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Sample records for biofunctionalized electrospun silk

  1. A novel electrospun silk fibroin/hydroxyapatite hybrid nanofibers

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    Ming, Jinfa, E-mail: jinfa.ming@gmail.com [National Engineering Laboratory for Modern Silk, Soochow University, Suzhou 215123 (China); College of Textile and Clothing Engineering, Soochow University, Suzhou 215021 (China); Zuo, Baoqi, E-mail: bqzuo@suda.edu.cn [National Engineering Laboratory for Modern Silk, Soochow University, Suzhou 215123 (China); College of Textile and Clothing Engineering, Soochow University, Suzhou 215021 (China)

    2012-11-15

    A novel electrospinning of silk fibroin/hydroxyapatite hybrid nanofibers with different composition ratios was performed with methanoic acid as a spinning solvent. The silk fibroin/hydroxyapatite hybrids containing up to 30% hydroxyapatite nanoparticles could be electrospun into the continuous fibrous structure. The electrospun silk fibroin/hydroxyapatite hybrid nanofibers showed bigger diameter and wider diameter distribution than pure silk fibroin nanofibers, and the average diameter gradually increased from 95 to 582 nm. At the same time, the secondary structure of silk fibroin/hydroxyapatite nanofibers was characterized by X-ray diffraction, Fourier transform infrared analysis, and DSC measurement. Comparing with the pure silk fibroin nanofibers, the crystal structure of silk fibroin was mainly amorphous structure in the hybrid nanofibers. X-ray diffraction results demonstrated the hydroxyapatite crystalline nature remained as evidenced from the diffraction planes (002), (211), (300), and (202) of the hydroxyapatite crystallites, which was also confirmed by Fourier transform infrared analysis. The thermal behavior of hybrid nanofibers exhibited the endothermic peak of moisture evaporation ranging from 86 to 113 Degree-Sign C, and the degradation peak at 286 Degree-Sign C appeared. The SF/HAp nanofibers mats containing 30% HAp nanoparticles showed higher breaking tenacity and extension at break for 1.1688 {+-} 0.0398 MPa and 6.55 {+-} 1.95%, respectively. Therefore, the electrospun silk fibroin/hydroxyapatite hybrid nanofibers should be provided potentially useful options for the fabrication of biomaterial scaffolds for bone tissue engineering. -- Highlights: Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer The novel SF/HAp nanofibers were directly prepared by electrospinning method. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer The nanofiber diameter had significant related to the content of HAp. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer The crystal structure of silk fibroin was mainly amorphous structure in

  2. Addition of selenium nanoparticles to electrospun silk scaffolds improves mammalian cell activity while reducing bacterial growth

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    Stanley Chung

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available Silk possesses many beneficial wound healing properties, and electrospun scaffolds are especially applicable for skin applications, due to their smaller interstices and higher surface areas compared to non-electrospun equivalents. However, purified silk promotes microbial growth. In contrast, selenium nanoparticles have excellent antibacterial properties and are a novel antimicrobial chemistry. Here, electrospun silk scaffolds were doped with selenium nanoparticles to impart antibacterial properties to the silk scaffolds. Results showed significantly improved bacterial inhibition and improvement in human dermal fibroblast metabolic activity. These results suggest that the addition of selenium nanoparticles to electrospun silk is a promising approach to improve wound healing with reduced infection, without relying on antibiotics.

  3. Fabrication and Biocompatibility of Electrospun Silk Biocomposites

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    Ick-Soo Kim

    2011-10-01

    Full Text Available Silk fibroin has attracted great interest in tissue engineering because of its outstanding biocompatibility, biodegradability and minimal inflammatory reaction. In this study, two kinds of biocomposites based on regenerated silk fibroin are fabricated by electrospinning and post-treatment processes, respectively. Firstly, regenerated silk fibroin/tetramethoxysilane (TMOS hybrid nanofibers with high hydrophilicity are prepared, which is superior for fibroblast attachment. The electrospinning process causes adjacent fibers to ‘weld’ at contact points, which can be proved by scanning electron microscope (SEM. The water contact angle of silk/tetramethoxysilane (TMOS composites shows a sharper decrease than pure regenerated silk fibroin nanofiber, which has a great effect on the early stage of cell attachment behavior. Secondly, a novel tissue engineering scaffold material based on electrospun silk fibroin/nano-hydroxyapatite (nHA biocomposites is prepared by means of an effective calcium and phosphate (Ca–P alternate soaking method. nHA is successfully produced on regenerated silk fibroin nanofiber within several min without any pre-treatments. The osteoblastic activities of this novel nanofibrous biocomposites are also investigated by employing osteoblastic-like MC3T3-E1 cell line. The cell functionality such as alkaline phosphatase (ALP activity is ameliorated on mineralized silk nanofibers. All these results indicate that this silk/nHA biocomposite scaffold material may be a promising biomaterial for bone tissue engineering.

  4. Electrospun silk fibroin nanofibers promote Schwann cell adhesion, growth and proliferation

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    Aijun Hu; Baoqi Zuo; Feng Zhang; Qing Lan; Huanxiang Zhang

    2012-01-01

    In this study, Schwann cells, at a density of 1 × 105 cells/well, were cultured on regenerated silk fibroin nanofibers (305 ± 84 nm) prepared using the electrospinning method. Schwann cells cultured on the silk fibroin nanofibers appeared more ordered, their processes extended further, and they formed more extensive and complex interconnections. In addition, the silk fibroin nanofibers had no impact on the proliferation of Schwann cells or on the secretion of ciliary neurotrophic factor, brain-derived neurotrophic factor or nerve growth factor. These findings indicate that regenerated electrospun silk fibroin nanofibers can promote Schwann cell adhesion, growth and proliferation, and have excellent biocompatibility.

  5. Electrospun silk-based nanofibrous scaffolds: fiber diameter and oxygen transfer

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    Chomachayi, Masoud Dadras; Solouk, Atefeh; Mirzadeh, Hamid

    2016-01-01

    In this study, silk fibroin was extracted from cocoons of silkworms and fabricated into nonwoven mats by electrospinning method. A new model based on the group method of data handling (GMDH) and artificial neural network (ANN) was developed for estimation of the average diameter of electrospun silk fibroin nanofibers. In this regard, concentration, flow rate, voltage, distance, and speed of collector were used as input parameters and average diameter of the fibers was considered as output par...

  6. Mechanically-reinforced electrospun composite silk fibroin nanofibers containing hydroxyapatite nanoparticles

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    Kim, Hyunryung [School of Mechanical Engineering, Yonsei University, Seoul 120-749 (Korea, Republic of); Che, Lihua; Ha, Yoon [Department of Neurosurgery, College of Medicine, Yonsei University, Seoul 120-749 (Korea, Republic of); Ryu, WonHyoung, E-mail: whryu@yonsei.ac.kr [School of Mechanical Engineering, Yonsei University, Seoul 120-749 (Korea, Republic of)

    2014-07-01

    Electrospun silk fibroin (SF) scaffolds provide large surface area, high porosity, and interconnection for cell adhesion and proliferation and they may replace collagen for many tissue engineering applications. Despite such advantages, electrospun SF scaffolds are still limited as bone tissue replacement due to their low mechanical strengths. While enhancement of mechanical strengths by incorporating inorganic ceramics into polymers has been demonstrated, electrospinning of a mixture of SF and inorganic ceramics such as hydroxyapatite is challenging and less studied due to the aggregation of ceramic particles within SF. In this study, we aimed to enhance the mechanical properties of electrospun SF scaffolds by uniformly dispersing hydroxyapatite (HAp) nanoparticles within SF nanofibers. HAp nanoaprticles were modified by γ-glycidoxypropyltrimethoxysilane (GPTMS) for uniform dispersion and enhanced interfacial bonding between HAp and SF fibers. Optimal conditions for electrospinning of SF and GPTMS-modified HAp nanoparticles were identified to achieve beadless nanofibers without any aggregation of HAp nanoparticles. The MTT and SEM analysis of the osteoblasts-cultured scaffolds confirmed the biocompatibility of the composite scaffolds. The mechanical properties of the composite scaffolds were analyzed by tensile tests for the scaffolds with varying contents of HAp within SF fibers. The mechanical testing showed the peak strengths at the HAp content of 20 wt.%. The increase of HAp content up to 20 wt.% increased the mechanical properties of the composite scaffolds, while further increase above 20 wt.% disrupted the polymer chain networks within SF nanofibers and weakened the mechanical strengths. - Highlights: • Electrospun composite silk fibroin scaffolds were mechanically-reinforced. • GPTMS enhanced hydroxyapatite distribution in silk fibroin nanofibers. • Mechanical property of composite scaffolds increased up to 20% of hydroxyapatite. • Composite

  7. Biocomposites electrospun with poly(ε-caprolactone) and silk fibroin powder for biomedical applications.

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    Lee, Hyeongjin; Kim, GeunHyung

    2010-01-01

    Biomedical synthetic polymers have been used in soft and hard tissue regeneration because of their good processability and biodegradability. However, biomaterials such as poly(ε-caprolactone) (PCL) have various shortcomings, including intrinsic hydrophobicity and lack of bioactive functional groups. The material must be reinforced with natural biomaterials to achieve good cellular and mechanical performance as biomedical material. We fabricated a biocomposite using PCL and silk fibroin (SF) powder, which has good biocompatibility and mechanical properties. The hydrophilicity, mechanical properties and cellular behavior of the PCL/SF fibers were analyzed. In addition, we obtained a highly oriented conduit of electrospun biocomposite fibers by modifying the rolling collector of the electrospinning system. As the alignment of micro/nanofibers increased, the orthotropic mechanical properties were improved. The biocompatibility of the biocomposite was evaluated in a culture of bone-marrow-derived rat mesenchymal stem cells. The cellular result demonstrated the potential usefulness of electrospun biocomposites for various biomedical conduit systems. PMID:20537249

  8. Electrospun PLGA-silk fibroin-collagen nanofibrous scaffolds for nerve tissue engineering.

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    Wang, Guanglin; Hu, Xudong; Lin, Wei; Dong, Changchao; Wu, Hui

    2011-03-01

    Electrospun nanofibrous scaffolds varying different materials are fabricated for tissue engineering. PLGA, silk fibroin, and collagen-derived scaffolds have been proved on good biocompatibility with neurons. However, no systematic studies have been performed to examine the PLGA-silk fibroin-collagen (PLGA-SF-COL) biocomposite fiber matrices for nerve tissue engineering. In this study, different weight ratio PLGA-SF-COL (50:25:25, 30:35:35) scaffolds were produced via electrospinning. The physical and mechanical properties were tested. The average fiber diameter ranged from 280 + 26 to 168 + 21 nm with high porosity and hydrophilicity; the tensile strength was 1.76 ± 0.32 and 1.25 ± 0.20 Mpa, respectively. The results demonstrated that electrospinning polymer blending is a simple and effective approach for fabricating novel biocomposite nanofibrous scaffolds. The properties of the scaffolds can be strongly influenced by the concentration of collagen and silk fibroin in the biocomposite. To assay the cytocompatibility, Schwann cells were seeded on the scaffolds; cell attachment, growth morphology, and proliferation were studied. SEM and MTT results confirmed that PLGA-SF-COL scaffolds particularly the one that contains 50% PLGA, 25% silk fibroin, and 25% collagen is more suitable for nerve tissue engineering compared to PLGA nanofibrous scaffolds. PMID:21181450

  9. Electrospun silk-elastin-like fibre mats for tissue engineering applications

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Protein-based polymers are present in a wide variety of organisms fulfilling structural and mechanical roles. Advances in protein engineering and recombinant DNA technology allow the design and production of recombinant protein-based polymers (rPBPs) with an absolute control of its composition. Although the application of recombinant proteins as biomaterials is still an emerging technology, the possibilities are limitless and far superior to natural or synthetic materials, as the complexity of the structural design can be fully customized. In this work, we report the electrospinning of two new genetically engineered silk-elastin-like proteins (SELPs) consisting of alternate silk- and elastin-like blocks. Electrospinning was performed with formic acid and aqueous solutions at different concentrations without addition of further agents. The size and morphology of the electrospun structures was characterized by scanning electron microscopy showing its dependence on the concentration and solvent used. Treatment with methanol-saturated air was employed to stabilize the structure and promote water insolubility through a time-dependent conversion of random coils into β-sheets (FTIR). The resultant methanol-treated electrospun mats were characterized for swelling degree (570–720%), water vapour transmission rate (1083 g/m2/day) and mechanical properties (modulus of elasticity ∼126 MPa). Furthermore, the methanol-treated SELP fibre mats showed no cytotoxicity and were able to support adhesion and proliferation of normal human skin fibroblasts. Adhesion was characterized by a filopodia-mediated mechanism. These results demonstrate that SELP fibre mats can provide promising solutions for the development of novel biomaterials suitable for tissue engineering applications. (paper)

  10. Precipitation of hydroxyapatite on electrospun polycaprolactone/aloe vera/silk fibroin nanofibrous scaffolds for bone tissue engineering.

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    Shanmugavel, Suganya; Reddy, Venugopal Jayarama; Ramakrishna, Seeram; Lakshmi, B S; Dev, Vr Giri

    2014-07-01

    Advances in electrospun nanofibres with bioactive materials have enhanced the scope of fabricating biomimetic scaffolds for tissue engineering. The present research focuses on fabrication of polycaprolactone/aloe vera/silk fibroin nanofibrous scaffolds by electrospinning followed by hydroxyapatite deposition by calcium-phosphate dipping method for bone tissue engineering. Morphology, composition, hydrophilicity and mechanical properties of polycaprolactone/aloe vera/silk fibroin-hydroxyapatite nanofibrous scaffolds along with controls polycaprolactone and polycaprolactone/aloe vera/silk fibroin nanofibrous scaffolds were examined by field emission scanning electron microscopy, Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy, contact angle and tensile tests, respectively. Adipose-derived stem cells cultured on polycaprolactone/aloe vera/silk fibroin-hydroxyapatite nanofibrous scaffolds displayed highest cell proliferation, increased osteogenic markers expression (alkaline phosphatase and osteocalcin), osteogenic differentiation and increased mineralization in comparison with polycaprolactone control. The obtained results indicate that polycaprolactone/aloe vera/silk fibroin-hydroxyapatite nanofibrous scaffolds have appropriate physico-chemical and biological properties to be used as biomimetic scaffolds for bone tissue regeneration.

  11. Preparation of electrospun silk fibroin fiber mats as bone scaffolds: a preliminary study

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    Meechaisue, Chidchanok [Department of Materials Technology, Faculty of Science, Ramkhamhaeng University, Bangkok 10240 (Thailand); Wutticharoenmongkol, Patcharaporn [Technological Center for Electrospun Fibers and The Petroleum and Petrochemical College, Chulalongkorn University, Bangkok 10330 (Thailand); Waraput, Rujira [Department of Materials Technology, Faculty of Science, Ramkhamhaeng University, Bangkok 10240 (Thailand); Huangjing, Thanapol [Department of Materials Technology, Faculty of Science, Ramkhamhaeng University, Bangkok 10240 (Thailand); Ketbumrung, Nantana [Department of Materials Technology, Faculty of Science, Ramkhamhaeng University, Bangkok 10240 (Thailand); Pavasant, Prasit [Department of Anatomy, Faculty of Dentistry, Chulalongkorn University, Bangkok 10330 (Thailand); Supaphol, Pitt [Technological Center for Electrospun Fibers and The Petroleum and Petrochemical College, Chulalongkorn University, Bangkok 10330 (Thailand)

    2007-09-15

    In the present contribution, electrospinning (e-spinning) was used to fabricate ultra-fine fibers of silk fibroin (SF) from cocoons of indigenous Thai silkworms (Nang-Lai) and Chinese/Japanese hybrid silkworms (DOAE-7). The effects of solution concentration (i.e., 10-40% (w/v) in 85% (v/v) formic acid) and applied electrostatic field strength (EFS; 10, 15 and 20 kV/10 cm) on morphology and size of the electrospun (e-spun) SF products were investigated by scanning electron microscopy. The average diameter of the resulting e-spun SF fibers was found to increase with an increase in both the solution concentration and the EFS value. Specifically, the average diameter of the e-spun SF fibers from Nang-Lai SF solutions ranged between 217 and 610 nm, while that of the fibers from DOAE-7 SF solutions ranged between 183 and 810 nm. The potential for use of the e-spun SF fiber mats as bone scaffolds was assessed with mouse osteoblast-like cells (MC3T3-E1) in which the cells appeared to adhere and proliferate well on their surface.

  12. Electrospun silk fibroin-hydroxybutyl chitosan nanofibrous scaffolds to biomimic extracellular matrix.

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    Zhang, Kuihua; Qian, Yongfang; Wang, Hongsheng; Fan, Linpeng; Huang, Chen; Mo, Xiumei

    2011-01-01

    Silk fibroin (SF)-hydroxybutyl chitosan (HBC) blend nanofibrous scaffolds were fabricated using 1,1,1,3,3,3-hexafluoro-2-propanol (HFIP) and trifluoroacetic acid (TFA) as solvents to biomimic the native ECM by electrospinning. SEM results showed that the average nanofibrous diameter increased when the content of HBC was raised from 20% to 100%. Whereas water contact angle measurements confirmed that SF/HBC nanofibrous scaffolds with different weight ratios were of good hydrophilicity. Both the tensile strength and the elongation at break were improved obviously when the weight ratio of SF to HBC was 20:80. (13)C-NMR clarified that SF and HBC molecules existed in H-bond interactions, but HBC did not induce SF conformation to transform from random coil form to β-sheet structure. Moreover, the use of genipin vapour not only induced conformation of SF to convert from random coil to β-sheet structure but also acted as a cross-linking agent for SF and HBC. Cell viability studies demonstrated that SF/HBC nanofibrous scaffolds presented good cellular compatibility. Thus, electrospun SF/HBC blended nanofibres may provide an ideal biomimic tissue-engineering scaffold. PMID:20615313

  13. Electrospun composites of PHBV, silk fibroin and nano-hydroxyapatite for bone tissue engineering

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    Paşcu, Elena I.; Stokes, Joseph; McGuinness, Garrett B., E-mail: garrett.mcguinness@dcu.ie

    2013-12-01

    Electrospinning of fibrous scaffolds containing nano-hydroxyapatite (nHAp) embedded in a matrix of functional biomacromolecules offers an attractive route to mimicking the natural bone tissue architecture. Functional fibrous substrates will support cell attachment, proliferation and differentiation, while the role of HAp is to induce cells to secrete extracellular matrix (ECM) for mineralization to form bone. Electrospinning of biomaterials composed of polyhydroxybutyrate-co-(3-hydroxyvalerate) with 2% valerate fraction (PHBV), nano-hydroxyapatite (nHAp), and Bombyx mori silk fibroin essence (SF), Mw = 90KDa, has been achieved for nHAp and SF solution concentrations of 2 (w/vol) % each and 5 (w/vol) % each. The structure and properties of the nanocomposite fibrous membranes were investigated by means of Scanning Electron Microscopy in combination with Energy Dispersive X-Ray Analysis (SEM/EDX), Fourier Transformed Infrared Spectroscopy (FT-IR), uniaxial tensile and compressive mechanical testing, degradation tests and in vitro bioactivity tests. SEM images showed smooth, uniform and continuous fibre deposition with no bead formation, and fibre diameters of between 10 and 15 μm. EDX and FT-IR confirmed the presence of nHAp and SF. After one month in deionised water, tests showed less than 2% weight loss with the samples retaining their fibrous morphology, confirming that this material biodegrades slowly. After 28 days of immersion in Simulated Body Fluid (SBF) an apatite layer was visible on the surface of the fibres, proving their bioactivity. Preliminary in vitro biological assessment showed that after 1 and 3 days in culture, cells were attached to the fibres, retaining their morphology while presenting a flattened appearance and elongated shape on the surface of fibres. Young's modulus was found to increase from 0.7 kPa (± 0.33 kPa) for electrospun samples of PHBV only to 1.4 kPa (± 0.54 kPa) for samples with 2 (w/vol) % each of nHAp and SF. Samples

  14. Fabrication of electrospun silk fibroin scaffolds coated with graphene oxide and reduced graphene for applications in biomedicine.

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    Aznar-Cervantes, Salvador; Martínez, Jose G; Bernabeu-Esclapez, Antonia; Lozano-Pérez, A Abel; Meseguer-Olmo, Luis; Otero, Toribio F; Cenis, Jose L

    2016-04-01

    Silk fibroin and graphene are both promising biomaterials described in the bibliography. Hybrid scaffolds combining their properties could be attractive for tissue engineering applications. In this work, a new methodology to produce electrospun fibroin scaffolds coated with graphene materials is provided. The mechanical, electrical and electrochemical properties of the materials attained were characterised. The fibre diameters were measured (from 3.9 to 5.2 μm). The samples coated with reduced grapheme were electronic conductors and electroactive in liquid electrolytes, showing maximum oxidation and reduction (around−0.4 V peak). The chronoamperometric responses showed a reduction shoulder, pointing to the entrance of balancing cations from the solution by nucleation–relaxation: the reaction induced structural changes in the graphene. In order to check the biocompatibility of the materials, they were seeded with L929 fibroblasts. The excellent biocompatibility of silk fibroin meshes was maintained after coating with graphene, being the proliferation results equal in all the treatments 7 days after the seeding (Tukey, p N 0.05).The conductive and electroactive properties of meshes coated with reduced graphene allow the potential application of local electric fields or local ionic currents to cell cultures, biological interfaces or animal models without host response.

  15. Fabrication and photocatalytic performance of electrospun PVA/silk/TiO2 nanocomposite textile

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    Wu, Ming-Chung; Chan, Shun-Hsiang; Lin, Ting-Han

    2015-02-01

    Many organic/inorganic nanocomposites have been fabricated into fibrous materials using electrospinning techniques, because electrospinning processes have many attractive advantages and the ability to produce relatively large-scale continuous films. In this study, the polyvinyl alcohol (PVA)/silk/titanium dioxide (TiO2) nanocomposite self-cleaning textiles were successfully produced using electrospinning technique. After optimizing electrospinning conditions, we successfully obtained the PVA/silk/TiO2 nanocomposite fibers with average diameter of ˜220 nm and TiO2 concentration can be as high as 18.0 wt.%. For the case of the PVA/silk/TiO2 nanocomposite textile, the color of brilliant green coated on the textile surface changed from the initial green color to colorless after ultraviolet (UV) irradiation. Because of its worthy photocatalytic performance, the developed PVA/silk/TiO2 nanocomposite materials in this study will be beneficial for the design and fabrication of multifunctional fibers and textiles.

  16. Electrospun silk fibroin/poly(lactide-co-ε-caprolactone nanofibrous scaffolds for bone regeneration

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    Wang Z

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available Zi Wang,1,* Ming Lin,1,* Qing Xie,1 Hao Sun,1 Yazhuo Huang,1 DanDan Zhang,1 Zhang Yu,1 Xiaoping Bi,1 Junzhao Chen,1 Jing Wang,2 Wodong Shi,1 Ping Gu,1 Xianqun Fan1 1Department of Ophthalmology, Ninth People’s Hospital, Shanghai Jiao Tong University School of Medicine, 2Biomaterials and Tissue Engineering Laboratory, College of Chemistry & Chemical Engineering and Biotechnology, Donghua University, Shanghai, People’s Republic of China *These authors contributed equally to this work Background: Tissue engineering has become a promising therapeutic approach for bone regeneration. Nanofibrous scaffolds have attracted great interest mainly due to their structural similarity to natural extracellular matrix (ECM. Poly(lactide-co-ε-caprolactone (PLCL has been successfully used in bone regeneration, but PLCL polymers are inert and lack natural cell recognition sites, and the surface of PLCL scaffold is hydrophobic. Silk fibroin (SF is a kind of natural polymer with inherent bioactivity, and supports mesenchymal stem cell attachment, osteogenesis, and ECM deposition. Therefore, we fabricated hybrid nanofibrous scaffolds by adding different weight ratios of SF to PLCL in order to find a scaffold with improved properties for bone regeneration.Methods: Hybrid nanofibrous scaffolds were fabricated by blending different weight ratios of SF with PLCL. Human adipose-derived stem cells (hADSCs were seeded on SF/PLCL nanofibrous scaffolds of various ratios for a systematic evaluation of cell adhesion, proliferation, cytotoxicity, and osteogenic differentiation; the efficacy of the composite of hADSCs and scaffolds in repairing critical-sized calvarial defects in rats was investigated.Results: The SF/PLCL (50/50 scaffold exhibited favorable tensile strength, surface roughness, and hydrophilicity, which facilitated cell adhesion and proliferation. Moreover, the SF/PLCL (50/50 scaffold promoted the osteogenic differentiation of hADSCs by elevating the

  17. Complementary effects of two growth factors in multifunctionalized silk nanofibers for nerve reconstruction.

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    Tony M Dinis

    Full Text Available With the aim of forming bioactive guides for peripheral nerve regeneration, silk fibroin was electrospun to obtain aligned nanofibers. These fibers were functionalized by incorporating Nerve Growth Factor (NGF and Ciliary NeuroTrophic Factor (CNTF during electrospinning. PC12 cells grown on the fibers confirmed the bioavailability and bioactivity of the NGF, which was not significantly released from the fibers. Primary neurons from rat dorsal root ganglia (DRGs were grown on the nanofibers and anchored to the fibers and grew in a directional fashion based on the fiber orientation, and as confirmed by growth cone morphology. These biofunctionalized nanofibers led to a 3-fold increase in neurite length at their contact, which was likely due to the NGF. Glial cell growth, alignment and migration were stimulated by the CNTF in the functionalized nanofibers. Organotypic culture of rat fetal DRGs confirmed the complementary effect of both growth factors in multifunctionalized nanofibers, which allowed glial cell migration, alignment and parallel axonal growth in structures resembling the 'bands of Bungner' found in situ. Graftable multi-channel conduits based on biofunctionalized aligned silk nanofibers were developed as an organized 3D scaffold. Our bioactive silk tubes thus represent new options for a biological and biocompatible nerve guidance conduit.

  18. Electrospun silk fibroin/poly(lactide-co-ε-caprolactone) nanofibrous scaffolds for bone regeneration

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    Wang, Zi; Lin, Ming; Xie, Qing; Sun, Hao; Huang, Yazhuo; Zhang, DanDan; Yu, Zhang; Bi, Xiaoping; Chen, Junzhao; Wang, Jing; Shi, Wodong; Gu, Ping; Fan, Xianqun

    2016-01-01

    Background Tissue engineering has become a promising therapeutic approach for bone regeneration. Nanofibrous scaffolds have attracted great interest mainly due to their structural similarity to natural extracellular matrix (ECM). Poly(lactide-co-ε-caprolactone) (PLCL) has been successfully used in bone regeneration, but PLCL polymers are inert and lack natural cell recognition sites, and the surface of PLCL scaffold is hydrophobic. Silk fibroin (SF) is a kind of natural polymer with inherent bioactivity, and supports mesenchymal stem cell attachment, osteogenesis, and ECM deposition. Therefore, we fabricated hybrid nanofibrous scaffolds by adding different weight ratios of SF to PLCL in order to find a scaffold with improved properties for bone regeneration. Methods Hybrid nanofibrous scaffolds were fabricated by blending different weight ratios of SF with PLCL. Human adipose-derived stem cells (hADSCs) were seeded on SF/PLCL nanofibrous scaffolds of various ratios for a systematic evaluation of cell adhesion, proliferation, cytotoxicity, and osteogenic differentiation; the efficacy of the composite of hADSCs and scaffolds in repairing critical-sized calvarial defects in rats was investigated. Results The SF/PLCL (50/50) scaffold exhibited favorable tensile strength, surface roughness, and hydrophilicity, which facilitated cell adhesion and proliferation. Moreover, the SF/PLCL (50/50) scaffold promoted the osteogenic differentiation of hADSCs by elevating the expression levels of osteogenic marker genes such as BSP, Ocn, Col1A1, and OPN and enhanced ECM mineralization. In vivo assays showed that SF/PLCL (50/50) scaffold improved the repair of the critical-sized calvarial defect in rats, resulting in increased bone volume, higher trabecular number, enhanced bone mineral density, and increased new bone areas, compared with the pure PLCL scaffold. Conclusion The SF/PLCL (50/50) nanofibrous scaffold facilitated hADSC proliferation and osteogenic differentiation in

  19. Progress of electrospun silk fibroin based scaffolds for tissue engineering%静电纺丝素蛋白及其应用于组织工程的研究进展

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    黄继伟; 张锋; 左保齐

    2011-01-01

    The researches related to electrospinning of silk, including electrospim solvents, blends, and electrospin device are reviewed, and the application of electrospun silk fibroin based scaffolds in tissue engineering is introduced.%从丝素蛋白静电纺丝的溶剂开发、共混纺丝及纺丝装置3个方面回顾了丝素蛋白静电纺丝的研究进展,重点介绍了静电纺丝素蛋白微纳米纤维支架材料在组织工程领域的应用研究.

  20. Development of novel electrospun nanofibrous scaffold from P. ricini and A. mylitta silk fibroin blend with improved surface and biological properties

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Panda, N.; Bissoyi, A.; Pramanik, K.; Biswas, A., E-mail: amitb79@gmail.com

    2015-03-01

    Biomaterials that stimulate cell attachment and proliferation without any surface modification (e.g. RGD coating) provide potent and cost effective scaffold for regenerative medicine. This study assessed the physico-chemical properties and cell supportive potential of a silk fibroin blend scaffold derived from eri (Philosamia ricini) and tasar (Antheraea mylitta) silk (ET) respectively by electrospinning process. The scanning electron microscopy and transmission electron microscopy study found that the fiber diameters are in 200 to 800 nm range with flat morphology. The porosity of ET scaffold is found to be 79 ± 5% with majority of pore diameter between 2.5 to 5 nm. Similarly, Bombyx mori (BM) silk fibroin and gelatin nanofibrous scaffolds were prepared and taken as control. The ultimate tensile strength of the ET and BM scaffold are found to be 1.83 ± 0.13 MPa and 1.47 ± 0.10 MPa respectively. The measured contact angle (a measure of hydrophilicity) for ET (54.7° ± 1.8°) is found to be lower than BM (62° ± 2.3°). The ability to deposit apatite over ET is comparable to that of BM nanofibers. All the scaffolds were seeded with cord blood derived mesenchymal stem cells (hMSCs) and cultured for 14 days in vitro. The immunofluorescence study reveals enhanced cell attachment with higher metabolic activity for MSCs grown over ET than BM and gelatin. The ET scaffold also demonstrated expression of higher amount cell adhesion molecules (CD29/CD44) and higher proliferation rate than BM and gelatin as confirmed by MTT assay, DNA content estimation assay, flow cytometry study and SEM study. Overall, it may be concluded that ET scaffold may have potential in developing bone tissue grafts for clinical applications in the future. - Highlights: • We have fabricated eri–tasar blended electrospun silk fibroin nanofiber with superior surface property. • The hydrophilicity is higher than the silk fibroin nanofiber derived from Bombyx mori (BM). • The nanofibrous

  1. Biofunctionalized Nanofibers Using Arthrospira (Spirulina Biomass and Biopolymer

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    Michele Greque de Morais

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Electrospun nanofibers composed of polymers have been extensively researched because of their scientific and technical applications. Commercially available polyhydroxybutyrate (PHB and polyhydroxybutyrate-co-valerate (PHB-HV copolymers are good choices for such nanofibers. We used a highly integrated method, by adjusting the properties of the spinning solutions, where the cyanophyte Arthrospira (formally Spirulina was the single source for nanofiber biofunctionalization. We investigated nanofibers using PHB extracted from Spirulina and the bacteria Cupriavidus necator and compared the nanofibers to those made from commercially available PHB and PHB-HV. Our study assessed nanofiber formation and their selected thermal, mechanical, and optical properties. We found that nanofibers produced from Spirulina PHB and biofunctionalized with Spirulina biomass exhibited properties which were equal to or better than nanofibers made with commercially available PHB or PHB-HV. Our methodology is highly promising for nanofiber production and biofunctionalization and can be used in many industrial and life science applications.

  2. Biofunctionalized Nanofibers Using Arthrospira (Spirulina) Biomass and Biopolymer

    OpenAIRE

    Michele Greque de Morais; Christopher Stillings; Roland Dersch; Markus Rudisile; Patrícia Pranke; Jorge Alberto Vieira Costa; Joachim Wendorff

    2015-01-01

    Electrospun nanofibers composed of polymers have been extensively researched because of their scientific and technical applications. Commercially available polyhydroxybutyrate (PHB) and polyhydroxybutyrate-co-valerate (PHB-HV) copolymers are good choices for such nanofibers. We used a highly integrated method, by adjusting the properties of the spinning solutions, where the cyanophyte Arthrospira (formally Spirulina) was the single source for nanofiber biofunctionalization. We investigated na...

  3. Electrospun silk fibroin/poly (L-lactide-ε-caplacton) graft with platelet-rich growth factor for inducing smooth muscle cell growth and infiltration.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yin, Anlin; Bowlin, Gary L; Luo, Rifang; Zhang, Xingdong; Wang, Yunbing; Mo, Xiumei

    2016-12-01

    The construction of a smooth muscle layer for blood vessel through electrospinning method plays a key role in vascular tissue engineering. However, smooth muscle cells (SMCs) penetration into the electrospun graft to form a smooth muscle layer is limited due to the dense packing of fibers and lack of inducing factors. In this paper, silk fibroin/poly (L-lactide-ε-caplacton) (SF/PLLA-CL) vascular graft loaded with platelet-rich growth factor (PRGF) was fabricated by electrospinning. The in vitro results showed that SMCs cultured in the graft grew fast, and the incorporation of PRGF could induce deeper SMCs infiltrating compared to the SF/PLLA-CL graft alone. Mechanical properties measurement showed that PRGF-incorporated graft had proper tensile stress, suture retention strength, burst pressure and compliance which could match the demand of native blood vessel. The success in the fabrication of PRGF-incorporated SF/PLLA-CL graft to induce fast SMCs growth and their strong penetration into graft has important application for tissue-engineered blood vessels. PMID:27482466

  4. Tunable Structures and Properties of Electrospun Regenerated Silk Fibroin Mats Annealed in Water Vapor at Different Times and Temperatures

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xiangyu Huang

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Regenerated silk fibroin (SF mats were fabricated using electrospinning technique, followed by mild water vapor annealing to effectively tune the structures and improve the mechanical properties of the mats at different annealing times and temperatures. The breaking strength and the breaking energy of the mats treated with water vapor at 65°C for 12 h reached 6.0 MPa and 171.7 J/kg, respectively. The conformational transition of the SF mats was significantly influenced by the treating temperature, while the influence of time was comparatively limited. The influence is consistent with the time-temperature equivalent principle and would be helpful for the preparation of water-vapor-annealed silk-based biomaterials for various applications.

  5. Electrospun and woven silk fibroin/poly(lactic-co- glycolic acid nerve guidance conduits for repairing peripheral nerve injury

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ya-ling Wang

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available We have designed a novel nerve guidance conduit (NGC made from silk fibroin and poly(lactic-co-glycolic acid through electrospinning and weaving (ESP-NGCs. Several physical and biological properties of the ESP-NGCs were assessed in order to evaluate their biocompatibility. The physical properties, including thickness, tensile stiffness, infrared spectroscopy, porosity, and water absorption were determined in vitro. To assess the biological properties, Schwann cells were cultured in ESP-NGC extracts and were assessed by morphological observation, the MTT assay, and immunohistochemistry. In addition, ESP-NGCs were subcutaneously implanted in the backs of rabbits to evaluate their biocompatibility in vivo. The results showed that ESP-NGCs have high porosity, strong hydrophilicity, and strong tensile stiffness. Schwann cells cultured in the ESP-NGC extract fluids showed no significant differences compared to control cells in their morphology or viability. Histological evaluation of the ESP-NGCs implanted in vivo indicated a mild inflammatory reaction and high biocompatibility. Together, these data suggest that these novel ESP-NGCs are biocompatible, and may thus provide a reliable scaffold for peripheral nerve repair in clinical application.

  6. Electrospun and woven silk fibroin/poly(lactic-co-glycolic acid) nerve guidance conduits for repairing peripheral nerve injury.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Ya-Ling; Gu, Xiao-Mei; Kong, Yan; Feng, Qi-Lin; Yang, Yu-Min

    2015-10-01

    We have designed a novel nerve guidance conduit (NGC) made from silk fibroin and poly(lactic-co-glycolic acid) through electrospinning and weaving (ESP-NGCs). Several physical and biological properties of the ESP-NGCs were assessed in order to evaluate their biocompatibility. The physical properties, including thickness, tensile stiffness, infrared spectroscopy, porosity, and water absorption were determined in vitro. To assess the biological properties, Schwann cells were cultured in ESP-NGC extracts and were assessed by morphological observation, the MTT assay, and immunohistochemistry. In addition, ESP-NGCs were subcutaneously implanted in the backs of rabbits to evaluate their biocompatibility in vivo. The results showed that ESP-NGCs have high porosity, strong hydrophilicity, and strong tensile stiffness. Schwann cells cultured in the ESP-NGC extract fluids showed no significant differences compared to control cells in their morphology or viability. Histological evaluation of the ESP-NGCs implanted in vivo indicated a mild inflammatory reaction and high biocompatibility. Together, these data suggest that these novel ESP-NGCs are biocompatible, and may thus provide a reliable scaffold for peripheral nerve repair in clinical application. PMID:26692862

  7. Green electrospun grape seed extract-loaded silk fibroin nanofibrous mats with excellent cytocompatibility and antioxidant effect.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lin, Si; Chen, Mengxia; Jiang, Huayue; Fan, Linpeng; Sun, Binbin; Yu, Fan; Yang, Xingxing; Lou, Xiangxin; He, Chuanglong; Wang, Hongsheng

    2016-03-01

    Silk fibroin (SF) from Bombyx mori has an excellent biocompatibility and thus be widely applied in the biomedical field. Recently, various SF-based composite nanofibers have been developed for more demanding applications. Additionally, grape seed extract (GSE) has been demonstrated to be powerful on antioxidation. In the present study, we dedicate to fabricate a GSE-loaded SF/polyethylene oxide (PEO) composite nanofiber by green electrospinning. Our results indicated the successful loading of GSE into the SF/PEO composite nanofibers. The introduction of GSE did not affect the morphology of the SF/PEO nanofibers and GSE can be released from the nanofibers with a sustained manner. Furthermore, comparing with the raw SF/PEO nanofibrous mats, the GSE-loaded SF/PEO nanofibrous mats significantly enhanced the proliferation of the skin fibroblasts and also protected them against the damage from tert-butyl hydroperoxide-induced oxidative stress. All these findings suggest a promising potential of this novel GSE-loaded SF/PEO composite nanofibrous mats applied in skin care, tissue regeneration and wound healing. PMID:26707696

  8. Green electrospun grape seed extract-loaded silk fibroin nanofibrous mats with excellent cytocompatibility and antioxidant effect.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lin, Si; Chen, Mengxia; Jiang, Huayue; Fan, Linpeng; Sun, Binbin; Yu, Fan; Yang, Xingxing; Lou, Xiangxin; He, Chuanglong; Wang, Hongsheng

    2016-03-01

    Silk fibroin (SF) from Bombyx mori has an excellent biocompatibility and thus be widely applied in the biomedical field. Recently, various SF-based composite nanofibers have been developed for more demanding applications. Additionally, grape seed extract (GSE) has been demonstrated to be powerful on antioxidation. In the present study, we dedicate to fabricate a GSE-loaded SF/polyethylene oxide (PEO) composite nanofiber by green electrospinning. Our results indicated the successful loading of GSE into the SF/PEO composite nanofibers. The introduction of GSE did not affect the morphology of the SF/PEO nanofibers and GSE can be released from the nanofibers with a sustained manner. Furthermore, comparing with the raw SF/PEO nanofibrous mats, the GSE-loaded SF/PEO nanofibrous mats significantly enhanced the proliferation of the skin fibroblasts and also protected them against the damage from tert-butyl hydroperoxide-induced oxidative stress. All these findings suggest a promising potential of this novel GSE-loaded SF/PEO composite nanofibrous mats applied in skin care, tissue regeneration and wound healing.

  9. Nanocomposite gold-silk nanofibers

    OpenAIRE

    Cohen-Karni, Tzahi; Jeong, Kyung Jae; Tsui, Jonathan H.; Reznor, Gally; Mustata, Mirela; Wanunu, Meni; Graham, Adam; Marks, Carolyn; Bell, David C.; Langer, Robert S; Kohane, Daniel S.

    2012-01-01

    Cell-biomaterial interactions can be controlled by modifying the surface chemistry or nanotopography of the material, to induce cell proliferation and differentiation if desired. Here we combine both approaches in forming silk nanofibers (SNFs) containing gold nanoparticles (AuNPs) and subsequently chemically modifying the fibers. Silk fibroin mixed with gold seed nanoparticles was electrospun to form SNFs doped with gold seed nanoparticles (SNFseed). Following gold reduction, there was a two...

  10. 丝胶组分和高湿后处理对静电纺丝素纤维结构与性能的影响%Effect of Silk Sericin and High Moisture Treatment on the Structure and Properties of Electrospun Silk Fibroin Fibers

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    杭怡春; 张耀鹏; 金媛; 邵惠丽; 胡学超

    2012-01-01

    利用静电纺丝法制备了再生丝素和再生丝素/丝胶蛋白纤维,并对所得纤维进行了高湿后处理。采用扫描电镜分析了丝胶蛋白和高湿后处理对静电纺再生丝素蛋白纤维形貌的影响,采用拉曼光谱、X射线衍射和热失重分析研究了所得纤维微细结构及热性能。研究结果表明,添加丝胶蛋白有利于降低静电纺再生丝素蛋白纤维的直径及其分布,而高湿后处理对纤维的形貌没有明显影响;添加丝胶蛋白和/或高湿后处理有利于促进丝素发生向β-折叠构象的转变,并使纤维的结晶结构得到改善,从而进一步提高纤维的热稳定性。%Regenerated silk fibroin(RSF) and RSF/sericin(SS) fibers were electrospun and then post-treated under the high moisture.The influences of the addition of SS and high moisture treatment on the morphology of electrospun fibers were studied by scanning electron microscope(SEM).The structure and thermal properties of the electrospun fibers were characterized by Raman spectroscopy,X-ray diffraction(XRD) and thermogravimetric analysis(TGA).It is found that both the average diameter and diameter deviation for electrospun fibers decrease with the addition of SS,while the fiber morphology does not change obviously after the high moisture treatment.Furthermore,the conformational transition of RSF to β-sheet structure is induced by the addition of SS and/or high moisture treatment,resulting in the improvement of the crystal structure and mechanical properties of resultant electrospun fibers.

  11. Enhanced bone formation in electrospun poly(L-lactic-co-glycolic acid)-tussah silk fibroin ultrafine nanofiber scaffolds incorporated with graphene oxide.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shao, Weili; He, Jianxin; Sang, Feng; Wang, Qian; Chen, Li; Cui, Shizhong; Ding, Bin

    2016-05-01

    To engineer bone tissue, it is necessary to provide a biocompatible, mechanically robust scaffold. In this study, we fabricated an ultrafine nanofiber scaffold by electrospinning a blend of poly(L-lactic-co-glycolic acid), tussah silk fibroin, and graphene oxide (GO) and characterized its morphology, biocompatibility, mechanical properties, and biological activity. The data indicate that incorporation of 10 wt.% tussah silk and 1 wt.% graphene oxide into poly(L-lactic-co-glycolic acid) nanofibers significantly decreased the fiber diameter from 280 to 130 nm. Furthermore, tussah silk and graphene oxide boosted the Young's modulus and tensile strength by nearly 4-fold and 3-fold, respectively, and significantly enhanced adhesion, proliferation in mouse mesenchymal stem cells and functionally promoted biomineralization-relevant alkaline phosphatase (ALP) and mineral deposition. The results indicate that composite nanofibers could be excellent and versatile scaffolds for bone tissue engineering.

  12. Effects of degumming conditions on electro-spinning rate of regenerated silk.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yoon, Kyunghwan; Lee, Ha Ni; Ki, Chang Seok; Fang, Dufei; Hsiao, Benjamin S; Chu, Benjamin; Um, In Chul

    2013-10-01

    Electro-spun silk webs are potentially good candidates as tissue engineering scaffolds owing to their good bio- and cyto-compatibility. However, the low fabrication rate of electro-spun silk mats has been one of the obstacles in the mass production of such nanofibrous silk mats in applications to the biomedical field. In this study, the effects of degumming ratio and silk concentration on the electro-spinning process were investigated by using regenerated silk with different residual sericin contents and different silk concentrations in terms of the morphology and structure of the electro-spun silk web. The rate of production of electro-spun silk mats could be increased by approximately 5 fold at a degumming ratio of 19.5%. The electro-spinning rate of silk was affected by two main factors: (1) dope solution viscosity and (2) degumming ratio of silk. The conductivity of the silk dope solution, however, had little effects on the electro-spinning of regenerated silk. A constant spun fiber morphology was observed within the electro-spinning rate range (0.3-1.4 ml/h). Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy showed that partial β-sheet crystallization occurred during electro-spinning. The molecular conformation was relatively unaffected by the electro-spinning rate of silk.

  13. Fabrication and characterization of vitamin B5 loaded poly (l-lactide-co-caprolactone)/silk fiber aligned electrospun nanofibers for schwann cell proliferation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bhutto, M Aqeel; Wu, Tong; Sun, Binbin; Ei-Hamshary, Hany; Al-Deyab, Salem S; Mo, Xiumei

    2016-08-01

    Bioengineering strategies for peripheral nerve regeneration have been focusing on the development of alternative treatments for nerve repair. In present study we have blended the Vitamin B5 (50mg) with 8% P(LLA-CL) and P(LLA-CL)/SF solutions and produced aligned electrospun nanofiber mashes and characterized the material for its physiochemical and mechanical characteristics. The vitamin loaded composites nanofibers showed tensile strength of 8.73±1.38 and 8.4±1.37 in P(LLA-CL)/Vt and P(LLA-CL)/SF/Vt nanofibers mashes, respectively. By the addition of vitamin B5 the P(LLA-CL) nanofibers become hydrophilic and the contact angle decreased from 96° to 0° in 6min of duration. The effect of vitamin B5 on Schwann cells proliferation and viability were analyzed by using MTT assay and the number of cells cultured on vitamin loaded nanofiber mashes was significantly higher than the without vitamin loaded nanofiber samples after 5th day (pdays culture as compare to P (LLA-CL)/Vt. The in vitro vitamin release behavior was observed in PBS solution and released vitamin was calculated by revers phase HPLC method. The sustain release behavior of vitamin B5 were noted higher in P(LLA-CL)/Vt (80%) nanofibers as compared to P (LLA-CL)/SF/Vt (62%) nanofibers after 24h. The present work provided a basis for further studies of this novel aligned nanofibrous material in nerve tissue repair or regeneration. PMID:27085042

  14. 静电纺丝素/聚丁二酸丁二醇酯血管材料的结构与性能%Structure and properties of electrospun silk fibroin-poly( butylene succinate) artificial blood vessel

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    吴斌伟; 朱海霖; 张乐伟; 冯新星; 陈建勇

    2011-01-01

    为制备组织工程血管支架,以丝素蛋白(SF)和聚丁二酸丁二醇酯(PBS)为原料,通过静电纺丝法,以具有三维结构的收集模板取代传统的二维平板作为静电纺丝收集基板,构建丝素/PBS血管支架材料.研究纺丝条件和三维收集模板对管状支架形貌的影响,采用FT-IR对丝素蛋白二级结构进行表征,测试血管支架材料的孔隙率和力学性能.结果表明,通过改变电压、纺丝间距以及三维收集模板的宏观结构,可制备出具有不同直径和长度的血管支架材料.这种支架材料的孔隙率达84.6%,拉伸应力为4.31 MPa,断裂伸长率为46.21%,爆破压力为358kPa.%To develop a small-diameter tissue engineering blood vessel, the silk fibroin (SF)/poly( butylene succinate) (PBS) tubular scaffolds were fabricated via electrospinning. During the electrospinning process, the electrospun SF/PBS composite tubular scaffolds were collected on a 3-D collector instead of traditional 2-D collector. The effects of 3-D collector and process parameters of electrospinning on the morphologies of the tubular scaffolds were investigated. FT-IR was used to study the secondary structure of SF. The mechanical properties and porosities of the tubular fiber materials were characterized. The results showed that SF/PBS composite tubular materials with different sizes and shapes could be prepared by changing the voltage, TCD and the structure of 3-D collectors. The porosity, tensile stress, elongation at break and burst pressure of the composite tubular scaffold were 84. 6%, 4. 31 MPa,46. 21% and 358 kPa, respectively.

  15. SPIDER SILK

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    PORAV Viorica

    2014-05-01

    Full Text Available The strengthness and toughness of spider fiber and its multifunctional nature is only surpassed in some cases by synthetic high performance fibers. In the world of natural fibers, spider silk has been long time recognized as a wonder fiber for its unique combination of high strength and rupture elongation. Scientists in civil military engineering reveal that the power of biological material (spider silk lies in the geometric configuration of structural protein, and the small cluster of week hydrogen bonds that works together to resist force and dissipate energy. Each spider and each type of silk has a set of mechanical properties optimized for their biological function. Most silks, in particular deagline silk, have exceptional mechanical properties. They exhibit a unique combination of high tensile strength and extensibility (ductility. This enables a silk fiber to absorb a lot of energy before breaking (toughness, the area under a stress- strain curve. A frequent mistake made in the mainstream media is to confuse strength and toughness when comparing silk to other materials. As shown below in detail, weight for weight, silk is stronger than steel, but not as strong as Kevlar. Silk is,however, tougher than both.This paper inform about overview on the today trend in the world of spider silk.

  16. Mechanisms and Control of Silk-based Electrospinning

    OpenAIRE

    Zhang, Feng; Zuo, Baoqi; Fan, Zhihai; Xie, Zonggang; Lu, Qiang; Zhang, Xueguang; Kaplan, David L.

    2012-01-01

    Silk fibroin (SF) nanofibers, formed through electrospinning, have attractive utility in regenerative medicine due to the biocompatibility, mechanical properties and tailorable degradability. The mechanism of SF electrospun nanofiber formation was studied to gain new insight into the formation and control of nanofibers. SF electrospinning solutions with different nanostructures (nanospheres or nanofilaments) were prepared by controlling the drying process during the preparation of regenerated...

  17. Investigation of Natural Bombyx mori Silk Fibroin Proteins Using INS

    Science.gov (United States)

    Crain, Christopher; Strange, Nicholas; Larese, J. Z.

    The mechanical properties of many protein comprised biomaterials are a direct reflection of non-covalent (i.e. weak) interacting ions such as F-actin in muscles, tubulin in the cytoskeleton of cells, viral capsids, and silk. Porter and Vollrath underscored the two main factors that are critical for understanding the high mechanical strength of silks: the nanoscale semi-crystalline folding structure, which gives it exceptional toughness and strength, and the degree of hydration of the disordered fraction, which acts to modify these properties. Understanding and controlling these two principal factors are the key to the functionality of protein elastomers, and render silk an ideal model protein for (bio)material design. We will describe our investigation of electrospun silk of the Bombyx mori (silk worm), using Inelastic Neutron Scattering (INS). These techniques were used to investigate the microscopic dynamics of the dry and hydrated protein.

  18. Microstructure and property of regenepercentaged silk fibroin/chitosan nanofibers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zhao Lei

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Composite silk fibroin/chitosan nanofiber membrane was fabricated by bubbfil electrospinning. The influence of chitosan content on composite membrane's microstructure, mechanical property, and the percentage of water-dissolved were studied experimentally. The result indicated that the crystallinity of electrospun membrane was enhanced by increasing chitosan concentration. It is noteworthy that the percentage of water-dissolved was the minimum when the weight ratio of silk fibroin/chitosan was 70:30. After the composite membrane treated by the methanol, the percentage of water-dissolved of the nanofiber membrane decreased significantly. The strength and elongation at break of composite membrane increased gradually with the increased content of chitosan. Additionally, the electrospun silk fibroin/chitosan membrane showed excellent antibacterial property.

  19. Effect of Sodium Carbonate Concentrations on the Formation and Mechanism of Regenerated Silk Fibroin Nanofibers by Electrospinning

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hao Dou

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Degumming is the first process for the preparation of all silk-based products. In this paper, effect of sodium carbonate concentrations for silk degumming on the formation of electrospun silk fibroin nanofibers was investigated and the reason for the silk electrospinning process was explained for the first time by differences from the microstructure of regenerated silk fibroin. With increasing the sodium carbonate concentration, microstructure both in the aqueous solutions and in the electrospinning solutions transformed from nanofibrils to nanoparticles, leading to obvious changes on rheological property; electrospinning solutions with nanofibrils behaved like the native silk dope and owned remarkably higher viscosity than the solutions with nanoparticles showing very low viscosity. More interestingly, nanofibrils favored the formation of silk nanofibers with ease, and even nanofibers could be electrospun at concentration 2%. However, nanoparticles were completely unable to generate nanofibers at high spinning concentration 8%. Importance of sodium carbonate concentrations is heavily emphasized for impacting the microstructure types and further influencing the electrospinning performance of regenerated silk. Hence, sodium carbonate concentrations provide a controllable choice for the preparation of silk-based electrospun biomaterials with desired properties.

  20. Advances on Fabrication of Electrospun Silk Fibroin Nanofibres%静电纺制备丝素蛋白纳米纤维及其复合纳米纤维的研究进展

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    张睿晗; 蔡志江

    2013-01-01

    The silk fibroin nanofibres membrane fabricated by electrospinning has large surface specific area,high prosity,biocompatibility,etc.Therefore,it is widely investigated at home and abroad.This article mainly reviews the development on fabrication silk fibroin nanofibres by electrospinning method.The emphasis is focused on the preparation of pure silk fibroin nanofibres and silk fibroin composite nanofibres using different solvent.The potential applications for these nanofibres have also been expected.%将生物材料通过静电纺丝制备成的纳米纤维,具有比表面积大、空隙率高、生物相容性好等优点,因此得到广泛研究.本文主要综述了近年来国内外静电纺丝制备丝素蛋白纳米纤维的研究现状,重点介绍了采用不同溶剂制备的纯丝素蛋白纳米纤维和丝素蛋白与其它材料复合制备的丝素蛋白复合纳米纤维,并展望丝素蛋白纳米纤维潜在的应用前景.

  1. Effect of Na2CO3 degumming concentration on LiBr-formic acid-silk fibroin solution properties

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Liu Zhi

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Salt-acid system has been proved to be of high efficiency for silk fibroin dissolution. Using salt-acid system to dissolve silk, native silk fibrils can be preserved in the regenerated solution. Increasing experiments indicate that acquirement of silk fibrils in solution is strongly associated with the degumming process. In this study, the effect of sodium carbonate degumming concentration on solution properties based on lithium bromide-formic acid dissolution system was systematically investigated. Results showed that the morphology transformation of silk fibroin in solution from nanospheres to nanofibrils is determined by sodium carbonate concentration during the degumming process. Solutions containing different silk fibroin structure exhibited different rheological behaviors and different electrospinnability, leading to different electrospun nanofibre properties. The results have guiding significance for preparation and application of silk fibroin solutions.

  2. Manufacturing Ancient Imperial Silk

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    1997-01-01

    China was the first country in the world to develop silkworm breeding silk reeling, silk weaving, dying and embroidering. Located in the middle and lower reaches of the Yangtze River, Zhejiang Province has a long history of silk production. At the Qianshanyang Remains, which date back 4,800 years, silk fabrics were excavated. All rulers of past ages had special organizations responsible for

  3. Biofunctionalization of nonwoven complex oriented scaffolds with distinct differentiation molecules for the directed tissue regeneration

    Science.gov (United States)

    Antonova, L. V.; Krivkina, E. O.; Sergeeva, E. A.; Sevostyanova, V. V.; Burago, A. Yu.; Burkov, N. N.; Hryachkova, O. N.; Velikanova, E. A.; Matveeva, V. G.; Kudryavtseva, Yu. A.; Barbarash, O. L.; Barbarash, L. S.

    2016-08-01

    In our research we tested electrospun scaffolds prepared from poly (3-hydroxybutyrate-co-3-hydroxyvalerate) (PHBV)/polycaprolactone (PCL) with and without the vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF) and the stromal-derived growth factor-lα (SDF-lα). Chemoattractant activity of VEGF and SDF-lα was evaluated on an endothelial cell line EA.hy 926 using in vitro migration assay. Biocompatibility of the scaffolds was assessed by implanting them into the rat pericardial sac. After 4 days of culturing, we found that the number of cells migrated to the PHBV/PCL/VEGF and PHBV/PCL/SDF-lα scaffolds was 1.4 and 1.35-fold higher, respectively, compared to the PHBV/PCL scaffolds (p tissues. In addition, we detected active cell infiltration and production of extracellular matrix in the PHBV/PCL/SDF-lα scaffolds. Therefore, VEGF and SDF-lα retained their bioactivity after being incorporated into the PHBV/PCL scaffolds. We suggest biofunctionalization of the PHBV/PCL scaffolds with VEGF and SDF-lα as an appropriate approach for regenerative medicine.

  4. Radiation degradation of silk

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ishida, Kazushige; Kamiishi, Youichi [Textile Research Institute of Gunma, Kiryu, Gunma (Japan); Takeshita, Hidefumi; Yoshii, Fumio; Kume, Tamikazu [Japan Atomic Energy Research Inst., Takasaki, Gunma (Japan). Takasaki Radiation Chemistry Research Establishment

    2001-03-01

    Silk fibroin powder was prepared from irradiated silk fibroin fiber by means of only physical treatment. Silk fibroin fiber irradiated with an accelerated electron beam in the dose range of 250 - 1000 kGy was pulverized by using a ball mill. Unirradiated silk fibroin fiber was not pulverized at all. But the more irradiation was increased, the more the conversion efficiency from fiber to powder was increased. The conversion efficiency of silk fibroin fiber irradiated 1000 kGy in oxygen was 94%. Silk fibroin powder shows remarkable solubility, which dissolved 57% into water of ambient temperature. It is a very interesting phenomenon that silk fibroin which did not treat with chemicals gets solubility only being pulverized. In order to study mechanism of solubilization of silk fibroin powder, amino acid component of soluble part of silk fibroin powder was analyzed. The more irradiation dose up, the more glycine or alanine degraded, but degradation fraction reached bounds about 50%. Other amino acids were degraded only 20% even at the maximum. To consider crystal construction of silk fibroin, it is suggested that irradiation on silk fibroin fiber selectively degrades glycine and alanine in amorphous region, which makes it possible to pulverize and to dissolve silk fibroin powder. (author)

  5. Protein analysis based on molecular beacon probes and biofunctionalized nanoparticles

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2010-01-01

    With the completion of the human genome-sequencing project, there has been a resulting change in the focus of studies from genomics to proteomics. By utilizing the inherent advantages of molecular beacon probes and biofunctionalized nanoparticles, a series of novel principles, methods and techniques have been exploited for bioanalytical and biomedical studies. This review mainly discusses the applications of molecular beacon probes and biofunctionalized nanoparticles-based technologies for realtime, in-situ, highly sensitive and highly selective protein analysis, including the nonspecific or specific protein detection and separation, protein/DNA interaction studies, cell surface protein recognition, and antigen-antibody binding process-based bacteria assays. The introduction of molecular beacon probes and biofunctionalized nanoparticles into the protein analysis area would necessarily advance the proteomics research.

  6. Role of chondroitin sulphate tethered silk scaffold in cartilaginous disc tissue regeneration.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bhattacharjee, Maumita; Chawla, Shikha; Chameettachal, Shibu; Murab, Sumit; Bhavesh, Neel Sarovar; Ghosh, Sourabh

    2016-04-01

    Strategies for tissue engineering focus on scaffolds with tunable structure and morphology as well as optimum surface chemistry to simulate the anatomy and functionality of the target tissue. Silk fibroin has demonstrated its potential in supporting cartilaginous tissue formation both in vitro and in vivo. In this study, we investigate the role of controlled lamellar organization and chemical composition of biofunctionalized silk scaffolds in replicating the structural properties of the annulus region of an intervertebral disc using articular chondrocytes. Covalent attachment of chondroitin sulfate (CS) to silk is characterized. CS-conjugated silk constructs demonstrate enhanced cellular metabolic activity and chondrogenic redifferentiation potential with significantly improved mechanical properties over silk-only constructs. A matrix-assisted laser desorption ionization-time of flight analysis and protein-protein interaction studies help to generate insights into how CS conjugation can facilitate the production of disc associated matrix proteins, compared to a silk-only based construct. An in-depth understanding of the interplay between such extra cellular matrix associated proteins should help in designing more rational scaffolds for cartilaginous disc regeneration needs. PMID:27068621

  7. Study on electrospun Silk Fibroin-Hyaluronic acid blends nanofbers and its structure%静电纺丝素-透明质酸共混纳米纤维形态结构研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    陈梅; 张锋; 明津法; 高艳菲; 左保齐

    2012-01-01

    Silk fibroin and different molecular hyaluronic acid blend nanofibers (SF-HA) were obtained by electro spinning and using formic acid as solvent. Morphological structure and molecular structure of the SF-HA blend nanofibers were examinedby SEM, FTIR, XRD, TG-DTA. It shows that the average diameters of SF-HA blend nanofibers was about 100 nm; the surface of blend fibers was smooth and the shape was cylindrical; with the addition of high molecular hyaluronic acid, the morphology of SF-HA became worse and the nanofibers had serious connection with each other. However, the result proved that the addition of little hyaluronic acid had no significant effect on the molecular conformation and crystal structure.%以甲酸为溶剂,采用静电纺丝方法制备丝素蛋白(SF)与不同相对分子质量的透明质酸(HA)共混纳米纤维,并通过扫描电镜(SEM)、红外光谱(FTIR)、X射线衍射(XRD)和热分析(TG-DTA)研究了SF-HA共混纳米纤维非织造网的形态、结构和性能.结果表明:通过静电纺丝,丝素与低分子量的透明质酸共混纳米纤维直径在100m左右,纤维表面光滑,呈圆柱状:高分子量透明质酸的加入使得纤维形态变差,出现严重的粘连现象:透明质酸的加入未对丝素分子构象和结晶结构产生明显影响.

  8. Silk structure and degradation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Bin; Song, Yu-wei; Jin, Li; Wang, Zhi-jian; Pu, De-yong; Lin, Shao-qiang; Zhou, Chan; You, Hua-jian; Ma, Yan; Li, Jin-min; Yang, Li; Sung, K L Paul; Zhang, Yao-guang

    2015-07-01

    To investigate the structure of silk and its degradation properties, we have monitored the structure of silk using scanning electron microscopy and frozen sections. Raw silk and degummed raw silk were immersed in four types of degradation solutions for 156 d to observe their degradation properties. The subcutaneous implants in rats were removed after 7, 14, 56, 84, 129, and 145 d for frozen sectioning and subsequent staining with hematoxylin and eosin (H.E.), DAPI, Beta-actin and Collagen I immunofluorescence staining. The in vitro weight loss ratio of raw silk and degummed raw silk in water, PBS, DMEM and DMEM containing 10% FBS (F-DMEM) were, respectively, 14%/11%, 12.5%/12.9%, 11.1%/14.3%, 8.8%/11.6%. Silk began to degrade after 7 d subcutaneous implantation and after 145 d non-degraded silk was still observed. These findings suggest the immunogenicity of fibroin and sericin had no essential difference. In the process of in vitro degradation of silk, the role of the enzyme is not significant. The in vivo degradation of silk is related to phagocytotic activity and fibroblasts may be involved in this process to secrete collagen. This study also shows the developing process of cocoons and raw silk. PMID:25982316

  9. New application of silk protein

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kamiishi, Youichi [Textile Research Institute of Gunma, Kiryu, Gunma (Japan)

    2000-03-01

    Gunma prefecture is famous for sericulture and silk textile industry district in Japan. In Gunma prefecture, some kinds of new generation silk as high performance and high quality silk were developed. These silk are used not only for the new textile materials but also for new industrial materials. New application of silk protein, fibroin and sericin, is considered. (author)

  10. New application of silk protein

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gunma prefecture is famous for sericulture and silk textile industry district in Japan. In Gunma prefecture, some kinds of new generation silk as high performance and high quality silk were developed. These silk are used not only for the new textile materials but also for new industrial materials. New application of silk protein, fibroin and sericin, is considered. (author)

  11. Biofunctionalization of silica microspheres for protein separation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Li, Binjie [Institute of Immunology, Henan University, Kaifeng 475004 (China); Key Laboratory of Ministry of Education for Special Functional Materials, Henan University, Kaifeng 475004 (China); Zou, Xueyan [Key Laboratory of Ministry of Education for Special Functional Materials, Henan University, Kaifeng 475004 (China); Zhao, Yanbao, E-mail: yanbaozhao@126.com [Key Laboratory of Ministry of Education for Special Functional Materials, Henan University, Kaifeng 475004 (China); Sun, Lei [Institute of Immunology, Henan University, Kaifeng 475004 (China); Key Laboratory of Ministry of Education for Special Functional Materials, Henan University, Kaifeng 475004 (China); Li, Shulian [Institute of Immunology, Henan University, Kaifeng 475004 (China)

    2013-07-01

    Mercapto-silica (SiO{sub 2}–SH) microspheres were prepared via direct hydrolysis of 3-mercaptopropyltrimethoxysilane (MPS) in a basic aqueous solution. The content of surface thiol group (-SH) of SiO{sub 2}–SH microspheres was measured by Ellman's reagent method and X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS) and the content of surface thiol group of SiO{sub 2}–SH microspheres is strongly dependent on the reaction conditions. The thermal stability of SiO{sub 2}–SH microspheres was evaluated by thermogravimetric (TG) analysis, which tended to reduce with the increase of content of surface thiol groups. SiO{sub 2}–SH microspheres can be easily modified with reduced glutathione (GSH) to generate SiO{sub 2}–GSH microspheres for the affinity separation of Glutathione S-transferase (GST). Sodium dodecyl sulfate-polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis (SDS-PAGE) was performed to examine the validity of the separation procedure. The results showed that SiO{sub 2}–GSH microspheres were efficient in GST affinity separation from mixed proteins. - Graphical abstract: The prepared SiO{sub 2}–SH microsphere binding reduced glutathione (SiO{sub 2}–GSH) as affinity precipitation support can capture selectively Glutathione S-transferase (GST) from mixed protein solution. Highlights: ► SiO{sub 2}–SH microspheres were prepared in water using one-pot synthesis. ► The content of surface -SH was investigated by Ellman method and XPS spectra. ► The ratio of -SH to mass strongly depends on the reaction conditions. ► SiO{sub 2}–SH microspheres were biofunctionalized by glutathione. ► SiO{sub 2}–GSH can be used to capture selectively Glutathione S-transferase.

  12. Biofunctionalization of silica microspheres for protein separation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mercapto-silica (SiO2–SH) microspheres were prepared via direct hydrolysis of 3-mercaptopropyltrimethoxysilane (MPS) in a basic aqueous solution. The content of surface thiol group (-SH) of SiO2–SH microspheres was measured by Ellman's reagent method and X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS) and the content of surface thiol group of SiO2–SH microspheres is strongly dependent on the reaction conditions. The thermal stability of SiO2–SH microspheres was evaluated by thermogravimetric (TG) analysis, which tended to reduce with the increase of content of surface thiol groups. SiO2–SH microspheres can be easily modified with reduced glutathione (GSH) to generate SiO2–GSH microspheres for the affinity separation of Glutathione S-transferase (GST). Sodium dodecyl sulfate-polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis (SDS-PAGE) was performed to examine the validity of the separation procedure. The results showed that SiO2–GSH microspheres were efficient in GST affinity separation from mixed proteins. - Graphical abstract: The prepared SiO2–SH microsphere binding reduced glutathione (SiO2–GSH) as affinity precipitation support can capture selectively Glutathione S-transferase (GST) from mixed protein solution. Highlights: ► SiO2–SH microspheres were prepared in water using one-pot synthesis. ► The content of surface -SH was investigated by Ellman method and XPS spectra. ► The ratio of -SH to mass strongly depends on the reaction conditions. ► SiO2–SH microspheres were biofunctionalized by glutathione. ► SiO2–GSH can be used to capture selectively Glutathione S-transferase

  13. Enhanced mechanical properties of thermosensitive chitosan hydrogel by silk fibers for cartilage tissue engineering

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mirahmadi, Fereshteh [Faculty of Biomedical Engineering, Amirkabir University of Technology, Tehran (Iran, Islamic Republic of); National Cell Bank of Iran, Pasteur Institute of Iran, Tehran (Iran, Islamic Republic of); Tafazzoli-Shadpour, Mohammad, E-mail: Tafazoli@aut.ac.ir [Faculty of Biomedical Engineering, Amirkabir University of Technology, Tehran (Iran, Islamic Republic of); Shokrgozar, Mohammad Ali, E-mail: mashokrgozar@pasteur.ac.ir [National Cell Bank of Iran, Pasteur Institute of Iran, Tehran (Iran, Islamic Republic of); Bonakdar, Shahin [National Cell Bank of Iran, Pasteur Institute of Iran, Tehran (Iran, Islamic Republic of)

    2013-12-01

    Articular cartilage has limited repair capability following traumatic injuries and current methods of treatment remain inefficient. Reconstructing cartilage provides a new way for cartilage repair and natural polymers are often used as scaffold because of their biocompatibility and biofunctionality. In this study, we added degummed chopped silk fibers and electrospun silk fibers to the thermosensitive chitosan/glycerophosphate hydrogels to reinforce two hydrogel constructs which were used as scaffold for hyaline cartilage regeneration. The gelation temperature and gelation time of hydrogel were analyzed by the rheometer and vial tilting method. Mechanical characterization was measured by uniaxial compression, indentation and dynamic mechanical analysis assay. Chondrocytes were then harvested from the knee joint of the New Zealand white rabbits and cultured in constructs. The cell proliferation, viability, production of glycosaminoglycans and collagen type II were assessed. The results showed that mechanical properties of the hydrogel were significantly enhanced when a hybrid with two layers of electrospun silk fibers was made. The results of GAG and collagen type II in cell-seeded scaffolds indicate support of the chondrogenic phenotype for chondrocytes with a significant increase in degummed silk fiber–hydrogel composite for GAG content and in two-layer electrospun fiber–hydrogel composite for Col II. It was concluded that these two modified scaffolds could be employed for cartilage tissue engineering. - Highlights: • Chitosan hydrogel composites fabricated by two forms of silk fiber • Silk fibers provide structural support for the hydrogel matrix. • The mechanical properties of hydrogel significantly improved by associating with silk. • Production of GAG and collagen type II was demonstrated within the scaffolds.

  14. Chemical stabilization of porous silicon for enhanced biofunctionalization with immunoglobulin

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nelson Naveas, Vicente Torres Costa, Dario Gallach, Jacobo Hernandez-Montelongo, Raul Jose Martín Palma, Josefa Predenstinacion Garcia-Ruiz and Miguel Manso-Silván

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Porous silicon (PSi is widely used in biological experiments, owing to its biocompatibility and well-established fabrication methods that allow tailoring its surface. Nevertheless, there are some unresolved issues such as deciding whether the stabilization of PSi is necessary for its biological applications and evaluating the effects of PSi stabilization on the surface biofunctionalization with proteins. In this work we demonstrate that non-stabilized PSi is prone to detachment owing to the stress induced upon biomolecular adsorption. Biofunctionalized non-stabilized PSi loses the interference properties characteristic of a thin film, and groove-like structures resulting from a final layer collapse were observed by scanning electron microscopy. Likewise, direct PSi derivatization with 3-aminopropyl-triethoxysilane (APTS does not stabilize PSi against immunoglobulin biofunctionalization. To overcome this problem, we developed a simple chemical process of stabilizing PSi (CoxPSi for biological applications, which has several advantages over thermal stabilization (ToxPSi. The process consists of chemical oxidation in H2O2, surface derivatization with APTS and a curing step at 120 °C. This process offers integral homogeneous PSi morphology, hydrophilic surface termination (contact angle θ = 26° and highly efficient derivatized and biofunctionalized PSi surfaces (six times more efficient than ToxPSi. All these features are highly desirable for biological applications, such as biosensing, where our results can be used for the design and optimization of the biomolecular immobilization cascade on PSi surfaces.

  15. Isolation of cancer cells by "in situ" microfluidic biofunctionalization protocols

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    De Vitis, Stefania; Matarise, Giuseppina; Pardeo, Francesca;

    2014-01-01

    The aim of this work is the development of a microfluidic immunosensor for the immobilization of cancer cells and their separation from healthy cells by using "in situ" microfluidic biofunctionalization protocols. These protocols allow to link antibodies on microfluidic device surfaces and can be...

  16. Enhanced mechanical properties of thermosensitive chitosan hydrogel by silk fibers for cartilage tissue engineering.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mirahmadi, Fereshteh; Tafazzoli-Shadpour, Mohammad; Shokrgozar, Mohammad Ali; Bonakdar, Shahin

    2013-12-01

    Articular cartilage has limited repair capability following traumatic injuries and current methods of treatment remain inefficient. Reconstructing cartilage provides a new way for cartilage repair and natural polymers are often used as scaffold because of their biocompatibility and biofunctionality. In this study, we added degummed chopped silk fibers and electrospun silk fibers to the thermosensitive chitosan/glycerophosphate hydrogels to reinforce two hydrogel constructs which were used as scaffold for hyaline cartilage regeneration. The gelation temperature and gelation time of hydrogel were analyzed by the rheometer and vial tilting method. Mechanical characterization was measured by uniaxial compression, indentation and dynamic mechanical analysis assay. Chondrocytes were then harvested from the knee joint of the New Zealand white rabbits and cultured in constructs. The cell proliferation, viability, production of glycosaminoglycans and collagen type II were assessed. The results showed that mechanical properties of the hydrogel were significantly enhanced when a hybrid with two layers of electrospun silk fibers was made. The results of GAG and collagen type II in cell-seeded scaffolds indicate support of the chondrogenic phenotype for chondrocytes with a significant increase in degummed silk fiber-hydrogel composite for GAG content and in two-layer electrospun fiber-hydrogel composite for Col II. It was concluded that these two modified scaffolds could be employed for cartilage tissue engineering.

  17. Relationship between rheology and electro-spinning performance of regenerated silk fibroin prepared using different degumming methods

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Hyun Ju; Um, In Chul

    2014-05-01

    Electro-spun silk fibroin (SF) has been studied for biomedical applications because of its good biocompatibility, cyto-compatibility, and simple fabrication method. SF is obtained by a degumming process and the degumming method can affect the degree of molecular degradation of SF during the degumming process. In the present study, the effect of the degumming method on the rheology and electro-spinning performance of a silk solution was examined. In addition, the relationship between the rheology and electrospinnability was investigated. Regardless of the degumming method, all silk formic acid solutions exhibited almost Newtonian fluid behavior. The order of the viscosity of the silk solution was as follows: HTHP method > acid method > soap/soda method. An analysis of the correlation between the viscosity and electrospun morphology showed that the viscosity played a key role in determining the electro-spun morphology, and the critical viscosity for good fiber formation without beads in electro-spinning exists between 0.13 and 0.20 Pa·s. The viscosity also determines the maximum electro-spinning rate of the SF formic acid solution. The morphology and diameter of the electro-spun fiber were almost unaffected by the electro-spinning rate of the SF solution.

  18. Pigmented Silk Nanofibrous Composite for Skeletal Muscle Tissue Engineering.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Manchineella, Shivaprasad; Thrivikraman, Greeshma; Khanum, Khadija K; Ramamurthy, Praveen C; Basu, Bikramjit; Govindaraju, T

    2016-05-01

    Skeletal muscle tissue engineering (SMTE) employs designed biomaterial scaffolds for promoting myogenic differentiation of myoblasts to functional myotubes. Oxidative stress plays a significant role in the biocompatibility of biomaterials as well as in the fate of myoblasts during myogenesis and is also associated with pathological conditions such as myotonic dystrophy. The inherent electrical excitability of muscle cells inspired the use of electroactive scaffolds for SMTE. Conducting polymers attracted the attention of researchers for their use in muscle tissue engineering. However, poor biocompatibility, biodegradability and development of oxidative stress associated immunogenic response limits the extensive use of synthetic conducting polymers for SMTE. In order to address the limitations of synthetic polymers, intrinsically electroactive and antioxidant silk fibroin/melanin composite films and electrospun fiber mats were fabricated and evaluated as scaffolds for promoting myogenesis in vitro. Melanin incorporation modulated the thermal stability, electrical conductivity of scaffolds, fiber alignment in electrospun mats and imparted good antioxidant properties to the scaffolds. The composite electrospun scaffolds promoted myoblast assembly and differentiation into uniformly aligned high aspect ratio myotubes. The results highlight the significance of scaffold topography along with conductivity in promoting myogenesis and the potential application of silk nanofibrous composite as electoractive platform for SMTE. PMID:27226037

  19. A novel marine silk.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kronenberger, Katrin; Dicko, Cedric; Vollrath, Fritz

    2012-01-01

    The discovery of a novel silk production system in a marine amphipod provides insights into the wider potential of natural silks. The tube-building corophioid amphipod Crassicorophium bonellii produces from its legs fibrous, adhesive underwater threads that combine barnacle cement biology with aspects of spider silk thread extrusion spinning. We characterised the filamentous silk as a mixture of mucopolysaccharides and protein deriving from glands representing two distinct types. The carbohydrate and protein silk secretion is dominated by complex β-sheet structures and a high content of charged amino acid residues. The filamentous secretion product exits the gland through a pore near the tip of the secretory leg after having moved through a duct, which subdivides into several small ductules all terminating in a spindle-shaped chamber. This chamber communicates with the exterior and may be considered the silk reservoir and processing/mixing space, in which the silk is mechanically and potentially chemically altered and becomes fibrous. We assert that further study of this probably independently evolved, marine arthropod silk processing and secretion system can provide not only important insights into the more complex arachnid and insect silks but also into crustacean adhesion cements.

  20. Bio-functionalization of silicon nitride-based piezo-resistive microcantilevers

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Nitin S Kale; Manoj Joshi; P Nageswara Rao; S Mukherji; V Ramgopal Rao

    2009-08-01

    Methods of bio-functionalize silicon nitride involve process steps to convert it into an oxynitride via plasma implantation techniques. Such methods can potentially damage microstructures such as cantilevers. In this paper, we report successful bio-functionalization of Hotwire CVD silicon nitride-based piezo-resistive cantilevers without any oxygen plasma treatment. Process to fabricate such structures and to bio-functionalize them is discussed in detail.

  1. Silk Batik using Cochineal Dye

    Science.gov (United States)

    The history of silk, including sericulture (the production of raw silk, which requires the raising of silkworms on their natural diet, mulberry leaves) and silk manufacturing, is rich and extensive. It encompasses several famous “silk roads” (trade routes), various cultures and technologies, ideas,...

  2. Art on Silk Hoops

    Science.gov (United States)

    Padrick, Deborah

    2012-01-01

    Painting on silk has a magic all its own. Versions of painting on silk can be found throughout the world from Japan and Europe to the United States. Themes for the paintings can be most any type of design or imagery. Applying the liquid dyes is exciting, as the vivid liquid colors flow and blend into the fabric. The process captures students'…

  3. "Carved Silk" Masterpieces

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    1996-01-01

    "Carved silk" originated during the Five Dynasties (907-960) period and gained great popularity during the Song Dynasty (960-1279). This particular style of weave, which features the same design on both sides, is clearly defined as if engraved with a knife. The distinct quality of the work led to the moniker "Carved Silk." The two most outstanding pieces of carved silk—

  4. The Tao of Silk

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    VALERIE; SARTOR

    2007-01-01

    China’s most ancient gift to the world, silk, arrived long before gunpowder, paper and printmaking. This coveted fabric predated Christ and Buddha. Silk startled the world: Lenient ancient Romans banned it as sexy and immoral. Durable, useful and elegant, it is one of the oldest fibers known to man. Production remained a Chinese secret until 550 when two Nestorian monks, risking their lives,

  5. Functional electrospun membranes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ognibene, G.; Fragalà, M. E.; Cristaldi, D. A.; Blanco, I.; Cicala, G.

    2016-05-01

    In this study we combined electrospun PES nanofibers with ZnO nanostructures in order to obtain a hierarchical nanostructured hybrid material to be use for active water filtration membranes. It benefits of flexibility and high surface area of the polymeric nanofibers as well as of additional functionalities of ZnOnanostructures. First, randomly oriented nanofibers with diameters of 716nm ±365 nm were electrospun on a glass fibers substrate from a solution of PES and DMF-TOL(1:1). ZnO nanorods were grown onto the surface of electrospun PES fibers by a Chemical Bath Deposition (CBD) process. It was preceed by a seeding process necessary to form nucleation sites for the subsequent radially aligned growth of ZnO nanowires. The morfology of the fibers and the effect of the seeding time have been analysed by SEM. The amount of ZnO nanowires grown over electrospun nanofibers was determined as 45% by weight. The high purity and crystallinity of the asobtained products are confirmed by XRD since all reflection peaks can be indexed to hexagonal wurtzite ZnO.

  6. Biofunctionalization of zinc oxide nanowires for DNA sensory applications

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rudolph Bettina

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract We report on the biofunctionalization of zinc oxide nanowires for the attachment of DNA target molecules on the nanowire surface. With the organosilane glycidyloxypropyltrimethoxysilane acting as a bifunctional linker, amino-modified capture molecule oligonucleotides have been immobilized on the nanowire surface. The dye-marked DNA molecules were detected via fluorescence microscopy, and our results reveal a successful attachment of DNA capture molecules onto the nanowire surface. The electrical field effect induced by the negatively charged attached DNA molecules should be able to control the electrical properties of the nanowires and gives way to a ZnO nanowire-based biosensing device.

  7. Isolation of cancer cells by "in situ" microfluidic biofunctionalization protocols

    KAUST Repository

    De Vitis, Stefania

    2014-07-01

    The aim of this work is the development of a microfluidic immunosensor for the immobilization of cancer cells and their separation from healthy cells by using "in situ" microfluidic biofunctionalization protocols. These protocols allow to link antibodies on microfluidic device surfaces and can be used to study the interaction between cell membrane and biomolecules. Moreover they allow to perform analysis with high processing speed, small quantity of reagents and samples, short reaction times and low production costs. In this work the developed protocols were used in microfluidic devices for the isolation of cancer cells in heterogeneous blood samples by exploiting the binding of specific antibody to an adhesion protein (EpCAM), overexpressed on the tumor cell membranes. The presented biofunctionalization protocols can be performed right before running the experiment: this allows to have a flexible platform where biomolecules of interest can be linked on the device surface according to the user\\'s needs. © 2014 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  8. Influence of electrospinning on microstructure of regenerated Argiope bruennichi silk%静电纺再生加工对横纹金珠丝微观结构的影响

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    裔婷婷; 潘志娟

    2012-01-01

    蜘蛛丝因其优异的力学性能和良好的生物相容性引起了学者的广泛关注.为此在研究横纹金珠丝在六氟异丙醇(HFIP)中溶解性能的基础上,采用静电纺丝的方法制备再生横纹金珠丝(框丝、卵袋内层丝、卵袋外层丝),分析比较再生横纹金蛛丝和天然横纹金蛛丝在形态结构、分子构象、结晶结构以及热稳定性方面的差异.结果发现:静电纺再生框丝呈扁平带状,带宽为(751±196) nm,卵袋内层丝和卵袋外层丝直径分别为(141±46) nm和(105±37)nm.X衍射图谱和TG-DTA测定结果表明,静电纺再生加工后,横纹金珠丝结构由silkⅡ向silk Ⅰ转变,结晶度下降,主要热分解温度降低.%Spider silk has attracted wide attentions of scholars and researchers due to its excellent mechanical properties and good biocompatibility in recent years. The regenerated Argiope bruennichi silk ( scaffolding silk, egg case inner cover silk, egg case outer cover silk) was prepared by electrospinning on the basis of studying the solubility of Argiope bruennichi silk in 1,1,1,3 ,3 ,3-hexafluoro-2-propanol (HFIP). The morphology, molecular conformation, crystallinity and thermal property of the natural Argiope bruennichi silk and the electrospun Argiope bruennichi silk were compared. The results indicated the electrospun regenerated Argiope bruennichi silk was flat ribbon with the bandwidth ( 751 ± 196 ) nm and a diameter of egg case inner cover silk and egg case outer cover silk (141 ±46) nm and ( 105 ± 37) nm, respectively. The XRD and TG-DTA analysis showed that the crystal structure of electrospun Argiope bruennichi silk has changed from silk II to silk I , and the crystallinity and main thermal decomposition temperature decreased.

  9. Applications of electrospun nanofibers

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    FANG Jian; NIU HaiTao; LIN Tong; WANG XunGai

    2008-01-01

    Polymeric nanofiber non-woven materials produced by electrospinning have extremely high surface-to-mass (or volume) ratio and a porous structure with excellent pore-interconnectivity. These characteristics plus the functionalities and surface chemistry of the polymer itself impart the nanofibers with desirable properties for a range of advanced applications. This review summarizes the recent progress in electrospun nanofibers, with an emphasis on their applications.

  10. Silk Road policy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nishikawa, Y. [Mitsui Mineral Development Engineering Co., Tokyo (Japan)

    1999-04-01

    Landlocked Asia is blessed with rich mineral and energy resources and has great potential to supply these resources to Europe and eastern Asia. With globalisation of markets progressing rapidly, central Asia is now in the spotlight for its economic activity, as a route for international trade and as the heartland of the `Modern Silk Road` of the 21st century. The article discusses the mineral resources of central Asia, covering Kazakhstan, Uzbekistan, Turkmenistan, Kyrghystan, Xingjiang, and Mongolia. Energy resources of the region, coal, oil and natural gas, are mentioned. International organizations and industrial companies like Japan are supporting the transformation of these vast largely unexplored areas to market economies. Construction of the New Silk Road has begun, under the UNDP, and improvement of the Silk Road railway is also underway, with Japanese funding. 3 figs.

  11. A hybrid approach to the surface biofunctionalization of nanostructured porous alumina

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Silvan, Miguel Manso; Ruiz, Josefa Predestinacion Garcia [Departamento de Fisica Aplicada y Departamento de Biologia Molecular, Facultad de Ciencias, Universidad Autonoma de Madrid, Unidad Asociada GMNF (ICMM-CSIC), 28049 Madrid (Spain); Centro de Investigaciones Biomedicas en Red, Bioingenieria Biomateriales y Nanomedicina (CIBERbbn) (Spain); Gonzalez, Ruy Sanz [Instituto de Ciencia de Materiales de Madrid, Consejo Superior de Investigaciones Cientificas, 28049 Madrid (Spain); Velez, Manuel Hernandez [Departamento de Fisica Aplicada y Departamento de Biologia Molecular, Facultad de Ciencias, Universidad Autonoma de Madrid, Unidad Asociada GMNF (ICMM-CSIC), 28049 Madrid (Spain)

    2010-02-15

    The application of nanostructured porous alumina templates as a solid support in biomedical assays requires a surface biofunctionalization process that has been addressed in this work by an hybrid aminopropyl-triethoxysilane/tetraisopropyl-orthotitanate (APTS/ TIPT) self assembled film. The nanostructured porous alumina templates are activated in a peroxide solution before immersion in the biofunctionalizing APTS/TIPT solution. The biofunctionalization process was followed up by UV-vis spectroscopy, which confirmed the modification of the dielectric structure of the alumina surface. The influence of the biofunctionalization step in an immunological assay was carried out by fluorescence microscopy. Results confirm the gain in activity after the immobilization of an FITC labelled mouse Igg. Specific biological recognition in a bovine serum albumin (BSA)-antiBSA assay is proved afterwards by shifts observed in the reflectance interferograms thus providing a fast biosensing transducer platform. (copyright 2010 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH and Co. KGaA, Weinheim) (orig.)

  12. Probing the Silk Road

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    1999-01-01

    As modern transportation de-veloped rapidly, the Silk Roadbegan to fade from view. Buttwo painters, Geng Yukun andZhao Yixiong, have visited it16 times and have covered allroutes over the past 20 years,reaching as far as Japan in theeast and Turkey in the west.

  13. Spiders and Silk

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    熊世民

    2004-01-01

    Spiders are very small, so it is easy to think that they do not make anything strong. However, a scientist at Oxford University in Britain has discovered this is not true. David Knight says that eight-legged spiders create a material called silk that could be as strong as rope.

  14. Optically switchable natural silk

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    An optically active bio-material is created by blending natural silk fibers with photoisomerizable chromophore molecules—azobenzenebromide (AzBr). The material converts the energy of unpolarized light directly into mechanical work with a well-defined direction of action. The feasibility of the idea to produce optically driven microsized actuators on the basis of bio-material (silk) is proven. The switching behavior of the embedded AzBr molecules was studied in terms of UV/Vis spectroscopy. To test the opto-mechanical properties of the modified fibers and the structural changes they undergo upon optically induced switching, single fiber X-ray diffraction with a micron-sized synchrotron radiation beam was combined in situ with optical switching as well as with mechanical testing and monitoring. The crystalline regions of silk are not modified by the presence of the guest molecules, hence occupy only the amorphous part of the fibers. It is shown that chromophore molecules embedded into fibers can be reversibly switched between the trans and cis conformation by illumination with light of defined wavelengths. The host fibers respond to this switching with a variation of the internal stress. The amplitude of the mechanical response is independent of the applied external stress and its characteristic time is shorter than the relaxation time of the usual mechanical response of silk

  15. Functional silk: colored and luminescent.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tansil, Natalia C; Koh, Leng Duei; Han, Ming-Yong

    2012-03-15

    Silkworm silk is among the most widely used natural fibers for textile and biomedical applications due to its extraordinary mechanical properties and superior biocompatibility. A number of physical and chemical processes have also been developed to reconstruct silk into various forms or to artificially produce silk-like materials. In addition to the direct use and the delicate replication of silk's natural structure and properties, there is a growing interest to introduce more new functionalities into silk while maintaining its advantageous intrinsic properties. In this review we assess various methods and their merits to produce functional silk, specifically those with color and luminescence, through post-processing steps as well as biological approaches. There is a highlight on intrinsically colored and luminescent silk produced directly from silkworms for a wide range of applications, and a discussion on the suitable molecular properties for being incorporated effectively into silk while it is being produced in the silk gland. With these understanding, a new generation of silk containing various functional materials (e.g., drugs, antibiotics and stimuli-sensitive dyes) would be produced for novel applications such as cancer therapy with controlled release feature, wound dressing with monitoring/sensing feature, tissue engineering scaffolds with antibacterial, anticoagulant or anti-inflammatory feature, and many others.

  16. Patterning and biofunctionalization of antifouling hyperbranched polyglycerol coatings.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moore, Eli; Delalat, Bahman; Vasani, Roshan; Thissen, Helmut; Voelcker, Nicolas H

    2014-07-14

    We demonstrate the patterned biofunctionalization of antifouling hyperbranched polyglycerol (HPG) coatings on silicon and glass substrates. The ultralow fouling HPG coatings afforded straightforward chemical handles for rapid bioconjugation of amine containing biomolecular species. This was achieved by sodium periodate oxidation of terminal HPG diols to yield reactive aldehyde groups. Patterned microprinting of sodium periodate and cell adhesion mediating cyclic peptides containing the RGD sequence resulted in an array of covalently immobilized bioactive signals. When incubated with mouse fibroblasts, the HPG background resisted cell attachment whereas high density cell attachment was observed on the peptide spots, resulting in high-contrast cell microarrays. We also demonstrated single-step, in situ functionalization of the HPG coatings by printing periodate and peptide concurrently. Our results demonstrate the effectiveness of antifouling and functionalized HPG graft polymer coatings and establish their use in microarray applications for the first time. PMID:24956414

  17. Helicoidal multi-lamellar features of RGD-functionalized silk biomaterials for corneal tissue engineering.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gil, Eun Seok; Mandal, Biman B; Park, Sang-Hyug; Marchant, Jeffrey K; Omenetto, Fiorenzo G; Kaplan, David L

    2010-12-01

    RGD-coupled silk protein-biomaterial lamellar systems were prepared and studied with human cornea fibroblasts (hCFs) to match functional requirements. A strategy for corneal tissue engineering was pursued to replicate the structural hierarchy of human corneal stroma within thin stacks of lamellae-like tissues, in this case constructed from scaffolds constructed with RGD-coupled, patterned, porous, mechanically robust and transparent silk films. The influence of RGD-coupling on the orientation, proliferation, ECM organization, and gene expression of hCFs was assessed. RGD surface modification enhanced cell attachment, proliferation, alignment and expression of both collagens (type I and V) and proteoglycans (decorin and biglycan). Confocal and histological images of the lamellar systems revealed that the bio-functionalized silk human cornea 3D constructs exhibited integrated corneal stroma tissue with helicoidal multi-lamellar alignment of collagen-rich and proteoglycan-rich extracellular matrix, with transparency of the construct. This biomimetic approach to replicate corneal stromal tissue structural hierarchy and architecture demonstrates a useful strategy for engineering human cornea. Further, this approach can be exploited for other tissue systems due to the pervasive nature of such helicoids in most human tissues. PMID:20801503

  18. Regeneration of Bombyx mori silk nanofibers and nanocomposite fibrils by the electrospinning process

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ayutsede, Jonathan Eyitouyo

    In recent years, there has been significant interest in the utilization of natural materials for novel nanoproducts such as tissue engineered scaffolds. Silkworm silk fibers represent one of the strongest natural fibers known. Silkworm silk, a protein-based natural biopolymer, has received renewed interest in recent years due to its unique properties (strength, toughness) and potential applications such as smart textiles, protective clothing and tissue engineering. The traditional 10--20 mum diameter, triangular-shaped Bombyx mori fibers have remained unchanged over the years. However, in our study, we examine the scientific implication and potential applications of reducing the diameter to the nanoscale, changing the triangular shape of the fiber and adding nanofillers in the form of single wall carbon nanotubes (SWNT) by the electrospinning process. The electrospinning process preserves the natural conformation of the silk (random and beta-sheet). The feasibility of changing the properties of the electrospun nanofibers by post processing treatments (annealing and chemical treatment) was investigated. B. mori silk fibroin solution (formic acid) was successfully electrospun to produce uniform nanofibers (as small as 12 nm). Response Surface Methodology (RSM) was applied for the first time to experimental results of electrospinning, to develop a processing window that can reproduce regenerated silk nanofibers of a predictable size (d < 100nm). SWNT-silk multifunctional nanocomposite fibers were fabricated for the first time with anticipated properties (mechanical, thermal and electrically conductive) that may have scientific applications (nerve regeneration, stimulation of cell-scaffold interaction). In order to realize these applications, the following areas need to be addressed: a systematic investigation of the dispersion of the nanotubes in the silk matrix, a determination of new methodologies for characterizing the nanofiber properties and establishing the

  19. Hierarchically Structured Electrospun Fibers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nicole E. Zander

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Traditional electrospun nanofibers have a myriad of applications ranging from scaffolds for tissue engineering to components of biosensors and energy harvesting devices. The generally smooth one-dimensional structure of the fibers has stood as a limitation to several interesting novel applications. Control of fiber diameter, porosity and collector geometry will be briefly discussed, as will more traditional methods for controlling fiber morphology and fiber mat architecture. The remainder of the review will focus on new techniques to prepare hierarchically structured fibers. Fibers with hierarchical primary structures—including helical, buckled, and beads-on-a-string fibers, as well as fibers with secondary structures, such as nanopores, nanopillars, nanorods, and internally structured fibers and their applications—will be discussed. These new materials with helical/buckled morphology are expected to possess unique optical and mechanical properties with possible applications for negative refractive index materials, highly stretchable/high-tensile-strength materials, and components in microelectromechanical devices. Core-shell type fibers enable a much wider variety of materials to be electrospun and are expected to be widely applied in the sensing, drug delivery/controlled release fields, and in the encapsulation of live cells for biological applications. Materials with a hierarchical secondary structure are expected to provide new superhydrophobic and self-cleaning materials.

  20. Molecular spring: from spider silk to silkworm silk

    CERN Document Server

    Wu, Xiang; Du, Ning; Xu, Gang-Qin; Li, Bao-Wen

    2009-01-01

    In this letter, we adopt a new approach combining theoretical modeling with silk stretching measurements to explore the mystery of the structures between silkworm and spider silks, leading to the differences in mechanical response against stretching. Hereby the typical stress-strain profiles are reproduced by implementing the newly discovered and verified "$\\beta$-sheet splitting" mechanism, which primarily varies the secondary structure of protein macromolecules; our modeling and simulation results show good accordance with the experimental measurements. Hence, it can be concluded that the post-yielding mechanical behaviors of both kinds of silks are resulted from the splitting of crystallines while the high extensibility of spider dragline is attributed to the tiny $\\beta$-sheets solely existed in spider silk fibrils. This research reveals for the first time the structural factors leading to the significant difference between spider and silkworm silks in mechanical response to the stretching force. Addition...

  1. Silk Fibroin under Osmotic Stress

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sohn, Sungkyun; Strey, Helmut H.; Gido, Samuel P.

    2003-03-01

    The osmotic stress method was applied to study the thermodynamics of supramolecular self-assembly phenomena in crystallizable segments of Bombyx mori silkworm silk fibroin. Controlling compositions and phases of silk fibroin solution, the method provided a means for the direct investigation of microscopic and thermodynamic details of these intermolecular interactions in aqueous media. It is apparent that as osmotic pressure increases, silk fibroin molecules get pressurized to align together to form a water-soluble crystalline mesophase (Silk-I), and then gradually become anti-parallel b-sheet structure (Silk-II) at higher osmotic pressure. This behavior becomes more sensitive as the salt concentration decreases. A partial ternary phase diagram of Water-Silk fibroin-LiBr was constructed based on the results. This phase diagram can be utilized to help design a new route for wet spinning of re-generated silk fibroin. Precise control of compositions and corresponding crystalline structure of a silk fibroin solution may enable us to simulate the natural Bombyx mori silkworm spinning process.

  2. Polymer nanofibrous structures: Fabrication, biofunctionalization, and cell interactions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Beachley, Vince; Wen, Xuejun

    2010-07-01

    Extracellular matrix fibers (ECM) such as collagen, elastin, and keratin provide biological and physical support for cell attachment, proliferation, migration, differentiation and ultimately cell fate. Therefore, ECM fibers are an important component in tissue and organ development and regeneration. Meanwhile, polymer nanofibers could play the same critical role in tissue regeneration process. Fibrous structures can be fabricated from a variety of materials and methods with diameters ranging throughout the size scale where cells can sense individual fibers (several nanometers to several microns). Polymer nanofiber scaffolds can be designed in a way that predictably modulates a variety of important cell behaviors towards a desired overall function. The nanofibrous topography itself, independent of the fiber material, has demonstrated the potential to modulate cell behaviors desirable in tissue engineering such as: unidirectional alignment; increased viability, attachment, and ECM production; guided migration; and controlled differentiation. The versatility of polymer nanofibers for functionalization with biomolecules opens the door to vast opportunities for the design of tissue engineering scaffolds with even greater control over cell incorporation and function. Despite the promise of polymer nanofibers as tissue engineering scaffolds there have been few clinically relevant successes because no single fabrication technique currently combines control over structural arrangement, material composition, and biofunctionalization, while maintaining reasonable cost and yield. Promising strategies are currently being investigated to allow for the fabrication of optimal polymer nanofiber tissue engineering scaffolds with the goal of treating damaged and degenerated tissues in a clinical setting.

  3. Biofunctionalization of CeF(3):Tb(3+) nanoparticles.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kong, D Y; Wang, Z L; Lin, C K; Quan, Z W; Li, Y Y; Li, C X; Lin, J

    2007-02-21

    CeF(3):Tb(3+) nanoparticles (short pillar-like morphology with an average length and width of 11 and 5 nm, respectively) were successfully prepared by a polyol process using diethyleneglycol (DEG) as solvent. After being functionalized with a SiO(2)-NH(2) layer, these CeF(3):Tb(3+) nanoparticles can be conjugated with biotin molecules (activated by thionyl chloride) and further with avidin. The as-formed CeF(3):Tb(3+) nanoparticles, CeF(3):Tb(3+) nanoparticles functionalized with amino groups, biotin conjugated amino-functionalized CeF(3):Tb(3+) nanoparticles and biotinylated CeF(3):Tb(3+) nanoparticles bonded with avidin were characterized by x-ray diffraction (XRD), transmission electron microscopy (TEM), Fourier transform infrared (FT-IR), UV/vis absorption spectra and luminescence spectra, respectively. The biofunctionalization of the CeF(3):Tb(3+) nanoparticles has less effect on their luminescence properties, i.e. they still show strong green emission (from Tb(3+), with (5)D(4)-(7)F(5) at 543 nm as the most prominent group), indicative of the great potential for these CeF(3):Tb(3+) nanoparticles to be used as biological fluorescence probes. PMID:21730503

  4. Biofunctionalization of CeF3:Tb3+ nanoparticles

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kong, D. Y.; Wang, Z. L.; Lin, C. K.; Quan, Z. W.; Li, Y. Y.; Li, C. X.; Lin, J.

    2007-02-01

    CeF3:Tb3+ nanoparticles (short pillar-like morphology with an average length and width of 11 and 5 nm, respectively) were successfully prepared by a polyol process using diethyleneglycol (DEG) as solvent. After being functionalized with a SiO2-NH2 layer, these CeF3:Tb3+ nanoparticles can be conjugated with biotin molecules (activated by thionyl chloride) and further with avidin. The as-formed CeF3:Tb3+ nanoparticles, CeF3:Tb3+ nanoparticles functionalized with amino groups, biotin conjugated amino-functionalized CeF3:Tb3+ nanoparticles and biotinylated CeF3:Tb3+ nanoparticles bonded with avidin were characterized by x-ray diffraction (XRD), transmission electron microscopy (TEM), Fourier transform infrared (FT-IR), UV/vis absorption spectra and luminescence spectra, respectively. The biofunctionalization of the CeF3:Tb3+ nanoparticles has less effect on their luminescence properties, i.e. they still show strong green emission (from Tb3+, with 5D4-7F5 at 543 nm as the most prominent group), indicative of the great potential for these CeF3:Tb3+ nanoparticles to be used as biological fluorescence probes.

  5. Effect of Silk Protein Processing on Drug Delivery from Silk Films

    OpenAIRE

    Pritchard, Eleanor M.; Hu, Xiao; Finley, Violet; Kuo, Catherine K.; Kaplan, David L.

    2013-01-01

    Sericin removal from the core fibroin protein of silkworm silk is a critical first step in the use of silk for biomaterial-related applications, but degumming can affect silk biomaterial properties, including molecular weight, viscosity, diffusivity and degradation behavior. Increasing the degumming time (10, 30, 60 and 90 min) decreases the average molecular weight of silk protein in solution, silk solution viscosity, and silk film glass transition temperature, and increases the rate of degr...

  6. Exploiting spiders’ silk

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Paula Gould

    2002-12-01

    As today’s film-goers and readers of the original Spiderman comic strip will know, spider silk makes an ideal tool for a modern day super-hero. The fine line can be produced at will, holds our hero’s weight as he swings between tall buildings, and then clumps together to trap dastardly villains in a tangled, sticky mess. Highly useful if your daily job description includes rescuing distressed damsels from improbable locations and preventing a thoroughly nasty goblin from wreaking havoc on your home city.

  7. A study of biofunctionalized silica nanospring surface for immunosensor applications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Timalsina, Yukta P.; McIlroy, David N.

    2012-02-01

    A study of biofunctionalized VANS (vertically aligned (silica) nanospring) surface for immunosensor applications is presented. VANS surface treated with 3-aminopropyltriethoxysilane (APTES) leaves a primary amine groups on the VANS surface. Glutaraldehyde (GA) reacts with APTES modified VANS surface forming imine bonds at one end of glutaraldehyde, leaving aldehyde groups at the other end to react with the antibody. X-ray photoelectron study verifies each step of VANS surface functionalization. A goat anti mouse antibody (GαM IgG I) is immobilized as a biorecognition layer on the APTES-GA modified surface and targeted to mouse IgG. It is investigated that mouse IgG captured from the solution phase specifically binds to goat anti mouse IgG on APTES-GA- GαM IgG I. Then layer of GαM IgG II attached to the APTES-GA- GαM IgG I-mouse IgG surface reacts only when there is mouse IgG instead of rabbit IgG. A modeling of a resistor-inductor-capacitor (RLC) circuit of impedance spectra measured after the addition of successive layer indicates the these biological layers behave as insulating layers. It is explored that there is a greater magnitude of change between successive bio-layers below 10 kHz. Changes in the magnitudes of the elements of the RLC equivalent circuit indicate that the addition of biological layers impedes ionic motion thereby changing the effective dielectric response by the biomolecule polarization.

  8. Compressibility of electrospun fiber mats

    OpenAIRE

    Choong, Looh Tchuin; Mannarino, Matthew M.; Basu, Sandip; Rutledge, Gregory C.

    2013-01-01

    Compressive properties of electrospun fiber mats are reported for the first time. Mats of bisphenol-A polysulfone (PSU) and of poly(trimethyl hexamethylene terephthalamide) [PA 6(3)T] were electrospun and annealed over a range of temperatures spanning the glass transition temperature of each polymer. The data for applied stress versus mat solidity were found to be well-described by a power law of the form σ[subscript zz] = kE(ϕ[superscript n] − ϕ[n over 0]), where σ[subscript zz] is the appli...

  9. Electrospun amplified fiber optics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morello, Giovanni; Camposeo, Andrea; Moffa, Maria; Pisignano, Dario

    2015-03-11

    All-optical signal processing is the focus of much research aiming to obtain effective alternatives to existing data transmission platforms. Amplification of light in fiber optics, such as in Erbium-doped fiber amplifiers, is especially important for efficient signal transmission. However, the complex fabrication methods involving high-temperature processes performed in a highly pure environment slow the fabrication process and make amplified components expensive with respect to an ideal, high-throughput, room temperature production. Here, we report on near-infrared polymer fiber amplifiers working over a band of ∼20 nm. The fibers are cheap, spun with a process entirely carried out at room temperature, and shown to have amplified spontaneous emission with good gain coefficients and low levels of optical losses (a few cm(-1)). The amplification process is favored by high fiber quality and low self-absorption. The found performance metrics appear to be suitable for short-distance operations, and the large variety of commercially available doping dyes might allow for effective multiwavelength operations by electrospun amplified fiber optics.

  10. Carbon nanotubes on a spider silk scaffold

    Science.gov (United States)

    Steven, Eden; Saleh, Wasan R.; Lebedev, Victor; Acquah, Steve F. A.; Laukhin, Vladimir; Alamo, Rufina G.; Brooks, James S.

    2013-09-01

    Understanding the compatibility between spider silk and conducting materials is essential to advance the use of spider silk in electronic applications. Spider silk is tough, but becomes soft when exposed to water. Here we report a strong affinity of amine-functionalised multi-walled carbon nanotubes for spider silk, with coating assisted by a water and mechanical shear method. The nanotubes adhere uniformly and bond to the silk fibre surface to produce tough, custom-shaped, flexible and electrically conducting fibres after drying and contraction. The conductivity of coated silk fibres is reversibly sensitive to strain and humidity, leading to proof-of-concept sensor and actuator demonstrations.

  11. Cell culture's spider silk road.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Perkel, Jeffrey

    2014-06-01

    A number of synthetic and natural materials have been tried in cell culture and tissue engineering applications in recent years. Now Jeffrey Perkel takes a look at one new culture component that might surprise you-spider silk.

  12. A new route for silk

    Science.gov (United States)

    Omenetto, Fiorenzo G.; Kaplan, David L.

    2008-11-01

    Famous for its use in clothing since early times, silk is now finding a new application as a useful biocompatible material in photonic devices. Thin films, diffraction gratings and organic photonic crystals are just a few of the exciting possibilities.

  13. Cytotoxicity and cellular uptake of ZnS:Mn nanocrystals biofunctionalized with chitosan and aminoacids

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    Augustine, M.S.; Anas, A.; Das, A.V.; Sreekanth, S.; Jayalekshmi, S.

    Highly luminescent, manganese doped, zinc sulphide (ZnS:Mn) nanocrystals biofunctionalized with chitosan and various aminoacids such as l-citrulline, l-lysine, l-arginine, l-serine, l-histidine and glycine were synthesized by chemical capping co...

  14. Impact of silk fibroin-based scaffold structures on human osteoblast MG63 cell attachment and proliferation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Varkey A

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available Aneesia Varkey,1,2 Elakkiya Venugopal,2 Ponjanani Sugumaran,2 Gopinathan Janarthanan,1 Mamatha M Pillai,2 Selvakumar Rajendran,2 Amitava Bhattacharyya1 1Advanced Textile and Polymer Research Laboratory, 2Tissue Engineering Laboratory, PSG Institute of Advanced Studies, Coimbatore, Tamil Nadu, India Abstract: The present study was carried out to investigate the impact of various types of silk fibroin (SF scaffolds on human osteoblast-like cell (MG63 attachment and proliferation. SF was isolated from Bombyx mori silk worm cocoons after degumming. Protein concentration in the degummed SF solution was estimated using Bradford method. Aqueous SF solution was used to fabricate three different types of scaffolds, viz, electrospun nanofiber mat, sponge, and porous film. The structures of the prepared scaffolds were characterized using optical micro­scopy and field emission scanning electron microscopy. The changes in the secondary structure of the proteins and the thermal behavior of the scaffolds were determined by Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy and thermo-gravimetric analysis, respectively. The biodegradation rate of scaffolds was determined by incubating the scaffolds in simulated body fluid for 4 weeks. MG63 cells were seeded on the scaffolds and their attachment and proliferation onto the scaffolds were studied. The MTT assay was carried out to deduce the toxicity of the developed scaffolds. All the scaffolds were found to be biocompatible. The amount of collagen produced by the osteoblast-like cells growing on different scaffolds was estimated. Keywords: silk fibroin scaffold, electrospun nanofiber, porous film, sponge, osteoblast

  15. Electrospun multifunctional tissue engineering scaffolds

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Chong; Wang, Min

    2014-03-01

    Tissue engineering holds great promises in providing successful treatments of human body tissue loss that current methods are unable to treat or unable to achieve satisfactory clinical outcomes. In scaffold-based tissue engineering, a highperformance scaffold underpins the success of a tissue engineering strategy and a major direction in the field is to create multifunctional tissue engineering scaffolds for enhanced biological performance and for regenerating complex body tissues. Electrospinning can produce nanofibrous scaffolds that are highly desirable for tissue engineering. The enormous interest in electrospinning and electrospun fibrous structures by the science, engineering and medical communities has led to various developments of the electrospinning technology and wide investigations of electrospun products in many industries, including biomedical engineering, over the past two decades. It is now possible to create novel, multicomponent tissue engineering scaffolds with multiple functions. This article provides a concise review of recent advances in the R & D of electrospun multifunctional tissue engineering scaffolds. It also presents our philosophy and research in the designing and fabrication of electrospun multicomponent scaffolds with multiple functions.

  16. Analytical markers for silk degradation: comparing historic silk and silk artificially aged in different environments

    OpenAIRE

    Vilaplana, Francisco; Nilsson, Johanna; Sommer, Dorte V. P.; Karlsson, Sigbritt

    2014-01-01

    Suitable analytical markers to assess the degree of degradation of historic silk textiles at molecular and macroscopic levels have been identified and compared with silk textiles aged artificially in different environments, namely (i) ultraviolet (UV) exposure, (ii) thermo-oxidation, (iii) controlled humidity and (iv) pH. The changes at the molecular level in the amino acid composition, the formation of oxidative moieties, crystallinity and molecular weight correlate well with the changes in ...

  17. Production of Silk & Wool Blended Worsted Cloth

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    段亚峰; 许琳

    2004-01-01

    Wool & silk blended fancy suiting is desinged. Through trial-production with silk sliver and Australian wool top, the spinning technology is investigated, and the relationship of spinning technology, blending ratio and yam construction is discussed.

  18. Phase behavior and hydration of silk fibroin.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sohn, Sungkyun; Strey, Helmut H; Gido, Samuel P

    2004-01-01

    The osmotic stress method was applied to study the thermodynamics of supramolecular self-assembly phenomena in crystallizable segments of Bombyx mori silkworm silk fibroin. By controlling compositions and phases of silk fibroin solution, the method provided a means for the direct investigation of microscopic and thermodynamic details of these intermolecular interactions in aqueous media. It is apparent that as osmotic pressure increases, silk fibroin molecules are crowded together to form silk I structure and then with further increase in osmotic pressure become an antiparallel beta-sheet structure, silk II. A partial ternary phase diagram of water-silk fibroin-LiBr was constructed based on the results. The results provide quantitative evidence that the silk I structure must contain water of hydration. The enhanced control over structure and phase behavior using osmotic stress, as embodied in the phase diagram, could potentially be utilized to design a new route for water-based wet spinning of regenerated silk fibroin.

  19. Spider Silk-CBD-Cellulose Nanocrystal Composites: Mechanism of Assembly

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meirovitch, Sigal; Shtein, Zvi; Ben-Shalom, Tal; Lapidot, Shaul; Tamburu, Carmen; Hu, Xiao; Kluge, Jonathan A.; Raviv, Uri; Kaplan, David L.; Shoseyov, Oded

    2016-01-01

    The fabrication of cellulose-spider silk bio-nanocomposites comprised of cellulose nanocrystals (CNCs) and recombinant spider silk protein fused to a cellulose binding domain (CBD) is described. Silk-CBD successfully binds cellulose, and unlike recombinant silk alone, silk-CBD self-assembles into microfibrils even in the absence of CNCs. Silk-CBD-CNC composite sponges and films show changes in internal structure and CNC alignment related to the addition of silk-CBD. The silk-CBD sponges exhibit improved thermal and structural characteristics in comparison to control recombinant spider silk sponges. The glass transition temperature (Tg) of the silk-CBD sponge was higher than the control silk sponge and similar to native dragline spider silk fibers. Gel filtration analysis, dynamic light scattering (DLS), small angle X-ray scattering (SAXS) and cryo-transmission electron microscopy (TEM) indicated that silk-CBD, but not the recombinant silk control, formed a nematic liquid crystalline phase similar to that observed in native spider silk during the silk spinning process. Silk-CBD microfibrils spontaneously formed in solution upon ultrasonication. We suggest a model for silk-CBD assembly that implicates CBD in the central role of driving the dimerization of spider silk monomers, a process essential to the molecular assembly of spider-silk nanofibers and silk-CNC composites. PMID:27649169

  20. Spider Silk-CBD-Cellulose Nanocrystal Composites: Mechanism of Assembly.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meirovitch, Sigal; Shtein, Zvi; Ben-Shalom, Tal; Lapidot, Shaul; Tamburu, Carmen; Hu, Xiao; Kluge, Jonathan A; Raviv, Uri; Kaplan, David L; Shoseyov, Oded

    2016-01-01

    The fabrication of cellulose-spider silk bio-nanocomposites comprised of cellulose nanocrystals (CNCs) and recombinant spider silk protein fused to a cellulose binding domain (CBD) is described. Silk-CBD successfully binds cellulose, and unlike recombinant silk alone, silk-CBD self-assembles into microfibrils even in the absence of CNCs. Silk-CBD-CNC composite sponges and films show changes in internal structure and CNC alignment related to the addition of silk-CBD. The silk-CBD sponges exhibit improved thermal and structural characteristics in comparison to control recombinant spider silk sponges. The glass transition temperature (Tg) of the silk-CBD sponge was higher than the control silk sponge and similar to native dragline spider silk fibers. Gel filtration analysis, dynamic light scattering (DLS), small angle X-ray scattering (SAXS) and cryo-transmission electron microscopy (TEM) indicated that silk-CBD, but not the recombinant silk control, formed a nematic liquid crystalline phase similar to that observed in native spider silk during the silk spinning process. Silk-CBD microfibrils spontaneously formed in solution upon ultrasonication. We suggest a model for silk-CBD assembly that implicates CBD in the central role of driving the dimerization of spider silk monomers, a process essential to the molecular assembly of spider-silk nanofibers and silk-CNC composites. PMID:27649169

  1. Spider Silk-CBD-Cellulose Nanocrystal Composites: Mechanism of Assembly

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sigal Meirovitch

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available The fabrication of cellulose-spider silk bio-nanocomposites comprised of cellulose nanocrystals (CNCs and recombinant spider silk protein fused to a cellulose binding domain (CBD is described. Silk-CBD successfully binds cellulose, and unlike recombinant silk alone, silk-CBD self-assembles into microfibrils even in the absence of CNCs. Silk-CBD-CNC composite sponges and films show changes in internal structure and CNC alignment related to the addition of silk-CBD. The silk-CBD sponges exhibit improved thermal and structural characteristics in comparison to control recombinant spider silk sponges. The glass transition temperature (Tg of the silk-CBD sponge was higher than the control silk sponge and similar to native dragline spider silk fibers. Gel filtration analysis, dynamic light scattering (DLS, small angle X-ray scattering (SAXS and cryo-transmission electron microscopy (TEM indicated that silk-CBD, but not the recombinant silk control, formed a nematic liquid crystalline phase similar to that observed in native spider silk during the silk spinning process. Silk-CBD microfibrils spontaneously formed in solution upon ultrasonication. We suggest a model for silk-CBD assembly that implicates CBD in the central role of driving the dimerization of spider silk monomers, a process essential to the molecular assembly of spider-silk nanofibers and silk-CNC composites.

  2. Spider Silk-CBD-Cellulose Nanocrystal Composites: Mechanism of Assembly.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meirovitch, Sigal; Shtein, Zvi; Ben-Shalom, Tal; Lapidot, Shaul; Tamburu, Carmen; Hu, Xiao; Kluge, Jonathan A; Raviv, Uri; Kaplan, David L; Shoseyov, Oded

    2016-09-18

    The fabrication of cellulose-spider silk bio-nanocomposites comprised of cellulose nanocrystals (CNCs) and recombinant spider silk protein fused to a cellulose binding domain (CBD) is described. Silk-CBD successfully binds cellulose, and unlike recombinant silk alone, silk-CBD self-assembles into microfibrils even in the absence of CNCs. Silk-CBD-CNC composite sponges and films show changes in internal structure and CNC alignment related to the addition of silk-CBD. The silk-CBD sponges exhibit improved thermal and structural characteristics in comparison to control recombinant spider silk sponges. The glass transition temperature (Tg) of the silk-CBD sponge was higher than the control silk sponge and similar to native dragline spider silk fibers. Gel filtration analysis, dynamic light scattering (DLS), small angle X-ray scattering (SAXS) and cryo-transmission electron microscopy (TEM) indicated that silk-CBD, but not the recombinant silk control, formed a nematic liquid crystalline phase similar to that observed in native spider silk during the silk spinning process. Silk-CBD microfibrils spontaneously formed in solution upon ultrasonication. We suggest a model for silk-CBD assembly that implicates CBD in the central role of driving the dimerization of spider silk monomers, a process essential to the molecular assembly of spider-silk nanofibers and silk-CNC composites.

  3. Production of silk sericin/silk fibroin blend nanofibers

    OpenAIRE

    Zhang Xianhua; Tsukada Masuhiro; Morikawa Hideaki; Aojima Kazuki; Zhang Guangyu; Miura Mikihiko

    2011-01-01

    Abstract Silk sericin (SS)/silk fibroin (SF) blend nanofibers have been produced by electrospinning in a binary SS/SF trifluoroacetic acid (TFA) solution system, which was prepared by mixing 20 wt.% SS TFA solution and 10 wt.% SF TFA solution to give different compositions. The diameters of the SS/SF nanofibers ranged from 33 to 837 nm, and they showed a round cross section. The surface of the SS/SF nanofibers was smooth, and the fibers possessed a bead-free structure. The average diameters o...

  4. Electrospun Borneol-PVP Nanocomposites

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xiao-Yan Li

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available The present work investigates the validity of electrospun borneol-polyvinylpyrrolidone (PVP nanocomposites in enhancing drug dissolution rates and improving drug physical stability. Based on hydrogen bonding interactions and via an electrospinning process, borneol and PVP can form stable nanofiber-based composites. FESEM observations demonstrate that composite nanofibers with uniform structure could be generated with a high content of borneol up to 33.3% (w/w. Borneol is well distributed in the PVP matrix molecularly to form the amorphous composites, as verified by DSC and XRD results. The composites can both enhance the dissolution profiles of borneol and increase its physical stability against sublimation for long-time storage by immobilization of borneol molecules with PVP. The incorporation of borneol in the PVP matrix weakens the tensile properties of nanofibers, and the mechanism is discussed. Electrospun nanocomposites can be alternative candidates for developing novel nano-drug delivery systems with high performance.

  5. Analytical markers for silk degradation: comparing historic silk and silk artificially aged in different environments.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vilaplana, Francisco; Nilsson, Johanna; Sommer, Dorte V P; Karlsson, Sigbritt

    2015-02-01

    Suitable analytical markers to assess the degree of degradation of historic silk textiles at molecular and macroscopic levels have been identified and compared with silk textiles aged artificially in different environments, namely (i) ultraviolet (UV) exposure, (ii) thermo-oxidation, (iii) controlled humidity and (iv) pH. The changes at the molecular level in the amino acid composition, the formation of oxidative moieties, crystallinity and molecular weight correlate well with the changes in the macroscopic properties such as brightness, pH and mechanical properties. These analytical markers are useful to understand the degradation mechanisms that silk textiles undergo under different degradation environments, involving oxidation processes, hydrolysis, chain scission and physical arrangements. Thermo-oxidation at high temperatures proves to be the accelerated ageing procedure producing silk samples that most resembled the degree of degradation of early seventeenth-century silk. These analytical markers will be valuable to support the textile conservation tasks currently being performed in museums to preserve our heritage. PMID:25492090

  6. Fabrication of Chitosan/Silk Fibroin Composite Nanofibers for Wound-dressing Applications

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hong-sheng Wang

    2010-09-01

    Full Text Available Chitosan, a naturally occurring polysaccharide with abundant resources, has been extensively exploited for various biomedical applications, typically as wound dressings owing to its unique biocompatibility, good biodegradability and excellent antibacterial properties. In this work, composite nanofibrous membranes of chitosan (CS and silk fibroin (SF were successfully fabricated by electrospinning. The morphology of electrospun blend nanofibers was observed by scanning electron microscopy (SEM and the fiber diameters decreased with the increasing percentage of chitosan. Further, the mechanical test illustrated that the addition of silk fibroin enhanced the mechanical properties of CS/SF nanofibers. The antibacterial activities against Escherichia coli (Gram negative and Staphylococcus aureus (Gram positive were evaluated by the turbidity measurement method; and results suggest that the antibacterial effect of composite nanofibers varied on the type of bacteria. Furthermore, the biocompatibility of murine fibroblast on as-prepared nanofibrous membranes was investigated by hematoxylin and eosin (H&E staining and MTT assays in vitro, and the membranes were found to promote the cell attachment and proliferation. These results suggest that as-prepared chitosan/silk fibroin (CS/SF composite nanofibrous membranes could be a promising candidate for wound healing applications.

  7. Biofunctionalization of titanium surfaces with heparin-binding biomolecules to enhance osteointegration of implants

    OpenAIRE

    Garrido Domínguez, Beatriz

    2015-01-01

    For orthopaedic, dental or craniofacial applications osteointegration is critical for short-term initial stability and long-term success of the implant. Important efforts have been made in the past to optimize the osteointegration of titanium implants in bone-contact applications, focusing mainly on biofunctionalization methods of its surface to reduce healing times and accelerate integration into the host tissue. In the present in vitro study a heparin binding peptide (FHRRIKA) and a r...

  8. Facile biofunctionalization of silver nanoparticles for enhanced antibacterial properties, endotoxin removal, and biofilm control

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lambadi PR

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available Paramesh Ramulu Lambadi,1,* Tarun Kumar Sharma,1,* Piyush Kumar,1 Priyanka Vasnani,2 Sitaramanjaneya Mouli Thalluri,2 Neha Bisht,1 Ranjana Pathania,1,2 Naveen Kumar Navani1,21Department of Biotechnology, 2Centre of Nanotechnology, Indian Institute of Technology, Roorkee, Uttarakhand, India*These authors contributed equally to this workAbstract: Infectious diseases cause a huge burden on healthcare systems worldwide. Pathogenic bacteria establish infection by developing antibiotic resistance and modulating the host’s immune system, whereas opportunistic pathogens like Pseudomonas aeruginosa adapt to adverse conditions owing to their ability to form biofilms. In the present study, silver nanoparticles were biofunctionalized with polymyxin B, an antibacterial peptide using a facile method. The biofunctionalized nanoparticles (polymyxin B-capped silver nanoparticles, PBSNPs were assessed for antibacterial activity against multiple drug-resistant clinical strain Vibrio fluvialis and nosocomial pathogen P. aeruginosa. The results of antibacterial assay revealed that PBSNPs had an approximately 3-fold higher effect than the citrate-capped nanoparticles (CSNPs. Morphological damage to the cell membrane was followed by scanning electron microscopy, testifying PBSNPs to be more potent in controlling the bacterial growth as compared with CSNPs. The bactericidal effect of PBSNPs was further confirmed by Live/Dead staining assays. Apart from the antibacterial activity, the biofunctionalized nanoparticles were found to resist biofilm formation. Electroplating of PBSNPs onto stainless steel surgical blades retained the antibacterial activity against P. aeruginosa. Further, the affinity of polymyxin for endotoxin was exploited for its removal using PBSNPs. It was found that the prepared nanoparticles removed 97% of the endotoxin from the solution. Such multifarious uses of metal nanoparticles are an attractive means of enhancing the potency of antimicrobial

  9. Biomimetic electrospun nanofibers for tissue regeneration

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Liao, Susan; Li Bojun; Ma Zuwei; Wei He; Chan Casey; Ramakrishna, Seeram [Nanoscience and Nanotechnology Initiative (NUSNNI), Faculty of Engineering, National University of Singapore, 117576 Singapore (Singapore)

    2006-09-15

    Nanofibers exist widely in human tissue with different patterns. Electrospinning nanotechnology has recently gained a new impetus due to the introduction of the concept of biomimetic nanofibers for tissue regeneration. The advanced electrospinning technique is a promising method to fabricate a controllable continuous nanofiber scaffold similar to the natural extracellular matrix. Thus, the biomedical field has become a significant possible application field of electrospun fibers. Although electrospinning has developed rapidly over the past few years, electrospun nanofibers are still at a premature research stage. Further comprehensive and deep studies on electrospun nanofibers are essential for promoting their biomedical applications. Current electrospun fiber materials include natural polymers, synthetic polymers and inorganic substances. This review briefly describes several typically electrospun nanofiber materials or composites that have great potential for tissue regeneration, and describes their fabrication, advantages, drawbacks and future prospects. (topical review)

  10. Comparative transcriptome analyses on silk glands of six silkmoths imply the genetic basis of silk structure and coloration

    OpenAIRE

    Dong, Yang; Dai, Fangyin; Ren, Yandong; Liu, Hui; Chen, Lei; Yang, Pengcheng; Liu, Yanqun; LI, XIN; Wang, Wen; Xiang, Hui

    2015-01-01

    Background Silk has numerous unique properties that make it a staple of textile manufacturing for several thousand years. However, wider applications of silk in modern have been stalled due to limitations of traditional silk produced by Bombyx mori. While silk is commonly produced by B. mori, several wild non-mulberry silkmoths--especially members of family Saturniidae--produce silk with superior properties that may be useful for wider applications. Further utilization of such silks is hamper...

  11. PEGylated Silk Nanoparticles for Anticancer Drug Delivery

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Wongpinyochit, Thidarat; Uhlmann, Petra; Urquhart, Andrew;

    2015-01-01

    .6 mV) using nanoprecipitation. We then surface grafted polyethylene glycol (PEG) to the fabricated silk nanoparticles and verified the aqueous stability and morphology of the resulting PEGylated silk nanoparticles. We assessed the drug loading and release behavior of these nanoparticles using......Silk has a robust clinical track record and is emerging as a promising biopolymer for drug delivery, including its use as nanomedicine. However, silk-based nanomedicines still require further refinements for full exploitation of their potential; the application of “stealth” design principals...... is especially necessary to support their evolution. The aim of this study was to develop and examine the potential of PEGylated silk nanoparticles as an anticancer drug delivery system. We first generated B. mori derived silk nanoparticles by driving β-sheet assembly (size 104 ± 1.7 nm, zeta potential −56 ± 5...

  12. SILK FIBRE DEGRADATION AND ANALYSIS BY PROTEOMICS

    OpenAIRE

    YUKSELOGLU S. Muge; CANOGLU Suat

    2016-01-01

    Silk is one of the promising natural fibres and has a long established history in textile production throughout the centuries. Silk is produced by cultured silk worms, spiders, scorpions, mites and flies. It is extracellular proteinaceous fibres which consist of highly crystalline and insoluble proteins, the fibroins glued with sericin and an amourphous protein. On the other hand, understanding and controlling the degradation of protein materials are important for determining quality and the...

  13. Fine Structure of Regenerated Silk Fibroin Solids

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    LI Ming-zhong; WU Zheng-yu; Norihiko Minoura; YAN Hao-jing

    2002-01-01

    The fibronin solids (membrane and gel) were prepared from regenerated silk fibroin solution in different ways. The structure of the fibroin solids and its change during storage were studied. The results indicated that the structure of fibroin membraneair-dried at 30℃ or freeze dried at a freezing temperature of - 20 - - 4℃ was the coexistence of amporphous and silk I structure. The amorphous region could partly be transformed into silk I structure under room temperature and humidity. The structure of porous silk fibroin membrane was the coexistence of amorphous and small part of silk Ⅱ, if the aqueous fibroin was freeze dried within the temperature range of - 80℃ to - 20℃, and the amorphous partly transformed into silk I during storage. Thestructure of fibroin gel naturally forming when kept at room temperature was coexistent of amorphous and silk Ⅱ. The content of Gly and ala was high in the surface membrane of aqueous fibroin and its structure was mostly silk I and silk Ⅱ with high crystallinity.

  14. Preparation and characterization of biofunctionalized chitosan/Fe3O4 magnetic nanoparticles for application in liver magnetic resonance imaging

    Science.gov (United States)

    Song, Xiaoli; Luo, Xiadan; Zhang, Qingqing; Zhu, Aiping; Ji, Lijun; Yan, Caifeng

    2015-08-01

    Biofunctionalized chitosan@Fe3O4 nanoparticles are synthesized by combining Fe3O4 and CS chemically modified with PEG and lactobionic acid in one step. The biofunctionalized nanoparticles are characterized by TEM, X-ray, DLS, zeta-potential and magnetic measurements. The in vitro and in vivo behaviors of the biofunctionalized nanoparticles, especially, the cytotoxicity, the protein resistance, metabolism and iron toxicity are assessed. The functional groups, PEG enable the nanoparticles more biocompatible and the lactobionic acid groups enable liver targeting. The potential applications of the nanoparticles in liver magnetic resonance imaging are confirmed. The results demonstrated that the nanoparticles are suspension stability, non-cytotoxicity, non-tissue toxicity and sensitive in liver magnetic resonance imaging, representing potential tools for applications in the biomedical field.

  15. Trends in World Silk Cocoons and Silk Production and Trade, 2007-2010

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    AGATHA AGATHA POPESCU

    2013-10-01

    Full Text Available The paper aimed to analyze world production and trade for fresh silk cocoons and raw silk using FAO Stat data for  the  period 2007-2010. The use of index, share and comparison methods allowed to identify the major trends in the analyzed period. Silk decline was determined by the increased importance of cotton and artificial fibres in textile and clothing industry. Important changes are taking place on silk cocoons and silk market. While, the European market decreased, the Asian market has mainly developed fresh cocoons and raw silk, while the European market became more interested of clothes. Silk consumption declined because of consumer’s preference for synthetic fibres, except traditional consumers from Asia.  China is the main producer and exporter of fresh and dry cocoons, while raw silk is produced and exported by China, Brazil and Italy and imported by India, Japan and Italy. In Europe, Bulgaria is the top producer of fresh cocoons and raw silk and Italy is the main raw silk importer and the top producer and exporter of textile and fashion clothes. Silk will remain an important raw material for producing high quality and luxury clothes.

  16. Revival of the Silk Road

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2006-01-01

    China's Xinjiang Uygur Autonomous Region, bordering eight countries and providing a corridor to the Central Asian region, was once famous for the Silk Road. But now this region is often reported by Western media as having the problems of "political separatism, economic exclusion and religious fundamentalism." Professor David Gosset with the Shanghai-based China Europe International Business School analyzed Xinjiang's development, which he framed as "Xinjiang's experience." According to him, Xinjiang has ...

  17. Femtosecond laser machining of electrospun membranes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wu Yiquan, E-mail: wuyiquan@me.rochester.edu [Department of Mechanical Engineering, University of Rochester, Rochester, NY 14627 (United States); Vorobyev, A.Y. [Institute of Optics, University of Rochester, Rochester, NY 14627 (United States); Clark, Robert L. [Department of Mechanical Engineering, University of Rochester, Rochester, NY 14627 (United States); Guo Chunlei [Institute of Optics, University of Rochester, Rochester, NY 14627 (United States)

    2011-01-15

    We demonstrate that a femtosecond laser can be used to machine arbitrary patterns and pattern arrays into free-standing electrospun polycaprolactone (PCL) membranes. We also examine the influence of various laser irradiation settings on the final microstructure of electrospun membranes. A beam fluence of 0.6 J/cm{sup 2} is used to ablate holes in 100 {mu}m thick PCL membranes. The machined holes have an average diameter of 436 {mu}m and a center-to-center spacing of 1000 {mu}m. Based on these results, the femtosecond ablation of electrospun membranes shows great potential for fabricating a variety of functional tissue scaffolds. This technique will advance scaffold design by providing the ability to rapidly tailor surface morphology, while minimizing and controlling the deformation of the electrospun fibers.

  18. Effect of silk protein surfactant on silk degumming and its properties.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Fei; Cao, Ting-Ting; Zhang, Yu-Qing

    2015-10-01

    The silk protein surfactant (SPS) first used as a silk degumming agent in this study is an amino acid-type anionic surfactant that was synthesized using silk fibroin amino acids and lauroyl chloride. We studied it systematically in comparison with the traditional degumming methods such as sodium carbonate (Na2CO3) and neutral soap (NS). The experimental results showed that the sericin can be completely removed from the silk fibroin fiber after boiling the fibers three times for 30 min and using a bath ratio of 1:80 (g/mL) and a concentration of 0.2% SPS in an aqueous solution. The results of the tensile properties, thermal analysis, and SEM all show that SPS is similar to the NS, far superior to Na2CO3. In short, SPS may be used as an environmentally friendly silk degumming/refining agent in the silk textile industry and in the manufacture of silk floss quilts. PMID:26117747

  19. Silk film biomaterials for ocular surface repair

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lawrence, Brian David

    Current biomaterial approaches for repairing the cornea's ocular surface upon injury are partially effective due to inherent material limitations. As a result there is a need to expand the biomaterial options available for use in the eye, which in turn will help to expand new clinical innovations and technology development. The studies illustrated here are a collection of work to further characterize silk film biomaterials for use on the ocular surface. Silk films were produced from regenerated fibroin protein solution derived from the Bombyx mori silkworm cocoon. Methods of silk film processing and production were developed to produce consistent biomaterials for in vitro and in vivo evaluation. A wide range of experiments was undertaken that spanned from in vitro silk film material characterization to in vivo evaluation. It was found that a variety of silk film properties could be controlled through a water-annealing process. Silk films were then generated that could be use in vitro to produce stratified corneal epithelial cell sheets comparable to tissue grown on the clinical standard substrate of amniotic membrane. This understanding was translated to produce a silk film design that enhanced corneal healing in vivo on a rabbit injury model. Further work produced silk films with varying surface topographies that were used as a simplified analog to the corneal basement membrane surface in vitro. These studies demonstrated that silk film surface topography is capable of directing corneal epithelial cell attachment, growth, and migration response. Most notably epithelial tissue development was controllably directed by the presence of the silk surface topography through increasing cell sheet migration efficiency at the individual cellular level. Taken together, the presented findings represent a comprehensive characterization of silk film biomaterials for use in ocular surface reconstruction, and indicate their utility as a potential material choice in the

  20. Tissue Regeneration: A Silk Road

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jao, Dave; Mou, Xiaoyang; Hu, Xiao

    2016-01-01

    Silk proteins are natural biopolymers that have extensive structural possibilities for chemical and mechanical modifications to facilitate novel properties, functions, and applications in the biomedical field. The versatile processability of silk fibroins (SF) into different forms such as gels, films, foams, membranes, scaffolds, and nanofibers makes it appealing in a variety of applications that require mechanically superior, biocompatible, biodegradable, and functionalizable biomaterials. There is no doubt that nature is the world’s best biological engineer, with simple, exquisite but powerful designs that have inspired novel technologies. By understanding the surface interaction of silk materials with living cells, unique characteristics can be implemented through structural modifications, such as controllable wettability, high-strength adhesiveness, and reflectivity properties, suggesting its potential suitability for surgical, optical, and other biomedical applications. All of the interesting features of SF, such as tunable biodegradation, anti-bacterial properties, and mechanical properties combined with potential self-healing modifications, make it ideal for future tissue engineering applications. In this review, we first demonstrate the current understanding of the structures and mechanical properties of SF and the various functionalizations of SF matrices through chemical and physical manipulations. Then the diverse applications of SF architectures and scaffolds for different regenerative medicine will be discussed in detail, including their current applications in bone, eye, nerve, skin, tendon, ligament, and cartilage regeneration. PMID:27527229

  1. Tissue Regeneration: A Silk Road.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jao, Dave; Mou, Xiaoyang; Hu, Xiao

    2016-01-01

    Silk proteins are natural biopolymers that have extensive structural possibilities for chemical and mechanical modifications to facilitate novel properties, functions, and applications in the biomedical field. The versatile processability of silk fibroins (SF) into different forms such as gels, films, foams, membranes, scaffolds, and nanofibers makes it appealing in a variety of applications that require mechanically superior, biocompatible, biodegradable, and functionalizable biomaterials. There is no doubt that nature is the world's best biological engineer, with simple, exquisite but powerful designs that have inspired novel technologies. By understanding the surface interaction of silk materials with living cells, unique characteristics can be implemented through structural modifications, such as controllable wettability, high-strength adhesiveness, and reflectivity properties, suggesting its potential suitability for surgical, optical, and other biomedical applications. All of the interesting features of SF, such as tunable biodegradation, anti-bacterial properties, and mechanical properties combined with potential self-healing modifications, make it ideal for future tissue engineering applications. In this review, we first demonstrate the current understanding of the structures and mechanical properties of SF and the various functionalizations of SF matrices through chemical and physical manipulations. Then the diverse applications of SF architectures and scaffolds for different regenerative medicine will be discussed in detail, including their current applications in bone, eye, nerve, skin, tendon, ligament, and cartilage regeneration.

  2. Tissue Regeneration: A Silk Road.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jao, Dave; Mou, Xiaoyang; Hu, Xiao

    2016-01-01

    Silk proteins are natural biopolymers that have extensive structural possibilities for chemical and mechanical modifications to facilitate novel properties, functions, and applications in the biomedical field. The versatile processability of silk fibroins (SF) into different forms such as gels, films, foams, membranes, scaffolds, and nanofibers makes it appealing in a variety of applications that require mechanically superior, biocompatible, biodegradable, and functionalizable biomaterials. There is no doubt that nature is the world's best biological engineer, with simple, exquisite but powerful designs that have inspired novel technologies. By understanding the surface interaction of silk materials with living cells, unique characteristics can be implemented through structural modifications, such as controllable wettability, high-strength adhesiveness, and reflectivity properties, suggesting its potential suitability for surgical, optical, and other biomedical applications. All of the interesting features of SF, such as tunable biodegradation, anti-bacterial properties, and mechanical properties combined with potential self-healing modifications, make it ideal for future tissue engineering applications. In this review, we first demonstrate the current understanding of the structures and mechanical properties of SF and the various functionalizations of SF matrices through chemical and physical manipulations. Then the diverse applications of SF architectures and scaffolds for different regenerative medicine will be discussed in detail, including their current applications in bone, eye, nerve, skin, tendon, ligament, and cartilage regeneration. PMID:27527229

  3. Effects of bio-functionalizing surface treatments on the mechanical behavior of open porous titanium biomaterials.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Amin Yavari, S; Ahmadi, S M; van der Stok, J; Wauthle, R; Riemslag, A C; Janssen, M; Schrooten, J; Weinans, H; Zadpoor, A A

    2014-08-01

    Bio-functionalizing surface treatments are often applied for improving the bioactivity of biomaterials that are based on otherwise bioinert titanium alloys. When applied on highly porous titanium alloy structures intended for orthopedic bone regeneration purposes, such surface treatments could significantly change the static and fatigue properties of these structures and, thus, affect the application of the biomaterial as bone substitute. Therefore, the interplay between biofunctionalizing surface treatments and mechanical behavior needs to be controlled. In this paper, we studied the effects of two bio-functionalizing surface treatments, namely alkali-acid heat treatment (AlAcH) and acid-alkali (AcAl), on the static and fatigue properties of three different highly porous titanium alloy implants manufactured using selective laser melting. It was found that AlAcH treatment results in minimal mass loss. The static and fatigue properties of AlAcH specimens were therefore not much different from as-manufactured (AsM) specimens. In contrast, AcAl resulted in substantial mass loss and also in significantly less static and fatigue properties particularly for porous structures with the highest porosity. The ratio of the static mechanical properties of AcAl specimens to that of AsM specimen was in the range of 1.5-6. The fatigue lives of AcAl specimens were much more severely affected by the applied surface treatments with fatigue lives up to 23 times smaller than that of AsM specimens particularly for the porous structures with the highest porosity. In conclusion, the fatigue properties of surface treated porous titanium are dependent not only on the type of applied surface treatment but also on the porosity of the biomaterial.

  4. SILK FIBRE DEGRADATION AND ANALYSIS BY PROTEOMICS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    YUKSELOGLU S.Muge

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available Silk is one of the promising natural fibres and has a long established history in textile production throughout the centuries. Silk is produced by cultured silk worms, spiders, scorpions, mites and flies. It is extracellular proteinaceous fibres which consist of highly crystalline and insoluble proteins, the fibroins glued with sericin and an amourphous protein. On the other hand, understanding and controlling the degradation of protein materials are important for determining quality and the value of appearance retention in textiles. Hence, for silk textiles, appearance retention is critical value for the quality. And this is one of the key properties directly related to the degree and nature of protein degradation. It is therefore necessary to understand the silk composition and damage to obtain good conservation treatments and long-term preservation especially for the historical silk fabrics. In this study, silk fibre and its properties are briefly introduced along with images on their fibre damages. Additionally, proteomics method which helps to understand the degradation at the molecular level in textiles is introduced. Finally, proteomic evaluation of silk is summarized according to the researchers carried out in the literature.

  5. Nanomechanics of electrospun phospholipid fiber

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mendes, Ana C., E-mail: anac@food.dtu.dk, E-mail: ioach@food.dtu.dk; Chronakis, Ioannis S., E-mail: anac@food.dtu.dk, E-mail: ioach@food.dtu.dk [Technical University of Denmark, DTU-Food, Søltofts Plads B227, DK-2800, Kgs. Lyngby (Denmark); Nikogeorgos, Nikolaos; Lee, Seunghwan [Department of Mechanical Engineering, Technical University of Denmark, DK-2800 Kgs. Lyngby (Denmark)

    2015-06-01

    Electrospun asolectin phospholipid fibers were prepared using isooctane as a solvent and had an average diameter of 6.1 ± 2.7 μm. Their mechanical properties were evaluated by nanoindentation using Atomic Force Microscopy, and their elastic modulus was found to be approximately 17.2 ± 1 MPa. At a cycle of piezo expansion-retraction (loading-unloading) of a silicon tip on a fiber, relatively high adhesion was observed during unloading. It is proposed that this was primarily due to molecular rearrangements at the utmost layers of the fiber caused by the indentation of the hydrophilic tip. The phospholipid fibers were shown to be stable in ambient conditions, preserving the modulus of elasticity up to 24 h.

  6. Extracted sericin from silk waste for film formation

    OpenAIRE

    Rungsinee Sothornvit; Rungsima Chollakup; Potjanart Suwanruji

    2010-01-01

    Sericin is the second main component in cocoons, which are removed in the silk reeling process of the raw silk industry and in the silk waste degumming of the spun silk industry. The main amino acid of sericin, serine, exhibits a skin moisturing and antiwrinkle action, which is interesting to use for film formation in this study. The extraction conditions of sericin from two silk wastes, pieced cocoon and inferior knubbs were studied to find the optimum extraction conditions. Boiling water ex...

  7. Electrospinning-aligned and random polydioxanone-polycaprolactone-silk fibroin-blended scaffolds: geometry for a vascular matrix

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    McClure, M J; Sell, S A; Bowlin, G L [Department of Biomedical Engineering, Virginia Commonwealth University, Richmond, VA 23284 (United States); Ayres, C E; Simpson, D G, E-mail: glbowlin@vcu.ed [Department of Anatomy and Neurobiology, Virginia Commonwealth University, Richmond, VA 23298 (United States)

    2009-10-15

    Extracellular matrices are arranged with a specific geometry based on tissue type and mechanical stimulus. For blood vessels in the body, preferential alignment of fibers is in the direction of repetitive force. Electrospinning is a controllable process which can result in fiber alignment and randomization depending on the parameters utilized. In this study, arterial grafts composed of polycaprolactone (PCL), polydioxanone (PDO) and silk fibroin in blends of 100:0 and 50:50 for both PCL:silk and PDO:silk were investigated to determine if fibers could be controllably aligned using a mandrel rotational speed ranging from 500 to 8000 revolutions per minute (RPM). Results revealed that large- and small-diameter mandrels produced different degrees of fiber alignment based on a fast Fourier transform of scanning electron microscope images. Uniaxial tensile testing further demonstrated scaffold anisotropy through changes in peak stress, modulus and strain at break at mandrel rotational speeds of 500 and 8000 RPM, causing peak stress and modulus for PCL to increase 5- and 4.5-fold, respectively, as rotational speed increased. Additional mechanical testing was performed on grafts using dynamic compliance, burst strength and longitudinal strength displaying that grafts electrospun at higher rotational rates produced stiffer conduits which had lower compliance and higher burst strength compared to the lower mandrel rotational rate. Scaffold properties were found to depend on several parameters in the electrospinning process: mandrel rotational rate, polymer type, and mandrel size. Vascular scaffold design under anisotropic conditions provided interesting insights and warrants further investigation.

  8. A novel electrospinning approach to fabricate high strength aqueous silk fibroin nanofibers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Singh, B N; Panda, N N; Pramanik, K

    2016-06-01

    The present paper describes a rapid method of producing concentrated aqueous regenerated Bombyx mori silk fibroin (RSF) solution by applying mild shearing under forced dehumidified air and generation of electrospun SF nanofibers from concentrated solution with high mechanical strength using free liquid surface electrospinning machine. The shear induced concentrating mechanism favoured the electrospinning process by enhancing the viscosity (>2.43Pas as onset for electrospinning) and decreasing the surface tension of the solution (40.1-37.7mN/m). Shearing reduced the β-turns and random coil molecular conformation and thereby, intensified the β-sheet content from 16.9% to 34% which is the minimum content needed to commence RSF nanofibers formation. Subsequently, electrospun nanofibrous mats were produced from different batches of concentrated SF solutions (15-21wt%). Among the concentrated RSF, 17wt% RSF solution was the most favourable concentration producing electrospun nanofibrous mat having lowest average fiber diameters of 183±55nm and good tensile strength. The mechanical strength of the nanofibrous sheet was further improved by cross-linking with 1-ethyl-3-(3-dimethylaminopropyl)carbodiimide hydrochloride and N-hydroxysuccinimide (EDC+NHS) which might be due to enhancement of β-sheet content. These nanofibers exhibited 17.57±1.13MPa ultimate tensile strength, 12.48±1.46% tensile strain at break and 37.7% increase in root mean square surface roughness which is favourable feature for cell adhesion and neo-tissue formation. PMID:26905467

  9. Ras1CA overexpression in the posterior silk gland improves silk yield

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Li Ma; Hanfu Xu; Jinqi Zhu; Sanyuan Ma; Yan Liu; Rong-Jing Jiang; Qingyou Xia; Sheng Li

    2011-01-01

    Sericulture has been greatly advanced by applying hybrid breeding techniques to the domesticated silkworm,Bombyx mori,but has reached a plateau during the last decades. For the first time,we report improved silk yield in a GAL4/UAS transgenic silkworm. Overexpression of the Ras1CA oncogene specifically in the posterior silk gland improved fibroin production and silk yield by 60%,while increasing food consumption by only 20%. Ras activation by Ras1CA overexpression in the posterior silk gland enhanced phosphorylation levels of Ras downstream effector proteins,up-regulated fibroin mRNA levels,increased total DNA content,and stimulated endoreplication. Moreover,Rasl activation increased cell and nuclei sizes,enriched subcellular organelles related to protein synthesis,and stimulated ribosome biogenesis for mRNA translation. We conclude that Rasl activation increases cell size and protein synthesis in the posterior silk gland,leading to silk yield improvement.

  10. Production of silk sericin/silk fibroin blend nanofibers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zhang Xianhua

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Silk sericin (SS/silk fibroin (SF blend nanofibers have been produced by electrospinning in a binary SS/SF trifluoroacetic acid (TFA solution system, which was prepared by mixing 20 wt.% SS TFA solution and 10 wt.% SF TFA solution to give different compositions. The diameters of the SS/SF nanofibers ranged from 33 to 837 nm, and they showed a round cross section. The surface of the SS/SF nanofibers was smooth, and the fibers possessed a bead-free structure. The average diameters of the SS/SF (75/25, 50/50, and 25/75 blend nanofibers were much thicker than that of SS and SF nanofibers. The SS/SF (100/0, 75/25, and 50/50 blend nanofibers were easily dissolved in water, while the SS/SF (25/75 and 0/100 blend nanofibers could not be completely dissolved in water. The SS/SF blend nanofibers could not be completely dissolved in methanol. The SS/SF blend nanofibers were characterized by Fourier transform infrared (FTIR spectroscopy, differential scanning calorimetry, and differential thermal analysis. FTIR showed that the SS/SF blend nanofibers possessed a random coil conformation and ß-sheet structure.

  11. Production of silk sericin/silk fibroin blend nanofibers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Xianhua; Tsukada, Masuhiro; Morikawa, Hideaki; Aojima, Kazuki; Zhang, Guangyu; Miura, Mikihiko

    2011-08-01

    Silk sericin (SS)/silk fibroin (SF) blend nanofibers have been produced by electrospinning in a binary SS/SF trifluoroacetic acid (TFA) solution system, which was prepared by mixing 20 wt.% SS TFA solution and 10 wt.% SF TFA solution to give different compositions. The diameters of the SS/SF nanofibers ranged from 33 to 837 nm, and they showed a round cross section. The surface of the SS/SF nanofibers was smooth, and the fibers possessed a bead-free structure. The average diameters of the SS/SF (75/25, 50/50, and 25/75) blend nanofibers were much thicker than that of SS and SF nanofibers. The SS/SF (100/0, 75/25, and 50/50) blend nanofibers were easily dissolved in water, while the SS/SF (25/75 and 0/100) blend nanofibers could not be completely dissolved in water. The SS/SF blend nanofibers could not be completely dissolved in methanol. The SS/SF blend nanofibers were characterized by Fourier transform infrared (FTIR) spectroscopy, differential scanning calorimetry, and differential thermal analysis. FTIR showed that the SS/SF blend nanofibers possessed a random coil conformation and ß-sheet structure.

  12. Silk Spinning in Silkworms and Spiders.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Andersson, Marlene; Johansson, Jan; Rising, Anna

    2016-08-09

    Spiders and silkworms spin silks that outcompete the toughness of all natural and manmade fibers. Herein, we compare and contrast the spinning of silk in silkworms and spiders, with the aim of identifying features that are important for fiber formation. Although spiders and silkworms are very distantly related, some features of spinning silk seem to be universal. Both spiders and silkworms produce large silk proteins that are highly repetitive and extremely soluble at high pH, likely due to the globular terminal domains that flank an intermediate repetitive region. The silk proteins are produced and stored at a very high concentration in glands, and then transported along a narrowing tube in which they change conformation in response primarily to a pH gradient generated by carbonic anhydrase and proton pumps, as well as to ions and shear forces. The silk proteins thereby convert from random coil and alpha helical soluble conformations to beta sheet fibers. We suggest that factors that need to be optimized for successful production of artificial silk proteins capable of forming tough fibers include protein solubility, pH sensitivity, and preservation of natively folded proteins throughout the purification and initial spinning processes.

  13. Sensitization to silk allergen among workers of silk filatures in India: a comparative study

    OpenAIRE

    Gowda, Giriyanna; Shivalingaiah, Anwith Huluvadi; Vijayeendra, Anagha Manakari; Sarkar, Nivedita; Nagaraj, Chitra; Masthi, Nugehally Raju Ramesh

    2016-01-01

    Background Sericulture plays an eminent role in development of rural economy in India. Silk filature is a unit where silk is unwound from the cocoons and the strands are collected into skeins. During the process workers are exposed to the high molecular weight proteins like Sericin and Fibroin which are potent allergens leading to sensitization over a period of time and subsequently occupational related health disorders. Objective To identify and compare the magnitude of silk allergen sensiti...

  14. Microstructuring of electrospun mats employing femtosecond laser

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Erika Adomavičiūtė

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available Electrospun mats from nano/micro-fibers with control porosity and pore shape may be ideal candidate for tissue engineering scaffolds. In this study three type of poly(vinyl alcohol (PVA mats of 48-65 µm thickness with different nano/micro-fibers diameters mostly of 100-200 nm were deposited by electrospinning process. Controlled density porosity in the electrospun mats was introduced by Yb:KGW femtosecond laser micromachining system. The influence of electrospun mat micro structure, the distance between the adjacent laser ablation points, the number of femtosecond laser pulses on quality and structure of laser irradiated holes were investigated. It was demonstrated that the quality of irradiated holes depend on structure of electrospun mats (diameter of nano/micro-fibers, thickness of mats and femtosecond laser processing parameters. Varying the distance between points and number of applied femtosecond laser pulses it is possible to fabricate electrospun mats with pores of 22-36 μm diameter.DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.5755/j01.ms.21.1.10249

  15. Patterned melt electrospun substrates for tissue engineering

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dalton, Paul D; Joergensen, Nanna T [School of Biological Sciences, University of Southampton, Bassett Cr East, Southampton SO16 7PX (United Kingdom); Groll, Juergen; Moeller, Martin [Deutsches Wollforschungsinstitut, Pauwelsstrasse 8, D 52074 Aachen (Germany)], E-mail: dalton@dwi.rwth-aachen.de

    2008-09-01

    Tissue engineering scaffolds can be built with patterning techniques that allow discrete placement of structures. In this study, electrospun fibres are collected in focused spots; the patterning and drawing of a cell adhesive scaffold is shown. Blends of biodegradable poly(ethylene glycol)-block-poly({epsilon}-caprolactone) (PEG-b-PCL) and PCL were melt electrospun onto glass collectors, and the optimal electrospinning parameters determined. The quality of the fibre was largely influenced by the flow rate of the melt to the spinneret; however, this can be adjusted with the voltage. A collection distance between 3 cm and 5 cm was optimal, and at 10 cm the fibres became unfocused in their deposition although the diameter remained similar (0.96 {+-} 0.19 {mu}m). Aligned lines of electrospun fibres 200-400 {mu}m in width could be applied onto the slide with an x-y stage, continuously and discretely. Lines of electrospun fibres could be applied on top of one another and were very uniform in diameter. Fibroblasts adhered primarily in the fibre region, due to the poor cell adhesion to the PEG substrate. Improvements in depositing hydrophilic electrospun fibres that wet and adhere to in vitro substrates and the use of stage automation for the writing interface could provide scaffold-building devices suitable for tissue engineering applications.

  16. High-toughness silk produced by a transgenic silkworm expressing spider (Araneus ventricosus dragline silk protein.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yoshihiko Kuwana

    Full Text Available Spider dragline silk is a natural fiber that has excellent tensile properties; however, it is difficult to produce artificially as a long, strong fiber. Here, the spider (Araneus ventricosus dragline protein gene was cloned and a transgenic silkworm was generated, that expressed the fusion protein of the fibroin heavy chain and spider dragline protein in cocoon silk. The spider silk protein content ranged from 0.37 to 0.61% w/w (1.4-2.4 mol% native silkworm fibroin. Using a good silk-producing strain, C515, as the transgenic silkworm can make the raw silk from its cocoons for the first time. The tensile characteristics (toughness of the raw silk improved by 53% after the introduction of spider dragline silk protein; the improvement depended on the quantity of the expressed spider dragline protein. To demonstrate the commercial feasibility for machine reeling, weaving, and sewing, we used the transgenic spider silk to weave a vest and scarf; this was the first application of spider silk fibers from transgenic silkworms.

  17. Drömmen om svenskt silke

    OpenAIRE

    Johansson Åbonde, Anders

    2010-01-01

    The grandiose, but failed, attempts to produce silk in Sweden in the past have been largely ignored by historians. This thesis describes the history of sericulture in Sweden, including three periods of practical trials in 1735-1765, 1830-1898 and 1913-1918. For a long time, the secrets of sericulture were closely guarded in China but by the beginning of the 16th century, knowledge of silk cultivation techniques had reached a number of European countries. The pursuit of domestic silk productio...

  18. THE GREAT SILK ROAD AND TURKISH WORLD

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mustafa ÖZDEMİR

    2011-04-01

    Full Text Available The expression of the great Silk Road first came from the famouse Chinese traveler Çjan Syan before the BC and is now known as Kervan Road. Later, this expression gained a new meaning between Asia, the Mediterranean and the European countries.An estimated of 20 000 km of total length of the Great Silk Road passed the Turkish peoples settled lands. The Silk Road that was considered as the Jugularvein major trade route that was connecting China and Byzantium was in Turks hands.

  19. Protease-degradable electrospun fibrous hydrogels

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wade, Ryan J.; Bassin, Ethan J.; Rodell, Christopher B.; Burdick, Jason A.

    2015-03-01

    Electrospun nanofibres are promising in biomedical applications to replicate features of the natural extracellular matrix (ECM). However, nearly all electrospun scaffolds are either non-degradable or degrade hydrolytically, whereas natural ECM degrades proteolytically, often through matrix metalloproteinases. Here we synthesize reactive macromers that contain protease-cleavable and fluorescent peptides and are able to form both isotropic hydrogels and electrospun fibrous hydrogels through a photoinitiated polymerization. These biomimetic scaffolds are susceptible to protease-mediated cleavage in vitro in a protease dose-dependent manner and in vivo in a subcutaneous mouse model using transdermal fluorescent imaging to monitor degradation. Importantly, materials containing an alternate and non-protease-cleavable peptide sequence are stable in both in vitro and in vivo settings. To illustrate the specificity in degradation, scaffolds with mixed fibre populations support selective fibre degradation based on individual fibre degradability. Overall, this represents a novel biomimetic approach to generate protease-sensitive fibrous scaffolds for biomedical applications.

  20. Electrospun cellulose nitrate and polycaprolactone blended nanofibers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nartker, Steven; Hassan, Mohamed; Stogsdill, Michael

    2015-03-01

    Pure cellulose nitrate (CN) and blends of CN and polycaprolactone were electrospun to form nonwoven mats. Polymers were dissolved in a mixed solvent system of tetrahydrofuran and N,N-dimethylformamide. The concentrations were varied to obtain sub-micron and nanoscale fiber mats. Fiber mats were analyzed using scanning electron microscopy, contact angle analysis, Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy and thermal gravimetric analysis. The fiber morphology, surface chemistry and contact angle data show that these electrospun materials are suitable for applications including biosensing, biomedical and tissue engineering.

  1. Electrospun Electroactive Polymers for Aerospace Applications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pawlowski, Kristin J.; St.Clair, Tyler L.; McReynolds, Amber C.; Park, Cheol; Ounaies, Zoubeida; Siochi, Emilie J.; Harrison, Joycelyn S.

    2003-01-01

    Electrospun piezoelectric polymers are being developed for use as a component on lightweight wings for micro-air vehicles (MAV). The goal is to incorporate fibers with tailored properties to permit dynamic control and maneuverability during flight. In particular, electrospun fiber mats of two piezoelectric polymers were investigated to ascertain their potential for the MAV application. In the work reported here, the typical experimental set-up for electrospinning was modified to induce fiber orientation in the spun mats. The morphologies of the resulting fibers and fiber mats were evaluated for various experimental conditions, and a comparison between oriented and unoriented fiber mats was carried out.

  2. Measuring Electrospun Nanofibre Diameter: a Novel Approach

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    M. Ziabari; V. Mottaghitalab; S. T. McGovern; A. K. Haghi

    2008-01-01

    @@ A new method based on image analysis for electrospun nanofibre diameter measurement is presented. First, the SEM micrograph of the nanofibre web obtained by electrospinning process is converted to binary image using local thresholding method. In the next step, skeleton and distance transformed image are generated. Then, the intersection points which bring about untrue measurements axe identified and removed from the skeleton. Finally, the resulting skeleton and distance transformed image are used to determine fibre diameter. The method is evaluated by a simulated image with known characteristics generated by ?.-randomness procedure. The results indicate that this approach is successful in making fast, accurate automated measurements of electrospun fibre diameters.

  3. Silver nanoparticle containing silk fibroin bionanotextiles

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Calamak, Semih; Aksoy, Eda Ayse [Hacettepe University, Department of Basic Pharmaceutical Sciences, Faculty of Pharmacy (Turkey); Erdogdu, Ceren; Sagıroglu, Meral [Hacettepe University, Department of Pharmaceutical Microbiology, Faculty of Pharmacy (Turkey); Ulubayram, Kezban, E-mail: ukezban@hacettepe.edu.tr [Hacettepe University, Department of Basic Pharmaceutical Sciences, Faculty of Pharmacy (Turkey)

    2015-02-15

    Development of new generation bionanotextiles is an important growing field, and they have found applications as wound dressings, bandages, tissue scaffolds, etc. In this study, silver nanoparticle (AgNP) containing silk-based bionanotextiles were fabricated by electrospinning, and processing parameters were optimized and discussed in detail. AgNPs were in situ synthesized within fibroin nanofibers by UV reduction of silver ions to metallic silver. The influence of post-treatments via methanol treatment and glutaraldehyde (GA) vapor exhibited changes in the secondary structure of silk. Methanol treatment increased the tensile properties of fibers due to supported crystalline silk structure, while GA vapor promoted amorphous secondary structure. AgNP containing silk fibroin bionanotextiles had strong antibacterial activity against gram-positive Staphylococcus aureus and gram-negative Pseudomonas aeruginosa.

  4. Capacity of Nylon Industrial Silk Is Surplus

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2007-01-01

    @@ The total nylon (polyamide) industrial silk output worldwide was 1.025 million tons in 2005, mostly provided by the producers in Asia, Europe and America, in which the ratio of nylon 6 to nylon 66 was 6:4.

  5. Silver nanoparticle containing silk fibroin bionanotextiles

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Development of new generation bionanotextiles is an important growing field, and they have found applications as wound dressings, bandages, tissue scaffolds, etc. In this study, silver nanoparticle (AgNP) containing silk-based bionanotextiles were fabricated by electrospinning, and processing parameters were optimized and discussed in detail. AgNPs were in situ synthesized within fibroin nanofibers by UV reduction of silver ions to metallic silver. The influence of post-treatments via methanol treatment and glutaraldehyde (GA) vapor exhibited changes in the secondary structure of silk. Methanol treatment increased the tensile properties of fibers due to supported crystalline silk structure, while GA vapor promoted amorphous secondary structure. AgNP containing silk fibroin bionanotextiles had strong antibacterial activity against gram-positive Staphylococcus aureus and gram-negative Pseudomonas aeruginosa

  6. In vivo bioresponses to silk proteins.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thurber, Amy E; Omenetto, Fiorenzo G; Kaplan, David L

    2015-12-01

    Silks are appealing materials for numerous biomedical applications involving drug delivery, tissue engineering, or implantable devices, because of their tunable mechanical properties and wide range of physical structures. In addition to the functionalities needed for specific clinical applications, a key factor necessary for clinical success for any implanted material is appropriate interactions with the body in vivo. This review summarizes our current understanding of the in vivo biological responses to silks, including degradation, the immune and inflammatory response, and tissue remodeling with particular attention to vascularization. While we focus in this review on silkworm silk fibroin protein due to the large quantity of in vivo data thanks to its widespread use in medical materials and consumer products, spider silk information is also included if available. Silk proteins are degraded in the body on a time course that is dependent on the method of silk fabrication and can range from hours to years. Silk protein typically induces a mild inflammatory response that decreases within a few weeks of implantation. The response involves recruitment and activation of macrophages and may include activation of a mild foreign body response with the formation of multinuclear giant cells, depending on the material format and location of implantation. The number of immune cells present decreases with time and granulation tissue, if formed, is replaced by endogenous, not fibrous, tissue. Importantly, silk materials have not been demonstrated to induce mineralization, except when used in calcified tissues. Due to its ability to be degraded, silk can be remodeled in the body allowing for vascularization and tissue ingrowth with eventual complete replacement by native tissue. The degree of remodeling, tissue ingrowth, or other specific cell behaviors can be modulated with addition of growth or other signaling factors. Silk can also be combined with numerous other materials

  7. Electrospun Synthetic Polypeptide Nanofibrous Biomaterials

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khadka, Dhan; Haynie, Donald

    2011-03-01

    Water-insoluble nanofiber mats of synthetic polypeptides of defined composition have been prepared from fibers electrospun from aqueous solution in the absence of organic co-solvents. 20-50 kDa poly(L-glutamate, L-tyrosine) 4:1 (PLGY) but not 15-50 kDa or 50-100 kDa poly(L-glutamate) was spinnable at 20-55% (w/v) polymer in water. Applied voltage and needle-collector distance were crucial for spinnability. Attractive fibers were obtained at 50% polymer. Fiber diameter and mat morphology have been characterized by electron microscopy. Exposure of spun fiber mats to 1-ethyl-3-(3-dimethylaminopropyl) carbodiimide hydrochloride (EDC), which reacts with carboxylate, decreased fiber solubility. Fluorescein-conjugated poly(L-lysine) (FITC-PLL) but not the fluorophore alone was able bind PLGY fiber mats electrostatically, judging by fluorescence microscopy. Key advances of this work are the avoidance of an animal source of peptides and of an inorganic co-solvent to achieve polypeptide spinnability. Polypeptide fiber mats are a promising type of nano-structured biomaterial for applications in biomedicine and biotechnology.

  8. Silk Microgels Formed by Proteolytic Enzyme Activity

    OpenAIRE

    Samal, Sangram K.; Dash, Mamoni; Chiellini, Federica; Kaplan, David L; Chiellini, Emo

    2013-01-01

    The proteolytic enzyme α-chymotrypsin selectively cleaves the amorphous regions of silk fibroin protein (SFP) and allows the crystalline regions to self-assemble into silk microgels (SMG) at physiological temperature. These microgels consist of lamellar crystals in the micrometer scale, in contrast to the nanometer scaled crystals in native silkworm fibers. SDS-PAGE and zeta potential results demonstrated that α-chymotrypsin utilized only the nonamorphous domains or segments of the heavy chai...

  9. The Silk Road and Tang Prosperity

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    HUOJIANYING

    2003-01-01

    THE dance drama, Along theSilk Road, returned to the Beijing stage for the 2003 Chinese New Year celebrations, to as enthusiastic a receptionas when it was first performed 24years ago. Set in the heyday of theTang Dynasty, the drama celebrates the grotto art of Dunhuang and gorgeous Tang finery. With the ancient Silk Road as a back-drop, its stories extol the love, humanity, and friendship of this essentially open era.

  10. Revisiting 30 years of Biofunctionalization and Surface Chemistry of Inorganic Nanoparticles for Nanomedicine

    Science.gov (United States)

    Conde, João; Dias, Jorge; Grazú, Valeria; Moros, Maria; Baptista, Pedro; De La Fuente, Jesús

    2014-07-01

    In the last 30 years we have assisted to a massive advance of nanomaterials in material science. Nanomaterials and structures, in addition to their small size, have properties that differ from those of larger bulk materials, making them ideal for a host of novel applications. The spread of nanotechnology in the last years has been due to the improvement of synthesis and characterization methods on the nanoscale, a field rich in new physical phenomena and synthetic opportunities. In fact, the development of functional nanoparticles has progressed exponentially over the past two decades. This work aims to extensively review 30 years of different strategies of surface modification and functionalization of noble metal (gold) nanoparticles, magnetic nanocrystals and semiconductor nanoparticles, such as quantum dots. The aim of this review is not only to provide in-depth insights into the different biofunctionalization and characterization methods, but also to give an overview of possibilities and limitations of the available nanoparticles.

  11. Biofunctionalized Zinc Oxide Field Effect Transistors for Selective Sensing of Riboflavin with Current Modulation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Morley O. Stone

    2011-06-01

    Full Text Available Zinc oxide field effect transistors (ZnO-FET, covalently functionalized with single stranded DNA aptamers, provide a highly selective platform for label-free small molecule sensing. The nanostructured surface morphology of ZnO provides high sensitivity and room temperature deposition allows for a wide array of substrate types. Herein we demonstrate the selective detection of riboflavin down to the pM level in aqueous solution using the negative electrical current response of the ZnO-FET by covalently attaching a riboflavin binding aptamer to the surface. The response of the biofunctionalized ZnO-FET was tuned by attaching a redox tag (ferrocene to the 3’ terminus of the aptamer, resulting in positive current modulation upon exposure to riboflavin down to pM levels.

  12. Revisiting 30 years of Biofunctionalization and Surface Chemistry of Inorganic Nanoparticles for Nanomedicine

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    João eConde

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available In the last 30 years we have assisted to a massive advance of nanomaterials in material science. Nanomaterials and structures, in addition to their small size, have properties that differ from those of larger bulk materials, making them ideal for a host of novel applications. The spread of nanotechnology in the last years has been due to the improvement of synthesis and characterization methods on the nanoscale, a field rich in new physical phenomena and synthetic opportunities. In fact, the development of functional nanoparticles has progressed exponentially over the past two decades. This work aims to extensively review 30 years of different strategies of surface modification and functionalization of noble metal (gold nanoparticles, magnetic nanocrystals and semiconductor nanoparticles, such as quantum dots. The aim of this review is not only to provide in-depth insights into the different biofunctionalization and characterization methods, but also to give an overview of possibilities and limitations of the available nanoparticles.

  13. Revisiting 30 years of biofunctionalization and surface chemistry of inorganic nanoparticles for nanomedicine

    Science.gov (United States)

    Conde, João; Dias, Jorge T.; Grazú, Valeria; Moros, Maria; Baptista, Pedro V.; de la Fuente, Jesus M.

    2014-01-01

    In the last 30 years we have assisted to a massive advance of nanomaterials in material science. Nanomaterials and structures, in addition to their small size, have properties that differ from those of larger bulk materials, making them ideal for a host of novel applications. The spread of nanotechnology in the last years has been due to the improvement of synthesis and characterization methods on the nanoscale, a field rich in new physical phenomena and synthetic opportunities. In fact, the development of functional nanoparticles has progressed exponentially over the past two decades. This work aims to extensively review 30 years of different strategies of surface modification and functionalization of noble metal (gold) nanoparticles, magnetic nanocrystals and semiconductor nanoparticles, such as quantum dots. The aim of this review is not only to provide in-depth insights into the different biofunctionalization and characterization methods, but also to give an overview of possibilities and limitations of the available nanoparticles. PMID:25077142

  14. Bio-functionalized silver nanoparticles for selective colorimetric sensing of toxic metal ions and antimicrobial studies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vinod Kumar, V.; Anbarasan, S.; Christena, Lawrence Rene; SaiSubramanian, Nagarajan; Philip Anthony, Savarimuthu

    2014-08-01

    Hibiscus Sabdariffa (Gongura) plant extracts (leaves (HL) and stem (HS) were used for the first time in the green synthesis of bio-functionalized silver nanoparticles (AgNPs). The bio-functionality of AgNPs has been successfully utilized for selective colorimetric sensing of potentially health and environmentally hazardous Hg2+, Cd2+ and Pb2+ metal ions at ppm level in aqueous solution. Importantly, clearly distinguishable colour for all three metal ions was observed. The influence of extract preparation condition and pH were also explored on the formation of AgNPs. Both selectivity and sensitivity differed for AgNPs synthesized from different parts of the plant. Direct correlation between the stability of green synthesized AgNPs at different pH and its antibacterial effects has been established. The selective colorimetric sensing of toxic metal ions and antimicrobial effect of green synthesized AgNPs demonstrated the multifunctional applications of green nanotechnology.

  15. Lithium-free processing of silk fibroin.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zheng, Zhaozhu; Guo, Shaozhe; Liu, Yawen; Wu, Jianbing; Li, Gang; Liu, Meng; Wang, Xiaoqin; Kaplan, David

    2016-09-01

    Silk fibroin protein was purified from Bombyx mori silkworm cocoons using a novel dialysis strategy to avoid fibroin aggregation and pre-mature formation of β-sheets. The degummed silk fibers were dissolved in Ajisawa's reagent, a mixture of CaCl2-EtOH-H2O, that is less expensive than lithium bromide. The dissolved solutions were dialyzed against either water or urea solution with a stepwise decrease in concentration. When the steps of 4 M-2 M-1 M-0 M urea (referred to as silk-TS-4210) were adopted, the purified silk fibroin had smaller aggregates (breaking strength (5.7 MPa ± 0.3) while the silk-TS-4210 had the highest extension at break (215.1% ± 12.5). The films prepared from silk-TS-4210 were cytocompatible to support the adhesion and proliferation of human mesenchymal stem cells, with improvements compared to the other samples likely due to the porous morphology of these films. PMID:27298185

  16. Electrodeposited silk coatings for bone implants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Elia, Roberto; Michelson, Courtney D; Perera, Austin L; Brunner, Teresa F; Harsono, Masly; Leisk, Gray G; Kugel, Gerard; Kaplan, David L

    2015-11-01

    The aim of this study was to characterize the mechanical properties and drug elution features of silk protein-based electrodeposited dental implant coatings. Silk processing conditions were modified to obtain coatings with a range of mechanical properties on titanium studs. These coatings were assessed for adhesive strength and dissolution, with properties tuned using water vapor annealing or glycerol incorporation to modulate crystalline content. Coating reproducibility was demonstrated over a range of silk concentrations from 1% to 10%. Surface roughness of titanium substrates was altered using industry relevant acid etching and grit blasting, and the effect of surface topography on silk coating adhesion was assessed. Florescent compounds were incorporated into the silk coatings, which were modulated for crystalline content, to achieve four days of sustained release of the compounds. This silk electrogelation technique offers a safe and relatively simple approach to generate mechanically robust, biocompatible, and degradable implant coatings that can also be functionalized with bioactive compounds to modulate the local regenerative tissue environment. PMID:25545462

  17. An algorithm for three-dimensional Monte-Carlo simulation of charge distribution at biofunctionalized surfaces

    KAUST Repository

    Bulyha, Alena

    2011-01-01

    In this work, a Monte-Carlo algorithm in the constant-voltage ensemble for the calculation of 3d charge concentrations at charged surfaces functionalized with biomolecules is presented. The motivation for this work is the theoretical understanding of biofunctionalized surfaces in nanowire field-effect biosensors (BioFETs). This work provides the simulation capability for the boundary layer that is crucial in the detection mechanism of these sensors; slight changes in the charge concentration in the boundary layer upon binding of analyte molecules modulate the conductance of nanowire transducers. The simulation of biofunctionalized surfaces poses special requirements on the Monte-Carlo simulations and these are addressed by the algorithm. The constant-voltage ensemble enables us to include the right boundary conditions; the dna strands can be rotated with respect to the surface; and several molecules can be placed in a single simulation box to achieve good statistics in the case of low ionic concentrations relevant in experiments. Simulation results are presented for the leading example of surfaces functionalized with pna and with single- and double-stranded dna in a sodium-chloride electrolyte. These quantitative results make it possible to quantify the screening of the biomolecule charge due to the counter-ions around the biomolecules and the electrical double layer. The resulting concentration profiles show a three-layer structure and non-trivial interactions between the electric double layer and the counter-ions. The numerical results are also important as a reference for the development of simpler screening models. © 2011 The Royal Society of Chemistry.

  18. Induced Pluripotent Stem Cell-derived Mesenchymal Stem Cell Seeding on Biofunctionalized Calcium Phosphate Cements

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    WahWah TheinHan; Jun Liu; Minghui Tang; Wenchuan Chen; Linzhao Cheng; Hockin H. K. Xu

    2013-01-01

    Induced pluripotent stem cells (iPSCs) have great potential due to their proliferation and differentiation capability. The objectives of this study were to generate iPSC-derived mesenchymal stem cells (iPSC-MSCs), and investigate iPSC-MSC proliferation and osteogenic differentiation on calcium phosphate cement (CPC) containing biofunctional agents for the first time. Human iPSCs were derived from marrow CD34+ cells which were reprogrammed by a single episomal vector. iPSCs were cultured to form embryoid bodies (EBs), and MSCs migrated out of EBs. Five biofunctional agents were incorporated into CPC:RGD (Arg-Gly-Asp) peptides, fibronectin (Fn), fibronectin-like engineered polymer protein (FEPP), extracellular matrix Geltrex, and platelet concentrate. iPSC-MSCs were seeded on five biofunctionalized CPCs:CPC-RGD, CPC-Fn, CPC-FEPP, CPC-Geltrex, and CPC-Platelets. iPSC-MSCs on biofunctional CPCs had enhanced proliferation, actin fiber expression, osteogenic differentiation and mineralization, compared to control. Cell proliferation was greatly increased on biofunctional CPCs. iPSC-MSCs underwent osteogenic differentiation with increased alkaline phosphatase, Runx2 and collagen-I expressions. Mineral synthesis by iPSC-MSCs on CPC-Platelets was 3-fold that of CPC control. In conclusion, iPSCs showed high potential for bone engineering. iPSC-MSCs on biofunctionalized CPCs had cell proliferation and bone mineralization that were much better than traditional CPC. iPSC-MSC-CPC constructs are promising to promote bone regeneration in craniofacial/orthopedic repairs.

  19. pH-dependent anticancer drug release from silk nanoparticles.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Seib, F Philipp; Jones, Gregory T; Rnjak-Kovacina, Jelena; Lin, Yinan; Kaplan, David L

    2013-12-01

    Silk has traditionally been used as a suture material because of its excellent mechanical properties and biocompatibility. These properties have led to the development of different silk-based material formats for tissue engineering and regenerative medicine. Although there have been a small number of studies about the use of silk particles for drug delivery, none of these studies have assessed the potential of silk to act as a stimulus-responsive anticancer nanomedicine. This report demonstrates that an acetone precipitation of silk allows the formation of uniform silk nanoparticles (98 nm diameter, polydispersity index 0.109), with an overall negative surface charge (-33.6 ± 5.8 mV), in a single step. Silk nanoparticles are readily loaded with doxorubicin (40 ng doxorubicin/μg silk) and show pH-dependent release (pH 4.5≫ 6.0 > 7.4). In vitro studies with human breast cancer cell lines demonstrates that the silk nanoparticles are not cytotoxic (IC50 > 120 μg mL(-1) ) and that doxorubicin-loaded silk nanoparticles are able to overcome drug resistance mechanisms. Live cell fluorescence microscopy studies show endocytic uptake and lysosomal accumulation of silk nanoparticles. In summary, the pH-dependent drug release and lysosomal accumulation of silk nanoparticles demonstrate the ability of drug-loaded silk nanoparticles to serve as a lysosomotropic anticancer nanomedicine.

  20. Silk Roads or Steppe Roads? The Silk Roads in World History.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Christian, David

    2000-01-01

    Explores the prehistory of the Silk Roads, reexamines their structure and history in the classical era, and explores shifts in their geography in the last one thousand years. Explains that a revised understanding of the Silk Roads demonstrates how the Afro-Eurasian land mass has been linked by networks of exchange since the Bronze Age. (CMK)

  1. Radiation degradation of silk protein

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pewlong, W.; Sudatis, B. [Office of Atomic Energy for Peace, Bangkok (Thailand); Takeshita, Hidefumi; Yoshii, Fumio; Kume, Tamikazu [Japan Atomic Energy Research Inst., Takasaki, Gunma (Japan). Takasaki Radiation Chemistry Research Establishment

    2000-03-01

    Silk fibroin fiber from the domesticated silkworm Bombyx mori was irradiated using an electron beam accelerator to investigate the application of the radiation degradation technique as a means to solubilize fibroin. The irradiation caused a significant degradation of the fiber. The tensile strength of fibroin fiber irradiated up to 2500 kGy decreased rapidly with increasing dose. The presence of oxygen in the irradiation atmosphere enhanced degradation of the tensile strength. The solubilization of irradiated fibroin fiber was evaluated using the following three kinds of solutions: a calcium chloride solution(CaCl{sub 2}/C{sub 2}H{sub 5}OH/H{sub 2}O=1:2:8 in mole ratio), a hydrochloric acid (0.5 N) and a distilled water. Dissolution of fibroin fiber into these solutions was significantly enhanced by irradiation. Especially, an appreciable amount of water soluble proteins was extracted by a distilled water. (author)

  2. New Evidence for Early Silk in the Indus Civilization

    OpenAIRE

    Good, I. L.; Kenoyer, J. M.; Meadow, Richard Henry

    2009-01-01

    Silk is an important economic fibre, and is generally considered to have been the exclusive cultural heritage of China. Silk weaving is evident from the Shang period c. 1600–1045 bc, though the earliest evidence for silk textiles in ancient China may date to as much as a millennium earlier. Recent microscopic analysis of archaeological thread fragments found inside copper-alloy ornaments from Harappa and steatite beads from Chanhu-daro, two important Indus sites, have yielded silk fibres, dat...

  3. Silk elasticity as a potential constraint on spider body size

    OpenAIRE

    Rodríguez-Gironés, Miguel A; Corcobado, Guadalupe; Moya-Laraño, Jordi

    2010-01-01

    Abstract Silk is known for its strength and extensibility and has played a key role in the radiation of spiders. Individual spiders use different glands to produce silk types with unique sets of proteins. Most research has studied the properties of major ampullate and capture spiral silks and their ecological implications, while little is known about minor ampullate silk, the type used by those spider species studied to date for bridging displacements. A biomechanical model paramet...

  4. Post-secretion processing influences spider silk performance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Blamires, Sean J; Wu, Chung-Lin; Blackledge, Todd A; Tso, I-Min

    2012-10-01

    Phenotypic variation facilitates adaptations to novel environments. Silk is an example of a highly variable biomaterial. The two-spidroin (MaSp) model suggests that spider major ampullate (MA) silk is composed of two proteins-MaSp1 predominately contains alanine and glycine and forms strength enhancing β-sheet crystals, while MaSp2 contains proline and forms elastic spirals. Nonetheless, mechanical properties can vary in spider silks without congruent amino acid compositional changes. We predicted that post-secretion processing causes variation in the mechanical performance of wild MA silk independent of protein composition or spinning speed across 10 species of spider. We used supercontraction to remove post-secretion effects and compared the mechanics of silk in this 'ground state' with wild native silks. Native silk mechanics varied less among species compared with 'ground state' silks. Variability in the mechanics of 'ground state' silks was associated with proline composition. However, variability in native silks did not. We attribute interspecific similarities in the mechanical properties of native silks, regardless of amino acid compositions, to glandular processes altering molecular alignment of the proteins prior to extrusion. Such post-secretion processing may enable MA silk to maintain functionality across environments, facilitating its function as a component of an insect-catching web. PMID:22628213

  5. Speeding up the Internationalization of Raw Silk Standard

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Hu Zuozhong; Du Zhouhe

    2005-01-01

    @@ China is the main silk producer in the world,whose RSS (Raw Silk Standard) is widely approved in international trade. After entering WTO, China needs to revise the RSS according to the changes of silk industry and develop advanced electronic testing system and improve testing means, so as to promote the internationlization of the RSS.

  6. Woven silk fabric-reinforced silk nanofibrous scaffolds for regenerating load-bearing soft tissues.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Han, F; Liu, S; Liu, X; Pei, Y; Bai, S; Zhao, H; Lu, Q; Ma, F; Kaplan, D L; Zhu, H

    2014-02-01

    Although three-dimensional (3-D) porous regenerated silk scaffolds with outstanding biocompatibility, biodegradability and low inflammatory reactions have promising application in different tissue regeneration, the mechanical properties of regenerated scaffolds, especially suture retention strength, must be further improved to satisfy the requirements of clinical applications. This study presents woven silk fabric-reinforced silk nanofibrous scaffolds aimed at dermal tissue engineering. To improve the mechanical properties, silk scaffolds prepared by lyophilization were reinforced with degummed woven silk fabrics. The ultimate tensile strength, elongation at break and suture retention strength of the scaffolds were significantly improved, providing suitable mechanical properties strong enough for clinical applications. The stiffness and degradation behaviors were then further regulated by different after-treatment processes, making the scaffolds more suitable for dermal tissue regeneration. The in vitro cell culture results indicated that these scaffolds maintained their excellent biocompatibility after being reinforced with woven silk fabrics. Without sacrifice of porous structure and biocompatibility, the fabric-reinforced scaffolds with better mechanical properties could facilitate future clinical applications of silk as matrices in skin repair. PMID:24090985

  7. Biomedical Applications of Mulberry Silk and its Proteins: A Review

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nivedita, S.; Sivaprasad, V.

    2014-04-01

    Silk is a natural fibre used mainly for aesthetic purposes. It has also been used for making surgical sutures for centuries. The recent rediscovery of silk's biological properties have led to new areas of research and utilization in cosmetic, health and medical fields. The silk proteins, fibroin and sericin are processed into biomaterials because of bio-compatibility, bio-degradability, excellent mechanical properties, thermo tolerance and UV protective properties. Silk proteins could be obtained as pure liquids and regenerated in different forms suitable for tissue engineering applications. This paper presents some of the biomedical products and biomaterials made from native, degraded and regenerated silk and their fabrication techniques.

  8. Surface immobilization of antibody on silk fibroin through conformational transition.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lu, Qiang; Wang, Xiaoqin; Zhu, Hesun; Kaplan, David L

    2011-07-01

    In recent studies silk fibroin has been explored as a new material platform for biosensors. Based on these developments, a procedure for the immobilization of antibodies on silk fibroin substrates was developed as a route to functionalizing these biosensor systems. By controlling the conformational transition of the silk fibroin, a primary antibody was immobilized and enriched at the surface of silk fibroin substrates under mild reaction conditions to maintain antibody function. Compared to chemical crosslinking, the immobilization efficiency in the present approach was increased significantly. This method, achieving high loading of antibody while retaining function, improves the feasibility of silk fibroin as a platform material for biosensor applications.

  9. Silk-microfluidics for advanced biotechnological applications: A progressive review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Konwarh, Rocktotpal; Gupta, Prerak; Mandal, Biman B

    2016-01-01

    Silk based biomaterials have not only carved a unique niche in the domain of regenerative medicine but new avenues are also being explored for lab-on-a-chip applications. It is pertinent to note that biospinning of silk represents nature's signature microfluidic-maneuver. Elucidation of non-Newtonian flow of silk in the glands of spiders and silkworms has inspired researchers to fabricate devices for continuous extrusion and concentration of silk. Microfluidic channel networks within porous silk scaffolds ensure optimal nutrient and oxygen supply apart from serving as precursors for vascularization in tissue engineering applications. On the other hand, unique topographical features and surface wettability of natural silk fibers have inspired development of a number of simple and cost-effective devices for applications like blood typing and chemical sensing. This review mirrors the recent progress and challenges in the domain of silk-microfluidics for prospective avant-garde applications in the realm of biotechnology. PMID:27165254

  10. Bio-hybrid silk fibroin/calcium phosphate/PLGA nanocomposite scaffold to control the delivery of vascular endothelial growth factor

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Farokhi, Mehdi, E-mail: mehdi13294@yahoo.com [Department of Tissue Engineering, School of Advanced Technologies in Medicine, Tehran University of Medical Sciences, Tehran (Iran, Islamic Republic of); Mottaghitalab, Fatemeh, E-mail: fatemeh.motaghi@gmail.com [Department of Nanobiotechnology, Faculty of Biological Sciences, Tarbiat Modares University (TMU), Tehran (Iran, Islamic Republic of); Shokrgozar, Mohammad Ali, E-mail: mashokrgozar@pasteur.ac.ir [National Cell Bank of Iran, Pasteur Institute of Iran, Tehran (Iran, Islamic Republic of); Ai, Jafar, E-mail: jafar_ai@tums.ac.ir [Department of Tissue Engineering, School of Advanced Technologies in Medicine, Tehran University of Medical Sciences, Tehran (Iran, Islamic Republic of); Hadjati, Jamshid; Azami, Mahmoud [Department of Tissue Engineering, School of Advanced Technologies in Medicine, Tehran University of Medical Sciences, Tehran (Iran, Islamic Republic of)

    2014-02-01

    This study investigated the efficacy of bio-hybrid silk fibroin/Calcium phosphate/PLGA nanocomposite scaffold as vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF) delivery system. The scaffold was fabricated using freeze-drying and electrospinning. Here, we highlight the structural changes of the scaffold using scanning electron microscopy (SEM), Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FTIR), Raman spectroscopy and differential scanning calorimetry (DSC). The uniform dispersion of calcium phosohate (CaP) powder within silk fibroin (SF) solution was also confirmed using Zeta potential analysis. Moreover, good biocompatibility of osteoblast cells next to the scaffold was approved by cell adhesion, proliferation and alkaline phosphatase production. The release profile of VEGF during 28 days has established the efficacy of the scaffold as a sustained delivery system. The bioactivity of the released VEGF was maintained about 83%. The histology analysis has shown that the new bone tissue formation happened in the defected site after 10 weeks of implantation. Generally, our data showed that the fabricated scaffold could be considered as an effective scaffold for bone tissue engineering applications. - Highlights: • Silk fibroin/calcium phosphate/PLGA scaffold was successfully fabricated using freeze-drying and electrospinning. • The scaffold could control the release of VEGF during 28 days. • The bioactivity of electrospun VEGF was above 80%. • VEGF loaded scaffold could induce bone regeneration after 10 weeks in rabbit.

  11. Electrospun Polymer-Fiber Solar Cell

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shinobu Nagata

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available A novel electrospun polymer-fiber solar cell was synthesized by electrospinning a 1 : 2.5 weight% ratio mixture of poly[2-methoxy-5-(2-ethylhexyloxy-1,4-phenylenevinylene] (MEH-PPV and [6,6]-phenyl C61 butyric acid methyl ester (PCBM resulting in bulk heterojunctions. Electrospinning is introduced as a technique that may increase polymer solar cell efficiency, and a list of advantages of the technique applied to solar cells is discussed. The device achieved a power conversion efficiency of %. The absorption and photoluminescence of MEH-PPV nanofibers are compared to thin films of the same material. Electrospun nanofibers are discussed as a favorable structure for application in polymer solar cells.

  12. Electrospun Nanofibrous Materials for Neural Tissue Engineering

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yee-Shuan Lee

    2011-02-01

    Full Text Available The use of biomaterials processed by the electrospinning technique has gained considerable interest for neural tissue engineering applications. The tissue engineering strategy is to facilitate the regrowth of nerves by combining an appropriate cell type with the electrospun scaffold. Electrospinning can generate fibrous meshes having fiber diameter dimensions at the nanoscale and these fibers can be nonwoven or oriented to facilitate neurite extension via contact guidance. This article reviews studies evaluating the effect of the scaffold’s architectural features such as fiber diameter and orientation on neural cell function and neurite extension. Electrospun meshes made of natural polymers, proteins and compositions having electrical activity in order to enhance neural cell function are also discussed.

  13. Electrospun Nanofibers for Neural and Tissue Engineering

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xia, Younan

    2009-03-01

    Electrospinning has been exploited for almost one century to process polymers and other materials into nanofibers with controllable compositions, diameters, porosities, and porous structures for a variety of applications. Owing to its small size, high porosity, and large surface area, a nonwoven mat of electrospun nanofibers can serve as an ideal scaffold to mimic the extra cellular matrix for cell attachment and nutrient transportation. The nanofiber itself can also be functionalized through encapsulation or attachment of bioactive species such as extracellular matrix proteins, enzymes, and growth factors. In addition, the nanofibers can be further assembled into a variety of arrays or architectures by manipulating their alignment, stacking, or folding. All these attributes make electrospinning a powerful tool for generating nanostructured materials for a range of biomedical applications that include controlled release, drug delivery, and tissue engineering. This talk will focus on the use of electrospun nanofibers as scaffolds for neural and bone tissue engineering.

  14. Electrospun Nanofibrous Materials for Neural Tissue Engineering

    OpenAIRE

    Yee-Shuan Lee; Treena Livingston Arinzeh

    2011-01-01

    The use of biomaterials processed by the electrospinning technique has gained considerable interest for neural tissue engineering applications. The tissue engineering strategy is to facilitate the regrowth of nerves by combining an appropriate cell type with the electrospun scaffold. Electrospinning can generate fibrous meshes having fiber diameter dimensions at the nanoscale and these fibers can be nonwoven or oriented to facilitate neurite extension via contact guidance. This article review...

  15. From silk spinning in insects and spiders to advanced silk fibroin drug delivery systems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Werner, Vera; Meinel, Lorenz

    2015-11-01

    The natural process of silk spinning covers a fascinating versatility of aggregate states, ranging from colloidal solutions through hydrogels to solid systems. The transition among these states is controlled by a carefully orchestrated process in vivo. Major players within the natural process include the control of spatial pH throughout passage of the silk dope, the composition and type of ions, and fluid flow mechanics within the duct, respectively. The function of these input parameters on the spinning process is reviewed before detailing their impact on the design and manufacture of silk based drug delivery systems (DDS). Examples are reported including the control of hydrogel formation during storage or significant parameters controlling precipitation in the presence of appropriate salts, respectively. The review details the use of silk fibroin (SF) to develop liquid, semiliquid or solid DDS with a focus on the control of SF crystallization, particle formation, and drug-SF interaction for tailored drug load.

  16. Regulation of Silk Genes by Hox and Homeodomain Proteins in the Terminal Differentiated Silk Gland of the Silkworm Bombyx mori

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shigeharu Takiya

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available The silk gland of the silkworm Bombyx mori is a long tubular organ that is divided into several subparts along its anteroposterior (AP axis. As a trait of terminal differentiation of the silk gland, several silk protein genes are expressed with unique regional specificities. Most of the Hox and some of the homeobox genes are also expressed in the differentiated silk gland with regional specificities. The expression patterns of Hox genes in the silk gland roughly correspond to those in embryogenesis showing “colinearity”. The central Hox class protein Antennapedia (Antp directly regulates the expression of several middle silk gland–specific silk genes, whereas the Lin-1/Isl-1/Mec3 (LIM-homeodomain transcriptional factor Arrowhead (Awh regulates the expression of posterior silk gland–specific genes for silk fiber proteins. We summarize our results and discuss the usefulness of the silk gland of Bombyx mori for analyzing the function of Hox genes. Further analyses of the regulatory mechanisms underlying the region-specific expression of silk genes will provide novel insights into the molecular bases for target-gene selection and regulation by Hox and homeodomain proteins.

  17. Self-crimping, biodegradable, electrospun polymer microfibers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Surrao, Denver C; Hayami, James W S; Waldman, Stephen D; Amsden, Brian G

    2010-12-13

    Semicrystalline poly(l-lactide-co-ε-caprolactone) (P(LLA-CL)) was used to produce electrospun fibers with diameters on the subcellular scale. P(LLA-CL) was chosen because it is biocompatible and its chemical and physical properties are easily tunable. The use of a rotating wire mandrel as a collection device in the electrospinning process, along with high collection speeds, was used to align electrospun fibers. Upon removal of the fibers from the mandrel, the fibers shrunk in length, producing a crimp pattern characteristic of collagen fibrils in soft connective tissues. The crimping effect was determined to be a result of the residual stresses resident in the fibers due to the fiber alignment process and the difference between the operating temperature (T(op)) and the glass-transition temperature (T(g)) of the polymer. The electrospun fibers could be induced to crimp by adjusting the operating temperature to be greater than that of the polymer glass-transition temperature. Moreover, the crimped fibers exhibited a toe region in their stress-strain profile that is characteristic of collagen present in tendons and ligaments. The crimp pattern was retained during in vitro degradation over 4 weeks. Primary bovine fibroblasts seeded onto these crimped fibers attached, proliferated, and deposited extracellular matrix (ECM) molecules on the surface of the fiber mats. These self-crimping fibers hold great promise for use in tissue engineering scaffolds for connective tissues that require fibers similar in structure to that of crimped collagen fibrils. PMID:21047054

  18. Shear adhesion strength of aligned electrospun nanofibers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Najem, Johnny F; Wong, Shing-Chung; Ji, Guang

    2014-09-01

    Inspiration from nature such as insects' foot hairs motivates scientists to fabricate nanoscale cylindrical solids that allow tens of millions of contact points per unit area with material substrates. In this paper, we present a simple yet robust method for fabricating directionally sensitive shear adhesive laminates. By using aligned electrospun nylon-6, we create dry adhesives, as a succession of our previous work on measuring adhesion energies between two single free-standing electrospun polymer fibers in cross-cylinder geometry, randomly oriented membranes and substrate, and peel forces between aligned fibers and substrate. The synthetic aligned cylindrical solids in this study are electrically insulating and show a maximal Mode II shear adhesion strength of 27 N/cm(2) on a glass slide. This measured value, for the purpose of comparison, is 270% of that reported from gecko feet. The Mode II shear adhesion strength, based on a commonly known "dead-weight" test, is 97-fold greater than the Mode I (normal) adhesion strength of the same. The data indicate a strong shear binding on and easy normal lifting off. Anisotropic adhesion (Mode II/Mode I) is pronounced. The size and surface boundary effects, crystallinity, and bending stiffness of fibers are used to understand these electrospun nanofibers, which vastly differ from otherwise known adhesive technologies. The anisotropic strength distribution is attributed to a decreasing fiber diameter and an optimized laminate thickness, which, in turn, influences the bending stiffness and solid-state "wettability" of points of contact between nanofibers and surface asperities.

  19. Mechanical properties of single electrospun collagen type I fibers

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Yang, Lanti; Fitie, Carel F.C.; Werf, van der Kees O.; Bennink, Martin L.; Dijkstra, Pieter J.; Feijen, Jan

    2008-01-01

    The mechanical properties of single electrospun collagen fibers were investigated using scanning mode bending tests performed with an AFM. Electrospun collagen fibers with diameters ranging from 100 to 600 nm were successfully produced by electrospinning of an 8% w/v solution of acid soluble collage

  20. Facile Phase Transfer and Surface Biofunctionalization of Hydrophobic Nanoparticles Using Janus DNA Tetrahedron Nanostructures.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Juan; Hong, Cheng-Yi; Wu, Shu-Xian; Liang, Hong; Wang, Li-Ping; Huang, Guoming; Chen, Xian; Yang, Huang-Hao; Shangguan, Dihua; Tan, Weihong

    2015-09-01

    Hydrophobic nanoparticles have shown substantial potential for bioanalysis and biomedical applications. However, their use is hindered by complex phase transfer and inefficient surface modification. This paper reports a facile and universal strategy for phase transfer and surface biofunctionalization of hydrophobic nanomaterials using aptamer-pendant DNA tetrahedron nanostructures (Apt-tet). The Janus DNA tetrahedron nanostructures are constructed by three carboxyl group modified DNA strands and one aptamer sequence. The pendant linear sequence is an aptamer, in this case AS1411, known to specifically bind nucleolin, typically overexpressed on the plasma membranes of tumor cells. The incorporation of the aptamers adds targeting ability and also enhances intracellular uptake. Phase-transfer efficiency using Apt-tet is much higher than that achieved using single-stranded DNA. In addition, the DNA tetrahedron nanostructures can be programmed to permit the incorporation of other functional nucleic acids, such as DNAzymes, siRNA, or antisense DNA, allowing, in turn, the construction of promising theranostic nanoagents for bioanalysis and biomedical applications. Given these unique features, we believe that our strategy of surface modification and functionalization may become a new paradigm in phase-transfer-agent design and further expand biomedical applications of hydrophobic nanomaterials. PMID:26302208

  1. Surface biofunctionalization of β-TCP blocks using aptamer 74 for bone tissue engineering.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ardjomandi, N; Huth, J; Stamov, D R; Henrich, A; Klein, C; Wendel, H-P; Reinert, S; Alexander, D

    2016-10-01

    Successful bone regeneration following oral and maxillofacial surgeries depends on efficient functionalization strategies that allow the recruitment of osteogenic progenitor cells at the tissue/implant interface. We have previously identified aptamer 74, which exhibited a binding affinity for osteogenically induced jaw periosteal cells (JPCs). In the present study, this aptamer was used for the surface biofunctionalization of β-tricalcium phosphate (β-TCP) blocks. Atomic force microscopy (AFM) measurements showed increased binding activity of aptamer 74 towards osteogenically induced JPCs compared to untreated controls. The immobilization efficiency of aptamer 74 was analyzed using the QuantiFluor ssDNA assay for 2D surfaces and by amino acid analysis for 3D β-TCP constructs. Following the successful immobilization of aptamer 74 in 2D culture wells and on 3D constructs, in vitro assays showed no significant differences in cell proliferation compared to unmodified surfaces. Interestingly, JPC mineralization was significantly higher on the 2D surfaces and higher cell adhesion was detected on the 3D constructs with immobilized aptamer. Herein, we report an established, biocompatible β-TCP matrix with surface immobilization of aptamer 74, which enhances properties such as cell adhesion on 3D constructs and mineralization on 2D surfaces. Further studies need to be performed to improve the immobilization efficiency and to develop a suitable approach for JPC mineralization growing within 3D β-TCP constructs. PMID:27287122

  2. Template-mediated synthesis and bio-functionalization of flexible lignin-based nanotubes and nanowires

    Science.gov (United States)

    Caicedo, Hector M.; Dempere, Luisa A.; Vermerris, Wilfred

    2012-03-01

    Limitations of cylindrical carbon nanotubes based on the buckminsterfullerene structure as delivery vehicles for therapeutic agents include their chemical inertness, sharp edges and toxicological concerns. As an alternative, we have developed lignin-based nanotubes synthesized in a sacrificial template of commercially available alumina membranes. Lignin is a complex phenolic plant cell wall polymer that is generated as a waste product from paper mills and biorefineries that process lignocellulosic biomass into fuels and chemicals. We covalently linked isolated lignin to the inner walls of activated alumina membranes and then added layers of dehydrogenation polymer onto this base layer via a peroxidase-catalyzed reaction. By using phenolic monomers displaying different reactivities, we were able to change the thickness of the polymer layer deposited within the pores, resulting in the synthesis of nanotubes with a wall thickness of approximately 15 nm or nanowires with a nominal diameter of 200 nm. These novel nanotubes are flexible and can be bio-functionalized easily and specifically, as shown by in vitro assays with biotin and Concanavalin A. Together with their intrinsic optical properties, which can also be varied as a function of their chemical composition, these lignin-based nanotubes are expected to enable a variety of new applications including as delivery systems that can be easily localized and imaged after uptake by living cells.

  3. Template-mediated synthesis and bio-functionalization of flexible lignin-based nanotubes and nanowires

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Limitations of cylindrical carbon nanotubes based on the buckminsterfullerene structure as delivery vehicles for therapeutic agents include their chemical inertness, sharp edges and toxicological concerns. As an alternative, we have developed lignin-based nanotubes synthesized in a sacrificial template of commercially available alumina membranes. Lignin is a complex phenolic plant cell wall polymer that is generated as a waste product from paper mills and biorefineries that process lignocellulosic biomass into fuels and chemicals. We covalently linked isolated lignin to the inner walls of activated alumina membranes and then added layers of dehydrogenation polymer onto this base layer via a peroxidase-catalyzed reaction. By using phenolic monomers displaying different reactivities, we were able to change the thickness of the polymer layer deposited within the pores, resulting in the synthesis of nanotubes with a wall thickness of approximately 15 nm or nanowires with a nominal diameter of 200 nm. These novel nanotubes are flexible and can be bio-functionalized easily and specifically, as shown by in vitro assays with biotin and Concanavalin A. Together with their intrinsic optical properties, which can also be varied as a function of their chemical composition, these lignin-based nanotubes are expected to enable a variety of new applications including as delivery systems that can be easily localized and imaged after uptake by living cells. (paper)

  4. Facile Phase Transfer and Surface Biofunctionalization of Hydrophobic Nanoparticles Using Janus DNA Tetrahedron Nanostructures.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Juan; Hong, Cheng-Yi; Wu, Shu-Xian; Liang, Hong; Wang, Li-Ping; Huang, Guoming; Chen, Xian; Yang, Huang-Hao; Shangguan, Dihua; Tan, Weihong

    2015-09-01

    Hydrophobic nanoparticles have shown substantial potential for bioanalysis and biomedical applications. However, their use is hindered by complex phase transfer and inefficient surface modification. This paper reports a facile and universal strategy for phase transfer and surface biofunctionalization of hydrophobic nanomaterials using aptamer-pendant DNA tetrahedron nanostructures (Apt-tet). The Janus DNA tetrahedron nanostructures are constructed by three carboxyl group modified DNA strands and one aptamer sequence. The pendant linear sequence is an aptamer, in this case AS1411, known to specifically bind nucleolin, typically overexpressed on the plasma membranes of tumor cells. The incorporation of the aptamers adds targeting ability and also enhances intracellular uptake. Phase-transfer efficiency using Apt-tet is much higher than that achieved using single-stranded DNA. In addition, the DNA tetrahedron nanostructures can be programmed to permit the incorporation of other functional nucleic acids, such as DNAzymes, siRNA, or antisense DNA, allowing, in turn, the construction of promising theranostic nanoagents for bioanalysis and biomedical applications. Given these unique features, we believe that our strategy of surface modification and functionalization may become a new paradigm in phase-transfer-agent design and further expand biomedical applications of hydrophobic nanomaterials.

  5. Application of direct tracking method for measuring electrospun nanofiber diameter

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. Ziabari

    2009-03-01

    Full Text Available In this paper, direct tracking method as an image analysis based technique for measuring electrospun nanofiber diameter has been presented and compared with distance transform method. Samples with known characteristics generated using a simulation scheme known as µ-randomness were employed to evaluate the accuracy of the method. Electrospun webs of polyvinyl alcohol (PVA were also used to verify the applicability of the method on real samples. Since direct tracking as well as distance transform require binary input images, micrographs of the electrospun webs obtained from Scanning Electron Microscopy (SEM were first converted to black and white using local thresholding. Direct tracking resulted in more accurate estimations of fiber diameter for simulated images as well as electrospun webs suggesting the usefulness of the method for electrospun nanofiber diameter measurement.

  6. The Ancient Art of Silk Painting

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yonker, Kim

    2010-01-01

    In this article, the author describes a silk-painting project with a sea-creature theme for eighth-grade students. Other themes can be used such as geometric quilt designs, tropical rain forest, large flowers, Art Nouveau motifs, portraits and more. (Contains 2 resources.)

  7. Silk Fibroin for Flexible Electronic Devices.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhu, Bowen; Wang, Hong; Leow, Wan Ru; Cai, Yurong; Loh, Xian Jun; Han, Ming-Yong; Chen, Xiaodong

    2016-06-01

    Flexible electronic devices are necessary for applications involving unconventional interfaces, such as soft and curved biological systems, in which traditional silicon-based electronics would confront a mechanical mismatch. Biological polymers offer new opportunities for flexible electronic devices by virtue of their biocompatibility, environmental benignity, and sustainability, as well as low cost. As an intriguing and abundant biomaterial, silk offers exquisite mechanical, optical, and electrical properties that are advantageous toward the development of next-generation biocompatible electronic devices. The utilization of silk fibroin is emphasized as both passive and active components in flexible electronic devices. The employment of biocompatible and biosustainable silk materials revolutionizes state-of-the-art electronic devices and systems that currently rely on conventional semiconductor technologies. Advances in silk-based electronic devices would open new avenues for employing biomaterials in the design and integration of high-performance biointegrated electronics for future applications in consumer electronics, computing technologies, and biomedical diagnosis, as well as human-machine interfaces. PMID:26684370

  8. Solubilization of silk protein by radiation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sudatis, Boonya; Pongpat, Suchada [Office of Atomic Energy of Peace, Bangkok (Thailand)

    2002-03-01

    Gamma irradiated silk fibroin at doses of 0, 5, 10, 20, 40, 60, 80, 100, 125, 250, 500, 750 and 1000 kGy were soaked in water for 1 hr. Silk fibroin solubilized percentage was investigated from lost weight of sample (dried at 105{sup 0}C), they were 0, 0, 0.7, 0, 0.11, 0.11, 0, 0.73, 0.77, 4.38, 8.32, 10.22 and 18.52 respectively. It showed that at the higher dose up to 250 kGy had direct effect to solubility, and increased with increasing dose. In addition, silk sericin dissolved 77.76, 82.22, 83.55, 84.31, 86.04, 86.67 and 87.37% after gamma irradiation at the doses of 0, 50, 100, 200, 500, 750 and 1000 kGy respectively. It presents that radiation can cause silk protein, fibroin and sericin dissolve because of their degradation. (author)

  9. Silk fibroin microtubes for blood vessel engineering.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lovett, Michael; Cannizzaro, Christopher; Daheron, Laurence; Messmer, Brady; Vunjak-Novakovic, Gordana; Kaplan, David L

    2007-12-01

    Currently available synthetic grafts demonstrate moderate success at the macrovascular level, but fail at the microvascular scale (inner diameter). We report on the development of silk fibroin microtubes for blood vessel repair with several advantages over existing scaffold materials/designs. These microtubes were prepared by dipping straight lengths of stainless steel wire into aqueous silk fibroin, where the addition of poly(ethylene oxide) (PEO) enabled control of microtube porosity. The microtube properties were characterized in terms of pore size, burst strength, protein permeability, enzymatic degradation, and cell migration. Low porosity microtubes demonstrated superior mechanical properties in terms of higher burst pressures, but displayed poor protein permeability; whereas higher porosity tubes had lower burst strengths but increased permeability and enhanced protein transport. The microtubes also exhibited cellular barrier functions as low porosity tubes prevented outward migration of GFP-transduced HUVECs, while the high porosity microtubes allowed a few cells per tube to migrate outward during perfusion. When combined with the biocompatible and suturability features of silk fibroin, these results suggest that silk microtubes, either implanted directly or preseeded with cells, are an attractive biomaterial for microvascular grafts. PMID:17727944

  10. Silk-Screening a la Andy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mathes, Len

    2000-01-01

    Describes a project that was used with advanced 11th and 12th grade art students in which they created silk-screen self-portraits in the style of Andy Warhol. Discusses the process of creating the portraits and the activities that concluded the project. Lists the needed materials. (CMK)

  11. Constructing Knowledge with Silk Road Visuals

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bisland, Beverly Milner

    2008-01-01

    In this study a group of elementary teachers use illustrations, rather than written text, to introduce their students to the peoples and places of the ancient silk routes. The illustrations are from two picture books; "Marco Polo," written by Gian Paolo Cesaerani and illustrated by Piero Ventura (1977), and "We're Riding on a Caravan: An Adventure…

  12. The Application of Tea Dyeing to Silk

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    金成嬉

    2001-01-01

    Vegetable dyes are eco-friendly throughout the full production process. A study is conducted with the purpose of assessing the properties of dye extracted from green tea, black tea and the tea tree cultivated and used in Jiang Nan area of China. The extracted dyes are applied with and without mordants on silk fabric and the dyeing properties are evaluated.

  13. China-Indian Silk Trade: Current Production and Future Prospects

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Liu Feng; Sun Shimin; Qiao Xianjuan

    2009-01-01

    As an important traditional labor-inteusive industry of both India and China, the cocoon silk industry has long made great contributions to the ecological environment protection, rural economic development and the increase in export income of both countries. India is not only a very important cocoon silk trading partner, but an important production competitor of China.In recent years, there has been a large increase in the production and trade of the cocoon silk between China and India; however,China relies heavily on Indian market, which leads to a tendency of further deterioration in the silk trade environment between both countries. The present article makes an empirical study of the cocoon silk resources of the two countries and the scale, product mix and market structure of China-Indian silk trade from 2001 to 2007. Overall silk trading volumes from China to India and market concentration rate are on the increase because of the superiority of Chinese cocoon silk production over that of India. Owing to scat-tered market share and export that mainly focused on raw materi-als product, there has been a phenomenon of price reduction and quantity increase. India carries out fierce competition with China in the international market and even imposes antidumping sanction on Chinese silk, which are key factors restricting further increase between China-India trade. Based on the abovementioned facts, the authors aim to put forward suggestions for steadily developing the production and trade of China's silk.

  14. Molecular Fundaments of Mechanical Properties of Spider Silk

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    潘志娟; 刘敏; 李春萍; 李栋高; 盛家镛

    2003-01-01

    Dragline,framework and cocoon silk fibers of Araneus Ventricosus were used for this study.To investigate the microstructure mechanisms of stress-strain behavior of spider silk,firstly,amino acid compositions were analyzed and molecular conformations and crystallinity were measured with Raman spectra and X-ray diffraction respectively.The results showed that there were more amino acids with large side groups and polar ones in spider silk than those of Bombyx silk,and the amino acid distribution varied with different spider silk.The molecular structures were mainly α-helix and β-sheet,and random coil and β-turn existed as well.The proportions and arrangement of these conformations of dragline silk were different from framework and cocoon silk fibers.Microstructure was one of important factors of excellent mechanical properties of spider silk.Crystallinity of spider silk was very low,which implied that the roles of crystal on spider silk were not as great as other protein fibers.

  15. Structural and optical studies on selected web spinning spider silks.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Karthikeyani, R; Divya, A; Mathavan, T; Asath, R Mohamed; Benial, A Milton Franklin; Muthuchelian, K

    2017-01-01

    This study investigates the structural and optical properties in the cribellate silk of the sheet web spider Stegodyphus sarasinorum Karsch (Eresidae) and the combined dragline, viscid silk of the orb-web spiders Argiope pulchella Thorell (Araneidae) and Nephila pilipes Fabricius (Nephilidae). X-ray diffraction (XRD), Fourier transform infra-red (FTIR), Ultraviolet-visible (UV-Vis) and fluorescence spectroscopic techniques were used to study these three spider silk species. X-ray diffraction data are consistent with the amorphous polymer network which is arising from the interaction of larger side chain amino acid contributions due to the poly-glycine rich sequences known to be present in the proteins of cribellate silk. The same amorphous polymer networks have been determined from the combined dragline and viscid silk of orb-web spiders. From FTIR spectra the results demonstrate that, cribellate silk of Stegodyphus sarasinorum, combined dragline viscid silk of Argiope pulchella and Nephila pilipes spider silks are showing protein peaks in the amide I, II and III regions. Further they proved that the functional groups present in the protein moieties are attributed to α-helical and side chain amino acid contributions. The optical properties of the obtained spider silks such as extinction coefficients, refractive index, real and imaginary dielectric constants and optical conductance were studied extensively from UV-Vis analysis. The important fluorescent amino acid tyrosine is present in the protein folding was investigated by using fluorescence spectroscopy. This research would explore the protein moieties present in the spider silks which were found to be associated with α-helix and side chain amino acid contributions than with β-sheet secondary structure and also the optical relationship between the three different spider silks are investigated. Successful spectroscopic knowledge of the internal protein structure and optical properties of the spider silks could

  16. Surface and Wetting Properties of Embiopteran (Webspinner) Nanofiber Silk.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Osborn Popp, Thomas M; Addison, J Bennett; Jordan, Jacob S; Damle, Viraj G; Rykaczewski, Konrad; Chang, Shery L Y; Stokes, Grace Y; Edgerly, Janice S; Yarger, Jeffery L

    2016-05-10

    Insects of the order Embioptera, known as embiopterans, embiids, or webspinners, weave silk fibers together into sheets to make shelters called galleries. In this study, we show that silk galleries produced by the embiopteran Antipaluria urichi exhibit a highly hydrophobic wetting state with high water adhesion macroscopically equivalent to the rose petal effect. Specifically, the silk sheets have advancing contact angles above 150°, but receding contact angle approaching 0°. The silk sheets consist of layered fiber bundles with single strands spaced by microscale gaps. Scanning and transmission electron microscopy (SEM, TEM) images of silk treated with organic solvent and gas chromatography mass spectrometry (GC-MS) of the organic extract support the presence of a lipid outer layer on the silk fibers. We use cryogenic SEM to demonstrate that water drops reside on only the first layer of the silk fibers. The area fraction of this sparse outer silk layers is 0.1 to 0.3, which according to the Cassie-Baxter equation yields an effective static contact angle of ∼130° even for a mildly hydrophobic lipid coating. Using high magnification optical imaging of the three phase contact line of a water droplet receding from the silk sheet, we show that the high adhesion of the drop stems from water pinning along bundles of multiple silk fibers. The bundles likely form when the drop contact line is pinned on individual fibers and pulls them together as it recedes. The dynamic reorganization of the silk sheets during the droplet movement leads to formation of "super-pinning sites" that give embiopteran silk one of the strongest adhesions to water of any natural hydrophobic surface. PMID:27062909

  17. Identification and classification of silks using infrared spectroscopy

    OpenAIRE

    M. Boulet-Audet; Vollrath, F.; Holland, C.

    2015-01-01

    ABSTRACT Lepidopteran silks number in the thousands and display a vast diversity of structures, properties and industrial potential. To map this remarkable biochemical diversity, we present an identification and screening method based on the infrared spectra of native silk feedstock and cocoons. Multivariate analysis of over 1214 infrared spectra obtained from 35 species allowed us to group silks into distinct hierarchies and a classification that agrees well with current phylogenetic data an...

  18. Shear adhesion strength of aligned electrospun nanofibers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Najem, Johnny F; Wong, Shing-Chung; Ji, Guang

    2014-09-01

    Inspiration from nature such as insects' foot hairs motivates scientists to fabricate nanoscale cylindrical solids that allow tens of millions of contact points per unit area with material substrates. In this paper, we present a simple yet robust method for fabricating directionally sensitive shear adhesive laminates. By using aligned electrospun nylon-6, we create dry adhesives, as a succession of our previous work on measuring adhesion energies between two single free-standing electrospun polymer fibers in cross-cylinder geometry, randomly oriented membranes and substrate, and peel forces between aligned fibers and substrate. The synthetic aligned cylindrical solids in this study are electrically insulating and show a maximal Mode II shear adhesion strength of 27 N/cm(2) on a glass slide. This measured value, for the purpose of comparison, is 270% of that reported from gecko feet. The Mode II shear adhesion strength, based on a commonly known "dead-weight" test, is 97-fold greater than the Mode I (normal) adhesion strength of the same. The data indicate a strong shear binding on and easy normal lifting off. Anisotropic adhesion (Mode II/Mode I) is pronounced. The size and surface boundary effects, crystallinity, and bending stiffness of fibers are used to understand these electrospun nanofibers, which vastly differ from otherwise known adhesive technologies. The anisotropic strength distribution is attributed to a decreasing fiber diameter and an optimized laminate thickness, which, in turn, influences the bending stiffness and solid-state "wettability" of points of contact between nanofibers and surface asperities. PMID:25105533

  19. Fabrication and Intermolecular Interactions of Silk Fibroin/Hydroxybutyl Chitosan Blended Nanofibers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xiu-Mei Mo

    2011-03-01

    Full Text Available The native extracellular matrix (ECM is composed of a cross-linked porous network of multifibril collagens and glycosaminoglycans. Nanofibrous scaffolds of silk fibroin (SF and hydroxybutyl chitosan (HBC blends were fabricated using 1,1,1,3,3,3-hexafluoro-2-propanol (HFIP and trifluoroacetic acid (TFA as solvents to biomimic the native ECM via electrospinning. Scanning electronic microscope (SEM showed that relatively uniform nanofibers could be obtained when 12% SF was blended with 6% HBC at the weight ratio of 50:50. Meanwhile, the average nanofibrous diameter increased when the content of HBC in SF/HBC blends was raised from 20% to 100%. Fourier transform infrared spectra (FTIR and 13C nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR showed SF and HBC molecules existed in hydrogen bonding interactions but HBC did not induce conformation of SF transforming from random coil form to β-sheet structure. X-ray diffraction (XRD confirmed the different structure of SF/HBC blended nanofibers from both SF and HBC. Thermogravimetry-Differential thermogravimetry (TG-DTG results demonstrated that the thermal stability of SF/HBC blend nanofibrous scaffolds was improved. The results indicated that the rearrangement of HBC and SF molecular chain formed a new structure due to stronger hydrogen bonding between SF and HBC. These electrospun SF/HBC blended nanofibers may provide an ideal tissue engineering scaffold and wound dressing.

  20. Using FTIR spectroscopy to detect sericin on historic silk

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    WYETH; Paul

    2010-01-01

    Silks represent some of the most precious ancient and historic textile artefacts in collections worldwide.Their optimum preservation demands an appreciation of their characteristics.One important concern,especially with regard to ancient Chinese silks,is whether the fabrics have been degummed.Silks with remnant sericin gum coating the fibroin fibres would require different conservation protocol.In previous research on aged silks,the presence of sericin has been inferred from amino acid analysis of hydrolysates.In the study reported here,the potential of FTIR spectroscopy to provide a simpler and rapid method of detecting sericin on silk has been investigated.Both fibroin and sericin exhibit singular IR absorptions.Attenuated total reflectance spectroscopy was found to highlight the sericin coating more effectively than transmission and reflectance spectroscopy.Three particular peak intensity ratios were identified which might provide a quantitative estimate of the sericin content of new silk,to a sensitivity of 1%-2%.These were also shown to be valid indicators for the presence of sericin on artificially aged and archaeological silks,although quantitation was now not possible.Besides the peak intensity ratios,two signature peaks were also seen to be useful markers for silk fibroin,and their presence in a spectrum could be used to infer a degummed silk.

  1. Yang Gongle, A New Survey of the Early Silk Road

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2014-01-01

    The Silk Road is a concept that was first promulgated by the Prussian scholar Ferdinandvon Richthofen (1833-1905) in the late nineteenth century. Being referred as the cruciallink between Western and Eastern civilizations in the ancient world, this term has inspiredvigorous research among scholars of the world. Yet, few scholars have taken a criticalview to examine the concept itself. In A New Survey of the Early Silk Road, Yang Gonglequestions the very foundation of the Silk Road studies of the past and resumes discussionon the nature of the early Silk Road from a world-historical perspective that graduallyemerges from his close examination of Chinese, Greek.

  2. Structure-Function-Property-Design Interplay in Biopolymers: Spider Silk

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tokareva, Olena; Jacobsen, Matthew; Buehler, Markus; Wong, Joyce; Kaplan, David L.

    2013-01-01

    Spider silks have been a focus of research for almost two decades due to their outstanding mechanical and biophysical properties. Recent advances in genetic engineering have led to the synthesis of recombinant spider silks, thus helping to unravel a fundamental understanding of structure-function-property relationships. The relationships between molecular composition, secondary structures, and mechanical properties found in different types of spider silks are described, along with a discussion of artificial spinning of these proteins and their bioapplications, including the role of silks in biomineralization and fabrication of biomaterials with controlled properties. PMID:23962644

  3. Blended Yarns of Modacrylic Fibers with Silk Protein

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    江慧

    2001-01-01

    The fiber properties of modacrylic fibers with silk protein and spinning technology for blended knitting yarns are studied. By testing the fiber properties, fiber spinnability is analysed. Modacrylic fibers with silk protein are brittle and have poor cohesion, so the key to process modacrylic fibers with silk protein lies in forming lap and sliver. During opening and carding, low speed is used to decrease fiber damage and the proper static resistant oil is applied to eliminate lapping fibers. Besides, the temperature and relative humidity have to be strictly controlled. The applications of modacrylic fibers with silk protein are also put forward.

  4. Chemical Modification of Silk Fibers with Ethylene Glycol Dimethacrylate

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    CHEN Guo-qiang; ZHOU Xiang

    2002-01-01

    Silk fibers have been grafted with ethylene glycol dimethacrylate (EGDMA) and characteristics of the grafted silk fibers were analyzed in relation to the graft yield on the basis of the tensile properties, dyeing behaviour, durability during laundering and solubility of the specimen in NaOH solution. The amount of the acid dye absorbed by the fibers decreased with increasing graft yield, while the value of rating for washing fastness on silk fibers was almost unchanged by the graft treatment. The breaking loads of the fiber were almost unchanged whereas rigidity of the fibers increased after graft treatment. Graft treatment enhanced silk fiber durability during laundering and in NaOH solution.

  5. Biofunctionalization of polycaprolactone scaffolds with RGD peptides for the better cells integration

    Science.gov (United States)

    Matveeva, V. G.; Seifalian, A. M.; Antonova, L. V.; Velikanova, E. A.; Sergeeva, E. A.; Krivkina, E. O.; Glushkova, T. V.; Kudryavtseva, Yu. A.; Barbarash, O. L.; Barbarash, L. S.

    2016-08-01

    Here we tested in vitro electrospun polycaprolactone (PCL) scaffolds carbodiimide linkage with RGD peptides and their unconjugated counterparts. The scaffolds possessed highly porous structure and were formed by randomly distributed fibers. Orange II staining and ninhydrin test confirmed successful amination of the PCL. For the assessment of cell adhesion, we colonized scaffolds with primary human fibroblasts and counted the number of alive and dead cells. After 6 days of incubation, the number of fibroblasts on the scaffolds modified by RGD peptides significantly exceeded the number on unmodified scaffolds; however, the distribution of the cells on functionalized scaffolds was uneven, possibly due to uneven distribution of RGD peptides. The percentage of dead cells on the scaffolds with RGD peptides was significantly lower compared to their unmodified counterparts. Therefore, conjugation of PCL scaffolds with RGD peptides improves their integration with cells. This can be used in regenerative medicine.

  6. Preparation and characterization of biofunctionalized chitosan/Fe{sub 3}O{sub 4} magnetic nanoparticles for application in liver magnetic resonance imaging

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Song, Xiaoli, E-mail: xlsong@yzu.edu.cn; Luo, Xiadan; Zhang, Qingqing; Zhu, Aiping; Ji, Lijun; Yan, Caifeng

    2015-08-15

    Biofunctionalized chitosan@Fe{sub 3}O{sub 4} nanoparticles are synthesized by combining Fe{sub 3}O{sub 4} and CS chemically modified with PEG and lactobionic acid in one step. The biofunctionalized nanoparticles are characterized by TEM, X-ray, DLS, zeta-potential and magnetic measurements. The in vitro and in vivo behaviors of the biofunctionalized nanoparticles, especially, the cytotoxicity, the protein resistance, metabolism and iron toxicity are assessed. The functional groups, PEG enable the nanoparticles more biocompatible and the lactobionic acid groups enable liver targeting. The potential applications of the nanoparticles in liver magnetic resonance imaging are confirmed. The results demonstrated that the nanoparticles are suspension stability, non-cytotoxicity, non-tissue toxicity and sensitive in liver magnetic resonance imaging, representing potential tools for applications in the biomedical field. - Highlights: • Biofunctionalized PEG/LA-CS@Fe{sub 3}O{sub 4} NPs were prepared in one step. • PEG/LA-CS@Fe{sub 3}O{sub 4} NPs show excellent monodispersity and suspension stability. • PEG/LA-CS@Fe{sub 3}O{sub 4} NPs show excellent biocompatibility. • PEG/LA-CS/Fe{sub 3}O{sub 4} NPs are efficiently used in liver magnetic resonance imaging.

  7. Biofunctionalization of REDV elastin-like recombinamers improves endothelialization on CoCr alloy surfaces for cardiovascular applications.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Castellanos, Maria Isabel; Zenses, Anne-Sophie; Grau, Anna; Rodríguez-Cabello, Jose Carlos; Gil, Francisco Javier; Manero, Jose María; Pegueroles, Marta

    2015-03-01

    To improve cardiovascular implant success, metal-based stents are designated to modulate endothelial cells adhesion and migration in order to prevent restenosis and late thrombosis diseases. Biomimetic coatings with extra-cellular matrix adhesive biomolecules onto stents surfaces are a strategy to recover a healthy endothelium. However, the appropriate bioactive sequences to selective promote growth of endothelium and the biomolecules surface immobilization strategy remains to be elucidated. In this study, biofunctionalization of cobalt chromium, CoCr, alloy surfaces with elastin-like recombinamers, ELR, genetically modified with an REDV sequence, was performed to enhance metal surfaces endothelialization. Moreover, physical adsorption and covalent bonding were used as biomolecules binding strategies onto CoCr alloy. Surfaces were activated with plasma and etched with sodium hydroxide previous to silanization with 3-chloropropyltriethoxysilane and functionalized with the ELR. CoCr alloy surfaces were successfully biofunctionalized and the use of an ELR with an REDV sequence, allows conferring bioactivity to the biomaterials surface, demonstrating a higher cell adhesion and spreading of HUVEC cells on the different CoCr surfaces. This effect is emphasized as increases the amount of immobilized biomolecules and directly related to the immobilization technique, covalent bonding, and the increase of surface charge electronegativity. Our strategy of REDV elastin-like recombinamers immobilization onto CoCr alloy surfaces via covalent bonding through organosilanes provides a bioactive surface that promotes endothelial cell adhesion and spreading. PMID:25637794

  8. Biofunctionalization of REDV elastin-like recombinamers improves endothelialization on CoCr alloy surfaces for cardiovascular applications.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Castellanos, Maria Isabel; Zenses, Anne-Sophie; Grau, Anna; Rodríguez-Cabello, Jose Carlos; Gil, Francisco Javier; Manero, Jose María; Pegueroles, Marta

    2015-03-01

    To improve cardiovascular implant success, metal-based stents are designated to modulate endothelial cells adhesion and migration in order to prevent restenosis and late thrombosis diseases. Biomimetic coatings with extra-cellular matrix adhesive biomolecules onto stents surfaces are a strategy to recover a healthy endothelium. However, the appropriate bioactive sequences to selective promote growth of endothelium and the biomolecules surface immobilization strategy remains to be elucidated. In this study, biofunctionalization of cobalt chromium, CoCr, alloy surfaces with elastin-like recombinamers, ELR, genetically modified with an REDV sequence, was performed to enhance metal surfaces endothelialization. Moreover, physical adsorption and covalent bonding were used as biomolecules binding strategies onto CoCr alloy. Surfaces were activated with plasma and etched with sodium hydroxide previous to silanization with 3-chloropropyltriethoxysilane and functionalized with the ELR. CoCr alloy surfaces were successfully biofunctionalized and the use of an ELR with an REDV sequence, allows conferring bioactivity to the biomaterials surface, demonstrating a higher cell adhesion and spreading of HUVEC cells on the different CoCr surfaces. This effect is emphasized as increases the amount of immobilized biomolecules and directly related to the immobilization technique, covalent bonding, and the increase of surface charge electronegativity. Our strategy of REDV elastin-like recombinamers immobilization onto CoCr alloy surfaces via covalent bonding through organosilanes provides a bioactive surface that promotes endothelial cell adhesion and spreading.

  9. Gelation behavior of Antheraea pernyi silk fibroin

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2010-01-01

    The sol-gel transition behavior of Antherae pernyi silk fibroin(Ap-SF) has not been systematically investigated.In this work,the influence of environmental temperature,pH,the concentration of Ap-SF,K+ and Ca2+ on the gelation time,and the structural changes of Ap-SF in sol-gel transformation were studied.The results indicated that the gelation time of the Ap-SF aqueous solution decreased with the increase of the Ap-SF concentration and environmental temperature.The sol-gel transformation of Ap-SF was much more rapid than that of Bombyx mori silk fibroin under the same conditions.The Ap-SF was sensitive to changes in the concentration of Ca2+ and K+.Upon gelation,the random coil structure of the Ap-SF was significantly transformed into the β-sheet structure.

  10. CCPIT-TEX Paves New Silk Road

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2010-01-01

    2000 years ago, Silk Road was considered the concernful channel of trade promotion that connects China and the world, stretching thousands of miles running through the desert. At that time, groups of Chinese traders crossed this road with the help of camels at the risk oflosing their own life in the desert; venturing their trade in westerncountries. Nowadays, sands have covered this road and soundfrom camel bells has died out for a long time, but the pioneeringspirit of Chinese trade forerunners has been passed to us despitethe lapse of time. As a trade platform of China’s textile and apparelenterprises, the Sub-Council of Textile Industry, China Council forthe Promotion of International Trade (CCPIT TEX) was consideredas an intangible Silk Road that provides trade opportunitiesthrough organizing expo. and exhibitions.

  11. Silk fibroin nanostructured materials for biomedical applications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mitropoulos, Alexander N.

    Nanostructured biopolymers have proven to be promising to develop novel biomedical applications where forming structures at the nanoscale normally occurs by self-assembly. However, synthesizing these structures can also occur by inducing materials to transition into other forms by adding chemical cross-linkers, changing pH, or changing ionic composition. Understanding the generation of nanostructures in fluid environments, such as liquid organic solvents or supercritical fluids, has not been thoroughly examined, particularly those that are based on protein-based block-copolymers. Here, we examine the transformation of reconstituted silk fibroin, which has emerged as a promising biopolymer due to its biocompatibility, biodegradability, and ease of functionalization, into submicron spheres and gel networks which offer applications in tissue engineering and advanced sensors. Two types of gel networks, hydrogels and aerogels, have small pores and large surface areas that are defined by their structure. We design and analyze silk nanoparticle formation using a microfluidic device while offering an application for drug delivery. Additionally, we provide a model and characterize hydrogel formation from micelles to nanoparticles, while investigating cellular response to the hydrogel in an in vitro cell culture model. Lastly, we provide a second model of nanofiber formation during near-critical and supercritical drying and characterize the silk fibroin properties at different drying pressures which, when acting as a stabilizing matrix, shows to improve the activity of entrapped enzymes dried at different pressures. This work has created new nanostructured silk fibroin forms to benefit biomedical applications that could be applied to other fibrous proteins.

  12. The Consolidation Behavior of Silk Hydrogels

    OpenAIRE

    Kluge, Jonathan A.; Rosiello, Nicholas C.; Leisk, Gary G.; Kaplan, David L.; Dorfmann, A. Luis

    2009-01-01

    Hydrogels have mechanical properties and structural features that are similar to load bearing soft tissues including intervertebral disc and articular cartilage, and can be implanted for tissue restoration or for local release of therapeutic factors. To help predict their performance, mechanical characterization and mathematical modeling are available methods for use in tissue engineering and drug delivery settings. In this study, confined compression creep tests were performed on silk hydrog...

  13. Injectable Silk Foams for Soft Tissue Regeneration

    OpenAIRE

    Bellas, E.; Lo, T.J.; Fournier, E. P.; Brown, J E; Abbott, R.D.; Gil, E.S.; Marra, K.G.; Rubin, J.P.; Leisk, G.G.; Kaplan, D.L.

    2014-01-01

    Soft tissue fillers are needed for restoration of a defect or augmentation of existing tissues. Autografts and lipotransfer have been under study for soft tissue reconstruction but yield inconsistent results, often with considerable resorption of the grafted tissue. A minimally invasive procedure would reduce scarring and recovery time as well as allow for the implant and/or grafted tissue to be placed closer to existing vasculature. Here, we demonstrate the feasibility of an injectable silk ...

  14. Antioxidant Activities of Iranian Corn Silk

    OpenAIRE

    Ebrahimzadeh, Mohammad Ali; POURMORAD, Fereshteh; HAFEZI, Samira

    2008-01-01

    Traditionally corn silk (CS) has been used as diuretic, antilithiasic, uricosuric, and antiseptic. It is used for the treatment of edema as well as for cystitis, gout, kidney stones, nephritis, and prostatitis. In the present study, the antioxidant properties of ethanol-water extract from CS were estimated by different methods. Also phenol and flavonoid content of the extract were measured by Folin Ciocalteu and AlCl3 assays. CS extract contained a significant amount of phenol and flavonoids....

  15. Copper ion sensing with fluorescent electrospun nanofibers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ongun, Merve Zeyrek; Ertekin, Kadriye; Gocmenturk, Mustafa; Ergun, Yavuz; Suslu, Aslıhan

    2012-05-01

    In this work, the use of electrospun nanofibrous materials as highly responsive fluorescence quenching-based copper sensitive chemosensor is reported. Poly(methyl methacrylate) and ethyl cellulose were used as polymeric support materials. Sensing slides were fabricated by electrospinning technique. Copper sensors based on the change in the fluorescence signal intensity of fluoroionophore; N'-3-(4-(dimethylamino phenly)allylidene)isonicotinohydrazide. The sensor slides exhibited high sensitivities due to the high surface area of the nanofibrous membrane structures. The preliminary results of Stern-Volmer analysis show that the sensitivities of electrospun nanofibrous membranes to detect Cu(II) ions are 6-20-fold higher than those of the continuous thin films. By this way we obtained linear calibration plots for Cu(II) ions in the concentration range of 10-12-10-5 M. The response times of the sensing slides were less than 1 min. Stability of the employed ionophore in the matrix materials was excellent and when stored in the ambient air of the laboratory there was no significant drift in signal intensity after 6 months. Our stability tests are still in progress.

  16. Drop impacts on electrospun nanofiber membranes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sahu, Rakesh P.; Sinha-Ray, Suman; Yarin, Alexander; Pourdeyhimi, Behnam

    2013-11-01

    This work reports a study of drop impacts of polar and non-polar liquids onto electrospun nanofiber membranes (of 8-10 mm thickness and pore sizes of 3-6 nm) with an increasing degree of hydrophobicity. The nanofibers used were electrospun from polyacrylonitrile (PAN), nylon 6/6, polycaprolactone (PCL) and Teflon. It was found that for any liquid/fiber pair there exists a threshold impact velocity (1.5 to 3 m/s) above which water penetrates membranes irrespective of their wettability. The low surface tension liquid left the rear side of sufficiently thin membranes as a millipede-like system of tiny jets protruding through a number of pores. For such a high surface tension liquid as water, jets immediately merged into a single bigger jet, which formed secondary drops due to capillary instability. An especially non-trivial result is that superhydrophobicity of the porous nano-textured Teflon skeleton with the interconnected pores is incapable of preventing water penetration due to drop impact, even at relatively low impact velocities close to 3.46 m/s. A theoretical estimate of the critical membrane thickness sufficient for complete viscous dissipation of the kinetic energy of penetrating liquid corroborates with the experimental data. The current work is supported by the Nonwovens Cooperative Research Center (NCRC).

  17. Recombinant protein blends: silk beyond natural design.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dinjaski, Nina; Kaplan, David L

    2016-06-01

    Recombinant DNA technology and new material concepts are shaping future directions in biomaterial science for the design and production of the next-generation biomaterial platforms. Aside from conventionally used synthetic polymers, numerous natural biopolymers (e.g., silk, elastin, collagen, gelatin, alginate, cellulose, keratin, chitin, polyhydroxyalkanoates) have been investigated for properties and manipulation via bioengineering. Genetic engineering provides a path to increase structural and functional complexity of these biopolymers, and thereby expand the catalog of available biomaterials beyond that which exists in nature. In addition, the integration of experimental approaches with computational modeling to analyze sequence-structure-function relationships is starting to have an impact in the field by establishing predictive frameworks for determining material properties. Herein, we review advances in recombinant DNA-mediated protein production and functionalization approaches, with a focus on hybrids or combinations of proteins; recombinant protein blends or 'recombinamers'. We highlight the potential biomedical applications of fibrous protein recombinamers, such as Silk-Elastin Like Polypeptides (SELPs) and Silk-Bacterial Collagens (SBCs). We also discuss the possibility for the rationale design of fibrous proteins to build smart, stimuli-responsive biomaterials for diverse applications. We underline current limitations with production systems for these proteins and discuss the main trends in systems/synthetic biology that may improve recombinant fibrous protein design and production.

  18. Silk-based blood stabilization for diagnostics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kluge, Jonathan A; Li, Adrian B; Kahn, Brooke T; Michaud, Dominique S; Omenetto, Fiorenzo G; Kaplan, David L

    2016-05-24

    Advanced personalized medical diagnostics depend on the availability of high-quality biological samples. These are typically biofluids, such as blood, saliva, or urine; and their collection and storage is critical to obtain reliable results. Without proper temperature regulation, protein biomarkers in particular can degrade rapidly in blood samples, an effect that ultimately compromises the quality and reliability of laboratory tests. Here, we present the use of silk fibroin as a solid matrix to encapsulate blood analytes, protecting them from thermally induced damage that could be encountered during nonrefrigerated transportation or freeze-thaw cycles. Blood samples are recovered by simple dissolution of the silk matrix in water. This process is demonstrated to be compatible with a number of immunoassays and provides enhanced sample preservation in comparison with traditional air-drying paper approaches. Additional processing can remediate interactions with conformational structures of the silk protein to further enhance blood stabilization and recovery. This approach can provide expanded utility for remote collection of blood and other biospecimens empowering new modalities of temperature-independent remote diagnostics. PMID:27162330

  19. Vibrational spectroscopic study of sulphated silk proteins

    Science.gov (United States)

    Monti, P.; Freddi, G.; Arosio, C.; Tsukada, M.; Arai, T.; Taddei, P.

    2007-05-01

    Degummed Bombyx mori ( B. m.) silk fibroin fabric and mutant naked pupa cocoons (Nd-s) consisting of almost pure silk sericin were treated with chlorosulphonic acid in pyridine and investigated by FT-IR and FT-Raman spectroscopies. Untreated silk fibroin and sericin displayed typical spectral features due to characteristic amino acid composition and molecular conformation (prevailing β-sheet with a less ordered structure in sericin). Upon sulphation, the degree of molecular disorder increased in both proteins and new bands appeared. The IR bands at 1049 and 1014 cm -1 were attributed to vibrations of sulphate salts and that at 1385 cm -1 to the νasSO 2 mode of organic covalent sulphates. In the 1300-1180 cm -1 range various contributions of alkyl and aryl sulphate salts, sulphonamides, sulphoamines and organic covalent sulphates, fell. Fibroin covalently bound sulphate groups through the hydroxyl groups of tyrosine and serine, while sericin through the hydroxyl groups of serine, since the δOH vibrations at 1399 cm -1 in IR and at 1408 cm -1 in Raman disappeared almost completely. Finally, the increase of the I850/ I830 intensity ratio of Raman tyrosine doublet in fibroin suggested a change towards a more exposed state of tyrosine residues, in good agreement with the more disordered conformation taken upon sulphation.

  20. Osteogenic signaling on silk-based matrices.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Midha, Swati; Murab, Sumit; Ghosh, Sourabh

    2016-08-01

    Bone tissue engineering has mainly focused on generating 3D grafts to repair bone defects. However, the underlying signaling mechanisms responsible for development of such 3D bone equivalents have largely been ignored. Here we describe the crucial aspects of embryonic osteogenesis and bone development including cell sources and general signaling cascades that guide mesenchymal progenitors towards osteogenic lineage. Drawing from the knowledge of developmental biology, we then review how silk biomaterial can regulate osteogenic signaling by focusing on the expression of cell surface markers, functional genomic information (mRNA) of stem cells cultured on silk matrices. In an attempt to recapitulate exact in vivo microenvironment of osteogenesis, role of scaffold architecture and material chemistry in regulating cellular differentiation is elaborated. The generated knowledge will not only improve our understanding of cell-material interactions but reveal newer strategies beyond a conventional tissue engineering paradigm and open new prospects for developing silk-based therapies against clinically relevant bone disorders. PMID:27163625

  1. Recombinant protein blends: silk beyond natural design.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dinjaski, Nina; Kaplan, David L

    2016-06-01

    Recombinant DNA technology and new material concepts are shaping future directions in biomaterial science for the design and production of the next-generation biomaterial platforms. Aside from conventionally used synthetic polymers, numerous natural biopolymers (e.g., silk, elastin, collagen, gelatin, alginate, cellulose, keratin, chitin, polyhydroxyalkanoates) have been investigated for properties and manipulation via bioengineering. Genetic engineering provides a path to increase structural and functional complexity of these biopolymers, and thereby expand the catalog of available biomaterials beyond that which exists in nature. In addition, the integration of experimental approaches with computational modeling to analyze sequence-structure-function relationships is starting to have an impact in the field by establishing predictive frameworks for determining material properties. Herein, we review advances in recombinant DNA-mediated protein production and functionalization approaches, with a focus on hybrids or combinations of proteins; recombinant protein blends or 'recombinamers'. We highlight the potential biomedical applications of fibrous protein recombinamers, such as Silk-Elastin Like Polypeptides (SELPs) and Silk-Bacterial Collagens (SBCs). We also discuss the possibility for the rationale design of fibrous proteins to build smart, stimuli-responsive biomaterials for diverse applications. We underline current limitations with production systems for these proteins and discuss the main trends in systems/synthetic biology that may improve recombinant fibrous protein design and production. PMID:26686863

  2. Fabrication and characterization of multiscale electrospun scaffolds for cartilage regeneration

    OpenAIRE

    Levorson, Erica J.; Sreerekha, Perumcherry Raman; Chennazhi, Krishna Prasad; Kasper, F. Kurtis; Nair, Shantikumar V.; Mikos, Antonios G.

    2013-01-01

    Recently, scaffolds for tissue regeneration purposes have looked to utilize nanoscale features in an effort to reap the cellular benefits of scaffold features resembling extracellular matrix (ECM) components. However, one complication surrounding electrospun nanofibers is limited cellular infiltration. One method to ameliorate this negative effect is by incorporating nanofibers into microfibrous scaffolds. This study shows that it is feasible to fabricate electrospun scaffolds containing two ...

  3. Molecular dynamics in electrospun amorphous plasticized polylactide fibers

    OpenAIRE

    MONNIER, X; DELPOUVE, N; BASSON, N; GUINAULT, A; DOMENEK, S; Saiter, A; MALLON, P.E; Dargent, E

    2015-01-01

    The molecular dynamics in the amorphous phase of electrospun fibers of polylactide (PLA) has been investigated using the cooperative rearranging region concept. An unusual and significant increase of the cooperativity length at the glass transition induced by the electrospinning has been observed. This behavior is attributed to the singularity of the amorphous phase organization. Electrospun PLA fibers rearrange in a pre-ordered metastable state which is characterized by highly oriented but n...

  4. Alternating current impedance spectroscopic analysis of biofunctionalized vertically-aligned silica nanospring surface for biosensor applications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Timalsina, Yukta P.

    In this dissertation, a process of vertically-aligned (silica) nanosprings (VANS) based biosensor development is presented. Alternating current (AC) impedance spectroscopy has been used to analyze sensor response as a function of saline phosphate (SP) buffer and biological solutions. The sensor is a parallel plate capacitor consisting of two glass substrates coated with indium tin oxide (ITO), where the VANS [or randomly-aligned nanosprings (RANS)] grown on one substrate serve as the dielectric spacer layer. The response of a VANS device as a function of ionic concentration in SP buffer was examined and an equivalent circuit model was developed. The results demonstrated that VANS sensors exhibited greater sensitivity to the changes in SP concentration relative to the ITO sensors, which serve as controls. The biofunctionalized VANS surface via physisorption and the cross-linker method demonstrates the repeatability, specificity, and selectivity of the binding. The physisorption of biotinylated immunoglobulin G (B-IgG) onto the VANS surface simplifies the whole sensing procedure for the detection of glucose oxidase, since the avidin-conjugated glucose oxidase (Av-GOx) can directly be immobilized on the B-IgG. The cross linker method involves the covalent attachment of antibodies onto the functionalized VANS surface via imine bond. The experiments revealed that the VANS sensor response is solely the result of the interaction of target molecule i.e. mouse IgG with the probe layer, i.e. goat antimouse IgG (GalphaM IgG). It was determined that VANS-based sensors exhibit a greater magnitude of change between successive bio-layers relative to the controls above 100 Hz, which indicates that the addition of biomolecules inhibits the diffusion of ions and changes the effective dielectric response of the VANS via biomolecular polarization. The study of ionic transport in nanosprings suggested that conductance follows a scaling law. It was demonstrated that a VANS-based device

  5. Visual Literacy with Picture Books: The Silk Road

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bisland, Beverly Milner Lee

    2007-01-01

    The ancient Silk Routes connecting China to Europe across the rugged mountains and deserts of central Asia are one of the primary examples of transculturation in world history. Traders on these routes dealt not only in goods such as silk and horses but also made possible the spread of art forms as well as two major religions, Buddhism and Islam. …

  6. Production of fine powder from silk by radiation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Takeshita, Hidefumi; Yoshii, Fumio; Kume, Tamikazu [Japan Atomic Energy Research Inst., Takasaki, Gunma (Japan). Takasaki Radiation Chemistry Research Establishment; Ishida, Kazunari; Kamiishi, Youichi [Textile Research Institute of Gunma, Kiryu, Gunma (Japan)

    2000-03-01

    Silk fine power was prepared directly from silk fiber irradiated with an accelerated electron beam(EB). Irradiated silk fiber was well pulverized only by physical crushing using ball mill without any chemical pretreatment. Raw and degummed silk fibers were irradiated at ambient temperature in the dose range of 250-1000 kGy. Although unirradiated silk fibers were not pulverized at all, irradiated fibers were easily pulverized and showed higher conversion from fiber to powder for higher doses. The presence of oxygen in the irradiation atmosphere enhanced pulverization of silk fiber. Raw silk fibers were less pulverized compared to degummed ones. The electron microscope observation showed that the minimum particle size of silk powder obtained from fiber irradiated by 1000 kGy in oxygen was less than 10 microns. It was found that fibroin powder obtained in this work dissolved remarkably into cold water, thought unirradiated fibroin fiber had little solubility even in hot water. A typical soluble fraction was about 60% for fibroin powder obtained from fiber irradiated by 1000 kGy in oxygen. (author)

  7. Ptychographic X-ray Tomography of Silk Fiber Hydration

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Esmaeili, Morteza; Fløystad, Jostein B.; Diaz, Ana;

    2013-01-01

    Studying noninvasively the internal nanoporous structure of a single Tussah silk fiber under different humidity conditions, we demonstrate for the first time the feasibility of in-situ ptychographic tomography. The resulting 3D images of the silk fiber interior, obtained at both dry and humid con...

  8. Local tolerance to spider silks and protein polymers in vivo.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vollrath, F; Barth, P; Basedow, A; Engström, W; List, H

    2002-01-01

    Spider silks were implanted subcutaneously in pigs for a study of the tolerance against this material. Four types of spider silks of high purity and cleanliness were implanted: (i) major ampullate dragline silk reeled from the golden silk spider Nephila clavipes, (ii) native (unsterilised) silk reeled from a Brachypelma spider, (iii) native silk taken from this spider's web and (iv) its web silk thermally treated at 80 degrees C. For comparison we used fibrous silk analogue protein polymers and four already marketed wound dressings (polyurethane film, collagen dressings, gauze pads). All materials were applied epicutaneously to split skin wounds. The implants were examined macroscopically as well as by light microscopy. Superficially, all sites healed rapidly. There were marked inflammatory reactions in all sites with lympho-plasmacellular infiltrations, evidence of phagocytosis and granuloma formation as indicated by the appearance of giant cells. However there was a marked absence of epitheloid cells indicating that the observed reaction was a foreign body granuloma. Furthermore, the histopathological images recorded after 14 days revealed no marked differences between the dressings. Polyurethane films, however, seemed to be superior with respect to the duration of the wound healing process. PMID:12224131

  9. SilkDB: a knowledgebase for silkworm biology and genomics

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Wang, Jing; Xia, Qingyou; He, Ximiao;

    2005-01-01

    The Silkworm Knowledgebase (SilkDB) is a web-based repository for the curation, integration and study of silkworm genetic and genomic data. With the recent accomplishment of a approximately 6X draft genome sequence of the domestic silkworm (Bombyx mori), SilkDB provides an integrated representation...

  10. Geographic Perspectives with Elementary Students: The Silk Road

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bisland, Beverly Milner

    2006-01-01

    The purpose of this study is to investigate elementary students' explanations of how physical features of the land influence the location of humanly defined structures including trade routes, such as the silk routes. The silk routes were a series of caravan trade routes that extended from Turkey to China and were located as far south as India and…

  11. Potential of Electrospun Nanofibers for Biomedical and Dental Applications

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Muhammad Zafar

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Electrospinning is a versatile technique that has gained popularity for various biomedical applications in recent years. Electrospinning is being used for fabricating nanofibers for various biomedical and dental applications such as tooth regeneration, wound healing and prevention of dental caries. Electrospun materials have the benefits of unique properties for instance, high surface area to volume ratio, enhanced cellular interactions, protein absorption to facilitate binding sites for cell receptors. Extensive research has been conducted to explore the potential of electrospun nanofibers for repair and regeneration of various dental and oral tissues including dental pulp, dentin, periodontal tissues, oral mucosa and skeletal tissues. However, there are a few limitations of electrospinning hindering the progress of these materials to practical or clinical applications. In terms of biomaterials aspects, the better understanding of controlled fabrication, properties and functioning of electrospun materials is required to overcome the limitations. More in vivo studies are definitely required to evaluate the biocompatibility of electrospun scaffolds. Furthermore, mechanical properties of such scaffolds should be enhanced so that they resist mechanical stresses during tissue regeneration applications. The objective of this article is to review the current progress of electrospun nanofibers for biomedical and dental applications. In addition, various aspects of electrospun materials in relation to potential dental applications have been discussed.

  12. Self-assembly of silk fibroin under osmotic stress

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sohn, Sungkyun

    The supramolecular self-assembly behavior of silk fibroin was investigated using osmotic stress technique. In Chapter 2, a ternary phase diagram of water-silk-LiBr was constructed based on X-ray results on the osmotically stressed regenerated silk fibroin of Bombyx mori silkworm. Microscopic data indicated that silk I is a hydrated structure and a rough estimate of the number of water molecules lost by the structure upon converting from silk I to silk II has been made, and found to be about 2.2 per [GAGAGS] hexapeptide. In Chapter 3, wet-spinning of osmotically stressed, regenerated silk fibroin was performed, based on the prediction that the enhanced control over structure and phase behavior using osmotic stress method helps improve the physical properties of wet-spun regenerated silk fibroin fibers. The osmotic stress was applied in order to pre-structure the regenerated silk fibroin molecule from its original random coil state to more oriented state, manipulating the phase of the silk solution in the phase diagram before the start of spinning. Monofilament fiber with a diameter of 20 microm was produced. In Chapter 4, we investigated if there is a noticeable synergistic osmotic pressure increase between co-existing polymeric osmolyte and salt when extremely highly concentrated salt molecules are present both at sample subphase and stressing subphase, as is the case of silk fibroin self-assembly. The equilibration method that measures osmotic pressure relative to a reference with known osmotic pressure was introduced. Osmotic pressure of aqueous LiBr solution up to 2.75M was measured and it was found that the synergistic effect was insignificant up to this salt concentration. Solution parameters of stressing solutions and Arrhenius kinetics based on time-temperature relationship for the equilibration process were derived as well. In Chapter 5, self-assembly behavior of natural silk fibroin within the gland of Bombyx mori silkworm was investigated using osmotic

  13. Photoelectric Measurement of the Fineness of Raw Silk

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Wan-chun FEI

    2010-01-01

    In order to precisely measure the diameters for obtaining the fineness of rolling raw silk, the physical features of raw silk are analyzed. By means of Fresnel principle, diffractions caused by different transparent raw silk filaments are analyzed and simulated. Image data of raw silk filament measured by digital CMOS camera are analyzed and processed for obtaining the precise diameters of the filament with the relative error of less than 1%. On the assumption of appropriate elliptic cross-section of the filament, the cross-section area is calculated as the fineness of the filament. Measurement experiments are carried out. Finally, some suggestions are proposed for photoelectric measuring the fineness of raw silk.

  14. Alleged silk spigots on tarantula feet: electron microscopy reveals sensory innervation, no silk.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Foelix, Rainer; Erb, Bruno; Rast, Bastian

    2013-05-01

    Several studies on tarantulas have claimed that their tarsi could secrete fine silk threads which would provide additional safety lines for maintaining a secure foot-hold on smooth vertical surfaces. This interpretation was seriously questioned by behavioral experiments, and more recently morphological evidence indicated that the alleged spigots ("ribbed hairs") were not secretory but most likely sensory hairs (chemoreceptors). However, since fine structural studies were lacking, the sensory nature was not proven convincingly. By using transmission electron microscopy we here present clear evidence that these "ribbed hairs" contain many dendrites inside the hair lumen - as is the case in the well-known contact chemoreceptors of spiders and insects. For comparison, we also studied the fine structure of regular silk spigots on the spinnerets and found them distinctly different from sensory hairs. Finally, histological studies of a tarantula tarsus did not reveal any silk glands, which, by contrast, are easily found within the spinnerets. In conclusion, the alleged presence of silk spigots on tarantula feet is refuted. PMID:23474440

  15. Thermal conductivity of electrospun polyethylene nanofibers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ma, Jian; Zhang, Qian; Mayo, Anthony; Ni, Zhonghua; Yi, Hong; Chen, Yunfei; Mu, Richard; Bellan, Leon M.; Li, Deyu

    2015-10-01

    We report on the structure-thermal transport property relation of individual polyethylene nanofibers fabricated by electrospinning with different deposition parameters. Measurement results show that the nanofiber thermal conductivity depends on the electric field used in the electrospinning process, with a general trend of higher thermal conductivity for fibers prepared with stronger electric field. Nanofibers produced at a 45 kV electrospinning voltage and a 150 mm needle-collector distance could have a thermal conductivity of up to 9.3 W m-1 K-1, over 20 times higher than the typical bulk value. Micro-Raman characterization suggests that the enhanced thermal conductivity is due to the highly oriented polymer chains and enhanced crystallinity in the electrospun nanofibers.

  16. Functionalized nanowires from electrospun polymer nanofibers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ruiz, A.; Vega, E.; Katiyar, R.; Valentin, R.

    2007-05-01

    The ability to pattern materials in three dimensions is critical for several emerging technologies, including photonics, μfluidics, MEMS, and biomaterials. Electrospinning allows one to functionalized and rapidly fabricate materials in complex three-dimensional shapes without the need for expensive tooling, dies, or lithographic masks. Here, recent advances in functionalization techniques are reviewed with an emphasis on the push toward patterning finer feature sizes. Effects of material and process parameters on the diameter of electrospun Poly Ethylene Oxide (PEO) fibers were experimentally investigated. Experiments were conducted at the settings of solution flow rate, voltage and the collector distance. It also imparted the evaluation of the significance of each parameter on the resultant fiber diameter. All the factors were found statistically significant in the production of nanoscale fibers. Opportunities and challenges associated with electrospinning of polyacrylonitrile fibers are also highlighted.

  17. Electrospun composite nanofibers for tissue regeneration.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Prabhakaran, Molamma P; Ghasemi-Mobarakeh, Laleh; Ramakrishna, Seeram

    2011-04-01

    Nanotechnology assists in the development of biocomposite nanofibrous scaffolds that can react positively to changes in the immediate cellular environment and stimulate specific regenerative events at molecular level to generate healthy tissues. Recently, electrospinning has gained huge momentum with greater accessibility of fabrication of composite, controlled and oriented nanofibers with sufficient porosity required for effective tissue regeneration. Current developments include the fabrication of nanofibrous scaffolds which can provide chemical, mechanical and biological signals to respond to the environmental stimuli. These nanofibers are fabricated by simple coating, blending of polymers/bioactive molecules or by surface modification methods. For obtaining optimized surface functionality, with specially designed architectures for the nanofibers (multi-layered, core-shell, aligned), electrospinning process has been modified and simultaneous 'electrospin-electrospraying' process is one of the most lately introduced technique in this perspective. Properties such as porosity, biodegradation and mechanical properties of composite electrospun nanofibers along with their utilization for nerve, cardiac, bone, skin, vascular and cartilage tissue engineering are discussed in this review. In order to locally deliver electrical stimulus and provide a physical template for cell proliferations, and to gain an external control on the level and duration of stimulation, electrically conducting polymeric nanofibers are also fabricated by electrospinning. Electrospun polypyrrole (PPy) and polyaniline (PAN) based scaffolds are the most extensively studied composite substrates for nerve and cardiac tissue engineering with or without electrical stimulations, and are discussed here. However, the major focus of ongoing and future research in regenerative medicine is to effectively exploit the pluripotent potential of Mesenchymal Stem Cell (MSC) differentiation on composite

  18. Characterization of electrospun lignin based carbon fibers

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The production of lignin fibers has been studied in order to replace the need for petroleum based precursors for carbon fiber production. In addition to its positive environmental effects, it also benefits the economics of the industries which cannot take advantage of carbon fiber properties because of their high price. A large amount of lignin is annually produced as the byproduct of paper and growing cellulosic ethanol industry. Therefore, finding high value applications for this low cost, highly available material is getting more attention. Lignin is a biopolymer making about 15 – 30 % of the plant cell walls and has a high carbon yield upon carbonization. However, its processing is challenging due to its low molecular weight and also variations based on its origin and the method of separation from cellulose. In this study, alkali solutions of organosolv lignin with less than 1 wt/v% of poly (ethylene oxide) and two types of lignin (hardwood and softwood) were electrospun followed by carbonization. Different heating programs for carbonization were tested. The carbonized fibers had a smooth surface with an average diameter of less than 5 µm and the diameter could be controlled by the carbonization process and lignin type. Scanning electron microscopy (SEM) was used to study morphology of the fibers before and after carbonization. Thermal conductivity of a sample with amorphous carbon was 2.31 W/m.K. The electrospun lignin carbon fibers potentially have a large range of application such as in energy storage devices and water or gas purification systems

  19. Characterization of electrospun lignin based carbon fibers

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Poursorkhabi, Vida; Mohanty, Amar; Misra, Manjusri [School of Engineering, Thornbrough Building, University of Guelph, Guelph, N1G 2W1, Ontario (Canada); Bioproducts Discovery and Development Centre, Department of Plant Agriculture, Crop Science Building, University of Guelph, Guelph, N1G 2W1, Ontario (Canada)

    2015-05-22

    The production of lignin fibers has been studied in order to replace the need for petroleum based precursors for carbon fiber production. In addition to its positive environmental effects, it also benefits the economics of the industries which cannot take advantage of carbon fiber properties because of their high price. A large amount of lignin is annually produced as the byproduct of paper and growing cellulosic ethanol industry. Therefore, finding high value applications for this low cost, highly available material is getting more attention. Lignin is a biopolymer making about 15 – 30 % of the plant cell walls and has a high carbon yield upon carbonization. However, its processing is challenging due to its low molecular weight and also variations based on its origin and the method of separation from cellulose. In this study, alkali solutions of organosolv lignin with less than 1 wt/v% of poly (ethylene oxide) and two types of lignin (hardwood and softwood) were electrospun followed by carbonization. Different heating programs for carbonization were tested. The carbonized fibers had a smooth surface with an average diameter of less than 5 µm and the diameter could be controlled by the carbonization process and lignin type. Scanning electron microscopy (SEM) was used to study morphology of the fibers before and after carbonization. Thermal conductivity of a sample with amorphous carbon was 2.31 W/m.K. The electrospun lignin carbon fibers potentially have a large range of application such as in energy storage devices and water or gas purification systems.

  20. Comprehensive Proteomic Analysis of Spider Dragline Silk from Black Widows: A Recipe to Build Synthetic Silk Fibers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Larracas, Camille; Hekman, Ryan; Dyrness, Simmone; Arata, Alisa; Williams, Caroline; Crawford, Taylor; Vierra, Craig A.

    2016-01-01

    The outstanding material properties of spider dragline silk fibers have been attributed to two spidroins, major ampullate spidroins 1 and 2 (MaSp1 and MaSp2). Although dragline silk fibers have been treated with different chemical solvents to elucidate the relationship between protein structure and fiber mechanics, there has not been a comprehensive proteomic analysis of the major ampullate (MA) gland, its spinning dope, and dragline silk using a wide range of chaotropic agents, inorganic salts, and fluorinated alcohols to elucidate their complete molecular constituents. In these studies, we perform in-solution tryptic digestions of solubilized MA glands, spinning dope and dragline silk fibers using five different solvents, followed by nano liquid chromatography coupled to tandem mass spectrometry (LC-MS/MS) analysis with an Orbitrap Fusion™ Tribrid™. To improve protein identification, we employed three different tryptic peptide fragmentation modes, which included collision-induced dissociation (CID), electron transfer dissociation (ETD), and high energy collision dissociation (HCD) to discover proteins involved in the silk assembly pathway and silk fiber. In addition to MaSp1 and MaSp2, we confirmed the presence of a third spidroin, aciniform spidroin 1 (AcSp1), widely recognized as the major constituent of wrapping silk, as a product of dragline silk. Our findings also reveal that MA glands, spinning dope, and dragline silk contain at least seven common proteins: three members of the Cysteine-Rich Protein Family (CRP1, CRP2 and CRP4), cysteine-rich secretory protein 3 (CRISP3), fasciclin and two uncharacterized proteins. In summary, this study provides a proteomic blueprint to construct synthetic silk fibers that most closely mimic natural fibers. PMID:27649139

  1. Comprehensive Proteomic Analysis of Spider Dragline Silk from Black Widows: A Recipe to Build Synthetic Silk Fibers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Camille Larracas

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available The outstanding material properties of spider dragline silk fibers have been attributed to two spidroins, major ampullate spidroins 1 and 2 (MaSp1 and MaSp2. Although dragline silk fibers have been treated with different chemical solvents to elucidate the relationship between protein structure and fiber mechanics, there has not been a comprehensive proteomic analysis of the major ampullate (MA gland, its spinning dope, and dragline silk using a wide range of chaotropic agents, inorganic salts, and fluorinated alcohols to elucidate their complete molecular constituents. In these studies, we perform in-solution tryptic digestions of solubilized MA glands, spinning dope and dragline silk fibers using five different solvents, followed by nano liquid chromatography coupled to tandem mass spectrometry (LC-MS/MS analysis with an Orbitrap Fusion™ Tribrid™. To improve protein identification, we employed three different tryptic peptide fragmentation modes, which included collision-induced dissociation (CID, electron transfer dissociation (ETD, and high energy collision dissociation (HCD to discover proteins involved in the silk assembly pathway and silk fiber. In addition to MaSp1 and MaSp2, we confirmed the presence of a third spidroin, aciniform spidroin 1 (AcSp1, widely recognized as the major constituent of wrapping silk, as a product of dragline silk. Our findings also reveal that MA glands, spinning dope, and dragline silk contain at least seven common proteins: three members of the Cysteine-Rich Protein Family (CRP1, CRP2 and CRP4, cysteine-rich secretory protein 3 (CRISP3, fasciclin and two uncharacterized proteins. In summary, this study provides a proteomic blueprint to construct synthetic silk fibers that most closely mimic natural fibers.

  2. Microwave-assisted rapid extracellular synthesis of stable bio-functionalized silver nanoparticles from guava (Psidium guajava) leaf extract

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Our research interest centers on microwave-assisted rapid extracellular synthesis of bio-functionalized silver nanoparticles of 26 ± 5 nm from guava (Psidium guajava) leaf extract with control over dimension and composition. The reaction occurs very rapidly as the formation of spherical nanoparticles almost completed within 90 s. The probable pathway of the biosynthesis is suggested. Appearance, crystalline nature, size and shape of nanoparticles are understood by UV–vis (UV–vis spectroscopy), FTIR (fourier transform infrared spectroscopy), XRD (X-ray diffraction), FESEM (field emission scanning electron microscopy) and TEM (transmission electron microscopy) techniques. Microwave-assisted route is selected for the synthesis of silver nanoparticles to carry out the reaction fast, suppress the enzymatic action and to keep the process environmentally clean and green.

  3. Electricity from the Silk Cocoon Membrane

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tulachan, Brindan; Meena, Sunil Kumar; Rai, Ratan Kumar; Mallick, Chandrakant; Kusurkar, Tejas Sanjeev; Teotia, Arun Kumar; Sethy, Niroj Kumar; Bhargava, Kalpana; Bhattacharya, Shantanu; Kumar, Ashok; Sharma, Raj Kishore; Sinha, Neeraj; Singh, Sushil Kumar; Das, Mainak

    2014-06-01

    Silk cocoon membrane (SCM) is an insect engineered structure. We studied the electrical properties of mulberry (Bombyx mori) and non-mulberry (Tussar, Antheraea mylitta) SCM. When dry, SCM behaves like an insulator. On absorbing moisture, it generates electrical current, which is modulated by temperature. The current flowing across the SCM is possibly ionic and protonic in nature. We exploited the electrical properties of SCM to develop simple energy harvesting devices, which could operate low power electronic systems. Based on our findings, we propose that the temperature and humidity dependent electrical properties of the SCM could find applications in battery technology, bio-sensor, humidity sensor, steam engines and waste heat management.

  4. Electricity from the silk cocoon membrane.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tulachan, Brindan; Meena, Sunil Kumar; Rai, Ratan Kumar; Mallick, Chandrakant; Kusurkar, Tejas Sanjeev; Teotia, Arun Kumar; Sethy, Niroj Kumar; Bhargava, Kalpana; Bhattacharya, Shantanu; Kumar, Ashok; Sharma, Raj Kishore; Sinha, Neeraj; Singh, Sushil Kumar; Das, Mainak

    2014-06-25

    Silk cocoon membrane (SCM) is an insect engineered structure. We studied the electrical properties of mulberry (Bombyx mori) and non-mulberry (Tussar, Antheraea mylitta) SCM. When dry, SCM behaves like an insulator. On absorbing moisture, it generates electrical current, which is modulated by temperature. The current flowing across the SCM is possibly ionic and protonic in nature. We exploited the electrical properties of SCM to develop simple energy harvesting devices, which could operate low power electronic systems. Based on our findings, we propose that the temperature and humidity dependent electrical properties of the SCM could find applications in battery technology, bio-sensor, humidity sensor, steam engines and waste heat management.

  5. Spider Silk: The Mother Nature's Biological Superlens

    CERN Document Server

    Monks, James N; Wang, Zengbo

    2016-01-01

    This paper demonstrates a possible new microfiber bio near field lens that uses minor ampullate spider silk,spun from the Nephila edulis spider, to create a real time image of a surface using near field optical techniques. The microfiber bio lens is the world's first natural superlens created by exploring biological materials. The resolution of the surface image overcomes the diffraction limit, with the ability to resolve patterns at 100 nm under a standard white light source in reflection mode. This resolution offers further developments in superlens technology and paves the way for new bio optics.

  6. Electrospun nanofibrous SF/P(LLA-CL membrane: a potential substratum for endothelial keratoplasty

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chen JZ

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available Junzhao Chen,1,* Chenxi Yan,1,* Mengyu Zhu,1,* Qinke Yao,1 Chunyi Shao,1 Wenjuan Lu,1 Jing Wang,2 Xiumei Mo,2 Ping Gu,1 Yao Fu,1 Xianqun Fan1 1Department of Ophthalmology, Ninth People’s Hospital, Shanghai Jiao Tong University School of Medicine, 2Biomaterials and Tissue Engineering Laboratory, College of Chemistry and Chemical Engineering and Biotechnology, Donghua University, Shanghai, People’s Republic of China *These authors contributed equally to this work Background: Cornea transplant technology has progressed markedly in recent decades, allowing surgeons to replace diseased corneal endothelium by a thin lamellar structure. A thin, transparent, biocompatible, tissue-engineered substratum with corneal endothelial cells for endothelial keratoplasty is currently of interest. Electrospinning a nanofibrous structure can simulate the extracellular matrix and have beneficial effects for cell culture. Silk fibroin (SF has good biocompatibility but poor mechanical properties, while poly(L-lactic acid-co-Ɛ-caprolactone (P(LLA-CL has good mechanical properties but poor biocompatibility. Blending SF with P(LLA-CL can maintain the advantages of both these materials and overcome their disadvantages. Blended electrospun nanofibrous membranes may be suitable for regeneration of the corneal endothelium. The aim of this study was to produce a tissue-engineered construct suitable for endothelial keratoplasty.Methods: Five scaffolds containing different SF:P(LLA-CL blended ratios (100:0, 75:25, 50:50, 25:75, 0:100 were manufactured. A human corneal endothelial (B4G12 cell line was cultured on the membranes. Light transmission, speed of cell adherence, cell viability (live-dead test, cell proliferation (Ki-67, BrdU staining, and cell monolayer formation were detected on membranes with the different blended ratios, and expression of some functional genes was also detected by real-time polymerase chain reaction.Results: Different blended ratios of scaffolds

  7. Biomimetic calcium phosphate coatings on recombinant spider silk fibres

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yang Liang; Habibovic, Pamela; Van Blitterswijk, Clemens A [Department of Tissue Regeneration, University of Twente, PO Box 217, 7500 AE Enschede (Netherlands); Hedhammar, My; Johansson, Jan [Department of Anatomy, Physiology and Biochemistry, Swedish University of Agricultural Sciences, the Biomedical Centre, Box 575, 751 23 Uppsala (Sweden); Blom, Tobias; Leifer, Klaus [Department of Engineering Sciences, Uppsala University, Box 534, S-751 21 Uppsala (Sweden)

    2010-08-01

    Calcium phosphate ceramic coatings, applied on surfaces of metallic and polymeric biomaterials, can improve their performance in bone repair and regeneration. Spider silk is biocompatible, strong and elastic, and hence an attractive biomaterial for applications in connective tissue repair. Recently, artificial spider silk, with mechanical and structural characteristics similar to those of native spider silk, has been produced from recombinant minispidroins. In the present study, supersaturated simulated body fluid was used to deposit calcium phosphate coatings on recombinant spider silk fibres. The mineralization process was followed in time using scanning electron microscopy equipped with an energy dispersive x-ray (EDX) detector and Raman spectroscope. Focused ion beam technology was used to produce a cross section of a coated fibre, which was further analysed by EDX. Preliminary in vitro experiments using a culture of bone marrow-derived human mesenchymal stem cells (hMSCs) on coated fibres were also performed. This study showed that recombinant spider silk fibres were successfully coated with a homogeneous and thick crystalline calcium phosphate layer. In the course of the mineralization process from modified simulated body fluid, sodium chloride crystals were first deposited on the silk surface, followed by the deposition of a calcium phosphate layer. The coated silk fibres supported the attachment and growth of hMSCs.

  8. Evidence for antimicrobial activity associated with common house spider silk

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wright Simon

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Spider silk is one of the most versatile materials in nature with great strength and flexibility. Native and synthetically produced silk has been used in a wide range of applications including the construction of artificial tendons and as substrates for human cell growth. In the literature there are anecdotal reports that suggest that native spider silk may also have antimicrobial properties. Findings In this study we compared the growth of a Gram positive and a Gram negative bacterium in the presence and absence of silk produced by the common house spider Tegenaria domestica. We demonstrate that native web silk of Tegenaria domestica can inhibit the growth of the Gram positive bacterium, Bacillus subtilis. No significant inhibition of growth was detected against the Gram negative bacterium, Escherichia coli. The antimicrobial effect against B. subtilis appears to be short lived thus the active agent potentially acts in a bacteriostatic rather than bactericidal manner. Treatment of the silk with Proteinase K appears to reduce the ability to inhibit bacterial growth. This is consistent with the active agent including a protein element that is denatured or cleaved by treatment. Tegenaria silk does not appear to inhibit the growth of mammalian cells in vitro thus there is the potential for therapeutic applications.

  9. Binding Quantum Dots to Silk Biomaterials for Optical Sensing

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Disi Lu

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Quantum dots (QDs, have great potential for fabricating optical sensing devices and imaging biomaterial degradation in vivo. In the present study, 2-mercaptoethylamine- (MEA- and mercaptopropionic acid- (MPA- capped CdTe-QDs were physically incorporated in silk films that contained a high content (>30% of crystalline beta-sheet structure. The beta-sheets were induced by the addition of glycerol, water annealing, glycerol/annealing, or treatment with methanol. Incorporation of QDs did not influence the formation of beta-sheets. When the films were extracted with water, most QDs remained associated with the silk, based on the retention of photoluminescence in the silk films and negligible photoluminescence in the extracts. Compared to the solution state, photoluminescence intensity significantly decreased for MEA-QDs but not for MPA-QDs in the silk films, while the emission maximum blue shifted (≈4 nm slightly for both. Further film digestion using protease XIV, alpha-chymotrypsin, and the combination of the two proteases suggested that QDs may be bound to the silk beta-sheet regions but not the amorphous regions. QDs photoluminescence in silk films was quenched when the concentration of hydrogen peroxide (H2O2 was above 0.2-0.3 mM, indicating the QDs-incorporated silk films can be used to report oxidation potential in solution.

  10. Inhibitory Effect of Corn Silk on Skin Pigmentation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sang Yoon Choi

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available In this study, the inhibitory effect of corn silk on melanin production was evaluated. This study was performed to investigate the inhibitory effect of corn silk on melanin production in Melan-A cells by measuring melanin production and protein expression. The corn silk extract applied on Melan-A cells at a concentration of 100 ppm decreased melanin production by 37.2% without cytotoxicity. This was a better result than arbutin, a positive whitening agent, which exhibited a 26.8% melanin production inhibitory effect at the same concentration. The corn silk extract did not suppress tyrosinase activity but greatly reduced the expression of tyrosinase in Melan-A cells. In addition, corn silk extract was applied to the human face with hyperpigmentation, and skin color was measured to examine the degree of skin pigment reduction. The application of corn silk extract on faces with hyperpigmentation significantly reduced skin pigmentation without abnormal reactions. Based on the results above, corn silk has good prospects for use as a material for suppressing skin pigmentation.

  11. The effects of corn silk on glycaemic metabolism

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Han Linna

    2009-11-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Corn silk contains proteins, vitamins, carbohydrates, Ca, K, Mg and Na salts, fixed and volatile oils, steroids such as sitosterol and stigmasterol, alkaloids, saponins, tannins, and flavonoids. Base on folk remedies, corn silk has been used as an oral antidiabetic agent in China for decades. However, the hypoglycemic activity of it has not yet been understood in terms of modern pharmacological concepts. The purpose of this study is to investigate the effects of corn silk on glycaemic metabolism. Methods Alloxan and adrenalin induced hyperglycemic mice were used in the study. The effects of corn silk on blood glucose, glycohemoglobin (HbA1c, insulin secretion, damaged pancreatic β-cells, hepatic glycogen and gluconeogenesis in hyperglycemic mice were studied respectively. Results After the mice were orally administered with corn silk extract, the blood glucose and the HbA1c were significantly decreased in alloxan-induced hyperglycemic mice (p 0.05. Although corn silk extract increased the level of hepatic glycogen in the alloxan-induced hyperglycemic mice, there was no significant difference between them and that of the control group(p > 0.05. Conclusion Corn silk extract markedly reduced hyperglycemia in alloxan-induced diabetic mice. The action of corn silk extract on glycaemic metabolism is not via increasing glycogen and inhibiting gluconeogenesis but through increasing insulin level as well as recovering the injured β-cells. The results suggest that corn silk extract may be used as a hypoglycemic food or medicine for hyperglycemic people in terms of this modern pharmacological study.

  12. Effect of nanofiber content on bone regeneration of silk fibroin/poly(ε-caprolactone nano/microfibrous composite scaffolds

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kim BS

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Beom Su Kim,1,2,* Ko Eun Park,3,4,* Min Hee Kim,3 Hyung Keun You,5 Jun Lee,1 Won Ho Park3 1Wonkwang Bone Regeneration Institute, Wonkwang University, Iksan, South Korea; 2Bone Cell Biotech, Daejeon, South Korea; 3Department of Advanced Organic Materials and Textile System Engineering, Chungnam National University, Daejeon, South Korea; 4Central Research Institute, Humedix, Anyang, South Korea; 5Department of Periodontology, School of Dentistry, Wonkwang University, Iksan, South Korea *These two authors contributed equally to this work Abstract: The broad application of electrospun nanofibrous scaffolds in tissue engineering is limited by their small pore size, which has a negative influence on cell migration. This disadvantage could be significantly improved through the combination of nano- and microfibrous structure. To accomplish this, different nano/microfibrous scaffolds were produced by hybrid electrospinning, combining solution electrospinning with melt electrospinning, while varying the content of the nanofiber. The morphology of the silk fibroin (SF/poly(ε-caprolactone (PCL nano/microfibrous composite scaffolds was investigated with field-emission scanning electron microscopy, while the mechanical and pore properties were assessed by measurement of tensile strength and mercury porosimetry. To assay cell proliferation, cell viability, and infiltration ability, human mesenchymal stem cells were seeded on the SF/PCL nano/microfibrous composite scaffolds. From in vivo tests, it was found that the bone-regenerating ability of SF/PCL nano/microfibrous composite scaffolds was closely associated with the nanofiber content in the composite scaffolds. In conclusion, this approach of controlling the nanofiber content in SF/PCL nano/microfibrous composite scaffolds could be useful in the design of novel scaffolds for tissue engineering. Keywords: silk fibroin (SF, poly(ε-caprolactone (PCL, nanofibers, microfibers, composite scaffolds, bone

  13. Effect of electrospun nanofibers on flexural properties of fiberglass composites

    Science.gov (United States)

    White, Fatima T.

    In the present study, sintered electrospun TEOS nanofibers were interleaved in S2 fiberglass woven fabric layers, and composite panels were fabricated using the heated vacuum assisted resin transfer molding (H-VARTM) process. Cured panels were water jet cut to obtain the flexural test coupons. Flexural coupons were then tested using ASTM D7264 standard. The mechanical properties such as flexural strength, ultimate flexural failure strains, flexural modulus, and fiber volume fraction were measured. The S-2 fiberglass composite with the sintered TEOS electrospun nanofibers displayed lower flexural stiffness and strength as compared to the composites that were fabricated using S-2 fiberglass composite without the TEOS electrospun nanofibers. The present study also indicated that the composites fabricated with sintered TEOS electrospun nanofibers have larger failure strains as compared to the ones that were fabricated without the presence of electrospun nanofibers. The study indicates that the nanoengineered composites have better energy absorbing mechanism under flexural loading as compared to conventional fiberglass composites without presence of nanofibers.

  14. Modifying the mechanical properties of silk nanofiber scaffold by knitted orientation for regenerative medicine applications.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dodel, M; Hemmati Nejad, N; Bahrami, S H; Soleimani, M; Hanaee-Ahvaz, H

    2016-01-01

    Tissue reconstruction is among the increasing applications of polymer nanofibers. Fibrous scaffolds (mats) can be easily produced using the electrospinning method with structure and biomechanical properties similar to those of a cellular matrix. Electrospinning is widely used in the production of nanofibers and the GAP-method electrospinning is one of the means of producing fully aligned nanofibers. In this research, using the GAP-method, knitted fibrous scaffolds were made of silk fibroin, which is a biocompatible and biodegradable polymer. To extract fibroin from cocoons, the sodium chloride solution as well as dialysis and freeze-drying techniques were employed. The molecular weight of the extracted fibroin was measured with the SDS-Page electrophoresis technique. Moreover, the pure fibroin structure was examined using the ATR-FTIR method, and the viscosity of the solution used for electrospinning was measured with the Brookfield rotational viscometer. The scaffolds were prepared through electrospinning of the silk fibroin in pure formic acid solution. The following three structures were electrospun: 1) a random structure; 2) a knitted structure with an interstitial angle of 60 degrees; 3) a knitted structure with an interstitial angle of 90 degrees. Morphology of the resulting fibers was studied with a SEM (scanning electron microscope). Fibroin scaffolds are degradable in water. Therefore, they were fixated through immersion in methanol to be prepared for assays. The mechanical properties of the scaffolds were also studied using a tensile strength test device. The effect of methanol on the strength properties of the samples was also assessed. The hydrophilic potential of the samples was measured via a contact angle test. To increase the hydrophilicity of the scaffold surfaces, the cold oxygen plasma technique was employed. Finally, the biocompatibility and cell adhesion of the resulting scaffolds were examined through a HEK 293 cell culture, and the results

  15. Injectable silk foams for soft tissue regeneration.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bellas, Evangelia; Lo, Tim J; Fournier, Eric P; Brown, Joseph E; Abbott, Rosalyn D; Gil, Eun S; Marra, Kacey G; Rubin, J Peter; Leisk, Gary G; Kaplan, David L

    2015-02-18

    Soft tissue fillers are needed for restoration of a defect or augmentation of existing tissues. Autografts and lipotransfer have been under study for soft tissue reconstruction but yield inconsistent results, often with considerable resorption of the grafted tissue. A minimally invasive procedure would reduce scarring and recovery time as well as allow the implant and/or grafted tissue to be placed closer to existing vasculature. Here, the feasibility of an injectable silk foam for soft tissue regeneration is demonstrated. Adipose-derived stem cells survive and migrate through the foam over a 10-d period in vitro. The silk foams are also successfully injected into the subcutaneous space in a rat and over a 3-month period integrating with the surrounding native tissue. The injected foams are palpable and soft to the touch through the skin and returning to their original dimensions after pressure is applied and then released. The foams readily absorb lipoaspirate making the foams useful as a scaffold or template for existing soft tissue filler technologies, useful either as a biomaterial alone or in combination with the lipoaspirate.

  16. Evaluation on Gambiered Guangdong Silk's Ecological Properties

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    LI Wei-xian; ZHAO Yao-ming; SHI Yan-ming

    2008-01-01

    To evaluate gambiered Guangdong silk's ecology properties,the raw materials ecology,prttluctien ecology and use ecology are analyzed;and the safety to htmaan is tested according to GB/T18885-2002.Gambiered Gnangdong silk is a kind ofnatural product.All its raw materials are reproducible and degradable natural resources,and it can decompose completely when being discarded.It is comfortable to wear,and easy to dean and dry.It is mainly manufactured by dip-dyeing in dye yam solution,and insohting under the burning sun.The preduction energy is solar,a kind of dean and reproducible energy.The production ptocess is clean and eavironmental friendly.There is neither the utilization of synthetic dyestuff and chemical auxiliary,nor the discharge of environment pollutant,and even the dreg of dye yam is used as fuel.The safety test results show that pH value of water extract,heavy metal content(except for Pb content),color fastness and odor meet the requirouents of GB/T18885-2002 and Okeo-tex standard 100.

  17. Nanorheology of regenerated silk fibroin solution

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    A Raghu; Sharath Ananthamurthy

    2008-06-01

    We have investigated the rheological properties of regenerated silk fibroin (RSF), a viscoelastic material at micro and nano length scales, by video microscopy. We describe here the principles and technique of video microscopy as a tool in such investigations. In this work, polystyrene beads were dispersed in the matrix of RSF polymer and the positions of the embedded beads diffusing were tracked using video microscopy. An optical tweezer was used to transport and locate the bead at any desired site within the micro-volume of the sample, to facilitate the subsequent free-bead video analysis. The position information of the beads was used to obtain the time dependant mean squared displacement (MSD) of the beads in the medium and hence to calculate the dynamic moduli of the medium. We present here the results of rheological measurements of the silk polymer network in solution over a frequency range, whose upper limit is the frame capture rate of our camera at full resolution. The technique is complementary to other microrheological techniques to characterize the material, but additionally enables one to characterize local inhomogeneities in the medium, features that get averaged out in bulk characterization procedures.

  18. Electrospun Fibers for Energy, Electronic, & Environmental Applications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bedford, Nicholas M.

    Electrospinning is an established method for creating polymer and bio-polymer fibers of dimensions ranging from ˜10 nanometers to microns. The process typically involves applying a high voltage between a solution source (usually at the end of a capillary or syringe) and a substrate on which the nanofibers are deposited. The high electric field distorts the shape of the liquid droplet, creating a Taylor cone. Additional applied voltage ejects a liquid jet of the polymer solution in the Taylor cone toward the counter electrode. The formation of fibers is generated by the rapid electrostatic elongation and solvent evaporation of this viscoelastic jet, which typically generates an entangled non-woven mesh of fibers with a high surface area to volume ratio. Electrospinning is an attractive alternative to other processes for creating nano-scale fibers and high surface area to volume ratio surfaces due to its low start up cost, overall simplicity, wide range of processable materials, and the ability to generate a moderate amount of fibers in one step. It has also been demonstrated that coaxial electrospinning is possible, wherein the nanofiber has two distinct phases, one being the core and another being the sheath. This method is advantageous because properties of two materials can be combined into one fiber, while maintaining two distinct material phases. Materials that are inherently electrospinable could be made into fibers using this technique as well. The most common applications areas for electrospun fibers are in filtration and biomedical areas, with a comparatively small amount of work done in energy, environmental, and sensor applications. Furthermore, the use of biologically materials in electrospun fibers is an avenue of research that needs more exploration, given the unique properties these materials can exhibit. The research aim of this thesis is to explore the use of electrospun fibers for energy, electrical and environmental applications. For energy

  19. Fabrication of electrospun nanofibrous membranes for membrane distillation application

    KAUST Repository

    Francis, Lijo

    2013-02-01

    Nanofibrous membranes of Matrimid have been successfully fabricated using an electrospinning technique under optimized conditions. Nanofibrous membranes are found to be highly hydrophobic with a high water contact angle of 130°. Field emission scanning electron microscopy and pore size distribution analysis revealed the big pore size structure of electrospun membranes to be greater than 2 μm and the pore size distribution is found to be narrow. Flat sheet Matrimid membranes were fabricated via casting followed by phase inversion. The morphology, pore size distribution, and water contact angle were measured and compared with the electrospun membranes. Both membranes fabricated by electrospinning and phase inversion techniques were tested in a direct contact membrane distillation process. Electrospun membranes showed high water vapor flux of 56 kg/m2-h, which is very high compared to the casted membrane as well as most of the fabricated and commercially available highly hydrophobic membranes. ©2013 Desalination Publications.

  20. Angiogenic potential of human macrophages on electrospun bioresorbable vascular grafts

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Garg, K; Sell, S A; Madurantakam, P; Bowlin, G L, E-mail: glbowlin@vcu.ed [Virginia Commonwealth University, Richmond, VA 23284 (United States)

    2009-06-15

    The aim of this study was to investigate macrophage interactions with electrospun scaffolds and quantify the expression of key angiogenic growth factors in vitro. This study will further help in evaluating the potential of these electrospun constructs as vascular grafts for tissue repair and regeneration in situ. Human peripheral blood macrophages were seeded in serum free media on electrospun (10 mm) discs of polydioxanone (PDO), elastin and PDO:elastin blends (50:50, 70:30 and 90:10). The growth factor secretion was analyzed by ELISA. Macrophages produced high levels of vascular endothelial growth factor and acidic fibroblast growth factor. Transforming growth factor beta-1 (TGF-beta1) secretion was relatively low and there was negligible production of basic fibroblast growth factor. Therefore, it can be anticipated that these scaffolds will support tissue regeneration and angiogenesis. (communication)

  1. Wetting Hierarchy in Oleophobic 3D Electrospun Nanofiber Networks.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stachewicz, Urszula; Bailey, Russell J; Zhang, Hao; Stone, Corinne A; Willis, Colin R; Barber, Asa H

    2015-08-01

    Wetting behavior between electrospun nanofibrous networks and liquids is of critical importance in many applications including filtration and liquid-repellent textiles. The relationship between intrinsic nanofiber properties, including surface characteristics, and extrinsic nanofibrous network organization on resultant wetting characteristics of the nanofiber network is shown in this work. Novel 3D imaging exploiting focused ion beam (FIB) microscopy and cryo-scanning electron microscopy (cryo-SEM) highlights a wetting hierarchy that defines liquid interactions with the network. Specifically, small length scale partial wetting between individual electrospun nanofibers and low surface tension liquids, measured both using direct SEM visualization and a nano Wilhelmy balance approach, provides oleophobic surfaces due to the high porosity of electrospun nanofiber networks. These observations conform to a metastable Cassie-Baxter regime and are important in defining general rules for understanding the wetting behavior between fibrous solids and low surface tension liquids for omniphobic functionality. PMID:26176304

  2. When inordinate tissue growth is beneficial: Improving silk production by increasing silk gland size

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Xavier Bellés

    2011-01-01

    @@ Some 5000 years ago, the legendary Chinese emperor Huang-Ti ordered his wife, Hsi-Ling-Shi, to find out what was damaging his mulberry trees.HsiLing-Shi found white worms eating the mulberry leaves and spinning shiny cocoons.She accidentally dropped a cocoon into her tea cup and saw a delicate, slender thread unwind itself from the cocoon.The young princess had discovered silk [1, 2].

  3. Zibo Daranfang Silk Group:Big Dye House Shines over Silk Road

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Liu Yi

    2011-01-01

    Zibo Daranfang Silk Group is a large-scale joint-stock enterprise,which integrates scientific research,production and trade.It owns ten stock holding and participating companies.It is the only enterprise of weaving,printing and dyeing within China,whose capacity of weaving,scouring and bleaching,printing and dyeing is in the first place of the north area of the Yangze River.

  4. Mechanical behaviour and formation process of silkworm silk gut.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cenis, José L; Madurga, Rodrigo; Aznar-Cervantes, Salvador D; Lozano-Pérez, A Abel; Marí-Buyé, Núria; Meseguer-Olmo, Luis; Plaza, Gustavo R; Guinea, Gustavo V; Elices, Manuel; Del Pozo, Francisco; Pérez-Rigueiro, José

    2015-12-14

    High performance silk fibers were produced directly from the silk glands of silkworms (Bombyx mori) following an alternative route to natural spinning. This route is based on a traditional procedure that consists of soaking the silk glands in a vinegar solution and stretching them by hand leading to the so called silkworm guts. Here we present, to the authors' best knowledge, the first comprehensive study on the formation, properties and microstructure of silkworm gut fibers. Comparison of the tensile properties and microstructural organization of the silkworm guts with those of naturally spun fibers allows gain of a deeper insight into the mechanisms that lead to the formation of the fiber, as well as the relationship between the microstructure and properties of these materials. In this regard, it is proved that an acidic environment and subsequent application of tensile stress in the range of 1000 kPa are sufficient conditions for the formation of a silk fiber.

  5. Biopatterning of Silk Proteins for Soft Micro-optics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pal, Ramendra K; Kurland, Nicholas E; Wang, Congzhou; Kundu, Subhas C; Yadavalli, Vamsi K

    2015-04-29

    Silk proteins from spiders and silkworms have been proposed as outstanding candidates for soft micro-optic and photonic applications because of their optical transparency, unique biological properties, and mechanical robustness. Here, we present a method to form microstructures of the two constituent silk proteins, fibroin and sericin for use as an optical biomaterial. Using photolithography, chemically modified silk protein photoresists are patterned in 2D arrays of periodic patterns and Fresnel zone plates. Angle-dependent iridescent colors are produced in these periodic micropatterns because of the Bragg diffraction. Silk protein photolithography can used to form patterns on different substrates including flexible sheets with features of any shape with high fidelity and resolution over large areas. Finally, we show that these mechanically stable and transparent iridescent architectures are also completely biodegradable. This versatile and scalable technique can therefore be used to develop biocompatible, soft micro-optic devices that can be degraded in a controlled manner. PMID:25853731

  6. Studies on Application of Aroma Finish on Silk Fabric

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hipparagi, Sanganna Aminappa; Srinivasa, Thirumalappa; Das, Brojeswari; Naik, Subhas Venkatappa; Purushotham, Serampur Parappa

    2016-06-01

    Aromatic treatments on textiles have gained importance in the recent years. In the present article work has been done on fragrance finish application on silk material. Silk is an expensive natural fibre used for apparel purpose and known for its feel and appeal. Incorporation of fragrance material in silk product, will add more value to it. Present work focuses to impart durable aroma finish for silk products to be home washed or subjected to dry cleaning. Microencapsulated aroma chemical has been used for the treatment. Impregnation method, Exhaust method, Dip-Pad-Dry method and Spray method have been used to see the influence of application method on the uptake and performance. Evaluation of the aroma treated material has been done through subjective evaluation as per Odor Intensity Reference Scaling (OIRS). Effect of the aroma finishing on the physical properties of the fabric has also been studied. No adverse effect has been observed on the stiffness of the fabric after the aroma treatment.

  7. Unravelling the biodiversity of nanoscale signatures of spider silk fibres.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Silva, Luciano P; Rech, Elibio L

    2013-01-01

    Living organisms are masters at designing outstanding self-assembled nanostructures through a hierarchical organization of modular proteins. Protein-based biopolymers improved and selected by the driving forces of molecular evolution are among the most impressive archetypes of nanomaterials. One of these biomacromolecules is the myriad of compound fibroins of spider silks, which combine surprisingly high tensile strength with great elasticity. However, no consensus on the nano-organization of spider silk fibres has been reached. Here we explore the biodiversity of spider silk fibres, focusing on nanoscale characterization with high-resolution atomic force microscopy. Our results reveal an evolution of the nanoroughness, nanostiffness, nanoviscoelastic, nanotribological and nanoelectric organization of microfibres, even when they share similar sizes and shapes. These features are related to unique aspects of their molecular structures. The results show that combined nanoscale analyses of spider silks may enable the screening of appropriate motifs for bioengineering synthetic fibres from recombinant proteins. PMID:24345771

  8. Hemocompatible surface of electrospun nanofibrous scaffolds by ATRP modification

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yuan, Wenjie [School of Chemical Engineering and Technology, Tianjin University, Tianjin 300072 (China); Feng, Yakai, E-mail: yakaifeng@hotmail.com [School of Chemical Engineering and Technology, Tianjin University, Tianjin 300072 (China); Key Laboratory of Systems Bioengineering of Ministry of Education, Tianjin University, Tianjin 300072 (China); Tianjin University-Helmholtz-Zentrum Geesthacht, Joint Laboratory for Biomaterials and Regenerative Medicine, Weijin Road 92, 300072 Tianjin (China); Wang, Heyun [School of Chemical Engineering and Technology, Tianjin University, Tianjin 300072 (China); School of Chemistry and Chemical Engineering, Shihezi University, Shihezi 832002 (China); Yang, Dazhi [School of Chemical Engineering and Technology, Tianjin University, Tianjin 300072 (China); An, Bo [Department of Orthopedics, Affiliated Hospital of Logistics University of Chinese People' s Armed Police Force, Tianjin 300162 (China); Zhang, Wencheng [Department of Physiology and Pathophysiology, Logistics University of Chinese People' s Armed Police Force, Tianjin 300162 (China); Khan, Musammir [School of Chemical Engineering and Technology, Tianjin University, Tianjin 300072 (China); Guo, Jintang [School of Chemical Engineering and Technology, Tianjin University, Tianjin 300072 (China); Tianjin University-Helmholtz-Zentrum Geesthacht, Joint Laboratory for Biomaterials and Regenerative Medicine, Weijin Road 92, 300072 Tianjin (China)

    2013-10-15

    The electrospun scaffolds are potential application in vascular tissue engineering since they can mimic the nano-sized dimension of natural extracellular matrix (ECM). We prepared a fibrous scaffold from polycarbonateurethane (PCU) by electrospinning technology. In order to improve the hydrophilicity and hemocompatibility of the fibrous scaffold, poly(ethylene glycol) methacrylate (PEGMA) was grafted onto the fiber surface by surface-initiated atom transfer radical polymerization (SI-ATRP) method. Although SI-ATRP has been developed and used for surface modification for many years, there are only few studies about the modification of electrospun fiber by this method. The modified fibrous scaffolds were characterized by SEM, Fourier transform infrared (FTIR), and X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS). The scaffold morphology showed no significant difference when PEGMA was grafted onto the scaffold surface. Based on the water contact angle measurement, the surface hydrophilicity of the scaffold surface was improved significantly after grafting hydrophilic PEGMA (P = 0.0012). The modified surface showed effective resistance for platelet adhesion compared with the unmodified surface. Activated partial thromboplastin time (APTT) of the PCU-g-PEGMA scaffold was much longer than that of the unmodified PCU scaffold. The cyto-compatibility of electrospun nanofibrous scaffolds was tested by human umbilical vein endothelial cells (HUVECs). The images of 7-day cultured cells on the scaffold surface were observed by SEM. The modified scaffolds showed high tendency to induce cell adhesion. Moreover, the cells reached out pseudopodia along the fibrous direction and formed a continuous monolayer. Hemolysis test showed that the grafted chains of PEGMA reduced blood coagulation. These results indicated that the modified electrospun nanofibrous scaffolds were potential application as artificial blood vessels. Highlights: • Electrospun nanofibrous scaffolds were successfully

  9. Hemocompatible surface of electrospun nanofibrous scaffolds by ATRP modification

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The electrospun scaffolds are potential application in vascular tissue engineering since they can mimic the nano-sized dimension of natural extracellular matrix (ECM). We prepared a fibrous scaffold from polycarbonateurethane (PCU) by electrospinning technology. In order to improve the hydrophilicity and hemocompatibility of the fibrous scaffold, poly(ethylene glycol) methacrylate (PEGMA) was grafted onto the fiber surface by surface-initiated atom transfer radical polymerization (SI-ATRP) method. Although SI-ATRP has been developed and used for surface modification for many years, there are only few studies about the modification of electrospun fiber by this method. The modified fibrous scaffolds were characterized by SEM, Fourier transform infrared (FTIR), and X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS). The scaffold morphology showed no significant difference when PEGMA was grafted onto the scaffold surface. Based on the water contact angle measurement, the surface hydrophilicity of the scaffold surface was improved significantly after grafting hydrophilic PEGMA (P = 0.0012). The modified surface showed effective resistance for platelet adhesion compared with the unmodified surface. Activated partial thromboplastin time (APTT) of the PCU-g-PEGMA scaffold was much longer than that of the unmodified PCU scaffold. The cyto-compatibility of electrospun nanofibrous scaffolds was tested by human umbilical vein endothelial cells (HUVECs). The images of 7-day cultured cells on the scaffold surface were observed by SEM. The modified scaffolds showed high tendency to induce cell adhesion. Moreover, the cells reached out pseudopodia along the fibrous direction and formed a continuous monolayer. Hemolysis test showed that the grafted chains of PEGMA reduced blood coagulation. These results indicated that the modified electrospun nanofibrous scaffolds were potential application as artificial blood vessels. Highlights: • Electrospun nanofibrous scaffolds were successfully

  10. Characterization of sericin protein recovered from silk wastewaters

    OpenAIRE

    Gökşen Çapar; Seylan Saniye Aygün

    2015-01-01

    INTRODUCTION[|]This study aims to determine the characteristics of sericin protein recovered from silk wastewaters.[¤]METHODS[|]Sericin protein was recovered from silk wastewaters by membrane technology in Engineering Sciences Department of the Middle East Technical University between 2007 and 2008. The protein characterization study was completed in Ankara University Water Management Institute in 2012. The recovered protein was characterized in terms of molecular w...

  11. Perspective of electrospun nanofibers in energy and environment

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jayaraman Sundaramurthy

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available This review summarizes the recent developments of electrospun semiconducting metal oxide/polymer composite nanostructures in energy and environment related applications. Electrospinning technique has the advantage of synthesizing nanostructures with larger surface to volume ratio, higher crystallinity with phase purity and tunable morphologies like nanofibers, nanowires, nanoflowers and nanorods. The electrospun nanostructures have exhibited unique electrical, optical and catalytic properties than the bulk counter parts as well as nanomaterials synthesized through other approaches. These nanostructures have improved diffusion and interaction of molecules, transfer of electrons along the matrix and catalytic properties with further surface modification and functionalization with combination of metals and metal oxides.

  12. Electrospun biodegradable polymers loaded with bactericide agents

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ramaz Katsarava

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available Development of materials with an antimicrobial activity is fundamental for different sectors, including medicine and health care, water and air treatment, and food packaging. Electrospinning is a versatile and economic technique that allows the incorporation of different natural, industrial, and clinical agents into a wide variety of polymers and blends in the form of micro/nanofibers. Furthermore, the technique is versatile since different constructs (e.g. those derived from single electrospinning, co-electrospinning, coaxial electrospinning, and miniemulsion electrospinning can be obtained to influence the ability to load agents with different characteristics and stability and to modify the release behaviour. Furthermore, antimicrobial agents can be loaded during the electrospinning process or by a subsequent coating process. In order to the mitigate burst release effect, it is possible to encapsulate the selected drug into inorganic nanotubes and nanoparticles, as well as in organic cyclodextrine polysaccharides. In the same way, processes that involve covalent linkage of bactericide agents during surface treatment of electrospun samples may also be considered. The present review is focused on more recent works concerning the electrospinning of antimicrobial polymers. These include chitosan and common biodegradable polymers with activity caused by the specific load of agents such as metal and metal oxide particles, quaternary ammonium compounds, hydantoin compounds, antibiotics, common organic bactericides, and bacteriophages.

  13. Direct Piezoelectricity of Soft Composite Electrospun Fibers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Varga, Michael; Morvan, Jason; Diorio, Nick; Buyuktanir, Ebru; Harden, John; West, John; Jakli, Antal

    2013-03-01

    Recently soft fiber mats electrospun from solutions of Barium Titanate (BT) ferroelectric ceramics particles and poly lactic acid (PLA) were found to have large (d33 1nm/V) converse piezoelectric signals offering a myriad of applications ranging from active implants to smart textiles. Here we report direct piezoelectric measurements (electric signals due to mechanical stress) of the BT/PLA composite fiber mats at various BT concentrations. A testing apparatus was designed and constructed solely for these measurements involving AC stresses provided by a speaker in 10Hz-10kHz frequency range. The piezoelectric constant d33 ~1nC/N was found to be in agreement with the prior converse piezoelectric measurements. The largest signals were obtained with 6% BT/PLA composites, probably because the BT particles at higher concentrations could not be dispersed homogeneously. Importantly the direct piezoelectric signal is large enough to power a small LCD by simply pressing a 0.2mm thick 2 cm2 area mat by a finger. We expect to use these mats in active Braille cells and in liquid crystal writing tablets.

  14. Nylon/Graphene Oxide Electrospun Composite Coating

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carmina Menchaca-Campos

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Graphite oxide is obtained by treating graphite with strong oxidizers. The bulk material disperses in basic solutions yielding graphene oxide. Starting from exfoliated graphite, different treatments were tested to obtain the best graphite oxide conditions, including calcination for two hours at 700°C and ultrasonic agitation in acidic, basic, or peroxide solutions. Bulk particles floating in the solution were filtered, rinsed, and dried. The graphene oxide obtained was characterized under SEM and FTIR techniques. On the other hand, nylon 6-6 has excellent mechanical resistance due to the mutual attraction of its long chains. To take advantage of the properties of both materials, they were combined as a hybrid material. Electrochemical cells were prepared using porous silica as supporting electrode of the electrospun nylon/graphene oxide films for electrochemical testing. Polarization curves were performed to determine the oxidation/reduction potentials under different acidic, alkaline, and peroxide solutions. The oxidation condition was obtained in KOH and the reduction in H2SO4 solutions. Potentiostatic oxidation and reduction curves were applied to further oxidize carbon species and then reduced them, forming the nylon 6-6/functionalized graphene oxide composite coating. Electrochemical impedance measurements were performed to evaluate the coating electrochemical resistance and compared to the silica or nylon samples.

  15. Silkomics: Insight into the Silk Spinning Process of Spiders.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dos Santos-Pinto, José Roberto Aparecido; Garcia, Ana Maria Caviquioli; Arcuri, Helen Andrade; Esteves, Franciele Grego; Salles, Heliana Clara; Lubec, Gert; Palma, Mario Sergio

    2016-04-01

    The proteins from the silk-producing glands were identified using both a bottom-up gel-based proteomic approach as well as from a shotgun proteomic approach. Additionally, the relationship between the functions of identified proteins and the spinning process was studied. A total of 125 proteins were identified in the major ampullate, 101 in the flagelliform, 77 in the aggregate, 75 in the tubuliform, 68 in the minor ampullate, and 23 in aciniform glands. On the basis of the functional classification using Gene Ontology, these proteins were organized into seven different groups according to their general function: (i) web silk proteins-spidroins, (ii) proteins related to the folding/conformation of spidroins, (iii) proteins that protect silk proteins from oxidative stress, (iv) proteins involved in fibrillar preservation of silks in the web, (v) proteins related to ion transport into and out of the glands during silk fiber spinning, (vi) proteins involved in prey capture and pre-digestion, and (vii) housekeeping proteins from all of the glands. Thus, a general mechanism of action for the identified proteins in the silk-producing glands from the Nephila clavipes spider was proposed; the current results also indicate that the webs play an active role in prey capture.

  16. Morphology and Microstructure of Spider Dragline Silk from Araneus Ventricosus

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    PAN Zhi-juan; MIURA Mikihiko; MORIKAWA Hideaki; IWASA Masayuki; LIU Min

    2005-01-01

    The spider dragline silk has excellent mechanical properties. The stress- strain curves of dragline silk fibers have intraspecific and intraindividual variability because of the spiders active control during spinning process. To investigate the relationship between the morphology of dragline silk fibers and spinning conditions, four samples were made at the reeling rates of 1mm/s, 20mm/s, 43.5mm/s and 110mm/s from the major ampullate glands of Araneus Ventricosus and the other two of dragline silks were prepared from a crawling or dropping spider. The surface microstructure and nanofibril characteristic were analyzed with atomic force microscopy (AFM). AFM images of 2000nm*2000nm and 500nm*500nm of these samples showed that the spinning condition influenced the surface roughness and fibril size, while AFM images of 200nm*200nm clearly displayed that dragline silk of Araneus Ventricosus included sheet macro-conformation structure. These results can facilitate the further investigation of the spinning mechanism of a spider in order to understand mechanical properties and macromolecular structures of dragline silk.

  17. Transmission Electron Microscopy of Bombyx Mori Silk Fibers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shen, Y.; Martin, D. C.

    1997-03-01

    The microstructure of B. Mori silk fibers before and after degumming was examined by TEM, selected area electron diffraction (SAED), WAXS and low voltage SEM. SEM micrographs of the neat cocoon revealed a network of pairs of twisting filaments. After degumming, there were only individual filaments showing a surface texture consistent with an oriented fibrillar structure in the fiber interior. WAXS patterns confirmed the oriented beta-sheet crystal structure common to silkworm and spider silks. Low dose SAED results were fully consistent with the WAXS data, and revealed that the crystallographic texture did not vary significantly across the fiber diameter. TEM observations of microtomed fiber cross sections indicated a somewhat irregular shape, and also revealed a 0.5-2 micron sericin coating which was removed by the degumming process. TEM observations of the degummed silk fiber showed banded features with a characteristic spacing of nominally 600 nm along the fiber axis. These bands were oriented in a roughly parabolic or V-shape pointing along one axis within a given fiber. We hypothesize that this orientation is induced by the extrusion during the spinning process. Equatorial DF images revealed that axial and lateral sizes of the β-sheet crystallites in silk fibroin ranged from 20 to 170 nm and from 1 to 24 nm, respectively. Crazes developed in the degummed silk fiber parallel to the fiber direction. The formation of these crazes suggests that there are significant lateral interactions between fibrils in silk fibers.

  18. Silk Fibroin as Edible Coating for Perishable Food Preservation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marelli, B.; Brenckle, M. A.; Kaplan, D. L.; Omenetto, F. G.

    2016-05-01

    The regeneration of structural biopolymers into micelles or nanoparticles suspended in water has enabled the design of new materials with unique and compelling properties that can serve at the interface between the biotic and the abiotic worlds. In this study, we leveraged silk fibroin quintessential properties (i.e. polymorphism, conformability and hydrophobicity) to design a water-based protein suspension that self-assembles on the surface of food upon dip coating. The water-based post-processing control of the protein polymorphism enables the modulation of the diffusion of gases through the silk fibroin thin membranes (e.g. O2 and CO2 diffusion, water vapour permeability), which is a key parameter to manage food freshness. In particular, an increased beta-sheet content corresponds to a reduction in oxygen diffusion through silk fibroin thin films. By using the dip coating of strawberries and bananas as proof of principle, we have shown that the formation of micrometre-thin silk fibroin membranes around the fruits helps the management of postharvest physiology of the fruits. Thus, silk fibroin coatings enhance fruits’ shelf life at room conditions by reducing cell respiration rate and water evaporation. The water-based processing and edible nature of silk fibroin makes this approach a promising alternative for food preservation with a naturally derived material.

  19. Molecular characterization and evolutionary study of spider tubuliform (eggcase) silk protein.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tian, Maozhen; Lewis, Randolph V

    2005-06-01

    As a result of hundreds of millions of years of evolution, orb-web-weaving spiders have developed the use of seven different silks produced by different abdominal glands for various functions. Tubuliform silk (eggcase silk) is unique among these spider silks due to its high serine and very low glycine content. In addition, tubuliform silk is the only silk produced just during a short period of time, the reproductive season, in the spider's life. To understand the molecular characteristics of the proteins composing this silk, we constructed tubuliform-gland-specific cDNA libraries from three different spider families, Nephila clavipes, Argiope aurantia, and Araneus gemmoides. Sequencing of tubuliform silk cDNAs reveals the repetitive architecture of its coding sequence and novel amino acid motifs. The inferred protein, tubuliform spidroin 1 (TuSp1), contains highly homogenized repeats in all three spiders. Amino acid composition comparison of the predicted tubuliform silk protein sequence to tubuliform silk indicates that TuSp1 is the major component of tubuliform silk. Repeat unit alignment of TuSp1 among three spider species shows high sequence conservation among tubuliform silk protein orthologue groups. Sequence comparison among TuSp1 repetitive units within species suggests intragenic concerted evolution, presumably through gene conversion and unequal crossover events. Comparative analysis demonstrates that TuSp1 represents a new orthologue in the spider silk gene family.

  20. Effect of nanofiber content on bone regeneration of silk fibroin/poly(ε-caprolactone) nano/microfibrous composite scaffolds.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Beom Su; Park, Ko Eun; Kim, Min Hee; You, Hyung Keun; Lee, Jun; Park, Won Ho

    2015-01-01

    The broad application of electrospun nanofibrous scaffolds in tissue engineering is limited by their small pore size, which has a negative influence on cell migration. This disadvantage could be significantly improved through the combination of nano- and microfibrous structure. To accomplish this, different nano/microfibrous scaffolds were produced by hybrid electrospinning, combining solution electrospinning with melt electrospinning, while varying the content of the nanofiber. The morphology of the silk fibroin (SF)/poly(ε-caprolactone) (PCL) nano/microfibrous composite scaffolds was investigated with field-emission scanning electron microscopy, while the mechanical and pore properties were assessed by measurement of tensile strength and mercury porosimetry. To assay cell proliferation, cell viability, and infiltration ability, human mesenchymal stem cells were seeded on the SF/PCL nano/microfibrous composite scaffolds. From in vivo tests, it was found that the bone-regenerating ability of SF/PCL nano/microfibrous composite scaffolds was closely associated with the nanofiber content in the composite scaffolds. In conclusion, this approach of controlling the nanofiber content in SF/PCL nano/microfibrous composite scaffolds could be useful in the design of novel scaffolds for tissue engineering. PMID:25624762

  1. Study on Electrospinning Silk Fibroin Solution

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    LI Ni; QIN Xiao-hong; WANG Shan-yuan

    2007-01-01

    A new method of preparing silk fibroin (SF) solution used in the electerospinning was introduced in this paper. According to the method, SF was dissolved in the LiBr/CH2O2 solution directly at room temperature. The method was compared with the traditional method---SF was dissolved in CaCl2 ternary solution. The structure of SF films and the morphology of SF nanofibers were examined by attenuated total reflectance fourier transform intrared (ATR- FrlR) spectroscopy, Scanning electron microscope (SEM) and optical polarizing microscope. The result of this study shows that the new method is a faster, more convenient and high efficient way to get the SF solution and the characteristics of SF fibet made by the new method is much betty.

  2. Comparative proteomic analysis of the silkworm middle silk gland reveals the importance of ribosome biogenesis in silk protein production.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Jian-ying; Ye, Lu-peng; Che, Jia-qian; Song, Jia; You, Zheng-ying; Yun, Ki-chan; Wang, Shao-hua; Zhong, Bo-xiong

    2015-08-01

    The silkworm middle silk gland (MSG) is the sericin synthesis and secretion unique sub-organ. The molecular mechanisms of regulating MSG protein synthesis are largely unknown. Here, we performed shotgun proteomic analysis on the three MSG subsections: the anterior (MSG-A), middle (MSG-M), and posterior (MSG-P) regions. The results showed that more strongly expressed proteins in the MSG-A were involved in multiple processes, such as silk gland development and silk protein protection. The proteins that were highly expressed in the MSG-M were enriched in the ribosome pathway. MSG-P proteins with stronger expression were mainly involved in the oxidative phosphorylation and citrate cycle pathways. These results suggest that the MSG-M is the most active region in the sericin synthesis. Furthermore, comparing the proteome of the MSG with the posterior silk gland (PSG) revealed that the specific and highly expressed proteins in the MSG were primarily involved in the ribosome and aminoacyl-tRNA biosynthesis pathways. These results indicate that silk protein synthesis is much more active as a result of the enhancement of translation-related pathways in the MSG. These results also suggest that enhancing ribosome biogenesis is important to the efficient synthesis of silk proteins. PMID:26051239

  3. The Potential of Silk and Silk-Like Proteins as Natural Mucoadhesive Biopolymers for Controlled Drug Delivery

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brooks, Amanda E.

    2015-01-01

    Drug delivery across mucus membranes is a particularly effective route of administration due to the large surface area. However, the unique environment present at the mucosa necessitates altered drug formulations designed to (1) deliver sensitive biologic molecules, (2) promote intimate contact between the mucosa and the drug, and (3) prolong the drug's local residence time. Thus, the pharmaceutical industry has an interest in drug delivery systems formulated around the use of mucoadhesive polymers. Mucoadhesive polymers, both synthetic and biological, have a history of use in local drug delivery. Prominently featured in the literature are chitosan, alginate, and cellulose derivatives. More recently, silk and silk-like derivatives have been explored for their potential as mucoadhesive polymers. Both silkworms and spiders produce sticky silk-like glue substances, sericin and aggregate silk respectively, that may prove an effective, natural matrix for drug delivery to the mucosa. This mini review will explore the potential of silk and silk-like derivatives as a biocompatible mucoadhesive polymer matrix for local controlled drug delivery. PMID:26636069

  4. The potential of silk and silk-like proteins as natural mucoadhesive biopolymers for controlled drug delivery

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Amanda E Brooks

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available Drug delivery across mucus membranes is a particularly effective route of administration due to the large surface area. However, the unique environment present at the mucosa necessitates altered drug formulations designed to (1 deliver sensitive biologic molecules, (2 promote intimate contact between the mucosa and the drug, and (3 prolong the drug’s local residence time. Thus, the pharmaceutical industry has an interest in drug delivery systems formulated around the use of mucoadhesive polymers. Mucoadhesive polymers, both synthetic and biological, have a history of use in local drug delivery. Prominently featured in the literature are chitosan, alginate, and cellulose derivatives. More recently, silk and silk-like derivatives have been explored for their potential as mucoadhesive polymers. Both silkworms and spiders produce sticky silk-like glue substances, sericin and aggregate silk respectively, that may prove an effective, natural matrix for drug delivery to the mucosa. This mini review will explore the potential of silk and silk-like derivatives as a biocompatible mucoadhesive polymer matrix for local controlled drug delivery.

  5. The potential of silk and silk-like proteins as natural mucoadhesive biopolymers for controlled drug delivery

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brooks, Amanda

    2015-11-01

    Drug delivery across mucus membranes is a particularly effective route of administration due to the large surface area. However, the unique environment present at the mucosa necessitates altered drug formulations designed to (1) deliver sensitive biologic molecules, (2) promote intimate contact between the mucosa and the drug, and (3) prolong the drug’s local residence time. Thus, the pharmaceutical industry has an interest in drug delivery systems formulated around the use of mucoadhesive polymers. Mucoadhesive polymers, both synthetic and biological, have a history of use in local drug delivery. Prominently featured in the literature are chitosan, alginate, and cellulose derivatives. More recently, silk and silk-like derivatives have been explored for their potential as mucoadhesive polymers. Both silkworms and spiders produce sticky silk-like glue substances, sericin and aggregate silk respectively, that may prove an effective, natural matrix for drug delivery to the mucosa. This mini review will explore the potential of silk and silk-like derivatives as a biocompatible mucoadhesive polymer matrix for local controlled drug delivery.

  6. Study on Dyeing Performance of Cationic Water-soluble Sulphur Black on Silk

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Wen Li WANG; Shu Fen ZHANG; Jin Zong YANG

    2005-01-01

    A novel polyquaternaryammonium cationic sulphur black dye was synthesized and its dyeing behavior on silk was studied. The dye exhibited excellent dyeing fixation of up to 98.2 %,as well as excellent dyeing fastness on silk.

  7. Veken Group: Expanding in the Field of Mid/High Silk Screen Industry

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Wang Ting

    2007-01-01

    @@ On September 10th, 2007, the Ningbo Veken Group signed a cooperation contract with Japan KB Tsuzuki Co., Ltd on silk screen program, signing a big step into the top-class silk screen field for Veken Group.

  8. Mechanical Behavior of Electrospun Palmfruit Bunch Reinforced Polylactide Composite Fibers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Adeosun, S. O.; Akpan, E. I.; Gbenebor, O. P.; Peter, A. A.; Olaleye, Samuel Adebayo

    2016-01-01

    In this study, the mechanical characteristics of electrospun palm fruit bunch reinforced poly lactic acid (PLA) nanofiber composites using treated and untreated filler was examined. Poly lactic acid-palm fruit bunch-dichloromethane blends were electrospun by varying the concentration of the palm fruit bunch between 0 wt.% and 8 wt.%. A constant voltage of 26 kV was applied, the tip-to-collector distance was maintained at 27.5 cm and PLA-palm fruit bunch-dichloromethane (DCM) concentration of 12.5% (w/v) was used. The results revealed that the presence of untreated palm fruit bunch fillers in the electrospun PLA matrix significantly reduces the average diameters of the fibers, causing the formation of beads. As a result there are reductions in tensile strengths of the fibers. The presence of treated palm fruit bunch fillers in the electrospun PLA matrix increases the average diameters of the fibers with improvements in the mechanical properties. The optimal mechanical responses were obtained at 3 wt.% of the treated palm fruit bunch fillers in the PLA matrix. However, increase in the palm fruit fillers (treated and untreated) in the PLA matrix promoted the formation of beads in the nanofiber composites.

  9. Skeletal myotube formation enhanced by electrospun polyurethane carbon nanotube scaffolds

    OpenAIRE

    Sirivisoot S; Harrison BS

    2011-01-01

    Sirinrath Sirivisoot, Benjamin S Harrison Wake Forest Institute for Regenerative Medicine, Wake Forest University Health Sciences, Medical Center Boulevard, Winston-Salem, NC, USA Background: This study examined the effects of electrically conductive materials made from electrospun single- or multiwalled carbon nanotubes with polyurethane to promote myoblast differentiation into myotubes in the presence and absence of electrical stimulation. Methods and results: After electrical stimulation,...

  10. Mechanical properties of single electrospun drug-encapsulated nanofibres

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yian Chew, Sing; Hufnagel, Todd C.; Teck Lim, Chwee; Leong, Kam W.

    2006-08-01

    The mechanical and structural properties of a surface play an important role in determining the morphology of attached cells, and ultimately their cellular functions. As such, mechanical and structural integrity are important design parameters for a tissue scaffold. Electrospun fibrous meshes are widely used in tissue engineering. When in contact with electrospun scaffolds, cells see the individual micro- or nanofibres as their immediate microenvironment. In this study, tensile testing of single electrospun nanofibres composed of poly(ɛ-caprolactone) (PCL), and its copolymer, poly(caprolactone-co-ethyl ethylene phosphate) (PCLEEP), revealed a size effect in the Young's modulus, E, and tensile strength, σT. Both strength and stiffness increase as the fibre diameter decreases from bulk (~5 µm) into the nanometre region (200 300 nm). In particular, E and σT of individual PCL nanofibres were at least two-fold and an order of magnitude higher than that of PCL film, respectively. PCL films were observed to have more pronounced crystallographic texture than the nanofibres; however no difference in crystalline fraction, perfection, or texture was detected among the various fibres. When drugs were encapsulated into single PCLEEP fibres, mechanical properties were enhanced with 1 20 wt% of loaded retinoic acid, but weakened by 10 20 wt% of encapsulated bovine serum albumin. This understanding of the effect of size and drug and protein encapsulation on the mechanical properties of electrospun fibres may help in the optimization of tissue scaffold design that combines biochemical and biomechanical cues for tissue regeneration.

  11. Mechanical Properties of a Single Electrospun Fiber and Its Structures

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Gu, Shu-Ying; Wu, Qi-Lin; Ren, Jie; Vancso, G. Julius

    2005-01-01

    A method to measure the Young's modulus of a single electrospun polyacrylonitrile (PAN) fiber is reported. The Young's modulus can be calculated from the force-displacement curves obtained by the bending of a single fiber attached to an atomic force microscopy (AFM) cantilever. It is suggested that

  12. Effect of Processing on Silk-Based Biomaterials: Reproducibility and Biocompatibility

    OpenAIRE

    Wray, Lindsay S.; Hu, Xiao; Gallego, Jabier; Georgakoudi, Irene; Omenetto, Fiorenzo G.; Schmidt, Daniel; Kaplan, David L.

    2011-01-01

    Silk fibroin has been successfully used as a biomaterial for tissue regeneration. In order to prepare silk fibroin biomaterials for human implantation a series of processing steps are required to purify the protein. Degumming to remove inflammatory sericin is a crucial step related to biocompatibility and variability in the material. Detailed characterization of silk fibroin degumming is reported. The degumming conditions significantly affected cell viability on the silk fibroin material and ...

  13. Correlation between fibroin amino acid sequence and physical silk properties.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fedic, Robert; Zurovec, Michal; Sehnal, Frantisek

    2003-09-12

    The fiber properties of lepidopteran silk depend on the amino acid repeats that interact during H-fibroin polymerization. The aim of our research was to relate repeat composition to insect biology and fiber strength. Representative regions of the H-fibroin genes were sequenced and analyzed in three pyralid species: wax moth (Galleria mellonella), European flour moth (Ephestia kuehniella), and Indian meal moth (Plodia interpunctella). The amino acid repeats are species-specific, evidently a diversification of an ancestral region of 43 residues, and include three types of regularly dispersed motifs: modifications of GSSAASAA sequence, stretches of tripeptides GXZ where X and Z represent bulky residues, and sequences similar to PVIVIEE. No concatenations of GX dipeptide or alanine, which are typical for Bombyx silkworms and Antheraea silk moths, respectively, were found. Despite different repeat structure, the silks of G. mellonella and E. kuehniella exhibit similar tensile strength as the Bombyx and Antheraea silks. We suggest that in these latter two species, variations in the repeat length obstruct repeat alignment, but sufficiently long stretches of iterated residues get superposed to interact. In the pyralid H-fibroins, interactions of the widely separated and diverse motifs depend on the precision of repeat matching; silk is strong in G. mellonella and E. kuehniella, with 2-3 types of long homogeneous repeats, and nearly 10 times weaker in P. interpunctella, with seven types of shorter erratic repeats. The high proportion of large amino acids in the H-fibroin of pyralids has probably evolved in connection with the spinning habit of caterpillars that live in protective silk tubes and spin continuously, enlarging the tubes on one end and partly devouring the other one. The silk serves as a depot of energetically rich and essential amino acids that may be scarce in the diet. PMID:12816957

  14. Nonlinear material behaviour of spider silk yields robust webs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cranford, Steven W; Tarakanova, Anna; Pugno, Nicola M; Buehler, Markus J

    2012-02-01

    Natural materials are renowned for exquisite designs that optimize function, as illustrated by the elasticity of blood vessels, the toughness of bone and the protection offered by nacre. Particularly intriguing are spider silks, with studies having explored properties ranging from their protein sequence to the geometry of a web. This material system, highly adapted to meet a spider's many needs, has superior mechanical properties. In spite of much research into the molecular design underpinning the outstanding performance of silk fibres, and into the mechanical characteristics of web-like structures, it remains unknown how the mechanical characteristics of spider silk contribute to the integrity and performance of a spider web. Here we report web deformation experiments and simulations that identify the nonlinear response of silk threads to stress--involving softening at a yield point and substantial stiffening at large strain until failure--as being crucial to localize load-induced deformation and resulting in mechanically robust spider webs. Control simulations confirmed that a nonlinear stress response results in superior resistance to structural defects in the web compared to linear elastic or elastic-plastic (softening) material behaviour. We also show that under distributed loads, such as those exerted by wind, the stiff behaviour of silk under small deformation, before the yield point, is essential in maintaining the web's structural integrity. The superior performance of silk in webs is therefore not due merely to its exceptional ultimate strength and strain, but arises from the nonlinear response of silk threads to strain and their geometrical arrangement in a web.

  15. Prey type, vibrations and handling interactively influence spider silk expression.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Blamires, S J; Chao, I-C; Tso, I-M

    2010-11-15

    The chemical and mechanical properties of spider major ampullate (MA) silks vary in response to different prey, mostly via differential expression of two genes - MaSp1 and MaSp2 - although the spinning process exerts additional influence over the mechanical properties of silk. The prey cues that initiate differential gene expression are unknown. Prey nutrients, vibratory stimuli and handling have been suggested to be influential. We performed experiments to decouple the vibratory stimuli and handling associated with high and low kinetic energy prey (crickets vs flies) from their prey nutrients to test the relative influence of each as inducers of silk protein expression in the orb web spider Nephila pilipes. We found that the MA silks from spiders feeding on live crickets had greater percentages of glutamine, serine, alanine and glycine than those from spiders feeding on live flies. Proline composition of the silks was unaffected by feeding treatment. Increases in alanine and glycine in the MA silks of the live-cricket-feeding spiders indicate a probable increase in MaSp1 gene expression. The amino acid compositions of N. pilipes feeding on crickets with fly stimuli and N. pilipes feeding on flies with cricket stimuli did not differ from each other or from pre-treatment responses, so these feeding treatments did not induce differential MaSp expression. Our results indicate that cricket vibratory stimuli and handling interact with nutrients to induce N. pilipes to adjust their gene expression to produce webs with mechanical properties appropriate for the retention of this prey. This shows that spiders can genetically alter their silk chemical compositions and, presumably, mechanical properties upon exposure to different prey types. The lack of any change in proline composition with feeding treatment in N. pilipes suggests that the MaSp model determined for Nephila clavipes is not universally applicable to all Nephila.

  16. Advanced silk material spun by a transgenic silkworm promotes cell proliferation for biomedical application.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Feng; Xu, Hanfu; Wang, Yuancheng; Wang, Riyuan; Yuan, Lin; Ding, Huan; Song, Chunnuan; Ma, Sanyuan; Peng, Zhixin; Peng, Zhangchuan; Zhao, Ping; Xia, Qingyou

    2014-12-01

    Natural silk fiber spun by the silkworm Bombyx mori is widely used not only for textile materials, but also for biofunctional materials. In the present study, we genetically engineered an advanced silk material, named hSFSV, using a transgenic silkworm, in which the recombinant human acidic fibroblast growth factor (hFGF1) protein was specifically synthesized in the middle silk gland and secreted into the sericin layer to surround the silk fiber using our previously optimized sericin1 expression system. The content of the recombinant hFGF1 in the hSFSV silk was estimated to be approximate 0.07% of the cocoon shell weight. The mechanical properties of hSFSV raw silk fiber were enhanced slightly compared to those of the wild-type raw silk fiber, probably due to the presence of the recombinant of hFGF1 in the sericin layer. Remarkably, the hSFSV raw silk significantly stimulated the cell growth and proliferation of NIH/3T3 mouse embryonic fibroblast cells, suggesting that the mitogenic activity of recombinant hFGF1 was well maintained and functioned in the sericin layer of hSFSV raw silk. These results show that the genetically engineered raw silk hSFSV could be used directly as a fine biomedical material for mass application. In addition, the strategy whereby functional recombinant proteins are expressed in the sericin layer of silk might be used to create more genetically engineered silks with various biofunctions and applications. PMID:24980060

  17. A response to Dolliver's "Evaluating drug trafficking on the Tor Network: Silk Road 2, the sequel"

    OpenAIRE

    Judith Aldridge, David Decary-Hetu

    2015-01-01

    The leading aim of Dolliver's (2015) paper “Evaluating drug trafficking on the Tor Network: Silk Road 2, the sequel” is to document changes in the size and structure of cryptomarkets following the demise of SILK ROAD 1 (SR1) using data she collected from SILK ROAD 2 (SR2), which she casts as successor to its namesake.

  18. Blood-Vessel Mimicking Structures by Stereolithographic Fabrication of Small Porous Tubes Using Cytocompatible Polyacrylate Elastomers, Biofunctionalization and Endothelialization

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huber, Birgit; Engelhardt, Sascha; Meyer, Wolfdietrich; Krüger, Hartmut; Wenz, Annika; Schönhaar, Veronika; Tovar, Günter E. M.; Kluger, Petra J.; Borchers, Kirsten

    2016-01-01

    Blood vessel reconstruction is still an elusive goal for the development of in vitro models as well as artificial vascular grafts. In this study, we used a novel photo-curable cytocompatible polyacrylate material (PA) for freeform generation of synthetic vessels. We applied stereolithography for the fabrication of arbitrary 3D tubular structures with total dimensions in the centimeter range, 300 µm wall thickness, inner diameters of 1 to 2 mm and defined pores with a constant diameter of approximately 100 µm or 200 µm. We established a rinsing protocol to remove remaining cytotoxic substances from the photo-cured PA and applied thio-modified heparin and RGDC-peptides to functionalize the PA surface for enhanced endothelial cell adhesion. A rotating seeding procedure was introduced to ensure homogenous endothelial monolayer formation at the inner luminal tube wall. We showed that endothelial cells stayed viable and adherent and aligned along the medium flow under fluid-flow conditions comparable to native capillaries. The combined technology approach comprising of freeform additive manufacturing (AM), biomimetic design, cytocompatible materials which are applicable to AM, and biofunctionalization of AM constructs has been introduced as BioRap® technology by the authors. PMID:27104576

  19. Blood-Vessel Mimicking Structures by Stereolithographic Fabrication of Small Porous Tubes Using Cytocompatible Polyacrylate Elastomers, Biofunctionalization and Endothelialization

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Birgit Huber

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available Blood vessel reconstruction is still an elusive goal for the development of in vitro models as well as artificial vascular grafts. In this study, we used a novel photo-curable cytocompatible polyacrylate material (PA for freeform generation of synthetic vessels. We applied stereolithography for the fabrication of arbitrary 3D tubular structures with total dimensions in the centimeter range, 300 µm wall thickness, inner diameters of 1 to 2 mm and defined pores with a constant diameter of approximately 100 µm or 200 µm. We established a rinsing protocol to remove remaining cytotoxic substances from the photo-cured PA and applied thio-modified heparin and RGDC-peptides to functionalize the PA surface for enhanced endothelial cell adhesion. A rotating seeding procedure was introduced to ensure homogenous endothelial monolayer formation at the inner luminal tube wall. We showed that endothelial cells stayed viable and adherent and aligned along the medium flow under fluid-flow conditions comparable to native capillaries. The combined technology approach comprising of freeform additive manufacturing (AM, biomimetic design, cytocompatible materials which are applicable to AM, and biofunctionalization of AM constructs has been introduced as BioRap® technology by the authors.

  20. Nitidine chloride-assisted bio-functionalization of reduced graphene oxide by bovine serum albumin for impedimetric immunosensing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Yu; Zhang, Zhao; Zhang, Yuting; Deng, Dongmei; Luo, Liqiang; Han, Baosan; Fan, Chunhai

    2016-05-15

    A novel protocol of label-free electrochemical impedance immunosensor based on bovine serum albumin-nitidine chloride-reduced graphene oxide (BSA-NC-rGO) nanocomposite was proposed for quantitative determination of carcino-embryonic antigen (CEA). BSA was anchored to rGO via the aromatic plane of NC by π-stacking interaction to realize bio-functionalization of rGO, and then gold nanoparticles (AuNPs) were electrodeposited onto the surface of BSA-NC-rGO nanocomposite. The morphology, conductivity and interaction of different nanocomposites were characterized by scanning electron microscopy, cyclic voltammetry, electrochemical impedance spectroscopy (EIS) and UV-vis spectrum. CEA monoclonal antibody (anti-CEA) was conjugated to AuNPs via gold-thiol chemistry to construct electrochemical immunosensing platform, and the specific immunoreaction between CEA and anti-CEA was monitored by EIS. Under optimum conditions, CEA could be quantified in a wide range of 0.1-200 ng mL(-1) (R=0.9948) with low detection limit of 0.067 ng mL(-1). The proposed immunosensor exhibited great potential for detecting blood samples. PMID:26748371

  1. Chemotaxis for enhanced immobilization of Escherichia coli and Legionella pneumophila on biofunctionalized surfaces of GaAs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hassen, Walid M; Sanyal, Hashimita; Hammood, Manar; Moumanis, Khalid; Frost, Eric H; Dubowski, Jan J

    2016-06-01

    The authors have investigated the effect of chemotaxis on immobilization of bacteria on the surface of biofunctionalized GaAs (001) samples. Escherichia coli K12 bacteria were employed to provide a proof-of-concept of chemotaxis-enhanced bacterial immobilization, and then, these results were confirmed using Legionella pneumophila. The recognition layer was based on a self-assembled monolayer of thiol functionalized with specific antibodies directed toward E. coli or L. pneumophila, together with the enzyme beta-galactosidase (β-gal). The authors hypothesized that this enzyme together with its substrate lactose would produce a gradient of glucose which would attract bacteria toward the biochip surface. The chemotaxis effect was monitored by comparing the number of bacteria bound to the biochip surface with and without attractant. The authors have observed that β-gal plus lactose enhanced the immobilization of bacteria on our biochips with a higher effect at low bacterial concentrations. At 100 and 10 bacteria/ml, respectively, for E. coli and L. pneumophila, the authors observed up to 11 and 8 times more bacteria bound to biochip surfaces assisted with the chemotaxis effect in comparison to biochips without chemotaxis. At 10(4) bacteria/ml, the immobilization enhancement rate did not exceed two times. PMID:27098616

  2. Bio-functionalization of polycaprolactone infiltrated BCP scaffold with silicon and fibronectin enhances osteoblast activity in vitro

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kwak, Kyung-A.; Kim, Young-Hee; Kim, Minsung; Lee, Byong-Taek; Song, Ho-Yeon

    2013-08-01

    The surface property of a biomaterial plays a fundamental role in cell attachment, proliferation, differentiation, resorption, and biomolecular expression. In this study, the surface of a polycaprolactone-infiltrated biphasic calcium phosphate scaffold was biofunctionalized by silicon (Si) and fibronectin (FN) coating to evaluate the osteoblast-like cells activity in vitro. The surfaces of all scaffolds were characterized by scanning electron microscopy (SEM) and energy dispersive spectroscopy (EDS), whereas the presence of the functional group was determined by Fourier-transform infrared spectroscopy (FT-IR). Coomassie brilliant blue staining was applied to confirm the presence of FN on the scaffold surface. The in vitro bioactivity of the osteoblast-like cells was determined by one cell morphology and proliferation assay at 3, 7, and 14 days by SEM. Cell viability assay by MTT showed higher cell viability rate on coated scaffolds than in those coated with Si only or non-coated surfaces. The mRNA expressions of alkaline phosphatase (ALP) and osteocalcin (OC) were determined using RT-PCR and the expressions of osteopontin (OPN), type I collagen, and osteocalcin (OC) proteins were determined using Western blot. Thus the expression of genes and proteins further confirmed both early and intermediate phases of osteoblast-like cell activity which was found increased by Si-and Fn coating on PCL infiltrated BCP surfaces.

  3. Bio-functionalization of polycaprolactone infiltrated BCP scaffold with silicon and fibronectin enhances osteoblast activity in vitro

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kwak, Kyung-A.; Kim, Young-Hee [Department of Microbiology and Immunology, School of Medicine, Soonchunhyang University, Cheonan, Chungnum 330-090 (Korea, Republic of); Kim, Minsung; Lee, Byong-Taek [Department of Biomedical Engineering and Materials, School of Medicine, Soonchunhyang University, Cheonan, Chungnum 330-090 (Korea, Republic of); Song, Ho-Yeon, E-mail: songmic@sch.ac.kr [Department of Microbiology and Immunology, School of Medicine, Soonchunhyang University, Cheonan, Chungnum 330-090 (Korea, Republic of)

    2013-08-15

    The surface property of a biomaterial plays a fundamental role in cell attachment, proliferation, differentiation, resorption, and biomolecular expression. In this study, the surface of a polycaprolactone-infiltrated biphasic calcium phosphate scaffold was biofunctionalized by silicon (Si) and fibronectin (FN) coating to evaluate the osteoblast-like cells activity in vitro. The surfaces of all scaffolds were characterized by scanning electron microscopy (SEM) and energy dispersive spectroscopy (EDS), whereas the presence of the functional group was determined by Fourier-transform infrared spectroscopy (FT-IR). Coomassie brilliant blue staining was applied to confirm the presence of FN on the scaffold surface. The in vitro bioactivity of the osteoblast-like cells was determined by one cell morphology and proliferation assay at 3, 7, and 14 days by SEM. Cell viability assay by MTT showed higher cell viability rate on coated scaffolds than in those coated with Si only or non-coated surfaces. The mRNA expressions of alkaline phosphatase (ALP) and osteocalcin (OC) were determined using RT-PCR and the expressions of osteopontin (OPN), type I collagen, and osteocalcin (OC) proteins were determined using Western blot. Thus the expression of genes and proteins further confirmed both early and intermediate phases of osteoblast-like cell activity which was found increased by Si-and Fn coating on PCL infiltrated BCP surfaces.

  4. Blood-Vessel Mimicking Structures by Stereolithographic Fabrication of Small Porous Tubes Using Cytocompatible Polyacrylate Elastomers, Biofunctionalization and Endothelialization.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huber, Birgit; Engelhardt, Sascha; Meyer, Wolfdietrich; Krüger, Hartmut; Wenz, Annika; Schönhaar, Veronika; Tovar, Günter E M; Kluger, Petra J; Borchers, Kirsten

    2016-01-01

    Blood vessel reconstruction is still an elusive goal for the development of in vitro models as well as artificial vascular grafts. In this study, we used a novel photo-curable cytocompatible polyacrylate material (PA) for freeform generation of synthetic vessels. We applied stereolithography for the fabrication of arbitrary 3D tubular structures with total dimensions in the centimeter range, 300 µm wall thickness, inner diameters of 1 to 2 mm and defined pores with a constant diameter of approximately 100 µm or 200 µm. We established a rinsing protocol to remove remaining cytotoxic substances from the photo-cured PA and applied thio-modified heparin and RGDC-peptides to functionalize the PA surface for enhanced endothelial cell adhesion. A rotating seeding procedure was introduced to ensure homogenous endothelial monolayer formation at the inner luminal tube wall. We showed that endothelial cells stayed viable and adherent and aligned along the medium flow under fluid-flow conditions comparable to native capillaries. The combined technology approach comprising of freeform additive manufacturing (AM), biomimetic design, cytocompatible materials which are applicable to AM, and biofunctionalization of AM constructs has been introduced as BioRap(®) technology by the authors. PMID:27104576

  5. Dual-functional electrospun poly(2-hydroxyethyl methacrylate).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Bo; Lalani, Reza; Cheng, Fang; Liu, Qingsheng; Liu, Lingyun

    2011-12-01

    Poly(2-hydroxyethyl methacrylate) (pHEMA) has been widely used in many biomedical applications due to its well-known biocompatibility. For tissue engineering applications, porous scaffolds that mimic fibrous structures of natural extracellular matrix and possess high surface-area-to-volume ratios are highly desirable. So far, a systematic approach to control diameter and morphology of pHEMA fibers has not been reported and potential applications of pHEMA fibers have barely been explored. In this work, pHEMA was synthesized and processed into fibrous scaffolds using an electrospinning approach. Fiber diameters from 270 nm to 3.6 μm were achieved by controlling polymer solution concentration and electrospinning flow rate. Post-electrospinning thermal treatment significantly improves integrity of the electrospun membranes in water. The pHEMA microfibrous membranes exhibited water absorption up to 280% (w/w), whereas the pHEMA hydrogel only absorbed 70% water. Fibrinogen adsorption experiments demonstrate that the electrospun pHEMA fibers highly resist nonspecific protein adsorption. Hydroxyl groups on electrospun pHEMA fibers were further activated for protein immobilization. A bovine serum albumin (BSA) binding capacity as high as 120 mg BSA/g membrane was realized at an intermediate fiber diameter. The pHEMA fibrous scaffolds functionalized with collagen I significantly promoted fibroblast adhesion, spreading, and proliferation. We conclude that the electrospun pHEMA fibers are dual functional, that is, they resist nonspecific protein adsorption meanwhile abundant hydroxyl groups on fibers allow effective conjugation of biomolecules in a nonfouling background. High water absorption and dual functionality of the electrospun pHEMA fibers may lead to a number of potential applications such as wound dressings, tissue scaffolds, and affinity membranes. PMID:21887741

  6. EFFECT OF GAS FLOW RATE ON CRYSTAL STRUCTURES OF ELECTROSPUN AND GAS-JET/ELECTROSPUN POLY(VINYLIDENE FLUORIDE) FIBERS

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Yi Lin; Yong-yi Yao; Xiao-zhan Yang; Li-ming Shen; Rui-xia Li; Da-cheng Wu

    2009-01-01

    The effect of gas flow rate on crystal structures of electrospun and gas-jet/electrospun poly(vinylidene fluoride) (PVDF) fibers was investigated. PVDF fibers were prepared by electrospinning and gas-jet/electrospinning of its N,N-dimethylformamide (DMF) solutions. The morphology of the PVDF fibers was investigated by scanning electron microscopy (SEM). With an increase of the gas flow rate, the average diameters of PVDF fibers were decreased.The crystal structures and thermal properties of the PVDF fibers were investigated by attenuated Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (AT-FTIR), wide angle X-ray diffraction (WAXD) and differential scanning calorimetry (DSC). It was found that electrospinning and gas-jet/electrospinning of PVDF from its DMF solutions promoted the formation of β phase. Moreover, gas-jet/electrospun PVDF fibers exhibited higher crystallinity and β phase content than electrospun fibers did. Similar with electrostatic force, the drawing force of gas jet may induce the conformational change to all-trans (TTTT) planar zigzag conformation, and then promote the formation of the β phase.

  7. Physical characterization of functionalized spider silk: electronic and sensing properties

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eden Steven, Jin Gyu Park, Anant Paravastu, Elsa Branco Lopes, James S Brooks, Ongi Englander, Theo Siegrist, Papatya Kaner and Rufina G Alamo

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available This work explores functional, fundamental and applied aspects of naturally harvested spider silk fibers. Natural silk is a protein polymer where different amino acids control the physical properties of fibroin bundles, producing, for example, combinations of β-sheet (crystalline and amorphous (helical structural regions. This complexity presents opportunities for functional modification to obtain new types of material properties. Electrical conductivity is the starting point of this investigation, where the insulating nature of neat silk under ambient conditions is described first. Modification of the conductivity by humidity, exposure to polar solvents, iodine doping, pyrolization and deposition of a thin metallic film are explored next. The conductivity increases exponentially with relative humidity and/or solvent, whereas only an incremental increase occurs after iodine doping. In contrast, iodine doping, optimal at 70 °C, has a strong effect on the morphology of silk bundles (increasing their size, on the process of pyrolization (suppressing mass loss rates and on the resulting carbonized fiber structure (that becomes more robust against bending and strain. The effects of iodine doping and other functional parameters (vacuum and thin film coating motivated an investigation with magic angle spinning nuclear magnetic resonance (MAS-NMR to monitor doping-induced changes in the amino acid-protein backbone signature. MAS-NMR revealed a moderate effect of iodine on the helical and β-sheet structures, and a lesser effect of gold sputtering. The effects of iodine doping were further probed by Fourier transform infrared (FTIR spectroscopy, revealing a partial transformation of β-sheet-to-amorphous constituency. A model is proposed, based on the findings from the MAS-NMR and FTIR, which involves iodine-induced changes in the silk fibroin bundle environment that can account for the altered physical properties. Finally, proof

  8. Physical characterization of functionalized spider silk: electronic and sensing properties

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This work explores functional, fundamental and applied aspects of naturally harvested spider silk fibers. Natural silk is a protein polymer where different amino acids control the physical properties of fibroin bundles, producing, for example, combinations of β-sheet (crystalline) and amorphous (helical) structural regions. This complexity presents opportunities for functional modification to obtain new types of material properties. Electrical conductivity is the starting point of this investigation, where the insulating nature of neat silk under ambient conditions is described first. Modification of the conductivity by humidity, exposure to polar solvents, iodine doping, pyrolization and deposition of a thin metallic film are explored next. The conductivity increases exponentially with relative humidity and/or solvent, whereas only an incremental increase occurs after iodine doping. In contrast, iodine doping, optimal at 70 deg. C, has a strong effect on the morphology of silk bundles (increasing their size), on the process of pyrolization (suppressing mass loss rates) and on the resulting carbonized fiber structure (that becomes more robust against bending and strain). The effects of iodine doping and other functional parameters (vacuum and thin film coating) motivated an investigation with magic angle spinning nuclear magnetic resonance (MAS-NMR) to monitor doping-induced changes in the amino acid-protein backbone signature. MAS-NMR revealed a moderate effect of iodine on the helical and β-sheet structures, and a lesser effect of gold sputtering. The effects of iodine doping were further probed by Fourier transform infrared (FTIR) spectroscopy, revealing a partial transformation of β-sheet-to-amorphous constituency. A model is proposed, based on the findings from the MAS-NMR and FTIR, which involves iodine-induced changes in the silk fibroin bundle environment that can account for the altered physical properties. Finally, proof-of-concept applications of

  9. The Effects of Silk Protein Solution on Quality of Mangosteen

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Full text: Sericin silk protein solution prepared from irradiated silk waste was applied as a wax coating on mangosteen fruits but was found not appropriate. Nonetheless, when the solution was sprayed onto fruits from the setting stage till maturity, it enhanced the fruit quality. Fruits showed a bigger stalk and greener, thicker and larger-angled calyx than untreated ones. They were edible after being kept at 25C for 3 to 4 weeks. Fruits sprayed with the silk protein solution and untreated fruits were separately harvested and packed for export. A half of them were irradiated with gamma radiation for insect eradication and then kept at 10C with 80 percents relative humidity. The unirradiated half was stored similarly. Results showed that rind color of irradiated fruits changed slower than unirradiated ones. However, silk protein solution spraying and irradiation did not affect fruit firmness and total soluble solids of mangosteen flesh. For sensory evaluation, it was found that sprayed and irradiated fruits showed no differences from the untreated ones in their physical properties, color, taste and odor. Fruits sprayed with the silk protein solution without irradiation had the longest shelf life of 6 weeks

  10. Extracted sericin from silk waste for film formation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rungsinee Sothornvit

    2010-03-01

    Full Text Available Sericin is the second main component in cocoons, which are removed in the silk reeling process of the raw silk industry and in the silk waste degumming of the spun silk industry. The main amino acid of sericin, serine, exhibits a skin moisturing and antiwrinkle action, which is interesting to use for film formation in this study. The extraction conditions of sericin from two silk wastes, pieced cocoon and inferior knubbs were studied to find the optimum extraction conditions. Boiling water extraction was considered based on the response surface methodology (RSM in order to identify the important factors for the sericin extraction. The two factors considered were time and temperature. Both factors were needed to be independent parameters in the predicted equation in order to improve the model fit with R2 = 0.84. The components ofextracted sericin were 18.24% serine, 9.83% aspatate, and 5.51% glycine with a molecular weight of 132 kDa. Film formationfrom extracted sericin was carried out to find the optimum conditions. Extracted sericin could not form a stand-alonefilm. Therefore, polysaccharide polymers, such as glucomannan, were incorporated with glycerol to form a flexible film.Sericin-based films were characterized for its properties in terms of solubility and permeability before application. It wasfound that sericin-based films showed a film flexibility and solubility without an increasing film water vapor permeability.

  11. Sericin Composition in the Silk of Antheraea yamamai.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zurovec, Michal; Yonemura, Naoyuki; Kludkiewicz, Barbara; Sehnal, František; Kodrik, Dalibor; Vieira, Ligia Cota; Kucerova, Lucie; Strnad, Hynek; Konik, Peter; Sehadova, Hana

    2016-05-01

    The silks produced by caterpillars consist of fibroin proteins that form two core filaments, and sericin proteins that seal filaments into a fiber and conglutinate fibers in the cocoon. Sericin genes are well-known in Bombyx mori (Bombycidae) but have received little attention in other insects. This paper shows that Antheraea yamamai (Saturniidae) contains five sericin genes very different from the three sericin genes of B. mori. In spite of differences, all known sericins are characterized by short exons 1 and 2 (out of 3-12 exons), expression in the middle silk gland section, presence of repeats with high contents of Ser and charged amino acid residues, and secretion as a sticky silk component soluble in hot water. The B. mori sericins represent tentative phylogenetic lineages (I) BmSer1 and orthologs in Saturniidae, (II) BmSer2, and (III) BmSer3 and related sericins of Saturniidae and of the pyralid Galleria mellonella. The lineage (IV) seems to be limited to Saturniidae. Concerted evolution of the sericin genes was apparently associated with gene amplifications as well as gene loses. Differences in the silk fiber morphology indicate that the cocktail of sericins linking the filaments and coating the fiber is modified during spinning. Silks are composite biomaterials of conserved function in spite of great diversity of their composition. PMID:27049111

  12. Adsorption Properties of Lac Dyes on Wool, Silk, and Nylon

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bo Wei

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available There has been growing interest in the dyeing of textiles with natural dyes. The research about the adsorption properties of natural dyes can help to understand their adsorption mechanism and to control their dyeing process. This study is concerned with the kinetics and isotherms of adsorption of lac dyes on wool, silk, and nylon fibers. It was found that the adsorption kinetics of lac dyes on the three fibers followed the pseudosecond-order kinetic model, and the adsorption rate of lac dyes was the fastest for silk and the slowest for wool. The activation energies for the adsorption process on wool, silk, and nylon were found to be 107.15, 87.85, and 45.31 kJ/mol, respectively. The adsorption of lac dyes on the three fibers followed the Langmuir mechanism, indicating that the electrostatic interactions between lac dyes and those fibers occurred. The saturation values for lac adsorption on the three fibers decreased in the order of wool > silk > nylon; the Langmuir affinity constant of lac adsorption on nylon was much higher than those on wool and silk.

  13. Sporicidal/bactericidal textiles via the chlorination of silk.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dickerson, Matthew B; Lyon, Wanda; Gruner, William E; Mirau, Peter A; Slocik, Joseph M; Naik, Rajesh R

    2012-03-01

    Bacterial spores, such as those of the Bacillus genus, are extremely resilient, being able to germinate into metabolically active cells after withstanding harsh environmental conditions or aggressive chemical treatments. The toughness of the bacterial spore in combination with the use of spores, such as those of Bacillus anthracis, as a biological warfare agent necessitates the development of new antimicrobial textiles. In this work, a route to the production of fabrics that kill bacterial spores and cells within minutes of exposure is described. Utilizing this facile process, unmodified silk cloth is reacted with a diluted bleach solution, rinsed with water, and dried. The chlorination of silk was explored under basic (pH 11) and slightly acidic (pH 5) conditions. Chloramine-silk textiles prepared in acidified bleach solutions were found to have superior breaking strength and higher oxidative Cl contents than those prepared under caustic conditions. Silk cloth chlorinated for ≥1 h at pH 5 was determined to induce >99.99996% reduction in the colony forming units of Escherichia coli, as well as Bacillus thuringiensis Al Hakam (B. anthracis simulant) spores and cells within 10 min of contact. The processing conditions presented for silk fabric in this study are highly expeditionary, allowing for the on-site production of protein-based antimicrobial materials from a variety of agriculturally produced feed-stocks.

  14. Cell proliferation on PVA/sodium alginate and PVA/poly(γ-glutamic acid) electrospun fiber.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Jen Ming; Yang, Jhe Hao; Tsou, Shu Chun; Ding, Chian Hua; Hsu, Chih Chin; Yang, Kai Chiang; Yang, Chun Chen; Chen, Ko Shao; Chen, Szi Wen; Wang, Jong Shyan

    2016-09-01

    To overcome the obstacles of easy dissolution of PVA nanofibers without crosslinking treatment and the poor electrospinnability of the PVA cross-linked nanofibers via electrospinning process, the PVA based electrospun hydrogel nanofibers are prepared with post-crosslinking method. To expect the electrospun hydrogel fibers might be a promising scaffold for cell culture and tissue engineering applications, the evaluation of cell proliferation on the post-crosslinking electrospun fibers is conducted in this study. At beginning, poly(vinyl alcohol) (PVA), PVA/sodium alginate (PVASA) and PVA/poly(γ-glutamic acid) (PVAPGA) electrospun fibers were prepared by electrospinning method. The electrospun PVA, PVASA and PVAPGA nanofibers were treated with post-cross-linking method with glutaraldehyde (Glu) as crosslinking agent. These electrospun fibers were characterized with thermogravimetry analysis (TGA) and their morphologies were observed with a scanning electron microscope (SEM). To support the evaluation and explanation of cell growth on the fiber, the study of 3T3 mouse fibroblast cell growth on the surface of pure PVA, SA, and PGA thin films is conducted. The proliferation of 3T3 on the electrospun fiber surface of PVA, PVASA, and PVAPGA was evaluated by seeding 3T3 fibroblast cells on these crosslinked electrospun fibers. The cell viability on electrospun fibers was conducted with water-soluble tetrazolium salt-1 assay (Cell Proliferation Reagent WST-1). The morphology of the cells on the fibers was also observed with SEM. The results of WST-1 assay revealed that 3T3 cells cultured on different electrospun fibers had similar viability, and the cell viability increased with time for all electrospun fibers. From the morphology of the cells on electrospun fibers, it is found that 3T3 cells attached on all electrospun fiber after 1day seeded. Cell-cell communication was noticed on day 3 for all electrospun fibers. Extracellular matrix (ECM) productions were found and

  15. Impact and dynamic mechanical thermal properties of textile silk reinforced epoxy resin composites

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, K.; Guan, J.

    2016-07-01

    Silk fabric reinforced epoxy resin composites (SFRPs) were prepared using simple techniques of hand lay-up, hot-press and vacuum treatment, and a series of volume fractions of silk reinforcements were achieved. The impact properties and dynamic mechanical properties of SFRPs were investigated using a pendulum impact testing method and dynamic mechanical thermal analysis (DMTA). The results suggest that silk reinforcement could greatly enhance the mechanical performances of SFRPs. The impact strength reached a maximum of 71 kJ/m2 for 60%-silk SFRP, which demonstrated a potential of silk composites for defence and impact- resistant materials.

  16. Development of new smart materials and spinning systems inspired by natural silks and their applications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cheng, Jie; Lee, Sang-Hoon

    2015-12-01

    Silks produced by spiders and silkworms are charming natural biological materials with highly optimized hierarchical structures and outstanding physicomechanical properties. The superior performance of silks relies on the integration of a unique protein sequence, a distinctive spinning process, and complex hierarchical structures. Silks have been prepared to form a variety of morphologies and are widely used in diverse applications, for example, in the textile industry, as drug delivery vehicles, and as tissue engineering scaffolds. This review presents an overview of the organization of natural silks, in which chemical and physical functions are optimized, as well as a range of new materials inspired by the desire to mimic natural silk structure and synthesis.

  17. Efficacy of engineered FVIII-producing skeletal muscle enhanced by growth factor-releasing co-axial electrospun fibers

    OpenAIRE

    Liao, I-Chien; Leong, Kam W

    2010-01-01

    Co-axial electrospun fibers can offer both topographical and biochemical cues for tissue engineering applications. In this study, we demonstrate the sustained treatment of hemophilia through a non-viral, tissue engineering approach facilitated by growth factor-releasing co-axial electrospun fibers. FVIII-producing skeletal myotubes were first engineered on aligned electrospun fibers in vitro, followed by implantation in hemophilic mice with or without a layer of core-shell electrospun fibers ...

  18. Silk moths in Madagascar: Biology, uses and challenges related to Borocera cajani (Boisduval, 1833) (Lepidoptera – Lasiocampidae)

    OpenAIRE

    Razafimanantsoa, Tsiresy; Rajoelison, Gabrielle; Ramamonjisoa, Bruno; Raminosoa,Noromalala; Poncelet, Marc; Bogaert, Jan; Haubruge, Eric; Verheggen, François

    2012-01-01

    Borocera cajani (Lepidoptera, Lasiocampidae), also named Landibe, is main wild silk moth currently used to produce silk textiles in Madagascar. Silk production involve many member of the local population, from the wild silk harvesters, to the spinners, traders, dyers, weavers and the artisans who transform the silk into clothing, accessories and decorative items. Uapaca bojeri (Tapia) forests are the last remnants of highland primary forest, which are threatened by human destruction through b...

  19. Molecular architecture and engineering of spider dragline silk protein

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    ZHANG Hengmu; LIU Jinyuan

    2005-01-01

    Spider dragline silk, which is produced in spider major ampullate gland, is a composite proteinacious fiber with highly repetitive Ala-Gly-rich domain. The unique combination of both high tensile strength and high elasticity makes spider dragline silk superior to almost any other natural or synthetic fibers. Cloning of the genes reveals that the silk is composed of at least two major proteins. Each protein component contains multiple repeats of modular structures that alternate between Ala-rich domains and Gly-rich domains. Molecular engineering not only opens a door to the production of spidroins but also provides a valuable experimental system to test and further establish the relationship between modular structures and mechanical properties. Here, based on our own studies, we review the latest progress of the modular structure and genetic engineering and outline the future prospects.

  20. Production of spider silk proteins in tobacco and potato.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Scheller, J; Gührs, K H; Grosse, F; Conrad, U

    2001-06-01

    Spider dragline silk is a proteinaceous fiber with remarkable mechanical properties that make it attractive for technical applications. Unfortunately, the material cannot be obtained in large quantities from spiders. We have therefore generated transgenic tobacco and potato plants that express remarkable amounts of recombinant Nephila clavipes dragline proteins. Using a gene synthesis approach, the recombinant proteins exhibit homologies of >90% compared to their native models. Here, we demonstrate the accumulation of recombinant silk proteins, which are encoded by synthetic genes of 420-3,600 base pairs, up to a level of at least 2% of total soluble protein in the endoplasmic reticulum (ER) of tobacco and potato leaves and potato tubers, respectively. Using the present expression system, spider silk proteins up to 100 kDa could be detected in plant tissues. When produced in plants, the recombinant spidroins exhibit extreme heat stability-a property that is used to purify the spidroins by a simple and efficient procedure.

  1. A simple model of multiphoton micromachining in silk hydrogels

    Science.gov (United States)

    Applegate, Matthew B.; Alonzo, Carlo; Georgakoudi, Irene; Kaplan, David L.; Omenetto, Fiorenzo G.

    2016-06-01

    High resolution three-dimensional voids can be directly written into transparent silk fibroin hydrogels using ultrashort pulses of near-infrared (NIR) light. Here, we propose a simple finite-element model that can be used to predict the size and shape of individual features under various exposure conditions. We compare predicted and measured feature volumes for a wide range of parameters and use the model to determine optimum conditions for maximum material removal. The simplicity of the model implies that the mechanism of multiphoton induced void creation in silk is due to direct absorption of light energy rather than diffusion of heat or other photoproducts, and confirms that multiphoton absorption of NIR light in silk is purely a 3-photon process.

  2. The consolidation behavior of silk hydrogels.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kluge, Jonathan A; Rosiello, Nicholas C; Leisk, Gary G; Kaplan, David L; Dorfmann, A Luis

    2010-04-01

    Hydrogels have mechanical properties and structural features that are similar to load-bearing soft tissues including intervertebral disc and articular cartilage, and can be implanted for tissue restoration or for local release of therapeutic factors. To help predict their performance, mechanical characterization and mathematical modeling are the available methods for use in tissue engineering and drug delivery settings. In this study, confined compression creep tests were performed on silk hydrogels, over a range of concentrations, to examine the phenomenological behavior of the gels under a physiological loading scenario. Based on the observed behavior, we show that the time-dependent response can be explained by a consolidation mechanism, and modeled using Biot's poroelasticity theory. Two observations are in strong support of this modeling framework, namely, the excellent numerical agreement between increasing load step creep data and the linear Terzaghi theory, and the similar values obtained from numerical simulations and direct measurements of the permeability coefficient. The higher concentration gels (8% and 12% w/v) clearly show a strain-stiffening response to creep loading with increasing loads, while the lower concentration gel (4% w/v) does not. A nonlinear elastic constitutive formulation is employed to account for the stiffening. Furthermore, an empirical formulation is used to represent the deformation-dependent permeability. PMID:20142112

  3. Soft magnetic memory of silk cocoon membrane

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roy, Manas; Dubey, Amarish; Singh, Sushil Kumar; Bhargava, Kalpana; Sethy, Niroj Kumar; Philip, Deepu; Sarkar, Sabyasachi; Bajpai, Alok; Das, Mainak

    2016-07-01

    Silk cocoon membrane (SCM), a solid matrix of protein fiber, responds to light, heat and moisture and converts these energies to electrical signals. Essentially it exhibits photo-electric and thermo-electric properties; making it a natural electro-magnetic sensor, which may influence the pupal development. This raises the question: ‘is it only electricity?’, or ‘it also posses some kind of magnetic memory?’ This work attempted to explore the magnetic memory of SCM and confirm its soft magnetism. Fe, Co, Ni, Mn, Gd were found in SCM, in traces, through energy dispersive X-ray analysis (EDX), X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS) and inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry (ICP-MS). Presence of iron was ascertained by electron paramagnetic resonance (EPR). In addition, EPR-spectra showed the presence of a stable pool of carbon-centric free radical in the cocoon structure. Carbon-centric free radicals behaves as a soft magnet inherently. Magnetic-Hysteresis (M-H) of SCM confirmed its soft magnetism. It can be concluded that the soft bio-magnetic feature of SCM is due to the entrapment of ferromagnetic elements in a stable pool of carbon centric radicals occurring on the super-coiled protein structure. Natural soft magnets like SCM provide us with models for developing eco-friendly, protein-based biological soft magnets.

  4. Soft magnetic memory of silk cocoon membrane.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roy, Manas; Dubey, Amarish; Singh, Sushil Kumar; Bhargava, Kalpana; Sethy, Niroj Kumar; Philip, Deepu; Sarkar, Sabyasachi; Bajpai, Alok; Das, Mainak

    2016-01-01

    Silk cocoon membrane (SCM), a solid matrix of protein fiber, responds to light, heat and moisture and converts these energies to electrical signals. Essentially it exhibits photo-electric and thermo-electric properties; making it a natural electro-magnetic sensor, which may influence the pupal development. This raises the question: 'is it only electricity?', or 'it also posses some kind of magnetic memory?' This work attempted to explore the magnetic memory of SCM and confirm its soft magnetism. Fe, Co, Ni, Mn, Gd were found in SCM, in traces, through energy dispersive X-ray analysis (EDX), X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS) and inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry (ICP-MS). Presence of iron was ascertained by electron paramagnetic resonance (EPR). In addition, EPR-spectra showed the presence of a stable pool of carbon-centric free radical in the cocoon structure. Carbon-centric free radicals behaves as a soft magnet inherently. Magnetic-Hysteresis (M-H) of SCM confirmed its soft magnetism. It can be concluded that the soft bio-magnetic feature of SCM is due to the entrapment of ferromagnetic elements in a stable pool of carbon centric radicals occurring on the super-coiled protein structure. Natural soft magnets like SCM provide us with models for developing eco-friendly, protein-based biological soft magnets. PMID:27374752

  5. Surface biofunctional drug-loaded electrospun fibrous scaffolds for comprehensive repairing hypertrophic scars.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cheng, Liying; Sun, Xiaoming; Zhao, Xin; Wang, Lan; Yu, Jia; Pan, Guoqing; Li, Bin; Yang, Huilin; Zhang, Yuguang; Cui, Wenguo

    2016-03-01

    Incorporation of bioactive drugs and biofunctionalization of polyester fibrous scaffolds are essential means to improve their bio-functions and histocompatibility for regenerative medicine. However, it is still a challenge to biofunctionalize such drug carriers via traditional biochemical methods while maintaining their properties without changes in drug activity and loading ratio. Here, we demonstrated a facile approach for biofunctionalization of PLGA fibrous scaffolds with various molecules (i.e., PEG polymer, RGD peptide and bFGF growth factor for cell repellent, adhesion and proliferation, respectively) via mussel-Inspired poly(dopamine) (PDA) coating in aqueous solution. By virtue of the mild and efficient nature of this approach, the drug-loaded PLGA fibers could be easily biofunctionalized and showed negligible effects on the scaffold properties, especially drug activity and loading ratio. Further, in vivo study showed that, a ginsenoside-Rg3-loaded fibrous scaffold functionalized with bFGF growth factor could not only promote the early-stage wound healing in rabbit ear wounds (bio-signal from bFGF), but also inhibit later-stage hypertrophic scars formation (release of Rg3 drug). Therefore, the mussel-inspired method for bio-modification provides a facile and effective strategy to combine drug and bio-function in one system, thus facilitating a synergistic effect of drug-therapy and bio-signal when such biomaterial is used for regenerative medicine. PMID:26774564

  6. Environmentally friendly surface modification of silk fiber: Chitosan grafting and dyeing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Davarpanah, Saideh; Mahmoodi, Niyaz Mohammad; Arami, Mokhtar; Bahrami, Hajir; Mazaheri, Firoozmehr

    2009-01-01

    In this paper, the surface modification of silk fiber using anhydrides to graft the polysaccharide chitosan and dyeing ability of the grafted silk were studied. Silk fiber was degummed and acylated with two anhydrides, succinic anhydride (SA) and phthalic anhydride (PA), in different solvents (dimethyl sulfoxide (DMSO) and N, N-dimethyl formamide (DMF)). The effects of anhydrides, solvents, anhydride concentration, liquor ratio (L:R) and reaction time on acylation of silk were studied. The polysaccharide chitosan was grafted to the acylated silk fiber and dyed by acid dye (Acid Black NB.B). The effects of pH, chitosan concentration, and reaction time on chitosan grafting of acylated silk were investigated. The physical properties show sensible changes regardless of weight gain. Scanning electron microscopy (SEM) analysis showed the presence of foreign materials firmly attached to the surface of silk. FTIR spectroscopy provided evidence that chitosan was grafted onto the acylated silk through the formation of new covalent bonds. The dyeing of the chitosan grafted-acylated silk fiber indicated the higher dye ability in comparison to the acylated and degummed silk samples. The mechanism of chitosan grafting over degummed silk through anhydride linkage was proposed. The findings of this research support the potential production of new environmentally friendly textile fibers. It is worthwhile to mention that the grafted samples have antibacterial potential due to the antibacterial property of chitosan molecules.

  7. Environmentally friendly surface modification of silk fiber: Chitosan grafting and dyeing

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Davarpanah, Saideh [Textile Engineering Department, Amirkabir University of Technology, Hafez St., Tehran (Iran, Islamic Republic of); Mahmoodi, Niyaz Mohammad [Textile Engineering Department, Amirkabir University of Technology, Hafez St., Tehran (Iran, Islamic Republic of); Department of Environmental Research, Institute for Colorants, Paint and Coatings, Tehran (Iran, Islamic Republic of)], E-mail: mahmoodi@icrc.ac.ir; Arami, Mokhtar [Textile Engineering Department, Amirkabir University of Technology, Hafez St., Tehran (Iran, Islamic Republic of)], E-mail: arami@aut.ac.ir; Bahrami, Hajir; Mazaheri, Firoozmehr [Textile Engineering Department, Amirkabir University of Technology, Hafez St., Tehran (Iran, Islamic Republic of)

    2009-01-15

    In this paper, the surface modification of silk fiber using anhydrides to graft the polysaccharide chitosan and dyeing ability of the grafted silk were studied. Silk fiber was degummed and acylated with two anhydrides, succinic anhydride (SA) and phthalic anhydride (PA), in different solvents (dimethyl sulfoxide (DMSO) and N,N-dimethyl formamide (DMF)). The effects of anhydrides, solvents, anhydride concentration, liquor ratio (L:R) and reaction time on acylation of silk were studied. The polysaccharide chitosan was grafted to the acylated silk fiber and dyed by acid dye (Acid Black NB.B). The effects of pH, chitosan concentration, and reaction time on chitosan grafting of acylated silk were investigated. The physical properties show sensible changes regardless of weight gain. Scanning electron microscopy (SEM) analysis showed the presence of foreign materials firmly attached to the surface of silk. FTIR spectroscopy provided evidence that chitosan was grafted onto the acylated silk through the formation of new covalent bonds. The dyeing of the chitosan grafted-acylated silk fiber indicated the higher dye ability in comparison to the acylated and degummed silk samples. The mechanism of chitosan grafting over degummed silk through anhydride linkage was proposed. The findings of this research support the potential production of new environmentally friendly textile fibers. It is worthwhile to mention that the grafted samples have antibacterial potential due to the antibacterial property of chitosan molecules.

  8. Improved human tenocyte proliferation and differentiation in vitro by optimized silk degumming

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wang Xiao; Qiu Yiwei; Carr, Andrew J; Triffitt, James T; Sabokbar, Afsie; Xia Zhidao, E-mail: z.xia@swansea.ac.uk [Botnar Research Centre, Nuffield Department of Orthopaedics, Rheumatology and Musculoskeletal Sciences, University of Oxford, Oxford (United Kingdom)

    2011-06-15

    Tendon disorders are common clinical conditions. Tendon tissue engineering provides a new approach for tendon repair by integrating engineered substitutes with their native counterparts. Silk is considered to be a promising candidate for tendon engineering because of its biological and mechanical properties. However, a major concern with using silk for biomedical applications is the immune responses generated by sericin, a glue-like protein that coats the silk fibres. This study improves the existing protocols for silk 'degumming' which removes sericin and enables preparation of silk that is suitable for tendon regeneration. Bombyx mori silks were treated by sequential treatments with different proteases. The efficiency of degumming was determined by measuring weight loss, picric acid and carmine staining and scanning electron microscopy. To evaluate the cellular responses after degumming, the growth and differentiation of human tenocytes on silks were examined. The results showed that sequential protease treatment effectively degummed raw silks. The sequentially degummed silks showed enhanced tenocyte proliferation and upregulated mRNA levels of tendon markers. Thick cell multilayers formed on the treated silks, with cells and collagen fibres penetrating into the spaces in individual silk filaments, resulting in a structure resembling human tendon.

  9. Use of extension-deformation-based crystallisation of silk fibres to differentiate their functions in nature.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Numata, Keiji; Masunaga, Hiroyasu; Hikima, Takaaki; Sasaki, Sono; Sekiyama, Kazuhide; Takata, Masaki

    2015-08-21

    β-Sheet crystals play an important role in determining the stiffness, strength, and optical properties of silk and in the exhibition of silk-type-specific functions. It is important to elucidate the structural changes that occur during the stretching of silk fibres to understand the functions of different types of fibres. Herein, we elucidate the initial crystallisation behaviour of silk molecules during the stretching of three types of silk fibres using synchrotron radiation X-ray analysis. When spider dragline silk was stretched, it underwent crystallisation and the alignment of the β-sheet crystals became disordered initially but was later recovered. On the other hand, silkworm cocoon silk did not exhibit further crystallisation, whereas capture spiral silk was predominantly amorphous. Structural analyses showed that the crystallisation of silks following extension deformation has a critical effect on their mechanical and optical properties. These findings should aid the production of artificial silk fibres and facilitate the development of silk-inspired functional materials. PMID:26166211

  10. Surface Modification and Characterisation of Silk Fibroin Fabric Produced by the Layer-by-Layer Self-Assembly of Multilayer Alginate/Regenerated Silk Fibroin.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gaotian Shen

    Full Text Available Silk-based medical products have a long history of use as a material for surgical sutures because of their desirable mechanical properties. However, silk fibroin fabric has been reported to be haemolytic when in direct contact with blood. The layer-by-layer self-assembly technique provides a method for surface modification to improve the biocompatibility of silk fibroin fabrics. Regenerated silk fibroin and alginate, which have excellent biocompatibility and low immunogenicity, are outstanding candidates for polyelectrolyte deposition. In this study, silk fabric was degummed and positively charged to create a silk fibroin fabric that could undergo self-assembly. The multilayer self-assembly of the silk fibroin fabric was achieved by alternating the polyelectrolyte deposition of a negatively charged alginate solution (pH = 8 and a positively charged regenerated silk fibroin solution (pH = 2. Finally, the negatively charged regenerated silk fibroin solution (pH = 8 was used to assemble the outermost layer of the fabric so that the surface would be negatively charged. A stable structural transition was induced using 75% ethanol. The thickness and morphology were characterised using atomic force microscopy. The properties of the self-assembled silk fibroin fabric, such as the bursting strength, thermal stability and flushing stability, indicated that the fabric was stable. In addition, the cytocompatibility and haemocompatibility of the self-assembled silk fibroin fabrics were evaluated. The results indicated that the biocompatibility of the self-assembled multilayers was acceptable and that it improved markedly. In particular, after the self-assembly, the fabric was able to prevent platelet adhesion. Furthermore, other non-haemolytic biomaterials can be created through self-assembly of more than 1.5 bilayers, and we propose that self-assembled silk fibroin fabric may be an attractive candidate for anticoagulation applications and for promoting

  11. Design and Optimization of Resorbable Silk Internal Fixation Devices

    Science.gov (United States)

    Haas, Dylan S.

    Limitations of current material options for internal fracture fixation devices have resulted in a large gap between user needs and hardware function. Metal systems offer robust mechanical strength and ease of implantation but require secondary surgery for removal and/or result in long-term complications (infection, palpability, sensitivity, etc.). Current resorbable devices eliminate the need for second surgery and long-term complications but are still associated with negative host response as well as limited functionality and more difficult implantation. There is a definitive need for orthopedic hardware that is mechanically capable of immediate fracture stabilization and fracture fixation during healing, can safely biodegrade while allowing complete bone remodeling, can be resterilized for reuse, and is easily implantable (self-tapping). Previous work investigated the use of silk protein to produce resorbable orthopedic hardware for non- load bearing fracture fixation. In this study, silk orthopedic hardware was further investigated and optimized in order to better understand the ability of silk as a fracture fixation system and more closely meet the unfulfilled market needs. Solvent-based and aqueous-based silk processing formulations were cross-linked with methanol to induce beta sheet structure, dried, autoclaved and then machined to the desired device/geometry. Silk hardware was evaluated for dry, hydrated and fatigued (cyclic) mechanical properties, in vitro degradation, resterilization, functionalization with osteoinductive molecules and implantation technique for fracture fixation. Mechanical strength showed minor improvements from previous results, but remains comparable to current resorbable fixation systems with the advantages of self-tapping ability for ease of implantation, full degradation in 10 months, ability to be resterilized and reused, and ability to release molecules for osteoinudction. In vivo assessment confirmed biocompatibility, showed

  12. Differential Scanning Fluorimetry provides high throughput data on silk protein transitions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vollrath, Fritz; Hawkins, Nick; Porter, David; Holland, Chris; Boulet-Audet, Maxime

    2014-01-01

    Here we present a set of measurements using Differential Scanning Fluorimetry (DSF) as an inexpensive, high throughput screening method to investigate the folding of silk protein molecules as they abandon their first native melt conformation, dehydrate and denature into their final solid filament conformation. Our first data and analyses comparing silks from spiders, mulberry and wild silkworms as well as reconstituted 'silk' fibroin show that DSF can provide valuable insights into details of silk denaturation processes that might be active during spinning. We conclude that this technique and technology offers a powerful and novel tool to analyse silk protein transitions in detail by allowing many changes to the silk solutions to be tested rapidly with microliter scale sample sizes. Such transition mechanisms will lead to important generic insights into the folding patterns not only of silks but also of other fibrous protein (bio)polymers.

  13. Silk reinforced with graphene or carbon nanotubes spun by spiders

    OpenAIRE

    Lepore, Emiliano; Bonaccorso, Francesco; Bruna, Matteo; Bosia, Federico; Taioli, Simone; Garberoglio, Giovanni; Ferrari, Andrea C.; Pugno, Nicola Maria

    2015-01-01

    Here, we report the production of silk incorporating graphene and carbon nanotubes directly by spider spinning, after spraying spiders with the corresponding aqueous dispersions. We observe a significant increment of the mechanical properties with respect to the pristine silk, in terms of fracture strength, Young's and toughness moduli. We measure a fracture strength up to 5.4 GPa, a Young's modulus up to 47.8 GPa and a toughness modulus up to 2.1 GPa, or 1567 J/g, which, to the best of our k...

  14. The Algorithm to Detect Color Gradation on Silk

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Suyoto

    2012-03-01

    Full Text Available The process of silk dyeing with natural dye extracts will produce a certain color. Using extracts of wood, leaf and their combinations will give some color gradations. This paper aims to create a new algorithm which can help one, whose intention is to formulate the combination of coloring process to achieve the desired color through combining coloring materials on silk fabric. This algorithm will be expected to be able to formulate the combination of colors with more than 75 percent of accuracy. The natural dyes used were Ceriops candolleana arn wood for the red, Cudraina javanensis wood for the yellow, and indigofera leaf for the blue base color.

  15. Untangling spider silk evolution with spidroin terminal domains

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Garb Jessica E

    2010-08-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Spidroins are a unique family of large, structural proteins that make up the bulk of spider silk fibers. Due to the highly variable nature of their repetitive sequences, spidroin evolutionary relationships have principally been determined from their non-repetitive carboxy (C-terminal domains, though they offer limited character data. The few known spidroin amino (N-terminal domains have been difficult to obtain, but potentially contain critical phylogenetic information for reconstructing the diversification of spider silks. Here we used silk gland expression data (ESTs from highly divergent species to evaluate the functional significance and phylogenetic utility of spidroin N-terminal domains. Results We report 11 additional spidroin N-termini found by sequencing ~1,900 silk gland cDNAs from nine spider species that shared a common ancestor > 240 million years ago. In contrast to their hyper-variable repetitive regions, spidroin N-terminal domains have retained striking similarities in sequence identity, predicted secondary structure, and hydrophobicity. Through separate and combined phylogenetic analyses of N-terminal domains and their corresponding C-termini, we find that combined analysis produces the most resolved trees and that N-termini contribute more support and less conflict than the C-termini. These analyses show that paralogs largely group by silk gland type, except for the major ampullate spidroins. Moreover, spidroin structural motifs associated with superior tensile strength arose early in the history of this gene family, whereas a motif conferring greater extensibility convergently evolved in two distantly related paralogs. Conclusions A non-repetitive N-terminal domain appears to be a universal attribute of spidroin proteins, likely retained from the origin of spider silk production. Since this time, spidroin N-termini have maintained several features, consistent with this domain playing a key role in silk

  16. Silk materials--a road to sustainable high technology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tao, Hu; Kaplan, David L; Omenetto, Fiorenzo G

    2012-06-01

    This review addresses the use of silk protein as a sustainable material in optics and photonics, electronics and optoelectronic applications. These options represent additional developments for this technology platform that compound the broad utility and impact of this material for medical needs that have been recently described in the literature. The favorable properties of the material certainly make a favorable case for the use of silk, yet serve as a broad inspiration to further develop biological foundries for both the synthesis and processing of Nature's materials for technological applications.

  17. Electrospun Thermoplastic Polyurethane Mats Containing Naproxen– Cyclodextrin Inclusion Complex

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Akduman Çiğdem

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available Incorporation of cyclodextrins (CDs into electrospun nanofibrous materials can be considered as potential candidates for functional medical textile applications. Naproxen (NAP is a type of non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drug commonly administered for the treatment of pain, inflammation and fever. Drug-inclusion complex formation with CDs is an approach to improve the aqueous solubility via molecular encapsulation of the drug within the cavity of the more soluble CD molecule. In this study, NAP or different NAP-CD inclusion complexes loaded nanofibres were successfully produced through electrospinning and characterised. The inclusion complex loaded mats exhibited significantly faster release profiles than NAP-loaded thermoplastic polyurethane (TPU mats. Overall, NAP-inclusion complex loaded TPU electrospun nanofibres could be used as drug delivery systems for acute pain treatments since they possess a highly porous structure that can release the drug immediately.

  18. Rapid Mercury(II Removal by Electrospun Sulfur Copolymers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Michael W. Thielke

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available Electrospinning was performed with a blend of commercially available poly(methyl methacrylate (PMMA and a sulfur-rich copolymer based on poly(sulfur-statistical-diisopropenylbenzene, which was synthesized via inverse vulcanization. The polysulfide backbone of sulfur-containing polymers is known to bind mercury from aqueous solutions and can be utilized for recycling water. Increasing the surface area by electrospinning can maximize the effect of binding mercury regarding the rate and maximum uptake. These fibers showed a mercury decrease of more than 98% after a few seconds and a maximum uptake of 440 mg of mercury per gram of electrospun fibers. These polymeric fibers represent a new class of efficient water filtering systems that show one of the highest and fastest mercury uptakes for electrospun fibers reported.

  19. Preparation and characterization of electrospun fibers of Nylon 11

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    2008-08-01

    Full Text Available Nylon 11 nanofibers mats were successfully prepared by electrospinning process from formic acid solution. The scanning electron microscopy (SEM images showed that nanofibers with uniform diameter were produced when the polymer concentration was 10% w/v, whereas ribbons were formed at a higher concentration. The crystalline structure of the nanofibers mats was investigated using X-ray diffraction (XRD and it was found that the nanofibers mats crystallized in α form. The melt crystallized as well as solution casted films however exhibited γ form. The thermal properties of these samples were studied using differential scanning calorimetry (DSC and it was observed that electrospun fibers showed higher crystallinity than the melt-crystallized samples. However, the crystallinity of electrospun fibers was lower than the solution-crystallized sample.

  20. Superacidic electrospun fiber-nafion hybrid proton exchange membranes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yao, Yingfang; Lin, Zhan; Li, Ying; Alcoutlabi, Mataz; Hamouda, Hechmi; Zhang, Xiangwu [Fiber and Polymer Science Program, Department of Textile Engineering, Chemistry and Science, North Carolina State University, Raleigh, NC 27695-8301 (United States)

    2011-11-15

    A novel type of hybrid membrane has been fabricated by incorporating superacidic sulfated zirconia (S-ZrO{sub 2}) fibers into recast Nafion for proton exchange membrane fuel cells (PEMFCs). With the introduction of electrospun superacidic fiber mats, a large amount of protogenic groups aggregated in the interfacial region between S-ZrO{sub 2} fibers and the ionomer matrix, forming continuous pathways for facile proton transport. The resultant hybrid membranes had high proton conductivities, which were controlled by selectively adjusting the fiber diameter and fiber volume fraction. Consequently, the superacidic S-ZrO{sub 2} electrospun fibers are promising filler materials and hybrid membranes containing S-ZrO{sub 2} fiber mats can be potentially used in high-performance fuel cells. (Copyright copyright 2011 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH and Co. KGaA, Weinheim)

  1. Electrospun nanofibrous materials for tissue engineering and drug delivery

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wenguo Cui, Yue Zhou and Jiang Chang

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available The electrospinning technique, which was invented about 100 years ago, has attracted more attention in recent years due to its possible biomedical applications. Electrospun fibers with high surface area to volume ratio and structures mimicking extracellular matrix (ECM have shown great potential in tissue engineering and drug delivery. In order to develop electrospun fibers for these applications, different biocompatible materials have been used to fabricate fibers with different structures and morphologies, such as single fibers with different composition and structures (blending and core-shell composite fibers and fiber assemblies (fiber bundles, membranes and scaffolds. This review summarizes the electrospinning techniques which control the composition and structures of the nanofibrous materials. It also outlines possible applications of these fibrous materials in skin, blood vessels, nervous system and bone tissue engineering, as well as in drug delivery.

  2. Electrospun materials for affinity-based engineering and drug delivery

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sill, T. J.; von Recum, H. A.

    2015-10-01

    Electrospinning is a process which can quickly and cheaply create materials of high surface to volume and aspect ratios from many materials, however in application toward drug delivery this can be a strong disadvantage as well. Diffusion of drug is proportional to the thickness of that device. In moving from macro to micro to nano-sized electrospun materials drug release rates change to profiles that are too fast to be therapeutically beneficial. In this work we use molecular interactions to further control the rate of release beyond that capable of diffusion alone. To do this we create materials with molecular pockets, which can "hold" therapeutic drugs through a reversible interaction such as a host/guest complexation. Through these complexes we show we are able to impact delivery of drug from electrospun materials, and also apply them in tissue engineering for the reversible presentation of biomolecules on a fiber surface.

  3. Advances in skin regeneration: application of electrospun scaffolds.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Norouzi, Mohammad; Boroujeni, Samaneh Moghadasi; Omidvarkordshouli, Noushin; Soleimani, Masoud

    2015-06-01

    The paucity of cellular and molecular signals essential for normal wound healing makes severe dermatological ulcers stubborn to heal. The novel strategies of skin regenerative treatments are focused on the development of biologically responsive scaffolds accompanied by cells and multiple biomolecules resembling structural and biochemical cues of the natural extracellular matrix (ECM). Electrospun nanofibrous scaffolds provide similar architecture to the ECM leading to enhancement of cell adhesion, proliferation, migration and neo tissue formation. This Review surveys the application of biocompatible natural, synthetic and composite polymers to fabricate electrospun scaffolds as skin substitutes and wound dressings. Furthermore, the application of biomolecules and therapeutic agents in the nanofibrous scaffolds viz growth factors, genes, antibiotics, silver nanoparticles, and natural medicines with the aim of ameliorating cellular behavior, wound healing, and skin regeneration are discussed. PMID:25721694

  4. Structure to function: Spider silk and human collagen

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rabotyagova, Olena S.

    Nature has the ability to assemble a variety of simple molecules into complex functional structures with diverse properties. Collagens, silks and muscles fibers are some examples of fibrous proteins with self-assembling properties. One of the great challenges facing Science is to mimic these designs in Nature to find a way to construct molecules that are capable of organizing into functional supra-structures by self-assembly. In order to do so, a construction kit consisting of molecular building blocks along with a complete understanding on how to form functional materials is required. In this current research, the focus is on spider silk and collagen as fibrous protein-based biopolymers that can shed light on how to generate nanostructures through the complex process of self-assembly. Spider silk in fiber form offers a unique combination of high elasticity, toughness, and mechanical strength, along with biological compatibility and biodegrability. Spider silk is an example of a natural block copolymer, in which hydrophobic and hydrophilic blocks are linked together generating polymers that organize into functional materials with extraordinary properties. Since silks resemble synthetic block copolymer systems, we adopted the principles of block copolymer design from the synthetic polymer literature to build block copolymers based on spider silk sequences. Moreover, we consider spider silk to be an important model with which to study the relationships between structure and properties in our system. Thus, the first part of this work was dedicated to a novel family of spider silk block copolymers, where we generated a new family of functional spider silk-like block copolymers through recombinant DNA technology. To provide fundamental insight into relationships between peptide primary sequence, block composition, and block length and observed morphological and structural features, we used these bioengineered spider silk block copolymers to study secondary structure

  5. Electrospun Fibro-porous Polyurethane Coatings for Implantable Glucose Biosensors

    OpenAIRE

    Wang, Ning; Burugapalli, Krishna; Song, Wenhui; Halls, Justin; Moussy, Francis; Ray, Asim; Zheng, Yudong

    2012-01-01

    This study reports methods for coating miniature implantable glucose biosensors with electrospun polyurethane (PU) membranes, their effects on sensor function and efficacy as mass-transport limiting membranes. For electrospinning fibres directly on sensor surface, both static and dynamic collector systems, were designed and tested. Optimum collector configurations were first ascertained by FEA modelling. Both static and dynamic collectors allowed complete covering of sensors, but it was the d...

  6. Potential of Electrospun Nanofibers for Biomedical and Dental Applications

    OpenAIRE

    Muhammad Zafar; Shariq Najeeb; Zohaib Khurshid; Masoud Vazirzadeh; Sana Zohaib; Bilal Najeeb; Farshid Sefat

    2016-01-01

    Electrospinning is a versatile technique that has gained popularity for various biomedical applications in recent years. Electrospinning is being used for fabricating nanofibers for various biomedical and dental applications such as tooth regeneration, wound healing and prevention of dental caries. Electrospun materials have the benefits of unique properties for instance, high surface area to volume ratio, enhanced cellular interactions, protein absorption to facilitate binding sites for cell...

  7. Mechanical properties of single electrospun drug-encapsulated nanofibres

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The mechanical and structural properties of a surface play an important role in determining the morphology of attached cells, and ultimately their cellular functions. As such, mechanical and structural integrity are important design parameters for a tissue scaffold. Electrospun fibrous meshes are widely used in tissue engineering. When in contact with electrospun scaffolds, cells see the individual micro- or nanofibres as their immediate microenvironment. In this study, tensile testing of single electrospun nanofibres composed of poly(ε-caprolactone) (PCL), and its copolymer, poly(caprolactone-co-ethyl ethylene phosphate) (PCLEEP), revealed a size effect in the Young's modulus, E, and tensile strength, σT. Both strength and stiffness increase as the fibre diameter decreases from bulk (∼5 μm) into the nanometre region (200-300 nm). In particular, E and σT of individual PCL nanofibres were at least two-fold and an order of magnitude higher than that of PCL film, respectively. PCL films were observed to have more pronounced crystallographic texture than the nanofibres; however no difference in crystalline fraction, perfection, or texture was detected among the various fibres. When drugs were encapsulated into single PCLEEP fibres, mechanical properties were enhanced with 1-20 wt% of loaded retinoic acid, but weakened by 10-20 wt% of encapsulated bovine serum albumin. This understanding of the effect of size and drug and protein encapsulation on the mechanical properties of electrospun fibres may help in the optimization of tissue scaffold design that combines biochemical and biomechanical cues for tissue regeneration

  8. Mechanical properties of single electrospun drug-encapsulated nanofibres

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chew, Sing Yian [Department of Materials Science and Engineering, Johns Hopkins University, Baltimore, MD 21218 (United States); Hufnagel, Todd C [Department of Materials Science and Engineering, Johns Hopkins University, Baltimore, MD 21218 (United States); Lim, Chwee Teck [Division of Bioengineering and Department of Mechanical Engineering, National University of Singapore, 117576, Singapore (Singapore); Leong, Kam W [Department of Biomedical Engineering, Duke University, Durham, NC 27708 (United States)

    2006-08-14

    The mechanical and structural properties of a surface play an important role in determining the morphology of attached cells, and ultimately their cellular functions. As such, mechanical and structural integrity are important design parameters for a tissue scaffold. Electrospun fibrous meshes are widely used in tissue engineering. When in contact with electrospun scaffolds, cells see the individual micro- or nanofibres as their immediate microenvironment. In this study, tensile testing of single electrospun nanofibres composed of poly({epsilon}-caprolactone) (PCL), and its copolymer, poly(caprolactone-co-ethyl ethylene phosphate) (PCLEEP), revealed a size effect in the Young's modulus, E, and tensile strength, {sigma}{sub T}. Both strength and stiffness increase as the fibre diameter decreases from bulk ({approx}5 {mu}m) into the nanometre region (200-300 nm). In particular, E and {sigma}{sub T} of individual PCL nanofibres were at least two-fold and an order of magnitude higher than that of PCL film, respectively. PCL films were observed to have more pronounced crystallographic texture than the nanofibres; however no difference in crystalline fraction, perfection, or texture was detected among the various fibres. When drugs were encapsulated into single PCLEEP fibres, mechanical properties were enhanced with 1-20 wt% of loaded retinoic acid, but weakened by 10-20 wt% of encapsulated bovine serum albumin. This understanding of the effect of size and drug and protein encapsulation on the mechanical properties of electrospun fibres may help in the optimization of tissue scaffold design that combines biochemical and biomechanical cues for tissue regeneration.

  9. Method for Coating a Tow with an Electrospun Nanofiber

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kohlman, Lee W. (Inventor); Roberts, Gary D. (Inventor)

    2015-01-01

    Method and apparatus for enhancing the durability as well as the strength and stiffness of prepreg fiber tows of the sort used in composite materials are disclosed. The method involves adhering electrospun fibers onto the surface of such composite materials as filament-wound composite objects and the surface of prepreg fiber tows of the sort that are subsequently used in the production of composite materials of the filament-wound, woven, and braided sorts. The apparatus performs the methods described herein.

  10. Various-sourced pectin and polyethylene oxide electrospun fibers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rockwell, Pamela L; Kiechel, Marjorie A; Atchison, Jennifer S; Toth, Laura J; Schauer, Caroline L

    2014-07-17

    Pectin, a naturally occurring and biorenewable polysaccharide, is derived from plant cell wall tissue and used in applications ranging from food processing to biomedical engineering. Due to extraction methods and source variation, there is currently no consensus in literature as to the exact structure of pectin. Here, we have studied key material properties of electrospun pectin blends with polyethylene oxide (PEO) (1:1, v/v) in order to demonstrate the fabrication of a fibrous and less toxic material system, as well as to understand the effects of source variability on the resulting fibrous mats. The bulk pectin degree of esterification (DE) estimated using FTIR (bulk apple pomace (AP)=28%, bulk citrus peel (CP)=86% and bulk sugar beet pulp (SBP)=91%) was shown to inversely correlate with electrospun fiber crystallinity determined using XRD (PEO-AP=37%, PEO-CP=28% and PEO-SBP=23%). This in turn affected the trend observed for the mean fiber diameter (n=50) (PEO-AP=124 ± 26 nm, PEO-CP=493 ± 254 nm and PEO-SBP=581 ± 178 nm) and elastic tensile moduli (1.6 ± 0.2 MPa, 4.37 ± 0.64 MPa and 2.49 ± 1.46 MPa, respectively) of the fibrous mats. Electrospun fibers containing bulk AP had the lowest DE, highest crystallinity, smallest mean fiber diameter, and lowest tensile modulus compared to either the bulk CP or bulk SBP. Bound water in PEO-CP fiber and bulk pectin impurities in PEO-SPB were observed to influence fiber branching and mean diameter distributions, which in turn influenced the fiber tensile properties. These results indicate that pectin, when blended with PEO in water, produces submicron fibrous mats with pectin influencing the blend fiber properties. Moreover, the source of pectin is an important variable in creating electrospun blend fibrous mats with desired material properties.

  11. Study on the Electrospun CNTs/Polyacrylonitrile-Based Nanofiber Composites

    OpenAIRE

    Bo Qiao; Xuejia Ding; Xiaoxiao Hou; Sizhu Wu

    2011-01-01

    CNTs/PAN nanofibers were electrospun from PAN-based solution for the preparation of carbon nanofiber composites. The as-spun polyacrylonitrile-based nanofibers were hot-stretched by weighing metal in a temperature controlled oven. Scanning electron microscopy (SEM) and transmission electron microscopy (TEM) were used to characterize the morphology of the nanofibers, which indicated that carbon nanotubes were dispersed well in the composites and were completely wrapped by PAN matrix. Because o...

  12. Performance Enhancement of Dental Composites Using Electrospun Nanofibers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    H. Dodiuk-Kenig

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available The objective of the present study is to investigate the effect of electrospun nanofiber reinforcement on the properties of commercially available, hyperbranched polymer modified (Hybrane, 0.3 wt.% DSM dental formulations. The emergence of functionalized nanoscale reinforcements having large surface area (hundreds of square meters/gram has enabled the design of novel nanocomposites with new and complex structures leading to enhanced mechanical and physical properties. Electrospun nanofibers from a range of polymer chemistries (PVOH, PLLA, Nylon 6 have been investigated as a reinforcing phase at levels between 0.01 and 0.3 wt.%, with and without a silane coupling agent surface treatment. The experimental results indicate that 0.05 wt.% reinforcement with 250 nm diameter PVOH nanofibers leads to a 30% improvement in compressive strength, coupled with a shrinkage reduction of about 50%. Electrospun fiber reinforcement by other chemistries or at other diameters showed either no property improvement or led to property loss.

  13. Functionalized electrospun nanofibers as bioseparators in microfluidic systems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Matlock-Colangelo, Lauren; Cho, Daehwan; Pitner, Christine L; Frey, Margaret W; Baeumner, Antje J

    2012-05-01

    Functionalized electrospun nanofibers were integrated into microfluidic channels to serve as on-chip bioseparators. Specifically, poly(vinyl alcohol) (PVA) nanofiber mats were shown to successfully serve as bioseparators for negatively charged nanoparticles. Nanofibers were electrospun onto gold microelectrodes, which were incorporated into poly(methyl methacrylate) (PMMA) microfluidic devices using UV-assisted thermal bonding. PVA nanofibers functionalized with poly(hexadimethrine bromide) (polybrene) were positively charged and successfully filtered negatively charged liposomes out of a buffer solution, while negatively charged nanofibers functionalized with Poly(methyl vinyl ether-alt-maleic anhydride) (POLY(MVE/MA)) were shown to repel the liposomes. The effect of fiber mat thickness was studied using confocal fluorescence microscopy, determining a quite broad optimal range of thicknesses for specific liposome retention, which simplifies fiber mat production with respect to retention reliability. Finally, it was demonstrated that liposomes bound to positively charged nanofibers could be selectively released using a 4-(2-Hydroxyethyl)piperazine-1-ethanesulfonic acid (HEPES)-sucrose-saline (HSS) solution of pH 9, which dramatically changes the nanofiber zeta potential and renders the positively charged nanofibers negatively charged. This is the first demonstration of functional electrospun nanofibers used to enable sample preparation procedures of isolation and concentration in lab-on-a-chip devices. This has far reaching impact on the ability to integrate functional surfaces and materials into microfluidic devices and to significantly expand their ability toward simple lab-on-a-chip devices.

  14. Cell Attachment to Hydrogel-Electrospun Fiber Mat Composite Materials

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jessica O. Winter

    2012-07-01

    Full Text Available Hydrogels, electrospun fiber mats (EFMs, and their composites have been extensively studied for tissue engineering because of their physical and chemical similarity to native biological systems. However, while chemically similar, hydrogels and electrospun fiber mats display very different topographical features. Here, we examine the influence of surface topography and composition of hydrogels, EFMs, and hydrogel-EFM composites on cell behavior. Materials studied were composed of synthetic poly(ethylene glycol (PEG and poly(ethylene glycol-poly(ε-caprolactone (PEGPCL hydrogels and electrospun poly(caprolactone (PCL and core/shell PCL/PEGPCL constituent materials. The number of adherent cells and cell circularity were most strongly influenced by the fibrous nature of materials (e.g., topography, whereas cell spreading was more strongly influenced by material composition (e.g., chemistry. These results suggest that cell attachment and proliferation to hydrogel-EFM composites can be tuned by varying these properties to provide important insights for the future design of such composite materials.

  15. Reinforcement of porous alginate scaffolds by incorporating electrospun fibres.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sakai, Shinji; Takagi, Yousuke; Yamada, Yusuke; Yamaguchi, Tetsu; Kawakami, Koei

    2008-09-01

    The mechanical properties of scaffolds play a vital role in transmitting input mechanical signals to the cells within them. We aimed to modify mechanical properties of porous scaffolds by incorporating electrospun fibres into their frameworks. Porous constructs containing electrospun silicate fibres were prepared from Na-alginate aqueous solutions suspending the silicate fibres with (ASF) or without amino groups (NASF) via an all-aqueous method based on a freeze-drying technique. The repulsion forces of constructs containing ASF towards compression increased as the fibre content increased. In contrast, constructs containing NASF showed no such increases in repulsion forces. Cells seeded onto constructs containing ASF exhibited suppressed growth, similar to cells seeded onto alginate scaffolds without fibres. In contrast, cells seeded onto scaffolds containing NASF showed about two-fold faster growth than cells seeded onto scaffolds containing ASF. The differences in the mechanical properties and cell growth profiles between the scaffolds containing ASF and NASF can be explained by the formation and non-formation of electrostatic bonds between the fibres and alginate, respectively. The results obtained in the present study demonstrate the feasibility of incorporating electrospun fibres for reinforcement of alginate scaffolds and enhancement of cell growth. PMID:18689918

  16. Reinforcement of porous alginate scaffolds by incorporating electrospun fibres

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sakai, Shinji; Takagi, Yousuke; Yamada, Yusuke; Yamaguchi, Tetsu; Kawakami, Koei [Department of Chemical Engineering, Faculty of Engineering, Kyushu University, 744 Motooka, Nishi-ku, Fukuoka 819-0395 (Japan)

    2008-09-01

    The mechanical properties of scaffolds play a vital role in transmitting input mechanical signals to the cells within them. We aimed to modify mechanical properties of porous scaffolds by incorporating electrospun fibres into their frameworks. Porous constructs containing electrospun silicate fibres were prepared from Na-alginate aqueous solutions suspending the silicate fibres with (ASF) or without amino groups (NASF) via an all-aqueous method based on a freeze-drying technique. The repulsion forces of constructs containing ASF towards compression increased as the fibre content increased. In contrast, constructs containing NASF showed no such increases in repulsion forces. Cells seeded onto constructs containing ASF exhibited suppressed growth, similar to cells seeded onto alginate scaffolds without fibres. In contrast, cells seeded onto scaffolds containing NASF showed about two-fold faster growth than cells seeded onto scaffolds containing ASF. The differences in the mechanical properties and cell growth profiles between the scaffolds containing ASF and NASF can be explained by the formation and non-formation of electrostatic bonds between the fibres and alginate, respectively. The results obtained in the present study demonstrate the feasibility of incorporating electrospun fibres for reinforcement of alginate scaffolds and enhancement of cell growth.

  17. Coaxial electrospun fibers: applications in drug delivery and tissue engineering.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lu, Yang; Huang, Jiangnan; Yu, Guoqiang; Cardenas, Romel; Wei, Suying; Wujcik, Evan K; Guo, Zhanhu

    2016-09-01

    Coelectrospinning and emulsion electrospinning are two main methods for preparing core-sheath electrospun nanofibers in a cost-effective and efficient manner. Here, physical phenomena and the effects of solution and processing parameters on the coaxial fibers are introduced. Coaxial fibers with specific drugs encapsulated in the core can exhibit a sustained and controlled release. Their exhibited high surface area and three-dimensional nanofibrous network allows the electrospun fibers to resemble native extracellular matrices. These features of the nanofibers show that they have great potential in drug delivery and tissue engineering applications. Proteins, growth factors, antibiotics, and many other agents have been successfully encapsulated into coaxial fibers for drug delivery. A main advantage of the core-sheath design is that after the process of electrospinning and release, these drugs remain bioactive due to the protection of the sheath. Applications of coaxial fibers as scaffolds for tissue engineering include bone, cartilage, cardiac tissue, skin, blood vessels and nervous tissue, among others. A synopsis of novel coaxial electrospun fibers, discussing their applications in drug delivery and tissue engineering, is covered pertaining to proteins, growth factors, antibiotics, and other drugs and applications in the fields of bone, cartilage, cardiac, skin, blood vessel, and nervous tissue engineering, respectively. WIREs Nanomed Nanobiotechnol 2016, 8:654-677. doi: 10.1002/wnan.1391 For further resources related to this article, please visit the WIREs website. PMID:26848106

  18. Patterned electrospun nanofiber matrices via localized dissolution: potential for guided tissue formation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jia, Chao; Yu, Dou; Lamarre, Marven; Leopold, Philip L; Teng, Yang D; Wang, Hongjun

    2014-12-23

    With the assistance of an ink-jet printer, solvent (the "ink") can be controllably and reproducibly printed onto electrospun nanofiber meshes (the "paper") to generate various micropatterns and subsequently guide distinct cellular organization and phenotype expression. In combination with the nanofiber-assisted layer-by-layer cell assembly, the patterned electrospun meshes will define an instructive microenvironment for guided tissue formation.

  19. Electrospun fish protein fibers as a biopolymer-based carrier – implications for oral protein delivery

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Boutrup Stephansen, Karen; García-Díaz, María; Jessen, Flemming;

    2014-01-01

    Purpose: Protein-based electrospun fibers have emerged as novel nanostructured materials for tissue engineering and drug delivery due to their unique structural characteristics, biocompatibility and biodegradability. The aim of this study was to explore the use of electrospun fibers based on fish...

  20. Fabrication of electrospun polycaprolactone coated withchitosan-silver nanoparticles membranes for wound dressing applications.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nhi, Tra Thanh; Khon, Huynh Chan; Hoai, Nguyen Thi Thu; Bao, Bui Chi; Quyen, Tran Ngoc; Van Toi, Vo; Hiep, Nguyen Thi

    2016-10-01

    In this study, electrospun polycaprolactone membrane coated with chitosan-silver nanoparticles (CsAg), electrospun polycaprolactone/chitosan/Ag nanoparticles, was fabricated by immersing the plasma-treated electrospun polycaprolactone membrane in the CsAg gel. The plasma modification of electrospun polycaprolactone membrane prior to CsAg coating was tested by methylene blue stain and scanning electron microscope. The presence of silver and chitosan on the plasma-treated electrospun polycaprolactone membrane was confirmed by energy-dispersive X-ray spectroscopy and FT-IR spectrum. Scanning electron microscope observation was employed to observe the morphology of the membranes. The release of Ag ions from electrospun polycaprolactone/chitosan/Ag nanoparticles membrane was tested using atomic absorption spectrometry. Electrospun polycaprolactone/chitosan/Ag nanoparticles membrane inherited advantages from both CsAg gel and electrospun polycaprolactone membrane such as: increasing biocompatibility, mechanical strength, and antibacterial activity against both Gram-negative and Gram-positive bacteria. Thus, this investigation introduces a highly potential membrane that can increase the efficacy of the wound dressing process. PMID:27620739

  1. Compact, Programmable, and Stable Biofunctionalized Upconversion Nanoparticles Prepared through Peptide-Mediated Phase Transfer for High-Sensitive Protease Sensing and in Vivo Apoptosis Imaging.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zeng, Tao; Zhang, Tao; Wei, Wei; Li, Zhi; Wu, Dan; Wang, Li; Guo, Jun; He, Xuewen; Ma, Nan

    2015-06-10

    Protease represents an important class of biomarkers for disease diagnostics and drug screening. Conventional fluorescence-based probes for in vivo protease imaging suffer from short excitation wavelengths and poor photostability. Upconversion nanoparticles (UCNPs) hold great promise for biosensing and bioimaging because of their deep-tissue excitability, robust photostability, and minimal imaging background. However, producing highly stable and compact biofunctionalized UCNP probes with optimal bioresponsivity for in vivo imaging of protease activities still remains challenging and has not been previously demonstrated. Herein, we report facile preparation of highly compact and stable biofunctionalized UCNPs through peptide-mediated phase transfer for high-sensitive detection of protease in vitro and in vivo. We demonstrate that the polyhistidine-containing chimeric peptides could displace oleic acid molecules capped on UCNPs synthesized in organic solvents and, thereby, directly transfer UCNPs from the chloroform phase to the water phase. The resulting UCNPs possess high stability, programmable surface properties, and a compact coating layer with minimized thickness for efficient luminescence resonance energy transfer (LRET). On the basis of this strategy, we prepared LRET-based UCNP probes with optimal bioresponsivity for in vitro high-sensitive detection of trypsin and in vivo imaging of apoptosis for chemotherapy efficacy evaluation. The reported strategy could be extended to construct a variety of peptide-functionalized UCNPs for various biomedical applications.

  2. Transcriptomic Analysis of the Anterior Silk Gland in the Domestic Silkworm (Bombyx mori - Insight into the Mechanism of Silk Formation and Spinning.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Huaipu Chang

    Full Text Available Silk proteins are synthesized in the middle and posterior silk glands of silkworms, then transit into the anterior of the silk gland, where the silk fibers are produced, stored and processed. The mechanism of formation and spinning of the silk fibers has not been fully elucidated, and transcriptome analyses specific to the anterior silk gland have not been reported. In the present study, we explored gene expression profiles in five regions of silk gland samples using the RNA-Seq method. As a result, there were 959,979,570 raw reads obtained, of which 583,068,172 reads were mapped to the silkworm genome. A total of 7419 genes were found to be expressed in terms of reads per kilobase of exon model per million mapped reads ≥ 5 in at least one sample. The gene numbers and expression levels of the expressed genes differed between these regions. The differentially expressed genes were analyzed, and 282 genes were detected as up-regulated in the anterior silk gland, compared with the other parts. Functions of these genes were addressed using the gene ontology and Kyoto Encyclopedia of Genes and Genomes databases, and seven key pathways were enriched. It suggested that the ion transportation, energy metabolism, protease inhibitors and cuticle proteins played essential roles in the process of silk formation and spinning in the anterior silk gland. In addition, 210 genes were found differently expressed between males and females, which should help to elucidate the mechanism of the quality difference in silk fibers from male and female silkworms.

  3. Influence of Hybridization on the Traits of Silk Production and Filament Denier in Indian Tropical Tasar Silk Insect, Antheraea mylitta Drury

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A.K. Srivastava

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available The aim of the present study is to explore hybridization influence to achieve the potential of silk yield and quality in commercial tasarculture, as against the current status of applying only a few wild and semi-domesticated ecoraces of Antheraea mylitta D to produce raw silk during commercial crop rearing season (September-December. The four F1 hybrid combinations generated using Daba, Jata and Raily tasar ecoraces of seed crop rearing season (July-August were evaluated during commercial crop season of 2007 and 2008 for the influence of hybridization as positive heterosis in the traits of economically important silk productivity and filament denier. The F1 hybrid, Daba x Jata has recorded positive heterosis in single shell weight (+25.6%, total silk yield (+79.0% and silk filament length (+68.1%, but for silk filament of high denier (11.98 d followed by its reciprocal hybrid, JataxDaba in shell weight (+18.8%, silk yield (+68.1%, filament length (+63.8% and filament of highest denier (12.32 d. Though, the RailyxDaba hybrid could show highest heterosis in shell weight (2.47 g with filament of least denier (10.86 d, the improvement in filament length was marginal (+44.7% and heterosis in silk yield was negative (-47.0%, while the performance of DabaxRaily hybrid was least among the hybrids. The study infers hybridization influence on silk related traits at F1 level as positive heterosis and the application feasibility of DabaxJata and JataxDaba hybrids during commercial crop rearing season for higher silk productivity with silk filament denier at least better than one of the parents of F1 hybrid combination.

  4. Bioprospecting finds the toughest biological material: extraordinary silk from a giant riverine orb spider.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ingi Agnarsson

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Combining high strength and elasticity, spider silks are exceptionally tough, i.e., able to absorb massive kinetic energy before breaking. Spider silk is therefore a model polymer for development of high performance biomimetic fibers. There are over 41,000 described species of spiders, most spinning multiple types of silk. Thus we have available some 200,000+ unique silks that may cover an amazing breadth of material properties. To date, however, silks from only a few tens of species have been characterized, most chosen haphazardly as model organisms (Nephila or simply from researchers' backyards. Are we limited to 'blindly fishing' in efforts to discover extraordinary silks? Or, could scientists use ecology to predict which species are likely to spin silks exhibiting exceptional performance properties? METHODOLOGY: We examined the biomechanical properties of silk produced by the remarkable Malagasy 'Darwin's bark spider' (Caerostris darwini, which we predicted would produce exceptional silk based upon its amazing web. The spider constructs its giant orb web (up to 2.8 m(2 suspended above streams, rivers, and lakes. It attaches the web to substrates on each riverbank by anchor threads as long as 25 meters. Dragline silk from both Caerostris webs and forcibly pulled silk, exhibits an extraordinary combination of high tensile strength and elasticity previously unknown for spider silk. The toughness of forcibly silked fibers averages 350 MJ/m(3, with some samples reaching 520 MJ/m(3. Thus, C. darwini silk is more than twice tougher than any previously described silk, and over 10 times better than Kevlar®. Caerostris capture spiral silk is similarly exceptionally tough. CONCLUSIONS: Caerostris darwini produces the toughest known biomaterial. We hypothesize that this extraordinary toughness coevolved with the unusual ecology and web architecture of these spiders, decreasing the likelihood of bridgelines breaking and collapsing the web

  5. Silk for silver : Dutch-Vietnamese relations, 1637-1700

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hoang Anh Tuan,

    2006-01-01

    Against the background of a regional crisis caused by dynastic change in China and the closure of Japan in the middle of the seventeenth century, the Vietnamese kingdom of Tonkin rose to the fore as the major silk producing and exporting region in East Asia. Based on a wealth of so far unused primar

  6. Relationships between physical properties and sequence in silkworm silks

    Science.gov (United States)

    Malay, Ali D.; Sato, Ryota; Yazawa, Kenjiro; Watanabe, Hiroe; Ifuku, Nao; Masunaga, Hiroyasu; Hikima, Takaaki; Guan, Juan; Mandal, Biman B.; Damrongsakkul, Siriporn; Numata, Keiji

    2016-06-01

    Silk has attracted widespread attention due to its superlative material properties and promising applications. However, the determinants behind the variations in material properties among different types of silk are not well understood. We analysed the physical properties of silk samples from a variety of silkmoth cocoons, including domesticated Bombyx mori varieties and several species from Saturniidae. Tensile deformation tests, thermal analyses, and investigations on crystalline structure and orientation of the fibres were performed. The results showed that saturniid silks produce more highly-defined structural transitions compared to B. mori, as seen in the yielding and strain hardening events during tensile deformation and in the changes observed during thermal analyses. These observations were analysed in terms of the constituent fibroin sequences, which in B. mori are predicted to produce heterogeneous structures, whereas the strictly modular repeats of the saturniid sequences are hypothesized to produce structures that respond in a concerted manner. Within saturniid fibroins, thermal stability was found to correlate with the abundance of poly-alanine residues, whereas differences in fibre extensibility can be related to varying ratios of GGX motifs versus bulky hydrophobic residues in the amorphous phase.

  7. Identification and classification of silks using infrared spectroscopy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boulet-Audet, Maxime; Vollrath, Fritz; Holland, Chris

    2015-10-01

    Lepidopteran silks number in the thousands and display a vast diversity of structures, properties and industrial potential. To map this remarkable biochemical diversity, we present an identification and screening method based on the infrared spectra of native silk feedstock and cocoons. Multivariate analysis of over 1214 infrared spectra obtained from 35 species allowed us to group silks into distinct hierarchies and a classification that agrees well with current phylogenetic data and taxonomies. This approach also provides information on the relative content of sericin, calcium oxalate, phenolic compounds, poly-alanine and poly(alanine-glycine) β-sheets. It emerged that the domesticated mulberry silkmoth Bombyx mori represents an outlier compared with other silkmoth taxa in terms of spectral properties. Interestingly, Epiphora bauhiniae was found to contain the highest amount of β-sheets reported to date for any wild silkmoth. We conclude that our approach provides a new route to determine cocoon chemical composition and in turn a novel, biological as well as material, classification of silks. PMID:26347557

  8. Where East Meets West: Highlights of Xinjiang Silk Road Artifacts

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    LiangFeng

    2003-01-01

    The mysterious ancient Silk Road, which stretched over 7,000 kilometers, linked different nations on the Asia-Europe continent for more than 2,000 years. On this trade route of historical significance, there is one place where four great ancient civilizations of the world, Chinese, Indian, Greek and Islamic, converged -- Xinjiang.

  9. Redoable Tie-Over Dressing Using Multiple Loop Silk Threads

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hyeon Jong Jo

    2013-05-01

    Full Text Available After skin grafting, to prevent hematoma or seroma collection at the graft site, a tie-over dressing has been commonly used. However, although the conventional tie-over dressing by suture is a useful method for securing a graft site, refixation is difficult when repeated tieover dressing is needed. Therefore, we recommend a redoable tie-over dressing technique with multiple loops threads and connecting silk threads. After the raw surface of each of our cases was covered with a skin graft, multiple loop silk thread attached with nylon at the skin graft margin. We applied the ointment gauze and wet cotton/fluffy gauze over the skin graft, then fixed the dressing by connecting cross-counter multiple loop thread with connecting silk threads. When we opened the tie-over dressing by cutting the connecting silk threads, we repeated the tie-over dressing with the same method. The skin graft was taken successfully without hematoma or seroma collection or any other complications. In conclusion, we report a novel tie-over dressing enabling simple fixation of the dressing to maintain proper tension for wounds that require repetitive fixation. Further, with this reliable method, the skin grafts were well taken.

  10. Redoable tie-over dressing using multiple loop silk threads.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jo, Hyeon Jong; Kim, Jun Sik; Kim, Nam Gyun; Lee, Kyung Suk; Choi, Jae Hoon

    2013-05-01

    After skin grafting, to prevent hematoma or seroma collection at the graft site, a tie-over dressing has been commonly used. However, although the conventional tie-over dressing by suture is a useful method for securing a graft site, refixation is difficult when repeated tie-over dressing is needed. Therefore, we recommend a redoable tie-over dressing technique with multiple loops threads and connecting silk threads. After the raw surface of each of our cases was covered with a skin graft, multiple loop silk thread attached with nylon at the skin graft margin. We applied the ointment gauze and wet cotton/fluffy gauze over the skin graft, then fixed the dressing by connecting cross-counter multiple loop thread with connecting silk threads. When we opened the tie-over dressing by cutting the connecting silk threads, we repeated the tie-over dressing with the same method. The skin graft was taken successfully without hematoma or seroma collection or any other complications. In conclusion, we report a novel tie-over dressing enabling simple fixation of the dressing to maintain proper tension for wounds that require repetitive fixation. Further, with this reliable method, the skin grafts were well taken.

  11. Structures of Silk Fibers Grafted with Hexafluorobutyl Methacrylate

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2007-01-01

    The relationship between the graft yield and the effect of hexafluorobutyl methacrylate graft treatment on the structural changes of the silk fibers was studied on the basis of the results of scanning electron micrograph photographs (SEM), infrared spectroscopy (IR), Raman spectrum,wide-angle X-ray diffraction patterns (WAXD), nuclear magnetic resonance(NMR) and amion acid analysis. The results showed that the crystalline regions of grafted fibers were hardly affected and the fiber fission occurred on the cross sections of grafted fibers. The surface of fibers was covered with a high polymer film. The Raman spectrum showed there was little change in the conformation of grafted fibers which mainly remained β-sheet conformation. The IR of the grafted silk fibers showed new absorption of bands occurred which belonged to the stretching-vibrationabsorption-peak bands of VC=O and VC-F of aliphatic ester species. The CF3-,-CF2- and -CFH- structures of grafted silk macromdlecule were verified in the NMR spectrum.The amion acid analysis indicated fluoride monomers were inclined to graft with TYR,ARG and GLU of silk fibers.

  12. Containment of extended length polymorphisms in silk proteins.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chinali, Alberto; Vater, Wolfram; Rudakoff, Baerbel; Sponner, Alexander; Unger, Eberhard; Grosse, Frank; Guehrs, Karl-Heinz; Weisshart, Klaus

    2010-04-01

    The spider silk gene family to the current date has been developed by gene duplication and homogenization events as well as conservation of crucial sequence parts. These evolutionary processes have created an amazing diversity of silk types each associated with specific properties and functions. In addition, they have led to allelic and gene variants within a species as exemplified by the major ampullate spidroin 1 gene of Nephila clavipes. Due to limited numbers of individuals screened to date little is known about the extent of these heterogeneities and how they are finally manifested in the proteins. Using expanded sample sizes, we show that sequence variations expressed as deletions or insertions of tri-nucleotides lead to different sized and structured repetitive units throughout a silk protein. Moreover, major ampullate spidroins 1 can quite dramatically differ in their overall lengths; however, extreme variants do not spread widely in a spider population. This suggests that a certain size range stabilized by purifying selection is important for spidroin 1 gene integrity and protein function. More than one locus for spidroin 1 genes possibly exist within one individual genome, which are homogenized in size, are differentially expressed and give a spider a certain degree of adaptation on silk's composition and properties. Such mechanisms are shared to a lesser extent by the second major ampullate spidroin gene.

  13. The Political Economics of the New Silk Road

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sárvári Balázs

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available What has now been coined the term XXI Century Silk Road had evolved from a speech given by Chinese premier Xi Jinping in Kazakhstan in 2013. It was initially a plan aimed at promoting the bilateral relations of China and its neighbors; however, the initiative had since then traversed the region’s borders and become a global project.

  14. The Political Economics of the New Silk Road

    OpenAIRE

    Sárvári Balázs; Szeidovitz Anna

    2016-01-01

    What has now been coined the term XXI Century Silk Road had evolved from a speech given by Chinese premier Xi Jinping in Kazakhstan in 2013. It was initially a plan aimed at promoting the bilateral relations of China and its neighbors; however, the initiative had since then traversed the region’s borders and become a global project.

  15. Teaching the Silk Road: A Journey of Pedagogical Discovery.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Andrea, A. J.; Mierse, William

    2002-01-01

    Describes a course for first-year college students that focuses on the Silk Road. Discusses the problems that occurs in such a course, types of resources used, basic strategies and tactics taken, and the focus on mapmaking in the beginning of the course. Includes an annotated bibliography. (CMK)

  16. Another Way of Knowing: Visualizing the Ancient Silk Routes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bisland, Beverly Milner

    2010-01-01

    One way that people learn, remember and communicate is visually. We combine past experiences with new visual information to construct meaning. In this study, elementary teachers introduced their students to the peoples and places of the ancient silk routes using illustrations from two children's picture books, "Marco Polo," written by Gian Paolo…

  17. Identification and classification of silks using infrared spectroscopy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boulet-Audet, Maxime; Vollrath, Fritz; Holland, Chris

    2015-10-01

    Lepidopteran silks number in the thousands and display a vast diversity of structures, properties and industrial potential. To map this remarkable biochemical diversity, we present an identification and screening method based on the infrared spectra of native silk feedstock and cocoons. Multivariate analysis of over 1214 infrared spectra obtained from 35 species allowed us to group silks into distinct hierarchies and a classification that agrees well with current phylogenetic data and taxonomies. This approach also provides information on the relative content of sericin, calcium oxalate, phenolic compounds, poly-alanine and poly(alanine-glycine) β-sheets. It emerged that the domesticated mulberry silkmoth Bombyx mori represents an outlier compared with other silkmoth taxa in terms of spectral properties. Interestingly, Epiphora bauhiniae was found to contain the highest amount of β-sheets reported to date for any wild silkmoth. We conclude that our approach provides a new route to determine cocoon chemical composition and in turn a novel, biological as well as material, classification of silks.

  18. Nederland loopt voorop met geconditioneerd telen (interview met Silke Hemming)

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Arkesteijn, M.; Hemming-Hoffmann, S.

    2007-01-01

    Sinds 1998 heeft Nederland ervaring met het telen in gesloten kassen en loopt daarmee voorop met geconditioneerd telen. Andere landen maken daarmee een voorzichtig begin. Silke Hemming, teamleider Tuinbouwtechnologie bij Wageningen UR Glastuinbouw, bezocht eind 2007 een congres over gesloten kassyst

  19. Analysis of proteome dynamics inside the silk gland lumen of Bombyx mori.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dong, Zhaoming; Zhao, Ping; Zhang, Yan; Song, Qianru; Zhang, Xiaolu; Guo, Pengchao; Wang, Dandan; Xia, Qingyou

    2016-01-01

    The silk gland is the only organ where silk proteins are synthesized and secreted in the silkworm, Bombyx mori. Silk proteins are stored in the lumen of the silk gland for around eight days during the fifth instar. Determining their dynamic changes is helpful for clarifying the secretion mechanism of silk proteins. Here, we identified the proteome in the silk gland lumen using liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry, and demonstrated its changes during two key stages. From day 5 of the fifth instar to day 1 of wandering, the abundances of fibroins, sericins, seroins, and proteins of unknown functions increased significantly in different compartments of the silk gland lumen. As a result, these accumulated proteins constituted the major cocoon components. In contrast, the abundances of enzymes and extracellular matrix proteins decreased in the silk gland lumen, suggesting that they were not the structural constituents of silk. Twenty-five enzymes may be involved in the regulation of hormone metabolism for proper silk gland function. In addition, the metabolism of other non-proteinous components such as chitin and pigment were also discussed in this study. PMID:27102218

  20. Preparation and characterization of biomimetic silk fibroin/chitosan composite nanofibers by electrospinning for osteoblasts culture

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Jyh-Ping; Chen, Shih-Hsien; Lai, Guo-Jyun

    2012-03-01

    In this study, we have successfully fabricated electrospun bead-free silk fibroin [SF]/chitosan [CS] composite nanofibers [NFs] covering the whole range of CS content (0%, 25%, 50%, 75%, and 100%). SF/CS spinning solutions were prepared in a mixed solvent system of trifluoroacetic acid [TFA] and dichloromethane. The morphology of the NFs was observed by scanning electron microscope, and the average fiber diameter ranges from 215 to 478 nm. Confocal laser scanning microscopy confirms the uniform distribution of SF and CS within the composite NFs. To increase biocompatibility and preserve nanostructure when seeded with cells in culture medium, NFs were treated with an ethanol/ammonia aqueous solution to remove residual TFA and to change SF protein conformation. After the chemical treatment, SF/CS NFs could maintain the original structure for up to 54 days in culture medium. Properties of pristine and chemically treated SF/CS NFs were investigated by Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy [FT-IR], X-ray diffraction [XRD], and thermogravimetry/differential scanning calorimetry [TG/DSC]. Shift of absorption peaks in FT-IR spectra confirms the conformation change of SF from random coil to β-sheet by the action of ethanol, which is also consistent with the SF crystalline diffraction patterns measured by XRD. From TG/DSC analysis, the decomposition temperature peaks due to salt formation from TFA and protonated amines disappeared after chemical treatment, indicating complete removal of TFA by binding with ammonium ions during the treatment. This was also confirmed with the disappearance of F1s peak in X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy spectra and disappearance of TFA salt peaks in FT-IR spectra. The composite NFs could support the growth and osteogenic differentiation of human fetal osteoblastic [hFOB] cells, but each component in the composite NF shows distinct effect on cell behavior. SF promotes hFOB proliferation while CS enhances hFOB differentiation. The composite

  1. Conductive polymer combined silk fiber bundle for bioelectrical signal recording.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shingo Tsukada

    Full Text Available Electrode materials for recording biomedical signals, such as electrocardiography (ECG, electroencephalography (EEG and evoked potentials data, are expected to be soft, hydrophilic and electroconductive to minimize the stress imposed on living tissue, especially during long-term monitoring. We have developed and characterized string-shaped electrodes made from conductive polymer with silk fiber bundles (thread, which offer a new biocompatible stress free interface with living tissue in both wet and dry conditions.An electroconductive polyelectrolyte, poly(3,4-ethylenedioxythiophene-poly(styrenesulfonate (PEDOT-PSS was electrochemically combined with silk thread made from natural Bombyx mori. The polymer composite 280 µm thread exhibited a conductivity of 0.00117 S/cm (which corresponds to a DC resistance of 2.62 Mohm/cm. The addition of glycerol to the PEDOT-PSS silk thread improved the conductivity to 0.102 S/cm (20.6 kohm/cm. The wettability of PEDOT-PSS was controlled with glycerol, which improved its durability in water and washing cycles. The glycerol treated PEDOT-PSS silk thread showed a tensile strength of 1000 cN in both wet and dry states. Without using any electrolytes, pastes or solutions, the thread directly collects electrical signals from living tissue and transmits them through metal cables. ECG, EEG, and sensory evoked potential (SEP signals were recorded from experimental animals by using this thread placed on the skin. PEDOT-PSS silk glycerol composite thread offers a new class of biocompatible electrodes in the field of biomedical and health promotion that does not induce stress in the subjects.

  2. Effect of residual sericin on the structural characteristics and properties of regenerated silk films.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Ji Hye; Song, Dae Woong; Park, Young Hwan; Um, In Chul

    2016-08-01

    Regenerated silk film has been increasingly attracting the research community's attention for biomedical applications due to its good biocompatibility and excellent cyto-compatibility. However, some limitations regarding its mechanical properties, such as brittleness, have restricted the use of silk films for industrial biomedical applications. In this study, regenerated silk films with different residual sericin content were prepared applying controlled degumming conditions to evaluate the effect of sericin content on the structure and properties of the films generated. When the residual sericin content increased to 0.6%, crystallinity index and breaking strength of silk films were increased. Above this value, these parameters then decreased. A 1.5 fold increase of silk film elongation properties was obtained when incorporating 16% sericin. Regardless of sericin content, all regenerated silk films showed excellent cyto-compatibility, comparable to the one obtained with tissue culture plates. PMID:27126168

  3. Spider genomes provide insight into composition and evolution of venom and silk.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sanggaard, Kristian W; Bechsgaard, Jesper S; Fang, Xiaodong; Duan, Jinjie; Dyrlund, Thomas F; Gupta, Vikas; Jiang, Xuanting; Cheng, Ling; Fan, Dingding; Feng, Yue; Han, Lijuan; Huang, Zhiyong; Wu, Zongze; Liao, Li; Settepani, Virginia; Thøgersen, Ida B; Vanthournout, Bram; Wang, Tobias; Zhu, Yabing; Funch, Peter; Enghild, Jan J; Schauser, Leif; Andersen, Stig U; Villesen, Palle; Schierup, Mikkel H; Bilde, Trine; Wang, Jun

    2014-05-06

    Spiders are ecologically important predators with complex venom and extraordinarily tough silk that enables capture of large prey. Here we present the assembled genome of the social velvet spider and a draft assembly of the tarantula genome that represent two major taxonomic groups of spiders. The spider genomes are large with short exons and long introns, reminiscent of mammalian genomes. Phylogenetic analyses place spiders and ticks as sister groups supporting polyphyly of the Acari. Complex sets of venom and silk genes/proteins are identified. We find that venom genes evolved by sequential duplication, and that the toxic effect of venom is most likely activated by proteases present in the venom. The set of silk genes reveals a highly dynamic gene evolution, new types of silk genes and proteins, and a novel use of aciniform silk. These insights create new opportunities for pharmacological applications of venom and biomaterial applications of silk.

  4. Improvement of Quality of a Modern Commercial Silk Mill through effective Process and Machine Control Parameters

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dr. Swapan Kumar Ghosh

    2016-08-01

    Full Text Available This paper deals with international and national scenario of commercial production and market share of silk fabrics with particular reference to process along with machine control parameters followed by adoption of good practices in the preparatory stages during production of the silk fabric in a commercial Silk Mill. An observatory report has been presented here for starting from yarn to the fabric stage, which indicates the major technical reasons for deterioration in the quality of the silk products affecting the cost factor and environment to some extent. This paper delineates an effective monitoring and controlling process variables along with machine parameters at every step of production of silk fabric from its filament yarn stage, particularly during the modern high speed silk twisting process, enhancing the quality of the finished product on one hand and minimizing wastage along with the cost of production and adverse environmental impact on the other

  5. Cross-linking in the silks of bees, ants and hornets.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Campbell, Peter M; Trueman, Holly E; Zhang, Qiang; Kojima, Katsura; Kameda, Tsunenori; Sutherland, Tara D

    2014-05-01

    Silk production is integral to the construction of nests or cocoons for many Aculeata, stinging Hymenopterans such as ants, bees and wasps. Here we report the sequences of new aculeate silk proteins and compare cross-linking among nine native silks from three bee species (Apis mellifera, Bombus terrestris and Megachile rotundata), three ant species (Myrmecia forficata, Oecophylla smaragdina and Harpegnathos saltator) and three hornets (Vespa analis, Vespa simillima and Vespa mandarinia). The well studied silks of spiders and silkworms are comprised of large proteins that are cross-linked and stabilized predominantly by intra and intermolecular beta sheet structure. In contrast, the aculeate silks are comprised of relatively small proteins that contain central coiled coil domains and comparatively reduced amounts of beta sheet structure. The hornet silks, which have the most beta sheet structure and the greatest amount of amino acid sequence outside the coiled-coil domains, dissolve in concentrated LiBr solution and appear to be stabilized predominantly by beta sheet structure like the classic silks. In contrast, the ant and bee silks, which have less beta sheet and less sequence outside the coiled-coil domains, could not be dissolved in LiBr and appear to be predominantly stabilized by covalent cross-linking. The iso-peptide cross-linker, ε-(γ-glutamyl)-lysine that is produced by transglutaminase enzymes, was demonstrated to be present in all silks by mass spectrometry, but at greater levels in silks of ants and bees. The bee silks and ant cocoons, but not the Oecophylla nest silks, appeared to be further stabilized by tanning reactions. PMID:24607851

  6. China Silk Commodities: Exports Down by 5.05% in Q1

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Zhang Yan

    2007-01-01

    @@ According to statistics promulgated by China Customs, total export value of silk commodities was 1.776 billion USD from January to March of 2007, down by 5.05% compared with the same period of last year. Among the export commodities, pure silk commodities export was 803 million USD, a decrease of 10.17% year-on-year; man-made silk commodities export was 972 million USD, descended by 0.35%.

  7. China Silk Commodities:Exports Down by 5.05% in Q1

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2007-01-01

    According to statistics promulgated by China Customs, total export value of silk commodities was 1.776 billion USD from January to March of 2007,down by 5.05% compared with the same period of last year.Among the export commodities,pure silk commodities export was 803 million USD,a decrease of 10.17% year-on-year;man-made silk commodities export was 972 million USD,descended by 0.35%.

  8. Silk Reeling and Health: Life Style and Quality of Life of Workers

    OpenAIRE

    Anand Inbanathan; Om Prakash

    2003-01-01

    Silk reeling is an activity where mostly people of little education and skill learn reeling skills while being employed in the reeling units. Reeling is carried out in an environment of persistent air pollution. Workers allergic to the silk allergen (sericin and pupal allergens) suffer from respiratory problems and asthma, i.e. of occupational asthma. Non-occupational asthma victims may suffer exacerbations due to irritant effects of the silk occupation. Work-aggravated asthma follows mainly ...

  9. ELECTROPHORETIC SEPARATION AND COMPARATIVE ANALYSIS OF SILK GLAND PROTEINS FROM BOMBYX AND PHILOSAMIA

    OpenAIRE

    Muzafar A Bhat, Punyavathi and Manjunatha H Boregowda*

    2014-01-01

    A comparative analysis of protein extracted from different regions of silk glands in the Bombyx mori L. and Philosamia ricini Hutt was performed employing single-dimensional-electrophoresis technique. Notably, a protein extracted directly from the lumen of the middle silk gland yielded two discrete protein bands with molecular mass of 325 and 26 kDa representing fibroin heavy (H) and low (L) chains than whole silk gland of B. mori. Contrastingly, such differentiation in protein separation cou...

  10. The Historical Connotation and Contemporary Enlightenment of the Silk Road Featuring Peace and Mutual Benefit

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Li; Liming

    2014-01-01

    <正>Part One,the Silk Road and the Spirit of the Silk Road The traditional sense of the Silk Road(SR)refers to the Chinese land trade routes through Central Asia to South Asia,West Asia,Europe and North Africa.This ancient channel connects European and Asian continents,having two to three thousand years history,spanning seven thousand kilometers long,evolving the

  11. The Performance of Silk Scaffolds in a Rat Model of Augmentation Cystoplasty

    OpenAIRE

    Seth, Abhishek; Chung, Yeun Goo; Gil, Eun Seok; Tu, Duong; Franck, Debra; Di Vizio, Dolores; Adam, Rosalyn M.; Kaplan, David L.; Estrada, Carlos R.; Mauney, Joshua R

    2013-01-01

    The diverse processing plasticity of silk-based biomaterials offers a versatile platform for understanding the impact of structural and mechanical matrix properties on bladder regenerative processes. Three distinct groups of 3-D matrices were fabricated from aqueous solutions of Bombyx mori silk fibroin either by a gel spinning technique (GS1 and GS2 groups) or a solvent-casting/salt-leaching method in combination with silk film casting (FF group). SEM analyses revealed that GS1 matrices cons...

  12. Differential Scanning Fluorimetry provides high throughput data on silk protein transitions

    OpenAIRE

    Vollrath, Fritz; Hawkins, Nick; Porter, David; Holland, Chris; Boulet-Audet, Maxime

    2014-01-01

    Here we present a set of measurements using Differential Scanning Fluorimetry (DSF) as an inexpensive, high throughput screening method to investigate the folding of silk protein molecules as they abandon their first native melt conformation, dehydrate and denature into their final solid filament conformation. Our first data and analyses comparing silks from spiders, mulberry and wild silkworms as well as reconstituted ‘silk' fibroin show that DSF can provide valuable insights into details of...

  13. Synthesis of Flexible Aerogel Composites Reinforced with Electrospun Nanofibers and Microparticles for Thermal Insulation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Huijun Wu

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Flexible silica aerogel composites in intact monolith of 12 cm were successfully fabricated by reinforcing SiO2 aerogel with electrospun polyvinylidene fluoride (PVDF webs via electrospinning and sol-gel processing. Three electrospun PVDF webs with different microstructures (e.g., nanofibers, microparticles, and combined nanofibers and microparticles were fabricated by regulating electrospinning parameters. The as-electrospun PVDF webs with various microstructures were impregnated into the silica sol to synthesize the PVDF/SiO2 composites followed by solvent exchange, surface modification, and drying at ambient atmosphere. The morphologies of the PVDF/SiO2 aerogel composites were characterized and the thermal and mechanical properties were measured. The effects of electrospun PVDF on the thermal and mechanical properties of the aerogel composites were evaluated. The aerogel composites reinforced with electrospun PVDF nanofibers showed intact monolith, improved strength, and perfect flexibility and hydrophobicity. Moreover, the aerogel composites reinforced with the electrospun PVDF nanofibers had the lowest thermal conductivity (0.028 W·m−1·K−1. It indicates that the electrospun PVDF nanofibers could greatly improve the mechanical strength and flexibility of the SiO2 aerogels while maintaining a lower thermal conductivity, which provides increasing potential for thermal insulation applications.

  14. Nutritional compositions and antioxidative capacity of the silk obtained from immature and mature corn

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nurhanan Abdul Rahman

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available The silks of immature and mature corn were evaluated for their variations in nutritional compositions, mineral content and antioxidant capacity. Both immature and mature silks were good source of nutritional compositions. Immature silks contained significantly higher moisture (89.31% (fresh basis, lipid (1.27% and protein (12.96% content than the mature silk. Mature silks contained higher composition of ash (5.51%, carbohydrate (29.74% and total dietary fiber (51.25 g/100 g, than the immature silk, but the difference was not significant. In mineral determination, immature silk was rich source of Ca (1087.08 μg/g, Mg (1219.17 μg/g, Cu (5.60 μg/g and Zn (46.37 μg/g than the mature silks. In contrast, other minerals such as K (35671.67 μg/g, Na (266.67 μg/g, Fe (4.50 μg/g and Mn (35.57 μg/g were found higher in the mature silk. The silks were extracted with ethyl acetate, ethanol and water using the Soxhlet extraction method to determine the polyphenol and ABTS radical scavenging capacity. From this study, the highest content of total polyphenol of immature silks was exhibited by ethanol extract (92.21 mg GAE/g while water extract (64.22 mg GAE/g had the highest polyphenol content among mature silk extracts. Total flavonoid content of both immature and mature silks was higher in the water extract at 8.40 mg CAE/g and 2.31 mg CAE/g, respectively. In the ABTS free radical assay method, all immature silk extracts had higher percentage of inhibition compared to the mature silks. Among all three crude extracts, the ethanol extract of immature (EC50 = 0.478 mg/ml and mature silk (EC50 = 0.799 mg/ml exhibited the strongest antioxidant capacity followed by the water and ethyl acetate extract.

  15. Silk-pectin hydrogel with superior mechanical properties, biodegradability, and biocompatibility.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Numata, Keiji; Yamazaki, Shoya; Katashima, Takuya; Chuah, Jo-Ann; Naga, Naofumi; Sakai, Takamasa

    2014-06-01

    A new method is developed to prepare silk hydrogels and silk-pectin hydrogels via dialysis against methanol to obtain hydrogels with high concentrations of silk fibroin. The relationship between the mechanical and biological properties and the structure of the silk-pectin hydrogels is subsequently evaluated. The present results suggest that pectin associates with silk molecules when the silk concentration exceeds 15 wt%, suggesting that a silk concentration of over 15 wt% is critical to construct interacting silk-pectin networks. The silk-pectin hydrogel reported here is composed of a heterogeneous network, which is different from fiber-reinforced, interpenetrated networks and double-network hydrogels, as well as high-stiffness hydrogels (elastic modulus of 4.7 ± 0.9 MPa, elastic stress limit of 3.9 ± 0.1 MPa, and elastic strain limit of 48.4 ± 0.5%) with regard to biocompatibility and biodegradability.

  16. Identification, recombinant production and structural characterization of four silk proteins from the Asiatic honeybee Apis cerana.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shi, Jiahai; Lua, Shixiong; Du, Ning; Liu, Xiangyang; Song, Jianxing

    2008-06-01

    Unlike silkworm and spider silks assembled from very large and repetitive fibrous proteins, the bee and ant silks were recently demonstrated to consist of four small and non-repetitive coiled-coil proteins. The design principle for this silk family remains largely unknown and so far no structural study is available on them in solution. The present study aimed to identify, express and characterize the Asiatic honeybee silk proteins using DLS, CD and NMR spectroscopy. Consequently, (1) four silk proteins are identified, with approximately 6, 10, 9 and 8% variations, respectively, from their European honeybee homologs. Strikingly, their recombinant forms can be produced in Escherichia coil with yields of 10-60 mg/l. (2) Despite containing approximately 65% coiled-coil sequences, four proteins have very low alpha-helix (9-27%) but unusually high random coil (45-56%) contents. Surprisingly, beta-sheet is also detected in four silk proteins (26-35%), implying the possible presence of beta-sheet in the bee and ant silks. (3) Four proteins lacking of the tight tertiary packing appear capable of interacting with each other weakly but this interaction triggers no significant formation of the tight tertiary packing. The study not only implies the promising potential to produce recombinant honeybee silk proteins for the development of various biomaterials; but also provides the first structural insight into the molecular mechanism underlying the formation of the coiled-coil silks. PMID:18394700

  17. Inner ear delivery of dexamethasone using injectable silk-polyethylene glycol (PEG) hydrogel.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yu, Dehong; Sun, Changling; Zheng, Zhaozhu; Wang, Xueling; Chen, Dongye; Wu, Hao; Wang, Xiaoqin; Shi, Fuxin

    2016-04-30

    Minimally invasive delivery and sustained release of therapeutics to the inner ear are of importance to the medical treatment of inner ear disease. In this study, the injectable silk fibroin-polyethylene glycol (Silk-PEG) hydrogel was investigated as a drug delivery carrier to deliver poorly soluble micronized dexamethasone (mDEX) to the inner ear of guinea pigs. Encapsulation of mDEX with a loading up to 5% (w/v) did not significantly change the silk gelation time, and mDEX were evenly distributed in the PEG-Silk hydrogel as visualized by SEM. The loading of mDEX in Silk-PEG hydrogel largely influenced in vitro drug release kinetics. The optimized Silk-PEG-mDEX hydrogel (2.5% w/v loading, in situ-forming,10μl) was administered directly onto the round window membrane of guinea pigs. The DEX concentration in perilymph maintained above 100ng/ml for at least 10 days for the Silk-PEG formulation while less than 12h for the control sample of free mDEX. Minimal systemic exposure was achieved with low DEX concentrations (scala taympani. The Silk-PEG hydrogel completely degraded in 21 days. Thus, the injectable PEG-Silk hydrogel is an effective and safe vehicle for inner ear delivery and sustained release of glucocorticoid. PMID:26972377

  18. Proteomic Analysis of Silk Viability in Maize Inbred Lines and Their Corresponding Hybrids.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zhihui Ma

    Full Text Available A long period of silk viability is critical for a good seed setting rate in maize (Zea mays L., especially for inbred lines and hybrids with a long interval between anthesis and silking. To explore the molecular mechanism of silk viability and its heterosis, three inbred lines with different silk viability characteristics (Xun928, Lx9801, and Zong3 and their two hybrids (Xun928×Zong3 and Lx9801×Zong3 were analyzed at different developmental stages by a proteomic method. The differentially accumulated proteins were identified by mass spectrometry and classified into metabolism, protein biosynthesis and folding, signal transduction and hormone homeostasis, stress and defense responses, and cellular processes. Proteins involved in nutrient (methionine and energy (ATP supply, which support the pollen tube growth in the silk, were important for silk viability and its heterosis. The additive and dominant effects at a single locus, as well as complex epistatic interactions at two or more loci in metabolic pathways, were the primary contributors for mid-parent heterosis of silk viability. Additionally, the proteins involved in the metabolism of anthocyanins, which indirectly negatively regulate local hormone accumulation, were also important for the mid-parent heterosis of silk viability. These results also might imply the developmental dependence of heterosis, because many of the differentially accumulated proteins made distinct contributions to the heterosis of silk viability at specific developmental stages.

  19. Hypotheses that correlate the sequence, structure, and mechanical properties of spider silk proteins.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hayashi, C Y; Shipley, N H; Lewis, R V

    1999-01-01

    Several types of silks and silk protein coding genes have been characterized from orb-web weaving spiders. When the protein sequences of major ampullate, minor ampullate, and flagelliform silks from Nephila clavipes are compared, they can be summarized as sets of shared amino acid motifs. Four of these motifs and their likely secondary structures are described. Each structural element, termed a module, is then associated with its impact on the mechanical properties of a silk fiber. In particular, correlations are drawn between an alanine-rich 'crystalline module' and tensile strength and between a proline-containing 'elasticity module' and extensibility.

  20. Synthesis and Characterization of PVA-HA-Silk Composite Hydrogel by Orthogonal Experiment

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Dekun Zhang; Kai Chen; Lin Wu; Dagang Wang; Shirong Ge

    2012-01-01

    PVA-HA-Silk composite hydrogel was synthesized with polyvinyl alcohol (PVA),nano-hydroxyapatite (HA) and natural silk by using the method of repeated freezing and thawing.A series of tests were performed to study water content,stress relaxation behavior,elastic modulus,and creep characteristics of PVA-HA-Silk composite hydrogel.Orthogonal experimental design method was used to analyze the influence degree of PVA,HA and silk (three kinds of raw materials) on mechanical properties and water content of the PVA-HA-Silk composite hydrogel to select the best material ratio according to their overall performance.The results demonstrate that the mass percentage of PVA has the greatest impact on the water content,followed by HA and silk.Compression stress-strain variation of PVA-HA-Silk composite hydrogel presents a nonlinear relationship,which proves that it is a typical viscoelastic material.Comparing the mechanical properties of 16 formulas,the formula of PVA-HA-silk composite hydrogel with mass percentage of PVA 15%,HA 2.0% and silk 1.0% is the best.

  1. Proteomic Analysis of Silk Viability in Maize Inbred Lines and Their Corresponding Hybrids.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ma, Zhihui; Qin, Yongtian; Wang, Yafei; Zhao, Xiaofeng; Zhang, Fangfang; Tang, Jihua; Fu, Zhiyuan

    2015-01-01

    A long period of silk viability is critical for a good seed setting rate in maize (Zea mays L.), especially for inbred lines and hybrids with a long interval between anthesis and silking. To explore the molecular mechanism of silk viability and its heterosis, three inbred lines with different silk viability characteristics (Xun928, Lx9801, and Zong3) and their two hybrids (Xun928×Zong3 and Lx9801×Zong3) were analyzed at different developmental stages by a proteomic method. The differentially accumulated proteins were identified by mass spectrometry and classified into metabolism, protein biosynthesis and folding, signal transduction and hormone homeostasis, stress and defense responses, and cellular processes. Proteins involved in nutrient (methionine) and energy (ATP) supply, which support the pollen tube growth in the silk, were important for silk viability and its heterosis. The additive and dominant effects at a single locus, as well as complex epistatic interactions at two or more loci in metabolic pathways, were the primary contributors for mid-parent heterosis of silk viability. Additionally, the proteins involved in the metabolism of anthocyanins, which indirectly negatively regulate local hormone accumulation, were also important for the mid-parent heterosis of silk viability. These results also might imply the developmental dependence of heterosis, because many of the differentially accumulated proteins made distinct contributions to the heterosis of silk viability at specific developmental stages. PMID:26630375

  2. Biobased silver nanocolloid coating on silk fibers for prevention of post-surgical wound infections

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dhas SP

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available Sindhu Priya Dhas, Suruthi Anbarasan, Amitava Mukherjee, Natarajan Chandrasekaran Center for Nanobiotechnology, VIT University, Vellore, India Abstract: Bombyx mori silk fibers are an important biomaterial and are used in surgical sutures due to their remarkable biocompatibility. The major drawback to the application of biomaterials is the risk of bacterial invasion, leading to clinical complications. We have developed an easy and cost-effective method for fabrication of antibacterial silk fibers loaded with silver nanoparticles (AgNPs by an in situ and ex situ process using an aqueous extract of Rhizophora apiculata leaf. Scanning electron microscopy revealed that well dispersed nanoparticles impregnated the silk fibers both in situ and ex situ. The crystalline nature of the AgNPs in the silk fibers was demonstrated by X-ray diffraction. The thermal and mechanical properties of the silk fibers were enhanced after they were impregnated with AgNPs. The silver-coated silk fibers fabricated by the in situ and ex situ method exhibited more than 90% inhibition against Pseudomonas aeruginosa and Staphylococcus aureus. Silk fibers doped with AgNPs were found to be biocompatible with 3T3 fibroblasts. The results obtained represent an important advance towards the clinical application of biocompatible AgNP-loaded silk fibers for prevention of surgical wound infections. Keywords: silk fibers, silver nanoparticles, antibacterial activity, wound infections, cytotoxicity, 3T3 fibroblast cells

  3. Electrospun Direct-write Multi-functional Nanofibers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chang, Jiyoung

    Multi-functional fibers by means of direct-write near-field electrospinning process have been developed for versatile applications on a wide variety of substrates, including flexible ones. Several maskless lithography techniques have been established by using the direct-write fibers in dry etching, wet etching and lift-off processes. By selecting the proper functional materials, electrospun direct-write fibers have been demonstrated in prototype working devices, such as large array piezoelectric nanogenerators made of polymeric PVDF (Polyvinylidene fluoride) and direct-write micro heaters made of metallic copper nanoparticles. In the first example, continuous yet uniform PVDF fibers have been electrospun on a flexible substrate. A post, electrical poling process has been introduced on electrodes with PDMS (Polydimethylsiloxane) as the filling media to achieve an electrical potential of 2x107 V/m. In the prototype device, 500 energy harvesting points formed by 50 pairs of fibers and 10 pairs of comb-shape electrodes have generated about 30nA of electrical current on a flexible substrate under an estimated strain of 0.1%. Both FTIR (Fourier Transform Infrared Spectroscopy) and XRD (X-Ray Diffraction) have been utilized to characterize the electrospun fibers and good beta-phase formation, an essential property for piezoelectricity, has been confirmed. For the next example, electrospun direct-write fibers have been employed to show three maskless lithography techniques; lift-off, wet-etching and dry-etching. These include the demonstration of sub-micrometer wide gaps between a thin metallic gold film using the lift-off process; 20microm-wide, 20mm-long lineshape micro heaters made of 30nm-thick copper film by a wet-etching process; and a 2microm-wide, 10microm-long graphene channel FET (Field Effect Transistor) via a dry-etching process. Electrospun PEO (Polyethylene oxide) fibers have been utilized in the aformentioned processes which has shown strong adhesion to the

  4. Nanoclay-Directed Structure and Morphology in PVDF Electrospun Membranes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kyunghwan Yoon

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available The incorporation of organically modified Lucentite nanoclay dramatically modifies the structure and morphology of the PVDF electrospun fibers. In a molecular level, the nanoclay preferentially stabilizes the all-trans conformation of the polymer chain, promoting an α to β transformation of the crystalline phase. The piezoelectric properties of the β-phase carry great promise for energy harvest applications. At a larger scale, the nanoclay facilitates the formation of highly uniform, bead-free fibers. Such an effect can be attributed to the enhanced conductivity and viscoelasticity of the PVDF-clay suspension. The homogenous distribution of the directionally aligned nanoclays imparts advanced mechanical properties to the nanofibers.

  5. Electrospun nylon 6 microfiltration membrane for treatment of brewery wastewater

    Science.gov (United States)

    Islam, Md. Shahidul; Sultana, Sormin; Rahaman, Md. Saifur

    2016-07-01

    Nylon 6 microfiltration membrane, for the treatment of brewery wastewater, was fabricated using an electrospinning technique, followed by hot-pressing. The fabricated membrane was robust and demonstrated highly hydrophilic property (water contact angle 39° at the touching point to the membrane surface and the water droplet was completely immersed into the membrane in 7 seconds), and higher porosity (65%) with pore sizes of 100 to 210 nm. The electrospun nylon 6 membrane showed higher pure water flux (850 LMH) at an applied pressure of 4 psi. The same membrane also demonstrated a 95% rejection rate of suspended solids (SS) in brewery wastewater treatment.

  6. Engineered Polymer Composites Through Electrospun Nanofiber Coating of Fiber Tows

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kohlman, Lee W.; Bakis, Charles; Williams, Tiffany S.; Johnston, James C.; Kuczmarski, Maria A.; Roberts, Gary D.

    2014-01-01

    Composite materials offer significant weight savings in many aerospace applications. The toughness of the interface of fibers crossing at different angles often determines failure of composite components. A method for toughening the interface in fabric and filament wound components using directly electrospun thermoplastic nanofiber on carbon fiber tow is presented. The method was first demonstrated with limited trials, and then was scaled up to a continuous lab scale process. Filament wound tubes were fabricated and tested using unmodified baseline towpreg material and nanofiber coated towpreg.

  7. Aligned electrospun polymer fibres for skeletal muscle regeneration

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    KJ Aviss

    2010-05-01

    Full Text Available Skeletal muscle repair is often overlooked in surgical procedures and in serious burn victims. Creating a tissue-engineered skeletal muscle would not only provide a grafting material for these clinical situations, but could also be used as a valuable true-to-life research tool into diseases affecting muscle tissue. Electrospinning of the elastomer PLGA produced aligned fibres that had the correct topology to provide contact guidance for myoblast elongation and alignment. In addition, the electrospun scaffold required no surface modifications or incorporation of biologic material for adhesion, elongation, and differentiation of C2C12 murine myoblasts.

  8. Electrospun Fibers of Enteric Polymer for Controlled Drug Delivery

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fábia F. P. da Costa

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available The production of electrospun fibers of enteric polymer for controlled delivery of drugs represents a simple and low cost procedure with promising advantages relative to the longer therapeutic window provided by cylindrical geometry in association with intrinsic properties of pH-dependent drug carriers. In this work, we have explored the incorporation of additives (block copolymers of poly(ethylene-b-poly(ethylene oxide into matrix of Eudragit L-100 and the effective action of hybrid composites on delivery of nifedipine, providing improvement in the overall process of controlled release of loaded drug.

  9. Biomimetic spinning of silk fibers and in situ cell encapsulation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cheng, Jie; Park, DoYeun; Jun, Yesl; Lee, JaeSeo; Hyun, Jinho; Lee, Sang-Hoon

    2016-07-01

    In situ embedding of sensitive materials (e.g., cells and proteins) in silk fibers without damage presents a significant challenge due to the lack of mild and efficient methods. Here, we report the development of a microfluidic chip-based method for preparation of meter-long silk fibroin (SF) hydrogel fibers by mimicking the silkworm-spinning process. For the spinning of SF fibers, alginate was used as a sericin-like material to induce SF phase separation and entrap liquid SFs, making it possible to shape the outline of SF-based fibers under mild physicochemical conditions. L929 fibroblasts were encapsulated in the fibric hydrogel and displayed excellent viability. Cell-laden SF fibric hydrogels prepared using our method offer a new type of SF-based biomedical device with potential utility in biomedicine.

  10. Nonlinear control of high-frequency phonons in spider silk

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schneider, Dirk; Gomopoulos, Nikolaos; Koh, Cheong Y.; Papadopoulos, Periklis; Kremer, Friedrich; Thomas, Edwin L.; Fytas, George

    2016-10-01

    Spider dragline silk possesses superior mechanical properties compared with synthetic polymers with similar chemical structure due to its hierarchical structure comprised of partially crystalline oriented nanofibrils. To date, silk’s dynamic mechanical properties have been largely unexplored. Here we report an indirect hypersonic phononic bandgap and an anomalous dispersion of the acoustic-like branch from inelastic (Brillouin) light scattering experiments under varying applied elastic strains. We show the mechanical nonlinearity of the silk structure generates a unique region of negative group velocity, that together with the global (mechanical) anisotropy provides novel symmetry conditions for gap formation. The phononic bandgap and dispersion show strong nonlinear strain-dependent behaviour. Exploiting material nonlinearity along with tailored structural anisotropy could be a new design paradigm to access new types of dynamic behaviour.

  11. Biomimetic spinning of silk fibers and in situ cell encapsulation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cheng, Jie; Park, DoYeun; Jun, Yesl; Lee, JaeSeo; Hyun, Jinho; Lee, Sang-Hoon

    2016-07-01

    In situ embedding of sensitive materials (e.g., cells and proteins) in silk fibers without damage presents a significant challenge due to the lack of mild and efficient methods. Here, we report the development of a microfluidic chip-based method for preparation of meter-long silk fibroin (SF) hydrogel fibers by mimicking the silkworm-spinning process. For the spinning of SF fibers, alginate was used as a sericin-like material to induce SF phase separation and entrap liquid SFs, making it possible to shape the outline of SF-based fibers under mild physicochemical conditions. L929 fibroblasts were encapsulated in the fibric hydrogel and displayed excellent viability. Cell-laden SF fibric hydrogels prepared using our method offer a new type of SF-based biomedical device with potential utility in biomedicine. PMID:27296229

  12. Genetic engineering of fibrous proteins: spider dragline silk and collagen.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wong Po Foo, Cheryl; Kaplan, David L

    2002-10-18

    Various strategies have been employed to genetically engineer fibrous proteins. Two examples, the subject of this review, include spider dragline silk from Nephila clavipes and collagen. These proteins are highlighted because of their unique mechanical and biological properties related to controlled release, biomaterials and tissue engineering. Cloning and expression of native genes and synthetic artificial variants of the consensus sequence repeats from the native genes has been accomplished. Expression of recombinant silk and collagen proteins has been reported in a variety of host systems, including bacteria, yeast, insect cells, plants and mammalian cells. Future utility for these proteins for biomedical materials is expected to increase as needs expand for designer materials with tailored mechanical properties and biological interactions to elicit specific responses in vitro and in vivo.

  13. Recombinant Dragline Silk-Like Proteins—Expression and Purification

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gaines, William A.; Marcotte, William R.

    2011-01-01

    Spider dragline silk is a proteinaceous fiber with impressive physical characteristics making it attractive for use in advanced materials. The fiber is composed of two proteins (spidroins MaSp1 and MaSp2), each of which contains a large central repeat array flanked by non-repetitive N- and C-terminal domains. The repeat arrays appear to be largely responsible for the tensile properties of the fiber, suggesting that the N- and C-terminal domains may be involved in self-assembly. We recently isolated the MaSp1 and MaSp2 N-terminal domains from Nephila clavipes and have incorporated these into mini-silk genes for expression in transgenic systems. Current efforts involve the development of expression vectors that will allow purification using a removable affinity tag for scalable protein purification. PMID:23914141

  14. Recombinant Dragline Silk-Like Proteins-Expression and Purification.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gaines, William A; Marcotte, William R

    2011-03-01

    Spider dragline silk is a proteinaceous fiber with impressive physical characteristics making it attractive for use in advanced materials. The fiber is composed of two proteins (spidroins MaSp1 and MaSp2), each of which contains a large central repeat array flanked by non-repetitive N- and C-terminal domains. The repeat arrays appear to be largely responsible for the tensile properties of the fiber, suggesting that the N- and C-terminal domains may be involved in self-assembly. We recently isolated the MaSp1 and MaSp2 N-terminal domains from Nephila clavipes and have incorporated these into mini-silk genes for expression in transgenic systems. Current efforts involve the development of expression vectors that will allow purification using a removable affinity tag for scalable protein purification.

  15. SILK ROAD DISEASE: FROM LEGENDS TO THE 21st CENTURY

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Z. S. Alekberova

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available The paper considers the historical and geographical aspects of Behcet’s disease (BD. As is known, the geographical distribution of this disease is associated with the ancient caravan route called the Silk Road: it was in these areas along which the latter once ran there have been predominantly cases of BD so far. There are discrepancies in the literature regarding whether the Silk Road was across the North Caucasus, along the coast of the Caspian Sea in particular. In support of this conjecture, there is interesting evidence: stone-cutting images that have been retained on the houses of the Dagestani settlement of Kubachi. All give an answer why the natives of the North Caucasus constitute one-fourth of the total number of BD patients followed up at the V.A. Nasonova Research Institute of Rheumatology 

  16. The molecular structures of major ampullate silk proteins of the wasp spider, Argiope bruennichi: a second blueprint for synthesizing de novo silk.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Yang; Zhao, Ai-Chun; Sima, Yang-Hu; Lu, Cheng; Xiang, Zhong-Huai; Nakagaki, Masao

    2013-03-01

    The dragline silk of orb-weaving spiders possesses extremely high tensile strength and elasticity. To date, full-length sequences of only two genes encoding major ampullate silk protein (MaSp) in Latrodectus hesperus have been determined. In order to further understand this gene family, we utilized in this study a variety of strategies to isolate full-length MaSp1 and MaSp2 cDNAs in the wasp spider Argiope bruennichi. A. bruennichi MaSp1 and MaSp2 are primarily composed of remarkably homogeneous ensemble repeats containing several complex motifs, and both have highly conserved C-termini and N-termini. Two novel amino acid motifs, GGF and SGR, were found in MaSp1 and MaSp2, respectively. Amino acid composition analysis of silk, luminal contents and predicted sequences indicates that MaSp1 and MaSp2 are two major components of major ampullate glands and that the ratio of MaSp1 to MaSp2 is approximately 3:2 in dragline silk. Furthermore, both the MaSp1:MaSp2 ratio and the conserved termini are closely linked with the production of high quality synthetic fibers. Our results make an important contribution to our understanding of major ampullate silk protein structure and provide a second blueprint for creating new composite silk which mimics natural spider dragline silk. PMID:23262065

  17. Formulation of Biologically-Inspired Silk-Based Drug Carriers for Pulmonary Delivery Targeted for Lung Cancer

    OpenAIRE

    Sally Yunsun Kim; Deboki Naskar; Kundu, Subhas C.; Bishop, David P.; Doble, Philip A.; Boddy, Alan V.; Hak-Kim Chan; Ivan B. Wall; Wojciech Chrzanowski

    2015-01-01

    The benefits of using silk fibroin, a major protein in silk, are widely established in many biomedical applications including tissue regeneration, bioactive coating and in vitro tissue models. The properties of silk such as biocompatibility and controlled degradation are utilized in this study to formulate for the first time as carriers for pulmonary drug delivery. Silk fibroin particles are spray dried or spray-freeze-dried to enable the delivery to the airways via dry powder inhalers. The a...

  18. The effect of ageing on the mechanical properties of the silk of the bridge spider Larinioides cornutus (Clerck, 1757)

    OpenAIRE

    Emiliano Lepore; Marco Isaia; Stefano Mammola; Nicola Pugno

    2016-01-01

    Spider silk is regarded as one of the best natural polymer fibers especially in terms of low density, high tensile strength and high elongation until breaking. Since only a few bio-engineering studies have been focused on spider silk ageing, we conducted nano-tensile tests on the vertical naturally spun silk fibers of the bridge spider Larinioides cornutus (Clerck, 1757) (Arachnida, Araneae) to evaluate changes in the mechanical properties of the silk (ultimate stress and strain, Young’s modu...

  19. Structure and Property of Silk Fibroin / Cellulose Blend Film

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    CHEN Guo-qiang; XING Tie-ling

    2004-01-01

    Silk fibroin/cellulose blend films were prepared using N-methylmorpholine -N-oxide (NMMO) as solvent. The effects of different proportions and solid contents on properties of blend films were discussed. The mechanical properties showed that the blend films had preferable moisture permeability and a high strength. The structures of the blend films were investigated by infrared spectrum and X-ray diffraction. The results indicated the occurrence of hydrogen bonds between hydroxyl groups of cellulose and amido groups of fibroin.

  20. Calcium Phosphate Coating over Silk Fibroin Film by Biomimetic Methods

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2005-01-01

    To investigate the biomineralization behavior of silk fibroin and to valuate the biodegradation and biocompatibility of the hybrid biomaterial, the calcium phosphate deposits were identified with SEM, EDX,XRD and FTIR. The results reveal that supersaturated calcification solution is an effective method for the mineralization of fibroin film. Enzymatic degradation experiment demonstrates the biodegradability of the composites. Osteoblasts incubation shows an excellent cytocompatibility on the mineralized fibroin films.

  1. Spray drying as a method of producing silk sericin powders

    OpenAIRE

    G. Genç; G. Narin; O. Bayraktar

    2009-01-01

    Purpose: The purpose of paper is to analyse Spray drying as a method of producing silk sericin powders.Design/methodology/approach: Aqueous sericin solutions were used as raw material for the production of dry powders using a lab-scale spray dryer. A linear regression analysis of agglomeration was employed, in addition to experimental designs at two levels with three factors for the analysis of three responses: moisture content, particle type and agglomeration degree. The process factors were...

  2. An Understanding of The Maritime Silk Road International Strategic Importance

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Lin; Hongyu

    2015-01-01

    "The Maritime Silk Road"conception has a very significant international strategic importance,and to China,will certainly play a great role in promoting its economic development,which is only on the surface,and an in-depth reading is that it is a top-level strategic design,whose strategic role with the passage of time will be enlarged.In his address to Indonesian National Assembly in October 2013,President Xi

  3. Overcoming dormancy in seeds of cotton-silk tree

    OpenAIRE

    Irinaldo Lima do Nascimento

    2012-01-01

    Cotton-silk tree Ceiba glaziovii (kuntze) k. Schu belongs to family Bombacaceas and is locally known as barriguda. It is widely used in landscaping and reforestation, neverdeless seed dormancy affects reproduction in this species. The objective of this study was to evaluate the effectiveness of different methods to overcome dormancy in the germination process. Treatments included mechanical scarification with 85-grit sandpaper, chemical scarification with concentrated sulfuric acid for 5, 10,...

  4. Preparation and characterization of silk fibroin/HPMC blend film

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Shetty, G. Rajesha [Department of Physics, Govt. First Grade College Hiriadka, Udupi - 576113 (India); Kumar, R. Madhu; Rao, B. Lakshmeesha; Asha, S.; Sangappa, E-mail: syhalabhavi@yahoo.co.in [Department of Studies in Physics, Mangalore University, Mangalagangotri, Mangalore - 574199 (India)

    2015-06-24

    In this work, the structural and mechanical stability of silk fibroin/Hydroxypropylmethyl cellulose (SF-HPMC) blend films were characterized by X-ray diffraction (XRD) and Universal Testing Machine (UTM). The results indicate that with the introduction of HPMC, the interactions between SF and HPMC results in improved crystallite size and increase in mechanical properties. The blend film obtained is more flexible compared to pure SF film.

  5. Conductive Polymer Combined Silk Fiber Bundle for Bioelectrical Signal Recording

    OpenAIRE

    Shingo Tsukada; Hiroshi Nakashima; Keiichi Torimitsu

    2012-01-01

    Electrode materials for recording biomedical signals, such as electrocardiography (ECG), electroencephalography (EEG) and evoked potentials data, are expected to be soft, hydrophilic and electroconductive to minimize the stress imposed on living tissue, especially during long-term monitoring. We have developed and characterized string-shaped electrodes made from conductive polymer with silk fiber bundles (thread), which offer a new biocompatible stress free interface with living tissue in bot...

  6. Structural Analysis of Hand Drawn Bumblebee Bombus terrestris Silk

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andrea L. Woodhead

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available Bombus terrestris, commonly known as the buff-tailed bumblebee, is native to Europe, parts of Africa and Asia. It is commercially bred for use as a pollinator of greenhouse crops. Larvae pupate within a silken cocoon that they construct from proteins produced in modified salivary glands. The amino acid composition and protein structure of hand drawn B. terrestris, silk fibres was investigated through the use of micro-Raman spectroscopy. Spectra were obtained from single fibres drawn from the larvae salivary gland at a rate of 0.14 cm/s. Raman spectroscopy enabled the identification of poly(alanine, poly(alanine-glycine, phenylalanine, tryptophan, and methionine, which is consistent with the results of amino acid analysis. The dominant protein conformation was found to be coiled coil (73% while the β-sheet content of 10% is, as expected, lower than those reported for hornets and ants. Polarized Raman spectra revealed that the coiled coils were highly aligned along the fibre axis while the β-sheet and random coil components had their peptide carbonyl groups roughly perpendicular to the fibre axis. The protein orientation distribution is compared to those of other natural and recombinant silks. A structural model for the B. terrestris silk fibre is proposed based on these results.

  7. Printing of stretchable silk membranes for strain measurements.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ling, Shengjie; Zhang, Qiang; Kaplan, David L; Omenetto, Fiorenzo; Buehler, Markus J; Qin, Zhao

    2016-07-01

    Quantifying the deformation of biological tissues under mechanical loading is crucial to understand its biomechanical response in physiological conditions and important for designing materials and treatments for biomedical applications. However, strain measurements for biological tissues subjected to large deformations and humid environments are challenging for conventional methods due to several limitations such as strain range, boundary conditions, surface bonding and biocompatibility. Here we propose the use of silk solutions and printing to synthesize prototype strain gauges for large strain measurements in biological tissues. The study shows that silk-based strain gauges can be stretched up to 1300% without failure, which is more than two orders of magnitude larger than conventional strain gauges, and the mechanics can be tuned by adjusting ion content. We demonstrate that the printing approach can accurately provide well bonded fluorescent features on the silk membranes using designs which can accurately measure strain in the membrane. The results show that these new strain gauges measure large deformations in the materials by eliminating the effects of sliding from the boundaries, making the measurements more accurate than direct outputs from tensile machines. PMID:27241909

  8. Ultrathin Free-Standing Bombyx mori Silk Nanofibril Membranes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ling, Shengjie; Jin, Kai; Kaplan, David L; Buehler, Markus J

    2016-06-01

    We report a new ultrathin filtration membrane prepared from silk nanofibrils (SNFs), directly exfoliated from natural Bombyx mori silk fibers to retain structure and physical properties. These membranes can be prepared with a thickness down to 40 nm with a narrow distribution of pore sizes ranging from 8 to 12 nm. Typically, 40 nm thick membranes prepared from SNFs have pure water fluxes of 13 000 L h(-1) m(-2) bar(-1), more than 1000 times higher than most commercial ultrathin filtration membranes and comparable with the highest water flux reported previously. The commercial membranes are commonly prepared from polysulfone, poly(ether sulfone), and polyamide. The SNF-based ultrathin membranes exhibit efficient separation for dyes, proteins, and colloids of nanoparticles with at least a 64% rejection of Rhodamine B. This broad-spectrum filtration membrane would have potential utility in applications such as wastewater treatment, nanotechnology, food industry, and life sciences in part due to the protein-based membrane polymer (silk), combined with the robust mechanical and separation performance features. PMID:27076389

  9. Study on antibacterial activity of hydrogel from irradiated silk protein

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bunnak, J.; Chaisupakitsin, M. [King Mongkut' s Institute of Technology Lardkrabang, Bangkok (Thailand)

    2001-03-01

    Hydrogels for biomedical application were prepared from solution blends of 3% silk protein and 3%, 10% poly (vinyl alcohol) (PVA) and followed with irradiation. Mixture of hydrogels were gamma irradiated at 10, 20, 30, 40 and 50 kGy under N{sub 2} atmosphere. To clarify anti-bacterial activity of hydrogels, modified of the Agar disk diffusion method and American Association of Textile Chemists and Colorists, AATCC Test Method 90-1977, were carried out. The four kinds of bacteria such as Escherichia coli, Bacillus subtilis, Staphylococcus aureus and Staphylococcus epidermidis, were used. It was found that a 1:3 volume ratio of 3% silk protein and 3% PVA respectively, at 50 kGy irradiation, is suitable conditions for preparation hydrogels and trend to indicate the highest of an antibacterial activity against E. coli, B. subtilis and S. aureus. However the antibacterial activity of hydrogels against S. epidermidis was not clearly. These results are very useful to expand the application of hydrogel from irradiated silk protein to the medical products. (author)

  10. Thermal Properties of Silk Fibroin Using Fast Scanning Calorimetry

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cebe, Peggy; Partlow, Benjamin; Kaplan, David; Wurm, Andreas; Zhuravlev, Evgeny; Schick, Christoph

    We performed fast scanning chip-based calorimetry of silk protein using the Mettler Flash DSC1. We suggest the methodology by which to obtain quantitative information on the very first scan to high temperature, including the melting endotherm of the beta pleated sheets. For proteins, this first scan is the most important one, because the crystalline secondary structural features, the beta pleated sheets, melt after the first heating and cannot be thermally reintroduced. To obtain high quality data, the samples must be treated to drying and enthalpy relaxation sequences. The heat flow rates in heating and cooling must be corrected for asymmetric heat loses. We evaluate methods to obtain an estimate of the sample mass, finally choosing internal calibration using the known heat capacity increment at the glass transition. We report that even heating at rates of 2000 K/s, thermal degradation of silk cannot be totally avoided, though it can be minimized. Using a set of nineteen samples, we successfully determine the liquid state heat capacity of silk as: Cpliquid (T) = (1.98 +0.06) J/gK + T (6.82 +1.4) x10-4 J/gK2. Methods for estimation of the sample mass will be presented and compared. National Science Foundation, Polymers Program DMR-1206010; DAAD; Tufts Faculty Supported Leave.

  11. Development and characterization of silk fibroin coated quantum dots

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nathwani, B. B.; Needham, C.; Mathur, A. B.; Meissner, K. E.

    2008-02-01

    Recent progress in the field of semiconductor nanocrystals or Quantum Dots (QDs) has seen them find wider acceptance as a tool in biomedical research labs. As produced, high quality QDs, synthesized by high temperature organometallic synthesis, are coated with a hydrophobic ligand. Therefore, they must be further processed to be soluble in water and to be made biocompatible. To accomplish this, the QDs are generally coated with a synthetic polymer (eg. block copolymers) or the hydrophobic surface ligands exchanged with hydrophilic material (eg. thiols). Advances in this area have enabled the QDs to experience a smooth transition from being simple inorganic fluorophores to being smart sensors, which can identify specific cell marker proteins and help in diagnosis of diseases such as cancer. In order to improve the biocompatibility and utility of the QDs, we report the development of a procedure to coat QDs with silk fibroin, a fibrous crystalline protein extracted from Bombyx Mori silkworm. Following the coating process, we characterize the size, quantum yield and two-photon absorption cross section of the silk coated QDs. Additionally, the results of biocompatibility studies carried out to compare the properties of these QD-silks with conventional QDs are presented. These natural polymer coatings on QDs could enhance the intracellular delivery and enable the use of these nanocrystals as an imaging tool for studying subcellular machinery at the molecular level.

  12. Fabrication and Mechanical Characterization of Hydrogel Infused Network Silk Scaffolds

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kundanati, Lakshminath; Singh, Saket K.; Mandal, Biman B.; Murthy, Tejas G.; Gundiah, Namrata; Pugno, Nicola M.

    2016-01-01

    Development and characterization of porous scaffolds for tissue engineering and regenerative medicine is of great importance. In recent times, silk scaffolds were developed and successfully tested in tissue engineering and drug release applications. We developed a novel composite scaffold by mechanical infusion of silk hydrogel matrix into a highly porous network silk scaffold. The mechanical behaviour of these scaffolds was thoroughly examined for their possible use in load bearing applications. Firstly, unconfined compression experiments show that the denser composite scaffolds displayed significant enhancement in the elastic modulus as compared to either of the components. This effect was examined and further explained with the help of foam mechanics principles. Secondly, results from confined compression experiments that resemble loading of cartilage in confinement, showed nonlinear material responses for all scaffolds. Finally, the confined creep experiments were performed to calculate the hydraulic permeability of the scaffolds using soil mechanics principles. Our results show that composite scaffolds with some modifications can be a potential candidate for use of cartilage like applications. We hope such approaches help in developing novel scaffolds for tissue engineering by providing an understanding of the mechanics and can further be used to develop graded scaffolds by targeted infusion in specific regions. PMID:27681725

  13. Processing Techniques and Applications of Silk Hydrogels in Bioengineering.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Floren, Michael; Migliaresi, Claudio; Motta, Antonella

    2016-01-01

    Hydrogels are an attractive class of tunable material platforms that, combined with their structural and functional likeness to biological environments, have a diversity of applications in bioengineering. Several polymers, natural and synthetic, can be used, the material selection being based on the required functional characteristics of the prepared hydrogels. Silk fibroin (SF) is an attractive natural polymer for its excellent processability, biocompatibility, controlled degradation, mechanical properties and tunable formats and a good candidate for the fabrication of hydrogels. Tremendous effort has been made to control the structural and functional characteristic of silk hydrogels, integrating novel biological features with advanced processing techniques, to develop the next generation of functional SF hydrogels. Here, we review the several processing methods developed to prepare advanced SF hydrogel formats, emphasizing a bottom-up approach beginning with critical structural characteristics of silk proteins and their behavior under specific gelation environments. Additionally, the preparation of SF hydrogel blends and other advanced formats will also be discussed. We conclude with a brief description of the attractive utility of SF hydrogels in relevant bioengineering applications. PMID:27649251

  14. Study on antibacterial activity of hydrogel from irradiated silk protein

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hydrogels for biomedical application were prepared from solution blends of 3% silk protein and 3%, 10% poly (vinyl alcohol) (PVA) and followed with irradiation. Mixture of hydrogels were gamma irradiated at 10, 20, 30, 40 and 50 kGy under N2 atmosphere. To clarify anti-bacterial activity of hydrogels, modified of the Agar disk diffusion method and American Association of Textile Chemists and Colorists, AATCC Test Method 90-1977, were carried out. The four kinds of bacteria such as Escherichia coli, Bacillus subtilis, Staphylococcus aureus and Staphylococcus epidermidis, were used. It was found that a 1:3 volume ratio of 3% silk protein and 3% PVA respectively, at 50 kGy irradiation, is suitable conditions for preparation hydrogels and trend to indicate the highest of an antibacterial activity against E. coli, B. subtilis and S. aureus. However the antibacterial activity of hydrogels against S. epidermidis was not clearly. These results are very useful to expand the application of hydrogel from irradiated silk protein to the medical products. (author)

  15. Mechanisms of silk fibroin sol-gel transitions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Matsumoto, Akira; Chen, Jingsong; Collette, Adam L; Kim, Ung-Jin; Altman, Gregory H; Cebe, Peggy; Kaplan, David L

    2006-11-01

    Silk fibroin sol-gel transitions were studied by monitoring the process under various physicochemical conditions with optical spectroscopy at 550 nm. The secondary structural change of the fibroin from a disordered state in solution to a beta-sheet-rich conformation in the gel state was assessed by FTIR and CD over a range of fibroin concentrations, temperatures, and pH values. The structural changes were correlated to the degree of gelation based on changes in optical density at 550 nm. No detectable changes in the protein secondary structure (FTIR, CD) were found up to about 15% gelation (at 550 nm), indicating that these early stages of gelation are not accompanied by the formation of beta-sheets. Above 15%, the fraction of beta-sheet linearly increased with the degree of gelation. A pH dependency of gelation time was found with correlation to the predominant acidic side chains in the silk. Electrostatic interactions were related to the rate of gelation above neutral pH. The overall independencies of processing parameters including concentration, temperature, and pH on gel formation and protein structure can be related to primary sequence-specific features in the molecular organization of the fibroin protein. These findings clarify aspects of the self-assembly of this unique family of proteins as a route to gain control of material properties, as well as for new insight into the design of synthetic silk-biomimetic polymers with predictable solution and assembly properties.

  16. Processing Techniques and Applications of Silk Hydrogels in Bioengineering

    Science.gov (United States)

    Floren, Michael; Migliaresi, Claudio; Motta, Antonella

    2016-01-01

    Hydrogels are an attractive class of tunable material platforms that, combined with their structural and functional likeness to biological environments, have a diversity of applications in bioengineering. Several polymers, natural and synthetic, can be used, the material selection being based on the required functional characteristics of the prepared hydrogels. Silk fibroin (SF) is an attractive natural polymer for its excellent processability, biocompatibility, controlled degradation, mechanical properties and tunable formats and a good candidate for the fabrication of hydrogels. Tremendous effort has been made to control the structural and functional characteristic of silk hydrogels, integrating novel biological features with advanced processing techniques, to develop the next generation of functional SF hydrogels. Here, we review the several processing methods developed to prepare advanced SF hydrogel formats, emphasizing a bottom-up approach beginning with critical structural characteristics of silk proteins and their behavior under specific gelation environments. Additionally, the preparation of SF hydrogel blends and other advanced formats will also be discussed. We conclude with a brief description of the attractive utility of SF hydrogels in relevant bioengineering applications. PMID:27649251

  17. Processing Techniques and Applications of Silk Hydrogels in Bioengineering

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Michael Floren

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available Hydrogels are an attractive class of tunable material platforms that, combined with their structural and functional likeness to biological environments, have a diversity of applications in bioengineering. Several polymers, natural and synthetic, can be used, the material selection being based on the required functional characteristics of the prepared hydrogels. Silk fibroin (SF is an attractive natural polymer for its excellent processability, biocompatibility, controlled degradation, mechanical properties and tunable formats and a good candidate for the fabrication of hydrogels. Tremendous effort has been made to control the structural and functional characteristic of silk hydrogels, integrating novel biological features with advanced processing techniques, to develop the next generation of functional SF hydrogels. Here, we review the several processing methods developed to prepare advanced SF hydrogel formats, emphasizing a bottom-up approach beginning with critical structural characteristics of silk proteins and their behavior under specific gelation environments. Additionally, the preparation of SF hydrogel blends and other advanced formats will also be discussed. We conclude with a brief description of the attractive utility of SF hydrogels in relevant bioengineering applications.

  18. Electrospun Sodium Alginate/Polyethylene Oxide Fibers and Nanocoated Yarns

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    C. Hu

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Sodium alginate (NaAlg, as a natural biopolymer, was electrospun from aqueous solution via blending with a biofriendly synthetic polymer polyethylene oxide. The morphology and chemical properties of resultant alginate-based nanofibers were characterized by using scanning electron microscopy (SEM, Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FTIR, powder X-ray diffractometer (PXRD, and differential scanning calorimetry (DSC. At a wide voltage window (i.e., 12–24 kV, smooth and uniform nanofibers were obtained from the 5.0% concentration with the NaAlg/PEO ratio ranging from 1 : 1 to 1 : 3. The results from FTIR, PXRD, and DSC demonstrate that molecular interaction exists between these two polymers and, therefore, contributes to the alteration of crystallinity of electrospun fibers. In addition, NaAlg/PEO nanofiber-coated polylactic acid (PLA yarns with different twist levels were also fabricated in this work. The results show that the tensile strength of the nanocoated hybrid yarn and the tensile strength of uncoated yarn increase with the twist per centimeter (TPC up to 0.5 but decrease when TPC is further increased. The tensile properties of hybrid yarn are superior to those of the uncoated yarn.

  19. Electrospun Scaffolds for Corneal Tissue Engineering: A Review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bin Kong

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available Corneal diseases constitute the second leading cause of vision loss and affect more than 10 million people globally. As there is a severe shortage of fresh donated corneas and an unknown risk of immune rejection with traditional heterografts, it is very important and urgent to construct a corneal equivalent to replace pathologic corneal tissue. Corneal tissue engineering has emerged as a practical strategy to develop corneal tissue substitutes, and the design of a scaffold with mechanical properties and transparency similar to that of natural cornea is paramount for the regeneration of corneal tissues. Nanofibrous scaffolds produced by electrospinning have high surface area–to-volume ratios and porosity that simulate the structure of protein fibers in native extra cellular matrix (ECM. The versatilities of electrospinning of polymer components, fiber structures, and functionalization have made the fabrication of nanofibrous scaffolds with suitable mechanical strength, transparency and biological properties for corneal tissue engineering feasible. In this paper, we review the recent developments of electrospun scaffolds for engineering corneal tissues, mainly including electrospun materials (single and blended polymers, fiber structures (isotropic or anisotropic, functionalization (improved mechanical properties and transparency, applications (corneal cell survival, maintenance of phenotype and formation of corneal tissue and future development perspectives.

  20. Electrospun fibers based on Arabic, karaya and kondagogu gums.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Padil, Vinod Vellora Thekkae; Senan, Chandra; Wacławek, Stanisław; Černík, Miroslav

    2016-10-01

    Nanofibers of natural tree polysaccharides based on three gums namely Arabic (GA), karaya (GK) and kondagogu (KG) have been prepared for the first time using electrospinning. Electrospinning solutions were prepared by mixing gum solutions of GA, GK & KG with eco-friendly polymers such as polyvinyl alcohol (PVA) or polyethylene oxide (PEO). The present study focuses on the effect of electrospinning blended solutions of GA, GK or KG with PVA or PEO, additives which influence system parameters and process parameters. This has important effects on the electrospinning process and the resulting fibers whose morphology and physicochemical properties were evaluated. The mass ratios of 70:30 to 90:10 for PVA: GA, PVA: GK and PVA: KG were observed to establish an optimum blend solution ratio in order to fabricate uniform beadless nanofibers with an average diameter of 240±50, 220±40 and 210±30nm, respectively. Various structural and physicochemical properties of the electrospun fibers were investigated. Furthermore, the comparisons of various functionalities of the untreated and plasma treated electrospun fibers were assessed. The methane plasma treated nanofibers were shown to be of extremely specific surface area, improved water contact angle, high surface porosity and roughness and superior hydrophobic properties compared to untreated fibers. PMID:27212218

  1. Fabrication and characterization of multiscale electrospun scaffolds for cartilage regeneration

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Recently, scaffolds for tissue regeneration purposes have been observed to utilize nanoscale features in an effort to reap the cellular benefits of scaffold features resembling extracellular matrix (ECM) components. However, one complication surrounding electrospun nanofibers is limited cellular infiltration. One method to ameliorate this negative effect is by incorporating nanofibers into microfibrous scaffolds. This study shows that it is feasible to fabricate electrospun scaffolds containing two differently scaled fibers interspersed evenly throughout the entire construct as well as scaffolds containing fibers composed of two discrete materials, specifically fibrin and poly(ε-caprolactone). In order to accomplish this, multiscale fibrous scaffolds of different compositions were generated using a dual extrusion electrospinning setup with a rotating mandrel. These scaffolds were then characterized for fiber diameter, porosity and pore size and seeded with human mesenchymal stem cells to assess the influence of scaffold architecture and composition on cellular responses as determined by cellularity, histology and glycosaminoglycan (GAG) content. Analysis revealed that nanofibers within a microfiber mesh function to maintain scaffold cellularity under serum-free conditions as well as aid the deposition of GAGs. This supports the hypothesis that scaffolds with constituents more closely resembling native ECM components may be beneficial for cartilage regeneration. (paper)

  2. Morphological and mechanical analysis of electrospun shape memory polymer fibers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Budun, Sinem; İşgören, Erkan; Erdem, Ramazan; Yüksek, Metin

    2016-09-01

    Shape memory block co-polymer Polyurethane (PU) fibers were fabricated by electrospinning technique. Four different solution concentrations (5 wt.%, 10 wt.%, 15 wt.% and 20 wt.%) were prepared by using Tetrahydrofuran (THF)/N,N-dimethylformamide (DMF) (50:50, v/v) as solvents, and three different voltages (30 kV, 35 kV and 38.9 kV) were determined for the electrospinning process. Solution properties were explored in terms of viscosity and electrical conductivity. It was observed that as the polymer concentration increased in the solution, the conductivity declined. Morphological characteristics of the obtained fibers were analyzed through Scanning Electron Microscopy (SEM) measurements. Findings indicated that fiber morphology varied especially with polymer concentration and applied voltage. Obtained fiber diameter ranged from 112 ± 34 nm to 2046 ± 654 nm, respectively. DSC analysis presented that chain orientation of the polymer increased after electrospinning process. Shape fixity and shape recovery calculations were realized. The best shape fixity value (92 ± 4%) was obtained for Y10K30 and the highest shape recovery measurement (130 ± 4%) was belonged to Y15K39. Mechanical properties of the electrospun webs were also investigated in both machine and transverse directions. Tensile and elongation values were also affected from fiber diameter distribution and morphological characteristics of the electrospun webs.

  3. Preparation and characterization of electrospun poly(phthalazinone ether nitrile ketone) membrane with novel thermally stable properties

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wang, Gang; Zhang, Hao; Qian, Bingqing [Carbon Research Laboratory, Liaoning Key Lab for Energy Materials and Chemical Engineering, State Key Lab of Fine Chemicals, Dalian University of Technology, Dalian 116024 (China); Wang, Jinyan, E-mail: wangjinyan@dlut.edu.cn [Department of Polymer Science and Materials, Dalian University of Technology, Dalian 116024 (China); Jian, Xigao [Department of Polymer Science and Materials, Dalian University of Technology, Dalian 116024 (China); Qiu, Jieshan, E-mail: jqiu@dlut.edu.cn [Carbon Research Laboratory, Liaoning Key Lab for Energy Materials and Chemical Engineering, State Key Lab of Fine Chemicals, Dalian University of Technology, Dalian 116024 (China)

    2015-10-01

    Highlights: • Poly (phthalazinone ether nitrile ketone) (PPENK) was used to successfully prepare nanofiber membranes by electrospinning. • Electrospun membrane exhibits a good thermostability. • Electrospun membrane. - Abstract: Electrospun nanofibrous membranes have several applications because of their excellent properties, such as high porosity, small fiber diameter, and large surface area. However, high-temperature resistant electrospun membranes remain a challenge because of the absence of precursors that offer spinnability, scalability, and superior thermal stability. In this study, poly(phthalazinone ether nitrile ketone) (PPENK) was used to successfully prepare nanofiber membranes by electrospinning. Electrospun PPENK membranes were characterized by scanning electron microscopy, differential scanning calorimetry, Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy, and tensile stress–strain tests. Results indicated that the prepared electrospun membranes had a very high glass transition temperature, superior chemical resistance, and excellent mechanical strength. These desirable properties broaden their potential application in membranes and treatment of various hot fluid streams without strict temperature control.

  4. Microscopy and supporting data for osteoblast integration within an electrospun fibrous network

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Urszula Stachewicz

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available This data article contains data related to the research article entitled “3D imaging of cell interactions with electrospun PLGA nanofiber membranes for bone regeneration” by Stachewicz et al. [1]. In this paper we include additional data showing degradation analysis of poly(d,l-lactide-co-glycolide acid (PLGA electrospun fibers in medium and air using fiber diameter distribution histograms. We also describe the steps used in “slice and view” tomography techniques with focused ion beam (FIB microscopy and scanning electron microscopy (SEM and detail the image analysis to obtain 3D reconstruction of osteoblast cell integration with electrospun network of fibers. Further supporting data and detailed information on the quantification of cell growth within the electrospun nanofiber membranes is provided.

  5. Optimization of the silk scaffold sericin removal process for retention of silk fibroin protein structure and mechanical properties

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Teh, Thomas K H; Toh, Siew-Lok; Goh, James C H, E-mail: dosgohj@nus.edu.s, E-mail: dostkh@nus.edu.s, E-mail: bietohsl@nus.edu.s [Division of Bioengineering, National University of Singapore (Singapore)

    2010-06-01

    In the process of removing sericin (degumming) from a raw silk scaffold, the fibroin structural integrity is often challenged, leading to mechanical depreciation. This study aims to identify the factors and conditions contributing to fibroin degradation during alkaline degumming and to perform an optimization study of the parameters involved to achieve preservation of fibroin structure and properties. The methodology involves degumming knitted silk scaffolds for various durations (5-90 min) and temperatures (60-100 {sup 0}C). Mechanical agitation and use of the refreshed solution during degumming are included to investigate how these factors contribute to degumming efficiency and fibroin preservation. Characterizations of silk fibroin morphology, mechanical properties and protein components are determined by scanning electron microscopy (SEM), single fiber tensile tests and gel electrophoresis (SDS-PAGE), respectively. Sericin removal is ascertained via SEM imaging and a protein fractionation method involving SDS-PAGE. The results show that fibroin fibrillation, leading to reduced mechanical integrity, is mainly caused by prolonged degumming duration. Through a series of optimization, knitted scaffolds are observed to be optimally degummed and experience negligible mechanical and structural degradation when subjected to alkaline degumming with mechanical agitation for 30 min at 100 {sup 0}C.

  6. Focal therapy of neuroblastoma using silk films to deliver kinase and chemotherapeutic agents in vivo.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Seib, F Philipp; Coburn, Jeannine; Konrad, Ilona; Klebanov, Nikolai; Jones, Gregory T; Blackwood, Brian; Charest, Alain; Kaplan, David L; Chiu, Bill

    2015-07-01

    Current methods for treatment of high-risk neuroblastoma patients include surgical intervention, in addition to systemic chemotherapy. However, only limited therapeutic tools are available to pediatric surgeons involved in neuroblastoma care, so the development of intraoperative treatment modalities is highly desirable. This study presents a silk film library generated for focal therapy of neuroblastoma; these films were loaded with either the chemotherapeutic agent doxorubicin or the targeted drug crizotinib. Drug release kinetics from the silk films were fine-tuned by changing the amount and physical crosslinking of silk; doxorubicin loaded films were further refined by applying a gold nanocoating. Doxorubicin-loaded, physically crosslinked silk films showed the best in vitro activity and superior in vivo activity in orthotopic neuroblastoma studies when compared to the doxorubicin-equivalent dose administered intravenously. Silk films were also suitable for delivery of the targeted drug crizotinib, as crizotinib-loaded silk films showed an extended release profile and an improved response both in vitro and in vivo when compared to freely diffusible crizotinib. These findings, when combined with prior in vivo data on silk, support a viable future for silk-based anticancer drug delivery systems. PMID:25861948

  7. Development Strategy of Striving Nature Silk in Kabupaten Sukabumi, Propinsi Jawa Barat

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nurheni Wijayanto

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available 800x600 The striving of nature silk in Kabupaten Sukabumi keeps decreasing whereas, market opportunity and potential for nature is good, for this time being. For knowing development strategic of striving nature silk correctly, it need to be done an aprroachment system of replacement SWOT analysis  (strategis analysis and ISM (interpretative Structural Modelling technique (structural analysis. This research will identify internal and external factor and produce structural models. The most powerful factor that influence the striving of nature silk is nature condition (climate, soil and topography.  The weakness factor are limited capital and access.  As opportunity element factor and treatment of cocoon needs still high and germ and disease of murbei leaves also silk worm. Prosperity of nature silk worm influence a lot of society sector especially farmer.  In way to make it success needs very qualified human resources, an expert on this work and good management.  Hoped with fulfilled need, will solved a lot of obstructions one of them is limited capital and access.  The purpose of this program as good as possible is for increasing nature silk work.  Involved all sorts of institution to realize this aim will be need, one of them is Forestry Department which will decide fact in striving of nature silk. Keyword : nature silk, strategis analysis, structural analysis, and development strategy. Normal 0 false false false IN X-NONE X-NONE MicrosoftInternetExplorer4

  8. Preparation and characterization of regenerated fiber from the aqueous solution of Bombyx mori cocoon silk fibroin

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zhu Zhenghua [Department of Biotechnology, Tokyo University of Agriculture and Technology, Koganei, Tokyo 184-8588 (Japan); Department of Application Engineering, ZheJiang Vocational College of Economic and Trade, HangZhou, ZheJiang 310018 (China); Imada, Takuzo [Department of Biotechnology, Tokyo University of Agriculture and Technology, Koganei, Tokyo 184-8588 (Japan); Asakura, Tetsuo, E-mail: asakura@cc.tuat.ac.jp [Department of Biotechnology, Tokyo University of Agriculture and Technology, Koganei, Tokyo 184-8588 (Japan)

    2009-10-15

    The regenerated silk fibers with high strength and high biodegradability were prepared from the aqueous solution of Bombyx mori silk fibroin from cocoons with wet spinning method. Although the tensile strength of the regenerated silk fibroin fiber, 210 MPa is still half of the strength of native silk fiber, the diameter of the fiber is about 100 {mu}m which is suitable for monofilament of suture together with high biodegradability. The high concentration (30%, w/v) of the aqueous solution of the silk fibroin which corresponds to the high concentration in the middle silkgland of silkworm was obtained. This was performed by adjusting the pH of the aqueous solution to 10.4 which corresponds to pK{sub a} value of the OH group of Tyr residues in the silk fibroin. The mixed solvent, methanol/acetic acid (7:3 in volume ratio) was used as coagulant solvent for preparing the regenerated fiber. The structural change of silk fibroin fiber by stretching was monitored with both {sup 13}C solid state NMR and X-ray diffraction methods, indicating that the high strength of the fiber is related with the long-range orientation of the silk fibroin chain with {beta}-sheet structure.

  9. Silk sericin loaded alginate nanoparticles: Preparation and anti-inflammatory efficacy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khampieng, Thitikan; Aramwit, Pornanong; Supaphol, Pitt

    2015-09-01

    In this study, silk sericin loaded alginate nanoparticles were prepared by the emulsification method followed by internal crosslinking. The effects of various silk sericin loading concentration on particle size, shape, thermal properties, and release characteristics were investigated. The initial silk sericin loadings of 20, 40, and 80% w/w to polymer were incorporated into these alginate nanoparticles. SEM images showed a spherical shape and small particles of about 71.30-89.50 nm. TGA analysis showed that thermal stability slightly increased with increasing silk sericin loadings. FTIR analysis suggested interactions between alginate and silk sericin in the nanoparticles. The release study was performed in acetate buffer at normal skin conditions (pH 5.5; 32 °C). The release profiles of silk sericin exhibited initial rapid release, consequently with sustained release. These silk sericin loaded alginate nanoparticles were further incorporated into topical hydrogel and their anti-inflammatory properties were studied using carrageenan-induced paw edema assay. The current study confirms the hypothesis that the application of silk sericin loaded alginate nanoparticle gel can inhibit inflammation induced by carrageenan. PMID:26188300

  10. CLASSING APPROACH TO ANALYZING THE INVESTMENT SPACE OF SILK INDUSTRY OF UZBEKISTAN

    OpenAIRE

    Madjidov, Shakhrukh; Ibragimova, Sabokhat

    2015-01-01

    In the article the results of verification were brought which were dedicated for cluster approach and analyzing the investment space of silk industry of Uzbekistan. In particular the purpose of investment’s direction to the main capital of silk industry in corresponding class while proceeding from closeness to manual forces and raw material resources.

  11. Natural Occurring Silks and Their Analogues as Materials for Nerve Conduits

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Christine Radtke

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available Spider silk and its synthetic derivatives have a light weight in combination with good strength and elasticity. Their high cytocompatibility and low immunogenicity make them well suited for biomaterial products such as nerve conduits. Silk proteins slowly degrade enzymatically in vivo, thus allowing for an initial therapeutic effect such as in nerve scaffolding to facilitate endogenous repair processes, and then are removed. Silks are biopolymers naturally produced by many species of arthropods including spiders, caterpillars and mites. The silk fibers are secreted by the labial gland of the larvae of some orders of Holometabola (insects with pupa or the spinnerets of spiders. The majority of studies using silks for biomedical applications use materials from silkworms or spiders, mostly of the genus Nephila clavipes. Silk is one of the most promising biomaterials with effects not only in nerve regeneration, but in a number of regenerative applications. The development of silks for human biomedical applications is of high scientific and clinical interest. Biomaterials in use for biomedical applications have to meet a number of requirements such as biocompatibility and elicitation of no more than a minor inflammatory response, biodegradability in a reasonable time and specific structural properties. Here we present the current status in the field of silk-based conduit development for nerve repair and discuss current advances with regard to potential clinical transfer of an implantable nerve conduit for enhancement of nerve regeneration.

  12. Biobased silver nanocolloid coating on silk fibers for prevention of post-surgical wound infections

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dhas, Sindhu Priya; Anbarasan, Suruthi; Mukherjee, Amitava; Chandrasekaran, Natarajan

    2015-01-01

    Bombyx mori silk fibers are an important biomaterial and are used in surgical sutures due to their remarkable biocompatibility. The major drawback to the application of biomaterials is the risk of bacterial invasion, leading to clinical complications. We have developed an easy and cost-effective method for fabrication of antibacterial silk fibers loaded with silver nanoparticles (AgNPs) by an in situ and ex situ process using an aqueous extract of Rhizophora apiculata leaf. Scanning electron microscopy revealed that well dispersed nanoparticles impregnated the silk fibers both in situ and ex situ. The crystalline nature of the AgNPs in the silk fibers was demonstrated by X-ray diffraction. The thermal and mechanical properties of the silk fibers were enhanced after they were impregnated with AgNPs. The silver-coated silk fibers fabricated by the in situ and ex situ method exhibited more than 90% inhibition against Pseudomonas aeruginosa and Staphylococcus aureus. Silk fibers doped with AgNPs were found to be biocompatible with 3T3 fibroblasts. The results obtained represent an important advance towards the clinical application of biocompatible AgNP-loaded silk fibers for prevention of surgical wound infections. PMID:26491317

  13. Tarantulas cling to smooth vertical surfaces by secreting silk from their feet.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rind, F Claire; Birkett, Chris Luke; Duncan, Benjamin-James A; Ranken, Alexander J

    2011-06-01

    Like all spiders, tarantulas (family Theraphosidae) synthesize silk in specialized glands and extrude it from spinnerets on their abdomen. In one species of large tarantula, Aphonopelma seemanni, it has been suggested that silk can also be secreted from the tarsi but this claim was later refuted. We provide evidence of silk secretion directly from spigots (nozzles) on the tarsi of three distantly related tarantula species: the Chilean rose, Grammostola rosea; the Indian ornamental, Poecilotheria regalis; and the Mexican flame knee, Brachypelma auratum, suggesting tarsal silk secretion is widespread among tarantulas. We demonstrate that multiple strands of silk are produced as a footprint when the spider begins to slip down a smooth vertical surface. The nozzle-like setae on the tarsi responsible for silk deposition have shanks reinforced by cuticular thickenings, which serve to prevent the shanks' internal collapse while still maintaining their flexibility. This is important as the spigots occur on the ventral surface of the tarsus, projecting beyond the finely divided setae of the dry attachment pads. We also reveal the structure and disposition of the silk-secreting spigots on the abdominal spinnerets of the three tarantula species and find they are very similar to those from the earliest known proto-spider spinneret from the Devonian period, giving another indication that silk secretion in tarantulas is close to the ancestral condition. PMID:21562174

  14. The Culture of Primary Motor and Sensory Neurons in Defined Media on Electrospun Poly-L-lactide Nanofiber Scaffolds

    OpenAIRE

    Leach, Michelle K.; Feng, Zhang-Qi; Gertz, Caitlyn C.; Tuck, Samuel J.; Regan, Tara M.; Naim, Youssef; Vincent, Andrea M.; Corey, Joseph M.

    2011-01-01

    Electrospinning is a technique for producing micro- to nano-scale fibers. Fibers can be electrospun with varying degrees of alignment, from highly aligned to completely random. In addition, fibers can be spun from a variety of materials, including biodegradable polymers such as poly-L-lactic acid (PLLA). These characteristics make electrospun fibers suitable for a variety of scaffolding applications in tissue engineering. Our focus is on the use of aligned electrospun fibers for nerve regener...

  15. Experimental Investigations on Electrospun Mat Production: For Use in High-Performance Air Filters

    OpenAIRE

    SOMAYEH FARHANG DEHGHAN; FARIDEH GOLBAAEI; BOZORGMEHR MADDAH; RASOUL YARAHMADI; ASGHAR SEDIGH ZADEH

    2015-01-01

    Electrospun nanofibrous filter media have attracted considerable attention in the last decade. The present study aimed to develop the electrospun PAN (polyacrylonitrile) filter media through experimental investigations for application in high-performance air filters. For this purpose, an experimental design was proposed to assess the effect of electrospinning process conditions including solution concentration, electric voltage and nozzle-collector distance on the structural properties of fil...

  16. Polarized fluorescent emission from aligned electrospun nanofiber sheets containing semiconductor nanorods

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hasegawa, Masaki; Hirayama, Yuki; Dertinger, Stephan

    2015-02-01

    We fabricated sheets consisting of aligned electrospun polymer nanofibers embedded with semiconductor nanorods (NRs) and confirmed the production of polarized fluorescence emission. Electrospun nanofibers with embedded semiconductor NRs were rolled around a drum to form a sheet in which each nanofiber was aligned parallel to the rotation direction. The thickness and polarization ratio of the sheet were 1.5 μm and 0.6, respectively. We also examined how electrospinning parameters affected the polarization ratio of the sheet.

  17. Structural, mechanical, and tribological properties of electrospun poly(hexamethylene adipamide) fiber mats

    OpenAIRE

    Mannarino, Matthew M.; Katsumata, Reika; Gregory C. Rutledge

    2013-01-01

    The mechanical and tribological properties of electrospun fiber mats are of paramount importance to their utility in a large number of applications. In this work, mats of electrospun fibers of poly(hexamethylene adipamide) (PA 6,6) with average fiber diameter of 238±22 nm are characterized for their crystal structure as well as their mechanical and tribological properties. Post-spin thermal annealing was used to modify the fiber morphology and crystallinity within the fibers. Morphological ch...

  18. Solving cell infiltration limitations of electrospun nanofiber meshes for tissue engineering applications

    OpenAIRE

    Guimarães, Ana; Martins, Albino; Pinho, Elisabete D.; Faria, Susana; Reis, R. L.; Neves, N. M.

    2010-01-01

    AIM: Utilize the dual composition strategy to increase the pore size and solve the low cell infiltration capacity on random nanofiber meshes, an intrinsic limitation of electrospun scaffolds for tissue engineering applications. MATERIALS & METHODS: Polycaprolactone and poly(ethylene oxide) solutions were electrospun simultaneously to obtain a dual composition nanofiber mesh. Selective dissolution of the poly(ethylene oxide) nanofiber fraction was performed. The biologic performance of these e...

  19. Electrospun Polyurethane Fibers for Absorption of Volatile Organic Compounds from Air

    OpenAIRE

    Scholten, Elke; Bromberg, Lev E.; Rutledge, Gregory C.; Hatton, T. Alan

    2011-01-01

    Electrospun polyurethane fibers for removal of volatile organic compounds (VOC) from air with rapid VOC absorption and desorption have been developed. Polyurethanes based on 4,4-methylenebis(phenylisocyanate) (MDI) and aliphatic isophorone diisocyanate as the hard segments and butanediol and tetramethylene glycol as the soft segments were electrospun from their solutions in N,N-dimethylformamide to form micrometer-sized fibers. Although activated carbon possessed a many-fold higher surface ar...

  20. Thai Silk Pattern: Conservation and Manufacturing Development to Create Added Value in the Province of Khon Kaen

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kesini Sawatdi

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available Silk patterns are works of art that resembles the valuable and unique ethnic culture that is most important to the community. The history and development of silk patterns in the province of Khon Kaen can be divided into 2 periods, before and after the year 1976. During these periods there were many changes in the manufacturing of silk textiles. The origin of classical silk patterns came from direct modeling of plants, animals and nature. Contemporary silk patterns are modeled after mediums such as television, multimedia, publications and from client requests. The manufacturing tools have also been greatly improved from wooden tools to tools made from metals and tools reinforce with steel. Electric motors have also been utilized in increasing the efficiency in the transformation of silk such as in process of dyeing and spooling silk threads. Traditional materials in silk textile production utilized traditional home grown and produced silk threads while in modern times, the silk comes from factories and purchased in spools. Locally produced silk threads are still produced but in lesser quantity because natural pigments and threads are limited in color. Modern silk threads produced from factories come in many colors and sizes to choose from. Traditional designs and patterns of silk textiles had to be memorized and were passed down orally while contemporary patterns can be massed produced through patterns embedded in graph paper and computer graphic designs. The patterns of silk textiles have greatly improved after 1976 where many efforts were implemented to develop added value and broader market for silk textile products.

  1. Biofunctionalization of Nanomaterials

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kumar, Challa S. S. R.

    2005-11-01

    The new book series 'Nanotechnologies for the Life Sciences' is the first comprehensive source on the topics where materials science and life sciences meet on the nanoscale. Each volume provides a concise overview of the underlying nanotechnologies for the design, creation and characterization of biomedical applications, collating the many articles found in the relevant specialized journals but as yet unseen by those working in other disciplines. Written by international experts describing the various facets of nanofabrication, the ten volumes of this single source of information cover the complete range of synthetic methods, tools and techniques being developed towards medical, biological and cybernetic applications. This volume covers the synthetic and materials aspects of instilling biocompatibility into nanomaterials with properties desirable for advanced medical and biological applications. Essential reading for anyone working in the various related disciplines: from medicine and biology through chemistry, materials science and physics to engineering.

  2. Biofunctionalized Magnetic Nanowires

    KAUST Repository

    Kosel, Jurgen

    2013-12-19

    Magnetic nanowires can be used as an alternative method overcoming the limitations of current cancer treatments that lack specificity and are highly cytotoxic. Nanowires are developed so that they selectively attach to cancer cells via antibodies, potentially destroying them when a magnetic field induces their vibration. This will transmit a mechanical force to the targeted cells, which is expected to induce apoptosis on the cancer cells.

  3. Role of humidity on the structures and properties of regenerated silk fibers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Qingfa Peng

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available Silk fiber was processed from highly concentrated spinning dope to solid fibers along with water removal. To understand the mechanism of water removal during silk fiber spinning process, a microfluidic chip was designed and applied to investigate the structures and mechanical properties of two kinds of regenerated silk fibroin fibers dry-spun at different relative humidity. The experimental results showed that the diameters of the fibers spun at 40% RH are always larger than the fibers spun at 50% RH due to different removal rates of water. The fibers spun at low humidity contain more β-sheet structure and lower degree of chain orientation and crystalline orientation. These results indicate that the fast phase transition of silk fibroin from sol–gel to silk fiber undergoes with rapid water removal and higher fiber orientation relates to more residue water and drawing force.

  4. Development of new smart materials and spinning systems inspired by natural silks and their applications

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jie eCheng

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Silks produced by spiders and silkworms are charming natural biological materials with highly optimized hierarchical structures and outstanding physicomechanical properties. The superior performance of silks relies on the integration of a unique protein sequence, a distinctive spinning process, and complex hierarchical structures. Silks have been prepared to form a variety of morphologies and are widely used in diverse applications, for example, in the textile industry, as drug delivery vehicles, and as tissue engineering scaffolds. This review presents an overview of the organization of natural silks, in which chemical and physical functions are optimized, as well as a range of new materials inspired by the desire to mimic natural silk structure and synthesis.

  5. Grading Standards of the Coefficient of Variation in the Electronic Raw Silk Size Testing

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2007-01-01

    In order to shorten the difference between the raw silk size grading standards of the world and that of China,to quicken the step of the electronic raw silk testing process,the distribution of the coefficient of variation (CV50m%) of the raw silk size in the electronic testing and the development of the new standards are studied according to the sampling and grading theory. By the theoretical deduction and the simulating experiments, the distribution of the coefficient of variation of the raw silk size is given,and the grading scheme whose quality index is the coefficient of variation(CV50m%)of the raw silk size and the grading precisions of all grades are proposed. Moreover,the rightness and the feasibility of the grading scheme are testified by the sampling and grading simulation.

  6. Properties of radicals created by γ-ray irradiation of silk fabrics

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2002-01-01

    The properties of radicals from γ-ray irradiated silk fabrics were studiedby electron spin resonance method (ESR). The ESR spectra of silk fabrics irradiated inN2 showed a doublet at room temperature. The doublet became a singlet at g=2.0057after placing the sample in air for 24 hours. This can be explained by formation ofperoxide radicals. The radical concentration of the irradiated silk fabric and the decayrate of radicals are significantly affected by irradiation conditions, which include theabsorbed dose, atmosphere, and water content of the silk fabric samples. However, nodose rate effect on the radical concentration was observed. The results are of help in ourpractice of property modification of silk products by radiation graft copolymerization.``

  7. Effect of Sericin on Mechanical Behavior of Composite Material Reinforced by Silk Woven Fabric

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kimura, Teruo; Ino, Haruhiro; Hanada, Koji; Katori, Sigetaka

    Recent, attention has been given to shift from glass fibers and carbon fibers to natural fibers for FRP composites for the goal of protecting the environment. This paper concerned with the application of silk fabric for composite materials. Polypropylene (PP) was used for the matrix material and the silk fabric composites were molded using a compression molding method. Especially, the effect of sericin on mechanical behaviors of composite materials was discussed. Good adhesion between silk and PP was obtained by removing the sericin existing around the fibroin. The tensile modulus of composite decreased with decreasing the sericin because of the flexibility of silk fibers without sericin. In particular, the higher Izod impact value was obtained for the composites containing the silk fibers without sericin.

  8. Properties of radicals created by γ-ray irradiation of silk fabrics

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The properties of radicals from γ-ray irradiated silk fabrics were studied by electron spin resonance method (ESR). The ESR spectra of silk fabrics irradiated in N2 showed a doublet at room temperature. The doublet became a singlet at g = 2.0057 after placing the sample in air for 24 hours. This can be explained by formation of peroxide radicals. The radical concentration of the irradiated silk fabric and the decay rate of radicals are significantly affected by irradiation conditions, which include the absorbed dose, atmosphere, and water content of the silk fabric samples. However, no dose rate effect on the radical concentration was observed. The results are of help in authors' practice of property modification of silk products by radiation graft copolymerization

  9. Energy absorption and failure response of silk/epoxy composite square tubes: Experimental

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Oshkovr, Simin Ataollahi; Taher, Siavash Talebi; A. Eshkoor, Rahim;

    2012-01-01

    This paper focuses on natural silk/epoxy composite square tubes energy absorption and failure response. The tested specimens were featured by a material combination of different lengths and same numbers of natural silk/epoxy composite layers in form of reinforced woven fabric in thermosetting epo...... natural woven silk has been used as textile in centuries but due to rare study of this fabric as reinforcement material for composites, the results of this paper can be considerable. Outcomes from this paper might be helpful to guide the design of crashworthy structures.......This paper focuses on natural silk/epoxy composite square tubes energy absorption and failure response. The tested specimens were featured by a material combination of different lengths and same numbers of natural silk/epoxy composite layers in form of reinforced woven fabric in thermosetting epoxy...

  10. Impact of post-treatment on the characteristics of electrospun poly (vinyl alcohol)/chitosan nanofibers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Susanto, H.; Samsudin, A. M.; Faz, M. W.; Rani, M. P. H.

    2016-04-01

    Electrospun nanofibers have many advantages such as high porosity, easy to be fabricated in various size and high ratio of surface area to volume. This paper presents the preparation of electrospun PVA/Chitosan nanofibers and more specifically focuses on the effect of post-treatment on the permeability and morphology of electrospun PVA/chitosan nanofibers. The mixtures of various concentrations of PVA (6,7,8 wt%)and 2 wt%.chitosan solution (with the ratio of 3:1)were used in electrospun with a constant rate of 0.7 ml/hour. The post-treatment was conducted by immersing in a ethanol or glutaraldehyde solution to performed crosslink structure. The electrospun PVA/Chitosan nanofiber was characterized by scanning electron microscopy (SEM) and fourier transform infrared (FTIR) spectroscopy. The results revealed that the viscosity of the mixture solution is directly proportional to its concentration. Increasing the viscosity increased the diameter of fiber but also made the larger beads formation. FTIR measurement exhibited the existence of relevant functional groups of both PVA and chitosan in the composites.The crosslinked structure was found for the electrospun PVA/Chitosan nanofibers treated with glutaraldehyde solution.

  11. Utilizing NaCl to increase the porosity of electrospun materials

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wright, L.D.; Andric, T. [Virginia Tech-Wake Forest School of Biomedical Engineering and Sciences Virginia Polytechnic Institute and State University, Blacksburg, Virginia 24061 (United States); Freeman, J.W., E-mail: jwfreeman@vt.edu [Virginia Tech-Wake Forest School of Biomedical Engineering and Sciences Virginia Polytechnic Institute and State University, Blacksburg, Virginia 24061 (United States)

    2011-01-01

    Electrospinning has emerged as a popular method for creating scaffolding materials used in tissue engineering applications to repair or replace damaged tissues. To become a viable scaffold material, however, pore sizes in electrospun materials must be increased to improve cell infiltration. Deposition of NaCl crystals during electrospinning was utilized to help overcome this obstacle. The NaCl crystals are released above the rotating collection mandrel and become incorporated into the poly(L-lactide) electrospun material. The NaCl then leaches out of the electrospun material creating larger pores: average pore diameter of 48.7 {mu}m for PLLA-NaCl electrospinning versus 5.5 {mu}m for PLLA alone electrospinning. Electrospun PLLA scaffolds with NaCl pores have a lower elastic modulus (8.05 MPa) and yield stress (349 kPa) and a higher yield strain (0.04) compared to their traditional counterparts (40.36 MPa, 676 kPa, and 0.0188). Decreased elastic modulus and yield stress would be beneficial to tissue engineering of elastic tissues including skin. The presence of NaCl pores did not significantly affect the cellular proliferation of MC3T3 cells but did allow for cell infiltration into the electrospun material. Therefore, the creation of large pores through NaCl leaching can significantly improve the performance of electrospun materials for tissue engineering applications by improving cellular infiltration.

  12. Preparation and characterization of silk fibroin as a biomaterial with potential for drug delivery

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zhang Hao

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Degummed silk fibroin from Bombyx mori (silkworm has potential carrier capabilities for drug delivery in humans; however, the processing methods have yet to be comparatively analyzed to determine the differential effects on the silk protein properties, including crystalline structure and activity. Methods In this study, we treated degummed silk with four kinds of calcium-alcohol solutions, and performed secondary structure measurements and enzyme activity test to distinguish the differences between the regenerated fibroins and degummed silk fibroin. Results Gel electrophoresis analysis revealed that Ca(NO32-methanol, Ca(NO32-ethanol, or CaCl2-methanol treatments produced more lower molecular weights of silk fibroin than CaCl2-ethanol. X-ray diffraction and Fourier-transform infrared spectroscopy showed that CaCl2-ethanol produced a crystalline structure with more silk I (α-form, type II β-turn, while the other treatments produced more silk II (β-form, anti-parallel β-pleated sheet. Solid-State 13C cross polarization and magic angle spinning-nuclear magnetic resonance measurements suggested that regenerated fibroins from CaCl2-ethanol were nearly identical to degummed silk fibroin, while the other treatments produced fibroins with significantly different chemical shifts. Finally, enzyme activity test indicated that silk fibroins from CaCl2-ethanol had higher activity when linked to a known chemotherapeutic drug, L-asparaginase, than the fibroins from other treatments. Conclusions Collectively, these results suggest that the CaCl2-ethanol processing method produces silk fibroin with biomaterial properties that are appropriate for drug delivery.

  13. A preliminary discourse on adhesion of nanofibers derived from electrospun polymers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Pei

    To bio-mimic gecko's foot hair, which possess high adhesion strength and can be re- usable for lifetime, fibrous membranes are fabricated by electrospinning to provide sufficient adhesion energy. Shaft-loaded blister test (SLBT) is firstly used to measure the work of adhesion between electrospun membrane and rigid substrate. Poly(vinylidene fluoride) (PVDF) were electrospun with an average fiber diameter of 333+/-59 nm. Commercial cardboard with inorganic coating was used to provide a model substrate for adhesion tests. In SLBT, the elastic response PVDF was analyzed and its adhesion energy measured. FEA model with cohesive layer is developed to evaluate the experiment results. The results show SLBT presented a viable methodology for evaluating the adhesion energy of electrospun polymer fabrics. Electrospun membranes with different fiber diameter are tested for their distinctive adhesion property. Five sets of PVDF membranes with different fiber diameters (from 201 +/- 86 nm to 2724 +/- 587 nm) are electrospun for size effect evaluation. Obtaining testing results from SLBT adhesion test, adhesion energy ranges from 258.83 +/- 43.54 mJ/m2 to 8.06 +/- 0.71 mJ/m2. Significant size effect is observed, and electrospun membrane composing from finer fibers possesses greater adhesion energy. Thickness effect is also evaluated. By stacking multiple layers of electrospun membrane together, membrane samples with different thickness are produced. Test results illustrate thick membrane trends to debond easier than thin membrane. After considering the characteristic of electrospun membrane, the effect of substrate is also evaluated. One approach is made by substituting SiC substrates with different roughness for cardboard substrate. The grit size of the SiC substrates varies from 5 mum to 68 mum. A correlation between adhesion energy and mean peak and valley roughness (Rz) is established from mechanical interlocking theory. The other approach is comparing adhesion energies if

  14. 静电纺SF纳米纤维膜的制备研究%Preparation and Research of SF Electrospun Nanofiber

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    马瑞丽; 赵亚梅

    2012-01-01

    静电纺丝技术是一种简便、快速而高效的制备纳米纤维的方法,其设备简单易操作,再生丝素蛋白由于具有良好的机械性能、生物相容性、控制生物降解性以及易加工性而在许多领域都有很好的应用。近些年来通过静电纺丝技术制备的纳米丝素纤维膜在过滤、组织工程支架等方面的研究方兴未艾。文章用三氟乙酸作溶剂,制备丝素的静电纺丝纳米纤维,并对乙醇处理后的静电纺纳米纤维形貌特征、力学性能等性质进行了研究与分析。本实验对比了纳米纤维处理前后的变化,为SF纳米纤维的进一步应用提供了理论依据。%Electrostatic spinning technology is a simple and convenient, rapid and efficient method to prepare nanometer fiber, its equipment is simple and easy to operate. Areagenerative silk fibroin has good mechanical properties, biocompatibility, the ability of controlling biodegradation and easy workability, so it has a good application in many fields. Recent years, the uses of the electrospun nanofiber of SF in filtering, tissue engineering scaffolds and other aspects is in the ascendant. In this paper, the electrospun nanofiber of SF was prepared, with the TFA as a solvent, and its morphological features, mechanical properties and so on was analysed and researched after treatment by alcohol. The experiment provides theoretical basis for further application of SF nanofiber through comparing with nanometer fiber changes before and after.

  15. Acylation Modification of Antheraea pernyi Silk Fibroin Using Succinic Anhydride and Its Effects on Enzymatic Degradation Behavior

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xiufang Li

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available The degradation rate of tissue engineering scaffolds should match the regeneration rate of new tissues. Controlling the degradation behavior of silk fibroin is an important subject for silk-based tissue engineering scaffolds. In this study, Antheraea pernyi silk fibroin was successfully modified with succinic anhydride and then characterized by zeta potential, ninhydrin method, and FTIR. In vitro, three-dimensional scaffolds prepared with modified silk fibroin were incubated in collagenase IA solution for 18 days to evaluate the impact of acylation on the degradation behavior. The results demonstrated that the degradation rate of modified silk fibroin scaffolds was more rapid than unmodified ones. The content of the β-sheet structure in silk fibroin obviously decreased after acylation, resulting in a high degradation rate. Above all, the degradation behavior of silk fibroin scaffolds could be regulated by acylation to match the requirements of various tissues regeneration.

  16. Influence of Water Content on the β-Sheet Formation, Thermal Stability, Water Removal, and Mechanical Properties of Silk Materials.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yazawa, Kenjiro; Ishida, Kana; Masunaga, Hiroyasu; Hikima, Takaaki; Numata, Keiji

    2016-03-14

    Silk, which has excellent mechanical toughness and is lightweight, is used as a structural material in nature, for example, in silkworm cocoons and spider draglines. However, the industrial use of silk as a structural material has garnered little attention. For silk to be used as a structural material, its thermal processability and associated properties must be well understood. Although water molecules influence the glass transition of silk, the effects of water content on the other thermal properties of silks are not well understood. In this study, we prepared Bombyx mori cocoon raw fibers, degummed fibers, and films with different water contents and then investigated the effects of water content on crystallization, degradation, and water removal during thermal processing. Thermal gravimetric analyses of the silk materials showed that water content did not affect the thermal degradation temperature but did influence the water removal behavior. By increasing the water content of silk, the water molecules were removed at lower temperatures, indicating that the amount of free water in silk materials increased; additionally, the glass transition temperature decreased with increasing water plasticization. Differential scanning calorimetry and wide-angle X-ray scattering of the silk films also suggested that the water molecules in the amorphous regions of the silk films acted as a plasticizer and induced β-sheet crystallization. The plasticizing effect of water was not detected in silk fibers, owing to their lower amorphous content and mobility. The structural and mechanical characterizations of the silk films demonstrated the silk film prepared at RH 97% realized both crystallinity and ductility simultaneously. Thus, the thermal stability, mechanical, and other properties of silk materials are regulated by their water content and crystallinity. PMID:26835719

  17. In vitro evaluation of electrospun gelatin-glutaraldehyde nanofibers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhan, Jianchao; Morsi, Yosry; Ei-Hamshary, Hany; Al-Deyab, Salem S.; Mo, Xiumei

    2016-03-01

    The gelatin-glutaraldehyde (gelatin-GA) nanofibers were electrospun in order to overcome the defects of ex-situ crosslinking process such as complex process, destruction of fiber morphology and decrease of porosity. The morphological structure, porosity, thermal property, moisture absorption and moisture retention performance, hydrolytic resistance, mechanical property and biocompatibility of nanofiber scaffolds were tested and characterized. The gelatin-GA nanofiber has nice uniform diameter and more than 80% porosity. The hydrolytic resistance and mechanical property of the gelatin-GA nanofiber scaffolds are greatly improved compared with that of gelatin nanofibers. The contact angle, moisture absorption, hydrolysis resistance, thermal resistance and mechanical property of gelatin-GA nanofiber scaffolds could be adjustable by varying the gelatin solution concentration and GA content. The gelatin-GA nanofibers had excellent properties, which are expected to be an ideal scaffold for biomedical and tissue engineering applications.

  18. Mammalian cell viability in electrospun composite nanofiber structures.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Canbolat, Mehmet Fatih; Tang, Christina; Bernacki, Susan H; Pourdeyhimi, Behnam; Khan, Saad

    2011-10-10

    Incorporation of mammalian cells into nanofibers (cell electrospinning) and multilayered cell-nanofiber structures (cell layering) via electrospinning are promising techniques for tissue engineering applications. We investigate the viability of 3T3-L1 mouse fibroblasts after incorporation into poly(vinyl alcohol) nanofibers and multilayering with poly(caprolactone) nanofibers and analyze the possible factors that affect cell viability. We observe that cells do not survive cell electrospinning but survive cell layering. Assessing the factors involved in cell electrospinning, we find that dehydration and fiber stretching are the main causes of cell death. In cell layering, the choice of solvent is critical, as residual solvent in the electrospun fibers could be detrimental to the cells. PMID:21984502

  19. Study on the Electrospun CNTs/Polyacrylonitrile-Based Nanofiber Composites

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bo Qiao

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available CNTs/PAN nanofibers were electrospun from PAN-based solution for the preparation of carbon nanofiber composites. The as-spun polyacrylonitrile-based nanofibers were hot-stretched by weighing metal in a temperature controlled oven. Scanning electron microscopy (SEM and transmission electron microscopy (TEM were used to characterize the morphology of the nanofibers, which indicated that carbon nanotubes were dispersed well in the composites and were completely wrapped by PAN matrix. Because of the strong interfacial interaction between CNTs and PAN, the CNTs/PAN application performance will be enhanced correspondingly, such as the mechanical properties and the electrical conductivity. It was concluded that the hot-stretched CNTs/PAN nanofibers can be used as a potential precursor to produce high-performance carbon composites.

  20. SOUND ABSORPTION BEHAVIOR OF ELECTROSPUN POLYACRYLONITRILE NANOFIBROUS MEMBRANES

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Hai-fan Xiang; Shuai-xia Tan; Xiao-lan Yu; Yu-hua Long; Xiao-li Zhang; Ning Zhao; Jian Xu

    2011-01-01

    The acoustical damping property of electrospun polyacrylonitrile (PAN) nanofibrous membranes with different thicknesses and porosities was investigated.The sound absorption coefficients were measured using the impedance tube instrument based on ISO10534-2:1998(E).Results indicate that the first resonance absorption frequency of nanofibrous membranes shifts to the lower frequency with the increase of the back cavity or the thickness of membranes.Moreover,the sound absorption performance of the perforated panel can be greatly improved by combination with a thin layer of PAN nanofibrous membrane.Traditional acoustical damping materials (foam,fiber) coated with nanofibrous membranes have better acoustical performance in the low and medium frequency range than that of acoustical materials alone.All of the results demonstrate the PAN nanofibrous membrane is a suitable candidate for noise reduction.

  1. Carbon Nanotube and Graphene Based Polyamide Electrospun Nanocomposites: A Review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fabiola Navarro-Pardo

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Electrospinning is a unique and versatile technique to produce nanofibres; the facility to incorporate fillers has expanded its range of applications. This review gives a brief description of the process and the different polymers employed for obtaining nanofibres. Owing to the ability of fibrillation of polyamides, these polymers have resulted in a wide variety of interesting results obtained when using this technique; therefore these features are summarised. Additionally, because of the feasibility of incorporating carbon nanotubes and graphene in these nanofibres and the growing interest on these nanomaterials, this review focuses in the most common methods employed for their incorporation in electrospun polyamides. Several equipment setups used for the electrospinning of the nanofibres are explained. The outstanding electrical, optical, crystallinity, and mechanical properties obtained by a number of research groups are discussed. The potential applications of the resulting nanocomposites have also been explored.

  2. Electrospun Polyaniline/Polyethylene Oxide Nanofiber Field Effect Transistor

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pinto, N. J.; Johnson, A. T.; MacDiarmid, A. G.; Mueller, C. H.; Theofylaktos, N.; Robinson, D. C.; Miranda, F. A.

    2003-01-01

    We report on the observation of field effect transistor (FET) behavior in electrospun camphorsulfonic acid doped polyaniline(PANi)/polyethylene oxide(PE0) nanofibers. Saturation channel currents are observed at surprisingly low source/drain voltages. The hole mobility in the depletion regime is 1.4 x 10(exp -4) sq cm/V s while the 1-D charge density (at zero gate bias) is calculated to be approximately 1 hole per 50 two-ring repeat units of polyaniline, consistent with the rather high channel conductivity (approx. 10(exp -3) S/cm). Reducing or eliminating the PEO content in the fiber is expected to enhance device parameters. Electrospinning is thus proposed as a simple method of fabricating 1-D polymer FET's.

  3. Hybrid electrospun chitosan-phospholipids nanofibers for transdermal drug delivery

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mendes, Ana Carina Loureiro; Gorzelanny, Christian; Halter, Natalia;

    2016-01-01

    Chitosan (Ch) polysaccharide was mixed with phospholipids (P) to generate electrospun hybrid nanofibers intended to be used as platforms for transdermal drug delivery. Ch/P nanofibers exibithed average diameters ranging from 248 +/- 94 nm to 600 +/- 201 nm, depending on the amount of phospholipids...... Saline (PBS) solution. Cytotoxicity studies (WST-1 and LDH assays) demonstrated that the hybrid nanofibers have suitable biocompatibility. Fluorescence microscopy, also suggested that L929 cells seeded on top of the CH/P hybrid have similar metabolic activity comparatively to the cells seeded on tissue...... culture plate (control). The release of curcumin, diclofenac and vitamin B12, as model drugs, from Ch/P hybrid nanofibers was investigated, demonstrating their potential utilization as a transdermal drug delivery system....

  4. Electrospun composites of PHBV/pearl powder for bone repairing

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jingjing Bai

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available Electrospun fiber has highly structural similarity with natural bone extracelluar matrix (ECM. Many researches about fabricating organic–inorganic composite materials have been carried out in order to mimic the natural composition of bone and enhance the biocompatibility of materials. In this work, pearl powder was added to the poly (3-hydroxybutyrate-co-3-hydroxyvalerate (PHBV and the composite nanofiber scaffold was prepared by electrospinning. Mineralization ability of the composite scaffolds can be evaluated by analyzing hydroxyapatite (HA formation on the surface of nanofiber scaffolds. The obtained composite nanofiber scaffolds showed an enhanced mineralization capacity due to incorporation of pearl powder. The HA formed amount of the composite scaffolds was raised as the increase of pearl powder in composite scaffolds. Therefore, the prepared PHBV/pearl composite nanofiber scaffolds would be a promising candidate as an osteoconductive composite material for bone repairing.

  5. Electrospun Poly (ε-Caprolactone Nanofiber Mat as Extracellular Matrix

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Laleh Ghasemi-Mobarakeh

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available Objective: Investigation of the suitability of electrospun Poly (ε-caprolactone (PCLnanofiber scaffold for the Vero cell culture.Materials and Methods: Electrospinning was used for production of PCL nanofibersscaffolds. Scanning electron microscopy (SEM, MTT assay, hematoxylin stainingand histology analysis were used to investigate the cell morphology, viability, attachmentand infilteration of the vero cells on the PCL nanofiber scaffolds.Results: The results of the MTT assay, SEM images and hematoxylin stainingshowed that Vero cells attach and spread on PCL nanofiber scaffolds. The proliferationof Vero cells is as well as that of control group, but histological analysis showedthe lack of cell infilteration into the scaffolds, which was found to be due to the smalldiameters of the pores of nanofibrous scaffold.Conclusion: The result of this study show that PCL nanofiber scaffolds are suitablefor cell culture, proliferation and attachment and Vero cells attach and proliferate onPCL nanofiber scaffolds.

  6. The quintuple-shape memory effect in electrospun nanofiber membranes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Fenghua; Zhang, Zhichun; Liu, Yanju; Lu, Haibao; Leng, Jinsong

    2013-08-01

    Shape memory fibrous membranes (SMFMs) are an emerging class of active polymers, which are capable of switching from a temporary shape to their permanent shape upon appropriate stimulation. Quintuple-shape memory membranes based on the thermoplastic polymer Nafion, with a stable fibrous structure, are achieved via electrospinning technology, and possess a broad transition temperature. The recovery of multiple temporary shapes of electrospun membranes can be triggered by heat in a single triple-, quadruple-, quintuple-shape memory cycle, respectively. The fiber morphology and nanometer size provide unprecedented design flexibility for the adjustable morphing effect. SMFMs enable complex deformations at need, having a wide potential application field including smart textiles, artificial intelligence robots, bio-medical engineering, aerospace technologies, etc in the future.

  7. Antibacterial activity of polyacrylonitrile-chitosan electrospun nanofibers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Sam Soo; Lee, Jaewoong

    2014-02-15

    Polyacrylonitrile (PAN)-chitosan double-face films and nanofibers were manufactured. PAN and a chitosan salt were dissolved in dimethyl sulfoxide, and then thin-layered on a glass plate or electro-spun followed by coagulation in sodium hydroxide solution. The morphology of the PAN-chitosan double-face films and nanofibers was analyzed by scanning electron microscopy. The thermal behavior and the glass transition temperature of PAN-chitosan blends were assessed by differential scanning calorimetry and dynamic mechanical analysis, respectively. The antibacterial efficacy was measured by a swatch test with bacterial suspensions. The PAN-chitosan nanofibers produced a 5-log reduction against Escherichia coli, Staphylococcus aureus, and Micrococcus luteus. PMID:24507277

  8. Electrospun composites of PHBV/pearl powder for bone repairing

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Jingjing Bai; Jiamu Dai; Guang Li

    2015-01-01

    Electrospun fiber has highly structural similarity with natural bone extracelluar matrix (ECM). Many researches about fabricating organic–inorganic composite materials have been carried out in order to mimic the natural composition of bone and enhance the biocompatibility of materials. In this work, pearl powder was added to the poly (3-hydroxybutyrate-co-3-hydroxyvalerate) (PHBV) and the composite nanofiber scaffold was prepared by electrospinning. Mineralization ability of the composite scaffolds can be evaluated by analyzing hydroxyapatite (HA) formation on the surface of nanofiber scaffolds. The obtained composite nanofiber scaffolds showed an enhanced mineralization capacity due to incorporation of pearl powder. The HA formed amount of the composite scaffolds was raised as the increase of pearl powder in composite scaffolds. Therefore, the prepared PHBV/pearl composite nanofiber scaffolds would be a promising candidate as an osteoconductive composite material for bone repairing.

  9. In vitro evaluation of crosslinked electrospun fish gelatin scaffolds

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gelatin from cold water fish skin was electrospun, crosslinked and investigated as a substrate for the adhesion and proliferation of cells. Gelatin was first dissolved in either water or concentrated acetic acid and both solutions were successfully electrospun. Cross-linking was achieved via three different routes: glutaraldehyde vapor, genipin and dehydrothermal treatment. Solution's properties (surface tension, electrical conductivity and viscosity) and scaffold's properties (chemical bonds, weight loss and fiber diameters) were measured. Cellular viability was analyzed culturing 3T3 fibroblasts plated on the scaffolds and grown up to 7 days. The cells were fixed and observed with SEM or stained for DNA and F-actin and observed with confocal microscopy. In all scaffolds, the cells attached and spread with varying degrees. The evaluation of cell viability showed proliferation of cells until confluence in scaffolds crosslinked by glutaraldehyde and genipin; however the rate of growth in genipin crosslinked scaffolds was slow, recovering only by day five. The results using the dehydrothermal treatment were the less satisfactory. Our results show that glutaraldehyde treated fish gelatin is the most suitable substrate, of the three studied, for fibroblast adhesion and proliferation. - Highlights: ► Electrospinning of fish gelatin dissolved in both water or concentrated acetic acid ► Glutaraldehyde, genipin and dehydrothermal treatment effectively crosslink the fish gelatin fibers ► Fibroblasts effectively adhere to and propagate on all scaffolds ► Cell population is highest for glutaraldehyde crosslinked scaffolds ► Cells exhibit more filopodia and stress fibers on glutaraldehyde crosslinked scaffolds

  10. Mineralization Potential of Electrospun PDO-Hydroxyapatite-Fibrinogen Blended Scaffolds

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Isaac A. Rodriguez

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available The current bone autograft procedure for cleft palate repair presents several disadvantages such as limited availability, additional invasive surgery, and donor site morbidity. The present preliminary study evaluates the mineralization potential of electrospun polydioxanone:nano-hydroxyapatite : fibrinogen (PDO : nHA : Fg blended scaffolds in different simulated body fluids (SBF. Scaffolds were fabricated by blending PDO : nHA : Fg in the following percent by weight ratios: 100 : 0 : 0, 50 : 25 : 25, 50 : 50 : 0, 50 : 0 : 50, 0 : 0 : 100, and 0 : 50 : 50. Samples were immersed in (conventional (c, revised (r, ionic (i, and modified (m SBF for 5 and 14 days to induce mineralization. Scaffolds were characterized before and after mineralization via scanning electron microscopy, Alizarin Red-based assay, and modified burnout test. The addition of Fg resulted in scaffolds with smaller fiber diameters. Fg containing scaffolds also induced sheet-like mineralization while individual fiber mineralization was noticed in its absence. Mineralized electrospun Fg scaffolds without PDO were not mechanically stable after 5 days in SBF, but had superior mineralization capabilities which produced a thick bone-like mineral (BLM layer throughout the scaffolds. 50 : 50 : 0 scaffolds incubated in either r-SBF for 5 days or c-SBF for 14 days produced scaffolds with high mineral content and individual-mineralized fibers. These mineralized scaffolds were still porous and will be further optimized as an effective bone substitute in future studies.

  11. In vitro evaluation of crosslinked electrospun fish gelatin scaffolds

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gomes, S.R. [Centro de Física e Investigação Tecnológica / Departamento de Física, Faculdade de Ciências e Tecnologia, FCT, Universidade Nova de Lisboa, 2829-516 Caparica (Portugal); Rodrigues, G.; Martins, G.G. [Centro de Biologia Ambiental / Departamento de Biologia Animal, Faculdade de Ciências da Universidade de Lisboa, FCUL, 1749-016 Campo Grande, Lisboa (Portugal); Henriques, C.M.R. [Centro de Física e Investigação Tecnológica / Departamento de Física, Faculdade de Ciências e Tecnologia, FCT, Universidade Nova de Lisboa, 2829-516 Caparica (Portugal); Silva, J.C., E-mail: jcs@fct.unl.pt [Centro de Física e Investigação Tecnológica / Departamento de Física, Faculdade de Ciências e Tecnologia, FCT, Universidade Nova de Lisboa, 2829-516 Caparica (Portugal)

    2013-04-01

    Gelatin from cold water fish skin was electrospun, crosslinked and investigated as a substrate for the adhesion and proliferation of cells. Gelatin was first dissolved in either water or concentrated acetic acid and both solutions were successfully electrospun. Cross-linking was achieved via three different routes: glutaraldehyde vapor, genipin and dehydrothermal treatment. Solution's properties (surface tension, electrical conductivity and viscosity) and scaffold's properties (chemical bonds, weight loss and fiber diameters) were measured. Cellular viability was analyzed culturing 3T3 fibroblasts plated on the scaffolds and grown up to 7 days. The cells were fixed and observed with SEM or stained for DNA and F-actin and observed with confocal microscopy. In all scaffolds, the cells attached and spread with varying degrees. The evaluation of cell viability showed proliferation of cells until confluence in scaffolds crosslinked by glutaraldehyde and genipin; however the rate of growth in genipin crosslinked scaffolds was slow, recovering only by day five. The results using the dehydrothermal treatment were the less satisfactory. Our results show that glutaraldehyde treated fish gelatin is the most suitable substrate, of the three studied, for fibroblast adhesion and proliferation. - Highlights: ► Electrospinning of fish gelatin dissolved in both water or concentrated acetic acid ► Glutaraldehyde, genipin and dehydrothermal treatment effectively crosslink the fish gelatin fibers ► Fibroblasts effectively adhere to and propagate on all scaffolds ► Cell population is highest for glutaraldehyde crosslinked scaffolds ► Cells exhibit more filopodia and stress fibers on glutaraldehyde crosslinked scaffolds.

  12. Electroresponsive aqueous silk protein as "smart" mechanical damping fluid.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jose, Rod R; Elia, Roberto; Tien, Lee W; Kaplan, David L

    2014-05-14

    Here we demonstrate the effectiveness of an electroresponsive aqueous silk protein polymer as a smart mechanical damping fluid. The aqueous polymer solution is liquid under ambient conditions, but is reversibly converted into a gel once subjected to an electric current, thereby increasing or decreasing in viscosity. This nontoxic, biodegradable, reversible, edible fluid also bonds to device surfaces and is demonstrated to reduce friction and provide striking wear protection. The friction and mechanical damping coefficients are shown to modulate with electric field exposure time and/or intensity. Damping coefficient can be modulated electrically, and then preserved without continued power for longer time scales than conventional "smart" fluid dampers. PMID:24750065

  13. Along the silk road, spiders make way for mussels.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carrington, Emily

    2008-02-01

    A novel strategy for coating extensible fibers is revealed from the study of the 'silk' tethers produced by marine mussels. The tethers, known as byssal threads, are molded collagenous fibers coated with a thin (2-4 microm) cuticle that protects the fibrillar core from abrasion and bacterial attack. One mussel species infuses the cuticle with nanoscale granules, which increase the extensibility of the hard coating by to 70%, making it seven times stretchier than any synthetic polymer coating. The mussel cuticle could therefore inspire new strategies for the design and manufacture of thin composite coatings that are both hard and extensible.

  14. PHYTOCHEMICAL INVESTIGATION OF THE SILK COCOONS OF BOMBYX MORI L.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kaskoos Raad A.

    2012-05-01

    Full Text Available Silk cocoons, produced by Bombyx mori L. (Bombicidae are useful as hypotensive, expectorant, bronchodilator and attenuant drug in traditional medicine. Phytochemical investigation of the ethanolic extract of the cocoons led to the isolation of new phenolic constituents identified as n-butyl-3,4-dihydroxybenzoate (1, 3′,8′,9′-trigeranilanyl-3,4-dihydroxybenzoate (2, 3′,7′-dimethyl-3′-hydroxy-octanyl gallate (3, 3,4-dihydroxyphenyl-n-pentanyl ether (4 and 2,3,4-trihydoxypenyl-n-pentanyl ether (5 on the basis of spectral data analysis.

  15. Silk-based conformal, adhesive, edible food sensors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tao, Hu; Brenckle, Mark A; Yang, Miaomiao; Zhang, Jingdi; Liu, Mengkun; Siebert, Sean M; Averitt, Richard D; Mannoor, Manu S; McAlpine, Michael C; Rogers, John A; Kaplan, David L; Omenetto, Fiorenzo G

    2012-02-21

    An array of passive metamaterial antennas fabricated on all protein-based silk substrates were conformally transferred and adhered to the surface of an apple. This process allows the opportunity for intimate contact of micro- and nanostructures that can probe, and accordingly monitor changes in, their surrounding environment. This provides in situ monitoring of food quality. It is to be noted that this type of sensor consists of all edible and biodegradable components, holding utility and potential relevance for healthcare and food/consumer products and markets.

  16. Mechanical behavior of silk during the evolution of orb-web spinning spiders.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Elices, Manuel; Plaza, Gustavo R; Arnedo, Miquel A; Pérez-Rigueiro, José; Torres, Fernando G; Guinea, Gustavo V

    2009-07-13

    The development of an accurate and reproducible approach to measuring the tensile behavior of spider silk has allowed characterizing and comparing the range of mechanical properties exhibited by different spider species with unprecedented detail. The comparison of silks spun by spiders belonging to different phylogenetic groups has revealed that evolution locked in many of the important properties of spider silks very early in the history of orb-web weaving spiders, despite the fact that the silk gland system is relatively isolated in physiological terms from the rest of the organism and should thus mutate quickly. The variations observed between species may be grouped in at least two patterns that are shown not to be related to phylogeny. Beyond the relevance of these results for the evolutionary biology of spiders and silks, the conservation of the basic traits observed in the mechanical behavior of spider silks is likely to set a limit to the range of properties that can be expected from artificial fibers bioinspired in natural silks.

  17. Silk secretion from tarantula feet revisited: alleged spigots are probably chemoreceptors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Foelix, Rainer F; Rast, Bastian; Peattie, Anne M

    2012-04-01

    Controversial views have been expressed about whether tarantula feet can secrete fine silk threads that could prevent them from falling off smooth vertical surfaces. Two studies have claimed that 'ribbed hairs' on the tarsi of tarantulas produce silk. We examined these ribbed hairs in several tarantula species using light and scanning electron microscopy, and compared them with the silk-producing spigots on the abdominal spinnerets. We found that, morphologically, these ribbed hairs correspond very closely to known chemosensitive hairs in spiders; they have a distinct socket, a bent hair shaft with fine cuticular ridges, an eccentric double lumen within the hair shaft, and a blunt tip with a subterminal pore. Spigots on the spinnerets have a large bulbous base instead of a socket, a long shaft with a scaly surface and a central terminal pore. We never observed any silk threads coming out of these ribbed hairs under the electron microscope. By contrast, silk threads exiting the spigots on the spinnerets were common. Interestingly, ribbed hairs also occur on the spinnerets, often side by side with the silk-producing spigots. Our conclusion is that the ribbed hairs are chemoreceptors, not spigots. Observations of live tarantulas clinging inverted to glass coverslips confirmed that some substance is produced by the ribbed hairs, but it remains unclear whether this secretion is actually silk. In any case, the thousands of adhesive setae on the tarsi of legs and pedipalps almost certainly far outweigh any potential contribution from the sparsely distributed trails secreted by the ribbed hairs.

  18. Electrophoretic deposition of tetracycline modified silk fibroin coatings for functionalization of titanium surfaces

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Zhen; Qu, Yinying; Li, Xiaoshuang; Zhang, Sheng; Wei, Qingsong; Shi, Yusheng; Chen, Lili

    2014-06-01

    Electrophoretic deposition has been widely used for the fabrication of functional coatings onto metal implant. A characteristic feature of this process is that positively charged materials migrate toward the cathode and can deposit on it. In this study, silk fibroin was decorated with tetracycline in aqueous solution to impart positive charge, and then deposited on negatively titanium cathode under certain electric field. The characterization of the obtained coatings indicated that the intermolecular hydrogen bonds formed between the backbone of silk fibroin and tetracycline molecular. In vitro biological tests demonstrated that osteoblast-like cells achieved acceptable cell affinity on the tetracycline cross-linked silk fibroin coatings, although greater cell viability was seen on pure silk fibroin coatings. The cationic silk fibroin coatings showed remarkable antibacterial activity against gram-positive (Staphylococcus aureus) and gram-negative (Escherichia coli) bacteria. Therefore, we concluded that electrophoretic deposition was an effective and efficient technique to prepare cationic silk fibroin coatings on the titanium surface and that cationic silk fibroin coatings with acceptable biocompatibility and antibacterial property were promising candidates for further loading of functional agents.

  19. The fusion of tissue spheroids attached to pre-stretched electrospun polyurethane scaffolds

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vince Beachley

    2014-11-01

    Full Text Available Effective cell invasion into thick electrospun biomimetic scaffolds is an unsolved problem. One possible strategy to biofabricate tissue constructs of desirable thickness and material properties without the need for cell invasion is to use thin (<2 µm porous electrospun meshes and self-assembling (capable of tissue fusion tissue spheroids as building blocks. Pre-stretched electrospun meshes remained taut in cell culture and were able to support tissue spheroids with minimal deformation. We hypothesize that elastic electrospun scaffolds could be used as temporal support templates for rapid self-assembly of cell spheroids into higher order tissue structures, such as engineered vascular tissue. The aim of this study was to investigate how the attachment of tissue spheroids to pre-stretched polyurethane scaffolds may interfere with the tissue fusion process. Tissue spheroids attached, spread, and fused after being placed on pre-stretched polyurethane electrospun matrices and formed tissue constructs. Efforts to eliminate hole defects with fibrogenic tissue growth factor-β resulted in the increased synthesis of collagen and periostin and a dramatic reduction in hole size and number. In control experiments, tissue spheroids fuse on a non-adhesive hydrogel and form continuous tissue constructs without holes. Our data demonstrate that tissue spheroids attached to thin stretched elastic electrospun scaffolds have an interrupted tissue fusion process. The resulting tissue-engineered construct phenotype is a direct outcome of the delicate balance of the competing physical forces operating during the tissue fusion process at the interface of the pre-stretched elastic scaffold and the attached tissue spheroids. We have shown that with appropriate treatments, this process can be modulated, and thus, a thin pre-stretched elastic polyurethane electrospun scaffold could serve as a supporting template for rapid biofabrication of thick tissue

  20. Electrospun zwitterionic poly(sulfobetaine methacrylate) for nonadherent, superabsorbent, and antimicrobial wound dressing applications.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lalani, Reza; Liu, Lingyun

    2012-06-11

    Zwitterionic poly(sulfobetaine methacrylate) (PSBMA) has been well studied for its superhydrophilic and ultralow biofouling properties, making it a promising material for superabsorbent and nonadherent wound dressings. Electrospinning provides multiple desirable features for wound dressings, including high absorptivity due to high surface-area-to-volume ratio, high gas permeation, and conformability to contour of the wound bed. The goal of this work is to develop a fibrous membrane of PSBMA via electrospinning and evaluate its properties related to wound dressing applications. Being superhydrophilic, PSBMA fibers fabricated by a conventional electrospinning method would readily dissolve in water, whereas if cross-linker is added, the formation of hydrogel would prevent electrospinning. A three-step polymerization-electrospinning-photo-cross-linking process was developed in this work to fabricate the cross-linked electrospun PSBMA fibrous membrane. Such electrospun membrane was stable in water and exhibited high water absorption of 353% (w/w), whereas the PSBMA hydrogel only absorbed 81% water. The electrospun membrane showed strong resistance to protein adsorption and cell attachment. Bacterial adhesion studies using Gram negative P. aeruginosa and Gram positive S. epidermidis showed that the PSBMA electrospun membrane was also highly resistant to bacterial adhesion. The Ag(+)-impregnated electrospun PSBMA membrane was shown microbicidal, against both S. epidermidis and P. aeruginosa. Such electrospun PSBMA membrane is ideal for a novel type of nonadherent, superabsorbent, and antimicrobial wound dressing. The superior water absorption aids in fluid removal from highly exudating wounds while keeping the wound hydrated to support healing. Because of the resistance to protein, cell, and bacterial adhesion, the dressing removal will neither cause patients' pain nor disturb the newly formed tissues. The dressing also prevents the attachment of environmental bacteria