WorldWideScience

Sample records for biogas micro turbine

  1. Performance analysis of a biogas-fueled micro gas turbine using a validated thermodynamic model

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nikpey Somehsaraei, Homam; Mansouri Majoumerd, Mohammad; Breuhaus, Peter; Assadi, Mohsen

    2014-01-01

    This study focuses on an investigation of the fuel flexibility and performance analysis of micro gas turbines (MGTs) in biogas application. For this purpose, a steady state thermodynamic model of an MGT was developed and validated by experimental data obtained from a 100 kW MGT test rig. Quite good agreement was obtained between the measurements and the simulation results. A wide range of biogas compositions with varying methane content was simulated for this study. Necessary minor modifications to fuel valves and compressor were assumed to allow engine operation with the simulated biogas composition. The effects of biogas on the engine performance were fully analyzed at various operational conditions by changing the power demand and also the ambient temperature. Compared to the natural gas fueled case, the mass flow and pressure ratio in the MGT decreased, which resulted in a slight reduction of the surge margin. This effect became more severe, however, at low power loads and/or low ambient temperatures. For all operational conditions, the electrical efficiency decreased with decreasing methane content of the biogas. The results also indicated the negative effect of the biogas on the heat recovery in the recuperator, which lowered as the methane content of the fuel decreased. - Highlights: •The MGT performance and fuel flexibility were investigated in biogas application. •A thermodynamic model of the MGT was developed and validated with experimental data. •Changes in performance and operating conditions of components were studied. •The results showed the viability of the MGT for use in biogas application

  2. Biogas and sewage gas in Stirling engines and micro gas turbines. Results of a field study; Bio- und Klaergas in Stirlingmotoren und Mikrogasturbinen. Ergebnisse einer Feldstudie

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Thomas, Bernd; Wyndorps, Agnes [Hochschule Reutlingen (Germany); Bekker, Marina; Oechsner, Hans [Hohenheim Univ., Landesanstalt fuer Agrartechnik und Bioenergie, Stuttgart (Germany); Kelm, Tobias [Zentrum fuer Sonnenenergie- und Wasserstoff-Forschung, Stuttgart (Germany)

    2010-07-01

    In decentral heat and power generation from biogas, sewage gas, landfill gas and methane in systems with a capacity below 100 kWe, Stirling engines and micro gas turbines may have advantages over gas engines, gasoline engines, and diesel engines. This was proved in a research project in which the operation of a Stirling engine with sewage gas and a micro gas turbine with biogas were investigated. (orig.)

  3. Energetic improvement with micro turbines of biogas generated in Rubis WWTP; Aprovechamiento energetico con microturbinas del biogas generado en la EDAR de Rubi

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Moragas, L.; Robuste, J.; Vicente, M.; Pozo, A.; Blasco, M.

    2009-07-01

    The WWTP of Rubi (Barcelona, Spain) treats 22.950 m{sup 3}/day by activated sludge system, with mesophilic anaerobic digestion of primary and secondary sludges with a capacity of 3.500 m{sup 3}. Generated biogas is applied by means of indirect heating to digesters at 37 degree centigrade. To improve the energetic performance 2 micro turbines of 65 kW each were installed, with a 29% of unitary electric performance. After 5 months a third turbine was installed to generate more energy in peak hours. this solutions has shown to be very flexible, with reasonable technology and costs. (Author)

  4. GAS TURBINE ENGINES CONSUMING BIOGAS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Е. Ясиніцький

    2011-04-01

    Full Text Available A problem of implementation of biofuel for power plants of big capacity was considered in thisarticle. Up to date in the world practice a wide implementation of biogas plants of low and medialcapacity are integrated. It is explained by the big amount of enterprises in which relatively smallvolumes of organic sediment excrete in the process of its activity. An emphasis of article is on thatenterprises, which have big volumes of sediments for utilizing of which module system of medialcapacity biogas plants are non-effective. The possibility of using biogas and biomethane as a fuelfor gas turbine engine is described. The basic problems of this technology and ways of its solutionsare indicated. Approximate profitability of biogas due to example of compressor station locatednearby poultry factory was determined also. Such factors as process characteristics of engine withcapacity of 5 MW, approximate commercial price for natural gas and equipment costs due toofficial sources of “Zorg Ukraine” company was taken into consideration. The necessity forproviding researches on influence of biogas on the process characteristics of gas turbine engine andits reliability, constructing modern domestic purification system for biogas was shown.

  5. Thermodynamic Performance Analysis of a Biogas-Fuelled Micro-Gas Turbine with a Bottoming Organic Rankine Cycle for Sewage Sludge and Food Waste Treatment Plants

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sunhee Kim

    2017-02-01

    Full Text Available In the Republic of Korea, efficient biogas-fuelled power systems are needed to use the excess biogas that is currently burned due to a lack of suitable power technology. We examined the performance of a biogas-fuelled micro-gas turbine (MGT system and a bottoming organic Rankine cycle (ORC. The MGT provides robust operation with low-grade biogas, and the exhaust can be used for heating the biodigester. Similarly, the bottoming ORC generates additional power output with the exhaust gas. We selected a 1000-kW MGT for four co-digestion plants with 28,000-m3 capacity. A 150-kW ORC system was selected for the MGT exhaust gas. We analysed the effects of the system size, methane concentration, and ORC operating conditions. Based on the system performance, we analysed the annual performance of the MGT with a combined heat and power (CHP system, bottoming ORC, or both a bottoming ORC and CHP system. The annual net power outputs for each system were 7.4, 8.5, and 9.0 MWh per year, respectively.

  6. Micro-turbines

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tashevski, Done

    2003-01-01

    In this paper a principle of micro-turbines operation, type of micro-turbines and their characteristics is presented. It is shown their usage in cogeneration and three generation application with the characteristics, the influence of more factors on micro-turbines operation as well as the possibility for application in Macedonia. The paper is result of the author's participation in the training program 'Micro-turbine technology' in Florida, USA. The characteristics of different types micro-turbines by several world producers are shown, with accent on US micro-turbines producers (Capstone, Elliott). By using the gathered Author's knowledge, contacts and the previous knowledge, conclusions and recommendations for implementation of micro-turbines in Macedonia are given. (Author)

  7. Micro turbines on gas

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kotevski, Darko

    2003-01-01

    Microturbines are small gas turbine engines that drive a generator with sizes ranging from 30-350 kW. Although similar in function to bigger gas turbines, their simple radial flow turbine and high-speed generator offer better performance, greater reliability, longer service intervals, reduced maintenance lower emission and lower noise. Microturbines can generate power continuously and very economically to reduce electricity costs or they can be operated selectively for peak shaving. These benefits are further enhanced by the economics of using the microturbine's waste heat for hot water needs or other heating applications. That is why on-site microturbine power is widely used for independent production of electricity and heat in industrial and commercial facilities, hotels, hospitals, office buildings, residential buildings etc. (Original)

  8. Experimental study of biogas combustion using a gas turbine configuration

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lafay, Y.; Taupin, B.; Martins, G.; Cabot, G.; Renou, B.; Boukhalfa, A. [CNRS UMR 6614, Universite et INSA de ROUEN, Site universitaire du Madrillet, Saint Etienne du Rouvray (France)

    2007-08-15

    The aim of the present work is to compare stability combustion domains, flame structures and dynamics between CH{sub 4}/air flames and a biogas/air flames (issued from waste methanisation) in a lean gas turbine premixed combustion conditions. Velocity profiles are obtained by Laser Doppler Anemometry measurements. CH* chemiluminescence measurements and temporal acquisition of chamber pressure are performed in order to describe flame structure and instabilities. Changes in flame structure and dynamics when fuel composition is varying are found to strongly depend on laminar flame speed. No clear correlation between the unstable flame and the reaction zone penetration in the corner recirculation can be found. (orig.)

  9. Thermodynamic assessment of integrated biogas-based micro-power generation system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hosseini, Seyed Ehsan; Barzegaravval, Hasan; Wahid, Mazlan Abdul; Ganjehkaviri, Abdolsaeid; Sies, Mohsin Mohd

    2016-01-01

    Highlights: • A thermodynamic modelling of an integrated biogas-based micro-power generation system is reported. • The impact of design parameters on the thermodynamic performance of the system is evaluated. • High turbine inlet temperatures lead the system to the higher energy and exergy efficiency and higher power generation. • Enhancement of GT isentropic efficiency incurs negative effects on the performance of air preheater and heat exchanger. • The rate of power generation increases by the enhancement of steam turbine pressure in ORC. - Abstract: In this paper, a thermodynamic modelling of an integrated biogas (60%CH_4 + 40%CO_2) micro-power generation system for electricity generation is reported. This system involves a gas turbine cycle and organic Rankine cycle (ORC) where the wasted heat of gas turbine cycle is recovered by closed ORC. The net output power of the micro-power generation system is fixed at 1.4 MW includes 1 MW power generated by GT and 0.4 MW by ORC. Energy and exergy assessments and related parametric studies are carried out, and parameters that influence on energy and exergy efficiency are evaluated. The performance of the system with respect to variation of design parameters such as combustion air inlet temperature, turbine inlet temperature, compressor pressure ratio, gas turbine isentropic efficiency and compressor isentropic efficiency (from the top cycle) and steam turbine inlet pressure, and condenser pressure (from bottoming cycle) is evaluated. The results reveal that by the increase of gas turbine isentropic efficiency, the outlet temperature of gas turbine decreases which incurs negative impacts on the performance of air preheater and heat exchanger, however the energy and exergy efficiency increases in the whole system. By the increase of air compressor pressure ratio, the energy and exergy of the combined cycle decreases. The exergy efficiency of ORC alters by the variation of gas turbine parameters which can be

  10. Advanced Micro Turbine System (AMTS) -C200 Micro Turbine -Ultra-Low Emissions Micro Turbine

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Capstone Turbine Corporation

    2007-12-31

    In September 2000 Capstone Turbine Corporation commenced work on a US Department of Energy contract to develop and improve advanced microturbines for power generation with high electrical efficiency and reduced pollutants. The Advanced MicroTurbine System (AMTS) program focused on: (1) The development and implementation of technology for a 200 kWe scale high efficiency microturbine system (2) The development and implementation of a 65 kWe microturbine which meets California Air Resources Board (CARB) emissions standards effective in 2007. Both of these objectives were achieved in the course of the AMTS program. At its conclusion prototype C200 Microturbines had been designed, assembled and successfully completed field demonstration. C65 Microturbines operating on natural, digester and landfill gas were also developed and successfully tested to demonstrate compliance with CARB 2007 Fossil Fuel Emissions Standards for NOx, CO and VOC emissions. The C65 Microturbine subsequently received approval from CARB under Executive Order DG-018 and was approved for sale in California. The United Technologies Research Center worked in parallel to successfully execute a RD&D program to demonstrate the viability of a low emissions AMS which integrated a high-performing microturbine with Organic Rankine Cycle systems. These results are documented in AMS Final Report DOE/CH/11060-1 dated March 26, 2007.

  11. Effects of Fuel and Nozzle Characteristics on Micro Gas Turbine System: A Review

    Science.gov (United States)

    Akasha Hashim, Muhammad; Khalid, Amir; Salleh, Hamidon; Sunar, Norshuhaila Mohamed

    2017-08-01

    For many decades, gas turbines have been used widely in the internal combustion engine industry. Due to the deficiency of fossil fuel and the concern of global warming, the used of bio-gas have been recognized as one of most clean fuels in the application of engine to improve performance of lean combustion and minimize the production of NOX and PM. This review paper is to understand the combustion performance using dual-fuel nozzle for a micro gas turbine that was basically designed as a natural gas fuelled engine, the nozzle characteristics of the micro gas turbine has been modelled and the effect of multi-fuel used were investigated. The used of biogas (hydrogen) as substitute for liquid fuel (methane) at constant fuel injection velocity, the flame temperature is increased, but the fuel low rate reduced. Applying the blended fuel at constant fuel rate will increased the flame temperature as the hydrogen percentages increased. Micro gas turbines which shows the uniformity of the flow distribution that can be improved without the increase of the pressure drop by applying the variable nozzle diameters into the fuel supply nozzle design. It also identifies the combustion efficiency, better fuel mixing in combustion chamber using duel fuel nozzle with the largest potential for the future. This paper can also be used as a reference source that summarizes the research and development activities on micro gas turbines.

  12. The micro turbine: the MIT example; La micro turbine: l'exemple du MIT

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ribaud, Y. [Office National d' Etudes et de Recherches Aerospatiales (ONERA-DEFA), 92 - Chatillon (France)

    2001-10-01

    The micro turbine study began a few years ago at the MIT, with the participation of specialists from different fields. The purpose is the development of a MEMS (micro electro mechanical systems) based, 1 cm in diameter, micro gas turbine. Potential applications are devoted to micro drone propulsion, electric power generation for portable power sources in order to replace heavy Lithium batteries, satellite motorization, the surface distributed power for boundary suction on plane wings. The manufacturing constraints at such small scales lead to 2-D extruded shapes. The physical constraints stem from viscous effects and from limitations given by 2-D geometry. The time scales are generally shorter than for conventional machines. Otherwise the material properties are better at such length scales. Transposition from conventional turbomachinery laws is no more applicable and new design methods must be established. The present paper highlights the project progress and the technology breakthroughs. (author)

  13. biogas

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    2015-01-01

    Functions for working with biogas data. Both low- and high-level functions are included for carrying out common tasks for analysis of biogas and related data. Molar mass and calculated oxygen demand (COD') can be determined from a chemical formula. Measured gas volume can be corrected for water...... vapor and to (possibly user-defined) standard temperature and pressure. Gas composition, cumulative production, or other variables can be interpolated to a specified time. Cumulative biogas and methane production (and rates) can be calculated using volumetric, manometric, or gravimetric methods for any...... be summarized in several different ways (e.g., omitting normalization) using the same function. Lastly, biogas and methane production can be predicted from substrate composition and additional, optional data....

  14. Bottoming micro-Rankine cycles for micro-gas turbines

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Invernizzi, Costante; Iora, Paolo; Silva, Paolo

    2007-01-01

    This paper investigates the possibility of enhancing the performances of micro-gas turbines through the addition of a bottoming organic Rankine cycle which recovers the thermal power of the exhaust gases typically available in the range of 250-300 o C. The ORC cycles are particularly suitable for the recovery of heat from sources at variable temperatures, and for the generation of medium to small electric power. With reference to a micro-gas turbine with a size of about 100 kWe, a combined configuration could increase the net electric power by about 1/3, yielding an increase of the electrical efficiency of up to 40%. A specific analysis of the characteristics of different classes of working fluids is carried out in order to define a procedure to select the most appropriate fluid, capable of satisfying both environmental (ozone depletion potential, global warming potential) and technical (flammability, toxicity, fluid critical temperature and molecular complexity) concerns. Afterwards, a thermodynamic analysis is performed to ascertain the most favourable cycle thermodynamic conditions, from the point of view of heat recovery. Furthermore, a preliminary design of the ORC turbine (number of stages, outer diameter and rotational speed) is carried out

  15. Power Generation from Sewage by a Micro-Hydraulic Turbine

    OpenAIRE

    Tomomi Uchiyama; Tomoko Okayama; Yukio Ide

    2016-01-01

    This study is concerned with the development of a micro-hydraulic turbine for power generation installed in sewer pipes. The runner has a circular hollow around the central (rotating) axis so that solid materials included in water can be easily flow through the runner without blocking the turbine. The laboratory experiments are also conducted. The hollow is very effective to make polyester fibers pass through the turbine. The guide vane is useful to heighten the turbine performance. But it is...

  16. Preliminary study of Low-Cost Micro Gas Turbine

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fikri, M.; Ridzuan, M.; Salleh, Hamidon

    2016-11-01

    The electricity consumption nowadays has increased due to the increasing development of portable electronic devices. The development of low cost micro gas turbine engine, which is designed for the purposes of new electrical generation Micro turbines are a relatively new distributed generation technology being used for stationary energy generation applications. They are a type of combustion turbine that produces both heat and electricity on a relatively small scaled.. This research are focusing of developing a low-cost micro gas turbine engine based on automotive turbocharger and to evaluation the performance of the developed micro gas turbine. The test rig engine basically was constructed using a Nissan 45V3 automotive turbocharger, containing compressor and turbine assemblies on a common shaft. The operating performance of developed micro gas turbine was analyzed experimentally with the increment of 5000 RPM on the compressor speed. The speed of the compressor was limited at 70000 RPM and only 1000 degree Celsius at maximum were allowed to operate the system in order to avoid any failure on the turbocharger bearing and the other components. Performance parameters such as inlet temperature, compressor temperature, exhaust gas temperature, and fuel and air flow rates were measured. The data was collected electronically by 74972A data acquisition and evaluated manually by calculation. From the independent test shows the result of the system, The speed of the LP turbine can be reached up to 35000 RPM and produced 18.5kw of mechanical power.

  17. Distributed and micro-generation from biogas and agricultural application of sewage sludge: Comparative environmental performance analysis using life cycle approaches

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sadhukhan, Jhuma

    2014-01-01

    Highlights: • 180,000 MJ biogas from 15.87 t sewage sludge supply 1 household electricity per year. • From the highest to the lowest avoided impacts: PEM FC 2 eq./MJ compared to natural gas. • 1 m 3 biogas production from ∼3.2 t sewage sludge AD can save 0.92 m 3 natural gas. • Digested matter causes eutrophication and toxicity potentials. - Abstract: The Feed-In-Tariff scheme in the UK has generated attractive economics in the investment for anaerobic digestion (AD) to convert sewage sludge into biogas and digested sludge for energy and agricultural applications, respectively. The biogas is a source of biomethane to replace natural gas in the gas grid system. Biogas can be utilised to generate combined heat and power (CHP) on-site, at household micro and distributed or community scales. These biogas CHP generation options can replace the equivalent natural gas based CHP generation options. Digested sludge can be transformed into fertiliser for agricultural application replacing inorganic N:P:K fertiliser. Biogas and digested matter yields are inter-dependent: when one increases, the other decreases. Hence, these various options need to be assessed for avoided life cycle impact potentials, to understand where greatest savings lie and in order to rank these options for informed decision making by water industries. To fill a gap in the information available to industry dealing with wastewater, the avoided emissions by various AD based technologies, in primary impact potentials that make a difference between various systems, have been provided in this paper. 1 m 3 biogas can save 0.92 m 3 natural gas. An average UK household (with a demand of 2 kWe) requires 180,000 MJ or 5000 Nm 3 or 4.76 t biogas per year, from 15.87 t sewage sludge processed through AD. The proton exchange membrane fuel cell (PEM FC) is suitable for building micro-generations; micro gas turbine (Micro GT), solid oxide fuel cell (SOFC) and SOFC-GT hybrid are suitable for distributed

  18. An Overview of Power Topologies for Micro-hydro Turbines

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nababan, Sabar; Muljadi, E.; Blaabjerg, Frede

    2012-01-01

    This paper is an overview of different power topologies of micro-hydro turbines. The size of micro-hydro turbine is typically under 100kW. Conventional topologies of micro-hydro power are stand-alone operation used in rural electrical network in developing countries. Recently, many of micro-hydro...... power generations are connected to the distribution network through power electronics (PE). This turbines are operated in variable frequency operation to improve efficiency of micro-hydro power generation, improve the power quality, and ride through capability of the generation. In this paper our...... discussion is limited to the distributed generation. Like many other renewable energy sources, the objectives of micro-hydro power generation are to reduce the use of fossil fuel, to improve the reliability of the distribution system (grid), and to reduce the transmission losses. The overview described...

  19. Biogas

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cohen, A [CSM Suiker BV, Amsterdam (Netherlands); Van Velsen, A F.M.

    1985-03-01

    Process and processing of anaerobic digestion are described. Methane bacteria are only the last link in a long step by step degradation of organic wastes by a large number of microorganisms. In this article the following processes get special attention: septic tank process, used for isolated residential buildings; manure digestion systems; anaerobic sludge processes. A Dutch development is the upflow anaerobic sludge blanket reactor (UASB). Newest process is the fluid bed process, which enables a very fast sedimentation and short residence time. The sensibility for toxic compounds in waste water remains a problem in all biogas processes. (A.V.)

  20. Micro-tensile strength of a welded turbine disc superalloy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Oluwasegun, K.M.; Cooper, C.; Chiu, Y.L.; Jones, I.P. [School of Metallurgy and Materials, University of Birmingham, B15 2TT (United Kingdom); Li, H.Y., E-mail: h.y.li.1@bham.ac.uk [School of Metallurgy and Materials, University of Birmingham, B15 2TT (United Kingdom); Baxter, G. [Rolls-Royce plc., P.O. Box 31, Derby DE24 8BJ (United Kingdom)

    2014-02-24

    A micro-tensile testing system coupled with focussed ion beam (FIB) machining was used to characterise the micro-mechanical properties of the weld from a turbine disc alloy. The strength variations between the weld and the base alloy are rationalised via the microstructure obtained.

  1. Biogas utilization

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Moser, M.A. [Resource Conservation Management, Inc., Berkeley, CA (United States)

    1996-01-01

    Options for successfully using biogas depend on project scale. Almost all biogas from anaerobic digesters must first go through a gas handling system that pressurizes, meters, and filters the biogas. Additional treatment, including hydrogen sulfide-mercaptan scrubbing, gas drying, and carbon dioxide removal may be necessary for specialized uses, but these are complex and expensive processes. Thus, they can be justified only for large-scale projects that require high-quality biogas. Small-scale projects (less than 65 cfm) generally use biogas (as produced) as a boiler fuel or for fueling internal combustion engine-generators to produce electricity. If engines or boilers are selected properly, there should be no need to remove hydrogen sulfide. Small-scale combustion turbines, steam turbines, and fuel cells are not used because of their technical complexity and high capital cost. Biogas cleanup to pipeline or transportation fuel specifications is very costly, and energy economics preclude this level of treatment.

  2. Development of New Micro Hydropower Turbine

    OpenAIRE

    Dousith, Phommachanh; Kurokawa, Junichi; Matsui, Jun; Choi, Young-Do

    2005-01-01

    There is a huge of available hydropower potential in the water supply system (WSS) that has been abandoned.Each time when we use a water faucet, the power of 10 to 80 watts is dissipated.In fact, this dissipated energy can be converted to useful energy by hydraulic turbine. Presently, there is not suitable turbine to use in WSS. Therefore, the new type turbine is needed to explore. In this study, Positive Displacement Turbine (PDT) is proposed. The main objective of this study is to develop n...

  3. The possibility of functioning micro-scale biogas plant in selected farm

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Czekała Wojciech

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available Renewable energy sources (RES become more and more popular. In Poland, biomass has the highest energy potential among all RES. Methane fermentation is one of possible ways to use it. The aim of the study was to perform energy and economic calculations for the biogas plant installation project in an existing farm situated in the Wielkopolska voivodeship. Because of the small area of the farm and the type of production, the calculations were carried out for micro-installation biogas plants. During the preparation of the project the production potential of the substrates was determined, allowing for further analyses. It was calculated that the electrical power of the designed biogas plant was 8.10 kW, with a total annual production of biogas at 29 471 m3. The obtained amount allows to generate in the cogeneration system 66 450 kWh of electricity and 71 190 kWh of heat energy. Some of the energy produced can be used on the farm and its surplus sold to the grid, which will allow for financial and environmental benefits.

  4. Thermal performance of a micro-combustor for micro-gas turbine system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cao, H.L.; Xu, J.L.

    2007-01-01

    Premixed combustion of hydrogen gas and air was performed in a stainless steel based micro-annular combustor for a micro-gas turbine system. Micro-scale combustion has proved to be stable in the micro-combustor with a gap of 2 mm. The operating range of the micro-combustor was measured, and the maximum excess air ratio is up to 4.5. The distribution of the outer wall temperature and the temperature of exhaust gas of the micro-combustor with excess air ratio were obtained, and the wall temperature of the micro-combustor reaches its maximum value at the excess air ratio of 0.9 instead of 1 (stoichiometric ratio). The heat loss of the micro-combustor to the environment was calculated and even exceeds 70% of the total thermal power computed from the consumed hydrogen mass flow rate. Moreover, radiant heat transfer covers a large fraction of the total heat loss. Measures used to reduce the heat loss were proposed to improve the thermal performance of the micro-combustor. The optimal operating status of the micro-combustor and micro-gas turbine is analyzed and proposed by analyzing the relationship of the temperature of the exhaust gas of the micro-combustor with thermal power and excess air ratio. The investigation of the thermal performance of the micro-combustor is helpful to design an improved micro-combustor

  5. Biomass fuelled indirect fired micro turbine

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pritchard, D.

    2005-07-01

    This report summarises the findings of a project to further develop and improve a system based on the Bowman TG50 50kWe turbine and a C3(S) combustor with a high temperature heat exchanger for the production of electricity from biomass. Details are given of the specific aims of the project, the manufacture of a new larger biomass combustor, the development of startup and shutdown procedures, waste heat recuperation, adaption of a PC-based mathematical model, and capital equipment costs. The significant levels of carbon emission savings and the commercial prospects of the biomass generator gas turbine combined heat and power (CHP) system are considered, and recommendations are presented.

  6. Radar micro-Doppler of wind turbines : Simulation and analysis using rotating linear wire structures

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Krasnov, O.A.; Yarovoy, A.

    2015-01-01

    A simple electromagnetic model of wind-turbine's main structural elements as the linear wired structures is developed to simulate the temporal patterns of observed radar return Doppler spectra (micro-Doppler). Using the model, the micro-Doppler for different combinations of the turbines rotation

  7. The conversion of renewable biogas source into energy; A conversao da fonte renovavel biogas em energia

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Coelho, Suani Teixeira; Velazquez, Silvia Maria Stortini Gonzalez; Martins, Osvaldo Stella; Abreu, Fernando Castro de [Universidade de Sao Paulo (USP), SP (Brazil). Inst. de Eletrotecnica e Energia]|[Centro Nacional de Referencia em Biomassa (CENBIO), Sao Paulo, SP (Brazil)]. E-mails: suani@iee.usp.br; sgvelaz@iee.sup.br; omartins@iee.usp.br; fcabreu@iee.usp.br

    2006-07-01

    This article intend to present some considerations directed to electricity generation with small systems (micro turbine and conventional engines ), using biogas generated by sewage treatment process in SABESP (Basic Sanitation Company of Sao Paulo State), located at Barueri, Brazil. This project, pioneer in Latin America, is being accomplished together with BUN - Biomass Users Network of Brazil (proponent), in association with CENBIO - Biomass Reference National Center (executer), with patronage of FINEP / CT-ENERG (financial backer), by means of Convention No: 23.01.0653.00, regarding to ENERG-BIOG Project - Installation and Tests of an Electric Energy Generation Demonstration Unit from Biogas Sewage Treatment. The study is being done at Barueri Sewage Treatment Plant.This plant operate with anaerobic digestion process, which has as mainly products biogas (composed mainly by methane) and sludge. Part of the methane produced at the anaerobic process is burnt in a boiler being used to increase digesters temperature. The rest of the methane is burnt in flare to reduce the impacts caused by gases emissions. This article presents some technical, financial and environmental project results, related to the exploitation of sewer biogas for power generation, as well as bigger details about generation systems (biogas micro turbine), used in the facility. (author)

  8. Sewage biogas conversion into electricity; Conversao do biogas de tratamento de esgoto em eletricidade

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Coelho, Suani Teixeira; Velazquez, Silvia Maria Stortini Gonzalez; Martins, Osvaldo Stella; Abreu, Fernando Castro de [Universidade de Sao Paulo (CENBIO/IEE/USP), Sao Paulo, SP (Brazil). Inst. de Eletrotecnica e Energia. Centro Nacional de Referencia em Biomassa], e-mails: suani@iee.usp.br, sgvelaz@iee.usp.br, omartins@iee.usp.br, fcabreu@iee.usp.br

    2006-07-01

    This article intend to present some considerations directed to electricity generation with small systems (micro turbine and conventional engines ), using biogas generated by sewage treatment process in SABESP (Basic Sanitation Company of Sao Paulo State), located at Barueri, Brazil. This project, pioneer in Latin America, is being accomplished together with BUN - Biomass Users Network of Brazil (proponent), in association with CENBIO - Biomass Reference National Center (executer), with patronage of FINEP / CT-ENERG (financial backer), by means of Convention no: 23.01.0653.00, regarding to ENERG BIOG Project - 'Installation and Tests of an Electric Energy Generation Demonstration Unit from Biogas Sewage Treatment'. The study is being done at Barueri Sewage Treatment Plant. This plant operate with anaerobic digestion process, which has as mainly products biogas (composed mainly by methane) and sludge. Part of the methane produced at the anaerobic process is burnt in a boiler being used to increase digesters temperature. The rest of the methane is burnt in flare to reduce the impacts caused by gases emissions. This article presents some technical, financial and environmental project results, related to the exploitation of sewer biogas for power generation, as well as bigger details about generation systems (biogas micro turbine), used in the facility. (author)

  9. Performance analysis of a counter-rotating tubular type micro-turbine by experiment and CFD

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lee, N J; Choi, J W; Hwang, Y H; Kim, Y T; Lee, Y H

    2012-01-01

    Micro hydraulic turbines have a growing interest because of its small and simple structure, as well as a high possibility of using in micro and small hydropower applications. The differential pressure existing in city water pipelines can be used efficiently to generate electricity in a way similar to that of energy being generated through gravitational potential energy in dams. The pressure energy in the city pipelines is often wasted by using pressure reducing valves at the inlet of water cleaning centers. Instead of using the pressure reducing valves, a micro counter-rotating hydraulic turbine can be used to make use of the pressure energy. In the present paper, a counter-rotating tubular type micro-turbine is studied, with the front runner connected to the generator stator and the rear runner connected to the generator rotor. The performance of the turbine is investigated experimentally and numerically. A commercial ANSYS CFD code was used for numerical analysis.

  10. Development and performance measurement of micro-power pack using micro-gas turbine driven automotive alternators

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sim, Kyuho; Koo, Bonjin; Kim, Chang Ho; Kim, Tae Ho

    2013-01-01

    Highlights: ► We develop micro-power pack using automotive alternator and micro-gas turbine. ► We measure rotordynamic and power generation performance of micro-power pack. ► Micro-power pack shows dramatic increases in mass and volumetric power densities. ► Test results assure feasibility of micro-power pack for electric vehicles. -- Abstract: This paper presents the development of a micro-power pack using automotive alternators powered by a micro-gas turbine (MGT) to recharge battery packs, in particular for electric vehicles (EVs). The thermodynamic efficiency for the MGT with the power turbine is estimated from a simple Brayton cycle analysis. The rotordynamic and power generation performance of the MGT driven alternator was measured during a series of experiments under electrical no-loading and loading conditions, and with belt-pulley and flexible bellows couplings. The flexible coupling showed superior rotordynamic and power generation performance than the belt coupling due to the enhanced alignment of the alternator rotor and the reduced mechanical frictions. Furthermore, the micro-power pack showed dramatic increases in the mass and volumetric power densities by ∼4 times and ∼5 times, respectively, compared with those of a commercial diesel generator with similar power level. As a result, this paper assures the feasibility of the light-weight micro-power pack using a MGT and automotive alternators for EVs.

  11. Development of a micro-turbine plant to run on gasifier producer gas

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2004-07-01

    This report presents the results of a work programme to test a Capstone micro gas turbine using producer gas (1) in a test facility using synthetic producer gas at Advantca's research laboratories and (2) at the premises of Biomass Engineering Ltd where the micro gas turbine was coupled to an existing 80 kWe downdraft gasifier operating on clean wood and wood wastes. The initial tests at Advantica achieved successful operation of the Capstone micro gas turbine on 100% producer gas at a net electrical output of 5.5 kWe and with very low NOx emissions (<2 ppm). The micro turbine was then moved and recommissioned at a site belonging to Biomass Engineering where 350 hours of operation were achieved using producer gas and over 800 hours using natural gas. Problems were experienced during start-up due to limited access to control software and late delivery of the gas compressor for the micro turbine. Gas emissions and performance were deemed satisfactory. The report describes the test work at Advantica and at Biomass Engineering and discusses the technical and economic aspects of biomass gasification and micro turbine systems.

  12. Performance Improvement of a Micro Impulse Water Turbine Based on Orthogonal Array

    OpenAIRE

    Tang, Lingdi; Yuan, Shouqi; Tang, Yue

    2017-01-01

    The study on structural design and efficiency improvement of the micro impulse water turbine with the super-low specific speed has rarely been reported in literature. In this paper, a micro impulse water turbine was optimized on the base of the orthogonal array of L18(37) with six factors. The range analysis and variance analysis were conducted to present the significance ranking of factors and the optimal combinations of factors, aiming to improve the water turbine efficiency taken as the ex...

  13. Use of sewage treatment biogas for electric generation using an 30 kW (ISO); Uso do biogas de tratamento de esgoto, para geracao de energia eletrica, utilizando-se de uma microturbina de 30 kW (ISO)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Coelho, Suani T.; Velazquez, Silvia M.S.G.; Martins, Osvaldo S.; Costa, David F. [Centro Nacional de Referencia em Biomassa (CENBIO), Sao Paulo, SP (Brazil); Bacic, Antonio C.K. [Companhia de Saneamento Basico do Estado de Sao Paulo (SABESP), SP (Brazil)

    2004-07-01

    This paper intends to present some considerations directed to electricity generation with 30 kW (ISO) micro turbines, using biogas generated by sewage treatment process in SABESP (Basic Sanitation Company of Sao Paulo State), located at Barueri, Brazil. This project, pioneer in Latin America, is being accomplished together with BUN - Biomass Users Network of Brazil (proponent), in association with CENBIO - The Brazilian Reference Center on Biomass (executer), with patronage of FINEP / CT-ENERG (financial backer), by means of ACCORD No: 23.01.0653.00, regarding to ENERG-BIOG Project - 'Installation and Tests of an Electric Energy Generation Demonstration Unit from Biogas Sewage Treatment'. Thus, the contribution of this paper will be in the presentation of the project results, related with the exploitation of sewer biogas for power generation, as well as bigger details about purification, compression and electricity generation systems (biogas micro turbine) used in the installation. (author)

  14. CFD-Driven Valve Shape Optimization for Performance Improvement of a Micro Cross-Flow Turbine

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Endashaw Tesfaye Woldemariam

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available Turbines are critical parts in hydropower facilities, and the cross-flow turbine is one of the widely applied turbine designs in small- and micro-hydro facilities. Cross-flow turbines are relatively simple, flexible and less expensive, compared to other conventional hydro-turbines. However, the power generation efficiency of cross-flow turbines is not yet well optimized compared to conventional hydro-turbines. In this article, a Computational Fluid Dynamics (CFD-driven design optimization approach is applied to one of the critical parts of the turbine, the valve. The valve controls the fluid flow, as well as determines the velocity and pressure magnitudes of the fluid jet leaving the nozzle region in the turbine. The Non-Uniform Rational B-Spline (NURBS function is employed to generate construction points for the valve profile curve. Control points from the function that are highly sensitive to the output power are selected as optimization parameters, leading to the generation of construction points. Metamodel-assisted and metaheuristic optimization tools are used in the optimization. Optimized turbine designs from both optimization methods outperformed the original design with regard to performance of the turbine. Moreover, the metamodel-assisted optimization approach reduced the computational cost, compared to its counterpart.

  15. Present status of micro and mini-hydel power plants and biogas plants in Pakistan

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hussain, T.

    1997-01-01

    The Government of Pakistan has high priority to develop indigenous energy resources and announced a policy framework and package of incentives to private sector in hydro electric power generation. Hydro electric power in Pakistan has been estimated to be nearly 35,000 MW, whereas only 3330 MW have so far been exploited which constitutes only 15.11% share of the total commercial energy fuel consumption in 1994-95 and 42.7% of total electricity generation. The Government Agency in Pakistan i.e. WAPDA which produced 85.4% electricity generation had found it difficult to implement and run small hydro projects. There are 200 MHP plants were installed with a total capacity of 3,000 KW (3 MW), out of which 160 plants are working with 80% success rate. The selling price is Rs. 3.00 against cost of production is Rs. 0.11 per unit. Biogas is a clean and cheap fuel in the form of gas. The total dung available per day in the rural areas of Pakistan works out between 250-300 million Kg and 1804 million cubic m. of biogas can be produced having economic value of 6.711 billions. During 70's several biogas plants were installed but they have some problems. As regards biogas the production has remained stagnant for the last 5 years or more. There is need for clear governmental priorities and effective use of form biogas. (A.B.)

  16. Unit installation and testing of demonstration of electric power generation using biogas from sewage treatment; Instalacao e testes de uma unidade de demonstracao de geracao de energia eletrica a partir de biogas de tratamento de esgoto

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Coelho, Suani Teixeira; Gonzalez Velazquez, Silvia Maria Stortini; Martins, Osvaldo Stella; Costa, David Freire da; Basaglia, Fernando [Centro Nacional de Referencia em Biomassa (CENBIO), Sao Paulo, SP (Brazil)], e-mail: suani@iee.usp.br, e-mail: sgvelaz@iee.usp.br, e-mail: omartins@iee.usp.br, e-mail: davidcosta@iee.usp.br, e-mail: basaglia@iee.usp.br; Bacic, Antonio Carlos K. [Companhia de Saneamento Basico do Estado de Sao Paulo (SABESP), SP (Brazil)], e-mail: acbacic@sabesp.com.br

    2004-07-01

    This article intend to discuss the electricity generation with 30 kW (ISO) micro turbines, using biogas generated by sewage treatment process at SABESP (Basic Sanitation Company of Sao Paulo State), located at Barueri, Brazil. This project, pioneer in Latin America, is being accomplished together with BUN - Biomass Users Network of Brazil (proponent), by CENBIO - Brazilian Reference Center on Biomass (executer), with patronage of FINEP / CT-ENERG (financial backer), by means of COVENAT No: 23.01.0653.00, regarding to ENERG-BIOG Project - 'Installation and Tests of an Electric Energy Generation Demonstration Unit from Biogas Sewage Treatment'. This plant operates with anaerobic digestion process, which has as mainly products biogas (composed mainly by methane) and sludge. Currently, part of the methane produced is burnt in a boiler used to increase digesters efficiency process. The rest of the methane is burnt in flare to reduce the impacts caused by gases emissions. An alternative to flare it is the biogas conversion into electricity through engines and micro turbines. Thus, this article presents the project results, related with the exploitation of sewer biogas for power generation, as well as bigger details about purification, compression and electricity generation systems (biogas micro turbine), used in the facility. (author)

  17. Economic evaluation of biogas and natural gas co-firing in gas turbine combined heat and power systems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kang, Jun Young; Kang, Do Won; Kim, Tong Seop; Hur, Kwang Beom

    2014-01-01

    This study investigated the economics of co-firing biogas and natural gas within a small gas turbine combined heat and power (CHP) plant. The thermodynamic performance of the CHP plant was calculated with varying gas mixing ratios, forming the basis for the economic analysis. A cost balance equation was used to calculate the costs of electricity and heat. The methodology was validated, and parametric analyses were used to investigate the influence of gas mixing ratio and heat sales ratio on the costs of electricity and heat. The cost of electricity generation from the CHP plant was compared to that of a central combined cycle power plant, and an economical gas mixing ratio range were suggested for various heat sales ratios. It was revealed that the effect of the heat sales ratio on the cost of electricity becomes greater as the proportion of natural gas is increased. It was also demonstrated that the economic return from the installation of CHP systems is substantially affected by the gas mixing ratio and heat sales ratio. Sensitivity analysis showed that influence of economic factors on the CHP plant is greater when a higher proportion of natural gas is used. - Highlights: • An appropriate method to calculate the costs of electricity (COE) and heat (COH) was established. • Both COE and COH increase with increasing natural gas mixing ratio and decreasing heat sales ratio. • The effect of the heat sales ratio on the COE becomes greater as the mixing ratio increases. • The payback period is considerably dependent on the mixing ratio and heat sales ratio

  18. Development of the Electromagnetic Induction Type Micro Air Turbine Generator Using MEMS and Multilayer Ceramic Technology

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Iiduka, A; Ishigaki, K; Takikawa, Y; Ohse, T; Saito, K; Uchikoba, F

    2011-01-01

    The miniaturized electromagnetic induction type air turbine generator is described. The micro air turbine generator rotated by the compressed air and generating electricity was fabricated by the combination of MEMS and multilayer ceramic technology. The micro generator consisted of an air turbine and a magnetic circuit. The turbine part consisted of 7 silicon layers fabricated by the MEMS technology. The magnetic circuit was fabricated by the multilayer ceramic technology based on the green sheet process. The magnetic material used in the circuit was ferrite, and the internal conductor was silver. The dimensions of the obtained generator were 3.5x4x3.5 mm. The output power was 1.92 μW. From FEM analysis of the magnetic flux, it was found that leakage of the flux affected the output power.

  19. Applying micro scales of horizontal axis wind turbines for operation in low wind speed regions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pourrajabian, Abolfazl; Ebrahimi, Reza; Mirzaei, Masoud

    2014-01-01

    Highlights: • Three micro-turbines with output power less than 1 kW were designed for operation in low wind speed regions. • In addition to the output power, starting time was considered as a key parameter during the design. • The effects of generator resistive torque and number of blades on the performance of the turbines were investigated. - Abstract: Utilizing the micro scales of wind turbines could noticeably supply the demand for the electricity in low wind speed regions. Aerodynamic design and optimization of the blade, as a main part of a wind turbine, were addressed in the study. Three micro scales of horizontal axis wind turbines with output power of 0.5, 0.75 and 1 kW were considered and the geometric optimization of the blades in terms of the two involved parameters, chord and twist, was undertaken. In order to improve the performance of the turbines at low wind speeds, starting time was included in an objective function in addition to the output power – the main and desirable goal of the wind turbine blade design. A purpose-built genetic algorithm was employed to maximize both the output power and the starting performance which were calculated by the blade-element momentum theory. The results emphasize that the larger values of the chord and twist at the root part of the blades are indispensable for the better performance when the wind speed is low. However, the noticeable value of the generator resistive torque could largely delay the starting of the micro-turbines especially for the considered smaller size, 0.5 kW, where the starting aerodynamic torque could not overcome the generator resistive torque. For that size, an increase in the number of blades improved both the starting performance and also output power

  20. Implications of the UK field trial of building mounted horizontal axis micro-wind turbines

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    James, P.A.B.; Sissons, M.F.; Myers, L.E.; Bahaj, A.S.; Anwar, A.; Bradford, J.; Green, S.

    2010-01-01

    Building mounted micro-wind turbines and photovoltaics have the potential to provide widely applicable carbon free electricity generation at the building level. Photovoltaic systems are well understood and it is easy to predict performance using software tools or widely accepted yield estimates. Micro-wind, however, is far more complex and in comparison poorly understood. This paper presents the key findings of the building mounted ( 2 swept area, the majority of which were less than 25 kWh/m 2 . Good rural sites had an annual generation of between 100 and 280 kWh/m 2 , far less than the nominal 360 kWh/m 2 (10% load factor for a typical turbine) that is often assumed. In the light of these findings, the potential impact of the UK's latest policy instrument, the 2010 micro-generation tariffs, is considered for both micro-wind and photovoltaics. (author)

  1. Theoretical and conditional monitoring of a small three-bladed vertical-axis micro-hydro turbine

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Huang, Sy-Ruen; Ma, Yen-Huai; Chen, Chia-Fu; Seki, Kazuichi; Aso, Toshiyuki

    2014-01-01

    Highlights: • This paper presents a novel 3 three-bladed vertical-axis micro-hydro turbine system. • This paper presents structure and performance of micro-hydroelectric turbine system. • The paper reveal that using VAMHT system in water is distinct from using in wind. • This paper present an experimental results of VAMHT system. • The paper show that the status transformation from cut-into stable power generation is short. - Abstract: This paper presents a novel 3-kW three-bladed vertical-axis micro-hydro turbine (VAMHT) system. The experimental results reveal that using this type of turbine in water is distinct from using it in wind. The micro-hydro turbine system uses a three-phase permanent magnet symmetric generator that transforms mechanical energy into electrical energy. The output voltage and frequency of the generator depend on water flow speed, and voltage steady equipment is used to maintain the maximum output power of the DC bus. According to the maximum power point tracking of the micro-hydro turbine system, the condition monitoring of the novel micro-hydro turbine requires no water flow meter. Furthermore, the construction and installation of the new micro-hydro turbine is simple, economical, and stable. This system combines a micro-hydro generator and electrical state-monitoring system, which can measure the speed, output power, DC-bus voltage, and all electrical characteristics of the micro-hydro turbine system. The results of comparing turbine between wind and water show that the speed ranges of water flow is narrower than that of wind, and the status transformation from cut-into stable power generation is short

  2. Thermodynamic Performance Study of Biomass Gasification, Solid Oxide Fuel Cell and Micro Gas Turbine Hybrid Systems

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bang-Møller, Christian; Rokni, Masoud

    2010-01-01

    A system level modelling study of three combined heat and power systems based on biomass gasification is presented. Product gas is converted in a micro gas turbine (MGT) in the first system, in a solid oxide fuel cell (SOFC) in the second system and in a combined SOFC–MGT arrangement in the third...

  3. Experimental Investigation of A Twin Shaft Micro Gas-Turbine System

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sadig, Hussain; Sulaiman, Shaharin Anwar; Ibrahim, Idris

    2013-01-01

    Due to the fast depletion of fossil fuels and its negative impact on the environment, more attention has been concentrated to find new resources, policies and technologies, which meet the global needs with regard to fuel sustainability and emissions. In this paper, as a step to study the effect of burning low calorific value fuels on gas-turbine performance; a 50 kW slightly pressurized non-premixed tubular combustor along with turbocharger based twin shaft micro gas-turbine was designed and fabricated. A series of tests were conducted to characterize the system using LPG fuel. The tests include the analysis of the temperature profile, pressure and combustor efficiency as well as air fuel ratio and speed of the second turbine. The tests showed a stable operation with acceptable efficiency, air fuel ratio, and temperature gradient for the single and twin shaft turbines.

  4. Flow visualization system for wind turbines without blades applied to micro reactors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Santos, G.S.B.; Guimarães, L.N.F.; Placco, G.M.

    2017-01-01

    Flow visualization systems is a tool used in science and industry for characterization of projects that operate with drainage. This work presents the design and construction of a flow visualization system for passive turbines used in advanced fast micro reactors. In the system were generated images where it is possible to see the supersonic and transonic flow through the turbine disks. A test bench was assembled to generate images of the interior of the turbine where the flow is supersonic, allowing the study of the behavior of the boundary layer between disks. It is necessary to characterize the boundary layer of this type of turbine because its operation occurs in the transfer of kinetic energy between the fluid and the disks. The images generated, as well as their analyzes are presented as a result of this work

  5. Modeling of a Cogeneration System with a Micro Gas Turbine Operating at Partial Load Conditions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    José Carlos Dutra

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available The integration of absorption chillers in micro-cogeneration systems based on micro-gas turbines can be useful as an appropriate strategy to increase the total system energy efficiency. Since it is an area intensive in technology, it is necessary to develop and use models of simulation, which can predict the behavior of the whole system and of each component individually, at different operating conditions. This work is part of a research project in high efficiency cogeneration systems, whose purpose at this stage is to model a micro-cogeneration system, which is composed of a micro gas turbine, Capstone C30, a compact cross flow finned tube heat exchanger and an absorption chiller. The entire model is composed of specifically interconnected models, developed and validated for each component. The simulation of the microturbine used a thermodynamic analytic model, which contains a procedure used to obtain the micro turbine characteristic performance curves, which is closed with the thermodynamic Brayton cycle model. In the cogeneration system discussed in this paper, the compact heat exchanger was used to heat thermal oil, which drives an absorption chiller. It was designed, characterized and installed in a cogeneration system installed at the Centre d'Innovació Tecnològica en Revalorització Energètica i Refrigeració, Universtat Rovira i Virgili. Its design led to the heat exchanger model, which was coupled with the micro turbine model. Presented in this work is a comparison between the data from the model and the experiments, demonstrating good agreement between both results.

  6. Economic dispatch of a single micro-gas turbine under CHP operation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rist, Johannes F.; Dias, Miguel F.; Palman, Michael; Zelazo, Daniel; Cukurel, Beni

    2017-01-01

    Highlights: •Economic dispatch of a micro gas turbine is considered for smart grid integration. •A detailed thermodynamic cycle analysis is conducted for variable load CHP operation. •Benefits are shown for case studies with real demand profiles and energy tariffs. •Optimal unit schedule can be electricity, heat, revenue or maintenance-cost driven. -- Abstract: This work considers the economic dispatch of a single micro-gas turbine under combined heat and power (CHP) operation. A detailed thermodynamic cycle analysis is conducted on a representative micro-gas turbine unit with non-constant component efficiencies and recuperator bypass. Based on partial and full load configurations, an accurate optimization model is developed for solving the economic dispatch problem of integrating the turbine into the grid. The financial benefit and viability of this approach is then examined on four detailed scenarios using real data on energy demand profiles and electricity tariffs. The analysis considers the optimal operation in a large hotel, a full-service restaurant, a small hotel, and a residential neighborhood during various seasons. The optimal schedule follows four fundamental economic drivers which are electricity, heat, revenue, and maintenance-cost driven.

  7. Environmental impacts of micro-wind turbines and their potential to contribute to UK climate change targets

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Greening, Benjamin; Azapagic, Adisa

    2013-01-01

    This paper evaluates the life cycle environmental sustainability of micro-wind turbines in the UK in comparison with grid electricity and solar PV (photovoltaics). The results suggests that per kWh electricity generated, the majority of environmental impacts from the wind turbines are lower than from grid electricity, ranging from 26% lower terrestrial toxicity to 92% lower global warming. However, depletion of abiotic elements, fresh-water and human toxicities are 82%, 74% and 53% higher than for grid electricity, respectively. The wind turbines are more environmentally sustainable than solar PV for seven out of 11 impacts, ranging from 7.5% lower eutrophication to 85% lower ozone layer depletion. However, depletion of fossil resources, fresh-water, human and terrestrial toxicities are higher for the wind turbine than for the PV, ranging from 5% for the former to 87% for the latter. UK-wide deployment of micro-wind turbines would save between 0.6 and 1% of GHG (greenhouse gas) emissions on 2009 levels. Therefore, the potential of micro-wind turbines to contribute towards UK's climate change targets is limited. - Highlights: • Life cycle environmental impacts of micro-wind turbines estimated for UK conditions. • The majority impacts are lower for micro-wind turbines than for grid electricity and solar PV. • Some impacts from micro-wind are higher, notably fresh-water and human toxicity. • At the national level, wind turbines would save only 0.6% GHG emissions on 2009 levels. • The potential of micro-wind turbines to contribute to UK's climate change targets is limited

  8. Micro-gas turbine performance optimization by off-design characteristics prediction

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Asgari, M.B.; Pahlevanzadeh, H. [Power and Water University of Technology, Tehran (Iran, Islamic Republic of). Dept. of Mechanical Engineering

    2005-07-01

    Micro-gas turbines are increasingly seen as a good option for supplying distributed electric or combined heat and power (CHP) systems. Micro turbines operate on the same thermodynamic cycle as the Brayton cycle. Fresh air enters a compressor and air pressure increases isentropically and high-pressure air and fuel are mixed and burnt in the combustion chamber at constant pressure. During this process the flue gas expands to lower pressure and increase volume isentropically. In this study a model was developed using parameters obtained from the compressor and turbine. Ambient temperature and and pressure effects on micro-gas turbines were examined. Customer requirements were used as constraints on micro-gas turbine parameters. The computer software Matlab was used to study the effect of the surge margin on the behaviour of the engine. Optimum performance speeds were presented, and a marginal envelope was obtained at the optimal speed. Issues concerning fuel consumption, power output, and efficiency were considered. The principal results of the simulation presented an optimum region of operation rather than any single optimal point. It was suggested that further research is needed to study the influence of the heat exchanger on efficiency and development of a model of the power electronics so that the complete system can be simulated from power generation. It was noted that although operation of microturbines at high speeds of revolution causes more net power output, this affects the thermal efficiency of the system and fuel consumption is high. It was concluded that optimum operating conditions should be evaluated by satisfying the trade off between net power generated and fuel consumption, as well as the achievable efficiency. 8 refs., 12 figs.

  9. On the Response of a Micro Wind Turbine to Wind-Speed Change

    OpenAIRE

    烏谷, 隆; 渡辺, 公彦; 大屋, 裕二

    2004-01-01

    To improve the efficiency of a wind turbine, it is more effective to use high-speed wind. A method collecting wind to get high-speed wind was experimentally studied. It was found that the brimmed diffuser was a good device to get high-speed wind. The brimmed diffuser accelerated approaching wind, and wind speed near its inlet became about 1.7 times. Using this brimmed diffuser, we have made a new micro wind turbine and been carrying out field experiment. In order realize the properties of the...

  10. Biogas in the agriculture. State of the art. Proceedings; Biogas in der Landwirtschaft. Stand und Perspektiven. Tagungsband

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2009-07-01

    fermentation of renewable raw materials effect organic soil carbon? (Peter Dominik et al.); (20) Efficiency of composting of residues of fermentation (Helmut Doehler et al.); (21) Feeding biogas in the natural gas grid: actual market developments in the area of gas processing and line feeding (Wolfgang Urban); (22) Practical experiences in the substitution of natural gas by bio methane in Germany (Michael Beil); (23) Biogas plants - the technical view of the network access (Uwe Klaus, Andreas Schrader); (24) Optimized cultivation of energy plants for biogas plants (Christoph Strauss); (25) Deintegration procedure - Expenditure and utility for the generation of biogas (Bjoern Schwarz et al.); (26) Biogas substrate - Which exotics have the potential for the future? (Armin Vetter); (27) The step of hydrolyse in the fermentation of renewable raw materials - Does it enhance the efficiency? (Hans Oechsner et al.); (28) Quality silage for the production of biogas (Christiane Herrmann et al.); (29) Possibilities of the optimization of mixtures of raw materials (Thomas Amon); (30) Ignition jet cogeneration plant - State of the art and perspectives using the effective post power generation of waste gas (Wolfram Dreier, Kai Liesendahl); (31) Gas-fuelled spark ignition engine - state of the art and perspectives (Thomas Elsenbruch); (32) Power generation from biogas in a fuel cell (Peter Landgraf); (33) Micro gas turbine - state of the art (Tobias Panne, Axel Widenhorn); (34) Possibilities of the reduction of the energy demand of biogas plants (Andreas Lehner, Matthias Effenberger); (35) EEG conform utilization of waste heat of agricultural biogas plants (Wolfgang Schulz). Beside these lectures twenty six poster contributions were exhibited.

  11. Combined Optimization for Offshore Wind Turbine Micro Siting

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hou, Peng; Hu, Weihao; N. Soltani, Mohsen

    2017-01-01

    In order to minimize the wake loss, wind turbines (WT) should be separated with large intervening spaces. However, this will incur an increase in the capital expenditure on electrical systems and even in the operation and maintenance costs. In order to realize a cost-effective wind farm......) algorithm is adopted to minimize the levelized production cost (LPC) of the wind farm. Simulation results are given for validating the proposed approach and comparison is made with results obtained using other methods. It is found that the proposed method can reduce the levelized production cost (LPC) by 5.......00% and increase the energy yields by 3.82% compared with the Norwegian centre for offshore wind energy (NORCOWE) reference wind farm layout. This is better than the traditional method which only achieves a 1.45% LPC reduction although it increases the energy yields by 3.95%....

  12. Preliminary Investigation on Generation of Electricity Using Micro Wind Turbines Placed on A Car

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yogendra Chaudhary

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available Wind energy is one of the prominent resources for renewable energy and it is traditionally extracted using stationary wind turbines. However, it can also be extracted using mini or micro wind turbines on a moving body, such as an automobile, while cruising at high speeds on freeways. If the electricity is produced using air flowing around the vehicle without affecting aerodynamic performance of the vehicle, it can be used to charge up the battery or power up additional accessories of the vehicle. For the first time, in the present work, a preliminary investigation was carried out to generate electricity by utilizing air flow on a moving car. Initially, a correlation between the car speed and wind velocity was established using an anemometer. Placing a set of two micro wind turbines along with two micro generators on the rear end of the car trunk, the present study investigated the feasibility of generating electricity from these micro wind turbines while evaluating the effect of drag force on the performance of the car through the experimental approach and computational fluid dynamics (CFD simulations. Both approaches confirmed negligible effect of drag force on the vehicle performance in terms of gas mileage and changes in drag coefficient values. Following these studies, the micro wind turbines were also tested for electricity generation at various cruising speeds of the car ranging from 50 to 80 mph on the freeways. The voltage and power generated always showed an increasing trend with increasing the car speed, however they saturated when a cut off limit was setup with the voltage controllers. A maximum voltage of 3.5 V and a maximum current of 0.8 A were generated by each micro wind turbine when a cut off limit was used along with a load consisting of four LED bulbs in parallel with 3.5 V and 0.2 A rating each. On the other hand, when the tests were repeated without using the cut-off limit, a maximum voltage of 18.91 V and a maximum current

  13. Simulation model of a micro turbine; Modelo para simulacao de uma microturbina

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bona, Felipe Samuel de; Ruppert Filho, Ernesto [Universidade Estadual de Campinas (UNICAMP), SP (Brazil). Fac. de Engenharia Eletrica e de Computacao

    2004-07-01

    The introduction of distributed generation (DG) units in the electric power system has been surrounded by many promises and uncertainnesses. Hence, new simulation tools are needed in order to assess the issues and the benefits related to the connection of DG in the electric power system. In this paper will be presented and simulated a model of a micro turbine, a new and emerging distributed generation technology. (author)

  14. Using of CFD software for setting the location of water stream micro turbines

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Borsuk Łukasz

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this work was to estimate the efficiency of CFD software in calculating flow velocity magnitude in natural water streams. These kinds of estimations are essential for setting the locations of water stream micro turbines. These devices can be useful to provide electricity in areas remote from power generating facilities or as backup power supply in case of power grid failure. The analysed water stream has length of 100 m and its average slope was approximately 10%. Water velocity varies in the range from 0.5 m3*s−1 to 5 m3*s−1. Additionally, the influence of ground roughness on the stream velocity was also an important factor. Results proved to be satisfactory. In the analysed stream, velocities were in a range which allows the proposed micro turbine to be effective. Calculation grid created by CFD software did not have many areas which may raise doubts. Also, the influence of changes in the ground roughness factor was noticeable. Preliminary CFD simulations allow to estimate where in the stream the micro turbine will be most efficient. On the other hand, despite these calculations, profitability and return on the investment still can be questionable.

  15. Compressor and Turbine Multidisciplinary Design for Highly Efficient Micro-gas Turbine

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barsi, Dario; Perrone, Andrea; Qu, Yonglei; Ratto, Luca; Ricci, Gianluca; Sergeev, Vitaliy; Zunino, Pietro

    2018-06-01

    Multidisciplinary design optimization (MDO) is widely employed to enhance turbomachinery components efficiency. The aim of this work is to describe a complete tool for the aero-mechanical design of a radial inflow turbine and a centrifugal compressor. The high rotational speed of such machines and the high exhaust gas temperature (only for the turbine) expose blades to really high stresses and therefore the aerodynamics design has to be coupled with the mechanical one through an integrated procedure. The described approach employs a fully 3D Reynolds Averaged Navier-Stokes (RANS) solver for the aerodynamics and an open source Finite Element Analysis (FEA) solver for the mechanical integrity assessment. Due to the high computational cost of both these two solvers, a meta model, such as an artificial neural network (ANN), is used to speed up the optimization design process. The interaction between two codes, the mesh generation and the post processing of the results are achieved via in-house developed scripting modules. The obtained results are widely presented and discussed.

  16. Micro gas turbine thermodynamic and economic analysis up to 500 kWe size

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Galanti, Leandro; Massardo, Aristide F.

    2011-01-01

    Highlights: → Thermoeconomic analysis and optimization of micro gas turbines up to 500 kWe. → Analysis carried out for both regenerative and intercooled regenerative cycles. → Focus on thermodynamic, geometric and cost parameters of the main MGT devices. → ICR cycle has an interesting reduction in capital and electricity costs, rising size. → Complete thermoeconomic investigation is essential to support thermodynamic analysis. -- Abstract: In this paper a thermoeconomic analysis and optimization of micro gas turbines (MGT) up to 500 kWe is presented. This analysis is strongly related to the need of minimizing specific capital cost, still high for MGT large market penetration, and optimizing MGT size to match market needs. The analysis was carried out for both existing regenerative MGT cycles and new inter-cooled regenerative cycles, using the Web-based ThermoEconomic Modular Program by the University of Genoa. The attention is mainly focused on the basis of thermodynamic, geometric and capital cost parameters of the main MGT devices (such as recuperator size, material and effectiveness, turbine inlet temperature, and compressor pressure ratio) and on economic scenario (fuel cost, cost of electricity, etc.) for different MGT size in the range 25-500 kWe.

  17. Techno-economic sensitivity study of heliostat field parameters for micro-gas turbine CSP

    Science.gov (United States)

    Landman, Willem A.; Gauché, Paul; Dinter, Frank; Myburgh, J. T.

    2017-06-01

    Concentrating solar power systems based on micro-gas turbines potentially offer numerous benefits should they become commercially viable. Heliostat fields for such systems have unique requirements in that the number of heliostats and the focal ratios are typically much lower than conventional central receiver systems. This paper presents a techno-economic sensitivity study of heliostat field parameters for a micro-gas turbine central receiver system. A 100 kWe minitower system is considered for the base case and a one-at-a-time strategy is used to investigate parameter sensitivities. Increasing heliostat focal ratios are found to have significant optical performance benefits due to both a reduction in astigmatic aberrations and a reduction in the number of facet focal lengths required; confirming the hypothesis that smaller heliostats offer a techno-economic advantage. Fixed Horizontal Axis tracking mechanism is shown to outperform the conventional Azimuth Zenith tracking mechanism in high density heliostat fields. Although several improvements to heliostat field performance are discussed, the capex fraction of the heliostat field for such system is shown to be almost half that of a conventional central receiver system and optimum utilization of the higher capex components, namely; the receiver and turbine subsystems, are more rewarding than that of the heliostat field.

  18. The influence of selected design and operating parameters on the dynamics of the steam micro-turbine

    Science.gov (United States)

    Żywica, Grzegorz; Kiciński, Jan

    2015-10-01

    The topic of the article is the analysis of the influence of selected design parameters and operating conditions on the radial steam micro-turbine, which was adapted to operate with low-boiling agent in the Organic Rankine Cycle (ORC). In the following parts of this article the results of the thermal load analysis, the residual unbalance and the stiffness of bearing supports are discussed. Advanced computational methods and numerical models have been used. Computational analysis showed that the steam micro-turbine is characterized by very good dynamic properties and is resistant to extreme operating conditions. The prototype of micro-turbine has passed a series of test calculations. It has been found that it can be subjected to experimental research in the micro combined heat and power system.

  19. Improvement of the efficiency of the Agnew micro hydro turbine at part loads due to installing guide vanes mechanism

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yassi, Yousef; hashemloo, Safar [Iranian Research Organization for Science and Technology (IROST), No. 29 Forssat St., Enghelaab Ave., Tehran (Iran)

    2010-10-15

    Agnew turbine is an axial micro hydro of Kaplan type, with its main shaft subtending 45 to the line of horizon. Due to governmental power generating programs for limited hydro potentials in Iran and on the basis of a joint project between the University of Glasgow and the Iranian Research Organization for Science and Technology (IROST), the turbine was developed to operate under low heads and limited flow potentials in Iran. However the turbine was originally designed to operate without any guide vanes and test results showed that the turbine achieved an efficiency of 62% at its best point of performance. Later a modified Agnew turbine, consisting of a guide blades mechanism was designed and manufactured, at (IROST). The mechanism was so designed that it was also used as a second support for the turbine's main shaft. The standard turbine tests proved that; the modified version of the Agnew turbine had 23% higher efficiency at its best performance point; compared to the original design. Then the effects of the improvements on the turbine were studied on the performance of the turbine at part loads. However, efficiency improvements were observed under all part load conditions. (author)

  20. Improvement of the efficiency of the Agnew micro hydro turbine at part loads due to installing guide vanes mechanism

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yassi, Yousef; Hashemloo, Safar

    2010-01-01

    Agnew turbine is an axial micro hydro of Kaplan type, with its main shaft subtending 45 deg. to the line of horizon. Due to governmental power generating programs for limited hydro potentials in Iran and on the basis of a joint project between the University of Glasgow and the Iranian Research Organization for Science and Technology (IROST), the turbine was developed to operate under low heads and limited flow potentials in Iran. However the turbine was originally designed to operate without any guide vanes and test results showed that the turbine achieved an efficiency of 62% at its best point of performance. Later a modified Agnew turbine, consisting of a guide blades mechanism was designed and manufactured, at (IROST). The mechanism was so designed that it was also used as a second support for the turbine's main shaft. The standard turbine tests proved that; the modified version of the Agnew turbine had 23% higher efficiency at its best performance point; compared to the original design. Then the effects of the improvements on the turbine were studied on the performance of the turbine at part loads. However, efficiency improvements were observed under all part load conditions.

  1. Micro hydrogenerator with Pelton ceramic turbine; Micro-hidrogerador com turbina Pelton de ceramica

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kawano, Mario [Universidade Federal de Itajuba (UNIFEI), MG (Brazil)], Email: mkawano@pucsp.br

    2006-07-01

    This study presents a very practical project, which provides more comfort to people who live in little proprieties, including then in the society. Try changing the creation of electric energy in workmanship because we do not use machines in the construction of the elements of the generator. Open a line of research in news materials for construction of little turbines. Avoid any degradation of the environment. (author)

  2. Development of micro-scale axial and radial turbines for low-temperature heat source driven organic Rankine cycle

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Al Jubori, Ayad; Daabo, Ahmed; Al-Dadah, Raya K.; Mahmoud, Saad; Ennil, Ali Bahr

    2016-01-01

    Highlights: • One and three-dimensional analysis with real gas properties are integrated. • Micro axial and radial-inflow turbines configurations are investigated. • Five organic working fluids are considered. • The maximum total isentropic efficiency of radial-inflow turbine 83.85%. • The maximum ORC thermal efficiency based on radial-inflow turbine is 10.60%. - Abstract: Most studies on the organic Rankine cycle (ORC) focused on parametric studies and selection working fluids to maximize the performance of organic Rankine cycle but without attention for turbine design features which are crucial to achieving them. The rotational speed, expansion ratio, mass flow rate and turbine size have markedly effect on turbine performance. For this purpose organic Rankine cycle modeling, mean-line design and three-dimensional computational fluid dynamics analysis were integrated for both micro axial and radial-inflow turbines with five organic fluids (R141b, R1234yf, R245fa, n-butane and n-pentane) for realistic low-temperature heat source <100 °C like solar and geothermal energy. Three-dimensional simulation is performed using ANSYS"R"1"7-CFX where three-dimensional Reynolds-averaged Navier-Stokes equations are solved with k-omega shear stress transport turbulence model. Both configurations of turbines are designed at wide range of mass flow rate (0.1–0.5) kg/s for each working fluid. The results showed that n-pentane has the highest performance at all design conditions where the maximum total-to-total efficiency and power output of radial-inflow turbine are 83.85% and 8.893 kW respectively. The performance of the axial turbine was 83.48% total-to-total efficiency and 8.507 kW power output. The maximum overall size of axial turbine was 64.685 mm compared with 70.97 mm for radial-inflow turbine. R245fa has the lowest overall size for all cases. The organic Rankine cycle thermal efficiency was about 10.60% with radial-inflow turbine and 10.14% with axial turbine

  3. Straight vegetable oil use in Micro-Gas Turbines: System adaptation and testing

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Prussi, M.; Chiaramonti, D.; Riccio, G.; Martelli, F.; Pari, L.

    2012-01-01

    Highlights: → The possibility to feed a Micro Gas Turbine with Straight Vegetable Oil (SVO) has been investigated. → Correlative analysis and CFD were used to model the effect of SVO characteristics on atomization and evaporation. → Minor modifications to a the commercial MGT were adopted. → Measured power output and specific fuel consumption were close to standard fuel, taking into account the LHV of SVO. → Emissions were higher than for standard fossil fuel but strongly affected by SVO temperature. -- Abstract: The aim of this research work is to investigate the use of straight vegetable sunflower oil (SFO), a liquid biofuel, in a Micro-Gas Turbine (MGT). Compared to conventional diesel engines, micro-gas turbines represent a very reliable, clean and performing small scale cogeneration technology. Commercial gas turbines have already been tested with unconventional fuels, such as biomass derived fuels; however, research work on using Straight Vegetable Oil (SVO) as fuel in MGTs are really scarce. The chemical and physical characteristics of SVO are different from fossil diesel oil and rather far from the common technical specifications for gas turbine liquid fuels, not only in terms of kinematic viscosity and Lower Heating Value, but also as regards other issues as contaminant levels and composition, fuel cold properties, ignition properties, etc. Therefore, particular attention has to be given to the atomization and evaporation phases, as these are the most critical steps to achieve stable and efficient long term operation. An analysis based on numerical correlations available from literature was initially adopted for the analysis of the atomization process, supported by CFD modeling to qualitatively investigate the flow pattern. Control parameters were revised and set so to produce a sunflower oil spray having evaporation time comparable to diesel, and minor adaptations to the fuel line were designed and installed on the MGT. Tests with blends and

  4. The biogas

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rigaud, Ch.; Laffargue, C.; Zebboud, I.

    2007-01-01

    Mixed of methane and carbon dioxide the biogas can be produced by many sources for the heat or the electricity production and the fuel production. This document aims to better understand the biogas, its characteristics, its valorization, the plants concerned, the installations and the regulation. It provides also an example of a biogas power plant and the biogas use in the farms. (A.L.B.)

  5. Biogas everywhere

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Couturier, Ch.; Pegret-Rosa, A.S.; Leca, Ch.; Adlec, E.

    2009-01-01

    Since the publication in July 2006 of the new purchase tariff of electricity produced by biogas, the methanation channel is increasing. In the past ten years the number of biogas plants from domestic wastes, passed from 1 to 20. This document presents an economic analysis of the different sources of biogas, the performances and the injection of biogas in the public network of the gas utilities. (A.L.B.)

  6. Experimental evaluation of a diesel-biogas dual fuel engine operated on micro-trigeneration system for power, drying and cooling

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cacua, Karen; Olmos-Villalba, Luis; Herrera, Bernardo; Gallego, Anderson

    2016-01-01

    Highlights: • A micro-trigeneration system based in a diesel-biogas dual fuel engine was obtained. • Heat from engine exhaust gases was used for drying and refrigeration applications. • Energy efficiency of the microtrigeneration system in dual mode was 40%. • Peppermint was dried in the microtrigeneration system. - Abstract: A micro-trigeneration system based on a diesel-biogas dual fuel engine was evaluated experimentally. In this system, waste heat from the engine exhaust was used for heating air using a heat pipe exchanger and for driving an absorption unit freezer. The air heated was used in a convective trays dryer designed to dry peppermint. The global energy efficiency of this system at the engine full load was 40% and 31% in diesel and dual mode, respectively, while the same efficiencies of the engine at the original single generation were 23% and 18%, respectively. On the other hand, a maximum diesel substitution level of 50% was achieved in dual mode.

  7. Bearing failure detection of micro wind turbine via power spectral density analysis for stator current signals spectrum

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mahmood, Faleh H.; Kadhim, Hussein T.; Resen, Ali K.; Shaban, Auday H.

    2018-05-01

    The failure such as air gap weirdness, rubbing, and scrapping between stator and rotor generator arise unavoidably and may cause extremely terrible results for a wind turbine. Therefore, we should pay more attention to detect and identify its cause-bearing failure in wind turbine to improve the operational reliability. The current paper tends to use of power spectral density analysis method of detecting internal race and external race bearing failure in micro wind turbine by estimation stator current signal of the generator. The failure detector method shows that it is well suited and effective for bearing failure detection.

  8. Biogas utilization: Experimental investigation on biogas flameless combustion in lab-scale furnace

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hosseini, Seyed Ehsan; Wahid, Mazlan Abdul

    2013-01-01

    Highlights: • High costs of biogas purification and low calorific value of biogas are the main obstacles of biogas utilization. • The energy of biogas can be extracted by flameless combustion without any modification in burner or combustion system. • The efficiency of biogas flameless combustion and conventional combustion were 53% and 32% respectively. • The temperature inside the biogas flameless chamber is uniform. • In biogas flameless combustion, NO x and CO 2 formation decrease drastically in comparison with traditional combustion. - Abstract: Biogas generated in the anaerobic digestion of biomass and organic wastes by micro-organisms can be applied for heating, transportation and power generation as a renewable energy source. However, low calorific value (LCV) of biogas is one the most important bottlenecks of biogas conversion into electrical or thermal energy. Indeed, the presence of corrosive gases such as H 2 S and water vapor in biogas components makes some dilemmas in biogas purification and utilization. In order to obtain the efficient biogas utilization method, different biogas resources, physical and chemical properties of biogas and biogas combustion characteristics should be considered. In this paper biogas was utilized in lab-scale flameless combustion furnace and the performance of flameless combustion chamber fueled by biogas has been presented. Results demonstrated that flameless combustion is one of the best feasible strategies for biogas utilization. Uniformity of temperature in the flameless furnace increases the durability of refractory and related equipment. Simplicity of the flameless burner, pollutant formation reduction and fuel consumption decreases are the main causes of biogas flameless combustion supremacy

  9. Pole-mounted horizontal axis micro-wind turbines: UK field trial findings and market size assessment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sissons, M.F.; James, P.A.B.; Bradford, J.; Myers, L.E.; Bahaj, A.S.; Anwar, A.; Green, S.

    2011-01-01

    This paper discusses the key findings of the pole-mounted turbine (2.5-6 kWp) component of the UK micro-wind trial. The real world performance of horizontal axis turbines is compared with yield estimates based on site wind speed prediction. The distribution of UK agricultural farms is overlaid with wind resource mapping to estimate the number of potential agricultural farm sites for micro-wind. The yield performance of turbines during the monitoring period was observed to be very close to that predicted by NOABL-MCS wind speed estimates. Based on an installation criterion of a maximum 12 year payback time, with a 6% discount rate and micro-generation feed in tariffs available, there are ∼87,000 farm sites for micro-wind in the UK. If 10% of these farms were to install micro-wind turbines (to a capacity of 48 kWp per farm) this would correspond to a capacity of 418 MWp, with an annual generation yield of 1025 GWh, comparable to that of a large, on shore wind farm in the UK. It should be noted that the feed in tariff considered in this paper is that available in the UK in 2011, which, at 26.7 p/kWh (∼30 Euro cents/kWh) represents a significant subsidy. - Highlights: → Estimated 87,000 agricultural farm sites which are economic for pole mounted micro-wind in the UK. → Good agreement between NOABL-MCS yield prediction and site measurements for UK pole mounted turbines. → Pole mounted micro-wind has favourable economics under current UK feed in tariffs.

  10. Performance of integrated retainer rings in silicon micro-turbines with thrust style micro-ball bearings

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hergert, Robert J; Holmes, Andrew S; Hanrahan, Brendan; Ghodssi, Reza

    2013-01-01

    This work explores the performance of different silicon retainer ring designs when integrated into silicon micro-turbines (SMTs) incorporating thrust style bearings supported on 500 µm diameter steel balls. Experimental performance curves are presented for SMTs with rotor diameters of 5 mm and 10 mm, each with five different retainer designs varying in mechanical rigidity, ball pocket shape and ball complement. It was found that the different retainer designs yielded different performance curves, with the closed pocket designs consistently requiring lower input power for a given rotation speed, and the most rigid retainers giving the best performance overall. Both 5 mm and 10 mm diameter devices have shown repeatable performance at rotation speeds up to and exceeding 20 000 RPM with input power levels below 2 W, and devices were tested for over 2.5 million revolutions without failure. Retainer rings are commonly used in macro-scale bearings to ensure uniform spacing between the rolling elements. The integration of retainers into micro-bearings could lower costs by reducing the number of balls required for stable operation, and also open up the possibility of ‘smart’ bearings with integrated sensors to monitor the bearing status. (paper)

  11. Ballast Load Control of Turbine-Generator Sets in the Micro-Hydro Range with a Turbine that has no Flow Regulating Value

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Valentin Nedelea

    2011-09-01

    Full Text Available This paper presents the effects of voltage and frequency variation on users load supplies from electrical supply system generated from small micro-hydro plants. Induction generators operate as stand-alone self excited by capacitors and turbine has no flow regulating valve. Many conventional and non conventional approaches are described to govern turbine-generator set to ensure a steady frequency and voltage level. A load controller increases or decreases a ballast load connected across the generator as the user load varies, to keep frequency and voltage variation in standard limits. To design a controller for self excited induction generator, researches were performed on asynchronous generator with double winding stator to analyse steady state open loop behaviour. The results on the behaviour of the unregulated turbine (DC motor – generator system was presented.

  12. Biogas barometer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2014-01-01

    The energy recovery of biogas has kept on increasing in the European Union in 2013: +10.2%. Almost 13.4 million tep (tonnes of oil equivalent) of biogas primary energy was produced but the growth of the biogas sector is decreasing (it was 16.9% between 2011 and 2012). The growth for the coming years is expected to fall further because of political decisions in some countries to limit the use of land for farming purposes and to manage the biogas sector more efficiently. Germany ranks first for the production of biogas primary energy with 6717 ktep followed by United Kingdom with 1824 ktep. 2 tables give the production of electricity and heat from biogas in the E.U. member states in 2012 and 2013. The total production of electricity and heat from biogas in the E.U. in 2013 reached 53327 GWh and 432 ktep respectively. A list reviews the most significant companies working in Europe in the sector of methanation, 10 companies are listed among which 2 are Italian: AB Energy (Gruppo AB), BTS Italia and 8 are German: MT Energie, Envitec Biogas AG, Biogas Weser-Ems, Planet Biogastechnik, Schmack Biogas GmbH, Weltec Biopower GmbH, UTS Biogastechnik (Anaergia Group), Bioconstruct and BTS Italia. (A.C.)

  13. Experimental Campaign Tests on Ultra Micro Gas Turbines, Fuel Supply Comparison and Optimization

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Roberto Capata

    2018-03-01

    Full Text Available The increasing demand for miniaturized radio-controlled vehicles inspired the following research. The uses of these unmanned miniaturized/micro vehicles range from aero-modeling to drones for urban control and military applications too. The common characteristic of these vehicles is the need for a light and compact propulsion system. The radio-controlled (RC turbines for modeling are ideally suited for this purpose, guaranteeing the necessary thrust with compactness and lightness. This device is a miniaturized turbojet, and it is generally composed of three basic elements: compressor, combustion chamber and turbine. The main goal of the paper is to evaluate the turbojet performance for considering the possibility of its use as a range extender in a hybrid vehicle. Considering the total volume constraints, it will be important to evaluate the specific fuel consumption. Also from the environmental point of view, the possibility of feeding the device with gas has been considered and, consequently, the needed device modifications performed. The test bench has been realized and assembled at the University Department Laboratory. Several different experimental configurations are reproduced and reported here, to obtain performance maps. The experiments results have been compared to previous tests results, as well as numerical simulations. Therefore, it has been possible to make a comparison between the two different fuels. The results show that this device can be used as a range extender for a hybrid vehicle. Moreover, the various tests have shown that, acting on the control unit, it is possible to feed the device with gas (mixture of propane and butane, obtaining a further benefit from the economic point of view. Surely, an in-depth study of the turbine management logic would produce a further advantage in terms of fuel consumption.

  14. Preliminary Design of Supercritical CO{sub 2} Radial Turbine for Micro Modular Reactor

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cho, Seong Kuk; Lee, Jekyoung; Kim, Seong Gu; Lee, Jeong Ik [KAIST (Korea, Republic of); Cha, Jae Eun [KAERI, Daejeon (Korea, Republic of)

    2016-05-15

    The KAIST research team suggested an innovative concept of SMR called KAIST Micro Modular Reactor (MMR). It is aimed for achieving complete modularization of a nuclear power plant including the Power Conversion Unit (PCU) for simple transportation and installation. In consideration of the maintenance, S-CO{sub 2} has superior characteristic to the light water because it is less corrosive. Table I represents summary of the main design results of KAIST MMR. As such efforts the study on S-CO{sub 2} turbomachinery has been actively conducted because the S-CO{sub 2} Brayton cycle operates under extreme conditions such as high rotational speed, high pressure, and dramatic change of thermodynamic properties near the critical point (30.98 .deg. C, 7377kPa). To achieve higher thermal efficiency, the operation near the critical point is prerequisite in the S-CO{sub 2} Brayton cycle. For these reasons, research works on the S-CO{sub 2} turbomachinery naturally have been focused on the compressor which operates near the critical point. Due to the absence of loss models in S-CO{sub 2} field, loss models with air turbine were first utilized to design and predict the off design performance of a S-CO{sub 2} turbine. To check propriety of the code logic the code results compared with experimental data measured in air condition. The predicted values showed good agreement with the experiment data. Lastly, performance maps for S-CO{sub 2} turbine for the MMR were generated with change of mass flow rate and rotational speed.

  15. Two-way Fluid-Structure Interaction Simulation of a Micro Horizontal Axis Wind Turbine

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yi-Bao Chen

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available A two-way Fluid-Structure Interaction (FSI analyses performed on a micro horizontal axis wind turbine (HAWT which coupled the CFX solver with Structural solver in ANSYS Workbench was conducted in this paper. The partitioned approach-based non-conforming mesh methods and the k-ε turbulence model were adopted to perform the study. Both the results of one-way and two-way FSI analyses were presented and compared with each other, and discrepancy of the results, especially the mechanical properties, were analysed. Grid convergence which is crucial to the results was performed, and the relationship between the inner flow field domain (rotational domain and the number of grids (number of cells, elements was verified for the first time. Dynamical analyses of the wind turbine were conducted using the torque as a reference value, to verify the rationality of the model which dominates the accuracy of results. The optimal case was verified and used to conduct the study, thus, the results derived from the simulation of the FSI are accurate and credible.

  16. Does humidification improve the micro Gas Turbine cycle? Thermodynamic assessment based on Sankey and Grassmann diagrams

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Montero Carrero, Marina; De Paepe, Ward; Bram, Svend; Parente, Alessandro; Contino, Francesco

    2017-01-01

    Highlights: •The Sankey and Grassmann diagrams of an mGT and an mHAT are drawn and presented. •Water injection leads to a 1.4% mGT electrical efficiency increase. •The saturator acts as an aftercooler enabling greater heat recovery in the recuperator. •In the saturator there is an enthalpy gain but a net exergy loss due to evaporation. •The total exergy efficiency of the mGT and mHAT are 35.7% and 30.6% respectively. -- Abstract: Despite appearing as a promising technology for decentralised Combined Heat and Power (CHP), the rather low electrical efficiency of micro Gas Turbines (mGTs) prevents them from being attractive for users with a variable heat demand. Hot water injection in mGTs, achieved by transforming the cycle into a micro Humid Air Turbine (mHAT), allows increasing the electrical efficiency of these units in moments of low heat demand—therefore decoupling heat and electricity production. This paper introduces and compares the Sankey (enthalpy flow) and Grassmann (exergy flow) diagrams of an mGT based on the Turbec T100 and the corresponding mHAT cycle. Results show that the electrical efficiency of the T100 increases by 1.4% absolute points with water injection, while the total exergy efficiency decreases by 5.1%. Although in the saturation tower there is an enthalpy gain, exergy actually decreases in this component due to the increase in entropy related to the evaporation of water. The benefits of water injection mostly rely on the increased heat capacity of the air-vapour mixture, the lower fuel consumption, the larger amount of heat recovered in the recuperator and the reduced power required in the compressor.

  17. Research progress of siloxane removal from biogas

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gao Ruiling

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Siloxanes in biogas are detrimental to engine, turbine, fuel cell, etc., thus it is necessary to remove siloxanes from biogas before biogas high-value utilization. At present, there are few domestic researches and related reports in view of siloxanes removal from biogas. This paper introduces the property of siloxanes as well as sampling and analysis method, and then presents the research progress of siloxanes removal from biogas. Three commercial technologies overseas are adsorption, absorption and cryogenic condensation. Among them, adsorption on activated carbon is the most widely used method. Other technologies, such as biological removal, catalytic processes, membranes, source controlling, etc. are under exploration and development. At last, this paper summarizes the advantages and disadvantages of siloxanes removal technologies as well as the applicability and analyzes the future research trend and emphasis. This paper could provide a reference in the field of biogas high-value utilization.

  18. Performance of a prototype micro wind turbine in the manmade wind field from air conditioner of buildings

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    K. H. Goh

    2012-03-01

    Full Text Available Harnessing waste energy from the manmade air fields of buildings presents a new area of renewable energy to explore. Due to the unpredictability of the natural wind, this study is to evaluate the practicality for harnessing waste energy from the air conditioner exhaust units which are a more constant and predictable source available in the buildings. A prototype of the micro wind turbine has been designed to minimize the negative effect of the exhaust sources. After the micro wind turbine was manufactured, the performance of the turbine was tested in the selected air conditioner exhaust unit. Increasing the rotor solidity and decreasing the resistance of the generator contribute to improved starting torque and decreased generator break in torque respectively in the design. The power generation of the micro wind turbine increases with an increase of the rotor speed. The 24-hour operation of the prototype presents an observation for both exhaust performance and power generation prediction when the prototype is mounted on the exhaust unit.

  19. Biogas barometer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anon.

    2004-01-01

    Unlike the other renewable energy sectors, biogas production did not result from concerns over energy but rather from environmental preoccupations (elimination of pollution, treatment of waste, control of greenhouse gas emissions). Biogas produced in this manner constitutes a sizeable and renewable deposit, with European production (EU 15) in the region of 3219 ktoe in 2003. (author)

  20. About real cost calculations for biogas from vinasse biodigestion and its energy utilization

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Salomon, K.R. [Universidade Federal de Alagoas (UFAL), Maceio, AL (Brazil)]. E-mail: kaka_salomon@yahoo.com.br; Lora , E.E.S.; Rocha, M.H. [Universidade Federal de Itajuba (UNIFEI), MG (Brazil). Thermal Systems Study Group]. E-mails: electo@unifei.edu.br; mateus.rocha@unifei.edu.br

    2008-07-01

    The sharp increase in ethanol production has drawn attention to the increase in the production of n residues, mainly stillage, a by-product from the ethanol agro-industry. As it is a highly polluting effluent that is generated in great volumes, its transport and disposal is not simple. Stillage Is a product that results from the distillation and fermentation of the sugarcane in the process of ethanol production. Today there are new environmental standards that restrict the disposal of the stillage in the soil. The anaerobic biodigestion comes as an alternative treatment for the stillage. One of the advantages of the biodigestion is that the stillage fertilization potential continues to be the same after the process and, this way, the effluent can be taken to the fields through fertirrigation. The main advantages are the conservation of the nutrients, mainly phosphor and nitrogen contents, and the increase in the pH for the application in the soil. This paper presents a methodology for the calculation of the biogas cost obtained from stillage biodigestion, considering the benefits of the fertirrigation with the effluent generated in the digester. Later an analysis of the economical feasibility of the use of the biogas obtained from the stillage anaerobic digestion in different scenarios is carried out, among them there are: electric power generation with alternative internal combustion, with gas turbines and micro-turbines, with the 'substituted' bagasse burned together with the biogas in the boilers, with the sales of the substituted bagasse (for electric power generation in another unit) and with the use of the biogas in spray dryers with the subsequent sales of dried yeasts. It is also considered an analysis under an environmental point of view of the use of the biogas that includes the possibility of selling the certificates of avoided emissions (carbon credits) due to the use of the biogas in substitution to fossil fuels. The most important results

  1. Start-up and Self-sustain Test of 500 W Ultra-Micro Gas Turbine Generator

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Seo, Jeong Min; Park, Jun Young; Choi, Bum Seog

    2013-01-01

    This paper provides the performance test for start-up and self-sustaining of 500W ultra-micro gas turbine (UMGT) generator. Each component of UMGT, a centrifugal compressor, a radial turbine, an annular combustor and a shaft is already designed, manufactured and tested to meet design requirements in previous researches. However, they are not tested to work in an integrate system. Currently, integrated test unit with a compressor, a combustor and a turbine, is developed to find the proper condition of start-up and self-sustain. Ignition sequence depending on rotating speed is designed. Performance test for start-up and self-sustain is designed based on the ignition possible condition. An air impingement starter and a hot bulb inginer are applied. LPG is used as main fuel

  2. Experimental and Numerical Vibrational Analysis of a Horizontal-Axis Micro-Wind Turbine

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Francesco Castellani

    2018-02-01

    Full Text Available Micro-wind turbines are energy conversion technologies strongly affected by fatigue, as a result of their size and the variability of loads, induced by the unsteady wind conditions, and modulated by a very high rotational speed. This work is devoted to the experimental and numerical characterization of the aeroelastic behavior of a test-case horizontal-axis wind turbine (HAWT with a 2 m rotor diameter and a maximum power production of 3 kW. The experimental studies have been conducted at the wind tunnel of the University of Perugia and consisted of accelerometer measurements at the tower and the tail fin. The numerical setup was the Fatigue, Aerodynamics, Structures, and Turbulence (FAST code for aeroelastic simulations, which was fed as input with the same wind conditions employed in the wind tunnel tests. The experimental and numerical analyses were coupled with the perspective of establishing a reciprocal feedback, and this has been accomplished. On one hand, the numerical model is important for interpreting the measured spectrum of tower oscillations and, for example, inspires the detection of a mass unbalance at the blades. On the other hand, the measurements inspire the question of how to interpret the interaction between the blades and the tower. The experimental spectrum of tail fin vibrations indicates that secondary elements, in terms of weight, can also transmit to the tower, giving meaningful contributions to the vibration spectra. Therefore, an integrated numerical and experimental approach is not only valuable but is also unavoidable, to fully characterize the dynamics of small wind-energy conversion systems.

  3. Robust Speed Tracking Control for a Micro Turbine as a Distributed Energy Resource via Feedback Domination and Disturbance Observer

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ancheng Xu

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Micro turbine (MT is characterized with complex dynamics, parameter uncertainties, and variable working conditions. In this paper, a novel robust controller is investigated for a single-shaft micro turbine as a distributed energy resource by integrating a feedback domination control technique and a feedforward disturbance compensation. An active estimation process of the mismatched disturbances is firstly enabled by constructing a disturbance observer. Secondly, we adopt a feedback domination technique, rather than popularly used feedback linearization methods, to handle the system nonlinearities. In an explicit way, the composite controllers are then derived by recursive design based on Lyapunov theory while a global input-to-state stability can be guaranteed. Abundant comparison simulation results are provided to demonstrate the effectiveness of the proposed scheme, which not only perform an improved closed-loop control performance comparing to all existing results, but also render a simple control law which will ease its practical implementation.

  4. Humidified micro gas turbines for domestic users: An economic and primary energy savings analysis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Montero Carrero, Marina; De Paepe, Ward; Bram, Svend; Musin, Frédéric; Parente, Alessandro; Contino, Francesco

    2016-01-01

    Micro Gas Turbines (mGTs) offer valuable advantages for small-scale Combined Heat and Power (CHP) production compared to reciprocating Internal Combustion Engines (ICEs): lower maintenance costs per kWh_e, cleaner exhaust, lower vibration levels and concentration of the residual heat in a single source (the exhaust gases). Nevertheless, mGTs have lower electrical efficiencies, fact that has prevented them from penetrating in the CHP market. Hot liquid water injection—by means of a saturation tower within the micro Humid Air Turbine (mHAT) cycle—allows both improving the flexibility of heat production and the electrical efficiency of mGTs; two qualities that if enhanced would increase the economic feasibility of the technology. Although the advantages of mHAT technology have been proven from a thermodynamic point of view, its economic performance has not yet been fully investigated. This paper presents a comparison of the economic profitability and the primary energy savings of an mGT, an ICE and an mHAT unit operating in real network conditions. Our aim is to investigate whether the increase in flexibility and electrical efficiency, achieved when transforming an mGT into an mHAT, allows this technology to economically outperform ICEs. Results show that the three units are viable in scenarios with high electricity and low natural gas prices. For the cases in which investment is feasible, the revenues with mHAT are the highest: thanks to their flexibility in heat generation, mHAT units are able to run all year long. On the other hand, the greatest primary energy savings are achieved with ICE units—which have the highest overall efficiencies—while mHAT savings are substantially lower. - Highlights: • We analyse the economics and primary energy savings of an ICE, an mGT and an mHAT. • We consider hourly heat and electricity demand profiles and 25 price scenarios. • Our analysis is carried out for two domestic users with distinctive demand profiles. • If

  5. Multicriteria analysis of the hybrid systems with biogas: fuzzy set and rules; Analise multicriterio de sistemas hibridos com biogas: conjuntos e regras fuzzy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Barin, A.; Canha, L.; Abaide, A.; Magnago, K. [Federal University of Santa Maria (UFSM), RS (Brazil)], E-mail: chbarin@gmail.com; Machado, R. [Universidade de Sao Paulo (EESC/USP), Sao Carlos, SP (Brazil). Escola de Engenharia], E-mail: rquadros@sel.eesc.usp.br

    2009-07-01

    A multicriteria analysis to manage de renewable sources of energy is presented, identifying the most appropriate hybrid system to be used as distributed generation of electric energy using biogas. In this methodology, fuzzy sets and rules are defined simulated in the software MATLAB, where the main characteristics of the operation and application of hybrid systems of electric power generation are considered. The main generation system, that can use the biogas, as micro turbines and fuel cells, are evaluated. Afterwards, the systems of energy storage are analyzed: flywheel, H{sub 2} storage and conventional and redox batteries. For the development of the proposed methodology, it was considered the following criteria: efficiency, costs, technological maturity, environmental impacts, the amplitude of the system action (power range), useful life, co-generation possibility and operation temperature. A classification, by priority order, for the use of the sources and storages associated to the environment and cost scenarios is also presented.

  6. Micro-hydrokinetic turbine potential for sustainable power generation in Malaysia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Salleh, M. B.; Kamaruddin, N. M.; Mohamed-Kassim, Z.

    2018-05-01

    Micro-hydrokinetic turbine (μ-HKT) technology is considered a viable option for sustainable, green and low cost power production. In recent years, there is growing number of research and development on this technology to replace conventional power production systems such as fossil fuel as well as to provide off-grid electrification to communities in remote areas. This paper provides an overview of μ-HKT system, the implementation of the technology and the potential of using μ-HKT in Malaysia. A review on the climate in Malaysia shows that its average annual rainfall is higher than the world’s average annual rainfall. It contributes to the total hydropower resource of about 29,000 MW which is available all year-round. Currently, hydropower resource contributes only 7.4% of the total electrical power production in Malaysia but is expected to increase with the main contribution coming from μ-HKT. However, the μ-HKT technology has not been adopted in Malaysia due to some challenges that hinder the development of the system. This paper reviews the μ-HKT technology and its potential for application in Malaysia, particularly in remote areas.

  7. Finite micro-tab system for load control on a wind turbine

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bach, A B; Lennie, M; Nayeri, C N; Paschereit, C O; Pechlivanoglou, G

    2014-01-01

    Finite micro-tabs have been investigated experimentally to evaluate the potential for load control on wind turbines. Two dimensional full span, as well as multiple finite tabs of various aspect ratios have been studied on an AH93W174 airfoil at different chord wise positions. A force balance was used to measure the aerodynamic loads. Furthermore, the wake vortex system consisting of the Karman vortex street as well as the tab tip vortices was analyzed with a 12-hole probe and hot wire anemometry. Finally, conventional oil paint as well as a quantitative digital flow analysis technique called SMARTviz were used to visualize the flow around the finite tab configurations. Results have shown that the devices are an effective solution to alleviate the airfoils overall load. The influence of the tab height, tab position as well as the finite tab aspect ratio on the lift and lift to drag ratio have been evaluated. It could be shown, that the lift difference can either be varied by changing the tab height as well as by altering the aspect ratio of the finite tabs. The drag of a two-dimensional flap is directly associated with the vortex street, while in the case of the finite tab, the solidity ratio of the tabs has the strongest effect on the drag. Therefore, the application of a finite tab system showed to improve the lift to drag ratio

  8. Electric power production from the biogas resulting of the sewer treatment: pilot project of the Sewer Treatment Station (ETE) in the Barueri city in the Great Sao Paulo; Producao de energia eletrica a partir do biogas resultante do tratamento de esgoto: projeto piloto na E.T.E. de Barueri na Grande Sao Paulo

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Coelho, Suani Teixeira; Martins, Osvaldo Stella; Guardabassi, Patricia; Costa, David Freire da; Avellar, Luiz Henrique Nobre [Centro Nacional de Referencia em Biomassa (CENBIO), Sao Paulo, SP (Brazil)]. E-mail: suani@iee.usp.br; Krovosac, Antonio Carlos Bacic [Companhia de Saneamento Basico do Estado de Sao Paulo, SP (Brazil)]. E-mail: acbacic@sabesp.com.br

    2002-07-01

    This paper describes a system for biogas conversion to electric power and heat by using a micro turbine and three Otto cycle engines. The benefit of the energy from a treatment process residue aims the improvement of the global performance of the system, reducing the the emission of the greenhouse gases and contributing to the global energetic efficiency of the sewage treatment station and the basic sanitation in Brazil.

  9. Micro-gas turbine performance optimization by off-design characteristics prediction. Paper no. IGEC-1-ID24

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Asgari, M.B.; Pahlevanzadeh, H.

    2005-01-01

    The design characteristics of a microturbine can be obtained according to geometrical features of major modules like compressor and turbine. Ambient temperature and pressure affect on micro-gas turbine performance. The customer requirements may be introduced some constraints on micro-gas turbine parameters. This work presents a program in Matlab to study the effect of surge margin on the behavior of the engine. It has been shown that the optimum performance could be obtained at 0.83-designed speed. Around the optimized speed, a marginal envelope was obtained. The results show that the fuel consumption 61% of design point, the power output 78% of design point and the efficiency 20.5%. It is easy to show that the principal results of simulation present an optimum region of operation rather than the one point for optimum conditions. Finally, a future work for studying the influence of heat exchanger on efficiency and development of a model of the power electronics so that the complete system can be simulated from power generation is suggested. (author)

  10. Power generation by high head water in a building using micro hydro turbine-a greener approach.

    Science.gov (United States)

    M M S R S, Bhargav; V, Ratna Kishore; S P, Anbuudayasankar; K, Balaji

    2016-05-01

    Demand for green energy production is arising all over the world. A lot of emphasis is laid in making the buildings green. Even a small amount of energy savings made contribute to saving the environment. In this study, an idea is proposed and studied to extract power from the high head water in the pipelines of a building. A building of height 15 m is considered for this study. Water flowing in the pipe has sufficient energy to run a micro hydro turbine. The feasibility of producing electrical energy from the energy of pipe water is found. The motivation is to find the feasibility of generating power using a low-cost turbine. The experimental setup consists of micro turbine of 135 mm diameter coupled to a 12-V DC generator; LEDs and resistors are employed to validate the results. The theoretical calculations were presented using the fundamental equations of fluid mechanics. The theoretical results are validated using experimental and numerical results using CFD simulation. In addition, exergy analysis has been carried out to quantify the irreversibilities during the process in the system.

  11. CFD Modelling of a Pump as Turbine (PAT with Rounded Leading Edge Impellers for Micro Hydro Systems

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ismail Mohd Azlan

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available A Pump as Turbine (PAT is one of micro hydro system components that is used to substitute a commercially available turbine due to its wide availability and low acquisition cost. However, PAT have high hydraulic losses due to differences in pump-turbine operation and hydraulic design. The fluid flowing inside the PAT is subjected to hydraulic losses due to the longer flow passage and unmatched fluid flow within the wall boundaries. This paper presents the effect of rounding the impeller leading edges of the pump on turbine performance. A CFD model of a PAT was designed to simulate virtual performance for the analysis. The aim of this study is to observe the internal hydraulic performance resulting from the changes in the performance characteristics. Highest efficiency was recorded at 17.0 l/s, an increase of 0.18%. The simulation results reveal that there is an improvement in hydraulic performance at overflow operation. The velocity vector visualization shows that there is a reduction in wake and consequently less flow separation along impeller flow passages. However, adjusting the sensitive impeller inlet geometry will also alter the velocity inlet vector and consequently change the velocity triangles for the turbo machinery system.

  12. Design, Modeling, and CFD Analysis of a Micro Hydro Pelton Turbine Runner: For the Case of Selected Site in Ethiopia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tilahun Nigussie

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper addresses the design, modeling, and performance analysis of a Pelton turbine using CFD for one of the selected micro hydro potential sites in Ethiopia to meet the requirements of the energy demands. The site has a net head of 47.5 m and flow rate of 0.14 m3/s. The design process starts with the design of initial dimensions for the runner based on different literatures and directed towards the modeling of bucket using CATIA V5. The performance of the runner has been analyzed in ANSYS CFX (CFD under given loading conditions of the turbine. Consequently, the present study has also the ambition to reduce the size of the runner to have a cost effective runner design. The case study described in this paper provides an example of how the size of turbine can affect the efficiency of the turbine. These were discussed in detail which helps in understanding of the underlying fluid dynamic design problem as an aid for improving the efficiency and lowering the manufacturing cost for future study. The result showed that the model is highly dependent on the size and this was verified and discussed properly using flow visualization of the computed flow field and published result.

  13. Biogas to syngas: flexible on-cell micro-reformer and NiSn bimetallic nanoparticle implanted solid oxide fuel cells for efficient energy conversion

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hua, B.; Li, M.; Sun, Y.-F.; Zhang, Y.-Q.; Yan, N.; Chen, J.; Li, J.; Etsell, T.; Sarkar, P.; Luo, J.L.

    2016-01-01

    Solid oxide fuel cells (SOFCs) deliver an energy-efficient and eco-friendly pathway to convert biogas into syngas and electricity. However, many problems still need to be solved before their commercialization. Some of the disadvantages of biogas SOFC technology include coking and sulfur poisoning

  14. Performance Analysis of a MCFC/MGT Hybrid Power System Bi-Fueled by City Gas and Biogas

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hongyu Huang

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available This study evaluates the performance of a molten carbonate fuel cell and micro gas turbine (MCFC/MGT hybrid power system bi-fueled by city gas and biogas. The performance of the MCFC/MGT hybrid power system and MFCF/MGT hybrid power system response have been investigated experimentally and numerically. Results show that the MCFC, steam reformer, and catalytic combustor models are in agreement with the experimental results of the system fueled by city gas only and the system bi-fueled by city gas and biogas. The MFCF/MGT hybrid power system can have manifest operation with the addition of biogas at a flow rate of up to 150.0 Nm3·h−1, which is about 50% of the overall input heat value. In addition, the MCFC and MGT outputs decrease with the increase in the flow rate of added biogas, with an overall power generation efficiency ranging from 39.0% to 42.0%. Furthermore, the MCFC/MGT hybrid power system can be operated stably both at low amplitude with slow current change and large amplitude with rapid power conditions. Finally, the MCFC/MGT hybrid system bi-fueled by city gas and biogas may be applicable to the energy supply of the micro–grid network.

  15. Evaluation for turbine implementation for a micro hydroelectric power plant; Avaliacao para implantacao de uma turbina para uma microcentral hidreletrica

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Alves, Gilberto Manoel; Halmeman, Maria Cristina Rodrigues; Oliveira, Franciene Gois [Universidade Estadual Paulista (UNESP), Botucatu, SP (Brazil). Programa de Pos-graduacao em Energia na Agricultura; Seraphim, Odivaldo Jose [Universidade Estadual Paulista (UNESP), Botucatu, SP (Brazil). Dep. de Engenharia Rural

    2008-07-01

    In this work it was analyzed the viability technical and economical of turbines to micro hydroelectric headquarters as an alternative to consumers not served by electric energy in isolated areas. It was used a experimental methods to create an estimative and a evaluation of the hydroelectric potential, through hydrological criteria in the area and, thus, be able to note if there is viability for its use. Some kinds of turbines made by the national industry were verified, analyzing the technical and economical characteristics and in function of the hydro energetic-conditions of the area. The results shoed that a micro-headquarters serves the necessities and expectations of the owner at the electric energy supply. It was noted that the expenses are smaller comparing to the other expenses know in the literature, from national factories. Even though the limiting factor is the distance from the production to the consumer, the potency of 18.4 kw was enough to satisfy the local necessities. The installation of de micro headquarters will bring enhances and facilities by the fact that it represents a big social importance for the area. (author)

  16. Study of Cycling Air-Cooling System with a Cold Accumulator for Micro Gas-Turbine Installations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ochkov, V. F.; Stepanova, T. A.; Katenev, G. M.; Tumanovskii, V. A.; Borisova, P. N.

    2018-05-01

    Using the cycling air-cooling systems of the CTIC type (Combustion Turbine Inlet Cooling) with a cold accumulator in a micro gas-turbine installation (micro-GTI) to preserve its capacity under the seasonal temperature rise of outside air is described. Water ice is used as the body-storage in the accumulators, and ice water (water at 0.5-1.0°C) is used as the body that cools air. The ice water circulates between the accumulator and the air-water heat exchanger. The cold accumulator model with renewable ice resources is considered. The model contains the heat-exchanging tube lattice-evaporator covered with ice. The lattice is cross-flowed with water. The criterion heat exchange equation that describes the process in the cold accumulator under consideration is presented. The calculations of duration of its active operation were performed. The dependence of cold accumulator service life on water circulation rate was evaluated. The adequacy of the design model was confirmed experimentally in the mock-up of the cold accumulator with a refrigerating machine periodically creating a 200 kg ice reserve in the reservoir-storage. The design model makes it possible to determine the weight of ice reserve of the discharged cold accumulator for cooling the cycle air in the operation of a C-30 type micro- GTI produced by the Capstone Company or micro-GTIs of other capacities. Recommendations for increasing the working capacity of cold accumulators of CTIC-systems of a micro-GTI were made.

  17. An experimental investigation of pump as turbine for micro hydro application

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Raman, N; Hussein, I; Palanisamy, K; Foo, B

    2013-01-01

    This paper presents the results of an experimental investigation of a centrifugal pump working as turbine (PAT). An end suction centrifugal pump was tested in turbine mode at PAT experimental rig installed in the Mechanical Engineering Laboratory of Universiti Tenaga Nasional. The pump with specific speed of 15.36 (m, m 3 /s) was used in the experiment and the performance characteristic of the PAT was determined. The experiment showed that a centrifugal pump can satisfactorily be operated as turbine without any mechanical problems. As compared to pump operation, the pump was found to operate at higher heads and discharge values in turbine mode. The best efficiency point (BEP) in turbine mode was found to be lower than BEP in pump mode. The results obtained were also compared to the work of some previous researchers.

  18. EU Agro Biogas Project

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Amon, T.; Mayr, H.; Eder, M.; Hobbs, P.; Rao Ravella, S.; Roth, U.; Niebaum, A.; Doehler, H.; Weiland, P.; Abdoun, E.; Moser, A.; Lyson, M.; Heiermann, M.; Plöchl, M.; Budde, J.; Schattauer, A.; Suarez, T.; Möller, H.; Ward, A.; Hillen, F.; Sulima, P.; Oniszk-Polplawska, A.; Krampe, P.; Pastorek, Z.; Kara, J.; Mazancova, J.; Dooren, van H.J.C.; Wim, C.; Gioelli, F.; Balsari, P.

    2009-01-01

    EU-AGRO-BIOGAS is a European Biogas initiative to improve the yield of agricultural biogas plants in Europe, to optimise biogas technology and processes and to improve the efficiency in all parts of the production chain from feedstock to biogas utilisation. Leading European research institutions and

  19. Micro turbine development with brazilian technology; Desenvolvimento de microturbina com tecnologia nacional

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pereira, A.C.; Sanches, M.S. [Multivacuo Industria e Comercio de Filtros Ltda., Campinas, SP (Brazil); Maciel, H.S. [Centro Tecnico Aeroespacial (CTA-ITA), Sao Jose dos Campos, SP (Brazil). Inst. Tecnologico de Aeronautica; Moura, N.R. [PETROBRAS, Rio de Janeiro, RJ (Brazil). Centro de Pesquisas (CENPES); Campos, M.F.; Furini, R. [PETROBRAS, Rio de Janeiro, RJ (Brazil)

    2004-07-01

    One of the most strategical factor in the field of the generation of electric energy, especially for power levels of 500 kW or higher, is the domain of the gas turbine technology and, in this aspect, few countries in the world withhold it. The objectives of the present work are: to project, to calculate, and to construct a gas turbine, based in the use of the natural gas as combustible. To accomplish these objectives the project was planned to be developed in two phases; in the first one, we envisage the set up of a concept test unit, for evidencing the capability of the involved team and of the national suppliers for manufacturing and providing the gas turbine parts. The second stage was planned to project and to construct a prototype unit for certification of the Brazilian gas turbine, aiming finally at the industrial production and commercialization, to attend the marked demand for gas turbines of power levels within the range of 500 kW to 2000 kW, using natural gas as fuel. In this work we show that the results obtained up to now - when we are in the final of the first phase - prove the existence of national technological strength for producing and supplying key parts of gas turbines, as well as qualified human resources to develop and dominate the complete gas turbine technology, in a sufficiently short period. (author)

  20. EU Agro Biogas Project

    OpenAIRE

    Amon, T.; Mayr, H.; Eder, M.; Hobbs, P.; Rao Ravella, S.; Roth, U.; Niebaum, A.; Doehler, H.; Weiland, P.; Abdoun, E.; Moser, A.; Lyson, M.; Heiermann, M.; Plöchl, M.; Budde, J.

    2009-01-01

    EU-AGRO-BIOGAS is a European Biogas initiative to improve the yield of agricultural biogas plants in Europe, to optimise biogas technology and processes and to improve the efficiency in all parts of the production chain from feedstock to biogas utilisation. Leading European research institutions and universities are cooperating with key industry partners in order to work towards sustainable biogas production in Europe. Fourteen partners from eight European countries are involved in the EU-AGR...

  1. Si Micro-turbine by Proton BeamWriting and Porous Silicon Micromachining

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rajta, I.; Szilasi, S.Z.; Fekete, Z.

    2008-01-01

    Complete text of publication follows. A 3D Si micro-turbine characterized by high aspect ratio vertical walls was formed by the combination of proton beam writing (PBW) and subsequent selective porous Si (PS) etching. Crystal damages generated by the implanted protons result in increased resistivity, thereby limit or even prevent the current to flow through the implanted area during electrochemical etching. Characteristic feature of the proposed process is that the shape of the micro electromechanical (MEMS) components is defined by two implantation energies. A higher energy is applied for defining the housing of the device while the lower energy is used to write the moving components. The implantation energies were selected such as to result appropriate difference between the two projected ranges, thereby providing structures with different height after development. The thickness of the walls of the moving component and the isotropic etching profile of the electrochemical PS formation was also taken into consideration. The electrochemical etching is driven until the sacrificial PS layer completely under etches the moving components, but the etch-front does not reach the bottom of the housing. Therefore, the dissolution of PS results in a ready-to-operate device with a released moving component embedded in the cavity of the housing. The operation of the encapsulated device fabricated by the two-energy implantation is successfully demonstrated (Fig. 1). Rotation speed of the device is estimated in the range of thousands rpm, however, further analysis of the novel structure optimized for performance and MEMS compatible assembly will be done and precise characteristics will be determined by adequate optical read-out method. The feasibility of Proton Beam Writing combined with Porous Si Micromachining and conventional Si processing steps was successfully demonstrated by fabricating Si microturbine chip. The aligned, two-energy proton beam implantation can provide high

  2. Analysis of Indirectly Fired Gas Turbine for Wet Biomass Fuels Based on commercial micro gas turbine data

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Elmegaard, Brian; Qvale, Einar Bjørn

    2002-01-01

    energy, which has been the practice up to now, the low temperature exhaust gases after having served as drying agent, are lead out into the environment; a simple change of process integration that has a profound effect on the performance. Four different cycles have been studied. These are the Simple IFGT...... fueled by dry biomass assuming negligible pressure loss in the heat exchanger and the combustion chamber, the IFGT fueled with wet biomass (Wet IFGT) assuming no pressure losses, and finally both the Simple and the Wet IFGT incorporating typical data for pressure losses of commercially available micro...

  3. Experience in operation and maintenance of systems of electrical generation by micro turbine: Transierra S.A.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Herrera, Franz Miranda [TRANSIERRA S.A., Santa Cruz (Bolivia)

    2009-07-01

    This work tries to share the experience of throughout six years, turned into experience of operation and maintenance of micro turbines for generation electrical; same those are used in the stations of measurement of Transierra S.A. In the initial stage it would describe to the ways and characteristic operative qualities for each one of the Micro Turbines in each scene that differs throughout the four stations that the GASYRG composes, taking like game the analysis of the thermal efficiency. Next a particular description of happened events would be realized in the six translated years in faults of general and particular way, centering the attention to the analysis of the resources provided by the controllers of the equipment through registry of events. Analyses that finally would be translated in solutions to short and medium term obtaining operative continuity and provision of electrical energy indispensable for the systems of measurement and control of the stations. Finally a description of all the particular solutions and modifications that went giving problems of design which they were not contemplated by the manufacturer emanated of the necessity and shaped with the aid of the same knowledge of the equipment. (author)

  4. 3. report of study group 6.2 ''new market for gas - technology evaluation'': factor analysis on penetration of gas cooling; biogas, a renewable energy source; micro- and mini- combined heat and power generation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2000-07-01

    Over the past ten years, the hoped for growth of an international air conditioning market fueled by natural gas, has not lived up to expectations. The purpose of this report is to assess causal factors and to pinpoint any key areas for corrective action, if our successes are to be enhanced. We started by evaluating the conditions in the Japanese market that allowed for the most successful penetration of the gas cooling market in the world, and then built a model that describes those conditions. Next we examined the market criteria and constructed models for two cities in the U.S., and for France and Spain, and then compared the results against the Japanese model. Biogas is the name given to a gas mixture with high methane content resulting from the bacteriological fermentation of organic material in an anaerobic environment. In addition to combustible methane gas, the mixture contains carbon dioxide, water and lesser amounts of other components. Today, there is an increased demand in some of the worlds' markets for environmentally friendly and sustainable energy systems. The fact that biogas is just as clean as natural gas and is renewable can be used by the natural gas industry in their efforts to increase gas demand. As natural gas can benefit from biogas, biogas can also benefit from natural gas. Biogas needs the support of the resources of the natural gas industry, such as infrastructure, marketing and research to become one, albeit small, part of our energy supply. IGU SG 6.2 presents in this paper a short description of the possible uses of biogas, a description of the biogas process, the different technologies for production, cleaning and upgrading biogas to natural gas quality, and some of the marketing concepts that have been successfully employed. A world-wide trend towards decentralized power generation is being observed in those countries where electricity is generated in centralized fossil-fuelled power stations. This is due to a variety of

  5. Biogas upgrading to biomethane. Proceedings; Biogasaufbereitung zu Biomethan. Tagungsband

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2008-12-05

    Within the 6th Hanauer Dialogue 'Biogas upgrading to biomethane' at 21st February, 2008, the following lectures were held: (a) Processing of biogas - an introduction (Michael Beil); (b) The climate protecting targets of the Federal Republic of Germany: Which role will play the upgrading of biogas, and which legal boundary conditions are created by the Federal Government? (Uwe Holzhammer); (c) Future strategy: CH{sub 4} grids (Juergen Schmid); (d) Biogas upgrading and biomethane utilization in Sweden (Anneli Petersson); (e) Biogas upgrading and utilization of bio methane in Switzerland (Arthur Wellinger); (f) Biogas upgrading by means of pressure swing adsorption (Alfons Schulte-Schulze Berndt); (g) Biogas upgrading by means of pressurized water washing (Ulf Richter); (h) Biogas upgrading for feeding in public grids. The case of biogas plant Bruck a.d. Leitha (Michael Harasek); (i) Biogas upgrading by means of chemical absorption according to the LP Cooab process (Jerome van Beek); (j) Practical experiences in unpressurized amine washing MT bio methane (Karsten Wuensche); (k) Biogas upgrading by means of organic physical washing with HAASE biogas amplifiers (Roland Kahn); (l) Upgrading using cryogenic technology; the GPP registered -system (Jeroen de Pater); (m) Micro Gas Distribution Systems: Alternatives to biogas upgrading and grid injection (Michael Beil, Bernd Krautkremer); (n) Feeding of exchange gas. The case of project Straelen and Kerpen (Frank Schaefer); (o) Feeding of biogas from the view of grid operators (Norbert Nordmeyer); BIOGASMAX: Biogas as Vehicle Fuel - Market Expansion to 2020 Air Quality (Michael Beil, Uwe Hoffstede); (p) Study: Feeding of biogas into the natural gas distribution system (Fachagentur Nachwachsende Rohstoffe).

  6. Stochastic energy procurement of large electricity consumer considering photovoltaic, wind-turbine, micro-turbines, energy storage system in the presence of demand response program

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nojavan, Sayyad; Aalami, Habib allah

    2015-01-01

    Highlights: • A stochastic energy procurement cost function in presence of DRP is proposed. • The load, price and output power of PV and wind uncertainties are modeled. • Four case studies are used to assess the effects of ESS and DRP on SEPP. • Case 4 is considered the effects of ESS and DRP simultaneously. • The expected energy procurement cost of case 4 is lower than cases 1, 2 and 3. - Abstract: This paper proposes a stochastic energy procurement problem (SEPP) for large electricity consumer (LEC) with multiple energy procurement sources (EPSs) considering the effects of demand response program (DRP) and energy storage system (ESS). The EPSs contain power market (PM), bilateral contracts (BCs), micro-turbines (MTs), and renewable energy sources (RESs). Moreover, the RESs include photovoltaic (PV) systems and wind-turbines (WT). The ESS and DRP are incorporated in the SEPP by the LEC’s decision-maker to reduce the expected energy procurement cost (EEPC). Meanwhile, the uncertainty models of market price, load and RES output power are considered in the SEPP formulation. The error of forecasting of market price, load, temperature and radiation of PV systems are modeled using the normal distribution for generating the related scenarios. Also, the weibull distribution is used to generate variable wind speed scenarios for WT output power uncertainty modeling. Furthermore, the fast forward selection based on Kantorovich distance approach is used for the scenarios reduction. Finally, the influences of ESS and DRP on EEPC are investigated, and four case studies are used to illustrate the capability of the proposed SEPP. The obtained results demonstrate the efficiency of the proposed stochastic program

  7. Modular Approach for the Optimal Wind Turbine Micro Siting Problem through CMA-ES Algorithm (abstract)

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Rodrigues, S.; Bauer, P.; Pierik, J.

    2013-01-01

    Although, only in recent years, northern European countries started to install large offshore wind farms, it is expected that by 2020, several dozens of far and large offshore wind farms (FLOWFs) will be built. These FLOWFs will be constituted of a considerable amount of wind turbines (WTs) packed

  8. An effect of humid climate on micro structure and chemical component of natural composite (Boehmeria nivea-Albizia falcata based wind turbine blade

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sudarsono S.

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available In this work, wind turbine blade NACA 4415 is fabricated from natural composite of Boehmeria nivea and Albizia falcate. The composite fabrication method used is hand lay up method. The aim of the work is to investigate an effect of humid climate of coastal area on micro structure and chemical composition of composite material of the blade. The wind turbine is tested at Pantai Baru, Bantul, Yogyakarta for 5.5 months. The micro structure scanning is performed with Scanning Electron Microscope (SEM and material component is measured with Energy Dispersive X-ray spectrometer (EDS. The samples are tested before and after the use within 5.5 month at the location. The results show that composite material inexperienced interface degradation and insignificant change of micro structure. From EDS test, it is observed that Na filtration reduces C and increases O in composite material after 5.5 months.

  9. An effect of humid climate on micro structure and chemical component of natural composite (Boehmeria nivea-Albizia falcata) based wind turbine blade

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sudarsono, S.; Purwanto; Sudarsono, Johny W.

    2018-02-01

    In this work, wind turbine blade NACA 4415 is fabricated from natural composite of Boehmeria nivea and Albizia falcate. The composite fabrication method used is hand lay up method. The aim of the work is to investigate an effect of humid climate of coastal area on micro structure and chemical composition of composite material of the blade. The wind turbine is tested at Pantai Baru, Bantul, Yogyakarta for 5.5 months. The micro structure scanning is performed with Scanning Electron Microscope (SEM) and material component is measured with Energy Dispersive X-ray spectrometer (EDS). The samples are tested before and after the use within 5.5 month at the location. The results show that composite material inexperienced interface degradation and insignificant change of micro structure. From EDS test, it is observed that Na filtration reduces C and increases O in composite material after 5.5 months.

  10. Counter-rotating type axial flow pump unit in turbine mode for micro grid system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kasahara, R; Takano, G; Komaki, K; Murakami, T; Kanemoto, T

    2012-01-01

    Traditional type pumped storage system contributes to adjust the electric power unbalance between day and night, in general. This serial research proposes the hybrid power system combined the wind power unit with the pump-turbine unit, to provide the constant output for the grid system, even at the suddenly fluctuating/turbulent wind. In the pumping mode, the pump should operate unsteadily at not only the normal but also the partial discharge. The operation may be unstable in the rising portion of the head characteristics at the lower discharge, and/or bring the cavitation at the low suction head. To simultaneously overcome both weak points, the authors have proposed a superior pump unit that is composed of counter-rotating type impellers and a peculiar motor with double rotational armatures. This paper discusses the operation at the turbine mode of the above unit. It is concluded with the numerical simulations that this type unit can be also operated acceptably at the turbine mode, because the unit works so as to coincide the angular momentum change through the front runners/impellers with that thorough the rear runners/impellers, namely to take the axial flow at not only the inlet but also the outlet without the guide vanes.

  11. Biogas Production and Engine Conversion From Diesel Engine to Biogas Engine for Lighting in Rural Area

    OpenAIRE

    Tun, Seint Thandar

    2012-01-01

    The research of alternative fuels implemented in internal combustion engines are becoming the subjects of interest nowadays. This paper describes a production of biogas from cow dung, diesel engine conversion process with piston modification of ZH1115 diesel engine. To produce biogas, the usual practice is to mix water with some organic material, such as cow dung (a free source of the appropriate micro-organisms). The slurry is placed in a leak-proof container (called a digester) and leaves i...

  12. Impact of CO_2-enriched combustion air on micro-gas turbine performance for carbon capture

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Best, Thom; Finney, Karen N.; Ingham, Derek B.; Pourkashanian, Mohamed

    2016-01-01

    Power generation is one of the largest anthropogenic greenhouse gas emission sources; although it is now reducing in carbon intensity due to switching from coal to gas, this is only part of a bridging solution that will require the utilization of carbon capture technologies. Gas turbines, such as those at the UK Carbon Capture Storage Research Centre's Pilot-scale Advanced CO_2 Capture Technology (UKCCSRC PACT) National Core Facility, have high exhaust gas mass flow rates with relatively low CO_2 concentrations; therefore solvent-based post-combustion capture is energy intensive. Exhaust gas recirculation (EGR) can increase CO_2 levels, reducing the capture energy penalty. The aim of this paper is to simulate EGR through enrichment of the combustion air with CO_2 to assess changes to turbine performance and potential impacts on complete generation and capture systems. The oxidising air was enhanced with CO_2, up to 6.29%vol dry, impacting mechanical performance, reducing both engine speed by over 400 revolutions per minute and compression temperatures. Furthermore, it affected complete combustion, seen in changes to CO and unburned hydrocarbon emissions. This impacted on turbine efficiency, which increased specific fuel consumption (by 2.9%). CO_2 enhancement could therefore result in significant efficiency gains for the capture plant. - Highlights: • Experimental investigation of the impact of exhaust gas recirculation (EGR) on GT performance. • Combustion air was enhanced with CO_2 to simulate EGR. • EGR impact was ascertained by CO and unburned hydrocarbon changes. • Primary factor influencing performance was found to be oxidiser temperature. • Impact of CO_2 enhancement on post-combustion capture efficiency.

  13. Biogas handbook (pilot edition)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mazumdar, A [comp.

    1982-01-01

    The theory of biogas production; factors affecting digester design; details of several biogas plants of India and China including their construction, operation, and maintenance; designs of biogas utilization devices; and the use of digested sludge as fertilizer or animal feed are discussed. Included is a section listing the causes and known solutions of technical problems associated with the construction and operation of biogas plants and appliances. (CK)

  14. Utilization of biogas

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Walsh, J L; Ross, C C; Smith, M S; Harper, S R [Georgia Tech Research Corp., Atlanta, GA (USA)

    1989-01-01

    A comprehensive study of the systems and equipment required to convert biogas into useful thermal and/or electrical energy was conducted, and the results published in the Handbook on Biogas Utilization (Walsh et al., Georgia Institute of Technology, Atlanta, GA, 1988). The physical, chemical and combustion characteristics of biogas, and the impact of these characteristics on both new and modified combustion equipment, were considered. The study also included consideration of auxiliary equipment for biogas collection, clean-up, compression and storage. (author).

  15. Aspects of biogas utilisation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Luning, L.

    1992-01-01

    Utilisation of biogas has received considerable attention over the last decade, its full potential has not been reached however. The paper discusses various options for utilisation of biogas and the limitations that may occur as far as they are associated with the characteristics of biogas. As a result the prospects for the future are presented. (au)

  16. Utilization of gas micro turbines in the PETROBRAS remote unattended stations; Utilizacao de microturbinas a gas nas instalacoes desassistidas da PETROBRAS

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pavinatto, Eduardo F.; Salles, Fabio P.; Peres, Marcelo B.; Pereira, Leandro S.; Reis, Paulo F.I. dos [PETROBRAS, Rio de Janeiro, RJ (Brazil)

    2004-07-01

    This paper presents PETROBRAS experience in the utilization of gas micro turbines in the production of gas and oil located in off-shore fields and gas metering stations of the transportation system. Available alternatives will be presented for the electrical power supply of these units and they will be outstanding the acquired benefits by using gas micro turbines. Also will be presented the performance test results conducted by CENPES technical staff. Finally, we will present an analysis of the observed acting of these equipment after they have been installed in the units of PETROBRAS under the reliability point of view, maintenance rates, adaptation to the local environmental conditions, behavior of the electric system and operational versatility. (author)

  17. Optimized Fuzzy-Cuckoo Controller for Active Power Control of Battery Energy Storage System, Photovoltaic, Fuel Cell and Wind Turbine in an Isolated Micro-Grid

    OpenAIRE

    Mohsen Einan; Hossein Torkaman; Mahdi Pourgholi

    2017-01-01

    This paper presents a new control strategy for isolated micro-grids including wind turbines (WT), fuel cells (FC), photo-voltaic (PV) and battery energy storage systems (BESS). FC have been used in parallel with BESSs in order to increase their lifetime and efficiency. The changes in some parameters such as wind speed, sunlight, and consumption, lead to improper performance of droop. To overcome this challenge, a new intelligent method using a combination of fuzzy controller and cuckoo optimi...

  18. The social organization of agricultural biogas production and use

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bluemling, Bettina; Mol, Arthur P.J.; Tu, Qin

    2013-01-01

    While for wind, solar energy or hydropower, energy supply happens directly from the source to the wind wheels, hydropower turbines or solar panels, in the case of biogas, energy production cannot directly take from the energy source, organic matter, but depends on the institutional structures and farmers′ practices involved for making energy available. With the production of bioenergy in rural areas, practices within agriculture are transformed, requiring new ways of organizing production processes. Research has left the question largely unanswered of how agricultural biogas production and use are – and can best be – organized within rural society. Which kinds of social organization exist, how are these embedded in existing agricultural institutions and practices, and how do these systems function? Under which conditions may the different kinds of social organization of biogas production and use work sustainably? This introduction article to the Special Issue “The social organization of agricultural biogas production and use” presents a framework for analysing the different kinds of social organization of biogas production and use presented hereafter. Analysis parameters are the supply network, distribution network, distribution of benefits, social boundaries of the system (accessibility) and scale. Using these parameters, the Special Issue articles are outlined. - Highlights: • Through agricultural institutions and farmers′ practices, biogas is made available. • Scale, supply and delivery network distinguish biogas infrastructural systems. • Access and benefit distribution are key for a biogas system′s sustainability

  19. ANALYSIS OF EXERGY PARAMETERS OF BIOGAS POWER PLANT

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Denysova A.E.

    2014-08-01

    Full Text Available The techniques of an exergy analysis concerning various circuits of biogas units, which allows replacing traditional energy resources and improving environmental conditions, has been presented. The heat schemes of biogas units were proposed, and analysis of their effectiveness was made. The comparison of different cycle parameters of various biogas units (i.e. a combustion turbine unit, a combined cycle gas turbine unit with gas discharges into the boiler and a combined cycle gas turbine with a high-temperature vapor generator and a reheating stage was made, and the comparison of their exergy characteristics was carried out. The results of exergy analysis had demonstrated that the cycle of biogas CCGT (combined cycle gas turbine with a reheating stage and using a high-pressure steam generator is the most effective, that can be explained by the fact that the thermal energy proportions of combustion products, accounting for the steam cycle and the gas cycle are approximately equal, comparing to conventional combined cycle gas turbine units.

  20. The feasibility of the gas micro-turbines application in the heavy oil produced from onshore mature fields; A viabilidade do uso de micro-turbinas a gas em campos maduros onshore de oleos pesados

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Souza, Arlindo Antonio de; Santos, Edmilson Moutinho dos [Universidade de Sao Paulo (USP), SP (Brazil). Inst. de Eletrotecnica e Energia. Programa Interunidades de Pos-graduacao em Energia

    2004-07-01

    This article presents a synthesis of the fast advances in micro co-generation technology and their possible applications in fields of petroleum. The subject is focus of a research of the authors and the preliminary results indicate a potential of contributing for the optimization of mature fields of heavy oil. In general, this technology involves smaller environmental impact and produces better efficiency in those uses that require heat and electricity. An application interesting it is the use of gas micro-turbines, operating in co-generation in a (heavy) oil fields onshore, where it is possible increment of the production to the if it uses the steam injection as method of secondary recovery. The idea of using the heat to improve the productivity of the wells and to increase the recovery factor is almost as old as the industry of the petroleum. The technique consists of heating up the oil to reduce his/her viscosity and to facilitate the drainage. Nowadays, the use of the steam injection is usual in fields of heavy oils (degree API <20), high viscosity (> 500 cp), reservoirs no deep (<1300 m) and net pay in the interval from 5 to 50 m. The innovation, here, is the use of a group of micro-turbines moved to gas (no rare, burned in the flare) to generate the steam 'in loco' (near to the well) and electricity for own consumption or even commercialization. This article presents a case study of the economical potential the use of four gas micro-turbines, operating in micro cogeneration, in a field of 6,6 km{sup 2} in the Brazilian Northeast. (author)

  1. Set-up of a pump as turbine use in micro-pumped hydro energy storage: a case of study in Froyennes Belgium

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morabito, A.; Steimes, J.; Bontems, O.; Zohbi, G. Al; Hendrick, P.

    2017-04-01

    Its maturity makes pumped hydro energy storage (PHES) the most used technology in energy storage. Micro-hydro plants (electricity production such as wind and solar power. This paper presents the design of a micro-PHES developed in Froyennes, Belgium, using a pump as turbine (PaT) coupled with a variable frequency driver (VFD). The methods adopted for the selection of the most suitable pump for pumping and reverse mode are compared and discussed. Controlling and monitoring the PaT performances represent a compulsory design phase in the analysis feasibility of PaT coupled with VFD in micro PHES plant. This study aims at answering technical research aspects of µ-PHES site used with reversible pumps.

  2. Effect of Syngas Moisture Content on the Emissions of Micro-Gas Turbine Fueled with Syngas/LPG in Dual Fuel Mode

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sadig Hussain

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available Syngas produced by gasification has a potential to be one of the fueling solutions for gas turbines in the future. In addition to the combustible constituents and inert gases, syngas derived by gasification contains a considerable amount of water vapor which effect on syngas combustion behaviour. In this work, a micro-gas turbine with a thermal capacity of 50 kW was simulated using ASPEN Plus. The micro gas turbine system emissions were characterized using dry syngas fuels with a different composition, syngas 1 (10.53% H2, 24.94% CO, 2.03% CH4, 12.80% CO2, and 49.70% N2 and syngas 2 (21.62% H2, 32.48% CO, 3.72% CH4, 19.69% CO2, and 22.49% N2 mixed with LPG in a dual fueling mode. The effect of syngas moisture content was then studied by testing the system with moist syngas/LPG with a moisture content ranging from 0 to 20% by volume. The study demonstrates that the syngas moisture content has high influence on nitrogen oxides and carbon monoxide emissions. It’s found that for 5% syngas moisture content, the NOx emission were reduced by 75.5% and 83% for Syngas 1 and Syngas 2 respectively. On carbon monoxide emissions and for same moisture content ratio, the reduction was found to be 43% and 57% for syngas1 and syngas 2 respectively.

  3. Future European biogas

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Meyer, A. K.P.; Ehimen, E. A.; Holm-Nielsen, J. B.

    2018-01-01

    Biogas is expected to play an important role in reaching the future energy policy targets of the European Union (EU). The sustainability of biogas substrates has however been recently critically discussed due to the increasing shares of agricultural land used for energy crop production.The aim...... of this study was to project and map the biomass and biogas energy potential from a selection of potentially sustainable agricultural residues, which have been documented to improve in biogas yields when co-digested in biogas production, for the EU28 in year 2030. The investigated types of residual biomasses...... were animal manure, straw by-products from cereal production, and excess grass from rotational and permanent grasslands and meadows. The biogas energy potential from the investigated biomass was projected to range from 1.2·103 to 2.3·103 PJ y-1 in year 2030 in the EU28, depending on the biomass...

  4. Energy recovering and biogas

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2005-11-01

    In spite of the advantages of the methanation and the biogas valorization, the France is one of the european countries where these energy recovery techniques have less developed. Liquid industrial effluents, sewage sludges, waste waters, oils or vinification residues can be processed to produce biogas. In this innovative context biogas combustion installations will have to anticipate the regulations on CO 2 emissions. (A.L.B.)

  5. Basic Data on Biogas

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2012-07-01

    Renewable gases such as biogas and biomethane are considered as key energy carrier when the society is replacing fossil fuels with renewable alternatives. In Sweden, almost 80 % of the fossil fuels are used in the transport sector. Therefore, the focus in Sweden has been to use the produced biogas in this sector as vehicle gas. Basic Data on Biogas contains an overview of production, utilisation, climate effects etc. of biogas from a Swedish perspective. The purpose is to give an easy overview of the current situation in Sweden for politicians, decision makers and interested public. 1.4 TWh of biogas is produced annually in Sweden at approximately 230 facilities. The 135 wastewater treatment plants that produce biogas contribute with around half of the production. In order to reduce the sludge volume, biogas has been produced at wastewater treatment plants for decades. New biogas plants are mainly co-digestion plants and farm plants. The land filling of organic waste has been banned since 2005, thus the biogas produced in landfills is decreasing.

  6. Fluid-Thermal-Structural Coupled Analysis of a Radial Inflow Micro Gas Turbine Using Computational Fluid Dynamics and Computational Solid Mechanics

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yonghui Xie

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available A three-dimensional fluid-thermal-structural coupled analysis for a radial inflow micro gas turbine is conducted. First, a fluid-thermal coupled analysis of the flow and temperature fields of the nozzle passage and the blade passage is performed by using computational fluid dynamics (CFD. The flow and heat transfer characteristics of different sections are analyzed in detail. The thermal load and the aerodynamic load are then obtained from the temperature field and the pressure distribution. The stress distributions of the blade are finally studied by using computational solid mechanics (CSM considering three cases of loads: thermal load, aerodynamics load combined with centrifugal load, and all the three types of loads. The detailed parameters of the flow, temperature, and the stress are obtained and analyzed. The numerical results obtained provide a useful knowledge base for further exploration of radial gas turbine design.

  7. The social organization of agricultural biogas production and use

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bluemling, B.; Mol, A.P.J.; Tu, Q.

    2013-01-01

    While for wind, solar energy or hydropower, energy supply happens directly from the source to the wind wheels, hydropower turbines or solar panels, in the case of biogas, energy production cannot directly take from the energy source, organic matter, but depends on the institutional structures and

  8. Farm Biogas Handbook; Gaardsbiogashandbok

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Christensson, Kjell; Bjoernsson, Lovisa; Dahlgren, Stefan; Eriksson, Peter; Lantz, Mikael; Lindstroem, Johanna; Mickelaaker, Maria

    2009-04-15

    A very large share of the total raw material potential for biogas production will be found within the agriculture. The raw material potential of manure in Sweden amounts to 4 - 6 TWh. Within the agriculture there is moreover a big potential in the form of residues from plant cultivation and non-food crops (approximately 7 TWh) that can to be used for biogas production. The potential for biogas production from only residues and manure is around 8-10 TWh. An increased biogas production within the agriculture would give significant environmental effects. Among other things manure, that today is leaking methane gas to the atmosphere, can be fermented, and trough this process the methane losses will be reduced. When the produced biogas replaces fossil fuel, an overall environmental effect will be reached, that is highly significant. This manual deals with biogas plants for agriculture and such plants that do not have extensive transports of different raw materials, as manure, wastes etc. One of the starting points for this manual's set-up is a course plan that Biogas Syd made for the courses they give to farmers, advisors and others. The manual illustrates important aspects in planning and construction of biogas plants, from raw material and technology to dimensioning of plant, use of biogas and planning of local gas grids. We also think it is important to illustrate the legislation that encompasses construction work and operation of a biogas plant. Investment costs are also illustrated, but the book does not give any extensive economic calculations, since we believe that such calculations need their own manual in the form of calculation examples, based on various conditions. The final section is called 'Biogas on farm - from idea to reality' where the entire process from analysis and pre-planning to monitoring and control of plant during operation is briefly described

  9. Greenalgae as a substrate for biogas production - cultivation and biogas potentials

    OpenAIRE

    Liu, Yang

    2010-01-01

    Algae is regarded as a good potential substrate for biogas production, due to high cells productivity, low cellulose and zero lignin content. Two parts were included in this study: first, cultivations of micro-algae (Chlorella sorokiniana and Tetraselmis suecica) at two different nitrate concentrations, also the effect of addition of CO2 on algae grow was investigated in this first part. Second, batch fermentations of the cultivated micro-algae as well as a powder Chlorella (obtained from Raw...

  10. Electricity from biogas

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Augenstein, D.; Benemann, J.; Hughes, E.

    1994-01-01

    Biogas is a medium-Btu methane and carbon dioxide mix produced by bacterial decomposition of organic matter. Its sources include landfills, waste water sludges, and animal wastes. It can fuel energy applications, of which electricity generation is a frequently-preferred option. The greatest current U.S. biogas recovery and energy use is at landfills, where biogas at about 80 landfill sites fuels a total of approximately 300 MWe. Wastewater treatment plants and confined animal waste management systems support additional electric power production. Generation of electricity from biogas can present difficulties due to the generally small scale of the generating facility, variable energy content of the gas, fluctuating availability, contaminant problems, and often-demanding control needs. However, such difficulties are being successfully addressed and economics for electricity generation are often favorable as biogas can be essentially open-quotes freeclose quotes fuel. Biogas recovery and use has the additional advantage of mitigating a potent greenhouse gas. Biogas from U.S. landfills alone could fuel about 1% of U.S. electrical generation while giving climate change benefit equivalent to reducing CO 2 emissions in the electricity sector by more than 10%. Growth in landfill gas use will be facilitated by recent regulations, advances in equipment, and improved management techniques such as open-quotes controlled landfillingclose quotes. The potential for biogas recovery and electricity production from sewage sludges, animal wastes and other organic resources such as agricultural residues is uncertain but probably exceeds the estimate for landfills

  11. Biogas plant control system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Balasevicius, L.; Dervinis, G.; Macerauskas, V.

    2002-01-01

    This paper presents intelligent control system for the pig farm biogas production process. The system uses a fuzzy logic models based on knowledge of experts and operators. Four fuzzy models are introduced. The adequacy of fuzzy models is verified using real data and MATLAB simulation. Proposed expert system is implemented into traditional SCADA system for biogas process prediction and failure analyzing. (authors)

  12. Utilization of biodiesel from castor oil in gas micro turbines: thermal performance testing and emissions; Utilizacao do biodiesel de mamona em microturbinas a gas: testes de desempenho termico e emissoes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nascimento, Marco Antonio R.; Lora, Electo Silva; Venturini, Osvaldo Jose; Maldonado, Manuel Rendon; Andrade, Rubenildo Viera; Correa Junior, Paulo Sergio Pedroso [Universidade Federal de Itajuba (UNIFEI), MG (Brazil)], Emails: marcoantonio@unifei.edu.br, electo@unifei.edu.br, osvaldo@unifei.edu.br, nrendon@unifei.edu.br, ruben@unifei.edu.br, paulocorrea@unifei.edu.br; Leite, Marco Antonio Haikal [Centro de Pesquisas Leopoldo Americo Miguez de Mello (CENPES/PETROBRAS), Rio de Janeiro, RJ (Brazil)], Email: mahaikal@petrobras.com.br

    2006-07-01

    The operation of power equipment such as a gas micro-turbine using renewable fuels is an interesting alternative when sustainability is concerned, mainly in isolated areas with abundant availability of fuels that come from biomass. Within this scenario, this article presents the results of tests regarding thermal performance and emissions of a gas micro-turbine operating with Diesel and bio diesel mixtures, showing the influence of the use of this fuel on the thermal behavior of the machine and on the emissions of gases such as CO, NO{sub x} and SO{sub 2}. The results of the experimental tests are shown in graphs, from where it can be observed that the bio diesel and its mixtures do not change the thermal behavior of the micro-turbine significantly, and at the same time, they may considerably reduce the emission of gaseous pollutants. (author)

  13. Study of a fuel injection quantity sensor in diesel engine. Part 3. Experimental evaluation of the improved type micro turbine sensor; Diesel kikan ni okeru nenryo funsharyo sensor no kenkyu. 3. Funsharyo keisoku no seido kojo ni kansuru jikken hyoka

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Maehara, H; Iwasaki, T; Kobayashi, T [Zexel Corp., Tokyo (Japan)

    1997-10-01

    A Micro Turbine Sensor has been developed to measure fuel injection quantity and injection rate. Previous reports described results of experiments on the MTS which were carried out under steady and unsteady flow conditions. The MTS has been improved in shape of a holder tip and a detecting procedure for rotating speed of a turbine. As a result revolution speed of the turbine increased 18% over the conventional type holder under steady flow condition. Furthermore the measurement resolution of the MTS came up to about 2(mm{sup 3}/pulse) at 20(mm{sup 3}/stroke) under intermittent spray conditions using fuel injection pump. 11 refs., 11 figs., 1 tab.

  14. Environmental systems analysis of biogas systems; Miljoeanalys av biogassystem

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Boerjesson, Paal; Berglund, Maria

    2003-05-01

    the fields, from manure when handling and storing it in conventional ways, and from organic waste from municipalities and food industries when composting the organic wastes. The size of the reduction of emission of ammonia and leakage of nitrate could, however, vary due to local conditions. Losses of methane would only have minor impact on eutrophication and acidification through somewhat higher emissions from fossil fuels which are assumed to be used to compensate for the energy losses that methane leakage leads to. Biogas as transportation fuel leads to reduced emissions of compounds that can create photochemical oxidants, especially when gasoline is replaced. The same situation occurs when biogas is used for heat production, with a few exceptions, where the largest reduction is achieved when biogas from straw replaces combustion of straw in smallscale boilers. Biogas-based combined heat and power production in gas turbines may, however, result in an increased contribution when natural gas is replaced. When indirect environmental effects are considered, biogas from manure will give significant benefits, while losses of methane will give significant negative effects. Emissions of particles will be reduced in all analysed cases when biogas is used for heat production. Biogas for combined heat and power production may, however, result in both reduced and increased emissions. When biogas is utilised as transportation fuel, a reduction of emission of particles is almost always achieved, especially when diesel in trucks is replaced. The results from this study clearly show the importance of optimising both the performance and localisation of biogas systems in order to maximise the significant potential environmental benefits they can generate and to minimise the potential negative effects.

  15. Storage sizing for a micro gas grid of prosumers

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Alkano, Desti; Nefkens, W.J.; Scherpen, Jacquelien M.A.; Volkerts, M

    2014-01-01

    This paper studies optimal control of a micro grid of biogas prosumers. The biogas production is kept at a nearly constant level due to the time and effort associated with establishing the right microbial populations. However, as (bio)gas is predominantly used for space heating, the consumption

  16. Biogas energy in India

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Moulik, T K

    1982-01-01

    A socio-economic study of India's biogas energy program, a response to the oil crisis of the 1970's, reviews the impact of promoting large-scale community biogas plants as a way to reach the lowest income groups. A case study draws on the experiences of the community plant in Gujarat village, and explores the program's secondary benefits and impacts on life styles. 15 references, 5 figures, 37 tables. (DCK)

  17. Biogas programme in India

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    De Castro, J.

    1996-01-01

    The National Project on Biogas Development (NPBD) of the Ministry of Non-conventional Energy Sources (MNES) was introduced in 1981-1982 to promote the use of biogas installations in households. Several systems have been introduced, all based on two basic designs: floating metal drum (Janata model) and fixed masonry dome (Deenbandhu model). An overview is given of the results, incentives of the Indian government and constraints so-far of the NPBD. 3 figs., 1 tab., 1 ills

  18. Janata biogas plant

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bahadur, S; Singh, K K

    1980-03-01

    The Janata biogas plant is based on the use of local materials and locally available skills only. It is a proven technology at low cost and easy maintenance which should facilitate its extension at a much faster pace especially among the low income groups. This technology is important at this time because of the current crisis in the availability of firewood and mineral fuels. This handbook explains in non-technical language the basic features, design, and construction of this biogas plant. (DC)

  19. Biogas feed analysis

    OpenAIRE

    Song, Yuan

    2008-01-01

    Biogas production is regarded as the best energy recovery process from wet organic solid wastes (WOSW). Feed composition, storage conditions and time will influence the compositions of feed to biogas processes. In this study, apple juice from Meierienes Juice factory was used as the model substrates to mimic the liquid phase that can be extracted from fruit or juice industry WOSW. A series of batch experiments were carried out with different initial feed concentrations (0, 1, 2, 5, 10 %) of a...

  20. Flow visualization system for wind turbines without blades applied to micro reactors; Sistema de visualização de escoamento para turbinas sem lâminas aplicada a microrreatores

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Santos, G.S.B., E-mail: siqueira.gsb@gmail.com [Universidade Estadual Paulista Julio de Mesquita Filho (UNESP), São José dos Campos, SP (Brazil); Guimarães, L.N.F. [Instituto de Estudos Avançados (IEAv), São José dos Campos, SP (Brazil). Departamento de Ciência e Tecnologia Aeroespacial; Placco, G.M. [Instituto Tecnológico de Aeronáutica (PG/CTE/ITA), São José dos Campos, SP (Brazil). Departamento de Ciência e Tecnologia Aeroespacial

    2017-07-01

    Flow visualization systems is a tool used in science and industry for characterization of projects that operate with drainage. This work presents the design and construction of a flow visualization system for passive turbines used in advanced fast micro reactors. In the system were generated images where it is possible to see the supersonic and transonic flow through the turbine disks. A test bench was assembled to generate images of the interior of the turbine where the flow is supersonic, allowing the study of the behavior of the boundary layer between disks. It is necessary to characterize the boundary layer of this type of turbine because its operation occurs in the transfer of kinetic energy between the fluid and the disks. The images generated, as well as their analyzes are presented as a result of this work.

  1. THE ECONOMICS OF BIOGAS PRODUCTION

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kh. S. Karimov

    2013-11-01

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT: In this paper life-cycle cost analysis of three biogas digesters is presented. Results show that the cost of biogas depends on the construction of digesters, sizes of methane tank and possibility of heating of the slurry. Biogas and natural gas costs calaculated are observed and found to be comparable. It is recommended that the biogas digesters can be constructed and installed, in principle, for every family and there is no need to built long gas pipe lines. ABSTRAK: Kertaskerja ini membentangkan analisis kos kitar hayat tiga pencerna biogas. Keputusan menunjukkan kos biogas bergantung kepada pembinaan pencerna, saiz tangki metana dan kemungkinan pemanasan buburan. Pengiraan kos biogas dan gas asli diambil kira dan ianya didapati setanding. Adalah disarankan pencerna biogas boleh dibina dan dipasang secara teorinya, bagi setiap keluarga tanpa memerlukan pembinaan paip gas yang panjang.

  2. Optimized Fuzzy-Cuckoo Controller for Active Power Control of Battery Energy Storage System, Photovoltaic, Fuel Cell and Wind Turbine in an Isolated Micro-Grid

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mohsen Einan

    2017-08-01

    Full Text Available This paper presents a new control strategy for isolated micro-grids including wind turbines (WT, fuel cells (FC, photo-voltaic (PV and battery energy storage systems (BESS. FC have been used in parallel with BESSs in order to increase their lifetime and efficiency. The changes in some parameters such as wind speed, sunlight, and consumption, lead to improper performance of droop. To overcome this challenge, a new intelligent method using a combination of fuzzy controller and cuckoo optimization algorithm (COA techniques for active power controllers in isolated networks is proposed. In this paper, COA is compared with genetic algorithm (GA and particles swarm optimization algorithm (PSO. In order to show efficiency of the proposed controller, this optimal controller has been compared with droop, optimized droop, and conventional fuzzy methods, the dynamic analysis of the island is implemented to assess the behavior of isolated generations accurately and simulation results are reported.

  3. Terpenes removal from biogas; Terpenenverwijdering uit biogas

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Schulze, P.; Holstein, J.; De Haan, HR.; Vlap, H. [DNV KEMA, Arnhem (Netherlands)

    2013-06-15

    Biogas may contain unwanted and harmful components, including aromatic hydrocarbons such as terpenes. These terpenes (organic oils) are mainly present in citrus peel and plant residues; that is why especially raw biogas from organic waste digestion plants contains high concentrations of terpenes. If terpenes end up in the gas grid (with the injected biomethane) there is a risk that plastics (PE pipes) lose their mechanical properties by absorbing liquids or extracting ethereal plasticizers. This can lead to embrittlement greatly lowering the reliability of the piping. In addition, soft components are als o affected (gaskets and rubber O-rings). Besides the impact on the integrity of the gas grid, terpenes also mask the odor of natural gas odorants such as THT. This impedes the detection of gas leaks which is a significant security risk. Furthermore, the presence of terpenes in biogas leads to fouling of equipment used for the drying of biomethane, as well as contamination of adsorption liquids and membranes used in the upgrading process. Currently, terpenes are removed by activated carbon filters. The tool life of such a filter can be relatively short if terpene concentrations are high in the biogas; this results in a significant increase of the operational costs, due to the replacement of the carbon. This study looked at alternative techniques for removing much of the terpenes from biogas in a simple, efficient and cheap way. In a workshop with stakeholders two techniques were chosen to be tested on laboratory scale in order to demonstrate the proof of principle. These techniques are photo-oxydation and a gas scrubbing. Of all investigated techniques for the removal of limonene the application of UV radiation seems to be the most promising option because of the simplicity of the process, the high efficiency (up to 94%), the comparable operational costs with activated carbon (6.7 to 9.5 euro/kg limonene removed, compared to 10 euro/kg limonene removed for activated

  4. Progress in biogas II - Biogas production from agricultural biomass and organic residues. Pt. 1. Proceedings; Progress in Biogas II - Biogasproduktion aus landwirtschaftlicher Biomasse und organischen Reststoffen. T. 1. Tagungsband

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2011-08-12

    Within the International Congress at the University of Hohenheim (Stuttgart, Federal Republic of Germany) from 29th March to 1st April, 2011, the following lectures were held: (1) Biogas in Europe (F. Scholwin); (2) Biogas development in China: International Cooperation to up-scale the technology (Z. Li); (3) The methane to markets initiative and opportunities for livestock manure digesters in the United states (C. Voell); (4) Biogas for sanitation in Africa - experiences from creating a sustainable market 2003 to 2010 (M. Lebofa); (5) Are biogas plants in Baden-Wuerttemberg efficient? (M. Stanull); (6) The Estonian theoretical and practical biogas production potential and economically feasible feed-in-tariff for renewable electricity for micro CHP using biogas (A. Oja); (7) Biomass potentials for biogas utilization and the effects on sustainability in Kalugo (P. Fiedler); (8) An Integrated Energy System applied to Milking Dairy Cows (I. Bywater); (9) WINUBIO-Alternative technology to improve Austria's biogas capacity (V. Steinmueller); (10) Interdisciplinary approaches to advances in sustainable biogas production in Europe (S. Kusch); (11) Problems encountered in disseminating biogas technology in Uganda (G. Mabudo); (12) reasons to the success to biogas program in Nepal (K. Dawadi); (13) Effects of increasing biomass production for energetic utilization on soil fertility in the German Federal State on Brandenburg (J. Zimmer); (14) Biogas plants as part of sustainable development within peasant family farms in Germany - Interim results of an empirical field study (A. Bischoff); (15) Life cycle assessment of heat and power generation in biogas fed combined heat and power plants under German conditions (J. Lansche); (16) Biogas from lignocellulosic biomass: interest of pretreatments (H. Carrere); (17) Effect of physical and thermal pre-treatments on biogas yield of some agricultural by-products (P. Balsari); (18) Extrusion pre-treatment of green waste for biogas

  5. Progress in biogas II - Biogas production from agricultural biomass and organic residues. Pt. 1. Proceedings; Progress in Biogas II - Biogasproduktion aus landwirtschaftlicher Biomasse und organischen Reststoffen. T. 1. Tagungsband

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2011-08-12

    Within the International Congress at the University of Hohenheim (Stuttgart, Federal Republic of Germany) from 29th March to 1st April, 2011, the following lectures were held: (1) Biogas in Europe (F. Scholwin); (2) Biogas development in China: International Cooperation to up-scale the technology (Z. Li); (3) The methane to markets initiative and opportunities for livestock manure digesters in the United states (C. Voell); (4) Biogas for sanitation in Africa - experiences from creating a sustainable market 2003 to 2010 (M. Lebofa); (5) Are biogas plants in Baden-Wuerttemberg efficient? (M. Stanull); (6) The Estonian theoretical and practical biogas production potential and economically feasible feed-in-tariff for renewable electricity for micro CHP using biogas (A. Oja); (7) Biomass potentials for biogas utilization and the effects on sustainability in Kalugo (P. Fiedler); (8) An Integrated Energy System applied to Milking Dairy Cows (I. Bywater); (9) WINUBIO-Alternative technology to improve Austria's biogas capacity (V. Steinmueller); (10) Interdisciplinary approaches to advances in sustainable biogas production in Europe (S. Kusch); (11) Problems encountered in disseminating biogas technology in Uganda (G. Mabudo); (12) reasons to the success to biogas program in Nepal (K. Dawadi); (13) Effects of increasing biomass production for energetic utilization on soil fertility in the German Federal State on Brandenburg (J. Zimmer); (14) Biogas plants as part of sustainable development within peasant family farms in Germany - Interim results of an empirical field study (A. Bischoff); (15) Life cycle assessment of heat and power generation in biogas fed combined heat and power plants under German conditions (J. Lansche); (16) Biogas from lignocellulosic biomass: interest of pretreatments (H. Carrere); (17) Effect of physical and thermal pre-treatments on biogas yield of some agricultural by-products (P. Balsari); (18) Extrusion pre-treatment of green waste for

  6. Biogas technology in Pakistan

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ahmed, M.

    1997-02-01

    Although biomethanation is a mature technology its implementation is paradoxically only partly a success in Pakistan. Biogas plants on family farms can be economical but seldom are so in Pakistan. Either the investment cost has been high or satisfactory performance of the process could not be maintained or in some case for a short period of time only. It is, however, concluded that biogas plants, if correctly operated and maintained, may prove to be appropriate to the technical abilities and economic capacity of Pakistani farmers. It can get a change to be disseminated in rural areas. Biogas technology is appropriate to the ecological and economic demands of the future. With the potential from existing cattle population only, 3 to 4 million family size biogas plants may be installed in Pakistan which can substitute of considerable part of rural fuel wood demand for their daily household energy requirements. A large amount of dung is burnt every year by households which if put in the biogas plant, may provide a considerable amount of energy along with organic fertilizer could be saved from being burned at the same time. On the basis of available data from the livestock excluding agriculture residue (50% collectivity-1991), in terms of fuel substitution, this would be equivalent to 1200 million litres of kerosene at worth economic value of 9021 million rupees saving in the form of gas and 821 million rupees as additional fertilizer value annually. (LN)

  7. An Analysis of Laser-Welded Nicr-Ir and Nicr-Pt Micro Joints on Spark Plug Electrodes in Biogas-Fuelled Engines

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Grabas B.

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available The paper deals with the laser beam welding of tips to central and side spark plug electrodes made of a nickel-chromium alloy. The tips attached to the central electrodes were made from a solid iridium wire 0.8 mm in diameter and 2 mm in length, while the tips connected to the side electrodes were made from a platinum wire 1.5 mm in diameter and 0.25 mm in thickness. In both cases, accurate positioning of the tips was required before they were resistance welded to the electrodes. Then, a fillet weld was produced with an Nd:YAG laser using single, partly overlapping conductive pulses. The laser welding was performed at different laser power levels and pulse durations. Metallographic sections of the joints were prepared to observe changes in the microstructure and determine their correlation with the changes in the process parameters. The results were used to select appropriate welding parameters for the materials joined. The microscopic analysis indicated welding imperfections such as micro cracks at the interface between the elements joined. The tips welded to the spark plug electrodes can help extend the service life of spark plugs in highly corrosive environments.

  8. Challenges in biogas production

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rennuit, Charlotte

    2017-01-01

    Anaerobic digestion (AnD) is a sustainable process combining waste treatment, nutrient recycling and energy production which can contribute to limit climate change and environmental problems. However, in order for this technique to be more widely used, production of biogas from available wastes...... from a mixture of pig manure and other waste materials by separating the solid fraction of digestate and recycling it back to the digester. It is shown that separation and recycling of the dry matter rich solid fraction could successfully increase biogas production and a preliminary economic evaluation...... showed a potential increase of 1.9 to 6.8€ per ton of biomass treated. In the second part of this study, a biological treatment to improve energy production from wastewater sludge was investigated. Wastewater sludge was subjected to thermophilic aerobic digestion (TAD) from 2h to 5d. Increase in biogas...

  9. Basic data biogas Germany. Solid fuels, biofuels, biogas; Basisdaten Bioenergie Deutschland. Festbrennstoffe, Biokraftstoffe, Biogas

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2011-09-15

    The brochure ''Basic data biogas Germany'' gives statistical information about (a) renewable energies: primary energy consumption, power generation, energy supply, avoidance of greenhouse gases; (b) Solid fuels: energetic utilization, wood pellets, energy consumption, comparison to heating oil; (c) Biofuels: consumption, bioethanol, biodiesel, vegetable oils; (d) Biogas: biogas power plants, energy content, production, legal aspects.

  10. Basic data biogas Germany. Solid fuels, biofuels, biogas; Basisdaten Bioenergie Deutschland. Festbrennstoffe - Biokraftstoffe - Biogas

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2012-08-15

    The brochure ''Basic data biogas Germany'' gives statistical information about (a) renewable energies: primary energy consumption, power generation, energy supply, avoidance of greenhouse gases; (b) Solid fuels: energetic utilization, wood pellets, energy consumption, comparison to heating oil; (c) Biofuels: consumption, bioethanol, biodiesel, vegetable oils; (d) Biogas: biogas power plants, energy content, production, legal aspects.

  11. Sicilian potential biogas production

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Antonio Comparetti

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available This study is aimed at predicting the Sicilian potential biogas production, using the Organic Fraction of Municipal Solid Waste (OFMSW, animal manure and food industry by-products, in a region where only one biogas plant using MSW and one co-digestion plant are nowadays available. The statistical data about OFMSW, the number of animals bred in medium and large farms and the amounts of by-products of food processing industries were evaluated, in order to compute the Sicilian potential biogas and energy production. The OFMSW produced in Sicily, that is 0.8 million tons ca. per year (37% of MSW, could be used in a bio-reactor, together with other raw materials, for Anaerobic Digestion (AD process, producing biogas and “digestate”. Moreover, 3.03 million tons ca. of manure, collected in medium and large animal husbandry farms (where cows, pigs and poultry are bred, and 350 thousand tons ca. of by-products, collected in food processing industries (pomace from olive oil mills and grape marc from wineries, might be used for AD process. The Sicilian potential biogas production from the AD of the above raw materials is 170.2 millions of m3, that is equal to 1023.4 GWh of energy per year, of which 484 GWh from animal manure, 303 GWh from OFMSW and 236.4 GWh from food industry by-products. The highest biogas production is in the province of Palermo (35.6 millions of m3, Ragusa (30.8 millions of m3 and Catania (22.8 millions of m3, having a potential energy production of 213.8, 185 and 137 GWh, respectively.

  12. Biogas in Botswana

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    MacGarry, B

    1981-01-01

    The experience gained in small-scale experiments with a 600-1 horizontal plug-flow digester, made from three 200-1 drums, was used to investigate the possibility of using biogas as a diesel-fuel substitute for powering pump engines at boreholes used for cattle in the arid areas of Botswana. A 10-m/sup 3/ Chinese-type digester was used in these tests. The terms of reference of the test and details of the operational plan are included. The use of biogas toilets as efficient low-cost sanitation devices are also being promoted.

  13. Biogas: quo vadis?

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Perch-Nielsen, S.

    2009-01-01

    This article takes a look at the situation in Switzerland with respect to the use of biogas and the potential available for its increased use. The sharp increase of biogas production in Switzerland and its use for the production of heat, electrical power and methane for the gas mains is reviewed. The large potential for additional biomass is discussed. The political will to increase the use of renewable forms of energy in Switzerland, security of supply and regional added value are discussed. The article discusses the current situation as well as trends concerning substrates, systems and products

  14. Flexible Biogas in Future Energy Systems—Sleeping Beauty for a Cheaper Power Generation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Markus Lauer

    2018-03-01

    Full Text Available The increasing proportion of intermittent renewable energies asks for further technologies for balancing demand and supply in the energy system. In contrast to other countries, Germany is characterized by a high installed capacity of dispatchable biogas plants. For this paper, we analyzed the total system costs varying biogas extension paths and modes of operation for the period of 2016–2035 by using a non-linear optimization model. We took variable costs of existing conventional power plants, as well as variable costs and capital investments in gas turbines, Li-ion batteries, and pumped-storage plants into account. Without the consideration of the costs for biogas plants, an increasing proportion of biogas plants, compared to their phase out, reduces the total system costs. Furthermore, their flexible power generation should be as flexible as possible. The lowest total system costs were calculated in an extension path with the highest rate of construction of new biogas plants. However, the highest marginal utility was assessed by a medium proportion of flexible biogas plants. In conclusion, biogas plants can be a cost-effective option to integrate intermittent renewable energies into the electricity system. The optimal extension path of biogas plants depends on the future installed capacities of conventional and renewable energies.

  15. Custo de bombas centrífugas funcionando como turbinas em microcentrais hidrelétricas Cost of pumps as hydraulic turbines for micro-scale hydropower

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carlos R. Balarim

    2004-04-01

    places where they should be implanted. Pumps As Turbines (PAT have been studied. These equipment costs were obtained by consulting directly the manufacturers, and also the Ponta Grossa - PR city, Brazil, market. The results have shown that, concerning the micro hydroelectric power plants, whenever the costs constitute the major aspect and always considering units until 50 kW power, the option to PAT must be considered instead of hydraulic turbines.

  16. High-Calorific Biogas Production by Selective CO2 Retention at Autogenerated Biogas Pressures up to 20 Bar

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Lindeboom, R.E.F.; Weijma, J.; Lier, van J.B.

    2012-01-01

    Autogenerative high pressure digestion (AHED) is a novel configuration of anaerobic digestion, in which micro-organisms produce autogenerated biogas pressures up to 90 bar with >90% CH4-content in a single step reactor. The less than 10% CO2-content was postulated to be resulting from

  17. Experiences with biogas in Denmark

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bundgaard, Sirid Sif; Kofoed-Wiuff, Anders

    This report is primarily based on the work of the Danish biogas task force, which was established as a result of the Energy Agreement of 22 March 2012. The purpose of the task force is to examine and support concrete biogas projects in order to facilitate the projected biogas development up to 2020....... The focus of the task force was on the practical integration of the new biogas production in energy system, including the utilization of gas, the necessary infrastructure and contractual relationships. The aim was to ensure effective and appropriate integration of biogas in the Danish energy supply, which...... was consistent with the policy objectives, both in regards to current challenges for specific biogas plants and the role of biogas flexible renewable energy form on longer term. The task force's final report was published in 2014....

  18. Biomass combustion gas turbine CHP

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pritchard, D.

    2002-07-01

    This report summarises the results of a project to develop a small scale biomass combustor generating system using a biomass combustor and a micro-gas turbine indirectly fired via a high temperature heat exchanger. Details are given of the specification of commercially available micro-turbines, the manufacture of a biomass converter, the development of a mathematical model to predict the compatibility of the combustor and the heat exchanger with various compressors and turbines, and the utilisation of waste heat for the turbine exhaust.

  19. Analysis of biogas transformation in experimental biogas plant

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eva Jelínková

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available The topic of this paper is the analysis of anaerobic fermentation in an experimental biogas plant. Technological processes and operation parameters were monitored; these processes and parameters include, for example, the optimal structure of the input material and the consideration of the prolonging of the duration of the fermentation process. The goal of prolonging the fermentation process is to obtain higher biogas (and methane production and to decrease the fermentation residue effluvial emissions. Emphasis is also laid on the mutual co-fermentation of substrates with regard to further use of the results in solving technological problems in other biogas plants. This technological process was first monitored in 2009; that is, before the planned intensification and modernization of the experimental biogas plant. Thus, the evaluation of the process could become part of the planned intensification and modernization of the chosen biogas plant (extended by the addition of the second stage of methanogenesis. The results obtained from the experimental biogas plant, which is one of the pioneering biogas plants in the Czech Republic, may serve, to other biogas operators, as a base for the preparation of suitable input, and for improving the efficiency of anaerobic fermentation within their biogas plants. The goal of the improvement of the fermentation process is to fulfill the ecological aspects; that is, to cut down CO2 emissions and to reduce the negative impact of the fermentation process on the environment (reduction of effluvium and noise originating in biogas plants.

  20. Biogas generation apple pulp.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Llaneza Coalla, H; Blanco Fernández, J M; Morís Morán, M A; López Bobo, M R

    2009-09-01

    In view of the pressing problem that appears in our region (Asturias, north of Spain) with the residues from the cider production, it was decided to test this kind of material as a co-substrate joint with slaughterhouse waste in a laboratory unit. The anaerobic digestion of apple pulp was investigated for biogas production. This paper presents the results where apple pulp was co-digested with slaughterhouse waste (pig intestine and bovine stomach content) in a biogas laboratory unit (10 l CSTR reactor). The production of biogas has reached very satisfactory values during the whole test (0.8m(3)kg(-1)OTS), verifying that the process is kept in stable conditions of pH (near 8.0), and the volatile fatty acids was always underneath 3000 mg/l, when the pulp amount was lower than 100g in mesophilic conditions. The fat concentration into the digester remained always below the value that causes inhibition of the methanogenic bacteria, 500 mg/l. Finally, methane concentration (77-80%) and H(2)S concentration (400 ppm) in the biogas, they were similar to those obtained when the test was run out in the absence of apple pulp. The process efficiency with respect to COD removal was high, near 80% of the total COD. Finally, inhibitory effects of methanogenic bacteria were observed when pulp concentration was around 10% in the input material.

  1. Gas turbine

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yang, Ok Ryong

    2004-01-01

    This book introduces gas turbine cycle explaining general thing of gas turbine, full gas turbine cycle, Ericson cycle and Brayton cycle, practical gas turbine cycle without pressure loss, multiaxial type gas turbine cycle and special gas turbine cycle, application of basic theory on a study on suction-cooling gas turbine cycle with turbo-refrigerating machine using the bleed air, and general performance characteristics of the suction-cooling gas turbine cycle combined with absorption-type refrigerating machine.

  2. CFD analysis of combustion of natural gas and syngas from biomass pyrolysis in the combustion chamber of a micro gas turbine

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fantozzi, Francesco; Laranci, Paolo; D' Alessandro, Bruno [University of Perugia (DII/UNIPG) (Italy). Dept. of Industrial Engineering], Emails: fanto@unipg.it, paolo.laranci@unipg.it, dalessandro@bio-net.it

    2009-07-01

    Micro gas turbines (MGT) can be profitably used for the production of distributed energy (DE), with the possibility to use gaseous fuels with low BTU derived from biomass or waste through the pyrolysis or gasification processes. These synthesis gases (SG) show significant differences with respect to natural gas (NG), in terms of composition, calorific value, content of hydrogen, tar and particulate matter content; such differences can be turn into problems of ignition, instability burning, difficulties in controlling the emissions and fouling. CFD analysis of the combustion process is an essential tool for identifying the main critical arising in using these gases, in order to modify existing geometries and to develop new generation of combustor for use with low BTU gases. This paper describes the activities of experimental and numerical analysis carried out to study the combustion process occurring inside an existing annular Rich-Quench-Lean (RQL) Combustion Chamber (CC) of a 80 kW MGT. In the paper some results of a CFD study of the combustion process performed with an original developed chemical models are reported in terms of temperature and velocity distributions inside the CC and in terms of compositions of turbine inlet gas and of its thermodynamic parameters (mass flow, temperature, pressure). An evaluation of pollutant emissions of CO, CO{sub 2} and NOx and a comparison with the available experimental data relating to the case of combustion of NG is also provided in the paper. Moreover, the carried out investigation concerns the case of operation with a SG fuel derived from biomass in an Integrated Pyrolysis Regenerated Plant (IPRP). (author)

  3. Thermo-economic assessment of externally fired micro-gas turbine fired by natural gas and biomass: Applications in Italy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pantaleo, A.M.; Camporeale, S.M.; Shah, N.

    2013-01-01

    Highlights: • A thermo-economic analysis of natural gas/biomass fired microturbine is proposed. • Energy efficiency, capex, opex and electricity revenues trade-offs are assessed. • The optimal biomass energy input is 70% of total CHP consumption. • Industrial/tertiary heat demand and baseload/heat driven operation is assessed. • The main barriers of small scale CHP systems in Italy are overviewed. - Abstract: This paper proposes a thermo-economic assessment of small scale (100 kWe) combined heat and power (CHP) plants fired by natural gas and solid biomass. The focus is on dual fuel gas turbine cycle, where compressed air is heated in a high temperature heat exchanger (HTHE) using the hot gases produced in a biomass furnace, before entering the gas combustion chamber. The hot air expands in the turbine and then feeds the internal pre-heater recuperator, Various biomass/natural gas energy input ratios are modeled, ranging from 100% natural gas to 100% biomass. The research assesses the trade-offs between: (i) lower energy conversion efficiency and higher investment cost of high biomass input rate and (ii) higher primary energy savings and revenues from bio-electricity feed-in tariff in case of high biomass input rate. The influence of fuel mix and biomass furnace temperature on energy conversion efficiencies, primary energy savings and profitability of investments is assessed. The scenarios of industrial vs. tertiary heat demand and baseload vs. heat driven plant operation are also compared. On the basis of the incentives available in Italy for biomass electricity and for high efficiency cogeneration (HEC), the maximum investment profitability is achieved for 70% input biomass percentage. The main barriers of these embedded cogeneration systems in Italy are also discussed

  4. Biogas in the natural gas distribution network; Biogas til nettet

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kvist Jensen, T.

    2009-05-15

    With the Danish 'Thorsoe Biogas Plant' as reference case, an assessment of the possibility of using the existing natural gas distribution network for distributing biogas was carried out. Technologies for and cost of upgrading biogas to natural gas quality are presented. Furthermore, a socio-economic analysis has been performed, including the Danish financial conditions, the market models, and the role of the natural gas distribution companies.

  5. Micro-propulsion and micro-combustion; Micropropulsion microcombustion

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ribaud, Y.; Dessornes, O.

    2002-10-01

    The AAAF (french space and aeronautic association) organized at Paris a presentation on the micro-propulsion. The first part was devoted to the thermal micro-machines for micro drones, the second part to the micro-combustion applied to micro-turbines. (A.L.B.)

  6. Hydrogen assisted biological biogas upgrading

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bassani, Ilaria

    Wind and biomass are promoted worldwide as sustainable forms of energy. Anaerobic digestion of biomass produces biogas with ∼50−70% CH4 and 30−50% CO2. However, biogas with >90% CH4 content has higher heating value, can be injected into the natural gas grid or used as alternative to natural gas...... as vehicle fuel. Methods currently available for biogas upgrading mainly consists of physicochemical CO2 removal, requiring the use of chemical substances and energy input and, thus, increasing process costs. This PhD project proposes an alternative to existing biogas upgrading technologies, where H2......, produced by water electrolysis, using excess of electricity from wind mills, is coupled with the CO2 contained in the biogas to convert them to CH4. This process is defined as biological biogas upgrading and is carried out by hydrogenotrophic methanogenic archaea that couples CO2 with H2 to produce...

  7. Biogas: fuel of the future

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Da Silva, E J

    1980-01-01

    As the energy crisis worsens, bioconversion of organic residue has become increasingly attractive in recent years. There are thousands of biogas plants in developing countries (not including China) and more programs are being launched. Because biogas is conveniently renewable, the author argues that it has a vital role to play, especially as a future source of energy for both developed and developing countries. The operation of a typical biogas plant is described.

  8. Report on achievements in fiscal 1999 of energy and environment technology verification project formation assisting project and international joint verification and research project. Verification of discrete power generation system utilizing mini-power generation that utilizes micro gas turbine; 1999 nendo micro gas turbine riyo mini hatsuden wo riyoshita bunsangata hatsuden system no kensho seika hokokusho

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2000-03-01

    This paper describes the verification test on power generation by using natural gas driven micro gas turbines (rated at 28 kW) in Thailand. The turbine presented excellent result of providing a maximum power generation output of 25 kW, having no efficiency deterioration even at the 50% output point (about 22%). Its exhaust gas emitted under the normal operation is clean. The waste heat is as low as 290 degrees C, which can be used for hot water supply, but may be difficult for steam generation. Under the severe condition for building large power plants in remote areas due to environmental issues and power transmission loss, proliferation of the discrete power generation system in the suburbs of the city of Bangkok draws expectation. This system can be more advantageous than the existing facilities if the end user gas price is 6.7 Bht/m{sup 3} or less. Discussions were given on a hybrid electric vehicle (HEV) bus driven by electric power generated from the gas turbine mounted on the bus. The bus is overwhelmingly superior in the environmental aspect to diesel fueled buses. The HEV bus emits no black smoke at all, and NOx emission is as low as about 1/70. Fuel consumption is less than half (when regenerative braking is used). However, the vehicle body cost is higher by 40%. Smooth operation of the buses requires indispensably deployment of compressed natural gas service stations (to be located at 40-km interval ideally). Assistance is required also on the fund for gas line installations, and civil engineering construction technologies. (NEDO)

  9. Profile and Perceptions of Biogas as Automobile Fuel : A Study of Svensk Biogas

    OpenAIRE

    Larsson, Anneli

    2008-01-01

    From an environmental- and health perspective, biogas and other biomass-based fuels have several advantages; nevertheless the majority of motorists fill their cars with petroleum-based fuels. This thesis is designed to explore the profile of biogas in relation to its perceptions. It is a study concerning the communication between the biogas producing company Svensk Biogas and their biogas users and non biogas users. To obtain a thorough understanding of the profile and perceptions of biogas a...

  10. Biogas Opportunities Roadmap Progress Report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    None, None

    2015-12-01

    In support of the Obama Administration's Climate Action Plan, the U.S. Department of Energy, the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency, and U.S. Department of Agriculture jointly released the Biogas Opportunities Roadmap Progress Report, updating the federal government's progress to reduce methane emissions through biogas systems since the Biogas Opportunities Roadmap was completed by the three agencies in July 2014. The report highlights actions taken, outlines challenges and opportunities, and identifies next steps to the growth of a robust biogas industry.

  11. Biogas plants; Biogasanlagen

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2012-07-01

    Within the KRdL expert meeting at 30th October, 2012 in Bonn (Federal Republic of Germany), the following lectures were held: (1) New requirements on biomass conversion plants based on the Federal Nuisance Control Ordinance (Hans-Peter Ewens); (2) State of the art of the operation of biomass conversion plants (Christina Dornack); (3) Implementation of the regulation VDI 3475 sheet 4 (Markus Helm); (4) Handling of constraints of residents in the licensing procedure as well as during operation (Helmar Hentschke); (5) Explosion protection for biomass conversion plants considering the matters of immission control (Michael Faber); (6) Microbiological and epidemic-hygienic aspects of agricultural biomass conversion plants and their fermentation residues (Werner Philipp); (7) Emissions of climatic relevant gases at the biogas production (Jacqueline Daniel-Gromke); (8) State of the art in the biogas processing (Joachim Krassowski).

  12. Cogeneration, micro turbines and fuel cells: perspectives for distributed generation in Brazil; Cogeracao, microturbinas e celulas a combustivel: perspectivas para geracao distribuida no Brasil

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Leite, Marco Antonio Haikal [PETROBRAS, Rio de Janeiro, RJ (Brazil). Centro de Pesquisas (CENPES)

    2004-07-01

    Brazil has a large potential to install distributed generation systems, using natural gas or renewable like solar, wind or biomass energy. Regarding urban centers, natural gas fired cogeneration and other distributed energy technologies find economical applications. Cogeneration is defined as the generation of two kinds of useful energy from a single energy source. Usually, electrical energy and thermal energy as steam or hot water are produced. By using the absorption refrigeration cycle, chilled water can also be produced to be used in air conditioned systems, often called tri generation, a good alternative to industries, commercial buildings, shopping centers, hospitals, schools and universities. Micro turbines find utilization whenever natural gas is available, but not electricity, like gas compression installations, unmanned platforms or remote production fields. Fuel cells are used in systems requiring high levels of reliability or wherever the non availability cost is high. This paper describe technical and economical data related to PETROBRAS Research Center (CENPES) 3,200 kW electric energy and 1,000 RT chilled water cogeneration system, 200 kW fuel cell and 30 kW and 60 kW microturbines. (author)

  13. 4E analysis and multi objective optimization of a micro gas turbine and solid oxide fuel cell hybrid combined heat and power system

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sanaye, Sepehr; Katebi, Arash

    2014-02-01

    Energy, exergy, economic and environmental (4E) analysis and optimization of a hybrid solid oxide fuel cell and micro gas turbine (SOFC-MGT) system for use as combined generation of heat and power (CHP) is investigated in this paper. The hybrid system is modeled and performance related results are validated using available data in literature. Then a multi-objective optimization approach based on genetic algorithm is incorporated. Eight system design parameters are selected for the optimization procedure. System exergy efficiency and total cost rate (including capital or investment cost, operational cost and penalty cost of environmental emissions) are the two objectives. The effects of fuel unit cost, capital investment and system power output on optimum design parameters are also investigated. It is observed that the most sensitive and important design parameter in the hybrid system is fuel cell current density which has a significant effect on the balance between system cost and efficiency. The selected design point from the Pareto distribution of optimization results indicates a total system exergy efficiency of 60.7%, with estimated electrical energy cost 0.057 kW-1 h-1, and payback period of about 6.3 years for the investment.

  14. Biogas of sanitary fillers

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Serrano Camacho, Ciro

    2007-01-01

    The author proposes a methodology for the preliminary estimation of the energetic potential and environmental improvement derivates of the implementation of these technologies that allows to make the first estimative of biogas generation of sanitary fillers with base in the results of the simulation of three predictive model: One Mexican, other denominated Scholl-Canyon of North American origin and the designed by the EPA. The three models use different versions and constants for a differential equation of degradation of first degree

  15. A regional biogas infrastructure, prospects for the biogas grid

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hengeveld, Evert Jan; van Gemert, Wim; Bekkering, Jan; Broekhuis, A.A.

    2014-01-01

    A model to describe biogas transport costs in a regional grid is presented. In the model biogas is collected to a central location by transport through dedicated pipelines. Costs have been calculated for two different lay-outs of the grid i.e. star and fishbone lay-out. The costs depend on the

  16. Biogas - the calculable energy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kith, Károly; Nagy, Orsolya; Balla, Zoltán; Tamás, András

    2015-04-01

    EU actions against climate change are rising energy prices, both have emphasized the use of renewable energy,increase investments and energy efficiency. A number of objectives formulated in the EC decree no. 29/2009 by 2020. This document is based on the share of renewable energies in energy consumption should be increased to 20% (EC, 2009). The EU average is 20% but the share of renewables vary from one member state to another. In Hungary in 2020, 14.65% renewable energy share is planned to be achieved. According to the latest Eurostat data, the share of renewable energy in energy consumption of the EU average was 14.1%, while in Hungary, this share was 9.6% in 2012. (EUROSTAT, 2014). The use of renewable energy plant level is influenced by several factors. The most important of these is the cost savings and efficiency gains. Hungarian investments in renewable energy production usually have high associated costs and the payback period is substantially more than five years, depending on the support rate. For example, the payback period is also influenced by the green electricity generated feed prices, which is one of the lowest in Hungary compared the Member States of the European Union. Consequently, it is important to increase the production of green energy. Nowadays, predictable biogas energy is an outstanding type of decentralized energy production. It follows directly that agricultural by-products can be used to produce energy and they also create jobs by the construction of a biogas plant. It is important to dispose of and destroy hazardous and noxious substances in energy production. It follows from this that the construction of biogas plants have a positive impact, in addition to green energy which is prepared to reduce the load on the environment. The production of biogas and green electricity is one of the most environment friendly forms of energy production. Biogas production also has other important ecological effects, such as the substitution of

  17. Full and part load exergetic analysis of a hybrid micro gas turbine fuel cell system based on existing components

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bakalis, Diamantis P.; Stamatis, Anastassios G.

    2012-01-01

    Highlights: ► Hybrid SOFC/GT system based on existing components. ► Exergy analysis using AspenPlus™ software. ► Greenhouse gases emission is significantly affected by SOFC stack temperature. ► Comparison with a conventional GT of similar power. ► SOFC/GT is almost twice efficient in terms of second low efficiency and CO 2 emission. - Abstract: The paper deals with the examination of a hybrid system consisting of a pre-commercially available high temperature solid oxide fuel cell and an existing recuperated microturbine. The irreversibilities and thermodynamic inefficiencies of the system are evaluated after examining the full and partial load exergetic performance and estimating the amount of exergy destruction and the efficiency of each hybrid system component. At full load operation the system achieves an exergetic efficiency of 59.8%, which increases during the partial load operation, as a variable speed control method is utilized. Furthermore, the effects of the various performance parameters such as fuel cell stack temperature and fuel utilization factor are assessed. The results showed that the components in which chemical reactions occur have the higher exergy destruction rates. The exergetic performance of the system is affected significantly by the stack temperature. Based on the exergetic analysis, suggestions are given for reducing the overall system irreversibility. Finally, the environmental impact of the operation of the hybrid system is evaluated and compared with a similarly rated conventional gas turbine plant. From the comparison it is apparent that the hybrid system obtains nearly double exergetic efficiency and about half the amount of greenhouse gas emissions compared with the conventional plant.

  18. Realtime control of biogas reactors. Technical report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Poulsen, Allan K.

    2010-12-15

    In this project several online methods were connected to a biogas pilot plant designed and built by Xergi A/S (Foulum, Denmark). The pilot plant was composed of two stainless steel tanks used as substrate storage and as digester, respectively. The total volume of the reactor tank was 300 L, the working volume 200 L and the headspace volume 100 L. The process temperature in the biogas reactor was maintained at 52 {+-} 0.5 deg. C during normal operating conditions. The biogas production was measured with a flow meter and a controller was used for automatic control of temperature, effluent removal, feeding and for data logging. A NIRS (near infrared spectrometer) was connected to a recurrent loop measuring on the slurry while a {mu}-GC (micro gas chromatograph) and a MIMS (membrane inlet mass spectrometer) enabled online measurements of the gas phase composition. During the project period three monitoring campaigns were accomplished. The loading rate of the biogas reactor was increased stepwise during the periods while the process was monitored. In the first two campaigns the load was increased by increasing the mass of organic material added to the reactor each day. However, this increasing amount changed the retention time in the reactor and in order to keep the retention time constant an increasing amount of inhibitor of the microbial process was instead added in the third campaign and as such maintaining a constant organic load mass added to the reactor. The effect is similar to an increase in process load, while keeping the load of organic material and hence retention time constant. Methods have been developed for the following online technologies and each technology has been evaluated with regard to future use as a tool for biogas process monitoring: 1) {mu}-GC was able to quantitative monitor important gas phase parameters in a reliable, fast and low-maintenance way. 2) MIMS was able to quantitative monitor gas phase composition in a reliable and fast manner

  19. Biogas in Austria and Switzerland

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Urbanek, A.

    Several well-functioning biogas plants in Austria and in Switzerland are briefly described. The profitability of the combination of dairy farming and pig breeding is emphasized. The whey produced by the cheese-dairies is fed to the pigs and the pigs dung is fermented to biogas.

  20. Process control in biogas plants

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Holm-Nielsen, Jens Bo; Oleskowicz-Popiel, Piotr

    2013-01-01

    Efficient monitoring and control of anaerobic digestion (AD) processes are necessary in order to enhance biogas plant performance. The aim of monitoring and controlling the biological processes is to stabilise and optimise the production of biogas. The principles of process analytical technology...

  1. Technological assumptions for biogas purification.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Makareviciene, Violeta; Sendzikiene, Egle

    2015-01-01

    Biogas can be used in the engines of transport vehicles and blended into natural gas networks, but it also requires the removal of carbon dioxide, hydrogen sulphide, and moisture. Biogas purification process flow diagrams have been developed for a process enabling the use of a dolomite suspension, as well as for solutions obtained by the filtration of the suspension, to obtain biogas free of hydrogen sulphide and with a carbon dioxide content that does not exceed 2%. The cost of biogas purification was evaluated on the basis of data on biogas production capacity and biogas production cost obtained from local water treatment facilities. It has been found that, with the use of dolomite suspension, the cost of biogas purification is approximately six times lower than that in the case of using a chemical sorbent such as monoethanolamine. The results showed travelling costs using biogas purified by dolomite suspension are nearly 1.5 time lower than travelling costs using gasoline and slightly lower than travelling costs using mineral diesel fuel.

  2. Biogas: A renewable energy source

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Imiere, E.E.; Ojih, V.B.; Esiekpe, L.E.; Okafor, M.C.; Attoh, V. A.

    2011-01-01

    Biogas refers to a gas produced by the biological breakdown of organic matter in the absence of oxygen. Biogas can be used as a fuel in any country for any heating purpose such as cooking. By means of digesters, the energy in the gas can be converted to electricity and heat. Biogas like natural gas can also be used to power motor vehicle. Biogas is a renewable fuel which qualifies it for a renewable energy subsidy. It is non-toxic, environment-friendly and serve as a means of combating global warming. Biogas is presently being used in U.S.A, U.K, China, Sweden, Brazil, and India amongst others for domestic purposes, transportation and power generation. In this regard, this paper discusses biogas production. It also presents a model design of domestic biogas plant suitable for Nigerian households. The paper recommends that Nigerian Government should intensify efforts in educating the masses on this novel technology for a sustainable global development. A biogas plant designed for Nigerian household discussed in this paper is also recommended.

  3. Turbinate surgery

    Science.gov (United States)

    Turbinectomy; Turbinoplasty; Turbinate reduction; Nasal airway surgery; Nasal obstruction - turbinate surgery ... There are several types of turbinate surgery: Turbinectomy: All or ... This can be done in several different ways, but sometimes a ...

  4. SOFC Operation with Real Biogas

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hagen, Anke; Winiwarter, Anna; Langnickel, Hendrik

    2017-01-01

    Biogas is a valuable energy source and will be available in future in systems relying on renewables. It is an attractive fuel for solid oxide fuel cells (SOFC), which are able to utilize the carbon contained in the biogas and which produce electricity with high efficiency. In the current paper......, state‐of‐the‐art SOFCs were studied regarding performance and durability in relation to biogas as fuel and considering important contaminants, specifically sulfur. First, the catalytic behavior in relevant synthetic biogas mixtures was studied and the potential of dry reforming was demonstrated....... Successful long term operation of an SOFC under both, conditions of steam and dry reforming, i.e., addition of steam or CO2 to avoid carbon formation was shown. For the steam reforming case a remarkable period of 3,500 h, hereof 3,000 h in the presence of H2S was achieved. Finally, a real biogas from...

  5. The potential of biogas energy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Acaroglu, M.; Hepbasli, A.; Kocar, G.

    2005-01-01

    Biogas technology has been known about for a long time, but in recent years the interest in it has significantly increased, especially due to the higher costs and the rapid depletion of fossil fuels as well as their environmental considerations. The main objective of the present study is to investigate the potential of biogas energy in the 15 European Union (EU) countries and in Turkey, which is seeking admission to the EU and is trying to meet EU environmental standards. Biogas energy potential of the 15 EU countries is estimated to be about 800 PJ. Besides this, Turkey's annual animal waste potential is obtained to be about 11.81 million tons with a biogas energy equivalent of 53.6 PJ. It is expected that this study will be helpful in developing highly applicable and productive planning for energy policies towards the optimum utilization of biogas energy. (author)

  6. Small Scale Regenerative Desulfurization of Biogas

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Linders, M.J.G.; Stille, L.C.; Miedema, M.C.; Groenestijn, J.W. van; Goetheer, E.L.V.

    2016-01-01

    The application of small scale biogas digesters to supply biogas to households in developing countries is well established. The biogas is used for different applications, amongst other cooking. Generally, no further treatment of the biogas is applied. Hydrogen Sulfide (H2S) is present in varying

  7. Environmental systems analysis of biogas systems-Part I: Fuel-cycle emissions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Boerjesson, Pal; Berglund, Maria

    2006-01-01

    Fuel-cycle emissions of carbon dioxide (CO 2 ), carbon oxide (CO), nitrogen oxides (NO x ), sulphur dioxide (SO 2 ), hydrocarbons (HC), methane (CH 4 ), and particles are analysed from a life-cycle perspective for different biogas systems based on six different raw materials. The gas is produced in large- or farm-scale biogas plants, and is used in boilers for heat production, in turbines for co-generation of heat and electricity, or as a transportation fuel in light- and heavy-duty vehicles. The analyses refer mainly to Swedish conditions. The levels of fuel-cycle emissions vary greatly among the biogas systems studied, and are significantly affected by the properties of the raw material digested, the energy efficiency of the biogas production, and the status of the end-use technology. For example, fuel-cycle emission may vary by a factor of 3-4, and for certain gases by up to a factor of 11, between two biogas systems that provide an equivalent energy service. Extensive handling of raw materials, e.g. ley cropping or collection of waste-products such as municipal organic waste, is often a significant source of emissions. Emission from the production phase of the biogas exceeds the end-use emissions for several biogas systems and for specific emissions. Uncontrolled losses of methane, e.g. leakages from stored digestates or from biogas upgrading, increase the fuel-cycle emissions of methane considerably. Thus, it is necessary to clearly specify the biogas production system and end-use technology being studied in order to be able to produce reliable and accurate data on fuel-cycle emission

  8. Special file: biogas

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Signoret, Stephane; Mary, Olivier; Zebboudj, Idir; Mounissamy, Alice; Sandrin-Deforge, Armelle; Petitot, Pauline; De Santis, Audrey

    2015-01-01

    With some graphs indicating the number and types of existing and projected biogas production units, a first article outlines that the development rate is presently too low to be able to reach objectives defined for 2020. A second article comments the results of a benchmark study performed by the ADEME on the biogas sector status in European countries (a map indicates the levels of production and electricity purchase tariffs, the evolution of development conditions, and the types of financial support). In an interview, a GrDF manager in charge of strategy discusses the GrDF strategy on biomethane, the future management of gas networks, the operation of existing biomethane injection sites, future projects, the management of consumption variations, and the issue of biomethane injection tariff. An article then presents an experiment made by farmers in western France who gathered about a methanization site with a unit of injection of biomethane into the natural gas network. The assessment of another experiment (a Methanea methanization unit operated by two farmers in the Ain district) is then presented. The next article gives an overview of the various possibilities proposed by the legal framework for the contract between input providers and the methanization unit operator. Different assessment tools are then presented: Flash BMP (a fast and affordable method of measurement of the biochemical methane potential or BMP to perform feasibility studies), and a software for the precise assessment of the profitability of a methanization unit. In an interview, a member of Weltec Biopower proposes a brief overview of services and products proposed by this company which installs biogas and bio-methanization every where in the world. A last article addresses the recent evolutions and progress of certification of French digestates

  9. Biogas from lignocellulosic biomass

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Berglund Odhner, Peter; Schabbauer, Anna [Grontmij AB, Stockholm (Sweden); Sarvari Horvath, Ilona; Mohseni Kabir, Maryam [Hoegskolan i Boraas, Boraas (Sweden)

    2012-01-15

    Grontmij AB has cooperated with the University of Boraas to evaluate the technological and economical possibilities for biogas production from substrates containing lignocellulose, such as forest residues, straw and paper. The state of knowledge regarding biogas production from cellulosic biomass has been summarized. The research in the field has been described, especially focusing on pretreatment methods and their results on increased gas yields. An investigation concerning commercially available pretreatment methods and the cost of these technologies has been performed. An economic evaluation of biogas production from lignocellulosic materials has provided answers to questions regarding the profitability of these processes. Pretreatment with steam explosion was economically evaluated for three feedstocks - wood, straw and paper - and a combination of steam explosion and addition of NaOH for paper. The presented costs pertain to costs for the pretreatment step as it, in this study, was assumed that the pretreatment would be added to an existing plant and the lignocellulosic substrates would be part of a co-digestion process. The results of the investigation indicate that it is difficult to provide a positive net result when comparing the cost of pretreatment versus the gas yield (value) for two of the feedstocks - forest residues and straw. This is mainly due to the high cost of the raw material. For forest residues the steam pretreatment cost exceeded the gas yield by over 50 %, mainly due to the high cost of the raw material. For straw, the production cost was similar to the value of the gas. Paper showed the best economic result. The gas yield (value) for paper exceeded the pretreatment cost by 15 %, which makes it interesting to study paper further.

  10. Natural attenuation of biogas in landfill covers

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cossu, R.; Privato, A.; Raga, R.

    2005-01-01

    In the risk evaluation of uncontrolled biogas emissions from landfills, the process of natural attenuation in landfill covers assumes a very important role. The capacity of biogas oxidation in the cover soils seems to be the most important control to mitigate the biogas emission during the aftercare period when the biogas collection system might fail. In the present paper laboratory experiences on lab columns to study the biogas oxidation are discussed [it

  11. Biotechnological intensification of biogas production

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bagi, Z.; Acs, N.; Balint, B.; Horvath, L.; Dobo, K.; Perei, K.R.; Rakhely, G.; Kovacs, K.L. [Szeged Univ. (Hungary). Dept. of Biotechnology; Hungarian Academy of Sciences, Szeged (Hungary). Inst. of Biophysics

    2007-08-15

    The importance of syntrophic relationships among microorganisms participating in biogas formation has been emphasized, and the regulatory role of in situ hydrogen production has been recognized. It was assumed that the availability of hydrogen may be a limiting factor for hydrogenotrophic methanogens. This hypothesis was tested under laboratory and field conditions by adding a mesophilic (Enterobacter cloacae) or thermophilic hydrogen-producing (Caldicellulosyruptor saccharolyticus) strain to natural biogas-producing consortia. The substrates were waste water sludge, dried plant biomass from Jerusalem artichoke, and pig manure. In all cases, a significant intensification of biogas production was observed. The composition of the generated biogas did not noticeably change. In addition to being a good hydrogen producer, C. saccharolyticus has cellulolytic activity; hence, it is particularly suitable when cellulose-containing biomass is fermented. The process was tested in a 5-m{sup 3} thermophilic biogas digester using pig manure slurry as a substrate. Biogas formation increased at least 160-170% upon addition of the hydrogen-producing bacteria as compared to the biogas production of the spontaneously formed microbial consortium. Using the hydrogenase-minus control strain provided evidence that the observed enhancement was due to interspecies hydrogen transfer. The on-going presence of C. saccharolyticus was demonstrated after several months of semicontinuous operation. (orig.)

  12. Biogas Production from Chicken Manure

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kenan Dalkılıç

    2013-11-01

    Full Text Available Traditionally, animal manures are burned for heating in Turkey. It is also used as soil conditioner which has adverse environmental effects. Although, the use of renewable energy sources in Turkey is very limited, the application studies on biogas production from animal manure are increasing. 25-30% of total animal manures produced in Turkey are composed of chicken manure. The works on biogas production from chicken manure are very limited in Turkey. In this paper, biogas production studies from chicken manure in Turkey and in the World are reviewed.

  13. Biogas production and biogas as vehicle fuel - Swedish experiences

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lindberg, A E [VBB Viak AB, Stockholm (Sweden)

    1997-08-01

    In Sweden there are totally about 220 biogas plants in operation. The major part of these plants (134) are represented by sewage sludge treatment facilities at waste water treatment plants. At 60 sites the biogas is generated from landfills or cell digesters at landfills. In 1996, the amount produced had a total energy content of about 1,35 TWh (or 4 900 PJ). (EG)

  14. Micro gas turbines: An advanced technology for cogeneration in small- and medium-sized companies; Mikro-Gasturbinen: Eine neue Technologie zur Kraft-Waerme-Kopplung in kleinen und mittleren Unternehmen?

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bouvy, C.; Kuperjans, I. [Lehrstuhl fuer Technische Thermodynamik, RWTH Aachen (Germany)

    2004-07-01

    Micro gas turbines are a new technology for cogeneration with capacities of less than 300 kW{sub el}. Owing to the high heat level of up to 650 degrees centigrade, this is a promising technology for small and medium-sized industrial organisations who need process heat and have a low electric base load power consumption. A potential is viewed especially in process steam production and in direct drying. However, as the economic efficiency depends on the process boundary conditions, the project comprised the development of calculation tables to support the decision finding process. (orig.)

  15. Nitrogen availability of biogas residues

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    El-Sayed Fouda, Sara

    2011-09-07

    The objectives of this study were to characterize biogas residues either unseparated or separated into a liquid and a solid phase from the fermentation of different substrates with respect to their N and C content. In addition, short and long term effects of the application of these biogas residues on the N availability and N utilization by ryegrass was investigated. It is concluded that unseparated or liquid separated biogas residues provide N at least corresponding to their ammonium content and that after the first fertilizer application the C{sub org}:N{sub org} ratio of the biogas residues was a crucial factor for the N availability. After long term application, the organic N accumulated in the soil leads to an increased release of N.

  16. BIOGAS PRODUCTION FROM CATCH CROPS

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Molinuevo-Salces, Beatriz; Larsen, Søren U.; Ahring, Birgitte Kiær

    2014-01-01

    -substrate in manure-based biogas plants and the profit obtained from the sale of biogas barely compensates for the harvest costs. A new agricultural strategy to harvest catch crops together with the residual straw of the main crop was investigated to increase the biomass and thereby the methane yield per hectare......Catch crop cultivation combined with its use for biogas production would increase renewable energy production in the form of methane, without interfering with the production of food and fodder crops. The low biomass yield of catch crops is the main limiting factor for using these crops as co...... biomass. Leaving the straw on the field until harvest of the catch crop in the autumn could benefit biogas production due to the organic matter degradation of the straw taking place on the field during the autumn months. This new agricultural strategy may be a good alternative to achieve economically...

  17. Monitoring of biogas test plants

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Holm-Nielsen, Jens Bo; Esbensen, Kim H.

    2011-01-01

    realistic bioreactor scales, it is necessary to obtain a fairly constant level of volatile fatty acid (VFA) concentration, which furthers a stable biogas production. Uncontrolled VFA contents have a significant negative impact on biogas production; VFA concentrations should not exceed 5–6000 mg/L lest......Most studies reported in the literature have investigated near infrared spectroscopy (NIR) in laboratory-scale or minor pilot biogas plants only; practically no other studies have examined the potential for meso-scale/full-scale on-line process monitoring. The focus of this study is on a meso......-scale biogas test plant implementation of process analytical technologies (PAT) to develop multivariate calibration/prediction models for anaerobic digestion (AD) processes. A 150 L bioreactor was fitted with a recurrent loop at which NIR spectroscopy and attendant reference sampling were carried out. In all...

  18. Decentralized power generation from biogas

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2008-01-01

    Areva Bioenergies proposes ready-to-use biogas production and valorization units that use industrial effluents (liquid effluents, spent water, solid wastes). Biogas valorization is performed through cogeneration plants with an output power of 500 kW to 10 MW. This brochure presents Areva's global offer in methanation projects (support, engineering, optimization). Areva Bioenergies counts 20 dual-purpose power plants in operation or under construction in the world which represent an installed power of 220 MW

  19. Trenton Biogas LLC

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Blair, William Brian [Trenton Biogas LLC, Trenton, NJ (United States)

    2017-06-13

    During the total period of funding, the project objectives changed. The initial objective of the project was to research the health and efficacy of two commercial derivative products of levulinic acid extracted from food waste and to optimize conversion methods for manufacturing. Unfortunately, and prior to any final conclusions, the scientist performing the studies passed away leaving much of the work incomplete. Analysis of the initial work product suggested that the process for commercializing levulinic acid from the food waste product was cost prohibitive mostly due to the market readiness for the levulinic acid product. The second phase of funding research period focused on utilizing the food waste (which had already been researched from phase 1) for other sources of energy. The focus and objectives of this phase were more focused on the technology transfer necessary to commercialize anaerobic digestion of food waste in a somewhat urban environment. During this transition, the project name changed from Trenton Fuel Works to Trenton Biogas.

  20. Collective biogas plants

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1992-01-01

    Papers contributed to the European seminar on collective biogas plants held at Herning, Denmark on October 22-23 under the auspices of the Commission of the European Communities, Directorate-General for Energy (DG XVII) are presented. Within the framework of the THERMIE programme, a network of OPETs (Organizations for the Promotion of Energy Technologies) was set up in order to disseminate information on new energy technologies throughout the European communities. The potential for further implementation of centralized capacity for the conversion of animal manures and other organic wastes to bio-fuels, not only in central and eastern Europe but also in the developing countries, is discussed in addition to the relevant technologies. Actual biomass conversion plants are described and details are given on operational experience and plant management. Agricultural, economic and policy aspects are also dealt with. (AB)

  1. Combined utilization of biogas and natural gas

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jensen, J.; Tafdrup, S.; Christensen, J.

    1997-01-01

    The Danish natural gas network has been established during the past 10 years. Running parallel with this a small but growing production of biogas from centralized biogas plants and landfills has been developed. The annual biogas production is expected to keep growing and increase tenfold in the next 25 year period with a reduction of green house gas emissions as one of the important incentives. The last years' development and expansion of the Danish biogas sector has shown a need for combined utilization of biogas and natural gas. If larger volumes of biogas are present, upgrading and distribution by the natural gas network may be an alternative to combined utilization. (au) 12 refs

  2. The commercialization of biogas production

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Christensen, J.

    1992-01-01

    Currently there are ten large collective biogas plants and ten smaller farm plants operating in Denmark. During the last five years, biogas technology has undergone extensive technological development. The developmental process is supported by a public R and D programme and a follow-up programme for full-scale demonstration plants. Most plants still need considerable income increases before a final conclusion can be reached as to whether it is possible to achieve a profit from a corporate economic viewpoint. All plants have received investment grants. Gas production is in most cases reliable, especially due to the admixture of easily convertible organic waste as a supplement to the slurry supplies. Profitable collective biogas plants are within reach, even without investment grants. The total intake of biomass must be supplemented by 10 to 25 per cent easily convertible organic waste so that the minimum gas production reaches 30 to 35 m 3 per m 3 of biomass. Plants based solely on animal manure are not profitable. Energy from the biogas has to be sold at prices corresponding to consumer prices, which include Danish energy taxes. Collective biogas plants in Denmark appear to be approaching a commercial breakthrough. The concept of a collective biogas plant has been developed to address the energy-related, environmentally-related and agricultural problems. (AB)

  3. A dynamic model of a 100 kW micro gas turbine fuelled with natural gas and hydrogen blends and its application in a hybrid energy grid

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Di Gaeta, Alessandro; Reale, Fabrizio; Chiariello, Fabio; Massoli, Patrizio

    2017-01-01

    The paper deals with the development of a dynamic model of a commercial 100 kW Micro Gas Turbine (MGT) fuelled with mixtures of standard (i.e. natural gas or methane) and alternative fuels (i.e. hydrogen). The model consists of a first-order differential equation (ODE) describing the dominant dynamics of the MGT imposed by its own control system during production electrical power. The differential equation is coupled to a set of nonlinear maps derived numerically from a detailed 0D thermodynamic matching model of the MGT evaluated over a wide range of operating conditions (i.e. mechanical power, fraction of hydrogen and ambient temperature). The efficiency of the electrical machine with power inverter and power absorbed by auxiliary devices is also taken into account. The resulting model is experimentally validated for a sequence of power step responses of the MGT at different ambient conditions and with different fuel mixtures. The model is suited for simulation and control of hybrid energy grids (HEGs) which rely on advanced use of MGT and hydrogen as energy carrier. In this regard, the MGT model is used in the simulation of an HEG based on an appropriate mix of renewable (non-programmable) and non-renewable (programmable) energy sources with hydrogen storage and its reuse in the MGT. Here, the MGT is used as a programmable energy vector for compensating the deficits of renewable energies (such as solar and wind) with respect to user demand, while excess renewable energy is used to produce hydrogen via electrolysis of water. The simulated HEG comprises a solar PhotoVoltaic (PV) plant (300 kW), an MGT (100 kW) fuelled with natural gas and hydrogen blends, a water electrolyzer (WE) system (8 bar, 56 Nm 3 /h), a hydrogen tank (54 m 3 ), and an Energy Management Control System (EMCS). - Highlights: • A dynamic model of a commercial 100 kW MGT fuelled with natural gas and hydrogen blends is developed. • The model reproduces the electrical power generated by

  4. Techniques of power production from biogas and syngas. Extended abstract

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Couturier, Ch.

    2009-01-01

    The aim of this study is to achieve a state of the art on the techniques of electricity production (mainly engines and turbines) from biomass gases (biogas and syngas). After a brief description of the various routes to produce gas from biomass, i.e. anaerobic digestion and gasification, the study shows the composition of these gases, their constituents, the factors characterizing combustion, to finish on air emissions. Then, there is a description of the general principles and parameters of operation and adjustment of the main electricity production techniques: and their various possible associations. This chapter is concluded by a comparative synthesis on the scopes and maturity of each technique. The second chapter is a review of different processes to remove contaminants of biogas and syngas. It gives operating principle, feedback, costs and development. The third chapter is an economical, energy and environmental analysis of the techniques of electricity production. The fourth chapter is a technical guide, with some practical details to operate a plant about treatment, functioning of machines. This is also a synthesis of difficulties. An economic and environmental analysis of biogas plants permits to compare different choices. This guide gives information to actors in this field to make decisions. The study is finished by a synthesis with key points and research fields, followed by a conclusion. The last chapter lists resource materials: bibliography and patents of the last 10 years. Provided in appendix, there is a directory about actors like equipment manufacturers or operating contractors. (author)

  5. Biogas plants in the Swiss agriculture

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wellinger, A

    1985-01-01

    Description of the systems of Swiss biogas plants, gas production rates and the use of the gas for heating the biogas digesters and apartments, for agriculture, cheese factories, and for the production of electricity.

  6. Biogas Koczala. Biogas project in Koczala. Feasibility study. Technical report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2004-08-01

    The present production of district heating in Koczala is based on coal. The district heating system is worn out technically and economically and according to the 2001 Energy Plan of Koczala the district heating plant shall be converted to a combination of a biogas fired CHP and a wood chip boiler. The overall objective of this project is to access the feasibility and viability construction an operation of a biogas plant owned by the co-operative agricultural company, Poldanor S.A. The feasibility study includes: 1) Availability of organic waste in the Koczala area, 2) Possibilities of using energy crops in the biogas plant, 3) Possibilities of receiving grants from the Polish National Fund for Environmental Protection, the new EU regional funds and through the joint implementation market (CO 2 quotas), 4) Alternative locations of the biogas plant and the CHP unit, 5) Alternative strategies for selling electricity and heat, 6) Organisational issues (ownership). This report concludes that implementing the biogas project is environmentally and financially feasible and viable. If organic waste and/or maize silage can be provided and gasified without problems, the plant can supply as well the Koczala farm as the fodder mill with steam and heat, and also supply Koczala district heating system with approx. 75% of yearly heat consumption. Furthermore, electricity is supplied to the fodder mill and the public grid. (BA)

  7. Trend chart: biogas. Forth quarter 2016

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cavaud, Denis

    2017-02-01

    This publication presents the biogas industry situation of continental France and overseas territories during the forth quarter 2016: total connected load of biogas power plants, new connected facilities, regional distribution of facilities, evolution of quarterly production, distribution of facilities versus power and type, evolution forecasts of biogas power generation, detailed regional results, biomethane injection in natural gas distribution systems, methodology used

  8. Trend chart: biogas. Second quarter 2016

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cavaud, Denis

    2016-08-01

    This publication presents the biogas industry situation of continental France and overseas territories during the Second quarter 2016: total connected load of biogas power plants, new connected facilities, regional distribution of facilities, evolution of quarterly production, distribution of facilities versus power and type, evolution forecasts of biogas power generation, detailed regional results, biomethane injection in natural gas distribution systems, methodology used

  9. Trend chart: biogas. Third quarter 2016

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cavaud, Denis

    2016-11-01

    This publication presents the biogas industry situation of continental France and overseas territories during the third quarter 2016: total connected load of biogas power plants, new connected facilities, regional distribution of facilities, evolution of quarterly production, distribution of facilities versus power and type, evolution forecasts of biogas power generation, detailed regional results, biomethane injection in natural gas distribution systems, methodology used

  10. Trend chart: biogas. First quarter 2016

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cavaud, Denis

    2016-05-01

    This publication presents the biogas industry situation of continental France and overseas territories during the first quarter 2016: total connected load of biogas power plants, new connected facilities, regional distribution of facilities, evolution of quarterly production, distribution of facilities versus power and type, evolution forecasts of biogas power generation, detailed regional results, biomethane injection in natural gas distribution systems, methodology used

  11. Panorama 2018 - Biogas in Europe: future prospects?

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Maisonnier, Guy; Grandjean, Julien; Bouter, Anne; Collet, Pierre; Gauthier, Thierry

    2018-01-01

    Biogas, produced from all kinds of organic matter, is used to produce electricity and heat. Biomethane, which is biogas stripped of its CO 2 component, can be injected into the natural gas network or upgraded to biofuel for use in the transport sector. In Europe, biogas represented 8% of renewable fuel production in 2015, equivalent to 4% of European natural gas consumption. (authors)

  12. Biogas and Hydrogen Systems Market Assessment

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Milbrandt, Anelia [National Renewable Energy Lab. (NREL), Golden, CO (United States); Bush, Brian [National Renewable Energy Lab. (NREL), Golden, CO (United States); Melaina, Marc [National Renewable Energy Lab. (NREL), Golden, CO (United States)

    2016-03-31

    This analysis provides an overview of the market for biogas-derived hydrogen and its use in transportation applications. It examines the current hydrogen production technologies from biogas, capacity and production, infrastructure, potential and demand, as well as key market areas. It also estimates the production cost of hydrogen from biogas and provides supply curves at a national level and at point source.

  13. Biomass and biogas : potentials, efficiencies and flexibility

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hofstede, Gert; Wouterse, Brian; Faber, Folkert; Nap, Jan Peter

    2012-01-01

    In the field of ‘renewable energy resources’ formation of biogas Biomass and biogas: potentials, efficiencies and flexibility is an important option. Biogas can be produced from biomass in a multistep process called anaerobic digestion (AD) and is usually performed in large digesters. Anaerobic

  14. Methanogenesis in Thermophilic Biogas Reactors

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ahring, Birgitte Kiær

    1995-01-01

    Methanogenesis in thermophilic biogas reactors fed with different wastes is examined. The specific methanogenic activity with acetate or hydrogen as substrate reflected the organic loading of the specific reactor examined. Increasing the loading of thermophilic reactors stabilized the process as ....... Experiments using biogas reactors fed with cow manure showed that the same biogas yield found at 550 C could be obtained at 610 C after a long adaptation period. However, propionate degradation was inhibited by increasing the temperature.......Methanogenesis in thermophilic biogas reactors fed with different wastes is examined. The specific methanogenic activity with acetate or hydrogen as substrate reflected the organic loading of the specific reactor examined. Increasing the loading of thermophilic reactors stabilized the process...... as indicated by a lower concentration of volatile fatty acids in the effluent from the reactors. The specific methanogenic activity in a thermophilic pilot-plant biogas reactor fed with a mixture of cow and pig manure reflected the stability of the reactor. The numbers of methanogens counted by the most...

  15. REGENERATIVE GAS TURBINES WITH DIVIDED EXPANSION

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Elmegaard, Brian; Qvale, Einar Bjørn

    2004-01-01

    Recuperated gas turbines are currently drawing an increased attention due to the recent commercialization of micro gas turbines with recuperation. This system may reach a high efficiency even for the small units of less than 100 kW. In order to improve the economics of the plants, ways to improve...... their efficiency are always of interest. Recently, two independent studies have proposed recuperated gas turbines to be configured with the turbine expansion divided, in order to obtain higher efficiency. The idea is to operate the system with a gas generator and a power turbine, and use the gas from the gas...... divided expansion can be advantageous under certain circumstances. But, in order for todays micro gas turbines to be competitive, the thermodynamic efficiencies will have to be rather high. This requires that all component efficiencies including the recuperator effectiveness will have to be high...

  16. Biogas production from catch crops

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Molinuevo-Salces, Beatriz; Larsen, Søren U.; Ahring, Birgitte Kiær

    2013-01-01

    , being in the ranges of 1.4–3.0 t ha−1 and 0.3–1.7 t ha−1 for Holstebro and Aabenraa, respectively. Specific methane yields were in the range of 229–450 m3 t−1 of VS. Methane yields per hectare of up to 800 m3 ha−1 were obtained, making catch crops a promising source of feedstock for manure-based biogas......Manure-based biogas plants in Denmark are dependent on high yielding biomass feedstock in order to secure economically feasible operation. The aim of this study was to investigate the potential of ten different catch crop species or mixtures as feedstock for biogas production in co...

  17. Integrated rural industrialization through biogas

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anon.

    1992-01-01

    Role of biogas in rural industrialization in India is explained. The Khadi and Village Industries Commission has installed over 2 lakhs (0.2 million) biogas plants during the last 30 years. A 15 cu.m. capacity plant costs Rs. 35,000/-. It produces 65 tons bio-manure worth Rs. 13,000/- in a year and fuel gas equivalent to 3,285 litres of kerosene worth Rs. 9855/-. It provides employment to 300 man days. In addition to serving as a source of energy and manure, it reduces deforestation, solves rural sanitation problem and maintain environmental equilibrium. Industrial activities suitable for rural areas and which can use biogas as a source of power are indicated. (M.G.B.)

  18. Hydraulic turbines

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Meluk O, G.

    1998-01-01

    The hydraulic turbines are defined according to the specific speed, in impulse turbines and in reaction turbines. Currently, the Pelton turbines (of impulse) and the Francis and Kaplan turbines (of reaction), they are the most important machines in the hydroelectric generation. The hydraulic turbines are capable of generating in short times, large powers, from its loads zero until the total load and reject the load instantly without producing damages in the operation. When the hydraulic resources are important, the hydraulic turbines are converted in the axle of the electric system. Its combination with thermoelectric generation systems, it allow the continuing supply of the variations in demand of energy system. The available hydraulic resource in Colombia is of 93085 MW, of which solely 9% is exploited, become 79% of all the electrical country generation, 21% remaining is provided by means of the thermoelectric generation

  19. Principal methods for biogas desulphurization

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ortega Viera, Lianys; Fernández Santana, Elina; Muñoz, Susana Rodríguez; Bárcenas Pérez, Liuver

    2015-01-01

    At present the world is facing an energy crisis, where one of the factors contributing to it is the indiscriminate use of conventional fuels, therefore, alternatives for obtaining biofuels such as biogas are being sought. Biogas contains hydrogen sulphide, which has a high toxicity and corrosive properties, which limits their use. Methods for efluent gas desulphurization can be classified according to their physico-chemical principles as follows: absorption using inorganic and organic chemicals, physical adsorption, biotecnologichal methods and membrane filtration. In this paper an analysis of the methods used worldwide is presented as well as the results achieved from the Cuban experience. (author)

  20. In situ Removal of Hydrogen Sulfide During Biogas Fermentation at Microaerobic Condition.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, Mengmeng; Zhang, Yima; Ye, Yuanyuan; Lin, Chunmian

    2016-11-01

    In this paper, rice straw was used as a raw material to produce biogas by anaerobic batch fermentation at 35 °C (mesophilic) or 55 °C (thermophilic). The hydrogen sulfide in biogas can be converted to S 0 or sulfate and removed in-situ under micro-oxygen environment. Trace oxygen was conducted to the anaerobic fermentation tank in amount of 0.5, 1.0, 2.0, 3.0, 4.0, 5.0, or 10.0 times stoichiometric equivalence, respectively, and the control experiment without oxygen addition was carried out. The results showed that the initial H 2 S concentrations of biogas are about 3235 ± 185 mg/m 3 (mesophilic) or 3394 ± 126 mg/m 3 (thermophilic), respectively. The desulfurization efficiency is 72.3 % (mesophilic) or 65.6 % (thermophilic), respectively, with oxygen addition by stoichiometric relation. When the oxygen feeded in amount of 2∼4 times, theoretical quantity demanded the removal efficiency of hydrogen sulfide could be over 92 %, and the oxygen residue in biogas could be maintained less than 0.5 %, which fit the requirement of biogas used as vehicle fuel or combined to the grid. Though further more oxygen addition could promote the removal efficiency of hydrogen sulfide (about 93.6 %), the oxygen residue in biogas would be higher than the application limit concentration (0.5 %). Whether mesophilic or thermophilic fermentation with the extra addition of oxygen, there were no obvious changes in the gas production and methane concentration. In conclusion, in-situ desulfurization can be achieved in the anaerobic methane fermentation system under micro-oxygen environment. In addition, air could be used as a substitute oxygen resource on the situation without strict demand for the methane content of biogas.

  1. Improvement of Biogas Production by Bioaugmentation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kovács, K. L.; Ács, N.; Kovács, E.; Wirth, R.; Rákhely, G.; Strang, Orsolya; Herbel, Zsófia; Bagi, Z.

    2013-01-01

    Biogas production technologies commonly involve the use of natural anaerobic consortia of microbes. The objective of this study was to elucidate the importance of hydrogen in this complex microbial food chain. Novel laboratory biogas reactor prototypes were designed and constructed. The fates of pure hydrogen-producing cultures of Caldicellulosiruptor saccharolyticus and Enterobacter cloacae were followed in time in thermophilic and mesophilic natural biogas-producing communities, respectively. Molecular biological techniques were applied to study the altered ecosystems. A systematic study in 5-litre CSTR digesters revealed that a key fermentation parameter in the maintenance of an altered population balance is the loading rate of total organic solids. Intensification of the biogas production was observed and the results corroborate that the enhanced biogas productivity is associated with the increased abundance of the hydrogen producers. Fermentation parameters did not indicate signs of failure in the biogas production process. Rational construction of more efficient and sustainable biogas-producing microbial consortia is proposed. PMID:23484123

  2. A Review of Biogas Applications across Continents

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lybæk, Rikke; kofi Ackom, Emmanuel; Cudjoe Bensah, Edem

    This paper analyses the biogas development within Ghana, Thailand and Denmark to shed light on the different development patterns and future trends that is seen within the biogas sector. Literature review in the form of journal articles and reports is assessed, interviews with agricultural...... and biogas experts - as well as policy makers within the field of renewable energy - is being conducted. The biogas technology was analysed according to ‘historical development’, ‘feedstock utilization’ and ‘future development’. As far as the future prospects for the biogas technology the paper concludes...... are required to move forward. Thailand and Denmark has set up support programs and emphasized on using industrial organic feedstock for biogas production, and Denmark has formulated political targets for utilizing organic household waste as biogas feedstock. For all three countries apply, despite...

  3. Biogas Upgrading and Waste-to-Energy | Bioenergy | NREL

    Science.gov (United States)

    Biogas Upgrading and Waste-to-Energy Biogas Upgrading and Waste-to-Energy NREL's waste-to-energy research and development required for upgrading biogas to fuels and high-value co-products. Featured (2014) Biogas Potential in the United States, NREL Fact Sheet (2013) View all NREL biogas upgrading and

  4. Uses of biogas produced by digestion of wastewater sludge. The SIAAP's experience feedback and projects

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Amosse, S.; Nedelec, R.

    2010-01-01

    The SIAAP, in charge of the purification of the Great Paris wastewaters (8 M inhabitants), handles 2.7 Mm 3 /day. Five wastewater treatment plants permit to dean these wastewaters before they are discharged into the receiving environment: 'Seine Aval' (Acheres, 1,7 Mm 3 /day), 'Seine Amont' (Valenton, 600 000 m 3 /day), 'Seine Centre' (Colombes, 240 000 m 3 /day), 'Seine Gresillons' (Triel-sur-Seine, 100 000 m 3 /day) and 'Marne Aval' (Noisy-Le-Grand, 40 000 m 3 /day). Biogas produced by digestion of sludge provides a part of the energy required by the five sewage treatment works. Energy recovered from biogas have been used by the SAV site since 1940. As soon as the first part of this plant started up, biogas was used as fuel to heat digester, to produce power through biogas engines and to drive blowers. In the 60's and 70's, dual-fuel engines were brought into service, and then in 1992, a gas turbine was installed. Nowadays, a combined heat and power (cogeneration) project is in progress with the installation of two gas turbines, each generating 5 MW. All of these installations had allowed a 70% energetic autonomy ratio on 'Seine Aval' site. Then, new treatment units were introduced. Thus, energy consumption has increased, with only 60 % of energy demands being covered. By 2020, a complete make-over of the 'Seine Aval' plant will be done. This should allow to cover about 70% of energy demands, partly thanks to biogas reuse. New plants are currently being constructed. All of them will include sludge digestion process providing biogas. With the 'Seine Gresillons' plant upgrading, digestion process will occur on site. Biogas will be used in a cogeneration system to produce both electricity (that would be either used on site or sold commercially, this has not been decided by now) and heat for digesters heating. The new 'Seine Moree' plant will be built in the city of Blanc-Mesnil. A partnership with the Syctom (an association in charge of treatment and reuse of the

  5. Towards novel biogas upgrading processes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Privalova, E.

    2013-06-01

    Biogas production has considerable development possibilities not only in Finland but all over the world since it it the easiest way of creating value out of various waste fractions and represents an alternative source of renewable energy. Development of efficient biogas upgrading technology has become an important issue since it improves the quality of biogas and for example facilitating its injection into the natural gas pipelines. Moreover, such upgrading contributes to resolving the issue of increasing CO{sub 2} emissions and addresses the increasing climate change concerns. Together with traditional CO{sub 2} capturing technologies a new class of recently emerged sorbents such as ionic liquids is claimed as promising media for gas separations. In this thesis, an extensive comparison of the performance of different solvents in terms of CO{sub 2} capture has been performed. The focus of the present study was on aqueous amine solutions and their mixtures, traditional ionic liquids, 'switchable' ionic liquids and poly(ionic liquid)s in order to reveal the best option for biogas upgrading. The CO{sub 2} capturing efficiency for the most promising solvents achieved values around 50-60 L CO{sub 2}/L absorbent. These values are superior to currently widely applied water wash biogas upgrading system. Regeneration of the solvent mixtures appeared to be challenging since the loss of initial efficiency upon CO{sub 2} release was in excess of 20-40 vol %, especially in the case of aqueous amine solutions. In contrast, some of the ionic liquids displayed reversible behavior. Thus, for selected 'switchable' ionic and poly(ionic liquid)s the CO{sub 2} absorption/regeneration cycles were performed 3-4 times without any notable efficiency decrease. The viscosity issue, typical for ionic liquids upon CO{sub 2} saturation, was addressed and the information obtained was evaluated and related to the ionic interactions. The occurrence of volatile organic compounds

  6. Numerical simulation of a cogeneration plant with micro gas turbine using computational tool EES; Simulacao numerica de uma planta de cogeracao com microturbina a gas natural utilizando ferramenta computacional EES

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Oliveira, Guilherme L.B. de; Oliveira, Andrezza C.C.T.; Dutra, Jose C.C. [Universidade Federal de Pernambuco (UFPE), Recife, PE (Brazil)

    2008-07-01

    Today, the cogeneration of energy has been widely disseminated and presents itself as a very viable alternative for energy savings, reducing CO2 emissions by conducting reuse energy. This study aims to develop a software for simulation, analysis and optimization of a cogeneration system that uses a natural gas turbine as a primary source. The data contained in the software were similar to existing data in a micro-cogeneration plant installed at UFPE and the results showed up in the standard presented by actual plant. We conclude that the software serves as a tool to pre-analysis of the plant of choice for cogeneration equipment to be installed as: pumps, heat exchangers, chillers, cooling towers. (author)

  7. Natural gas mini-power plant constituted by superadiabatic boiler and Tesla turbine; Desenvolvimento de uma micro-termoeletrica a gas natural constituida de caldeira superadiabatica e turbina Tesla

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Barcellos, William M.; Souza, Luis C.E.O de; Couras, Daut de J.P.; Carvalho, Bruno O. de [Universidade Federal do Ceara (UFC), Fortaleza, CE (Brazil)

    2008-07-01

    Environmental impacts from combustion processes, in addition to fuel supply problems, have restricted the use intensification of natural gas thermoelectric, under rigorous action of the control and inspection institutions about emissions. The demand for decentralized energy generation systems has motivated the innovator technology development and, therefore, a diminished natural gas thermoelectric prototype has been developed by the Federal University of Ceara. This prototype utilizes non-conventional technologies: 'Superadiabatic Boiler' and 'Tesla Turbine', in which theoretical and experimental studies are performed. That novel boiler model presents lesser specific consumption and CO and NOx emission levels. A not well known concept at industry is implemented into that project, 'Porous Media Combustion', which modifies the combustion process phenomena. The turbine presents operational robustness and versatility because it allows wide rotation range and simple adaptation to commercial generators. Project parameters are investigated, such as: torque and power-weigh and geometry ratios. That micro-thermoelectric shows potential for the self-sustainable development of geographically distant communities and for co-generation at industry. It is possible to serve to low power energetic demands without requiring much professional experience for operation and maintenance. (author)

  8. Biogas in China 1981 - a travel report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Frostell, B; Norrman, J

    1982-03-01

    Biogas is formed by anaerobic fermentation of organic material. In China there are about seven million biogas units of family size distributed all over the country. Biogas is produced from manure,feces, domestic wastes and straw. The gas is used above all for cooking and lighting in the homes. Other advantages with biogas are that wood-firing has declined drastically, the forest is saved, the state of health in the villages has improved (the drinking water is boiled) and the out-put from the biogasplants is an excellent medium for plant nourishment and soil benefaction. The main reasons for the fast advancement of biogas technology in China compared with other countries are:- The benefits of the biogas technology have been viewed from a broad perspective. - Great resources have been allocated to the development of the biogas technology. - An effective organisation for dissemination of biogas technology has been formed. - Simple and inexpensive units have been developed. A conclusion from the visit is that Sweden has much to learn from the Chinese biogas programme. Not so much concerning technology development, but rather about the dissemination of the biogas technology.

  9. Quantification of the potential for biogas and biogas manure from the ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Thomas

    2013-09-04

    Sep 4, 2013 ... This wasted energy material is equivalent to 9000 L of diesel fuel that currently would cost 9389 ... Key words: Biogas potential, fruit waste, quantification, prediction, biogas manure. ... For example, consumption of fruits and.

  10. Domestic biogas diffusion in Rwanda - Key learning for scale up

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2016-03-01

    The NGO Veterinaires Sans Frontieres Belgium (VSF-B) supports local populations to improve livestock keeping and other related aspects such as natural resources management and micro-loans. In 2013, ENEA conducted a study to assess the opportunity for VSF-B to include domestic biogas energy within its scope of activities in Rwanda. In 2014, VSF-B launched the EVE project to install 100 bio-digesters and provide capacity building to smallholder farmers in Southern Rwanda within 3 years. The project is strongly integrated to the local context, partnering with a local federation of farmers, IMBARAGA, to implement the project, and leveraging the Rwandan National Domestic Biogas Program (NDBP). In mid-2015, ENEA conducted a new study to provide VSF-B with an intermediate evaluation of the project, a preliminary assessment of its impacts as well as recommendations to scale-up. VSF-B / IMBARAGA's activity on biogas within the EVE project is successful thanks to an efficient approach combining sensitisation and financial and technical support. By September 2015, half of the target of the pilot phase had been reached - 50 biogas systems were installed or under construction - and the remaining half was likely to be reached by the end of the project. This is the result of an efficient approach for domestic biogas distribution set up by VSF-B / IMBARAGA. Intensive work of sensitisation of farmers combined with an adapted financial support scheme (additional subsidies and guarantee funds for credit) and with technical support and monitoring of farmers are the three pillars on which VSF-B / IMBARAGA's success is based. End-users are highly satisfied of biogas systems and use, thanks to the robustness of the technology and the various outcomes delivered. Although the initial levers for biogas adoption by farmers were fuel savings and convenience to cook, other outcomes appears to be as meaningful to them once they start using the system: increased convenience to boil water or milk

  11. Towards the methane society? Use of hydrogen for upgrading biogas and synthetic methane production. Phase 1. Final report; Pae vej mod metansamfundet? - anvendelse af brint til opgradering af biogas og kunstig metanfremstilling. Fase 1. Slutrapport

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mortensen, Claus [Agro Business Park, Tjele (Denmark)

    2012-11-15

    Biogas consists of methane (CH4) and CO{sub 2}. If you react hydrogen produced with wind power with CO{sub 2} in sulfur purified biogas you get biogas upgraded to pure methane, ie. to natural gas quality. The pure methane can for example be sold via the natural gas grid or pressurized and sold for transport. The purpose of the present project is to contribute to the development of a concept and a technology that can store wind energy into the existing natural gas network through the upgrading of CO{sub 2} in biogas. Overall the project combines the technique and concept of electrolysis, biogas upgrading and natural gas network, so that: - electrolysis creates hydrogen and heat from wind turbines; - CO{sub 2} in biogas reacts with H2 from the electrolysis and produces CH4 and high-value steam by biogas reacting directly with H2 in a catalyst ; - The natural gas network is used as distribution and storage of the produced methane. The following main results are achieved in the first phase: - Design and construction of a pilot plant for the purification of biogas, which allows a Sabatier reaction later in the methanization process; - Sensitivity analyses have been carried out of methane prices, which have proven to be competitive compared to other upgrading technologies in the market; - A business plan is developed for a demonstration plant, which among other things will be used in phase 2: demonstration plant. The competitor analysis shows, among other things, a higher efficiency rate of the Danish technology than on the methanization plants being developed in Germany. (LN)

  12. Biogas Filter Based on Local Natural Zeolite Materials

    OpenAIRE

    Krido Wahono, Satriyo; Anggo Rizal, Wahyu

    2014-01-01

    UPT BPPTK LIPI has created a biogas filter tool to improve the purity of methane in the biogas. The device shaped cylindrical tube containing absorbent materials which based on local natural zeolite of Indonesia. The absorbent has been activated and modified with other materials. This absorbtion material has multi-adsorption capacity for almost impurities gas of biogas. The biogas  filter increase methane content of biogas for 5-20%. The biogas filter improve the biogas’s performance such as ...

  13. Biogas in Alsace: potential, economic study

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Maurer, Michel

    2004-01-01

    The purpose of this work is to determine the potential of biogas production in Alsace. Every fields that could provide organic matter for anaerobic fermentation are first identified, and the energy corresponding to the theoretical production of biogas is then quantified. By knowing these rates, the effective development of biogas production is then discussed and oriented to the agricultural field. The technical and economical aspects of the production of biogas in a farm are then described. The biogas issue, approached thanks to some visits of existing sites and the creation of a simulation software, leads to a specific analysis among the whole Alsatian estates. The study presents finally the real opportunities of development for two pilot projects in Alsace, knowing the specific context for farm biogas production in France. (author) [fr

  14. Biogas from farms will be tomorrow's fuel

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bruecker, U.; Limacher, L.; Krummenacher, S.; Schmid, J.

    2003-01-01

    This final report for the Swiss Federal Office of Energy presents the results of a preliminary study on the technical, logistical and economic possibilities of agricultural biogas production for use as motor fuel. The study was made for a geographically limited region in the Swiss Canton of Lucerne. The reason for the choice of this area - which exhibits a high density of cattle and fowl - and its high potential for the production of biogas from animal excrements are discussed. The economic viability of three possible variants of biogas usage are discussed - its use as a fuel for electricity generation, the processing of the biogas and its injection into the natural gas mains and storage of the biogas in compressed-gas cylinders. Also, the relevance of biogas production in terms of environmental protection is emphasised - ammonia emissions from liquid manure poses a serious problem for the region. Further, political and market development aspects are discussed

  15. CONVERSION OF ORGANIC MANURE INTO BIOGAS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dario Brdarić

    2009-12-01

    Full Text Available Production of biogas with anaerobic degradation from organic waste is one of the pledge alternative energetic solutions, especially from organic manure made from animal farming and other residuals of agricultural production. According to 2005 livestock manufacture data daily quantity of animal excrements in Croatia, based on LSU number, is 784 015.26 m3. The aim of this paper is to determine the possibility of production of biogas from the most common types of domestic animals in Croatia. Anaerobic fermentation period of 40 days in mesophilic conditions produced from 1 kg of beef, 31 litres of biogas slurry and from pig slurry 14.83 litres of biogas. From our study it follows that the Republic of Croatia (based on the number of UG could produce 426,995,250.00 Nm3 biogas annually. Exploitation of biogas can decrease import of the referred energents, especially electric energy.

  16. Small-scale household biogas digesters

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bruun, Sander; Jensen, Lars Stoumann; Khanh Vu, Van Thi

    2014-01-01

    There are a number of advantages to small-scale biogas production on farms, including savings on firewood or fossil fuels and reductions in odour and greenhouse gas emissions. For these reasons, governments and development aid agencies have supported the installation of biogas digesters. However......, biogas digesters are often poorly managed and there is a lack of proper distribution systems for biogas. This results in methane being released inadvertently through leaks in digesters and tubing, and intentionally when production exceeds demand. As methane has a global warming potential 25 times greater......% of the produced biogas is released, depending on the type of fuel that has been replaced. The limited information available as regards methane leaking from small-scale biogas digesters in developing countries indicates that emissions may be as high as 40%. With the best estimates of global numbers of small...

  17. Planning for Biogas Plant in Denmark

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Landt, Cristina C.; Gaarsmand, Regin; Palsberg, Aske

    2016-01-01

    This article is about establishing biogas in Denmark in the region of Zealand, the challenges that are related to this establishment and how to overcome this challenges. The article highlights three reasons for these challenges: 1) Regulation, 2) The municipal planning and 3) Involved various...... stakeholders. It investigates how these challenges affected the process and were overcome in the establishment of Solrod Biogas. In terms of ownership and biomass input, this biogas plant is unique compared to other Danish biogas plants. The biogas plant is based on organic by-products from local industries...... and seaweed. The plant solves an essential environmental issue for the municipality and citizens who were affected by the smell of rotten seaweed washed up in Koge Bay. The seaweed is used as input; this solves several problems at the same time. The method used to establish Solrod Biogas was an integrated...

  18. System for obtaining biogas. System zur Gewinnung von Biogas

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Anon.

    1985-01-17

    The invention refers to a system for obtaining biogas from organic substances in at least one drum reactor, which is situated in a container accepting a liquid and which is driven so that it rotates preferably around its horizontal drum axis. It is distinguished by the fact that for at least one drum reactor acting as the main reactor there is at least one further reactor ahead of it for the pre-treatment or pre-fermentation of the substances.

  19. Biogas infrastructures from farm to regional scale, prospects of biogas transport grids

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    prof. dr. Wim van Gemert; A.A. Broekhuis; Drs. E.J. Hengeveld; Ir. J. Bekkering

    2016-01-01

    The volume of biogas produced in agricultural areas is expected to increase in coming years. An increasing number of local and regional initiatives show a growing interest in decentralized energy production, wherein biogas can play a role. Biogas transport from production sites to user, i.e. a

  20. Quantification of the potential for biogas and biogas manure from the ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    In this paper, the overall potential of biogas and biogas manure from the selected fruit wastes in the city of Addis Ababa was estimated (quantified). The prediction is based on the characterization and biogas yield results in a related study, using structured questionnaire and checklists during field survey. This study has ...

  1. Biogas movements in sanitary landdfills; Movimiento de biogas en rellenos sanitarios

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Vidales A, Humberto

    1988-12-31

    This paper shows a model to study the physical and kinetic equations that determine the movement and diffusion of the biogas in sanitary landfills. This model for biogas flow was made in function of pressure, temperature, waste porosity and permeability, due to a diffusion coefficient of biogas determination 6 refs., 4 figs.

  2. Biogas infrastructures from farm to regional scale, prospects of biogas transport grids

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hengeveld, E. J.; Bekkering, J.; van Gemert, W. J. T.; Broekhuis, A. A.

    The volume of biogas produced in agricultural areas is expected to increase in coming years. An increasing number of local and regional initiatives show a growing interest in decentralized energy production, wherein biogas can play a role. Biogas transport from production sites to user, i.e. a CHP,

  3. Biogas infrastructure from farm-scale to regional scale, line-pack storage in biogas grids

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hengeveld, Evert Jan

    2016-01-01

    Biogas infrastructure from farm-scale to regional scale, line-pack storage in biogas grids. The number of local and regional initiatives encouraging the production and use of regional produced energy grows. In these new developments biogas can play a role, as a producer of energy, but also in

  4. Biogas infrastructures from farm to regional scale, prospects of biogas transport grids

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hengeveld, Evert Jan; Bekkering, Jan; van Gemert, Wim; Broekhuis, A.A.

    2016-01-01

    The volume of biogas produced in agricultural areas is expected to increase in coming years. An increasing number of local and regional initiatives show a growing interest in decentralized energy production, wherein biogas can play a role. Biogas transport from production sites to user, i.e. a CHP,

  5. National scenario of biogas generation: an overview

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Singh, Sudha; Katiyar, M.K.; Khan, M.A.; Singh, Amarik

    1995-01-01

    Many developing countries are encouraging the installation of biogas plant in rural sector and industrial sector to meet the demand of energy. India is one of the pioneer countries in the world who initiated adaptation of biogas technology in rural sector about 35 years ago. In India Ministry of Science and Technology, Ministry of Agriculture, Ministry of Energy and Planning Commission are promoting the research and popularization programme, related to biogas technology. 4 refs., 2 figs., 2 tabs

  6. ORGANIC WASTE USED IN AGRICULTURAL BIOGAS PLANTS

    OpenAIRE

    Joanna Kazimierowicz

    2014-01-01

    Treatment of organic waste is an ecological and economical problem. Searching method for disposal of these wastes, interest is methane fermentation. The use of this process in agricultural biogas plants allows disposal of hazardous waste, obtaining valuable fertilizer, while the production of ecologically clean fuel – biogas. The article presents the characteristics of organic waste from various industries, which make them suitable for use as substrates in agricultural biogas plants.

  7. ORGANIC WASTE USED IN AGRICULTURAL BIOGAS PLANTS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Joanna Kazimierowicz

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available Treatment of organic waste is an ecological and economical problem. Searching method for disposal of these wastes, interest is methane fermentation. The use of this process in agricultural biogas plants allows disposal of hazardous waste, obtaining valuable fertilizer, while the production of ecologically clean fuel – biogas. The article presents the characteristics of organic waste from various industries, which make them suitable for use as substrates in agricultural biogas plants.

  8. A techno-economic evaluation of anaerobic biogas producing systems in developing countries.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morgan, Hervan Marion; Xie, Wei; Liang, Jianghui; Mao, Hanping; Lei, Hanwu; Ruan, Roger; Bu, Quan

    2018-02-01

    Biogas production has been the focus of many individuals in the developing world; there have been several investigations that focus on improving the production process and product quality. In the developing world the lack of advanced technology and capital has hindered the development of energy production. Renewable energy has the potential to improve the standard of living for most of the 196 countries which are classified as developing economies. One of the easiest renewable energy compounds that can be produced is biogas (bio-methane). Biogas can be produced from almost any source of biomass through the anaerobic respiration of micro-organisms. Low budget energy systems are reviewed in this article along with various feedstock sources. Adapted gas purification and storage systems are also reviewed, along with the possible economic, social, health and environmental benefits of its implementation. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  9. Engineering design and economic evaluation of a family-sized biogas project in Nigeria

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Adeoti, O.; Ilori, M.O.; Oyebisi, T.O.; Adekoya, L.O.

    2000-01-01

    To woo householders into harnessing the cooking energy potential of biogas in order to solve the perennial cooking energy problems at household level in Nigeria, this paper carried out the engineering design requirement, and used the discounted cash flow micro-economic assessments to evaluate the 6.0 m 3 family-sized biogas project in Nigeria. The project has an initial investment cost of 41,088 Naira, annual expenditure of 5909 Naira and an annual benefit of 13,347 Naira. The NPV, IRR, B/C and payback period of financial analysis are 0.050 million Naira, 17.52%, 2.26 and 6.6 years respectively. This shows that the 6.0 m 3 family-sized biogas project using cattle dung as substrate in Nigeria has a good economic potential. (author)

  10. Comparison and analysis of organic components of biogas slurry from eichhornia crassipes solms and corn straw biogas slurry

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Q.; Li, Y. B.; Liu, Z. H.; Min, J.; Cui, Y.; Gao, X. H.

    2017-11-01

    Biogas slurry is one of anaerobic fermentations, and biomass fermentation biogas slurries with different compositions are different. This paper mainly presents through the anaerobic fermentation of Eichhornia crassipes solms biogas slurry and biogas slurry of corn straw, the organic components of two kinds of biogas slurry after extraction were compared by TLC, HPLC and spectrophotometric determination of nucleic acid and protein of two kinds of biogas slurry organic components, and analyzes the result of comparison.

  11. Distributed power generation using biogas fuelled microturbines

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pointon, K.; Langan, M.

    2002-07-01

    This research sought to analyse the market for small scale biogas fuelled distributed power generation, to demonstrate the concept of a biogas fuelled microturbine using the Capstone microturbine in conjunction with an anaerobic digester, and undertake a technico-economic evaluation of the biogas fuelled microturbine concept. Details are given of the experimental trials using continuous and batch digesters, and feedstocks ranging from cow and pig slurries to vegetable wastes and municipal solid waste. The yields of methane are discussed along with the successful operation of the microturbine with biogas fuels, and anaerobic digestion projects.

  12. Promotion and marketing of the biogas way

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mistry, P.B.; Lindboe, H.H.

    1992-01-01

    The biological process of anaerobic digestion is used primarily as a tool for waste treatment. It also produces energy in the form of biogas - a feature by which it is often called the biogas technology. This paper outlines special features of this process, together with other advantages and disadvantages of applying the AD or the biogas technology, to satisfy ever increasing regulatory requirements and public concerns over pollution at both global and local levels. The paper then gives suggestions which could be implemented at the Commission, national and regional levels to propagate the implementation of the biogas technology. (au)

  13. Distributed power generation using biogas fuelled microturbines

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pointon, K.; Langan, M.

    2002-01-01

    This research sought to analyse the market for small scale biogas fuelled distributed power generation, to demonstrate the concept of a biogas fuelled microturbine using the Capstone microturbine in conjunction with an anaerobic digester, and undertake a technico-economic evaluation of the biogas fuelled microturbine concept. Details are given of the experimental trials using continuous and batch digesters, and feedstocks ranging from cow and pig slurries to vegetable wastes and municipal solid waste. The yields of methane are discussed along with the successful operation of the microturbine with biogas fuels, and anaerobic digestion projects

  14. Greenhouse Gas Mitigation of Rural Household Biogas Systems in China: A Life Cycle Assessment

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jun Hou

    2017-02-01

    Full Text Available Rural household biogas (RHB systems are at a crossroads in China, yet there has been a lack of holistic evaluation of their energy and climate (greenhouse gas mitigation efficiency under typical operating conditions. We combined data from monitoring projects and questionnaire surveys across hundreds of households from two typical Chinese villages within a consequential life cycle assessment (LCA framework to assess net GHG (greenhouse gas mitigation by RHB systems operated in different contexts. We modelled biogas production, measured biogas losses and used survey data from biogas and non-biogas households to derive empirical RHB system substitution rates for energy and fertilizers. Our results indicate that poorly designed and operated RHB systems in northern regions of China may in fact increase farm household GHG emissions by an average of 2668 kg CO2-eq· year−1, compared with a net mitigation effect of 6336 kg CO2-eq per household and year in southern regions. Manure treatment (104 and 8513 kg CO2-eq mitigation and biogas leakage (-533 and -2489 kg CO2-eq emission are the two most important factors affecting net GHG mitigation by RHB systems in northern and southern China, respectively. In contrast, construction (−173 and −305 kg CO2-eq emission, energy substitution (−522 emission and 653 kg·CO2-eq mitigation and nutrient substitution (−1544 and −37 kg CO2-eq emission made small contributions across the studied systems. In fact, survey data indicated that biogas households had higher energy and fertilizer use, implying no net substitution effect. Low biogas yields in the cold northern climate and poor maintenance services were cited as major reasons for RHB abandonment by farmers. We conclude that the design and management of RHB systems needs to be revised and better adapted to local climate (e.g., digester insulation and household energy demand (biogas storage and micro power generators to avoid discharge of unburned biogas

  15. Biogas slurry utilization in Ghana

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Asser, C. [Ministry of Mines and Energy, Accra (Ghana)

    1999-07-01

    The biogas Technology Programme developed for villages remote from the national grid relies solely on cow-dung and human waste as raw materials for electricity generation. The technology helps control deforestation and desertification and reduces the long hours spent looking for fuelwood for cooking and the health risk that smoke from fuelwood poses. Rural electricity generation also supplies pipe-borne water, community toilets and organic fertilizer for farmers. The slurry, which is the by-product of the biogas, is an odourless, pathogen free organic fertilizer that is high in nitrogen, phosphorous and potassium. It is useful for crop production, fish farming and mushroom cultivation. Farmers now realize that energy can be extracted from cowdung, human waste, agricultural residue and other biomass resources and the biomass can still maintain its function as good organic manure. (author)

  16. Optimal control in a micro gas grid of prosumers using Model Predictive Control

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Alkano, Desti; Nefkens, W.J.; Scherpen, Jacqueline M.A.; Volkerts, M.

    This paper studies the optimal control of a micro grid of biogas prosumers equipped with local storage devices. Excess biogas can be upgraded and injected into the low- pressure gas grid or, alternatively, shipped per lorry to be used elsewhere in an effort to create revenue. The aim of the control

  17. Biogas Production: Microbiology and Technology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schnürer, Anna

    Biogas, containing energy-rich methane, is produced by microbial decomposition of organic material under anaerobic conditions. Under controlled conditions, this process can be used for the production of energy and a nutrient-rich residue suitable for use as a fertilising agent. The biogas can be used for production of heat, electricity or vehicle fuel. Different substrates can be used in the process and, depending on substrate character, various reactor technologies are available. The microbiological process leading to methane production is complex and involves many different types of microorganisms, often operating in close relationships because of the limited amount of energy available for growth. The microbial community structure is shaped by the incoming material, but also by operating parameters such as process temperature. Factors leading to an imbalance in the microbial community can result in process instability or even complete process failure. To ensure stable operation, different key parameters, such as levels of degradation intermediates and gas quality, are often monitored. Despite the fact that the anaerobic digestion process has long been used for industrial production of biogas, many questions need still to be resolved to achieve optimal management and gas yields and to exploit the great energy and nutrient potential available in waste material. This chapter discusses the different aspects that need to be taken into consideration to achieve optimal degradation and gas production, with particular focus on operation management and microbiology.

  18. Small-scale upgrading and refinement of biogas; Smaaskalig uppgradering och foeraedling av biogas

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Blom, Helena; Mccann, Michael; Westman, Johan (Poeyry SwedPower AB, Stockholm (Sweden))

    2012-02-15

    Small-scale upgrading and refinement of biogas is a report which aims to compile the state of knowledge in small-scale biogas upgrading. The project have been a collaboration with Agrovaest and Energy Farm and was funded by the Foundation for Agricultural Research, Western Goetaland and the Agriculture Department. The technology available for small scale upgrade has been examined from the technical and economic standpoint. An economic comparison has been made and the production of upgraded biogas has been estimated for different raw gas flows. The work also contains information related to biogas production, upgrading and a comparison of liquid biogas, DME and Ecopar-diesel

  19. Biogas from manure and waste residues; Biogas ur goedsel, avfall och restprodukter

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2012-09-15

    The consumption of fossil fuels must be reduced if we are to meet environmental and climate related goals and reduce the greenhouse effect. In contrast to fossil fuels, biogas is renewable and carbon dioxide neutral. Biogas is also the cleanest fuel on the market and has the potential to replace much of the fossil fuel used in Sweden. The residue produced after anaerobic digestion is a valuable fertilizer and soil conditioner. Organic wastes are recycled through the biogas process to become a resource. This creates a sustainable recycling of nutrients and energy between urban and rural areas, and between consumption and production. This handbook is intended as a source of information on biogas, targeting politicians and decision- and policy makers in local authorities, farmers and farmers' organisations, and indeed anyone with an interest in biogas in Sweden and abroad. The handbook starts with an introduction of biogas in Sweden today. In part two general information is given about biogas technologies, a description of the biogas process, from the use of substrates to the final distribution of biogas and organic residues, followed by short information about economic support and incentives. In the last part twelve Swedish biogas plants are described, which have been particularly successful, and which can therefore serve as models for the future. The plants are grouped into four different categories: codigestion plants, farm-based biogas plants, sewage treatment plants and industrial plants. Each case study is described as of March 2012. Production figures are given for 2011, unless otherwise stated.

  20. Establishment of a biogas grid and interaction between a biogas grid and a natural gas grid

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kvist, T.

    2011-01-15

    The project has aimed to clarify the advantages and disadvantages of a large biogas net in Ringkoebing Skjern municipality in Denmark, which wants to become self-sufficient in renewable energy by 2020. It is estimated that the biogas potential in the municipality is about. 60 mill. m3 methane gas a year. Half of the methane will be generated by digesting 80 % of the area's slurry, while the other half will be produced from energy crops. It will require an area equivalent to 5 % of the municipality's farmland. The idea is to establish decentralized 60-80 and 1-3 large centralized biogas plants, and that the produced biogas is distributed to natural gas-fired decentralized power plants. Based on this framework, a number of issues for the establishment of a biogas net have been investigated. These are: - the relation between biogas production and demand; - biogas compared to the overall energy system, - purification and measurement of biogas; - conversion of natural gas-fired power plants to biogas; - the value of biogas for cogeneration plants; - design of a biogas distribution net; - ownership and accountability; - potential business models. (LN)

  1. Gas turbines

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Farahan, E.; Eudaly, J.P.

    1978-10-01

    This evaluation provides performance and cost data for commercially available simple- and regenerative-cycle gas turbines. Intercooled, reheat, and compound cycles are discussed from theoretical basis only, because actual units are not currently available, except on a special-order basis. Performance characteristics investigated include unit efficiency at full-load and off-design conditions, and at rated capacity. Costs are tabulated for both simple- and regenerative-cycle gas turbines. The output capacity of the gas turbines investigated ranges from 80 to 134,000 hp for simple units and from 12,000 to 50,000 hp for regenerative units.

  2. Effect of Water Volume and Biogas Volumetric Flowrate in Biogas Purification Through Water Scrubbing Method

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hendry Sakke Tira

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available Energy supply is a crucial issue in the world in the last few years. The increase in energy demand caused by population growth and resource depletion of world oil reserves provides determination to produce and to use renewable energies. One of the them is biogas. However, until now the use of biogas has not yet been maximized because of its poor purity. According to the above problem, the research has been carried out using the method of water absorption. Under this method it is expected that the rural community is able to apply it. Therefore, their economy and productivity can be increased. This study includes variations of absorbing water volume (V and input biogas volume flow rate (Q. Raw biogas which is flowed into the absorbent will be analyzed according to the determined absorbing water volume and input biogas volume rate. Improvement on biogas composition through the biogas purification method was obtained. The level of CO2 and H2S was reduced significantly specifically in the early minutes of purification process. On the other hand, the level of CH4 was increased improving the quality of raw biogas. However, by the time of biogas purification the composition of purified biogas was nearly similar to the raw biogas. The main reason for this result was an increasing in pH of absorbent. It was shown that higher water volume and slower biogas volume rate obtained better results in reducing the CO2 and H2S and increasing CH4 compared to those of lower water volume and higher biogas volume rate respectively. The purification method has a good promising in improving the quality of raw biogas and has advantages as it is cheap and easy to be operated.

  3. Effect of Water Volume and Biogas Volumetric Flowrate in Biogas Purification Through Water Scrubbing Method

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hendry Sakke Tira

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available Energy supply is a crucial issue in the world in the last few years. The increase in energy demand caused by population growth and resource depletion of world oil reserves provides determination to produce and to use renewable energies. One of the them is biogas. However, until now the use of biogas has not yet been maximized because of its poor purity. According to the above problem, the research has been carried out using the method of water absorption. Under this method it is expected that the rural community is able to apply it. Therefore, their economy and productivity can be increased. This study includes variations of absorbing water volume (V and input biogas volume flow rate (Q. Raw biogas which is flowed into the absorbent will be analyzed according to the determined absorbing water volume and input biogas volume rate. Improvement on biogas composition through the biogas purification method was obtained. The level of CO2 and H2S was reduced significantly specifically in the early minutes of purification process. On the other hand, the level of CH4 was increased improving the quality of raw biogas. However, by the time of biogas purification the composition of purified biogas was nearly similar to the raw biogas. The main reason for this result was an increasing in pH of absorbent. It was shown that higher water volume and slower biogas volume rate obtained better results in reducing the CO2 and H2S and increasing CH4 compared to those of lower water volume and higher biogas volume rate respectively. The purification method has a good promising in improving the quality of raw biogas and has advantages as it is cheap and easy to be operated.

  4. Method for anaerobic fermentation and biogas production

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    2013-01-01

    The present invention relates to a method for biomass processing, anaerobic fermentation of the processed biomass, and the production biogas. In particular, the invention relates to a system and method for generating biogas from anaerobic fermentation of processed organic material that comprises...

  5. Cavitation for improved sludge conversion into biogas

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Stoop, A.H.; Bakker, T.W.; Kramer, H.J.M.

    2015-01-01

    In several studies the beneficial influence of pre-treatment of waste activated sludge with cavitation on the biogas production was demonstrated. It is however, still not fully certain whether this effect should be mainly contributed to an increase in conversion rate of organics into biogas by

  6. Evaluation of biogas of waste from poultry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lobo Paes, Juliana; Ferreira Matos, Camila; Souza Pereira, Diego José de; Bruggianesi, Giancarlo; Silva Misquita, Ícaro da

    2015-01-01

    Most of the farms, the waste of agricultural production do not receive adequate treatment for the stabilization of organic matter and reduce its pollution potential. The anaerobic digestion is an alternative for the treatment of waste, as well as allowing the reduction of pollution potential and the health risks of waste to a minimum, promotes the generation of biogas used as a heat source for various uses on the farm. Thus, the aim of this work was to evaluate the biogas production efficiency from the chicken waste. For the supply of biodigesters, adopted the total solids content of 8% and discontinuous supply system. The biogas potential was determined on the basis of their daily production and explosive rate. It was observed that the biogas production started 24 hours after the start of supplying the digesters. The maximum biogas production was approximately 0.87 L after the ninth and the 54th day starting the digestion process. The average daily production of biogas generated from bird manure was 0.022 L, while the cumulative 0.91 L after 72 days of digestion. The explosive rate of biogas generated by poultry origin residues peaked at 51% after 32 days of the start of the digestion process. In this analysis, we found the presence of methane in the biogas produced in all substrates tested after 24 h of digestion, because it’s burning in the presence of an ignition source (Fire). (full text)

  7. Microaeration reduces hydrogen sulfide in biogas

    Science.gov (United States)

    Although there are a variety of biological and chemical treatments for removal of hydrogen sulfide (H2S) from biogas, all require some level of chemical or water inputs and maintenance. In practice, managing biogas H2S remains a significant challenge for agricultural digesters where labor and opera...

  8. Forecasting the potential of Danish biogas production

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bojesen, Mikkel; Skov-Petersen, Hans; Gylling, Morten

    , except for those farms which are in the largest state class. Regional differences in development trends were documented. The strategic objective of the model is to provide data for the spatial assessment of the potential of biogas production which can form the basis for a location analysis for future...... biogas plants....

  9. Biogas i økologisk jordbrug

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Østergård, Hanne

    2011-01-01

    Klumme: Hvilke faktorer har størst betydning for udbredelse af biogas-teknologien? Offentlige tilskud er svaret fra en rundspørge.......Klumme: Hvilke faktorer har størst betydning for udbredelse af biogas-teknologien? Offentlige tilskud er svaret fra en rundspørge....

  10. Mapping competing valorization pathways of biogas feedstocks

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hoang, Dieu Linh; Davis, Christopher Bryan; Nonhebel, Sanderine; Dijkema, Gerhard

    2017-01-01

    Biomass can play a role in the transition to a sustainable energy system. In principle all biomass can be used for make biogas. However, biogas yields differ for the various biomass types. Next to this, biomass is also used for other needs like food and feed. These competing uses affect the price of

  11. Pelton turbines

    CERN Document Server

    Zhang, Zhengji

    2016-01-01

    This book concerns the theoretical foundations of hydromechanics of Pelton turbines from the engineering viewpoint. For reference purposes, all relevant flow processes and hydraulic aspects in a Pelton turbine have been analyzed completely and systematically. The analyses especially include the quantification of all possible losses existing in the Pelton turbine and the indication of most available potential for further enhancing the system efficiency. As a guideline the book therefore supports further developments of Pelton turbines with regard to their hydraulic designs and optimizations. It is thus suitable for the development and design engineers as well as those working in the field of turbo machinery. Many laws described in the book can also be directly used to simplify aspects of computational fluid dynamics (CFD) or to develop new computational methods. The well-executed examples help better understand the related flow mechanics.

  12. Biogas and Methane Yield from Rye Grass

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tomáš Vítěz

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Biogas production in the Czech Republic has expanded substantially, including marginal regions for maize cultivation. Therefore, there are increasingly sought materials that could partially replace maize silage, as a basic feedstock, while secure both biogas production and its quality.Two samples of rye grass (Lolium multiflorum var. westerwoldicum silage with different solids content 21% and 15% were measured for biogas and methane yield. Rye grass silage with solid content of 15% reached an average specific biogas yield 0.431 m3·kg−1 of organic dry matter and an average specific methane yield 0.249 m3·kg−1 of organic dry matter. Rye grass silage with solid content 21% reached an average specific biogas yield 0.654 m3·kg−1 of organic dry matter and an average specific methane yield 0.399 m3·kg−1 of organic dry matter.

  13. Biogas production from water hyacinth (eichhornia crassipes)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Solly, R.K.; Goundar, D.; Singh, N.; Singh, M.K.

    1981-01-01

    The formation of biogas by anaerobic digestion of water hyacinth (Eichhornia crassipes) has been investigated in simple laboratory digesters. Seed material was obtained from the rumen contents of a goat. Under conditions where the mass of seed material exceeded the water hyacinth feed, the maximum rate of biogas production was obtained within one to two days of each addition of feed material. The maximum amount of biogas produced, 0.33 m 3 kg -1 dry matter was obtained at 40 deg. C with a slight decrease in total production at 35 deg. C. The total biogas produced at 45 deg. C (0.12 m 3 kg -1 dry matter) was less than that at 30 deg. C (0.16 m 3 kg -1 ). Regular additions of small amounts of feed material produced a more uniform rate of biogas production (author)

  14. Numerical investigation of biogas flameless combustion

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hosseini, Seyed Ehsan; Bagheri, Ghobad; Wahid, Mazlan Abdul

    2014-01-01

    Highlights: • Fuel consumption decreases from 3.24 g/s in biogas conventional combustion to 1.07 g/s in flameless mode. • The differences between reactants and products temperature intensifies irreversibility in traditional combustion. • The temperature inside the chamber is uniform in biogas flameless mode and exergy loss decreases in this technique. • Low O 2 concentration in the flameless mode confirms a complete and quick combustion process in flameless regime. - Abstract: The purpose of this investigation is to analyze combustion characteristics of biogas flameless mode based on clean technology development strategies. A three dimensional (3D) computational fluid dynamic (CFD) study has been performed to illustrate various priorities of biogas flameless combustion compared to the conventional mode. The effects of preheated temperature and wall temperature, reaction zone and pollutant formation are observed and the impacts of combustion and turbulence models on numerical results are discussed. Although preheated conventional combustion could be effective in terms of fuel consumption reduction, NO x formation increases. It has been found that biogas is not eligible to be applied in furnace heat up due to its low calorific value (LCV) and it is necessary to utilize a high calorific value fuel to preheat the furnace. The required enthalpy for biogas auto-ignition temperature is supplied by enthalpy of preheated oxidizer. In biogas flameless combustion, the mean temperature of the furnace is lower than traditional combustion throughout the chamber. Compared to the biogas flameless combustion with uniform temperature, very high and fluctuated temperatures are recorded in conventional combustion. Since high entropy generation intensifies irreversibility, exergy loss is higher in biogas conventional combustion compared to the biogas flameless regime. Entropy generation minimization in flameless mode is attributed to the uniform temperature inside the chamber

  15. CO2 balance in production of energy based on biogas

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielsen, Per Sieverts; Holm-Nielsen, J.B.

    1997-01-01

    Biogas is an essential biomass source for achieving a reduction of CO2 emission by 50% in year 2030 in Denmark. The physical potential for biogas production in Denmark is more than 10 times the present biogas production in Denmark. In Denmark the largest part of the biogas production is produced...... of increased transportation distances at large biogas plants on the total CO2 balance of the biogas plant. The advantage of constructing large biogas plants is the cost-effective possibility of using industrial organic waste to increase biogas production. In some cases co-fermentation increases biogas...... production up 100%. The present study evaluate optimal transportation strategies for biogas plants taking CO2 balances into account....

  16. The Development of Biogas Technology in Denmark: Achievements & Obstacles

    OpenAIRE

    Sannaa, Mohamed Najib

    2004-01-01

    Denmark is one of the most advanced countries in biogas technology. This country added several improvements to the biogas process in order to increase the biogas yield and thereby improve the economical profitability. Consequently, this project studied the developments of biogas technology in Denmark. The study includes a historical progress of biogas plants since 1970s; the different problems interrupted the expansion of this technology and the actions taken to overcome these obstacles. This...

  17. Comparative life cycle assessment of biogas plant configurations for a demand oriented biogas supply for flexible power generation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hahn, Henning; Hartmann, Kilian; Bühle, Lutz; Wachendorf, Michael

    2015-03-01

    The environmental performance of biogas plant configurations for a demand - oriented biogas supply for flexible power generation is comparatively assessed in this study. Those configurations indicate an increased energy demand to operate the operational enhancements compared to conventional biogas plants supplying biogas for baseload power generation. However, findings show that in contrast to an alternative supply of power generators with natural gas, biogas supplied on demand by adapted biogas plant configurations saves greenhouse gas emissions by 54-65 g CO(2-eq) MJ(-1) and primary energy by about 1.17 MJ MJ(-1). In this regard, configurations with flexible biogas production profit from reduced biogas storage requirements and achieve higher savings compared to configurations with continuous biogas production. Using thicker biogas storage sheeting material reduces the methane permeability of up to 6m(3) d(-1) which equals a reduction of 8% of the configuration's total methane emissions. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  18. Biogas from farms will be tomorrow's fuel; 'Biogas vom Bauer wird zum Treibstoff von morgen'

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bruecker, U [ITZ Innovations Transfer Zentralschweiz, Horw (Switzerland); Limacher, L; Krummenacher, S [Energie Treuhand ETL AG, Lucerne (Switzerland); Schmid, J [Schmid Management und Kommunikation AG, Chur (Switzerland)

    2003-07-01

    This final report for the Swiss Federal Office of Energy presents the results of a preliminary study on the technical, logistical and economic possibilities of agricultural biogas production for use as motor fuel. The study was made for a geographically limited region in the Swiss Canton of Lucerne. The reason for the choice of this area - which exhibits a high density of cattle and fowl - and its high potential for the production of biogas from animal excrements are discussed. The economic viability of three possible variants of biogas usage are discussed - its use as a fuel for electricity generation, the processing of the biogas and its injection into the natural gas mains and storage of the biogas in compressed-gas cylinders. Also, the relevance of biogas production in terms of environmental protection is emphasised - ammonia emissions from liquid manure poses a serious problem for the region. Further, political and market development aspects are discussed.

  19. Improvement of Biogas Production by Bioaugmentation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    K. L. Kovács

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Biogas production technologies commonly involve the use of natural anaerobic consortia of microbes. The objective of this study was to elucidate the importance of hydrogen in this complex microbial food chain. Novel laboratory biogas reactor prototypes were designed and constructed. The fates of pure hydrogen-producing cultures of Caldicellulosiruptor saccharolyticus and Enterobacter cloacae were followed in time in thermophilic and mesophilic natural biogas-producing communities, respectively. Molecular biological techniques were applied to study the altered ecosystems. A systematic study in 5-litre CSTR digesters revealed that a key fermentation parameter in the maintenance of an altered population balance is the loading rate of total organic solids. Intensification of the biogas production was observed and the results corroborate that the enhanced biogas productivity is associated with the increased abundance of the hydrogen producers. Fermentation parameters did not indicate signs of failure in the biogas production process. Rational construction of more efficient and sustainable biogas-producing microbial consortia is proposed.

  20. Sludge storage lagoon biogas recovery and use

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Muller, D.; Norville, C. (Memphis and Shelby County Div. of Planning and Development, TN (United States))

    1991-07-01

    The City of Memphis has two wastewater treatment plants. The SWTP employs two large anaerobic digestion sludge lagoons as part of the overall sludge treatment system. Although these lagoons are effective in concentrating and digesting sludge, they can generate offensive odors. The SWTP uses aerobic digesters to partially stabilize the sludge and help reduce objectionable odors before it enters the lagoons. The anaerobic digestion of sludge in the lagoons results in the dispersion of a large quantity of biogas into the atmosphere. The City realized that if the lagoons could be covered, the odor problem could be resolved, and at the same, time, biogas could be recovered and utilized as a source of energy. In 1987, the City commissioned ADI International to conduct a feasibility study to evaluate alternative methods of covering the lagoons and recovering and utilizing the biogas. The study recommended that the project be developed in two phases: (1) recovery of the biogas and (2) utilization of the biogas. Phase 1 consists of covering the two lagoons with an insulated membrane to control odor and temperature and collect the biogas. Phase 1 was found to be economically feasible and offered a unique opportunity for the City to save substantial operating costs at the treatment facility. The Memphis biogas recovery project is the only application in the world where a membrane cover has been used on a municipal wastewater sludge lagoon. It is also the largest lagoon cover system in the world.

  1. Wind turbine

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cheney, Jr., Marvin C.

    1982-01-01

    A wind turbine of the type having an airfoil blade (15) mounted on a flexible beam (20) and a pitch governor (55) which selectively, torsionally twists the flexible beam in response to wind turbine speed thereby setting blade pitch, is provided with a limiter (85) which restricts unwanted pitch change at operating speeds due to torsional creep of the flexible beam. The limiter allows twisting of the beam by the governor under excessive wind velocity conditions to orient the blades in stall pitch positions, thereby preventing overspeed operation of the turbine. In the preferred embodiment, the pitch governor comprises a pendulum (65,70) which responds to changing rotor speed by pivotal movement, the limiter comprising a resilient member (90) which engages an end of the pendulum to restrict further movement thereof, and in turn restrict beam creep and unwanted blade pitch misadjustment.

  2. The perspectives of the French biogas market

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2012-05-01

    After having outlined that France is the fourth European producer of biogas, that regulatory evolutions have been adopted in 2012 to support the market, and that operators are trying to take place on this market, this document proposes the table of content of a market study which addresses the following topics: definition, resources and valorisation modes, legal framework and support measures taken by public authorities, investments, costs and profitability of a biogas project, current status of production and valorisation of biogas in France and market perspectives, presentation of main actors and of their development strategies

  3. BIOGAS STATIONS AND THEIR ENVIRONMENTAL IMPACTS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vladimir Lapčik

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available The article summarizes the authors’ experience with environmental impact assessment in branch of biogas plants. The introductory part of the paper describes legislative obligations of the Czech Republic concerning the fulfilment of the European Union’s limits as for utilization of renewable energy resources. The next parts of the paper deal with an impact analysis of biogas plants on the environment. The final part of the paper deals with experience with implementation of the environmental impact assessment process in the field of biogas plants in the Czech Republic.

  4. Performansi Purifikasi Biogas Dengan KOH Based Absorbent

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dadang Hermawan

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available The absorpstion of CO2 is aimed to increase the methane gas fraction in biogas. Enhancing methane fraction hopefully will increase the total energy of the biogas it self. The purification process of biogas minimizing another elements maintains combustion, especially minimizing H2O, CO2, and H2S. The purification using KOH as the absorbent to decrease the CO2. The result shown that the content of CO2 decreased into 27% from 35.5%, the average content of CH4 increased from 18% to 48.5%. Increasing KOH composition decreases bubble generator diameter and mass flow.

  5. Performansi Purifikasi Biogas Dengan KOH Based Absorbent

    OpenAIRE

    Hermawan, Dadang; Hamidi, Nurkholis; Sasongko, Mega Nur

    2016-01-01

    The absorpstion of CO2 is aimed to increase the methane gas fraction in biogas. Enhancing methane fraction hopefully will increase the total energy of the biogas it self. The purification process of biogas minimizing another elements maintains combustion, especially minimizing H2O, CO2, and H2S. The purification using KOH as the absorbent to decrease the CO2. The result shown that the content of CO2 decreased into 27% from 35.5%, the average content of CH4 increased from 18% to 48.5%. Increas...

  6. Farm scale biogas concepts in Europe

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wellinger, A [Nova Energie, Ettenhausen (Switzerland)

    1997-08-01

    The near future of farm scale biogas production looks bright as long as the high electricity prices are maintained by political will and subsidies remain higher than approx. 20%. If in all the number of biogas plants is growing as it is in Germany (Within the last two years about 200 new plants have been built) then biogas will add its share to a nuclear power free electricity production, as does wind energy in Germany, Holland or Denmark. The standard for manure digesters is set. There is still some way to go for solid waste digesters. However, first inputs have been given. (EG) 10 refs.

  7. Review of desulfurization process for biogas purification

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xiao, Cong; Ma, Yunqian; Ji, Dandan; Zang, Lihua

    2017-12-01

    Hydrogen sulfide (H2S) is a toxic and odorous compound present in biogas produced by the anaerobic digestion of biosolids and other organic materials. Elimination of H2S is necessary as it is extremely hazardous to human health, poisonous to process catalysts and corrosive to equipment. The desulfurization technology is an important part for efficient utilization of biogas. In this paper, the traditional wet and dry desulfurization technology for biogas was reviewed, and the new research progress of biological desulfurization technologies are also introduced.

  8. Valorization of MSWI bottom ash for biogas desulfurization: Influence of biogas water content.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fontseré Obis, Marta; Germain, Patrick; Troesch, Olivier; Spillemaecker, Michel; Benbelkacem, Hassen

    2017-02-01

    In this study an alternative valorization of Municipal Solid Waste Incineration (MSWI) Bottom Ash (BA) for H 2 S elimination from landfill biogas was evaluated. Emphasis was given to the influence of water content in biogas on H 2 S removal efficiency by BA. A small-scale pilot was developed and implemented in a landfill site located in France. A new biogas analyzer was used and allowed real-time continuous measurement of CH 4 , CO 2 , O 2 , H 2 S and H 2 O in raw and treated biogas. The H 2 S removal efficiency of bottom ash was evaluated for different inlet biogas humidities: from 4 to 24g water /m 3 . The biogas water content was found to greatly affect bottom ash efficiency regarding H 2 S removal. With humid inlet biogas the H 2 S removal was almost 3 times higher than with a dry inlet biogas. Best removal capacity obtained was 56gH 2 S/kgdryBA. A humid inlet biogas allows to conserve the bottom ash moisture content for a maximum H 2 S retention. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  9. Biogas supply to the natural gas supply grid. Study; Einspeisung von Biogas in das Erdgasnetz. Studie

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Klinski, S. [DBI Gas- und Umwelttechnik GmbH, Leipzig (Germany)

    2006-07-01

    Biogas supply to the public gas grid is a new option discussed in the most recent publication of Fachagentur Nachwachsende Rohstoffe (FNR) e.V. The biogas is purified, upgraded to natural gas quality and fed into an existing gas grid. Once there, it can be transported across long distances and also used for electric power generation at the consumer side. The study investigates inhowfar and in what instances this method is feasible and promising. It discusses the technical background and the regional potential of biogas. Seven model biogas systems are presented as examples. (orig.)

  10. Feasibility of biogas utilization in fuel cells; Viabilidade do uso de biogas em celulas a combustivel

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sprenger, Humberto Elias [Programa de Pos-graduacao em Desenvolvimento de Tecnologia (PRODETEC/LACTEC/IEP), Cutitiba, PR (Brazil); Cantao, Mauricio Pereira [Instituto de Tecnologia para o Desenvolvimento (LACTEC), Curitiba, PR (Brazil)], E-mail: mauricio.cantao@utp.br

    2010-10-15

    Waste water treatment stations using upflow anaerobic sludge blanket (UASB) produce biogas, composed of carbon dioxide diluted methane plus minority compounds. This kind of reactor is worthwhile but demands methane burning in order to reduce atmospheric pollution and damage to ozone layer. Meanwhile, biogas can be used for energy generation due to its heating value. In this paper a technical and economic feasibility study about the use of biogas as a hydrogen source for fuel cells feeding is presented. Two methods for assessment of biogas production in UASB reactor were compared for ETE Atuba Sul case. (author)

  11. Harvesting biogas from wastewater sludge and food waste

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chua, K H; Cheah, W L; Leong, Y P; Tan, C F

    2013-01-01

    Wastewater sludge and food waste are good source of biogas. Anaerobic treatment of slude and food waste able to produce biogas which is a potential renewable energy source. This study looks into the potential biogas generation and the effects of temperature on biogas generation. A lab scale reactor was used to simulate the biogas generation. The results show that wastewater sludge able to produced upto 44.82 ml biogas/kg of sludge. When mixed with food waste at a ratio of 30:70 (food waste), the biogas generated were 219.07 ml/kg of waste. Anaerobic of food waste alone produced biogas amount to 59.75 ml/kg of food waste. Anaerobic treatment also reduces the volume of waste. The effect of temperature shows that higher temperature produces more biogas than lower temperature.

  12. PENGETAHUAN ISTRI DAN PENGARUHNYA TERHADAP PENGAMBILAN KEPUTUSAN PENGGUNAAN BIOGAS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Istiqlaliyah Muflikhati

    2011-08-01

    Full Text Available Wife’s Knowledge and Its Influence toward Decision Making of Biogas Using Abstract Biogas is an alternative energy that gives economic and health advantages. However, the study of the knowledge and using of biogas are still limited. This study aimed to analyze the wife's knowledge about biogas and its influence toward decision making of using biogas in the family in the village of Haurngombong, Sumedang Regency, West Java. Families that involved in this study were 60 families that consist of biogas users’ families and biogas nonusers’ families. Data were collected through structured interviews with using questionnaire. Data analysis used the Independent Samples T Test and logistic regression tests. The results showed that the level of knowledge of wife from families who using biogas was higher than nonusers’ families. Knowledge of the wifes and family size had positive effect toward the decision making of biogas using.

  13. Cavitation for improved sludge conversion into biogas

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stoop, A. H.; Bakker, T. W.; Kramer, H. J. M.

    2015-12-01

    In several studies the beneficial influence of pre-treatment of waste activated sludge with cavitation on the biogas production was demonstrated. It is however, still not fully certain whether this effect should be mainly contributed to an increase in conversion rate of organics into biogas by anaerobic bacteria, and how much cavitation increases the total biogas yield. An increase in yield is only the case if cavitation can further disrupt otherwise inaccessible cell membrane structures and long chain organic molecules. In this study the influence of hydrodynamic cavitation on sludge that was already digested for 30 days was investigated. The total biogas yield could indeed be increased. The effect of the backpressure behind the venturi tube on the yield could not yet be established.

  14. Innovative pretreatment strategies for biogas production.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Patinvoh, Regina J; Osadolor, Osagie A; Chandolias, Konstantinos; Sárvári Horváth, Ilona; Taherzadeh, Mohammad J

    2017-01-01

    Biogas or biomethane is traditionally produced via anaerobic digestion, or recently by thermochemical or a combination of thermochemical and biological processes via syngas (CO and H 2 ) fermentation. However, many of the feedstocks have recalcitrant structure and are difficult to digest (e.g., lignocelluloses or keratins), or they have toxic compounds (such as fruit flavors or high ammonia content), or not digestible at all (e.g., plastics). To overcome these challenges, innovative strategies for enhanced and economically favorable biogas production were proposed in this review. The strategies considered are commonly known physical pretreatment, rapid decompression, autohydrolysis, acid- or alkali pretreatments, solvents (e.g. for lignin or cellulose) pretreatments or leaching, supercritical, oxidative or biological pretreatments, as well as combined gasification and fermentation, integrated biogas production and pretreatment, innovative biogas digester design, co-digestion, and bio-augmentation. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  15. Optimization of biogas production from manure

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kaparaju, Prasad Laxmi-Narasimha; Boe, Kanokwan; Buendia, Inmaculada M.

    -scale studies showed that serial digestion with 77/23% volume distribution produced 1.9-6.1% more biogas compared to that obtained during one-step CSTR operation. However, temperature was found to have a strong influence on the methane production and process performance of the second reactor of a serial CSTR......The main objective of the project was to improve biogas production from manures. This objective was addressed by investigating 1) the effect of different reactor configurations, 2) operational procedures, aiming to selectively retain/return degradable material in the reactor and 3) different...... process at 90/10, 80/20, 70/30, 50/50 or 30/70% volume distribution could produce 11-17.8% more biogas compared to single CSTR process under similar operating conditions. The increased biogas production was mainly from the second reactor of the serial process, which accounted for 16-18% of the total...

  16. Storage of catch crops to produce biogas

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Molinuevo-Salces, Beatriz; Ahring, Birgitte Kiær; Uellendahl, Hinrich

    2014-01-01

    . On the contrary, the poor quality of IR silage, due to its high TS content, made it inappropriate as feedstock for biogas production. A TS content of 25-35% is preferable, to obtain a proper fermentation avoid leachate run-off and growth of Clostridium sp. or mold formation. Avoiding soil particles in the bales......Catch crop biomass is a promising co-substrate for manure-based biogas plants in Denmark since the cultivation of catch crops is mandatory to retain nutrients in the soil, contributing to protect the aquatic environment. In general, the growth period for catch crops is from harvest of the previous...... crop in July-August to the end of the growing season and harvest in late October. Hence, for use of the biomass in biogas production there is a need for storage of the biomass. Storage as silage would guarantee the availability of the feedstock for biogas production during the whole year. A proper...

  17. Natural attenuation of biogas in landfill covers; Attenuazione naturale del flusso di biogas nella copertura superficiale delle discariche

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cossu, R.; Privato, A.; Raga, R. [Padova Univ., Padova (Italy). IMAGE, Dipartimento di Idraulica, Marittima, Ambiente e Geotecnica; Zane, M. [SPINOFF S.R.L., Padova (Italy)

    2005-08-01

    In the risk evaluation of uncontrolled biogas emissions from landfills, the process of natural attenuation in landfill covers assumes a very important role. The capacity of biogas oxidation in the cover soils seems to be the most important control to mitigate the biogas emission during the aftercare period when the biogas collection system might fail. In the present paper laboratory experiences on lab columns to study the biogas oxidation are discussed. [Italian] Nella valutazione del pericolo di emissioni incontrollate di biogas da una discarica, il processo dell'attenuazione naturale della copertura superficiale assume un ruolo molto importante. La capacita' di ossidazione del biogas nel terreno di copertura sembra rappresentare il controllo piu' importante nella mitigazione di fughe incontrollate di biogas, soprattutto nel lungo periodo quando la captazione del biogas perde efficienza. Nel presente lavoro si riportano alcune esperienze di laboratorio per valutare l'ossidazione di metano in diverse tipologie di copertura.

  18. White Earth Biomass/Biogas Feasibility Study

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Triplett, Michael

    2015-03-12

    The White Earth Nation examined the feasibility of cost savings and fossil energy reduction through the installation of biogas/biomass boiler at the tribal casino. The study rejected biogas options due to availability and site constraints, but found a favorable environment for technical and financial feasibility of installing a 5 MMBtu hot water boiler system to offset 60-70 percent of current fuel oil and propane usage.

  19. Description of Measurements on Biogas Stations

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ladislav Novosád

    2016-08-01

    Full Text Available This paper focuses mainly on performance analysis for three biogas stations situated within the territory of the Czech Republic. This paper contains basic details of the individual biogas stations as well as description of their types. It also refers to the general description of the measurement gauge involved, with specifications of its potential use. The final part of this paper deals with the analysis of course data obtained, with special regard to voltage, current, active power and reactive power data.

  20. Increase of Bio-Gas Power Potential

    OpenAIRE

    V. A. Sednin; О. F. Kraetskaya; I. N. Prokoрenia

    2012-01-01

    The paper presents a review of industrial technologies for obtaining gas-synthesis which is applicable for bio-gas enrichment process. Comparative characteristics are given in the paper. The paper thoroughly considers a technology of dry methane conversion as the most expedient variant recommended for the application in this case. The bio-gas enrichment carried out during its production expands possibilities and efficiency of its application.

  1. Increase of Bio-Gas Power Potential

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    V. A. Sednin

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available The paper presents a review of industrial technologies for obtaining gas-synthesis which is applicable for bio-gas enrichment process. Comparative characteristics are given in the paper. The paper thoroughly considers a technology of dry methane conversion as the most expedient variant recommended for the application in this case. The bio-gas enrichment carried out during its production expands possibilities and efficiency of its application.

  2. Economics of biogas digesters in Bangladesh

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bala, B.K.; Hossain, M.M.

    1992-01-01

    We present the economics of biogas digesters in Bangladesh in terms of fuel wood and fertilizer values. The incremental net present benefit was computed from the digester cost, kinetics of biogas production and nutrient contents in the treated slurry. The model was analysed to test the sensitivity to changes in retention time, annual operation period, subsidy, price of fuel wood, construction cost, interest, and inflation rate. (Author)

  3. Characterisation of Arabica Coffee Pulp - Hay from Kintamani - Bali as Prospective Biogas Feedstocks

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hendroko Setyobudi Roy

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available The huge amount of coffee pulp waste is an environmental problem. Anaerobic fermentation is one of the alternative solutions. However, availability of coffee pulp does not appear for year-round, whereas biogas needs continuous feedstocks for digester stability. This research uses coffee pulp from Arabica Coffee Factory at Mengani, Kintamani, Bali–Indonesia. The coffee pulp was transformed into coffee pulp-hay product by sun drying for preservations to extend the raw materials through the year. Characterization of coffee pulp-hay was conducted after to keep for 15 mo for review the prospect as biogas feedstocks. Several parameters were analyzed such as C/N ratio, volatile solids, carbohydrate, protein, fat, lignocellulose content, macro-micro nutrients, and density. The review results indicated that coffee pulp-hay is prospective raw material for biogas feedstock. This well-proven preservation technology was able to fulfill the continuous supply. Furthermore, some problems were found in the recent preliminary experiment related to the density and fungi growth in the conventional laboratory digester. Further investigation was needed to implement the coffee pulp – hay as biogas feedstocks.

  4. Ash study for biogas purification

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Juarez V, R. I.

    2016-01-01

    This work evaluates the ashes generated from the wood and coal combustion process of the thermoelectric plant in Petacalco, Guerrero (Mexico) in order to determine its viability as a filter in the biogas purification process. The ash is constituted by particles of morphology and different chemical properties, so it required a characterization of the same by different analytical techniques: as was scanning electron microscopy and X-ray diffraction, in order to observe the microstructure and determine the elemental chemical composition of the particles. Prior to the analysis, a set of sieves was selected to classify as a function of particle size. Four different types of ashes were evaluated: one generated by the wood combustion (wood ash) and three more of the Petacalco thermoelectric generated by the coal combustion (wet fly ash, dry fly ash and dry bottom ash). (Author)

  5. The health aspects of biogas as an energy source

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Srinivasan, H.R.

    1982-01-01

    Data on the positive health impacts of biogas as fuel for rural household cooking have been collected from three villages near Bombay, one of which used traditional firewood as cooking fuel, one used biogas plants, and the third used biogas plants connected to latrines. The study illustrates the advantages of the use of biogas compared to wood, dung-cakes and crop residues. The biogas plants in the villages selected for study have been in operation for three or four years. Short-time studies show positive advantages of the use of biogas as fuel. (author)

  6. Biogas Filter Based on Local Natural Zeolite Materials

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Satriyo Krido Wahono

    2014-02-01

    Full Text Available UPT BPPTK LIPI has created a biogas filter tool to improve the purity of methane in the biogas. The device shaped cylindrical tube containing absorbent materials which based on local natural zeolite of Indonesia. The absorbent has been activated and modified with other materials. This absorbtion material has multi-adsorption capacity for almost impurities gas of biogas. The biogas  filter increase methane content of biogas for 5-20%. The biogas filter improve the biogas’s performance such as increasing methane contents, increasing heating value, reduction of odors, reduction of corrosion potential, increasing the efficiency and stability of the generator.

  7. Electricity Cogenerator from Hydrogen and Biogas

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pinate, W.; Chinnasa, P.; Dangphonthong, D.

    2017-09-01

    This research studied about electricity cogenerator from Hydrogen and Biogas and the factors that cause that effecting Hydrogen from Aluminium which was a cylindrical feature. By using a catalyst was NaOH and CaO, it was reacted in distilled water with percentage of Aluminium: the catalyst (NaOH and CaO) and brought to mix with Biogas afterwards, that have been led to electricity from generator 1 kilowatt. The research outcomes were concentration of solutions that caused amount and percent of maximum Hydrogen was to at 10 % wt and 64.73 % which rate of flowing of constant gas 0.56 litter/minute as temperature 97 degree Celsius. After that led Hydrogen was mixed by Biogas next, conducted to electricity from generator and levelled the voltage of generator at 220 Volt. There after the measure of electricity current and found electricity charge would be constant at 3.1 Ampere. And rate of Biogas flowing and Hydrogen, the result was the generator used Biogas rate of flowing was highest 9 litter/minute and the lowest 7.5 litter/minute, which had rate of flowing around 8.2 litter/minute. Total Biogas was used around 493.2 litter or about 0.493 m3 and Hydrogen had rate of flowing was highest 2.5 litter/minute.

  8. Residual biogas yield of digestate from agricultural biogas plants; Restgaspotenzial in Gaerresten aus landwirtschaftlichen Biogasanlagen

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lehner, Andreas; Effenberger, Mathias; Kissel, Rainer; Gronauer, Andreas [Bayerische Landesanstalt fuer Landwirtschaft, Freising (Germany). Arbeitsgruppe Biogastechnologie und Reststoffmanagement

    2009-07-01

    To evaluate the residual biogas yield during storage, biogas tests at a temperature of 22 C were performed with samples of liquid digested residue from 15 agricultural biogas plants (BGP). Values of residual biogas yield between 0.3 and 1.3 % with respect to the biogas yield from the raw input materials were measured. For the two one-stage BGP, the value was about 1.2 %. For the two-stage plants, a residual biogas yield (RBY) of 0.9 % was determined as opposed to 0.4 % for the three-stage plants. With a single exception, the RBY was clearly below 1.0 % if the overall hydraulic retention time in the BGP was equal to or larger than 100 days. For the majority of samples, the residual biogas yield showed a positive correlation with the level of volatile fatty acids in the digestate. Since the real conditions in storage tanks cannot be simulated with a simple batch-test, the results are not representative for the actual biogas production and potential methane emissions from the digestate during open storage. (orig.)

  9. Sustainable dairy manure-based biogas? : A perspective from the combined biogas and agricultural production system

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hoang, Dieu Linh; Davis, Christopher Bryan; Nonhebel, Sanderine

    2017-01-01

    Dairy manure-based biogas, an emerging source of renewable energy, is a result of a recycling process which often leads to the thought that manure production is the beginning of this biogas supply chain by energy producers. However, dairy manure is only a byproduct of an agricultural system whose

  10. Biogas infrastructure from farm-scale to regional scale, line-pack storage in biogas grids

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Evert Jan Hengeveld

    2016-01-01

    The number of local and regional initiatives encouraging the production and use of regional produced energy grows. In these new developments biogas can play a role, as a producer of energy, but also in balancing the electricity grid. Collection of biogas from several digesters to a hub supports the

  11. Replacing Natural Gas by Biogas — Determining the Bacterial Contamination of Biogas by PCR

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jiřina Čermáková

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available A promising way of using biogas is to upgrade it to natural gas, which is referred to as Substitute Natural Gas (SNG or biomethane. Biomethane, or biogas, is produced by biological processes of harnessing the ability of microorganisms to degrade organic material to methane. Some of the microorganisms are aerosolized from the digester into the biogas; afterwards a bio-film is formed that attaches to the surfaces of the distribution pipes, and can find it was to the place where the end use of biogas takes place. This paper deals with the detection of microbial species in biogas, their influenceon corrosion and the potential risk that diseases can be spread via biogas using molecular techniques. Using molecular methods, we found that raw biogas contains about 8 million microorganisms per m3, which is most likely the result of microbial transmission from the anaerobic digestion process. Some bacterial species may contribute to the corrosion of pipelines and equipment; others are opportunistic pathogens that can cause toxic reactions. However, most bacterial species, more than 40 % in biogas, are still unknown, as is their influence on the digestion process and on human health. Further studies are needed to better understand the behavior of microorganisms in anaerobic digestion and to preventmicrobial-influenced corrosion and microbial dissemination.

  12. Biogas infrastructure from farm-scale to regional level, prospects of biogas grids

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hengeveld, Evert Jan

    2015-01-01

    The amount of biogas produced in agricultural areas is expected to increase. The increasing number of local and regional initiatives show the growing interest in decentralized energy production. In these new developments biogas can play a role, as a producer of energy, but also in balancing the

  13. Biogas composition and engine performance, including database and biogas property model

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bruijstens, A.J.; Beuman, W.P.H.; Molen, M. van der; Rijke, J. de; Cloudt, R.P.M.; Kadijk, G.; Camp, O.M.G.C. op den; Bleuanus, W.A.J.

    2008-01-01

    In order to enable this evaluation of the current biogas quality situation in the EU; results are presented in a biogas database. Furthermore the key gas parameter Sonic Bievo Index (influence on open loop A/F-ratio) is defined and other key gas parameters like the Methane Number (knock resistance)

  14. The progress and prospects of rural biogas production in China

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chen, Ling; Zhao, Lixin; Ren, Changshan; Wang, Fei

    2012-01-01

    Biogas production is an important aspect of China's energy strategy. After decades’ application and research, China biogas has achieved considerable accomplishments. This study presents the progress and prospect of biogas technologies and industry in China. Two biogas patterns exist in China, that is, household-scaled digester for scattered farmers and biogas plant for centralized biogas production. Household-scaled digester which is simple and practical has been widely used and fully developed. Biogas plants have being sprung up with different materials, process and biogas utilization technologies. By the end of 2010, 38.51 million household-scaled digesters, and 27,436 large- and medium-scaled biogas plants for agricultural wastes were built. The calculation result of biogas potential from agricultural wastes shows that those used raw materials account for only 1.90% of the total availability. Chinese government promulgated several laws and policies, and gave financial supports to promote the development of biogas. However, some problems such as inferior equipment technology, imperfect policy incentive hamper its wide application and promotion. With the rapid development of economy and the improvement of rural living condition, China biogas industry is expected to advance toward orientation of scalization, industrialization and commercialization. - Highlights: ► Developing progress of biogas production in China is evaluated comprehensively. ► Status of biogas industrialization is estimated. ► New problems which occurred during rural biogas construction were analyzed. ► Biogas production potentials from agricultural wastes in China were calculated. ► Prospect of China rural biogas is expected.

  15. Demonstration of Software Application Biogas Optimizer at the Haendeloe Biogas Site

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cook, Kristofer (Bioprocess Control Sweden AB, Lund (SE))

    2008-04-15

    There is a growing interest in the utilisation of process optimisation technologies within the biogas industry. This trend is being driven by new and growing market opportunities as well as an interest to improve the overall profitability of commercial biogas processes. Biogas Optimizer, developed by Bioprocess Control Sweden AB based in Lund, Sweden, represents one such process optimisation technology, utilising a supervisory and control approach to improve both biogas production efficiency and process stability. A demonstration project was conducted over a nine month period during 2007 at the Haendeloe biogas plant in Norrkoeping, Sweden, owned and operated by Svensk Biogas AB, to provide an indication of the potential of Biogas Optimizer to improve the competitiveness of biogas producers. The demonstration project attempted to satisfy 3 goals, namely; 1) to obtain baseline production information regarding the average Organic Loading Rate (OLR) and average Biogas Production Rate (BPR), 2) to demonstrate that the technology behind Biogas Optimizer works under full-scale production conditions, and 3) to verify that significant/notable production efficiency improvements can be achieved utilising Biogas Optimizer when compared to baseline production information, and that biogas production can be optimised for maximising the utilisation of reactor capacity while still leaving a comfortable safety margin so as to avoid reactor overloading. The collection of baseline production information during three months resulted in an average OLR of 4.0 Kg VS/m3/day and average BPR of 2.6 Nm3/m3/day being selected as baseline data from which to compare the performance of Biogas Optimizer. The full-scale demonstration of Biogas Optimizer was conducted over a 40 day period. During these 40 days, OLR recommendations from Biogas Optimizer, and the resulting manual adjustment of the OLR by the plant operator, resulted in an increase in the average OLR from 4.0 to 4.7 Kg/m3/day and

  16. Biogas from algae, seaweed and seagrass?; Biogas aus Algen, Tang und Seegras?

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Schneider, Holger [Fachhochschule Flensburg (Germany)

    2011-07-01

    Algae, seaweed and sea grass are discussed again and again as alternative sources for raw materials for agricultural biogas plants. The author of the contribution under consideration reports on the identification and optimization of the biogas potential of microalgae, macroalgae and flotsam (mixture of seaweed, seaweed, and so on). Algae, seaweed and sea grass can be fermented into biogas by means of an anaerobic process. The specific yield of biogas is small. The processing of these substrates requires a technical adjustment of the biogas plants. Thus, the effective use of these substrates will continue to fall. The achievable benefit highly depends on the location of the facilities and on the available substrates with the corresponding specific gas yields. The economic efficiency of these substrates in agricultural systems must be examined in each case.

  17. Enhanced biogas recovery by applying post-digestion in large-scale centralized biogas plants

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Angelidaki, Irini; Hejnfelt, Anette; Ellegaard, L.

    2006-01-01

    industry to generate biogas, which is used for electricity and thermal energy. A total of 20 such plants are currently active in Denmark, most of which were included in the investigation. From the plants, samples were obtained from various steps of the process. Samples were analysed and the residual biogas......The main objective of this study was to investigate the degradation efficiency of centralized biogas plants and provide guidance for the design of more efficient digester and post-digestion systems. These centralized biogas plants in Denmark digest manure together with organic waste from the food...... potential determined by batch post-digestion at various temperature levels. Results were correlated with plant characteristics and production statistics in order to judge the efficiency of various digestion concepts. A simplified model based on a two-step biogas production process was developed...

  18. Appraisal of Biogas Potential of Biogas from Animal Dung in Saeedabad, Pakistan

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    AMJAD ALISHAH

    2017-07-01

    Full Text Available Pakistan is facing energy scarcity. The biogas is one of the renewable substitutes. It does not only overcome the energy scarcity but also harness the energy from animal dung which causes the CO2 emissions. The present study was done on the appraisal of potential of biogas from the dung of animals (Buffaloes, Cows, Goats and Sheep within the villages surrounded by Taluka Saeedabad. The purpose of the study was the energy potential of the biogas and the selection of the most suitable design and size of the biogas plant for the villagers. The present study also includes the domestic biogas plant economics. As per the estimation, total quantity of animal dung generated was about 129 tons/day, which can produce 3859 m3 of biogas per day. On the contrary, for cooking villagers require only 2748 m3 of biogas per day. Moreover, the surplus biogas of 1111 m3 per day can be used to produce electricity of 6666 kWh per day, which can fulfill the demand of about half of the population of villages under study. People are using firewood, cotton stalks, kerosene oil and LPG (Liquefied Petroleum Gas for cooking. Converting animal dung into the biogas not only reduces the consumption of the traditional fuels used (Firewood, Cotton Stalks, Kerosene Oil and LPG, but also prevents about 900 thousand tons of CO2 emissions into the environment. Additionally, a fixed dome biogas plant of 8-10 m3 size was recommended for each of the houses under study.

  19. Appraisal of biogas potential of biogas from animal dung in saeedabad, pakistan

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shah, A.A.; Sahito, A.R.

    2017-01-01

    Pakistan is facing energy scarcity. The biogas is one of the renewable substitutes. It does not only overcome the energy scarcity but also harness the energy from animal dung which causes the CO/sub 2/ emissions. The present study was done on the appraisal of potential of biogas from the dung of animals (Buffaloes, Cows, Goats and Sheep) within the villages surrounded by Taluka Saeedabad. The purpose of the study was the energy potential of the biogas and the selection of the most suitable design and size of the biogas plant for the villagers. The present study also includes the domestic biogas plant economics. As per the estimation, total quantity of animal dung generated was about 129 tons/day, which can produce 3859 m/sup 3/ of biogas per day. On the contrary, for cooking villagers require only 2748 m3 of biogas per day. Moreover, the surplus biogas of 1111 m/sup 3/ per day can be used to produce electricity of 6666 kWh per day, which can fulfill the demand of about half of the population of villages under study. People are using firewood, cotton stalks, kerosene oil and LPG (Liquefied Petroleum Gas) for cooking. Converting animal dung into the biogas not only reduces the consumption of the traditional fuels used (Firewood, Cotton Stalks, Kerosene Oil and LPG), but also prevents about 900 thousand tons of CO/sub 2/ emissions into the environment. Additionally, a fixed dome biogas plant of 8-10 m/sup 3/ size was recommended for each of the houses under study. (author)

  20. Hydraulic turbines and auxiliary equipment

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Luo Gaorong [Organization of the United Nations, Beijing (China). International Centre of Small Hydroelectric Power Plants

    1995-07-01

    This document presents a general overview on hydraulic turbines and auxiliary equipment, emphasizing the turbine classification, in accordance with the different types of turbines, standard turbine series in China, turbine selection based on the basic data required for the preliminary design, general hill model curves, chart of turbine series and the arrangement of application for hydraulic turbines, hydraulic turbine testing, and speed regulating device.

  1. Equivalent Simplification Method of Micro-Grid

    OpenAIRE

    Cai Changchun; Cao Xiangqin

    2013-01-01

    The paper concentrates on the equivalent simplification method for the micro-grid system connection into distributed network. The equivalent simplification method proposed for interaction study between micro-grid and distributed network. Micro-grid network, composite load, gas turbine synchronous generation, wind generation are equivalent simplification and parallel connect into the point of common coupling. A micro-grid system is built and three phase and single phase grounded faults are per...

  2. empirical model for predicting rate of biogas production

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    users

    Rate of biogas production using cow manure as substrate was monitored in two laboratory scale ... Biogas is a Gas obtained by anaerobic ... A. A. Adamu, Petroleum and Natural Gas Processing Department, Petroleum Training Institute, P.M.B..

  3. Optimized construction of biogas plants; Optimierte Bauweise fuer Biogasanlagen

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2012-09-19

    Within the conference of the International Trade Fair for Biogas Plant Technology at 21st February, 2012 in Berlin, the following lectures were held: (1) Optimized dimensions of containers for small systems of liquid manure (Manfred Thalmann); (2) Microferm mini biogas plants (Bart Brouwer); (3) Fermentation of stackable biomass in rural biogas plant - The DeNaBa system (Christian Deterding); (4) The Sauter Biogas System for the fermentation of liquid manure, solid dung, and other residual materials (Stefan Sauter); (5) Bio-electricity: Controllable power generation by means of biogas plants (Matthias Sonnleitner); (6) Reduction of the effort and increase of the yield using UDR fixed bed technology (Alfred van den Berg); (7) Prestressed concrete container for biogas plants: Area of application - quality - options (Harald Feldmann); (8) Corrosion protection of agricultural and communal biogas plants (Michael Normann); (9) Fundamentals of efficient and effective flow generation in biogas plants (Kay Rotalski); (10) Rotary piston screw pistons and eccentric screw pumps (Thorsten Gilles).

  4. Biogas slurry pricing method based on nutrient content

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Chang-ai; Guo, Honghai; Yang, Zhengtao; Xin, Shurong

    2017-11-01

    In order to promote biogas-slurry commercialization, A method was put forward to valuate biogas slurry based on its nutrient contents. Firstly, element contents of biogas slurry was measured; Secondly, each element was valuated based on its market price, and then traffic cost, using cost and market effect were taken into account, the pricing method of biogas slurry were obtained lastly. This method could be useful in practical production. Taking cattle manure raw meterial biogas slurry and con stalk raw material biogas slurry for example, their price were 38.50 yuan RMB per ton and 28.80 yuan RMB per ton. This paper will be useful for recognizing the value of biogas projects, ensuring biogas project running, and instructing the cyclic utilization of biomass resources in China.

  5. Influence of different practices on biogas sustainability

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Boulamanti, Aikaterini K.; Donida Maglio, Sara; Giuntoli, Jacopo; Agostini, Alessandro

    2013-01-01

    Biogas production and use are generally regarded as a sustainable practice that can guarantee high greenhouse gas (GHG) savings. However, the actual carbon footprint of biogas is strongly influenced by several factors. The aim of this study is to analyse the environmental performance of different biogas to electricity scenarios. Two criticalities are identified as important: the choice of feedstock and the operational practice concerning the digestate. Maize, manure and co-digestion of them are the different feedstocks chosen. Maize has higher yields, but its cultivation has to be accounted for, which consists of 28–42% of the GHG emissions of the whole process of producing electricity. Manure is considered a residue and as a result benefits from no production stage, but also from avoided emissions from the normal agricultural practice of storing it in the farm and spreading it as fertiliser, but has lower methane yields. Co-digestion combines the benefits and disadvantages of the two different feedstocks. Digestate storage in open or closed tanks and further use as fertiliser is analysed. The environmental impact analysis shows that a substantial reduction of GHG emissions can be achieved with closed digestate storage. The GHG emissions savings vary from about 3% in the maize pathways with open storage up to 330% in the manure pathway with closed storage. The biogas pathways, though, have worse environmental performances in all other environmental impacts considered but ozone depletion potential when compared to the European electricity average mix. -- Highlights: ► Biogas sustainability depends on the feedstock and the digestate management. ► Closed storage is strongly recommended. ► Taking into consideration credits is recommended. ► The biogas pathways GHG emissions can be lower than the ones of the reference system. ► Biogas pathways have higher impact in eutrophication, ecotoxicity and PM potentials

  6. Production of biogas from plant materials

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zuer, J.

    1980-12-01

    Different crop residues from agriculture and horticulture were investigated for feasibility of producing biogas. The anaerobic fermentation has been performed in batch system fermentation reactors (5 liters) at mesophilic conditions (35 degrees C). Content of volatile solids (VS/TS) in raw materials varied from 78.5 percent in silage from top of sugar beet to 97.3 percent in straw of rye. The highest content of lignin was found in stalks of Jerusalem artichoke (49.6 percent), stalks of horse bean (47.6 percent) and the lowest in leaves of cauliflower (9.5 percent), top of sugar beet and leaves of cabbage (11 percent) in both. Ratio of carbon to nitrogen was the highest in the straw of rye (60) and the lowest in silage from top of sugar beet (11) and in leaves of cauliflower (11). Rate of biogas production during the first 13 days of fermentation was about 27 liters per kg TS per day, achieved from top of sugar beet. Typical mean rate of biogas production, about 9 liters per kg TS per day, was performed during the first 40 days of retention time from straw of wheat and stalks of rape. Top of sugar beet and manure slurry have had the shortest effective retention time ca 20 days. Maximum total yield of biogas (427.0 liters per kg TS) was achieved from top of sugar beet. From manure slurry 257.5 liters biogas per kg TS was obtained. Methane content in biogas produced during the final 7 days of retention time was the highest from silage from top of artichoke (72.8 percent), stalks of horse bean (71.6 percent) and straw of wheat (71.0 percent). The lowest percentage of methane (59.0 percent) was found in biogas from top of sugar beet.

  7. Study of biogas storage; Biogas no chozo ni kansuru kenkyu

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fujii, I; Kimura, T; Umeda, H [Meiji University, Tokyo (Japan)

    1997-11-25

    Study was made on the storage method of a methane component in biogas mainly composed of CO2 and methane gases. Methane clathrate as molecular complex is one kind of clathrate compounds. Eight methane gas molecules are absorbed into 46 water molecules, or methane gas of 216 l is absorbed into water of 1 l, resulting in considerable compact methane storage. Although methane clathrate is usually stable only under a condition of low temperature and high pressure, its formation equilibrium shifts toward a low pressure/high temperature side by adding additives such as amine, ether and ketone. Acetone can shift formation pressure from 30 to 10atm at 1degC, and formation temperature from 1 to 10degC at 30atm. Although methane liquefaction is also an efficient storage method, it requires liquefaction temperature and pressure of -83degC and 45.6atm, respectively. The distance between methane molecules in clathrate lattice can be more shortened than that in high- pressure charged gas, suggesting higher storage efficiency. The study result showed that the handling of methane clathrate is possible around room temperature and pressure. 7 refs., 5 figs.

  8. Review: TASHI'S TURBINE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alexander R O'Neill

    2018-05-01

    Full Text Available Amitabh Raj Joshi (director, producer. 2015. Tashi's Turbine. New York City, NY: Vacant Light LLC. 56 mins. http://bit.ly/2tg9fTx, Nepali and Lowa, English subtitles. Color. (Institutional use 320USD; (personal use 34.95USD. In the windswept valleys of Upper Mustang, Nepal, renewable energy is transforming lives. Micro-turbine projects have connected off-grid communities with basic electricity, providing hope for sustainable growth on the Roof of the World. The documentary Tashi's Turbine follows two friends as they experiment with these technologies in Nyamdok Village, along the Sino-Nepali border. Recognizing that high-mountain valleys, including Mustang, Palpa, and Khumbu, are rich in wind resources, Tashi and his friend, Jeevan Kumar Oli, attempt to mitigate poverty using grassroots energy. Tashi Bista was inspired in his youth by tales of "wind machines" at Kagbeni Village in Upper Mustang. In 1987, the Danish Government had funded a twenty-kilowatt turbine in the area; but, it was rapidly decommissioned due to maintenance complications. In 1996, the Government of Nepal established the Alternative Energy Promotion Center (AEPC to revive this and other wind programs and address related challenges. Nevertheless, AEPC's latest Wind Energy Resource Assessment revealed two decades of inaction. Wind programs in other parts of the country remain nascent; much of Central and Western Nepal have yet to be connected to the national grid. Director and cinematographer Amitabh Raj Joshi cultivates a nuanced vision of these developments by juxtaposing majestic landscapes against simple homes and everyday struggles for existence. The film opens with panoramas of the sapphire skies and canvas valleys of Mustang. Minutes later, kerosene fixtures illuminate paltry yields from subsistence harvests; children attempt to study under candlelight, often to no avail. Voicing the narratives of villagers like Chhimi Lhamo, Karma Lutok, and Pemba Tashi, Joshi captures

  9. Economic viability of biogas technology in a Bangladesh village

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Biswas, W.K.; Lucas, N.J.D.

    1997-01-01

    We estimate energy consumption for domestic cooking and biogas energy resources for 21 clusters of households in a village. Data were analyzed on a cluster basis, with investments shared. Under the present conditions, biogas technology would not be economically viable. Economic analysis involving viability tools including additional benefits of biogas technology indicate that creating a market for local biogas would make such a project feasible. (Author)

  10. Study of the use of a micro hydro in knockdown container completed with a cylindrical form housing of francis hydraulic turbine to support the development program of energy self-sustainability for remote and isolated areas in Indonesia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kamal Samsul

    2017-01-01

    It shows that the implementation of the unit in a remote area has reduced the total site construction time by 1/3 compared to the predicted one with conventional unit. The performance of the Francis turbine with cylindrical form housing has shown comparable with the conventional one which has volute form housing. The superiority was even more pronounced by introducing a deflection insert in its input flow channel. The insertion was capable to create more distributed flow into the runner. Efficiency of the turbine up to 80% was performed in this research. Local manufacture for turbine usually use many craft work and welding to built a volute form housing for the Francis turbine. The cylindrical form housing here has also proven significantly in reducing the time and price for the turbine manufacturing process.

  11. Turbine stage model

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kazantsev, A.A.

    2009-01-01

    A model of turbine stage for calculations of NPP turbine department dynamics in real time was developed. The simulation results were compared with manufacturer calculations for NPP low-speed and fast turbines. The comparison results have shown that the model is valid for real time simulation of all modes of turbines operation. The model allows calculating turbine stage parameters with 1% accuracy. It was shown that the developed turbine stage model meets the accuracy requirements if the data of turbine blades setting angles for all turbine stages are available [ru

  12. Development turbine blade for ultramicro hydro power generation by 3D printer system

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kamimura, T.; Itoh, H.; Sugiura, K.

    2017-11-01

    We have developed micro generation system for effective use of unutilized energy and the spread of a self-controlled dispersion energy supply system. The turbine blade was designed for achieving high performance by special shape. The turbine type was called quasi-Peace turbine type. Turbine with a diameter of 30cm is made of metal, it was created by the 5-axis milling machine. The experimental apparatus was fabricated by the 3D printer. An experiment was carried out in the scale down model. The specific speed of this turbine was much lower than that of existing turbines.

  13. A decision support system for planning of flexible biogas chains

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Wijbrandi, W. E.; Lazovik, E.; Azzopardi, G.; Pierie, Frank

    Decentralized biogas produced through co-digestion of biomass can play an important role in our future renewable energy mix. However the optimal design, planning and use of a biogas production chain is a daunting process. When looking into a biogas production chain one must take into account, first,

  14. Alternative Fuels Data Center: Landfills Convert Biogas Into Renewable

    Science.gov (United States)

    Natural Gas Landfills Convert Biogas Into Renewable Natural Gas to someone by E-mail Share Alternative Fuels Data Center: Landfills Convert Biogas Into Renewable Natural Gas on Facebook Tweet about Alternative Fuels Data Center: Landfills Convert Biogas Into Renewable Natural Gas on Twitter Bookmark

  15. Sustainable supply of biogas in Germany; Nachhaltige Biogasbereitstellung in Deutschland

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Erler, Ronny [DBI - Gastechnologisches Institut gGmbH, Freiberg (Germany). Bereich Biogastechnologie; Ball, Thomas; Kiefer, Joachim [Technologiezentrum Wasser (Germany). Abt. Grundwasser und Boden; Dresen, Boris [Fraunhofer-Institut UMSICHT (Germany). Themenbereich Ressourcenmanagement; Koeppel, Wolfgang [DVGW-Forschungsstelle Karlsruhe (Germany). Gruppe Systeme und Netze

    2013-04-15

    The supply of certain substrates for biogas production is partly controversial discussed: 'Tank-or-plate' discussions, maize cultivation of the landscape and so forth. The research project 'Potential study for the sustainable production and supply of gaseous, renewable energy in Germany (Biogas Atlas)' examines the potentials of biogas production under consideration of various sustainability factors.

  16. Asynchronous Distributed Control of Biogas Supply and Multienergy Demand

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Alkano, Desti; Scherpen, Jacquelien M.A.; Chorfi, Younes

    2017-01-01

    In this paper, we study the coordination between biogas producers who can use the biogas themselves, exchange biogas with their neighbors, or deliver it to the various energy grids, such as the low pressure gas grid or the power grid. These producers are called prosumers. In this setting, gas

  17. Biogas Production Resources in Lithuania and Prospects of their Utilisation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Vrubliauskas, S.

    1995-01-01

    The biogas production resources in Lithuania and their structure have been ascertained. The total technical potential of biogas production has been calculated to make 639 million m 3 per year (4080 GWh). The biogas production feasibilities in the country have been estimated. (author). 3 refs., 3 tabs., 2 figs

  18. PROSES BRAZING Cu-Ag BERBAHAN BAKAR BIOGAS TERMURNIKAN

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ali Kusrijadi

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Pemanfaatan biogas sebagai salah satu alternatif bahan bakar  pada proses brazing merupakan langkah diversifikasi biogas, yang diharapkan dapat meningkatkan tingkat efisiensi dan keramahan teknologi. Permasalahan yang bersifat teknis dan menjadi kendala dalam pemanfaatan biogas ini adalah rendahnya konsentrasi CH4 dikarenakan adanya pengotor utama berupa air, karbondioksida dan asam disulfida. Penelitian dilakukan melalui dua tahap yaitu  tahap  pressureized storage process meliputi pemisahan komponen pengotor yang terdapat dalam biogas melalui teknik absorbsi sehingga dihasilkan biogas yang berkualitas gas alam terbarukan dan proses injeksi ke dalam suatu tangki penyimpanan, dan tahap selanjutnya adalah menggunakan biogas tersebut pada proses brazing logam Cu (tembaga dengan bahan tambah Ag (silver. Analisis hasil brazing dilakukan melalui analisis struktur mikro (metalografi untuk melihat kualitas tampak dari hasil brazing, serta analisis kekerasan mikro dan analisis parameter fisik standar terhadap hasil proses brazing. Penelitian ini telah menghasilkan perangkat alat pemurnian biogas yang dapat memurnikan biogas menjadi metana mendekati 100% dan sistem pengemasan (storage system  biogas bertekanan hingga 2 bar. Dari hasil analisis struktur mikro dan uji kekerasan mikro diketahui bahwa hasil proses brazing dengan biogas menghasilkan kualitas yang sama dengan hasil proses brazing dengan gas acetylene sehingga disimpulkan bahwa biogas dapat menjadi bahan bakar alternatif untuk proses brazing, khususnya untuk logam Cu dengan bahan tambah Ag.  Kata kunci : Biogas, Pressureized Storage, Brazing

  19. Biogas : fuel source for a renewable future

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Buijk, J. [GE Energy, Toronto, ON (Canada)

    2006-07-01

    The current status of Ge Energy's Jenbacher gas engines was presented in terms of its product line, electrical output, thermal output and exhaust gases. The unique feature of the engine is that it can operate on natural gas, biogas, landfill or other gaseous fuels. The most important applications for this high efficiency gas engine include on-site power generation, cogeneration, tri-generation, and carbon dioxide fertilization in greenhouses. A map illustrating Canada wide sales and service networks was presented along with a review of opportunities to use biogas for electric power generation. Biogas can be generated from organic matter such as municipal organic waste, manure, yard waste, wood waste, expired food, slaughterhouse waste and energy crops. A graph depicting biogas yields of different feedstocks was presented. It was noted that biogas conversion through anaerobic digestion generates more energy from organic matter than any other technology, while recycling the nutrients. A schematic of a typical biomass anaerobic digestion process was illustrated. In 2005, Germany was among the leaders in biogas production, with 775 biogas utilization plants in operation, producing 550 MW of power. This presentation listed other leaders and highlighted some project examples of biomass conversion plants in Austria, Germany, and Alberta. The opportunities for Ontario were emphasized. Ontario has 5.6 million hectares of agricultural land. Based on the German example, the integrated use for production of food, feed and energy crops could generate 3,700 cubic metres of methane per hectare per year, enough for nearly 9,000 MW of electrical capacity. Biogas power plants with gas storage can operate as peaking plants. It was noted that energy plans should be value driven rather than cost driven, with the objective of reducing overall energy consumption, improving energy efficiency and initiating replacement of fossil fuels by renewable energy sources such as wind, water

  20. Monitoring and controlling the biogas process

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ahring, B K; Angelidaki, I [The Technical Univ. of Denmark, Dept. of Environmental Science and Engineering, Lyngby (Denmark)

    1997-08-01

    Many modern large-scale biogas plants have been constructed recently, increasing the demand for proper monitoring and control of these large reactor systems. For monitoring the biogas process, an easy to measure and reliable indicator is required, which reflects the metabolic state and the activity of the bacterial populations in the reactor. In this paper, we discuss existing indicators as well as indicators under development which can potentially be used to monitor the state of the biogas process in a reactor. Furthermore, data are presented from two large scale thermophilic biogas plants, subjected to temperature changes and where the concentration of volatile fatty acids was monitored. The results clearly demonstrated that significant changes in the concentration of the individual VFA occurred although the biogas production was not significantly changed. Especially the concentrations of butyrate, isobutyrate and isovalerate showed significant changes. Future improvements of process control could therefore be based on monitoring of the concentration of specific VFA`s together with information about the bacterial populations in the reactor. The last information could be supplied by the use of modern molecular techniques. (au) 51 refs.

  1. Bio-Propane from glycerol for biogas addition

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Brandin, Jan; Hulteberg, Christian; Liljegren Nilsson, Andreas (Biofuel-Solution AB, Malmoe (Sweden))

    2008-11-15

    In this report, the technical and economical feasibility to produce higher alkanes from bioglycerol has been investigated. The main purpose of producing this kind of chemicals would be to replace the fossil LPG used in upgraded biogas production. When producing biogas and exporting it to the natural gas grid, the Wobbe index and heating value does not match the existing natural gas. Therefore, the upgraded biogas that is put into the natural gas grid in Sweden today contains 8-10 vol-% of LPG. The experimental work performed in association to this report has shown that it is possible to produce propane from glycerol. However, the production of ethane from glycerol may be even more advantageous. The experimental work has included developing and testing catalysts for several intermediate reactions. The work was performed using different micro-scale reactors with a liquid feed rate of 18 g/h. The first reaction, independent on if propane or ethane is to be produced, is dehydration of glycerol to acrolein. This was showed during 60 h on an acidic catalyst with a yield of 90%. The production of propanol, the second intermediate to producing propane, was shown as well. Propanol was produced both using acrolein as the starting material as well as glycerol (combining the first and second step) with yields of 70-80% in the first case and 65-70% in the second case. The propanol produced was investigated for its dehydration to propene, with a yield of 70-75%. By using a proprietary, purposely developed catalyst the propene was hydrogenated to propane, with a yield of 85% from propanol. The formation of propane from glycerol was finally investigated, with an overall yield of 55%. The second part of the experimental work performed investigated the possibilities of decarbonylating acrolein to form ethane. This was made possible by the development of a proprietary catalyst which combines decarbonylation and water-gas shift functionality. By combining these two functionalities, no

  2. Biogas in agriculture. Status and prospects. Proceedings; Biogas in der Landwirtschaft. Stand und Perspektiven. Tagungsband

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2011-07-01

    Within the congress of the Agency for Renewable Resources (Guelzow, Federal Republic of Germany) and the Association for Technology and Structures in Agriculture (Darmstadt, Federal Republic of Germany) at 20th-21st September, 2011 in Goettingen (Federal Republic of Germany) the following lectures and posters were presented: (1) Perspectives of using biogas as a part of the German power supply (Stefan Rauh); (2) Development of biogas in Europe (Marc Fleureck); (3) Biology of methanogenic archaea and its significance for the microbial process control in biogas plants (Helmut Koenig); (4) Efficiency and behaviour of enzymes in the biogas process (Monika Heiermann); (5) Trace elements in NaWaRo biogas plants for balancing substrate limited deficiency symptoms and stabilizing the fermentation process (Hans Oechsner); (6) EEG - Actual developments for biogas (Ulrich Keymer); (7) Utilization of thermal energy from cogeneration in the practice - Experiences from the view of an environmental expert (Michael Hub); (8) Innovations in the legal aspects of the production and utilization of biogas (Hartwig von Bredow); (9) Damages and deficiencies at biogas plants (Waldemar Gruber); (10) Learning from accidents, damages and their causes as well as their correctives in the operation of biogas plants - Reports from the practice (Wolfgang Horst Stachowitz); (11) Causes and avoidance of container damages by means of biocorrosion (Jan Kuever); (12) Anaerobic degradation of cellulosic substrates - Bionic implementation of the forestomach sysem of a ruminant (Dirk Weichgrebe); (13) Fermentation of renewable raw materials in the up flow procedure (Jan Mumme); (14) Two-phase pressure fermentation for feeding into natural gas grids (Andreas Lemmer); (15) Requirements and potential of sugar beets for fermentation (Christa Hoffmann); (16) Innovation in the area of power beets (Andreas von Felde); (17) Optimization of manuring with fermentation residues in order to reduce the nitrogen

  3. Analysis of operational methane emissions from pressure relief valves from biogas storages of biogas plants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reinelt, Torsten; Liebetrau, Jan; Nelles, Michael

    2016-10-01

    The study presents the development of a method for the long term monitoring of methane emissions from pressure relief valves (PRV(1)) of biogas storages, which has been verified during test series at two PRVs of two agricultural biogas plants located in Germany. The determined methane emission factors are 0.12gCH4kWhel(-1) (0.06% CH4-loss, within 106days, 161 triggering events, winter season) from biogas plant A and 6.80/7.44gCH4kWhel(-1) (3.60/3.88% CH4-loss, within 66days, 452 triggering events, summer season) from biogas plant B. Besides the operational state of the biogas plant (e.g. malfunction of the combined heat and power unit), the mode of operation of the biogas flare, which can be manually or automatically operated as well as the atmospheric conditions (e.g. drop of the atmospheric pressure) can also affect the biogas emission from PRVs. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  4. Investigation of factors influencing biogas production in a large-scale thermophilic municipal biogas plant

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Weiss, Agnes; Jerome, Valerie; Freitag, Ruth [Bayreuth Univ. (Germany). Chair for Process Biotechnology; Burghardt, Diana; Likke, Likke; Peiffer, Stefan [Bayreuth Univ. (Germany). Dept. of Hydrology; Hofstetter, Eugen M. [RVT Process Equipment GmbH, Steinwiesen (Germany); Gabler, Ralf [BKW Biokraftwerke Fuerstenwalde GmbH, Fuerstenwalde (Germany)

    2009-10-15

    A continuously operated, thermophilic, municipal biogas plant was observed over 26 months (sampling twice per month) in regard to a number of physicochemical parameters and the biogas production. Biogas yields were put in correlation to parameters such as the volatile fatty acid concentration, the pH and the ammonium concentration. When the residing microbiota was classified via analysis of the 16S rRNA genes, most bacterial sequences matched with unidentified or uncultured bacteria from similar habitats. Of the archaeal sequences, 78.4% were identified as belonging to the genus Methanoculleus, which has not previously been reported for biogas plants, but is known to efficiently use H{sub 2} and CO{sub 2} produced by the degradation of fatty acids by syntrophic microorganisms. In order to further investigate the influence of varied amounts of ammonia (2-8 g/L) and volatile fatty acids on biogas production and composition (methane/CO{sub 2}), laboratory scale satellite experiments were performed in parallel to the technical plant. Finally, ammonia stripping of the process water of the technical plant was accomplished, a measure through which the ammonia entering the biogas reactor via the mash could be nearly halved, which increased the energy output of the biogas plant by almost 20%. (orig.)

  5. Hydraulic turbines uses for rural electric generation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Genta, J.; Nunes, V.

    1994-01-01

    The micro turbines use for electric generation either in autonomous systems or in connection to the national net is presented like an alternative whose viability has been studied in the Agreement taken place between the UTE Administracion Nacional de Usinas y transmisiones Electricas y la Facultad de Ingenieria. The Agreement S tudy for the Installation of Micro turbines that initially considered areas far from the national electric net it extended then to near areas to the same one to analyze the cogeneration alternative. They were considered smaller and bigger powers than 1 MW and up to 5MW. For the whole study range a methodology is described of calculate primary, starting from a minimum of field information that allows a first estimate of viability of a certain place and the selection of the turbine type, for a later detailed study

  6. Hygiene Aspects of the Biogas Process with Emphasis on Spore-Forming Bacteria

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bagge, Elisabeth

    2009-07-01

    Biogas is a renewable source of energy which can be obtained from processing of biowaste. The digested residues can be used as fertiliser. Biowaste intended for biogas production contains pathogenic micro-organisms. A pre-pasteurisation step at 70 deg C for 60 min before anaerobic digestion reduces non spore-forming bacteria such as Salmonella spp. To maintain the standard of the digested residues it must be handled in a strictly hygienic manner to avoid recontamination and re-growth of bacteria. The risk of contamination is particularly high when digested residues are transported in the same vehicles as the raw material. However, heat treatment at 70 deg C for 60 min will not reduce spore-forming bacteria such as Bacillus spp. and Clostridium spp. Spore-forming bacteria, including those that cause serious diseases, can be present in substrate intended for biogas production. The number of species and the quantity of Bacillus spp. and Clostridium spp. in manure, slaughterhouse waste and in samples from different stages during the biogas process were investigated. The number of species of clostridia seemed to decrease following digestion, likewise the quantity. However, Bacillus spp. seemed to pass unaffected through the biogas process. In laboratory-scale experiments the effects on clostridia during pasteurisation and digestion were investigated. Pathogenic clostridia were inoculated in substrates from homogenisation tanks and digester tanks. The inoculated clostridia remained after pasteurisation, but the impacts of digestion differ between different species. Culture followed by identification of C. chauvoei by PCR in samples from cattle died from blackleg, is faster and safer than culture followed by biochemical identification of C. chauvoei. However, for environmental samples the PCR method is not practically applicable for detection of C. chauvoei. To avoid spreading of diseases via biogas plants when digested residues are spread on arable land, a pasteurisation

  7. Biogas as a renewable energy fuel – A review of biogas upgrading, utilisation and storage

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ullah Khan, Imran; Hafiz Dzarfan Othman, Mohd; Hashim, Haslenda; Matsuura, Takeshi; Ismail, A.F.; Rezaei-DashtArzhandi, M.; Wan Azelee, I.

    2017-01-01

    Highlights: • It is attempted to provide critical considerations on various biogas upgrading techniques. • Membrane is an environmentally and economically sound technique for purification. • Purified biogas in compressed form is a substitute of compressed natural gas for vehicles. • Charged mass and compressor input work are the most important factors for storage. - Abstract: Biogas upgrading is a widely studied and discussed topic and its utilisation as a natural gas substitute has gained a significant attention in recent years. The production of biomethane provides a versatile application in both heat and power generation and as a vehicular fuel. This paper systematically reviews the state of the art of biogas upgrading technologies with upgrading efficiency, methane (CH 4 ) loss, environmental effect, development and commercialisation, and challenges in terms of energy consumption and economic assessment. The market situation for biogas upgrading has changed rapidly in recent years, making the membrane separation gets significant market share with traditional biogas upgrading technologies. In addition, the potential utilisation of biogas, efficient conversion into bio-compressed natural gas (bio-CNG), and storage systems are investigated in depth. Two storing systems for bio-CNG at filling stations, namely buffer and cascade storage systems are used. The best storage system should be selected on the basis of the advantages of both systems. Also, the fuel economy and mass emissions for bio-CNG and CNG filled vehicles are studied. There is the same fuel economy and less carbon dioxide (CO 2 ) emission for bio-CNG. Based on the results of comparisons between the technical features of upgrading technologies, various specific requirements for biogas utilisation and the relevant investment, and operating and maintenance costs, future recommendations are made for biogas upgrading.

  8. Production and use of biogas year 2009; Produktion och anvaendning av biogas aar 2009

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    2010-11-15

    In the present study, a total of 230 biogas-producing sites were identified. These produced a total of 1363 GWh of energy. The 230 biogas-producing plants were distributed in 136 sewage treatment plants, 57 landfills, 21 co-digestion plants, four industries and 12 farm sites. The number of upgrading plants amounted to 38 and at seven locations injection of upgraded biogas into the natural gas network took place. 44% of the biogas generated in sewage treatment plants, 25% were produced in landfills, 22% of co-digestion plants, 8% in industrial plants and 1% on farm installations. The total biogas production in 2009 was slightely higher than last year, but the division between the different plant types has changed. Production increased for co-digestion plants and farm installations, while production was relatively unchanged for sewage treatment plants. Production in landfills and industrial sites decreased compared with 2008. A larger proportion of the biogas came to use in 2009 compared with previous years. 667 GWh (49%) was used for heating, which also includes heat loss, 488 GWh (36%) were upgraded, 64 GWh (5%) of electricity was generated and 135 GWh (10%) was torched. The main substrates for biogas production were different types of waste such as sewage sludge, source separated food waste and waste from food industry. In addition to biogas, co-digestion plants and the farm plants together produced 537 403 tonnes (wet weight) biofertilizer, and the waste water treatment plants 214 000 tonnes (dry weight) sludge. The provincial breakdown shows that biogas production was greatest in metropolitan areas

  9. Biogas. Present situation and future potential; Biogas. Nulaege och framtida potential

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nordberg, Ulf [Swedish Inst. of Agricultural and Environmental Engineering, Uppsala (Sweden)

    2006-12-15

    The report contains a general overview of present technology concerning production of biogas through anaerobic breakdown of easily recycled organic material as well as implementation areas for biogas. The work has been done in three parts: description of present situation, technical limitations and development efforts, synthesis. In Sweden there are more than 220 biogas plants for handling crops, sludge and organic residue material. Production of biogas occurs primarily at sewage treatment plants and landfills. Total capacity in 2004 was approx. 300,000 m{sup 3} anaerobic chamber volume, of which approx. 73% was utilised. Planned increase in capacity was approx. 125,000 m{sup 3} or approx. 42%.The substrate brought to the plants was comprised of approx. 45% manure, 30% offal, 10% biowaste from households and 15% other substrates. Calculations based on the energy content of input substrate indicate that approx. 10% of the gas was from manure, 65% from offal, 25% from household waste and 5% from other substrates. In 2005 a total of 1,5 TWh of biogas was produced in Sweden. Biogas is used primarily for heating purposes followed by use as vehicle fuel and in electricity production. More than 55 GWh is torched away. Sewage treatment plants are not included. Interest in using biogas as fuel has increased. The theoretical biogas potential in Sweden has been calculated to be 14-17 TWh per year, of which approx. 80% is found in agriculturally related biomass. Approximately 3 TWh originates from various types of household and industrial waste. Generally it can be said that there is a large potential for improvement and increased efficiency within the whole chain of substrate collection, preparatory treatment of substrates, operational control of biogas plants, upgrade/treatment and use of gas as well as spreading and use of biofertilizer. The greatest increase in substrate will come from the amount of crops from the agricultural sector. The contacts between farmers and plant

  10. Biogas Digester with Simple Solar Heater

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kh S Karimov

    2012-10-01

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT: In this research work, the design, fabrication and investigation of a biogas digester with simple solar heater are presented. For the solar heater, a built-in reverse absorber type heater was used. The maximum temperature (50°C inside the methane tank was taken as a main parameter for the design of the digester. Then, the energy balance equation for the case of a static mass of fluid being heated was used to model the process. The parameters of thermal insulation of the methane tank were also included in the calculations. The biogas digester consisted of a methane tank with built-in solar reverse absorber heater to harness the radiant solar energy for heating the slurry comprising of different organic wastes (dung, sewage, food wastes etc.. The methane tank was initially filled to 70% of its volume with organic wastes from the GIK institute’s sewage. The remaining volume was filled with sewage and cow dung from other sources. During a three month period (October-December, 2009 and another two month period (February-March, 2010, the digester was investigated. The effects of solar radiation on the absorber, the slurry’s temperature, and the ambient temperature were all measured during these investigations. It was found that using sewage only and sewage with cow dung in the slurry resulted in retention times of four and two weeks, respectively. The corresponding biogas produced was 0.4 m3 and 8.0 m3, respectively. Finally, this paper also elaborates on the upgradation of biogas through the removal of carbon dioxide, hydrogen sulphide and water vapour, and also the process of conversion of biogas energy into electric powerABSTRAK: Kajian ini membentangkan rekabentuk, fabrikasi dan penyelidikan tentang pencerna biogas dengan pemanas solar ringkas. Sebagai pemanas solar, ia dilengkapkan dengan penyerap pemanas beralik. Suhu maksimum(50oC di dalam tangki metana telah diambil sebagai parameter utama rekabentuk pencerna. Dengan menggunakan

  11. Sustainable Biomass Resources for Biogas Production

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Meyer, Ane Katharina Paarup

    The aim of this thesis was to identify and map sustainable biomass resources, which can be utilised for biogas production with minimal negative impacts on the environment, nature and climate. Furthermore, the aim of this thesis was to assess the resource potential and feasibility of utilising...... such biomasses in the biogas sector. Sustainability in the use of biomass feedstock for energy production is of key importance for a stable future food and energy supply, and for the functionality of the Earths ecosystems. A range of biomass resources were assessed in respect to sustainability, availability...... from 39.3-66.9 Mtoe, depending on the availability of the residues. Grass from roadside verges and meadow habitats in Denmark represent two currently unutilised sources. If utilised in the Danish biogas sector, the results showed that the resources represent a net energy potential of 60,000 -122,000 GJ...

  12. CONSIDERATIONS OVER A BIOGAS PLANT COMPONENTS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mariana DUMITRU

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available This paper starts from the conviction that one of the main environmental problems of today’s society is the continuously increasing production of organic wastes. In many countries, sustainable waste management have become major political priorities in order to reduce pollution and greenhouse gas emissions and to avoid, as much as possible, global climate changes. This problem becomes more and more present in our country too. Production of biogas through anaerobic digestion of animal manure and slurries as well as of a wide range of digestible organic wastes, converts these substrates into renewable energy and offers a natural fertiliser for agriculture. That is why we consider that biogas plants will be more and more used in the future. In this paper we show the different stages which must be operated in a biogas plant and the problems which can be met in each of them.

  13. Domestic biogas development in developing countries

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rakotojaona, Loic

    2013-07-01

    Communities that rely mostly on agriculture and livestock farming in developing countries can face strong pressure related to: - Energy access: for instance, in Africa, it is estimated that 68% of the population live without clean cooking facilities [1]. Energy access plays a key role in poverty alleviation. - Resources depletion: if a household uses firewood for cooking purposes, forests depletion in some areas makes firewood collection tougher. - Climate change mitigation: agriculture (i.e. the production of crop and livestock products) accounts for 13.5%2 of the global GHG emissions, and extensive systems are sometimes blamed for being less efficient than intensive ones when it comes to climate change mitigation (given that the later involve lower direct emissions per kg of product). In this context, access to clean and sustainable energy through domestic biogas production can help rural communities alleviate current pressures on the environment. In an urban context, domestic biogas in developing countries is also considered as a means for improving hygiene conditions (especially when it comes to public washrooms issues). This report only focuses on domestic biogas development within the frame of small scale agriculture and livestock production (i.e. in rural areas). The main objective of this document is to provide domestic biogas project developers with relevant information on the key issues to have in mind regarding national integration of such projects. This document gives a general presentation of domestic biogas and its main environmental, social and economic benefits. It also browses the main aspects one should have in mind (checklist) in order to assess local risks and opportunities for domestic biogas development

  14. Ultrasound assisted biogas production from landfill leachate

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Oz, Nilgün Ayman; Yarimtepe, Canan Can

    2014-01-01

    Highlights: • Effect of low frequency ultrasound pretreatment on leachate was investigated. • Three different ultrasound energy inputs (200, 400 and 600 W/l) was applied. • Low-frequency ultrasound treatment increased soluble COD in landfill leachate. • Application of ultrasound to leachate increased biogas production about 40%. • Application of ultrasound to leachate increased total methane production rate about 20%. - Abstract: The aim of this study is to increase biogas production and methane yield from landfill leachate in anaerobic batch reactors by using low frequency ultrasound as a pretreatment step. In the first part of the study, optimum conditions for solubilization of organic matter in leachate samples were investigated using various sonication durations at an ultrasound frequency of 20 kHz. The level of organic matter solubilization during ultrasonic pretreatment experiments was determined by calculating the ratio of soluble chemical oxygen demand (sCOD) to total chemical oxygen demand (tCOD). The sCOD/tCOD ratio was increased from 47% in raw leachate to 63% after 45 min sonication at 600 W/l. Non-parametric Friedman’s test indicated that ultrasonic pretreatment has a significant effect on sCOD parameter for leachate (p < 0.05). In the second part of the study, anaerobic batch reactors were operated for both ultrasonically pretreated and untreated landfill leachate samples in order to assess the effect of sonication on biogas and methane production rate. In anaerobic batch reactor feed with ultrasonically pretreated leachate, 40% more biogas was obtained compared to the control reactor. For statistical analysis, Mann–Whitney U test was performed to compare biogas and methane production rates for raw and pretreated leachate samples and it has been found that ultrasonic pretreatment significantly enhanced biogas and methane production rates from leachate (p < 0.05) in anaerobic batch reactors. The overall results showed that low frequency

  15. Ultrasound assisted biogas production from landfill leachate

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Oz, Nilgün Ayman, E-mail: nilgunayman@comu.edu.tr; Yarimtepe, Canan Can

    2014-07-15

    Highlights: • Effect of low frequency ultrasound pretreatment on leachate was investigated. • Three different ultrasound energy inputs (200, 400 and 600 W/l) was applied. • Low-frequency ultrasound treatment increased soluble COD in landfill leachate. • Application of ultrasound to leachate increased biogas production about 40%. • Application of ultrasound to leachate increased total methane production rate about 20%. - Abstract: The aim of this study is to increase biogas production and methane yield from landfill leachate in anaerobic batch reactors by using low frequency ultrasound as a pretreatment step. In the first part of the study, optimum conditions for solubilization of organic matter in leachate samples were investigated using various sonication durations at an ultrasound frequency of 20 kHz. The level of organic matter solubilization during ultrasonic pretreatment experiments was determined by calculating the ratio of soluble chemical oxygen demand (sCOD) to total chemical oxygen demand (tCOD). The sCOD/tCOD ratio was increased from 47% in raw leachate to 63% after 45 min sonication at 600 W/l. Non-parametric Friedman’s test indicated that ultrasonic pretreatment has a significant effect on sCOD parameter for leachate (p < 0.05). In the second part of the study, anaerobic batch reactors were operated for both ultrasonically pretreated and untreated landfill leachate samples in order to assess the effect of sonication on biogas and methane production rate. In anaerobic batch reactor feed with ultrasonically pretreated leachate, 40% more biogas was obtained compared to the control reactor. For statistical analysis, Mann–Whitney U test was performed to compare biogas and methane production rates for raw and pretreated leachate samples and it has been found that ultrasonic pretreatment significantly enhanced biogas and methane production rates from leachate (p < 0.05) in anaerobic batch reactors. The overall results showed that low frequency

  16. Renewable Hydrogen Potential from Biogas in the United States

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Saur, G.; Milbrandt, A.

    2014-07-01

    This analysis updates and expands upon previous biogas studies to include total potential and net availability of methane in raw biogas with respect to competing demands and includes a resource assessment of four sources of biogas: (1) wastewater treatment plants, including domestic and a new assessment of industrial sources; (2) landfills; (3) animal manure; and (4) a new assessment of industrial, institutional, and commercial sources. The results of the biogas resource assessment are used to estimate the potential production of renewable hydrogen from biogas as well as the fuel cell electric vehicles that the produced hydrogen might support.

  17. Pemanfaatan Biogas Sebagai Bahan Bakar Generator Set Motor Bensin

    OpenAIRE

    Kusairi S., Ach; Yangsen, Kelvin

    2015-01-01

    Biogas is a compound formed from the decomposition of organic substances in anaerobic condition, the main constituent of biogas is methane and carbon dioxide, biogas can be used as fuel or otto cycle engine with diesel. In this study, the use of biogas from the landfill Cahaya Kencana then to gasoline motor generator sets using this type with a capacity 1kVA four steps that have been previously modified in order to be able to use biogas, but no purification process before being used as fuel. ...

  18. Biogas upgrading and utilization: Current status and perspectives

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Angelidaki, Irini; Treu, Laura; Tsapekos, Panagiotis

    2018-01-01

    Biogas production is an established sustainable process for simultaneous generation of renewable energy and treatment of organic wastes. The increasing interest of utilizing biogas as substitute to natural gas or its exploitation as transport fuel opened new avenues in the development of biogas...... upgrading techniques. The present work is a critical review that summarizes state-of-the-art technologies for biogas upgrading and enhancement with particular attention to the emerging biological methanation processes. The review includes comprehensive description of the main principles of various biogas...

  19. Macro algae as substrate for biogas production

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Møller, Henrik; Sarker, Shiplu; Gautam, Dhan Prasad

    Algae as a substrate for biogas is superior to other crops since it has a much higher yield of biomass per unit area and since algae grows in the seawater there will be no competition with food production on agricultural lands. So far, the progress in treating different groups of algae as a source...... of energy is promising. In this study 5 different algae types were tested for biogas potential and two algae were subsequent used for co-digestion with manure. Green seaweed, Ulva lactuca and brown seaweed Laminaria digitata was co-digested with cattle manure at mesophilic and thermophilic condition...

  20. Agricultural biogas systems. Quality and security

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Serafimova, K.

    2007-01-01

    This article takes a look at agricultural biogas installations and how improved basic conditions and incentives offered by industry and commerce are showing initial effects. The author is of the opinion that more dynamics in the market are necessary in order to allow contributions to be made to the protection of the climate whilst creating value locally at the same time. The article reviews the current market situation and examines questions which are to be answered in the quality assurance area for agricultural biogas systems in Switzerland. Co-fermentation is proposed as a standard technology. Market development, plant locations and plant management aspects are discussed.

  1. 10. Biogas conference Dresden. Anaerobic treatment of biological wastes. Proceedings

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dornack, Christina; Liebetrau, Jan; Fassauer, Burkhardt; Nelles, Michael

    2015-01-01

    The biogas conference in Dresden will be held for the tenth time and is still the only conference in Germany, which focuses on the production of biogas solely from waste. This year, the implementation of paragraph 11 of the Recycling and Waste Management Act and the amendment of the Renewable Energies Act (EEG) in 2014, the chances of the waste management biogas technology will be spotlighted here. The efficiency and wise use of the end products of the biogas production - the biogas and fermentation residues are equally critical for the success of biogas technology as the emission reduction of biogas plants. In this context, the biogas technology will also be dependent in the future on legal requirements and funding instruments such as the EEG. For the technical implementation, the development of reliable system concepts with specific sinking biogas and electricity supply costs and with greater flexibility in terms of launching needs-based biogas and electricity production. The contributions in this paper discuss possible solutions and implementations from the perspective of politics, associations, research and practice. Innovative topics will be discussed, which will be decisive for the future of biogas production from organic wastes. [de

  2. Investigation of thermal integration between biogas production and upgrading

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhang, Xiaojing; Yan, Jinying; Li, Hailong; Chekani, Shabnam; Liu, Loncheng

    2015-01-01

    Highlights: • Identify thermal characteristics of amine-based biogas upgrading for waste heat recovery. • Identify thermal characteristics of AD biogas production as sink for heat recovery. • Evaluation of thermal integration between biogas production and upgrading to improve overall energy efficiency. • Cost analysis applied for the economic feasibility of the thermal integration. • Using the principles of target design and system integration for connected thermal processes. - Abstract: Thermal integration of anaerobic digestion (AD) biogas production with amine-based chemical absorption biogas upgrading has been studied to improve the overall efficiency of the intergraded system. The thermal characteristics have been investigated for industrial AD raw biogas production and amine-based chemical absorption biogas upgrading. The investigation provides a basic understanding for the possibilities of energy saving through thermal integration. The thermal integration is carried out through well-defined cases based on the thermal characteristics of the biogas production and the biogas upgrading. The following factors are taken into account in the case study: thermal conditions of sub-systems, material and energy balances, cost issues and main benefits. The potential of heat recovery has been evaluated to utilise the waste heat from amine-based upgrading process for the use in the AD biogas production. The results show that the thermal integration has positive effects on improving the overall energy efficiency of the integrated biogas plant. Cost analysis shows that the thermal integration is economically feasible

  3. Critical evaluation of substitution of natural gas by biogas

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Behrendt, F.

    2009-01-01

    Biogas use in Germany's distribution grid is regulated by the federal integrated energy and climate program. The key measures that influence the biogas feed-in include core regulation; changes to the act grating feed-in preference for electricity generated from renewable energies; regulation for heat supply from renewable energies; and regulations regarding biofuels. A critical evaluation of substitution of natural gas by biogas was presented. Specific topics that were discussed included aims and measures; potential; usage pathways for biogas; efficiency criteria of usage pathways; and location analysis. The presentation also discussed the parameters of raw biogas and regular distribution grid; a process chain for biogas upgrading; and criteria for process evaluation. It was concluded that costs and environmental relevance of biogas-processing can be compared over the complete life cycle for various pathways and configurations. This represented an excellent and very flexible planning tool. Subsidies and related measures could be focussed on the most efficient pathways. tabs., figs.

  4. Perspectives on Spatial Decision Support Concerning Location of Biogas Production

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bojesen, Mikkel

    in biogas production. This ambition requires that more than 20 new large scale centralised biogas plants are built. The location of these plants is associated with a number of externalities and uncertainties and the existing biogas sector struggles to establish itself as a viable energy producing sector....... Meanwhile planners and decision makers struggle to find sustainable locations that comprehensively balance the multiple concerns the location of biogas facilities includes. This PhD project examines how spatial decision support models can be used to ensure sustainable locations of future biogas plants......, understand the industrial economic aspects of such a role. Through the use of spatial multi-criteria evaluation models stakeholder preferences to decision criteria are included in a sustainable biogas facility location analysis. By the use of these models it is demonstrated how overall biogas production...

  5. Turbine main engines

    CERN Document Server

    Main, John B; Herbert, C W; Bennett, A J S

    1965-01-01

    Turbine Main Engines deals with the principle of operation of turbine main engines. Topics covered include practical considerations that affect turbine design and efficiency; steam turbine rotors, blades, nozzles, and diaphragms; lubricating oil systems; and gas turbines for use with nuclear reactors. Gas turbines for naval boost propulsion, merchant ship propulsion, and naval main propulsion are also considered. This book is divided into three parts and begins with an overview of the basic mode of operation of the steam turbine engine and how it converts the pressure energy of the ingoing ste

  6. Turbine system and adapter

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hogberg, Nicholas Alvin; Garcia-Crespo, Andres Jose

    2017-05-30

    A turbine system and adapter are disclosed. The adapter includes a turbine attachment portion having a first geometry arranged to receive a corresponding geometry of a wheelpost of a turbine rotor, and a bucket attachment portion having a second geometry arranged to receive a corresponding geometry of a root portion of a non-metallic turbine bucket. Another adapter includes a turbine attachment portion arranged to receive a plurality of wheelposts of a turbine rotor, and a bucket attachment portion arranged to receive a plurality of non-metallic turbine buckets having single dovetail configuration root portions. The turbine system includes a turbine rotor wheel configured to receive metal buckets, at least one adapter secured to at least one wheelpost on the turbine rotor wheel, and at least one non-metallic bucket secured to the at least one adapter.

  7. Biogas in Burkina Faso. Influential factors of biogas projects in rural areas of Burkina Faso

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Aschaber, Andreas

    2010-07-01

    Full text: Burkina Faso is among the poorest countries in the world. The energy situation in Burkina Faso is among the most critical issues which need to be addressed in the country. The electrical power grid is insufficient and only available in urban centers. Consequently wood and charcoal is used in order to meet the basic needs for heating, cooking, and lightning by the majority of the population. The resulting overuse of natural energy resources in Burkina Faso has been causing massive deforestation and desertification on the one hand and on the other hand scarcity in fuel wood availability. According to a recent feasibility study of the GTZ, biogas is thought to be one of the most sustainable solutions for developing energy self sufficiency in rural areas of Burkina Faso. Biogas is not a new concept in Burkina Faso, as the first biogas plants were already installed in the 70's. Recently a national biogas program and the activity of various NGOs lead to a rejuvenation of attempts to establish biogas in Burkina Faso. Although biogas has a long history in Burkina Faso, no significant breakthrough of this technology has happened so far. None of the biogas plants built during the last 40 years have been operational for a long time. This contribution presents a study aimed to analyze the partial success and failures of the attempts to install biogas plants so far. The study was conducted in May 2009 as part of a project for a model application of the technology in the frame of University cooperation between Austria (University of Innsbruck) and Burkina Faso (Universite Polytechnique du Bobo Dioulasso). During the field study four sites of existing biogas plants were visited, five interviews with experts conducted and two focus groups with potential users in a rural setting were conducted. The systemic approach, including technical as well as socioeconomic aspects, yielded a wealth of factors which can potentially influence the success of biogas projects in

  8. Biogas. Plants, raw materials, products. 7. rev. ed.; Biogas. Pflanzen, Rohstoffe, Produkte

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2011-08-15

    In order to save fossil fuels and to stopp the climate change, a gradual shift to renewable energies is necessary. The federal government has aimed to a modern, environmental friendly, sustainable and secure energy supply by means of the expansion of renewable energies. Bioenergy plays a central role in the future. Biogas for renewable energies will play a special role. Biogas can be used for simultaneous production of electricity and heat, as a fuel and as a substitute for natural gas.

  9. HIGH EFFICIENCY TURBINE

    OpenAIRE

    VARMA, VIJAYA KRUSHNA

    2012-01-01

    Varma designed ultra modern and high efficiency turbines which can use gas, steam or fuels as feed to produce electricity or mechanical work for wide range of usages and applications in industries or at work sites. Varma turbine engines can be used in all types of vehicles. These turbines can also be used in aircraft, ships, battle tanks, dredgers, mining equipment, earth moving machines etc, Salient features of Varma Turbines. 1. Varma turbines are simple in design, easy to manufac...

  10. Turbine maintenance and modernization

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Unga, E. [Teollisuuden Voima Oy, Olkiluoto (Finland)

    1998-12-31

    The disturbance-free operation of the turbine plant plays an important role in reaching good production results. In the turbine maintenance of the Olkiluoto nuclear power plant the lifetime and efficiency of turbine components and the lifetime costs are taken into account in determining the turbine maintenance and modernization/improvement program. The turbine maintenance program and improvement/modernization measures taken in the plant units are described in this presentation. (orig.)

  11. Turbine maintenance and modernization

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Unga, E [Teollisuuden Voima Oy, Olkiluoto (Finland)

    1999-12-31

    The disturbance-free operation of the turbine plant plays an important role in reaching good production results. In the turbine maintenance of the Olkiluoto nuclear power plant the lifetime and efficiency of turbine components and the lifetime costs are taken into account in determining the turbine maintenance and modernization/improvement program. The turbine maintenance program and improvement/modernization measures taken in the plant units are described in this presentation. (orig.)

  12. Biogas - a new energy source saves fossil resources; Biogas - mit neuer Energie Ressourcen schonen

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Thoss, C. (comp.)

    2001-07-01

    The new German Renewable Energy Sources Act (EEG) of 2000 made conditions for biogas more favourable - small wonder, as the German Biogas Association (Fachverband Biogas e.V.) co-operated with written expert opinions and many discussions with decision-makers. The subjects discussed at the 10th Biogas Conference reflect the current situation and will provide a basis for committee work in 2001. [German] Im Jahr 2000 haben sich die gesetzlichen Rahmenbedingungen fuer den Biogasbereich mit dem Inkrafttreten des erneuerbaren Energiegesetz (EEG) sehr positiv entwickelt. Der Fachverband Biogas e.V. hat mit schriftlichen Stellungnahmen und in vielen Gespraechen mit Entscheidungstraegern diese Bedingungen mitgestaltet. In Zukunft gibt es noch viele Aufgaben fuer eine effektive Interessenvertretung der Biogasbranche auf Laender- und Bundesebene. Die Themen, die auf der 10. Biogastagung diskutiert werden, spiegeln die Fragen wieder, die unter Experten derzeit intensiv diskutiert werden. Die Ergebnisse des Erfahrungsaustausches auf dieser Tagung werden die Grundlage fuer die Arbeit der Gremien im Fachverband Biogas im Jahr 2001 sein. Mit dem vorliegenden Tagungsband ist es gelungen, die Basis fuer die fachlichen Gespraeche waehrend und nach der Tagung schaffen. (orig.)

  13. Microfabricated rankine cycle steam turbine for power generation and methods of making the same

    Science.gov (United States)

    Frechette, Luc (Inventor); Muller, Norbert (Inventor); Lee, Changgu (Inventor)

    2009-01-01

    In accordance with the present invention, an integrated micro steam turbine power plant on-a-chip has been provided. The integrated micro steam turbine power plant on-a-chip of the present invention comprises a miniature electric power generation system fabricated using silicon microfabrication technology and lithographic patterning. The present invention converts heat to electricity by implementing a thermodynamic power cycle on a chip. The steam turbine power plant on-a-chip generally comprises a turbine, a pump, an electric generator, an evaporator, and a condenser. The turbine is formed by a rotatable, disk-shaped rotor having a plurality of rotor blades disposed thereon and a plurality of stator blades. The plurality of stator blades are interdigitated with the plurality of rotor blades to form the turbine. The generator is driven by the turbine and converts mechanical energy into electrical energy.

  14. Project PAT (Pumps Working as Turbines)/IG (Induction Generators): a new concept for generation of electric power through micro scale hydroelectric power plants; Projeto BFT (Bombas Funcionado como Turbinas)/GI (Geradores de Inducao): um novo conceito para geracao de energia eletrica atraves de microcentrais hidreletricas

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Viana, Augusto Nelson Carvalho [Universidade Federal de Itajuba (UNIFEI), Itajuba, MG (Brazil). Inst. de Recursos Naturais. Programa de Pos-graduacao em Engenharia da Energia; Medeiros, Daniel de Macedo; Ricardo, Mateus [Universidade Federal de Itajuba (UNIFEI), Itajuba, MG (Brazil). Inst. de Recursos Naturais], Emails: augusto@unifei.edu.br, macedo@unifei.edu.br, mathidr@yahoo.com.br

    2006-07-01

    The present work has as objective to present the main bases of 'PAT/IG Project', accomplished in Boa Esperanca Farm (Delfim Moreira - MG), by an accord between Itajuba's Federal University and Mines and Energy Ministry. In a moment that the look for sustainable development is the law in Brazil, low costs and environmental impact alternatives must be prioritized. By this way, the PAT/IG Project continuous the Viana's (1987) works, that developed all Brazilian theoretical bases for using Pumps Working as Turbine (PAT). Besides that, the application of induction motors operating as induction generators will be evaluated, as the velocity control system of the PAT/IG group will be developed. The existing Boa Esperanca Farm's micro power plant will be rebuild ed, to receive a new generating group formed for a PAT and a IG, that will be used as natural sized test workbench of Itajuba's Federal University. At the ending of the project, there will be enough subsidies to prove, in practice, the feasibility presented in laboratorial tests by PAT/IG groups as conventional turbines replacer in micro powerplants. (author)

  15. Project PAT (Pumps Working as Turbines)/IG (Induction Generators): a new concept for generation of electric power through micro scale hydroelectric power plants; Projeto BFT (Bombas Funcionado como Turbinas)/GI (Geradores de Inducao): um novo conceito para geracao de energia eletrica atraves de microcentrais hidreletricas

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Viana, Augusto Nelson Carvalho [Universidade Federal de Itajuba (UNIFEI), Itajuba, MG (Brazil). Inst. de Recursos Naturais. Programa de Pos-graduacao em Engenharia da Energia; Medeiros, Daniel de Macedo; Ricardo, Mateus [Universidade Federal de Itajuba (UNIFEI), Itajuba, MG (Brazil). Inst. de Recursos Naturais], Emails: augusto@unifei.edu.br, macedo@unifei.edu.br, mathidr@yahoo.com.br

    2006-07-01

    The present work has as objective to present the main bases of 'PAT/IG Project', accomplished in Boa Esperanca Farm (Delfim Moreira - MG), by an accord between Itajuba's Federal University and Mines and Energy Ministry. In a moment that the look for sustainable development is the law in Brazil, low costs and environmental impact alternatives must be prioritized. By this way, the PAT/IG Project continuous the Viana's (1987) works, that developed all Brazilian theoretical bases for using Pumps Working as Turbine (PAT). Besides that, the application of induction motors operating as induction generators will be evaluated, as the velocity control system of the PAT/IG group will be developed. The existing Boa Esperanca Farm's micro power plant will be rebuild ed, to receive a new generating group formed for a PAT and a IG, that will be used as natural sized test workbench of Itajuba's Federal University. At the ending of the project, there will be enough subsidies to prove, in practice, the feasibility presented in laboratorial tests by PAT/IG groups as conventional turbines replacer in micro powerplants. (author)

  16. Hybrid cycles for micro generation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Campanari, S.

    2000-01-01

    This paper deals with the main features of two emerging technologies in the field of small-scale power generation, micro turbines and Solid Oxide Fuel Cells, discussing the extremely high potential of their combination into hybrid cycles and their possible role for distributed cogeneration [it

  17. Biogas engine performance estimation using ANN

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yusuf Kurtgoz

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available Artificial neural network (ANN method was used to estimate the thermal efficiency (TE, brake specific fuel consumption (BSFC and volumetric efficiency (VE values of a biogas engine with spark ignition at different methane (CH4 ratios and engine load values. For this purpose, the biogas used in the biogas engine was produced by the anaerobic fermentation method from bovine manure and different CH4 contents (51%, 57%, 87% were obtained by purification of CO2 and H2S. The data used in the ANN models were obtained experimentally from a 4-stroke four-cylinder, spark ignition engine, at constant speed for different load and CH4 ratios. Using some of the obtained experimental data, ANN models were developed, and the rest was used to test the developed models. In the ANN models, the CH4 ratio of the fuel, engine load, inlet air temperature (Tin, air fuel ratio and the maximum cylinder pressure are chosen as the input parameters. TE, BSFC and VE are used as the output parameters. Root mean square error (RMSE, mean absolute percentage error (MAPE and correlation coefficient (R performance indicators are used to compare measured and predicted values. It has been shown that ANN models give good results in spark ignition biogas engines with high correlation and low error rates for TE, BSFC and VE values.

  18. Biogas uit bermmaaisel : duurzaam en haalbaar?

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Ehlert, P.A.I.; Zwart, K.B.; Spijker, J.H.

    2010-01-01

    In het kader van het Groningse project 'Een schone berm geeft energie!' heeft Alterra de duurzaamheid en haalbaarheid van de vergisting van bermmaaisel tot biogas onderzocht. Van drie provinciale wegen in de provincie Groningen is de vegetatie en de kwaliteit gemonitord en werd in het voor- en

  19. State Equation Determination of Cow Dung Biogas

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marzuki, A.; Wicaksono, L. B.

    2017-08-01

    A state function is a thermodynamic function which relates various macroscopically measurable properties of a system (state variable) describing the state of matter under a given set of physical conditions. A good understanding of a biogas state function plays a very important role in an effort to maximize biogas processes and to help predicting combation performance. This paper presents a step by step process of an experimental study aimed at determining the equation of state of cow dung biogas. The equation was derived from the data obtained from the experimental results of compressibility (κ) and expansivity (β) following the general form of gas state equation dV = βdT + κdP. In this equation, dV is gas volume variation, dT is temperature variation, and dP is pressure variation. From these results, we formulated a unique state equation from which the biogas critical temperature (Tc) and critical pressure were then determined (Tc = 266.7 K, Pc = 5096647.5 Pa).

  20. Biogas/biofertilizer business handbook (third edition)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Arnott, M.

    1985-07-01

    The handbook covers biogas systems, including raw material preparation, digesters, separate gas storage tanks, use of gas to run engines, and the use of sludge as fertilizer. Also covers secondary projects such as flat-plate solar collector water heaters, composting, and bio-insecticides.

  1. The biogas sector. Looking for renewal

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Signoret, Stephane; Petitot, Pauline; Kim, Caroline; Marie, Olivier; Sredojevic, Alexandre

    2016-01-01

    As the political will to develop biogas production in France is confirmed by the ambitious objectives defined in the French Investment Multi-year Programming, a set of articles on the biogas sector proposes an overview of what is going on in this sector. After some brief presentations of recent installations of biogas purification and of methanation, a first article outlines the problems and uncertainties raised by the new support system in terms of delays and visibility. A second article presents a methanation unit shared by pork breeders in Brittany to process and valorise effluents which cannot be scattered in fields any longer. The third article comments the bio-methane sector which is now living, and for the couple of years to come, its industrialisation phase, each project having its peculiarities, with emerging business models. The next article presents Methavos I, a methanation unit which injects its bio-methane into the gas network on both sides of the frontier between France and Germany. The sixth article presents the activities of Arkolia Energies which is developing a breakthrough technology with a continuous and thick methanation with optimal energy efficiency within a reduced volume. The seventh article comments the challenges, issues and solutions for longer lasting lubricants used in biogas generation engines. The last article addresses the issue of insurance for methanation installations which, like any other installation, are facing some exploitation risks and hazards

  2. Identification of microbial populations in biogas

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Čermáková, J.; Mrázek, Jakub; Fliegerová, Kateřina; Tenkrát, D.

    2011-01-01

    Roč. 3, č. 0 (2011), s. 53-58 ISSN 1804-2058 R&D Projects: GA ČR GPP503/10/P394 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z50450515 Keywords : biogas * PCR * microorganisms Subject RIV: EH - Ecology, Behaviour

  3. Biogas and its opportunities—A review

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kougias, Panagiotis; Angelidaki, Irini

    2018-01-01

    plants as advanced bioenergy factories. In this context, the biogas plants are the basis of a circular economy concept targeting nutrients recycling, reduction of greenhouse gas emissions and biorefinery purposes. This review summarizes the current state-of-the-art and presents future perspectives...

  4. Opinions on biogas in organic farming

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Heiske, Stefan; Østergård, Hanne

    2011-01-01

    The application of biogas technologies in organic farming involves many considerations: Benefits like improved fertilizer supply and fossil fuel savings are opposed to concerns about economical risks and incompliance with organic principles. A questionnaire developed by Risø DTU gives an idea about...

  5. Biogas barometer: a growth of 8 deg

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anon.

    2002-01-01

    Europe produced more than 2500 ktoe of biogas in 2001. This represents 8% more than in 2000. For lack of infrastructures and due to the sector's insufficient level of maturity, only half of this amount is valorized into energy. This situation should improve, thanks to new environmental preoccupations linked to waste treatment as well as to the ambitions of the principal actors. (authors)

  6. Analysis of biogas in sanitary landfill Caieiras

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Giovano Candiani

    2011-06-01

    Full Text Available In this work, the biogas in the Sanitary Landfill Caieiras is qualitatively evaluated, emphasizing the influence of the geomembrana and cover system of vertical drains in the vicinity to capture the landfill. It was possible to detect an increase in the percentage of methane and oxygen reduction, aiming at the commercialization of carbon credits and electricity production.

  7. Recent updates on biogas production - a review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ilona Sárvári Horváth

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available One of the greatest challenges facing the societies now and in the future is the reduction of green house gas emissions and thus preventing the climate change. It is therefore important to replace fossil fuels with renewable sources, such as biogas. Biogas can be produced from various organic waste streams or as a byproduct from industrial processes. Beside energy production, the degradation of organic waste through anaerobic digestion offers other advantages, such as the prevention of odor release and the decrease of pathogens. Moreover, the nutrient rich digested residues can be utilized as fertilizer for recycling the nutrients back to the fields. However, the amount of organic materials currently available for biogas production is limited and new substrates as well as new effective technologies are therefore needed to facilitate the growth of the biogas industry all over the world. Hence, major developments have been made during the last decades regarding the utilization of lignocellulosic biomass, the development of high rate systems, and the application of membrane technologies within the anaerobic digestion process in order to overcome the shortcomings encountered. The degradation of organic material requires a synchronized action of different groups of microorganisms with different metabolic capacities. Recent developments in molecular biology techniques have provided the research community with a valuable tool for improved understanding of this complex microbiological system, which in turn could help optimize and control the process in an effective way in the future.

  8. PEMETAAN POTENSI BIOGAS DI KOTA METRO

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Riswanto Riswanto

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available Metro City is a developing city that attracts many new citizens to come and live in the city of Metro. It affects the density and population growth in the city of Metro so it boils down to the increasing need for energy for fuel such as gas and electricity needs. UU No. 33 of 2007 the government seeks to optimize the role of PEMDA and communities and academics to be able to take advantage of the various potential that may be developed in their respective city in meeting energy needs. The survey results show the picture that the city of Metro has potential in the utilization of biogas energy. The availability of this organic material is quite common in Metro city. But the availability of the material has not been classified in number and variety. For that, we need to do research in mapping biogas potential in every area in Metro city. The research method used is the method of documentation, observation, and interview. As for data analysis techniques, conducted qualitatively and quantitatively through the findings of observations in the form of descriptions, calculation analysis, and tabulation. The results obtained show that the North Metro sub-district has the highest potential for biogas development. The most common materials are animal waste derived from cow dung as much as 84% and biogas from plants that are from rice straw (54% and Tahu/tempe processing waste (38%. Other organic ingredients found are chicken, goat, buffalo, and banana peels. This result shows that the biogas potency of Metro City is best developed that is through the use of cow dung

  9. Biogas 2007. Energy source of the future; Biogas 2007. Energietraeger der Zukunft

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2007-07-01

    Within this VDI meeting, held between 14th and 15th June, 2007, in Berlin (Federal Republic of Germany), the following lectures were held: (a) Perspectives of the use of biogas in the background of the instruments according to the launch of renewable energies (B. Dreher); (b) Biogas in the energy mix and as export product - demand of action in EEG (C. da Costa Gomez); (c) Cultivation of regenerative raw materials for production of fermentation gas (A. Vetter); (d) Consequences of the cultivation of power plants on nature and landscape (W. Peters); (e) Agrarian residual substances and wastes of biofuel production as fermentation substrates (G. Langhans); (f) Biological waste management - comparison between composting and fermentation (Ch. Dornack, A. Schnapke); (g) Treatment and utilization of residues of fermentation (H. Doehler); (h) State of the art of the production and utilization of biogas using the NawaRo plant (P. Weiland, Ch. Rieger, J. Schroeder, R. Kissel, H. Bachmaier, V. Plogsties, J. Vogtherr); (i) Dry fermentation for continuous biogas processes - progress report (R. Schneider); (j) Status Quo and potential of development of mechanical-biological waste treatment under special consideration of fermentation and energetic utilization (K. Fricke, H. Santen, T. Bahr, A. Huettner); (k) Optimization of the plant operation by means of process monitoring and process modelling (M. Mueller, F. Scholwin, B. Fritsche); (l) Power supply and heat supply of the bio energy village Juehnde (E. Fangmeier); (m) Processing of regenerating raw materials for the optimization of the biogas yield: Which effects can be reached in the biogas process by means of pre-treatment of biomass such as corn and triticale? (B. Schumacher, H. Oechsner, Th. Senn, Th. Jungbluth); (n) Biogas production by means of dry fermentation: State of the art (A. Schattauer, P. Weiland); (o) Biogas as a fuel: AGROPTI - gas in Sweden (T. Ahrens, P. Weiland); (p) Bio energy as a system service

  10. The Improvement of Carburater Efficiency Using Biogas-based Venturi

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lasmi Ni Ketut

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available The elimination of the fossil fuel subsidy by the Indonesian government has caused an increase in fuel prices, and a solution to find a relatively cheap and environmentally friendly alternative energy is needed. Biogas is one of the sources of renewable energy that has a potential to be developed, especially in farming area where the abundant animal excrement is not yet optimally used and causes environmental problems. Addressing this issue, we have developed an innovation by making a biogas and air mixer instrument through venturi pipe, using the basic theory of fluid mechanism in order to increase the use of biogas as an electricity source. Usually, biogas-based electric generators use dual fuel system such as fossil fuel and biogas to perform combustion due to the low octane contained in the biogas. By replacing the readily available manufactured venturi with the modified venturi, optimal combustion can be reached with using only single fuel of biogas. The results of the experiments show that the biogas debit on carburetor increases from 13 to 439 watts consuming biogas fuel from 0.22 to 4.96 liter/minute, respectively. The amount of combusted biogas depends on the value of the load power. Within the scope of our results, the maximum voltage reached is about 211.13 – 211.76 volts which is feasible to use for 220 volts electrical appliances

  11. Design of laboratory cyclone separator for biogas purification

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marián Fodora

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available This article deals with calculation of a cyclone separator for biogas purification using physical and chemical methods. There is presented a methodology for determination of operating dimensions of the cyclone separator and description of principal features of the cyclone separator model. Calculations have been performed for the diameter of the cylindrical part of cyclone separator 175 mm and for the biogas volume flow rate 6.9∙10−5 m3∙s−1. The calculations can be used in practice for the design of cyclone separator depending on the flow rate of biogas, size of the biogas plants respectively. The developed cyclone separator has been used for the cleaning of biogas in operating conditions at the biogas plant in Kolinany (Slovakia. The presented method of biogas purification has been used for the removing of hydrogen sulphide, particulate matter and carbon dioxide from the raw biogas at the biogas plant. Removal of these undesirable impurities from the biogas is an important step in the production of a fully valued fuel, biomethane.

  12. A review of the biogas industry in China

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jiang Xinyuan; Sommer, Sven G.; Christensen, Knud V.

    2011-01-01

    This article presents an overview of the development and future perspectives of the Chinese biogas industry. The development of the industry has the potential to improve the rural environment and produce significant amounts of sustainable energy for China. Barriers to the development are the relatively weak environmental policies, imperfect financial policies and lack of long-term follow-up services. The rapid economic development of China has also seen a development in the scales of biogas plants constructed. Although the technology has been improved, this review has identified problems in the construction and operation of Chinese biogas plants, particularly in the efficiency of household systems. All levels of China's government acknowledge this and recent biogas projects have more focus on quality and less on the quantity. The intention is to gradually introduce stricter environmental policies, to provide better service systems, improve the financial policies that support the construction and follow-up service of biogas projects, promote the use of standardized engineering equipment and materials and standards for plant construction and production. This will promote the development of biogas projects at various scales further, and reduce the dependency on fossil fuels and emissions of greenhouse gases. - Highlights: → The biogas industry in China has great developing potential and necessity. → Barriers to the development of biogas industry in China were included in the article. → All scales of Biogas plants in China have developed rapidly in recent years. → Measures to promote the development of biogas projects further in China were proposed.

  13. Thermodynamic Analysis of Supplementary-Fired Gas Turbine Cycles

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Elmegaard, Brian; Henriksen, Ulrik Birk; Qvale, Einar Bjørn

    2002-01-01

    This paper presents an analysis of the possibilities for improving the efficiency of an indirectly biomass-fired gas turbine (IBFGT) by supplementary direct gas-firing. The supplementary firing may be based on natural gas, biogas, or pyrolysis gas. {The interest in this cycle arise from a recent...... demonstration of a two-stage gasification process through construction of several plants.} A preliminary analysis of the ideal recuperated Brayton cycle shows that for this cycle any supplementary firing will have a marginal efficiency of unity per extra unit of fuel. The same result is obtained...

  14. Steam turbine cycle

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Okuzumi, Naoaki.

    1994-01-01

    In a steam turbine cycle, steams exhausted from the turbine are extracted, and they are connected to a steam sucking pipe of a steam injector, and a discharge pipe of the steam injector is connected to an inlet of a water turbine. High pressure discharge water is obtained from low pressure steams by utilizing a pressurizing performance of the steam injector and the water turbine is rotated by the high pressure water to generate electric power. This recover and reutilize discharged heat of the steam turbine effectively, thereby enabling to improve heat efficiency of the steam turbine cycle. (T.M.)

  15. The swirl turbine

    Science.gov (United States)

    Haluza, M.; Pochylý, F.; Rudolf, P.

    2012-11-01

    In the article is introduced the new type of the turbine - swirl turbine. This turbine is based on opposite principle than Kaplan turbine. Euler equation is satisfied in the form gHηh = -u2vu2. From this equation is seen, that inflow of liquid into the runner is without rotation and on the outflow is a rotation of liquid opposite of rotation of runner. This turbine is suitable for small head and large discharge. Some constructional variants of this turbine are introduced in the article and theoretical aspects regarding losses in the draft tube. The theory is followed by computational simulations in Fluent and experiments using laser Doppler anemometry.

  16. Changed market conditions for biogas production; Foeraendrade marknadsvillkor foer biogasproduktion

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Colnerud Granstroem, Sigrid; Gaaverud, Henrik; Glimhall, Alexandra

    2010-10-15

    The Swedish gas market consists mainly of the natural gas network that extends through the southwestern Sweden, and the local biogas markets. Biogas share of the Swedish gas market is growing steadily. The fact that the Swedish gas net is limited and fragmented forms an obstacle for biogas use to expand. That the gas market as a whole, natural gas included, must develop and expand is therefore a prerequisite for the large potential for Swedish Biogas to be realized. This in contrast with the ultimate objective to completely replace natural gas in the Swedish gas market. When policy changes are made in order to support biogas it is crucial for long-term competitiveness of biogas that these changes should not impact the natural gas market and hinder its development. Such a scenario would ultimately mean that also biogas development opportunities deteriorate. Biogas operations encounter three main problems that prevent or impede its expansion in the gas market. First, the potential for profitability in biogas production must be enhanced. Second, natural gas and biogas markets should be more integrated with each other. Thirdly, the biogas must be distributed in a cost-effective manner. The present investigation aims to supplement the Natural Gas Act with special provisions which takes into account the input and transmission of biogas. In addition to the production of biogas, it is now the producer's responsibility to clean the gas from water vapor, hydrogen sulfide and carbon dioxide and to augment the calorific value of the gas to the standard of Danish natural gas quality by propane addition and to ensure that the physical connection to network is available. There are thus a number of options available for shifting demarcation between biogas production and network operations. Short-term competitiveness of biogas would be strengthened most if purification and spiking the gas with propane and the connection to the network was imposed on network owners. In the

  17. Energy systems analysis of biogas systems; Energianalys av biogassystem

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Berglund, Maria; Boerjesson, Paal

    2003-05-01

    The aim of this study was to calculate the net energy output and energy efficiency, from a life-cycle perspective and for Swedish conditions, in anaerobic digestion of various raw materials. Our calculations are based on literature reviews concerning the total primary energy input required for the production of biogas (i.e. direct and indirect energy inputs, e.g. when producing and distributing diesel fuels, electricity, fertilisers) as well as the biogas yield from various raw materials. Our analyses include handling and transportation of raw materials, operation of the biogas plants, and transportation and spreading of digested residues, as well as the biogas yield from manure, ley crops, tops and leaves of sugar beets, straw, municipal organic waste, slaughter waste, and grease separator sludge. All calculations concern individual raw materials. The net energy input required to run a biogas system (i.e. centralised biogas plant) typically corresponds to approximately 20-40% of the energy content in the produced biogas. Theoretically, the raw materials could be transported for some 200 km (manure) up to 700 km (slaughter waste) before the net energy output becomes negative. The variations in energy efficiency between studied biogas systems depend mainly on the type of raw material studied and the calculation methods used. Raw materials with high water content and low biogas yield (e.g. manure) require rather large energy inputs compared to the amount of biogas produced. Energy demanding handling of the raw materials, such as ley crops, could correspond to as much as approximately 40% of the net energy input. Varying energy efficiency in different parts of the biogas system, but most of all, changes in the biogas yield, could considerably affect the total net energy output. In general, operation of the biogas plant is the most energy demanding process in the biogas systems, corresponding to some 40-80% of the net energy input in the biogas systems. This implies

  18. Biogas from MSW landfill: Composition and determination of chlorine content with the AOX (adsorbable organically bound halogens) technique

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rey, M.D.; Font, R.; Aracil, I.

    2013-01-01

    An exhaustive characterization of the biogas from some waste disposal facilities has been carried out. The analysis includes the main components (methane, carbon dioxide, nitrogen and oxygen) as well as trace components such as hydrogen sulphide, ammonia and VOCs (volatile organic compounds) including siloxanes and halogenated compounds. VOCs were measured by GC/MS (Gas Chromatography/Mass Spectrometry) using two different procedures: thermal desorption of the Tenax TA and Carbotrap 349 tubes and SPME (Solid Phase Micro-Extraction). A method has been established to measure the total halogen content of the biogas with the AOX (adsorbable organically bound halogens) technique. The equipment used to analyze the samples was a Total Organic Halogen Analyzer (TOX-100). Similar results were obtained when comparing the TOX (Total Organic Halogen) values with those obtained by GC/MS. The halogen content in all the samples was under 22 mg Cl/Nm 3 which is below the limit of 150 mg/Nm 3 proposed in the Spanish Regulations for any use of the biogas. The low chlorine content in the biogas studied, as well as the low content of other trace compounds, makes it suitable for use as a fuel for electricity generating engines

  19. A Technological Overview of Biogas Production from Biowaste

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Spyridon Achinas

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available The current irrational use of fossil fuels and the impact of greenhouse gases on the environment are driving research into renewable energy production from organic resources and waste. The global energy demand is high, and most of this energy is produced from fossil resources. Recent studies report that anaerobic digestion (AD is an efficient alternative technology that combines biofuel production with sustainable waste management, and various technological trends exist in the biogas industry that enhance the production and quality of biogas. Further investments in AD are expected to meet with increasing success due to the low cost of available feedstocks and the wide range of uses for biogas (i.e., for heating, electricity, and fuel. Biogas production is growing in the European energy market and offers an economical alternative for bioenergy production. The objective of this work is to provide an overview of biogas production from lignocellulosic waste, thus providing information toward crucial issues in the biogas economy.

  20. The impact of CO2-costs on biogas usage

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jensen, Ida Græsted; Nielsen, Lise Skovsgaard

    2017-01-01

    The Danish government has set a target of being fossil fuel independent by 2050 implying that a high degree of inflexible renewable energy will be included in the energy system; biogas can add flexibility and potentially has a negative CO2-emission. In this paper, we investigate the socioeconomic...... system costs of reaching a Danish biogas target of 3.8 PJ in the energy system, and how CO2 costs affect the system costs and biogas usage. We perform our analysis using the energy systems model, Balmorel, and expand the model with a common target for raw biogas and upgraded biogas (biomethane). Raw...... biogas can be used directly in heat and power production, while biomethane has the same properties as natural gas. Balmorel is altered such that natural gas and biomethane can be used in the same technologies. Several CO2-cost estimates are investigated; hereunder a high estimate for the expected CO2...

  1. Use of biogas in PEM fuel cells; Einsatz von Biogas in PEM-Brennstoffzellen

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Scholz, Volkhard; Schmersahl, Ralf; Ellner, Janine (comps.)

    2009-06-15

    This research project was dedicated to two problems: 1. What demands must biogas meet in order to conform to the specifications of PEM fuel cell systems and permit safe operation? 2. How must a fuel cell system be designed and operated in order to be well-adapted to the special features of biogas as opposed to natural gas? For this purpose biogas samples were taken from laboratory-scale and commercial plants and analysed by gas chromatography using various substrates and methods. By combining this with the use of a mass spectroscopy detector (GC-MS system) it was possible to perform a qualitative and quantitative analysis of sulphurious trace gases in the biogas which might cause damage to the fuel cell system. Investigations were performed on an experimental reformer using either modelled or native biogas of different compositions, the intent being to obtain information for the design of the individual process stages. The two operating parameters steam-methane ratio (or S/C ratio) and reforming temperature were varied to optimise parameter settings in terms of energy efficiency. By linking the reformer to a 500 W fuel cell it was possible confirm the suitability of the reformed biogas for use in fuel cells. [German] In diesm Forschungsvorhaben werden zwei Fragestellungen bearbeitet: 1. Welche Anforderungen ergeben sich an das Biogas, um den Spezifikationen von PEM-Brennstoffzellensystemen zu genuegen und eine sicheren Betrieb zu ermoeglichen? 2. Wie muss das Brennstoffzellensystem ausgelegt und gefuehrt werden, um den Besonderheiten von Biogas im Vergleich zu Erdgas Rechnung zu tragen? Dazu wurden Biogasproben aus Labor- und Praxisanlagen unter Beruecksichtigung unterschiedlicher Substrate und Verfahren gaschromatisch analysiert. Die Kopplung mit einem massenspektroskopischen Detektor (GC-MS System) ermoeglicht dabei die Qualifizierung und Quantifizierung der vorhandenen schwefelhaltigen Spurengase, die eine Schaedigung von Brennstoffzellenanlagen verursachen. Die

  2. Life cycle analysis of biogas from residues; Livscykelanalys av biogas fraan restprodukter

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tufvesson, Linda; Lantz, Mikael [Dep. for Miljoe- och Energisystem, Lunds Tekniska Hoegskola, Lund (Sweden)

    2012-06-15

    The purpose of this study is to carry out life cycle assessments for different biogas systems where biogas is produced from different residues. The investigated residues are distiller's waste, rapeseed cake, whey permeate, concentrated whey permeate, fodder milk, fish residues, bakery residues and glycerol. The environmental impact categories included are climate change, eutrophication, acidification, photochemical ozone creation potential, particles and energy balance. The calculations include emissions from technical systems, especially the energy input in various operations and processes. A general conclusion is that all studied residues are very well suited for production of biogas if there is no demand for them as animal feed today. All biogas systems also reduce the emissions of greenhouse gases compared to petrol and diesel and meet the requirements presented in the EU renewable energy directive (RED). The results of the study also show that the investigated biogas systems are complex and many different parameters affect the result. These parameters are both integrated in the life cycle assessment method, but also in the inventory data used.

  3. A technical survey of power generation from biogas

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1996-01-01

    The objectives of this survey are: to review the use of biogas (ie landfill gas, sewage gas and farm gas) for power generation, mainly in the UK. To assess the performance of prime movers and the status and need for biogas pre-treatment. To review legislation with regard to emissions both in the UK and overseas. To provide a framework of good practice for choosing prime movers fuelled by biogas. (author)

  4. Biogas Production Using Anaerobic Biodigester from Cassava Starch Effluent

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S. Sunarso

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available IKMs’ factory activity in Margoyoso produces liquid and solid wastes. The possible alternative was to use the liquid effluent as biogas raw material. This study focuses on the used of urea, ruminant, yeast, microalgae, the treatment of gelled and ungelled feed for biogas production, pH control during biogas production using buffer Na2CO3, and feeding management in the semi-continuous process of biogas production that perform at ambient temperature for 30 days. Ruminant bacteria, yeast, urea, and microalgae was added 10% (v/v, 0.08% (w/v, 0.04% (w/v, 50% (v/v of mixing solution volume, respectively. The pH of slurry was adjusted with range 6.8-7.2 and was measured daily and corrected when necessary with Na2CO3. The total biogas production was measured daily by the water displacement technique. Biogas production from the ungelling and gelling mixture of cassava starch effluent, yeast, ruminant bacteria, and urea were 726.43 ml/g total solid and 198 ml/g total solid. Biogas production from ungelling mixture without yeast was 58.6 ml/g total solid. Biogas production from ungelling mixture added by microalgae without yeast was 58.72 ml/g total solid and that with yeast was 189 ml/g total solid. Biogas production from ungelling mixture of cassava starch effluent, yeast, ruminant bacteria, and urea in semi-continuous process was 581.15 ml/g total solid. Adding of microalgae as nitrogen source did not give significant effect to biogas production. But adding of yeast as substrate activator was very helpful to accelerate biogas production. The biogas production increased after cassava starch effluent and yeast was added. Requirement of sodium carbonate (Na2CO3 to increase alkalinity or buffering capacity of fermenting solution depends on pH-value

  5. Methods and apparatus for hydrogen based biogas upgrading

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    2013-01-01

    The present invention relates to an anaerobic process for biogas upgrading and hydrogen utilization comprising the use of acidic waste as co-substrate.In this process,H2 and CO2 will be converted to CH4, which will result in lower CO2 content in the biogas. The invention relates to both in situ...... and ex situ methods of biogas upgrading. The invention further relates to a bioreactor comprising hollow fibre membranes....

  6. Biogas cooperation for cogeneration plants; Biogaskooperation fuer Blockheizkraftwerke

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Deeg, Thomas [Stadtwerke Schwaebisch Hall GmbH, Schwaebisch Hall (Germany)

    2011-03-15

    Since autumn 2010, via a 7 kilometre long biogas conduit an agricultural biogas plant supplies a cogeneration plant in the residential area Teurershof in Schwaebisch Hall. This enables a conversion of biogas with the highest possible efficiency in thermal energy and electricity. This is due to the attachment of the cogeneration plant in Teurershof to the district heating grid of the city Schwaebisch Hall so that the developing thermal energy completely can be used.

  7. Underdog or bulldog: introducing biogas technologies in Estonia

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Roose, Antti; Reinsoo, Kadri [University of Tartu, Department of Geography, Tartu (Estonia); Oja, Ahto [Monus Minek Ltd, Aeaesmaee (Estonia); Varzinskas, Visvaldas [Kaunas University of Technology, Institute of Environmental Engineering, Kaunas (Lithuania)

    2012-12-15

    The production and use of biogas, along with corresponding sector-specific activities and technologies, is a relatively new subject in Estonia. This paper gives an instructive overview of main barriers behind the development incentives, policy support and technological innovation in terms of emerging market for biogas. The article examines the complexity of market-related, political, technological and social obstacles for introduction biogas technologies. There is a major gap between resource potential, technological capacity and practice in Estonia. About 2 % of the theoretical potential of biogas is being used, totalling around 11 million Nm{sup 3}, based primarily on landfill biogas. First, political setting for biogas innovation is still vague, however, consolidated and enhanced since 2010 to compete with other renewables and mainstream energy technologies. The article underlines the statement that the reason why Estonian biogas production has not followed the path of growth and technology transfer is the low renewable electricity feed-in tariff. However, there are many other legal and engineering factors that have held back biogas applications and sector development in general. Stakeholders have established the Estonian Biogas Association, increasing sector's visibility, targeted lobby to support policy-making, technological and social innovation and professional networking. Though getting the biogas sector to succeed demands a comprehensive approach and involvement of more actors in demand side including local leaders and consumers, both enthusiasm and scepticism should be informed by a sound understanding of framework conditions and complexities for path-breaking transformations in energy systems. To promote biogas production, profitable and technologically feasible showcases should demonstrate benefits and issues to the target group and stakeholders. Instead agricultural and CHP development mode, the priority of using biogas in Estonia could be seen as

  8. Aerodynamics of Wind Turbines

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hansen, Martin Otto Laver

    Aerodynamics of Wind Turbines is the established essential text for the fundamental solutions to efficient wind turbine design. Now in its second edition, it has been entirely updated and substantially extended to reflect advances in technology, research into rotor aerodynamics and the structural...... response of the wind turbine structure. Topics covered include increasing mass flow through the turbine, performance at low and high wind speeds, assessment of the extreme conditions under which the turbine will perform and the theory for calculating the lifetime of the turbine. The classical Blade Element...... Momentum method is also covered, as are eigenmodes and the dynamic behavior of a turbine. The new material includes a description of the effects of the dynamics and how this can be modeled in an aeroelastic code, which is widely used in the design and verification of modern wind turbines. Further...

  9. Aerodynamics of wind turbines

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hansen, Martin Otto Laver

    Aerodynamics of Wind Turbines is the established essential text for the fundamental solutions to efficient wind turbine design. Now in its third edition, it has been substantially updated with respect to structural dynamics and control. The new control chapter now includes details on how to design...... Turbines (VAWT). Topics covered include increasing mass flow through the turbine, performance at low and high wind speeds, assessment of the extreme conditions under which the turbine will perform and the theory for calculating the lifetime of the turbine. The classical Blade Element Momentum method...... is also covered, as are eigenmodes and the dynamic behaviour of a turbine. The book describes the effects of the dynamics and how this can be modelled in an aeroelastic code, which is widely used in the design and verification of modern wind turbines. Furthermore, it examines how to calculate...

  10. TurbinAID

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Moradian, M.A.; Chow, M.P.; Osborne, R.L.; Jenkins, M.A.

    1991-01-01

    The Westinghouse Turbine Artificial Intelligence Diagnostics system or TurbinAID, can diagnose both thermodynamic and mechanical component anomalies within the turbine, and around the turbine cycle. any monitoring system can detect that a variable is in an abnormal state, but TurbinAID can also indicate the cause, and provide recommended corrective action(s). The TurbinAID Expert Systems utilize multiple sensor and variable inputs, and their interdependencies in the generation of a diagnosis. The system performs sensor validation as part of the data acquisition scheme. The TurbinAID system has been in operation for several years. This paper describes the monitoring and diagnostic functions provided by TurbinAID, and how the utility industry both nuclear and fossil, can utilize the system to enhance unit operation

  11. Biomass storage for further energy use through biogas production

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Atem, A.D. [Instituto CEDIAC, Facultad de Ingenieria, Universidad Nacional de Cuyo, Centro Universitario, 5500 Mendoza (Argentina); Instituto de Medio Ambiente, Facultad de Ingenieria, Universidad Nacional de Cuyo, Centro Universitario, 5500 Mendoza (Argentina); Instituto de Energia, Universidad Nacional de Cuyo, Centro Universitario, 5500 Mendoza (Argentina); Consejo Nacional de Investigaciones Cientificas y Tecnicas - CONICET, Mendoza (Argentina); Indiveri, M.E. [Instituto de Medio Ambiente, Facultad de Ingenieria, Universidad Nacional de Cuyo, Centro Universitario, 5500 Mendoza (Argentina); Instituto de Energia, Universidad Nacional de Cuyo, Centro Universitario, 5500 Mendoza (Argentina); Llamas, S. [Instituto de Medio Ambiente, Facultad de Ingenieria, Universidad Nacional de Cuyo, Centro Universitario, 5500 Mendoza (Argentina)

    2010-06-15

    The present work approaches the residual biomass conservation for later digestion in an anaerobic batch reactor. Twenty 4 L capacity PET reactors were used. A measuring device was constructed to quantify the biogas production. As substrate were used tomato wastes from local industry and rumen fluid as inoculum. Digestion start up was able to be controlled by varying the temperature, during a period of 118 days was not verified biogas production. After re-inoculated with rumen fluid stabilized for 34 days, biogas production was verified. They were obtained 0.10 m{sup 3} of biogas per kilogram of volatile solids, with 50% of methane content. (author)

  12. BIOGAS TECHNOLOGY INTRODUCTIONS AS RENEWABLE ENERGY FOR RURAL COMMUNITIES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Meita Rumbayan

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available This paper is the progress report of research action about biogas technology introduction for a rural community in North Sulawesi, Indonesia. The purpose of this study is to discuss biogas technology utilization in the selected rural. The research method is done by literature review, interview, site visit, data collection using questioner and case study of pilot project development in biogas technology for a household in Kosio village indicate a positive response from the local community. The discussion based on literature review, data collection and case study gives some recommendations for further study in term of scenario and guideline for the development of biogas technology for rural communities.

  13. Promoting use of bio-gas in India

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Saha, S.L.

    1994-01-01

    Biogas is a single energy source with multiple benefits. Biogas is an environment friendly cheap fuel for rural areas. Fuel-gas from organic materials like cattle dung, night-soil, poultry droppings, sludge, waste water etc., without destroying their manurial value, accrues many social benefits particularly for women and children. Biogas plant improve rural sanitation, life style of rural folks and reduce pressure on forests. Biogas slurry offers a cheap, entirely organic and indigenous alternative fertilizer. Rural electrification at a reasonable cost is possible by using the available crop residues and other biomass waste. This waste can yield wealth by using it to produce energy for the industry and for homes. (author)

  14. Study on biogas premixed charge diesel dual fuelled engine

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Duc, Phan Minh; Wattanavichien, Kanit

    2007-01-01

    This paper presents an experimental investigation of a small IDI biogas premixed charge diesel dual fuelled CI engine used in agricultural applications. Engine performance, diesel fuel substitution, energy consumption and long term use have been concerned. The attained results show that biogas-diesel dual fuelling of this engine revealed almost no deterioration in engine performance but lower energy conversion efficiency which was offset by the reduced fuel cost of biogas over diesel. The long term use of this engine with biogas-diesel dual fuelling is feasible with some considerations

  15. Distribution forms for biogas and natural gas in Sweden

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Benjaminsson, Johan; Nilsson, Ronny

    2009-11-01

    Since biogas and natural gas basically have the same characteristics, they can be distributed in the same system. In the parts of the country where there is an extensive natural gas distribution network, the infrastructure for natural gas can be used for distribution of biogas. In order to increase the use of renewable energy, it is a political ambition to increase the share of biogas in the natural gas network, and, in the long run, entirely replace natural gas with biogas. Much of biogas production in the country is, however, not reached by the existing natural gas network, and this is also the case for a large part of the potential for future biogas production. In these areas the gas is transported in more or less extensive local gas distribution networks and by truck in compressed or liquid form. Transport of compressed and liquefied gas is efficient in some cases and development of these systems is an ongoing process. A number of facilities are planned for production of large quantities of biogas, several hundred GWh/year, through digestion and gasification processes. These plants will be located either in conjunction with major gas consumers or in the vicinity of the existing natural gas grid. The potential for biogas production is, however, present throughout the country and in order to meet market demand biogas requires efficient distribution systems

  16. Microbiologic handbook for biogas plants; Mikrobiologisk handbok foer biogasanlaeggningar

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jarvis, Aasa; Schnuerer, Anna

    2009-05-15

    There is today great interest in the biogas process. The reason for interest is that this process offers an opportunity to stabilize and reduce various types of organic waste, while also generating clean renewable energy in the form of biogas. Purified biogas is a good alternative to gasoline and diesel as motor fuel and can also be used for heating and electricity production. Behind efficient biogas production lies a complex microbiological process. For biogas to be formed many different species of microorganisms have to be active. A disturbance of this teamwork leads to a reduction in biogas production or in the worst case that the process stops. In order to operate a biogas process in an efficient manner, it is necessary to have knowledge of the underlying microbiology and how microorganisms function. Today Swedish biogas plants have personnel with great technical knowledge, while the biological knowledge often is more limited. It has been difficult to find appropriate Swedish language literature in the field. This handbook aims to increase the microbiological expertise of staff at the biogas plants and thus to facilitate the stable operation and optimization of gas production

  17. Serial CSTR digester configuration for improving biogas production from manure

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Boe, Kanokwan; Angelidaki, Irini

    2009-01-01

    distribution ratio of 80/20 and 90/10, and total HRT of 15 days. The results showed that the serial CSTR could obtain 11% higher biogas yield compared to the single CSTR. The increased biogas yield in the serial CSTR was mainly from the second reactor, which accounted for 16% and 12% of total biogas yield......A new configuration of manure digesters for improving biogas production has been investigated in laboratory scale. A single thermophilic continuous-flow stirred tank reactor (CSTR) operated with a hydraulic retention time (HRT) of 15 days was compared to a serial CSTR configuration with volume...

  18. Turbulence and wind turbines

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Brand, Arno J.; Peinke, Joachim; Mann, Jakob

    2011-01-01

    The nature of turbulent flow towards, near and behind a wind turbine, the effect of turbulence on the electricity production and the mechanical loading of individual and clustered wind turbines, and some future issues are discussed.......The nature of turbulent flow towards, near and behind a wind turbine, the effect of turbulence on the electricity production and the mechanical loading of individual and clustered wind turbines, and some future issues are discussed....

  19. Biogas. The oldest form of renewable energy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kotevski, Darko

    2004-01-01

    Biomass is the oldest form of renewable energy known and human kind have been making good use of it since fire was discovered. Using biomass as economically viable source of energy presents rather difficult challenge, but one that is increasingly seen as having real potential as an alternative to fossil fuels. Typical biomass sources are wood, agricultural residues, cultivated energy crops, industry and municipal organic waste and animal manure. Converting biomass to energy can be done in several ways: direct combustion, gasification, anaerobic digestion, steam reforming etc. Biogas is a product of anaerobic digestion and it consists mostly of methane (60%). For this process, the most commonly used source is animal manure, which is digested under special conditions in anaerobic digesters. Biogas can be used for electricity production, hot water needs, spatial heating, cooking, etc. (Original)

  20. 2nd generation biogas. BioSNG

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zwart, R.W.R.

    2008-11-01

    The substitution of natural gas by a renewable equivalent is an interesting option to reduce the use of fossil fuels and the accompanying greenhouse gas emissions, as well as from the point of view of security of supply. The renewable alternative for natural gas is green natural gas, i.e. gaseous energy carriers produced from biomass comprising both biogas and Synthetic Natural Gas (SNG). Via this route can be benefited from all the advantages of natural gas, like the existing dense infrastructure, trade and supply network, and natural gas applications. In this presentation attention is paid to the differences between first generation biogas and second generation bioSNG; the market for bioSNG: grid injection vs. transportation fuel; latest update on the lab- and pilot-scale bioSNG development at ECN; and an overview is given of ongoing bioSNG activities worldwide

  1. Value Chain Optimisation of Biogas Production

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jensen, Ida Græsted

    economically feasible. In this PhD thesis, the focus is to create models for investigating the profitability of biogas projects by: 1) including the whole value chain in a mathematical model and considering mass and energy changes on the upstream part of the chain; and 2) including profit allocation in a value......, the costs on the biogas plant has been included in the model using economy of scale. For the second point, a mathematical model considering profit allocation was developed applying three allocation mechanisms. This mathematical model can be applied as a second step after the value chain optimisation. After...... in the energy systems model to find the optimal end use of each type of gas and fuel. The main contributions of this thesis are the methods developed on plant level. Both the mathematical model for the value chain and the profit allocation model can be generalised and used in other industries where mass...

  2. Biogas production potential of sericulture waste

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rajasekaran, P

    1986-12-01

    A feasibility study was carried out in the laboratory to investigate the potentiality of silkworm larval litter alone or in combination with cattle manure as a feedstock material for biogas production. The maximum total gas output of 9556 ml over a six week batch digestion was observed in the silkworm larval litter alone treatment. However, maximum gas output of 2450 ml/g of total solids (TS) destroyed was obtained in the Cowdung biodigested along with silkworm larval litter. The percentage destruction (57.76 TS) and volatile solids (VS 79.5) were observed maximum in the silkworm larval litter alone treatment. The distribution of various physiological groups of organisms involved in this process were discussed. Experimental evidence suggests the possible utilization of silkworm larval litter for biogas production along with cattle manure. 16 references, 2 tables.

  3. Biogas - energetical and environmental point of view

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Skele, A.; Upitis, A.; Kristapsons, M.; Goizevskis, O.; Ziemelis, I.

    2003-01-01

    Energy sector has been one of the most important priorities since reestablishment of independence of Latvia. The deficiency of energy resources in Latvia has created a need to assess all the possibilities to utilise all possibilities to utilise all the energy resources, including the biological ones, to motivate the trends in the development of energetic in Latvia. A huge non-utilised reserve in Latvia is methane fermentation of organic agricultural and municipal residue and sewage from food industry. The organic mass of solid and liquid waste of different origin and its energetic potential for rural region have been investigated. The work deals with an integrated system of the utilisation of agricultural waste with the anaerobic (biogas) and the thermal processes. Presently the anaerobic waste utilisation, in combination with the production of biogas and organic fertiliser, is considered as one of the energetically most efficient and environment-friendly ways of organic fertiliser utilisation (authors)

  4. 6th Conference 'Anaerobic treatment of biological wastes'. New tendencies in the biogas technology; 6. Fachtagung Anaerobe biologische Abfallbehandlung. Neue Tendenzen in der Biogastechnologie

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bilitewski, B.; Werner, P.; Dornack, Christina; Stegmann, R.; Rettenberger, G.; Faulstich, M.; Wittmaier, M. (eds.)

    2008-07-01

    Within this 6th conference at 23rd to 24th September, 2008, in Dresden (Federal Republic of Germany), the following lectures were held: (1) Development of biogas technology - influences and tendencies (H. Friedmann); (2) EEG 2009 - Effect on biogas branch (B. Dreher); (3) From composting to fermentation - material flows, technology, cost, practical experiences (M. Kern, T. Raussen, A. Lootsma, K. Funda); (4) Fermentation of vinasses from the production of bioethanol (H. Friedmann); (5) Substrate digestion and microbiological hydrolysis for biogas production from lignocellulosis containing substrates using beer draff as an example (D. Schieder, M. Faulstich, J. Voigt, J. Ellenriedere, B. Haeffner, K. Sommer); (6) Substitution of wheat and corn by grass and manure for improving the economic efficiency of biogas plants (M. Wittmaier); (7) High-efficiency anaerobic digestion with integrated micro filtration using clarification sludge as an example (W. Troesch, B. Kempter-Regel); (8) Modelling of anaerobic digestion; stationary and dynamic parameter of estimation (C. Cimatoribus); (9) Regulation of an anaerobic laboratory reactor by means of fuzzy logic (O. Bade); (10) Model based diagnosis of the state of process in biogas plants (W. Kloeden); (11) Suitability of ADM 1 in the modelling of biogas plants (K. Koch, M. Wichern, M. Luebken, H. Horn, M. Schlattmann, A. Gronauer); (12) Load dependent and automatical operation of biogas plants - an option for the future (M. Mueller, J. Proeter, F. Scholwin); (13) Chances for biogas generation and application in Vietnam (L. van Bot, M. Wittmaier, A. Karagiannidies, B. Bilitewski, P. Werner); (14) State of the art and developments in the fermentation of biological wastes in the Peoples Republic of China (M. Gehring, R. Li, B. Raininger); (15) Bio-methane potential from cattle and pig wastes in Greece (A. Karagiannidis, G. Perkoulidis, T. Kotsopoulos); (16) Contaminants in biogas plants - an assessment of the material flow using

  5. Sliding vane geometry turbines

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sun, Harold Huimin; Zhang, Jizhong; Hu, Liangjun; Hanna, Dave R

    2014-12-30

    Various systems and methods are described for a variable geometry turbine. In one example, a turbine nozzle comprises a central axis and a nozzle vane. The nozzle vane includes a stationary vane and a sliding vane. The sliding vane is positioned to slide in a direction substantially tangent to an inner circumference of the turbine nozzle and in contact with the stationary vane.

  6. Guideline for financing agricultural biogas projects - Training material for biogas investors: D.3.7, WP 3

    OpenAIRE

    Hahn, H.

    2011-01-01

    There are many good reasons to implement a biogas plant ranging from environmental protection and waste reduction to renewable energy production. It can also include financial and non-financial incentives. Nevertheless, investors of biogas projects should be well informed about different legal requirements and financing possibilities. The guideline will help to analyse a potential biogas investment by describing its most important steps. The guideline starts with the project idea and a first ...

  7. Advanced Conversion of Organic Waste into Biogas

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Offenbacher, Elmar [BDI-BioEnergy International AG, Grambach/Graz (Austria)

    2012-11-01

    Day by day, every human generates significant amounts of organic waste that most of the time ends on landfills. Disposing of organic residues is not just a waste of energy resources but also a burden to the environment as anthropogenic emissions of greenhouse gases are produced. In contrast to waste combustion that can't generate any energy out of organic waste but the contrary, anaerobic digestion is the most suitable technology for the sustainable and efficient conversion of all kind of organic waste into valuable biogas. Biogas generated from organic waste typically consists of 55-60% methane (CH{sub 4}) and provides an energy content of more than 20 MJ/Nm{sup 3}. The average biogas yield is around 150 Nm{sup 3} per ton of organic waste that can be converted into 350 kW of electricity plus the same amount of process heat. In other words a typical household could recover about one twentieth of its power consumption just out of the organic waste it is producing. Anaerobic digestion significantly reduces the amount of waste going to landfill as well as the uncontrolled emissions of methane. The BDI High Load Hybrid Reactor merges the core concepts of CSTR and UASB fermenters while providing a two phase anaerobic digestion system. The first process step accommodates hydrolysis and acidification to break down the complex organic molecules into simple sugars, amino acids, and fatty acids under acid conditions. In the second stage acetic acids are finally converted into methane (CH{sub 4}), carbon dioxide (CO{sub 2}) and water. This two-phase concept ensures maximum yield of biogas generated, paired with high loading rates and feedstock flexibility.

  8. Suitability of banana peels for biogas production

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Meseguer, C.M.; Silesky, F.; Chacon, G.

    1983-01-01

    Banana (Musa cavendishii) peel in the ripe state (yellow with sufficient spots) has the potential to produce by anaerobic fermentation 0.22 plus or minus 0.03 cubic m biogas/kg dry material. Inhibition of the process can be prevented if the peel is pretreated by oxidation or if the process is carried out at approximately 35 degrees. The inoculate used must be acclimated to the medium.

  9. Covering Materials for Anaerobic Digesters Producing Biogas

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Itodo, I. N.; Philips, T. K.

    2002-01-01

    The suitability of foam, concrete and clay soil as covering material on anaerobic digesters producing biogas was investigated using four batch-type digesters of 20 litres volume. The methane yield from the digesters was of the order: foam >control> concrete > clay soil. The digester covered with foam had the highest methane yield, best temperature control and most favourable pH conditions. It is most suitable as cover material on anaerobic digesters

  10. The future of biogas in Europe 1997

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Holm-Nielsen, J B [ed.

    1997-08-01

    The European Waste to Energy network is part of the ALTENER Programme 1997. The prime objectives of the network are the development and dissemination of strategies for promotion, implementation and commercial exploration of opportunities in energy from waste and biomass resources. During 1997 special attention is paid to energy conversion from municipal solid waste, biogas production from animal manure and organic waste, and wood residuals for energy production. (au)

  11. BIOGAS POTENTIAL OF ORGANIC WASTE IN NIGERIA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chima C. Ngumah

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available With the growing demerits of fossil fuels - its finitude and its negative impact on the environment and public health - renewable energy is becoming a favoured emerging alternative. For over a millennium anaerobic digestion (AD has been employed in treating organic waste (biomass. The two main products of anaerobic digestion, biogas and biofertilizer, are very important resources. Since organic wastes are always available and unavoidable too, anaerobic digestion provides an efficient means of converting organic waste to profitable resources. This paper elucidates the potential benefits of organic waste generated in Nigeria as a renewable source of biofuel and biofertilizer. The selected organic wastes studied in this work are livestock wastes (cattle excreta, sheep and goat excreta, pig excreta, poultry excreta; and abattoir waste, human excreta, crop residue, and municipal solid waste (MSW. Using mathematical computation based on standard measurements, Nigeria generates about 542.5 million tons of the above selected organic waste per annum. This in turn has the potential of yielding about 25.53 billion m³ of biogas (about 169 541.66 MWh and 88.19 million tons of biofertilizer per annum. Both have a combined estimated value of about N 4.54 trillion ($ 29.29 billion. This potential biogas yield will be able to completely displace the use of kerosene and coal for domestic cooking, and reduce the consumption of wood fuel by 66%. An effective biogas programme in Nigeria will also remarkably reduce environmental and public health concerns, deforestation, and greenhouse gas (GHG emissions.

  12. BIOGAS POTENTIAL OF ORGANIC WASTE IN NIGERIA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chima C. Ngumah

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available With the growing demerits of fossil fuels - its finitude and its negative impact on the environment and public health - renewable energy is becoming a favoured emerging alternative. For over a millennium anaerobic digestion (AD has been employed in treating organic waste (biomass. The two main products of anaerobic digestion, biogas and biofertilizer, are very important resources. Since organic wastes are always available and unavoidable too, anaerobic digestion provides an efficient means of converting organic waste to profitable resources. This paper elucidates the potential benefits of organic waste generated in Nigeria as a renewable source of biofuel and biofertilizer. The selected organic wastes studied in this work are livestock wastes (cattle excreta, sheep and goat excreta, pig excreta, poultry excreta; and abattoir waste, human excreta, crop residue, and municipal solid waste (MSW. Using mathematical computation based on standard measurements, Nigeria generates about 542.5 million tons of the above selected organic waste per annum. This in turn has the potential of yielding about 25.53 billion m³ of biogas (about 169 541.66 MWh and 88.19 million tons of biofertilizer per annum. Both have a combined estimated value of about N 4.54 trillion ($ 29.29 billion. This potential biogas yield will be able to completely displace the use of kerosene and coal for domestic cooking, and reduce the consumption of wood fuel by 66%. An effective biogas programme in Nigeria will also remarkably reduce environmental and public health concerns, deforestation, and greenhouse gas (GHG emissions.

  13. CONSIDERATIONS OVER A BIOGAS PLANT COMPONENTS

    OpenAIRE

    Mariana DUMITRU

    2014-01-01

    This paper starts from the conviction that one of the main environmental problems of today’s society is the continuously increasing production of organic wastes. In many countries, sustainable waste management have become major political priorities in order to reduce pollution and greenhouse gas emissions and to avoid, as much as possible, global climate changes. This problem becomes more and more present in our country too. Production of biogas through anaerobic digestion of animal manure an...

  14. The Usage of Biogas in Fuel Cell Systems; Utilizacion de Biogas en Pilas de Combustible

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Perez Martinez, M; Cuesta Santianes, M J; Nunez Crespi, S; Cabrera Jimenez, J A

    2008-08-06

    The usage of biogas in fuel cell systems is nowadays considered as a promising alternative for energy production worldwide as it involves the use of a valuable residual biomass resource that could enable the obtention of combined heat, cold and power generation very efficiently, while additionally avoiding greenhouse gas emissions to the atmosphere. Both development lines (biogas and fuel cells) and their associated technologies are receiving a great support from the different states, pioneer countries being Japan and U.S.A. The objective of this study is to make a detail analysis of the state of the art of biogas-powered fuel cell systems worldwide. Most representative players in the field are identified through the search of the scientific publications, projects and patent documents in which they are involved. (Author) 18 refs.

  15. Climate gas balances of biogas and their significance; Klimagasbilanzen von Biogas und ihre Aussagekraft

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dressler, Daniela [HAWK Hildesheim Holzminden Goettingen, Goettingen (Germany). Fachgebiet Nachhaltige Energie- und Umwelttechnik NEUTec; Loewen, Achim; Nelles, Michael

    2012-07-01

    The greenhouse-gas balances of production and use of biogas strongly depend on specific parameters such as the input material, the system technology and/or the way the biogas is used. These parameters can vary from region to region and from plant to plant. Considering regional, local and plant-specific factors, in the district of Celle greenhouse-gas emissions are more than 3 times higher than in the district of Goettingen (0.2 resp. 0.06 kg CO{sub 2}-eqv./kWh{sub el}). Including further parameters such as indirect land use changes or an open storage of fermentation residues increases the differences of these specific results even more. Consequently a derivation of general values to calculate a climate protection potential for the production and use of biogas for all regions and/or countries is almost impossible. Climate protection potentials, created on the basis of general values, may therefore be considerably imprecise. (orig.)

  16. 18{sup th} bioenergy symposium. Solid fuels, biofuels, biogas; 18. Symposium Bioenergie. Festbrennstoffe, Biokraftstoffe, Biogas

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2009-07-01

    Within the 18th symposium of the Ostbayerisches Technologie-Transfer-Institut e.V. (Regensburg, Federal Republic of Germany) from 19th to 20th November, 2009, in the Banz Monastery in Bad Staffelstein (Federal Republic of Germany), the following lectures were held: (1) Brief statement from the viewpoint of the politics (U. Holzhammer); (2) Brief statement from the viewpoint of the Federal Association BioEnergie e.V., Bonn (H. Lamp); (3) Brief statement from the viewpoint of the professional association biogas, Freising (C. da Costa Gomez); (4) Brief statement from the view of the Association of the German Biofuel Industry e.V., Berlin (E. Baumann); (5) Considerations about the condensing technology at biomass furnaces (S. Beer); (6) Dust extraction processes at small-scale heating plants (T. Birnbaum); (7) Particulate matter emissions at small-scale heating plants - Current results of research and practical experiences (H. Hartmann); (8) Energy wood from te acre - Production and utilisation of short-rotation wood in Steiermark (E. Dorner); (9) Landscape conservation materials - to pity to be left lying. (C. Letalik); (10) Requirement of the EU on sustainable biomass - The national implementation (U. Holzhammer); (11) Perspectives of the biofuel supply - Classification of the fuel options according to the technical, economic and ecologic criteria (M. Scheftelowitz); (12) Chances and limits of a sustainability classification of bio energy (E. Schmidt); (13) Balancing of the bio ethanol production with respect to the sustainability regulation (T. Senn); (14) Sweet sorghum - an alternative for the ethanol production in Germany? (J. Witzelsperger); (15) Synergies at the utilization in composting and fermentation (F. Hoegl); (16) Newest developments and potentials of alternative energy crops (A. von Felde); (17) Construction of biogas plants - It is the digestion that matters (T. Lehmann); (18) Emissions of formaldehyde from biogas engine plants (G. Ebertsch); (19

  17. System to the quantification of biogas; Sistema para quantificacao de biogas

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Caetano, L. [UNESP, Ilha Solteira, SP (Brazil). Faculdade de Engenharia; Goldonio, J.S. [UNESP, Botucatu, SP (Brazil). Faculdade de Ciencias Agronomicas

    1987-12-31

    The search of an adequate methodology to determination of the volumetric ratios of biogas production is necessary, in consequence of the diversification of the equipments is discussed. The objective of this work is to purpose a system to determine the quantity of biogas produced at low quantity. Nine laboratory biodigesters were constructed with 10 liters of capacity operated in batch system. They are feed with 7 liters of waste cattle and water mixture, PH 6,2 and 8% of total solids and 37 deg C as average temperature. The biogas produced were stored in plastic gasometer until prefixed pressure and launching in air through a valve operated by an electronic circuit, coming back the pressure to the initial value and registering the pulse in a counter.The number of pulses in a determinate period give an idea of the Biodigester gas production and guarantee the success of measure system 18 refs, 10 figs., 3 tabs.

  18. Study of the use of a micro hydro in knockdown container completed with a cylindrical form housing of francis hydraulic turbine to support the development program of energy self-sustainability for remote and isolated areas in Indonesia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kamal, Samsul; Prajitno; Pardadi, Janu

    2017-11-01

    With an intention to reduce the consumption of energy from fossil fuels and the CO2 emission in relation with the climate change solution, Indonesian Government has targeted that the role of the New and Renewable Energy (NRE) resources reaches at least 23% , or about 27 GW , in 2025 and it is expected to increase to the extent of about 134 GW in 2050 within the scenario of mixed energy supply. Geographically Indonesia has many remote and isolated areas with lack of appropriate infrastructure supports. But in the most of the areas, huge potential of new and renewable energy are available such as hydro energy is about 75 GW, biomass energy is about 32 GW and bio fuel is about 32 GW. The total utilization of the energy from small hydro energy up to this year for example is only about 300 MW. The significant obstacle in optimizing the utilization of small hydro energy in the areas is mainly on the infrastructure conditions and the local manufacture capabilities. Difficulties in mobilization of experts, skill worker , parts and constructions material result in very time consuming and costly for site construction. In this research a hydro turbine built in knock down container completed with a Francis turbine in cylindrical form housing is proposed and reported its performance on implementation. The hydro in a knock down container concept comes from the idea to manufacture hydro power solutions in a knock down container, readymade to be transported to installation sites. It can be easily manufactured in a quality controlled and cost effective environment, transported and installed in remote areas, to operate and maintain with minimal amount of equipment. It shows that the implementation of the unit in a remote area has reduced the total site construction time by 1/3 compared to the predicted one with conventional unit. The performance of the Francis turbine with cylindrical form housing has shown comparable with the conventional one which has volute form housing. The

  19. Climate balance of biogas upgrading systems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pertl, A.; Mostbauer, P.; Obersteiner, G.

    2010-01-01

    One of the numerous applications of renewable energy is represented by the use of upgraded biogas where needed by feeding into the gas grid. The aim of the present study was to identify an upgrading scenario featuring minimum overall GHG emissions. The study was based on a life-cycle approach taking into account also GHG emissions resulting from plant cultivation to the process of energy conversion. For anaerobic digestion two substrates have been taken into account: (1) agricultural resources and (2) municipal organic waste. The study provides results for four different upgrading technologies including the BABIU (Bottom Ash for Biogas Upgrading) method. As the transport of bottom ash is a critical factor implicated in the BABIU-method, different transport distances and means of conveyance (lorry, train) have been considered. Furthermore, aspects including biogas compression and energy conversion in a combined heat and power plant were assessed. GHG emissions from a conventional energy supply system (natural gas) have been estimated as reference scenario. The main findings obtained underlined how the overall reduction of GHG emissions may be rather limited, for example for an agricultural context in which PSA-scenarios emit only 10% less greenhouse gases than the reference scenario. The BABIU-method constitutes an efficient upgrading method capable of attaining a high reduction of GHG emission by sequestration of CO 2 .

  20. Analysis of biogas compression system dynamics

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Morini, Mirko; Pinelli, Michele; Venturini, Mauro

    2009-01-01

    The use of biogas for energy production has progressively increased in recent years, due to an increasing interest both in agricultural and energy policies of many industrialized countries. Biogas compression by means of natural gas infrastructure seems the most immediate solution, but could also lead to problems due to the different physical properties of the two gases. In this paper, a non-linear one-dimensional modular dynamic model is developed and used for the simulation of compression system transient behavior. The arrangement consists of a main line, where the compressor operates, and an anti-surge control, which consists of a recycle loop activated by a fast acting valve. Different maneuvers (start-up, normal operation, emergency shutdown and operating point variation) are simulated by using two different working fluids (methane and biogas). Simulations prove that the design of the surge protection system should consider the fluid to be elaborated. Moreover, system predisposition to surge increases as the ratio between system volumes and the inertia of the rotating masses increases.

  1. Modelization of Biogas production in Sanitary landfills; Modelizacion de la produccion de Biogas en vertederos controlados

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rodriguez-Iglesias, J.; Castrillon, L.; Maranon, E.; Sastre, H. [Universidad de Oviedo (Spain)

    2000-07-01

    Amongst all the different alternatives for the eliminator or treatment of MSW (Municipal Solid Waste), sanitary landfills is probably the one that is most widely employed to date, due to its economic advantages. With the coming into effect of the Spanish Containers and Packaging Law, alongside that of the Council Directive 1999/31/CE, concerning waste disposal, this situation will be substantially modified. At the same time, the application of said Directive will influence the amount of biogas generated in landfills. The present research work a study of the influence that the aforementioned Directive will have on the production of biogas in a sanitary landfill which currently disposes of around 400.000 Tm/year of MSW, 52% of which is easily biodegradable organic matter. The model proposed by Marticorena was applied and the kinetic parameters, MPO and d, were experimentally obtained by means of a pilot-plant study of MSW anaerobic degradation, the values employed being 173 Nm3 of biogas/Tm of the organic fraction of MSW for MPO, and 3 years for d. The results obtained in the model are compared with those obtained experimentally at the COGERSA landfill, Asturias, Spain. Twenty wells were chosen to analyse the production of biogas, giving an overall average yield of 70%. In 1999, around 4,100 m''3/h of biogas were extracted at the COGERSA landfill. Application of the model gave an estimation for 1999 of an average production of 5,369 m''3/h giving a maximum yield in the extraction of biogas of around 75%. The difference between the two average yields obtained may be due to the fact that the model only takes into account the easily biodegradable organic fraction, whilst in the landfill, given that more time has passed, other substances with a longer period of degradation, such as paper and cardboard, may also be degraded. (Author) 10 refs.

  2. Potential for energy production and use from biogas in Brazil; Potencial de aproveitamento energetico do biogas no Brasil

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zanette, Andre Luiz

    2009-12-15

    Biogas, produced from anaerobic digestion of organic matter in domestic, industrial and rural wastewaters and residuals, represent an alternative and renewable source of energy, with growing use worldwide. In Brazil, high population and its spatial concentration and expressive agricultural and agricultural-industrial production indicate a substantial potential of biogas production. The results presented in this work show a potential of biogas production of almost 2 billion cubic feet a day of CH{sub 4}. Viability of biogas production and use depends substantially on project scale. Generally, biogas projects are viable from landfills and domestic wastewater treatment for populations higher than 50,000 inhabitants and swine and dairy farms with at least 5,000 and 1,000 animals, respectively. Biogas is also competitive when compared to fossil fuels used in industry and transport. Despite incentive mechanisms for biogas production and use, like Clean Development Mechanism and renewable and alternative sources of energy incentives in Brazil, several regulatory, institutional, economical and technological barriers difficult the effective employment of biogas in Brazil. Thus, this work indicates the need of better coordination among different governmental levels, private sector and research and development institutions and effective policy formulation to promote a better employment of biogas in Brazil. (author)

  3. Progress in biogas. Biogas production from agricultural biomass and organic residues. Pt. 1 and 2. Proceedings (oral presentations and poster presentations); Fortschritt beim Biogas. Biogas aus landwirtschaftlicher Biomasse and organischen Reststoffen. T. 1 und 2. Tagungsband. Vortraege and Poster

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2007-07-01

    Within the International Conference ''Progress in Biogas - Biogas production from agricultural biomass and organic residues'' at the University Hohenheim (Stuttgart, Federal Republic of Germany) from 18th to 21st September, 2007, the following lectures were held: (1) Global relevance and potential of bioenergy for regional development; (2) Biogas electricity for France feed-in tariff and some other things to know before entering French market; (3) Policy drivers and future prospects for on-farm anaerobic digestion in Northern Ireland; (4) Biogas in Belgium, a swot analysis; (5) Status and prospects of biogas energy use in Ukraine; (6) Recent developments in Chinese agricultural biogas production; (7) Opportunities for agricultural based biogas systems in the province of Ontario, Canada; (8) Pre-treatment and digestion of separated collected household waste in Sweden; (9) To the problem of monitoring measures and prophylaxis measures with the utilization of organic residual substances in biological gas facilities from hygienic view; (10) Fermenting residues from biological gas facilities - nutrients and pollutants, possibilities of application in the agriculture; (11) Treatment and utilization of fermentation residues; (12) Potential of residual gas of NaWaRo feeded biogas plants in Baden-Wuerttemberg; (13) Operating analytics of biogas plants to improve efficiency and to ensure process stability; (14) The potential of biogas and electric power production from subproducts in the sugar and alcohol industries by the application of anaerobic digestion; (15) Co-digestion plant in dairy cattle farm in Emilia Romagna region (Italy); (16) Facing operational problems in a biodigeser in Yuvientsa - Amazonian Region of Ecuador; (17) Biogas plant instead of milk cow - payment and occupation with the use of grassilage; (18) Biogas in ecologic agriculture - experiences from 3 years of fermentation of grass-clover ley; (19) Combined solar-biogas basis for the

  4. Progress in biogas. Biogas production from agricultural biomass and organic residues. Pt. 1 and 2. Proceedings (oral presentations and poster presentations); Fortschritt beim Biogas. Biogas aus landwirtschaftlicher Biomasse and organischen Reststoffen. T. 1 und 2. Tagungsband. Vortraege and Poster

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2007-07-01

    Within the International Conference ''Progress in Biogas - Biogas production from agricultural biomass and organic residues'' at the University Hohenheim (Stuttgart, Federal Republic of Germany) from 18th to 21st September, 2007, the following lectures were held: (1) Global relevance and potential of bioenergy for regional development; (2) Biogas electricity for France feed-in tariff and some other things to know before entering French market; (3) Policy drivers and future prospects for on-farm anaerobic digestion in Northern Ireland; (4) Biogas in Belgium, a swot analysis; (5) Status and prospects of biogas energy use in Ukraine; (6) Recent developments in Chinese agricultural biogas production; (7) Opportunities for agricultural based biogas systems in the province of Ontario, Canada; (8) Pre-treatment and digestion of separated collected household waste in Sweden; (9) To the problem of monitoring measures and prophylaxis measures with the utilization of organic residual substances in biological gas facilities from hygienic view; (10) Fermenting residues from biological gas facilities - nutrients and pollutants, possibilities of application in the agriculture; (11) Treatment and utilization of fermentation residues; (12) Potential of residual gas of NaWaRo feeded biogas plants in Baden-Wuerttemberg; (13) Operating analytics of biogas plants to improve efficiency and to ensure process stability; (14) The potential of biogas and electric power production from subproducts in the sugar and alcohol industries by the application of anaerobic digestion; (15) Co-digestion plant in dairy cattle farm in Emilia Romagna region (Italy); (16) Facing operational problems in a biodigeser in Yuvientsa - Amazonian Region of Ecuador; (17) Biogas plant instead of milk cow - payment and occupation with the use of grassilage; (18) Biogas in ecologic agriculture - experiences from 3 years of fermentation of grass-clover ley; (19) Combined solar-biogas basis for the population social

  5. Turbine Imaging Technology Assessment

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Moursund, Russell A.; Carlson, Thomas J.

    2004-12-31

    The goal of this project was to identify and evaluate imaging alternatives for observing the behavior of juvenile fish within an operating Kaplan turbine unit with a focus on methods to quantify fish injury mechanisms inside an operating turbine unit. Imaging methods are particularly needed to observe the approach and interaction of fish with turbine structural elements. This evaluation documents both the opportunities and constraints for observing juvenile fish at specific locations during turbine passage. The information may be used to acquire the scientific knowledge to make structural improvements and create opportunities for industry to modify turbines and improve fish passage conditions.

  6. Turbine related fish mortality

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Eicher, G.J.

    1993-01-01

    A literature review was conducted to assess the factors affecting turbine-related fish mortality. The mechanics of fish passage through a turbine is outlined, and various turbine related stresses are described, including pressure and shear effects, hydraulic head, turbine efficiency, and tailwater level. The methodologies used in determining the effects of fish passage are evaluated. The necessity of adequate controls in each test is noted. It is concluded that mortality is the result of several factors such as hardiness of study fish, fish size, concentrations of dissolved gases, and amounts of cavitation. Comparisons between Francis and Kaplan turbines indicate little difference in percent mortality. 27 refs., 5 figs

  7. Turbine Imaging Technology Assessment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Moursund, Russell A.; Carlson, Thomas J.

    2004-01-01

    The goal of this project was to identify and evaluate imaging alternatives for observing the behavior of juvenile fish within an operating Kaplan turbine unit with a focus on methods to quantify fish injury mechanisms inside an operating turbine unit. Imaging methods are particularly needed to observe the approach and interaction of fish with turbine structural elements. This evaluation documents both the opportunities and constraints for observing juvenile fish at specific locations during turbine passage. The information may be used to acquire the scientific knowledge to make structural improvements and create opportunities for industry to modify turbines and improve fish passage conditions

  8. Arsenic volatilization in model anaerobic biogas digesters

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mestrot, Adrien; Xie, Wan-Ying; Xue, Ximei; Zhu, Yong-Guan

    2013-01-01

    Highlights: • Arsenic is volatilized form all model anaerobic digesters, including the non-treated ones. • Volatile As species can be identified and quantified in all digesters. • Non-arsenic treated digesters volatilization rates are higher than Roxarsone treated ones. - Abstract: Arsenic is a class 1 non-threshold carcinogen which is highly ubiquitous. Arsenic undergoes many different transformations (biotic or abiotic) between and within environmental compartments, leading to a number of different chemical species possessing different properties and toxicities. One specific transformation is As biotic volatilization which is coupled with As biomethylation and has been scarcely studied due to inherent sampling issues. Arsenic methylation/volatilization is also linked with methanogenesis and occurs in anaerobic environments. In China, rice straw and animal manure are very often used to produce biogas and both can contain high amounts of As, especially if the rice is grown in areas with heavy mining or smelting industries and if Roxarsone is fed to the animals. Roxarsone is an As-containing drug which is widely used in China to control coccidian intestinal parasites, to improve feed efficiency and to promote rapid growth. Previous work has shown that this compound degrades to inorganic As under anaerobic conditions. In this study the focus is on biotic transformations of As in small microcosms designed as biogas digester models (BDMs) using recently validated As traps, thus, enabling direct quantification and identification of volatile As species. It is shown that although there was a loss of soluble As in the BDMs, their conditions favored biomethylation. All reactors produced volatile As, especially the monomethylarsonic acid spiked ones with 413 ± 148 ng As (mean ± SD, n = 3) which suggest that the first methylation step, from inorganic As, is a limiting factor. The most abundant species was trimethylarsine, but the toxic arsine was present in the

  9. Combustor nozzles in gas turbine engines

    Science.gov (United States)

    Johnson, Thomas Edward; Keener, Christopher Paul; Stewart, Jason Thurman; Ostebee, Heath Michael

    2017-09-12

    A micro-mixer nozzle for use in a combustor of a combustion turbine engine, the micro-mixer nozzle including: a fuel plenum defined by a shroud wall connecting a periphery of a forward tube sheet to a periphery of an aft tubesheet; a plurality of mixing tubes extending across the fuel plenum for mixing a supply of compressed air and fuel, each of the mixing tubes forming a passageway between an inlet formed through the forward tubesheet and an outlet formed through the aft tubesheet; and a wall mixing tube formed in the shroud wall.

  10. Effect of Substrate on Biogas Yield | Adamu | Global Journal of ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Biogas technology converts biological matter or biological waste (substrate) into energy and simultaneously helps to improve the quality of life and the environment. The effect of substrate on biogas yield was studied by using different substrate in laboratory scale experiment using water displacement method to monitor the ...

  11. Sustainability effects of household-scale biogas in rural China

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Gosens, J.; Lu Yonglong,; He Guizhen,; Bluemling, B.; Beckers, T.A.M.

    2013-01-01

    Households in rural China rely heavily on low quality fuels which results in reduced quality of life and environmental degradation. This study assesses the comparative contribution of household scale biogas installations to the broad set of sustainability objectives in the Chinese biogas policy

  12. Costs of Producing Biogas at Dairy Farms in The Netherlands

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Gebrezgabher, S.A.; Meuwissen, M.P.M.; Oude Lansink, A.G.J.M.

    2010-01-01

    By 2020, Dutch dairy chains envisage to be self-sufficient with regard to energy used by dairy farms and dairy processors. This would require dairy farms to produce 25 PJ per year, possibly by a combination of wind, solar and biogas. This paper focuses on biogas. To evaluate the project’s viability

  13. Chelating ligands: enhancers of quality and purity of biogas ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The quality of biogas depends largely on the percentage of methane and hydrogen sulphide gas present. High concentration of hydrogen sulphide results in low quality biogas. This work employed the use of chelating ligands in scrubbing hydrogen sulphide gas while improving the yield of methane gas. Experimental ...

  14. An Introduction to Biogas Production on the Farm.

    Science.gov (United States)

    National Center for Appropriate Technology, Butte, MT.

    This three-section report provides introductory information about biogas production and its application to farm environments. The first section discusses the various components of a biogas production system (a system that converts organic wastes into a usable form of energy), explains the system's benefits and liabilities, and provides a brief…

  15. Evaluation of biogas production rate and biochemical changes in ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The rate of biogas generation and biochemical changes in pig dung used in a simple mobile biogas digester designed and constructed at the Department of Environmental Technology, Federal University of Technology Owerri, Nigeria were evaluated. Measurable gas production started 4 days after feeding the digester with ...

  16. Appraising the combustion of biogas for sustainable rural energy ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    This paper shows the combustion of biogas in rural households' appliances. Biogas has been known since 1800s as an odourless and colourless gas with high combustion rate. Its use is beginning to gain ground in most developing countries like Nigeria due to its availability, ease of generation and environmental ...

  17. Development Of A Biogas-Powered Poultry Egg Incubator ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    This study advances the utilization of biogas energy for chick production. A wooden frame still-air incubator was developed, which uses biogas as a fuel to supply heat through a burner installed at the base. A no-load test was carried out during which incubator temperatures were calibrated against ambient temperatures ...

  18. Effect of abdominal waste on biogas production from cow dung ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Studies have been carried out on the production of biogas from mixture of cow abdominal waste and its dung. The rate of biogas production and cumulative volume of the gas produced was compared with that of pure cow dung under the same experimental conditions. The result shows that the mixture of the cow abdominal ...

  19. A comparative and evaluative study of potential biogas production ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The research on suitable alternative clean energy carriers to substitute for the use of fossil fuels is rapidly attracting attention. Biogas is an energy carrier that is considered as a possible alternative in both the developed and the developing world. However, finding suitable energy crops to extract biogas without affecting food ...

  20. Comparative Study of Biogas Yield Pattern in Some Animal and ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    This research was a laboratory based work which compared Biogas yield patterns in some animal and household wastes. The parameters studied included dilution and concentration of substrates, the effect of available space in the digester, and the comparative biogas yield from different wastes. The method of research ...

  1. Potentials for commercial production of biogas from domestic food ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The work reported in this paper investigated the potentials of commercial biogas production from biodegradable waste in Benin metropolis. The study was carried out in two phases. The first phase involved characterization of solid waste generated and determination of the quantity of potential feed stock for biogas ...

  2. An evaluation of biogas production from anaerobic digester of a ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Ezekiel Adeniran

    2015-09-15

    Sep 15, 2015 ... average rate of production of biogas was found to be 641.83±88.26 m3/day. ... Key words: Anaerobic digester, biogas, constructed wetland, domestic sewage, ... of diseases and odour, when discharged in water bodies.

  3. Biogas generation and water management; Biogaserzeugung und Wasserwirtschaft

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fohrmann, Reinhard [IWW Rheinisch-Westfaelisches Institut fuer Wasser Beratungs- und Entwicklungsgesellschaft mbH, Muelheim an der Ruhr (Germany)

    2012-12-15

    Is it possible to attenuate the consequences of the increasing development of biogas generation for the water production by means of a meshing of energy industry and water management? On the occasion of the 25th Muelheim water technology symposium, experts discuss on opportunities and risks of the biogas generation.

  4. Kwaliteit biogas-CO2 voor toepassing in de glastuinbouw

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Dijk, van C.J.; Meinen, E.; Dueck, T.A.

    2014-01-01

    Een lijst van specificaties voor vloeibaar CO2 uit biogas moet voorkomen dat fytotoxische componenten vanuit het biogas meekomen met de CO2 stroom en een risico vormen voor de gewassen in glastuinbouw. Op basis van eerder uitgevoerde metingen in afgassen van vergistingsinstallaties is een lijst

  5. Potential for sustainable energy with biogas from sewage purification

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Coenen, J.; Van Gastel, M.; De Jong, K.

    2005-04-01

    Insight is given into the possibility to produce biogas from sewage purification plants in the Netherlands. Attention is paid to the estimated potential of sustainable energy from biogas, the economic effectiveness of several scenarios, the critical success factors and bottlenecks [nl

  6. Utilization of waste as biogas substrateby dominan microbes identified

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nurlina, E.; Sambasri, S.; Hartati, E.; Safitri, R.; Hodijat, A.

    2018-05-01

    Indonesia as the tropics have a source of biomass feedstock which is very large, so the waste biomass can be used optimally as an energy source in the form of biogas. This study was conducted to obtain alternative energy from domestic waste materials, given the limited availability of petroleum and natural gas sourced from fossil fuels. This methodology is an experimental method, the process conditions at room temperature 25-27 °C, pH adjusted to the growth of microbes to produce biogas, retention time 20-60 days, the bioreactor is operated with a batch system, the volume of waste in the bioreactor is made permanent, so that the production of biogas in large scale will increase the pressure inside the bioreactor. Biogas is formed accommodated then distributed to the stove. Factors that determine the formation of biogas is a microbial species capable methanogens convert acetate into biogas. From the results of microbial identification of the isolates in the bioreactor, has identified three types of bacteria methanogens namely Methanospirillum hungatei, Methanobacterium polustre and Methanolacinapoynteri. The results of this study, domestic waste can be utilized as a substrate in biogas production, with the highest methane composition reaches 50.79%. This result is expected to increase public knowledge to utilize the waste into biogas as a renewable energy to sufficient the energy needs of household, so it does not depend on the energy derived from fossil fuels.

  7. Comparison of kinetic model for biogas production from corn cob

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shitophyta, L. M.; Maryudi

    2018-04-01

    Energy demand increases every day, while the energy source especially fossil energy depletes increasingly. One of the solutions to overcome the energy depletion is to provide renewable energies such as biogas. Biogas can be generated by corn cob and food waste. In this study, biogas production was carried out by solid-state anaerobic digestion. The steps of biogas production were the preparation of feedstock, the solid-state anaerobic digestion, and the measurement of biogas volume. This study was conducted on TS content of 20%, 22%, and 24%. The aim of this research was to compare kinetic models of biogas production from corn cob and food waste as a co-digestion using the linear, exponential equation, and first-kinetic models. The result showed that the exponential equation had a better correlation than the linear equation on the ascending graph of biogas production. On the contrary, the linear equation had a better correlation than the exponential equation on the descending graph of biogas production. The correlation values on the first-kinetic model had the smallest value compared to the linear and exponential models.

  8. A tool for analyzing the sustainability of biogas production chains

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Pierie, Frank; Broekhuijsen, J.; van Gemert, Wim; Moll, Henri C.

    2014-01-01

    Abstract written for an poster presentation at the EBA conference in Alkmaar. The flexibility of biogas makes it a very capable load balancer within decentralized smart energy systems. However, within this context the sustainability of biogas production is not fully understood. What is needed is a

  9. Individual acceptance of the biogas innovation: A structural equation model

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Emmann, Carsten H.; Arens, Ludwig; Theuvsen, Ludwig

    2013-01-01

    The rapid spread of biogas production in Germany has resulted in an increased public debate over this new business branch. Today the production of biogas is much more controversially debated than several years ago. At the same time it could be proven that even among farmers themselves the acceptance of biogas production in some regions is somewhat dampened due to accompanying “collateral damages”. Therefore, the goal of this paper is to identify relevant influencing factors that determine the acceptance of the innovation “biogas” among farmers by applying a causal analysis. Initial results among the five investigated determinants show that not only an individual attitude toward biogas but also the farmers' personal innovativeness strongly and significantly influences an individual's acceptance of the innovation “biogas”. -- Highlights: •Strong expansion of biogas production based on renewable resources in Germany since 2004. •Low acceptance of biogas production in some regions. •Identification of influencing factors that determine the individual acceptance of the biogas innovation among German farmers. •Compared to existing studies, personal innovativeness was taken into account in the causal model. •Results are important for the further expansion of biogas production in Germany as well as in other countries

  10. Key factors affecting performance of biogas latrines in urban ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Pre-tested questionnaires were administered to users, owners and construction technicians/masons of the biogas latrines. Field observations were also undertaken to assess physical conditions of the biogas latrines. Principal component analysis was then used to establish correlation between variables of design, ...

  11. Ethiopia's emerging domestic biogas sector : Current status, bottlenecks and drivers

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kamp, L.M.; Bermúdez Forn, Esteban

    2016-01-01

    Ethiopia experiences an energy and environmental crisis due to the sustained reliance on woody biomass to satisfy its energy needs. This situation could be improved by using biogas. This paper analyses the current status of the domestic biogas sector in Ethiopia and identifies barriers and

  12. Energy Efficiency of Biogas Produced from Different Biomass Sources

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Begum, Shahida; Nazri, A H

    2013-01-01

    Malaysia has different sources of biomass like palm oil waste, agricultural waste, cow dung, sewage waste and landfill sites, which can be used to produce biogas and as a source of energy. Depending on the type of biomass, the biogas produced can have different calorific value. At the same time the energy, being used to produce biogas is dependent on transportation distance, means of transportation, conversion techniques and for handling of raw materials and digested residues. An energy systems analysis approach based on literature is applied to calculate the energy efficiency of biogas produced from biomass. Basically, the methodology is comprised of collecting data, proposing locations and estimating the energy input needed to produce biogas and output obtained from the generated biogas. The study showed that palm oil and municipal solid waste is two potential sources of biomass. The energy efficiency of biogas produced from palm oil residues and municipal solid wastes is 1.70 and 3.33 respectively. Municipal solid wastes have the higher energy efficiency due to less transportation distance and electricity consumption. Despite the inherent uncertainties in the calculations, it can be concluded that the energy potential to use biomass for biogas production is a promising alternative.

  13. Eggshells – assisted hydrolysis of banana pulp for biogas production

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    KARAKANA

    In this study, pretreatment of banana pulp using eggshells in both calcined and un-calcined forms to examine the ... Key words: Anaerobic digestion, banana pulp hydrolysis biogas, eggshells. .... obtain fine powder. ..... using pig waste and cassava peels. ... from bioethanol waste: the effect of pH and urea addition to biogas.

  14. Biogas technology research in selected sub-Saharan African countries

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    This reviews aims to provide an insight and update of the state of biogas technology research in some selected sub-Saharan African countries in peer reviewed literature. This paper also aims to highlight the sub-Saharan countries' strengths and weaknesses in biogas research and development capacity. An attempt is ...

  15. Spectral Polarimetric Features Analysis of Wind Turbine Clutter in Weather Radar

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Yin, J.; Krasnov, O.A.; Unal, C.M.H.; Medagli, S.; Russchenberg, H.W.J.

    2017-01-01

    Wind turbine clutter has gradually become a concern for the radar community for its increasing size and quantity worldwide. Based on the S-band polarimetric Doppler PARSAX radar measurements, this paper demonstrates the micro-Doppler features and spectral-polarimetric characteristic of wind turbine

  16. Micro Engineering

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Alting, Leo; Kimura, F.; Hansen, Hans Nørgaard

    2003-01-01

    The paper addresses the questions of how micro products are designed and how they are manufactured. Definitions of micro products and micro engineering are discussed and the presentation is aimed at describing typical issues, possibilities and tools regarding design of micro products. The implica......The paper addresses the questions of how micro products are designed and how they are manufactured. Definitions of micro products and micro engineering are discussed and the presentation is aimed at describing typical issues, possibilities and tools regarding design of micro products...

  17. Life cycle assessment of biogas from sewage treatment sludge; Livscykelanalys av biogas fraan avloppsreningsverksslam

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Palm, David; Ek, Mats (IVL Swedish Environmental Research Inst., Stockholm (Sweden))

    2010-08-15

    This report analyses the environmental impact from 1MJ of biogas (as vehicle fuel) produced by anaerobic digestion of sewage sludge. Data are primarily taken from Kaeppala sewage treatment plant, but have been complemented with data from literature. As a base case, the biogas has only been given the environmental burden from upgrading and purification of raw gas. This is because the anaerobic digestion is an inherent part of the waste water treatment in Sweden, biogas being produced regardless of its chosen end utilization. Calculations have also been performed with system expansion where the anaerobic digestion, sludge treatment and replaced mineral fertilizer have been included in the analysis, as well as calculations based on economic and energy allocation. The results have been characterised in accordance to CML (2007) for the potential of global warming on a 100 year perspective, eutrophication, acidification, photochemical oxidation creation and particles. The study represents a Swedish state-of-the-art plant for biogas production but also includes a sensitivity analysis that cover a Swedish average plant and a worst case plant. The sensitivity analysis shows a major impact on the results from methane leakage during anaerobic digestion and upgrading. The electricity consumption and choice of Swedish average electricity versus Swedish marginal electricity is of less importance for the outcome of the study

  18. The Stability of Lubricant Oil Acidity of Biogas Fuelled Engine due to Biogas Desulfurization

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gde Tirta Nindhia, Tjokorda; Wayan Surata, I.; Wardana, Ari

    2017-05-01

    This research is established for the purpose of the understanding the stability of the acidity of lubricant oil in biogas fuelled engine due to the absence of hydrogen sulfide (H2S). As was recognized that other than Methane (CH4), there are also other gas impurities in the biogas such as carbon dioxide (CO2), hydrogen sulfide (H2S), moisture (H2O) and ammonia (NH3). Due to H2S contents in the biogas fuel, the engine was found failure. This is caused by corrosion in the combustion chamber due to increase of lubricant acidity. To overcome this problem in practical, the lubricant is increased the pH to basic level with the hope will be decrease to normal value after several time use. Other method is by installing pH measurement sensor in the engine lubricant so that when lubricant is known turn to be acid, then lubricant replacement should be done. In this research, the effect of biogas desulfurization down to zero level to the acidity of lubricant oil in the four stroke engine was carried out with the hope that neutral lubrication oil to be available during running the engine. The result indicates that by eliminating H2S due desulfurization process, effect on stability and neutrality of pH lubricant. By this method the engine safety can be obtained without often replacement the lubricant oil.

  19. Energy utilization from landfill biogas; Aproveitamento energetico do biogas de aterros sanitarios

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Candiani, Giovano [Universidade Federal do ABC, Santo Andre, SP (Brazil). Programa de Pos-Graduacao em Energia; Hoffmann, Gustavo; Silva, Elissandro Rocha da; Moreira, Joao M.L.; Tomioka, Jorge

    2008-07-01

    Landfills for solid waste disposal are used in Brazil and in most of countries in the world. The organic part of the solid wastes produces gas out of the decomposition of its organic content. This gas, named biogas and mostly made of carbon dioxide and methane, may be collected and used as an energy source due the methane presence. In this work we analyze the possible energy utilization of landfill biogas in Brazil in which the organic content of the solid waste is about 60%. The use of biogas as energy source can reduce the greenhouse gas emissions and improve the sanitation conditions of landfills. Moreover, it allows financial gains through selling of energy and carbon credits. In order to make possible the biogas utilization it is necessary to recognize the differences among the many landfills which exist in the country. There are the large and small landfills. The large ones usually have good instrumentation and gas exhaustion systems while the small ones have passive exhaustion systems and very few field instrumentation. The small landfills need to improve their instrumentation system and to incorporate exhaustion systems. (author)

  20. The benefits of biogas as a livestock waste management technology

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Putra, Ahmad Romadhoni Surya; Liu, Zhen; Lund, Mogens

    2014-01-01

    neighbor matching (NNM) to measure the benefits of adopting biogas technology. The results indicated that the biogas adopters were the farmers who had a longer formal education; owned more cattle; had better access to information about the technology and better access to the biogas installation’s aid...... program; although, they had less access to formal credit. The estimation of treatment effects showed that farmers who adopted the biogas technology gained benefits through decreases in crops expenses and increases in the livestock and non-agricultural income. Furthermore, the results showed that adopting...... synergies between crop farming, livestock, and household in terms of mixed crop and livestock farming, as an Integrated Farming System (IFS) practice, at the farm household level. Although the biogas technology provided the alternative energy source for the household, the specific benefits as an energy...

  1. Density of biogas digestate depending on temperature and composition.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gerber, Mandy; Schneider, Nico

    2015-09-01

    Density is one of the most important physical properties of biogas digestate to ensure an optimal dimensioning and a precise design of biogas plant components like stirring devices, pumps and heat exchangers. In this study the density of biogas digestates with different compositions was measured using pycnometers at ambient pressure in a temperature range from 293.15 to 313.15K. The biogas digestates were taken from semi-continuous experiments, in which the marine microalga Nannochloropsis salina, corn silage and a mixture of both were used as feedstocks. The results show an increase of density with increasing total solid content and a decrease with increasing temperature. Three equations to calculate the density of biogas digestate were set up depending on temperature as well as on the total solid content, organic composition and elemental composition, respectively. All correlations show a relative deviation below 1% compared to experimental data. Copyright © 2015. Published by Elsevier Ltd.

  2. Achieving Sustainability: Insights from Biogas Ecosystems in India

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gita Surie

    2017-02-01

    Full Text Available This paper focuses on how the use of renewable energy technologies such as biogas can help to achieve environmental and socio-economic sustainability. It combines research on sustainable consumption and production, natural and industrial ecosystems and renewable energy adoption to develop a framework for an industrial ecosystem for biogas for bottom-of-the-pyramid and rural populations. The framework suggests that three dimensions of industrial ecosystems and a meta-dimension can be embedded in the design of a new industrial ecosystem for biogas to facilitate environmental and socio-economic sustainability. Case studies of an organization engaged in using biogas to create a sustainable bioenergy ecosystem for rural populations and two organizations producing biogas in urban India provide support for the framework.

  3. Biogas Initiative from Swine Farm in Southern Thailand

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Damrongsak Det

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available First biogas pipeline network has been well established in southern Thailand. About 1,273 households, accountable for about 87% of the total of 1,466 households in the district, get the benefits from biogas energy in many ways. Key success to this initiative is the collaboration between all parties, i.e., swine farm owners, households, and government officials. Swine farm owners are responsible for the design and construction of the biogas plants. Households pay some contributions regarding labor work and maintenance cost on biogas system and its pipeline network. Government officials are responsible for financial and technical supports to both parties. Indeed biogas energy offers an alternative source of heat energy for cooking fuel in this region.

  4. Impact of Biogas Stations on CO2 Emission from Agriculture

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Josef Slaboch

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper deals with the effects of biogas stations on CO2 emissions produced within agricultural sector. In last years, owing to a positive policy of renewable energy resources a number of biogas stations in the CR has rapidly increased – actually over 350 agricultural biogas stations with the total installed power 365 MW are in operation. Concerning CO2 emissions from the agricultural sector, there is a presumption of decrease in produced emissions owing to decrease of influence of animal wastes which are processed just in the biogas stations. From the results it is obvious that CO2 emissions produced by agriculture in the CR decrease by 93.7 thousand tonnes annually. A presumption P1 that building of biogas stations will further support this trend is documented with results of a simple dynamic linear regression model. Further, elasticities of particular variables influencing the total emission from agriculture are investigated in the paper.

  5. Biogas utilization as flammable for internal combustion engine

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cardenas, H.

    1995-01-01

    In this work the energetic potential stored in form of generated biogas of organic industrial wastes treatment is analyzed. Biogas utilization as flammable at internal combustion engine coupled to electrical energy generating is studied in the Wastewater Treatment Plant of Bucaramanga city (Colombia). This Plant was designed for 160.000 habitants treatment capacity, 1300 m3/h wealth, 170 BDO/m3 residues concentration and 87% process efficiency. The plant generate 2.000 m3/d of biogas. In laboratory trials was worked with biogas originating from Treatment Plant, both without purifying and purified, and the obtained results were compared with both yields determined with 86-octanes gasoline and natural gas. The analysis of pollutant by-products generated in combustion process as leak gases, present corrosive compounds and not desirable. elements in biogas composition are included

  6. Microbial electrochemical separation of CO2 for biogas upgrading

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kokkoli, Argyro; Zhang, Yifeng; Angelidaki, Irini

    2018-01-01

    was obtained at 1.2 V, inlet biogas rate of 0.088 mL/h/mL reactor and NaCl concentration of 100 mM at a 5-day operation. Meanwhile, the organic matter of the domestic wastewater in the anode was almost completely removed at the end. The study demonstrated a new sustainable way to simultaneously upgrade biogas......Biogas upgrading to natural gas quality has been under focus the recent years for increasing the utilization potential of biogas. Conventional methods for CO2 removal are expensive and have environmental challenges, such as increased emissions of methane in the atmosphere with serious greenhouse...... impact. In this study, an innovative microbial electrochemical separation cell (MESC) was developed to in-situ separate and regenerate CO2 via alkali and acid regeneration. The MESC was tested under different applied voltages, inlet biogas rates and electrolyte concentrations. Pure biomethane...

  7. Comparative evaluation of different types of biogas suitable for tropical country

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sahu, S.N.; Gbagbo, J.K.N.; Aneke, F.U.

    1997-04-01

    The biogas technology - anaerobic digestion - is described together with different types of biogas plants suitable for tropical countries. Cost-benefit analysis of establishing biogas plants, financial support options, and the benefits of using biogas as an energy source in rural areas are presented. (LN)

  8. 15. Annual Meeting on biogas and bioenergy in agriculture. Proceedings; 15. Jahrestagung Biogas und Bioenergie in der Landwirtschaft. Tagungsband

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2006-07-01

    The volume contains besides the general statements on environmental protection and energy savings in the future and biogas as great potential for the rural development the following contributions in four parts: 1. political enveloping conditions: biogas usage within the frame of the the new EEG; state of biogas usage in Baden-Wuerttemberg; practical experiences end perspectives for the biogas development; renewable raw materials from the view of environmenmental protection; 2. gas utilization: the bioenergy village Mauenheim - model for the rural area; compression ignition gas engines with biogenic ignition oils; realization and economic performance of gas engines with biogas; microgasturbines - engineering and chances, gas processing and feeding into the gas network; 3. substrate: influence of the energy plant agriculture on the regional structures; biogas plants: substrate control by TS sensing; fermentation of fusaria contaminated corn; substrate contracts in the view of revenue and contract legacy; energy plants agriculture in Baden-Wuerttemberg; 4. process biology: comparison of dry and wet fermentation; fundamentals, process stability analytical possibilities; start-up of a biogas plant; biogas process with external hydrolysis; problems in the fermenter - inhibitors and auxiliaries.

  9. Methodology for Analysing Energy Demand in Biogas Production Plants—A Comparative Study of Two Biogas Plants

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Emma Lindkvist

    2017-11-01

    Full Text Available Biogas production through anaerobic digestion may play an important role in a circular economy because of the opportunity to produce a renewable fuel from organic waste. However, the production of biogas may require energy in the form of heat and electricity. Therefore, resource-effective biogas production must consider both biological and energy performance. For the individual biogas plant to improve its energy performance, a robust methodology to analyse and evaluate the energy demand on a detailed level is needed. Moreover, to compare the energy performance of different biogas plants, a methodology with a consistent terminology, system boundary and procedure is vital. The aim of this study was to develop a methodology for analysing the energy demand in biogas plants on a detailed level. In the methodology, the energy carriers are allocated to: (1 sub-processes (e.g., pretreatment, anaerobic digestion, gas cleaning, (2 unit processes (e.g., heating, mixing, pumping, lighting and (3 a combination of these. For a thorough energy analysis, a combination of allocations is recommended. The methodology was validated by applying it to two different biogas plants. The results show that the methodology is applicable to biogas plants with different configurations of their production system.

  10. Influence of biogas flow rate on biomass composition during the optimization of biogas upgrading in microalgal-bacterial processes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Serejo, Mayara L; Posadas, Esther; Boncz, Marc A; Blanco, Saúl; García-Encina, Pedro; Muñoz, Raúl

    2015-03-03

    The influence of biogas flow rate (0, 0.3, 0.6, and 1.2 m(3) m(-2) h(-1)) on the elemental and macromolecular composition of the algal-bacterial biomass produced from biogas upgrading in a 180 L photobioreactor interconnected to a 2.5 L external bubbled absorption column was investigated using diluted anaerobically digested vinasse as cultivation medium. The influence of the external liquid recirculation/biogas ratio (0.5 biogas, was also evaluated. A L/G ratio of 10 was considered optimum to support CO2 and H2S removals of 80% and 100%, respectively, at all biogas flow rates tested. Biomass productivity increased at increasing biogas flow rate, with a maximum of 12 ± 1 g m(-2) d(-1) at 1.2 m(3) m(-2) h(-1), while the C, N, and P biomass content remained constant at 49 ± 2%, 9 ± 0%, and 1 ± 0%, respectively, over the 175 days of experimentation. The high carbohydrate contents (60-76%), inversely correlated to biogas flow rates, would allow the production of ≈100 L of ethanol per 1000 m(3) of biogas upgraded under a biorefinery process approach.

  11. Sustainability effects of household-scale biogas in rural China

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gosens, Jorrit; Lu, Yonglong; He, Guizhen; Bluemling, Bettina; Beckers, Theo A.M.

    2013-01-01

    Households in rural China rely heavily on low quality fuels which results in reduced quality of life and environmental degradation. This study assesses the comparative contribution of household scale biogas installations to the broad set of sustainability objectives in the Chinese biogas policy framework, which targets household budget, fuel collection workload, forest degradation, indoor air quality and health, renewable energy supply, and climate change. A household survey was used to determine how biogas affected consumption levels of crop residues, fuel wood, coal, LPG, and electricity. Biogas users were found to reduce consumption of biomass fuels but not coal. Although LPG is not a highly commonly used fuel in rural China, biogas users nearly cease to use it altogether. A big reduction in fuel wood consumption results in strongly reduced workload and forest degradation. Although household scale biogas has alleviated all sustainability issues targeted by Chinese policies, low quality fuel use remains abundant, even in households using biogas. Continued promotion of the construction of biogas installations is advisable, but additional policies are needed to ensure higher quality heating energy supply and cleaner uses of biomass fuels. - Highlights: ► Household biogas alleviated all sustainability issues targeted by policy. ► Biogas users consume less biomass fuels, much less LPG, but similar amounts of coal. ► Strongest sustainability effects are reduced workload and forest degradation. ► Household budget effects are slight as commercial cooking fuel use is limited. ► Low quality fuel use remains abundant and further policy efforts are needed

  12. Performance optimization of the Växtkraft biogas production plant

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Thorin, Eva; Lindmark, Johan; Nordlander, Eva; Odlare, Monica; Dahlquist, Erik; Kastensson, Jan; Leksell, Niklas; Pettersson, Carl-Magnus

    2012-01-01

    Highlights: ► Pre-treatment of ley crop can increase the biogas plant performance. ► Membrane filtration can increase the capacity of the biogas plant. ► Mechanical pre-treatment of the ley crop shows the highest energy efficiency. ► Using a distributor to spread the residues as fertilizer show promising results. -- Abstract: All over the world there is a strong interest and also potential for biogas production from organic residues as well as from different crops. However, to be commercially competitive with other types of fuels, efficiency improvements of the biogas production process are needed. In this paper, results of improvements studies done on a full scale co-digestion plant are presented. In the plant organic wastes from households and restaurants are mixed and digested with crops from pasture land. The areas for improvement of the plant addressed in this paper are treatment of the feed material to enhance the digestion rate, limitation of the ballast of organics in the water stream recirculated in the process, and use of the biogas plant residues at farms. Results from previous studies on pre-treatment and membrane filtration of recirculated process water are combined for an estimation of the total improvement potential. Further, the possibility of using neural networks to predict biogas production using historical data from the full-scale biogas plant was investigated. Results from an investigation using the process residues as fertilizer are also presented. The results indicate a potential to increase the biogas yield from the process with up to over 30% with pre-treatment of the feed and including membrane filtration in the process. Neural networks have the potential to be used for prediction of biogas production. Further, it is shown that the residues from biogas production can be used as fertilizers but that the emission of N 2 O from the fertilized soil is dependent on the soil type and spreading technology.

  13. Blade number impact on pressure and performance of archimedes screw turbine using CFD

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maulana, Muhammad Ilham; Syuhada, Ahmad; Nawawi, Muhammad

    2018-02-01

    Many rivers in Indonesia can be used as source of mini/micro hydro power plant using low head turbine. The most suitable type of turbine used in fluid flow with low head is the Archimedes screw turbine. The Archimedes screw hydro turbine is a relative newcomer to the small-scale hydropower that can work efficiently on heads as low as 10 meter. In this study, the performance of Archimedes water turbines that has different blade numbers that are thoroughly evaluated to obtain proper blade configuration. For this purpose, numerical simulations are used to predict the pressure changes that occur along the turbine. The simulation results show that turbines with an amount of two blades have more sloping pressure distribution so that it has better stability.

  14. PROSPECTS FOR THE DEVELOPMENT OF THE AGRICULTURAL BIOGAS SECTOR IN POLAND

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Magdalena Zubrzycka

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available This article presents the legal regulations relating to Renewable Energy Sources, including the biogas sector. It discusses biogas production technologies, the current state and perspectives of agricultural biogas production in Poland, the production capabilities of Polish biogas plants and factors contributing to the attractiveness of the biogas sector. The following economic and ecological aspects of biogas production were considered in the study: profitability and environmental impacts, including reduction in carbon dioxide emissions. Despite numerous problems, the Renewable Energy Sources Act provides an opportunity for the growth and development of the biogas industry in Poland.

  15. International scientific conference biogas science 2009. Vol. 2. Lectures; Internationale Wissenschaftstagung Biogas Science 2009. Bd. 2. Vortraege

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2009-12-15

    Within the international conference of the Bavarian State Research Center for Agriculture (Munich, Federal Republic of Germany) at 2nd to 4th December, 2009, in Erding (Federal Republic of Germany), the following lectures were held: (1) Design and application of a functional oligonucleotide microarray for the identification of cellulose genes and their expression in (different) biogas Fermenters (M. Engel et al.); (2) Evaluation of the potential of hygienisation of the biogas process with regard to phytogenic damage exciter (R. Friedrich et al.); (3) Prevalence and role of hydrolytic bacteria in mesophilic and thermophilic biogas reactors (V.V. Zverlov et al.); (4) System analysis of biogas plants by means of microbiologic and molecular biologic methods: Comparison of hyperthermophilic (60 C) and thermophilic (55 C) (P. Scherer et al.); (5) Methanogenic archaea in agricultural biogas plants (E. Nettmann et al.); (6) Population dynamics of methanogens during acidification of biogas Fermenters fed with maize silage - a causal analysis (M. Lebuhn et al.); (7) Advanced interpretation of anaerobic batch tests - Conclusions for the practical operation (S. Meier et al.); (8) Development of a NIRS calibration for the determination of the biogas yield of maize (B. Darnhofer et al.); (9) Hydrogen and methane: Enhanced methane as well as hydrogen production and increased process stability by Sensorik control (N. Weran); (10) Stable carbon isotopes: A new laser method for the process analysis and identification of microbiologic reactions in the biogas process (S. Laukenmann et al.); (11) Biogas from grass silage - measurements and modelling (K. Koch et al.); (12) Mathematical modelling of the mesophilic and thermophilic anaerobe fermentation of maize silage (M. Luebken et al.); (13) The basket of benefit methodology as a tool for the comparison of electricity, heat, and fuel production from energy crops, exemplified by different utilization pathways for biogas (M. Bystricky et

  16. Cost analysis of concepts for a demand oriented biogas supply for flexible power generation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hahn, Henning; Ganagin, Waldemar; Hartmann, Kilian; Wachendorf, Michael

    2014-10-01

    With the share of intermittent renewable energies within the electricity system rising, balancing services from dispatchable power plants are of increasing importance. Highlighting the importance of the need to keeping fuel costs for flexible power generation to a minimum, the study aims to identify favourable biogas plant configurations, supplying biogas on demand. A cost analysis of five configurations based on biogas storing and flexible biogas production concepts has been carried out. Results show that additional flexibility costs for a biogas supply of 8h per day range between 2€ and 11€MWh(-1) and for a 72h period without biogas demand from 9€ to 19€MWh(-1). While biogas storage concepts were identified as favourable short term supply configurations, flexible biogas production concepts profit from reduced storage requirements at plants with large biogas production capacities or for periods of several hours without biogas demand. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  17. Production of liquid biogas at the biowaste treatment plant Amtzell; Gewinnung von fluessigem Biogas an der Bioabfallbehandlungsanlage Amtzell

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bojahr, Armin [Gesellschaft fuer Umwelttechnik Bojahr mbH und Co. KG, Berg (Germany)

    2013-10-01

    The fermentation plant in Amtzell will be extended to increase the throughput of bio waste. In this context an extension of the gas utilization plant is also required. The produced biogas will be partly transferred to the existing combined heat and power plant. The remaining part of biogas will be used in an proposed GPP-Plus {sup registered} --plant to produce liquid bio methane (LBG). In the LBG gaining process the raw biogas will have to be dried in several steps, de-sulphured, compressed and cooled. Following this process and due to different physical characteristics of the ingredients, the contaminants will be removed from the biogas and the main ingredients, carbon dioxide and methane, separated from each other. Carbon dioxide as well as the methane are then available in liquid form and can be put onto the market. This method of using biogas can utilize almost 100% of its energy potential. (orig.)

  18. Hybrid Energy System Design of Micro Hydro-PV-biogas Based Micro-grid

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nishrina; Abdullah, A. G.; Risdiyanto, A.; Nandiyanto, ABD

    2017-03-01

    Hybrid renewable energy system is an arrangement of one or more sources of renewable energy and also conventional energy. This paper describes a simulation results of hybrid renewable power system based on the available potential in an educational institution in Indonesia. HOMER software was used to simulate and analyse both in terms of optimization and economic terms. This software was developed through 3 main principles; simulation, optimization, and sensitivity analysis. Generally, the presented results show that the software can demonstrate a feasible hybrid power system as well to be realized. The entire demand in case study area can be supplied by the system configuration and can be met by ¾ of electricity production. So, there are ¼ of generated energy became an excess electricity.

  19. Biogas - Energy from the agricultural sector

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Membrez, Y.

    2006-01-01

    Swiss agriculture produces biomass in the form of manure, crop residue or specifically grown biomass energy crops. There are a variety of procedures available to make use of this biomass. The right choice depends on the type of biomass and the energy end-product. For example thermal energy use, power generation or biogenetic fuels require physical, thermo-chemical or biological conversion. The following reports presents an overview of existing technologies, gives details of selected case studies on agricultural biogas production and discusses the importance of agricultural biomass energy use for the attainment of Swiss climate protection targets. (author)

  20. Biogas-centred domestic waste recycling system

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gupta, C L

    1983-04-01

    In fast developing suburban towns, there is an urgent need for an integrated system for waste recycling and energy and fertiliser supply on a single house basis. This is because even though toilet waste is handled by a septic tank-soak pit arrangement, kitchen and bathroom water and solid organic wastes have to be discharged outside the house. A biogas based domestic waste recycling system has been designed and constructed and has been successfully working. Some salient features of this plant are discussed here.