential part of the biogas upgrading procedure in order to obtain a marketable and competitive natural gas substitute for flexible utilization. A promising biogas desulfurization technology has to ensure high separation efficiency regardless of process conditions or H{sub 2}S load without the use or production of toxic or ecologically harmful substances. Alkaline oxidative scrubbing is an interesting alternative to existing desulfurization technologies and is investigated in this work. In experiments on a stirred tank reactor and a continuous scrubbing column in laboratory-scale, H{sub 2}S was absorbed from a gas stream containing large amounts of carbon dioxide (CO{sub 2}) into an aqueous solution prepared from sodium hydroxide (NaOH), sodium bicarbonate (NaHCO{sub 3}) and hydrogen peroxide (H{sub 2}O{sub 2}). The influence of pH, redox potential and solution aging on the absorption efficiency and the consumption of chemicals was investigated. Because of the irreversible oxidation reactions of dissolved H{sub 2}S with H{sub 2}O{sub 2}, high H{sub 2}S removal efficiencies were achieved while the CO{sub 2} absorption was kept low. At an existing biogas upgrading plant an industrial-scale pilot scrubber was constructed, which efficiently desulfurizes 180 m{sup 3}/h of raw biogas with an average removal efficiency of 97%, even at relatively high and strongly fluctuating H{sub 2}S contents in the crude gas.

  14. A combined process to treat lemon industry wastewater and produce biogas

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Navarro, A.R.; Rubio, M.C.; Maldonado, M.C. [Quimica y Farmacia, Universidad Nacional de Tucuman, Instituto de Biotecnologia, Facultad de Bioquimica, Ayacucho, Tucuman (Argentina)

    2012-02-15

    We studied a process employed for treating lemon industry effluents, using the macrophyte Eishhornia crassipes (water hyacinth) in a phytoremediation tank with a 6000-L workload. The diluted effluents BOD and COD were reduced to 70 and 61%, respectively, working with a 1.5-h hydraulic residence time (HRT). We investigated the effect of adding every 12 h an inoculum consisting of a consortium of microorganisms isolated from the macrophyte roots and recirculating 30% of the outflow. In this way, we achieved a volumetric removal rate (VRR) of BOD = 354 g/m{sup 3} day. Plants were daily harvested from the tank to maintain growth rate and the density originally planted. We studied their use for biogas production in an anaerobic digester working with 12 and 16 days of hydraulic residence time. The yield obtained was 0.87 L/g and productivity 0.87 L/L day with a loading rate of 5 g/L day. Integrating both processes on an industrial scale would solve the effluent pollution problem and generate an energy source that could be used by the industry itself to lower its production costs. (orig.)

  15. Analysis of MSW treatment plant with production of biogas, RDF and compost through simulative approach

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mosca, R.; Giribone, P.; Schenone, M. [Genoa Univ. (Italy). ITIM, Engineering Dept.; Macchiavello, A. [Genoa Univ. (Italy). ISTIC, Engineering Dept.

    1995-12-31

    This work concerns the feasibility study of a MSW (Municipal Solid Waste) treatment plant based on wet way technology. The choice towards such a plant engineering-solution is due to the utilization of the energetic component of waste, through a production of both biogas and RDF (Refuse Derived Fuel) with practically any impact on environment. That`s why this solution is preferred to the traditional incinerating technologies and pyrolysis, that cause environmental damage because of more or less noxious emissions. In order to analyse how a so called multipurpose platform works, a discrete and stochastic simulation modeL able to describe in detail the flow of plant materials, was built. Then a very accurate experimentation campaign was carried out in order to determine a technical evaluation and consequently an economic analysis to verify the convenience of such a plant in the area of western Liguria. (author)

  16. Hazardous organic compounds in biogas plant end products--soil burden and risk to food safety.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Suominen, K; Verta, M; Marttinen, S

    2014-09-01

    The end products (digestate, solid fraction of the digestate, liquid fraction of the digestate) of ten biogas production lines in Finland were analyzed for ten hazardous organic compounds or compound groups: polychlorinated dibenzo-p-dioxins and furans (PCDD/Fs), polychlorinated biphenyls (PCB(7)), polyaromatic hydrocarbons (PAH(16)), bis-(2-ethylhexyl) phthalate (DEHP), perfluorinated alkyl compounds (PFCs), linear alkylbenzene sulfonates (LASs), nonylphenols and nonylphenol ethoxylates (NP+NPEOs), polybrominated diphenyl ethers (PBDEs), hexabromocyclododecane (HBCD) and tetrabromobisphenol A (TBBPA). Biogas plant feedstocks were divided into six groups: municipal sewage sludge, municipal biowaste, fat, food industry by-products, animal manure and others (consisting of milling by-products (husk) and raw former foodstuffs of animal origin from the retail trade). There was no clear connection between the origin of the feedstocks of a plant and the concentrations of hazardous organic compounds in the digestate. For PCDD/Fs and for DEHP, the median soil burden of the compound after a single addition of digestate was similar to the annual atmospheric deposition of the compound or compound group in Finland or other Nordic countries. For PFCs, the median soil burden was somewhat lower than the atmospheric deposition in Finland or Sweden. For NP+NPEOs, the soil burden was somewhat higher than the atmospheric deposition in Denmark. The median soil burden of PBDEs was 400 to 1000 times higher than the PBDE air deposition in Finland or in Sweden. With PBDEs, PFCs and HBCD, the impact of the use of end products should be a focus of further research. Highly persistent compounds, such as PBDE- and PFC-compounds may accumulate in agricultural soil after repeated use of organic fertilizers containing these compounds. For other compounds included in this study, agricultural use of biogas plant end products is unlikely to cause risk to food safety in Finland.

  17. Dynamic biogas upgrading based on the Sabatier process: thermodynamic and dynamic process simulation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jürgensen, Lars; Ehimen, Ehiaze Augustine; Born, Jens; Holm-Nielsen, Jens Bo

    2015-02-01

    This study aimed to investigate the feasibility of substitute natural gas (SNG) generation using biogas from anaerobic digestion and hydrogen from renewable energy systems. Using thermodynamic equilibrium analysis, kinetic reactor modeling and transient simulation, an integrated approach for the operation of a biogas-based Sabatier process was put forward, which was then verified using a lab scale heterogenous methanation reactor. The process simulation using a kinetic reactor model demonstrated the feasibility of the production of SNG at gas grid standards using a single reactor setup. The Wobbe index, CO2 content and calorific value were found to be controllable by the H2/CO2 ratio fed the methanation reactor. An optimal H2/CO2 ratio of 3.45-3.7 was seen to result in a product gas with high calorific value and Wobbe index. The dynamic reactor simulation verified that the process start-up was feasible within several minutes to facilitate surplus electricity use from renewable energy systems.

  18. Economic analyses of agricultural co-substrates for use in biogas plants; Wirtschaftlichkeitsuntersuchungen zum Einsatz landwirtschaftlicher Kosubstrate in Biogasanlagen

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Grundmann, P.; Ploechl, M.; Heiermann, M. [Inst. fuer Agrartechnik Bornim, Abt. Technikbewertung und Stoffkreislaeufe, Potsdam (Germany)

    2002-07-01

    The study analyses the effect of different factors (yields, production costs, methane yields, amount of co-substrates, investment costs and economies of scale) on the profitability of crops as inputs in biogas production plants. The profitability of silages from perennial ryegrass, alfalfa, maize and barley varies mainly within positive economic results, while rapeseed, hemp and topinambur mainly present a range of negative results. Fresh rye and silages from rye and wheat show equal positive and negative variation of results. Even the economic result of biogas plants is determined by investment costs, the sum of effects resulting from variations of yields, co-substrate production costs, amount of co-substrates, methane yields and economies of scales is decisive for the profitability of biogas plants. (orig.)

  19. Environmental assessment and finding of no significant impact: Biorecycling Technologies, Inc., Noble Biogas and Fertilizer Plant, Fresno County, California

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1997-09-01

    The US Department of Energy (DOE) is considering a proposal from the California Energy Commission for partial funding up to $1,500,000 of the construction of the biorecycling Technologies, Inc., (BTI) Noble Biogas and Fertilizer Plant in Fresno County, California. BTI along with its contractors and business partners would develop the plant, which would use manure and green waste to produce biogas and a variety of organic fertilizer products. The California Energy Commission has requested funding from the DOE Commercialization Ventures program to assist in the construction of the plant, which would produce up to one megawatt of electricity by burning biogas in a cogeneration unit. The purpose of this environmental assessment (EA) is to provide DOE and the public with information on potential environmental impacts associated with funding development of the proposed project.

  20. Trace compounds affecting biogas energy utilisation - A review

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rasi, S., E-mail: saija.rasi@gmail.com [University of Jyvaeskylae, Department of Biological and Environmental Science, P.O. Box 35, FI-40014 (Finland); Laentelae, J.; Rintala, J. [University of Jyvaeskylae, Department of Biological and Environmental Science, P.O. Box 35, FI-40014 (Finland)

    2011-11-15

    Highlights: {yields} In regards to trace compounds, landfill gases are the most studied biogases. {yields} More strict requirements are set for biogas purity with new biogas applications. {yields} With traditional applications, small variations in biogas quality are acceptable. {yields} New requirements set challenges on raw material control and biogas quality. {yields} In this study, variations in analysing methods and biogas quality are discussed. - Abstract: This paper investigates the trace compounds affecting energy utilisation in biogas that come from different production sites. With biogas being more widely used in different energy applications more interest has arisen for the specific composition of biogas. In traditional energy applications, methane and hydrogen sulphide contents have had the most influence when energy utilisation application has been considered. With more advanced processes also the quantity and quality of trace compounds is more important. In regards to trace compounds, it was found that the concentrations and the variations of volatile organic compounds (VOCs) can be high in different landfills, especially, with compounds originating from the biological degradation process (like aromatics and terpenes) as seasonal variations affect the biological degradation. Trace compounds produced by direct volatilisation (halogenated and silicon compounds) show a smaller seasonal variation. Halogenated compounds are rarely present in high concentrations in waste water treatment plant (WWTP) biogas, but the concentrations of organic silicon compounds and their variation is high. Organic silicon compounds are usually detected only in low concentrations in co-digestion plant biogas, when no WWTP sludge is used as a raw material.

  1. Hazardous organic compounds in biogas plant end products-Soil burden and risk to food safety

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Suominen, K., E-mail: kimmo.suominen@evira.fi [Finnish Food Safety Authority Evira, Risk Assessment Research Unit, Mustialankatu 3, 00790 Helsinki (Finland); Verta, M. [Finnish Environmental Institute (SYKE), Mechelininkatu 34a, P.O. Box 140, 00251 Helsinki (Finland); Marttinen, S. [MTT Agrifood Research Finland, 31600 Jokioinen (Finland)

    2014-09-01

    The end products (digestate, solid fraction of the digestate, liquid fraction of the digestate) of ten biogas production lines in Finland were analyzed for ten hazardous organic compounds or compound groups: polychlorinated dibenzo-p-dioxins and furans (PCDD/Fs), polychlorinated biphenyls (PCB(7)), polyaromatic hydrocarbons (PAH(16)), bis-(2-ethylhexyl) phthalate (DEHP), perfluorinated alkyl compounds (PFCs), linear alkylbenzene sulfonates (LASs), nonylphenols and nonylphenol ethoxylates (NP + NPEOs), polybrominated diphenyl ethers (PBDEs), hexabromocyclododecane (HBCD) and tetrabromobisphenol A (TBBPA). Biogas plant feedstocks were divided into six groups: municipal sewage sludge, municipal biowaste, fat, food industry by-products, animal manure and others (consisting of milling by-products (husk) and raw former foodstuffs of animal origin from the retail trade). There was no clear connection between the origin of the feedstocks of a plant and the concentrations of hazardous organic compounds in the digestate. For PCDD/Fs and for DEHP, the median soil burden of the compound after a single addition of digestate was similar to the annual atmospheric deposition of the compound or compound group in Finland or other Nordic countries. For PFCs, the median soil burden was somewhat lower than the atmospheric deposition in Finland or Sweden. For NP + NPEOs, the soil burden was somewhat higher than the atmospheric deposition in Denmark. The median soil burden of PBDEs was 400 to 1000 times higher than the PBDE air deposition in Finland or in Sweden. With PBDEs, PFCs and HBCD, the impact of the use of end products should be a focus of further research. Highly persistent compounds, such as PBDE- and PFC-compounds may accumulate in agricultural soil after repeated use of organic fertilizers containing these compounds. For other compounds included in this study, agricultural use of biogas plant end products is unlikely to cause risk to food safety in Finland. - Highlights:

  2. Effect of operating conditions and reactor configuration on efficiency of full-scale biogas plants

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Angelidaki, Irini; Boe, Kanokwan; Ellegaard, L.

    2005-01-01

    /l. VFA concentration increase was observed in occasions with dramatic overloading or other disturbances such as operational temperature changes. Ammonia was found to be a significant factor for stability. A correlation between increased residual biogas production and high ammonia was found. When ammonia...... was higher than approx. 4 g-N/l the degradation efficiency of the plant decreased and as a consequence, the residual methane potential was high. Decrease of the residual methane potential with increasing hydraulic retention time was found. Digestion temperature was very important for effective post......-digestion. Post-digestion for recovering the residual methane potential at temperatures below 15 degrees C was very inefficient....

  3. Monitoring and control of the biogas process based on propionate concentration using online VFA measurement

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Boe, Kanokwan; Steyer, J.P.; Angelidaki, Irini

    2008-01-01

    Simple logic control algorithms were tested for automatic control of a lab-scale CSTR manure digester. Using an online VFA monitoring system, propionate concentration in the reactor was used as parameter for control of the biogas process. The propionate concentration was kept below a threshold...

  4. Numerical study on the combustion process of a biogas spark-ignition engine

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carrera José L.

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available The fuel called biogas is obtained through anaerobic digestion of different types of organic waste, providing a way to tap the energy stored in organic matter. The use of this fuel is also attractive from the standpoint of global warming because its application does not register a net emission of carbon dioxide into the atmosphere. One possible use for this fuel is to feed the spark-ignition internal combustion engines. In the present, there is little information available about the process of combustion in internal combustion engines fueled by biogas. The combustion process of an internal combustion engine ignition powered by biogas is characterized in terms of the duration of combustion, i.e., depending on the time elapsed while the reactants (methane and oxygen are transformed into products (mainly carbon dioxide and water. This study numerically evaluates the way in which the geometrical parameters such as the compression ratio and operating parameters like engine speed, the excess air, the time of spark timing and carbon dioxide content of biogas affect the evolution of the combustion process. To carry out this study, a five factors and two levels experiment was designed and conducted, based on which, the most influential parameters were identified. Equations expressing the combustion characteristic parameters, as a function of the geometric and operation parameters of a spark ignited engines, are delivered as a result.

  5. Ecotoxicological assessment of residues from different biogas production plants used as fertilizer for soil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stefaniuk, Magdalena; Bartmiński, Piotr; Różyło, Krzysztof; Dębicki, Ryszard; Oleszczuk, Patryk

    2015-11-15

    Residues from biogas production (RBP) are a relatively new materials, which may be an interesting resource for the improvement of soil fertility. Nevertheless, in spite of the potential benefits from the agricultural utilization of RBP, there is a need of comprehensive estimation of their toxicity. This information is needed to exclude potential negative environmental impacts arising from the use of RBP. Samples of RBP obtained from six biogas production plants with varied biogas production methods were analysed. The samples with and without separation on solid and liquid phases were investigated. The physicochemical properties of the RBP, heavy metals content (Cr, Cu, Ni, Cd, Pb i Zn) and toxicity on bacteria (Vibrio fischeri, MARA test - 11 different strains), collembolans (Folsomia candida) and two plant species (Lepidium sativum and Sinapis alba) was investigated. Toxicity of RBP was examined using Phytotoxkit F (root growth inhibition), collembolan test (mortality, inhibition of reproduction), Microtox® (inhibition of the luminescence of V. fischeri) and MARA test (growth of microorganisms). An especially negative effect on the tested organisms whereas was noted for the liquid phase after separation. In many cases, RBP without separation also showed unfavourable effects on the tested organisms. Liquid phase after separation and non-separated materials caused inhibition of root growth of L. sativum and S. alba at the level of 17.42-100% and 30.5-100%, respectively, as well as the inhibition of reproduction of F. candida with the range from 68.89 to 100%. In most cases, no ecotoxicological effect was observed for solid phase after separation for tested organisms. The solid phase after separation presented the most favorable properties between all investigated RBP. Therefore, it can be a potential material for the improvement of soil properties and for later use in agriculture.

  6. Health risk assessment of heavy metals in soil-plant system amended with biogas slurry in Taihu basin, China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bian, Bo; Lin, Cheng; Lv, Lin

    2016-09-01

    Biogas slurry is a product of anaerobic digestion of manure that has been widely used as a soil fertilizer. Although the use for soil fertilizer is a cost-effective solution, it has been found that repeated use of biogas slurry that contains high heavy metal contents can cause pollution to the soil-plant system and risk to human health. The objective of this study was to investigate effects of biogas slurry on the soil-plant system and the human health. We analyzed the heavy metal concentrations (including As, Pb, Cu, Zn, Cr and Cd) in 106 soil samples and 58 plant samples in a farmland amended with biogas slurry in Taihu basin, China. Based on the test results, we assessed the potential human health risk when biogas slurry containing heavy metals was used as a soil fertilizer. The test results indicated that the Cd and Pb concentrations in soils exceeded the contamination limits and Cd exhibited the highest soil-to-root migration potential. Among the 11 plants analyzed, Kalimeris indica had the highest heavy metal absorption capacity. The leafy vegetables showed higher uptake of heavy metals than non-leafy vegetables. The non-carcinogenic risks mainly resulted from As, Pb, Cd, Cu and Zn through plant ingestion exposure. The integrated carcinogenic risks were associated with Cr, As and Cd in which Cr showed the highest risk while Cd showed the lowest risk. Among all the heavy metals analyzed, As and Cd appeared to have a lifetime health threat, which thus should be attenuated during production of biogas slurry to mitigate the heavy metal contamination.

  7. A new multiple-stage electrocoagulation process on anaerobic digestion effluent to simultaneously reclaim water and clean up biogas.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Zhiguo; Stromberg, David; Liu, Xuming; Liao, Wei; Liu, Yan

    2015-03-21

    A new multiple-stage treatment process was developed via integrating electrocoagulation with biogas pumping to simultaneously reclaim anaerobic digestion effluent and clean up biogas. The 1st stage of electrocoagulation treatment under the preferred reaction condition led to removal efficiencies of 30%, 81%, 37% and >99.9% for total solids, chemical oxygen demand, total nitrogen and total phosphorus, respectively. Raw biogas was then used as a reactant and pumped into the effluent to simultaneously neutralize pH of the effluent and remove H2S in the biogas. The 2nd stage of electrocoagulation treatment on the neutralized effluent showed that under the selected reaction condition, additional 60% and 10% of turbidity and chemical oxygen demand were further removed. The study concluded a dual-purpose approach for the first time to synergistically combine biogas purification and water reclamation for anaerobic digestion system, which well addresses the downstream challenges of anaerobic digestion technology.

  8. Isolation and characterization of microalgae for biodiesel production from Nisargruna biogas plant effluent.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tale, Manisha; Ghosh, Sukhendu; Kapadnis, Balasaheb; Kale, Sharad

    2014-10-01

    Increasing energy demand and depleting fossil fuel sources have intensified the focus on biofuel production. Microalgae have emerged as a desirable source for biofuel production because of high biomass and lipid production from waste water source. In this study, five microalgae were isolated from effluents of Nisargruna biogas plants. These isolates were identified based on morphology and partial 18S and 23S rRNA gene sequences. Growth and lipid accumulation potential of these microalgae were investigated. One isolate, Chlorella sp. KMN3, accumulated high biomass (1.59 ± 0.05 g L(-1)) with moderate lipid content (20%), while another isolate Monoraphidium sp. KMN5 showed moderate biomass accumulation of 0.65 ± 0.05 g L(-1) with a very high (35%) lipid content. The fatty acid methyl esters mainly composed of C-16:0, C-18:0, C-18:1 and C-18:2. This observation makes these microalgae immensely potential candidate for biodiesel production using the effluent of a biogas plant as feed stock.

  9. Biogas in agriculture. Status and prospects. Proceedings; Biogas in der Landwirtschaft. Stand und Perspektiven. Tagungsband

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2011-07-01

    Within the congress of the Agency for Renewable Resources (Guelzow, Federal Republic of Germany) and the Association for Technology and Structures in Agriculture (Darmstadt, Federal Republic of Germany) at 20th-21st September, 2011 in Goettingen (Federal Republic of Germany) the following lectures and posters were presented: (1) Perspectives of using biogas as a part of the German power supply (Stefan Rauh); (2) Development of biogas in Europe (Marc Fleureck); (3) Biology of methanogenic archaea and its significance for the microbial process control in biogas plants (Helmut Koenig); (4) Efficiency and behaviour of enzymes in the biogas process (Monika Heiermann); (5) Trace elements in NaWaRo biogas plants for balancing substrate limited deficiency symptoms and stabilizing the fermentation process (Hans Oechsner); (6) EEG - Actual developments for biogas (Ulrich Keymer); (7) Utilization of thermal energy from cogeneration in the practice - Experiences from the view of an environmental expert (Michael Hub); (8) Innovations in the legal aspects of the production and utilization of biogas (Hartwig von Bredow); (9) Damages and deficiencies at biogas plants (Waldemar Gruber); (10) Learning from accidents, damages and their causes as well as their correctives in the operation of biogas plants - Reports from the practice (Wolfgang Horst Stachowitz); (11) Causes and avoidance of container damages by means of biocorrosion (Jan Kuever); (12) Anaerobic degradation of cellulosic substrates - Bionic implementation of the forestomach sysem of a ruminant (Dirk Weichgrebe); (13) Fermentation of renewable raw materials in the up flow procedure (Jan Mumme); (14) Two-phase pressure fermentation for feeding into natural gas grids (Andreas Lemmer); (15) Requirements and potential of sugar beets for fermentation (Christa Hoffmann); (16) Innovation in the area of power beets (Andreas von Felde); (17) Optimization of manuring with fermentation residues in order to reduce the nitrogen

  10. Robust on-line monitoring of biogas processes; Robusta maettekniker on-line foer optimerad biogasproduktion

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nordberg, Aake; Hansson, Mikael; Kanerot, Mija; Krozer, Anatol; Loefving, Bjoern; Sahlin, Eskil

    2010-03-15

    project showed that pH-adjustment with Na{sub 3}PO{sub 4} can be a way of compensating for the losses of volatile compounds (up to 20% of VS), which occurs when standardized reference methods are used. This is a fundamental problem and requires further research. Monitoring of a laboratory-scale anaerobic digester with NIR showed that a previously developed multivariate model could predict propionate concentrations (R2= 0,92; RMSEP 0,39 g/L) in the interval 0-5 g/L, which is a relevant interval for inhibition (limit ca 3 g/L). A commercial FT-NIR instrument was subsequently installed at the production plant. However, the organic loading was decreased during the evaluation period due to process disturbances, at which the dynamic of the process was not in the range needed for prediction of e.g. propionate. Measurements and evaluation will continue during normal conditions after the completion of this project. Evaluation of a potentiometric sensor for ammonia with potential for on-line application showed low stability and a need for daily calibration, which therefore did not fulfill the requested demand. The project has demonstrated technologies with significant potential for on-line monitoring at production scale facilities, thus improving the knowledge base for making important decisions. Knowledge about on-line implementation has increased, and important insights into the limitations of standardized reference methods and substrate characteristics have been achieved. Instrument suppliers have in general a limited insight in the conditions at a biogas plant, which suggests that this type of WR-financed project is important for development in the area

  11. Microbial analysis in biogas reactors suffering by foaming incidents

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kougias, Panagiotis; De Francisci, Davide; Treu, Laura

    2014-01-01

    Foam formation can lead to total failure of digestion process in biogas plants. In the present study, possible correlation between foaming and the presence of specific microorganisms in biogas reactors was elucidated. The microbial ecology of continuous fed digesters overloaded with proteins...

  12. Power contracting between two different partners. Biogas combined heat and power plants; Energie-Contracting zweier unterschiedlicher Partner. Biogas-Blockheizkraftwerk

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lennartz, Marc Wilhelm

    2013-06-15

    An agricultural consortium in the Eifel (Federal Republic of Germany) has adopted a comprehensive supply of a 7,000 m{sup 2} comprising hotel complex with combined heat and power. The old oil-fired central heating plant has been replaced by a biogas-powered combined heat and power plant (CHP). The hotel was directly connected to the CHP plant by means of a new, approximately 300 m long local heating network including buffer storage. Overall, the hotel operator saves approximately 300,000 L of heating oil annually. The energy demand of the hotel operator will be covered by more than 90 % by means of CHP plants. Thus 20 % of the heating costs is saved.

  13. Biogas production and methanogenic archaeal community in mesophilic and thermophilic anaerobic co-digestion processes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yu, D; Kurola, J M; Lähde, K; Kymäläinen, M; Sinkkonen, A; Romantschuk, M

    2014-10-01

    Over 258 Mt of solid waste are generated annually in Europe, a large fraction of which is biowaste. Sewage sludge is another major waste fraction. In this study, biowaste and sewage sludge were co-digested in an anaerobic digestion reactor (30% and 70% of total wet weight, respectively). The purpose was to investigate the biogas production and methanogenic archaeal community composition in the anaerobic digestion reactor under meso- (35-37 °C) and thermophilic (55-57 °C) processes and an increasing organic loading rate (OLR, 1-10 kg VS m(-3) d(-1)), and also to find a feasible compromise between waste treatment capacity and biogas production without causing process instability. In summary, more biogas was produced with all OLRs by the thermophilic process. Both processes showed a limited diversity of the methanogenic archaeal community which was dominated by Methanobacteriales and Methanosarcinales (e.g. Methanosarcina) in both meso- and thermophilic processes. Methanothermobacter was detected as an additional dominant genus in the thermophilic process. In addition to operating temperatures, the OLRs, the acetate concentration, and the presence of key substrates like propionate also affected the methanogenic archaeal community composition. A bacterial cell count 6.25 times higher than archaeal cell count was observed throughout the thermophilic process, while the cell count ratio varied between 0.2 and 8.5 in the mesophilic process. This suggests that the thermophilic process is more stable, but also that the relative abundance between bacteria and archaea can vary without seriously affecting biogas production.

  14. Progress in biogas. Biogas production from agricultural biomass and organic residues. Pt. 1 and 2. Proceedings (oral presentations and poster presentations); Fortschritt beim Biogas. Biogas aus landwirtschaftlicher Biomasse and organischen Reststoffen. T. 1 und 2. Tagungsband. Vortraege and Poster

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2007-07-01

    Within the International Conference ''Progress in Biogas - Biogas production from agricultural biomass and organic residues'' at the University Hohenheim (Stuttgart, Federal Republic of Germany) from 18th to 21st September, 2007, the following lectures were held: (1) Global relevance and potential of bioenergy for regional development; (2) Biogas electricity for France feed-in tariff and some other things to know before entering French market; (3) Policy drivers and future prospects for on-farm anaerobic digestion in Northern Ireland; (4) Biogas in Belgium, a swot analysis; (5) Status and prospects of biogas energy use in Ukraine; (6) Recent developments in Chinese agricultural biogas production; (7) Opportunities for agricultural based biogas systems in the province of Ontario, Canada; (8) Pre-treatment and digestion of separated collected household waste in Sweden; (9) To the problem of monitoring measures and prophylaxis measures with the utilization of organic residual substances in biological gas facilities from hygienic view; (10) Fermenting residues from biological gas facilities - nutrients and pollutants, possibilities of application in the agriculture; (11) Treatment and utilization of fermentation residues; (12) Potential of residual gas of NaWaRo feeded biogas plants in Baden-Wuerttemberg; (13) Operating analytics of biogas plants to improve efficiency and to ensure process stability; (14) The potential of biogas and electric power production from subproducts in the sugar and alcohol industries by the application of anaerobic digestion; (15) Co-digestion plant in dairy cattle farm in Emilia Romagna region (Italy); (16) Facing operational problems in a biodigeser in Yuvientsa - Amazonian Region of Ecuador; (17) Biogas plant instead of milk cow - payment and occupation with the use of grassilage; (18) Biogas in ecologic agriculture - experiences from 3 years of fermentation of grass-clover ley; (19) Combined solar-biogas basis for the

  15. Impact of the silage quality on the commercial success of the biogas plant; Wirkung der Silagequalitaet auf den oekonomischen Erfolg der Biogasanlage

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Reinhold, G.; Peykter, W.

    2007-07-01

    The generation of biogas on the basis of renewable primary products is gaining increasingly in importance in agriculture. While manure, organic residues and waste from agricultural businesses and farms as well as bio-waste were predominantly used until 2004, the use of field crops (silage and corn) has become more and more important since the EEG has been amended. However, the public discussion is focusing almost only on the utilization of maize as co-substrate, although in Thuringia they evidently use a much wider mix of substrates which is geared to the conditions of the agricultural businesses. Maize silage and corn have a similar share in the formation of gas. Monofermentation is gaining increasingly in importance, not least due to the innovation bonus. This is why maize, the fodder plant, is used as substrate in many of these plants. The advantages of maize are its high yield potential, its favorable technological suitability, the good conservative properties and the different options to use it as silage and as grain. Welted silage is used to a much lesser extent, as is whole plant silage at the moment. If biogas plants were to look at maize silage as a substrate, the silage quality would obviously become more and more important, since silage losses and the silage quality have definitely an impact on the commercial success of the biogas plant. Since biogas plants respond vehemently to fluctuations in quality, silage that is rich in nutrients, easily digestible and free from mold is a fundamental prerequisite for a high gas yield. Reheating and silage with a reduced quality are tantamount to high losses, although the mere loss in quantity must not be underrated, either. This paper is meant to show what factors will have an impact on the silage quality and to prove various approaches how to ensure a stable quality. Moreover, the impact improper procedures applied during the process of making silage will have on the commercial success of the generation of biogas

  16. Cutting the electric power consumption of biogas plants. The impact of new technologies; Eigenstromverbrauch an Biogasanlagen senken. Der Einfluss neuer Techniken

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Frey, Julian; Gruessing, Fabian; Naegele, Hans-Joachim; Oechsner, Hans [Hohenheim Univ., Stuttgart (Germany). Landesanstalt fuer Agrartechnik und Bioenergie Baden-Wuerttemberg

    2013-03-01

    Due to permanently rising energy costs, the assessment of electric energy consumption for particular aggregates of a biogas plant proves to be a significant factor for the economic and technical efficiency calculation of biogas plants. At the University of Hohenheim, students of the Biobased Products and Bioenergy course have analyzed the energy consumption of biogas plants (BGP) in a project work at the State Institute of Agricultural Engineering and Bioenergy (Landesanstalt fuer Agrartechnik und Bioenergie). Detailed measurements at two operational plants show the effects of different facilities on the energy consumption. Furthermore, saving potentials and a possible efficient energy use via an exhaust gas power generator (ORC unit) are identified. (orig.)

  17. 15. Annual Meeting on biogas and bioenergy in agriculture. Proceedings; 15. Jahrestagung Biogas und Bioenergie in der Landwirtschaft. Tagungsband

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2006-07-01

    The volume contains besides the general statements on environmental protection and energy savings in the future and biogas as great potential for the rural development the following contributions in four parts: 1. political enveloping conditions: biogas usage within the frame of the the new EEG; state of biogas usage in Baden-Wuerttemberg; practical experiences end perspectives for the biogas development; renewable raw materials from the view of environmenmental protection; 2. gas utilization: the bioenergy village Mauenheim - model for the rural area; compression ignition gas engines with biogenic ignition oils; realization and economic performance of gas engines with biogas; microgasturbines - engineering and chances, gas processing and feeding into the gas network; 3. substrate: influence of the energy plant agriculture on the regional structures; biogas plants: substrate control by TS sensing; fermentation of fusaria contaminated corn; substrate contracts in the view of revenue and contract legacy; energy plants agriculture in Baden-Wuerttemberg; 4. process biology: comparison of dry and wet fermentation; fundamentals, process stability analytical possibilities; start-up of a biogas plant; biogas process with external hydrolysis; problems in the fermenter - inhibitors and auxiliaries.

  18. Methane production and energy evaluation of a farm scaled biogas plant in cold climate area.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fjørtoft, Kristian; Morken, John; Hanssen, Jon Fredrik; Briseid, Tormod

    2014-10-01

    The aim of this study was to investigate the specific methane production and the energy balance at a small farm scaled mesophilic biogas plant in a cold climate area. The main substrate was dairy cow slurry. Fish silage was used as co-substrate for two of the three test periods. Energy production, substrate volumes and thermal and electric energy consumption was monitored. Methane production depended mainly on type and amount of substrates, while energy consumption depended mainly on the ambient temperature. During summer the main thermal energy consumption was caused by heating of new substrates, while covering for thermal energy losses from digester and pipes required most thermal energy during winter. Fish silage gave a total energy production of 1623 k Wh/m(3), while the dairy cow slurry produced 79 k Wh/m(3) slurry. Total energy demand at the plant varied between 26.9% and 88.2% of the energy produced.

  19. Basic Data on Biogas

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2012-07-01

    Renewable gases such as biogas and biomethane are considered as key energy carrier when the society is replacing fossil fuels with renewable alternatives. In Sweden, almost 80 % of the fossil fuels are used in the transport sector. Therefore, the focus in Sweden has been to use the produced biogas in this sector as vehicle gas. Basic Data on Biogas contains an overview of production, utilisation, climate effects etc. of biogas from a Swedish perspective. The purpose is to give an easy overview of the current situation in Sweden for politicians, decision makers and interested public. 1.4 TWh of biogas is produced annually in Sweden at approximately 230 facilities. The 135 wastewater treatment plants that produce biogas contribute with around half of the production. In order to reduce the sludge volume, biogas has been produced at wastewater treatment plants for decades. New biogas plants are mainly co-digestion plants and farm plants. The land filling of organic waste has been banned since 2005, thus the biogas produced in landfills is decreasing.

  20. Energy systems analysis of biogas systems; Energianalys av biogassystem

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Berglund, Maria; Boerjesson, Paal

    2003-05-01

    The aim of this study was to calculate the net energy output and energy efficiency, from a life-cycle perspective and for Swedish conditions, in anaerobic digestion of various raw materials. Our calculations are based on literature reviews concerning the total primary energy input required for the production of biogas (i.e. direct and indirect energy inputs, e.g. when producing and distributing diesel fuels, electricity, fertilisers) as well as the biogas yield from various raw materials. Our analyses include handling and transportation of raw materials, operation of the biogas plants, and transportation and spreading of digested residues, as well as the biogas yield from manure, ley crops, tops and leaves of sugar beets, straw, municipal organic waste, slaughter waste, and grease separator sludge. All calculations concern individual raw materials. The net energy input required to run a biogas system (i.e. centralised biogas plant) typically corresponds to approximately 20-40% of the energy content in the produced biogas. Theoretically, the raw materials could be transported for some 200 km (manure) up to 700 km (slaughter waste) before the net energy output becomes negative. The variations in energy efficiency between studied biogas systems depend mainly on the type of raw material studied and the calculation methods used. Raw materials with high water content and low biogas yield (e.g. manure) require rather large energy inputs compared to the amount of biogas produced. Energy demanding handling of the raw materials, such as ley crops, could correspond to as much as approximately 40% of the net energy input. Varying energy efficiency in different parts of the biogas system, but most of all, changes in the biogas yield, could considerably affect the total net energy output. In general, operation of the biogas plant is the most energy demanding process in the biogas systems, corresponding to some 40-80% of the net energy input in the biogas systems. This implies

  1. Insights into siloxane removal from biogas in biotrickling filters via process mapping-based analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Soreanu, Gabriela

    2016-03-01

    Data process mapping using response surface methodology (RSM)-based computational techniques is performed in this study for the diagnosis of a laboratory-scale biotrickling filter applied for siloxane (i.e. octamethylcyclotetrasiloxane (D4) and decamethylcyclopentasiloxane (D5)) removal from biogas. A mathematical model describing the process performance (i.e. Si removal efficiency, %) was obtained as a function of key operating parameters (e.g biogas flowrate, D4 and D5 concentration). The contour plots and the response surfaces generated for the obtained objective function indicate a minimization trend in siloxane removal performance, however a maximum performance of approximately 60% Si removal efficiency was recorded. Analysis of the process mapping results provides indicators of improvement to biological system performance.

  2. Progress in biogas II - Biogas production from agricultural biomass and organic residues. Pt. 1. Proceedings; Progress in Biogas II - Biogasproduktion aus landwirtschaftlicher Biomasse und organischen Reststoffen. T. 1. Tagungsband

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2011-08-12

    biogas production - Methabe yield and energy balance (R. Bolduan); (19) Evaluation of a pre-treatment process for improved methane production from grass silage (A. Orozco); (20) Anaerobic fungi and biogas production (J. Prochazka); (21) Preservation of sugar beets for biogas production (A. Wagner); (22) Fibre, biogas and compost from banana agro-residues (leaves, pseudostem and rachis) by anaerobic digestion in plug flow type digester (H. Chanakya); (23) Extraction of biogas from waste products of he sugarcane industry (J. Rietzler); (24) Practical experiences with the digestion of straw in 2-stage AD plants - Extension of the value chain (W. Danner); (25) Improving biogas production on wastewater treatment plants by co-digestion of grass (D. Klein); (26) Generation of algal biomass for biogas production: energetic and environmental from a Life Cycle Assessment (LCA) perspective (F. Romagnoli); (27) Risk reduction in spreading plant pathogens by anaerobic digestion? First results from laboratory experiments (M. Heiermann); (28) Demand-oriented biogas production for the generation of peak load (R. Wallmann); (29) Investigation of mesophilic and thermophilic bioleaching method in a two-phase anaerobic digestion process (M. Schoenberg): (30) Efficient hydrogen fermentation for 2-stage anaerobic digestion processes: Conversion of sucrose containing substrates (S. Noebauer); (31) Process development of two-phase pressure formation - Influence of gas solubilities (A.-M. Wonneberger); (32) Benefits and limitations when treating liquid pig manure in an anaerobic membrane bioreactor (P. Messerl); (33) Experiences with continuous high-rate thermophilic dry anaerobic digestion of energy crops (L. De Baere); (34) The Sauter-biogas-system: spraying instead of stirring (S. Sauter); (35) Biogas production from raw palm oil mill effluent using a pilot-scale anaerobic hybrid reactor (C. Wangnai); (36) Eta max - the biogas power plant with high biological efficiency (M. Niederbacher); (37

  3. A fuzzy approach to a multiple criteria and geographical information system for decision support on suitable locations for biogas plants

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Franco de los Rios, Camilo Andres; Bojesen, Mikkel; Hougaard, Jens Leth

    The purpose of this paper is to model the multi-criteria decision problem of identifying the most suitable facility locations for biogas plants under an integrated decision support methodology. Here the Geographical Information System (GIS) is used for measuring the attributes of the alternatives...... can also be successfully applied over the outcomes of different decision makers, in case a unique social solution is required to exist. The proposed methodology can be used under an integrated decision support frame for identifying the most suitable locations for biogas facilities, taking into account...

  4. Fractionation of biogas plant sludge material improves metaproteomic characterization to investigate metabolic activity of microbial communities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kohrs, Fabian; Wolter, Sophie; Benndorf, Dirk; Heyer, Robert; Hoffmann, Marcus; Rapp, Erdmann; Bremges, Andreas; Sczyrba, Alexander; Schlüter, Andreas; Reichl, Udo

    2015-10-01

    With the development of high resolving mass spectrometers, metaproteomics evolved as a powerful tool to elucidate metabolic activity of microbial communities derived from full-scale biogas plants. Due to the vast complexity of these microbiomes, application of suitable fractionation methods are indispensable, but often turn out to be time and cost intense, depending on the method used for protein separation. In this study, centrifugal fractionation has been applied for fractionation of two biogas sludge samples to analyze proteins extracted from (i) crude fibers, (ii) suspended microorganisms, and (iii) secreted proteins in the supernatant using a gel-based approach followed by LC-MS/MS identification. This fast and easy method turned out to be beneficial to both the quality of SDS-PAGE and the identification of peptides and proteins compared to untreated samples. Additionally, a high functional metabolic pathway coverage was achieved by combining protein hits found exclusively in distinct fractions. Sample preparation using centrifugal fractionation influenced significantly the number and the types of proteins identified in the microbial metaproteomes. Thereby, comparing results from different proteomic or genomic studies, the impact of sample preparation should be considered. All MS data have been deposited in the ProteomeXchange with identifier PXD001508 (http://proteomecentral.proteomexchange.org/dataset/PXD001508).

  5. Supplying the energy demand in the chicken meat processing poultry with biogas

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Adriano Henrique Ferrarez

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available The main use of electrical energy in the chicken meat processing unit is refrigeration. About 70% of the electricity is consumed in the compressors for the refrigeration system. Through this study, the energetic viability of using biogas from poultry litter in supplying the demand for the refrigeration process was found. The meat processing unit studied has the potential to process about a hundred and sixty thousand chickens a day. The potential biogas production from poultry litter is 60,754,298.91 m3.year-1. There will be a surplus of approximately 8,103MWh per month of electric energy generated from biogas. An economic analysis was performed considering a planning horizon of 20 years and the discount rate of 12% per year. The economic analysis was performed considering scenario 1: sale of all electricity generated by the thermoelectric facility, and scenario 2: sale of the surplus electricity generated after complying with the demands of the refrigeration process and all other electrical energy and thermal energy use. Economic indicators obtained for scenarios 1 and 2 were favorable for the project implementation.

  6. MODERN BIOGAS TECHNOLOGIES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yu. I. Sidorov

    2013-02-01

    Full Text Available The modern technical level of biogas technologies is considered, in particular in Ukraine. It is shown that in Ukraine the level of introduction of these technologies remains unsatisfactory. The main reason of such state is absence of the government program of development of sufficiently not profitable biogas industry, which again depends on availability of investment facilities including the state one. On the example of the company’s data Zorg Biogas AG, which is dominant in Ukraine among the foreign ones that offer their products using the technique of the net present value — NPV — it is shown insolvency of functioning of profitable biogas power plants. A conclusion is done about the necessity of orientation on own development in area of biogas technologies, State support and intensive technologies. The world level of modern intensive biogas technologies, in particular the use of the cogeneration plants.

  7. Biogas Production Potential from Waste in Timis County

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Teodor Vintila

    2012-05-01

    Full Text Available This work is a study of biogas production potential using as substrate the residues generated in the agricultural activities and the organic fraction from municipal wastes collected in Timis County. Data available in regional and national statistics have been reported to Timis County and used to calculate the potential quantity of biogas to be produced by anaerobic fermentation using as fermentable substrate residues generated in various human activities. To estimate the electric and thermal energy potential of the biogas, we considered the productivity of an average biogas plant couplet with a CHP unit with an efficiency of 40% net electric and 40% net thermal output and functioning 7500 hours per year. Processing data for the biogas production potential from livestock manure in Romania, we found that over 500 GWh of energy from biogas can be provided in one year. It is estimated that only half of the theoretical energy potential is technically usable by biogas investments. As for the crops residues, has been shown that the theoretical biogas potential is over 2900 GWh/year. Wastewater sludge can be converted in around 1700MWh/year, and the organic wastes available from municipal wastes can provide over 137 GWh/year. Another potential for renewable energy production in Timis County is the arable land uncultivated yearly, which can be used to cultivate energy crops, as raw material for biogas providing over 2800 GWh/year. All this quantity of biogas can be converted in numerous CHP biogas plants totaling an installed power of over 340 MWel. This potential can contribute to reach the target for 2020 in Romania to build biogas plants totaling at least 195 MWel. installed power, with an output of 950 GW electric power. 

  8. Treatment of Biogas for Use as Energy

    OpenAIRE

    Koller, J.

    2010-01-01

    The biogas generated in biogas plants offers significant potential for the production of energy from renewable energy sources. The number biogas plants in the Czech Republic is expected to exceed one hundred in the near future. Substrates from agriculture, industry and municipal wastes are used for biogas production. Biogas plants usually use co-generation units to generate electricity and heat. Increased effectiveness can be achieved by using heat as a source of energy for producing renewabl...

  9. Biogas. Present situation and future potential; Biogas. Nulaege och framtida potential

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nordberg, Ulf [Swedish Inst. of Agricultural and Environmental Engineering, Uppsala (Sweden)

    2006-12-15

    owners need to be improved increase the understanding of the whole management chain, agricultural production, transport, treatment and handling of biofertilizer. The number of production sites for biogas from landfills is decreasing and the amount of biogas from these is diminishing. The number of biogas plants for agricultural crops is likely to increase. Combination processes will increasingly develop towards extracting several different energy products and towards maximising the energy extraction from substrates.

  10. An Analysis of Biogas Reforming Process on Ni/YSZ and Ni/SDC Catalysts

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Janusz Szmyd

    2012-02-01

    Full Text Available The conversion of biogas to electricity presents an attractive niche application for fuel cells. Thus attempts have been made to use biogas as a fuel for high temperature fuel cell systems such as SOFC. Biogas can be converted to hydrogen-rich fuel in a reforming process. For hydrocarbon-based fuel, three types of fuel conversion can be considered in reforming reactions: an external reforming system, an indirect internal reforming system and a direct internal reforming system. High-temperature SOFC eliminates the need for an expensive external reforming system. The possibility of using internal reforming is one of the characteristics of high temperature fuel cells like SOFC. However, for high-temperature operation, thermal management of the SOFC system becomes an important issue. To properly carry out thermal management, both detailed modeling and numerical analyses of the phenomena occurring inside the SOFC system is required. In the present work, the process of reforming biogas on a Ni/YSZ and a Ni/SDC catalyst has been numerically and experimentally investigated. Measurements including different thermal boundary conditions, steam-to-carbon ratios and several different fuel compositions were taken. A numerical model containing methane/steam reforming reaction, dry reforming reaction and shift reaction has been proposed to predict the gas mixture composition at the outlet of the reformer. The results of the numerical computation were compared with experimental data and good agreement has been found. The results indicate the importance of combined, numerical and experimental studies in the design of SOFC reformers. The combined approach used leads to the successful prediction of the outlet gas composition for different modelling conditions.

  11. Biogas in the agriculture. State of the art. Proceedings; Biogas in der Landwirtschaft. Stand und Perspektiven. Tagungsband

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2009-07-01

    Within the meeting of the Association for Technology and Structures in Agriculture (Darmstadt, Federal Republic of Germany) and the Agency for Renewable Resources (Guelzow, Federal Republic of Germany) between 15th and 16th September, 2009, in Weimar the following lectures were held: (1) Results of the actual biogas measurement II (Peter Weiland); (2) Agitators in biogas plants - Technology with central significance (Kay Rostalski); (3) How much energy is needed by a biogas fermenter? (Ludwig Heinloth); (4) The fermentation concept of Rueckert NatUrgas GmbH (Claus Rueckert, Dominique Pfeufer); (5) Experiences from the construction for the practice of the company MT-Energie GmbH (Bodo Drescher); (6) Fermenter/technology concept of Schmack Biogas AG (Thomas Moeeslinger); (7) Transport of biomass - How much does the logistics of Guelle and Co. cost? (Thore Toews); (8) Which factors determine the efficiency of biogas plants? (Gerd Reinhold); (9) Microbial diversity in biogas reactors in the fermentation of renewable raw materials (Michael Klocke et al.); (10) What do additives and ingredients contribute to the optimisation of the production of biogas? (Udo Hoelker); (11) Process optimisation - An interaction between technology and microbiology (Andreas Gronauer et al.); (12) Emissions at the production of biogas - an analysis if the environmental relevance (Joachim Clemens et al.); (13) Support systems for energy plants - Consequences to soil and environment (Matthias Willms et al.); (14) How ecological is biogas? (Sven Gaertner); (15) Biogas plant - Analysis of construction and operation from licensing view (Hans-Walter Schneichel); (16) Biogas plants - Analysis of construction and operation from contractual legal view (Florian Valentin); (17) Biogasplants - Analysis of construction and operation from remuneration legal view (Helmut Loibl); (18) Process and costs of treatment of residues of fermentation (Sebastian Wulf, Helmut Doehler); (19) How do residues of

  12. Progress in biogas II - Biogas production from agricultural biomass and organic residues. Pt. 1. Proceedings; Progress in Biogas II - Biogasproduktion aus landwirtschaftlicher Biomasse und organischen Reststoffen. T. 1. Tagungsband

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2011-08-12

    biogas production - Methabe yield and energy balance (R. Bolduan); (19) Evaluation of a pre-treatment process for improved methane production from grass silage (A. Orozco); (20) Anaerobic fungi and biogas production (J. Prochazka); (21) Preservation of sugar beets for biogas production (A. Wagner); (22) Fibre, biogas and compost from banana agro-residues (leaves, pseudostem and rachis) by anaerobic digestion in plug flow type digester (H. Chanakya); (23) Extraction of biogas from waste products of he sugarcane industry (J. Rietzler); (24) Practical experiences with the digestion of straw in 2-stage AD plants - Extension of the value chain (W. Danner); (25) Improving biogas production on wastewater treatment plants by co-digestion of grass (D. Klein); (26) Generation of algal biomass for biogas production: energetic and environmental from a Life Cycle Assessment (LCA) perspective (F. Romagnoli); (27) Risk reduction in spreading plant pathogens by anaerobic digestion? First results from laboratory experiments (M. Heiermann); (28) Demand-oriented biogas production for the generation of peak load (R. Wallmann); (29) Investigation of mesophilic and thermophilic bioleaching method in a two-phase anaerobic digestion process (M. Schoenberg): (30) Efficient hydrogen fermentation for 2-stage anaerobic digestion processes: Conversion of sucrose containing substrates (S. Noebauer); (31) Process development of two-phase pressure formation - Influence of gas solubilities (A.-M. Wonneberger); (32) Benefits and limitations when treating liquid pig manure in an anaerobic membrane bioreactor (P. Messerl); (33) Experiences with continuous high-rate thermophilic dry anaerobic digestion of energy crops (L. De Baere); (34) The Sauter-biogas-system: spraying instead of stirring (S. Sauter); (35) Biogas production from raw palm oil mill effluent using a pilot-scale anaerobic hybrid reactor (C. Wangnai); (36) Eta max - the biogas power plant with high biological efficiency (M. Niederbacher); (37

  13. Methanogenesis in Thermophilic Biogas Reactors

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ahring, Birgitte Kiær

    1995-01-01

    Methanogenesis in thermophilic biogas reactors fed with different wastes is examined. The specific methanogenic activity with acetate or hydrogen as substrate reflected the organic loading of the specific reactor examined. Increasing the loading of thermophilic reactors stabilized the process...... as indicated by a lower concentration of volatile fatty acids in the effluent from the reactors. The specific methanogenic activity in a thermophilic pilot-plant biogas reactor fed with a mixture of cow and pig manure reflected the stability of the reactor. The numbers of methanogens counted by the most...... against Methanothrix soehngenii or Methanothrix CALS-I in any of the thermophilic biogas reactors examined. Studies using 2-14C-labeled acetate showed that at high concentrations (more than approx. 1 mM) acetate was metabolized via the aceticlastic pathway, transforming the methyl-group of acetate...

  14. Optimization of the coupled systems wastewater treatment plant / biogas plant. Implementation of power units in the simulation; Optimierung des gekoppelten Systems Klaer-/Biogasanlage. Einfuehrung von Energiebloecken in die Simulation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lindenthal, Wolfgang; Uhlenhut, F.; Steinigeweg, S.; Borchert, A. [Hochschule Emden/Leer (DE). Emder Institut fuer Umwelttechnik (EUTEC)

    2012-04-15

    Modern municipal wastewater treatment plants typically use the activated sludge process. To this, oxygen / air is introduced. In the subsequent anaerobic sludge digestion, a portion of the activated sludge is converted to biogas. In the field of wastewater treatment plant electrical energy is consumed. In the field of anaerobic digestion, chemical energy is made available. The operating parameters and control parameters usually are kept constant in order to ensure the predetermined discharge values. From this perspective, the author of the contribution under consideration reports on an improved and extended concept of model-based process control.

  15. Colloidal processing of porous membranes for biogas lighting; Processamento coloidal de membranas porosas para iIluminacao por biogas

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Santos, S.C.; Mello-Castanho, S.R.H., E-mail: silascs@ipen.br, E-mail: srmello@ipen.br [Instituto de Pesquisas Energeticas e Nucleares (IPEN/CNEN-SP), Sao Paulo (Brazil)

    2011-07-01

    Nowadays the urban garbage is a great economic and environmental challenge in the whole world. Solid wastes stored in continuous form in landfills are subject of natural variables, transforming them (by bioconversion) in biogas which can be used as energy font in many applications as urban lighting. However, technology to produce it has not been stabilized in Brazil yet. So, in this work porous membranes of rare earth -yttria concentrate (Ctr-Y) with potential to be used as biogas mantles were produced by replica method. The effect of solids and binder concentration on rheological behavior of Ctr-Y suspensions were evaluated by flux curves. According to the results, suspensions with 25vol% and 0,2wt% of CMC showed adequated viscosity and rheological behavior (thixotropy) for replica method. Sintered samples presented the same morphology of template and good handle strength. (author)

  16. Microbiology and Molecular Biology Tools for Biogas Process Analysis, Diagnosis and Control.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lebuhn, Michael; Weiß, Stefan; Munk, Bernhard; Guebitz, Georg M

    2015-01-01

    Many biotechnological processes such as biogas production or defined biotransformations are carried out by microorganisms or tightly cooperating microbial communities. Process breakdown is the maximum credible accident for the operator. Any time savings that can be provided by suitable early-warning systems and allow for specific countermeasures are of great value. Process disturbance, frequently due to nutritional shortcomings, malfunction or operational deficits, is evidenced conventionally by process chemistry parameters. However, knowledge on systems microbiology and its function has essentially increased in the last two decades, and molecular biology tools, most of which are directed against nucleic acids, have been developed to analyze and diagnose the process. Some of these systems have been shown to indicate changes of the process status considerably earlier than the conventionally applied process chemistry parameters. This is reasonable because the triggering catalyst is determined, activity changes of the microbes that perform the reaction. These molecular biology tools have thus the potential to add to and improve the established process diagnosis system. This chapter is dealing with the actual state of the art of biogas process analysis in practice, and introduces molecular biology tools that have been shown to be of particular value in complementing the current systems of process monitoring and diagnosis, with emphasis on nucleic acid targeted molecular biology systems.

  17. Basic data biogas Germany. Solid fuels, biofuels, biogas; Basisdaten Bioenergie Deutschland. Festbrennstoffe, Biokraftstoffe, Biogas

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2011-09-15

    The brochure ''Basic data biogas Germany'' gives statistical information about (a) renewable energies: primary energy consumption, power generation, energy supply, avoidance of greenhouse gases; (b) Solid fuels: energetic utilization, wood pellets, energy consumption, comparison to heating oil; (c) Biofuels: consumption, bioethanol, biodiesel, vegetable oils; (d) Biogas: biogas power plants, energy content, production, legal aspects.

  18. Basic data biogas Germany. Solid fuels, biofuels, biogas; Basisdaten Bioenergie Deutschland. Festbrennstoffe - Biokraftstoffe - Biogas

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2012-08-15

    The brochure ''Basic data biogas Germany'' gives statistical information about (a) renewable energies: primary energy consumption, power generation, energy supply, avoidance of greenhouse gases; (b) Solid fuels: energetic utilization, wood pellets, energy consumption, comparison to heating oil; (c) Biofuels: consumption, bioethanol, biodiesel, vegetable oils; (d) Biogas: biogas power plants, energy content, production, legal aspects.

  19. The safe construction and management of co-fermentation biogas plants. Existing knowledge, legislation and practical experiences; Het veilig bouwen en beheren van co-vergistingsinstallaties voor de productie van biogas. Bestaande kennis, regelgeving en praktijksituaties

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Heezen, P.A.M.; Mahesh, S.; Gooijer, L.

    2012-01-15

    For the production of biogas by co-fermentation, manure is mixed with organic waste products that can be fermented, such as harvesting residues and food remains. Since biogas possesses both flammable and toxic properties, large-scale production systems are always associated with potential safety risks. Biogas is a mixture of gases and has flammable properties due to the presence of methane (CH4). It is less well known that biogas also has toxic properties when it contains high levels of hydrogen sulfide (H2S). In a previous study, the RIVM recommended that standards pertaining to the minimum safety level be applied for the construction and operation of biogas production plants. A subsequent study by the RIVM concluded that the guideline 'Handreiking (co-)vergisting van mest' (InfoMil, 2010) provides a basic framework to achieve this recommended minimum safety level. The RIVM therefore recommends that this latter document be used and further supplemented with specific information for inspection and licensing authorities, the main users of this document. The composition of the biogas determines whether or not a specific installation falls within or outside the scope of certain (safety) legislation and, consequently, which specific safety regulations and safety inspections are mandatory. As a clear, consistent and predictable composition of biogas does not exist, stricter monitoring of biogas composition in the different compartments of the production plant is recommended. The current assessment of potential safety risks associated with the production of biogas is that these risks principally relate to those working at the biogas installation and are much less relevant to local residents. Further investigations are needed to determine if this is indeed the case [Dutch] Voor de productie van biogas door co-vergisting wordt mest vermengd met restanten van bijvoorbeeld oogsten of voedsel die kunnen vergisten. Biogas heeft brandbare en giftige eigenschappen

  20. The safe construction and management of co-fermentation biogas plants. Existing knowledge, legislation and practical experiences; Veilig bouwen en beheren van (co-)vergistingsinstallaties voor de productie van biogas. Bestaande kennis, regelgeving en praktijksituaties

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Heezen, P.A.M.; Mahesh, S.; Gooijer, L. [Rijksinstituut voor Volksgezondheid en Milieu RIVM, Bilthoven (Netherlands)

    2012-01-15

    For the production of biogas by co-fermentation, manure is mixed with organic waste products that can be fermented, such as harvesting residues and food remains. Since biogas possesses both flammable and toxic properties, large-scale production systems are always associated with potential safety risks. Biogas is a mixture of gases and has flammable properties due to the presence of methane (CH4). It is less well known that biogas also has toxic properties when it contains high levels of hydrogen sulfide (H2S). In a previous study, the RIVM recommended that standards pertaining to the minimum safety level be applied for the construction and operation of biogas production plants. A subsequent study by the RIVM concluded that the guideline 'Handreiking (co-)vergisting van mest' ('Manual co-fermentation of manure') provides a basic framework to achieve this recommended minimum safety level. The RIVM therefore recommends that this latter document be used and further supplemented with specific information for inspection and licensing authorities, the main users of this document. The composition of the biogas determines whether or not a specific installation falls within or outside the scope of certain (safety) legislation and, consequently, which specific safety regulations and safety inspections are mandatory. As a clear, consistent and predictable composition of biogas does not exist, stricter monitoring of biogas composition in the different compartments of the production plant is recommended. The current assessment of potential safety risks associated with the production of biogas is that these risks principally relate to those working at the biogas installation and are much less relevant to local residents. Further investigations are needed to determine if this is indeed the case [Dutch] Voor de productie van biogas door co-vergisting wordt mest vermengd met restanten van bijvoorbeeld oogsten of voedsel die kunnen vergisten. Biogas heeft

  1. BIOGAS TECHNOLOGY

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    D.B. SALUNKHE

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available Due to scarcity of petroleum and coal it threatens supply of fuel throughout the world also problem of their combustion leads to research in different corners to get access the new sources of energy, like renewable energy resources. Solar energy, wind energy, different thermal and hydro sources of energy, biogas are all renewable energy resources. But, biogas is distinct from other renewable energies because of its characteristics of using, controlling and collecting organic wastes and at the same time producing fertilizer and water for use in agricultural irrigation. Biogas does not have any geographical limitations nor does it require advanced technology for producing energy, also it is very simple to use and apply. Anaerobic digestion is controlled biological degradation process which allows efficient capturing & utilization of biogas (approximately 60% methane and 40% carbon dioxide for energy generation. Anaerobic digestion of food waste is achievable but different types, composition of food waste results in varying degrees of methane yields, and thus the effects of mixing various types of food waste and their proportions should be determined on case by case basis.

  2. COMPARISON BETWEEN BIOGAS PRODUCTION FROM MANURE OF LAYING HENERS AND BROILERS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Srećko Kukić

    2010-06-01

    Full Text Available Biogas plants that process raw materials from agriculture, such as poultry manure, are one of the most significant applications of anaerobic fermentation. In Asian countries, particularly in China, India, Nepal and Vietnam, there are several million very simple, small biogas plants that produce gas for household cooking and lighting. In Europe and North America a number of agricultural biogas plants now, are increasing daily, a few thousand biogas plants exist, most of which use modern technologies, anaerobic fermentation. The aim of this paper is to determine the possibility of biogas production from poultry manure with 10% of total solids and through the segments of the quality and quantity, determine the content of total solids (DM, volatile solids (OM, and the amount and composition of biogas. The aim was also to justify the use of poultry manure in biogas production and its application for specific purposes Laboratory research showed that 1 kg of poultry 10% of poultry manure produced 47.01 l of biogas during the 40 days of anaerobic fermentation under mezofilic conditions. Production of biogas has a good potential for development in Croatia, especially in the continental part. Usages of this technology are multiple because of the fact that the Republic of Croatia imports most of the energy. Usage of biogas would reduce the import of certain energy and thus reduce energy dependence; it would increase the number of employers and ease the obligation of Croatia toward EU in replacing some fossil fuels with renewable ones.

  3. Villacidro solar demo plant: Integration of small-scale CSP and biogas power plants in an industrial microgrid

    Science.gov (United States)

    Camerada, M.; Cau, G.; Cocco, D.; Damiano, A.; Demontis, V.; Melis, T.; Musio, M.

    2016-05-01

    The integration of small scale concentrating solar power (CSP) in an industrial district, in order to develop a microgrid fully supplied by renewable energy sources, is presented in this paper. The plant aims to assess in real operating conditions, the performance, the effectiveness and the reliability of small-scale concentrating solar power technologies in the field of distributed generation. In particular, the potentiality of small scale CSP with thermal storage to supply dispatchable electricity to an industrial microgrid will be investigated. The microgrid will be realized in the municipal waste treatment plant of the Industrial Consortium of Villacidro, in southern Sardinia (Italy), which already includes a biogas power plant. In order to achieve the microgrid instantaneous energy balance, the analysis of the time evolution of the waste treatment plant demand and of the generation in the existing power systems has been carried out. This has allowed the design of a suitable CSP plant with thermal storage and an electrochemical storage system for supporting the proposed microgrid. At the aim of obtaining the expected energy autonomy, a specific Energy Management Strategy, which takes into account the different dynamic performances and characteristics of the demand and the generation, has been designed. In this paper, the configuration of the proposed small scale concentrating solar power (CSP) and of its thermal energy storage, based on thermocline principle, is initially described. Finally, a simulation study of the entire power system, imposing scheduled profiles based on weather forecasts, is presented.

  4. Biogas charging and dissipating process and its accumulation in the Sebei gasfield,Qaidam Basin,China

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2008-01-01

    The Sebei gasfield is the largest biogas accumulation found in China and many reservoirs and seal rocks superposed on a syndepositional anticline in Quaternary.The biogas charging and dissipating process and its distribution have been a research focus for many years.The authors suggest a diffusing and accumulating model for the biogas,as they find that the shallower the gas producer,the more methane in the biogas,and the lighter stable carbon isotope composition of methane.Based on the diffusing model,diffused biogas is quantitatively estimated for each potential sandy reservoir in the gasfield,and the gas charging quantity for the sandy reservoir is also calculated by the diffused gas quantity plus gas reserve in-place.A ratio of diffusing quantity to charging quantity is postulated to describe biogas accumulating state in a sandy reservoir,if the ratio is less than 0.6,the reservoir forms a good gas-pool and high-production layer in the gasfield,which often occurs in the reservoirs deeper than 900 m;if the ratio is greater than 0.6,a few gas accumulated in the reservoir,which frequently exists in the reservoirs shallower than 900 m.Therefore,a biogas accumulation model is built up as lateral direct charging from gas source for the sands deeper than 900 m and indirect charging from lower gas-bearing sands by diffusion at depth shallower than 900 m.With this charging and diffusion quantitative model,the authors conducted re-evaluation on each wildcat in the central area of the Qaidam Basin,and found many commercial biogas layers.

  5. Terpenes removal from biogas; Terpenenverwijdering uit biogas

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Schulze, P.; Holstein, J.; De Haan, HR.; Vlap, H. [DNV KEMA, Arnhem (Netherlands)

    2013-06-15

    Biogas may contain unwanted and harmful components, including aromatic hydrocarbons such as terpenes. These terpenes (organic oils) are mainly present in citrus peel and plant residues; that is why especially raw biogas from organic waste digestion plants contains high concentrations of terpenes. If terpenes end up in the gas grid (with the injected biomethane) there is a risk that plastics (PE pipes) lose their mechanical properties by absorbing liquids or extracting ethereal plasticizers. This can lead to embrittlement greatly lowering the reliability of the piping. In addition, soft components are als o affected (gaskets and rubber O-rings). Besides the impact on the integrity of the gas grid, terpenes also mask the odor of natural gas odorants such as THT. This impedes the detection of gas leaks which is a significant security risk. Furthermore, the presence of terpenes in biogas leads to fouling of equipment used for the drying of biomethane, as well as contamination of adsorption liquids and membranes used in the upgrading process. Currently, terpenes are removed by activated carbon filters. The tool life of such a filter can be relatively short if terpene concentrations are high in the biogas; this results in a significant increase of the operational costs, due to the replacement of the carbon. This study looked at alternative techniques for removing much of the terpenes from biogas in a simple, efficient and cheap way. In a workshop with stakeholders two techniques were chosen to be tested on laboratory scale in order to demonstrate the proof of principle. These techniques are photo-oxydation and a gas scrubbing. Of all investigated techniques for the removal of limonene the application of UV radiation seems to be the most promising option because of the simplicity of the process, the high efficiency (up to 94%), the comparable operational costs with activated carbon (6.7 to 9.5 euro/kg limonene removed, compared to 10 euro/kg limonene removed for activated

  6. An energy audit with a view to harnessing the biogas generated in various sewage plants in the Autonomous Region of Valencia, Spain; Auditoria energetica para el aprovechamiento del biogas generado en diversas EDARs de la comunidad valenciana

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Morenilla Martinez, J. J.; Ruano Martinez, N.; Garces Castanares, J.

    1999-05-01

    Waste water treatment by means of biological treatment and anaerobic digestion needs the supply of electric and calorific power. An important part of the electric power and almost the totally of the heating power can be generated in a cogeneration plant making use of the biogas produced. This study has been based on the evaluation of the viability of developing these installations in many Waste Water Treatment Plants in the Valencia region, allowing the obtainance of a high power yield (74%) and avoiding the consumption of 1.707 Tep/a, the equivalent of the biogas energy content. (Author)

  7. Storage of catch crops to produce biogas

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Molinuevo-Salces, Beatriz; Ahring, Birgitte Kiær; Uellendahl, Hinrich

    2014-01-01

    Catch crop biomass is a promising co-substrate for manure-based biogas plants in Denmark since the cultivation of catch crops is mandatory to retain nutrients in the soil, contributing to protect the aquatic environment. In general, the growth period for catch crops is from harvest of the previous...... crop in July-August to the end of the growing season and harvest in late October. Hence, for use of the biomass in biogas production there is a need for storage of the biomass. Storage as silage would guarantee the availability of the feedstock for biogas production during the whole year. A proper...... ensiling process determines the storage loss and the quality of the final silage and, thus, the possible use of it as a substrate for biogas production. Moreover, silage has been considered as a pre-treatment since it partially hydrolyses organic matter improving cellulose convertibility. Since a large...

  8. A biogas plant for the digestion of distillery residue in combination with waste water treatment; Biogasanlage fuer die Vergaerung von Destillationsrueckstaenden in Kombination mit der Abwasserreinigung

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Voigtlaender, A.; Vetter, H.

    2001-07-01

    This report for the Swiss Federal Office of Energy (SFOE) describes a project at a Swiss food-processing company that produces fruit juices and beverages containing fruit components. The company uses an anaerobic pre-treatment plant to treat effluents before they are discharged to a local municipal waste water treatment plant (WWTP). The report describes the installation, which generates biogas that is used to provide heating energy for the processes used in the extraction process. The monitoring and measurement system is described and figures are quoted for energy production in the company's facilities. Also, the energy savings in the local WWTP resulting from the reduced energy consumption of the aeration blowers as a result of the pre-treatment of the wastes are discussed. Operational aspects of the installation are examined. including temperature effects on the digestion process, control strategies and waste air treatment.

  9. The effect of maize silage as co-substrate for swine manure on the bacterial community structure in biogas plants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fliegerová, K; Mrázek, J; Kajan, M; Podmirseg, S M; Insam, H

    2012-07-01

    The qualitative and quantitative changes in the bacterial community composition in two mesophilic, commercially used biogas plants were monitored by denaturing gradient gel electrophoresis (DGGE) and real-time PCR. The main objective was to evaluate the influence of the co-substrate maize silage on total bacteria and some selected bacterial groups by comparing full-scale reactors fed solely with pig manure or additionally with maize silage. DGGE fingerprints reflected shifts in the bacterial community structure associated with maize silage as co-substrate and the real-time PCR results showed clear changes in the quantitative composition of the bacterial consortia of each fermenter. A clear dominance of Clostridia in all surveyed fermenters and considerably lower abundance of Bacteroidetes in the biogas plant fed with maize silage was shown.

  10. Use of biogas biscuit meal EKPO-EB for agricultural biogas plant for substitution of energy crops utilization with organic waste

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chamrádová Kateřina

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available A laboratory experiment of two-stage mesophilic, low-dry mass, anaerobic digestion was carried out, focused on verifying the benefit of processing the biscuit meal EKPO-EB instead of triticale silage Agostino (GPS and corn silage LG3266 in a regular batch for the agricultural biogas station in Pustějov. While anaerobic digestion of ensilages is largely difficult due to the content of lignocellulose, biscuit meal provides a high yield of biogas or methane, respectively, thanks to its high content of simple saccharides and lipids. When the original GPS (or the replacement EKPO-EB, respectively represented 0.81% of weight of the daily input mixture dose for the first stage, the rise in volumetric methane production was 20% which is significant. The biscuit meal EKPO-EB decomposes almost completely in the first stage. Later, when the EKPO-EB represented 1.63% of weight of the daily input mixture dose for the first stage, the rise in volumetric methane production was 54% in the first stage and 16% in the second stage.

  11. Effects of chemical compositions and ensiling on the biogas productivity and degradation rates of agricultural and food processing by-products.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kafle, Gopi Krishna; Kim, Sang Hun

    2013-08-01

    The objective of this study was to investigate the effects of chemical compositions and ensiling on the biogas productivity and degradation rates of agricultural and food processing by-products (AFPBPs) using the biogas potential test. The AFPBPs were classified based on their chemical compositions (i.e., carbohydrate, protein and fat contents). The biogas and methane potentials of AFPBPs were calculated to range from 450 to 777 mL/g volatile solids (VS) and 260-543 mL/g VS, respectively. AFPBPs with high fat and protein contents produced significantly higher amounts of biogas than AFPBPs with high carbohydrate and low fat contents. The degradation rate was faster for AFPBPs with high carbohydrate contents compared to AFPBPs with high protein and fat contents. The lag phase and biogas production duration were lower when using ensiled AFPBPs than when using nonsilage AFPBPs. Among the four different silages tested, two silages significantly improved biogas production compared to the nonsilage AFPBPs.

  12. Short-term effect of acetate and ethanol on methane formation in biogas sludge.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Refai, Sarah; Wassmann, Kati; Deppenmeier, Uwe

    2014-08-01

    Biochemical processes in biogas plants are still not fully understood. Especially, the identification of possible bottlenecks in the complex fermentation processes during biogas production might provide potential to increase the performance of biogas plants. To shed light on the question which group of organism constitutes the limiting factor in the anaerobic breakdown of organic material, biogas sludge from different mesophilic biogas plants was examined under various conditions. Therefore, biogas sludge was incubated and analyzed in anaerobic serum flasks under an atmosphere of N2/CO2. The batch reactors mirrored the conditions and the performance of the full-scale biogas plants and were suitable test systems for a period of 24 h. Methane production rates were compared after supplementation with substrates for syntrophic bacteria, such as butyrate, propionate, or ethanol, as well as with acetate and H2+CO2 as substrates for methanogenic archaea. Methane formation rates increased significantly by 35 to 126 % when sludge from different biogas plants was supplemented with acetate or ethanol. The stability of important process parameters such as concentration of volatile fatty acids and pH indicate that ethanol and acetate increase biogas formation without affecting normally occurring fermentation processes. In contrast to ethanol or acetate, other fermentation products such as propionate, butyrate, or H2 did not result in increased methane formation rates. These results provide evidence that aceticlastic methanogenesis and ethanol-oxidizing syntrophic bacteria are not the limiting factor during biogas formation, respectively, and that biogas plant optimization is possible with special focus on methanogenesis from acetate.

  13. Scenedesmus dimorphus (Turpin) Kützing growth with digestate from biogas plant in outdoor bag photobioreactors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barbato, F; Venditti, A; Bianco, A; Guarcini, L; Bottari, E; Festa, M R; Cogliani, E; Pignatelli, V

    2016-01-01

    Digestate coming from an Anaerobic Digestion unit in a Biogas Plant, feeded on cow manure and vegetable waste from markets, has been used. About 8-35 L polyethylene transparent bags have been employed as cultivation container, outdoor. Different aliquots of digestate, alone or mixed with commercial liquid fertiliser, were employed to cultivate in batch Scenedesus dimorphus, a freshwater green microalga, in the ENEA facilities of Casaccia Research Center, near Rome, Italy. The cultivation period was June-July 2013. The average daily yields of dry microalgae biomass varied from 20 mg/L/d to 60 mg/L/d, mean 38.2 mg/L/d. Final dry biomass concentration varied from 0.18 to 1.29 g/L, mean 0.55 g/L. S. dimorphus proved to be very efficient in removing N and P from the culture medium. Another fact emerged from these trials is that S. dimorphus inner composition resulted to be variable in response to the tested different culture conditions.

  14. Isolation of acetic, propionic and butyric acid-forming bacteria from biogas plants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cibis, Katharina Gabriela; Gneipel, Armin; König, Helmut

    2016-02-20

    In this study, acetic, propionic and butyric acid-forming bacteria were isolated from thermophilic and mesophilic biogas plants (BGP) located in Germany. The fermenters were fed with maize silage and cattle or swine manure. Furthermore, pressurized laboratory fermenters digesting maize silage were sampled. Enrichment cultures for the isolation of acid-forming bacteria were grown in minimal medium supplemented with one of the following carbon sources: Na(+)-dl-lactate, succinate, ethanol, glycerol, glucose or a mixture of amino acids. These substrates could be converted by the isolates to acetic, propionic or butyric acid. In total, 49 isolates were obtained, which belonged to the phyla Firmicutes, Tenericutes or Thermotogae. According to 16S rRNA gene sequences, most isolates were related to Clostridium sporosphaeroides, Defluviitoga tunisiensis and Dendrosporobacter quercicolus. Acetic, propionic or butyric acid were produced in cultures of isolates affiliated to Bacillus thermoamylovorans, Clostridium aminovalericum, Clostridium cochlearium/Clostridium tetani, C. sporosphaeroides, D. quercicolus, Proteiniborus ethanoligenes, Selenomonas bovis and Tepidanaerobacter sp. Isolates related to Thermoanaerobacterium thermosaccharolyticum produced acetic, butyric and lactic acid, and isolates related to D. tunisiensis formed acetic acid. Specific primer sets targeting 16S rRNA gene sequences were designed and used for real-time quantitative PCR (qPCR). The isolates were physiologically characterized and their role in BGP discussed.

  15. The use of co-digested solid fraction as feedstock for biogas plants

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Elio Dinuccio

    2014-02-01

    Full Text Available A comparative study was set up in order to assess the technical feasibility of the long-term reuse of the mechanically separated co-digested solid fraction as a feedstock for anaerobic digestion plants (ADP. The biogas yields of two feedstock mixtures (A and B were assessed in mesophilic conditions (40°C±2°C using 6 lab-scale continuous stirredtank reactors. Feedstock mixture A (control consisted of pig slurry (70%, farmyard manure (4%, sorghum silage (12% and maize silage (14%. Feedstock mixture B was the same as the control plus the solid fraction derived from the mechanical separation of the output raw codigestate collected from the reactors. All reactors were fed simultaneously, three times a week, over a period of nine month. According to the study results, the reuse of the co-digested solid fraction as feedstock for ADP could increase the methane yield by approximately 4%. However, ADP efficiency evaluation (e.g., daily yield of methane per m3 of digester suggests limiting this practice to a maximum time period of 120 days.

  16. The use of co-digested solid fraction as feedstock for biogas plants

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    E. Dinuccio

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available A comparative study was set up in order to assess the technical feasibility of the long-term reuse of the mechanically separated co-digested solid fraction as a feedstock for anaerobic digestion plants (ADP. The biogas yields of two feedstock mixtures (A and B were assessed in mesophilic conditions (40 °C ± 2 °C using 8 lab-scale continuous stirred-tank reactors (CSRT. Feedstock mixture A (control consisted of pig slurry (70%, farmyard manure (4%, sorghum silage (12% and maize silage (14%. Feedstock mixture B was the same as the control plus the solid fraction derived from the mechanical separation of the output raw co-digestate collected on daily basis from the reactors. All reactors were fed simultaneously, three times a week, over a period of nine month. According to the study results, the reuse of the co-digested solid fraction as feedstock for ADP could increase the methane yield by approximately 4%. However, ADP efficiency evaluation (e.g., daily yield of methane per m3 of digester suggest to limit this practice to a maximum time period of 120 days.

  17. A highly thermoactive and salt-tolerant α-amylase isolated from a pilot-plant biogas reactor.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jabbour, Dina; Sorger, Anneke; Sahm, Kerstin; Antranikian, Garabed

    2013-04-01

    Aiming at the isolation of novel enzymes from previously uncultured thermophilic microorganisms, a metagenome library was constructed from DNA isolated from a pilot-plant biogas reactor operating at 55 °C. The library was screened for starch-degrading enzymes, and one active clone was found. An open reading frame of 1,461 bp encoding an α-amylase from an uncultured organism was identified. The amy13A gene was cloned in Escherichia coli, resulting in high-level expression of the recombinant amylase. The novel enzyme Amy13A showed the highest sequence identity (75%) to α-amylases from Petrotoga mobilis and Halothermothrix orenii. Amy13A is highly thermoactive, exhibiting optimal activity at 80 °C, and it is also highly salt-tolerant, being active in 25% (w/v) NaCl. Amy13A is one of the few enzymes that tolerate high concentrations of salt and elevated temperatures, making it a potential candidate for starch processing under extreme conditions.

  18. Solid-state anaerobic co-digestion of hay and soybean processing waste for biogas production.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhu, Jiying; Zheng, Yi; Xu, Fuqing; Li, Yebo

    2014-02-01

    Co-digestion of soybean processing waste (SPW) and hay in solid-state anaerobic digestion (SS-AD) for biogas production was investigated. Effects of the SPW to hay ratio, feedstock to effluent (inoculum) ratio, premixing of effluent with feedstock, and leachate recirculation on biogas production via SS-AD were studied. The highest methane yield of 258 L/kg VS was obtained with a SPW/hay ratio of 75:25 and feedstock/effluent (F/E) ratio of 3, which was 148% and 50% higher than that of 100% SPW and 100% hay, respectively. Increasing the F/E ratio from 1 to 5 decreased methane yield, however the highest volumetric methane yield (16.2L/L reactor) was obtained at an F/E of 3. There was no significant difference in methane yields between premixing 50% and 100% of the effluent. Leachate recirculation significantly accelerated the SS-AD start-up process when effluent was not completely premixed.

  19. Biogas container - mobile plant concept for the decentralized power generation; Biogascontainer. Mobiles Anlagenkonzept zur dezentralen Energiegewinnung

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Warncke, Jessica; Orth, Maik [Innovations- und Bildungszentrum Hohen Luckow e.V., Hohen Luckow (Germany); Schlegel, Mathias [Rostock Univ. (Germany); Steinhagen, Katrin [ROSOMA GmbH, Rostock-Marienehe (Germany)

    2011-07-01

    In the framework of a cooperation project of the Federal Ministry of Economics and Technology was developed a small biogas system, that is concepted in the order of a 40-foot standard container, that is modular structured, works energy-independent and optional can be used mobile. First rank the system was designed for biogas production in developing and emerging countries. Now there are inter alia also concrete inquiries of german partners. (orig.)

  20. Biogas in Burkina Faso. Influential factors of biogas projects in rural areas of Burkina Faso

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Aschaber, Andreas

    2010-07-01

    Full text: Burkina Faso is among the poorest countries in the world. The energy situation in Burkina Faso is among the most critical issues which need to be addressed in the country. The electrical power grid is insufficient and only available in urban centers. Consequently wood and charcoal is used in order to meet the basic needs for heating, cooking, and lightning by the majority of the population. The resulting overuse of natural energy resources in Burkina Faso has been causing massive deforestation and desertification on the one hand and on the other hand scarcity in fuel wood availability. According to a recent feasibility study of the GTZ, biogas is thought to be one of the most sustainable solutions for developing energy self sufficiency in rural areas of Burkina Faso. Biogas is not a new concept in Burkina Faso, as the first biogas plants were already installed in the 70's. Recently a national biogas program and the activity of various NGOs lead to a rejuvenation of attempts to establish biogas in Burkina Faso. Although biogas has a long history in Burkina Faso, no significant breakthrough of this technology has happened so far. None of the biogas plants built during the last 40 years have been operational for a long time. This contribution presents a study aimed to analyze the partial success and failures of the attempts to install biogas plants so far. The study was conducted in May 2009 as part of a project for a model application of the technology in the frame of University cooperation between Austria (University of Innsbruck) and Burkina Faso (Universite Polytechnique du Bobo Dioulasso). During the field study four sites of existing biogas plants were visited, five interviews with experts conducted and two focus groups with potential users in a rural setting were conducted. The systemic approach, including technical as well as socioeconomic aspects, yielded a wealth of factors which can potentially influence the success of biogas projects in

  1. Floating geomembrane cover improves biogas collection

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    McMahon, J.

    2009-07-15

    Canadian corn products refiner, Casco Inc., recently upgraded a wastewater anaerobic digester at its automated corn wet milling facility on the St. Lawrence River, in Cardinal Ontario. The upgrade includes an improved floating and insulated geomembrane cover, designed and installed by Geomembrane Technologies Inc. The cover effectively streamlines biogas collection, improves biogas odour control and optimizes bioreactor heat retention. Casco's bulk volume fermenter (BVF) was designed and built in 1988 by ADI Systems Inc. It is limited to receiving 641,000 gallons of wastewater per day from several areas of the plant. Wastewater sludge is usually treated by anaerobic digestion. At Casco, raw solids are added directly to the BVF bioreactor, where they are digested, minimizing waste sludge handling. In essence, anaerobic digestion is a renewable energy source which converts wastewater to a methane- and carbon dioxide-rich biogas suitable for energy production, replacing fossil fuels. The insulated geomembrane cover captures and reclaims all the biogas from the treatment process that is going on inside the tank. Without a cover, the biogas would be released to the atmosphere. The new geomembrane cover collects an average of 236,000 cubic feet of biogas per day, at a 65 per cent methane concentration, from the BVF bioreactor. 2 figs.

  2. Biogas Production Modelling: A Control System Engineering Approach

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stollenwerk, D.; Rieke, C.; Dahmen, M.; Pieper, M.

    2016-03-01

    Due to the Renewable Energy Act, in Germany it is planned to increase the amount of renewable energy carriers up to 60%. One of the main problems is the fluctuating supply of wind and solar energy. Here biogas plants provide a solution, because a demand-driven supply is possible. Before running such a plant, it is necessary to simulate and optimize the process feeding strategy. Current simulation models are either very detailed like the ADM 1, which leads to very long optimization runtimes or not accurate enough to handle the biogas production kinetics. Therefore this paper provides a new model of a biogas plant, which is easy to parametrize but also has the needed accuracy for the output prediction. It is based on the control system approach of system identification and validated with laboratory results of a real biogas production testing facility.

  3. Large size biogas-fed Solid Oxide Fuel Cell power plants with carbon dioxide management: Technical and economic optimization

    Science.gov (United States)

    Curletti, F.; Gandiglio, M.; Lanzini, A.; Santarelli, M.; Maréchal, F.

    2015-10-01

    This article investigates the techno-economic performance of large integrated biogas Solid Oxide Fuel Cell (SOFC) power plants. Both atmospheric and pressurized operation is analysed with CO2 vented or captured. The SOFC module produces a constant electrical power of 1 MWe. Sensitivity analysis and multi-objective optimization are the mathematical tools used to investigate the effects of Fuel Utilization (FU), SOFC operating temperature and pressure on the plant energy and economic performances. FU is the design variable that most affects the plant performance. Pressurized SOFC with hybridization with a gas turbine provides a notable boost in electrical efficiency. For most of the proposed plant configurations, the electrical efficiency ranges in the interval 50-62% (LHV biogas) when a trade-off of between energy and economic performances is applied based on Pareto charts obtained from multi-objective plant optimization. The hybrid SOFC is potentially able to reach an efficiency above 70% when FU is 90%. Carbon capture entails a penalty of more 10 percentage points in pressurized configurations mainly due to the extra energy burdens of captured CO2 pressurization and oxygen production and for the separate and different handling of the anode and cathode exhausts and power recovery from them.

  4. Experiences with biogas in Denmark

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bundgaard, Sirid Sif; Kofoed-Wiuff, Anders

    This report is primarily based on the work of the Danish biogas task force, which was established as a result of the Energy Agreement of 22 March 2012. The purpose of the task force is to examine and support concrete biogas projects in order to facilitate the projected biogas development up to 2020....... The focus of the task force was on the practical integration of the new biogas production in energy system, including the utilization of gas, the necessary infrastructure and contractual relationships. The aim was to ensure effective and appropriate integration of biogas in the Danish energy supply, which...... was consistent with the policy objectives, both in regards to current challenges for specific biogas plants and the role of biogas flexible renewable energy form on longer term. The task force's final report was published in 2014....

  5. Improving biogas yields using an innovative pretreatment concept for conversion of the fiber fraction of manure

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Biswas, Rajib; Uellendahl, Hinrich; Ahring, Birgitte Kiær

    A new concept to enable economically feasible operation of manure based biogas plants was tested in lab-scale. Wet explosion (WEx) was implemented as treatment of the residual manure fibers separated after the anaerobic digestion process for enhancing the biogas production before reintroducing...

  6. New purification and upgrading technologies for biogas; Nya renings- och uppgraderingstekniker foer biogas

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Johan Benjaminsson [Linkoeping Univ. (Sweden)

    2006-04-15

    Biogas is a renewable energy source that is produced by anaerobic digestion of organic material. In Sweden, biogas predominately comes from sewage water sludge and landfills or from organic waste of households and industries. Small scale digestion plants at farms are especially expected to contribute to increased biogas production in the future. Biogas can be obtained directly in its raw form and used as fuel in a combustion chamber. However, gas engines require biogas purification from hydrogen sulphide and drying from water to avoid corrosion. In order to increase the calorific value, carbon dioxide is separated and the Swedish Standard Type A requires the methane content to be 97 % for vehicle gas. In the gas treatment process from biogas to vehicle gas, the upgrading step when carbon dioxide is separated represents the highest cost since conventional upgrading techniques require high investments. This makes the upgrading costs for smaller biogas plants relatively high. In this master thesis, six upgrading methods have been evaluated and four of them are expected to be commercialized within two years. The following upgrading methods are of interest for Sweden: - In situ methane enrichment; air desorbs carbon dioxide from the sludge in a desorption column. The method is intended for digestion of sewage water sludge and the total upgrading cost is approximately 0,13 kr/kWh by a raw biogas flow 62,5 Nm{sup 3}/h. - Small scale water scrubber; carbon dioxide is absorbed in water under enhanced pressure. The upgrading process is very similar to the conventional water scrubbing technique and the total upgrading cost is approximately 0,42 kr/kWh by a raw biogas flow of 12 Nm{sup 3}/h. - Cryogenic upgrading; the biogas is chilled to under -85 deg C under a pressure of at least 5,2 barg and carbon dioxide can be separated in the liquid phase. The total upgrading cost is approximately 0,12 kr/kWh by a raw biogas flow of 150 Nm{sup 3}/h. The total upgrading cost can be

  7. Environmental and economic analysis of application of water hyacinth for eutrophic water treatment coupled with biogas production.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Zanxin; Calderon, Margaret M

    2012-11-15

    The proliferation of water hyacinth is currently controlled by removing it from a water body and disposing it by landfill in China. Using water hyacinth to remove nutrients from water bodies and to produce biogas is another technically feasible option for the control of water hyacinth, but its environmental and economic performances are not well understood. This study collected data from an experimental biogas plant to develop a lifecycle analysis and a cost benefit analysis for the control of water hyacinth proliferation in a eutrophic lake in China. Comparison was made between the alternative option of using water hyacinth for biogas production and the current practice of disposing it in landfills. The results reveal that the biogas option is economically feasible with a positive energy balance. The removal of water hyacinth to produce biogas can contribute to water quality improvement and GHG emission reduction whose values, however, depend on the processing scale of the biogas plant. Since both the current approach and the biogas option can remove nutrients from water bodies, the additional value of water quality improvement resulting from the biogas option is only possible when the processing scale of the biogas plant is greater than the amount of water hyacinth disposed by landfill. The emission of methane deserves attention when water hyacinth is disposed by landfill. The biogas option can respond to China's policies on water pollution control, renewable energy development, and energy saving and emission reduction.

  8. The use of biogas plant fermentation residue for the stabilisation of toxic metals in agricultural soils

    Science.gov (United States)

    Geršl, Milan; Šotnar, Martin; Mareček, Jan; Vítěz, Tomáš; Koutný, Tomáš; Kleinová, Jana

    2015-04-01

    Our department has been paying attention to different methods of soil decontamination, including the in situ stabilisation. Possible reagents to control the toxic metals mobility in soils include a fermentation residue (FR) from a biogas plant. Referred to as digestate, it is a product of anaerobic decomposition taking place in such facilities. The fermentation residue is applied to soils as a fertiliser. A new way of its use is the in situ stabilisation of toxic metals in soils. Testing the stabilisation of toxic metals made use of real soil samples sourced from five agriculturally used areas of the Czech Republic with 3 soil samples taken from sites contaminated with Cu, Pb and Zn and 2 samples collected at sites of natural occurrence of Cu, Pb and Zn ores. All the samples were analysed using the sequential extraction procedure (BCR) (determine the type of Cu, Pb and Zn bonds). Stabilisation of toxic metals was tested in five soil samples by adding reagents as follows: dolomite, slaked lime, goethite, compost and fermentation residue. A single reagent was added at three different concentrations. In the wet state with the added reagents, the samples were left for seven days, shaken twice per day. After seven days, metal extraction was carried out: samples of 10 g soil were shaken for 2 h in a solution of 0.1M NH4NO3 at a 1:2.5 (g.ml-1), centrifuged for 15 min at 5,000 rpm and then filtered through PTFE 0.45 μm mesh filters. The extracts were analysed by ICP-OES. Copper The best reduction of Cu concentration in the extract was obtained at each of the tested sites by adding dolomite (10 g soil + 0.3 g dolomite). The concentration of Cu in the leachate decreased to 2.1-18.4% compare with the leachate without addition. Similar results were also shown for the addition of fermentation residue (10 g soil + 1 g FR). The Cu concentration in the leachate decreased to 16.7-26.8% compared with the leachate without addition. Lead The best results were achieved by adding

  9. Biogas Production on Demand Regulated by Butyric Acid Addition

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kasper, K.; Schiffels, J.; Krafft, S.; Kuperjans, I.; Elbers, G.; Selmer, T.

    2016-03-01

    Investigating effects of volatile fatty acids on the biogas process it was observed that butyric acid can be used for transient stimulation of the methane production in biogas plants operating with low energy substrates like cattle manure. Upon addition of butyrate the methane output of the reactors doubled within 24 h and reached almost 3-times higher methane yields within 3-4 days. Butyrate was quantitatively eliminated and the reactors returned to the original productivity state within 3 days when application of butyrate was stopped. The opportunity to use butyrate feeding for increased biogas production on demand is discussed.

  10. A novel process for ethanol or biogas production from cellulose in blended-fibers waste textiles.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jeihanipour, Azam; Karimi, Keikhosro; Niklasson, Claes; Taherzadeh, Mohammad J

    2010-12-01

    A novel process has been developed for separation of the cellulose, i.e. cotton and viscose, from blended-fibers waste textiles. An environmentally friendly cellulose solvent, N-methylmorpholine-N-oxide (NMMO) was used in this process for separation and pretreatment of the cellulose. This solvent was mixed with blended-fibers textiles at 120 °C and atmospheric pressure to dissolve the cellulose and separate it from the undissolved non-cellulosic fibers. Water was then added to the solution in order to precipitate the cellulose, while both water and NMMO were reused after separation by evaporation. The cellulose was then either hydrolyzed by cellulase enzymes followed by fermentation to ethanol, or digested directly to produce biogas. The process was verified by testing 50/50 polyester/cotton and 40/60 polyester/viscose-blended textiles. The polyesters were purified as fibers after the NMMO treatments, and up to 95% of the cellulose fibers were regenerated and collected on a filter. A 2-day enzymatic hydrolysis and 1-day fermentation of the regenerated cotton and viscose resulted in 48 and 50 g ethanol/g regenerated cellulose, which were 85% and 89% of the theoretical yields, respectively. This process also resulted in a significant increase of the biogas production rate. While untreated cotton and viscose fibers were converted to methane by respectively, 0.02% and 1.91% of their theoretical yields in 3 days of digestion, the identical NMMO-treated fibers resulted into about 30% of yield at the same period of time.

  11. Optimal integration of energy at the Combined Energy Plant in Norrkoeping -Integration of steam, hot water and district heat to biogas plants; Optimal integrering av energianvaendningen vid energikombinatet i Norrkoeping -Integrering av aanga, hetvatten och fjaerrvaerme till biogasanlaeggningar

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Benjaminsson, Johan; Goldschmidt, Barbara; Uddgren, Roger

    2010-09-15

    The background of this report is to investigate and highlight the benefits of establishing a biogas plant nearby a combined energy plant where steam and district heat is available. By using heat from the combined energy plant, more biogas can be produced as vehicle fuel instead of being used as fuel to heat the digester, the biogas upgrading plant or the dryer. The project's objective is to analyze where it is interesting with integration of heat to the biogas plant and to compare alternative technologies and possible integration options. The stakeholders of the study are industries with access to organic matter for biogas production and heat producers who can deliver thermal energy into biogas plants. The project was implemented by collection of information from the Haendeloe combined energy plant outside Norrkoeping where there is a cogeneration plant, an ethanol plant and a biogas plant. Case studies for the study have been carried out with proposals regarding how heat flows from the power plant and ethanol plant can be further integrated with the biogas plant. As case studies, both the current design of the biogas plant, as well as a fictional case in which half of all distillery residues was digested, have been evaluated. The case studies show that in today's biogas plant it is not economical to replace the existing biogas upgrading unit with water absorption to chemical absorption. The upgrading cost with water absorption at today's smaller facility is 0.11 kr/kWh and in order to obtain the same total cost of chemical absorption a steam price of 0.15 kr/kWh is required. For large gas flows, chemical absorption is an advantage since the technology is more suitable for upscaling in comparison with water absorption that must be delivered in multiple lines. Nevertheless, a possibility to recover waste heat from chemical absorption is necessary if the technology shall be competitive. If waste heat from both water absorption and chemical absorption

  12. Biogas production from vietnamese animal manure, plant residues and organic waste: influence of biomass composition on methane yield.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cu, T T T; Nguyen, T X; Triolo, J M; Pedersen, L; Le, V D; Le, P D; Sommer, S G

    2015-02-01

    Anaerobic digestion is an efficient and renewable energy technology that can produce biogas from a variety of biomasses such as animal manure, food waste and plant residues. In developing countries this technology is widely used for the production of biogas using local biomasses, but there is little information about the value of these biomasses for energy production. This study was therefore carried out with the objective of estimating the biogas production potential of typical Vietnamese biomasses such as animal manure, slaughterhouse waste and plant residues, and developing a model that relates methane (CH4) production to the chemical characteristics of the biomass. The biochemical methane potential (BMP) and biomass characteristics were measured. Results showed that piglet manure produced the highest CH4 yield of 443 normal litter (NL) CH4 kg(-1) volatile solids (VS) compared to 222 from cows, 177 from sows, 172 from rabbits, 169 from goats and 153 from buffaloes. Methane production from duckweed (Spirodela polyrrhiza) was higher than from lawn grass and water spinach at 340, 220, and 110.6 NL CH4 kg(-1) VS, respectively. The BMP experiment also demonstrated that the CH4 production was inhibited with chicken manure, slaughterhouse waste, cassava residue and shoe-making waste. Statistical analysis showed that lipid and lignin are the most significant predictors of BMP. The model was developed from knowledge that the BMP was related to biomass content of lipid, lignin and protein from manure and plant residues as a percentage of VS with coefficient of determination (R-square) at 0.95. This model was applied to calculate the CH4 yield for a household with 17 fattening pigs in the highlands and lowlands of northern Vietnam.

  13. Biogas conference - biogas plants in a deregulated electricity market. Technology and perspectives. Documentation; Biogastagung - Biogasanlagen im liberalisierten Strommarkt. Technik und Perspektiven. Dokumentation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2000-07-01

    The biogas meeting deals with engineering and perspectives of biomass fermentation to methane. Main topics were: financial opportunities for agriculture, engineering, hygienization, use of dung and liquid manures, power generation and market.

  14. Biogas in the natural gas distribution network; Biogas til nettet

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kvist Jensen, T.

    2009-05-15

    With the Danish 'Thorsoe Biogas Plant' as reference case, an assessment of the possibility of using the existing natural gas distribution network for distributing biogas was carried out. Technologies for and cost of upgrading biogas to natural gas quality are presented. Furthermore, a socio-economic analysis has been performed, including the Danish financial conditions, the market models, and the role of the natural gas distribution companies.

  15. Nutrient balance of a two-phase solid manure biogas plant

    OpenAIRE

    Schäfer, Winfried; Evers, Lars; Lehto, Marja; Sorvala, Sanna; Teye, Frederick; Granstedt, Artur

    2005-01-01

    So called "dry fermentation" prototype plants for anaerobic digestion of organic material containing 15-50 % total solids show added advantages compared to slurry digestion plants (Hoffman 2001): Less reactor volume, less process energy, less transport capacity, less odour emissions. However on-farm dry fermentation plants are not common and rarely commercially available. Recent on-farm research (Kusch & Oechsner 2004) and prototype research (Linke 2004) show promising technical solutions for...

  16. Decolourisation of palm oil mill biogas plant wastewater using Poly-Diallyldimethyl Ammonium Chloride (polyDADMAC) and other chemical coagulants

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zahrim, A. Y.; Dexter, Z. D.

    2016-06-01

    Palm oil mill effluent was expected as a future source of renewable biogas. Nevertheless,colours in palm oil mill biogas plant wastewater (POMBPW) causes negative perception among the public and the wastewater is difficult to be treated biologically. In this study, the performance of various chemical coagulants i.e., calcium lactate, magnesium hydroxide, ferric chloride, aluminium chlorohydrate i.e. CK-800, CK-1000, and polyDADMAC, forPOMBPW colour removal were investigated. PolyDADMAC (1,000 mg/L) shows best colour removal (∼48%). The main coagulation process with polyDADMACcould be due to charge neutralization-bridging mechanism. The zeta potential analysis supports the finding where the value became positive as the dosage increases. The addition of polyDADMAC has increased the conductivity of the treated wastewater up to 9.22%; however, the final pH is maintained (8.0-8.3). It can be deduced that polyDADMAC has potential to treat POMBPW at low dosage.

  17. Prestudy: Anaerobic digestion with primary hydrolysis from increased methane production in waste water treatment plants band biogas plants; Foerstudie: Roetning med inledande hydrolyssteg foer utoekad metanutvinning paa avloppsreningsverk och biogasanlaeggningar

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Persson, Emelie; Ossiansson, Elin (BioMil AB, Lund (Sweden)); Carlsson, My; Uldal, Martina; Olsson, Lars-Erik (AnoxKaldnes AB, Lund (Sweden))

    2010-04-15

    Anaerobic degradation of organic matter is a multi-step process through the action of various groups of microorganisms whose optimum conditions can differ considerably regarding e.g. nutrient and pH demand, sensitivity for changes and patterns for growth and nutrient uptake. One way of optimizing the anaerobic digestion process, and thereby increase the biogas production and the reduction of organic matter, can be to physically divide the anaerobic digestion process in two steps consisting of an initial hydrolysis and acid production step followed by a methane production step in an anaerobic digester. One problem with the biogas processes of today is that not all organic matter that is added to the process becomes available for conversion into biogas. This is particularly evident in digestion of waste water treatment sludge where almost half of the organic matter added remains after anaerobic digestion. More efficient utilization of substrate in biogas plants is an important element to increase the profitability of biogas production. The possibility to use different pre-treatment methods is being discussed to increase the degree of conversion of organic matter into biogas in the digester. Pre-treatment methods are often energy as well as cost demanding and can require the addition of chemicals. To use the microbiological steps in the biogas process more efficiently by adding an initial hydrolysis step is a method that does not require the usage of chemicals or increased energy consumption. This pre-study is based on literature studies related to anaerobic digestion with initial biological hydrolysis and collected knowledge from full-scale plants, universities and suppliers of equipment. Nearly 70 published scientific articles relevant to the subject have been found in the performed literature searches. The articles have been subdivided according to the purpose of each article. A large part of the articles have concerned modelling of anaerobic digestion why a

  18. Potential biogas production from sewage sludge: A case study of the sewage treatment plant at Kwame Nkrumah university of science and technology, Ghana

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    RichardArthur, Abeeku Brew-Hammond

    2010-11-01

    Full Text Available Biogas generation is one of the most promising renewable energy sources in Ghana. Anaerobic digestion is one of the effective ways of generating biogas. Anaerobic digestion is also a reliable method for wastewater treatment and the digestion the effluent can be used as fertilizer to enhance the fertility of the soil. This paper looks at the possibility of constructing a biogas plant at the KNUST sewage treatment plant tapping its feedstock the sludge at the Primary Sedimentation Tank to generate biogas. A laboratory experiment was done to determine the faecal sludge quality. The flowrate of the sludge was estimated based on the number of times the penstocks (valves are operated to desludge the sewage which also depends on whether the university is on vacation (35.72 m3/day or in session (71.44 m3/day. These parameters were used to determine the biogas potential of the sewage using 10, 20 and 30 days retention time for plant sizes of 540 m3, 1100m3 and 1600 m3 respectively. It was estimated that 170,719 m3, 341,858 m3 and 419,458 m3 of methane can be produced in a year and the power production was estimated to be 50 kW, 100 kW and 120 kW for the 540 m3, 1100m3 and 1600 m3 digester sizes respectively.

  19. Sustainable sunlight to biogas is via marginal organics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shilton, Andy; Guieysse, Benoit

    2010-06-01

    Although biogas production from algae offers higher sunlight to biomass energy conversion efficiencies its production costs simply cannot compete with terrestrial plants. Unfortunately terrestrial plant cropping for biogas production is, in its own right, neither particularly sustainable nor profitable and its ongoing application is only driven by energy security concerns resulting in taxpayer subsidies. By comparison, scavenging the organic energy residual/wastes from food production offers a far more profitable and sustainable proposition and has an energy potential that dwarfs anything biogas production from dedicated energy crops can realistically offer. Thus researchers wanting to assist the development of sustainable biogas systems with viable process economics should forget about terrestrial and algal energy cropping and focus on the realm of scavengers.

  20. Co-digestion of municipal sludge and external organic wastes for enhanced biogas production under realistic plant constraints.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tandukar, Madan; Pavlostathis, Spyros G

    2015-12-15

    A bench-scale investigation was conducted to select external organic wastes and mixing ratios for co-digestion with municipal sludge at the F. Wayne Hill Water Resources Center (FWHWRC), Gwinnett County, GA, USA to support a combined heat and power (CHP) project. External wastes were chosen and used subject to two constraints: a) digester retention time no lower than 15 d; and b) total biogas (methane) production not to exceed a specific target level based on air permit constraints on CO2 emissions. Primary sludge (PS), thickened waste activated sludge (TWAS) and digested sludge collected at the FWHWRC, industrial liquid waste obtained from a chewing gum manufacturing plant (GW) and dewatered fat-oil-grease (FOG) were used. All sludge and waste samples were characterized and their ultimate digestibility was assessed at 35 °C. The ultimate COD to methane conversion of PS, TWAS, municipal sludge (PS + TWAS; 40:60 w/w TS basis), GW and FOG was 49.2, 35.2, 40.3, 72.7, and 81.1%, respectively. Co-digestion of municipal sludge with GW, FOG or both, was evaluated using four bench-scale, mesophilic (35 °C) digesters. Biogas production increased significantly and additional degradation of the municipal sludge between 1.1 and 30.7% was observed. Biogas and methane production was very close to the target levels necessary to close the energy deficit at the FWHWRC. Co-digestion resulted in an effluent quality similar to that of the control digester fed only with the municipal sludge, indicating that co-digestion had no adverse effects. Study results prove that high methane production is achievable with the addition of concentrated external organic wastes to municipal digesters, at acceptable higher digester organic loadings and lower retention times, allowing the effective implementation of CHP programs at municipal wastewater treatment plants, with significant cost savings.

  1. Biogas digestate and its economic impact on farms and biogas plants according to the upper limit for nitrogen spreading—the case of nutrient-burdened areas in north-west Germany

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sebastian Auburger

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available At the end of 2012, an expert group presented its evaluation of the forthcoming amendment of the German Fertilizer Ordinance (DüV. The new proposal intends to include manure of plant origin in the calculation of the upper limit for nitrogen spreading, determined to be 170 kg per hectare. This would particularly affect regions of north-west Germany that are characterized by intensive animal husbandry and biogas production. This would lead to increased costs of the disposal of manure and the use of agricultural land, especially for pig farms and biogas producers. A spatial model of nutrient distribution demonstrates the regional impacts of the amendment, and example calculations at an enterprise level show that many farmers would no longer be able to suitably pay for the factors used. Monte Carlo analysis shows a relatively high probability that only successful pig farmers and biogas producers would be able to compensate for the rising costs of transport and land use in a sustainable manner. Successful piglet producers would improve their relative competitiveness compared to biogas producers and especially to pig-fattening enterprises. The adoption of new strategies should factor in both the water protection requirements and the ability of the affected farms to evolve and grow on a sustainable basis.

  2. Mechanical Pretreatment to Increase the Bioenergy Yield for Full-scale Biogas Plants

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Tsapekos, Panagiotis; Kougias, Panagiotis; Angelidaki, Irini

    % compared to the untreated one. The digestion of meadow grass as an alternative co-substrate had positive impact on the energy yield of full-scale biogas reactors operating with cattle manure, pig manure or mixture of both. A preliminary analysis showed that the addition of meadow grass in a manure based...

  3. Biogas from lignocellulosic biomass

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Berglund Odhner, Peter; Schabbauer, Anna [Grontmij AB, Stockholm (Sweden); Sarvari Horvath, Ilona; Mohseni Kabir, Maryam [Hoegskolan i Boraas, Boraas (Sweden)

    2012-01-15

    Grontmij AB has cooperated with the University of Boraas to evaluate the technological and economical possibilities for biogas production from substrates containing lignocellulose, such as forest residues, straw and paper. The state of knowledge regarding biogas production from cellulosic biomass has been summarized. The research in the field has been described, especially focusing on pretreatment methods and their results on increased gas yields. An investigation concerning commercially available pretreatment methods and the cost of these technologies has been performed. An economic evaluation of biogas production from lignocellulosic materials has provided answers to questions regarding the profitability of these processes. Pretreatment with steam explosion was economically evaluated for three feedstocks - wood, straw and paper - and a combination of steam explosion and addition of NaOH for paper. The presented costs pertain to costs for the pretreatment step as it, in this study, was assumed that the pretreatment would be added to an existing plant and the lignocellulosic substrates would be part of a co-digestion process. The results of the investigation indicate that it is difficult to provide a positive net result when comparing the cost of pretreatment versus the gas yield (value) for two of the feedstocks - forest residues and straw. This is mainly due to the high cost of the raw material. For forest residues the steam pretreatment cost exceeded the gas yield by over 50 %, mainly due to the high cost of the raw material. For straw, the production cost was similar to the value of the gas. Paper showed the best economic result. The gas yield (value) for paper exceeded the pretreatment cost by 15 %, which makes it interesting to study paper further.

  4. The conversion of renewable biogas source into energy; A conversao da fonte renovavel biogas em energia

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Coelho, Suani Teixeira; Velazquez, Silvia Maria Stortini Gonzalez; Martins, Osvaldo Stella; Abreu, Fernando Castro de [Universidade de Sao Paulo (USP), SP (Brazil). Inst. de Eletrotecnica e Energia]|[Centro Nacional de Referencia em Biomassa (CENBIO), Sao Paulo, SP (Brazil)]. E-mails: suani@iee.usp.br; sgvelaz@iee.sup.br; omartins@iee.usp.br; fcabreu@iee.usp.br

    2006-07-01

    This article intend to present some considerations directed to electricity generation with small systems (micro turbine and conventional engines ), using biogas generated by sewage treatment process in SABESP (Basic Sanitation Company of Sao Paulo State), located at Barueri, Brazil. This project, pioneer in Latin America, is being accomplished together with BUN - Biomass Users Network of Brazil (proponent), in association with CENBIO - Biomass Reference National Center (executer), with patronage of FINEP / CT-ENERG (financial backer), by means of Convention No: 23.01.0653.00, regarding to ENERG-BIOG Project - Installation and Tests of an Electric Energy Generation Demonstration Unit from Biogas Sewage Treatment. The study is being done at Barueri Sewage Treatment Plant.This plant operate with anaerobic digestion process, which has as mainly products biogas (composed mainly by methane) and sludge. Part of the methane produced at the anaerobic process is burnt in a boiler being used to increase digesters temperature. The rest of the methane is burnt in flare to reduce the impacts caused by gases emissions. This article presents some technical, financial and environmental project results, related to the exploitation of sewer biogas for power generation, as well as bigger details about generation systems (biogas micro turbine), used in the facility. (author)

  5. Sewage biogas conversion into electricity; Conversao do biogas de tratamento de esgoto em eletricidade

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Coelho, Suani Teixeira; Velazquez, Silvia Maria Stortini Gonzalez; Martins, Osvaldo Stella; Abreu, Fernando Castro de [Universidade de Sao Paulo (CENBIO/IEE/USP), Sao Paulo, SP (Brazil). Inst. de Eletrotecnica e Energia. Centro Nacional de Referencia em Biomassa], e-mails: suani@iee.usp.br, sgvelaz@iee.usp.br, omartins@iee.usp.br, fcabreu@iee.usp.br

    2006-07-01

    This article intend to present some considerations directed to electricity generation with small systems (micro turbine and conventional engines ), using biogas generated by sewage treatment process in SABESP (Basic Sanitation Company of Sao Paulo State), located at Barueri, Brazil. This project, pioneer in Latin America, is being accomplished together with BUN - Biomass Users Network of Brazil (proponent), in association with CENBIO - Biomass Reference National Center (executer), with patronage of FINEP / CT-ENERG (financial backer), by means of Convention no: 23.01.0653.00, regarding to ENERG BIOG Project - 'Installation and Tests of an Electric Energy Generation Demonstration Unit from Biogas Sewage Treatment'. The study is being done at Barueri Sewage Treatment Plant. This plant operate with anaerobic digestion process, which has as mainly products biogas (composed mainly by methane) and sludge. Part of the methane produced at the anaerobic process is burnt in a boiler being used to increase digesters temperature. The rest of the methane is burnt in flare to reduce the impacts caused by gases emissions. This article presents some technical, financial and environmental project results, related to the exploitation of sewer biogas for power generation, as well as bigger details about generation systems (biogas micro turbine), used in the facility. (author)

  6. Increasing the biogas yield of manure by wet explosion of the digested fiber fraction

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Biswas, Rajib; Uellendahl, Hinrich; Ahring, Birgitte Kiær

    Increasing the biodegradability of the lignocellulosic fiber fraction of manure can ensure higher methane productivity in biogas plants, leading to process profitability and thus larger production of renewable energy. A new pretreatment method, wet explosion (WEx), was investigated to treat...

  7. Biogas potential atlas. Potential for the sustainable generation of biogas in Germany; Biogaspotenzialatlas. Potenzial zur nachhaltigen Erzeugung von Biogas in Deutschland

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Erler, Ronny [DBI - Gastechnologisches Institut gGmbH, Freiberg (Germany); Krause, Hartmut

    2012-10-15

    Biogas can be produced from various agricultural, municipal or industrial accruing substrates. Different biogas potentials result depending on the substrate. As part of a research project, different potentials are recorded in a biogas potential atlas. This atlas can ultimately be helpful in selecting appropriate biogas plant locations.

  8. Stable isotope composition of biogas allows early warning of complete process failure as a result of ammonia inhibition in anaerobic digesters.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lv, Zuopeng; Hu, Meng; Harms, Hauke; Richnow, Hans Hermann; Liebetrau, Jan; Nikolausz, Marcell

    2014-09-01

    Four 15-L lab-scale continuous stirred tank reactors were operated under mesophilic conditions to investigate the effect of ammonia inhibition. Stable isotope fingerprinting of biogas was applied as a process monitoring tool. Ammonia inhibition was initiated by amendment of chicken manure to maize silage fed reactors. During the accumulation of ammonia, the concentration of volatile fatty acids increased while the biogas production and pH decreased. However, in one reactor, an inhibited steady state with stable gas production even at high ammonia levels was achieved, while the other reactor proceeded to complete process failure. A depletion of the δ(13)CH4 and δ(13)CO2 values preceded the process inhibition. Moreover, the stable isotope composition of biogas also forecasted the complete process failure earlier than other standard parameters. The stable isotope analyses of biogas have a potential for mechanistic insights in anaerobic processes, and may be used to pre-warn process failure under stress conditions.

  9. Economic, Environmental and Moral Acceptance of Renewable Energy: A Case Study-The Agricultural Biogas Plant at Pěčín.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vochozka, Marek; Maroušková, Anna; Šuleř, Petr

    2017-03-08

    The production of renewable energy in agricultural biogas plants is being widely criticized because-among other things-most of the feedstock comes from purpose-grown crops like maize. These activities (generously subsidized in the Czech Republic) generate competitive pressure to other crops that are used for feeding or food production, worsening their affordability. Unique pretreatment technology that allows substitution of the purpose-grown crops by farming residues (such as husk or straw) was built 6 years ago on a commercial basis in Pěčín (Czech Republic) under modest funding and without publicity. The design of the concept; financial assessment and moral viewpoint were analyzed based on practical operating data. It showed that the apparatus improves economic, environmental and moral acceptance as well. However, according to the government's view, public funding for this type of processing was shortened, "because waste materials represent a lower cost". The impact of such governance was analyzed as well.

  10. Biomass conversion plants in Germany. EEG amendment modifies the market. Results of trend:research study Biogas in Germany up to 2020 (3rd edition); Biogasanlagen in Deutschland. EEG-Novelle veraendert Markt. Ergebnisse der trend:research-Studie Biogas in Deutschland bis 2030 (3. Auflage)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Anon.

    2012-05-15

    Due to the amendment of the Renewable Energy Act, the demands on operators of biogas plants increase. At the same time the existing bonus system is abolished. Essentially, the increased construction of plants is performed in agricultural small plants with a capacity below 75 kW. The implementation of a market premium results in a new segment in the area of commercialization of electricity from biogas at the electricity market EEX in Leipzig (Federal Republic of Germany).

  11. CO2 balance in production of energy based on biogas

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielsen, Per Sieverts; Holm-Nielsen, J.B.

    1997-01-01

    Biogas is an essential biomass source for achieving a reduction of CO2 emission by 50% in year 2030 in Denmark. The physical potential for biogas production in Denmark is more than 10 times the present biogas production in Denmark. In Denmark the largest part of the biogas production is produced...... of increased transportation distances at large biogas plants on the total CO2 balance of the biogas plant. The advantage of constructing large biogas plants is the cost-effective possibility of using industrial organic waste to increase biogas production. In some cases co-fermentation increases biogas...... production up 100%. The present study evaluate optimal transportation strategies for biogas plants taking CO2 balances into account....

  12. Electric Energy Consumption of the Full Scale Research Biogas Plant “Unterer Lindenhof”: Results of Longterm and Full Detail Measurements

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Thomas Jungbluth

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available This work thoroughly evaluates the electric power consumption of a full scale, 3 × 923 m3 complete stirred tank reactor (CSTR research biogas plant with a production capacity of 186 kW of electric power. The plant was fed with a mixture of livestock manure and renewable energy crops and was operated under mesophilic conditions. This paper will provide an insight into precise electric energy consumption measurements of a full scale biogas plant over a period of two years. The results showed that a percentage of 8.5% (in 2010 and 8.7% (in 2011 of the produced electric energy was consumed by the combined heat and power unit (CHP, which was required to operate the biogas plant. The consumer unit agitators with 4.3% (in 2010 and 4.0% (in 2011 and CHP unit with 2.5% (in 2010 and 2011 accounted for the highest electrical power demand, in relation to the electric energy produced by the CHP unit. Calculations show that 51% (in 2010 and 46% (in 2011 of the total electric energy demand was due to the agitators. The results finally showed the need for permanent measurements to identify and quantify the electric energy saving potentials of full scale biogas plants.

  13. Use of wastewater treatment plant biogas for the operation of Solid Oxide Fuel Cells (SOFCs).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lackey, Jillian; Champagne, Pascale; Peppley, Brant

    2016-09-14

    Solid Oxide Fuel Cells (SOFCs) perform well on light hydrocarbon fuels, and the use of biogas derived from the anaerobic digestion (AD) of municipal wastewater sludges could provide an opportunity for the CH4 produced to be used as a renewable fuel. Greenhouse gas (GHG), NOx, SOx, and hydrocarbon pollutant emissions would also be reduced. In this study, SOFCs were operated on AD derived biogas. Initially, different H2 dilutions were tested (N2, Ar, CO2) to examine the performance of tubular SOFCs. With inert gases as diluents, a decrease in cell performance was observed, however, the use of CO2 led to a higher decrease in performance as it promoted the reverse water-gas shift (WGS) reaction, reducing the H2 partial pressure in the gas mixture. A model was developed to predict system efficiency and GHG emissions. A higher electrical system efficiency was noted for a steam:carbon ratio of 2 compared to 1 due to the increased H2 partial pressure in the reformate resulting from higher H2O concentration. Reductions in GHG emissions were estimated at 2400 tonnes CO2, 60 kg CH4 and 18 kg N2O. SOFCs were also tested using a simulated biogas reformate mixture (66.7% H2, 16.1% CO, 16.5% CO2, 0.7% N2, humidified to 2.3 or 20 mol% H2O). Higher humidification yielded better performance as the WGS reaction produced more H2 with additional H2O. It was concluded that AD-derived biogas, when cleaned to remove H2S, Si compounds, halides and other contaminants, could be reformed to provide a clean, renewable fuel for SOFCs.

  14. Performance of the biogas project in Ziyang sugar factory

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dezhao He [Chengdu Biogas Research Inst., Chengdu (China)

    2000-07-01

    Located in Houjiaping town, Ziyang county, Ziyang Sugar Factory was installed in 1958 as a state enterprise, which mainly processes sugar cane to produce sugar. Sideline products include alcohol and paper. Nowadays, its daily capacity of sugar cane extraction is 1,000 tons and potable alcohol production is 15 - 20 tons. Its annual output value is 25 million Yuan. This plant is one of the backbones in Sichuan sugar cane processing enterprises. The biogas project of the Ziyang Sugar Factory was one of the large biogas installations in China, completed during the Seventh Five-year Plan. The distillery wastewater (slops) from the alcoholic fermentation process of starch (fresh potato, dry potato, kernel and Chinese sorghum) and sugar molasses as substrates is disposed of. The slop has a low pH, a high organic concentration, a high content of suspended solids, a dark colour and a high temperature. Its daily discharge quantity is 200 tons corresponding to 2/3 of total wastewater in that plant. It is a serious source of water pollution when it is directly discharged into Tuojiang River. Therefore, due to its high concentration of polluting substances, anaerobic treatment of distillery wastewater has been decided. This is the first case of wastewater treatment in Nudging city. The construction of this biogas installation started in July 1987. On November 25, 1988, the digester began to produce biogas. Up to now, the digesters have properly operated for more than one year. Besides its use as daily household fuel for the 810 employees, biogas is also supplied to the plant cafeteria as cooking fuel and to some production purposes within the plant, which has achieved obvious economic benefits. The designed capacity of daily biogas production for this biogas plant is 3,000 - 4,000 m{sup 3}. (orig.)

  15. Improvement of a grass-clover silage-fed biogas process by the addition of cobalt

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jarvis, A.; Jarlsvik, T. [Swedish Univ. of Agricultual Sciences, Uppsala (Sweden). Dept. of Microbiology; Mathisen, B. [Swedish Inst. of Agricultural Engineering, Uppsala (Sweden)] Svensson, B.H. [Linkoeping Univ. (Sweden). Dept. of Water and Environmental Studies

    1997-12-31

    Batch assays were performed with samples from a silage-fed mesophilic biogas process accumulating acetate to examine if the addition of single trace elements (iron, nickel, cobalt and molybdenum) or a mixture of trace elements could improve the process. The results from the batch assays led to the addition of cobalt to reach a concentration of 0.2 mg L{sup -1}. This made it possible to increase the organic loading rate (OLR) above that in a parallel process not receiving any extra cobalt. Problems with low gas production and decreasing pH were overcome by the daily supply of this single element in small amounts. Acetate conversion to methane was improved, which was confirmed by increased specific methanogenic activity (SMA) with acetate as a substrate. As a consequence, an OLR of 7.0 g VS L{sup -1} was achieved at a hydraulic retention time (HRT) of 20 days with an equivalent increase in methane production. Without cobalt addition, an OLR of 5.0 g VS L{sup -1} day{sup -1} with an HRT of 20 days was reached after 70 weeks operation. (Author)

  16. The future of biogas in Europe: visions and targets until 2020

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Holm Nielsen, J.B. [Aalborg Univ., Esbjerg (Denmark). ACABS Research Group]|[Southern Denmark Univ., Esbjerg (Denmark). Bioenergy Dept.; Oleskowicz-Popiel, P. [Southern Denmark Univ., Esbjerg (Denmark). Bioenergy Dept.

    2007-07-01

    Biogas can be produced of nearly all kinds of organic materials. It is closely linked to agricultural activities and human consumption. Wherever there is a large population, and thereby a comprehensive quality food production of a broad mixture of vegetable and animal foods, the right conditions exist for biogas production. In the future the large volume of biogas will be integrated into the European farming systems. There are quite a few biogas process volumes at the current wastewater treatment plants, landfill gas installations, and industrial biowaste processing facilities. However, the largest volume of produced biogas will, by 2020, originate from farm biogas and from large co-digestion biogas plants, integrated into the farming- and food-processing structures. The EU policy concerning renewable energy (RES) has set forward a fixed goal of supplying 20% of the European energy demands from RES. It is without doubt, that a major part of the renewable energy will originate from European farming and forestry: as biomass conversion to gaseous, liquid and solid biofuels. The gaseous part - the biogas production - has its own, more and more consolidated platform. The forecasts look promising. At least 25% of all bioenergy in the future can originate from biogas, produces from wet organic materials, like animal manure, whole crop silages, wet organic food/feed wastes etc. The forecasts for a very flexible utilisation of biogas are prosperous, but it implicates that the biogas is to be cooled, dried, cleaned and upgraded to natural gas quality, in order for the application and utilisation routes to be plentiful. (orig.)

  17. Wood ash amendment to biogas reactors as an alternative to landfilling? A preliminary study on changes in process chemistry and biology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Podmirseg, Sabine M; Seewald, Martin S A; Knapp, Brigitte A; Bouzid, Ourdia; Biderre-Petit, Corinne; Peyret, Pierre; Insam, Heribert

    2013-08-01

    Wood ash addition to biogas plants represents an alternative to commonly used landfilling by improving the reactor performance, raising the pH and alleviating potential limits of trace elements. This study is the first on the effects of wood ash on reactor conditions and microbial communities in cattle slurry-based biogas reactors. General process parameters [temperature, pH, electrical conductivity, ammonia, volatile fatty acids, carbon/nitrogen (C/N), total solids (TS), volatile solids, and gas quantity and quality] were monitored along with molecular analyses of methanogens by polymerase chain reaction- denaturing gradient gel electrophoresis and modern microarrays (archaea and bacteria). A prompt pH rise was observed, as was an increase in C/N ratio and volatile fatty acids. Biogas production was inhibited, but recovered to even higher production rates and methane concentration after single amendment. High sulphur levels in the wood ash generated hydrogen sulphide and potentially hampered methanogenesis. Methanosarcina was the most dominant methanogen in all reactors; however, diversity was higher in ash-amended reactors. Bacterial groups like Firmicutes, Proteobacteria and Acidobacteria were favoured, which could improve the hydrolytic efficiency of the reactors. We recommend constant monitoring of the chemical composition of the used wood ash and suggest that ash amendment is adequate if added to the substrate at a rate low enough to allow adaptation of the microbiota (e.g. 0.25 g g(-1) TS). It could further help to enrich digestate with important nutrients, for example phosphorus, calcium and magnesium, but further experiments are required for the evaluation of wood ash concentrations that are tolerable for anaerobic digestion.

  18. Biogas production and biogas as vehicle fuel - Swedish experiences

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lindberg, A.E. [VBB Viak AB, Stockholm (Sweden)

    1997-08-01

    In Sweden there are totally about 220 biogas plants in operation. The major part of these plants (134) are represented by sewage sludge treatment facilities at waste water treatment plants. At 60 sites the biogas is generated from landfills or cell digesters at landfills. In 1996, the amount produced had a total energy content of about 1,35 TWh (or 4 900 PJ). (EG)

  19. Enhancing the hydrolysis process of a two-stage biogas technology for the organic fraction of municipal solid waste

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nasir, Zeeshan; Uellendahl, Hinrich

    2015-01-01

    the hydrolytic (1st) stage, which enables pump-free feeding of the waste into the 1st stage (processing module), and eliminates the risk for blocking of pumps and pipes by pumping only the percolate from the 1st stage into the 2nd stage (biogas reactor tank). The biogas yield of the AIKAN® two-stage process...... as lab-scale batch and pilot-scale reactor tests. A lab-scale reactor system to mimic the 2-stage set-up in large-scale is currently set-up and the results will be included in the final conference paper. The first pilot-scale tests were performed at Solum’s pilot-scale modules by adjusting the p...

  20. Improved detection of extended spectrum beta-lactamase (ESBL)-producing Escherichia coli in input and output samples of German biogas plants by a selective pre-enrichment procedure.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schauss, Thorsten; Glaeser, Stefanie P; Gütschow, Alexandra; Dott, Wolfgang; Kämpfer, Peter

    2015-01-01

    The presence of extended-spectrum beta-lactamase (ESBL)-producing Escherichia coli was investigated in input (manure from livestock husbandry) and output samples of six German biogas plants in 2012 (one sampling per biogas plant) and two German biogas plants investigated in an annual cycle four times in 2013/2014. ESBL-producing Escherichia coli were cultured by direct plating on CHROMagar ESBL from input samples in the range of 100 to 104 colony forming units (CFU) per g dry weight but not from output sample. This initially indicated a complete elimination of ESBL-producing E. coli by the biogas plant process. Detected non target bacteria were assigned to the genera Acinetobacter, Pseudomonas, Bordetella, Achromobacter, Castellaniella, and Ochrobactrum. A selective pre-enrichment procedure increased the detection efficiency of ESBL-producing E. coli in input samples and enabled the detection in five of eight analyzed output samples. In total 119 ESBL-producing E. coli were isolated from input and 46 from output samples. Most of the E. coli isolates carried CTX-M-type and/or TEM-type beta lactamases (94%), few SHV-type beta lactamase (6%). Sixty-four blaCTX-M genes were characterized more detailed and assigned mainly to CTX-M-groups 1 (85%) and 9 (13%), and one to group 2. Phylogenetic grouping of 80 E. coli isolates showed that most were assigned to group A (71%) and B1 (27%), only one to group D (2%). Genomic fingerprinting and multilocus sequence typing (MLST) showed a high clonal diversity with 41 BOX-types and 19 ST-types. The two most common ST-types were ST410 and ST1210. Antimicrobial susceptibility testing of 46 selected ESBL-producing E. coli revealed that several isolates were additionally resistant to other veterinary relevant antibiotics and some grew on CHROMagar STEC but shiga-like toxine (SLT) genes were not detected. Resistance to carbapenems was not detected. In summary the study showed for the first time the presence of ESBL-producing E. coli in

  1. Improved detection of extended spectrum beta-lactamase (ESBL-producing Escherichia coli in input and output samples of German biogas plants by a selective pre-enrichment procedure.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Thorsten Schauss

    Full Text Available The presence of extended-spectrum beta-lactamase (ESBL-producing Escherichia coli was investigated in input (manure from livestock husbandry and output samples of six German biogas plants in 2012 (one sampling per biogas plant and two German biogas plants investigated in an annual cycle four times in 2013/2014. ESBL-producing Escherichia coli were cultured by direct plating on CHROMagar ESBL from input samples in the range of 100 to 104 colony forming units (CFU per g dry weight but not from output sample. This initially indicated a complete elimination of ESBL-producing E. coli by the biogas plant process. Detected non target bacteria were assigned to the genera Acinetobacter, Pseudomonas, Bordetella, Achromobacter, Castellaniella, and Ochrobactrum. A selective pre-enrichment procedure increased the detection efficiency of ESBL-producing E. coli in input samples and enabled the detection in five of eight analyzed output samples. In total 119 ESBL-producing E. coli were isolated from input and 46 from output samples. Most of the E. coli isolates carried CTX-M-type and/or TEM-type beta lactamases (94%, few SHV-type beta lactamase (6%. Sixty-four blaCTX-M genes were characterized more detailed and assigned mainly to CTX-M-groups 1 (85% and 9 (13%, and one to group 2. Phylogenetic grouping of 80 E. coli isolates showed that most were assigned to group A (71% and B1 (27%, only one to group D (2%. Genomic fingerprinting and multilocus sequence typing (MLST showed a high clonal diversity with 41 BOX-types and 19 ST-types. The two most common ST-types were ST410 and ST1210. Antimicrobial susceptibility testing of 46 selected ESBL-producing E. coli revealed that several isolates were additionally resistant to other veterinary relevant antibiotics and some grew on CHROMagar STEC but shiga-like toxine (SLT genes were not detected. Resistance to carbapenems was not detected. In summary the study showed for the first time the presence of ESBL-producing E

  2. Counteracting foaming caused by lipids or proteins in biogas reactors using rapeseed oil or oleic acid as antifoaming agents

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kougias, Panagiotis; Boe, Kanokwan; Einarsdottir, E. S.;

    2015-01-01

    Foaming is one of the major operational problems in biogas plants, and dealing with foaming incidents is still based on empirical practices. Various types of antifoams are used arbitrarily to combat foaming in biogas plants, but without any scientific support this action can lead to serious...... deterioration of the methanogenic process. Many commercial antifoams are derivatives of fatty acids or oils. However, it is well known that lipids can induce foaming in manure based biogas plants. This study aimed to elucidate the effect of rapeseed oil and oleic acid on foam reduction and process performance...... in biogas reactors fed with protein or lipid rich substrates. The results showed that both antifoams efficiently suppressed foaming. Moreover rapeseed oil resulted in stimulation of the biogas production. Finally, it was reckoned that the chemical structure of lipids, and more specifically their carboxylic...

  3. Estimation of biogas and methane yields in an UASB treating potato starch processing wastewater with backpropagation artificial neural network.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Antwi, Philip; Li, Jianzheng; Boadi, Portia Opoku; Meng, Jia; Shi, En; Deng, Kaiwen; Bondinuba, Francis Kwesi

    2017-03-01

    Three-layered feedforward backpropagation (BP) artificial neural networks (ANN) and multiple nonlinear regression (MnLR) models were developed to estimate biogas and methane yield in an upflow anaerobic sludge blanket (UASB) reactor treating potato starch processing wastewater (PSPW). Anaerobic process parameters were optimized to identify their importance on methanation. pH, total chemical oxygen demand, ammonium, alkalinity, total Kjeldahl nitrogen, total phosphorus, volatile fatty acids and hydraulic retention time selected based on principal component analysis were used as input variables, whiles biogas and methane yield were employed as target variables. Quasi-Newton method and conjugate gradient backpropagation algorithms were best among eleven training algorithms. Coefficient of determination (R(2)) of the BP-ANN reached 98.72% and 97.93% whiles MnLR model attained 93.9% and 91.08% for biogas and methane yield, respectively. Compared with the MnLR model, BP-ANN model demonstrated significant performance, suggesting possible control of the anaerobic digestion process with the BP-ANN model.

  4. A study of the Apollo aqueous redox process for converting hydrogen sulfide in biogas to elemental sulfur

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ellenor, D.T.

    2004-07-01

    An experimental study was conducted to develop a commercial biogas scrubber for municipal and agricultural use. The specific objectives were to provide design and scaling parameters that would improve the performance while minimizing the capital and operating costs of the biogas scrubber; provide a useful reaction model of the aqueous phase iron chelate catalyzed oxide of hydrogen sulfide to elemental sulfur; develop hypotheses and determine what data are of relevance in comprehending the interfacial phenomena of colloidal sulfur in aqueous solutions that could result in unwanted sulfur deposition and poor sulfur quality; obtain interfacial chemistry data that could improve the understanding of how sulfur particles behave during flocculation and deposition on surfaces, and the factors that lead to poor surface quality; and, determine whether crystal size and characteristics of deposited and flocculated sulfur could be changed by surfactants to enhance sulfur purity and reduce process operability. Interfacial chemistry experiments were performed to determine the factors that influence the operating problems and poor quality associated with the sulfur product. Results suggest that a low foaming nonionic surfactant can improve the quality and processability of the elemental sulfur product. It was concluded that the addition of surfactant to the redox solution reduces the mean hydrogen removal efficiency of the process. The addition of surfactants also decreases the mean particle size of the precipitated sulfur product, but increases the purity of the precipitated product. This study contributed to the successful installation by Apollo Environmental Systems of a commercial biogas scrubber that is very resistant to sulfur plugging.

  5. Plant hydrocarbon recovery process

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dzadzic, P.M.; Price, M.C.; Shih, C.J.; Weil, T.A.

    1982-01-26

    A process for production and recovery of hydrocarbons from hydrocarbon-containing whole plants in a form suitable for use as chemical feedstocks or as hydrocarbon energy sources which process comprises: (A) pulverizing by grinding or chopping hydrocarbon-containing whole plants selected from the group consisting of euphorbiaceae, apocynaceae, asclepiadaceae, compositae, cactaceae and pinaceae families to a suitable particle size, (B) drying and preheating said particles in a reducing atmosphere under positive pressure (C) passing said particles through a thermal conversion zone containing a reducing atmosphere and with a residence time of 1 second to about 30 minutes at a temperature within the range of from about 200* C. To about 1000* C., (D) separately recovering the condensable vapors as liquids and the noncondensable gases in a condition suitable for use as chemical feedstocks or as hydrocarbon fuels.

  6. Evaluation of silage-fed biogas process performance using microbiological and kinetic methods

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jarvis, Aa.

    1996-10-01

    In this study, different kinetic and microbiological methods were used to evaluate the growth and activity of key groups of bacteria degrading ley silage in one-phase and two-phase biogas processes. Emphasis was placed on studying the dynamic behaviour of different trophic groups resulting from the initiation of liquid recirculation in the processes. The microbiological methods included microscopy and most probable number (MPN) counts with different substrates. The kinetic methods included measurements of specific methanogenic activity (SMA) with acetate and H{sub 2}/CO{sub 2} as substrates, batch assays with trace element additions and measurement of conversion rates of mannitol and lactate in the digesters. In general, the initiation of liquid recirculation at first promoted the growth and/or activity of several trophic groups of bacteria, such as butyrate and propionate degraders and acetotrophic and hydrogenotrophic methanogens in the liquefaction/acidogenesis reactors of the two-phase processes. This was probably mainly due to the increased pH. However, after some time of liquid recirculation, an inhibition of some bacterial groups occurred, such as propionate degraders and methanogens in the methanogenic reactors of two-phase processes. This was probably due to increased concentrations of salts and free ammonia. The batch assays proved to be valuable tools in process optimization by the addition of trace elements. Here, the addition of cobalt significantly increased methane production from acetate. In this study, a more comprehensive understanding of the process behaviour in response to the initiation of liquid recirculation was achieved which could not have been obtained by only monitoring routine parameters such as pH, methane production and concentrations of organic acids and salts. 120 refs, 4 figs, 1 tab

  7. Guide biogas. From production to utilization. 5. compl. rev. ed.; Leitfaden Biogas. Von der Gewinnung zur Nutzung

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2010-07-01

    The book under consideration is a guide for biogas and consists of the following contributions: (a) Targets of the guide (M. Kaltschmitt); (b) Fundamentals of anaerobic fermentation (J. Friehe); (c) Systems engineering for supplying biogas (J. Postel); (d) Description of selected substrates (J. Friehe); (e) Operation of biogas plants (J. Liebetrau); (f) Gas processing and possibilities of utilization (M. Wetthaeuser); (g) Legal and administrative framework conditions (H. von Bredow); (g) Economy (S. Hartmann); (h) Company organisation (G. Reinhold); (i) Quality and utilization of fermentation residues (H. Doehler); (j) Implementation of a project (E. Fischer); (k) Position and significance of biogas as a renewable energy resource in Germany (M. Kaltschmitt); (l) Project examples (J. Friehe).

  8. Biogas engineering technology screening based on analytic hierarchy process and fuzzy comprehensive evaluation%基于层次分析法和模糊综合评价的沼气工程技术筛选

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    向欣; 罗煜; 程红胜; 沈玉君; 王延昌; 张玉华

    2014-01-01

    Biogas typically refers to a gas produced by the breakdown of organic matter in the absence of oxygen. Biogas, like solar and wind energy, is a renewable energy source. Biogas is produced through anaerobic digestion with anaerobic bacteria or fermentation of biodegradable materials, usually from regionally available raw materials such as recycled waste like manure, sewage, municipal waste, green waste, plant material, and crops. Biogas is comprised primarily of methane (CH4) and carbon dioxide (CO2) and may have small amounts of hydrogen sulphide (H2S), moisture, and siloxanes. This energy release allows biogas to be used as a fuel. Biogas can be used as a fuel in any country for any heating purposes, such as cooking. It can also be used in a gas engine to convert the energy in the gas into electricity and heat. In China during the last year, this biogas technology has met with high growth rates, and it has become the main way to use the waste of livestock manure. Currently, a vast variety of biogas technologies and techniques are available at home and abroad. The effects of biogas technologies differ in different regions. Using scientific methods to screen out the right biogas technology for certain areas is applicable, economically viable, and environmentally friendly. Comprehensive evaluation on one certain technology in a specific area is the key issue to select and integrate the modern technology. In order to construct the comprehensive evaluation index system and method for one certain technology in China, construction on the system and method is put forward, and the comprehensive evaluation index system is established with a research method of literature analysis based on a social economic-natural compound ecosystem. In this study, based on the analysis of currently available approaches to screening technologies for biogas and methods to solve the multi-parameter problem in decision making,an AHP and fuzzy comprehensive evaluation based decision making

  9. Changing Feeding Regimes To Demonstrate Flexible Biogas Production: Effects on Process Performance, Microbial Community Structure, and Methanogenesis Pathways.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mulat, Daniel Girma; Jacobi, H Fabian; Feilberg, Anders; Adamsen, Anders Peter S; Richnow, Hans-Hermann; Nikolausz, Marcell

    2015-10-23

    Flexible biogas production that adapts biogas output to energy demand can be regulated by changing feeding regimes. In this study, the effect of changes in feeding intervals on process performance, microbial community structure, and the methanogenesis pathway was investigated. Three different feeding regimes (once daily, every second day, and every 2 h) at the same organic loading rate were studied in continuously stirred tank reactors treating distiller's dried grains with solubles. A larger amount of biogas was produced after feeding in the reactors fed less frequently (once per day and every second day), whereas the amount remained constant in the reactor fed more frequently (every 2 h), indicating the suitability of the former for the flexible production of biogas. Compared to the conventional more frequent feeding regimes, a methane yield that was up to 14% higher and an improved stability of the process against organic overloading were achieved by employing less frequent feeding regimes. The community structures of bacteria and methanogenic archaea were monitored by terminal restriction fragment length polymorphism (T-RFLP) analysis of 16S rRNA and mcrA genes, respectively. The results showed that the composition of the bacterial community varied under the different feeding regimes, and the observed T-RFLP patterns were best explained by the differences in the total ammonia nitrogen concentrations, H2 levels, and pH values. However, the methanogenic community remained stable under all feeding regimes, with the dominance of the Methanosarcina genus followed by that of the Methanobacterium genus. Stable isotope analysis showed that the average amount of methane produced during each feeding event by acetoclastic and hydrogenotrophic methanogenesis was not influenced by the three different feeding regimes.

  10. Energy crops for biogas plants. Mecklenburg-Western Pomerania; Energiepflanzen fuer Biogasanlagen. Mecklenburg-Vorpommern

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Aurbacher, J.; Bull, I.; Formowitz, B. (and others)

    2012-06-15

    For agriculturists in Mecklenburg-Western Pomerania (Federal Republic of Germany), the brochure under consideration provides recommendations on alternative crop rotation systems. With the help of these alternative cultivation systems, crop rotation with high yields in combination with high diversity, diversification and sustainability can be realized. Subsequently to the presentation of energy crops for the production of biogas, recommendations for the design of crop rotation are given. Other chapters of this booklet deal with ensilage and gas yields as well as the economics of energy crop cultivation.

  11. Energy crops for biogas plants. Baden-Wuerttemberg; Energiepflanzen fuer Biogasanlagen. Baden-Wuerttemberg

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Butz, A.; Heiermann, M.; Herrmann, C. [and others

    2013-05-01

    For agriculturists in Baden-Wuerttemberg (Federal Republic of Germany), the brochure under consideration provides recommendations on alternative crop rotation systems. With the help of these alternative cultivation systems, crop rotation with high yields in combination with high diversity, diversification and sustainability can be realized. Subsequently to the presentation of energy crops for the production of biogas, recommendations for the design of crop rotation are given. Other chapters of this booklet deal with ensilage and gas yields as well as the economics of energy crop cultivation.

  12. Energy crops for biogas plants. Saxony-Anhalt; Energiepflanzen fuer Biogasanlagen. Sachsen-Anhalt

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Boese, L.; Buttlar, C. von; Boettcher, K. (and others)

    2012-07-15

    For agriculturists in Saxony-Anhalt (Federal Republic of Germany), the brochure under consideration provides recommendations on alternative crop rotation systems. With the help of these alternative cultivation systems, crop rotation with high yields in combination with high diversity, diversification and sustainability can be realized. Subsequently to the presentation of energy crops for the production of biogas, recommendations for the design of crop rotation are given. Other chapters of this booklet deal with ensilage and gas yields as well as the economics of energy crop cultivation.

  13. Inducting biogas. Future prospects; Einspeisung von Biogas. Zukunftsperspektiven

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Edelmann, W.

    2008-07-01

    Biogas is a very environmentally friendly source of energy as long as it is produced from refuse and sewage. If on the other hand energy plants are added, the ecological balance is unfavourable. Using photovoltaic methods for the same surface area, 100 times more solar energy can be produced than with renewable raw materials. One can therefore assure that in the future, traffic will run on electricity and biogas from natural resources will take on an important role as a supply of raw materials for chemical synthesis. It would appear to be a good idea for this purpose to clean biogas and introduce it into the network, at least for larger plants. (author)

  14. Analysis of bacterial communities and bacterial pathogens in a biogas plant by the combination of ethidium monoazide, PCR and Ion Torrent sequencing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Luo, Gang; Angelidaki, Irini

    2014-09-01

    The present study investigated the changes of bacterial community composition including bacterial pathogens along a biogas plant, i.e. from the influent, to the biogas reactor and to the post-digester. The effects of post-digestion temperature and time on the changes of bacterial community composition and bacterial pathogens were also studied. Microbial analysis was made by Ion Torrent sequencing of the PCR amplicons from ethidium monoazide treated samples, and ethidium monoazide was used to cleave DNA from dead cells and exclude it from PCR amplification. Both similarity and taxonomic analysis showed that the bacterial community composition in the influent was changed after anaerobic digestion. Firmicutes were dominant in all the samples, while Proteobacteria decreased in the biogas reactor compared with the influent. Variations of bacterial community composition in the biogas reactor with time were also observed. This could be attributed to varying composition of the influent. Batch experiments showed that the methane recovery from the digested residues (obtained from biogas reactor) was mainly related with post-digestion temperature. However, post-digestion time rather than temperature had a significant effect on the changes of bacterial community composition. The changes of bacterial community composition were also reflected in the changes of relative abundance of bacterial pathogens. The richness and relative abundance of bacterial pathogens were reduced after anaerobic digestion in the biogas reactor. It was found in batch experiments that bacterial pathogens showed the highest relative abundance and richness after 30 days' post-digestion. Streptococcus bovis was found in all the samples. Our results showed that special attention should be paid to the post-digestion since the increase in relative abundance of bacterial pathogens after post-digestion might reflect regrowth of bacterial pathogens and limit biosolids disposal vectors.

  15. Biogas entrepreneur's operational environment in Finland; Biokaasuyrittaejaen toimintaympaeristoe Suomessa. Kokemuksia MMM:n investointiavustusjaerjestelmaestae 2008-2010

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Marttinen, S.; Lehtonen, H.; Luostarinen, S.; Rasi, S.

    2013-09-01

    have sufficient and predictable balance from selling electricity and heat and also partly from fertilizers produced from the digestate and gate fees obtained from waste-based materials. The investment cost of biogas plant is very high in relation to turnover, which emphasizes the significance of balance sheet. The interviewed desicion-makers found the future of biogas business positive despite the profitabilityrelated challenges. They believed that in the future, productization of the digestates will be a more important source of income for the biogas plants than energy production. This study indicated that developing energy production support system and supporting research and development on digestate processing as well as the use of recycled fertilizers are key factors needed to increase the number of agricultural biogas plants in Finland. A long-term support policy and sufficiently high support are also prerequisites for this development. Profitability of the biogas plants may be increased also by using indirect policy mechanisms. Examples of operational models and profitability calculations, based on experiences from real Finnish biogas plants, would be of practical help for those planning a biogas plant. New way of thinking, also in administration, which would see biogas plant as an integration of energy production, agriculture, waste management and nutrient recycling, could enhance the development of the biogas sector in Finland. This integrated view would also help consideration of positive environmental benefits of biogas production and use in support systems. (orig.)

  16. Biogas and Fuel Cells Workshop Summary Report: Proceedings from the Biogas and Fuel Cells Workshop, Golden, Colorado, June 11-13, 2012

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    2013-01-01

    The U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL) held a Biogas and Fuel Cells Workshop June 11-13, 2012, in Golden, Colorado, to discuss biogas and waste-to-energy technologies for fuel cell applications. The overall objective was to identify opportunities for coupling renewable biomethane with highly efficient fuel cells to produce electricity; heat; combined heat and power (CHP); or combined heat, hydrogen and power (CHHP) for stationary or motive applications. The workshop focused on biogas sourced from wastewater treatment plants (WWTPs), landfills, and industrial facilities that generate or process large amounts of organic waste, including large biofuel production facilities (biorefineries).

  17. An innovative process for biogas upgrading by the microbial electrolysis cell

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jin, Xiangdan; Li, Xiaohu; Zhao, Nannan

    cell (BPMEC) was proposed to realize biogas upgrading. The system was composed of the anode, middle and cathode chamber which were separated by a bipolar membrane (BM) and an anion exchange membrane (AEM), respectively. With an external potential, water dissociation occurred and acid was produced......, efficient and sustainable way to extend the application of electrochemical technology....

  18. Biogas production from food-processing industrial wastes by anaerobic digestion

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Fang, Cheng

    Konfronteret med energikrise og klimaforandringer, har verden brug for grønne, effektive og kulstofneutrale energikilder, som kan erstatte fossile brændstoffer. Biogas, som dannes ved anaerob nedbrydning af organisk materiale, er en bæredygtig, pålidelig og vedvarende energikilde. Der er stor uud...

  19. Mass flow and energy balance plus economic analysis of a full-scale biogas plant in the rice-wine-pig system.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Jiang; Kong, Chuixue; Duan, Qiwu; Luo, Tao; Mei, Zili; Lei, Yunhui

    2015-10-01

    This paper presents mass flow and energy balance as well as an economic analysis for a biogas plant in a rice-wine-pig system at a practical rather than laboratory scale. Results showed feeding amount was 65.30 t d(-1) (total solid matter (TSM) 1.3%) for the normal temperature continuous stirred tank reactor (CSTR), and 16.20 t d(-1) (TSM 8.4%) for the mesophilic CSTR. The digestion produced 80.50 t d(-1) of mass, with 76.41 t d(-1) flowing into rice fields and 4.49 t d(-1) into composting. Energy consumption of this plant fluctuated with seasons, and surplus energy was 823, 221 kWh/year. Thus, biogas plant was critical for material recycling and energy transformation of this agro-ecosystem. The economic analysis showed that the payback time of the plant was 10.9 years. It also revealed application of biogas as a conventional energy replacement would be attractive for a crop-wine-livestock ecosystem with anaerobic digestion of manure.

  20. Bioenergy, protein and fibres from grass - biogas process monitoring; Bioenergie, Protein und Fasern aus Gras - Monitoring des Biogasprozesses

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Baier, U.; Delavy, P.

    2003-07-01

    Starting in Summer 2001 the first full scale Swiss Bio-refinery for grass processing took up operation in Schaffhausen. Grass processing covers the production of technical fibres and protein concentrate as well as anaerobic digestion of residual slops for the production of biogas and 'green' electricity. The refinery is operated by the company Bioenergie Schaffhausen as a P+D (pilot + demonstration) project of the Swiss Federal Office of Energy. Under full load it will deliver 2,000 MWh of 'green' electricity (10% own needs) and 3,000 MWh heat (50% own needs). Prior to start up the Swiss technology holder 2B Biorefineries AG mandated the University of Applied Sciences HSW with lab scale testing of the mesophilic biogas potential and anaerobic degradability of residual grass processing slops. Nutrient limitations and possible inhibition risks were evaluated. During the initial 8 months of full scale operation of the refinery in Schaffhausen an intensive monitoring of the anaerobic digester's performance was carried out. Carbon and nitrogen mass balances have been set up and the development of the granular EGSB sludge was characterised. From operational data a set of performance values was elaborated. The first year of operation was characterised by only partial exploitation of the refinery's grass processing capacity. Furthermore the protein separation and production unit has not yet been incorporated. Consequently, the EGSB biogas reactor showed a significant hydraulic underload when compared to dimensioning basics. Raw residuals were characterised by a higher particulate protein fraction. Operational conditions for the EGSB reactor were worked out to allow stable operation at elevated load conditions and with protein separation in operation. (author)

  1. Thermodynamic Performance Analysis of a Biogas-Fuelled Micro-Gas Turbine with a Bottoming Organic Rankine Cycle for Sewage Sludge and Food Waste Treatment Plants

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sunhee Kim

    2017-02-01

    Full Text Available In the Republic of Korea, efficient biogas-fuelled power systems are needed to use the excess biogas that is currently burned due to a lack of suitable power technology. We examined the performance of a biogas-fuelled micro-gas turbine (MGT system and a bottoming organic Rankine cycle (ORC. The MGT provides robust operation with low-grade biogas, and the exhaust can be used for heating the biodigester. Similarly, the bottoming ORC generates additional power output with the exhaust gas. We selected a 1000-kW MGT for four co-digestion plants with 28,000-m3 capacity. A 150-kW ORC system was selected for the MGT exhaust gas. We analysed the effects of the system size, methane concentration, and ORC operating conditions. Based on the system performance, we analysed the annual performance of the MGT with a combined heat and power (CHP system, bottoming ORC, or both a bottoming ORC and CHP system. The annual net power outputs for each system were 7.4, 8.5, and 9.0 MWh per year, respectively.

  2. [Effect of pretreatment on storage and biogas production of baling wheat straw].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ma, Hui-Juan; Chen, Guang-Yin; Du, Jing; Chang, Zhi-Zhou; Ye, Xiao-Mei

    2013-08-01

    Long-term storage of crop straw is very important for biogas plant while pretreatment is always used to improve biogas production of crop straw. Feasibility of integrating the storage with pretreatment of baling wheat straw was studied. Changes of physicochemical properties and the biogas productivity of wheat straw obtained before and after 120 days storage were analyzed. The results showed that it was feasible to directly bale wheat straw for storage (control) and storage treatment had little effect on the physicochemical properties, structure and biogas productivity of wheat straw. After 120 day's storage, biogas production potential of the surface wheat straw of pile was decreased by 7.40%. Integrating NaOH pretreatment with straw storage was good for biogas production of wheat straw and the total solid (TS) biogas yield was increased by 7.02%-8.31% (compared to that of wheat straw without storage) and 5.68% -16.96% (compared to that of storage without alkaline pretreatment), respectively. Storage with urea treatment was adverse to biogas production of wheat straw and the contents of cellulose and hemicellulose of wheat straw were decreased by 18.25%-27.22% and 5.31%-16.15% and the TS biogas yield was decreased by 2.80%-7.71% after 120 day's storage. Exposing wheat straw to the air during the storage process was adverse to the conserving of organic matter and biogas utilization of wheat straw, but the influence was very slight and the TS biogas yield of wheat straw obtained from pile surface of control and urea treatment was decreased by 7.40% and 4.25%, respectively.

  3. Establishment of a biogas grid and interaction between a biogas grid and a natural gas grid

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kvist, T.

    2011-01-15

    The project has aimed to clarify the advantages and disadvantages of a large biogas net in Ringkoebing Skjern municipality in Denmark, which wants to become self-sufficient in renewable energy by 2020. It is estimated that the biogas potential in the municipality is about. 60 mill. m3 methane gas a year. Half of the methane will be generated by digesting 80 % of the area's slurry, while the other half will be produced from energy crops. It will require an area equivalent to 5 % of the municipality's farmland. The idea is to establish decentralized 60-80 and 1-3 large centralized biogas plants, and that the produced biogas is distributed to natural gas-fired decentralized power plants. Based on this framework, a number of issues for the establishment of a biogas net have been investigated. These are: - the relation between biogas production and demand; - biogas compared to the overall energy system, - purification and measurement of biogas; - conversion of natural gas-fired power plants to biogas; - the value of biogas for cogeneration plants; - design of a biogas distribution net; - ownership and accountability; - potential business models. (LN)

  4. The economics of biogas in Denmark

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jacobsen, Brian H.; Laugesen, Frederik Møller; Dubgaard, Alex

    2013-01-01

    Denmark has been one of the leading European Countries in using Biogas for Combined Heat and Power (CHP), since the 1980’ties. However, in the last two decades, the increase has been limited. A new energy policy aimed at increasing the profitability of Biogas was introduced in the spring of 2012....... The analysis here shows that the new agreement will improve the profitability of biogas plants and increase the biogas production although the political ambition of an increase from 4 PJ to 14 PJ by 2020 seems unlikely. The analysis shows that biogas plants can be profitable even if the input is a mix....... Even without an investment subsidy of 30%, the case 2012, is profitable. Financing the biogas plants is a challenge. The interest used of 4.25% requires bank guaranties which in practice can be hard to get. Using a more likely interest of 7-8% reduces the yearly profit to 400.000 €. The socioeconomic...

  5. Environmental benefits and value chain economics at biogas production, phase II. Food waste and manure; Miljoenytte og verdikjedeoekonomi ved biogassproduksjon, fase II. Matavfall og husdyrgjoedsel

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Moeller, Hanne; Arnoey, Silje; Modahl, Ingunn Saur; Morken, John; Briseid, Tormod; Hanssen, Ole Joergen; Soerby, Ivar

    2012-07-01

    The main objective has been to develop an environmental model and an economic model for the entire value chain for the production of biogas and digestate processing. The results will contribute to better decision making in the planning of new biogas plants in Norway. Shortened version.(eb)

  6. Use of biogas in PEM fuel cells; Einsatz von Biogas in PEM-Brennstoffzellen

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Scholz, Volkhard; Schmersahl, Ralf; Ellner, Janine (comps.)

    2009-06-15

    This research project was dedicated to two problems: 1. What demands must biogas meet in order to conform to the specifications of PEM fuel cell systems and permit safe operation? 2. How must a fuel cell system be designed and operated in order to be well-adapted to the special features of biogas as opposed to natural gas? For this purpose biogas samples were taken from laboratory-scale and commercial plants and analysed by gas chromatography using various substrates and methods. By combining this with the use of a mass spectroscopy detector (GC-MS system) it was possible to perform a qualitative and quantitative analysis of sulphurious trace gases in the biogas which might cause damage to the fuel cell system. Investigations were performed on an experimental reformer using either modelled or native biogas of different compositions, the intent being to obtain information for the design of the individual process stages. The two operating parameters steam-methane ratio (or S/C ratio) and reforming temperature were varied to optimise parameter settings in terms of energy efficiency. By linking the reformer to a 500 W fuel cell it was possible confirm the suitability of the reformed biogas for use in fuel cells. [German] In diesm Forschungsvorhaben werden zwei Fragestellungen bearbeitet: 1. Welche Anforderungen ergeben sich an das Biogas, um den Spezifikationen von PEM-Brennstoffzellensystemen zu genuegen und eine sicheren Betrieb zu ermoeglichen? 2. Wie muss das Brennstoffzellensystem ausgelegt und gefuehrt werden, um den Besonderheiten von Biogas im Vergleich zu Erdgas Rechnung zu tragen? Dazu wurden Biogasproben aus Labor- und Praxisanlagen unter Beruecksichtigung unterschiedlicher Substrate und Verfahren gaschromatisch analysiert. Die Kopplung mit einem massenspektroskopischen Detektor (GC-MS System) ermoeglicht dabei die Qualifizierung und Quantifizierung der vorhandenen schwefelhaltigen Spurengase, die eine Schaedigung von Brennstoffzellenanlagen verursachen. Die

  7. Technological assumptions for biogas purification.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Makareviciene, Violeta; Sendzikiene, Egle

    2015-01-01

    Biogas can be used in the engines of transport vehicles and blended into natural gas networks, but it also requires the removal of carbon dioxide, hydrogen sulphide, and moisture. Biogas purification process flow diagrams have been developed for a process enabling the use of a dolomite suspension, as well as for solutions obtained by the filtration of the suspension, to obtain biogas free of hydrogen sulphide and with a carbon dioxide content that does not exceed 2%. The cost of biogas purification was evaluated on the basis of data on biogas production capacity and biogas production cost obtained from local water treatment facilities. It has been found that, with the use of dolomite suspension, the cost of biogas purification is approximately six times lower than that in the case of using a chemical sorbent such as monoethanolamine. The results showed travelling costs using biogas purified by dolomite suspension are nearly 1.5 time lower than travelling costs using gasoline and slightly lower than travelling costs using mineral diesel fuel.

  8. A numerical study on combustion process in a small compression ignition engine run dual-fuel mode (diesel-biogas)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ambarita, H.; Widodo, T. I.; Nasution, D. M.

    2017-01-01

    In order to reduce the consumption of fossil fuel of a compression ignition (CI) engines which is usually used in transportation and heavy machineries, it can be operated in dual-fuel mode (diesel-biogas). However, the literature reviews show that the thermal efficiency is lower due to incomplete combustion process. In order to increase the efficiency, the combustion process in the combustion chamber need to be explored. Here, a commercial CFD code is used to explore the combustion process of a small CI engine run on dual fuel mode (diesel-biogas). The turbulent governing equations are solved based on finite volume method. A simulation of compression and expansions strokes at an engine speed and load of 1000 rpm and 2500W, respectively has been carried out. The pressure and temperature distributions and streamlines are plotted. The simulation results show that at engine power of 732.27 Watt the thermal efficiency is 9.05%. The experiment and simulation results show a good agreement. The method developed in this study can be used to investigate the combustion process of CI engine run on dual-fuel mode.

  9. Comparison of biogas production from wild and cultivated varieties of reed canary grass.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oleszek, Marta; Król, Aleksandra; Tys, Jerzy; Matyka, Mariusz; Kulik, Mariusz

    2014-03-01

    The chemical composition and efficiency of biogas production in the methane fermentation process of silages of wild and cultivated varieties of reed canary grass were compared. An attempt was made to answer the question on how the habitat and the way of utilization of plants affect chemical composition and biogas yield. Physicochemical properties such as dry matter, organic dry matter, protein, fat, crude fiber fraction, macro- and microelements content were considered. The anaerobic digestion process and FTIR analysis were also carried out. The results showed that the two varieties differ essentially in their physical and chemical properties. The cultivated variety was characterized by higher biogas yield (406Ndm(3)kg(-1) VS) than the wild one (120Ndm(3)kg(-1) VS). This was probably related to the chemical composition of plants, especially the high content of indigestible crude fiber fractions and ash. These components could reduce biogas quantity and quality.

  10. Comparing methods for measuring the digestibility of miscanthus in bioethanol or biogas processing

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielsen, Susanne Frydendal; Jørgensen, Uffe; Hjorth, Maibritt

    2017-01-01

    the digestibility of miscanthus samples that were tested using three methods: 3,5-dinitrosalicylic acid assay (DNS), anaerobic batch digestion test, and high-throughput pretreatment and hydrolysis method, including a grinding and hydrothermal pretreatment prior to the analysis (HTPH). The miscanthus samples were...... expected to have different digestibilities due to maturity stage, dry matter content and the implementation of extrusion as a mechanical pretreatment. The results of the DNS and the biogas batch test methods were highly correlated (R2 between 0.75 and 0.92), but not with the results of the HTPH method....... The DNS and biogas batch test showed that digestibility differed between samples, probably due to the degree of lignification and content of soluble sugars. For the HTPH method, the digestibility for biorefining was the same irrespective of the variation in the other analyses. The HTPH method had higher...

  11. Application of the membrane technology on the exhaustive fermentation of renewable raw materials in biogas plants; Einsatz von Membrantechnik zur erschoepfenden Vergaerung von nachwachsenden Rohstoffen in Biogasanlagen

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Schreiber, Anja; Vollmer, Gerd-Rainer; Breuer, Uta; Nelles, Michael [Fachhochschule Nordhausen (Germany). Fachbereich Ingenieurwissenschaften

    2013-10-01

    In the University of Applied Sciences Nordhausen the possibility to increase the degradation of organic substances, especially maize silage as model substrate, in biogas plants by using membrane technology was investigated. This project started in 9/2010 and is founded by the Federal Ministry of Food, Agriculture and Consumer Protection (BMELV) on the Agency for Renewable Resources (FNR). The innovation of the method is the link between tubular membranes and the 1 m{sup 3} fermenter of the pilot biogas plant of the University. The installed membrane modules separate the fermenter materials in a solid (retentate) and a liquid phase (permeate). The solids are recycled in the fermenter while the permeate is fermented separately. The method based on the idea of decoupling the hydraulic retention time readily biodegradable and of difficult or non-biodegradable fermenter ingredients and a therefore continued degradation of organic matter. The separated permeate contains fatty acids and with it a significant residual gas potential. In parallel investigations the project partner BTN Biotechnologie Nordhausen GmbH evaluates different fermenter designs to optimal gain the gas potential of the separated permeate. If the method should be verified biogas plant operators could achieve higher gas yields with the same substrate amount or the same gas yield with less substrate amounts, respectively. (orig.)

  12. Biogas plant instead of milk cattle. Payment and occupation with the use of grass silage; Biogasanlage statt Milchkuh. Entlohnung und Beschaeftigung beim Einsatz von Grassilage

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Roesch, C.; Raab, K.; Stelzer, V. [Forschungszentrum Karlsruhe GmbH Technik und Umwelt (DE). Inst. fuer Technikfolgen-Abschaetzung und Systemanalyse (ITAS)

    2007-07-01

    The decrease of the stock of cows and the feed of grass silage leads to the fact that a part of the grassland is not needed anymore for the animal feeding. In view of the long-term promotion of the production of energy from regenerating raw materials, the question arises whether grassland could be used as a supplier for raw materials for biogas plants. Under this aspect, the authors of the contribution under consideration report on the question which effects are connected with the conversion of grass silage in biogas plants on incomes and occupation in the agriculture. The use of grass silage as co-ferment in biogas plants results in a higher work profitability than their employment in the keeping of milk cattle. The effect on the income clearly is smaller in comparison to manpower requirement in the keeping of milk cattle. Therefore, contrary to the keeping of milk cattle only an additional income can be gained over the utilization of grass silage grassland. Positive effects on the occupation in the rural area are possible.

  13. International scientific conference biogas science 2009. Vol. 3. Poster; Internationale Wissenschaftstagung Biogas Science 2009. Bd. 3. Poster

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2009-12-15

    biogas plants by mashing the co-ferments (P. Krampe); (18) Exhaust air purification after a biogas pressurized water purification - process and first practical experiences - (E. Luthardt); (19) Recycle plants for fish culture in combination with biogas generation - possibilities and problems (H. Wedekind); (20) The influence of antibiotics on running processes in the biogas production (G. Henkelmann et al.); (21) Selection and analysis of microbial cultures for efficient biomass conversion to methane (T. Koellmeier et al.); (22) Hydrolytic enzymes for the increase of the gas yield in the biogas production (V. Pelenc et al.); (23) Dynamics of microbial community for anaerobic digestion from a synthetic model substrate for maize silage under influence of trace elements (H. Pobeheim et al.); (24) Isolation and characterization of methane bacteria from biogas plants (K. Seyfarth et al.); (25) Enhancement of biogas production by addition of hemicellulolytic bacteria immobilised on activated zeolite IPUS meth-max {sup registered} (S. Weiss et al.); (26) Visualization of methane emissions (M. Brand); (27) Process control of an anaerobic hydrolysis-acidogenesis phase of a two-stage fermenter system treating maize silage (F. Liu et al.); (27) Laboratory services and quality assurance in the biogas production (K. Meyer zu Koecker et al.); (28) Identification of parameters for a non-linear model for biogas production (F. Scholwin et al.); (29) FOS/TAC derivation, methods, application and practical value (E. Voss et al.); (29) Investigations of the prediction of characteristic values of the anaerobic degradation process in biogas fermenters by means of NIR spectroscopy (C. Krapf et al.); (30) Economic sensitivity analysis of the biogas process based on neuronal grids (F. Bechstein et al.); (31) Mass flow analysis of the biogas production chain harvest-silage-fermentation (D. Banemann et al.); (32) Assessing the overall efficiency of Bavarian pilot biogas plants (D. Djatkov et al

  14. Anaerobic digestion without biogas?

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kleerebezem, R.; Joosse, B.; Rozendaal, R.; Van Loosdrecht, M.C.M.

    2015-01-01

    Anaerobic digestion for the production of methane containing biogas is the classic example of a resource recovery process that combines stabilization of particulate organic matter or wastewater treatment with the production of a valuable end-product. Attractive features of the process include the pr

  15. Comparative evaluation of different types of biogas suitable for tropical country

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sahu, S.N.; Gbagbo, J.K.N.; Aneke, F.U.

    1997-04-01

    The biogas technology - anaerobic digestion - is described together with different types of biogas plants suitable for tropical countries. Cost-benefit analysis of establishing biogas plants, financial support options, and the benefits of using biogas as an energy source in rural areas are presented. (LN)

  16. On-field study of anaerobic digestion full-scale plants (Part II): new approaches in monitoring and evaluating process efficiency.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schievano, Andrea; D'Imporzano, Giuliana; Orzi, Valentina; Adani, Fabrizio

    2011-10-01

    Biogas plants need easy and practical tools for monitoring and evaluating their biological process efficiency. As soon as, in many cases, biomass supply present considerable costs, full-scale anaerobic digestion (AD) processes must approach, as much as possible, the potential biogas yield of the organic mixture fed to the biodigesters. In this paper, a new indicator is proposed (the bio-methane yield, BMY), for measuring the efficiency in full-scale AD processes, based on a balance between the biochemical methane potential (BMP) of the input biomass and the residual BMP of the output materials (digestate). For this purpose, a one-year survey was performed on three different full-scale biogas plants, in the Italian agro-industrial context, and the bio-chemical processes were fully described in order to calculate their efficiencies (BMY = 87-93%) and to validate the new indicator proposed, as useful and easily applicable tool for full-scale AD plants operators.

  17. Electricity production from biogas in Serbia: Assessment of emissions reduction

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cvetković Slobodan M.

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Biogas represents a promising source for the production of clean energy. The objective of this paper was to quantify the potential for the reduction of emissions to the environment during the production of electricity from biogas in comparison with environmental effects of the production of the same amount of electricity from fossil resources (coal from Kolubara basin and natural gas. Basis for comparison of environmental impacts in this work was the annual production of electricity in biogas plants of the total capacity of 80 MW. This study has shown that the annual production of electricity from biogas power plants of 80 MW results in: substitution of up to 840 kt of coal from Kolubara basin and 123.2 million m3 of natural gas; reduction in emissions of greenhouse gases in the range of 491.16 kt - 604.97 kt CO2-eq, depending on the energy efficiency of the process of electricity production from biogas; reduction in emissions of greenhouse gases up to 92.37 kt CO2-eq compared to the use of natural gas for electricity generation.

  18. Cultivation of vancomycin-resistant enterococci and methicillin-resistant staphylococci from input and output samples of German biogas plants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Glaeser, Stefanie P; Sowinsky, Olivia; Brunner, Jana S; Dott, Wolfgang; Kämpfer, Peter

    2016-03-01

    Vancomycin-resistant enterococci (VRE) and methicillin-resistant staphylococci (MRS) were detected in two mesophilic German biogas plants (BGPs) using selective pre-enrichment methods combined with cultivation on CHROMagar media and antibiotic resistance gene screening. Genetic fingerprinting and 16S rRNA gene sequencing showed the presence of enterococci isolated by the VRE selective cultivation (67 isolates) in input and output samples of BGPs. In contrast, MRS (44 isolates) were detected in input, but in none of the output samples. Enterococcus isolates showed highest 16S rRNA gene sequence similarity (>99.8%) to E. lemanii, E. casseliflavus/E. gallinarium or E. devriesei/E. pseudoavium/E. viikkiensis and carried vanA, vanB and/or vanC1 genes. Enterococcus faecium and E. faecalis VRE were not detected, but isolates closely related to those species (>99.9% 16S rRNA gene sequence similarity) were detected by the MRS selective cultivation methods. Staphylococcus isolates shared highest 16S rRNA gene sequence similarity (>99.9%) with S. haemolyticus, S. lentus and S. sciuri and carried mecA genes. Methicillin-resistant S. aureus (MRSA) were not detected. In summary, manure from livestock husbandry contained both, VRE and MRS. VRE were also detected in output samples, indicating that enterococci with vancomycin resistance genes could be release into the environment by the application of BGP output material as biofertilizers.

  19. Identification of different species of Bacillus isolated from Nisargruna Biogas Plant by FTIR, UV-Vis and NIR spectroscopy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ghosh, S. B.; Bhattacharya, K.; Nayak, S.; Mukherjee, P.; Salaskar, D.; Kale, S. P.

    2015-09-01

    Definitive identification of microorganisms, including pathogenic and non-pathogenic bacteria, is extremely important for a wide variety of applications including food safety, environmental studies, bio-terrorism threats, microbial forensics, criminal investigations and above all disease diagnosis. Although extremely powerful techniques such as those based on PCR and microarrays exist, they require sophisticated laboratory facilities along with elaborate sample preparation by trained researchers. Among different spectroscopic techniques, FTIR was used in the 1980s and 90s for bacterial identification. In the present study five species of Bacillus were isolated from the aerobic predigester chamber of Nisargruna Biogas Plant (NBP) and were identified to the species level by biochemical and molecular biological (16S ribosomal DNA sequence) methods. Those organisms were further checked by solid state spectroscopic absorbance measurements using a wide range of electromagnetic radiation (wavelength 200 nm to 25,000 nm) encompassing UV, visible, near Infrared and Infrared regions. UV-Vis and NIR spectroscopy was performed on dried bacterial cell suspension on silicon wafer in specular mode while FTIR was performed on KBr pellets containing the bacterial cells. Consistent and reproducible species specific spectra were obtained and sensitivity up to a level of 1000 cells was observed in FTIR with a DTGS detector. This clearly shows the potential of solid state spectroscopic techniques for simple, easy to implement, reliable and sensitive detection of bacteria from environmental samples.

  20. Identification of different species of Bacillus isolated from Nisargruna Biogas Plant by FTIR, UV-Vis and NIR spectroscopy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ghosh, S B; Bhattacharya, K; Nayak, S; Mukherjee, P; Salaskar, D; Kale, S P

    2015-09-05

    Definitive identification of microorganisms, including pathogenic and non-pathogenic bacteria, is extremely important for a wide variety of applications including food safety, environmental studies, bio-terrorism threats, microbial forensics, criminal investigations and above all disease diagnosis. Although extremely powerful techniques such as those based on PCR and microarrays exist, they require sophisticated laboratory facilities along with elaborate sample preparation by trained researchers. Among different spectroscopic techniques, FTIR was used in the 1980s and 90s for bacterial identification. In the present study five species of Bacillus were isolated from the aerobic predigester chamber of Nisargruna Biogas Plant (NBP) and were identified to the species level by biochemical and molecular biological (16S ribosomal DNA sequence) methods. Those organisms were further checked by solid state spectroscopic absorbance measurements using a wide range of electromagnetic radiation (wavelength 200 nm to 25,000 nm) encompassing UV, visible, near Infrared and Infrared regions. UV-Vis and NIR spectroscopy was performed on dried bacterial cell suspension on silicon wafer in specular mode while FTIR was performed on KBr pellets containing the bacterial cells. Consistent and reproducible species specific spectra were obtained and sensitivity up to a level of 1000 cells was observed in FTIR with a DTGS detector. This clearly shows the potential of solid state spectroscopic techniques for simple, easy to implement, reliable and sensitive detection of bacteria from environmental samples.

  1. Utilization of substrates in biogas plants with and without a gas-tight fermentation remainder deposit; Substratausnutzung in Biogasanlagen mit und ohne gasdichtem Gaerrestbehaelter

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Engler, Nils [Rostock Univ. (Germany). Agrar- und Umweltwissenschaftliche Fakultaet; Weissbach, Friedrich; Wesseling, Stefanie

    2011-07-01

    In the case of an incomplete utilization of substrates in the biogas production, the greenhouse gas methane can be released into the atmosphere during the subsequent storage of the digestate. Recent legal restrictions require a gas-tight coverage of the entire fermentation remainder deposit. Under this aspect, the authors of the contribution under consideration investigate the utilization of the substrate in two identical 500 kW biogas plants with and without a gas-tight fermentation remainder deposit using a mixture of maize silage and cow manure. Due to the use of the gas-tight fermentation remainder deposit, this substrate mixture can be exploited better by about 3 %. This additional yield is applied to unheated fermentation remainder deposit for the summer. The amount of methane which thereby is not released into the environment is significantly lower.

  2. Co-digestion of manure and whey for in situ biogas upgrading by the addition of H2: process performance and microbial insights

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Luo, Gang; Angelidaki, Irini

    2013-01-01

    In situ biogas upgrading was conducted by introducing H2 directly to the anaerobic reactor. As H2 addition is associated with consumption of the CO2 in the biogas reactor, pH increased to higher than 8.0 when manure alone was used as substrate. By co-digestion of manure with acidic whey, the p......H in the anaerobic reactor with the addition of hydrogen could be maintained below 8.0, which did not have inhibition to the anaerobic process. The H2 distribution systems (diffusers with different pore sizes) and liquid mixing intensities were demonstrated to affect the gas-liquid mass transfer of H2 and the biogas...... composition. The best biogas composition (75:6.6:18.4) was obtained at stirring speed 150 rpmand using ceramic diffuser, while the biogas in the control reactor consisted of CH4 and CO2 at a ratio of 55:45. The consumed hydrogen was almost completely converted to CH4, and there was no significant accumulation...

  3. Biogas plants in EEG. 3. new rev. and enl. ed.; Biogasanlagen im EEG

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Loibl, Helmut; Maslaton, Martin; Bredow, Hartwig von; Walter, Rene (eds.)

    2013-06-01

    EEG 2012 is a complete revision for new EEG plants whereby the previous requirements of the EEG 2009 can be maintained for the existing plants. The authors of the book under consideration fully focus on the splitting into two different legal systems and the implications. It describes possibilities of solution for problems from the daily practice. The book provides a complete commentation of the biomass ordinance as well as the statements on the connection to the gas grid of biomethane plants.

  4. Quantification of diffuse emissions at biogas plants and measures relating to emission reduction; Quantifizierung diffuser Emissionen an Biogasanlagen und Massnahmen zur Emissionsminderung

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Reinelt, Torsten; Daniel-Gromke, Jaqueline [Deutsches Biomasseforschungszentrum (DBFZ) gGmbH, Berlin (Germany). Arbeitsgruppe Systemoptimierung; Westerkamp, Tanja [Deutsches Biomasseforschungszentrum (DBFZ) gGmbH, Berlin (Germany). Arbeitsgruppe Pruefstaende

    2013-10-01

    In the past years the methane, nitrous oxide and ammonia emissions from biogas plants were investigated. Measuring diffuse emission sources remains a challenge, in particular long term measurements and temporary emissions. At the moment greenhouse gas emissions from biogas plants are quantified by two methods. The aim is a comparison of the methods. Due to a little amount of stationary sources the first method uses a visual gas detection system to look for leakages on the plant. The quantification is carried out by an encapsulation of the source. The single sources are added to the whole emission from the plant. Typical sources are leakages at the foil cover, pressure relief vents and not gastight digestate storages. The second method uses an optical remote sensing system to determine the greenhouse gas emissions from the whole plant. For that purpose measuring sections are established with a TDLAS laser system that measures path-averaged concentrations to calculate the emission rate by using micrometeorological simulation models. Therefore all emission sources from the plant are determined by one measurement. Emissions occurring during malfunction are detected too. From the measurement results abatement strategies are developed. (orig.)

  5. Anaerobic Digestion and Biogas Potential: Simulation of Lab and Industrial-Scale Processes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ihsan Hamawand

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available In this study, a simulation was carried out using BioWin 3.1 to test the capability of the software to predict the biogas potential for two different anaerobic systems. The two scenarios included: (1 a laboratory-scale batch reactor; and (2 an industrial-scale anaerobic continuous lagoon digester. The measured data related to the operating conditions, the reactor design parameters and the chemical properties of influent wastewater were entered into BioWin. A sensitivity analysis was carried out to identify the sensitivity of the most important default parameters in the software’s models. BioWin was then calibrated by matching the predicted data with measured data and used to simulate other parameters that were unmeasured or deemed uncertain. In addition, statistical analyses were carried out using evaluation indices, such as the coefficient of determination (R-squared, the correlation coefficient (r and its significance (p-value, the general standard deviation (SD and the Willmott index of agreement, to evaluate the agreement between the software prediction and the measured data. The results have shown that after calibration, BioWin can be used reliably to simulate both small-scale batch reactors and industrial-scale digesters with a mean absolute percentage error (MAPE of less than 10% and very good values of the indexes. Furthermore, by changing the default parameters in BioWin, which is a way of calibrating the models in the software, as well, this may provide information about the performance of the digester. Furthermore, the results of this study showed there may be an over estimation for biogas generated from industrial-scale digesters. More sophisticated analytical devices may be required for reliable measurements of biogas quality and quantity.

  6. Biogas document; Dossier Biogaz

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Verchin, J.C.; Servais, C. [Club BIOGAZ, 94 - Arcueil (France)

    2002-06-01

    In this document concerning the biogas, the author presents this renewable energy situation in 2001-2002, the concerned actors, the accounting of the industrial methanization installations in France, the three main chains of process for industrial wastes and two examples of methanization implementation in a paper industry and in a dairy. (A.L.B.)

  7. Improvement of biogas production by bioaugmentation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kovács, K L; Ács, N; Kovács, E; Wirth, R; Rákhely, G; Strang, Orsolya; Herbel, Zsófia; Bagi, Z

    2013-01-01

    Biogas production technologies commonly involve the use of natural anaerobic consortia of microbes. The objective of this study was to elucidate the importance of hydrogen in this complex microbial food chain. Novel laboratory biogas reactor prototypes were designed and constructed. The fates of pure hydrogen-producing cultures of Caldicellulosiruptor saccharolyticus and Enterobacter cloacae were followed in time in thermophilic and mesophilic natural biogas-producing communities, respectively. Molecular biological techniques were applied to study the altered ecosystems. A systematic study in 5-litre CSTR digesters revealed that a key fermentation parameter in the maintenance of an altered population balance is the loading rate of total organic solids. Intensification of the biogas production was observed and the results corroborate that the enhanced biogas productivity is associated with the increased abundance of the hydrogen producers. Fermentation parameters did not indicate signs of failure in the biogas production process. Rational construction of more efficient and sustainable biogas-producing microbial consortia is proposed.

  8. Press fluid pre-treatment optimisation of the integrated generation of solid fuel and biogas from biomass (IFBB) process approach.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Corton, John; Toop, Trisha; Walker, Jonathan; Donnison, Iain S; Fraser, Mariecia D

    2014-10-01

    The integrated generation of solid fuel and biogas from biomass (IFBB) system is an innovative approach to maximising energy conversion from low input high diversity (LIHD) biomass. In this system water pre-treated and ensiled LIHD biomass is pressed. The press fluid is anaerobically digested to produce methane that is used to power the process. The fibrous fraction is densified and then sold as a combustion fuel. Two process options designed to concentrate the press fluid were assessed to ascertain their influence on productivity in an IFBB like system: sedimentation and the omission of pre-treatment water. By concentrating press fluid and not adding water during processing, energy production from methane was increased by 75% per unit time and solid fuel productivity increased by 80% per unit of fluid produced. The additional energy requirements for pressing more biomass in order to generate equal volumes of feedstock were accounted for in these calculations.

  9. Anaerobic co-digestion of the organic fraction of municipal solid waste with FOG waste from a sewage treatment plant: recovering a wasted methane potential and enhancing the biogas yield.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martín-González, L; Colturato, L F; Font, X; Vicent, T

    2010-10-01

    Anaerobic digestion is applied widely to treat the source collected organic fraction of municipal solid wastes (SC-OFMSW). Lipid-rich wastes are a valuable substrate for anaerobic digestion due to their high theoretical methane potential. Nevertheless, although fat, oil and grease waste from sewage treatment plants (STP-FOGW) are commonly disposed of in landfill, European legislation is aimed at encouraging more effective forms of treatment. Co-digestion of the above wastes may enhance valorisation of STP-FOGW and lead to a higher biogas yield throughout the anaerobic digestion process. In the present study, STP-FOGW was evaluated as a co-substrate in wet anaerobic digestion of SC-OFMSW under mesophilic conditions (37 degrees C). Batch experiments carried out at different co-digestion ratios showed an improvement in methane production related to STP-FOGW addition. A 1:7 (VS/VS) STP-FOGW:SC-OFMSW feed ratio was selected for use in performing further lab-scale studies in a 5L continuous reactor. Biogas yield increased from 0.38+/-0.02 L g VS(feed)(-1) to 0.55+/-0.05 L g VS(feed)(-1) as a result of adding STP-FOGW to reactor feed. Both VS reduction values and biogas methane content were maintained and inhibition produced by long chain fatty acid (LCFA) accumulation was not observed. Recovery of a currently wasted methane potential from STP-FOGW was achieved in a co-digestion process with SC-OFMSW.

  10. BIOGAS PRODUCTION FROM CATCH CROPS

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Molinuevo-Salces, Beatriz; Larsen, Søren U.; Ahring, Birgitte Kiær

    2014-01-01

    Catch crop cultivation combined with its use for biogas production would increase renewable energy production in the form of methane, without interfering with the production of food and fodder crops. The low biomass yield of catch crops is the main limiting factor for using these crops as co......-substrate in manure-based biogas plants and the profit obtained from the sale of biogas barely compensates for the harvest costs. A new agricultural strategy to harvest catch crops together with the residual straw of the main crop was investigated to increase the biomass and thereby the methane yield per hectare...... biomass. Leaving the straw on the field until harvest of the catch crop in the autumn could benefit biogas production due to the organic matter degradation of the straw taking place on the field during the autumn months. This new agricultural strategy may be a good alternative to achieve economically...

  11. Comparison of different procedures to stabilize biogas formation after process failure in a thermophilic waste digestion system: influence of aggregate formation on process stability.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kleyböcker, A; Liebrich, M; Kasina, M; Kraume, M; Wittmaier, M; Würdemann, H

    2012-06-01

    Following a process failure in a full-scale biogas reactor, different counter measures were undertaken to stabilize the process of biogas formation, including the reduction of the organic loading rate, the addition of sodium hydroxide (NaOH), and the introduction of calcium oxide (CaO). Corresponding to the results of the process recovery in the full-scale digester, laboratory experiments showed that CaO was more capable of stabilizing the process than NaOH. While both additives were able to raise the pH to a neutral milieu (pH>7.0), the formation of aggregates was observed particularly when CaO was used as the additive. Scanning electron microscopy investigations revealed calcium phosphate compounds in the core of the aggregates. Phosphate seemed to be released by phosphorus-accumulating organisms, when volatile fatty acids accumulated. The calcium, which was charged by the CaO addition, formed insoluble salts with long chain fatty acids, and caused the precipitation of calcium phosphate compounds. These aggregates were surrounded by a white layer of carbon rich organic matter, probably consisting of volatile fatty acids. Thus, during the process recovery with CaO, the decrease in the amount of accumulated acids in the liquid phase was likely enabled by (1) the formation of insoluble calcium salts with long chain fatty acids, (2) the adsorption of volatile fatty acids by the precipitates, (3) the acid uptake by phosphorus-accumulating organisms and (4) the degradation of volatile fatty acids in the aggregates. Furthermore, this mechanism enabled a stable process performance after re-activation of biogas production. In contrast, during the counter measure with NaOH aggregate formation was only minor resulting in a rapid process failure subsequent the increase of the organic loading rate.

  12. Anaerobic digestion of fruit and vegetable processing wastes for biogas production

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Viswanath, P.; Sumithra Devi, S.; Nand, K. (Central Food Technological Research Inst., Mysore (IN))

    1992-01-01

    The effect of feeding different fruit and vegetable wastes, mango, pineapple, tomato, jackfruit, banana and orange, was studied in a 60-litre digester by cycling each waste every fifth day in order to operate the digester as and when there was supply of feed. The characteristics of the anaerobically digested fluid and digester performance in terms of biogas production were determined at different loading rates (LR) and at different hydraulic retention times (HRT) and the maximum biogas yield of 0.6 m{sup 3}/kg VS added was achieved at a 20-day HRT and 40 kg TS m{sup -3}day{sup -1} loading rate. The hourly gas production was observed in the digesters operated at 16 and 24 days HRT. The major yield (74.5%) of gas was produced within 12h of feeding at a 16-day HRT whereas at a 24-day HRT only 59.03% of the total gas could be obtained at this time. (author).

  13. Enhancing biogas production from vinasse in sugarcane biorefineries: Effects of urea and trace elements supplementation on process performance and stability.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Janke, Leandro; Leite, Athaydes F; Batista, Karla; Silva, Witan; Nikolausz, Marcell; Nelles, Michael; Stinner, Walter

    2016-10-01

    In this study, the effects of nitrogen, phosphate and trace elements supplementation were investigated in a semi-continuously operated upflow anaerobic sludge blanket system to enhance process stability and biogas production from sugarcane vinasse. Phosphate in form of KH2PO4 induced volatile fatty acids accumulation possibly due to potassium inhibition of the methanogenesis. Although nitrogen in form of urea increased the reactor's alkalinity, the process was overloaded with an organic loading rate of 6.1gCODL(-1)d(-1) and a hydraulic retention time of 3.6days. However, by supplementing urea and trace elements a stable operation even at an organic loading rate of 9.6gCODL(-1)d(-1) and a hydraulic retention time of 2.5days was possible, resulting in 79% higher methane production rate with a stable specific methane production of 239mLgCOD(-1).

  14. Impact of CAD-deficiency in flax on biogas production.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wróbel-Kwiatkowska, Magdalena; Jabłoński, Sławomir; Szperlik, Jakub; Dymińska, Lucyna; Łukaszewicz, Marcin; Rymowicz, Waldemar; Hanuza, Jerzy; Szopa, Jan

    2015-12-01

    Global warming and the reduction in our fossil fuel reservoir have forced humanity to look for new means of energy production. Agricultural waste remains a large source for biofuel and bioenergy production. Flax shives are a waste product obtained during the processing of flax fibers. We investigated the possibility of using low-lignin flax shives for biogas production, specifically by assessing the impact of CAD deficiency on the biochemical and structural properties of shives. The study used genetically modified flax plants with a silenced CAD gene, which encodes the key enzyme for lignin synthesis. Reducing the lignin content modified cellulose crystallinity, improved flax shive fermentation and optimized biogas production. Chemical pretreatment of the shive biomass further increased biogas production efficiency.

  15. Pilot-scale anaerobic co-digestion of sewage sludge with agro-industrial by-products for increased biogas production of existing digesters at wastewater treatment plants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maragkaki, A E; Fountoulakis, M; Gypakis, A; Kyriakou, A; Lasaridi, K; Manios, T

    2017-01-01

    Due to low degradability of dry solids, most of the digesters at wastewater treatment plants (WWTP) operate at low loading rates resulting in poor biogas yields. In this study, co-digestion of sewage sludge (SS) with olive mill wastewater (OMW), cheese whey (CW) and crude glycerol (CG) was studied in an attempt to improve biogas production of existing digesters at WWTPs. The effect of agro-industrial by-products in biogas production was investigated using a 220L pilot-scale (180L working volume) digester under mesophilic conditions (35°C) with a total feeding volume of 7.5L daily and a 24-day hydraulic retention time. The initial feed was sewage sludge and the bioreactor was operated using this feed for 40days. Each agro-industrial by-product was then added to the feed so that the reactor was fed continuously with 95% sewage sludge and 5% (v/v) of each examined agro-industrial by-product. The experiments showed that a 5% (v/v) addition of OMW, CG or CW to sewage sludge significantly increased biogas production by nearly 220%, 350% and 86% as values of 34.8±3.2L/d, 185.7±15.3L/d and 45.9±3.6L/d respectively, compared to that with sewage sludge alone (375ml daily, 5% v/v in the feed). The average removal of dissolved chemical oxygen demand (d-COD) ranged between 72 and 99% for organic loading rates between 0.9 and 1.5kgVSm(-3)d(-1). Reduction in the volatile solids ranged between 25 and 40%. This work suggests that methane can be produced very efficiently by adding a small concentration (5%) of agro-industrial by-products and especially CG in the inlet of digesters treating sewage sludge.

  16. Biogas from renewable resources through dry anaerobic digestion; Biogas aus NaWaRos durch Trockenfermentation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Heiermann, M. [ATB, Potsdam (Germany). Abt. Technikbewertung und Stoffkreislaeufe; Linke, B. [ATB, Potsdam (Germany). Abt. Bioverfahrenstechnik; Kessler, U. [Agrargenossenschaft Pirow e.G. (Germany). Biogasanlage; Loock, R. [Ingenieurbuero Loock Consultants, Hamburg (Germany)

    2007-07-01

    The functionality, performance and operational safety of anaerobic digestion using the dry-wet simultaneous technique of Loock Consultants were investigated at the biogas pilot plant in Pirow (State Brandenburg). In addition to determining process parameters and the input and output balance of the digester, chemical characterisation of the substrates and their biogas production potential were determined in the laboratory. The results reveal that a substrate mixture of 60% maize silage, 13% poultry manure and 27% digested material on a mass basis deliver a methane yield of 90 m{sup 3}t{sup -1} fresh matter, if conducted as a three-week batch process. A specific methane yield performance of 0.34 m{sup 3}kg{sup -1} VS is attained, as with dry anaerobic digestion of maize silage, with the standard wet process. (orig.)

  17. State of development of biogas production in Europe

    OpenAIRE

    Torrijos, Michel

    2016-01-01

    The share of renewable energies in electricity production is still low in Europe but there is a political will to increase it in the future by the development of solar and wind energies but also by the development of electricity production from biogas. Biogas production from solid waste is developing in Europe but with important differences between countries. Germany is from far the country where biogas industry is the most developed with 62% of the European biogas plants. However, the latest...

  18. Forecasting the potential of Danish biogas production

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bojesen, Mikkel; Skov-Petersen, Hans; Gylling, Morten

    , except for those farms which are in the largest state class. Regional differences in development trends were documented. The strategic objective of the model is to provide data for the spatial assessment of the potential of biogas production which can form the basis for a location analysis for future...... biogas plants....

  19. Biogas in Romanian Agriculture, Present and Perspectives

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Teodor Vintila

    2011-05-01

    Full Text Available In this work we have made a review of data available concerning the potential and technologies available to be applied in Romania to produce biogas in agricultural sector. Biogas application is especially interesting for medium and large farms, concentrated on specific surfaces, where a proper substrate collection can be organized. Reviewing data presenting the theoretical potential for livestock manure in Romania, we found that over 17 mil. MWh of energy from biogas can be provided in one year. It is estimated that only half of the theoretical energy potential is technically usable by biogas investments. As for the crops residues, has been shown that the theoretical biogas potential is 76,7 mil. MWh/year. However, there is a long way to be done in Romania to reach this potential, as in the present, the entire production of biogas is from industrial and municipal landfill and slurries - there are no operational on-farm biogas plants. Despite the high potential in terms of biogas production from agricultural sources, Romania has among the lowest biogas production in Europe. Although currently there are several biogas plants (not in agricultural sector totaling an installed capacity of only 4 MW, and producing in 2010 only 19 GWh electric power, the target for 2020 in Romania is 195 MWel. installed power, with an output of 950 GW electric power. The main cause of the actual situation is the lack of economic incentives similar to those offered by countries as Germany. Without a review of relevant legislation, the progress of the biogas sector in Romania will be limited. Furthermore, the development of low-cost technologies available to Romanian farmers will contribute to the development of production of renewable energy from biogas and other biofuels.

  20. Biogas (fermentation or digester gas) plant Wittmund - experiences with the operation of an commercial sized installation. Final report; Investitionen zur Verminderung von Umweltbelastungen. Biogasanlage Wittmund - Bau und Betrieb einer Grossanlage. Abschlussbericht

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Winkelmann, M.; Schubert, S.; Kutscher, T.

    1998-11-01

    Since 1996 yearly 90.-100.000 t liquid manure and 10-30.000 t organic waste have been fermented for recycling/processing/utilization at the biogas plant Wittmund. 6-8.000 MWh electricity/current and 5-7.000 MWh heat have been produced and sold from the biogas. The report describes the historical context of the biogas-technology referring to the project as well as the experiences of the permission-, improval-, construction- and the starting-period including the operating results in the first year. We specially turned the intention to the cooperation with the agriculture/farming, which is unique in this way in Germany. The plant collaborates with 70 farms. The liquid manure is collected by a company-owned fleet of vehicles and afterwards returned as high-quality liquid manure to the farms. The logistics herefore is very complex, the collaboration with the farms is extremely good. Due to changes at the waste market the prices for organic waste has gone down extremely, so that meanwhile the waste amount has been increased; furthermore, in two cases bad experiences have been made with exclusive suppliers for the plant, so that this as well has been reorganized to an in-house acquisition. Because of drastic changes of law ('Stromeinspeisegesetz' power supplier law / organic waste decree) the power profits could nearly been doubled, so that the decline of the waste market could have been economically compensated a little. Technically this kind of fermentation of liquid manure has nearly no fault liability. Sensitive is on the other hand the thermal power-station technology, respectively the integration of heat into the heating circulation of the barracks, which are by contract heating consumers, and the outgoing-air technology. The main problem of all plants however is the acquisition of waste. Due to a 'boom of biogas' many small and commercial sized installations are built, which take away the economical basis for all plants by offering low

  1. Biogas (fermentation or digester gas) plant Wittmund - experiences with the operation of an commercial sized installation. Final report; Investitionen zur Verminderung von Umweltbelastungen. Biogasanlage Wittmund - Bau und Betrieb einer Grossanlage. Abschlussbericht

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Winkelmann, M.; Schubert, S.; Kutscher, T.

    1998-11-01

    Since 1996 yearly 90.-100.000 t liquid manure and 10-30.000 t organic waste have been fermented for recycling/processing/utilization at the biogas plant Wittmund. 6-8.000 MWh electricity/current and 5-7.000 MWh heat have been produced and sold from the biogas. The report describes the historical context of the biogas-technology referring to the project as well as the experiences of the permission-, improval-, construction- and the starting-period including the operating results in the first year. We specially turned the intention to the cooperation with the agriculture/farming, which is unique in this way in Germany. The plant collaborates with 70 farms. The liquid manure is collected by a company-owned fleet of vehicles and afterwards returned as high-quality liquid manure to the farms. The logistics herefore is very complex, the collaboration with the farms is extremely good. Due to changes at the waste market the prices for organic waste has gone down extremely, so that meanwhile the waste amount has been increased; furthermore, in two cases bad experiences have been made with exclusive suppliers for the plant, so that this as well has been reorganized to an in-house acquisition. Because of drastic changes of law ('Stromeinspeisegesetz' power supplier law / organic waste decree) the power profits could nearly been doubled, so that the decline of the waste market could have been economically compensated a little. Technically this kind of fermentation of liquid manure has nearly no fault liability. Sensitive is on the other hand the thermal power-station technology, respectively the integration of heat into the heating circulation of the barracks, which are by contract heating consumers, and the outgoing-air technology. The main problem of all plants however is the acquisition of waste. Due to a 'boom of biogas' many small and commercial sized installations are built, which take away the economical basis for all plants by offering low

  2. Biogas production from wheat straw and manure--impact of pretreatment and process operating parameters.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Risberg, Kajsa; Sun, Li; Levén, Lotta; Horn, Svein Jarle; Schnürer, Anna

    2013-12-01

    Non-treated or steam-exploded straw in co-digestion with cattle manure was evaluated as a substrate for biogas production compared with manure as the sole substrate. All digestions were performed in laboratory-scale CSTR reactors (5L) operating with an organic loading late of approximately 2.8 g VS/L/day, independent of substrate mixture. The hydraulic retention was 25 days and an operating temperature of 37, 44 or 52°C. The co-digestion with steam exploded straw and manure was evaluated with two different mixtures, with different proportion. The results showed stable performance but low methane yields (0.13-0.21 N L CH4/kg VS) for both manure alone and in co-digestion with the straw. Straw appeared to give similar yield as manure and steam-explosion treatment of the straw did not increase gas yields. Furthermore, there were only slight differences at the different operating temperatures.

  3. Research on Anaerobic Digestion: Optimization and Scalability of Mixed High-strength Food Processing Wastes for Renewable Biogas Energy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yu, Zhongtang [The Ohio State Univ., Columbus, OH (United States); Hitzhusen, Fredrick [The Ohio State Univ., Columbus, OH (United States)

    2012-12-27

    This research project developed and improved anaerobic digestion technologies, created a comprehensive Inventory of Ohio Biomass and a database of microorganisms of anaerobic digesters, and advanced knowledge and understanding of the underpinning microbiology of the anaerobic digestion process. The results and finding of this research project may be useful for future development and implementation of anaerobic digesters, especially at livestock farms. Policy makers and investors may also find the information on the biomass availability in Ohio and valuation of energy projects useful in policy making and making of investment decisions. The public may benefit from the information on biogas as an energy source and the potential impact of anaerobic digester projects on their neighborhoods.

  4. Multispectral Image Processing for Plants

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miles, Gaines E.

    1991-01-01

    The development of a machine vision system to monitor plant growth and health is one of three essential steps towards establishing an intelligent system capable of accurately assessing the state of a controlled ecological life support system for long-term space travel. Besides a network of sensors, simulators are needed to predict plant features, and artificial intelligence algorithms are needed to determine the state of a plant based life support system. Multispectral machine vision and image processing can be used to sense plant features, including health and nutritional status.

  5. Enzyme research and applications in biotechnological intensification of biogas production.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Parawira, Wilson

    2012-06-01

    Biogas technology provides an alternative source of energy to fossil fuels in many parts of the world. Using local resources such as agricultural crop remains, municipal solid wastes, market wastes and animal waste, energy (biogas), and manure are derived by anaerobic digestion. The hydrolysis process, where the complex insoluble organic materials are hydrolysed by extracellular enzymes, is a rate-limiting step for anaerobic digestion of high-solid organic solid wastes. Biomass pretreatment and hydrolysis are areas in need of drastic improvement for economic production of biogas from complex organic matter such as lignocellulosic material and sewage sludge. Despite development of pretreatment techniques, sugar release from complex biomass still remains an expensive and slow step, perhaps the most critical in the overall process. This paper gives an updated review of the biotechnological advances to improve biogas production by microbial enzymatic hydrolysis of different complex organic matter for converting them into fermentable structures. A number of authors have reported significant improvement in biogas production when crude and commercial enzymes are used in the pretreatment of complex organic matter. There have been studies on the improvement of biogas production from lignocellulolytic materials, one of the largest and renewable sources of energy on earth, after pretreatment with cellulases and cellulase-producing microorganisms. Lipids (characterised as oil, grease, fat, and free long chain fatty acids, LCFA) are a major organic compound in wastewater generated from the food processing industries and have been considered very difficult to convert into biogas. Improved methane yield has been reported in the literature when these lipid-rich wastewaters are pretreated with lipases and lipase-producing microorganisms. The enzymatic treatment of mixed sludge by added enzymes prior to anaerobic digestion has been shown to result in improved degradation of the

  6. Cost analysis of concepts for a demand oriented biogas supply for flexible power generation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hahn, Henning; Ganagin, Waldemar; Hartmann, Kilian; Wachendorf, Michael

    2014-10-01

    With the share of intermittent renewable energies within the electricity system rising, balancing services from dispatchable power plants are of increasing importance. Highlighting the importance of the need to keeping fuel costs for flexible power generation to a minimum, the study aims to identify favourable biogas plant configurations, supplying biogas on demand. A cost analysis of five configurations based on biogas storing and flexible biogas production concepts has been carried out. Results show that additional flexibility costs for a biogas supply of 8h per day range between 2€ and 11€MWh(-1) and for a 72h period without biogas demand from 9€ to 19€MWh(-1). While biogas storage concepts were identified as favourable short term supply configurations, flexible biogas production concepts profit from reduced storage requirements at plants with large biogas production capacities or for periods of several hours without biogas demand.

  7. Microwave and thermal pretreatment as methods for increasing the biogas potential of secondary sludge from municipal wastewater treatment plants

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kuglarz, Mariusz; Karakashev, Dimitar Borisov; Angelidaki, Irini

    2013-01-01

    In the present study, the sludge was pretreated with microwave irradiation and low-temperature thermal method, both conducted under the same temperature range (30–100°C). Microwave pretreatment was found to be superior over the thermal treatment with respect to sludge solubilization and biogas...... production. Taking into account the specific energy demand of solubilization, the sludge pre-treated at 60–70°C by microwaves of 900W was chosen for further experiments in continuous mode, which was more energetically sustainable compared to lower value (700W) and thermal treatment. Continuous biogas reactor...

  8. Fuels made from agricultural biomass - (biogas) alternative types(Alternativne vrste goriva iz poljoprivredne biomase - biogas)

    OpenAIRE

    Jovanovska, Vangelica; Jovanovski, Nikola; Sovreski, Zlatko; Pop-Andonov, Goran; Sinani, Feta

    2013-01-01

    Biogas is a typical "product" of urban discharges, which has a great negative environmental impact. To avoid this negative effect, it can be burnt at very high temperatures, producing smoke emissions composed of CO2. A useful alternative is to use biogas as fuel to feed co-generation plants, producing electricity. At the moment biogas is used as fuel, introducing it directly in the combustion chamber. Nevertheless the heterogeneity of the gas stresses the engine, reducing its life. The new te...

  9. Assessment of the cogeneration biogas plant possibilities in the autonomous power supply system

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sumarokova Liudmila

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available The use of biomass and wood waste for heat and power production is increasing from year to year. Waste wood is low carbon footprint, has low sulfur content and relates to renewable energy sources. The paper demonstrates the possibility of increasing the energy efficiency of power supply system of the Stepanovka settlement (Tomsk region by means of replacing diesel power plant (DPP by the biofuel gas piston CHP. The assessment was based on the possibility of the technical and economic comparison of power supply options in the settlement.

  10. Realtime control of biogas reactors. Technical report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Poulsen, Allan K.

    2010-12-15

    In this project several online methods were connected to a biogas pilot plant designed and built by Xergi A/S (Foulum, Denmark). The pilot plant was composed of two stainless steel tanks used as substrate storage and as digester, respectively. The total volume of the reactor tank was 300 L, the working volume 200 L and the headspace volume 100 L. The process temperature in the biogas reactor was maintained at 52 {+-} 0.5 deg. C during normal operating conditions. The biogas production was measured with a flow meter and a controller was used for automatic control of temperature, effluent removal, feeding and for data logging. A NIRS (near infrared spectrometer) was connected to a recurrent loop measuring on the slurry while a {mu}-GC (micro gas chromatograph) and a MIMS (membrane inlet mass spectrometer) enabled online measurements of the gas phase composition. During the project period three monitoring campaigns were accomplished. The loading rate of the biogas reactor was increased stepwise during the periods while the process was monitored. In the first two campaigns the load was increased by increasing the mass of organic material added to the reactor each day. However, this increasing amount changed the retention time in the reactor and in order to keep the retention time constant an increasing amount of inhibitor of the microbial process was instead added in the third campaign and as such maintaining a constant organic load mass added to the reactor. The effect is similar to an increase in process load, while keeping the load of organic material and hence retention time constant. Methods have been developed for the following online technologies and each technology has been evaluated with regard to future use as a tool for biogas process monitoring: 1) {mu}-GC was able to quantitative monitor important gas phase parameters in a reliable, fast and low-maintenance way. 2) MIMS was able to quantitative monitor gas phase composition in a reliable and fast manner

  11. The production and use of biogas in 2012; Produktion och anvaendning av biogas aar 2012

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2013-07-01

    This report presents an annual survey on the production and use of biogas. The survey aims to provide policy makers, industry associations, researchers, journalists, municipalities and the general public information on annual production and use of biogas. Statistics are used as the basis for Sweden's overall reporting of renewable energy to the EU and as a basis in various government investigations. In the present study, a total of 242 biogas-production plants have been identified in Sweden. These produced a total of 1,589 GWh of energy. The 242 biogas-producing plants were distributed by 135 wastewater treatment plants, 55 landfills, 26 farm biogas plants, 21 co-digestion plants and five industrial plants. The main substrates for biogas production were different types of waste such as sewage sludge, manure, source separated food waste and waste from butchers and food industries. Energy crops constituted a very small fraction of the total substrate similarly no. The geographic distribution shows that most of the biogas production was centered in a few counties. Skaane, Stockholm and Vaestra Goetaland accounted for over 50 % of the country's biogas production.

  12. Increased biogas production in a wastewater treatment plant by anaerobic co-digestion of fruit and vegetable waste and sewer sludge - a full scale study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Park, Nathan D; Thring, Ronald W; Garton, Randy P; Rutherford, Michael P; Helle, Steve S

    2011-01-01

    Anaerobic digestion is a well established technology for the reduction of organic matter and stabilization of wastewater. Biogas, a mixture of methane and carbon dioxide, is produced as a useful by-product of the process. Current solid waste management at the city of Prince George is focused on disposal of waste and not on energy recovery. Co-digestion of fresh fruit and vegetable waste with sewer sludge can improve biogas yield by increasing the load of biodegradable material. A six week full-scale project co-digesting almost 15,000 kg of supermarket waste was completed. Average daily biogas production was found to be significantly higher than in previous years. Digester operation remained stable over the course of the study as indicated by the consistently low volatile acids-to-alkalinity ratio. Undigested organic material was visible in centrifuged sludge suggesting that the waste should have been added to the primary digester to prevent short circuiting and to increase the hydraulic retention time of the freshly added waste.

  13. Techno-economical study of biogas production improved by steam explosion pretreatment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shafiei, Marzieh; Kabir, Maryam M; Zilouei, Hamid; Sárvári Horváth, Ilona; Karimi, Keikhosro

    2013-11-01

    Economic feasibility of steam explosion pretreatment for improvement of biogas production from wheat straw and paper tube residuals was investigated. The process was simulated by Aspen plus ®, and the economical feasibility of five different plant capacities was studied by Aspen Process Economic Analyzer. Total project investment of a plant using paper tube residuals or wheat straw was 63.9 or 61.8 million Euros, respectively. The manufacturing cost of raw biogas for these two feedstocks was calculated to 0.36 or 0.48 €/m(3) of methane, respectively. Applying steam explosion pretreatment resulted in 13% higher total capital investment while significantly improved the economy of the biogas plant and decreased the manufacturing cost of methane by 36%. The sensitivity analysis showed that 5% improvement in the methane yield and 20% decrease in the raw material price resulted in 5.5% and 8% decrease in the manufacturing cost of methane, respectively.

  14. Process and plant safety

    CERN Document Server

    Hauptmanns, Ulrich

    2015-01-01

    Accidents in technical installations are random events. Hence they cannot be totally avoided. Only the probability of their occurrence may be reduced and their consequences be mitigated. The book proceeds from hazards caused by materials and process conditions to indicating technical and organizational measures for achieving the objectives of reduction and mitigation. Qualitative methods for identifying weaknesses of design and increasing safety as well as models for assessing accident consequences are presented. The quantitative assessment of the effectiveness of safety measures is explained. The treatment of uncertainties plays a role there. They stem from the random character of the accident and from lacks of knowledge on some of the phenomena to be addressed. The reader is acquainted with the simulation of accidents, safety and risk analyses and learns how to judge the potential and limitations of mathematical modelling. Risk analysis is applied amongst others to “functional safety” and the determinat...

  15. Mass Customization of process plants

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hvam, Lars

    2006-01-01

    This case study describes how F.L.Smidth A/S, a manufacturer of large processing plants for cement production, has applied the principles of mass customisation in the area of highly complex, custom engineered products. The company has based its sales process on a configuration system to achieve...

  16. Biogas - the calculable energy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kith, Károly; Nagy, Orsolya; Balla, Zoltán; Tamás, András

    2015-04-01

    EU actions against climate change are rising energy prices, both have emphasized the use of renewable energy,increase investments and energy efficiency. A number of objectives formulated in the EC decree no. 29/2009 by 2020. This document is based on the share of renewable energies in energy consumption should be increased to 20% (EC, 2009). The EU average is 20% but the share of renewables vary from one member state to another. In Hungary in 2020, 14.65% renewable energy share is planned to be achieved. According to the latest Eurostat data, the share of renewable energy in energy consumption of the EU average was 14.1%, while in Hungary, this share was 9.6% in 2012. (EUROSTAT, 2014). The use of renewable energy plant level is influenced by several factors. The most important of these is the cost savings and efficiency gains. Hungarian investments in renewable energy production usually have high associated costs and the payback period is substantially more than five years, depending on the support rate. For example, the payback period is also influenced by the green electricity generated feed prices, which is one of the lowest in Hungary compared the Member States of the European Union. Consequently, it is important to increase the production of green energy. Nowadays, predictable biogas energy is an outstanding type of decentralized energy production. It follows directly that agricultural by-products can be used to produce energy and they also create jobs by the construction of a biogas plant. It is important to dispose of and destroy hazardous and noxious substances in energy production. It follows from this that the construction of biogas plants have a positive impact, in addition to green energy which is prepared to reduce the load on the environment. The production of biogas and green electricity is one of the most environment friendly forms of energy production. Biogas production also has other important ecological effects, such as the substitution of

  17. [Progress on biogas technology and engineering].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Xiaofeng; Yuan, Yuexiang; Yan, Zhiying

    2010-07-01

    Dwindling supplies of conventional energy sources and the demand to increase the share of renewable energy for sustainability have increased the significance of biogas, the product of synergistic fermentation of biodegrable organic wastes from municipal, agricultural and industrial activities by microbial populations under anaerobic conditions. With extensive research and engineering practice, many technologies and modes have been developed for biogas production and application. Currently, the most widely used mode is the complete-mixing mesophilic fermentation. Europe, especially Germany, is leading the world in the combined heat and power production (CHP) from biogas. In this paper, updated progress in biogas technologies is reviewed, with focuses on anaerobic microorganisms, bioreactor configurations and process development, biogas production and applications, in which perspectives of biogas as a clean and renewable energy are projected.

  18. Enhanced biogas production from rice straw with various pretreatment : a review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fahriya Puspita Sari

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available Rice straw is one of organic material that can be used for sustainable production of bioenergy and biofuels such as biogas (about 50-75% CH4 and 25-50% CO2. Out of all bioconversion technologies for biogas production, anaerobic digestion (AD is a most cost-effective bioconversion technology that has been implemented worldwide for commercial production of electricity, heat, and compressed natural gas (CNG from organic materials. However, the utilization of rice straw for biogas production via anaerobic digestion has not been widely adopted because the complicated structure of the plant cell wall makes it resistant to microbial attack. Pretreatment of recalcitrant rice straw is essential to achieve high biogas yield in the AD process. A number of different pretreatment techniques involving using physical pretreatment (hydrothermal and freeze, chemical pretreatment (sodium carbonate – sodium sulfite, hydrogen peroxide, NMMO, alkaline, and dilute acid and biological pretreatment (fungal pretreatment also combined pretretment (microwave irradiation and chemical approaches have been investigated, but there is no report that systematically compares the performance of these pretreatment methods for application on rice straw for biogas production. This paper reviews the methods that have been studied for pretreatment of rice straw for delignification, reducing sugar, and conversion to biogas. It describes the AD process, structural and compositional properties of rice straw, and various pretreatment techniques, including the pretreatment process, parameters, performance, and advantages vs. drawbacks.

  19. Perancangan dan Implementasi Sistem Monitoring Produksi Biogas pada Biodigester

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rocky Alfanz

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available Biogas is one of the flammable natural gas. The most observed content of biogas in this study is methane (CH4, hydrogen (H2 and carbon dioxide (CO2. Therefore, biogas can be developed and used as an alternative energy. Nowadays, the used of plant biodigester, as the biogas producer, is still in very simple design. So, the system design should be developed to assist the monitoring process of biogas production. In this study, a system is design which can do the data acquisition using MQ4 sensor of methane, MQ8 sensor of hydrogen and MG811 sensor of carbon dioxide also the parameter which influencing to the process of biogas production such as temperature, humidity and pressure. Based on the measurement of methane, it is spotted that the highest point of methane production occured at 10:00 a.m. The details were the temperature 34 °C, humidity 67% RH, and pressure 100,6 kPa which can produce 95.672 ppm of methane. In the measurement of hydrogen, it is figured out that the highet point of hydrogen production occured at 02:00 p.m. The details were the temperature 34 °C, humidity 74% RH, and a pressure of 100,4 kPa to produce 4,738 ppm of hydrogen. Then, the highest point of the measurement of carbon dioxide production occurred at 11:00 a.m. The details were temperature 33 °C, humidity 68% RH, and a pressure of 100,5 kPa to 16,89 ppm of carbon dioxide.

  20. 生物气固体氧化物燃料电池研究进展%Research Process in Solid Oxide Fuel Cell Feeding With Biogas

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王静晖; 田禹; 吴晓燕

    2013-01-01

    对近年来国内外生物气固体氧化物燃料电池发电领域的研究进行了归纳分析。在介绍生物气产生和氧离子型固体氧化物燃料电池产电原理的基础上,总结了固体氧化物燃料电池以生物质产出的生物气为燃料发电所涉及的电化学反应;介绍了国外研究者对该类发电过程进行的试验和模拟研究;同时,对生物气结合固体氧化物燃料电池的研究进展进行了分析。得出的结论为,生物气结合固体氧化物燃料电池进行产电具有重大的实际和环保意义。%Research in the field of power generation by solid oxide fuel cell feeding with biogas in recent years at home and abroad is summarized and analyzed in this paper. First, based on the principle of biogas production and electricity generation by oxygen ions-solid oxide fuel cell, it has summarized electrochemical reactions of power generation by solid oxide fuel cell feeding with biogas produced from biomass as a fuel. Second, it has introduced details on test and simulation conducted by researchers from different countries. Third, it has analyzed the research process of biogas combined with the solid oxide fuel cell. Finally, as a conclusion, the combination biogas with solid oxide fuel cell for electricity production has veryimportant practical and environmental significance.

  1. Co-digestion of manure and whey for in situ biogas upgrading by the addition of H(2): process performance and microbial insights.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Luo, Gang; Angelidaki, Irini

    2013-02-01

    In situ biogas upgrading was conducted by introducing H(2) directly to the anaerobic reactor. As H(2) addition is associated with consumption of the CO(2) in the biogas reactor, pH increased to higher than 8.0 when manure alone was used as substrate. By co-digestion of manure with acidic whey, the pH in the anaerobic reactor with the addition of hydrogen could be maintained below 8.0, which did not have inhibition to the anaerobic process. The H(2) distribution systems (diffusers with different pore sizes) and liquid mixing intensities were demonstrated to affect the gas-liquid mass transfer of H(2) and the biogas composition. The best biogas composition (75:6.6:18.4) was obtained at stirring speed 150 rpm and using ceramic diffuser, while the biogas in the control reactor consisted of CH(4) and CO(2) at a ratio of 55:45. The consumed hydrogen was almost completely converted to CH(4), and there was no significant accumulation of VFA in the effluent. The study showed that addition of hydrogen had positive effect on the methanogenesis, but had no obvious effect on the acetogenesis. Both hydrogenotrophic methanogenic activity and the concentration of coenzyme F(420) involved in methanogenesis were increased. The archaeal community was also altered with the addition of hydrogen, and a Methanothermobacter thermautotrophicus related band appeared in a denaturing gradient gel electrophoresis gel from the sample of the reactor with hydrogen addition. Though the addition of hydrogen increased the dissolved hydrogen concentration, the degradation of propionate was still thermodynamically feasible at the reactor conditions.

  2. Effect of Water Volume and Biogas Volumetric Flowrate in Biogas Purification Through Water Scrubbing Method

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hendry Sakke Tira

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available Energy supply is a crucial issue in the world in the last few years. The increase in energy demand caused by population growth and resource depletion of world oil reserves provides determination to produce and to use renewable energies. One of the them is biogas. However, until now the use of biogas has not yet been maximized because of its poor purity. According to the above problem, the research has been carried out using the method of water absorption. Under this method it is expected that the rural community is able to apply it. Therefore, their economy and productivity can be increased. This study includes variations of absorbing water volume (V and input biogas volume flow rate (Q. Raw biogas which is flowed into the absorbent will be analyzed according to the determined absorbing water volume and input biogas volume rate. Improvement on biogas composition through the biogas purification method was obtained. The level of CO2 and H2S was reduced significantly specifically in the early minutes of purification process. On the other hand, the level of CH4 was increased improving the quality of raw biogas. However, by the time of biogas purification the composition of purified biogas was nearly similar to the raw biogas. The main reason for this result was an increasing in pH of absorbent. It was shown that higher water volume and slower biogas volume rate obtained better results in reducing the CO2 and H2S and increasing CH4 compared to those of lower water volume and higher biogas volume rate respectively. The purification method has a good promising in improving the quality of raw biogas and has advantages as it is cheap and easy to be operated.

  3. Effect of Water Volume and Biogas Volumetric Flowrate in Biogas Purification Through Water Scrubbing Method

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hendry Sakke Tira

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available Energy supply is a crucial issue in the world in the last few years. The increase in energy demand caused by population growth and resource depletion of world oil reserves provides determination to produce and to use renewable energies. One of the them is biogas. However, until now the use of biogas has not yet been maximized because of its poor purity. According to the above problem, the research has been carried out using the method of water absorption. Under this method it is expected that the rural community is able to apply it. Therefore, their economy and productivity can be increased. This study includes variations of absorbing water volume (V and input biogas volume flow rate (Q. Raw biogas which is flowed into the absorbent will be analyzed according to the determined absorbing water volume and input biogas volume rate. Improvement on biogas composition through the biogas purification method was obtained. The level of CO2 and H2S was reduced significantly specifically in the early minutes of purification process. On the other hand, the level of CH4 was increased improving the quality of raw biogas. However, by the time of biogas purification the composition of purified biogas was nearly similar to the raw biogas. The main reason for this result was an increasing in pH of absorbent. It was shown that higher water volume and slower biogas volume rate obtained better results in reducing the CO2 and H2S and increasing CH4 compared to those of lower water volume and higher biogas volume rate respectively. The purification method has a good promising in improving the quality of raw biogas and has advantages as it is cheap and easy to be operated.

  4. Energy from whey - comparison of the biogas and bioethanol processes; Energie a partir de petit-lait : comparaison des filieres biogaz et bioethanol

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fruteau de Laclos, H.; Membrez, Y. [Erep SA, Aclens (Switzerland)

    2004-07-01

    This final report for the Swiss Federal Office of Energy (SFOE) presents the results of a project which investigated how energy could be generated from the whey produced in the cheese-making process. The first part of the project aimed to validate a concept for on-site production and use of biogas at a medium-sized cheese factory. The results of the first step, an experimental study carried out using a down-flow fixed-film bio-reactor, are discussed. This allowed the determination of the optimal working parameters as well as providing an estimate of the performance of the process. The second part of the project aimed to compare the bio-ethanol and biogas production processes. It was carried out in collaboration with AlcoSuisse and the Energy Systems Laboratory at the Swiss Federal Institute of Technology (EPFL) in Lausanne. The results of a life-cycle assessment (LCA) are discussed, which compared the two processes from an environmental point of view. Here, two impacts were considered: fossil fuel consumption and greenhouse effect. The replacement of fuel-oil with biogas for heat production and the replacement of conventional petrol with mixture including 5% bio-ethanol were examined. The results are presented that show that there was no significant difference between the two processes. According to the authors, the treatment of one cubic meter of cheese-whey allows savings of more than 20 litres of oil equivalent and 60 kg of CO{sub 2} emissions.

  5. Farm scale biogas concepts in Europe

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wellinger, A. [Nova Energie, Ettenhausen (Switzerland)

    1997-08-01

    The near future of farm scale biogas production looks bright as long as the high electricity prices are maintained by political will and subsidies remain higher than approx. 20%. If in all the number of biogas plants is growing as it is in Germany (Within the last two years about 200 new plants have been built) then biogas will add its share to a nuclear power free electricity production, as does wind energy in Germany, Holland or Denmark. The standard for manure digesters is set. There is still some way to go for solid waste digesters. However, first inputs have been given. (EG) 10 refs.

  6. High-temperature pretreatment of biogas substrate by using district heating to increase the biogas production; Hoegtemperaturfoerbehandling av biogassubstrat med fjaerrvaerme foer oekad biogasproduktion

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Del Pilar Castillo, Maria; Ascue, Johnny [JTI, Uppsala (Sweden); Olsson, Marcus; Henriksson, Gunilla; Nordman, Roger [SP, Boraas (Sweden)

    2011-12-15

    In this study, we have shown that pre-heating sludge from a waste water treatment plant can give a higher biogas production rate. However, pretreatment showed no effect on substrate from a biogas plant at the conditions tested in this study. The study has also shown that there is potential of using district heating in the biogas industry for thermal pretreatment of sludge.

  7. Pengaruh Laju Alir Volumetrik Umpan Static In-Line Mixer Terhadap Performance Bioreaktor Pada Pembuatan Biogas Dari Limbah Cair Kelapa Sawit Skala Pilot Plant

    OpenAIRE

    Sitepu, Juliananta

    2015-01-01

    Indonesia as the second country for production CPO in the world is very potesially in biogas industry. Something make it very potensial is POME (Palm Oil Effulent).POME is the most important in biogas because it can be change to biogas. Production biogas is in thermofilik anaerob with recyle sludge 34% through in four tank. They are pretreatment tank, mixing tank, bioreactor, and gravity thickner.The mixing tank is a tank with motor (machine), impeller and any baffle. For...

  8. Renewable Hydrogen Potential from Biogas in the United States

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Saur, G.; Milbrandt, A.

    2014-07-01

    This analysis updates and expands upon previous biogas studies to include total potential and net availability of methane in raw biogas with respect to competing demands and includes a resource assessment of four sources of biogas: (1) wastewater treatment plants, including domestic and a new assessment of industrial sources; (2) landfills; (3) animal manure; and (4) a new assessment of industrial, institutional, and commercial sources. The results of the biogas resource assessment are used to estimate the potential production of renewable hydrogen from biogas as well as the fuel cell electric vehicles that the produced hydrogen might support.

  9. Whey-biogas plant with combined heat and power unit for the Lateria Engiadinaisa dairy; Molke-Biogasanlage mit Blockheizkraftwerk fuer die Molkerei Lataria Engiadinaisa SA, Bever

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kohle, O.; Nusbaumer, H.

    2003-07-01

    This final report for the Swiss Federal Office of Energy presents the results of study made on the disposal of whey that results from the manufacture of cheese at the Lateria Engiadinaisa dairy in Bever, Switzerland. The present method of disposal, which involves increasing the milk-sugar concentration of the whey using reverse osmosis, transport by road and subsequent use as pig-feed is described, whereby economical and environmental aspects are discussed. An alternative disposal method that involves the co-fermentation of the whey in a local wastewater treatment plant and the use of the resulting biogas as a fuel for a combined heat and power plant is proposed. The economics of this solution are examined in detail and balances of the energy, environmental and transport factors associated with the proposed solution are drawn up.

  10. Biogas Production Using Anaerobic Biodigester from Cassava Starch Effluent

    OpenAIRE

    Sunarso, S.; B Budiyono; Siswo Sumardiono

    2010-01-01

    IKMs’ factory activity in Margoyoso produces liquid and solid wastes. The possible alternative was to use the liquid effluent as biogas raw material. This study focuses on the used of urea, ruminant, yeast, microalgae, the treatment of gelled and ungelled feed for biogas production, pH control during biogas production using buffer Na2CO3, and feeding management in the semi-continuous process of biogas production that perform at ambient temperature for 30 days. Ruminant bacteria, yeast, urea, ...

  11. Chemical speciation of sulfur and metals in biogas reactors - Implications for cobalt and nickel bio-uptake processes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yekta, Sepehr Shakeri; Skyllberg, Ulf; Danielsson, Åsa; Björn, Annika; Svensson, Bo H

    2017-02-15

    This article deals with the interrelationship between overall chemical speciation of S, Fe, Co, and Ni in relation to metals bio-uptake processes in continuous stirred tank biogas reactors (CSTBR). To address this topic, laboratory CSTBRs digesting sulfur(S)-rich stillage, as well as full-scale CSTBRs treating sewage sludge and various combinations of organic wastes, termed co-digestion, were targeted. Sulfur speciation was evaluated using acid volatile sulfide extraction and X-ray absorption spectroscopy. Metal speciation was evaluated by chemical fractionation, kinetic and thermodynamic analyses. Relative Fe to S content is identified as a critical factor for chemical speciation and bio-uptake of metals. In reactors treating sewage sludge, quantity of Fe exceeds that of S, inducing Fe-dominated conditions, while sulfide dominates in laboratory and co-digestion reactors due to an excess of S over Fe. Under sulfide-dominated conditions, metals availability for microorganisms is restricted due to formation of metal-sulfide precipitates. However, aqueous concentrations of different Co and Ni species were shown to be sufficient to support metal acquisition by microorganisms under sulfidic conditions. Concentrations of free metal ions and labile metal complexes in aqueous phase, which directly participate in bio-uptake processes, are higher under Fe-dominated conditions. This in turn enhances metal adsorption on cell surfaces and bio-uptake rates.

  12. Towards the methane society? Use of hydrogen for upgrading biogas and synthetic methane production. Phase 1. Final report; Pae vej mod metansamfundet? - anvendelse af brint til opgradering af biogas og kunstig metanfremstilling. Fase 1. Slutrapport

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mortensen, Claus [Agro Business Park, Tjele (Denmark)

    2012-11-15

    Biogas consists of methane (CH4) and CO{sub 2}. If you react hydrogen produced with wind power with CO{sub 2} in sulfur purified biogas you get biogas upgraded to pure methane, ie. to natural gas quality. The pure methane can for example be sold via the natural gas grid or pressurized and sold for transport. The purpose of the present project is to contribute to the development of a concept and a technology that can store wind energy into the existing natural gas network through the upgrading of CO{sub 2} in biogas. Overall the project combines the technique and concept of electrolysis, biogas upgrading and natural gas network, so that: - electrolysis creates hydrogen and heat from wind turbines; - CO{sub 2} in biogas reacts with H2 from the electrolysis and produces CH4 and high-value steam by biogas reacting directly with H2 in a catalyst ; - The natural gas network is used as distribution and storage of the produced methane. The following main results are achieved in the first phase: - Design and construction of a pilot plant for the purification of biogas, which allows a Sabatier reaction later in the methanization process; - Sensitivity analyses have been carried out of methane prices, which have proven to be competitive compared to other upgrading technologies in the market; - A business plan is developed for a demonstration plant, which among other things will be used in phase 2: demonstration plant. The competitor analysis shows, among other things, a higher efficiency rate of the Danish technology than on the methanization plants being developed in Germany. (LN)

  13. Biogas production from catch crops

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Molinuevo-Salces, Beatriz; Larsen, Søren U.; Ahring, Birgitte Kiær

    2013-01-01

    Manure-based biogas plants in Denmark are dependent on high yielding biomass feedstock in order to secure economically feasible operation. The aim of this study was to investigate the potential of ten different catch crop species or mixtures as feedstock for biogas production in co......, being in the ranges of 1.4–3.0 t ha−1 and 0.3–1.7 t ha−1 for Holstebro and Aabenraa, respectively. Specific methane yields were in the range of 229–450 m3 t−1 of VS. Methane yields per hectare of up to 800 m3 ha−1 were obtained, making catch crops a promising source of feedstock for manure-based biogas...

  14. The demonstration project of centralized biogas supply system for 500 households in Mei-long-jie-xin village, Shanghai city

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Shenggen Cheng [Shanghai Biogas Production Co. (China)

    2000-07-01

    The biogas project in Mei-long-jie-xin village, Shanghai, mainly includes a 150 m{sup 3} hybrid digester and a 100 m{sup 3} deep-well-type digester with a floating gas holder. This biogas project was designed by Shanghai Biogas Production Company and is used to treat high concentration distillery wastewater. Fermentation temperature is 25 - 38 C. Daily biogas production is about 1,500 m{sup 3}, which is used as daily fuel for 500 local household residents and some civil enterprises such as a village tea-house, a primary school, a kindergarten, a village glass processing workshop in Mei-long-jie-xin village. Anaerobically digested effluent is post-treated through sedimentation, coagulation and solid/liquid separation. The COD concentration in the final effluent is already less than 350 mg/l, which could meet the requirements of the national wastewater discharge standards. In addition, separated fermentation sludge could be used as fish feed. The construction of this biogas installation started in October 1987 and was put into operation during the Chinese New Year, 1989. Initially, 230 households were connected but increased to 400 households by July of the same year. Based on this plan, by November 1990 a total of 500 households was expected to use biogas. This biogas plant is a measure to implement pollution control and re-utilize resources with considerable economic and social benefits. The successful construction of this demonstration biogas plant paved the way to extending biogas technology to suburban areas near big cities. (orig.)

  15. Energetic, exergetic, thermoeconomic and environmental analysis of various systems for the cogeneration of biogas produced by an urban wastewater treatment plant UWTP

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Coble, J.J. [Nebrija Univ., Madrid (Spain). Industrial Engineering Dept.; Contreras, A. [Industrial Engineering College, Madrid (Spain). Chemistry Dept.

    2010-07-01

    General awareness that the world's energy resources are limited has meant that it is increasingly important to examine energy-saving devices and fuels more closely, in order to use our limited available resources in a more sustainable manner. With this in mind, we studied biogas from a UWTP, because it is a renewable fuel with a neutral contribution to CO2 emissions. We compared two technologies for using biogas as an energy source: cogeneration using either motor-generators or phosphoric acid fuel cells. The comparison was made from the energetic, exergetic, thermo-economic and environmental points of view, internalizing all the costs involved in each case. We used data supplied by the UWTP at the City of Madrid Plant Nursery, which uses motor-generators, and the UWTPs in Portland, Oregon, and in Red Hook, New York, which use a phosphoric acid fuel cell. The joint work carried out has been divided into three parts for publication purposes, and we present here the first of these, which refers to the energy analysis. (orig.)

  16. Genome sequence of Methanobacterium congolense strain Buetzberg, a hydrogenotrophic, methanogenic archaeon, isolated from a mesophilic industrial-scale biogas plant utilizing bio-waste.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tejerizo, Gonzalo Torres; Kim, Yong Sung; Maus, Irena; Wibberg, Daniel; Winkler, Anika; Off, Sandra; Pühler, Alfred; Scherer, Paul; Schlüter, Andreas

    2017-02-16

    Methanogenic Archaea are of importance at the end of the anaerobic digestion (AD) chain for biomass conversion. They finally produce methane, the end-product of AD. Among this group of microorganisms, members of the genus Methanobacterium are ubiquitously present in anaerobic habitats, such as bioreactors. The genome of a novel methanogenic archaeon, namely Methanobacterium congolense Buetzberg, originally isolated from a mesophilic biogas plant, was completely sequenced to analyze putative adaptive genome features conferring competitiveness of this isolate within the biogas reactor environment. Sequencing and assembly of the M. congolense Buetzberg genome yielded a chromosome with a size of 2,451,457bp and a mean GC-content of 38.51%. Additionally, a plasmid with a size of 18,118bp, featuring a GC content of 36.05% was identified. The M. congolense Buetzberg plasmid showed no sequence similarities with the plasmids described previously suggesting that it represents a new plasmid type. Analysis of the M. congolense Buetzberg chromosome architecture revealed a high collinearity with the Methanobacterium paludis chromosome. Furthermore, annotation of the genome and functional predictions disclosed several genes involved in cell wall and membrane biogenesis. Compilation of specific genes among Methanobacterium strains originating from AD environments revealed 474 genetic determinants that could be crucial for adaptation of these strains to specific conditions prevailing in AD habitats.

  17. Impact of nickel and cobalt on biogas production and process stability during semi-continuous anaerobic fermentation of a model substrate for maize silage.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pobeheim, Herbert; Munk, Bernhard; Lindorfer, Harald; Guebitz, Georg M

    2011-01-01

    The importance of nickel and cobalt on anaerobic degradation of a defined model substrate for maize was demonstrated. Five semi-continuous reactors were operated for 250 days at 35 °C and a well-defined trace metal solution was added to all reactors. Two reactors each were limited regarding the concentration of Ni(2+) and Co(2+), respectively, for certain time intervals. The required nickel concentration was depending on the organic loading rates (OLR) while, for example, above 2.6 g ODM L(-1) d(-1) nickel concentrations below 0.06 mg kg(-1) FM in the process significantly decreased biogas production by up to 25% compared to a control reactor containing 0.8 mg Ni(2+) kg(-1) FM. Similarly, limitation of cobalt to 0.02 mg kg(-1) FM decreased biogas production by about 10%. Limitations of nickel as well as cobalt lead to process instability. However, after gradual addition of nickel till 0.6 mg and cobalt till 0.05 mg kg(-1) FM the OLR was again increased to 4.3 g ODM L(-1) d(-1) while process stability was recovered and a fast metabolisation of acetic and propionic acid was detected. An increase of nickel to 0.88 mg kg(-1) FM did not enhance biogas performance. Furthermore, the increase of cobalt from 0.05 mg kg(-1) FM up to 0.07 mg kg(-1) FM did not exhibit a change in anaerobic fermentation and biogas production.

  18. The role of transportation and co-fermentation in the CO2 balance for utilisation of biogas for energy

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielsen, Per Sieverts; Karlsson, Kenneth Bernard; Holm-Nielsen, Jens Bo

    1998-01-01

    at 19 decentralised joint biogas plants involving a varying number of farms (5-100). All of these plants use to some extent co-fermentation with industrial organic waste to increase biogas yield.A fuel chain approach for utilisation of biogas for energy purposes is carried out for determining the role...... of increased transportation distances at large biogas plants on the total CO2 balance of the biogas plant. The advantage of constructing large biogas plants is the cost-effective possibility of using industrial organic waste to increase biogas production. In some cases co-fermentation increases biogas...... production up 100%. The present study evaluate optimal transportation strategies for biogas plants taking CO2 balances into account....

  19. The effect of anaerobic fermentation processing of cattle waste for biogas as a renewable energy resources on the number of contaminant microorganism

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kurnani, Tb. Benito A.; Hidayati, Yuli Astuti; Marlina, Eulis Tanti; Harlia, Ellin

    2016-02-01

    Beef cattle waste has a positive potential that can be exploited, as well as a negative potential that must be controlled so as not to pollute the environment. Beef cattle waste can be processed into an alternative energy, namely biogas. Anaerobic treatment of livestock waste to produce gas can be a solution in providing optional energy, while the resulted sludge as the fermentation residue can be used as organic fertilizer for crops. However, this sludge may containt patogenic microorganism that will damage human and environmet healt. Therefor, this study was aimed to know the potency of beef cattle waste to produce biogas and the decrease of the microorganism's number by using fixed dome digester. Beef cattle waste was processed into biogas using fixed dome digester with a capacity of 12 m3. Biogas composition was measured using Gas Cromatografi, will microorganism species was identified using Total plate Count Methode. The result of this study shows that the produced biogas contains of 75.77% Mol (CH4), 13.28% Mol (N), and 6.96% Mol (CO2). Furthermor, this study show that the anaerobic fermrntation process is capable of reducing microorganisms that could potentially pollute the environment. The number of Escherichia coli and Samonella sp. were <30 MPN/ml respectively save for environment. This process can reduce 84.70% the amount of molds. The only molds still existed after fermentation was A.fumigatus. The number of protozoa can be reduced in order of 94.73%. Protozoa that can be identified in cattle waste before, and after anaerobic fermentation was merely Eimeria sp.. The process also reduced the yeast of 86.11%. The remaining yeast after fermentation was Candida sp. Finally, about 93.7% of endoparasites was reduced by this process. In this case, every trematode and cestoda were 100% reduced, while the nematode only 75%. Reducing some microorganisms that have the potential to pollute the environment signifies sludge anaerobic fermentation residue is safe to

  20. Reviewing the anaerobic digestion and co-digestion process of food waste from the perspectives on biogas production performance and environmental impacts.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chiu, Sam L H; Lo, Irene M C

    2016-12-01

    In this paper, factors that affect biogas production in the anaerobic digestion (AD) and anaerobic co-digestion (coAD) processes of food waste are reviewed with the aim to improve biogas production performance. These factors include the composition of substrates in food waste coAD as well as pre-treatment methods and anaerobic reactor system designs in both food waste AD and coAD. Due to the characteristics of the substrates used, the biogas production performance varies as different effects are exhibited on nutrient balance, inhibitory substance dilution, and trace metal element supplement. Various types of pre-treatment methods such as mechanical, chemical, thermal, and biological methods are discussed to improve the rate-limiting hydrolytic step in the digestion processes. The operation parameters of a reactor system are also reviewed with consideration of the characteristics of the substrates. Since the environmental awareness and concerns for waste management systems have been increasing, this paper also addresses possible environmental impacts of AD and coAD in food waste treatment and recommends feasible methods to reduce the impacts. In addition, uncertainties in the life cycle assessment (LCA) studies are also discussed.

  1. The control of H2S in biogas using iron ores as in situ desulfurizers during anaerobic digestion process.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhou, Qiying; Jiang, Xia; Li, Xi; Jiang, Wenju

    2016-09-01

    In this study, five kinds of iron ores, limonite, hematite, manganese ore, magnetite and lava rock, were used as the in situ desulfurizers in the anaerobic digestion reactors to investigate their effects on controlling H2S in biogas. The results show that the addition of the five iron ores could significantly control the content of H2S in biogas, with the best performance for limonite. As limonite dosages increase (10-60 g/L), the contents of H2S in biogas were evidently decreased in the digesters with different initial sulfate concentrations (0-1000 mg/L). After the anaerobic digestion, the removed sulfur was mostly deposited on the surface of limonite. A possible mechanism of H2S control in biogas by limonite was proposed preliminarily, including adsorption, FeS precipitation, and Fe (III) oxidation. The results demonstrated that limonite was a promising in situ desulfurizer for controlling H2S in biogas with low cost and high efficiency.

  2. Idaho Chemical Processing Plant Process Efficiency improvements

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Griebenow, B.

    1996-03-01

    In response to decreasing funding levels available to support activities at the Idaho Chemical Processing Plant (ICPP) and a desire to be cost competitive, the Department of Energy Idaho Operations Office (DOE-ID) and Lockheed Idaho Technologies Company have increased their emphasis on cost-saving measures. The ICPP Effectiveness Improvement Initiative involves many activities to improve cost effectiveness and competitiveness. This report documents the methodology and results of one of those cost cutting measures, the Process Efficiency Improvement Activity. The Process Efficiency Improvement Activity performed a systematic review of major work processes at the ICPP to increase productivity and to identify nonvalue-added requirements. A two-phase approach was selected for the activity to allow for near-term implementation of relatively easy process modifications in the first phase while obtaining long-term continuous improvement in the second phase and beyond. Phase I of the initiative included a concentrated review of processes that had a high potential for cost savings with the intent of realizing savings in Fiscal Year 1996 (FY-96.) Phase II consists of implementing long-term strategies too complex for Phase I implementation and evaluation of processes not targeted for Phase I review. The Phase II effort is targeted for realizing cost savings in FY-97 and beyond.

  3. The economics of biogas in Denmark

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jacobsen, Brian H.; Laugesen, Frederik Møller; Dubgaard, Alex

    2014-01-01

    Denmark has been one of the leading European Countries in using Biogas for Combined Heat and Power (CHP), since the 1980s. However, in the last two decades, the increase has been limited. A new energy policy aimed at increasing the profitability of biogas was introduced in the spring of 2012....... The analysis here shows that the new agreement will improve the profitability of biogas plants and increase the biogas production although the political ambition of an increase from 4 PJ to 17 PJ by 2020 seems unlikely. The analysis shows that biogas plants can be profitable even if the input is a mix....... The analysis shows that the profit from upgrading biogas is only to be preferred if the sales price of heat or the amount sold are relatively low. The socioeconomic analyses show that the costs of biogas as a measure to reduce CO2 emissions are around €151 per tonne CO2 (€85‐266 per ton) and that using maize...

  4. Effect of organic loading rate and feedstock composition on foaming in manure-based biogas reactors

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kougias, Panagiotis; Boe, Kanokwan; Angelidaki, Irini

    2013-01-01

    Foaming is one of the major problems that occasionally occur in biogas plants, affecting negatively the overall digestion process. In the present study, the effect of organic loading rate (OLR) and feedstock composition on foaming was elucidated in continuous reactor experiments. By stepwise...

  5. Biogas yield from Sicilian kitchen waste and cheese whey

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Antonio Comparetti

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this study is to determine the chemical composition of kitchen waste and cheese whey, as well as the biogas yield obtained from the Anaerobic Digestion (AD tests of these two raw materials. Since the separated waste collection is performed in the town of Marineo (Palermo, a sample of kitchen waste, different from food industry one and included in the Organic Fraction of Municipal Solid Waste (OFMSW, was collected from the mass stored at the households of this town. Moreover, a sample of cheese whey was collected in a Sicilian mini dairy plant, where sheep milk is processed. This investigation was carried out inside laboratory digesters of Aleksandras Stulginskis University (Lithuania. Total Solids (TS resulted 15.6% in kitchen waste and 6% in cheese whey, while both the raw materials showed a high content of organic matter, 91.1% and 79.1%, respectively. The biogas yield resulted 104.6 l kg–1 from kitchen waste and 30.6 l kg–1 from cheese whey. The biogas yield from TS resulted 672.6 l kg–1 using kitchen waste and 384.7 l kg–1 using cheese whey. The biogas yield from Volatile Solids (VS resulted 738.9 l kg–1 using kitchen waste and 410.3 l kg–1 using cheese whey.

  6. Technical and economical analysis of concepts for using the heat of biogas plants in rural areas; Technische und betriebswirtschaftliche Analyse von Konzepten zur ganzjaehrigen Nutzung der Abwaerme einer Biogasanlage im dezentralen laendlichen Raum

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kaths, Friederike Annette

    2012-08-15

    Since the implementation of the EEG in Germany the biogas production becomes an independent branch of industry in the agriculture. At this time more than 90 percent of the biogas plants work with co-generation plant for heat and power with a thermal engine efficiencies of more than 50 percent. Because of the location in the rural area heat costumers with a continuous demand of heat over the whole year are rare. This research had a closer look how to use the heat of biogas production efficiently and also generating profit. The aim of the study was to use heat over the whole year, a profitable heat concept without counting the KWK-bonus and an added value on the farm. During the study the following concepts were analyzed: asparagus production using soil heating, drying equipment for different products, the production of fish in aquaculture, the poultry production and the heated production of tomatoes. The results showed different concepts using heat of biogas plants as efficient for farmers. However with only one concept the aims - to use the heat over the whole year, generating a profitable heat concept without counting the KWK-bonus, add an value on the farm - mostly can not be achieved. The combination of different heat concepts is necessary. In this analysis the poultry production in combination with the dryer can be considered as the most efficient concept. Bearing in mind the benefit which can be generated with a heat concept as well as the higher income and the higher technical efficiency of biogas plants operators should implement an individual concept for their heat.

  7. GIANT MISCANTHUS AS A SUBSTRATE FOR BIOGAS PRODUCTION

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Joanna Kazimierowicz

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available One unconventional source of energy, which may be applied in numerous production and municipal processes, is energy accumulated in plants. As a result of photosynthesis, solar energy is transformed into chemical energy accumulated in a form of carbohydrates in the plant biomass, which becomes the material that is more and more sought by power distribution companies and individual users. Currently, a lot of research on obtaining biogas from energy crops is conducted. Corn silage is used most often, however, there is a demand for alternative plants. The experiment described in this article was conducted with the use of giant Miscanthus (Miscanthus Giganteus.

  8. Establishing of biogas conversion plant at Ringsted. Co-digestion of manure, organic municipal solid waste etc. Feasibility study[Denmark]; Etablering af biogasfaellesanlaeg ved Ringsted. Samudraadning af gylle og organisk husholdningsaffald, mv.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2001-09-01

    The aim of the project is to prepare a basis for decision for a working party consisting of representatives from the local agriculture and AFAV I/S for establishing of a biomass conversion plant for handling of manure supplemented with source separated municipal solid wastes and other organic wastes, and supply of existing cogeneration plant in Ringsted with biogas. Based on the project the parties shall evaluate the idea and create the necessary local support for the implementation of the project. (EHS)

  9. Significant utilization of heat from biogas; Waerme aus Biogas sinnvoll nutzen

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Schulz, W. [Bremer Energie-Institut, Bremen (Germany)

    2008-03-15

    Agricultural biogas facilities often are developed at remote locations. The sales potentials for the heat produced thereby are insufficient. Under this aspect, the author of the contribution under consideration reports on options for the improvement of the utilization of the available heat. The author describes the requirement profile for these options of utilization. Subsequently, ten options for utilization of heat as well as the appropriate details of application are described. In particular the following options of utilization are specified: drying plants, heating of hothouses, aquacultures, transport of latent heat, refrigeration, thermal processing of remainders of fermentation, supply of heat for laundries, production of fruit juice and vegetable juice, refinement of milk.

  10. Assessment of biogas production in Argentina from co-digestion of sludge and municipal solid waste.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morero, Betzabet; Vicentin, Rocio; Campanella, Enrique A

    2016-12-07

    In Argentina, there is an important potential to utilize organic waste to generate bioenergy. This work analyzes the environmental impacts and the energetic and economic requirements of the biogas produced by digesting the sewage sludge (SS) produced in a wastewater treatment plant in a medium city in Argentina. The SS is co-digested with the organic fraction of municipal solid waste (OFMSW), and the basis of this study is the life cycle assessment (LCA). The LCA is performed according to ISO 14040-44 using the SimaPro simulator. First, the transport of the raw materials to the biogas plant was defined. Then, the co-digestion and the biogas treatment for final use were evaluated. The co-digestion was improved with glycerol, and the generation of biogas was estimated using the GPS-X software. Two alternatives for the end use of biogas were considered: combined heat and power (CHP) and biomethane generation. For the first, H2S and water vapor were removed from the raw biogas stream, and for the second, also CO2 was removed. The H2S removal process was simulated in the SuperPro software by anaerobic biofiltration. The same software was used to simulate the removal of CO2 absorption-desorption with water as solvent. Finally, the environmental impacts related to the end use of biogas (CHP and biomethane) were evaluated. The environmental, energetic and economic analyses showed that the co-digestion of SS and OFMSW has great potential for reducing the environmental impacts and increasing the economic and energetic value of the substances via the production of biomethane, electricity and, potentially, fertilizer.

  11. Biogas Production from Thin Stillage on an Industrial Scale—Experience and Optimisation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anna Schnürer

    2013-10-01

    Full Text Available With the increasing demand for renewable energy and sustainable waste treatment, biogas production is expanding. Approximately four billion litres of bio-ethanol are produced annually for vehicle fuel in Europe, resulting in the production of large amounts of stillage residues. This stillage is energy-rich and can be used for biogas production, but is a challenging substrate due to its high levels of nitrogen and sulphate. At the full-scale biogas production plant in Norrköping, Sweden (Svensk Biogas i Linköping AB, thin grain stillage is used as a biogas substrate. This paper describes the plant operation and strategies that have been implemented to digest thin stillage successfully. High ammonia concentrations in the digester have resulted in syntrophic acetate oxidation (SAO becoming the major pathway for acetate degradation. Therefore, a long hydraulic retention time (HRT (40–60 days is used to allow the syntrophic acetate-oxidising bacteria time to grow. The high sulphate levels in thin stillage result in high levels of hydrogen sulphide following degradation of protein and the activity of sulphate-reducing bacteria (SRB, the presence of which has been confirmed by quantitative polymerase chain reaction (qPCR analysis. To optimise biogas production and maintain a stable process, the substrate is diluted with tap water and co-digested with grain residues and glycerine to keep the ammonium nitrogen (NH4-N concentration below 6 g L−1. Combined addition of iron, hydrochloric acid and cobalt successfully precipitates sulphides, reduces ammonia toxicity and supplies microorganisms with trace element. Mesophilic temperature (38 °C is employed to further avoid ammonia toxicity. Together, these measures and doubling the digester volume have made it possible to increase annual biogas production from 27.7 TJ to 69.1 TJ.

  12. Unit installation and testing of demonstration of electric power generation using biogas from sewage treatment; Instalacao e testes de uma unidade de demonstracao de geracao de energia eletrica a partir de biogas de tratamento de esgoto

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Coelho, Suani Teixeira; Gonzalez Velazquez, Silvia Maria Stortini; Martins, Osvaldo Stella; Costa, David Freire da; Basaglia, Fernando [Centro Nacional de Referencia em Biomassa (CENBIO), Sao Paulo, SP (Brazil)], e-mail: suani@iee.usp.br, e-mail: sgvelaz@iee.usp.br, e-mail: omartins@iee.usp.br, e-mail: davidcosta@iee.usp.br, e-mail: basaglia@iee.usp.br; Bacic, Antonio Carlos K. [Companhia de Saneamento Basico do Estado de Sao Paulo (SABESP), SP (Brazil)], e-mail: acbacic@sabesp.com.br

    2004-07-01

    This article intend to discuss the electricity generation with 30 kW (ISO) micro turbines, using biogas generated by sewage treatment process at SABESP (Basic Sanitation Company of Sao Paulo State), located at Barueri, Brazil. This project, pioneer in Latin America, is being accomplished together with BUN - Biomass Users Network of Brazil (proponent), by CENBIO - Brazilian Reference Center on Biomass (executer), with patronage of FINEP / CT-ENERG (financial backer), by means of COVENAT No: 23.01.0653.00, regarding to ENERG-BIOG Project - 'Installation and Tests of an Electric Energy Generation Demonstration Unit from Biogas Sewage Treatment'. This plant operates with anaerobic digestion process, which has as mainly products biogas (composed mainly by methane) and sludge. Currently, part of the methane produced is burnt in a boiler used to increase digesters efficiency process. The rest of the methane is burnt in flare to reduce the impacts caused by gases emissions. An alternative to flare it is the biogas conversion into electricity through engines and micro turbines. Thus, this article presents the project results, related with the exploitation of sewer biogas for power generation, as well as bigger details about purification, compression and electricity generation systems (biogas micro turbine), used in the facility. (author)

  13. Energetic and economic limitations of biogas utilization

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Klimm, A.; Fleischhauer, W.J.

    1986-01-01

    Economic efficiency of biogas conversion plants can only be achieved from approximately 60% gas exploitation on. That presupposes use of gas in the farm itself beyond household needs, for instance to dry grain, or for supply to third parties. To secure the desired high exploitation level, it is important to remember, the animals must stay in their shelters also in summer, because this is the only way of safeguarding an appropriate supply of biomaterial. To use biogas in the household alone means also to be contented with a gas yield of little more than 40%. Biogas conversion plants for a stock of 50 to 100 large cattle must largely be erected by self-construction from, partly, used plant components. This is the only way of securing that the plant pays, for the purchase of a new plant requires some 40,000 marks additional capital.

  14. A review of chemical absorption of carbon dioxide for biogas upgrading

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Fouad RH Abdeen; Maizirwan Mel; Mohammed Saedi Jami; Sany Izan Ihsan; Ahmad Faris Ismail

    2016-01-01

    Significant attention has been given to biogas production, purification and upgrading as a renewable and clean fuel supplement. Biogas is a product of an anaerobic digestion process comprising methane, carbon dioxide, and trace amounts of other gases. Biogas purification removes trace gases in biogas for safe utilisation. Biogas upgrading produces methane-rich biogas by removing bulk carbon dioxide from the gas mixture. Several carbon dioxide removal techniques can be applied for biogas upgrading. However, chemical absorption of carbon dioxide for biogas upgrading is of special significance due to its operation at ambient or near ambient temperature and pressure, thus reducing energy consumption. This paper reviews the chemical absorption of carbon dioxide using amine scrubbing, caustic solvent scrubbing, and amino acid salt solution scrubbing. Each of these tech-niques for biogas upgrading is discussed. The paper concludes that an optimised implementation of the chemical absorption techniques for biogas upgrading requires further research.

  15. Behaviour of pathogenic microorganisms and parasites in biogas production from sewage sludge and municipal wastes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Walter-Matsui, R.; Seipp, M.

    With a grant from VW-Stiftung a project was investigated by the 'Medizinisches Zentrum fuer Hygiene, Philipps-Universitaet, Marburg' and the 'Faculty of Agriculture, Fayum, University Cairo'. The aim was to modify the biogas process to get an optimal amount of biogas and to kill the pathogen bacteria at the same time. The effect of different materials, for example, plant wastes, sewage sludge, cow dung and town refuse and their various amounts of dry matters (2% - 16%) were tested. Also the bactericidal effects of pH, Lactobacilli and higher temperatures were checked. It was found that only a pasteurisation before the fermentation decontaminate the sludge without declining amounts of biogas. It was also proved that the development of Schistosoma eggs was interrupted by the fermentation process.

  16. Industrial scale garage-type dry fermentation of municipal solid waste to biogas.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Qian, M Y; Li, R H; Li, J; Wedwitschka, H; Nelles, M; Stinner, W; Zhou, H J

    2016-10-01

    The objectives of this study was to through monitoring the 1st industrial scale garage-type dry fermentation (GTDF) MSW biogas plant in Bin County, Harbin City, Heilongjiang Province, China, to investigate its anaerobic digestion (AD) performance and the stability of process. After a monitoring period of 180days, the results showed that the volumetric biogas production of the digesters and percolate tank was 0.72 and 2.22m(3) (m(3)d)(-1), respectively, and the specific biogas yield of the feedstock was about 270m(3)CH4tVS(-1), which indicated that the GTDF is appropriate for the Chinese MSW. This paper also raised some problems aimed at improving the process stability and AD efficiency.

  17. Profiling of the metabolically active community from a production-scale biogas plant by means of high-throughput metatranscriptome sequencing

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Zakrzewski, Martha; Goesmann, Alexander; Jaenicke, Sebastian;

    2012-01-01

    that the corresponding pathway is very active in the methanogenic sub-community. As a frame of reference for evaluation of metatranscriptome sequence data, the 16S rDNA-based taxonomic profile of the community was analyzed by means of high-throughput 16S rDNA amplicon sequencing. Processing of the obtained amplicon...... reads resulted in 18,598 high-quality 16S rDNA sequences covering the V3-V4 hypervariable region of the 16S rRNA gene. Comparison of the taxonomic profiles deduced from 16S rDNA amplicon sequences and the metatranscriptome dataset indicates a high transcriptional activity of archaeal species. Overall...... and to identify key transcripts for the biogas production process, the metatranscriptome of the microorganisms was sequenced for the first time. The metatranscriptome sequence dataset generated on the Genome Sequencer FLX platform is represented by 484,920 sequence reads. Taxonomic profiling of the active part...

  18. Systematic Quantification of Biogas Potential in Urban Organic Waste

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Fitamo, Temesgen Mathewos

    of biogas from organic waste rather than incineration and landfilling. The production of biogas from urban organic waste is expected to contribute to reaching the EU target of 20% of overall energy production and 10% of vehicle fuel derived from renewable sources by 2020. The Danish energy strategy...... is for Demark to become a 100% fossil fuel-free nation by 2050. However, existing technical challenges and barriers must be overcome to make the production of biogas more attractive. In this respect, a systematic quantification of the biogas production potential of various urban organic waste sources...... is necessary, in order to analyse and improve processes for biogas production. Conventionally, the potential biogas production of organic waste sources is quantified through biochemical methane potential (BMP) analysis and anaerobic digestion in biogas reactors. However, the determination of BMP in batch...

  19. Process model for ammonia volatilization from anaerobic swine lagoons incorporating varying wind speeds and biogas bubbling

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ammonia volatilization from treatment lagoons varies widely with the total ammonia concentration, pH, temperature, suspended solids, atmospheric ammonia concentration above the water surface, and wind speed. Ammonia emissions were estimated with a process-based mechanistic model integrating ammonia ...

  20. Integrated extraction and anaerobic digestion process for recovery of nutraceuticals and biogas from pomegranate marcs

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pomegranate marc (PM), a by-product from pomegranate juice processing, has not been effectively utilized. The objectives of this study were to (1) determine the yields and properties of antioxidants (henceforth referring to total phenolics in terms of tannic acid equivalent) and oil extracted from v...

  1. Replacing Natural Gas by Biogas — Determining the Bacterial Contamination of Biogas by PCR

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jiřina Čermáková

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available A promising way of using biogas is to upgrade it to natural gas, which is referred to as Substitute Natural Gas (SNG or biomethane. Biomethane, or biogas, is produced by biological processes of harnessing the ability of microorganisms to degrade organic material to methane. Some of the microorganisms are aerosolized from the digester into the biogas; afterwards a bio-film is formed that attaches to the surfaces of the distribution pipes, and can find it was to the place where the end use of biogas takes place. This paper deals with the detection of microbial species in biogas, their influenceon corrosion and the potential risk that diseases can be spread via biogas using molecular techniques. Using molecular methods, we found that raw biogas contains about 8 million microorganisms per m3, which is most likely the result of microbial transmission from the anaerobic digestion process. Some bacterial species may contribute to the corrosion of pipelines and equipment; others are opportunistic pathogens that can cause toxic reactions. However, most bacterial species, more than 40 % in biogas, are still unknown, as is their influence on the digestion process and on human health. Further studies are needed to better understand the behavior of microorganisms in anaerobic digestion and to preventmicrobial-influenced corrosion and microbial dissemination.

  2. ANAEROBIC DIGESTION MODEL ANALYSIS OF THE FERMENTATION PROCESS IN PSYCHROPHILIC AND MESOPHILIC CHAMBER IN ACCORDANCE WITH THE AMOUNT OF BIOGAS SOURCED

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dariusz Zdebik

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available The paper presents problems concerning the modelling of anaerobic sludge stabilization, with the additional substrate (waste transported, dairy butchery sewage in psychrophilic fermentation conditions in the range 10–20 °C and mesophilic at 35 °C. Simulation test was conducted in the two digesters. Results of the study allowed to evaluate the effectiveness of conducting these processes in separate chambers, i.e. the psychrophilic and mesophilic chamber. During the simulations, terms of obtaining volatile fatty acids and biogas in conjunction with the operating conditions of the chambers indicated.

  3. Mathematical modelization of physical process of biogas migration in sanitary landfills of urban solid wastes; Modelizacion matematica del proceso fisico de migracion del biogas en vertederos controlados de R.S.U

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Maranon Maison, E.; Sastre Andres, H.; Martin Gonzalez, S.

    1997-09-01

    An analysis of the laws that govern the biogas movements inside the landfill is carried out. The mathematical equations needed to resolve the problem are studied. Then, a model is defined and used to calculate the biogas movements in several situations. The results obtained are contrasted with data from the bibliography and with tests carried out at the La Zoreda, Landfill (Asturias Spain). (Author) 11 refs.

  4. Counteracting foaming caused by lipids or proteins in biogas reactors using rapeseed oil or oleic acid as antifoaming agents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kougias, P G; Boe, K; Einarsdottir, E S; Angelidaki, I

    2015-08-01

    Foaming is one of the major operational problems in biogas plants, and dealing with foaming incidents is still based on empirical practices. Various types of antifoams are used arbitrarily to combat foaming in biogas plants, but without any scientific support this action can lead to serious deterioration of the methanogenic process. Many commercial antifoams are derivatives of fatty acids or oils. However, it is well known that lipids can induce foaming in manure based biogas plants. This study aimed to elucidate the effect of rapeseed oil and oleic acid on foam reduction and process performance in biogas reactors fed with protein or lipid rich substrates. The results showed that both antifoams efficiently suppressed foaming. Moreover rapeseed oil resulted in stimulation of the biogas production. Finally, it was reckoned that the chemical structure of lipids, and more specifically their carboxylic ends, is responsible for their foam promoting or foam counteracting behaviour. Thus, it was concluded that the fatty acids and oils could suppress foaming, while salt of fatty acids could generate foam.

  5. Biomass for biogas plants in Denmark - in the short and long term; Biomasse til biogasanlaeg i Danmark - pae kort og langt sigt

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Birkmose, T.; Hjort-Gregersen, K.; Stefanek, K.

    2013-04-15

    In the short term, it is one of the major challenges for the developments of the biogas sector that resources of organic waste of the type (organic industrial wastes) that have heretofore been used, generally are estimated to be nearly exhausted. This has led to a number of new biogas projects based on the use of corn (energy crops) as additional biomass to livestock manure. However, Danish policy now has implemented a restriction on the use of corn and other energy crops for biogas production. It is with the restriction clarified that there is a need to use other additional biomass for biogas production. There is a need in the short term to clarify how alternative biomasses such as straw, nature preservation biomass, household waste, etc. in a technically and economically reliable and satisfactory way can be used for biogas production, so that the dependence of energy crops can be reduced. Additionally, it will be essential if the yield of using manure can be increased to reduce economic dependence on energy crops. In the longer term it is essential to strengthen the assessment of the resource potential of biomass available for the production of biogas, and thus what the contribution of biogas in the long term is estimated to be in the future energy supply based on renewable energy. The present report presents the current and future biomass resources potential and biogas production potential. The biomass resources are primarily agricultural and municipal wastes. (LN)

  6. Microbial analysis in biogas reactors suffering by foaming incidents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kougias, Panagiotis G; De Francisci, Davide; Treu, Laura; Campanaro, Stefano; Angelidaki, Irini

    2014-09-01

    Foam formation can lead to total failure of digestion process in biogas plants. In the present study, possible correlation between foaming and the presence of specific microorganisms in biogas reactors was elucidated. The microbial ecology of continuous fed digesters overloaded with proteins, lipids and carbohydrates before and after foaming incidents was characterized using 16S rRNA gene sequencing. Moreover, the microbial diversity between the liquid and foaming layer was assessed. A number of genera that are known to produce biosurfactants, contain mycolic acid in their cell wall, or decrease the surface tension of the media, increased their relative abundance after foam formation. Finally, a microorganism similar to widely known foaming bacteria (Nocardia and Desulfotomaculum) was found to increase its relative abundance in all reactors once foam was observed, regardless of the used substrate. These findings suggest that foaming and specific microorganisms might have direct association which requires to be further investigated.

  7. Biogas production as affected by heavy metals in the anaerobic digestion of sludge

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hussein I. Abdel-Shafy

    2014-12-01

    The sewage sludge samples were separated from the sewage water of the pilot plant at the National Research Centre, TDC site. The effect of heavy metals on the biogas production of the anaerobic digester was studied. The inhibitory effect on the biogas production and toxic level of metals was determined in this study. The general ranking of heavy metal toxicity appears to be Hg > Cd > Cr (III. The present investigation reveals that heavy metals in addition to the anaerobic digester decreased the biogas production as an indication of efficiency of the process. A significant decrease in gas production and volatile organic matter removal was obtained. It was also noted that an accumulation of organic acid intermediates was obtained as a result of methanogenic bacterial inhibition. This accumulation was limited during the pulse feed of metals. This is due to the rapid poisoning of the active bacterial forms in the digester.

  8. Integration of energy, GHG and economic accounting to optimize biogas production based on co-digestion

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Fitamo, Temesgen Mathewos; Boldrin, Alessio; Baral, Khagendra Raj

    to be improved. The economic and environmental performances of the biogas chain must be optimised to ensure viable and sustainable solutions. Different types of feedstock materials will have to be considered, including Agricultural residues, agro-industrial residues and, to some extent, dedicated energy crops....... In this study, we integrated three types of analysis - energetic, GHG and economic – in order to optimise biogas production from the co-digestion of pig slurry (PS) and sugar beet pulp silage (SB). We found that the energy and GHG balances are improved when utilising SB as a co-substrate, mainly because...... of increased energy production. However, the profitability of biogas production is negatively affected when utilising SB, because of the increased costs involved in feedstock supply. The scale of the processing plant is neutral in terms of profitability when SB is added. The results indicate that medium...

  9. Ex-situ biogas upgrading and enhancement in different reactor systems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kougias, Panagiotis G; Treu, Laura; Benavente, Daniela Peñailillo; Boe, Kanokwan; Campanaro, Stefano; Angelidaki, Irini

    2017-02-01

    Biogas upgrading is envisioned as a key process for clean energy production. The current study evaluates the efficiency of different reactor configurations for ex-situ biogas upgrading and enhancement, in which externally provided hydrogen and carbon dioxide were biologically converted to methane by the action of hydrogenotrophic methanogens. The methane content in the output gas of the most efficient configuration was >98%, allowing its exploitation as substitute to natural gas. Additionally, use of digestate from biogas plants as a cost efficient method to provide all the necessary nutrients for microbial growth was successful. High-throughput 16S rRNA sequencing revealed that the microbial community was resided by novel phylotypes belonging to the uncultured order MBA08 and to Bacteroidales. Moreover, only hydrogenotrophic methanogens were identified belonging to Methanothermobacter and Methanoculleus genera. Methanothermobacter thermautotrophicus was the predominant methanogen in the biofilm formed on top of the diffuser surface in the bubble column reactor.

  10. Maramba Miracle: Biogas and waste recycling - the Philippines experience

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Maramba, F.D. Sr.

    1982-12-01

    This book is a comprehensive vademecum of biogas, tracing its history and origin, the phases of development, the country experiences and various models evolved universally. Besides the biochemistry and microbiology of biogas, it touches upon the economics of various models - a small 1.2 hectare family unit, a 3.5 ha clan farm (and energy) plans budgeted to the dot. It shows the many uses for biogas. The term Biogas Works includes biogas and sludge conditioning plants offered as an integral system, which substantially improves the feed and fertilizer value of the sludge, controls water pollution and promotes sanitation. Biogas production can help solve the energy problems of the Third World Development. (DP)

  11. Production and use of biogas in Europe: a survey of current status and perspectives

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Massimo Raboni

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available The article presents the results of a survey carried out in the European Union (EU regarding the production and use of biogas from different sources. The EU is a world leader in the field of biogas, with a production of 10,085.8 ktoe y -1 (in 2011 in terms of primary energy, accounting for about 60% of the world’s production. Germany is the EU country that has made the greatest progress in this field with a production of as much as 5,067.6 ktoe y-1 , of which a share of 4,414.2 ktoe y-1 results from anaerobic digestion (and co-digestion processes of selected organic matrices. UK is the second largest producer with 1,764.8 ktoe y -1 , determined for 84% by landfill biogas and the remainder by biogas produced in sewage treatment plants (sludge digestion. Italy (1,095.7 ktoe y-1 and France (349.6 ktoe y -1 follow in the list of the largest producers. The trend of biogas production, in accordance with the action lines of the EU, is characterized by a progressive increase from anaerobic digestion (and co-digestion of selected organic matrices and a progressive decrease from landfills. Production in 2020 is estimated at 28.0 Mtoe y-1 in accordance with the EU Renewable Energy National Plans. The uses of biogas are mainly directed to the production of electricity and heat. There are, however, several cases of conversion of biogas into biomethane injected into the natural gas grids or used as biofuel in vehicles. In this last direction, worthy of note are a few north-central EU countries which have implemented an effective policy to promote the use of biomethane for public and private transport.

  12. Bioelectrochemical treatment of table olive brine processing wastewater for biogas production and phenolic compounds removal.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marone, A; Carmona-Martínez, A A; Sire, Y; Meudec, E; Steyer, J P; Bernet, N; Trably, E

    2016-09-01

    Industry of table olives is widely distributed over the Mediterranean countries and generates large volumes of processing wastewaters (TOPWs). TOPWs contain high levels of organic matter, salt, and phenolic compounds that are recalcitrant to microbial degradation. This work aims to evaluate the potential of bioelectrochemical systems to simultaneously treat real TOPWs and recover energy. The experiments were performed in potentiostatically-controlled single-chamber systems fed with real TOPW and using a moderate halophilic consortium as biocatalyst. In conventional anaerobic digestion (AD) treatment, ie. where no potential was applied, no CH4 was produced. In comparison, Bio-Electrochemical Systems (BES) showed a maximum CH4 yield of 701 ± 13 NmL CH4·LTOPW(-1) under a current density of 7.1 ± 0.4 A m(-2) and with a coulombic efficiency of 30%. Interestingly, up to 80% of the phenolic compounds found in the raw TOPW (i.e. hydroxytyrosol and tyrosol) were removed. A new theoretical degradation pathway was proposed after identification of the metabolic by-products. Consistently, microbial community analysis at the anode revealed a clear and specific enrichment in anode-respiring bacteria (ARB) from the genera Desulfuromonas and Geoalkalibacter, supporting the key role of these electroactive microorganisms. As a conclusion, bioelectrochemical systems represent a promising bioprocess alternative for the treatment and energy recovery of recalcitrant TOPWs.

  13. Operating strategies for biogas plants - conflict of objectives between advantageous grid and economically oriented operation; Betriebsstrategien fuer Biogasanlagen - Zielkonflikt zwischen netzdienlichem und wirtschaftlich orientiertem Betrieb

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Skau, Katharina [Hochschule Neubrandenburg (Germany). FB Agrarwirtschaft und Lebensmittelwissenschaft; Bettinger, Carola [Univ. Lueneburg (Germany). Inst. fuer Bank,- Finanz- und Rechnungswesen; Schild, Vernea [TU Clausthal (Germany). Inst. fuer Energietechnik und Energiesysteme; Fuchs, Clemens; Beck, Hans-Peter

    2015-07-01

    In an intelligent energy system, ''smart grid'' and ''smart market'' must go hand in hand (Aichele et al., 2014). Changes to the legal framework, especially the German Renewable Energies Act (EEG), aim at bringing in line the requirement for increased generation of renewable energy with the market and system integration of renewable energies (see Schwarz, 2014). This determines whether the operation of a modern renewable energy plant has both the maximisation of profits (smart market) as well as the easing of the higher-order grid (smart grid) as its goal or whether it is only geared towards one aspect. The agricultural biogas producer is the focus of this interdisciplinary paper. He can either use the electrical energy generated by his plant himself in an economically orientated way or design the supply to the upstream grid in a way that is advantageous for the grid through the increased flexibility of generation and consumption. Through a two-stage simulation of the impact on the grid and the operational performance, the differences with regards to the strain on the grid and the financial losses to the farmer are quantified. If is clearly shown that none of the legislative and regulatory incentive schemes favour a mode of operation that is advantageous for the grid.

  14. Improvement of Biogas Production by Bioaugmentation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    K. L. Kovács

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Biogas production technologies commonly involve the use of natural anaerobic consortia of microbes. The objective of this study was to elucidate the importance of hydrogen in this complex microbial food chain. Novel laboratory biogas reactor prototypes were designed and constructed. The fates of pure hydrogen-producing cultures of Caldicellulosiruptor saccharolyticus and Enterobacter cloacae were followed in time in thermophilic and mesophilic natural biogas-producing communities, respectively. Molecular biological techniques were applied to study the altered ecosystems. A systematic study in 5-litre CSTR digesters revealed that a key fermentation parameter in the maintenance of an altered population balance is the loading rate of total organic solids. Intensification of the biogas production was observed and the results corroborate that the enhanced biogas productivity is associated with the increased abundance of the hydrogen producers. Fermentation parameters did not indicate signs of failure in the biogas production process. Rational construction of more efficient and sustainable biogas-producing microbial consortia is proposed.

  15. Dynamic real-time substrate feed optimization of anaerobic co-digestion plants

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Gaida, Daniel

    2014-01-01

    In anaerobic co-digestion plants a mix of organic materials is converted to biogas using the anaerobic digestion process. These organic materials, called substrates, can be crops, sludge, manure, organic wastes and many more. They are fed on a daily basis and significantly affect the biogas producti

  16. Thermal spraying of corrosion protection layers in biogas plants; Erzeugung von Korrosionsschutzschichten fuer Bioenergieanlagen mittels Thermischen Spritzens

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Crimmann, P.; Dimaczek, G.; Faulstich, M. [ATZ Entwicklungszentrum, Sulzbach-Rosenberg (Germany)

    2004-07-01

    Corrosion in plants for the energetic conversion of biomass is a severe problem that often causes premature damage of components. Thermal spraying is a process for the creation of corrosion protection layer. An advantage of thermal spraying is that as well as each material can be used as layer material. First practical results demonstrated that thermal spraying has the potential to create coatings to protect components against high temperature corrosion as well as biocorrosion. Layer materials are for example nickel base alloys (high temperature corrosion) and titan alloys (biocorrosion). Further investigations are necessary in order to examine whether cost-efficient coatings also contribute to the corrosion protection (e.g. polymer materials against biocorrosion). (orig.)

  17. Direct marketing of electricity from biogas plants; Direktvermarktung von Strom aus Biogasanlagen. Chancen und Risiken aus rechtlicher Sicht

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Falke, Iris; Schlichting, Julia [Schnutenhaus und Kollegen, Rechtsanwaelte, Berlin (Germany)

    2013-10-01

    The German Renewable Energy Sources Act of January, 1{sup st} 2012 contains new possibilities of direct selling electricity to the market, to promote and to improve market integration of electricity generated from renewable energies. The core is the introduction of a market premium for electricity which has actually been fed into the grid system and purchased by a third party. In addition to his market revenues, the installation operator receives the market premium. The market premium replaces the guaranteed EEG feed-in tariff. The market premium should cover the difference between the proceeds from direct selling and the EEG feed-in tariff. In addition, installation operators receive a management premium to compensate their transaction costs. As a supplement to the market premium model the EEG 2012 introduces a flexibility premium to create an economic incentive for providing additional capacities and encourage a demand-oriented electricity production. Further possibilities of direct marketing are the ''green electricity privilege'' and the non-subsided direct marketing. This article provides an over-view of the different forms of direct-marketing that are included in EEG 2012 with a focus on the market premium and the flexibility premium. These two instruments are of high importance to operators of installations generating electricity from biogas. A further emphasis is put on risks and chances in contract negotiation in the context of direct marketing. (orig.)

  18. Moving bed filter for absorbing hydrogen sulphide from biogas. Filtro de lecho movil para absorber el sulphidrico del biogas

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bou, J.

    1994-01-01

    The main aim of this demonstration project is the absorption of hydrogen sulphide from the biogas-produced in a sewage plant-through a practical system which does not require constant attention, nor significant labour for the loading and unloading of the iron oxides; and the use of the biogas, when it has been purified, in thermal and cogeneration engine applications. The demonstration installation comprises a filter with a movable bed, of pyramid/trunk shape, with a square base, having a capacity of 1,000 litres, plus the two items needed for working with it: a lower and an upper hopper, for the loading and unloading of iron-oxide agglomerates. The purified biogas is used in a cogeneration unit comprising four TOTEM-FIAT sets generating 12.5 kWh of electrical power and 36.78 thermal kW each. Completing the project is a system which receives and stores the data from the range of variables monitored. The results obtained-the H[sub 2] content at the outlet from the lower filter at 300 ppm, sulphur absorption of 30% by wight in the iron oxide agglomerates, agglomerates replacement cost of 0.77 pesetas; m''3 , and 2.47-year-pay-back- confirm the viability of the process, and resure the application of this system in other sewage treatment plants. (Author)

  19. Biogas production from ensiled meadow grass; effect of mechanical pretreatments and rapid determination of substrate biodegradability via physicochemical methods

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Tsapekos, Panagiotis; Kougias, Panagiotis; Angelidaki, Irini

    2015-01-01

    As the biogas sector is rapidly expanding, there is an increasing need in finding new alternative feedstock to biogas plants. Meadow grass can be a suitable co-substrate and if ensiled it can be supplied to biogas plants continuously throughout the year. Nevertheless, this substrate is quite reca...

  20. Increase of Bio-Gas Power Potential

    OpenAIRE

    V. Sednin; О. Kraetskaya; I. Prokoрenia

    2012-01-01

    The paper presents a review of industrial technologies for obtaining gas-synthesis which is applicable for bio-gas enrichment process. Comparative characteristics are given in the paper. The paper thoroughly considers a technology of dry methane conversion as the most expedient variant recommended for the application in this case. The bio-gas enrichment carried out during its production expands possibilities and efficiency of its application.

  1. Biogas Production from Vinasse

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    de Souza Moraes, Bruna; Triolo, Jin Mi; Pulido Lecona, Vanessa

    2014-01-01

    In many developing countries, simple biogas digesters are used to produce energy for domestic purposes from anaerobic digestion of animal manure. We developed a simple, one-dimensional (1-D), thermal model with easily-available input data for unheated, unstirred, uninsulated, fixed-dome digesters...... buried in the soil to study heat transfer between biogas digester and its surroundings. The predicted temperatures in the dome, biogas and slurry inside the digester and the resulting biogas production are presented and validated. The model was well able to estimate digester temperature (linear slope...

  2. 6th Conference 'Anaerobic treatment of biological wastes'. New tendencies in the biogas technology; 6. Fachtagung Anaerobe biologische Abfallbehandlung. Neue Tendenzen in der Biogastechnologie

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bilitewski, B.; Werner, P.; Dornack, Christina; Stegmann, R.; Rettenberger, G.; Faulstich, M.; Wittmaier, M. (eds.)

    2008-07-01

    Within this 6th conference at 23rd to 24th September, 2008, in Dresden (Federal Republic of Germany), the following lectures were held: (1) Development of biogas technology - influences and tendencies (H. Friedmann); (2) EEG 2009 - Effect on biogas branch (B. Dreher); (3) From composting to fermentation - material flows, technology, cost, practical experiences (M. Kern, T. Raussen, A. Lootsma, K. Funda); (4) Fermentation of vinasses from the production of bioethanol (H. Friedmann); (5) Substrate digestion and microbiological hydrolysis for biogas production from lignocellulosis containing substrates using beer draff as an example (D. Schieder, M. Faulstich, J. Voigt, J. Ellenriedere, B. Haeffner, K. Sommer); (6) Substitution of wheat and corn by grass and manure for improving the economic efficiency of biogas plants (M. Wittmaier); (7) High-efficiency anaerobic digestion with integrated micro filtration using clarification sludge as an example (W. Troesch, B. Kempter-Regel); (8) Modelling of anaerobic digestion; stationary and dynamic parameter of estimation (C. Cimatoribus); (9) Regulation of an anaerobic laboratory reactor by means of fuzzy logic (O. Bade); (10) Model based diagnosis of the state of process in biogas plants (W. Kloeden); (11) Suitability of ADM 1 in the modelling of biogas plants (K. Koch, M. Wichern, M. Luebken, H. Horn, M. Schlattmann, A. Gronauer); (12) Load dependent and automatical operation of biogas plants - an option for the future (M. Mueller, J. Proeter, F. Scholwin); (13) Chances for biogas generation and application in Vietnam (L. van Bot, M. Wittmaier, A. Karagiannidies, B. Bilitewski, P. Werner); (14) State of the art and developments in the fermentation of biological wastes in the Peoples Republic of China (M. Gehring, R. Li, B. Raininger); (15) Bio-methane potential from cattle and pig wastes in Greece (A. Karagiannidis, G. Perkoulidis, T. Kotsopoulos); (16) Contaminants in biogas plants - an assessment of the material flow using

  3. Environmental perspectives on using cast seaweed for biogas production

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Fredenslund, Anders Michael; Møller, Henrik Bjarne; Christensen, Thomas Budde

    Solrød Municipality, Denmark is working towards building a biogas plant utilizing locally available organic wastes including cast seaweed, which is collected each year, since the local inhabitants see this material as a nuisance. A preliminary study suggested favorable conditions for contstructing...... a mixed substrate biogas plant. Continuously fed reactor experiments showed that the intended mix of substrate including cast seaweed could be used as raw material for a biogas plant in thermophilic operation. The environmental analysis suggests existence of several positive benefits of utilizing cast...

  4. Micro-aeration for hydrogen sulfide removal from biogas

    Science.gov (United States)

    Duangmanee, Thanapong

    The presence of sulfur compounds (e.g. protein, sulfate, thiosulfate, sulfite, etc.) in the feed stream generates highly corrosive and odorous hydrogen sulfide during anaerobic digestion. The high sulfide level in the biogas stream is not only poisonous to many novel metal catalysts employed in thermo-catalytic processes but also reduces the quality of methane to produce renewable energy. This study used an innovative, low-maintenance, low-cost biological sulfide removal technology to remove sulfides simultaneously from both gas and liquid phase. ORP (Oxidation-Reduction-Potential) was used as the controlling parameter to precisely regulate air injection to the sulfide oxidizing unit (SOU). The microaeration technique provided just enough oxygen to partially oxidize sulfides to elemental sulfur without inhibiting methanogenesis. The SOU was equipped with a diffuser at the bottom for the dispersion of sulfide-laden biogas and injected air throughout the column. The SOU can be operated as a standalone unit or coupled with an anaerobic digester to simultaneously remove sulfide from the biogas and effluent. The integrated system was capable of reducing hydrogen sulfide in biogas from 2,450 to less than 2 ppmV with minimal sulfate production at the highest available sulfide loading rate of 0.24 kg/m3-day. More than 98% of sulfide removed was recovered as elemental sulfur. However, the standalone SOU was able to operate at high hydrogen sulfide loading of 1.46 kg/m 3-day at inlet sulfide concentration of 3000 ppmV and reduce the off-gas hydrogen sulfide concentrations to less than 10 ppmV. The experiment also revealed that the ORP controlled aeration was sensitive enough to prevent oxygen overdosing (dampening effect) during unexpected surges of aeration. Using generalized linear regression, a model predicting output H2S concentration based on input H2S concentrations, SOU medium heights, and biogas flow rates, was derived. With 95% confidence, output H2S concentration

  5. Biogas Production: Microbiology and Technology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schnürer, Anna

    Biogas, containing energy-rich methane, is produced by microbial decomposition of organic material under anaerobic conditions. Under controlled conditions, this process can be used for the production of energy and a nutrient-rich residue suitable for use as a fertilising agent. The biogas can be used for production of heat, electricity or vehicle fuel. Different substrates can be used in the process and, depending on substrate character, various reactor technologies are available. The microbiological process leading to methane production is complex and involves many different types of microorganisms, often operating in close relationships because of the limited amount of energy available for growth. The microbial community structure is shaped by the incoming material, but also by operating parameters such as process temperature. Factors leading to an imbalance in the microbial community can result in process instability or even complete process failure. To ensure stable operation, different key parameters, such as levels of degradation intermediates and gas quality, are often monitored. Despite the fact that the anaerobic digestion process has long been used for industrial production of biogas, many questions need still to be resolved to achieve optimal management and gas yields and to exploit the great energy and nutrient potential available in waste material. This chapter discusses the different aspects that need to be taken into consideration to achieve optimal degradation and gas production, with particular focus on operation management and microbiology.

  6. Energy and Greenhouse gas balances of the utilisation of biogas for energy

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielsen, Per Sieverts; Karlsson, Kenneth Bernard; Holm-Nielsen, Jens Bo

    1998-01-01

    The utilisation of biogas for energy is an important part of the Danish energy plan for reducing Danish emissions of greenhouse gases. Implementation programmes for new biogas plants have been in operation since 1990, promoted by the Ministry of Environment and Energy. The focus of the implementa......The utilisation of biogas for energy is an important part of the Danish energy plan for reducing Danish emissions of greenhouse gases. Implementation programmes for new biogas plants have been in operation since 1990, promoted by the Ministry of Environment and Energy. The focus...... biogas for energy. Two different Danish joint biogas plants are evaluated with the aim of determining the role of transportation and co-fermentation on the energy and the balance of greenhouse gases from the biogas fuel cycle....

  7. Effect of processing plant on pork quality

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hambrecht, E.; Eissen, J.J.; Verstegen, M.W.A.

    2003-01-01

    The impact of processing plant on pork quality was studied by assessing pork quality in three commercial plants (A, B, Q. Plants differed in the layout of the races, stunning systems (A and B: electrical, C: CO2 stunning) and chilling systems (A: rapid chilling, B and C: conventional). Factors not r

  8. Combustion of Biogas Released from Palm Oil Mill Effluent and the Effects of Hydrogen Enrichment on the Characteristics of the Biogas Flame

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Seyed Ehsan Hosseini

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Biogas released from palm oil mill effluent (POME could be a source of air pollution, which has illustrated negative effects on the global warming. To protect the environment from toxic emissions and use the energy of POME biogas, POME is conducted to the closed digestion systems and released biogas is captured. Since POME biogas upgrading is a complicated process, it is not economical and thus new combustion techniques should be examined. In this paper, POME biogas (40% CO2 and 60% CH4 has been utilized as a fuel in a lab-scale furnace. A computational approach by standard k-ε combustion and turbulence model is applied. Hydrogen is added to the biogas components and the impacts of hydrogen enrichment on the temperature distribution, flame stability, and pollutant formation are studied. The results confirm that adding hydrogen to the POME biogas content could improve low calorific value (LCV of biogas and increases the stability of the POME biogas flame. Indeed, the biogas flame length rises and distribution of the temperature within the chamber is uniform when hydrogen is added to the POME biogas composition. Compared to the pure biogas combustion, thermal NOx formation increases in hydrogen-enriched POME biogas combustion due to the enhancement of the furnace temperature.

  9. Plant-based remediation processes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gupta, Dharmendra Kumar (ed.) [Belgian Nuclear Research Centre (SCK.CEN), Mol (Belgium). Radiological Impact and Performance Assessment Division

    2013-11-01

    A valuable source of information for scientists in the field of environmental pollution and remediation. Describes the latest biotechnological methods for the treatment of contaminated soils. Includes case studies and protocols. Phytoremediation is an emerging technology that employs higher plants for the clean-up of contaminated environments. Basic and applied research have unequivocally demonstrated that selected plant species possess the genetic potential to accumulate, degrade, metabolize and immobilize a wide range of contaminants. The main focus of this volume is on the recent advances of technologies using green plants for remediation of various metals and metalloids. Topics include biomonitoring of heavy metal pollution, amendments of higher uptake of toxic metals, transport of heavy metals in plants, and toxicity mechanisms. Further chapters discuss agro-technological methods for minimizing pollution while improving soil quality, transgenic approaches to heavy metal remediation and present protocols for metal remediation via in vitro root cultures.

  10. The Role of Municipalities, Energy Companies and the Agricultural Sector in Denmark as Drivers for Biogas

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lybæk, Rikke; Andersen, Jan; Christensen, Thomas Budde

    2014-01-01

    This paper examines the barriers to implementing biogas plants in Denmark and highlights advantages and barriers of the technology with a focus on the environment, energy and the agriculture. The article is based on a detailed study of development trends within the Danish biogas sector and identi......This paper examines the barriers to implementing biogas plants in Denmark and highlights advantages and barriers of the technology with a focus on the environment, energy and the agriculture. The article is based on a detailed study of development trends within the Danish biogas sector...... municipalities more actively in the biogas development. Based on the analysis of the current situation and of the challenges and opportunities for the Danish Biogas sector, we propose that municipalities, energy companies and the agricultural sector take renewed actions and become drivers for the biogas sector...... from the new market opportunities that biogas poses e.g. supply biogas for transportation purposes. Farmers must look for alternative ways of implementing biogas plants using new corporate design concepts rather than traditional centralized and farm biogas plants.....

  11. Biogas production in agricultural distilleries. Gewinnung von Biogas in landwirtschaftlichen Brennereien

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Anon.

    1993-02-01

    The malt residuum obtained during alcoholic fermentation in agricultural distilleries can be used for biogas production. The process of anaerobic fermentation is described, and its application in distilleries and environmental aspects are discussed. (SR)

  12. Characterization of a biogas-producing microbial community by short-read next generation DNA sequencing

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wirth Roland

    2012-07-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Renewable energy production is currently a major issue worldwide. Biogas is a promising renewable energy carrier as the technology of its production combines the elimination of organic waste with the formation of a versatile energy carrier, methane. In consequence of the complexity of the microbial communities and metabolic pathways involved the biotechnology of the microbiological process leading to biogas production is poorly understood. Metagenomic approaches are suitable means of addressing related questions. In the present work a novel high-throughput technique was tested for its benefits in resolving the functional and taxonomical complexity of such microbial consortia. Results It was demonstrated that the extremely parallel SOLiD™ short-read DNA sequencing platform is capable of providing sufficient useful information to decipher the systematic and functional contexts within a biogas-producing community. Although this technology has not been employed to address such problems previously, the data obtained compare well with those from similar high-throughput approaches such as 454-pyrosequencing GS FLX or Titanium. The predominant microbes contributing to the decomposition of organic matter include members of the Eubacteria, class Clostridia, order Clostridiales, family Clostridiaceae. Bacteria belonging in other systematic groups contribute to the diversity of the microbial consortium. Archaea comprise a remarkably small minority in this community, given their crucial role in biogas production. Among the Archaea, the predominant order is the Methanomicrobiales and the most abundant species is Methanoculleus marisnigri. The Methanomicrobiales are hydrogenotrophic methanogens. Besides corroborating earlier findings on the significance of the contribution of the Clostridia to organic substrate decomposition, the results demonstrate the importance of the metabolism of hydrogen within the biogas producing microbial

  13. An economic analysis of the electricity generation potential from biogas resources in the state of Indiana

    Science.gov (United States)

    Giraldo, Juan S.

    Anaerobic digestion is a process that is a common part of organic waste management systems and is used in concentrated animal feeding operations (CAFOs), wastewater treatment plants (WWTPs), and municipal solid waste (MSW) landfills. The process produces biogas, which contains methane, and it can be burned to generate electricity. Previous reports have indicated that based on the availability of feedstocks there is a large potential for biogas production and use for electricity generation in the state of Indiana. However, these reports varied in their consideration of important factors that affect the technical and economic feasibility of being able to develop the resources available. The goal of this thesis is to make a more targeted assessment of the electricity generation potential from biogas resources at CAFOs, WWTPs, and MSW landfills in Indiana. A capital budgeting model is used to estimate the net present value (NPV) of biogas electricity projects at facilities that are identified as technically suitable. A statewide estimate of the potential generation capacity is made by estimating the number of facilities that could profitably undertake a biogas electricity project. In addition this thesis explored the impact that different incentive policies would have on the economic viability of these projects. The results indicated that the electricity generation potential is much smaller when technical and economic factors are taken into account in addition to feedstock availability. In particular it was found that projects at hog farms are unlikely to be economically feasible in the present even when financial incentives are considered. In total, 47.94 MW of potential generating capacity is estimated from biogas production at CAFOs, WWTPs, and MSW landfills. Though results indicated that 37.10 MW of capacity are economically feasible under current operating conditions, sensitivity analysis reveals that these projects are very sensitive to capital cost assumptions

  14. 江苏省大中型沼气工程调查及沼液生物学特性研究%Investigation on large and medium scale biogas plants and biological properties of digestate in Jiangsu province

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    叶小梅; 常志州; 钱玉婷; 潘君才; 朱谨

    2012-01-01

    Biogas plant construction has rapid development in recent years. However, studies on its operation and management were few, especially for large and medium-sized ones. To explore the problems existing in operation and management, a field investigation on 21 plants of large and medium-sized biogas was carried out in intensive pig and dairy farms in Jiangsu province. The investigation included the operation status of the plants and the raw materials and digestion slurry was sampled to analyze the content of COD, residual biogas production and the count of fecal coliform. Results showed that the design and construction of all the biogas plants was performed by professional company with well-appointed facilities, whereas the biogas volume produced and the utilization of biogas and digestion slurry were low. The main raw materials for anaerobic digestion were waste water from pig and dairy farms, with low content of total solid (i.e., TS < 3%). Most raw materials could not be digested completely. COD contents from 62% digestion slurry samples were more than 5 000 mg/L, which caused appreciable quantities of methane produced from digestion slurry. Twelve digestion slurry samples could produce methane more than 100 mL/L at 35°C. Anaerobic digestion could significantly reduce the survival of fecal coliform, reaching 92.9% on average. However, the digestion slurry still contained high concentrations of fecal coliform, which could not reach the requirement of sanitary. These results could provide a theoretical reference for the stable and healthy operation and management of large and medium-sized biogas plants.%近年来,中国大中型沼气工程发展迅速,然而有关沼气工程运行情况的研究甚少.为探索沼气工程运行中存在的问题,该文对江苏省21家畜禽养殖场大中型沼气工程进行了实地调查,并采集发酵料液以及出料样品,分析了进出料液COD(化学需氧量)质量浓度、沼液产气潜力、粪大肠菌群数等

  15. Methods and apparatus for hydrogen based biogas upgrading

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    2013-01-01

    The present invention relates to an anaerobic process for biogas upgrading and hydrogen utilization comprising the use of acidic waste as co-substrate.In this process,H2 and CO2 will be converted to CH4, which will result in lower CO2 content in the biogas. The invention relates to both in situ...

  16. Experiences in WWTP of the effects of co-digestion of substrates on the biogas production; Experiencia en EDAR de la codigestion de sustratos sobre la produccion de biogas

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Morenilla, J. J.; Bernacer, I.; Martinez, F.; Jardin, C.; Simon, P.; Ruiz, L.; Pradas, P.; Pastor, L.

    2010-07-01

    The use of co-digestion in wastewater treatment plants (WWTP) offers the possibility of treating sludge in conjunction with other substrates from different sources (agricultural or agroindustrial residues, etc.)to offset the balance of nutrients and moisture, increasing significantly biogas production of the process. Pobla de Farnals (Valencia) WWTP and Molina de Segura (Murcia) WWTP have introduced landfill leachate of municipal solid waste (MSW) in the anaerobic digestion, resulting in an increase of the biogas production. the additions started with punctual discharges of small amounts of leachate, and later, the frequency and volume of the discharges increased depending on the results. (Author) 17 refs.

  17. Model-based design of an agricultural biogas plant: application of anaerobic digestion model no.1 for an improved four chamber scheme.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wett, B; Schoen, M; Phothilangka, P; Wackerle, F; Insam, H

    2007-01-01

    Different digestion technologies for various substrates are addressed by the generic process description of Anaerobic Digestion Model No. 1. In the case of manure or agricultural wastes a priori knowledge about the substrate in terms of ADM1 compounds is lacking and influent characterisation becomes a major issue. The actual project has been initiated for promotion of biogas technology in agriculture and for expansion of profitability also to rather small capacity systems. In order to avoid costly individual planning and installation of each facility a standardised design approach needs to be elaborated. This intention pleads for bio kinetic modelling as a systematic tool for process design and optimisation. Cofermentation under field conditions was observed, quality data and flow data were recorded and mass flow balances were calculated. In the laboratory different substrates have been digested separately in parallel under specified conditions. A configuration of four ADM1 model reactors was set up. Model calibration identified disintegration rate, decay rates for sugar degraders and half saturation constant for sugar as the three most sensitive parameters showing values (except the latter) about one order of magnitude higher than default parameters. Finally, the model is applied to the comparison of different reactor configurations and volume partitions. Another optimisation objective is robustness and load flexibility, i.e. the same configuration should be adaptive to different load situations only by a simple recycle control in order to establish a standardised design.

  18. BIOGAS PRODUCTION FROM TOFU LIQUID WASTE ON TREATED AGRICULTURAL WASTES

    OpenAIRE

    Budy Rahmat; Tedi Hartoyo; Yaya Sunarya

    2014-01-01

    The Tofu Liquid Waste (TLW) as a pollution might be processed into biogas which was environmentally friendly and had potential to replace burning wood or oil. However, the waste could not directly be employed as the biogas substrate due to the high nitrogen content which was not suitable to the methanogen microorganism on the biogas digester and did not produce biogas. It was therefore necessary to adapt the carbon-nitrogen ratio in TLW with the addition of other organic materials that had a ...

  19. Biogas Production Using Anaerobic Biodigester from Cassava Starch Effluent

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S. Sunarso

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available IKMs’ factory activity in Margoyoso produces liquid and solid wastes. The possible alternative was to use the liquid effluent as biogas raw material. This study focuses on the used of urea, ruminant, yeast, microalgae, the treatment of gelled and ungelled feed for biogas production, pH control during biogas production using buffer Na2CO3, and feeding management in the semi-continuous process of biogas production that perform at ambient temperature for 30 days. Ruminant bacteria, yeast, urea, and microalgae was added 10% (v/v, 0.08% (w/v, 0.04% (w/v, 50% (v/v of mixing solution volume, respectively. The pH of slurry was adjusted with range 6.8-7.2 and was measured daily and corrected when necessary with Na2CO3. The total biogas production was measured daily by the water displacement technique. Biogas production from the ungelling and gelling mixture of cassava starch effluent, yeast, ruminant bacteria, and urea were 726.43 ml/g total solid and 198 ml/g total solid. Biogas production from ungelling mixture without yeast was 58.6 ml/g total solid. Biogas production from ungelling mixture added by microalgae without yeast was 58.72 ml/g total solid and that with yeast was 189 ml/g total solid. Biogas production from ungelling mixture of cassava starch effluent, yeast, ruminant bacteria, and urea in semi-continuous process was 581.15 ml/g total solid. Adding of microalgae as nitrogen source did not give significant effect to biogas production. But adding of yeast as substrate activator was very helpful to accelerate biogas production. The biogas production increased after cassava starch effluent and yeast was added. Requirement of sodium carbonate (Na2CO3 to increase alkalinity or buffering capacity of fermenting solution depends on pH-value

  20. Use of digestate from a decentralized on-farm biogas plant as fertilizer in soils: An ecotoxicological study for future indicators in risk and life cycle assessment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pivato, Alberto; Vanin, Stefano; Raga, Roberto; Lavagnolo, Maria Cristina; Barausse, Alberto; Rieple, Antonia; Laurent, Alexis; Cossu, Raffaello

    2016-03-01

    Over the last decade, the number of decentralized farm biogas plants has increased significantly in the EU. This development leads not only to an increasing amount of biogas produced, but also to a higher amount of digestate obtained. One of the most attractive options to manage the digestate is to apply it as biofertiliser to the soil, because this gives the opportunity of recovering the nutrients, primarily nitrogen and phosphorus, and of attenuating the loss of organic matter suffered by soils under agricultural exploitation. Studies have claimed that digestates can present a residual biodegradability, and contain complex organic elements, salts or pathogenic bacteria that can damage terrestrial organisms. However few ecotoxicological studies have been performed to evaluate the ecological impact of digestate application on soil. In this study, the use of digestate as biofertiliser in agriculture was assessed by a battery of ecotoxicological tests considering the potential pollutants present in the digestate as a whole by using the "matrix-based" approach (also known as "whole effluent toxicity" for eluates or wastewater effluents). The direct and indirect tests included plant bioassays with Lepidium sativum, earthworm bioassays with Eisenia fetida, aquatic organisms (Artemia sp. and Daphnia magna) and luminescent bacteria bioassays (Vibrio fischeri). Direct tests occurred to be more sensitive than indirect tests. The earthworm bioassays did not show serious negative effects for concentrations up to 15% (dry weight/dry weight percent, w/w dm) and the plant bioassays showed no negative effect, but rather a positive one for concentrations lower than 20% (w/w dm), which encourages the use of digestate as a biofertiliser in agriculture provided that proper concentrations are used. The indirect tests, on the eluate, with the using aquatic organisms and luminescent bacteria showed an LC50 value of 13.61% volume/volume percent, v/v) for D. magna and no toxicity for

  1. 基于CSTR和UASB工艺的沼气工程实例分析%Analysis on Biogas Engineering Based on the Processes of CSTR and UASB

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    余靖; 顾逸仙; 刘畅; 骆林平; 虞方伯; 翁佳丽; 阮乐华; 单胜道

    2012-01-01

    随着沼气技术的日渐成熟,各相关工艺不断发展完善,其中CSTR和UASB因其具备工艺简单,施工管理方便和运行效果好等优点而得以广泛运用.该文通过分析若干典型CSTR和UASB沼气工程,将二者特性进行对比,笔者认为CSTR具有独特的搅拌处理工艺.该工艺①可处理浓度较高的废液(TS 8%~12%);②发酵均匀产气率高;③处理量大,产沼气量多;④反应器结构简单,便于启动运行和管理.目前国外沼气工程技术先进的国家仍采用该工艺.与CSTR相比UASB工艺具有①占地面积小,前期投资成本低;②有机负荷高,处理高浓度有机废水的效果显著;③水力停留时间短,大量活性污泥聚集底部,发酵效果显著.基于这两种工艺的不同特性建议各地在兴建沼气工程时,应结合当地实情灵活运用,在引进先进技术的同时鼓励自主技术创新,使用适宜我国国情的高效沼气工程技术.%As the techniques of biogas fermentation developed rapidly, relevant processes boomed accordingly. Among these, CSTR and UASB were the most widely used in the biogas engineering due to the advantages of simpleness, convenience and efficiency. In this paper, several typical biogas engineerings based on the processes of CSTR and UASB were analyzed and compared with each other. As concluded by the author, CSTR has unique stirring process, which can treat high-concentration fermentation materials (TS 8% -12% ), and produce the gas largely and uniformly; it also has simple structure , which is easy to be started and managed. It is now used in most advanced countries. Compared with CSTR, UASB occupies little area and needs little investment, it is good to process high-concentration organic wastewater, its retention time is short, most of active sludge concentrates at the bottom, the fermentation effect is remarkable. Based on the features of two processes, they should be flexibly used given local conditions

  2. Recovery of Nutrients from Biogas Digestate with Biochar and Clinoptilolite

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kocatürk, Nazli Pelin

    necessitates the subsequent distribution of nutrients. The liquid fraction of digestate can be used as fertiliser in agricultural crop production systems and the most common practice of utilising the liquid fraction of digestate is direct field application in the vicinity of the biogas plant. However, direct...... of nutrients on sorbent) but decreasing efficiencies of clinoptilolite to remove nutrients from the liquid fraction of digestate. In Chapter 3, I studied the chemical activation of biochar by treating the biochar with deionised water, hydrogen peroxide, sulfuric acid and sodium hydroxide solutions......The increasing number of biogas plants over the last decades has brought the need to improve techniques to handle digestate, the by-product of anaerobic digestion in biogas plants. Separation of digestate into liquid and solid fractions is often applied in centralised biogas plants, which...

  3. Energy-Efficient Routes for the Production of Gasoline from Biogas and Pyrolysis Oil—Process Design and Life-Cycle Assessment

    Science.gov (United States)

    2017-01-01

    Two novel routes for the production of gasoline from pyrolysis oil (from timber pine) and biogas (from ley grass) are simulated, followed by a cradle-to-gate life-cycle assessment of the two production routes. The main aim of this work is to conduct a holistic evaluation of the proposed routes and benchmark them against the conventional route of producing gasoline from natural gas. A previously commercialized method of synthesizing gasoline involves conversion of natural gas to syngas, which is further converted to methanol, and then as a last step, the methanol is converted to gasoline. In the new proposed routes, the syngas production step is different; syngas is produced from a mixture of pyrolysis oil and biogas in the following two ways: (i) autothermal reforming of pyrolysis oil and biogas, in which there are two reactions in one reactor (ATR) and (ii) steam reforming of pyrolysis oil and catalytic partial oxidation of biogas, in which there are separated but thermally coupled reactions and reactors (CR). The other two steps to produce methanol from syngas, and gasoline from methanol, remain the same. The purpose of this simulation is to have an ex-ante comparison of the performance of the new routes against a reference, in terms of energy and sustainability. Thus, at this stage of simulations, nonrigorous, equilibrium-based models have been used for reactors, which will give the best case conversions for each step. For the conventional production route, conversion and yield data available in the literature have been used, wherever available.The results of the process design showed that the second method (separate, but thermally coupled reforming) has a carbon efficiency of 0.53, compared to the conventional route (0.48), as well as the first route (0.40). The life-cycle assessment results revealed that the newly proposed processes have a clear advantage over the conventional process in some categories, particularly the global warming potential and primary

  4. Biogas production from potato-juice, a by-product from potato-starch processing, in upflow anaerobic sludge blanket (UASB) and expanded granular sludge bed (EGSB) reactors

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Fang, Cheng; Boe, Kanokwan; Angelidaki, Irini

    2011-01-01

    In this study, the utilization of potato-juice, the organic by-product from potato-starch processing, for biogas production was investigated in batch assay and in high rate anaerobic reactors. The maximum methane potential of the potato-juice determined by batch assay was 470mL-CH4/g......VS-added. Anaerobic digestion of potato-juice in an EGSB reactor could obtain a methane yield of 380mL-CH4/gVS-added at the organic loading rate of 3.2gCOD/(L-reactor.d). In a UASB reactor, higher organic loading rate of 5.1gCOD/(L-reactor.d) could be tolerated, however, it resulted in a lower methane yield of 240m...

  5. Swiss Farmer Power - Biogas from farms will be the fuel for tomorrow; Biogas vom Bauer wird zum Treibstoff von morgen - SwissFarmerPower

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bruecker, U. [ITZ InnovationsTransfer Zentralschweiz, Horw (Switzerland); Limacher, R. [bapGROUP AG, Lucerne (Switzerland); Engeli, H. [Engeli Engineering, Neerach (Switzerland); Henggeler, H. [Fenaco Alternativ Energie, Winterthur (Switzerland)

    2005-07-01

    This final report for the Swiss Federal Office of Energy (SFOE) presents the results of a project that involves the building of a joint biogas plant serving 60 farmers and industrial companies with an annual processing capacity of 45,000 tons. The plant is to produce biogas to be fed into the gas mains and will not only reduce nutrient loading in a region with an extensive livestock industry but also reduce carbon dioxide emissions by using the gas as a motor fuel. The importance of the project with respect to both the environment and energy policy-making is discussed and the costs involved are examined. Details are presented on the technology used and on the material flows involved. Figures are quoted on energy production. The various biogenic substrates used, such as food wastes, waste oils, cereal wastes and used mushroom substrates, are discussed, as is the use of the solid and liquid outputs of the digester in farming activities.

  6. Biogas production from crops and organic wastes. 2. Results of continuous digestion tests

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Stewart, D.J.; Bogue, M.J.; Badger, D.M.

    1984-01-01

    Measurements were made of biogas yields from anaerobic digestion of various crops and organic wastes in 20-litre continuous digesters at 35 degrees C and at various loading rates and retention times. With a loading rate of 2.5 kg TS/cubic m digester/day and a retention time of 20 days, the mean volumes of biogas (in litres) and methane contents (% methane) obtained from each kilogram of TS added to the digester were as follows: banana (fruit plus stem) 938(53), potato waste (peelings plus rejects 820(50), meat processing waste (minced paunch contents, intestines, hearts, and lungs) 603(59), kale (whole plant) 545(53), pasture grass (ryegrass plus clover) 498(56), pressed lucerne (residue after extraction of protein) 487(63), oats 476(54), lucerne 460(56), poultry manure 439(57), maize 406(57), synthetic garbage (minced paper, food scraps, and garden rubbish) 383(48), ground barley straw 285(54), newspaper 243(52), and chopped ryegrass straw 177(62). Biogas yields per kilogram of total solids decreased as the loading rate increased. Continuous digestion was more stable than batch digestion, but biogas yields obtained by both methods were very similar. Highly digestible materials could be continuously digested, whereas they could not be batch digested. The high biogas yields obtained from digestion of banana and potato wastes resulted from almost complete destruction of volatile solids and represented respectively 99% and 95% conversion of the energy in the original material into methane. Biogas yields from continuous digestion were closely related to the proportion of soluble cell contents in the respective materials. 24 references.

  7. Model feedstock supply processing plants

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    V. M. Bautin

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available The model of raw providing the processing enterprises entering into vertically integrated structure on production and processing of dairy raw materials, differing by an orientation on achievement of cumulative effect by the integrated structure acting as criterion function which maximizing is reached by optimization of capacities, volumes of deliveries of raw materials and its qualitative characteristics, costs of industrial processing of raw materials and demand for dairy production is developed.

  8. Density of biogas digestate depending on temperature and composition.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gerber, Mandy; Schneider, Nico

    2015-09-01

    Density is one of the most important physical properties of biogas digestate to ensure an optimal dimensioning and a precise design of biogas plant components like stirring devices, pumps and heat exchangers. In this study the density of biogas digestates with different compositions was measured using pycnometers at ambient pressure in a temperature range from 293.15 to 313.15K. The biogas digestates were taken from semi-continuous experiments, in which the marine microalga Nannochloropsis salina, corn silage and a mixture of both were used as feedstocks. The results show an increase of density with increasing total solid content and a decrease with increasing temperature. Three equations to calculate the density of biogas digestate were set up depending on temperature as well as on the total solid content, organic composition and elemental composition, respectively. All correlations show a relative deviation below 1% compared to experimental data.

  9. H2S removal from biogas using bioreactors: a review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    E. Dumont

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available This review aims to provide an overview of the bioprocesses used for the removal of H2S from biogas. The ability of aerobic and anoxic bioreactors (biotrickling filters, bioscrubbers, and a combination of chemical scrubbers and bioreactors to perform the degradation of H2S is considered. For each operating mode (aerobic and anoxic, the bioprocesses are presented, the operating conditions affecting performance are summarized, the state of the art of research studies is described and commercial applications are given. At laboratory-scale, whatever their operating mode, biological processes are effective for biogas cleaning and provide the same performance. The clogging of the packed bed due to the deposit of elemental sulfur S0 and biomass accumulation clearly represents the main drawback of bioprocesses. Although elimination capacities (EC determined at laboratory-scale can be very high, EC should not be higher than 90 g m-3 h-1 at industrial-scale in order to limit clogging effects. For aerobic processes, the need to control the oxygen mass transfer accurately remains a key issue for their development at full-scale. As a result, the aerobic processes alone are probably not the most suitable bioprocesses for the treatment of biogas highly loaded with H2S. For anaerobic bioprocesses using nitrate as an electron acceptor, the scale-up of the laboratory process to a full-size plant remains a challenge. However, the use of wastewater from treatment plants, which constitutes a cheap source of nitrates, represents an interesting opportunity for the development of innovative bioprocesses enabling the simultaneous removal of H2S and nitrates.

  10. Integration of biogas in municipal energy planning and supply

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nedergaard, N.; Oertenblad, H. [Herning Municipal Utilities, Herning (Denmark)

    1997-08-01

    The first biogas plants in Denmark were based on local initiatives and a great deal of idealism. The break through with technically well functioning plants came at the end of the 80`ies. The plants were based on animal manure, and the development came together with the growing environmental demands and the legislation concerning storage capacity and distribution of the manure. This contributed to an increasing interest in joint biogas plants, mainly from the agricultural sector, but also from the industry. Today Denmark has 19 biogas plants in operation, all based on manure co-digested with wastes from the food industry, and 15 farm-scale plants. Only three of the joint plants are owned by a municipality, one plant in Aarhus and two in Herning. (au)

  11. ENERGY SLUDGE PROCESSING IN A SEPARATE WASTEWATER TREATMENT PLANT DIGESTER POMORZANY IN SZCZECIN

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anna Iżewska

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available Pomorzany Sewage Treatment Plant in Szczecin ensures the required parameters of treated sewage. However, due to higher efficiency of sewage treatment, more sludge is produced after the treatment process. In the examined sludge treatment plant, primary sludge is gravitationally thickened to the content of about 5% of dry matter, and the excessive is thickened in mechanical compactors up to 6% of dry matter. Settlements preliminary and excessive after compaction is discharged to the sludge tank where a pump is forced into two closed digesters. Each digester has the capacity of 5069 m3. At a temperature of about 37 °C a mesophilic digestion is performed. Biogas, that is produced in the chamber, is stored in two-coat tanks with the capacity of 1500 m3 each and after desulphurization with the biosulfex method (which results with obtaining elemental sulphur it is used as fuel in cogeneration units. The aim of this study was to determine amount of energy given by sewage sludge in the form of heat during the process of methane digestion (primary and excessive. These amounts were determined on the basis of chemical energy balance of sewage carried into and out of Separate Sludge Digesters and produced biogas within 24h. The study determined that the percentage value of average chemical energy amount turned into heat and discharged with produced methane in relation to chemical energy of sewage carried into the first digester in Pomorzany Treatment Plant in Szczecin was in the range of 47.86 ± 9.73% for a confidence level of 0.95. On average 80.86 ± 33.65% was emitted with methane and 19.14 ± 33.65% of energy was changed into heat.

  12. Combustion of Biogas Released from Palm Oil Mill Effluent and the Effects of Hydrogen Enrichment on the Characteristics of the Biogas Flame

    OpenAIRE

    Seyed Ehsan Hosseini; Ghobad Bagheri; Mostafa Khaleghi; Mazlan Abdul Wahid

    2015-01-01

    Biogas released from palm oil mill effluent (POME) could be a source of air pollution, which has illustrated negative effects on the global warming. To protect the environment from toxic emissions and use the energy of POME biogas, POME is conducted to the closed digestion systems and released biogas is captured. Since POME biogas upgrading is a complicated process, it is not economical and thus new combustion techniques should be examined. In this paper, POME biogas (40% CO2 and 60% CH4) has...

  13. Efficiency and biotechnological aspects of biogas production from microalgal substrates.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Klassen, Viktor; Blifernez-Klassen, Olga; Wobbe, Lutz; Schlüter, Andreas; Kruse, Olaf; Mussgnug, Jan H

    2016-09-20

    Photosynthetic organisms like plants and algae can harvest, convert, and store solar energy and thus represent readily available sources for renewable biofuels production on a domestic or industrial scale. Anaerobic digestion (AD) of the organic biomass yields biogas, containing methane and carbon dioxide as major constituents. Combustion of the biogas or purification of the energy-rich methane fraction can be applied to provide electricity or fuel. AD procedures have been applied for several decades with organic waste, animal products, or higher plants and more recently, utilization of photosynthetic algae as substrates have gained considerable research interest. To provide an overview of recent research efforts made to characterize the AD process of microalgal biomass, we present extended summaries of experimentally determined biochemical methane potentials (BMP), biomass pretreatment options and digestion strategies in this article. We conclude that cultivation options, biomass composition and time of harvesting, application of biomass pretreatment strategies, and parameters of the digestion process are all important factors, which can significantly affect the AD process efficiency. The transition from batch to continuous microalgal biomass digestion trials, accompanied by state-of-the-art analytical techniques, is now in demand to refine the assessments of the overall process feasibility.

  14. Nonferrous Metal Processing Plants - Direct Download

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Geological Survey, Department of the Interior — This map layer includes nonferrous metal processing plants in the United States. The data represent commodities covered by the Minerals Information Team (MIT) of the...

  15. Ferrous Metal Processing Plants - Direct Download

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Geological Survey, Department of the Interior — This map layer includes ferrous metal processing plants in the United States. The data represent commodities covered by the Minerals Information Team (MIT) of the...

  16. Effect of processing plant on pork quality.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hambrecht, E; Eissen, J J; Verstegen, M W A

    2003-06-01

    The impact of processing plant on pork quality was studied by assessing pork quality in three commercial plants (A, B, C). Plants differed in the layout of the races, stunning systems (A and B: electrical, C: CO(2) stunning) and chilling systems (A: rapid chilling, B and C: conventional). Factors not related to the processing plants (e.g. genetic background of animals, transport, lairage) were standardized. In total, nine batches of about 150 pigs each were processed. Each batch was purchased at a commercial farm and randomly divided into three groups for delivery to the three processing plants. Meat quality was evaluated by measuring early post-mortem muscle pH and temperature as well as ultimate pH, meat colour (Minolta Chroma Meter and Japanese colour scale), filter paper score (FPS), electrical conductivity (EC) and drip loss. Plant C produced an inferior quality compared to plants A and B: meat was paler (C: 2.8 vs. A: 2.9 and B: 3.0 on the Japanese colour scale) and had higher drip losses (C: 5.2 vs. A: 4.8 and B: 4.9%). Meat colour hardly differed between plants A and B but waterholding properties were best at plant A as indicated by FPS (A: 2.4 vs. B: 2.8 vs. C: 3.3) and EC (A: 5.4 vs. B: 6.4 vs. C: 7.4 mS). It is concluded that processing plant may influence meat quality. Correlations between early post-mortem measurements and meat quality traits were low. Nevertheless, high carcass temperatures and low pH values early post-mortem were shown to lead to inferior meat quality.

  17. GlidArc-assisted production of synthesis gas from biogas

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Czernichowski, A.; Czernichowski, M.; Wesolowska, K. [Etudes Chimiques et Physiques, La Ferte Saint Aubin (France)

    2003-07-01

    This paper elaborates on the use of a biogas reformer process based on the direct use of high-voltage discharges (also called GlidArc) which strike in the flow of renewable feedstock without requiring prior gas separation or purification. The paper describes the partial conversion of a poor biogas into hydrogen and carbon monoxide (syngas). The biogas contained only 35 to 50 volume per cent of methane. The reformer accepts any level of impurities. All the energy and catalytic assistance for endothermic process of dry reforming of methane plus carbon dioxide into hydrogen and carbon monoxide is provided by the discharges. A 1.4-litre reactor operating at atmospheric pressure was used to conduct the tests with simulated biogas, at up to 0.6 kilowatt. This input proved sufficient to process a flow of a poor biogas carrying up to 7 kilowatts of thermal power. 13 refs., 2 tabs., 3 figs.

  18. Analysis of bacterial communities and bacterial pathogens in a biogas plant by the combination of ethidium monoazide, PCR and Ion Torrent sequencing

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Luo, Gang; Angelidaki, Irini

    2014-01-01

    composition and bacterial pathogens were also studied. Microbial analysis was made by Ion Torrent sequencing of the PCR amplicons from ethidium monoazide treated samples, and ethidium monoazide was used to cleave DNA from dead cells and exclude it from PCR amplification. Both similarity and taxonomic analysis...... showed that the bacterial community composition in the influent was changed after anaerobic digestion. Firmicutes were dominant in all the samples, while Proteobacteria decreased in the biogas reactor compared with the influent. Variations of bacterial community composition in the biogas reactor...

  19. Classification of Commercial Biogas Digester and Comparison with Traditional Process%商品化沼气池分类及与传统沼气池比较分析

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    冉毅; 彭德全; 王超; 丁自立; 李晋梅; 陈子爱; 席江; 贺莉; 蒋鸿涛

    2012-01-01

    Commercial biogas digester is classified into five categories according to the material properties, marketing, and combining with the characteristics of rural household biogas construction, i. e. glass liber reinforced plastic, hard plastic, flexible plastic (FBR) , glass fiber reinforced cement (GRC) and steel tank. Advantages and disadvantages were expatiated in this paper. The analysis results showed that traditional process biogas digester is the main process in our country. Commercial biogas digester is of important supplement. Glass fiber reinforced plastic type is relatively appropriate material for the biogas digester, followed by PVC (polyvinyl chloride) , PP (polypropylene) and PE (polyethylene). Commercial biogas digester has advantage of better air tightness, short construction period. And construction quality, standard and the cost are easier to control. Therefore, commercial biogas digester could be developed suiting ones measures to local conditions.%文章根据商品化沼气池材料特性与市场行情,结合农村户用沼气池建设特点,将户用商品化沼气池划分为:玻璃钢,塑料硬体,塑料软体(FBR),增强水泥(GRC)和钢制5大类沼气池,分别阐述其优势和劣势,并将玻璃钢沼气池与传统沼气池比较分析得出:传统水泥沼气池是我国沼气建设的主力军,商品化沼气池可作为重要补充;玻璃钢是相对适宜的建池材料,其次是PVC(聚氯乙烯),PP(聚丙烯)和PE(聚乙烯)塑料;商品化沼气池具有气密性好、建设周期短、建池成本较低,建设质量、标准、成本易于统一控制等优势,但塑料材料抗老化性能有待提高,应因地制宜、循序渐进地推广.

  20. 沼液在西兰花·冰糖橙·香蕉种植中的应用效果%Application Effect of Biogas Slurry in Planting of Broccoli, Sweet Orange and Banana

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    李杰男; 王德林; 代媛; 史珊; 陈学礼; 徐锐

    2016-01-01

    [目的]研究沼液在农业生产中的应用效果。[方法]以复合肥和普通农家肥为对照,设不同浓度的沼液处理。采用不同浓度沼液对西兰花、冰糖橙、香蕉3种作物进行追肥,通过田间试验,分别测定西兰花、冰糖橙、香蕉的产量、Vc含量和含糖量。[结果]用沼液进行追肥,可以增加西兰花、香蕉、冰糖橙的产量和Vc含量,增产率最高分别达111.90%、100.80%、132.40%,Vc含量的增加率最高分别达45.33%、33.13%、14.13%;香蕉和冰糖橙的还原糖含量增加率最高分别达407.56%和18.07%;沼液对3种作物的含糖量也有一定的影响,其中西兰花含糖量随沼液浓度的增大而减少,还原糖含量最大降幅达10.15%,总糖含量最大降幅达37.13%。[结论]综合分析,沼液在作物种植中有较大的推广应用价值。%Objective] To study the application effect of biogas slurry in agricultural production .[ Method] Compound fertilizer and common farm manure were compared with different concentrations of biogas slurry.Different concentrations of biogas slurry were applied in planting of broccoli, sweet orange and banana, and the yield, vitamin C and sugar content of the three kinds of crops were analyzed through field test. [Result] The yield and vitamin C content of broccoli, sweet orange and banana were increased by the application of biogas slurry, and the highest increasing rate of the yield was up to 111.9%, 100.8%, and 132.4% respectively, while the highest increasing rate of vitamin C content reached 45.33%, 33.13%, and 14.13% respectively.The reducing sugar content of banana and sweet orange were also improved, and the increasing rate was up to 407.56% and 18.07% respectively.Sugar content of the three kinds of crops was also influenced by the ap-plication of biogas slurry.The sugar content of broccoli decreased with the increase of biogas slurry concentration, and the