WorldWideScience

Sample records for biofunctional natural products

  1. Evaluation of different drying techniques on the nutritional and biofunctional properties of a traditional fermented sheep milk product.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alu'datt, Muhammad H; Rababah, Taha; Alhamad, Mohammad N; Obaidat, Mohammad M; Gammoh, Sana; Ereifej, Khalil; Al-Ismail, Khaild; Althnaibat, Rami M; Kubow, Stan

    2016-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to evaluate the effect of solar and freeze drying techniques on the physicochemical, nutritional and biofunctional properties of salted or unsalted Jameed from fermented sheep milk product. The highest yield of Jameed was obtained via the salted-solar drying process. As measured by colorimetry, salted freeze-dried Jameed showed improved consumer characteristics in terms of increased lightness and decreased red and yellow color components. When unsalted Jameed was prepared by solar or freeze drying, additional major peptide bands were detected by SDS-PAGE treatments as compared to the solar or freeze drying of the salted Jameed. Use of salt in the preparation of solar dried Jameed also led to the highest ACE inhibitory activities whereas antioxidant activity was lowest in unsalted solar dried Jameed. The study findings indicate that both greater yield and better overall nutritional and biofunctional properties were associated with solar dried salted Jameed.

  2. New Biofunctional Loading of Natural Antimicrobial Agent in Biodegradable Polymeric Films for Biomedical Applications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ghafoor, Bakhtawar; Ansari, Umar; Bhatti, Muhammad Faraz; Akhtar, Hafsah; Darakhshan, Fatima

    2016-01-01

    The study focuses on the development of novel Aloe vera based polymeric composite films and antimicrobial suture coatings. Polyvinyl alcohol (PVA), a synthetic biocompatible and biodegradable polymer, was combined with Aloe vera, a natural herb used for soothing burning effects and cosmetic purposes. The properties of these two materials were combined together to get additional benefits such as wound healing and prevention of surgical site infections. PVA and Aloe vera were mixed in a fixed quantity to produce polymer based films. The films were screened for antibacterial and antifungal activity against bacterial (E. coli, P. aeruginosa) and fungal strains (Aspergillus flavus and Aspergillus tubingensis) screened. Aloe vera based PVA films showed antimicrobial activity against all the strains; the lowest Aloe vera concentration (5%) showed the highest activity against all the strains. In vitro degradation and release profile of these films was also evaluated. The coating for sutures was prepared, in vitro antibacterial tests of these coated sutures were carried out, and later on in vivo studies of these coated sutures were also performed. The results showed that sutures coated with Aloe vera/PVA coating solution have antibacterial effects and thus have the potential to be used in the prevention of surgical site infections and Aloe vera/PVA based films have the potential to be used for wound healing purposes. PMID:27965710

  3. New Biofunctional Loading of Natural Antimicrobial Agent in Biodegradable Polymeric Films for Biomedical Applications

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bakhtawar Ghafoor

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available The study focuses on the development of novel Aloe vera based polymeric composite films and antimicrobial suture coatings. Polyvinyl alcohol (PVA, a synthetic biocompatible and biodegradable polymer, was combined with Aloe vera, a natural herb used for soothing burning effects and cosmetic purposes. The properties of these two materials were combined together to get additional benefits such as wound healing and prevention of surgical site infections. PVA and Aloe vera were mixed in a fixed quantity to produce polymer based films. The films were screened for antibacterial and antifungal activity against bacterial (E. coli, P. aeruginosa and fungal strains (Aspergillus flavus and Aspergillus tubingensis screened. Aloe vera based PVA films showed antimicrobial activity against all the strains; the lowest Aloe vera concentration (5% showed the highest activity against all the strains. In vitro degradation and release profile of these films was also evaluated. The coating for sutures was prepared, in vitro antibacterial tests of these coated sutures were carried out, and later on in vivo studies of these coated sutures were also performed. The results showed that sutures coated with Aloe vera/PVA coating solution have antibacterial effects and thus have the potential to be used in the prevention of surgical site infections and Aloe vera/PVA based films have the potential to be used for wound healing purposes.

  4. Physiological comfort of biofunctional textiles.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bartels, Volkmar T

    2006-01-01

    Statistics show that the wear comfort is the most important property of clothing demanded by users and consumers. Hence, biofunctional textiles only have a high market potential, if they are comfortable. In this work it is shown how the thermophysiological and skin sensorial wear comfort of biofunctional textiles can be measured effectively by means of the Skin Model and skin sensorial test apparatus. From these measurements, wear comfort votes can be predicted, assessing a textile's wear comfort in practice. These wear comfort votes match exactly the subjective perceptions of test persons. As a result validated by wearer trials with human test subjects, biofunctional textiles can offer the same good wear comfort as classical, non-biofunctional materials. On the other hand, some of the biofunctional treatments lead to a perceivably poorer wear comfort. In particular, the skin sensorial comfort is negatively affected by hydrophobic, smooth (flat) surfaces that easily cling to sweat-wetted skin, or which tend to make textiles stiffer. As guidelines for the improvement of the thermophysiological or skin sensorial wear comfort, it is recommended to use hydrophilic treatments in a suitable concentration and spun yarns instead of filaments.

  5. Inorganic Nanoparticles Conjugated with Biofunctional Molecules

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    J.H.Choy

    2007-01-01

    1 Results We have attempted to conjugate inorganic nanoparticles with biofunctional molecules.Recently we were quite successful in demonstrating that a two-dimensional inorganic compound like layered double hydroxide (LDH),and natural and synthetic clays can be used as gene or drug delivery carriers1-4.To the best of our knowledge,such inorganic vectors are completely new and different from conventionally developed ones such as viruses and cationic liposomes,those which are limited in certain cases of ap...

  6. Palatable and bio-functional wheat/rice products developed from pre-germinated brown rice of super-hard cultivar EM10.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nakamura, Sumiko; Satoh, Hikaru; Ohtsubo, Ken'ichi

    2010-01-01

    It became possible to produce high-quality and bio-functional wheat/rice bread and wheat/rice noodles by blending, pre-germinated and cooked brown rice of a super-hard cultivar with wheat flour. Super-hard rice (SHR) is not suitable for table rice because of its low palatability. Nevertheless, it was found to be suitable as a blending material for bread-making or noodle-making due to its hard texture and high content of resistant starch. We developed a novel rapid germination method to improve the quality and to save the time needed for germination. By blending pre-germinated and cooked SHR (30% w/w on a dry basis) as a rice gel with wheat flour (70% w/w on a dry basis), the bread became very soft and any hardening after bread-making was markedly retarded. Similarly, blending pre-germinated and cooked SHR as cooked a rice gel with wheat flour gave high-quality noodles with a similar texture to that of durum semolina noodles. The resistant starch of the SHR-blended bread and noodles was also markedly increased. White waxy rice (9%) soaked and cooked with the pre-germinated brown rice of SHR (21%) produced a rice gel that was very useful as a material for bread-making and noodle-making by blending with wheat flour (70%) to prepare soft, tasty and bio-functional wheat/rice bread and wheat/rice noodles.

  7. Natural product antifoulants

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    Raveendran, T.V.; Mol, V.P.L.

    Natural Product Antifoulants (NPAs) have been proposed as one of the best replacement options for the most successful antifouling agent, tri-n-butyl tin (TBT), which, due to its ecological incompatibility, is currently facing total global ban...

  8. Antiplasmodial Natural Products

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cláudio R. Nogueira

    2011-03-01

    Full Text Available Malaria is a human infectious disease that is caused by four species of Plasmodium. It is responsible for more than 1 million deaths per year. Natural products contain a great variety of chemical structures and have been screened for antiplasmodial activity as potential sources of new antimalarial drugs. This review highlights studies on natural products with antimalarial and antiplasmodial activity reported in the literature from January 2009 to November 2010. A total of 360 antiplasmodial natural products comprised of terpenes, including iridoids, sesquiterpenes, diterpenes, terpenoid benzoquinones, steroids, quassinoids, limonoids, curcubitacins, and lanostanes; flavonoids; alkaloids; peptides; phenylalkanoids; xanthones; naphthopyrones; polyketides, including halenaquinones, peroxides, polyacetylenes, and resorcylic acids; depsidones; benzophenones; macrolides; and miscellaneous compounds, including halogenated compounds and chromenes are listed in this review.

  9. Natural Products for Antithrombosis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cen Chen

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Thrombosis is considered to be closely related to several diseases such as atherosclerosis, ischemic heart disease and stroke, as well as rheumatoid arthritis, hyperuricemia, and various inflammatory conditions. More and more studies have been focused on understanding the mechanism of molecular and cellular basis of thrombus formation as well as preventing thrombosis for the treatment of thrombotic diseases. In reality, there is considerable interest in the role of natural products and their bioactive components in the prevention and treatment of thrombosis related disorders. This paper briefly describes the mechanisms of thrombus formation on three aspects, including coagulation system, platelet activation, and aggregation, and change of blood flow conditions. Furthermore, the natural products for antithrombosis by anticoagulation, antiplatelet aggregation, and fibrinolysis were summarized, respectively.

  10. Marine Natural Products Against Tuberculosis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marcus Vinícius Nora De Souza

    2006-01-01

    Full Text Available Natural products represent an outstanding source of compounds that play an important role in the treatment of human diseases. Due to the importance of nature as a source of new drug candidates, the aim of this review is to highlight the marine natural products, which exhibit antituberculosis activity, discovered between 2000 and 2005.

  11. Natural products for plant protection

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Čeković Živorad

    2006-01-01

    Full Text Available The advantage applying natural products, such as a secondary metabolites, in plant protection is shortly presented. Acceptable solutions for the enhanced ecological criteria, which are requested by the users of pesticides and consumers of agricultural goods, could be the replacement of classical pesticides by natural products in plant protection. Some natural products are already in use as insecticides, herbicides and fungicides because new biotechnological processes, fermentation and biotransformations provide procedures for their industrial production. In addition to biotechnical processes natural compounds possessing pesticide activities are also prepared by chemical synthesis. An active secondary metabolite must first be isolated from natural sauces and then, based on biological toxicological and ecological studies, acceptable compounds are selected for laboratory and industrial chemical synthesis. Several compounds possessing insecticidal, herbicidal and fungicidal activities, which have been successfully applied for plan protection are presented.

  12. Combinatorial synthesis of natural products

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielsen, John

    2002-01-01

    Combinatorial syntheses allow production of compound libraries in an expeditious and organized manner immediately applicable for high-throughput screening. Natural products possess a pedigree to justify quality and appreciation in drug discovery and development. Currently, we are seeing a rapid...

  13. Synthesis of Polycyclic Natural Products

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nguyen, Tuan Hoang [Iowa State Univ., Ames, IA (United States)

    2003-01-01

    With the continuous advancements in molecular biology and modern medicine, organic synthesis has become vital to the support and extension of those discoveries. The isolations of new natural products allow for the understanding of their biological activities and therapeutic value. Organic synthesis is employed to aid in the determination of the relationship between structure and function of these natural products. The development of synthetic methodologies in the course of total syntheses is imperative for the expansion of this highly interdisciplinary field of science. In addition to the practical applications of total syntheses, the structural complexity of natural products represents a worthwhile challenge in itself. The pursuit of concise and efficient syntheses of complex molecules is both gratifying and enjoyable.

  14. Synthesis of Polycyclic Natural Products

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tuan Hoang Nguyen

    2003-05-31

    With the continuous advancements in molecular biology and modern medicine, organic synthesis has become vital to the support and extension of those discoveries. The isolations of new natural products allow for the understanding of their biological activities and therapeutic value. Organic synthesis is employed to aid in the determination of the relationship between structure and function of these natural products. The development of synthetic methodologies in the course of total syntheses is imperative for the expansion of this highly interdisciplinary field of science. In addition to the practical applications of total syntheses, the structural complexity of natural products represents a worthwhile challenge in itself. The pursuit of concise and efficient syntheses of complex molecules is both gratifying and enjoyable.

  15. Glycosylation and Activities of Natural Products.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huang, Gangliang; Lv, Meijiao; Hu, Jinchuan; Huang, Kunlin; Xu, Hong

    2016-01-01

    Natural products are widely found in nature, their number and variety are numerous, the structures are complex and diverse. These natural products have many physiological and pharmacological activities. Glycosylation can increase the diversity of structure and function of natural product, it has become the focus of drug research and development. The impacts of glycosylation of natural products to water solubility, pharmacological activities, bioavailability, or others were described in this review, which provides a reference for the development and application of glycosylated natural products.

  16. Natural products as antimitotic agents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dall'Acqua, Stefano

    2014-01-01

    Natural products still play an important role in the medicinal chemistry, especially in some therapeutic areas. As example more than 60% of currently-used anticancer agents are derives from natural sources including plants, marine organisms or micro-organism. Thus natural products (NP) are an high-impact source of new "lead compounds" or new potential therapeutic agents despite the large development of biotechnology and combinatorial chemistry in the drug discovery and development. Many examples of anticancer drugs as paclitaxel, combretastatin, bryostatin and discodermolide have shown the importance of NP in the anticancer chemotherapy through many years. Many organisms have been studied as sources of drugs namely plants, micro-organisms and marine organisms and the obtained NP can be considered a group of "privileged chemical structures" evolved in nature to interact with other organisms. For this reason NP are a good starting points for pharmaceutical research and also for library design. Tubulin and microtubules are one of the most studied targets for the search of anticancer compounds. Microtubule targeting agents (MTA) also named antimitotic agents are compounds that are able to perturb mitosis but are also able to arrest cell growing during interphase. The anticancer drugs, taxanes and vinca alkaloids have established tubulin as important target in cancer therapy. More recently the vascular disrupting agents (VDA) combretastatin analogues were studied for their antimitotics properties. This review will consider the anti mitotic NP and their potential impact in the development of new therapeutic agents.

  17. Physicochemical and biofunctional properties of crab chitosan nanoparticles.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nguyen, The Han; Kwak, Hae Soo; Kim, Sang Moo

    2013-08-01

    The physicochemical and biofunctional properties of crab chitosan nanoparticles of two different sizes (Nano A and B) manufactured by dry milling method were evaluated for commercialization. The deacetylation degrees (DD) of Nano A, B and the control chitosan were 90.9, 93.0, and 92.7% respectively whereas their molecular weights (M(w)) were 43.9, 44.7 and 208.8 kDa. The average sizes of the dispersed Nano A, B and the control chitosan in cetyltrimethylammonium chloride were 735.9, 849.4 and 2,382.4 nm, respectively, which were lower than 1441.7, 2935.6 and 6832.9 nm of the intact chitosans. Chitosan nanoparticles had mild tyrosinase, antioxidant and angiotensin I converting enzyme (ACE), but weak collagenase, elastase and beta-glucuronidase inhibitory activity. However, Nano A had strong alpha-glucosidase inhibitory activity, which was comparable to that of acarbose, a commercial alpha-glucosidase inhibitor. In addition, the minimum inhibitory concentrations (MICs) of chitosan and its nanoparticles ranged from 30 to > 200 microg/mL against each four gram-positive and gram-negative bacteria. Therefore, crab chitosan nanoparticles could be used as a nutraceutical, cosmeceutical or pharmaceutical product.

  18. Synthetic glycosylated natural products have satisfactory activities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huang, Gangliang; Mei, Xinya

    2014-01-01

    Many natural products contain sugar residues, which are essential components for great medicinal importance. The sugar moieties can improve water-solubility of natural products and decrease their toxicity. At the same time, the glycosidic residues are crucial for the activities of natural products. Much effort has been expended over the past decades in developing novel and efficient methodologies to synthesize the glycosylated natural products. This review highlights recent developments in the synthesis of glycosylated natural products. The structure-activity relationships of some of these glycosylated natural products, together with the structure characteristics of their interaction with the biological targets, are also involved.

  19. Natural and engineered biosynthesis of fluorinated natural products.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Walker, Mark C; Chang, Michelle C Y

    2014-09-21

    Both natural products and synthetic organofluorines play important roles in the discovery and design of pharmaceuticals. The combination of these two classes of molecules has the potential to be useful in the ongoing search for new bioactive compounds but our ability to produce site-selectively fluorinated natural products remains limited by challenges in compatibility between their high structural complexity and current methods for fluorination. Living systems provide an alternative route to chemical fluorination and could enable the production of organofluorine natural products through synthetic biology approaches. While the identification of biogenic organofluorines has been limited, the study of the native organisms and enzymes that utilize these compounds can help to guide efforts to engineer the incorporation of this unusual element into complex pharmacologically active natural products. This review covers recent advances in understanding both natural and engineered production of organofluorine natural products.

  20. Hot springs and cool natural products.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kwon, Ho Jeong; Lee, Choong Hwan; Osada, Hiroyuki; Yoshida, Minoru; Imoto, Masaya

    2008-08-01

    Natural products have played a unique role in providing new tools and insights in chemical biology. The tremendous value of natural products was highlighted by scientists from Korea and Japan at the 4(th) Korea-Japan Chemical Biology symposium.

  1. Misassigned natural products and their revised structures.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yoo, Hye-Dong; Nam, Sang-Jip; Chin, Young-Won; Kim, Min-Sun

    2016-02-01

    Natural products are a major pipeline for drug development and are responsible for more than 50 % of drugs on the market. NMR is a fundamental and powerful tool for the structure determination of natural products. It is essential to provide unambiguous chemical structure information on natural products in drug development research, including the structure-activity relationship, derivatization and pharmacokinetic/pharmacodynamic studies. Advancement of NMR instruments has made it possible to deal with nanomole-scale natural products for structure elucidation, but misinterpretation of NMR spectra still occurs. We review 21 natural products with revised chemical structures and the methods used for those revisions.

  2. Natural products and body weight control

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jay Lee

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available The purpose of the review was to summarise the effect of some commonly available natural products used for body weight management. We collected data from PubMed and scientific journals. There are numerous publications on this topic, however we have summarized the most commonly available and potent natural products from recent 53 publications. The natural products analyzed in this paper include catechins, capsaicin, conjugated linoleic acid, fucoxanthin, soy isoflavone, glabridin, astaxanthin and cyaniding-3-glucoside. These natural products are effective and safe for body weight management. Further studies need to be conducted to investigate the mechanism of action, metabolism, long term safety and side effects of these natural products, as well as interactions between these natural products with dietary components.

  3. Accounting Of Products Collected From Nature

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ahmet Gökgöz

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Products from nature can be classified as “production” or “collection from nature” within agricultural production. Products collected from nature vary in type and can sum up to important quantities. Thyme, mushroom, chestnut, sage, linden, saffron from plant origin can be given as examples to products from nature as well as fish, mussel, octopus, birds from animal origin. This study covers the accounting area of products obtained from nature. The evaluation of collection of these products from nature in terms of agricultural operation poses great importance for accounting issues. Thus, special care will be given to issues of accounting of these products within the scope of Turkish Tax Legislation and Turkish Accounting Standards

  4. Super Natural II--a database of natural products.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Banerjee, Priyanka; Erehman, Jevgeni; Gohlke, Björn-Oliver; Wilhelm, Thomas; Preissner, Robert; Dunkel, Mathias

    2015-01-01

    Natural products play a significant role in drug discovery and development. Many topological pharmacophore patterns are common between natural products and commercial drugs. A better understanding of the specific physicochemical and structural features of natural products is important for corresponding drug development. Several encyclopedias of natural compounds have been composed, but the information remains scattered or not freely available. The first version of the Supernatural database containing ∼ 50,000 compounds was published in 2006 to face these challenges. Here we present a new, updated and expanded version of natural product database, Super Natural II (http://bioinformatics.charite.de/supernatural), comprising ∼ 326,000 molecules. It provides all corresponding 2D structures, the most important structural and physicochemical properties, the predicted toxicity class for ∼ 170,000 compounds and the vendor information for the vast majority of compounds. The new version allows a template-based search for similar compounds as well as a search for compound names, vendors, specific physical properties or any substructures. Super Natural II also provides information about the pathways associated with synthesis and degradation of the natural products, as well as their mechanism of action with respect to structurally similar drugs and their target proteins.

  5. Counting on natural products for drug design

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rodrigues, Tiago; Reker, Daniel; Schneider, Petra; Schneider, Gisbert

    2016-06-01

    Natural products and their molecular frameworks have a long tradition as valuable starting points for medicinal chemistry and drug discovery. Recently, there has been a revitalization of interest in the inclusion of these chemotypes in compound collections for screening and achieving selective target modulation. Here we discuss natural-product-inspired drug discovery with a focus on recent advances in the design of synthetically tractable small molecules that mimic nature's chemistry. We highlight the potential of innovative computational tools in processing structurally complex natural products to predict their macromolecular targets and attempt to forecast the role that natural-product-derived fragments and fragment-like natural products will play in next-generation drug discovery.

  6. Natural Connections on Riemannian Product Manifolds

    OpenAIRE

    Gribacheva, Dobrinka

    2011-01-01

    A Riemannian almost product manifold with integrable almost product structure is called a Riemannian product manifold. In the present paper the natural connections on such manifolds are studied, i.e. the linear connections preserving the almost product structure and the Riemannian metric.

  7. Toward Biofunctional Microneedles for Stimulus Responsive Drug Delivery.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cahill, Ellen M; O'Cearbhaill, Eoin D

    2015-07-15

    Microneedles have recently been adopted for use as a painless and safe method of transdermal therapeutic delivery through physically permeating the stratum corneum. While microneedles create pathways to introduce drugs, they can also act as conduits for biosignal sensing. Here, we explore the development of microneedles as both biosensing and drug delivery platforms. Microneedle sensors are being developed for continuous monitoring of biopotentials and bioanalytes through the use of conductive and electrochemically reactive biomaterials. The range of therapeutics being delivered through microneedle devices has diversified, while novel bioabsorbable microneedles are undergoing first-in-human clinical studies. We foresee that future microneedle platform development will focus on the incorporation of biofunctional materials, designed to deliver therapeutics in a stimulus responsive fashion. Biofunctional microneedle patches will require improved methods of attaching to and conforming to epithelial tissues in dynamic environments for longer periods of time and thus present an assortment of new design challenges. Through the evolution of biomaterial development and microneedle design, biofunctional microneedles are proposed as a next generation of stimulus responsive drug delivery systems.

  8. Functional chromatographic technique for natural product isolation†

    OpenAIRE

    Lau, Eric C.; Mason, Damian J.; Eichhorst, Nicole; Engelder, Pearce; Mesa, Celestina; Kithsiri Wijeratne, E. M.; Gunaherath, G. M. Kamal B.; Leslie Gunatilaka, A. A.; La Clair, James J.; Chapman, Eli

    2015-01-01

    Natural product discovery arises through a unique interplay between chromatographic purification and biological assays. Currently, most techniques used for natural product purification deliver leads without a defined biological action. We now describe a technique, referred to herein as functional chromatography, that deploys biological affinity as the matrix for compound isolation.

  9. Functional chromatographic technique for natural product isolation†

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lau, Eric C.; Mason, Damian J.; Eichhorst, Nicole; Engelder, Pearce; Mesa, Celestina; Kithsiri Wijeratne, E. M.; Gunaherath, G. M. Kamal B.; Leslie Gunatilaka, A. A.

    2015-01-01

    Natural product discovery arises through a unique interplay between chromatographic purification and biological assays. Currently, most techniques used for natural product purification deliver leads without a defined biological action. We now describe a technique, referred to herein as functional chromatography, that deploys biological affinity as the matrix for compound isolation. PMID:25588099

  10. Bioactive natural products from novel microbial sources.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Challinor, Victoria L; Bode, Helge B

    2015-09-01

    Despite the importance of microbial natural products for human health, only a few bacterial genera have been mined for the new natural products needed to overcome the urgent threat of antibiotic resistance. This is surprising, given that genome sequencing projects have revealed that the capability to produce natural products is not a rare feature among bacteria. Even the bacteria occurring in the human microbiome produce potent antibiotics, and thus potentially are an untapped resource for novel compounds, potentially with new activities. This review highlights examples of bacteria that should be considered new sources of natural products, including anaerobes, pathogens, and symbionts of humans, insects, and nematodes. Exploitation of these producer strains, combined with advances in modern natural product research methodology, has the potential to open the way for a new golden age of microbial therapeutics.

  11. Stereoselective Halogenation in Natural Product Synthesis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chung, Won-jin; Vanderwal, Christopher D

    2016-03-24

    At last count, nearly 5000 halogenated natural products have been discovered. In approximately half of these compounds, the carbon atom to which the halogen is bound is sp(3) -hybridized; therefore, there are an enormous number of natural products for which stereocontrolled halogenation must be a critical component of any synthesis strategy. In this Review, we critically discuss the methods and strategies used for stereoselective introduction of halogen atoms in the context of natural product synthesis. Using the successes of the past, we also attempt to identify gaps in our synthesis technology that would aid the synthesis of halogenated natural products, as well as existing methods that have not yet seen application in complex molecule synthesis. The chemistry described herein demonstrates yet again how natural products continue to provide the inspiration for critical advances in chemical synthesis.

  12. Naturally derived biofunctional nanofibrous scaffold for skin tissue regeneration.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Suganya, S; Venugopal, J; Ramakrishna, S; Lakshmi, B S; Dev, V R Giri

    2014-07-01

    Significant wound healing activity of Aloe vera (AV) and higher elastic strength of Silk fibroin (SF) along with mammalian cell compatibility makes AV and SF an attractive material for tissue engineering. The purpose of the present work was to combine their unique properties, with the advantage of electrospinning to prepare a hybrid transdermal biomaterial for dermal substitutes. The physico-chemical characterization of the developed scaffold showed finer morphology expressing amino and esteric groups with improved hydrophilic properties and favorable tensile strain of 116% desirable for skin tissue engineering. Their biological response showed favorable fibroblast proliferation compared to control which almost increased linearly by (p<0.01) 34.68% on day 3, (p<0.01) 19.13% on day 6, and (p<0.001) 97.86% on day 9 with higher expression of CMFDA, collagen and F-actin proteins. The obtained results prove that the nanofibrous scaffold with synergistic property of AV and SF would be a potential biomaterial for skin tissue regeneration.

  13. Targeting Nuclear Receptors with Marine Natural Products

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chunyan Yang

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Nuclear receptors (NRs are important pharmaceutical targets because they are key regulators of many metabolic and inflammatory diseases, including diabetes, dyslipidemia, cirrhosis, and fibrosis. As ligands play a pivotal role in modulating nuclear receptor activity, the discovery of novel ligands for nuclear receptors represents an interesting and promising therapeutic approach. The search for novel NR agonists and antagonists with enhanced selectivities prompted the exploration of the extraordinary chemical diversity associated with natural products. Recent studies involving nuclear receptors have disclosed a number of natural products as nuclear receptor ligands, serving to re-emphasize the translational possibilities of natural products in drug discovery. In this review, the natural ligands of nuclear receptors will be described with an emphasis on their mechanisms of action and their therapeutic potentials, as well as on strategies to determine potential marine natural products as nuclear receptor modulators.

  14. Natural food pigments application in food products

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Emilia Janiszewska-Turak

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available Natural pigments, food compounds, are responsible for the colour of the products. These additives can impart, to deepen or renew the colour of the product, if it has been lost while processing. They also improve the taste of the product and facilitate its identification. It is hard to imagine today’s food industry without the use of pigments. Presently, more and more conscious con­sumers are demanding products to be coloured with natural pigments or any pigment added to the final product. Artificial pigments are considered to be harmful and undesirable so food manufacturers focus on the use of natural colour substances. 16 natural pigments are presently permitted to be used. These compounds are: betalains – betanin, quinones – cochineal, flavonoids – anthocyan­ins, isoprenoids – carotene, annatto (bixin, norbixin, paprika extract, lutein, canthaxanthin, porphyrins – chlorophylls and chlorophyllins and copper complexes of these compounds, and others: caramels, curcumin, or plant coal.

  15. New Synthetic Methods for Hypericum Natural Products

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jeon, Insik [Iowa State Univ., Ames, IA (United States)

    2006-01-01

    Organic chemistry has served as a solid foundation for interdisciplinary research areas, such as molecular biology and medicinal chemistry. An understanding of the biological activities and structural elucidations of natural products can lead to the development of clinically valuable therapeutic options. The advancements of modern synthetic methodologies allow for more elaborate and concise natural product syntheses. The theme of this study centers on the synthesis of natural products with particularly challenging structures and interesting biological activities. The synthetic expertise developed here will be applicable to analog syntheses and to other research problems.

  16. Cancer wars: natural products strike back

    Science.gov (United States)

    Basmadjian, Christine; Zhao, Qian; Bentouhami, Embarek; Djehal, Amel; Nebigil, Canan G.; Johnson, Roger A.; Serova, Maria; de Gramont, Armand; Faivre, Sandrine; Raymond, Eric; Désaubry, Laurent G.

    2014-01-01

    Natural products have historically been a mainstay source of anticancer drugs, but in the 90's they fell out of favor in pharmaceutical companies with the emergence of targeted therapies, which rely on antibodies or small synthetic molecules identified by high throughput screening. Although targeted therapies greatly improved the treatment of a few cancers, the benefit has remained disappointing for many solid tumors, which revitalized the interest in natural products. With the approval of rapamycin in 2007, 12 novel natural product derivatives have been brought to market. The present review describes the discovery and development of these new anticancer drugs and highlights the peculiarities of natural product and new trends in this exciting field of drug discovery. PMID:24822174

  17. Sources for Leads: Natural Products and Libraries.

    Science.gov (United States)

    van Herwerden, Eric F; Süssmuth, Roderich D

    2016-01-01

    Natural products have traditionally been a major source of leads in the drug discovery process. However, the development of high-throughput screening led to an increased interest in synthetic methods that enabled the rapid construction of large libraries of molecules. This resulted in the termination or downscaling of many natural product research programs, but the chemical libraries did not necessarily produce a larger amount of drug leads. On one hand, this chapter explores the current state of natural product research within the drug discovery process. On the other hand it evaluates the efforts made to increase the amount of leads generated from chemical libraries and considers what role natural products could play here.

  18. Cancer wars: Natural products strike back

    Science.gov (United States)

    Basmadjian, Christine; Zhao, Qian; Djehal, Amel; Bentouhami, Embarek; Nebigil, Canan; Johnson, Roger; Serova, Maria; De Gramont, Armand; Faivre, Sandrine; Raymond, Eric; Désaubry, Laurent

    2014-05-01

    Natural products have historically been a mainstay source of anticancer drugs, but in the 90’s they fell out of favor in pharmaceutical companies with the emergence of targeted therapies, which rely on antibodies or small synthetic molecules identified by high throughput screening. Although targeted therapies greatly improved the treatment of a few cancers, the benefit has remained disappointing for many sol¬¬id tumors, which revitalized the interest in natural products. With the approval of rapamycin in 2007, twelve novel natural product derivatives have been brought to market. The present review describes the discovery and development of these new anticancer drugs and highlights the peculiarities of natural product and new trends in this exciting field of drug discovery.

  19. Cancer wars: Natural products strike back

    OpenAIRE

    Christine eBasmadjian; Qian eZhao; Amel eDjehal; Embarek eBentouhami; Nebigil, Canan G.; Johnson, Roger A.; Maria eSerova; Armand eDe Gramont; Sandrine eFaivre; Eric eRaymond; Désaubry, Laurent G.

    2014-01-01

    Natural products have historically been a mainstay source of anticancer drugs, but in the 90’s they fell out of favor in pharmaceutical companies with the emergence of targeted therapies, which rely on antibodies or small synthetic molecules identified by high throughput screening. Although targeted therapies greatly improved the treatment of a few cancers, the benefit has remained disappointing for many sol¬¬id tumors, which revitalized the interest in natural products. With the approval of ...

  20. Cancer wars: natural products strike back

    OpenAIRE

    Basmadjian, Christine; Zhao, Qian; Bentouhami, Embarek; Djehal, Amel; Nebigil, Canan G.; Johnson, Roger A.; Serova, Maria; Gramont, Armand de; Faivre, Sandrine; Raymond, Eric; Désaubry, Laurent G.

    2014-01-01

    Natural products have historically been a mainstay source of anticancer drugs, but in the 90's they fell out of favor in pharmaceutical companies with the emergence of targeted therapies, which rely on antibodies or small synthetic molecules identified by high throughput screening. Although targeted therapies greatly improved the treatment of a few cancers, the benefit has remained disappointing for many solid tumors, which revitalized the interest in natural products. With the approval of ra...

  1. Reconstructing fungal natural product biosynthetic pathways.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lazarus, C M; Williams, K; Bailey, A M

    2014-10-01

    Large scale fungal genome sequencing has revealed a multitude of potential natural product biosynthetic pathways that remain uncharted. Here we describe some of the methods that have been used to explore them via heterologous gene expression. We focus on filamentous fungal hosts and discuss the technological challenges and successes behind the reconstruction of fungal natural product pathways. Optimised, efficient heterologous expression of reconstructed biosynthetic pathways promises progress in the discovery of novel compounds that could be utilised by the pharmaceutical and agrochemical industries.

  2. First-Person Educational Psychology for Teacher Education Majors: A Biofunctional Understanding Intervention

    Science.gov (United States)

    Iran-Nejad, Asghar; Stewart, William; Robinson, Cecil

    2015-01-01

    This is a semester-long study of the development of first-person biofunctional understanding in educational psychology for teacher education majors. We defined biofunctional understanding as a spontaneous intellectual capacity. To reach its deep biological levels, sculpted by countless evolutionary millennia, students identified and dwelled in…

  3. Microbial production of natural raspbery ketone

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Beekwilder, M.J.; Meer, van der I.M.; Sibbesen, O.; Broekgaarden, M.; Qvist, I.; Mikkelsen, J.D.; Hall, R.D.

    2007-01-01

    Raspberry ketone is an important compound for the flavour industry. It is frequently used in products such as soft drinks, sweets, puddings and ice creams. The compound can be produced by organic synthesis. Demand for natural raspberry ketone is growing considerably. However, this product is extreme

  4. Natural product discovery: past, present, and future.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Katz, Leonard; Baltz, Richard H

    2016-03-01

    Microorganisms have provided abundant sources of natural products which have been developed as commercial products for human medicine, animal health, and plant crop protection. In the early years of natural product discovery from microorganisms (The Golden Age), new antibiotics were found with relative ease from low-throughput fermentation and whole cell screening methods. Later, molecular genetic and medicinal chemistry approaches were applied to modify and improve the activities of important chemical scaffolds, and more sophisticated screening methods were directed at target disease states. In the 1990s, the pharmaceutical industry moved to high-throughput screening of synthetic chemical libraries against many potential therapeutic targets, including new targets identified from the human genome sequencing project, largely to the exclusion of natural products, and discovery rates dropped dramatically. Nonetheless, natural products continued to provide key scaffolds for drug development. In the current millennium, it was discovered from genome sequencing that microbes with large genomes have the capacity to produce about ten times as many secondary metabolites as was previously recognized. Indeed, the most gifted actinomycetes have the capacity to produce around 30-50 secondary metabolites. With the precipitous drop in cost for genome sequencing, it is now feasible to sequence thousands of actinomycete genomes to identify the "biosynthetic dark matter" as sources for the discovery of new and novel secondary metabolites. Advances in bioinformatics, mass spectrometry, proteomics, transcriptomics, metabolomics and gene expression are driving the new field of microbial genome mining for applications in natural product discovery and development.

  5. Using Genomics for Natural Product Structure Elucidation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tietz, Jonathan I; Mitchell, Douglas A

    2016-01-01

    Natural products (NPs) are the most historically bountiful source of chemical matter for drug development-especially for anti-infectives. With insights gleaned from genome mining, interest in natural product discovery has been reinvigorated. An essential stage in NP discovery is structural elucidation, which sheds light not only on the chemical composition of a molecule but also its novelty, properties, and derivatization potential. The history of structure elucidation is replete with techniquebased revolutions: combustion analysis, crystallography, UV, IR, MS, and NMR have each provided game-changing advances; the latest such advance is genomics. All natural products have a genetic basis, and the ability to obtain and interpret genomic information for structure elucidation is increasingly available at low cost to non-specialists. In this review, we describe the value of genomics as a structural elucidation technique, especially from the perspective of the natural product chemist approaching an unknown metabolite. Herein we first introduce the databases and programs of interest to the natural products chemist, with an emphasis on those currently most suited for general usability. We describe strategies for linking observed natural product-linked phenotypes to their corresponding gene clusters. We then discuss techniques for extracting structural information from genes, illustrated with numerous case examples. We also provide an analysis of the biases and limitations of the field with recommendations for future development. Our overview is not only aimed at biologically-oriented researchers already at ease with bioinformatic techniques, but also, in particular, at natural product, organic, and/or medicinal chemists not previously familiar with genomic techniques.

  6. Psychoactive natural products: overview of recent developments

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    István Ujváry

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available Natural psychoactive substances have fascinated the curious mind of shamans, artists, scholars and laymen since antiquity. During the twentieth century, the chemical composition of the most important psychoactive drugs, that is opium, cannabis, coca and "magic mushrooms", has been fully elucidated. The mode of action of the principal ingredients has also been deciphered at the molecular level. In the past two decades, the use of herbal drugs, such as kava, kratom and Salvia divinorum, began to spread beyond their traditional geographical and cultural boundaries. The aim of the present paper is to briefly summarize recent findings on the psychopharmacology of the most prominent psychoactive natural products. Current knowledge on a few lesser-known drugs, including bufotenine, glaucine, kava, betel, pituri, lettuce opium and kanna is also reviewed. In addition, selected cases of alleged natural (or semi-natural products are also mentioned.

  7. Psychoactive natural products: overview of recent developments.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ujváry, István

    2014-01-01

    Natural psychoactive substances have fascinated the curious mind of shamans, artists, scholars and laymen since antiquity. During the twentieth century, the chemical composition of the most important psychoactive drugs, that is opium, cannabis, coca and "magic mushrooms", has been fully elucidated. The mode of action of the principal ingredients has also been deciphered at the molecular level. In the past two decades, the use of herbal drugs, such as kava, kratom and Salvia divinorum, began to spread beyond their traditional geographical and cultural boundaries. The aim of the present paper is to briefly summarize recent findings on the psychopharmacology of the most prominent psychoactive natural products. Current knowledge on a few lesser-known drugs, including bufotenine, glaucine, kava, betel, pituri, lettuce opium and kanna is also reviewed. In addition, selected cases of alleged natural (or semi-natural) products are also mentioned.

  8. Review: Natural products from Genus Selaginella (Selaginellaceae

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    AHMAD DWI SETYAWAN

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Setyawan AD. 2011. Natural products from Genus Selaginella (Selaginellaceae. Nusantara Bioscience 3: 44-58. Selaginella is a potent medicinal-stuff, which contains diverse of natural products such as alkaloid, phenolic (flavonoid, and terpenoid. This species is traditionally used to cure several diseases especially for wound, after childbirth, and menstrual disorder. Biflavonoid, a dimeric form of flavonoids, is the most valuable natural products of Selaginella, which constituted at least 13 compounds, namely amentoflavone, 2',8''-biapigenin, delicaflavone, ginkgetin, heveaflavone, hinokiflavone, isocryptomerin, kayaflavone, ochnaflavone, podocarpusflavone A, robustaflavone, sumaflavone, and taiwaniaflavone. Ecologically, plants use biflavonoid to response environmental condition such as defense against pests, diseases, herbivory, and competitions; while human medically use biflavonoid especially for antioxidant, anti-inflammatory, and anti carcinogenic. Selaginella also contains valuable disaccharide, namely trehalose that has long been known for protecting from desiccation and allows surviving severe environmental stress. The compound has very prospects as molecular stabilizer in the industries based bioresources.

  9. Early State Research on Antifungal Natural Products

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Melyssa Negri

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available Nosocomial infections caused by fungi have increased greatly in recent years, mainly due to the rising number of immunocompromised patients. However, the available antifungal therapeutic arsenal is limited, and the development of new drugs has been slow. Therefore, the search for alternative drugs with low resistance rates and fewer side effects remains a major challenge. Plants produce a variety of medicinal components that can inhibit pathogen growth. Studies of plant species have been conducted to evaluate the characteristics of natural drug products, including their sustainability, affordability, and antimicrobial activity. A considerable number of studies of medicinal plants and alternative compounds, such as secondary metabolites, phenolic compounds, essential oils and extracts, have been performed. Thus, this review discusses the history of the antifungal arsenal, surveys natural products with potential antifungal activity, discusses strategies to develop derivatives of natural products, and presents perspectives on the development of novel antifungal drug candidates.

  10. Biofunctional activity of tortillas and bars enhanced with nopal. Preliminary assessment of functional effect after intake on the oxidative status in healthy volunteers

    OpenAIRE

    2011-01-01

    Abstract Background Prickly pear cactus stem (nopal) has been used in folk medicine and a raw material since ancient times. Stems have been proved to possess components with valuable biological activities: anti inflamatory, antioxidant, antiulcerogenic, hypoglycemic, and so forth. Nowadays, people consume foods not only to cover the nutritional requirements, they also demand for healty, natural and convenient foods that show biological activity. This study evaluated the bio-functional effects...

  11. Anti-Inflammatory Activity of Natural Products

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Abdullatif Azab

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available This article presents highlights of the published literature regarding the anti-inflammatory activities of natural products. Many review articles were published in this regard, however, most of them have presented this important issue from a regional, limited perspective. This paper summarizes the vast range of review and research articles that have reported on the anti-inflammatory effects of extracts and/or pure compounds derived from natural products. Moreover, this review pinpoints some interesting traditionally used medicinal plants that were not investigated yet.

  12. Chocolate: A Marvelous Natural Product of Chemistry

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tannenbaum, Ginger

    2004-01-01

    The study of chocolate, a natural product, can be beneficial for the chemistry students as they ask frequently about the relevancy of their chemistry classes. The history of chocolate, its chemical and physical changes during processing, its composition, different crystalline forms, tempering and its viscosity are discussed.

  13. Natural products – learning chemistry from plants

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Staniek, A.; Bouwmeester, H.J.; Fraser, P.D.; Kayser, O.; Martens, S.; Tissier, A.; Krol, van der A.R.; Wessjohann, L.; Warzecha, H.

    2014-01-01

    Plant natural products (PNPs) are unique in that they represent a vast array of different structural features, ranging from relatively simple molecules to very complex ones. Given the fact that many plant secondary metabolites exhibit profound biological activity, they are frequently used as fragran

  14. Computational approaches to natural product discovery

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Medema, M.H.; Fischbach, M.A.

    2015-01-01

    Starting with the earliest Streptomyces genome sequences, the promise of natural product genome mining has been captivating: genomics and bioinformatics would transform compound discovery from an ad hoc pursuit to a high-throughput endeavor. Until recently, however, genome mining has advanced natura

  15. The Rakicidin Family of Anticancer Natural Products

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Tsakos, Michail; Jacobsen, Kristian Mark; Yu, Wanwan;

    2016-01-01

    Rakicidin A is a prominent member of a small class of macrocyclic lipodepsipeptide natural products that contain an electrophilic 4- amido-2,4-pentadienoate (APD) functionality. Rakicidin A displays selective growth inhibitory activity against hypoxic cancer cells as well as imatinib-resistant ch...

  16. Natural products from microbes associated with insects

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Beemelmanns, Christine; Guo, Huijuan; Rischer, Maja;

    2016-01-01

    Here we review discoveries of secondary metabolites from microbes associated with insects. We mainly focus on natural products, where the ecological role has been at least partially elucidated, and/or the pharmaceutical properties evaluated, and on compounds with unique structural features. We...

  17. Marine natural products as prototype agrochemical agents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peng, Jiangnan; Shen, Xiaoyu; El Sayed, Khalid A; Dunbar, D Charles; Perry, Tony L; Wilkins, Scott P; Hamann, Mark T; Bobzin, Steve; Huesing, Joseph; Camp, Robin; Prinsen, Mike; Krupa, Dan; Wideman, Margaret A

    2003-04-09

    In the interest of identifying new leads that could serve as prototype agrochemical agents, 18 structurally diverse marine-derived compounds were examined for insecticidal, herbicidal, and fungicidal activities. Several new classes of compounds have been shown to be insecticidal, herbicidal, and fungicidal, which suggests that marine natural products represent an intriguing source for the discovery of new agrochemical agents.

  18. Marine Natural Products as Prototype Agrochemical Agents

    OpenAIRE

    Peng, Jiangnan; Shen, Xiaoyu; Khalid A. El Sayed; Dunbar, D. C Harles; Perry, Tony L.; Wilkins, Scott P.; Hamann, Mark T.; Bobzin, Steve; Huesing, Joseph; Camp, Robin; Prinsen, Mike; Krupa, Dan; Wideman, Margaret A.

    2003-01-01

    In the interest of identifying new leads that could serve as prototype agrochemical agents, 18 structurally diverse marine-derived compounds were examined for insecticidal, herbicidal, and fungicidal activities. Several new classes of compounds have been shown to be insecticidal, herbicidal, and fungicidal, which suggests that marine natural products represent an intriguing source for the discovery of new agrochemical agents.

  19. An automated Genomes-to-Natural Products platform (GNP) for the discovery of modular natural products.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Johnston, Chad W; Skinnider, Michael A; Wyatt, Morgan A; Li, Xiang; Ranieri, Michael R M; Yang, Lian; Zechel, David L; Ma, Bin; Magarvey, Nathan A

    2015-09-28

    Bacterial natural products are a diverse and valuable group of small molecules, and genome sequencing indicates that the vast majority remain undiscovered. The prediction of natural product structures from biosynthetic assembly lines can facilitate their discovery, but highly automated, accurate, and integrated systems are required to mine the broad spectrum of sequenced bacterial genomes. Here we present a genome-guided natural products discovery tool to automatically predict, combinatorialize and identify polyketides and nonribosomal peptides from biosynthetic assembly lines using LC-MS/MS data of crude extracts in a high-throughput manner. We detail the directed identification and isolation of six genetically predicted polyketides and nonribosomal peptides using our Genome-to-Natural Products platform. This highly automated, user-friendly programme provides a means of realizing the potential of genetically encoded natural products.

  20. Natural products in modern life science.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bohlin, Lars; Göransson, Ulf; Alsmark, Cecilia; Wedén, Christina; Backlund, Anders

    2010-06-01

    With a realistic threat against biodiversity in rain forests and in the sea, a sustainable use of natural products is becoming more and more important. Basic research directed against different organisms in Nature could reveal unexpected insights into fundamental biological mechanisms but also new pharmaceutical or biotechnological possibilities of more immediate use. Many different strategies have been used prospecting the biodiversity of Earth in the search for novel structure-activity relationships, which has resulted in important discoveries in drug development. However, we believe that the development of multidisciplinary incentives will be necessary for a future successful exploration of Nature. With this aim, one way would be a modernization and renewal of a venerable proven interdisciplinary science, Pharmacognosy, which represents an integrated way of studying biological systems. This has been demonstrated based on an explanatory model where the different parts of the model are explained by our ongoing research. Anti-inflammatory natural products have been discovered based on ethnopharmacological observations, marine sponges in cold water have resulted in substances with ecological impact, combinatory strategy of ecology and chemistry has revealed new insights into the biodiversity of fungi, in depth studies of cyclic peptides (cyclotides) has created new possibilities for engineering of bioactive peptides, development of new strategies using phylogeny and chemography has resulted in new possibilities for navigating chemical and biological space, and using bioinformatic tools for understanding of lateral gene transfer could provide potential drug targets. A multidisciplinary subject like Pharmacognosy, one of several scientific disciplines bridging biology and chemistry with medicine, has a strategic position for studies of complex scientific questions based on observations in Nature. Furthermore, natural product research based on intriguing scientific

  1. Natural production of biological optical systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Choi, Seung Ho; Kim, Young L.

    2015-03-01

    Synthesis and production in nature often provide ideas to design and fabricate advanced biomimetic photonic materials and structures, leading to excellent physical properties and enhanced performance. In addition, the recognition and utilization of natural or biological substances have been typical routes to develop biocompatible and biodegradable materials for medical applications. In this respect, biological lasers utilizing such biomaterials and biostructures have been received considerable attention, given a variety of implications and potentials for bioimaging, biosensing, implantation, and therapy. However, without relying on industrial facilities, eco-friendly massive production of such optical components or systems has not yet been investigated. We show examples of bioproduction of biological lasers using agriculture and fisheries. We anticipate that such approaches will open new possibilities for scalable eco-friendly `green' production of biological photonics components and systems.

  2. [Status of libraries and databases for natural products at abroad].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhao, Li-Mei; Tan, Ning-Hua

    2015-01-01

    For natural products are one of the important sources for drug discovery, libraries and databases of natural products are significant for the development and research of natural products. At present, most of compound libraries at abroad are synthetic or combinatorial synthetic molecules, resulting to access natural products difficult; for information of natural products are scattered with different standards, it is difficult to construct convenient, comprehensive and large-scale databases for natural products. This paper reviewed the status of current accessing libraries and databases for natural products at abroad and provided some important information for the development of libraries and database for natural products.

  3. Bio-functional subwavelength optical waveguides for biodetection

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sirbuly, D J; Fischer, N; Huang, S; Artyukhin, A

    2007-07-10

    We report a versatile biofunctional subwavelength photonic device platform for real-time detection of biological molecules. Our devices contain lipid bilayer membranes fused onto metal oxide nanowire waveguides stretched across polymeric flow channels. The lipid bilayers incorporating target receptors are submersed in the propagating evanescent field of the optical cavity. We show that the lipid bilayers in our devices are continuous, have very high mobile fraction, and are resistant to fouling. We also demonstrate that our platform allows rapid membrane exchange. Finally we use this device for detection of specific DNA sequences in solution by anchoring complementary DNA target strands in the lipid bilayer. This evanescent wave sensing architecture holds great potential for portable, all-optical detection systems.

  4. Automated genome mining for natural products

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zajkowski James

    2009-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Discovery of new medicinal agents from natural sources has largely been an adventitious process based on screening of plant and microbial extracts combined with bioassay-guided identification and natural product structure elucidation. Increasingly rapid and more cost-effective genome sequencing technologies coupled with advanced computational power have converged to transform this trend toward a more rational and predictive pursuit. Results We have developed a rapid method of scanning genome sequences for multiple polyketide, nonribosomal peptide, and mixed combination natural products with output in a text format that can be readily converted to two and three dimensional structures using conventional software. Our open-source and web-based program can assemble various small molecules composed of twenty standard amino acids and twenty two other chain-elongation intermediates used in nonribosomal peptide systems, and four acyl-CoA extender units incorporated into polyketides by reading a hidden Markov model of DNA. This process evaluates and selects the substrate specificities along the assembly line of nonribosomal synthetases and modular polyketide synthases. Conclusion Using this approach we have predicted the structures of natural products from a diverse range of bacteria based on a limited number of signature sequences. In accelerating direct DNA to metabolomic analysis, this method bridges the interface between chemists and biologists and enables rapid scanning for compounds with potential therapeutic value.

  5. In silico Design of "Un-Natural" Natural Products

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zucko; J. ...(et al.

    2008-05-01

    Full Text Available Polyketides and non-ribosomal peptides represent a large class of structurally diverse natural products much studied over recent years because the enzymes that synthesise them, the modular polyketide synthases (PKSs and the non-ribosomal peptide synthetases (NRPSs, share striking architectural similarities that can be exploited to generate "un-natural" natural products. PKS and NRPS proteins are multifunctional, composed of a co-linear arrangement of discrete protein domains representing each enzymic activity needed for chain elongation using either carboxylic acid or amino acid building blocks. Each domain is housed within larger modules which form the complex. Polyketide and peptide antibiotics, antifungals, antivirals, cytostatics, immunosuppressants, antihypertensives, antidiabetics, antimalarials and anticholesterolemics are in clinical use. Of commercial importance are also polyketide and peptide antiparasitics, coccidiostatics,animal growth promoters and natural insecticides.Polyketides are assembled through serial condensations of activated coenzyme-A thioester monomers derived from simple organic acids such as acetate, propionate and butyrate. The choice of organic acid allows the introduction of different chiral centres into the polyketide backbone. The active sites required for condensation include an acyltransferase (AT, an acyl carrier protein (ACP and a ß-ketoacylsynthase (KS. Each condensation results in a ß-keto group that undergoes all, some or none of a series of processing steps. Active sites that perform these reactions are contained within the following domains; ketoreductase (KR, dehydratase (DH and an enoylreductase (ER. The absence of any ß-keto processing results in the incorporation of a ketone group into the growing polyketide chain, a KR alone gives rise to a hydroxyl moiety, a KR and DH produce an alkene, while the combination of KR, DH and ER domains lead to complete reduction to an alkane. Most often, the last

  6. Utilization of Natural Products as Functional Feed

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Stella Magdalena

    2013-03-01

    Full Text Available The use of antibiotics as feed additive improves performance in livestock. However, scientific data related to the use of antibiotics in feed merge spreading of bacterial resistance in animal and human bodies, therefore the usage of antibiotics in animal production is restricted. This condition raise the utilization of natural antibiotic as functional feed such as phytogenics (essential oil, flavonoid, saponin, and tannin, enzyme, probiotic, and prebiotic to improve the livestock’s performance, quality, and health. Functional feeds increase profitability in animal husbandry production and its use is feeds are expected to be functional foods that may have positive effects in human nutrition.

  7. Synthetic biological approaches to natural product biosynthesis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Winter, Jaclyn M; Tang, Yi

    2012-10-01

    Small molecules produced in Nature possess exquisite chemical diversity and continue to be an inspiration for the development of new therapeutic agents. In their host organisms, natural products are assembled and modified using dedicated biosynthetic pathways. By rationally reprogramming and manipulating these pathways, unnatural metabolites containing enhanced structural features that were otherwise inaccessible can be obtained. Additionally, new chemical entities can be synthesized by developing the enzymes that carry out these complicated chemical reactions into biocatalysts. In this review, we will discuss a variety of combinatorial biosynthetic strategies, their technical challenges, and highlight some recent (since 2007) examples of rationally designed metabolites, as well as platforms that have been established for the production and modification of clinically important pharmaceutical compounds.

  8. (+)-discodermolide: a marine natural product against cancer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    De Souza, Marcus Vinícius Nora

    2004-06-11

    (+)-discodermolide was isolated in 1990 by Gunasekera et al. from the deep-water Caribbean sponge Discodermia dissoluta. It attacks cancer cells in a similar way to the successful cancer drug Taxol that has become the best-selling anticancer drug in history. Taxol is also the first natural product described that stabilizes the microtubules involved in many aspects of cellular biology and that represent an important target of anticancer chemotherapeutics. However, (+)-discodermolide appears to be far more potent than Taxol against tumors that have developed multiple-drug resistance, with an IC50 in the low nanomolar range. Due to these excellent results, this natural product was licensed to Novartis Pharmaceutical Corporation in early 1998. The present review covers the history, biological activity, total synthesis, and synthetic analogs of (+)-discodermolide.

  9. (+-Discodermolide: A Marine Natural Product Against Cancer

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marcus Viníus Nora De Souza

    2004-01-01

    Full Text Available (+-Discodermolide was isolated in 1990 by Gunasekera et al. from the deep-water Caribbean sponge Discodermia dissoluta. It attacks cancer cells in a similar way to the successful cancer drug Taxol® that has become the best-selling anticancer drug in history. Taxol is also the first natural product described that stabilizes the microtubules involved in many aspects of cellular biology and that represent an important target of anticancer chemotherapeutics. However, (+-discodermolide appears to be far more potent than Taxol® against tumors that have developed multiple-drug resistance, with an IC50 in the low nanomolar range. Due to these excellent results, this natural product was licensed to Novartis Pharmaceutical Corporation in early 1998. The present review covers the history, biological activity, total synthesis, and synthetic analogs of (+-discodermolide.

  10. Trypanocidal Activity of Marine Natural Products

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Amy J. Jones

    2013-10-01

    Full Text Available Marine natural products are a diverse, unique collection of compounds with immense therapeutic potential. This has resulted in these molecules being evaluated for a number of different disease indications including the neglected protozoan diseases, human African trypanosomiasis and Chagas disease, for which very few drugs are currently available. This article will review the marine natural products for which activity against the kinetoplastid parasites; Trypanosoma brucei brucei, T.b. rhodesiense and T. cruzi has been reported. As it is important to know the selectivity of a compound when evaluating its trypanocidal activity, this article will only cover molecules which have simultaneously been tested for cytotoxicity against a mammalian cell line. Compounds have been grouped according to their chemical structure and representative examples from each class were selected for detailed discussion.

  11. Standardization for natural product synthetic biology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhao, Huimin; Medema, Marnix H

    2016-08-27

    Standardization is one of the foundational features of modern-day engineering, and the use of standardized parts and processes is a key element that distinguishes bona fide synthetic biology from traditional genetic engineering. Here, we discuss the role of standardization in natural product synthetic biology, focusing on standardization of data on biosynthetic pathways and gene clusters, as well as the role of standardization in the process of biosynthetic gene cluster engineering.

  12. Natural products from filamentous fungi and production by heterologous expression.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alberti, Fabrizio; Foster, Gary D; Bailey, Andy M

    2017-01-01

    Filamentous fungi represent an incredibly rich and rather overlooked reservoir of natural products, which often show potent bioactivity and find applications in different fields. Increasing the naturally low yields of bioactive metabolites within their host producers can be problematic, and yield improvement is further hampered by such fungi often being genetic intractable or having demanding culturing conditions. Additionally, total synthesis does not always represent a cost-effective approach for producing bioactive fungal-inspired metabolites, especially when pursuing assembly of compounds with complex chemistry. This review aims at providing insights into heterologous production of secondary metabolites from filamentous fungi, which has been established as a potent system for the biosynthesis of bioactive compounds. Numerous advantages are associated with this technique, such as the availability of tools that allow enhanced production yields and directing biosynthesis towards analogues of the naturally occurring metabolite. Furthermore, a choice of hosts is available for heterologous expression, going from model unicellular organisms to well-characterised filamentous fungi, which has also been shown to allow the study of biosynthesis of complex secondary metabolites. Looking to the future, fungi are likely to continue to play a substantial role as sources of new pharmaceuticals and agrochemicals-either as producers of novel natural products or indeed as platforms to generate new compounds through synthetic biology.

  13. Natural and Heterologous Production of Bacteriocins

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cintas, Luis M.; Herranz, Carmen; Hernández, Pablo E.

    Bacteriocins are ribosomally synthesized antimicrobial peptides produced by bacteria, and their use as natural and nontoxic food preservatives has been the source of considerable interest for the research community. In addition, bacteriocins have been investigated for their potential use in human and veterinary applications and in the animal production field. In the native bacterial strain, most bacteriocins are synthesized as biologically inactive precursors, with N-terminal extensions, that are cleaved concomitantly during export of the bacteriocin by dedicated ABC transporters, or the general secretory pathway (GSP) or Sec-dependent pathway. However, a few bacteriocins are synthesized without an N-terminal extension, and others are circularized through a head-to-tail peptide bond, complicating the elucidation of their processing and transport across the cytoplasmic membrane. The high cost of synthetic bacteriocin synthesis and their low yields from many natural producers recommends the exploration of recombinant microbial systems for the heterologous production of bacteriocins. Other advantages of such systems include production of bacteriocins in safer hosts, increased bacteriocin production, control of bacteriocin gene expression, production of food ingredients with antimicrobial activity, construction of multibacteriocinogenic strains with a wider antagonistic spectrum, a better adaptation of the selected hosts to food environments, and providing antagonistic properties to lactic acid bacteria (LAB) used as starter, protective, or probiotic cultures. The recombinant production of bacteriocins mostly relies on the use of expression vectors that replicate in Gram-negative bacteria, Gram-positive bacteria, and yeasts, whereas the production of bacteriocins in heterologous LAB hosts may be essentially based on the expression of native biosynthetic genes, by exchanging or replacing leader peptides and/or dedicated processing and secretion systems (ABC transporters

  14. The biofunction of orange-spotted grouper (Epinephelus coioides) CC chemokine ligand 4 (CCL4) in innate and adaptive immunity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hsu, Yi-Jiou; Hou, Chia-Yi; Lin, Shih-Jie; Kuo, Wan-Ching; Lin, Han-Tso; Lin, John Han-You

    2013-12-01

    CC chemokine (motif) ligand 4 (CCL4) is indispensable to the chemoattraction of macrophages, natural killer cells, and lymphocytes in mammals; however, it has only been cloned in a limited number of fish species and information related to its biofunction remains ambiguous with regard to teleosts. To explore the role of teleost CCL4, we first evaluated the mRNA expression of the Epinephelus coioides CCL4 (gCCL4) gene in various organs under LPS and poly (I:C) stimulated; secondary, we evaluated the immune-related genes expression of fish under the recombinant gCCL4 protein stimulated. Our results revealed an increase in the mRNA of gCCL4 in immune organs immediately following stimulation by poly (I:C); however, in LPS stimulated fish, the expression did not increase until nearly 24 h after induction. In biofunction assays, recombinant gCCL4 was found to induce chemotactic activity in the peripheral blood leukocytes of groupers and up-regulate the gene expressions of grouper TNFA1 (TNF-α1), TNFA2 (TNF-α2), IFNG (IFN-γ), MX, TBX21 (T-bet), CD8 (α and β chain). These findings indicate that grouper CCL4 attracts leukocytes, induces an inflammatory response, and drives lymphocyte differentiation into the Th1 pathway.

  15. Natural products as potential anticonvulsants: caffeoylquinic acids.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Hyo Geun; Oh, Myung Sook

    2012-03-01

    Current anticonvulsant therapies are generally directed at symptomatic treatment by suppressing excitability within the brain. Consequently, they have adverse effects such as cognitive impairment, dependence, and abuse. The need for more effective and less toxic anticonvulsants has generated renewed interest in natural products for the treatment of convulsions. Caffeoylquinic acids (CQs) are naturally occurring phenolic acids that are distributed widely in plants. There has been increasing interest in the biological activities of CQs in diseases of the central nervous system. In this issue, Nugroho et al. give evidence for the anticonvulsive effect of a CQ-rich extract from Aster glehni Franchet et Sckmidt. They optimized the extract solvent conditions, resulting in high levels of CQs and peroxynitrite-scavenging activity. Then, they investigated the sedative and anticonvulsive effects in pentobarbital- and pentylenetetrazole-induced models in mice. The CQ-rich extract significantly inhibited tonic convulsions as assessed by onset time, tonic extent, and mortality. They suggested that the CQ-rich extract from A. glehni has potential for treating convulsions. This report provides preclinical data which may be used for the development of anticonvulsants from natural products.

  16. An Improved Synthesis of the Natural Product Isorhapontigenin

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2000-01-01

    We have developed an alternative route to synthesize the natural product, isorhapotogenin . The synthetic product was characterized by IR and 1H-NMR in comparison with the corresponding natural product.

  17. Phylogenetic approaches to natural product structure prediction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ziemert, Nadine; Jensen, Paul R

    2012-01-01

    Phylogenetics is the study of the evolutionary relatedness among groups of organisms. Molecular phylogenetics uses sequence data to infer these relationships for both organisms and the genes they maintain. With the large amount of publicly available sequence data, phylogenetic inference has become increasingly important in all fields of biology. In the case of natural product research, phylogenetic relationships are proving to be highly informative in terms of delineating the architecture and function of the genes involved in secondary metabolite biosynthesis. Polyketide synthases and nonribosomal peptide synthetases provide model examples in which individual domain phylogenies display different predictive capacities, resolving features ranging from substrate specificity to structural motifs associated with the final metabolic product. This chapter provides examples in which phylogeny has proven effective in terms of predicting functional or structural aspects of secondary metabolism. The basics of how to build a reliable phylogenetic tree are explained along with information about programs and tools that can be used for this purpose. Furthermore, it introduces the Natural Product Domain Seeker, a recently developed Web tool that employs phylogenetic logic to classify ketosynthase and condensation domains based on established enzyme architecture and biochemical function.

  18. Microbial production of natural raspberry ketone.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Beekwilder, Jules; van der Meer, Ingrid M; Sibbesen, Ole; Broekgaarden, Mans; Qvist, Ingmar; Mikkelsen, Joern D; Hall, Robert D

    2007-10-01

    Raspberry ketone is an important compound for the flavour industry. It is frequently used in products such as soft drinks, sweets, puddings and ice creams. The compound can be produced by organic synthesis. Demand for "natural" raspberry ketone is growing considerably. However, this product is extremely expensive. Consequently, there is a remaining desire to better understand how raspberry ketone is synthesized in vivo, and which genes and enzymes are involved. With this information we will then be in a better position to design alternative production strategies such as microbial fermentation. This article focuses on the identification and application of genes potentially linked to raspberry ketone synthesis. We have isolated candidate genes from both raspberry and other plants, and these have been introduced into bacterial and yeast expression systems. Conditions have been determined that result in significant levels of raspberry ketone, up to 5 mg/L. These results therefore lay a strong foundation for a potentially renewable source of "natural" flavour compounds making use of plant genes.

  19. Natural products research in latin america.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gupta, M P

    2001-01-01

    The biodiversity found in Latin America is one of the richest in the world, yet its potential as a source of new pharmaceuticals has not been fully investigated. This paper will explore the present status of natural products research in 19 Latin American countries. Future research needs will be presented along with reports on the ethnobotanical and bioprospection projects under way in Latin America. The presentation will be based on data collected over the last five years and will be presented within the framework of the Fine Pharmaceutical Subprogram of the Iberoamerican Program of Science and Technology for Development (CYTED), a novel international cooperation program.

  20. Metabolomics and dereplication strategies in natural products.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tawfike, Ahmed Fares; Viegelmann, Christina; Edrada-Ebel, Ruangelie

    2013-01-01

    Metabolomic methods can be utilized to screen diverse biological sources of potentially novel and sustainable sources of antibiotics and pharmacologically-active drugs. Dereplication studies by high resolution Fourier transform mass spectrometry coupled to liquid chromatography (LC-HRFTMS) and nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) spectroscopy can establish the chemical profile of endophytic and/or endozoic microbial extracts and their plant or animal sources. Identifying the compounds of interest at an early stage will aid in the isolation of the bioactive components. Therefore metabolite profiling is important for functional genomics and in the search for new pharmacologically active compounds. Using the tools of metabolomics through the employment of LC-HRFTMS as well as high resolution NMR will be a very efficient approach. Metabolomic profiling has found its application in screening extracts of macroorganisms as well as in the isolation and cultivation of suspected microbial producers of bioactive natural products.Metabolomics is being applied to identify and biotechnologically optimize the production of pharmacologically active secondary metabolites. The links between metabolome evolution during optimization and processing factors can be identified through metabolomics. Information obtained from a metabolomics dataset can efficiently establish cultivation and production processes at a small scale which will be finally scaled up to a fermenter system, while maintaining or enhancing synthesis of the desired compounds. MZmine (BMC Bioinformatics 11:395-399, 2010; http://mzmine.sourceforge.net/download.shtml ) and SIEVE ( http://www.vastscientific.com/resources/index.html ; Rapid Commun Mass Spectrom 22:1912-1918, 2008) softwares are utilized to perform differential analysis of sample populations to find significant expressed features of complex biomarkers between parameter variables. Metabolomes are identified with the aid of existing high resolution MS and NMR

  1. Natural products from microbes associated with insects

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Christine Beemelmanns

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available Here we review discoveries of secondary metabolites from microbes associated with insects. We mainly focus on natural products, where the ecological role has been at least partially elucidated, and/or the pharmaceutical properties evaluated, and on compounds with unique structural features. We demonstrate that the exploration of specific microbial–host interactions, in combination with multidisciplinary dereplication processes, has emerged as a successful strategy to identify novel chemical entities and to shed light on the ecology and evolution of defensive associations.

  2. Near infrared spectroscopy in natural products analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cozzolino, Daniel

    2009-06-01

    Several medicinal and herbal plants properties are related to individual compounds such as essential oils, terpenoids, flavonoids, which are present in natural products in low concentrations (e. g., ppm or ppb). For many years, the use of classical separation and chromatographic and spectrometric techniques such as high performance liquid chromatography (HPLC), gas chromatography (GC), liquid chromatography (LC) and mass spectrometry (MS) were initially used for the elucidation of isolated compounds from different plant matrices. Spectroscopic techniques in the infrared (IR) wavelength region of the electromagnetic spectrum have been used in the food industry to monitor and evaluate the composition of foods. Although Herschel discovered light in the near-infrared (NIR) region as early as 1800, most spectroscopists of the first half of the last century ignored it, in the belief that it lacked any analytical interest. However, during the last 40 years NIR spectroscopy has become one of the most attractive and used methods for analysis. This mini-review highlights recent applications of NIR spectroscopy to the qualitative and quantitative analysis of plant natural products.

  3. Natural Products: Insights into Leishmaniasis Inflammatory Response

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rodrigues, Igor A.; Mazotto, Ana Maria; Cardoso, Verônica; Alves, Renan L.; Amaral, Ana Claudia F.; Silva, Jefferson Rocha de Andrade; Pinheiro, Anderson S.; Vermelho, Alane B.

    2015-01-01

    Leishmaniasis is a vector-borne disease that affects several populations worldwide, against which there are no vaccines available and the chemotherapy is highly toxic. Depending on the species causing the infection, the disease is characterized by commitment of tissues, including the skin, mucous membranes, and internal organs. Despite the relevance of host inflammatory mediators on parasite burden control, Leishmania and host immune cells interaction may generate an exacerbated proinflammatory response that plays an important role in the development of leishmaniasis clinical manifestations. Plant-derived natural products have been recognized as bioactive agents with several properties, including anti-protozoal and anti-inflammatory activities. The present review focuses on the antileishmanial activity of plant-derived natural products that are able to modulate the inflammatory response in vitro and in vivo. The capability of crude extracts and some isolated substances in promoting an anti-inflammatory response during Leishmania infection may be used as part of an effective strategy to fight the disease. PMID:26538837

  4. Plant cell culture strategies for the production of natural products.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ochoa-Villarreal, Marisol; Howat, Susan; Hong, SunMi; Jang, Mi Ok; Jin, Young-Woo; Lee, Eun-Kyong; Loake, Gary J

    2016-03-01

    Plants have evolved a vast chemical cornucopia to support their sessile lifestyles. Man has exploited this natural resource since Neolithic times and currently plant-derived chemicals are exploited for a myriad of applications. However, plant sources of most high-value natural products (NPs) are not domesticated and therefore their production cannot be undertaken on an agricultural scale. Further, these plant species are often slow growing, their populations limiting, the concentration of the target molecule highly variable and routinely present at extremely low concentrations. Plant cell and organ culture constitutes a sustainable, controllable and environmentally friendly tool for the industrial production of plant NPs. Further, advances in cell line selection, biotransformation, product secretion, cell permeabilisation, extraction and scale-up, among others, are driving increases in plant NP yields. However, there remain significant obstacles to the commercial synthesis of high-value chemicals from these sources. The relatively recent isolation, culturing and characterisation of cambial meristematic cells (CMCs), provides an emerging platform to circumvent many of these potential difficulties. [BMB Reports 2016; 49(3): 149-158].

  5. Yoghurt enrichment with natural bee farming products

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    N. Lomova

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available Introduction. Bee pollen is a unique and unparalleled natural bioactive substances source. Using it in conjunction with the popular functional fermented milk product -yogurt will expand its product range and increase the biological value. Materials and Methods. Dried bee pollen’s moisture determination was made by gravimetry methods, based on the sample weight loss due to desiccation, until constant weight was reached.Test and control yogurt samples were studied by applying standard techniques for milk and milk products set forth in the regulations of Ukraine. Results and discussion. It is found that bee pollen pellet drying to a moisture content of 2 -4%, increases the flow rate of powder almost by 90%. The sample having moisture content of 2% will have a bulk density exceeding 12.5% compared to the sample having moisture content of 10%. Raw output will also increase by 3.7%. By contrast, apparent density and weight fraction of losses decreases, which has a positive impact on pollen efficiency of use and distribution in bulk yogurt. Moreover, the weight fraction of losses decreases by fourfold (4.6% vs. 1%. It was experimentally determined that pollen can deteriorate microbiological characteristics of yogurt. It was proved that treatment of crushed bee pollen pellet sample with ultraviolet allows improving yogurt microbiological safety indicators. Namely, to reduce the presence of coli-forms to 0, mould –to 10 CFU/cm³. Conclusions. The proposed bee pollen pellet treatment method will improve the technological and microbiological characteristics of pollen powder. This provides for yoghurt production biotechnology using bee farming products.

  6. Antibacterial natural products in medicinal chemistry--exodus or revival?

    Science.gov (United States)

    von Nussbaum, Franz; Brands, Michael; Hinzen, Berthold; Weigand, Stefan; Häbich, Dieter

    2006-08-04

    To create a drug, nature's blueprints often have to be improved through semisynthesis or total synthesis (chemical postevolution). Selected contributions from industrial and academic groups highlight the arduous but rewarding path from natural products to drugs. Principle modification types for natural products are discussed herein, such as decoration, substitution, and degradation. The biological, chemical, and socioeconomic environments of antibacterial research are dealt with in context. Natural products, many from soil organisms, have provided the majority of lead structures for marketed anti-infectives. Surprisingly, numerous "old" classes of antibacterial natural products have never been intensively explored by medicinal chemists. Nevertheless, research on antibacterial natural products is flagging. Apparently, the "old fashioned" natural products no longer fit into modern drug discovery. The handling of natural products is cumbersome, requiring nonstandardized workflows and extended timelines. Revisiting natural products with modern chemistry and target-finding tools from biology (reversed genomics) is one option for their revival.

  7. Natural product synthesis at the interface of chemistry and biology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hong, Jiyong

    2014-08-11

    Nature has evolved to produce unique and diverse natural products that possess high target affinity and specificity. Natural products have been the richest sources for novel modulators of biomolecular function. Since the chemical synthesis of urea by Wöhler, organic chemists have been intrigued by natural products, leading to the evolution of the field of natural product synthesis over the past two centuries. Natural product synthesis has enabled natural products to play an essential role in drug discovery and chemical biology. With the introduction of novel, innovative concepts and strategies for synthetic efficiency, natural product synthesis in the 21st century is well poised to address the challenges and complexities faced by natural product chemistry and will remain essential to progress in biomedical sciences.

  8. Water purification by bio-function; Seibutsu kino niyoru suishitsu joka

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Umemiya, H. [Yamagata University, Yamagata (Japan)

    1999-11-30

    The author has been studying aquifer heat reservation method as a main theme, and from this water quality purification by bio-function has been derived as a separated theme. The aquifer heat reservation method is a method to reduce a large amount of warm water (or cold water) to underground, to reserve the heat energy for 6 months, and to utilize the hot heat in winter for warming and cold heat in summer for cooling. It was discovered during a field experiment that a doughnut-shaped iron colloid dam was formed around a heat reserving well and improved the heat recovery rate to over 60% by interfering natural convection as well as contributed to the purification of reserved water. As a result of the investigation of anaerobe contained in a peat layer for the purpose of the utilization of the purification effect, bacillus was proven to be most excellent. This paper describes experiences of the author throughout this research by dividing chapters to (1) iron bacteria, (2) bio-filter including algae, (3) peat layer, (4) bacillus. (NEDO)

  9. The automation of natural product structure elucidation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Steinbeck, C

    2001-05-01

    The last two or three years have seen exciting developments in the field of computer-assisted structure elucidation (CASE) with a number of programs becoming commercially or freely available. This was the conditio sine qua non for CASE to be widely applied in the daily work of bench chemists and spectroscopists. A number of promising applications have been published in the area of structure generators, deterministic and stochastic CASE tools and property predictions, including the automatic distinction between natural products and artificial compounds, as well as the determination of 3-D structure from a connection table based on IR spectroscopy. Advancements in coupling techniques between chromatographic and spectroscopic methods demonstrate progress towards a fully automated structure elucidation or identification process starting at the earliest steps of obtaining crude extracts.

  10. Cell Adhesion Selectivity of Stent Material to improve Bio-functionality by Ion Beam Modification

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lee, Jaesang; Park, JUngchan; Jung, Myunghwan; Kim, Yongki [Korea Atomic Energy Research Institute, Daejeon (Korea, Republic of); Park, Junkyu [Bio alpha., Co. Ltd., Gimhae (Korea, Republic of)

    2014-05-15

    In this study, ion implantation into collagen coated Co-Cr alloy, which is a cheaper material of the artificial stent product comparing with Ti alloy, has been studied to develop small diameter artificial stent by the cell adhesion control. The size of stent was 1.6mm of the diameter and 18mm of the length. The life-time of artificial stent depends on adhesion property of endothelial-cells. We successfully controlled cell adhesion selectivity between endothelial cell and muscle cell by using collagen coated and He{sup +} ion beam irradiated Co-Cr-alloy to apply to artificial stent. But, we did not achieve the inhibition of platelet adhesion, yet by using collagen coating and He{sup +} ion beam irradiation. Based on this study, we have plan to research about separation between collagen coating effect and ion beam effect. Also, we will have more detail analysis of the mechanism of cell attachment. In recent years, ion implantation has been applied to the surface modification of prosthesis to improve blood compatibility and tissue compatibility in field of biomedical application. As well known, bio compatibility was concerned with the cell adhesion selectivity for bio-functionality. The biomedical application of ion beam technology would be used more widely in the future such as catheter and artificial graft.

  11. Chocolate: A Marvelous Natural Product of Chemistry

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tannenbaum, Ginger

    2004-08-01

    Chocolate is a natural product as ubiquitous as television. Of course, it is eaten, but it is also found in air fresheners, marking pens, flavoring in a multitude of products including soda pop, and as an aroma in "chocolate-dyed" T-shirts. However, most of us are completely unaware of the complex chemical reactions that take place to produce chocolate and the necessary technology that has evolved to produce chocolate and all its byproducts. Processing results in a mixture of many components, an interesting contrast to most of the simple, one-step reactions introduced at the high school level. This article is a survey of chocolate from tree to table. After a brief introduction to the history of chocolate and how and where it is grown, the manufacturing process is examined, and the chemistry is explored. A bit of the jargon used in the industry is mentioned. Cocoa butter is a significant ingredient in chocolate, and an investigation of it introduces triglycerides, fatty acids, polymorphic behavior, and molecular packing of the fats in chocolate and how they affect the tempering process. There is a brief discussion of chocolate's non-Newtonian behavior and the resulting challenges presented in the manufacturing process. See Featured Molecules Featured on the Cover

  12. Natural products--a simple model to explain chemical diversity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Firn, Richard D; Jones, Clive G

    2003-08-01

    A simple evolutionary model is presented which explains why organisms produce so many natural products, why so many have low biological activity, why enzymes involved in natural product synthesis have the properties they do and why natural product metabolism is shaped as it is.

  13. Antifouling Activity of Marine Natural Products

    KAUST Repository

    Qian, Pei-Yuan

    2012-01-01

    With the global ban of application of organotin-based marine coatings by International Maritime Organization in 2008, there is a practical and urgent need of identifying environmentally friendly low-toxic and nontoxic antifouling compounds for marine industries. Marine natural products have been considered as one of the most promising sources of antifouling compounds in recent years. In antifouling compound screening processes, bioassay systems often play most critical/vital roles in screening efforts. To meet various needs, a variety of bioassay systems have been developed and/or adopted in both research and commercial laboratories. In this chapter, we provide a brief outline of common bioassay procedures for both antimicrofouling and antimacrofouling assays, which can serve as a general guideline for setting up bioassay systems in laboratories engaged in antifouling compound screening. Some bioassay procedures currently practiced in various laboratories are not included in this book chapter for various reasons. Individual laboratories should modify bioassay protocols based on their research interests or needs. Nevertheless, we highly recommend the research laboratories to adapt high-throughput assays as much as possible for preliminary screening assays, followed by more complex bioassay processes using multiple target species. We argue strongly for studies in mode-of-action of antifouling compounds against settling propagules, which shall lead to discovery of molecular biomarkers (genes, proteins, receptors, or receptor system) and will allow us to design more targeted bioassay systems.

  14. Oxygen-containing fragments in natural products.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Titarenko, Zoya; Vasilevich, Natalya; Zernov, Vladimir; Kirpichenok, Michael; Genis, Dmitry

    2013-02-01

    An analysis of the chemical environment of the oxygen atoms in the DNP database compared to the CMC and SCD databases was performed. Some structural clusters were identified which are predominant among the natural products and can be considered as distinctive features of NPs. Fifty-three oxygen-containing structural fragments that are distinctive for the DNP (distinctive set of fragments DSF) in comparison with the SCD have been identified. A new descriptor Mc was introduced for describing the ratio of atoms involved in the DSF to the total number of heavy atoms. A significant difference in the Mc values among the reference databases allowed the use of a specific cluster of the DSF as a tool for performing similarity searches for oxygen-containing NP molecules, or for evaluation or comparison of databases according to their NP-likeness. An example illustrating that the suggested approach could allow not only estimating the NP-likeness, but also serve as a tool for designing new NP-like compounds is provided. The suggested approach for NP-likeness evaluation moves away from the traditional ideas of scaffolds, cycles, linkers and substituents.

  15. Beware When Buying "All Natural" Erectile Dysfunction Products

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Radiation-Emitting Products Vaccines, Blood & Biologics Animal & Veterinary Cosmetics Tobacco Products For Consumers Home For Consumers Protect Yourself Health Fraud Beware When Buying "All Natural" Erectile Dysfunction Products Share Tweet Linkedin Pin it ...

  16. Pharmaceuticals from natural products: current trends

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    PETER R. SEIDL

    2002-03-01

    Full Text Available The use of products extracted from plants for medicinal purposes can be traced to the beginnings of civilization and up until the end of the nineteenth century natural products were the principal source of medicines. Since then their relative importance has oscillated according to the strategies of large pharmaceutical companies. Now that these strategies are changing, there are new opportunities for countries like Brazil, in which a large proportion of the world's biodiversity is located. There are, however, new circumstances that must be taken into consideration: material must be collected by groups which are formally authorized to do so and under the conditions of the Convention of Biological Diversity, the discovery process is being successively outsourced to smaller specialized firms and there is a growing integration with producers of cosmetics and phytomedicines.O uso de produtos extraídos de plantas para fins medicinais pode ser tracejado aos inícios da civilização e até o fim do século XIX, os produtos naturais constituíram a principal fonte de medicamentos. Desde então, a importância relativa dos produtos naturais tem oscilado de acordo com as estratégias de grandes companhias farmacêuticas. Agora que estas estratégias vêm mudando, há novas oportunidades para países como o Brasil, no qual está localizada uma vasta proporção da biodiversidade mundial. Há, entretanto, novas circunstâncias que devem ser levadas em consideração: o material deve ser coletado por grupos que estão formalmente autorizados para tal, com a coleta sendo feita sob as condições da Convenção de Diversidade Biológica, o processo de descoberta está sendo sucessivamente terceirizado no sentido de firmas especializadas menores e há uma integração crescente como produtores de cosméticos e fitomedicamentos.

  17. Capital productivity and the nature of competition

    OpenAIRE

    Börsch-Supan, Axel

    1997-01-01

    This paper measures capital productivity in West Germany, Japan and the United States and links capital productivity to financial performance. We show that West Germany and Japan have significantly lower levels of capital productivity than the United States, mainly due to lower capital utilization but also because less productive capacity was created per unit of physical assets. On a higher level of causality, we show that this mainly comes from less pressure from product market competition a...

  18. Natural product proteomining, a quantitative proteomics platform, allows rapid discovery of biosynthetic gene clusters for different classes of natural products.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gubbens, Jacob; Zhu, Hua; Girard, Geneviève; Song, Lijiang; Florea, Bogdan I; Aston, Philip; Ichinose, Koji; Filippov, Dmitri V; Choi, Young H; Overkleeft, Herman S; Challis, Gregory L; van Wezel, Gilles P

    2014-06-19

    Information on gene clusters for natural product biosynthesis is accumulating rapidly because of the current boom of available genome sequencing data. However, linking a natural product to a specific gene cluster remains challenging. Here, we present a widely applicable strategy for the identification of gene clusters for specific natural products, which we name natural product proteomining. The method is based on using fluctuating growth conditions that ensure differential biosynthesis of the bioactivity of interest. Subsequent combination of metabolomics and quantitative proteomics establishes correlations between abundance of natural products and concomitant changes in the protein pool, which allows identification of the relevant biosynthetic gene cluster. We used this approach to elucidate gene clusters for different natural products in Bacillus and Streptomyces, including a novel juglomycin-type antibiotic. Natural product proteomining does not require prior knowledge of the gene cluster or secondary metabolite and therefore represents a general strategy for identification of all types of gene clusters.

  19. Role of natural product diversity in chemical biology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hong, Jiyong

    2011-06-01

    Through the natural selection process, natural products possess a unique and vast chemical diversity and have been evolved for optimal interactions with biological macromolecules. Owing to their diversity, target affinity, and specificity, natural products have demonstrated enormous potential as modulators of biomolecular function, been an essential source for drug discovery, and provided design principles for combinatorial library development.

  20. Natural Product Biosynthetic Diversity and Comparative Genomics of the Cyanobacteria.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dittmann, Elke; Gugger, Muriel; Sivonen, Kaarina; Fewer, David P

    2015-10-01

    Cyanobacteria are an ancient lineage of slow-growing photosynthetic bacteria and a prolific source of natural products with intricate chemical structures and potent biological activities. The bulk of these natural products are known from just a handful of genera. Recent efforts have elucidated the mechanisms underpinning the biosynthesis of a diverse array of natural products from cyanobacteria. Many of the biosynthetic mechanisms are unique to cyanobacteria or rarely described from other organisms. Advances in genome sequence technology have precipitated a deluge of genome sequences for cyanobacteria. This makes it possible to link known natural products to biosynthetic gene clusters but also accelerates the discovery of new natural products through genome mining. These studies demonstrate that cyanobacteria encode a huge variety of cryptic gene clusters for the production of natural products, and the known chemical diversity is likely to be just a fraction of the true biosynthetic capabilities of this fascinating and ancient group of organisms.

  1. Biofunctional activity of tortillas and bars enhanced with nopal. Preliminary assessment of functional effect after intake on the oxidative status in healthy volunteers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Paz Maldonado Luz

    2011-03-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Prickly pear cactus stem (nopal has been used in folk medicine and a raw material since ancient times. Stems have been proved to possess components with valuable biological activities: anti inflamatory, antioxidant, antiulcerogenic, hypoglycemic, and so forth. Nowadays, people consume foods not only to cover the nutritional requirements, they also demand for healty, natural and convenient foods that show biological activity. This study evaluated the bio-functional effects of consuming tortillas or bars (filled with prickly pear fruit jam supplemented or not with nopal dietary fiber. Results The addition of nopal increased the fiber and polyphenols content in both tortillas (16.67%, 2.33 mg QE/L and bars (13.79%, 1.99 mg QE/L. Furthermore the trolox equivalent antioxidant capacity (TEAC, 1.47 mmol/L, polyphenols (7.67 mg QE/L and vitamin C (77.91 μmol/L showed increased levels in volunteer's plasma after intake. Also lower levels of glucose (4.43 mmol/L, total cholesterol (4.27 mmol/L, LDL (1.96 mmol/L and triglycerides (1.54 mmol/L were observed in plasma after the supplementation scheme with nopal-based tortilla, while GSH:GSSG ratio in erythrocytes was higher. Conclusions The results suggested that the intake of nopal-based tortillas with high content in fiber and antioxidant compounds can help to improve the overall oxidative status in healthy humans, which can reduce the risk of some chronic diseases. In addition, these products showed suitable physicochemical characteristics to be marketed.

  2. New biofunctional effects of the flower buds of Camellia sinensis and its bioactive acylated oleanane-type triterpene oligoglycosides.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Matsuda, Hisashi; Nakamura, Seikou; Morikawa, Toshio; Muraoka, Osamu; Yoshikawa, Masayuki

    2016-10-01

    We review the biofunctional effects of the flower buds of Camellia sinensis and C. sinensis var. assamica, such as antihyperlipidemic, antihyperglycemic, antiobesity, and gastroprotective effects in vivo, and antiallergic, pancreatic lipase inhibitory, and amyloid β (Aβ) aggregation inhibitory activities in vitro. Although the biofunctional effects of tea leaves have been extensively studied, less attention has been given to those of the flowers and seeds of the tea plant. Our studies focused on the saponin constituents of the extracts of the flower buds of C. sinensis cultivated in Japan and China, and C. sinensis var. assamica cultivated in India, and we review their beneficial biofunctions for health promotion.

  3. Scouring Process of Natural Color Cotton Products

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    XU Wei

    2002-01-01

    In order to improve the absorbency of color cotton products, alkali and pectase scouring processes under different conditions were tested, by comparing the actual results of two different scouring processes. It was considered that the pectase scouring process more suits color cotton products.

  4. China Ranks 15th for 2001 Natural Gas Production

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2002-01-01

    @@ China's natural gas output totaled 30.302 billion cubic meters in 2001, an 11 percent increase as compared with the previous year. However, China ranked 15th in the world for its natural gas production last year while Malaysia jumped to the 12th place in the ranking since the country saw a considerable increase in gas production.

  5. Rapid Growth in China Natural Gas Demand and Production

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Li Min

    2003-01-01

    @@ China's natural gas production will exceed 35 billion cubic meters in 2003,more than 7 percent up from last year,according to the estimation by the related department. There are now more than 60 enterprises engaged in natural gas production in China.

  6. New natural products as new leads for antibacterial drug discovery.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brown, Dean G; Lister, Troy; May-Dracka, Tricia L

    2014-01-15

    Natural products have been a rich source of antibacterial drugs for many decades, but investments in this area have declined over the past two decades. The purpose of this review article is to provide a recent survey of new natural product classes and the mechanisms by which they work.

  7. Psychoactive natural products: overview of recent developments

    OpenAIRE

    2014-01-01

    Natural psychoactive substances have fascinated the curious mind of shamans, artists, scholars and laymen since antiquity. During the twentieth century, the chemical composition of the most important psychoactive drugs, that is opium, cannabis, coca and "magic mushrooms", has been fully elucidated. The mode of action of the principal ingredients has also been deciphered at the molecular level. In the past two decades, the use of herbal drugs, such as kava, kratom and Salvia divinorum, began t...

  8. Antimycobacterial susceptibility testing methods for natural products research

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Juan Gabriel Bueno Sánchez

    2010-06-01

    Full Text Available The emergence of multidrug-resistant strains of Mycobacterium tuberculosis underscores the need of continuous developments on new and efficient methods to determine the susceptibility of isolates of M. tuberculosis in the search for novel antimicrobial agents. Natural products constitute an important source of new drugs, but design and implementation of antimycobacterial susceptibility testing methods are necessary for evaluate the different extracts and compounds. A number of biological assay methodologies are in current use, ranging from the classical disk diffusion and broth dilution assay format, to radiorespirometric (BACTEC, dye-based, and fluorescent/luminescence reporter assays. This review presents an analysis on the in vitro susceptibility testing methods developed for determinate antitubercular activity in natural products and related compounds (semi-synthetic natural products and natural products-derived compounds and the criteria to select the adequate method for determination of biological activity of new natural products.

  9. Capturing Biological Activity in Natural Product Fragments by Chemical Synthesis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Crane, Erika A; Gademann, Karl

    2016-03-14

    Natural products have had an immense influence on science and have directly led to the introduction of many drugs. Organic chemistry, and its unique ability to tailor natural products through synthesis, provides an extraordinary approach to unlock the full potential of natural products. In this Review, an approach based on natural product derived fragments is presented that can successfully address some of the current challenges in drug discovery. These fragments often display significantly reduced molecular weights, reduced structural complexity, a reduced number of synthetic steps, while retaining or even improving key biological parameters such as potency or selectivity. Examples from various stages of the drug development process up to the clinic are presented. In addition, this process can be leveraged by recent developments such as genome mining, antibody-drug conjugates, and computational approaches. All these concepts have the potential to identify the next generation of drug candidates inspired by natural products.

  10. Recent Advances in Separation of Bioactive Natural Products

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    任其龙; 邢华斌; 鲍宗必; 苏宝根; 杨启炜; 杨亦文; 张治国

    2013-01-01

    Bioactive natural products are a main source of new drugs, functional foods and food additives. The separation of bioactive natural products plays an important role in transformation and use of biomass. The isolation and purification of bioactive principle from a complex matrix is often inherent bottleneck for the utilization of natural products, so a series of extraction and separation techniques have been developed. This review covers recent advances in the separation of bioactive natural products with an emphasis on their solubility and diffusion coeffi-cients, recent extraction techniques and isolation techniques. This overview of recent technological advances, dis-cussion of pertinent problems and prospect of current methodologies in the separation of bioactive natural products may provide a driving force for development of novel separation techniques.

  11. Marinopyrroles: Unique Drug Discoveries Based on Marine Natural Products.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Rongshi

    2016-01-01

    Natural products provide a successful supply of new chemical entities (NCEs) for drug discovery to treat human diseases. Approximately half of the NCEs are based on natural products and their derivatives. Notably, marine natural products, a largely untapped resource, have contributed to drug discovery and development with eight drugs or cosmeceuticals approved by the U.S. Food and Drug Administration and European Medicines Agency, and ten candidates undergoing clinical trials. Collaborative efforts from drug developers, biologists, organic, medicinal, and natural product chemists have elevated drug discoveries to new levels. These efforts are expected to continue to improve the efficiency of natural product-based drugs. Marinopyrroles are examined here as a case study for potential anticancer and antibiotic agents.

  12. Bioactive natural products from Papua New Guinea marine sponges.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Noro, Jeffery C; Kalaitzis, John A; Neilan, Brett A

    2012-10-01

    The discovery of novel natural products for drug development relies heavily upon a rich biodiversity, of which the marine environment is an obvious example. Marine natural product research has spawned several drugs and many other candidates, some of which are the focus of current clinical trials. The sponge megadiversity of Papua New Guinea is a rich but underexplored source of bioactive natural products. Here, we review some of the many natural products derived from PNG sponges with an emphasis on those with interesting biological activity and, therefore, drug potential. Many bioactive natural products discussed here appear to be derived from non-ribosomal peptide and polyketide biosynthesis pathways, strongly suggesting a microbial origin of these compounds. With this in mind, we also explore the notion of sponge-symbiont biosynthesis of these bioactive compounds and present examples to support the working hypothesis.

  13. MARINE NATURAL PRODUCTS: A WAY TO NEW DRUGS

    OpenAIRE

    Stonik, V.

    2009-01-01

    The investigation of marine natural products (low molecular weight bioregulators) is a rapidly developing scientific field at the intersection of biology and chemistry. Investigations aimed at detecting, identifying, and understanding the structure of marine natural products have led to the discovery of 20,000 new substances, including those characterized by an extremely high physiological activity. Some results and prospects of works aimed at creating new drugs on the basis of marine natural...

  14. The structural biology of enzymes involved in natural product glycosylation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Singh, Shanteri; Phillips, George N; Thorson, Jon S

    2012-10-01

    The glycosylation of microbial natural products often dramatically influences the biological and/or pharmacological activities of the parental metabolite. Over the past decade, crystal structures of several enzymes involved in the biosynthesis and attachment of novel sugars found appended to natural products have emerged. In many cases, these studies have paved the way to a better understanding of the corresponding enzyme mechanism of action and have served as a starting point for engineering variant enzymes to facilitate to production of differentially-glycosylated natural products. This review specifically summarizes the structural studies of bacterial enzymes involved in biosynthesis of novel sugar nucleotides.

  15. Strategies for target identification of antimicrobial natural products.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Farha, Maya A; Brown, Eric D

    2016-05-04

    Covering: 2000 to 2015Despite a pervasive decline in natural product research at many pharmaceutical companies over the last two decades, natural products have undeniably been a prolific and unsurpassed source for new lead antibacterial compounds. Due to their inherent complexity, natural extracts face several hurdles in high-throughout discovery programs, including target identification. Target identification and validation is a crucial process for advancing hits through the discovery pipeline, but has remained a major bottleneck. In the case of natural products, extremely low yields and limited compound supply further impede the process. Here, we review the wealth of target identification strategies that have been proposed and implemented for the characterization of novel antibacterials. Traditionally, these have included genomic and biochemical-based approaches, which, in recent years, have been improved with modern-day technology and better honed for natural product discovery. Further, we discuss the more recent innovative approaches for uncovering the target of new antibacterial natural products, which have resulted from modern advances in chemical biology tools. Finally, we present unique screening platforms implemented to streamline the process of target identification. The different innovative methods to respond to the challenge of characterizing the mode of action for antibacterial natural products have cumulatively built useful frameworks that may advocate a renovated interest in natural product drug discovery programs.

  16. NATURAL ANTIOXIDANTS IN PRODUCTION “BRUSHWOOD”

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    G. N. Dubtsova

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Flour wares use popularity, there is 48% of general volume of pastry wares on their stake. A marketing study on results that actuality of development of new type of flour good is set with the lowered maintenance of fat and enriched by vitamins is undertaken. The use of natural antioxidant of "Guarding is reasonable toco 70" and introduction of 0,2% is recommended for stabilizing of sunflower-seed oil at fry of frying. Joint introduction of powders is studied from the garden-stuffs of brier and unabi on quality of the brushwood fried in sunflower-seed oil with the use of "Guarding toco 70". From wares extracted lipids and estimated on indexes: peroxides, acid and anizid numbers. It is set that an antioxidant and vegetable powders assist the decline of indexes of safety peroxides and asid in two times, and anizid in 1,3 time. Use of antioxidant of "Guarding toco 70", being in 70% from the natural concentrate of mixture of tocopherolss and 30% of soyaoil.

  17. Marine actinobacteria: an important source of bioactive natural products.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Manivasagan, Panchanathan; Kang, Kyong-Hwa; Sivakumar, Kannan; Li-Chan, Eunice C Y; Oh, Hyun-Myung; Kim, Se-Kwon

    2014-07-01

    Marine environment is largely an untapped source for deriving actinobacteria, having potential to produce novel, bioactive natural products. Actinobacteria are the prolific producers of pharmaceutically active secondary metabolites, accounting for about 70% of the naturally derived compounds that are currently in clinical use. Among the various actinobacterial genera, Actinomadura, Actinoplanes, Amycolatopsis, Marinispora, Micromonospora, Nocardiopsis, Saccharopolyspora, Salinispora, Streptomyces and Verrucosispora are the major potential producers of commercially important bioactive natural products. In this respect, Streptomyces ranks first with a large number of bioactive natural products. Marine actinobacteria are unique enhancing quite different biological properties including antimicrobial, anticancer, antiviral, insecticidal and enzyme inhibitory activities. They have attracted global in the last ten years for their ability to produce pharmaceutically active compounds. In this review, we have focused attention on the bioactive natural products isolated from marine actinobacteria, possessing unique chemical structures that may form the basis for synthesis of novel drugs that could be used to combat resistant pathogenic microorganisms.

  18. Fungi as a source of natural coumarins production.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Costa, Tania Maria; Tavares, Lorena Benathar Ballod; de Oliveira, Débora

    2016-08-01

    Natural coumarins and derivatives are compounds that occur naturally in several organisms (plant, bacteria, and fungi) consisting of fused benzene and α-pyrone rings. These compounds show high technological potential applications in agrochemical, food, pharmaceuticals, and cosmetics industries. Therefore, the need for bulk production of coumarins and the advancement of the chemical and pharmaceutical industries led to the development of synthetic coumarin. However, biotransformation process, synthetic bioengineering, metabolic engineering, and bioinformatics have proven effective in the production of natural products. Today, these biological systems are recognized as green chemistry innovation and business strategy. This review article aims to report the potential of fungi for synthesis of coumarin. These microorganisms are described as a source of natural products capable of synthesizing many bioactive metabolites. The features, classification, properties, and industrial applications of natural coumarins as well as new molecules obtained by basidiomycetes and ascomycetes fungi are reported in order to explore a topic not yet discussed in the scientific literature.

  19. College of Natural Resources to offer Forest Products Marketing Workshop

    OpenAIRE

    Davis, Lynn

    2008-01-01

    Marketing has been called the backbone of successful forest products companies, yet many small businesses struggle with the marketing concept. Virginia Tech's College of Natural Resources continues its service to the forest products industry by presenting the fourteenth annual workshop on Forest Products Marketing, Oct. 23 through Oct. 24, at The Inn at Virginia Tech and Skelton Conference Center.

  20. Dereplication of Microbial Natural Products by LC-DAD-TOFMS

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielsen, Kristian Fog; Månsson, Maria; Rank, Christian;

    2011-01-01

    Dereplication, the rapid identification of known compounds present in a mixture, is crucial to the fast discovery of novel natural products. Determining the elemental composition of compounds in mixtures and tentatively identifying natural products using MS/MS and UV/vis spectra is becoming easier...... with advances in analytical equipment and better compound databases. Here we demonstrate the use of LC-UV/vis-MS-based dereplication using data from UV/vis diode array detection and ESI+/ESI– time-of-flight MS for assignment of 719 microbial natural product and mycotoxin reference standards. ESI+ was the most...

  1. Implications of TGFβ on transcriptome and cellular biofunctions of palatal mesenchyme

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xiujuan eZhu

    2012-04-01

    Full Text Available Development of the palate comprises sequential stages of growth, elevation and fusion of the palatal shelves. The mesenchymal component of palates plays a major role in early phases of palatogenesis, such as growth and elevation. Failure in these steps may result in cleft palate, the second most common birth defect in the world. These early stages of palatogenesis require precise and chronological orchestration of key physiological processes, such as growth, proliferation, differentiation, migration, and apoptosis. There is compelling evidence for the vital role of TGFβ-mediated regulation of palate development. We hypothesized that the isoforms of TGFβ regulate different cellular biofunctions of the palatal mesenchyme to various extents. Human embryonic palatal mesenchyme (HEPM cells were treated with TGFβ1, β2, and β3 for microarray-based gene expression studies in order to identify the roles of TGFβ in the transcriptome of the palatal mesenchyme. Following normalization and modeling of 28,869 human genes, 566 transcripts were detected as differentially expressed in TGFβ-treated HEPM cells. Out of these altered transcripts, 234 of them were clustered in cellular biofunctions, including growth and proliferation, development, morphology, movement, cell cycle, and apoptosis. Biological interpretation and network analysis of the genes active in cellular biofunctions were performed using IPA. Among the differentially expressed genes, 11 of them were previously identified as being crucial for palatogenesis (EDN1, INHBA, LHX8, PDGFC, PIGA, RUNX1, SNAI1, SMAD3, TGFβ1, TGFβ2, and TGFβR1. These genes were used for a merged interaction network with cellular behaviors. Overall, we have determined that more than 2% of human transcripts were differentially expressed in response to TGFβ treatment in HEPM cells. Our results suggest that both TGFβ1 and TGFβ2 orchestrate major cellular biofunctions within the palatal mesenchyme in vitro by

  2. Raman spectra of carotenoids in natural products

    Science.gov (United States)

    Withnall, Robert; Chowdhry, Babur Z.; Silver, Jack; Edwards, Howell G. M.; de Oliveira, Luiz F. C.

    2003-08-01

    Resonance Raman spectra of naturally occurring carotenoids have been obtained from nautilus, periwinkle ( Littorina littorea) and clam shells under 514.5 nm excitation and these spectra are compared with the resonance Raman spectra obtained in situ from tomatoes, carrots, red peppers and saffron. The tomatoes, carrots and red peppers gave rise to resonance Raman spectra exhibiting a ν1 band at ca. 1520 cm -1, in keeping with its assignment to carotenoids with ca. nine conjugated carboncarbon double bonds in their main chains, whereas the resonance Raman spectrum of saffron showed a ν1 band at 1537 cm -1 which can be assigned to crocetin, having seven conjugated carboncarbon double bonds. A correlation between ν1 wavenumber location and effective conjugated chain length has been used to interpret the data obtained from the shells, and the wavenumber position (1522 cm -1) of the ν1 band of the carotenoid in the orange clam shell suggests that it contains nine conjugated double bonds in the main chain. However, the black periwinkle and nautilus shells exhibit ν1 bands at 1504 and 1496 cm -1, respectively. On the basis of the correlation between ν1 wavenumber location and effective conjugated chain length, this indicates that they contain carotenoids with longer conjugated chains, the former having ca. 11 double bonds and the latter ca. 13 or even more. Raman spectra of the nautilus, periwinkle and clam shells also exhibited a strong band at 1085 cm -1 and a doublet with components at 701 and 705 cm -1, which can be assigned to biogenic calcium carbonate in the aragonite crystallographic form.

  3. Biosynthesis of natural products containing β-amino acids.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kudo, Fumitaka; Miyanaga, Akimasa; Eguchi, Tadashi

    2014-08-01

    Covering: up to January, 2014. We focus here on β-amino acids as components of complex natural products because the presence of β-amino acids produces structural diversity in natural products and provides characteristic architectures beyond those of ordinary α-L-amino acids, thus generating significant and unique biological functions in nature. In this review, we first survey the known bioactive β-amino acid-containing natural products including nonribosomal peptides, macrolactam polyketides, and nucleoside-β-amino acid hybrids. Next, the biosynthetic enzymes that form β-amino acids from α-amino acids and the de novo synthesis of β-amino acids are summarized. Then, the mechanisms of β-amino acid incorporation into natural products are reviewed. Because it is anticipated that the rational swapping of the β-amino acid moieties with various side chains and stereochemistries by biosynthetic engineering should lead to the creation of novel architectures and bioactive compounds, the accumulation of knowledge regarding β-amino acid-containing natural product biosynthetic machinery could have a significant impact in this field. In addition, genome mining of characteristic β-amino acid biosynthetic genes and unique β-amino acid incorporation machinery could lead to the discovery of new β-amino acid-containing natural products.

  4. Chitin elicitation of natural product production in marine bacteria

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Månsson, Maria; Wietz, Matthias; Larsen, Thomas Ostenfeld

    indicating that andrimid serves a function while growing on chitin-containing surfaces. In contrast, a Photobacterium halotolerans sustained production of all metabolites including the antibiotic holomycin. Furthermore, chitin stimulated the production of two potentially novel metabolites not observed...... uncharacterized chemical potential of these organisms. As part of a new project on ecology-driven drug discovery at the Technical University of Denmark, we investigate the use of chitin to elicit or alter production of antibacterial compounds in marine bacteria. Within our large collection of Gram......-negative bacteria (mainly Pseudoalteromonas and Vibrio), we found that some strains were capable of producing antibacterial compounds when grown on chitin, an N-acetyl-D-glucosamine polymer found in the exoskeleton of zooplankton.2 A strain of Vibrio coralliilyticus solely produced the antibiotic andrimid,3...

  5. Reinvigorating natural product combinatorial biosynthesis with synthetic biology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Eunji; Moore, Bradley S; Yoon, Yeo Joon

    2015-09-01

    Natural products continue to play a pivotal role in drug-discovery efforts and in the understanding if human health. The ability to extend nature's chemistry through combinatorial biosynthesis--altering functional groups, regiochemistry and scaffold backbones through the manipulation of biosynthetic enzymes--offers unique opportunities to create natural product analogs. Incorporating emerging synthetic biology techniques has the potential to further accelerate the refinement of combinatorial biosynthesis as a robust platform for the diversification of natural chemical drug leads. Two decades after the field originated, we discuss the current limitations, the realities and the state of the art of combinatorial biosynthesis, including the engineering of substrate specificity of biosynthetic enzymes and the development of heterologous expression systems for biosynthetic pathways. We also propose a new perspective for the combinatorial biosynthesis of natural products that could reinvigorate drug discovery by using synthetic biology in combination with synthetic chemistry.

  6. Natural and within-farmland biodiversity enhances crop productivity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carvalheiro, Luísa Gigante; Veldtman, Ruan; Shenkute, Awraris Getachew; Tesfay, Gebreamlak Bezabih; Pirk, Christian Walter Werner; Donaldson, John Sydney; Nicolson, Susan Wendy

    2011-03-01

    Ongoing expansion of large-scale agriculture critically threatens natural habitats and the pollination services they offer. Creating patches with high plant diversity within farmland is commonly suggested as a measure to benefit pollinators. However, farmers rarely adopt such practice, instead removing naturally occurring plants (weeds). By combining pollinator exclusion experiments with analysis of honeybee behaviour and flower-visitation webs, we found that the presence of weeds allowed pollinators to persist within sunflower fields, maximizing the benefits of the remaining patches of natural habitat to productivity of this large-scale crop. Weed diversity increased flower visitor diversity, hence ameliorating the measured negative effects of isolation from natural habitat. Although honeybees were the most abundant visitors, diversity of flower visitors enhanced honeybee movement, being the main factor influencing productivity. Conservation of natural patches combined with promoting flowering plants within crops can maximize productivity and, therefore, reduce the need for cropland expansion, contributing towards sustainable agriculture.

  7. Natural Product Polyamines That Inhibit Human Carbonic Anhydrases

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rohan A. Davis

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Natural product compound collections have proven an effective way to access chemical diversity and recent findings have identified phenolic, coumarin, and polyamine natural products as atypical chemotypes that inhibit carbonic anhydrases (CAs. CA enzymes are implicated as targets of variable drug therapeutic classes and the discovery of selective, drug-like CA inhibitors is essential. Just two natural product polyamines, spermine and spermidine, have until now been investigated as CA inhibitors. In this study, five more complex natural product polyamines 1–5, derived from either marine sponge or fungi, were considered for inhibition of six different human CA isozymes of interest in therapeutic drug development. All compounds share a simple polyamine core fragment, either spermine or spermidine, yet display substantially different structure activity relationships for CA inhibition. Notably, polyamines 1–5 were submicromolar inhibitors of the cancer drug target CA IX, this is more potent than either spermine or spermidine.

  8. Revealing the macromolecular targets of complex natural products

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reker, Daniel; Perna, Anna M.; Rodrigues, Tiago; Schneider, Petra; Reutlinger, Michael; Mönch, Bettina; Koeberle, Andreas; Lamers, Christina; Gabler, Matthias; Steinmetz, Heinrich; Müller, Rolf; Schubert-Zsilavecz, Manfred; Werz, Oliver; Schneider, Gisbert

    2014-12-01

    Natural products have long been a source of useful biological activity for the development of new drugs. Their macromolecular targets are, however, largely unknown, which hampers rational drug design and optimization. Here we present the development and experimental validation of a computational method for the discovery of such targets. The technique does not require three-dimensional target models and may be applied to structurally complex natural products. The algorithm dissects the natural products into fragments and infers potential pharmacological targets by comparing the fragments to synthetic reference drugs with known targets. We demonstrate that this approach results in confident predictions. In a prospective validation, we show that fragments of the potent antitumour agent archazolid A, a macrolide from the myxobacterium Archangium gephyra, contain relevant information regarding its polypharmacology. Biochemical and biophysical evaluation confirmed the predictions. The results obtained corroborate the practical applicability of the computational approach to natural product ‘de-orphaning’.

  9. Marine organisms: an alternative source of potentially valuable natural products

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alphonse Kelecom

    1991-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper recalls the outcoming of marine natural products research and reviews a selection of marirne bioactive metabolites in current use together with promising trends in marine pharmacology.

  10. Emerging trends in the discovery of natural product antibacterials

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bologa, Cristian G; Ursu, Oleg; Oprea, Tudor;

    2013-01-01

    mechanisms. Special emphasis is given to the strengths, weaknesses, and opportunities in the natural product antibacterial drug discovery arena, and to emerging applications driven by advances in bioinformatics, chemical biology, and synthetic biology in concert with exploiting bacterial phenotypes....... These efforts have identified a critical mass of natural product antibacterial lead compounds and discovery technologies with high probability of successful implementation against emerging bacterial pathogens....

  11. Total synthesis and biological activity of natural product Urukthapelstatin A.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lin, Chun-Chieh; Tantisantisom, Worawan; McAlpine, Shelli R

    2013-07-19

    Herein we report the first total synthesis of the natural product Urkuthaplestatin A (Ustat A) utilizing a convergent synthetic strategy. The characterization and biological activity match those of the previously published natural product. Interestingly, several intermediates, including the linear and serine cyclized precursors, show a 100-fold decrease in cytotoxicity, with IC50's in the low micromolar range. These data indicate that the rigidity and the consecutive aromatic heterocyclic system are responsible for the biological activity.

  12. Marine natural products sourced from marine-derived Penicillium fungi.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ma, Hong-Guang; Liu, Qiang; Zhu, Guo-Liang; Liu, Hai-Shan; Zhu, Wei-Ming

    2016-01-01

    Marine micro-organisms have been proven to be a major source of marine natural products (MNPs) in recent years, in which filamentous fungi are a vital source of bioactive natural products for their large metagenomes and more complex genetic backgrounds. This review highlights the 390 new MNPs from marine-derived Penicillium fungi during 1991 to 2014. These new MNPs are categorized based on the environment sources of the fungal hosts and their bioactivities are summarized.

  13. Case Studies of the Synthesis of Bioactive Cyclodepsipeptide Natural Products

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Markus Kaiser

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Cyclodepsipeptide natural products often display intriguing biological activities that along with their complex molecular scaffolds, makes them interesting targets for chemical synthesis. Although cyclodepsipeptides feature highly diverse chemical structures, their synthesis is often associated with similar synthetic challenges such as the establishment of a suitable macrocyclization methodology. This review therefore compiles case studies of synthetic approaches to different bioactive cyclodepsipeptide natural products, thereby illustrating obstacles of cyclodepsipeptide synthesis as well as their overcomings.

  14. Journals on Traditional Medicine and Natural Products Published in English

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    CONG Wei-hong; CHEN Ke-ji

    2010-01-01

    @@ Due to better understanding of traditional medicine, complementary and alternative medicine, and natural products, there are increasing findings in these fields.In order to facilitate the findings to be known widely and timely by readers, here this article showed researchers some journals on traditional medicine, complementary and alternative medicine,and natural products, published in English and tracked by Thomson Reuters (ISI) in 2009, as well as some influential journals untracked by ISI.

  15. Anti-Enterovirus 71 Agents of Natural Products

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Liyan Wang

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available This review, with 42 references, presents the fascinating area of anti-enterovirus 71 natural products over the last three decades for the first time. It covers literature published from 2005–2015 and refers to compounds isolated from biogenic sources. In total, 58 naturally-occurring anti-EV71 compounds are recorded.

  16. Biotechnological production of natural zero-calorie sweeteners.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Philippe, Ryan N; De Mey, Marjan; Anderson, Jeff; Ajikumar, Parayil Kumaran

    2014-04-01

    The increasing public awareness of adverse health impacts from excessive sugar consumption has created increasing interest in plant-derived, natural low-calorie or zero-calorie sweeteners. Two plant species which contain natural sweeteners, Stevia rebaudiana and Siraitia grosvenorii, have been extensively profiled to identify molecules with high intensity sweetening properties. However, sweetening ability does not necessarily make a product viable for commercial applications. Some criteria for product success are proposed to identify which targets are likely to be accepted by consumers. Limitations of plant-based production are discussed, and a case is put forward for the necessity of biotechnological production methods such as plant cell culture or microbial fermentation to meet needs for commercial-scale production of natural sweeteners.

  17. In vitro bio-functionality of gallium nitride sensors for radiation biophysics

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hofstetter, Markus [Helmholtz Zentrum Muenchen, German Research Center for Environmental Health, Ingolstaedter Landstrasse 1, D-85764 Neuherberg (Germany); Howgate, John [Walter Schottky Institut, Technische Universitaet Muenchen, Am Coulombwall 3, D-85748 Garching (Germany); Schmid, Martin [Helmholtz Zentrum Muenchen, German Research Center for Environmental Health, Ingolstaedter Landstrasse 1, D-85764 Neuherberg (Germany); Schoell, Sebastian; Sachsenhauser, Matthias [Walter Schottky Institut, Technische Universitaet Muenchen, Am Coulombwall 3, D-85748 Garching (Germany); Adiguezel, Denis [Helmholtz Zentrum Muenchen, German Research Center for Environmental Health, Ingolstaedter Landstrasse 1, D-85764 Neuherberg (Germany); Stutzmann, Martin; Sharp, Ian D. [Walter Schottky Institut, Technische Universitaet Muenchen, Am Coulombwall 3, D-85748 Garching (Germany); Thalhammer, Stefan, E-mail: stefan.thalhammer@helmholtz-muenchen.de [Helmholtz Zentrum Muenchen, German Research Center for Environmental Health, Ingolstaedter Landstrasse 1, D-85764 Neuherberg (Germany)

    2012-07-27

    Highlights: Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Gallium nitride based sensors show promising characteristics to monitor cellular parameters. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Cell growth experiments reveal excellent biocompatibiltiy of the host GaN material. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer We present a biofunctionality assay using ionizing radiation. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer DNA repair is utilized to evaluate material induced alterations in the cellular behavior. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer GaN shows no bio-functional influence on the cellular environment. -- Abstract: There is an increasing interest in the integration of hybrid bio-semiconductor systems for the non-invasive evaluation of physiological parameters. High quality gallium nitride and its alloys show promising characteristics to monitor cellular parameters. Nevertheless, such applications not only request appropriate sensing capabilities but also the biocompatibility and especially the biofunctionality of materials. Here we show extensive biocompatibility studies of gallium nitride and, for the first time, a biofunctionality assay using ionizing radiation. Analytical sensor devices are used in medical settings, as well as for cell- and tissue engineering. Within these fields, semiconductor devices have increasingly been applied for online biosensing on a cellular and tissue level. Integration of advanced materials such as gallium nitride into these systems has the potential to increase the range of applicability for a multitude of test devices and greatly enhance sensitivity and functionality. However, for such applications it is necessary to optimize cell-surface interactions and to verify the biocompatibility of the semiconductor. In this work, we present studies of mouse fibroblast cell activity grown on gallium nitride surfaces after applying external noxa. Cell-semiconductor hybrids were irradiated with X-rays at air kerma doses up to 250 mGy and the DNA repair dynamics, cell proliferation, and cell growth

  18. Nature-Inspired Design: Strategies for Sustainable Product Development

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    De Pauw, I.C.

    2015-01-01

    Product designers can apply different strategies, methods, and tools for sustainable product development. Nature-Inspired Design Strategies (NIDS) offer designers a distinct class of strategies that use ‘nature’ as a guiding source of knowledge and inspiration for addressing sustainability. Biomimic

  19. Plant-Derived Natural Products for Parkinson's Disease Therapy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sengupta, T; Vinayagam, J; Singh, R; Jaisankar, P; Mohanakumar, K P

    2016-01-01

    Plant-derived natural products have made their own niche in the treatment of neurological diseases since time immemorial. Parkinson's disease (PD), the second most prevalent neurodegenerative disorder, has no cure and the treatment available currently is symptomatic. This chapter thoughtfully and objectively assesses the scientific basis that supports the increasing use of these plant-derived natural products for the treatment of this chronic and progressive disorder. Proper considerations are made on the chemical nature, sources, preclinical tests and their validity, and mechanisms of behavioural or biochemical recovery observed following treatment with various plants derived natural products relevant to PD therapy. The scientific basis underlying the neuroprotective effect of 6 Ayurvedic herbs/formulations, 12 Chinese medicinal herbs/formulations, 33 other plants, and 5 plant-derived molecules have been judiciously examined emphasizing behavioral, cellular, or biochemical aspects of neuroprotection observed in the cellular or animal models of the disease. The molecular mechanisms triggered by these natural products to promote cell survivability and to reduce the risk of cellular degeneration have also been brought to light in this study. The study helped to reveal certain limitations in the scenario: lack of preclinical studies in all cases barring two; heavy dependence on in vitro test systems; singular animal or cellular model to establish any therapeutic potential of drugs. This strongly warrants further studies so as to reproduce and confirm these reported effects. However, the current literature offers scientific credence to traditionally used plant-derived natural products for the treatment of PD.

  20. Natural Products Towards the Discovery of Potential Future Antithrombotic Drugs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Islam, Md Asiful; Alam, Fahmida; Khalil, Md Ibrahim; Sasongko, Teguh Haryo; Gan, Siew Hua

    2016-01-01

    Globally, thrombosis-associated disorders are one of the main contributors to fatalities. Besides genetic influences, there are some acquired and environmental risk factors dominating thrombotic diseases. Although standard regimens have been used for a long time, many side effects still occur which can be life threatening. Therefore, natural products are good alternatives. Although the quest for antithrombotic natural products came to light only since the end of last century, in the last two decades, a considerable number of natural products showing antithrombotic activities (antiplatelet, anticoagulant and fibrinolytic) with no or minimal side effects have been reported. In this review, several natural products used as antithrombotic agents including medicinal plants, vegetables, fruits, spices and edible mushrooms which have been discovered in the last 15 years and their target sites (thrombogenic components, factors and thrombotic pathways) are described. In addition, the side effects, limitations and interactions of standard regimens with natural products are also discussed. The active compounds could serve as potential sources for future research on antithrombotic drug development. As a future direction, more advanced researches (in quest of the target cofactor or component involved in antithrombotic pathways) are warranted for the development of potential natural antithrombotic medications (alone or combined with standard regimens) to ensure maximum safety and efficacy.

  1. Computer-Aided Drug Design of Bioactive Natural Products.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Prachayasittikul, Veda; Worachartcheewan, Apilak; Shoombuatong, Watshara; Songtawee, Napat; Simeon, Saw; Prachayasittikul, Virapong; Nantasenamat, Chanin

    2015-01-01

    Natural products have been an integral part of sustaining civilizations because of their medicinal properties. Past discoveries of bioactive natural products have relied on serendipity, and these compounds serve as inspiration for the generation of analogs with desired physicochemical properties. Bioactive natural products with therapeutic potential are abundantly available in nature and some of them are beyond exploration by conventional methods. The effectiveness of computational approaches as versatile tools for facilitating drug discovery and development has been recognized for decades, without exception, in the case of natural products. In the post-genomic era, scientists are bombarded with data produced by advanced technologies. Thus, rendering these data into knowledge that is interpretable and meaningful becomes an essential issue. In this regard, computational approaches utilize the existing data to generate knowledge that provides valuable understanding for addressing current problems and guiding the further research and development of new natural-derived drugs. Furthermore, several medicinal plants have been continuously used in many traditional medicine systems since antiquity throughout the world, and their mechanisms have not yet been elucidated. Therefore, the utilization of computational approaches and advanced synthetic techniques would yield great benefit to improving the world's health population and well-being.

  2. Culture-independent discovery of natural products from soil metagenomes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Katz, Micah; Hover, Bradley M; Brady, Sean F

    2016-03-01

    Bacterial natural products have proven to be invaluable starting points in the development of many currently used therapeutic agents. Unfortunately, traditional culture-based methods for natural product discovery have been deemphasized by pharmaceutical companies due in large part to high rediscovery rates. Culture-independent, or "metagenomic," methods, which rely on the heterologous expression of DNA extracted directly from environmental samples (eDNA), have the potential to provide access to metabolites encoded by a large fraction of the earth's microbial biosynthetic diversity. As soil is both ubiquitous and rich in bacterial diversity, it is an appealing starting point for culture-independent natural product discovery efforts. This review provides an overview of the history of soil metagenome-driven natural product discovery studies and elaborates on the recent development of new tools for sequence-based, high-throughput profiling of environmental samples used in discovering novel natural product biosynthetic gene clusters. We conclude with several examples of these new tools being employed to facilitate the recovery of novel secondary metabolite encoding gene clusters from soil metagenomes and the subsequent heterologous expression of these clusters to produce bioactive small molecules.

  3. Capillary electrophoresis of natural products: 2011-2012.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tubaon, Ria Marni S; Rabanes, Heide; Haddad, Paul R; Quirino, Joselito P

    2014-01-01

    Bioactive natural products are major sources of lead compounds for drug discovery and pharmaceutical development, therefore, innovative and current separation and characterization techniques are important for these compounds. Here, CE methods applied for the analysis of natural products published during 2011-2012 are reviewed. This is an updated version of an earlier review paper in this journal, which highlighted developments during 2006-2010. The major method developments over the review period centered on derivatization, chiral analysis, modes of detection, stacking or on-line sample concentration, and sample preparation (predominantly using extraction methods). The samples analyzed were herbal products, foods, soil, and biological samples. Developments also occurred in the areas of quality control, toxicology assessment, and enzyme-inhibitor screening. A table that summarizes the areas, source of natural product, nature of the bioactive analyte, CE conditions, LODs, and corresponding reference is provided. A short description on the theory of CE and insights on future activities of CE on natural products are also presented.

  4. The Traditional Medicine and Modern Medicine from Natural Products.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yuan, Haidan; Ma, Qianqian; Ye, Li; Piao, Guangchun

    2016-04-29

    Natural products and traditional medicines are of great importance. Such forms of medicine as traditional Chinese medicine, Ayurveda, Kampo, traditional Korean medicine, and Unani have been practiced in some areas of the world and have blossomed into orderly-regulated systems of medicine. This study aims to review the literature on the relationship among natural products, traditional medicines, and modern medicine, and to explore the possible concepts and methodologies from natural products and traditional medicines to further develop drug discovery. The unique characteristics of theory, application, current role or status, and modern research of eight kinds of traditional medicine systems are summarized in this study. Although only a tiny fraction of the existing plant species have been scientifically researched for bioactivities since 1805, when the first pharmacologically-active compound morphine was isolated from opium, natural products and traditional medicines have already made fruitful contributions for modern medicine. When used to develop new drugs, natural products and traditional medicines have their incomparable advantages, such as abundant clinical experiences, and their unique diversity of chemical structures and biological activities.

  5. An Innovative Methodology of Product Design from Nature

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Hui-I Wen; Shu-jun Zhang; Kevin Hapeshi; Xiao-feng Wang

    2008-01-01

    Nature is an information sourcebeok of behaviour, function, colour and shape which can inspire visual design and invention. Studying the form and functional characteristics of a natural object can provide inspiration for product design and help to improve the marketability of manufactured products. The inspiration can be triggered either by direct observation or captured by threo-dimensional (3D) digitising techniques to obtain superficial information (geometry and colour). An art designer often creates a concept in the form of a two-dimensional (2D) sketch while engineering methods lead to a point cloud in 3D. Each has its limitations in that the art designer commonly lacks the knowledge to build a final product from a 2D sketch and the engineering designer's 3D point clouds may not be very beautiful. We propose a method for Product Design from Nature (PDN),coupling aesthetic intent and geometrical characteristics, exploring the interactions between designers and nature's systems in PDN. We believe that this approach would considerably reduce the lead time and cost of product design from nature.

  6. Potential antimalarials from African natural products: A reviw.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lawal, Bashir; Shittu, Oluwatosin Kudirat; Kabiru, Adamu Yusuf; Jigam, Ali Audu; Umar, Maimuna Bello; Berinyuy, Eustace Bonghan; Alozieuwa, Blessing Uchenna

    2015-01-01

    Malaria remains an overwhelming infectious disease with significant health challenges in African and other endemic countries globally. Resistance to antimalarial drugs has become one of the most momentous challenges to human health, and thus has necessitated the hunt for new and effective drugs. Consequently, few decades have witnessed a surfeit of research geared to validate the effectiveness of commonly used traditionally medicines against malaria fever. The present review work focuses on documenting natural products from African whose activity has been reported in vivo or in vitro against malaria parasite. Literature was collected using electronic search of published articles (Google Scholar, PubMed, Medline, Sciencedirect, and Science domain) that report on antiplasmodial activity of natural products from differernts Africa region. A total of 652 plant taxa from 146 families, 134 isolated antimalarial compounds from 39 plants species, 2 herbal formulations and 4 insect/products were found to be reported in literature from 1996 to 2015. Plants species from family Asteraceae (11.04%), Fababceae (8.128%), Euphorbiaceae (5.52%), Rubiaceas (5.52%), and Apocyanaceae (5.214%), have received more scientific validation than others. African natural products possess remarkable healing properties as revealed in the various citations as promising antimalarial agents. Some of these natural products from Africa demonstrate high, promising or low activities against Plasmodium parasite. This study also shows that natural products from Africa have a huge amount of novel antimalarial compounds that could serve as a leads for the development of new and effective antiplasmodial drugs. However, in a view of bridging the gap in knowledge, clinical validation of these natural products are of paramount importance.

  7. Establishment of new crops for the production of natural rubber.

    Science.gov (United States)

    van Beilen, Jan B; Poirier, Yves

    2007-11-01

    Natural rubber is a unique biopolymer of strategic importance that, in many of its most significant applications, cannot be replaced by synthetic alternatives. The rubber tree Hevea brasiliensis is the almost exclusive commercial source of natural rubber currently and alternative crops should be developed for several reasons, including: a disease risk to the rubber tree that could potentially decimate current production, a predicted shortage of natural rubber supply, increasing allergic reactions to rubber obtained from the Brazilian rubber tree and a general shift towards renewables. This review summarizes our knowledge of plants that can serve as alternative sources of natural rubber, of rubber biosynthesis and the scientific gaps that must be filled to bring the alternative crops into production.

  8. Dietary Natural Products for Prevention and Treatment of Liver Cancer

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yue Zhou

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available Liver cancer is the most common malignancy of the digestive system with high death rate. Accumulating evidences suggests that many dietary natural products are potential sources for prevention and treatment of liver cancer, such as grapes, black currant, plum, pomegranate, cruciferous vegetables, French beans, tomatoes, asparagus, garlic, turmeric, ginger, soy, rice bran, and some edible macro-fungi. These dietary natural products and their active components could affect the development and progression of liver cancer in various ways, such as inhibiting tumor cell growth and metastasis, protecting against liver carcinogens, immunomodulating and enhancing effects of chemotherapeutic drugs. This review summarizes the potential prevention and treatment activities of dietary natural products and their major bioactive constituents on liver cancer, and discusses possible mechanisms of action.

  9. Bioactive natural products from Chinese marine flora and fauna

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Zhen-fang ZHOU; Yue-wei GUO

    2012-01-01

    In recent decades,the pharmaceutical application potential of marine natural products has attracted much interest from both natural product chemists and pharmacologists.Our group has long been engaged in the search for bioactive natural products from Chinese marine flora (such as mangroves and algae) and fauna (including sponges,soft corals,and mollusks),resulting in the isolation and characterization of numerous novel secondary metabolites spanning a wide range of structural classes and various biosynthetic origins.Of particular interest is the fact that many of these compounds show promising biological activities,including cytotoxic,antibacterial,and enzyme inhibitory effects- By describing representative studies,this review presents a comprehensive summary regarding the achievements and progress made by our group in the past decade.Several interesting examples are discussed in detail.

  10. Dietary Natural Products for Prevention and Treatment of Liver Cancer

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhou, Yue; Li, Ya; Zhou, Tong; Zheng, Jie; Li, Sha; Li, Hua-Bin

    2016-01-01

    Liver cancer is the most common malignancy of the digestive system with high death rate. Accumulating evidences suggests that many dietary natural products are potential sources for prevention and treatment of liver cancer, such as grapes, black currant, plum, pomegranate, cruciferous vegetables, French beans, tomatoes, asparagus, garlic, turmeric, ginger, soy, rice bran, and some edible macro-fungi. These dietary natural products and their active components could affect the development and progression of liver cancer in various ways, such as inhibiting tumor cell growth and metastasis, protecting against liver carcinogens, immunomodulating and enhancing effects of chemotherapeutic drugs. This review summarizes the potential prevention and treatment activities of dietary natural products and their major bioactive constituents on liver cancer, and discusses possible mechanisms of action. PMID:26978396

  11. Anti-cancer natural products isolated from chinese medicinal herbs

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wu Guosheng

    2011-07-01

    Full Text Available Abstract In recent years, a number of natural products isolated from Chinese herbs have been found to inhibit proliferation, induce apoptosis, suppress angiogenesis, retard metastasis and enhance chemotherapy, exhibiting anti-cancer potential both in vitro and in vivo. This article summarizes recent advances in in vitro and in vivo research on the anti-cancer effects and related mechanisms of some promising natural products. These natural products are also reviewed for their therapeutic potentials, including flavonoids (gambogic acid, curcumin, wogonin and silibinin, alkaloids (berberine, terpenes (artemisinin, β-elemene, oridonin, triptolide, and ursolic acid, quinones (shikonin and emodin and saponins (ginsenoside Rg3, which are isolated from Chinese medicinal herbs. In particular, the discovery of the new use of artemisinin derivatives as excellent anti-cancer drugs is also reviewed.

  12. Marine Natural Products as Models to Circumvent Multidrug Resistance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Long, Solida; Sousa, Emília; Kijjoa, Anake; Pinto, Madalena M M

    2016-07-08

    Multidrug resistance (MDR) to anticancer drugs is a serious health problem that in many cases leads to cancer treatment failure. The ATP binding cassette (ABC) transporter P-glycoprotein (P-gp), which leads to premature efflux of drugs from cancer cells, is often responsible for MDR. On the other hand, a strategy to search for modulators from natural products to overcome MDR had been in place during the last decades. However, Nature limits the amount of some natural products, which has led to the development of synthetic strategies to increase their availability. This review summarizes the research findings on marine natural products and derivatives, mainly alkaloids, polyoxygenated sterols, polyketides, terpenoids, diketopiperazines, and peptides, with P-gp inhibitory activity highlighting the established structure-activity relationships. The synthetic pathways for the total synthesis of the most promising members and analogs are also presented. It is expected that the data gathered during the last decades concerning their synthesis and MDR-inhibiting activities will help medicinal chemists develop potential drug candidates using marine natural products as models which can deliver new ABC transporter inhibitor scaffolds.

  13. The impact of natural products upon modern drug discovery.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ganesan, A

    2008-06-01

    In the period 1970-2006, a total of 24 unique natural products were discovered that led to an approved drug. We analyze these successful leads in terms of drug-like properties, and show that they can be divided into two equal subsets. The first falls in the 'Lipinski universe' and complies with the Rule of Five. The second is a 'parallel universe' that violates the rules. Nevertheless, the latter compounds remain largely compliant in terms of logP and H-bond donors, highlighting the importance of these two metrics in predicting bioavailability. Natural products are often cited as an exception to Lipinski's rules. We believe this is because nature has learned to maintain low hydrophobicity and intermolecular H-bond donating potential when it needs to make biologically active compounds with high molecular weight and large numbers of rotatable bonds. In addition, natural products are more likely than purely synthetic compounds to resemble biosynthetic intermediates or endogenous metabolites, and hence take advantage of active transport mechanisms. Interestingly, the natural product leads in the Lipinski and parallel universe had an identical success rate (50%) in delivering an oral drug.

  14. SCHEMES OF GAS PRODUCTION FROM NATURAL GAS HYDRATES

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    李淑霞; 陈月明; 杜庆军

    2003-01-01

    Natural gas hydrates are a kind of nonpolluting and high quality energy resources for future, the reserves of which are about twice of the carbon of the current fossil energy (petroleum, natural gas and coal) on the earth. And it will be the most important energy for the 21st century. The energy balance and numerical simulation are applied to study the schemes of the natural gas hydrates production in this paper,and it is considered that both depressurization and thermal stimulation are effective methods for exploiting natural gas hydrates, and that the gas production of the thermal stimulation is higher than that of the depressurization. But thermal stimulation is non-economic because it requires large amounts of energy.Therefore the combination of the two methods is a preferable method for the current development of the natural gas hydrates. The main factors which influence the production of natural gas hydrates are: the temperature of injected water, the injection rate, the initial saturation of the hydrates and the initial temperature of the reservoir which is the most important factor.

  15. In vitro bio-functionality of gallium nitride sensors for radiation biophysics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hofstetter, Markus; Howgate, John; Schmid, Martin; Schoell, Sebastian; Sachsenhauser, Matthias; Adigüzel, Denis; Stutzmann, Martin; Sharp, Ian D; Thalhammer, Stefan

    2012-07-27

    There is an increasing interest in the integration of hybrid bio-semiconductor systems for the non-invasive evaluation of physiological parameters. High quality gallium nitride and its alloys show promising characteristics to monitor cellular parameters. Nevertheless, such applications not only request appropriate sensing capabilities but also the biocompatibility and especially the biofunctionality of materials. Here we show extensive biocompatibility studies of gallium nitride and, for the first time, a biofunctionality assay using ionizing radiation. Analytical sensor devices are used in medical settings, as well as for cell- and tissue engineering. Within these fields, semiconductor devices have increasingly been applied for online biosensing on a cellular and tissue level. Integration of advanced materials such as gallium nitride into these systems has the potential to increase the range of applicability for a multitude of test devices and greatly enhance sensitivity and functionality. However, for such applications it is necessary to optimize cell-surface interactions and to verify the biocompatibility of the semiconductor. In this work, we present studies of mouse fibroblast cell activity grown on gallium nitride surfaces after applying external noxa. Cell-semiconductor hybrids were irradiated with X-rays at air kerma doses up to 250 mGy and the DNA repair dynamics, cell proliferation, and cell growth dynamics of adherent cells were compared to control samples. The impact of ionizing radiation on DNA, along with the associated cellular repair mechanisms, is well characterized and serves as a reference tool for evaluation of substrate effects. The results indicate that gallium nitride does not require specific surface treatments to ensure biocompatibility and suggest that cell signaling is not affected by micro-environmental alterations arising from gallium nitride-cell interactions. The observation that gallium nitride provides no bio-functional influence on

  16. Catalytic ring opening of decalin. Biofunctional versus hydrogenolytic pathways

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Weitkamp, J.; Rabl, S.; Haas, A.; Santi, D. [Stuttgart Univ. (Germany). Inst. of Chemical Technology; Ferrari, M.; Calemma, V. [Eni R and M Div., San Donato Milanese (Italy)

    2010-12-30

    Ir/silica, Pt/La-X and Rh/H-Beta were prepared and tested in the hydroconversion of cisdecalin at different temperatures. The catalytic tests were carried out under hydrogen in a high-pressure flow-type apparatus at 5.2 MPa. On the three catalysts open-chain decane yields up to 20 % were achieved, which is much higher than the yields reported so far in the literature. Pt/La-X and Rh/H-Beta behave as bifunctional catalysts with a high tendency for skeletal isomerization. On these catalysts the so-called paring reaction via carbenium ions occurs, leading to iso-butane and methylcyclopentane as main hydrocracked products. On Ir/SiO{sub 2}, carbon-carbon bond cleavage occurs through hydrogenolysis on the noble metal without prior isomerization. As a consequence the product spectrum is less complex than on the bifunctional catalysts which makes the system particularly amenable to mechanistic studies. (orig.)

  17. Patentability potential of natural products for xerostomia treatment

    OpenAIRE

    2016-01-01

    Xerostomia is characterized as a symptom caused by hyposalivation, which can occur for reasons such as age, polypharmacy, radiation therapy, among others. Currently,few products are available for the treatment of xerostomia, which is a subject still underestimated by many health professionals. Thus, we searched patents applied and approved in Brazil on xerostomia, to verify the existing innovation involving natural products. We found 33 patents applied and approved in Brazil, many of them usi...

  18. Idaho Habitat and Natural Production Monitoring : Annual Report 1989.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kiefer, Russell B.; Forster, Katharine A.

    1991-01-01

    Project 83-7 was established under the Northwest Power Planning Council's 1982 Fish and Wildlife Program to monitor natural production of anadromous fish, evaluate Bonneville Power Administration (BPA) habitat improvement projects, and develop a credit record for off-site mitigation projects in Idaho. Project 83-7 is divided into two subprojects: general and intensive monitoring. Primary objectives of the general monitoring subproject (Part 1) are to determine natural production increases due to habitat improvement projects in terms of parr production and to determine natural production status and trends in Idaho. The second objective is accomplished by combining parr density data from monitoring and evaluation of BPA habitat projects and from other Idaho Department of Fish and Game (IDFG) management and research activities. Primary objectives of the intensive monitoring subproject (Part 2) are to determine the number of returning chinook and steelhead adults necessary to achieve optimal smolt production and to develop mitigation accounting based on increases in smolt production. Two locations are being intensively studied to meet these objectives. Field work began in 1987 in the upper Salmon River and Crooked River (South Fork Clearwater River tributary). 22 refs., 10 figs., 17 tabs.

  19. The EROI of Conventional Canadian Natural Gas Production

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jon Freise

    2011-11-01

    Full Text Available Canada was the world’s third largest natural gas producer in 2008, with 98% of its gas being produced by conventional, tight gas, and coal bed methane wells in Western Canada. Natural gas production in Western Canada peaked in 2001 and remained nearly flat until 2006 despite more than quadrupling the drilling rate. Canada seems to be one of many counter examples to the idea that oil and gas production can rise with sufficient investment. This study calculated the Energy Return on Energy Invested and Net Energy of conventional natural gas and oil production in Western Canada by a variety of methods to explore the energy dynamics of the peaking process. All these methods show a downward trend in EROI during the last decade. Natural gas EROI fell from 38:1 in 1993 to 15:1 at the peak of drilling in 2005. The drilling intensity for natural gas was so high that net energy delivered to society peaked in 2000–2002, while production did not peak until 2006. The industry consumed all the extra energy it delivered to maintain the high drilling effort. The inability of a region to increase net energy may be the best definition of peak production. This increase in energy consumption reduces the total energy provided to society and acts as a contracting pressure on the overall economy as the industry consumes greater quantities of labor, steel, concrete and fuel. It appears that energy production from conventional oil and gas in Western Canada has peaked and entered permanent decline.

  20. Pseudomonas putida—a versatile host for the production of natural products

    OpenAIRE

    Loeschcke, Anita; Thies, Stephan

    2015-01-01

    The biosynthesis of natural products by heterologous expression of biosynthetic pathways in amenable production strains enables biotechnological access to a variety of valuable compounds by conversion of renewable resources. Pseudomonas putida has emerged as a microbial laboratory work horse, with elaborated techniques for cultivation and genetic manipulation available. Beyond that, this bacterium offers several particular advantages with regard to natural product biosynthesis, notably a vers...

  1. Production of hydrogen by thermocatalytic cracking of natural gas

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Muradov, N.Z. [Univ. of Central Florida, Cape Canaveral, FL (United States)

    1995-09-01

    It is universally accepted that in the next few decades hydrogen production will continue to rely on fossil fuels (primarily, natural gas). On the other hand, the conventional methods of hydrogen production from natural gas (for example, steam reforming) are complex multi-step processes. These processes also result in the emission of large quantities of CO{sub 2} into the atmosphere that produce adverse ecological effects. One alternative is the one-step thermocatalytic cracking (TCC) (or decomposition) of natural gas into hydrogen and carbon. Preliminary analysis indicates that the cost of hydrogen produced by thermal decomposition of natural gas is somewhat lower than the conventional processes after by-product carbon credit is taken. In the short term, this process can be used for on-site production of hydrogen-methane mixtures in gas-filling stations and for CO{sub x}-free production of hydrogen for fuel cell driven prime movers. The experimental data on the thermocatalytic cracking of methane over various catalysts and supports in a wide range of temperatures (500-900{degrees}C) are presented in this paper. Two types of reactors were designed and built at FSEC: continuous flow and pulse fix bed catalytic reactors. The temperature dependence of the hydrogen production yield using oxide type catalysts was studied. Alumina-supported Ni- and Fe-catalysts demonstrated relatively high efficiency in the methane cracking reaction at moderate temperatures (600-800{degrees}C). Kinetic curves of hydrogen production over metal and metal oxide catalysts at different temperatures are presented in the paper. Fe-catalyst demonstrated good stability (for several hours), whereas alumina-supported Pt-catalyst rapidly lost its catalytic activity.

  2. Stereoselective Total Synthesis of Bioactive Marine Natural Product Biselyngbyolide B.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Das, Sayantan; Paul, Debobrata; Goswami, Rajib Kumar

    2016-04-15

    A convergent strategy for the stereoselective total synthesis of biologically active marine natural product biselyngbyolide B has been developed. Key strategies of this synthesis include Jamison protocol of trans-hydroalumination/allylation for installation of C18-C23 olefin moiety and intramolecular Heck coupling for macrocyclization.

  3. Solvent-free extraction of food and natural products

    OpenAIRE

    Fabiano-Tixier, Anne-Sylvie; Vian, Maryline; Allaf, Tamara; Vorobiev, Eugene

    2015-01-01

    This review presents useful and green techniques of solvent-free extraction used in ancient times, such as extraction of olive oil and citrus essential oil, and innovative techniques, such as pulsed electric field, microwave, instantaneous controlled pressure drop, and extrusion. We discuss the devices, their applications, mechanisms, and parameters influencing sample preparation prior to analysis of natural products.

  4. Bioactive Natural Products From Chinese Tropical Marine Organisms

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    GUO,Yue-Wei

    2004-01-01

    @@ The oceans contain a vast biological diversity of species that have so far been utilized by mankind mainly as a source of protein. In the last few decades, however, natural products chemists have started to discover the wealth of bioactive secondary metabolites that are produced by marine invertebrates such as sponges, soft corals, molluscs and others.

  5. Natural Products as Source of Therapeutics against Parasitic Diseases.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hertweck, Christian

    2015-12-01

    An end to suffering: Parasitic infections with protozoa and worms cause unimaginable misery, in particular in the tropics. Fortunately, natural products, such as the antimalarial artemisinin (1) and the anthelmintic avermectin (2) were discovered and developed into therapeutics. These major achievements now culminated in the 2015 Nobel Prize for Medicine.

  6. The 9th European Conference on Marine Natural Products

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    RuAngelie Edrada-Ebel

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available The 9th European Conference on Marine Natural Products (ECMNP in Glasgow follows its predecessors in La Toja (2013, Tjärnö (2011, Porto (2009, Ischia (2007, Paris (2005, Elmau (2002, Santiago de Compostela (1999, and Athens (1997. [...

  7. Low Carbon Technology Options for the Natural Gas Electricity Production

    Science.gov (United States)

    The ultimate goal of this task is to perform environmental and economic analysis of natural gas based power production technologies (different routes) to investigate and evaluate strategies for reducing emissions from the power sector. It is a broad research area. Initially, the...

  8. Liquefied natural gas production at Hammerfest: A transforming marine community

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bets, van L.K.J.; Tatenhove, van J.P.M.; Mol, A.P.J.

    2016-01-01

    Global energy demand and scarce petroleum resources require communities to adapt to a rapidly changing Arctic environment, but as well to a transforming socio-economic environment instigated by oil and gas development. This is illustrated by liquefied natural gas production by Statoil at Hammerfest,

  9. Expedient total synthesis of pyrrothine natural products and analogs

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hjelmgaard, Thomas; Givskov, Michael Christian; Nielsen, John

    2007-01-01

    This paper describes an expedient and straightforward total synthesis of the two pyrrothine natural products holomycin (7 steps, 11% overall) and xenorhabdin I (7 steps, 11% overall) and analogs thereof via a common late-stage intermediate. The pathway proceeds via the pyrrothine hydrochloride...

  10. Current perspectives in drug discovery against tuberculosis from natural products.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nguta, Joseph Mwanzia; Appiah-Opong, Regina; Nyarko, Alexander K; Yeboah-Manu, Dorothy; Addo, Phyllis G A

    2015-09-01

    Currently, one third of the world's population is latently infected with Mycobacterium tuberculosis (MTB), while 8.9-9.9 million new and relapse cases of tuberculosis (TB) are reported yearly. The renewed research interests in natural products in the hope of discovering new and novel antitubercular leads have been driven partly by the increased incidence of multidrug-resistant strains of MTB and the adverse effects associated with the first- and second-line antitubercular drugs. Natural products have been, and will continue to be a rich source of new drugs against many diseases. The depth and breadth of therapeutic agents that have their origins in the secondary metabolites produced by living organisms cannot be compared with any other source of therapeutic agents. Discovery of new chemical molecules against active and latent TB from natural products requires an interdisciplinary approach, which is a major challenge facing scientists in this field. In order to overcome this challenge, cutting edge techniques in mycobacteriology and innovative natural product chemistry tools need to be developed and used in tandem. The present review provides a cross-linkage to the most recent literature in both fields and their potential to impact the early phase of drug discovery against TB if seamlessly combined.

  11. Natural product derived insecticides: discovery and development of spinetoram.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Galm, Ute; Sparks, Thomas C

    2016-03-01

    This review highlights the importance of natural product research and industrial microbiology for product development in the agricultural industry, based on examples from Dow AgroSciences. It provides an overview of the discovery and development of spinetoram, a semisynthetic insecticide derived by a combination of a genetic block in a specific O-methylation of the rhamnose moiety of spinosad coupled with neural network-based QSAR and synthetic chemistry. It also emphasizes the key role that new technologies and multidisciplinary approaches play in the development of current spinetoram production strains.

  12. Marine Natural Products as Lead Compound for New Drug Discovery

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    JIANG; Biao

    2001-01-01

    The study of natural product has long been motivated by a quest for some benefit to man, the discover. Recent years have witnessed growing attention to the isolation, identification and synthesis of the marine natural. Although marine organisms do not have a long history of medicine applications like terrestrial plants, some marine organisms have left an extensive record of hazard to mankind. The isolation and identification of saxtoxin, tetradotoxin and lyngbyatoxin resulted from such reported. The marine biosphere has long held great promise as source of anticancer compounds, while a number of screening efforts has indicated a much higher percentage of antineplastic and antitumor activity than terrestrial plants. Several marine natural products have made their appearance in clinical trials at the National Cancer Institute, such as the didemnis, , bryostatins, This finds marine invertebratehave reinvigorated interest and effort in anticancer agent from marine invertebrate.  ……

  13. Marine Natural Products as Lead Compound for New Drug Discovery

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    JIANG Biao

    2001-01-01

    @@ The study of natural product has long been motivated by a quest for some benefit to man, the discover. Recent years have witnessed growing attention to the isolation, identification and synthesis of the marine natural. Although marine organisms do not have a long history of medicine applications like terrestrial plants, some marine organisms have left an extensive record of hazard to mankind. The isolation and identification of saxtoxin, tetradotoxin and lyngbyatoxin resulted from such reported. The marine biosphere has long held great promise as source of anticancer compounds, while a number of screening efforts has indicated a much higher percentage of antineplastic and antitumor activity than terrestrial plants. Several marine natural products have made their appearance in clinical trials at the National Cancer Institute, such as the didemnis, , bryostatins, This finds marine invertebratehave reinvigorated interest and effort in anticancer agent from marine invertebrate.

  14. HEURISTIC OPTIMIZATION OF NATURAL PRODUCTION INVENTORY MODELS WITH THE PREFERENCE OF A DECISION MAKER

    OpenAIRE

    CHIH HSUN HSIEH

    2008-01-01

    In this paper, two natural production inventory models based on fuzzy total production inventory cost with the preference of a decision maker are introduced, and combined by natural number parameters in which values are linguistic values in natural language, crisp real number variables, and fuzzy number variables. These are the one natural production inventory model for crisp production quantity, and the other natural production inventory model for fuzzy production quantity. The natural arith...

  15. Natural products - plenty more where that came from

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Arnold, M.

    1980-12-22

    In this article, natural products and their possible use as renewable resources are reviewed. The fermentation of corn for the production of alcohol for motor fuel is discussed and other crops for this purpose include sugar cane, cassava, sweet potato and Jerusalem artichoke. The hydrolysis of cellulose to sugars based on enzyme hydrolysis is currently being researched in the USA. Also in the USA, Melvin Calvin hopes to breed a rubber-bearing plant whose latex can be easily cracked to motor fuel. Guayule and jojoba rubber-bearing plants are also the focus of research at present. The importance of natural vegetation in the manufacturing of medicines and in the chemical and food industries is stressed. Finally products of the sea, particularly alginates and carragheenins are mentioned, but as yet, the full potential of the sea to yield renewable resources is unknown.

  16. Systematics-guided bioprospecting for bioactive microbial natural products.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Xueting; Bolla, Krishna; Ashforth, Elizabeth Jane; Zhuo, Ying; Gao, Hong; Huang, Pei; Stanley, Sarah A; Hung, Deborah T; Zhang, Lixin

    2012-01-01

    Advances in the taxonomic characterization of microorganisms have accelerated the rate at which new producers of natural products can be understood in relation to known organisms. Yet for many reasons, chemical efforts to characterize new compounds from new microbes have not kept pace with taxonomic advances. That there exists an ever-widening gap between the biological versus chemical characterization of new microorganisms creates tremendous opportunity for the discovery of novel natural products through the calculated selection and study of organisms from unique, untapped, ecological niches. A systematics-guided bioprospecting, including the construction of high quality libraries of marine microbes and their crude extracts, investigation of bioactive compounds, and increasing the active compounds by precision engineering, has become an efficient approach to drive drug leads discovery. This review outlines the recent advances in these issues and shares our experiences on anti-infectious drug discovery and improvement of avermectins production as well.

  17. Synthetic biology tools for bioprospecting of natural products in eukaryotes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Unkles, Shiela E; Valiante, Vito; Mattern, Derek J; Brakhage, Axel A

    2014-04-24

    Filamentous fungi have the capacity to produce a battery of natural products of often unknown function, synthesized by complex metabolic pathways. Unfortunately, most of these pathways appear silent, many in intractable organisms, and their products consequently unidentified. One basic challenge is the difficulty of expressing a biosynthesis pathway for a complex natural product in a heterologous eukaryotic host. Here, we provide a proof-of concept solution to this challenge and describe how the entire penicillin biosynthesis pathway can be expressed in a heterologous host. The method takes advantage of a combination of improved yeast in vivo cloning technology, generation of polycistronic mRNA for the gene cluster under study, and an amenable and easily manipulated fungal host, i.e., Aspergillus nidulans. We achieve expression from a single promoter of the pathway genes to yield a large polycistronic mRNA by using viral 2A peptide sequences to direct successful cotranslational cleavage of pathway enzymes.

  18. Virtual Natural Product Library - full text searchable database

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Subhash Chandra Bose. Kotte

    2012-05-01

    Full Text Available Small molecules occurring in nature have special significance to mankind. They have varied applications from healthcare, food, nutrition, agriculture, personal care and well-being. These natural small molecules are from very diverse sources from the rarest plants to deep sea creatures. Recently they have assumed a lot of significance as pharmaceutical companies is constantly pushing the horizons to make them druggable due to their inherent bioactivities. Though they are not easy to synthesize or isolate, yet their diverse molecular scaffold confers them significance especially given the fact of prevailing resistance to drug scaffolds presently being used in the clinics. Hence its of paramount importance to have a database of diverse natural small molecules through the present effort of creating a Virtual Natural Products Library (VNPL-version 0.15.

  19. Infrared Spectroscopy Study of Structural Nature of Geopolymeric Products

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    ZHANG Yunsheng; SUN Wei; LI Zongjin

    2008-01-01

    The bonding status and chemical environment of SiO4 and AlO4 tetrahedras of three types of geopolymeric products were systematically investigated by infrared spectroscopy.The relationship between amorphous geopolymeric products and zeolite crystals with the same overall chemical compositions was also discussed.The infrared evidence shows that SiO4 tetrahedra is partially bonded by AlO4 during the hydration process ofgeopolymeric cement.The two types of tetrahedras jointly construct the three dimensional framework structures of the geopolymeric products.The mutual transformation between geopolymeric products and corresponding zeolite crystals will take place once the reaction condition is suitable,which reveals that the nature ofgeopolymeric products are probably the amorphous equivalent of the corresponding zeolite crystals.

  20. Impact of residual contamination on the biofunctional properties of purified alginates used for cell encapsulation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tam, Susan K; Dusseault, Julie; Polizu, Stefania; Ménard, Martin; Hallé, Jean-Pierre; Yahia, L'Hocine

    2006-03-01

    Alginate is frequently used for cell encapsulation, but its biocompatibility is neither optimal nor reproducible. Purifying the alginate is critical for achieving a suitable biocompatibility. However, published purification methods vary in efficiency and may induce changes in polymer biofunctionality. Applying X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy, we showed that commercial alginates, purified by in-house and industrial methods, contained elemental impurities that contributed 0.41-1.73% of their atomic composition. Residual contaminants were identified to be proteins (nitrogen/COOH), endotoxins (phosphorus), and fucoidans (sulphur). Studies using attenuated total reflectance Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy suggested that trace contamination did not alter the alginate molecular structure. Alginate hydrophilicity increased by 19-40% after purification, in correlation with a reduction in protein and polyphenol content. Solution viscosity of the alginate increased by 28-108% after purification, in correlation with a reduction in protein content. These results demonstrate that commercial alginates contain potentially immunogenic contaminants that are not completely eliminated by current purification methods. Moreover, these contaminants alter the functional properties of the alginate in a manner that may compromise biocompatibility: Hydrophilicity may affect protein adsorption and solution viscosity influences the morphology of alginate-based microcapsules. These findings highlight the need to improve and better control alginate purity to ensure a reproducible biofunctionality and optimal biocompatibility of alginate and microcapsules.

  1. Interdisciplinary researches for potential developments of drugs and natural products

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Arunrat Chaveerach

    2017-04-01

    Full Text Available Developments of drugs or natural products from plants are possibly made, simple to use and lower cost than modern drugs. The development processes can be started with studying local wisdom and literature reviews to choose the plants which have long been used in diverse areas, such as foods, traditional medicine, fragrances and seasonings. Then those data will be associated with scientific researches, namely plant collection and identification, phytochemical screening by gas chromatography-mass spectrometry, pharmacological study/review for their functions, and finally safety and efficiency tests in human. For safety testing, in vitro cell toxicity by cell viability assessment and in vitro testing of DNA breaks by the comet assay in human peripheral blood mononuclear cells can be performed. When active chemicals and functions containing plants were chosen with safety and efficacy for human uses, then, the potential medicinal natural products will be produced. Based on these procedures, the producing cost will be cheaper and the products can be evaluated for their clinical properties. Thus, the best and lowest-priced medicines and natural products can be distributed worldwide.

  2. Conceptual process synthesis for recovery of natural products from plants

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Malwade, Chandrakant R.; Qu, Haiyan; Rong, Ben-Guang;

    2013-01-01

    A systematic method of conceptual process synthesis for recovery of natural products from their biological sources is presented. This methodology divides the task into two major subtasks namely, isolation of target compound from a chemically complex solid matrix of biological source (crude extract......) and purification of target compound(s) from the crude extract. Process analytical technology (PAT) is used in each step to understand the nature of material systems and separation characteristics of each separation method. In the present work, this methodology is applied to generate process flow sheet for recovery...

  3. Exploiting the potential of marine natural products: structure elucidation and metagenomic approaches to biotechnological production

    OpenAIRE

    Della Sala, Gerardo

    2013-01-01

    Sponges represent the most prolific producers of novel marine bioactive secondary metabolites. In the last years, several drugs derived from marine natural products have appeared in the market, and others are in clinical trials. The aim of my research project was to exploit the unusual and often surprising chemistry of marine sponges, in the frame of the more general purpose of discovering and developing new drugs from natural products. The research work presented in this PhD Thesis was di...

  4. Phenazines and natural products; Novel synthesis of saphenic acid

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Petersen, Lars; Jensen, Knud Jørgen; Nielsen, John

    1999-01-01

    The natural product saphenic acid (6-(1-hydroxyethyl)1-phenazinecarboxylic acid) was synthesized from readily accessible starting materials. The desired product was obtained in an overall yield of 22% for four steps with the key steps being formation of a diphenylamine, followed by cyclization un...... under alkaline and reducing conditions. Assignments of H-1 NMR spectra were achieved by homo- and heteronuclear 1D and 2D correlations. Double pulsed field gradient spin-echo one-dimensional NOESY proved especially valuable for assignment of aromatic protons....

  5. Phenazines and natural products; novel synthesis of saphenic acid

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Petersen, Lars; Jensen, Knud J.; Nielsen, John

    1999-01-01

    The natural product saphenic acid (6-(1-hydroxyethyl)1- phenazinecarboxylic acid) was synthesized from readily accessible starting materials. The desired product was obtained in an overall yield of 22% for four steps with the key steps being formation of a diphenylamine, followed by cyclization u...... under alkaline and reducing conditions. Assignments of 1H NMR spectra were achieved by homo- and heteronuclear 1D and 2D correlations. Double pulsed field gradient spin-echo one-dimensional NOESY proved especially valuable for assignment of aromatic protons....

  6. Optimizing patient care with "natural" products: treatment of hyperpigmentation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Woolery-Lloyd, Heather; Friedman, Adam

    2009-06-01

    Patients with skin of color suffer from different cutaneous issues when compared with skin of light complexion, and therefore management of the former must be representative of these variations. The most common pigmentary complaints in patients with skin of color are post-inflammatory hyperpigmentation, melasma and sun-induced hyperpigmentation. Often, patients with darker skin will turn to naturally occurring ingredients over synthetic analogues both to satisfy cultural preferences and to limit potential adverse effects that have been tied to synthetics. Science-based natural products can offer an attractive adjunct to conventional therapies that treat melasma, post-inflammatory hyperpigmentaion, and other dyschromias. Increasing data on the biological effects and the efficacy of natural therapies support the use of these complementary therapies in treating hyperpigmentation.

  7. Natural product antifoulants from the octocorals of Indian waters

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    Raveendran, T.V; LimnaMol, V.P.; Parameswaran, P.S.

    1 Author version: International Biodeterioration & Biodegradation, vol.65(1); 2011; 265-268 Natural Product Antifoulants from the Octocorals of Indian waters T.V. Raveendran * , V.P. Limna Mol, P.S. Parameswaran National Institute... the red alga Delisea pulchra in antifouling assays. Biofouling 8, 259–271. 12. Devi, P., Jayasree, V., Naik, C.G., Parameswaran, P.S., Raveendran, T.V., Kamat, S.Y. 1998. Antifouling activity of Indian marine invertebrates against the green mussel...

  8. Five decades in the study of natural products*

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    T R Govindachari

    2002-06-01

    This paper describes the five-decade long fascinating journey taken by Prof. T R Govindachari towards the study of the natural products of India. A variety of Indian plants were investigated by him for the study of their constituent alkaloids and terpenoids. The concluding part of the paper summarizes the isolation and identification of the constituents of the Neem kernel, which eventually led to the first X-ray structure determination of azadirachtin A.

  9. Journal of Asian Natural Products Research简介

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    李霄茜

    2009-01-01

    @@ Journal of Asian Natural Products Research(,简称JANPR;ISSN:1028-6020;e-ISSN:1477-2213)是由英国Taylor & Francis公司出版发行的一本以亚洲传统医学中天然产品的化学和药理学研究为主要方向的国际性杂志.

  10. The C7N aminocyclitol family of natural products.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mahmud, Taifo

    2003-02-01

    This review covers microbial secondary metabolites classified in the family of C7N aminocyclitols, a relatively new class of natural products that is increasingly gaining recognition due to their significant biomedical and agricultural uses. Their discovery and structure determinations, their biosynthetic origin, biological properties, chemical synthesis, as well as their further development for pharmaceutical uses are described. The literature from 1970 to July 2002 is reviewed, with 269 references cited.

  11. Cytotoxic Natural Products from Marine Sponge-Derived Microorganisms

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Huawei Zhang

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available A growing body of evidence indicates that marine sponge-derived microbes possess the potential ability to make prolific natural products with therapeutic effects. This review for the first time provides a comprehensive overview of new cytotoxic agents from these marine microbes over the last 62 years from 1955 to 2016, which are assorted into seven types: terpenes, alkaloids, peptides, aromatics, lactones, steroids, and miscellaneous compounds.

  12. Natural Products as Source of Potential Dengue Antivirals

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Róbson Ricardo Teixeira

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available Dengue is a neglected disease responsible for 22,000 deaths each year in areas where it is endemic. To date, there is no clinically approved dengue vaccine or antiviral for human beings, even though there have been great efforts to accomplish these goals. Several approaches have been used in the search for dengue antivirals such as screening of compounds against dengue virus enzymes and structure-based computational discovery. During the last decades, researchers have turned their attention to nature, trying to identify compounds that can be used as dengue antivirals. Nature represents a vast reservoir of substances that can be explored with the aim of discovering new leads that can be either used directly as pharmaceuticals or can serve as lead structures that can be optimized towards the development of new antiviral agents against dengue. In this review we describe an assortment of natural products that have been reported as possessing dengue antiviral activity. The natural products are organized into classes of substances. When appropriate, structure-activity relationships are outlined. The biological assays used to assess antiviral activity are briefly described.

  13. Rationale for a natural products approach to herbicide discovery.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dayan, Franck E; Owens, Daniel K; Duke, Stephen O

    2012-04-01

    Weeds continue to evolve resistance to all the known modes of herbicidal action, but no herbicide with a new target site has been commercialized in nearly 20 years. The so-called 'new chemistries' are simply molecules belonging to new chemical classes that have the same mechanisms of action as older herbicides (e.g. the protoporphyrinogen-oxidase-inhibiting pyrimidinedione saflufenacil or the very-long-chain fatty acid elongase targeting sulfonylisoxazoline herbicide pyroxasulfone). Therefore, the number of tools to manage weeds, and in particular those that can control herbicide-resistant weeds, is diminishing rapidly. There is an imminent need for truly innovative classes of herbicides that explore chemical spaces and interact with target sites not previously exploited by older active ingredients. This review proposes a rationale for a natural-products-centered approach to herbicide discovery that capitalizes on the structural diversity and ingenuity afforded by these biologically active compounds. The natural process of extended-throughput screening (high number of compounds tested on many potential target sites over long periods of times) that has shaped the evolution of natural products tends to generate molecules tailored to interact with specific target sites. As this review shows, there is generally little overlap between the mode of action of natural and synthetic phytotoxins, and more emphasis should be placed on applying methods that have proved beneficial to the pharmaceutical industry to solve problems in the agrochemical industry.

  14. Novel fermentation processes for manufacturing plant natural products.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhou, Jingwen; Du, Guocheng; Chen, Jian

    2014-02-01

    Microbial production of plant natural products (PNPs), such as terpenoids, flavonoids from renewable carbohydrate feedstocks offers sustainable and economically attractive alternatives to their petroleum-based production. Rapid development of metabolic engineering and synthetic biology of microorganisms shows many advantages to replace the current extraction of these useful high price chemicals from plants. Although few of them were actually applied on a large scale for PNPs production, continuous research on these high-price chemicals and the rapid growing global market of them, show the promising future for the production of these PNPs by microorganisms with a more economic and environmental friendly way. Introduction of novel pathways and optimization of the native cellular processes by metabolic engineering of microorganisms for PNPs production are rapidly expanding its range of cell-factory applications. Here we review recent progress in metabolic engineering of microorganisms for the production of PNPs. Besides, factors restricting the yield improvement and application of lab-scale achievements to industrial applications have also been discussed.

  15. Methylaplysinopsin and other marine natural products affecting neurotransmission.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Taylor, K M; Baird-Lambert, J A; Davis, P A; Spence, I

    1981-01-01

    Methylaplysinopsin is a novel marine natural product that, after oral administration, prevented the effects of tetrabenazine in mice and rats. Methylaplysinopsin was a short-acting inhibitor of monoamine oxidase activity with greatest potency when serotonin was the substrate studied. The brain concentration of serotonin in the mouse was increased by methylaplysinopsin over the same time course as monoamine oxidase inhibition ex vivo. Methylaplysinopsin was also a weak inhibitor of the neuronal uptake of [3H]serotonin and a potentiator of the K+-induced release of [3H]serotonin from prelabeled synaptosomes. The predicted potentiation of serotonergic neurotransmission was supported by initial neurophysiological studies in an identified serotonergic pathway in the central nervous system of Aplysia. Two other studies on the pharmacology of marine natural products are reviewed. The majority of polyhalogenated monoterpenes isolated from red algae had central nervous system depressant properties. The exception is plocamadiene A, which caused, in mice, a reversible spastic paresis lasting up to 72 hours after oral administration. The severe muscle spasm was antagonized by diazepam. The final study discussed is the effect of a variety of marine natural products on the synthesis, neuronal uptake, and metabolism of GABA. Their selectivity is discussed with regard to the effects on metabolic respiration, and the correlation of neurochemical and neurophysiological effects on these marine substances.

  16. Antimycobacterial natural products--an opportunity for the Colombian biodiversity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bueno, Juan; Coy, Ericsson David; Stashenko, Elena

    2011-12-01

    It is estimated that one-third part of the world population is infected with the tubercle bacillus. While only a small percentage of infected individuals will develop clinical tuberculosis, each year there are approximately eight million new cases and two million deaths. Mycobacterium tuberculosis is thus responsible for more human mortality than any other single microbial species. The goals of tuberculosis control are focused to cure active disease, prevent relapse, reduce transmission and avert the emergence of drug-resistance. For over 50 years, natural products have served us well on combating infectious bacteria and fungi. During the 20th century, microbial and plant secondary metabolites have helped to double our life span, reduced pain and suffering, and revolutionized medicine. Colombia is a megadiverse country with enormous potential to offer leads for new antimycobacterial drugs. The principal aim of this article is to show a state of the art on antimycobacterial natural products research in Colombia compared to the rest of the world, in order to develop programs for bioprospecting with a view to determining the biological activity for pharmaceutical and industrial application of natural products in our country.

  17. An overview on the potential of natural products as ureas

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Luzia V. Modolo

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Ureases, enzymes that catalyze urea hydrolysis, have received considerable attention for their impact on living organisms’ health and life quality. On the one hand, the persistence of urease activity in human and animal cells can be the cause of some diseases and pathogen infections. On the other hand, food production can be negatively affected by ureases of soil microbiota that, in turn, lead to losses of nitrogenous nutrients in fields supplemented with urea as fertilizer. In this context, nature has proven to be a rich resource of natural products bearing a variety of scaffolds that decrease the ureolytic activity of ureases from different organisms. Therefore, this work compiles the state-of-the-art researches focused on the potential of plant natural products (present in extracts or as pure compounds as urease inhibitors of clinical and/or agricultural interests. Emphasis is given to ureases of Helicobacter pylori, Canavalia ensiformis and soil microbiota although the active site of this class of hydrolases is conserved among living organisms.

  18. Natural products research in South Africa: 1890–2010

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Siegfried E. Drewes

    2012-05-01

    Full Text Available Having spent some 50 years as an organic chemist with an interest in medicinal plant chemistry in South Africa it was relevant now to ask three questions, (1 when were natural products first utilised, (2 who were the people involved, and (3 what is the status quo? Based on older literature published in the South African Journal of Chemistry, information gleaned from attendance at innumerable chemistry conferences, and relevant literature in university archives, a great deal of information was gathered to answer the first two questions. For example, that the first veterinarian to treat cattle diseases caused by poisonous plants in the Eastern Cape was Dr Jotella Soga in the 1890s. Contributions from other prominent scientists such as Marais, Rindl, Rimington and Warren followed. From about 1940 to the 1990s, researchers concentrated mainly on the isolation of new compounds from local plants for which some indigenous knowledge was recorded. Foreign chemists also arrived and did a fair amount of ‘exploitation’ of natural products. Thus, the anti-cancer compound combretastatin was first isolated from the indigenous tree Combretum caffrum. Plant chemistry in South Africa has blossomed in the last decade, with many students from previously disadvantaged backgrounds, but with a keen interest in muti or medicinal chemistry, entering the field. Recent findings have rekindled the belief that a major development in natural products would at last emerge from Africa.

  19. Natural gas production problems : solutions, methodologies, and modeling.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rautman, Christopher Arthur; Herrin, James M.; Cooper, Scott Patrick; Basinski, Paul M. (El Paso Production Company, Houston, TX); Olsson, William Arthur; Arnold, Bill Walter; Broadhead, Ronald F. (New Mexico Bureau of Geology and Mineral Resources, Socorro, NM); Knight, Connie D. (Consulting Geologist, Golden, CO); Keefe, Russell G.; McKinney, Curt (Devon Energy Corporation, Oklahoma City, OK); Holm, Gus (Vermejo Park Ranch, Raton, NM); Holland, John F.; Larson, Rich (Vermejo Park Ranch, Raton, NM); Engler, Thomas W. (New Mexico Institute of Mining and Technology, Socorro, NM); Lorenz, John Clay

    2004-10-01

    Natural gas is a clean fuel that will be the most important domestic energy resource for the first half the 21st centtuy. Ensuring a stable supply is essential for our national energy security. The research we have undertaken will maximize the extractable volume of gas while minimizing the environmental impact of surface disturbances associated with drilling and production. This report describes a methodology for comprehensive evaluation and modeling of the total gas system within a basin focusing on problematic horizontal fluid flow variability. This has been accomplished through extensive use of geophysical, core (rock sample) and outcrop data to interpret and predict directional flow and production trends. Side benefits include reduced environmental impact of drilling due to reduced number of required wells for resource extraction. These results have been accomplished through a cooperative and integrated systems approach involving industry, government, academia and a multi-organizational team within Sandia National Laboratories. Industry has provided essential in-kind support to this project in the forms of extensive core data, production data, maps, seismic data, production analyses, engineering studies, plus equipment and staff for obtaining geophysical data. This approach provides innovative ideas and technologies to bring new resources to market and to reduce the overall environmental impact of drilling. More importantly, the products of this research are not be location specific but can be extended to other areas of gas production throughout the Rocky Mountain area. Thus this project is designed to solve problems associated with natural gas production at developing sites, or at old sites under redevelopment.

  20. 76 FR 19996 - Cooperative Agreement With the University of Mississippi's National Center for Natural Products...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-04-11

    ... National Center for Natural Products Research (U01) To Develop and Disseminate Botanical Natural Product... and dissemination of natural products research and science and the programs developed under the... develop and disseminate botanical natural product research with an emphasis on public safety according...

  1. Marine natural products in prevention and treatment of osteoporosis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zahra Ghanbari

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available Undoubtedly, pharmaceutical and nutritional factors play an important role in the prevention of age-related bone loss. According to the several studies so far, the effects of nutrients and bioactive components which are extracted from marine resources are very promising in osteoporosis. Most of these investigations have been done on various marine algae extracts. Since, algae are rich source of essential minerals, primary and secondary unique natural products, several amino acids and growth factors their extracts show favorable effects on bone metabolism. Moreover, it has been shown that marine nutrients such as marine fishes, shrimp and crabs increase the absorption of calcium and bone collagen synthesis or reduce the production of prostaglandins and decrease the deoxypyridinoline disposal. On the other hand, secondary products which are extracted and characterized from marine organisms such as mollusks, fungi, bacteria, sponges and coral reefs show anti-osteoporosis activities via the inhibition of osteoclast differentiation and the induction of apoptosis in osteoclasts like cells or stimulation of osteoblast differentiation. Although, several investigations have been done in this area, many of studies have been carried out on animal models, like ovariectomy-induced bone loss in mice. Hence, clinical investigations are warranted to develop marine natural products against bone loss and to prevent osteoporosis.

  2. Enhancement of dimethylsulfide production by anoxic stress in natural seawater

    Science.gov (United States)

    Omori, Yuko; Tanimoto, Hiroshi; Inomata, Satoshi; Wada, Shigeki; Thume, Kathleen; Pohnert, Georg

    2015-05-01

    Dimethylsulfide (DMS) is produced by phytoplankton in the ocean and plays an important role in biogeochemical cycles and climate system of the Earth. Previous field studies reported a possible relationship between DMS enhancement and anoxic condition, although the governing processes are still to be identified. Here we show the first direct evidence for the enhancement of DMS production by natural planktonic assemblages caused by anoxic stress. Under the anoxic condition, DMS production was considerably enhanced and DMS bacterial consumption was inhibited, resulting in an eightfold higher rate of gross DMS production than that under the oxic condition. Our results demonstrated that anoxic stress is one of important "environmental factors" in the marine DMS dynamics, suggesting the possible global importance due to ubiquity of anoxic conditions in the coastal oceans. This process would become more important in the future due to expansion of coastal hypoxic and anoxic zones by global warming.

  3. Mimicking a natural pathway for de novo biosynthesis: natural vanillin production from accessible carbon sources.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ni, Jun; Tao, Fei; Du, Huaiqing; Xu, Ping

    2015-09-02

    Plant secondary metabolites have been attracting people's attention for centuries, due to their potentials; however, their production is still difficult and costly. The rich diversity of microbes and microbial genome sequence data provide unprecedented gene resources that enable to develop efficient artificial pathways in microorganisms. Here, by mimicking a natural pathway of plants using microbial genes, a new metabolic route was developed in E. coli for the synthesis of vanillin, the most widely used flavoring agent. A series of factors were systematically investigated for raising production, including efficiency and suitability of genes, gene dosage, and culture media. The metabolically engineered strain produced 97.2 mg/L vanillin from l-tyrosine, 19.3 mg/L from glucose, 13.3 mg/L from xylose and 24.7 mg/L from glycerol. These results show that the metabolic route enables production of natural vanillin from low-cost substrates, suggesting that it is a good strategy to mimick natural pathways for artificial pathway design.

  4. Polyphenols-rich natural products for treatment of diabetes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dragan, S; Andrica, F; Serban, Maria-Corina; Timar, R

    2015-01-01

    Currently, experimental and clinical evidences showed that polyphenols-rich natural products, like nutraceuticals and food supplements, may offer unique treatment modalities in type 2 diabetes mellitus (DM), due to their biological properties. Natural products modulate the carbohydrate metabolism by various mechanisms, such as restoring beta-cells integrity and physiology, enhancing insulin releasing activity, and the glucose using. Sea buckthorn berries, red grapes, bilberries, chokeberries and popular drinks like cocoa, coffee and green tea are all rich in polyphenols and may decrease the insulin response, offer in g a natural alternative of treatment in diabetes. Therefore, researches are now focused on potential efficacies of different types of polyphenols, including flavonoids, phenolic acids, lignans, anthocyans and stilbenes. Animal and human studies showed that polyphenols modulate carbohydrate and lipid metabolism, decrease glycemia and insulin resistance, increase lipid metabolism and optimize oxidative stress and inflammatory processes. It is important to understand the proper dose and duration of supplementation with polyphenols-rich extracts in order to guide effective therapeutic interventions in diabetic patients.

  5. Natural products as potential cancer therapy enhancers: A preclinical update.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Agbarya, Abed; Ruimi, Nili; Epelbaum, Ron; Ben-Arye, Eran; Mahajna, Jamal

    2014-01-01

    Cancer is a multifactorial disease that arises as a consequence of alterations in many physiological processes. Recently, hallmarks of cancer were suggested that include sustaining proliferative signaling, evading growth suppressors, resisting cell death, enabling replicative immortality, inducing angiogenesis, and activating invasion and metastasis, along with two emerging hallmarks including reprogramming energy metabolism and escaping immune destruction. Treating multifactorial diseases, such as cancer with agents targeting a single target, might provide partial treatment and, in many cases, disappointing cure rates. Epidemiological studies have consistently shown that the regular consumption of fruits and vegetables is strongly associated with a reduced risk of developing chronic diseases, such as cardiovascular diseases and cancer. Since ancient times, plants, herbs, and other natural products have been used as healing agents. Moreover, the majority of the medicinal substances available today have their origin in natural compounds. Traditionally, pharmaceuticals are used to cure diseases, and nutrition and herbs are used to prevent disease and to provide an optimal balance of macro- and micro-nutrients needed for good health. We explored the combination of natural products, dietary nutrition, and cancer chemotherapeutics for improving the efficacy of cancer chemotherapeutics and negating side effects.

  6. Natural products as potential cancer therapy enhancers: A preclinical update

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Abed Agbarya

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available Cancer is a multifactorial disease that arises as a consequence of alterations in many physiological processes. Recently, hallmarks of cancer were suggested that include sustaining proliferative signaling, evading growth suppressors, resisting cell death, enabling replicative immortality, inducing angiogenesis, and activating invasion and metastasis, along with two emerging hallmarks including reprogramming energy metabolism and escaping immune destruction. Treating multifactorial diseases, such as cancer with agents targeting a single target, might provide partial treatment and, in many cases, disappointing cure rates. Epidemiological studies have consistently shown that the regular consumption of fruits and vegetables is strongly associated with a reduced risk of developing chronic diseases, such as cardiovascular diseases and cancer. Since ancient times, plants, herbs, and other natural products have been used as healing agents. Moreover, the majority of the medicinal substances available today have their origin in natural compounds. Traditionally, pharmaceuticals are used to cure diseases, and nutrition and herbs are used to prevent disease and to provide an optimal balance of macro- and micro-nutrients needed for good health. We explored the combination of natural products, dietary nutrition, and cancer chemotherapeutics for improving the efficacy of cancer chemotherapeutics and negating side effects.

  7. Production of hydrogen by thermocatalytic cracking of natural gas

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Muradov, N. [Florida Solar Energy Center, Cocoa, FL (United States)

    1996-10-01

    The conventional methods of hydrogen production from natural gas (for example, steam reforming and partial oxidation) are complex, multi-step processes that produce large quantities of CO{sub 2}. The main goal of this project is to develop a technologically simple process for hydrogen production from natural gas (NG) and other hydrocarbon fuels via single-step decomposition of hydrocarbons. This approach eliminates or significantly reduces CO{sub 2} emission. Carbon is a valuable by-product of this process, whereas conventional methods of hydrogen production from NG produce no useful by-products. This approach is based on the use of special catalysts that reduce the maximum temperature of the process from 1400-1500{degrees}C (thermal non-catalytic decomposition of methane) to 500-900{degrees}C. Transition metal based catalysts and various forms of carbon are among the candidate catalysts for the process. This approach can advantageously be used for the development of compact NG reformers for on-site production of hydrogen-methane blends at refueling stations and, also, for the production of hydrogen-rich gas for fuel cell applications. The author extended the search for active methane decomposition catalysts to various modifications of Ni-, Fe-, Mo- and Co-based catalysts. Variation in the operational parameters makes it possible to produce H{sub 2}-CH{sub 4} blends with a wide range of hydrogen concentrations that vary from 15 to 98% by volume. The author found that Ni-based catalysts are more effective at temperatures below 750{degrees}C, whereas Fe-based catalysts are effective at temperatures above 800{degrees}C for the production of hydrogen with purity of 95% v. or higher. The catalytic pyrolysis of liquid hydrocarbons (pentane, gasoline) over Fe-based catalyst was conducted. The author observed the production of a hydrogen-rich gas (hydrogen concentration up to 97% by volume) at a rate of approximately 1L/min.mL of hydrocarbon fuel.

  8. Biofunctional characteristics of lignite fly ash modified by humates: a new soil conditioner.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chassapis, Konstantinos; Roulia, Maria; Vrettou, Evangelia; Fili, Despina; Zervaki, Monica

    2010-01-01

    Fly ash superficially modified with humic substances from the Megalopolis lignitic power plant was prepared and evaluated for agricultural uses. UV-vis spectrophotometry and IR spectroscopy revealed that fly ash shows high sorption efficiency towards humic substances. Adsorption proceeds stepwise via strong Coulombic and hydrophophic forces of attraction between guest and host materials. Langmuir, Freundlich, BET, Harkins-Jura, and Dubinin-Radushkevich isotherm models were employed to evaluate the ongoing adsorption and shed light to the physicochemical properties of the sorbent-adsorbate system. Humic substances desorption and microbial cultivation experiments were also carried out to examine the regeneration of the humates under washing and explore the possibility of this material acclimatizing in real soil conditions, both useful for biofunctional agricultural applications.

  9. Total Synthesis of the Natural Product-Pinosylvin and its Analog

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2000-01-01

    We synthesised a natural product (10) , isolated from G.parvifolium , and its analog. The synthetic product was characterized by elemental analysis and 1H-NMR in comparision with the corresponding natural product.

  10. Synthesis of New Anti-Cancer Natural Products

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Yu, Wanwan

    2016-01-01

    Cancer is one of the leading causes of morbidity and mortality worldwide, and more than 90% of the cancer-related deaths are due to the causes of metastatic pathological change. Tumor hypoxia, resulting from the inadequate blood supply in tumor tissues due to high cellular proliferation, is linked...... given by the inhibitory effects on the HIF-1 transcriptional pathway (STR-2 (1), STR-3 (2), STR-8 (3)), and cancer cell invasion inhibition (STR-8 (3), STR-26 (4)). The mechanistic explanations of these interactions between cancer cell cellular actions and the small natural molecules of the STR family...... have yet to be deduced. This class of marine natural products of meroterpenoids could contribute to the realm of the hypoxia-related cancer research. The complex meroterpenoid framework, stereochemical demands and bicyclic δ-lactone moiety found in most of the bioactive STR molecules, make...

  11. Entotheonella Bacteria as Source of Sponge-Derived Natural Products: Opportunities for Biotechnological Production.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bhushan, Agneya; Peters, Eike E; Piel, Jörn

    2017-01-01

    Marine sponges belong to the oldest animals existing today. Apart from their role in recycling of carbon and nitrogen in the ocean, they are also an important source of a wide variety of structurally diverse bioactive natural products. Over the past few decades, a multitude of compounds from sponges have been discovered exhibiting diverse, pharmacologically promising activities. However, in many cases the low substance quantities present in the sponge tissue would require the collection of large amounts of sponge material, thus impeding further drug development. Recent research has focused on understanding natural product biosynthesis in sponges and on investigating symbiotic bacteria as possible production sources in order to develop sustainable production systems. This chapter covers research efforts that have taken place over the past few years involving the identification of 'Entotheonella' symbionts responsible for production of sponge compounds, as well as the elucidation of their biosynthetic routes, highlighting future biotechnological applications.

  12. Ecological and Pharmacological Activities of Antarctic Marine Natural Products.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Avila, Conxita

    2016-06-01

    Antarctic benthic communities are regulated by abundant interactions of different types among organisms, such as predation, competition, etc. Predators are usually sea stars, with omnivorous habits, as well as other invertebrates. Against this strong predation pressure, many organisms have developed all sorts of defensive strategies, including chemical defenses. Natural products are thus quite common in Antarctic organisms with an important ecological and pharmacological potential. In this paper, the chemical defenses of the Antarctic organisms studied during the ECOQUIM and ACTIQUIM projects, as well as their pharmacological potential, are reviewed. For the ecological defenses, predation against the sea star Odontaster validus is analyzed and evaluated along depth gradients as well as considering the lifestyle of the organisms. For the pharmacological activity, the anticancer, anti-inflammatory, and antibacterial activities tested are evaluated here. Very often, only crude extracts or fractions have been tested so far, and therefore, the natural products responsible for such activities remain yet to be identified. Even if the sampling efforts are not uniform along depth, most ecologically active organisms are found between 200 and 500 m depth. Also, from the samples studied, about four times more sessile organisms possess chemical defenses against the sea star than the vagile ones; these represent 50 % of sessile organisms and 35 % of the vagile ones, out of the total tested, being active. Pharmacological activity has not been tested uniformly in all groups, but the results show that relevant activity is found in different phyla, especially in Porifera, Cnidaria, Bryozoa, and Tunicata, but also in others. No relationship between depth and pharmacological activity can be established with the samples tested so far. More studies are needed in order to better understand the ecological relationships among Antarctic invertebrates mediated by natural products and

  13. A general enantioselective route to the chamigrene natural product family

    KAUST Repository

    White, David E.

    2010-06-01

    Described in this report is an enantioselective route toward the chamigrene natural product family. The key disconnections in our synthetic approach include sequential enantioselective decarboxylative allylation and ring-closing olefin metathesis to form the all-carbon quaternary stereocenter and spirocyclic core present in all members of this class of compounds. The generality of this strategy is demonstrated by the first total syntheses of elatol and the proposed structure of laurencenone B, as well as the first enantioselective total syntheses of laurencenone C and α-chamigrene. A brief exploration of the substrate scope of the enantioselective decarboxylative allylation/ring-closing metathesis sequence with fully substituted vinyl chlorides is also presented.

  14. Environmental review of natural gas production in Lake Erie

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    O' Shea, K. [Dillon Consulting Ltd., Cambridge, ON (Canada)

    2002-07-01

    The water of Lake Erie is used as a source of drinking water for Ontario, New York, Pennsylvania, Ohio and Michigan. An environmental review has been conducted to determine the impact of drilling operations on the overall ecology of the lake. Since 1913, 2000 natural gas wells have been drilled in Lake Erie, of which 550 currently produce gas and account for 75 per cent of Ontario's total gas production. 180 wells are shut-in or suspended and the remaining wells have been abandoned. The gas wells are connected to onshore production facilities by approximately 1,600 km of small diameter pipelines that lie buried near shore or on top of the lake bed. Nearly 90 per cent of the in-lake infrastructure is in water depths of more than 20 metres. Talisman Energy is actively involved with the Canadian Coast Guard, the Department of Fisheries and Oceans, and the Ministry of Natural Resources to ensure cooperation between regulators and off-shore personnel. The environmental assessment of natural gas production in Lake Erie included a review of regulatory and best management practices, a biophysical overview of the lake, and a review of drilling practices, well completions, handling of waste streams, materials management, operations inspections, wastewater discharge, air emissions, and oil spills. It was revealed that for most drilling programs, cuttings are washed and discharged to the Lake. Ongoing testing will determine the impact that this practice has on benthic populations. The drill muds used for drilling operations are water based, environmentally friendly, and re-used between well locations. For completion programs, all well activities are closed circuit operations. Wells are abandoned through plugging with cement, removing wellheads and casing below the lake bottom. There has been a reported volume of about 23,000 litres of spilled product from 1990 to 2001, of which 68 per cent has come from 3 industrial companies that operate near Lake Erie. The offshore gas

  15. Natural products from Bacillus subtilis with antimicrobial properties☆

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Tao Wang; Yafei Liang; Mianbin Wu; Zhengjie Chen; Jianping Lin; Lirong Yang

    2015-01-01

    Bacil us subtilis produces many chemical y-diverse secondary metabolites of interest to chemists and biologists. Based on this, this review gives a detalled overview of the natural components produced by B. subtilis including cyclic lipopeptides, polypeptides, proteins (enzymes), and non-peptide products. Their structures, bioactive ac-tivities and the relevant variants as novel lead structures for drug discovery are also described. The challenging effects of fermentation metabolites, isolation and purification, as wel as the overproduction of bioactive com-pounds from B. subtilis by metabolic engineering, were also highlighted. Systematical y exploring biosynthetic routes and the functions of secondary metabolites from B. subtilis may not only be beneficial in improving yields of the products, but also in helping them to be used in food industry and public medical service on a large-scale.

  16. NMR structural studies of oligosaccharides and other natural products

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kjærulff, Louise

    produce secondary metabolites for signaling and competing against other organisms, and these molecules are important in drug discovery due to their inherent biological activities. From a marine Photobacterium (P. halotolerans) we isolated the solonamides and the ngercheumicins, two families of cyclic....... fijiensis, was also investigated for production of novel secondary metabolites, and a new pyranonigrin (E) was isolated and structure elucidated by NMR spectroscopy along with JBIR-74 and decumbenone A, two known metabolites previously isolated from Aspergillus and Penicillium species. Oligosaccharides...... with respect to n+1JHH between these two experiments, observed in the nJCH HMBC cross peak. Through a double editing procedure this enables straightforward determination of both sign and magnitude of n+1JHH, including for very small coupling constants. Excellent results were obtained for the natural product...

  17. US production of natural gas from tight reservoirs

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1993-10-18

    For the purposes of this report, tight gas reservoirs are defined as those that meet the Federal Energy Regulatory Commission`s (FERC) definition of tight. They are generally characterized by an average reservoir rock permeability to gas of 0.1 millidarcy or less and, absent artificial stimulation of production, by production rates that do not exceed 5 barrels of oil per day and certain specified daily volumes of gas which increase with the depth of the reservoir. All of the statistics presented in this report pertain to wells that have been classified, from 1978 through 1991, as tight according to the FERC; i.e., they are ``legally tight`` reservoirs. Additional production from ``geologically tight`` reservoirs that have not been classified tight according to the FERC rules has been excluded. This category includes all producing wells drilled into legally designated tight gas reservoirs prior to 1978 and all producing wells drilled into physically tight gas reservoirs that have not been designated legally tight. Therefore, all gas production referenced herein is eligible for the Section 29 tax credit. Although the qualification period for the credit expired at the end of 1992, wells that were spudded (began to be drilled) between 1978 and May 1988, and from November 5, 1990, through year end 1992, are eligible for the tax credit for a subsequent period of 10 years. This report updates the EIA`s tight gas production information through 1991 and considers further the history and effect on tight gas production of the Federal Government`s regulatory and tax policy actions. It also provides some high points of the geologic background needed to understand the nature and location of low-permeability reservoirs.

  18. Total Synthesis of Natural Products Using Hypervalent Iodine Reagents

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maertens, Gaetan; L'homme, Chloe; Canesi, Sylvain

    2014-12-01

    We present a review of natural product syntheses accomplished in our laboratory during the last five years. Each synthetic route features a phenol dearomatization promoted by an environmentally benign hypervalent iodine reagent. The dearomatizations demonstrate the “aromatic ring umpolung” concept, and involve stereoselective remodeling of the inert unsaturations of a phenol into a highly functionalized key intermediate that may contain a quaternary carbon center and a prochiral dienone system. Several new oxidative strategies were employed, including transpositions (1,3-alkyl shift and Prins-pinacol), a polycyclization, an ipso rearrangement, and direct nucleophilic additions at the phenol para position. Several alkaloids, heterocyclic compounds, and a polycyclic core have been achieved, including sceletenone (a serotonin reuptake inhibitor), acetylaspidoalbidine (an antitumor agent), fortucine (antiviral and antitumor), erysotramidine (curare-like effect), platensimycin (an antibiotic), and the main core of a kaurane diterpene (immunosuppressive agent and stimulator of apoptosis). These concise and in some cases enantioselective syntheses effectively demonstrate the importance of hypervalent iodine reagents in the total synthesis of bioactive natural products.

  19. Total Synthesis of Natural Products Using Hypervalent Iodine Reagents

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gaetan eMaertens

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available We present a review of natural product syntheses accomplished in our laboratory during the last five years. Each synthetic route features a phenol dearomatization promoted by an environmentally benign hypervalent iodine reagent. The dearomatizations demonstrate the aromatic ring umpolung concept, and involve stereoselective remodeling of the inert unsaturations of a phenol into a highly functionalized key intermediate that may contain a quaternary carbon center and a prochiral dienone system. Several new oxidative strategies were employed, including transpositions (1,3-alkyl shift and Prins-pinacol, a polycyclization, an ipso rearrangement, and direct nucleophilic additions at the phenol para position. Several alkaloids, heterocyclic compounds, and a polycyclic core have been achieved, including sceletenone (a serotonin reuptake inhibitor, acetylaspidoalbidine (an antitumor agent, fortucine (antiviral and antitumor, erysotramidine (curare-like effect, platensimycin (an antibiotic, and the main core of a kaurane diterpene (immunosuppressive agent and stimulator of apoptosis. These concise and in some cases enantioselective syntheses effectively demonstrate the importance of hypervalent iodine reagents in the total synthesis of bioactive natural products.

  20. Paraptosis in the anti-cancer arsenal of natural products.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Dongjoo; Kim, In Young; Saha, Sharmistha; Choi, Kyeong Sook

    2016-06-01

    Given the problems with malignant cancer cells showing innate and acquired resistance to apoptosis, we need alternative means to induce cell death in cancer. Paraptosis is a type of programmed cell death that is characterized by dilation of the endoplasmic reticulum (ER) and/or mitochondria. Although relatively little is known regarding the molecular basis of paraptosis, the underlying mechanism clearly differs from that of apoptosis. Recent studies have shown that various natural products, including curcumin, celastrol, 15d-PGJ2, ophiobolin A, and paclitaxel, demonstrate anti-cancer effects by inducing the paraptosis-associated cell death, which was commonly characterized by vacuolation derived from the ER. Perturbation of cellular proteostasis due to proteasomal inhibition and disruption of sulfhydryl homeostasis, generation of reactive oxygen species, and/or imbalanced homeostasis of ions (e.g., Ca(2+) and K(+)) appear to contribute to the accumulation of misfolded protein and proteotoxicity in this process. Given the pathophysiological importance of paraptosis and the debate regarding the importance of apoptosis in solid tumor, we need to collect the available knowledge regarding paraptosis and suggest future directions in the field. Here, we review the morphological and biochemical features of paraptosis, the natural products that induce paraptosis-associated cell death, their proposed mechanisms, and the significance of paraptosis as a potential anti-cancer strategy. Such work and future clarifications should enable the development of new strategies for preventing cancer and/or combating malignant cancer.

  1. Systems biology approaches to understand natural products biosynthesis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cuauhtemoc eLicona-Cassani

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Actinomycetes populate soils and aquatic sediments which impose biotic and abiotic challenges for their survival. As a result, actinomycetes metabolism and genomes have evolved to produce an overwhelming diversity of specialized molecules. Polyketides, non-ribosomal peptides, post-translationally modified peptides, lactams and terpenes are well known bioactive natural products with enormous industrial potential. Accessing such biological diversity has proven difficult due to the complex regulation of cellular metabolism in actinomycetes and to the sparse knowledge of their physiology. The past decade, however, has seen the development of omics technologies that have significantly contributed to our better understanding of their biology. Key observations have contributed towards a shift in the exploitation of actinomycetes biology, such as using their full genomic potential, activating entire pathways through key metabolic elicitors and pathway engineering to improve biosynthesis. Here, we review recent efforts devoted to achieving enhanced discovery, activation and manipulation of natural product biosynthetic pathways in model actinomycetes using genome-scale biological datasets.

  2. Diverse Natural Products from Dichlorocyclobutanones: An Evolutionary Tale.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Deprés, Jean-Pierre; Delair, Philippe; Poisson, Jean-François; Kanazawa, Alice; Greene, Andrew E

    2016-02-16

    11-Nor PGE2 was prepared in our laboratory several years ago and used to obtain the corresponding ring-expanded γ-butyrolactam, γ-butyrolactone, and cyclopentanone derivatives. The conversion of a cyclobutanone into a cyclopentanone had relatively little precedent and merited further study. It was soon found that the presence of a single chlorine adjacent to the carbonyl not only greatly accelerated the reaction with ethereal diazomethane, but also substantially enhanced its regioselectivity; not surprisingly, a second chlorine further increased both. The confluence of this finding and the discovery by Krepski and Hassner that the presence of phosphorus oxychloride significantly improved the Zn-mediated dehalogenation procedure for the preparation of α,α-dichlorocyclobutanones from olefins provided the starting point for decades' worth of exciting adventures in natural product synthesis. A wide variety of naturally occurring 5-membered carbocycles (e.g., hirsutanes, cuparenones, bakkanes, guaianolides, azulenes) could thus be prepared by using dichloroketene-olefin cycloaddition, followed by regioselective one-carbon ring expansion with diazomethane. Importantly, it was also found that natural γ-butyrolactones (e.g., β-oxygenated γ-butyrolactones, lactone fatty acids) could be secured through regioselective Baeyer-Villiger oxidation of cycloadducts with m-CPBA and that naturally occurring γ-butyrolactam derivatives (e.g., amino acids, pyrrolidines, pyrrolizidines, indolizidines) could be efficiently obtained by regioselective Beckmann ring expansion of the adducts with O-(mesitylenesulfonyl)hydroxylamine (Tamura's reagent). These 5-membered carbocycles, γ-butyrolactones, and γ-butyrolactam derivatives were generally secured in enantiopure form through the use of either intrinsically chiral olefins or olefins bearing Stericol, a highly effective chiral auxiliary developed specifically for this "three-atom olefin annelation" approach. In addition

  3. Lichen symbiosis: nature's high yielding machines for induced hydrogen production.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Papazi, Aikaterini; Kastanaki, Elizabeth; Pirintsos, Stergios; Kotzabasis, Kiriakos

    2015-01-01

    Hydrogen is a promising future energy source. Although the ability of green algae to produce hydrogen has long been recognized (since 1939) and several biotechnological applications have been attempted, the greatest obstacle, being the O2-sensitivity of the hydrogenase enzyme, has not yet been overcome. In the present contribution, 75 years after the first report on algal hydrogen production, taking advantage of a natural mechanism of oxygen balance, we demonstrate high hydrogen yields by lichens. Lichens have been selected as the ideal organisms in nature for hydrogen production, since they consist of a mycobiont and a photobiont in symbiosis. It has been hypothesized that the mycobiont's and photobiont's consumption of oxygen (increase of COX and AOX proteins of mitochondrial respiratory pathways and PTOX protein of chrolorespiration) establishes the required anoxic conditions for the activation of the phycobiont's hydrogenase in a closed system. Our results clearly supported the above hypothesis, showing that lichens have the ability to activate appropriate bioenergetic pathways depending on the specific incubation conditions. Under light conditions, they successfully use the PSII-dependent and the PSII-independent pathways (decrease of D1 protein and parallel increase of PSaA protein) to transfer electrons to hydrogenase, while under dark conditions, lichens use the PFOR enzyme and the dark fermentative pathway to supply electrons to hydrogenase. These advantages of lichen symbiosis in combination with their ability to survive in extreme environments (while in a dry state) constitute them as unique and valuable hydrogen producing natural factories and pave the way for future biotechnological applications.

  4. Lichen symbiosis: nature's high yielding machines for induced hydrogen production.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Aikaterini Papazi

    Full Text Available Hydrogen is a promising future energy source. Although the ability of green algae to produce hydrogen has long been recognized (since 1939 and several biotechnological applications have been attempted, the greatest obstacle, being the O2-sensitivity of the hydrogenase enzyme, has not yet been overcome. In the present contribution, 75 years after the first report on algal hydrogen production, taking advantage of a natural mechanism of oxygen balance, we demonstrate high hydrogen yields by lichens. Lichens have been selected as the ideal organisms in nature for hydrogen production, since they consist of a mycobiont and a photobiont in symbiosis. It has been hypothesized that the mycobiont's and photobiont's consumption of oxygen (increase of COX and AOX proteins of mitochondrial respiratory pathways and PTOX protein of chrolorespiration establishes the required anoxic conditions for the activation of the phycobiont's hydrogenase in a closed system. Our results clearly supported the above hypothesis, showing that lichens have the ability to activate appropriate bioenergetic pathways depending on the specific incubation conditions. Under light conditions, they successfully use the PSII-dependent and the PSII-independent pathways (decrease of D1 protein and parallel increase of PSaA protein to transfer electrons to hydrogenase, while under dark conditions, lichens use the PFOR enzyme and the dark fermentative pathway to supply electrons to hydrogenase. These advantages of lichen symbiosis in combination with their ability to survive in extreme environments (while in a dry state constitute them as unique and valuable hydrogen producing natural factories and pave the way for future biotechnological applications.

  5. Production of substitute natural gas by biomass hydrogasification

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mozaffarian, M.; Zwart, R.W.R. [ECN Biomass, Petten (Netherlands)

    2000-11-01

    Hydrogen, generated from renewable sources, is likely to play a major role in the future energy supply. The storage and transport of hydrogen can take place in its free form (H2), or chemically bound, e.g. as methane. However, the storage and transport of hydrogen in its free form are more complex, and probably would require more energy than the storage and transport of hydrogen in chemical form. An additional important advantage of the indirect use of hydrogen as energy carrier is, that in the future renewable energy supply, pads of the existing large-scale energy infra- structure could still be used. Production of Substitute Natural Gas (SNG) by biomass hydrogasification has been assessed as a process for chemical storage of hydrogen. Thermodynamic analysis has shown the feasibility of this process. The product gas of the process has a Wobbe-index, a mole percentage methane, and a calorific value quite comparable to the quality of the Dutch natural gas. With a hydrogen content below 10 mol%, the produced SNG can be transported through the existing gas net without any additional adjustment. The integrated system has an energetic efficiency of 81% (LHV). In the long term, the required hydrogen for this process can be produced by water electrolysis, with electricity from renewable sources. In the short term, hydrogen may be obtained from hydrogen-rich gases available as by-product from industrial processes. Results of thermodynamic analysis of the process and experimental work, application potentials of the process in the Netherlands, and plans for future development are presented. 21 refs.

  6. Natural Product Research in the Australian Marine Invertebrate Dicathais orbita

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kirsten Benkendorff

    2013-04-01

    Full Text Available The predatory marine gastropod Dicathais orbita has been the subject of a significant amount of biological and chemical research over the past five decades. Natural products research on D. orbita includes the isolation and identification of brominated indoles and choline esters as precursors of Tyrian purple, as well as the synthesis of structural analogues, bioactivity testing, biodistributional and biosynthetic studies. Here I also report on how well these compounds conform to Lipinski’s rule of five for druglikeness and their predicted receptor binding and enzyme inhibitor activity. The composition of mycosporine-like amino acids, fatty acids and sterols has also been described in the egg masses of D. orbita. The combination of bioactive compounds produced by D. orbita is of interest for further studies in chemical ecology, as well as for future nutraceutical development. Biological insights into the life history of this species, as well as ongoing research on the gene expression, microbial symbionts and biosynthetic capabilities, should facilitate sustainable production of the bioactive compounds. Knowledge of the phylogeny of D. orbita provides an excellent platform for novel research into the evolution of brominated secondary metabolites in marine molluscs. The range of polarities in the brominated indoles produced by D. orbita has also provided an effective model system used to develop a new method for biodistributional studies. The well characterized suite of chemical reactions that generate Tyrian purple, coupled with an in depth knowledge of the ecology, anatomy and genetics of D. orbita provide a good foundation for ongoing natural products research.

  7. NATURAL ANTIOXIDANT INGREDIENT FROM BY-PRODUCTS OF FRUITS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    G. S. El-Baroty

    2014-01-01

    used safely in the edible oil industry and cosmetics to delay its oxidation. It can be applied in other food industries as a natural antioxidant instead of synthetic antioxidants. Further study should be carried out to identify the predominant phenolics responsible for the antioxidant activity of by product extracts.

  8. Occurrence of aflatoxin B1 in natural products

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Guilherme Prado

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available The media claims for the consumption of natural resource-based food have gradually increased in both developing and developed countries. The interest in the safety of these products is partially due to the possible presence of toxigenic fungi acting as mycotoxin producers, such as aflatoxins produced during the secondary metabolism of Aspergillus flavus, A. parasiticus and A. nomius. Aflatoxins, mainly aflatoxin B1, are directly associated with liver cancer in human beings. This paper is aimed at evaluating the presence of aflatoxin B1 in a few vegetable drugs, dried plant extracts and industrialized products traded in 2010 in the city of Belo Horizonte, State of Minas Gerais, Brazil. The method used for the quantification of aflatoxin B1 was based on extraction through acetone:water (85:15, immunoaffinity column purification followed by separation and detection in high efficiency liquid chromatography. Under the conditions of analysis, the Limits of Detection and Quantification were 0.6 µg kg-1 and 1.0 µg kg-1respectively. The complete sets of analyses were carried out in duplicate. Aflatoxin B1 was noticed in a single sample (< 1.0 µg kg-1. The results revealed low aflatoxin B1contamination in the products under analysis. However, it is required to establish a broad monitoring program in order to obtain additional data and check up on the actual extension of contamination.

  9. Synthetic biology for production of natural and new-to-nature terpenoids in photosynthetic organisms.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arendt, Philipp; Pollier, Jacob; Callewaert, Nico; Goossens, Alain

    2016-07-01

    With tens of thousands of characterized members, terpenoids constitute the largest class of natural compounds that are synthesized by all living organisms. Several terpenoids play primary roles in the maintenance of cell membrane fluidity, as pigments or as phytohormones, but most of them function as specialized metabolites that are involved in plant resistance to herbivores or plant-environment interactions. Terpenoids are an essential component of human nutrition, and many are economically important pharmaceuticals, aromatics and potential next-generation biofuels. Because of the often low abundance in their natural source, as well as the demand for novel terpenoid structures with new or improved bioactivities, terpenoid biosynthesis has become a prime target for metabolic engineering and synthetic biology projects. In this review we focus on the creation of new-to-nature or tailor-made plant-derived terpenoids in photosynthetic organisms, in particular by means of combinatorial biosynthesis and the activation of silent metabolism. We reflect on the characteristics of different potential photosynthetic host organisms and recent advances in synthetic biology and discuss their utility for the (heterologous) production of (novel) terpenoids.

  10. Natural gas productive capacity for the lower 48 states 1985 through 1997

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1996-12-01

    This publication presents information on wellhead productive capacity and a projection of gas production requirements. A history of natural gas production and productive capacity at the wellhead, along with a projection of the same, is illustrated.

  11. From retrospective assessment to prospective decisions in natural product isolation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Johansen, Kenneth T; Wubshet, Sileshi G; Nyberg, Nils T;

    2011-01-01

    An extract of Carthamus oxyacantha (wild safflower) was investigated using two approaches: a traditional, nontarget fractionation by VLC and HPLC, and the hyphenated technique HPLC-PDA-HRMS-SPE-NMR followed by targeted isolation of selected constituents for inclusion in a screening library of pure...... natural products. While the nontarget fractionation involved considerable time spent on pursuing fractions containing well-known or undesired compounds, the hyphenated analysis was considerably faster and required less solvent and other consumables. The results were used to design and execute an optimized......, HPLC-HRMS-guided, targeted isolation scheme aiming exclusively at a series of identified spiro compounds. Thus, HPLC-PDA-HRMS-SPE-NMR is a dereplication technique of choice, allowing economical acquisition of comprehensive data about compounds in crude extracts, which can be used for rational...

  12. Natural products in medicine: transformational outcome of synthetic chemistry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Szychowski, Janek; Truchon, Jean-François; Bennani, Youssef L

    2014-11-26

    This review brings to the forefront key synthetic modifications on natural products (NPs) that have yielded successful drugs. The emphasis is placed on the power of targeted chemical transformations in enhancing the therapeutic value of NPs through optimization of pharmacokinetics, stability, potency, and/or selectivity. Multiple classes of NPs such as macrolides, opioids, steroids, and β-lactams used to treat a variety of conditions such as cancers, infections, inflammation are exemplified. Molecular modeling or X-ray structures of NP/protein complexes supporting the observed boost in therapeutic value of the modified NPs are also discussed. Significant advancement in synthetic chemistry, in structure determination, and in the understanding of factors controlling pharmacokinetics can now better position drug discovery teams to undertake NPs as valuable leads. We hope that the beneficial NPs synthetic modifications outlined here will reignite medicinal chemists' interest in NPs and their derivatives.

  13. Structure Determination of Natural Products by Nuclear Magnetic Resonance Spectroscopy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Du.

    High-field NMR experiments were used to determine the full structures of six new natural products extracted from plants. These are: four saponins (PT-2, P1, P2 and P3) from the plant Alphitonia zizyphoides found in Samoa; one sesquiterpene (DF-4) from Douglas fir and one diterpene derivative (E-2) from a Chinese medicinal herb. By concerted use of various 1D and 2D NMR techniques, the structures of the above compounds were established and complete resonance assignments were achieved. The 2D INADEQUATE technique coupled with a computerized spectral analysis was extensively used. When carried out on concentrations as low as 60 mg of sample, this technique provided absolute confirmation of the assignments for 35 of the possible 53 C-C bonds for PT-2. On 30 mg of sample of E-21, it revealed 22 of 28 possible C-C bonds.

  14. Inhibitors of Microglial Neurotoxicity: Focus on Natural Products

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kyoungho Suk

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Microglial cells play a dual role in the central nervous system as they have both neurotoxic and neuroprotective effects. Uncontrolled and excessive activation of microglia often contributes to inflammation-mediated neurodegeneration. Recently, much attention has been paid to therapeutic strategies aimed at inhibiting neurotoxic microglial activation. Pharmacological inhibitors of microglial activation are emerging as a result of such endeavors. In this review, natural products-based inhibitors of microglial activation will be reviewed. Potential neuroprotective activity of these compounds will also be discussed. Future works should focus on the discovery of novel drug targets that specifically mediate microglial neurotoxicity rather than neuroprotection. Development of new drugs based on these targets may require a better understanding of microglial biology and neuroinflammation at the molecular, cellular, and systems levels.

  15. Marine Natural Products from New Caledonia—A Review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sofia-Eléna Motuhi

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available Marine micro- and macroorganisms are well known to produce metabolites with high biotechnological potential. Nearly 40 years of systematic prospecting all around the New Caledonia archipelago and several successive research programs have uncovered new chemical leads from benthic and planktonic organisms. After species identification, biological and/or pharmaceutical analyses are performed on marine organisms to assess their bioactivities. A total of 3582 genera, 1107 families and 9372 species have been surveyed and more than 350 novel molecular structures have been identified. Along with their bioactivities that hold promise for therapeutic applications, most of these molecules are also potentially useful for cosmetics and food biotechnology. This review highlights the tremendous marine diversity in New Caledonia, and offers an outline of the vast possibilities for natural products, especially in the interest of pursuing collaborative fundamental research programs and developing local biotechnology programs.

  16. Marine Natural Products from New Caledonia--A Review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Motuhi, Sofia-Eléna; Mehiri, Mohamed; Payri, Claude Elisabeth; La Barre, Stéphane; Bach, Stéphane

    2016-03-16

    Marine micro- and macroorganisms are well known to produce metabolites with high biotechnological potential. Nearly 40 years of systematic prospecting all around the New Caledonia archipelago and several successive research programs have uncovered new chemical leads from benthic and planktonic organisms. After species identification, biological and/or pharmaceutical analyses are performed on marine organisms to assess their bioactivities. A total of 3582 genera, 1107 families and 9372 species have been surveyed and more than 350 novel molecular structures have been identified. Along with their bioactivities that hold promise for therapeutic applications, most of these molecules are also potentially useful for cosmetics and food biotechnology. This review highlights the tremendous marine diversity in New Caledonia, and offers an outline of the vast possibilities for natural products, especially in the interest of pursuing collaborative fundamental research programs and developing local biotechnology programs.

  17. Deoxygedunin, a natural product with potent neurotrophic activity in mice.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sung-Wuk Jang

    Full Text Available Gedunin, a family of natural products from the Indian neem tree, possess a variety of biological activities. Here we report the discovery of deoxygedunin, which activates the mouse TrkB receptor and its downstream signaling cascades. Deoxygedunin is orally available and activates TrkB in mouse brain in a BDNF-independent way. Strikingly, it prevents the degeneration of vestibular ganglion in BDNF -/- pups. Moreover, deoxygedunin robustly protects rat neurons from cell death in a TrkB-dependent manner. Further, administration of deoxygedunin into mice displays potent neuroprotective, anti-depressant and learning enhancement effects, all of which are mediated by the TrkB receptor. Hence, deoxygedunin imitates BDNF's biological activities through activating TrkB, providing a powerful therapeutic tool for treatment of various neurological diseases.

  18. Interactive association between biopolymers and biofunctions in carinata seeds as energy feedstock and their coproducts (carinata meal) from biofuel and bio-oil processing before and after biodegradation: current advanced molecular spectroscopic investigations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yu, Peiqiang; Xin, Hangshu; Ban, Yajing; Zhang, Xuewei

    2014-05-07

    Recent advances in biofuel and bio-oil processing technology require huge supplies of energy feedstocks for processing. Very recently, new carinata seeds have been developed as energy feedstocks for biofuel and bio-oil production. The processing results in a large amount of coproducts, which are carinata meal. To date, there is no systematic study on interactive association between biopolymers and biofunctions in carinata seed as energy feedstocks for biofuel and bioethanol processing and their processing coproducts (carinata meal). Molecular spectroscopy with synchrotron and globar sources is a rapid and noninvasive analytical technique and is able to investigate molecular structure conformation in relation to biopolymer functions and bioavailability. However, to date, these techniques are seldom used in biofuel and bioethanol processing in other research laboratories. This paper aims to provide research progress and updates with molecular spectroscopy on the energy feedstock (carinata seed) and coproducts (carinata meal) from biofuel and bioethanol processing and show how to use these molecular techniques to study the interactive association between biopolymers and biofunctions in the energy feedstocks and their coproducts (carinata meal) from biofuel and bio-oil processing before and after biodegradation.

  19. Temperature effects on fish production across a natural thermal gradient.

    Science.gov (United States)

    O'Gorman, Eoin J; Ólafsson, Ólafur P; Demars, Benoît O L; Friberg, Nikolai; Guðbergsson, Guðni; Hannesdóttir, Elísabet R; Jackson, Michelle C; Johansson, Liselotte S; McLaughlin, Órla B; Ólafsson, Jón S; Woodward, Guy; Gíslason, Gísli M

    2016-09-01

    Global warming is widely predicted to reduce the biomass production of top predators, or even result in species loss. Several exceptions to this expectation have been identified, however, and it is vital that we understand the underlying mechanisms if we are to improve our ability to predict future trends. Here, we used a natural warming experiment in Iceland and quantitative theoretical predictions to investigate the success of brown trout as top predators across a stream temperature gradient (4-25 °C). Brown trout are at the northern limit of their geographic distribution in this system, with ambient stream temperatures below their optimum for maximal growth, and above it in the warmest streams. A five-month mark-recapture study revealed that population abundance, biomass, growth rate, and production of trout all increased with stream temperature. We identified two mechanisms that contributed to these responses: (1) trout became more selective in their diet as stream temperature increased, feeding higher in the food web and increasing in trophic position; and (2) trophic transfer through the food web was more efficient in the warmer streams. We found little evidence to support a third potential mechanism: that external subsidies would play a more important role in the diet of trout with increasing stream temperature. Resource availability was also amplified through the trophic levels with warming, as predicted by metabolic theory in nutrient-replete systems. These results highlight circumstances in which top predators can thrive in warmer environments and contribute to our knowledge of warming impacts on natural communities and ecosystem functioning.

  20. New natural product carbonic anhydrase inhibitors incorporating phenol moieties.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Karioti, Anastasia; Ceruso, Mariangela; Carta, Fabrizio; Bilia, Anna-Rita; Supuran, Claudiu T

    2015-11-15

    Carbonic anhydrases (CAs, EC 4.2.1.1) catalyze the fundamental reaction of CO2 hydration in all living organisms, being actively involved in the regulation of a plethora of patho/physiological conditions. They represent a typical example of enzyme convergent evolution, as six genetically unrelated families of such enzymes were described so far. The need to find selective CA inhibitors (CAIs) triggered the investigation of natural product libraries, which proved to be a valid source of agents with such an activity, as demonstrated for the phenols, polyamines and coumarins. Herein we report an in vitro inhibition study of human (h) CA isoforms hCAs I, II, IV, VII and XII with a panel of natural polyphenols including flavones, flavonols, flavanones, flavanols, isoflavones and depsides, some of which extracted from Quercus ilex and Salvia miltiorrhiza. Several of the investigated derivatives showed interesting inhibition activity and selectivities for inhibiting some important isoforms over the off-target ones hCA I and II.

  1. Role of Antioxidants and Natural Products in Inflammation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Palanisamy Arulselvan

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Inflammation is a comprehensive array of physiological response to a foreign organism, including human pathogens, dust particles, and viruses. Inflammations are mainly divided into acute and chronic inflammation depending on various inflammatory processes and cellular mechanisms. Recent investigations have clarified that inflammation is a major factor for the progression of various chronic diseases/disorders, including diabetes, cancer, cardiovascular diseases, eye disorders, arthritis, obesity, autoimmune diseases, and inflammatory bowel disease. Free radical productions from different biological and environmental sources are due to an imbalance of natural antioxidants which further leads to various inflammatory associated diseases. In this review article, we have outlined the inflammatory process and its cellular mechanisms involved in the progression of various chronic modern human diseases. In addition, we have discussed the role of free radicals-induced tissue damage, antioxidant defence, and molecular mechanisms in chronic inflammatory diseases/disorders. The systematic knowledge regarding the role of inflammation and its associated adverse effects can provide a clear understanding in the development of innovative therapeutic targets from natural sources that are intended for suppression of various chronic inflammations associated diseases.

  2. Cameroonian medicinal plants: Pharmacology and derived natural products

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Thomas Efferth

    2010-10-01

    Full Text Available Many developing countries including Cameroon have mortality patterns that reflect high levels of infectious diseases and the risk of death during pregnancy and childbirth, in addition to cancers, cardiovascular diseases and chronic respiratory diseases that account for most deaths in the developed world. Several medicinal plants are used traditionally for their treatment. In this review, plants used in Cameroonian traditional medicine with evidence for the activities of their crude extracts and/or derived products have been discussed. A considerable number of plant extracts and isolated compounds possess significant antimicrobial, antiparasitic including anti-malarial, anti-proliferative, anti-inflammatory, anti-diabetes, and antioxidant effects. Most of the biologically active compounds belong to terpenoids, phenolics and alkaloids. Terpenoids from Cameroonian plants showed best activities as anti-parasitic, but rather poor antimicrobial effects. The best antimicrobial, anti-proliferative and antioxidant compounds were phenolics. In conclusion, many medicinal plants traditionally used in Cameroon to treat various ailments displayed good activities in vitro. This explains the endeavor of Cameroonian research institutes in drug discovery from indigenous medicinal plants. However, much work is still to be done to standardize methodologies and to study the mechanisms of action of isolated natural products.

  3. Toxic element contamination of natural health products and pharmaceutical preparations.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Stephen J Genuis

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Concern has recently emerged regarding the safety of natural health products (NHPs-therapies that are increasingly recommended by various health providers, including conventional physicians. Recognizing that most individuals in the Western world now consume vitamins and many take herbal agents, this study endeavored to determine levels of toxic element contamination within a range of NHPs. METHODS: Toxic element testing was performed on 121 NHPs (including Ayurvedic, traditional Chinese, and various marine-source products as well as 49 routinely prescribed pharmaceutical preparations. Testing was also performed on several batches of one prenatal supplement, with multiple samples tested within each batch. Results were compared to existing toxicant regulatory limits. RESULTS: Toxic element contamination was found in many supplements and pharmaceuticals; levels exceeding established limits were only found in a small percentage of the NHPs tested and none of the drugs tested. Some NHPs demonstrated contamination levels above preferred daily endpoints for mercury, cadmium, lead, arsenic or aluminum. NHPs manufactured in China generally had higher levels of mercury and aluminum. CONCLUSIONS: Exposure to toxic elements is occurring regularly as a result of some contaminated NHPs. Best practices for quality control-developed and implemented by the NHP industry with government oversight-is recommended to guard the safety of unsuspecting consumers.

  4. In vitro study of natural plant products against oral bacteria

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Siddiqui R; Siti AsmaH; Tang L; Jie CC; Rosliza AR; Roziawati Y

    2009-01-01

    Objective:To analyze the effect of selected plant product against several bacterial which commonly causes oral infection.It was hope that in future,this product will become the remedy for treatment of oral infection and with the hope that it can substitute antibiotics.Methods:A total of 5 species of oral bacteria from American Type Culture Collection (ATCC)were employed in this study(S.mutans,S.aureus,P.aeruginosa,S.sobri-nus and L.salivarius).Three types of natural plants crude extracts were used (garlic,curry leaves and cloves).Bactericidal and bacteriostatic effects of these herbs were tested.Results:It was shown garlic had an-tibacterial effects on all bacteria.The Minimal Inhibitory Concentration (MIC in g/mL)of garlic towards S. aureus,P.aeruginosa,S.mutans,S.sobrinus and L.salivarius were 0.3,1.8,1.2,0.5 and 1.8,respectively. There was significant difference among the MIC of garlic on tested bacteria.It was more potent toward S.au-reus.The curry leaf solution on the other hand,did not show any zone of inhibition in all bacteria plates but adversely showed enhanced growth of those bacteria.Clove had shown its antibacterial effects on S.aureus and P.aeruginosa.The clove was more potent toward S.aureus with the MIC of 0.45 g/mL.P.aeruginosa was more sensitive to clove compared to garlic.For S.aureus,it was more sensitive to garlic compared to clove. Conclusion:The antibacterial activity of garlic and clove crude extracts shown in our study further confirm these natural plants'potential usage in therapeutic use for oral diseases or infections.This could be the platform for the interested party to do research and development on it and to produce oral health products which are more affordable for lower economic income groups and with fewer side effects as seen in synthetic drug.

  5. Strategies for the discovery of new natural products by genome mining.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zerikly, Malek; Challis, Gregory L

    2009-03-02

    Natural products have a very broad spectrum of applications. Many natural products are used clinically as antibacterial, antifungal, antiparasitic, anticancer and immunosuppressive agents and are therefore of utmost importance for our society. When in the 1940s the golden age of antibiotics was ushered in, a "gold rush fever" of natural product discovery in the pharmaceutical industry ensued for many decades. However, the traditional process of discovering new bioactive natural products is generally long and laborious, and known natural products are frequently rediscovered. A mass-withdrawal of pharmaceutical companies from new natural product discovery and natural products research has thus occurred in recent years. In this article, the concept of genome mining for novel natural product discovery, which promises to provide a myriad of new bioactive natural compounds, is summarized and discussed. Genome mining for new natural product discovery exploits the huge and constantly increasing quantity of DNA sequence data from a wide variety of organisms that is accumulating in publicly accessible databases. Genes encoding enzymes likely to be involved in natural product biosynthesis can be readily located in sequenced genomes by use of computational sequence comparison tools. This information can be exploited in a variety of ways in the search for new bioactive natural products.

  6. Improvement of the bio-functional properties of TiO2 nanotubes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roguska, A.; Pisarek, M.; Belcarz, A.; Marcon, L.; Holdynski, M.; Andrzejczuk, M.; Janik-Czachor, M.

    2016-12-01

    Titanium oxide nanotubes with diameters from ca. 40-120 nm fabricated by the anodic oxidation of Ti at a constant voltage (10-28 V) were investigated to identify factors improving their bio-functional properties. Prepared substrates were subsequently annealed at 450 °C and 650 °C to obtain nanotubes having a crystalline structure, and were then examined by SEM, XRD, XPS, BET and contact angle measurement techniques. The thermally stabilized surfaces were subjected to bidirectional functionalization: by deposition of a thin layer of Ca-P and by loading with silver nanoparticles. Three factors were found to promote the proliferation of osteoblast (U2OS) cells: a larger nanotube diameter, a higher annealing temperature, and the presence of a thin Ca-P layer. Differentiation of these cells (by ALP test) was stimulated by a higher (650 °C) nanotube annealing temperature, but not by a thin Ca-P layer. The TiO2 nanotubes-modified samples exhibited noticeable antibacterial properties. Moreover, the additional deposition of Ag nanoparticles almost completely inhibited the survivability of S. epidermidis cells beyond 3 h of contact. In conclusion, TiO2 nanotubes-modified surfaces exhibit distinct bone forming ability and significant antibacterial properties, and can be easily functionalized by a thin Ca-P layer or nano-Ag deposition for further improvement of the above functionalities.

  7. Combining biofunctional magnetic nanoparticles and ATP bioluminescence for rapid detection of Escherichia coli.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cheng, Yuxiao; Liu, Yajun; Huang, Jingjing; Li, Kang; Zhang, Wen; Xian, Yuezhong; Jin, Litong

    2009-02-15

    A rapid, specific and sensitive method for assay of Escherichia coli (E. coli) using biofunctional magnetic nanoparticles (BMNPs) in combination with adenosine triphosphate (ATP) bioluminescence was proposed. The BMNPs were fabricated by immobilizing a specific anti-E. coli antibody on the surface of amine-functionalized magnetic nanoparticles (about 20nm in diameter), and then was applied to capture the target bacteria E. coli from samples. The BMNPs exhibited high capture efficiency to E. coli. Transmission electron microscope (TEM) images showed that the BMNPs were bound to the surface of entire E. coli cells. The target bacteria became magnetic so that could be isolated easily from the sample solution by employing an external magnetic field. The concentration of E. coli captured by the BMNPs was then detected by an ATP bioluminescence method. The optimization of ATP measurement was carried out to improve the detection sensitivity. The proposed method was applied to detect the E. coli inoculated into pasteurized milk with low detection limit (20 cfu/mL) and short detection time (about 1h).

  8. Effect of PEG biofunctional spacers and TAT peptide on dsRNA loading on gold nanoparticles

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sanz, Vanesa; Conde, Joao; Hernandez, Yulan [Universidad de Zaragoza, Instituto de Nanociencia de Aragon (Spain); Baptista, Pedro V. [Universidade Nova de Lisboa, Departamento de Ciencias da Vida, Faculdade de Ciencias e Tecnologia, Centro de Investigacao em Genetica Molecular Humana (Portugal); Ibarra, M. R.; Fuente, Jesus M. de la, E-mail: jmfuente@unizar.es [Universidad de Zaragoza, Instituto de Nanociencia de Aragon (Spain)

    2012-06-15

    The surface chemistry of gold nanoparticles (AuNPs) plays a critical role in the self-assembly of thiolated molecules and in retaining the biological function of the conjugated biomolecules. According to the well-established gold-thiol interaction the undefined ionic species on citrate-reduced gold nanoparticle surface can be replaced with a self-assembled monolayer of certain thiolate derivatives and other biomolecules. Understanding the effect of such derivatives in the functionalization of several types of biomolecules, such as PEGs, peptides or nucleic acids, has become a significant challenge. Here, an approach to attach specific biomolecules to the AuNPs ({approx}14 nm) surface is presented together with a study of their effect in the functionalization with other specific derivatives. The effect of biofunctional spacers such as thiolated poly(ethylene glycol) (PEG) chains and a positive peptide, TAT, in dsRNA loading on AuNPs is reported. Based on the obtained data, we hypothesize that loading of oligonucleotides onto the AuNP surface may be controlled by ionic and weak interactions positioning the entry of the oligo through the PEG layer. We demonstrate that there is a synergistic effect of the TAT peptide and PEG chains with specific functional groups on the enhancement of dsRNA loading onto AuNPs.

  9. Effect of PEG biofunctional spacers and TAT peptide on dsRNA loading on gold nanoparticles

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sanz, Vanesa; Conde, João; Hernández, Yulán; Baptista, Pedro V.; Ibarra, M. R.; de la Fuente, Jesús M.

    2012-06-01

    The surface chemistry of gold nanoparticles (AuNPs) plays a critical role in the self-assembly of thiolated molecules and in retaining the biological function of the conjugated biomolecules. According to the well-established gold-thiol interaction the undefined ionic species on citrate-reduced gold nanoparticle surface can be replaced with a self-assembled monolayer of certain thiolate derivatives and other biomolecules. Understanding the effect of such derivatives in the functionalization of several types of biomolecules, such as PEGs, peptides or nucleic acids, has become a significant challenge. Here, an approach to attach specific biomolecules to the AuNPs ( 14 nm) surface is presented together with a study of their effect in the functionalization with other specific derivatives. The effect of biofunctional spacers such as thiolated poly(ethylene glycol) (PEG) chains and a positive peptide, TAT, in dsRNA loading on AuNPs is reported. Based on the obtained data, we hypothesize that loading of oligonucleotides onto the AuNP surface may be controlled by ionic and weak interactions positioning the entry of the oligo through the PEG layer. We demonstrate that there is a synergistic effect of the TAT peptide and PEG chains with specific functional groups on the enhancement of dsRNA loading onto AuNPs.

  10. Nanoscale Topography on Black Titanium Imparts Multi-biofunctional Properties for Orthopedic Applications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hasan, Jafar; Jain, Shubham; Chatterjee, Kaushik

    2017-01-01

    We have developed a chlorine based reactive ion etching process to yield randomly oriented anisotropic nanostructures that render the titanium metal surface ‘black’ similar to that of black silicon. The surface appears black due to the nanostructures in contrast to the conventional shiny surface of titanium. The nanostructures were found to kill bacteria on contact by mechanically rupturing the cells as has been observed previously on wings of certain insects. The etching was optimized to yield nanostructures of ≈1 μm height for maximal bactericidal efficiency without compromising cytocompatibility. Within 4 hours of contact with the black titanium surface, 95% ± 5% of E. coli, 98% ± 2% of P. aeruginosa, 92% ± 5% of M. smegmatis and 22% ± 8% of S. aureus cells that had attached were killed. The killing efficiency for the S. aureus increased to 76% ± 4% when the cells were allowed to adhere up to 24 hours. The black titanium supported the attachment and proliferation of human mesenchymal stem cells and augmented osteogenic lineage commitment in vitro. Thus, the bioinspired nanostructures on black titanium impart multi-biofunctional properties toward engineering the next-generation biomaterials for orthopedic implants. PMID:28112235

  11. Multilayer Nanoscale Encapsulation of Biofunctional Peptides to Enhance Bone Tissue Regeneration In Vivo.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gentile, Piergiorgio; Ferreira, Ana Marina; Callaghan, Jill T; Miller, Cheryl A; Atkinson, Joss; Freeman, Christine; Hatton, Paul V

    2017-02-07

    Bone tissue healing is a dynamic process that is initiated by the recruitment of osteoprogenitor cells followed by their migration, proliferation, differentiation, and development of a mineralizing extracellular matrix. The work aims to manufacture a functionalized porous membrane that stimulates early events in bone healing for initiating a regenerative cascade. Layer-by-layer (LbL) assembly is proposed to modify the surface of osteoconductive electrospun meshes, based on poly(lactic-co-glycolic acid) and nanohydroxyapatite, by using poly(allylamine hydrochloride) and poly(sodium 4-styrenesulfonate) as polyelectrolytes. Molecular cues are incorporated by grafting peptide fragments into the discrete nanolayers. KRSR (lysine-arginine-serine-arginine) sequence is grafted to enhance cell adhesion and proliferation, NSPVNSKIPKACCVPTELSAI to guide bone marrow mesenchymal stem cells differentiation in osteoblasts, and FHRRIKA (phenylalanine-histidine-arginine-arginine-isoleucine-lysine-alanine) to improve mineralization matrix formation. Scanning electron microscopy, infrared spectroscopy, and X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy demonstrate the successful surface functionalization. Furthermore, the peptide incorporation enhances cellular processes, with good viability and significant increase of alkaline phosphatase activity, osteopontin, and osteocalcin. The functionalized membrane induces a favorable in vivo response after implantation for four weeks in nonhealing rat calvarial defect model. It is concluded that the multilayer nanoencapsulation of biofunctional peptides using LbL approach has significant potential as innovative manufacturing technique to improve bone regeneration in orthopedic and craniofacial medical devices.

  12. Effects of bioenergy production on European nature conservation options

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schleupner, C.; Schneider, U. A.

    2009-04-01

    To increase security of energy supply and reduce greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions the European Commission set out a long-term strategy for renewable energy in the European Union (EU). Bioenergy from forestry and agriculture plays a key role for both. Since the last decade a significant increase of biomass energy plantations has been observed in Europe. Concurrently, the EU agreed to halt the loss of biodiversity within its member states. One measure is the Natura2000 network of important nature sites that actually covers about 20% of the EU land surface. However, to fulfil the biodiversity target more nature conservation and restoration sites need to be designated. There are arising concerns that an increased cultivation of bioenergy crops will decrease the land available for nature reserves and for "traditional" agriculture and forestry. In the following the economic and ecological impacts of structural land use changes are demonstrated by two examples. First, a case study of land use changes on the Eiderstedt peninsula in Schleswig-Holstein/Germany evaluates the impacts of grassland conversion into bioenergy plantations under consideration of selected meadow birds. Scenarios indicate not only a quantitative loss of habitats but also a reduction of habitat quality. The second study assesses the role of bioenergy production in light of possible negative impacts on potential wetland conservation sites in Europe. By coupling the spatial wetland distribution model "SWEDI" (cf. SCHLEUPNER 2007) to the European Forest and Agricultural Sector Optimization Model (EUFASOM; cf. SCHNEIDER ET AL. 2008) economic and environmental aspects of land use are evaluated simultaneously. This way the costs and benefits of the appropriate measures and its consequences for agriculture and forestry are investigated. One aim is to find the socially optimal balance between alternative wetland uses by integrating biological benefits - in this case wetlands - and economic opportunities - here

  13. A systematic review of natural health product treatment for vitiligo

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Boon Heather S

    2008-05-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Vitiligo is a hypopigmentation disorder affecting 1 to 4% of the world population. Fifty percent of cases appear before the age of 20 years old, and the disfigurement results in psychiatric morbidity in 16 to 35% of those affected. Methods Our objective was to complete a comprehensive, systematic review of the published scientific literature to identify natural health products (NHP such as vitamins, herbs and other supplements that may have efficacy in the treatment of vitiligo. We searched eight databases including MEDLINE and EMBASE for vitiligo, leucoderma, and various NHP terms. Prospective controlled clinical human trials were identified and assessed for quality. Results Fifteen clinical trials were identified, and organized into four categories based on the NHP used for treatment. 1 L-phenylalanine monotherapy was assessed in one trial, and as an adjuvant to phototherapy in three trials. All reported beneficial effects. 2 Three clinical trials utilized different traditional Chinese medicine products. Although each traditional Chinese medicine trial reported benefit in the active groups, the quality of the trials was poor. 3 Six trials investigated the use of plants in the treatment of vitiligo, four using plants as photosensitizing agents. The studies provide weak evidence that photosensitizing plants can be effective in conjunction with phototherapy, and moderate evidence that Ginkgo biloba monotherapy can be useful for vitiligo. 4 Two clinical trials investigated the use of vitamins in the therapy of vitiligo. One tested oral cobalamin with folic acid, and found no significant improvement over control. Another trial combined vitamin E with phototherapy and reported significantly better repigmentation over phototherapy only. It was not possible to pool the data from any studies for meta-analytic purposes due to the wide difference in outcome measures and poor quality ofreporting. Conclusion Reports investigating the

  14. Natural Products for the Treatment of Chlamydiaceae Infections

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mika A. Brown

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available Due to the global prevalence of Chlamydiae, exploring studies of diverse antichlamydial compounds is important in the development of effective treatment strategies and global infectious disease management. Chlamydiaceae is the most widely known bacterial family of the Chlamydiae order. Among the species in the family Chlamydiaceae, Chlamydia trachomatis and Chlamydia pneumoniae cause common human diseases, while Chlamydia abortus, Chlamydia psittaci, and Chlamydia suis represent zoonotic threats or are endemic in human food sources. Although chlamydial infections are currently manageable in human populations, chlamydial infections in livestock are endemic and there is significant difficulty achieving effective treatment. To combat the spread of Chlamydiaceae in humans and other hosts, improved methods for treatment and prevention of infection are needed. There exist various studies exploring the potential of natural products for developing new antichlamydial treatment modalities. Polyphenolic compounds can inhibit chlamydial growth by membrane disruption, reestablishment of host cell apoptosis, or improving host immune system detection. Fatty acids, monoglycerides, and lipids can disrupt the cell membranes of infective chlamydial elementary bodies (EBs. Peptides can disrupt the cell membranes of chlamydial EBs, and transferrins can inhibit chlamydial EBs from attachment to and permeation through the membranes of host cells. Cellular metabolites and probiotic bacteria can inhibit chlamydial infection by modulating host immune responses and directly inhibiting chlamydial growth. Finally, early stage clinical trials indicate that polyherbal formulations can be effective in treating chlamydial infections. Herein, we review an important body of literature in the field of antichlamydial research.

  15. Natural products from resurrection plants: potential for medical applications.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gechev, Tsanko S; Hille, Jacques; Woerdenbag, Herman J; Benina, Maria; Mehterov, Nikolay; Toneva, Valentina; Fernie, Alisdair R; Mueller-Roeber, Bernd

    2014-11-01

    Resurrection species are a group of land plants that can tolerate extreme desiccation of their vegetative tissues during harsh drought stress, and still quickly - often within hours - regain normal physiological and metabolic functions following rehydration. At the molecular level, this desiccation tolerance is attributed to basal cellular mechanisms including the constitutive expression of stress-associated genes and high levels of protective metabolites present already in the absence of stress, as well as to transcriptome and metabolome reconfigurations rapidly occurring during the initial phases of drought stress. Parts of this response are conferred by unique metabolites, including a diverse array of sugars, phenolic compounds, and polyols, some of which accumulate to high concentrations within the plant cell. In addition to drought stress, these metabolites are proposed to contribute to the protection against other abiotic stresses and to an increased oxidative stress tolerance. Recently, extracts of resurrection species and particular secondary metabolites therein were reported to display biological activities of importance to medicine, with e.g. antibacterial, anticancer, antifungal, and antiviral activities, rendering them possible candidates for the development of novel drug substances as well as for cosmetics. Herein, we provide an overview of the metabolite composition of resurrection species, summarize the latest reports related to the use of natural products from resurrection plants, and outline their potential for medical applications.

  16. New Positioning Products and Pilot Service for Natural Hazard Monitorin

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bar-Sever, Y. E.; Miller, K. J.; Miller, M. A.; Khachikyan, R.; Meyer, R. F.; Vallisneri, M.; Liu, Z.; Song, Y. T.

    2015-12-01

    We describe a new pilot service from JPL's Global Differential GPS (GDGPS) System that provides positioning solutions for hundreds of GNSS tracking sites, from both global and regional networks, aiming to monitor ground motion in the immediate aftermath of earthquakes. The new service provides site position time series solutions at 1 Hz, based on GNSS tracking data. Recognizing the tradeoff between latency and accuracy, the solutions are provided at multiple latencies, ranging from one second to one hour. Individual site solution accuracy strongly depends on the local tracking data. The median site position accuracies ranges from ~one cm 1DRMs for the to most latent solution to ~five cm 1DRMS for the one-second solutions. We discuss the tradeoff between accuracy and latency and explain the choice of product latencies in terms of this trade and in terms of the benefits to agencies responsible for issuing alarms and managing natural disasters. We describe and demonstrate a simple user algorithm to seamlessly merge the disparate latent solutions into a single, optimal record of site motion. The positioning service is integrated with automated earthquake notices from the USGS to support calculations of co-seismic displacements. Finally we describe the current scope of the pilot project, its innovative user-interface, and our ultimate plans to serve all real-time GNSS sites.

  17. Natural Products as Leads in Schistosome Drug Discovery

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bruno J. Neves

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Schistosomiasis is a neglected parasitic tropical disease that claims around 200,000 human lives every year. Praziquantel (PZQ, the only drug recommended by the World Health Organization for the treatment and control of human schistosomiasis, is now facing the threat of drug resistance, indicating the urgent need for new effective compounds to treat this disease. Therefore, globally, there is renewed interest in natural products (NPs as a starting point for drug discovery and development for schistosomiasis. Recent advances in genomics, proteomics, bioinformatics, and cheminformatics have brought about unprecedented opportunities for the rapid and more cost-effective discovery of new bioactive compounds against neglected tropical diseases. This review highlights the main contributions that NP drug discovery and development have made in the treatment of schistosomiasis and it discusses how integration with virtual screening (VS strategies may contribute to accelerating the development of new schistosomidal leads, especially through the identification of unexplored, biologically active chemical scaffolds and structural optimization of NPs with previously established activity.

  18. Identification and quantification of the halogenated natural product BC-3

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Melcher, J.; Olbrich, D.; Vetter, W. [Hohenheim Univ., Stuttgart (Germany). Inst. fuer Lebensmittelchemie; Marsh, G. [Stockholm Univ. (Sweden). Dept. of Environmental Chemistry; Gaus, C.; Mueller, J.F. [National Research Centre for Environmental Toxicology, Coopers Plains (Australia)

    2004-09-15

    Halogenated natural products (HNPs) of marine origin are increasingly recognized as critical residues in foodstuff (e. g. fish) and environmental samples (e. g. marine mammals and birds). Some of these HNPs (Q1, MHC-1, BC-2, and HDBPs including BC-10) were detected in diverse fish and marine mammal samples at concentrations sometimes exceeding those of PCBs, DDT, and other anthropogenic pollutants. Recent studies with marine mammal samples from Australia led to the detection of six abundant HNPs (Q1, BC-1, BC-2, BC-3, BC-10, and BC-11). In the meantime, Q1 was identified as heptachloro-1{sup '}-methyl-1,2{sup '}-bipyrrole, BC-2 as 4,6-dibromo-2-(2{sup '},4{sup '}-dibromo)phenoxyanisole, BC- 10 as 1,1{sup '}-dimethyl-3,3{sup '},4,4{sup '}-tetrabromo-5,5{sup '}-dichloro-2,2{sup '}-bipyrrole, and BC-11 as 3,5-dibromo- 2-(3{sup '},5{sup '}-dibromo,2{sup '}-methoxy)phenoxyanisole. However the identity of BC-1 and BC-3 remained unclear. The goal of the present study was the identification of BC-3. The tetrabromo compound BC-3 has previously been detected in marine mammals from four continents. Furthermore, we attempted establishing quantitative concentrations in diverse marine biota samples.

  19. An analysis of FDA-approved drugs: natural products and their derivatives.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Patridge, Eric; Gareiss, Peter; Kinch, Michael S; Hoyer, Denton

    2016-02-01

    Natural products contribute greatly to the history and landscape of new molecular entities (NMEs). An assessment of all FDA-approved NMEs reveals that natural products and their derivatives represent over one-third of all NMEs. Nearly one-half of these are derived from mammals, one-quarter from microbes and one-quarter from plants. Since the 1930s, the total fraction of natural products has diminished, whereas semisynthetic and synthetic natural product derivatives have increased. Over time, this fraction has also become enriched with microbial natural products, which represent a significant portion of approved antibiotics, including more than two-thirds of all antibacterial NMEs. In recent years, the declining focus on natural products has impacted the pipeline of NMEs from specific classes, and this trend is likely to continue without specific investment in the pursuit of natural products.

  20. Effective use of heterologous hosts for characterization of biosynthetic enzymes allows production of natural products and promotes new natural product discovery.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Watanabe, Kenji

    2014-01-01

    In the past few years, there has been impressive progress in elucidating the mechanism of biosynthesis of various natural products accomplished through the use of genetic, molecular biological and biochemical techniques. Here, we present a comprehensive overview of the current results from our studies on fungal natural product biosynthetic enzymes, including nonribosomal peptide synthetase and polyketide synthase-nonribosomal peptide synthetase hybrid synthetase, as well as auxiliary enzymes, such as methyltransferases and oxygenases. Specifically, biosynthesis of the following compounds is described in detail: (i) Sch210972, potentially involving a Diels-Alder reaction that may be catalyzed by CghA, a functionally unknown protein identified by targeted gene disruption in the wild type fungus; (ii) chaetoglobosin A, formed via multi-step oxidations catalyzed by three redox enzymes, one flavin-containing monooxygenase and two cytochrome P450 oxygenases as characterized by in vivo biotransformation of relevant intermediates in our engineered Saccharomyces cerevisiae; (iii) (-)-ditryptophenaline, formed by a cytochrome P450, revealing the dimerization mechanism for the biosynthesis of diketopiperazine alkaloids; (iv) pseurotins, whose variations in the C- and O-methylations and the degree of oxidation are introduced combinatorially by multiple redox enzymes; and (v) spirotryprostatins, whose spiro-carbon moiety is formed by a flavin-containing monooxygenase or a cytochrome P450 as determined by heterologous de novo production of the biosynthetic intermediates and final products in Aspergillus niger. We close our discussion by summarizing some of the key techniques that have facilitated the discovery of new natural products, production of their analogs and identification of biosynthetic mechanisms in our study.

  1. Exploiting new approaches for natural product drug discovery in the biotechnology industry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gullo, Vincent P; Hughes, Dallas E

    2005-01-01

    In recent years, large pharmaceutical companies have significantly reduced or eliminated the search for new therapeutic agents from natural sources. In spite of the many successes from natural product drug discovery, these companies have chosen to focus on compound libraries as the source of new lead compounds. Smaller biotechnology companies are continuing the search for novel natural products by developing and employing new and innovative approaches. This paper will describe some of these recent approaches to natural product drug discovery.:

  2. Natural Diagonal Riemannian Almost Product and Para-Hermitian Cotangent Bundles

    CERN Document Server

    Druta-Romaniuc, Simona-Luiza

    2011-01-01

    We obtain the natural diagonal almost product and locally product structures on the total space of the cotangent bundle of a Riemannian manifold. We find the Riemannian almost product (locally product) and the (almost) para-Hermitian cotangent bundles of natural diagonal lift type. We prove the characterization theorem for the natural diagonal (almost) para-K\\"ahlerian structures on the total spaces of the cotangent bundle.

  3. Natural products for chronic cough: Text mining the East Asian historical literature for future therapeutics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shergis, Johannah Linda; Wu, Lei; May, Brian H; Zhang, Anthony Lin; Guo, Xinfeng; Lu, Chuanjian; Xue, Charlie Changli

    2015-08-01

    Chronic cough is a significant health burden. Patients experience variable benefits from over the counter and prescribed products, but there is an unmet need to provide more effective treatments. Natural products have been used to treat cough and some plant compounds such as pseudoephedrine from ephedra and codeine from opium poppy have been developed into drugs. Text mining historical literature may offer new insight for future therapeutic development. We identified natural products used in the East Asian historical literature to treat chronic cough. Evaluation of the historical literature revealed 331 natural products used to treat chronic cough. Products included plants, minerals and animal substances. These natural products were found in 75 different books published between AD 363 and 1911. Of the 331 products, the 10 most frequently and continually used products were examined, taking into consideration findings from contemporary experimental studies. The natural products identified are promising and offer new directions in therapeutic development for treating chronic cough.

  4. Productivity analysis in nature reserve: A case study in Hunan Province

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Wang Lan-hui; Tian Shu-rong

    2007-01-01

    Although there are abundant natural resources in nature reserves, poverty is a common feature of the social economy in the communities surrounding nature reserves. Income from forestry is still the main source for residents living around nature reserves.The structure of inputs and outputs, i.e. productivity, in the forestry sector in nature reserves is quite different from one reserve to another. Productivity can be measured by Data Envelopment Analysis (DEA) methods owing to the characteristics of DEA. The promotion of productivity in nature reserve is an effective way to improve the living condition in areas neighboring nature reserves.Thus, one typical national nature reserve in Hunan is selected in this study with the intent to measure productivity in the area and then to analyze the factors affecting its productivity.

  5. Insect-specific production of new GameXPeptides in photorhabdus luminescens TTO1, widespread natural products in entomopathogenic bacteria.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nollmann, Friederike I; Dauth, Christina; Mulley, Geraldine; Kegler, Carsten; Kaiser, Marcel; Waterfield, Nick R; Bode, Helge B

    2015-01-19

    Discovery of new natural products by heterologous expression reaches its limits, especially when specific building blocks are missing in the heterologous host or the production medium. Here, we describe the insect-specific production of the new GameXPeptides E-H (5-8) from Photorhabdus luminescens TTO1, which can be produced heterologously from expression of the GameXPeptide synthetase GxpS only upon supplementation of the production media with the missing building blocks, and thus must be regarded as the true natural products under natural conditions.

  6. Discovery of novel drug targets and their functions using phenotypic screening of natural products.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chang, Junghwa; Kwon, Ho Jeong

    2016-03-01

    Natural products are valuable resources that provide a variety of bioactive compounds and natural pharmacophores in modern drug discovery. Discovery of biologically active natural products and unraveling their target proteins to understand their mode of action have always been critical hurdles for their development into clinical drugs. For effective discovery and development of bioactive natural products into novel therapeutic drugs, comprehensive screening and identification of target proteins are indispensable. In this review, a systematic approach to understanding the mode of action of natural products isolated using phenotypic screening involving chemical proteomics-based target identification is introduced. This review highlights three natural products recently discovered via phenotypic screening, namely glucopiericidin A, ecumicin, and terpestacin, as representative case studies to revisit the pivotal role of natural products as powerful tools in discovering the novel functions and druggability of targets in biological systems and pathological diseases of interest.

  7. Biocombinatorial Engineering of Fungal PKS-NRPS Hybrids for Production of Novel Synthetic Natural Products

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielsen, Maria Lund

    . Secondary metabolites (SMs) from bacteria, plants and filamentous fungi constitute a large group of important natural products. In this thesis I explore the biosynthesis of several fungal SMs along with the enzymes responsible for their synthesis. Specifically, my research focuses on the expression...... and engineering of a certain type of fungal enzymes – natural fusions of polyketide synthases and nonribosomal peptide synthetases (PKS-NRPSs). The thesis is divided into two topics: 1) Expanding fungal chemodiversity through combinatorial biosynthesis 2) Two CRISPR-Cas9-based approaches to linking SMs...... and NRPS modules. In the third study (chapter 4), I describe how CRISPR-Cas9, which was recently implemented for genome editing in filamentous fungi, can be used to link SMs to their genetic origin in a fungus where no genetic tools were previously available. Using CRISPR-Cas9, I identified a novel gene...

  8. Ethanol production by recombinant and natural xylose-utilising yeasts

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Eliasson, Anna

    2000-07-01

    The xylose-fermenting capacity of recombinant Saccharomyces cerevisiae carrying XYL1 and XYL2 from Pichia stipitis, which encode xylose reductase (XR) and xylitol dehydrogenase (XDH), respectively, is poor due to high xylitol formation. Whereas, P. stipitis exhibits high ethanol yield on xylose, the tolerance towards inhibitors in the lignocellulosic hydrolysate is low. A recombinant strain possessing the advantageous characteristics of both S. cerevisiae and P. stipitis would constitute a biocatalyst capable of efficient ethanol production from lignocellulosic hydrolysate. In the work presented in this thesis, factors influencing xylose fermentation in recombinant S. cerevisiae and in the natural xylose-fermenting yeast P. stipitis have been identified and investigated. Anaerobic xylulose fermentation was compared in strains of Zygosaccharomyces and S. cerevisiae, mutants and wild-type strains to identify host strain background and genetic modifications beneficial for xylose fermentation. The greatest positive effect was found for over-expression of the gene XKS1 for the pentose phosphate pathway (PPP) enzyme xylulokinase (XK), which increased the ethanol yield by almost 85%. The Zygosaccharomyces strains tested formed large amounts of polyols, making them unsuitable as host strains. The XR/XDH/XK ratio was found to determine whether carbon accumulated in a xylitol pool or was further utilised for ethanol production in recombinant xylose-utilising S. cerevisiae. Simulations, based on a kinetic model, and anaerobic xylose cultivation experiments implied that a 1:{>=}10:{>=}4 relation was optimal in minimising xylitol formation. Ethanol formation increased with decreasing XR/XDH ratio, whereas xylitol formation decreased and XK overexpression was necessary for adequate ethanol formation. Based on the knowledge of optimal enzyme ratios, a stable, xylose-utilising strain, S. cerevisiae TMB 3001, was constructed by chromosomal integration of the XYL1 and XYL2 genes

  9. Ethanol production by recombinant and natural xylose-utilising yeasts

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Eliasson, Anna

    2000-07-01

    The xylose-fermenting capacity of recombinant Saccharomyces cerevisiae carrying XYL1 and XYL2 from Pichia stipitis, which encode xylose reductase (XR) and xylitol dehydrogenase (XDH), respectively, is poor due to high xylitol formation. Whereas, P. stipitis exhibits high ethanol yield on xylose, the tolerance towards inhibitors in the lignocellulosic hydrolysate is low. A recombinant strain possessing the advantageous characteristics of both S. cerevisiae and P. stipitis would constitute a biocatalyst capable of efficient ethanol production from lignocellulosic hydrolysate. In the work presented in this thesis, factors influencing xylose fermentation in recombinant S. cerevisiae and in the natural xylose-fermenting yeast P. stipitis have been identified and investigated. Anaerobic xylulose fermentation was compared in strains of Zygosaccharomyces and S. cerevisiae, mutants and wild-type strains to identify host strain background and genetic modifications beneficial for xylose fermentation. The greatest positive effect was found for over-expression of the gene XKS1 for the pentose phosphate pathway (PPP) enzyme xylulokinase (XK), which increased the ethanol yield by almost 85%. The Zygosaccharomyces strains tested formed large amounts of polyols, making them unsuitable as host strains. The XR/XDH/XK ratio was found to determine whether carbon accumulated in a xylitol pool or was further utilised for ethanol production in recombinant xylose-utilising S. cerevisiae. Simulations, based on a kinetic model, and anaerobic xylose cultivation experiments implied that a 1:{>=}10:{>=}4 relation was optimal in minimising xylitol formation. Ethanol formation increased with decreasing XR/XDH ratio, whereas xylitol formation decreased and XK overexpression was necessary for adequate ethanol formation. Based on the knowledge of optimal enzyme ratios, a stable, xylose-utilising strain, S. cerevisiae TMB 3001, was constructed by chromosomal integration of the XYL1 and XYL2 genes

  10. Deposits of naturally occurring radioactivity in production of oil and natural gas; Radioaktive avleiringer i olje- og gassproduksjon

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Strand, T.; Lysebo, I.; Kristensen, D.; Birovljev, A.

    1997-01-01

    Deposits of naturally occurring radioactive materials is an increasing problem in Norwegian oil and gas production. Activity concentration in solid-state samples and production water, and doses to workers involved in different operations off-shore, have been measured. The report also includes a discussion of different methods of monitoring and alternatives for final disposal of wastes. 154 refs.

  11. Creating leptin-like biofunctions by active immunization against chicken leptin receptor in growing chickens.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lei, M M; Wu, S Q; Shao, X B; Li, X W; Chen, Z; Ying, S J; Shi, Z D

    2015-01-01

    In this study, immunization against chicken leptin receptor (cLEPR) extracellular domain (ECD) was applied to investigate leptin regulation and LEPR biofunction in growing chicken pullets. A recombinant protein (cLEPR ECD) based on the cLEPR complemenary DNA sequence corresponding to the 582nd to 796th amino acid residues of cLEPR mature peptide was prepared and used as antigen. Immunization against cLEPR ECD in growing chickens increased anti-cLEPR ECD antibody titers in blood, enhanced proportions of phosphorylated janus kinase 2 (JAK2) and served as signal transducer and activator of transcription 3 (STAT3) protein in liver tissue. Chicken live weight gain and abdominal fat mass were significantly decreased (P abdominal fat, and breast muscle (P < 0.05) but decreased fasn expression levels (P < 0.01). Apart from that of lepR, the expression of appetite-regulating genes, such as orexigenic genes, agouti-related peptide (AgRP) and neuropeptide Y (NPY), were upregulated (P < 0.01), whereas the anorexigenic gene proopiomelanocortin (POMC) was downregulated in the hypothalamic tissue of cLEPR-immunized pullets (P < 0.01). Blood concentrations of metabolic molecules, such as glucose, triglycerides, and very-low-density lipoprotein, were significantly decreased in cLEPR-immunized pullets but those of cholesterol, high-density lipoprotein, and low-density lipoprotein increased. These results demonstrate that antibodies to membrane proximal cLEPR ECD enhance cLEPR signal transduction, which stimulates metabolism and reduces fat deposition in chickens.

  12. On the nature of the new product strategy

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Larsson, Flemming

    2006-01-01

    The aim of this paper is to explore the concept of a new product strategy and its relation to portfolio management for product development. Based on a literature review this research adheres to one perception of the new product strategy proposed by literature complemented with a component adressing...... the risk-dimension. Next, it is suggested that the new product strategy is embedded in the product development strategy. Subsequently, it is advocated that companies try to achieve a base for realizing integration, synchronization and strategic alignment by means of a new product strategy. These three...... themes are explicated in a model, which also indicates the relation between the new product strategy and the product development process. Finally, implications for management practice are devised....

  13. The re-emergence of natural products for drug discovery in the genomics era.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harvey, Alan L; Edrada-Ebel, RuAngelie; Quinn, Ronald J

    2015-02-01

    Natural products have been a rich source of compounds for drug discovery. However, their use has diminished in the past two decades, in part because of technical barriers to screening natural products in high-throughput assays against molecular targets. Here, we review strategies for natural product screening that harness the recent technical advances that have reduced these barriers. We also assess the use of genomic and metabolomic approaches to augment traditional methods of studying natural products, and highlight recent examples of natural products in antimicrobial drug discovery and as inhibitors of protein-protein interactions. The growing appreciation of functional assays and phenotypic screens may further contribute to a revival of interest in natural products for drug discovery.

  14. Textbook for nature entrepreneurship : product of the WURKS project Nature Entrepreneurship and Tourism within Green Education (NatureToGo)

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Felder, M.; Pellis, A.

    2013-01-01

    In recent years, government funding for nature conservation and development has declined. As a result, links between nature conservation and entrepreneurship are increasingly being made in both practice and education. This comes with many questions and challenges. In Green Secondary Vocational Educa

  15. New natural antioxidants for protecting omega-3 rich products

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Farvin, Sabeena; Jacobsen, Charlotte

    2012-01-01

    to oxidation because of their unsaturated nature. Addition of antioxidants is one method. to prevent lipid oxidation. As synthetic antioxidants may have carcinogenic effects at higher levels, the replacement of synthetic antioxidants with natural antioxidants is now in demand. We have isolated natural...... antioxidants from yoghurt, potato peel, fish protein hydrolysates and seaweed, which were able to protect highly unsaturated fish oil from oxidation. These antioxidant extracts may have potential for commercial exploitation. Copyright © 2012 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim....

  16. Synthesis of oxazole, oxazoline and isoxazoline derived marine natural products: A review

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    Tilvi, S.; Singh, K.S.

    the isolation, biological activities and recent development on total syntheses of oxazole, oxazoline and isoxazoline derived marine natural products reported till 2014. Key words: oxazole, oxazoline, isoxazoline, marine natural products, synthesis 2    1... syntheses are discussed. For easy reading, the content has been divided under three categories; oxazole, oxazoline and isoxazoline containing marine natural products. N O N O N O Oxazole Oxazoline Isoxazoline Figure 1. Chemical structures of oxazole...

  17. Natural products as tools for studies of ligand-gated ion channels

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Strømgaard, Kristian

    2005-01-01

    in the brain. Historically, natural products have been used extensively in biomedical studies and ultimately as drugs or leads for drug design. In studies of ligand-gated ion channels, natural products have been essential for the understanding of their structure and function. In the following a short survey...... of natural products and their use in studies of ligand-gated ion channels is given....

  18. Pharmacognosy: Science of natural products in drug discovery

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ilkay Erdogan Orhan

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available Pharmacognosy deals with the natural drugs obtained fromorganisms such as most plants, microbes, and animals. Up todate, many important drugs including morphine, atropine,galanthamine, etc. have originated from natural sources whichcontinue to be good model molecules in drug discovery.Traditional medicine is also a part of pharmacognosy and mostof the third world countries still depend on the use of herbalmedicines. Consequently, pharmacognosy always keeps itspopularity in pharmaceutical sciences and plays a critical role indrug discovery.

  19. Pharmacognosy: Science of natural products in drug discovery.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Orhan, Ilkay Erdogan

    2014-01-01

    Pharmacognosy deals with the natural drugs obtained from organisms such as most plants, microbes, and animals. Up to date, many important drugs including morphine, atropine, galanthamine, etc. have originated from natural sources which continue to be good model molecules in drug discovery. Traditional medicine is also a part of pharmacognosy and most of the third world countries still depend on the use of herbal medicines. Consequently, pharmacognosy always keeps its popularity in pharmaceutical sciences and plays a critical role in drug discovery.

  20. Informatic search strategies to discover analogues and variants of natural product archetypes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Johnston, Chad W; Connaty, Alex D; Skinnider, Michael A; Li, Yong; Grunwald, Alyssa; Wyatt, Morgan A; Kerr, Russell G; Magarvey, Nathan A

    2016-03-01

    Natural products are a crucial source of antimicrobial agents, but reliance on low-resolution bioactivity-guided approaches has led to diminishing interest in discovery programmes. Here, we demonstrate that two in-house automated informatic platforms can be used to target classes of biologically active natural products, specifically, peptaibols. We demonstrate that mass spectrometry-based informatic approaches can be used to detect natural products with high sensitivity, identifying desired agents present in complex microbial extracts. Using our specialised software packages, we could elaborate specific branches of chemical space, uncovering new variants of trichopolyn and demonstrating a way forward in mining natural products as a valuable source of potential pharmaceutical agents.

  1. Synthesis of four diastereomers of sclerophytin F and structural reassignment of several sclerophytin natural products.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Clark, J Stephen; Delion, Laëtitia; Farrugia, Louis J

    2015-03-16

    Synthesis of the triol that has been proposed to be the marine natural product sclerophytin F has been completed along with the syntheses of three diastereomers. Comparison of the NMR spectroscopic data for all four compounds to the data reported for the natural product reveals that sclerophytin F is not the 3S diastereomer of sclerophytin A as proposed by Friedrich and Paquette. Re-analysis of the NMR spectroscopic data for known sclerophytin natural products and synthetic analogues leads to the conclusion that sclerophytins E and F are the same compound. This finding has allowed structural reassignment of several other cladiellin natural products.

  2. Advances in identification and validation of protein targets of natural products without chemical modification.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chang, J; Kim, Y; Kwon, H J

    2016-05-04

    Covering: up to February 2016Identification of the target proteins of natural products is pivotal to understanding the mechanisms of action to develop natural products for use as molecular probes and potential therapeutic drugs. Affinity chromatography of immobilized natural products has been conventionally used to identify target proteins, and has yielded good results. However, this method has limitations, in that labeling or tagging for immobilization and affinity purification often result in reduced or altered activity of the natural product. New strategies have recently been developed and applied to identify the target proteins of natural products and synthetic small molecules without chemical modification of the natural product. These direct and indirect methods for target identification of label-free natural products include drug affinity responsive target stability (DARTS), stability of proteins from rates of oxidation (SPROX), cellular thermal shift assay (CETSA), thermal proteome profiling (TPP), and bioinformatics-based analysis of connectivity. This review focuses on and reports case studies of the latest advances in target protein identification methods for label-free natural products. The integration of newly developed technologies will provide new insights and highlight the value of natural products for use as biological probes and new drug candidates.

  3. Invariant tensors related with natural connections for a class Riemannian product manifolds

    OpenAIRE

    Gribacheva, Dobrinka

    2012-01-01

    Some invariant tensors in two Naveira classes of Riemannian product manifolds are considered. These tensors are related with natural connections, i.e. linear connections preserving the Riemannian metric and the product structure.

  4. Assessment of natural resources and the policy of subsidies in grain production

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Bai Wei; Hao Jinmin; Zhang Qiuping

    2006-01-01

    Based on the analysis on the status quo of natural resources input in grain production and on the policy of grain subsidies, this paper puts forward a new idea - establishing grain subsidies through assessing the value of the natural resources in grain production. The assessment of the natural resources in grain production provides rationale and reference standard for the policy of grain subsidies, which will promote the sustainable use of natural resources accordingly. This paper concludes: (1) it is necessary for the grain subsidies to assess the full value of natural resources,including economic value, ecological value and social value; (2) the government should give farmers direct subsidies or environment subsidies according to the economic and ecological value of natural resources in grain production; (3) the social value of natural resources can be realized by establishing the country social security system, taking the social value as the criterion for the payment for part of farmers insurance.

  5. The chemistry and biology of guanidine natural products.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Berlinck, Roberto G S; Romminger, Stelamar

    2016-03-01

    The present review discusses the isolation, structure determination, synthesis, biosynthesis and biological activities of secondary metabolites bearing a guanidine group. Topics include non-ribosomal peptides, alkaloids, guanidine-bearing terpenes, polyketides and shikimic acid derivatives from natural sources. A critical analysis of some yet underdeveloped aspects of guanidine metabolites is also presented.

  6. China Keeps Strong Growth Momentum for Natural Gas Production

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Zheng Benxiang; Yu Lingli; Song Chengli

    2009-01-01

    @@ Based on the prediction made by the China Petroleum and Chemical Industry Association (CPCIA),China aims to double its annual natural gas output to 160 billion cubic meters by 2015,and produce about 6 billion tons of oil in the next 30 years,or 200 million tons a year.

  7. Exploring application of cardanol from natural resource: Chemistry and products

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cardanol (cashew nut shell liquid, CNSL) is a renewable raw material derived from a byproduct of the cashew nut processing industry. First, two natural plasticizers derived from cardanol, cardanol acetate (CA) and epoxidated cardanol acetate (ECA), have been synthesized and characterized by 1HNMR an...

  8. Engineering single-molecule, nanoscale, and microscale bio-functional materials via click chemistry

    Science.gov (United States)

    Daniele, Michael Angelo-Anthony

    To expand the design envelope and supplement the materials library available to biomaterials scientists, the copper(I)-catalyzed azide-alkyne cycloaddition (CuCAAC) was explored as a route to design, synthesize and characterize bio-functional small-molecules, nanoparticles, and microfibers. In each engineered system, the use of click chemistry provided facile, bio-orthogonal control for materials synthesis; moreover, the results provided a methodology and more complete, fundamental understanding of the use of click chemistry as a tool for the synergy of biotechnology, polymer and materials science. Fluorophores with well-defined photophysical characteristics (ranging from UV to NIR fluorescence) were used as building blocks for small-molecule, fluorescent biosensors. Fluorophores were paired to exhibit fluorescence resonant energy transfer (FRET) and used to probe the metabolic activity of carbazole 1,9a-dioxygenase (CARDO). The FRET pair exhibited a significant variation in PL response with exposure to the lysate of Pseudomonas resinovorans CA10, an organism which can degrade variants of both the donor and acceptor fluorophores. Nanoparticle systems were modified via CuCAAC chemistry to carry affinity tags for CARDO and were subsequently utilized for affinity based bioseparation of CARDO from crude cell lysate. The enzymes were baited with an azide-modified carbazolyl-moiety attached to a poly(propargyl acrylate) nanoparticle. Magnetic nanocluster systems were also modified via CuCAAC chemistry to carry fluorescent imaging tags. The iron-oxide nanoclusters were coated with poly(acrylic acid-co-propargyl acrylate) to provide a clickable surface. Ultimately, alternate Cu-free click chemistries were utilized to produce biohybrid microfibers. The biohybrid microfibers were synthesized under benign photopolymerization conditions inside a microchannel, allowing the encapsulation of viable bacteria. By adjusting pre-polymer solutions and laminar flow rates within the

  9. Natural Gas and Cellulosic Biomass: A Clean Fuel Combination? Determining the Natural Gas Blending Wall in Biofuel Production.

    Science.gov (United States)

    M Wright, Mark; Seifkar, Navid; Green, William H; Román-Leshkov, Yuriy

    2015-07-07

    Natural gas has the potential to increase the biofuel production output by combining gas- and biomass-to-liquids (GBTL) processes followed by naphtha and diesel fuel synthesis via Fischer-Tropsch (FT). This study reflects on the use of commercial-ready configurations of GBTL technologies and the environmental impact of enhancing biofuels with natural gas. The autothermal and steam-methane reforming processes for natural gas conversion and the gasification of biomass for FT fuel synthesis are modeled to estimate system well-to-wheel emissions and compare them to limits established by U.S. renewable fuel mandates. We show that natural gas can enhance FT biofuel production by reducing the need for water-gas shift (WGS) of biomass-derived syngas to achieve appropriate H2/CO ratios. Specifically, fuel yields are increased from less than 60 gallons per ton to over 100 gallons per ton with increasing natural gas input. However, GBTL facilities would need to limit natural gas use to less than 19.1% on a LHV energy basis (7.83 wt %) to avoid exceeding the emissions limits established by the Renewable Fuels Standard (RFS2) for clean, advanced biofuels. This effectively constitutes a blending limit that constrains the use of natural gas for enhancing the biomass-to-liquids (BTL) process.

  10. Biosynthesis of natural products in plants by fungal endophytes with an emphasis on swainsonine

    Science.gov (United States)

    Plant natural products are frequently used as chemotaxonomic markers which are indicative of select members of a family, genus, and/or species. However, the erratic occurrence of some natural products raises questions about their biosynthetic origin and significance as chemotaxonomic markers. Rece...

  11. Prediction of cancer cell sensitivity to natural products based on genomic and chemical properties

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zhenyu Yue

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available Natural products play a significant role in cancer chemotherapy. They are likely to provide many lead structures, which can be used as templates for the construction of novel drugs with enhanced antitumor activity. Traditional research approaches studied structure-activity relationship of natural products and obtained key structural properties, such as chemical bond or group, with the purpose of ascertaining their effect on a single cell line or a single tissue type. Here, for the first time, we develop a machine learning method to comprehensively predict natural products responses against a panel of cancer cell lines based on both the gene expression and the chemical properties of natural products. The results on two datasets, training set and independent test set, show that this proposed method yields significantly better prediction accuracy. In addition, we also demonstrate the predictive power of our proposed method by modeling the cancer cell sensitivity to two natural products, Curcumin and Resveratrol, which indicate that our method can effectively predict the response of cancer cell lines to these two natural products. Taken together, the method will facilitate the identification of natural products as cancer therapies and the development of precision medicine by linking the features of patient genomes to natural product sensitivity.

  12. Survey of marine natural product structure revisions: a synergy of spectroscopy and chemical synthesis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Suyama, Takashi L; Gerwick, William H; McPhail, Kerry L

    2011-11-15

    The structural assignment of new natural product molecules supports research in a multitude of disciplines that may lead to new therapeutic agents and or new understanding of disease biology. However, reports of numerous structural revisions, even of recently elucidated natural products, inspired the present survey of techniques used in structural misassignments and subsequent revisions in the context of constitutional or configurational errors. Given the comparatively recent development of marine natural products chemistry, coincident with modern spectroscopy, it is of interest to consider the relative roles of spectroscopy and chemical synthesis in the structure elucidation and revision of those marine natural products that were initially misassigned. Thus, a tabulated review of all marine natural product structural revisions from 2005 to 2010 is organized according to structural motif revised. Misassignments of constitution are more frequent than perhaps anticipated by reliance on HMBC and other advanced NMR experiments, especially when considering the full complement of all natural products. However, these techniques also feature prominently in structural revisions, specifically of marine natural products. Nevertheless, as is the case for revision of relative and absolute configuration, total synthesis is a proven partner for marine, as well as terrestrial, natural products structure elucidation. It also becomes apparent that considerable 'detective work' remains in structure elucidation, in spite of the spectacular advances in spectroscopic techniques.

  13. Direct Capture Technologies for Genomics-Guided Discovery of Natural Products.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chan, Andrew N; Santa Maria, Kevin C; Li, Bo

    2016-01-01

    Microbes are important producers of natural products, which have played key roles in understanding biology and treating disease. However, the full potential of microbes to produce natural products has yet to be realized; the overwhelming majority of natural product gene clusters encoded in microbial genomes remain "cryptic", and have not been expressed or characterized. In contrast to the fast-growing number of genomic sequences and bioinformatic tools, methods to connect these genes to natural product molecules are still limited, creating a bottleneck in genome-mining efforts to discover novel natural products. Here we review developing technologies that leverage the power of homologous recombination to directly capture natural product gene clusters and express them in model hosts for isolation and structural characterization. Although direct capture is still in its early stages of development, it has been successfully utilized in several different classes of natural products. These early successes will be reviewed, and the methods will be compared and contrasted with existing traditional technologies. Lastly, we will discuss the opportunities for the development of direct capture in other organisms, and possibilities to integrate direct capture with emerging genome-editing techniques to accelerate future study of natural products.

  14. Molecular scaffold analysis of natural products databases in the public domain.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yongye, Austin B; Waddell, Jacob; Medina-Franco, José L

    2012-11-01

    Natural products represent important sources of bioactive compounds in drug discovery efforts. In this work, we compiled five natural products databases available in the public domain and performed a comprehensive chemoinformatic analysis focused on the content and diversity of the scaffolds with an overview of the diversity based on molecular fingerprints. The natural products databases were compared with each other and with a set of molecules obtained from in-house combinatorial libraries, and with a general screening commercial library. It was found that publicly available natural products databases have different scaffold diversity. In contrast to the common concept that larger libraries have the largest scaffold diversity, the largest natural products collection analyzed in this work was not the most diverse. The general screening library showed, overall, the highest scaffold diversity. However, considering the most frequent scaffolds, the general reference library was the least diverse. In general, natural products databases in the public domain showed low molecule overlap. In addition to benzene and acyclic compounds, flavones, coumarins, and flavanones were identified as the most frequent molecular scaffolds across the different natural products collections. The results of this work have direct implications in the computational and experimental screening of natural product databases for drug discovery.

  15. Prediction of cancer cell sensitivity to natural products based on genomic and chemical properties.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yue, Zhenyu; Zhang, Wenna; Lu, Yongming; Yang, Qiaoyue; Ding, Qiuying; Xia, Junfeng; Chen, Yan

    2015-01-01

    Natural products play a significant role in cancer chemotherapy. They are likely to provide many lead structures, which can be used as templates for the construction of novel drugs with enhanced antitumor activity. Traditional research approaches studied structure-activity relationship of natural products and obtained key structural properties, such as chemical bond or group, with the purpose of ascertaining their effect on a single cell line or a single tissue type. Here, for the first time, we develop a machine learning method to comprehensively predict natural products responses against a panel of cancer cell lines based on both the gene expression and the chemical properties of natural products. The results on two datasets, training set and independent test set, show that this proposed method yields significantly better prediction accuracy. In addition, we also demonstrate the predictive power of our proposed method by modeling the cancer cell sensitivity to two natural products, Curcumin and Resveratrol, which indicate that our method can effectively predict the response of cancer cell lines to these two natural products. Taken together, the method will facilitate the identification of natural products as cancer therapies and the development of precision medicine by linking the features of patient genomes to natural product sensitivity.

  16. 2013-2014 Production of guayule natural rubber in Arizona, U.S.A.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Natural rubber is a unique biopolymer whose physical properties cannot be replicated in synthetic alternatives; therefore, it is required for production of tires (passenger, truck, and aircraft) and thousands of consumer and medical products. While demand for natural rubber is expected to increase ...

  17. Application of natural and synthetic polymers in a production of paper

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jovanović Slobodan

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available This work gives the review of most frequently used natural and synthetic polymers in production of paper, board and cardboard. Physical and chemical interaction of natural and synthetic polymers with cellulose fibers, and thus the way these polymers influence the improvement of both production process and the paper characteristics, have been presented.

  18. Functional Reconstitution of a Fungal Natural Product Gene Cluster by Advanced Genome Editing

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Weber, Jakob; Valiante, Vito; Nødvig, Christina Spuur

    2017-01-01

    Filamentous fungi produce varieties of natural products even in a strain dependent manner. However, the genetic basis of chemical speciation between strains is still widely unknown. One example is trypacidin, a natural product of the opportunistic human pathogen Aspergillus fumigatus, which...... for advanced molecular genetic studies in filamentous fungi, exploiting selectable markers separated from the edited locus....

  19. ON JUSTIFICATION OF STANDARDS FOR NATURAL RADIONUCLIDE CONCENTRATION IN FACING PRODUCTS AND MATERIALS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    I. P. Stamat

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available The article addresses issues of the population radiation protection regulatory framework development for the natural sources of radiation. Calculations for justification of standard for natural radionuclide concentration in the wide range of contemporary building materials - facing products - are formulated. The basic consideration of calculations is that implementation of these products could lead to the additional population exposure from natural sources less than 0,1 mSv/year. On the base of this assumption it is shown that effective specific activity of natural radionuclides in these products must not exceed 740 Bq/kg.

  20. Production of natural flavour compounds: bioconversion of monoterpenes by spores of Penicillium digitatum

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Wolken, W.A.M.

    2003-01-01

    Consumers prefer natural over artificial additives. Consequently natural flavour-compounds fetch higher prices than the corresponding artificial compound. Various natural means of flavour production are discussed in this dissertation. The major part is focused on the biotransformation of geraniol in

  1. The encounter and analysis of naturally occurring radionuclides in gas and oil production and processing

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hartog, F.A.; Jonkers, G.; Knaepen, W.A.I. [Shell Research and Technology Centre, Amsterdam, (Netherlands)

    1996-12-31

    As a result of oil and gas production, radioactive daughter elements from the uranium and thorium decay series can be mobilized and transported away from the reservoir. Due to changes in flow regime, temperature, pressure or chemical environment NORs (Naturally Occurring Radionuclides) may build up in products, by-products or waste streams from gas and oil production and processing facilities. Products containing NORs are commonly denoted by the acronym NORM (Naturally Occurring Radioactive Materials). Main topics of this paper are: E and P (Exploration and Production) NORM characteristics; incentives for NORM analysis; NORM analysis; interlaboratory test programme; analysis techniques; results and conclusions of the test programme. 4 figs., 2 tabs.

  2. Glidarc assisted production of synthesis gas from natural gas

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Czernichowski, A. [Orleans Univ., Department of Physics, 45 - Orleans (France); Czernichowski, M. [Etudes Chimiques et Physiques (ECP), 45 - La Ferte Saint Aubin (France); Czernichowski, P. [with WESCO, Conroe (United States)

    2003-09-01

    Natural gas is reformed in a presence of high-voltage discharges (called GlidArc plasma) that assist the Partial Oxidation of the feed using air as oxidant. Electric energy consumption for this non-catalytic reformer is less than 2 % of the output H{sub 2}+CO energy content. Recycling such a small portion of energy is, in our opinion, an acceptable compromise as very active (and also very simple) GlidArc discharges play a role of an igniter and homogeneous phase catalyst; they also activate and stabilize a post-plasma reaction zone of our reformer. Here presented bench-scale 1-Liter reactor works at atmospheric pressure and needs less than 100 W of electric assistance to produce up to 1.4 m3(n)/h of pure SynGas corresponding to 4.5 kW of electric power of an ideal Fuel Cell fed by such SynGas. Up to 99 % of natural gas is converted at up to 63% energetic efficiency and the total absence of soot. We present also some tests with the natural gas that is intentionally polluted (up to 1000 ppm Sulfur) via controlled mixing of that clean gas with concentrated Hydrogen Sulfide. H{sub 2}S presence has no effect on performances of our plasma-assisted reforming. This fact as well as our previous experiments on GlidArc assisted splitting of pure H{sub 2}S let us claim that our technology can be directly used at any H{sub 2}S level in natural gas. (authors)

  3. Identifying HER2 inhibitors from natural products database.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shun-Chieh Yang

    Full Text Available The relationship between abnormal HER2 expression and cancer is important in cancer therapeutics. Formation and spread of cancer cells may be restricted by inhibiting HER2. We conducted ligand-based and structure-based studies to assess the potency of natural compounds as potential HER2 inhibitors. Multiple linear regression (MLR and support vector machine (SVM models were constructed to predict biological activities of natural compounds, and molecular dynamics (MD was used to assess their stability with HER2 under a dynamic environment. Predicted bioactivities of the natural compounds ranged from 6.014-9.077 using MLR (r(2 = 0.7954 and 5.122-6.950 using SVM (r(2 = 0.8620. Both models were in agreement and suggest bioactivity based on candidate structure. Conformation changes caused by MD favored the formation of stabilizing H-bonds. All candidates had higher stability than Lapinatib, which may be due to the number and spatial distribution of additional H-bonds and hydrophobic interactions. Amino acids Lys724 and Lys736 are critical for binding in HER2, and Thr798, Cys805, and Asp808 are also important for increased stability. Candidates may block the entrance to the ATP binding site located within the inner regions and prevent downstream activation of HER2. Our multidirectional approach indicates that the natural compounds have good ligand efficacy in addition to stable binding affinities to HER2, and should be potent candidates of HER2 inhibitors. With regard to drug design, designing HER2 inhibitors with carboxyl or carbonyl groups available for H-bond formation with Lys724 and Lys736, and benzene groups for hydrophobic contact with Cys805 may improve protein-ligand stability.

  4. Natural Product Shows Effectiveness in Combating Colorectal Cancer | Poster

    Science.gov (United States)

    An herbal extract used for centuries to prevent heart disease has now been shown to be effective against colorectal cancer when tested in laboratory cell cultures. Scientists from NCI at Frederick found that the natural extract cryptotanshinone (CPT) stops the uncontrolled cell growth characteristic of cancer by interfering with a protein that has been implicated in several cancers, including those of the colon and rectum. The results appear in the journal Molecular and Cellular Biochemistry.

  5. Copy, edit, and paste: natural product approaches to biomaterials and neuroengineering.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gademann, Karl

    2015-03-17

    Progress in the chemical sciences has formed the world we live in, both on a macroscopic and on a nanoscopic scale. The last century witnessed the development of high performance materials that interact with humans on many layers, from clothing to construction, from media to medical devices. On a molecular level, natural products and their derivatives influence many biological processes, and these compounds have enormously contributed to the health and quality of living of humans. Although coatings of stone materials with oils or resins (containing natural products) have led to improved tools already millennia ago, in contrast today, natural product approaches to designer materials, that is, combining the best of both worlds, remain scarce. In this Account, we will summarize our recent research efforts directed to the generation of natural product functionalized materials, exploiting the strategy of "copy, edit, and paste with natural products". Natural products embody the wisdom of evolution, and only total synthesis is able to unlock the secrets enshrined in their molecular structure. We employ total synthesis ("copy") as a scientific approach to address problems related to molecular structure, the biosynthesis of natural products, and their bioactivity. Additionally, the fundamental desire to investigate the mechanism of action of natural products constitutes a key driver for scientific inquiry. In an emerging area of relevance to society, we have prepared natural products such as militarinone D that can stimulate neurite outgrowth and facilitate nerve regeneration. This knowledge obtained by synthetic organic chemistry on complex natural products can then be used to design structurally simplified compounds that retain the biological power of the parent natural product ("edit"). This process, sometimes referred to as function-oriented synthesis, allows obtaining derivatives with better properties, improving their chemical tractability and reducing the step count

  6. Do Anti-Bredt Natural Products Exist? Olefin Strain Energy as a Predictor of Isolability.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Krenske, Elizabeth H; Williams, Craig M

    2015-09-01

    Bredt's rule holds a special place in the realm of physical organic chemistry, but its application to natural products chemistry—the field in which the rule was originally formulated—is not well defined. Herein, the use of olefin strain (OS) energy as a readily calculated predictor of the stability of natural products containing a bridgehead alkene is introduced. Schleyer first used OS energies to classify parent bridgehead alkenes into "isolable", "observable", and "unstable" classes. OS calculations on natural products, using contemporary forcefield methods, unequivocally predict all structurally verified bridgehead alkene natural products to be "isolable". Thus, when one assigns the structure of a putative bridgehead alkene natural product, an OS in the "observable" or "unstable" ranges is a red flag for error.

  7. Relevance of Natural Phenolics from Grape and Derivative Products in the Formulation of Cosmetics

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    María Luisa Soto

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available The consumer demand for natural ingredients in cosmetic products is increasing. Phenolic compounds are among the most studied natural antioxidant compounds, they also present antimicrobial, anti-inflammatory or antiaging actions and can permeate through the skin barrier. Grapes contain valuable phenolic components and grape byproducts are widely available low cost raw materials. This review presents an overview of the application of phenolic compounds from grape products and byproducts as sources of natural ingredients for cosmetics.

  8. "Common synthetic scaffolds" in the synthesis of structurally diverse natural products.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Anagnostaki, Elissavet E; Zografos, Alexandros L

    2012-09-01

    Selected natural products have long been considered as desirable targets for total synthesis due to their unique biological properties and their challenging structural complexity. Laboratory synthesis of natural compounds usually relies on target-oriented synthesis, involving the production, isolation and purification of successive intermediates, requiring multiple steps to arrive to the final product. A far more economical approach using common synthetic scaffolds that can be readily transformed through biomimetic-like pathways to a range of structurally diverse natural products has been evolved in the last decade, leading synthesis to new directions. This tutorial review critically presents the hallmarks in this field.

  9. Advancement in bioprocess technology: parallels between microbial natural products and cell culture biologics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bandyopadhyay, Arpan A; Khetan, Anurag; Malmberg, Li-Hong; Zhou, Weichang; Hu, Wei-Shou

    2017-02-09

    The emergence of natural products and industrial microbiology nearly eight decades ago propelled an era of bioprocess innovation. Half a century later, recombinant protein technology spurred the tremendous growth of biologics and added mammalian cells to the forefront of industrial producing cells in terms of the value of products generated. This review highlights the process technology of natural products and protein biologics. Despite the separation in time, there is a remarkable similarity in their progression. As the new generation of therapeutics for gene and cell therapy emerges, its process technology development can take inspiration from that of natural products and biologics.

  10. Natural deep eutectic solvents and their application in natural product research and development

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Dai, yuntao

    2013-01-01

    Natural deep eutectic solvents (NADES) ionic liquids (ILs) and deep eutectic solvents (DES) were proposed by our group to extend the range of ILs and DES, particularly to develop cheap, nontoxic, and low viscosity green solvents, and to apply them in health-related fields. They are liquid supramolec

  11. METHANOL PRODUCTION FROM BIOMASS AND NATURAL GAS AS TRANSPORTATION FUEL

    Science.gov (United States)

    Two processes are examined for production of methanol. They are assessed against the essential requirements of a future alternative fuel for road transport: that it (i) is producible in amounts comparable to the 19 EJ of motor fuel annually consumed in the U.S., (ii) minimizes em...

  12. Optimization of a photobioreactor biomass production using natural light

    CERN Document Server

    Grognard, Frédéric; Pierre, Masci; Bernard, Olivier

    2010-01-01

    We address the question of optimization of the biomass long term productivity in the framework of microalgal biomass production in photobioreactors under the influence of day/night cycles. For that, we propose a simple bioreactor model accounting for light attenuation in the reactor due to biomass density and obtain the control law that optimizes productivity over a single day through the application of Pontryagin's maximum principle, with the dilution rate being the control. An important constraint on the obtained solution is that the biomass in the reactor should be at the same level at the beginning and at the end of the day so that the same control can be applied everyday and optimizes the long term productivity. Several scenarios are possible depending on the microalgae's strain parameters and the maximal admissible value of the dilution rate: bang-bang or bang-singular-bang control or, if the growth rate of the algae is very strong in the presence of light, constant maximal dilution. A bifurcation diagr...

  13. Natural regulation of Delia radicum in organic cabbage production

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Meyling, N.V.; Navntoft, S.; Philipsen, H.;

    2013-01-01

    In a field experiment, we evaluated effects of three different organic white cabbage-cropping systems (O1, O2, O3) on the cabbage root fly, Delia radicum, and its egg predators and pupal parasitoids over 3 years. The three systems all complied with regulations for organic production, but varied...

  14. Natural rubber and its synthetic analogue, polyisoprene rubber, production prospects

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Dr. A.S.Dykman

    2012-01-01

    One of the main features characterizing the contemporary level of civilization is the universal use of motor transport. Over the past 15 years, global production of cars has increased by more than one and a half, exceeding 80 million vehicles per year. The tire industry has been developing at the corresponding rate.

  15. Ubiquitous Ursolic Acid: A Potential Pentacyclic Triterpene Natural Product

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ibrahim T Babalola

    2013-07-01

    Full Text Available There is an unprecedented growing interest in natural triterpenes in the last few decades due to the discovery of their potential biological and pharmacological activities. Ursolic acid (3β-hydroxyurs-12-en-28-oic (UA (4 is a pentacyclic triterpene, occurring in many plant parts including fruits and seeds. This paper reviews several studies on the in vitro and in vivo pharmacological activities of UA (4. This review brings to limelight sources and the beneficial potentials of UA (4 in foods, cosmetics and medicine.

  16. [Inspirations from natural products based drug research and development for Chinese medicine research--analysis of natural products recoded in TTD].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Xiu-Ping; Lu, Jin-Jian; Guo, Jia-Jie; Bao, Jiao-Lin; Xu, Wen-Shan; Ding, Qian; Wang, Yi-Tao

    2012-11-01

    Natural product is an important source of new drug research and development (R&D). Traditional Chinese medicine (TCM) innovation is the key step for its modernization and internationalization. However, due to the complexity of TCM, there are many difficulties and confusions in this process. Target-based drug discovery is the mainstream model and method of R&D. TTD, short for therapeutic target database, is developed by National University of Singapore. Besides a large amount of information on drug targets, the database also contains considerable information related to natural products. This paper briefly introduces the TTD, analyzes the natural products derived drugs/compounds recorded in TTD, which we think might provide some inspiration for the innovation of TCM.

  17. Measurements of methane emissions at natural gas production sites in the United States

    OpenAIRE

    Allen, David T.; Torres, Vincent M.; Thomas, James; Sullivan, David W.; Harrison, Matthew; Hendler, Al; Herndon, Scott C.; Kolb, Charles E.; Fraser, Matthew P.; Hill, A. Daniel; Lamb, Brian K.; Miskimins, Jennifer; Sawyer, Robert F.; Seinfeld, John H.

    2013-01-01

    Engineering estimates of methane emissions from natural gas production have led to varied projections of national emissions. This work reports direct measurements of methane emissions at 190 onshore natural gas sites in the United States (150 production sites, 27 well completion flowbacks, 9 well unloadings, and 4 workovers). For well completion flowbacks, which clear fractured wells of liquid to allow gas production, methane emissions ranged from 0.01 Mg to 17 Mg (mean = 1.7 Mg; 95% confiden...

  18. Marine Vibrionaceae as a source of bioactive natural products

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Månsson, Maria; Wietz, Matthias; Gram, Lone;

    to produce secondary metabolites. We have studied the production of antibacterial compounds in Vibrionaceae collected during a global marine expedition, Galathea 3. Apart from growth inhibitory compounds, we searched for compounds that interfere with virulence regulation in Staphylococcus aureus. We found......Vibrionaceae are Gram-negative bacteria found widespread in the marine environment where they are particularly abundant on the surface of marine macroorganisms. Production of antibacterial compounds appears to be common among vibrios, yet vibrios are largely underexplored for their proclivity...... depsipeptides, solonamide A and B, as potent inhibitors of the agr QS system involved in virulence expression in S. aureus. Of special interest was a pronounced effect against a highly virulent, CA-MRSA strain (USA300). In conclusion, we found that vibrios are competent producers of secondary metabolites, some...

  19. Production of Renewable Natural Gas from Waste Biomass

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kumar, Sachin; Suresh, S.; Arisutha, S.

    2013-03-01

    Biomass energy is expected to make a major contribution to the replacement of fossil fuels. Methane produced from biomass is referred to as bio-methane, green gas, bio-substitute natural gas or renewable natural gas (RNG) when it is used as a transport fuel. Research on upgrading of the cleaned producer gas to RNG is still ongoing. The present study deals with the conversion of woody biomass into fuels, RNG using gasifier. The various effects of parameters like temperature, pressure, and tar formation on conversion were also studied. The complete carbon conversion was observed at 480 °C and tar yield was significantly less. When biomass was gasified with and without catalyst at about 28 s residence time, ~75 % (w/w) and 88 % (w/w) carbon conversion for without and with catalyst was observed. The interest in RNG is growing; several initiatives to demonstrate the thermal-chemical conversion of biomass into methane and/or RNG are under development.

  20. Applications of biochromatography in the screening of bioactive natural products.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Cen; Yang, Feng-Qing; Zuo, Hua-Li; Song, Yue-Lin; Xia, Zhi-Ning; Xiao, Wen

    2013-09-01

    Searching for bioactive compounds from natural resources such as plant materials has become a focus for study. Several models, such as animal (biofluid, organ and tissue) and cellular (several kinds of cell lines), have traditionally been used for this purpose. As a fast, economic and effective way to identify or predict bioactive compounds in complex matrices, biochromatography has developed rapidly during the past years. Combing the properties of traditional chromatography and biomaterials, biochromatographic analysis possesses features of simultaneous screening, separation and structural identification for active compounds in a complex matrix. According to the process, biochromatography can be divided into offline and online approaches. For offline bioextraction, the biomaterials are used as the extraction phase and followed by routine chromatographic analysis. For online biochromatography, the biomaterials are directly used as the stationary phase for chromatographic analysis. This paper reviews the applications of offline bioextraction followed by chromatographic analysis and online biochromatography, including molecular, cell membrane and cell, and artificial biomembrane chromatography in the screening or predicting active compounds from natural sources.

  1. Antiviral Activity of Natural Products Extracted from Marine Organisms

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sobia Tabassum

    2011-11-01

    Full Text Available Many epidemics have broken out over the centuries. Hundreds and thousands of humans have died over a disease. Available treatments for infectious diseases have always been limited. Some infections are more deadly than the others, especially viral pathogens. These pathogens have continuously resisted all kinds of medical treatment, due to a need for new treatments to be developed. Drugs are present in nature and are also synthesized in vitro and they help in combating diseases and restoring health. Synthesizing drugs is a hard and time consuming task, which requires a lot of man power and financial aid. However, the natural compounds are just lying around on the earth, may it be land or water. Over a thousand novel compounds isolated from marine organisms are used as antiviral agents. Others are being pharmacologically tested. Today, over forty antiviral compounds are present in the pharmacological market. Some of these compounds are undergoing clinical and pre-clinical stages. Marine compounds are paving the way for a new trend in modern medicine.

  2. Enzymatic production of human milk oligosaccharides

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Guo, Yao

    Enzymatic treatment of biomass is an environmentally friendly method to obtain a range of value- added products, such as biofuels, animal feed or food ingredients. The objective of this PhD study was to biocatalytically produce biofunctional food ingredients – human milk oligosaccharides decorated...

  3. Effect of natural zeolite on methane production for anaerobic digestion of ammonium rich organic sludge.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tada, Chika; Yang, Yingnan; Hanaoka, Toshiaki; Sonoda, Akinari; Ooi, Kenta; Sawayama, Shigeki

    2005-03-01

    The effect of an inorganic additive on the methane production from NH(4+)-rich organic sludge during anaerobic digestion was investigated using different kinds of inorganic adsorbent zeolites (mordenite, clinoptilolite, zeolite 3A, zeolite 4A), clay mineral (vermiculite), and manganese oxides (hollandite, birnessite). The additions of inorganic materials resulted in significant NH4+ removals from the natural organic sludge ([NH4+]=1, 150 mg N/l), except for the H-type zeolite 3A and birnessite. However, an enhanced methane production was only achieved using natural mordenite. Natural mordenite also enhanced the methane production from the sludge with a markedly high NH4+ concentration (4500 mg N/l) during anaerobic digestion. Chemical analyses of the sludge after the digestion showed considerable increases in the Ca2+ and Mg2+ concentrations in the presence of natural mordenite, but not with synthetic zeolite 3A. The effect of Ca2+ or Mg2+ addition on the methane production was studied using Na(+)-exchanges mordenite and Ca2+ or Mg(2+)-enriched sludge. The simultaneous addition of Ca2+ ions and Na(+)-exchanged mordenite enhanced the methane production; the amount of produced methane was about three times greater than that using only the Na(+)-exchanged mordenite. In addition, comparing the methane production by the addition of natural mordenite or Ca2+ ions, the methane production with natural mordenite was about 1.7 times higher than that with only Ca2+ ions. The addition of 5% and 10% natural mordenite were suitable condition for obtaining a high methane production. These results indicated that the Ca2+ ions, which are released from natural mordenite by a Ca2+/NH4+ exchange, enhanced the methane production of the organic waste at a high NH4+ concentration. Natural mordenite has a synergistic effect on the Ca2+ supply as well on the NH4+ removal during anaerobic digestion, which is effective for the mitigation of NH4+ inhibition against methane production.

  4. Maximization of natural gas liquids production from an

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ahmed Abd El-Kader Bhran

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available It is known that the price of liquefied petroleum gas (LPG is higher than that of natural gas from which it is derived. So the modification of a natural gas plant to produce LPG instead of lighter hydrocarbon gases is very important in the view point of economics. The aim of the present work is directed to the modification of Salam gas plant (Khalda Petroleum Company-Egypt to produce LPG from the NGL instead of producing hydrocarbon gases during the NGL stabilization. This can be achieved after adding de-ethanizer and de-butanizer towers. The simulation tool used in this study is HYSYS version 8.4. The produced LPG of 100 ton/day can participate to solve the LPG shortage problem in Egypt and provide a national service to the people of Matruh Governorate. The economic study based on the economic analyzer of HYSIS showed that the pay-back period of the added two towers and their additional equipment has a high investment strength which means that all modification costs will be recovered within a short time. Furthermore, there are other benefits from this modification. The simulation results showed that there is a capacity saving of 56 tons/day in the export pipeline which transfers the gases to western desert gas complex (WDGC at Alexandria. In the same manner, the modified plant provides a capacity saving of 88 tons/day in the dehydration unit and reduces horse power consumption in recycle and first stage export compressors. This modification can be taken as guidelines for both new and plants in operation to increase their profits.

  5. Human contact imagined during the production process increases food naturalness perceptions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abouab, Nathalie; Gomez, Pierrick

    2015-08-01

    It is well established that food processing and naturalness are not good friends, but is food processing always detrimental to naturalness? Building on the contagion principle, this research examines how production mode (handmade vs. machine-made) influences naturalness perceptions. In a pilot study (n = 69) and an experiment (n = 133), we found that compared with both a baseline condition and a condition in which the mode of production process was portrayed as machine-made, a handmade production mode increases naturalness ratings of a grape juice. A mediation analysis demonstrates that these effects result from higher perceived human contact suggesting that the production process may preserve food naturalness when humanized.

  6. Natural products discovery from micro-organisms in the post-genome era.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ikeda, Haruo

    2017-01-01

    With the decision to award the Nobel Prize in Physiology or Medicine to Drs. S. Ōmura, W.C. Campbell, and Y. Tu, the importance and usefulness of natural drug discovery and development have been revalidated. Since the end of the twentieth century, many genome analyses of organisms have been conducted, and accordingly, numerous microbial genomes have been decoded. In particular, genomic studies of actinomycetes, micro-organisms that readily produce natural products, led to the discovery of biosynthetic gene clusters responsible for producing natural products. New explorations for natural products through a comprehensive approach combining genomic information with conventional methods show great promise for the discovery of new natural products and even systematic generation of unnaturally occurring compounds.

  7. Modified silk fibroin scaffolds with collagen/decellularized pulp for bone tissue engineering in cleft palate: Morphological structures and biofunctionalities

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sangkert, Supaporn [Biological Materials for Medicine Research Unit, Faculty of Medicine, Institute of Biomedical Engineering, Prince of Songkla University, Hat Yai, Songkhla90110 (Thailand); Meesane, Jirut, E-mail: jirutmeesane999@yahoo.co.uk [Biological Materials for Medicine Research Unit, Faculty of Medicine, Institute of Biomedical Engineering, Prince of Songkla University, Hat Yai, Songkhla90110 (Thailand); Kamonmattayakul, Suttatip [Faculty of Dentistry, Department of Preventive Dentistry, Prince of Songkla University, Hat Yai, Songkhla90110 (Thailand); Chai, Wen Lin [Faculty of Dentistry, Department of General Dental Practice and Oral and Maxillofacial Imaging, University of Malaya, Kuala Lumpur (Malaysia)

    2016-01-01

    Cleft palate is a congenital malformation that generates a maxillofacial bone defect around the mouth area. The creation of performance scaffolds for bone tissue engineering in cleft palate is an issue that was proposed in this research. Because of its good biocompatibility, high stability, and non-toxicity, silk fibroin was selected as the scaffold of choice in this research. Silk fibroin scaffolds were prepared by freeze-drying before immerging in a solution of collagen, decellularized pulp, and collagen/decellularized pulp. Then, the immersed scaffolds were freeze-dried. Structural organization in solution was observed by Atomic Force Microscope (AFM). The molecular organization of the solutions and crystal structure of the scaffolds were characterized by Fourier transform infrared (FT-IR) and X-ray diffraction (XRD), respectively. The weight increase of the modified scaffolds and the pore size were determined. The morphology was observed by a scanning electron microscope (SEM). Mechanical properties were tested. Biofunctionalities were considered by seeding osteoblasts in silk fibroin scaffolds before analysis of the cell proliferation, viability, total protein assay, and histological analysis. The results demonstrated that dendrite structure of the fibrils occurred in those solutions. Molecular organization of the components in solution arranged themselves into an irregular structure. The fibrils were deposited in the pores of the modified silk fibroin scaffolds. The modified scaffolds showed a beta-sheet structure. The morphological structure affected the mechanical properties of the silk fibroin scaffolds with and without modification. Following assessment of the biofunctionalities, the modified silk fibroin scaffolds could induce cell proliferation, viability, and total protein particularly in modified silk fibroin with collagen/decellularized pulp. Furthermore, the histological analysis indicated that the cells could adhere in modified silk fibroin

  8. Atmospheric emissions and air quality impacts from natural gas production and use.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Allen, David T

    2014-01-01

    The US Energy Information Administration projects that hydraulic fracturing of shale formations will become a dominant source of domestic natural gas supply over the next several decades, transforming the energy landscape in the United States. However, the environmental impacts associated with fracking for shale gas have made it controversial. This review examines emissions and impacts of air pollutants associated with shale gas production and use. Emissions and impacts of greenhouse gases, photochemically active air pollutants, and toxic air pollutants are described. In addition to the direct atmospheric impacts of expanded natural gas production, indirect effects are also described. Widespread availability of shale gas can drive down natural gas prices, which, in turn, can impact the use patterns for natural gas. Natural gas production and use in electricity generation are used as a case study for examining these indirect consequences of expanded natural gas availability.

  9. Web search and data mining of natural products and their bioactivities in PubChem.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ming, Hao; Tiejun, Cheng; Yanli, Wang; Stephen, Bryant H

    2013-10-01

    Natural products, as major resources for drug discovery historically, are gaining more attentions recently due to the advancement in genomic sequencing and other technologies, which makes them attractive and amenable to drug candidate screening. Collecting and mining the bioactivity information of natural products are extremely important for accelerating drug development process by reducing cost. Lately, a number of publicly accessible databases have been established to facilitate the access to the chemical biology data for small molecules including natural products. Thus, it is imperative for scientists in related fields to exploit these resources in order to expedite their researches on natural products as drug leads/candidates for disease treatment. PubChem, as a public database, contains large amounts of natural products associated with bioactivity data. In this review, we introduce the information system provided at PubChem, and systematically describe the applications for a set of PubChem web services for rapid data retrieval, analysis, and downloading of natural products. We hope this work can serve as a starting point for the researchers to perform data mining on natural products using PubChem.

  10. Natural product-likeness score revisited: an open-source, open-data implementation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jayaseelan Kalai Vanii

    2012-05-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Natural product-likeness of a molecule, i.e. similarity of this molecule to the structure space covered by natural products, is a useful criterion in screening compound libraries and in designing new lead compounds. A closed source implementation of a natural product-likeness score, that finds its application in virtual screening, library design and compound selection, has been previously reported by one of us. In this note, we report an open-source and open-data re-implementation of this scoring system, illustrate its efficiency in ranking small molecules for natural product likeness and discuss its potential applications. Results The Natural-Product-Likeness scoring system is implemented as Taverna 2.2 workflows, and is available under Creative Commons Attribution-Share Alike 3.0 Unported License at http://www.myexperiment.org/packs/183.html. It is also available for download as executable standalone java package from http://sourceforge.net/projects/np-likeness/under Academic Free License. Conclusions Our open-source, open-data Natural-Product-Likeness scoring system can be used as a filter for metabolites in Computer Assisted Structure Elucidation or to select natural-product-like molecules from molecular libraries for the use as leads in drug discovery.

  11. Nature and sustainable energy production. Wind turbines in nature reserves; Natuur en duurzame energieproductie. Windturbines in natuurgebieden

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kistenkas, F.H. [Leerstoelgroep Bos- en Natuurbeleid, Wageningen Universiteit WUR, Wageningen (Netherlands)

    2010-06-15

    Recent case law developments and opportunities within the nature conservation law of Natura 2000 are discussed (ch 2). Next, attention is paid whether or not the literature on nature conservation and climate legislation could provide innovative mindsets for the production of renewable energy in or near a Natura 2000 area. [Dutch] In dit artikel wordt ingegaan op de nieuwste jurisprudentiele ontwikkelingen en mogelijkheden binnen het natuurbeschermingsrecht van Natura 2000 (hfst 2) en vervolgens of ook de natuurbeschermingsrechtelijke en klimaatrechtelijke rechtsliteratuur nog vernieuwende denkrichtingen zou kunnen bieden voor duurzame energieproductie in of nabij een Natura 2000-gebied.

  12. Synthetic Strategies toward Natural Products Containing Contiguous Stereogenic Quaternary Carbon Atoms.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Büschleb, Martin; Dorich, Stéphane; Hanessian, Stephen; Tao, Daniel; Schenthal, Kyle B; Overman, Larry E

    2016-03-18

    Strategies for the total synthesis of complex natural products that contain two or more contiguous stereogenic quaternary carbon atoms in their intricate structures are reviewed with 12 representative examples. Emphasis has been put on methods to create quaternary carbon stereocenters, including syntheses of the same natural product by different groups, thereby showcasing the diversity of thought and individual creativity. A compendium of selected natural products containing two or more contiguous stereogenic quaternary carbon atoms and key reactions in their total or partial syntheses is provided in the Supporting Information.

  13. Natural Products for Management of Oral Mucositis Induced by Radiotherapy and Chemotherapy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aghamohamamdi, Azar; Hosseinimehr, Seyed Jalal

    2016-03-01

    Oral mucositis is a common side effect of systemic chemotherapy and radiotherapy of head and neck in patients with cancer. Severe oral mucositis is painful and affects oral functions, including intake of food and medications and speech. Prevention of oral mucositis affects the life quality of patients. Recent studies have been focused on natural products to improve or reduce this complication. Many clinical trials have been performed to assess natural products for treatment of mucositis and their results are promising. The authors reviewed the evidence for natural products in the prevention and treatment of oral mucositis induced by radiation therapy and chemotherapy.

  14. Recent Advances in the Total Synthesis of Tetramic Acid-Containing Natural Products

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wen-Ju Bai

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available With incredible bioactivities and fascinating structural complexities, tetramic acid- (TA- containing natural products have attracted favorable attention among the organic chemistry community. Although the construction of the TA core is usually straightforward, the intricate C3-side chain sometimes asks for some deliberative strategy so as to fulfill an elegant total synthesis. This review mainly covers some exceptional synthetic examples for each type of natural product in recent years, showcasing the great achievements as well as unsettled obstacles in this area, in the hope of accelerating the synthetic and biological investigations for this unique type of natural product.

  15. EFFECTS OF OIL AND NATURAL GAS PRICES ON INDUSTRIAL PRODUCTION IN THE EUROZONE MEMBER COUNTRIES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yılmaz BAYAR

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available Industrial production is one of the leading indicators of gross domestic product which reflects the overall economic performance of a country. In other words decreases or increases in industrial production point out a contracting or expanding economy. Therefore, changes in prices of oil and natural gas which are the crucial inputs to the industrial production are also important for the overall economy. This study examines the effects of changes in oil and natural gas prices on the industrial production in the 18 Eurozone member countries during the period January 2001-September 2013 by using panel regression. We found that oil prices and natural gas prices had negative effect on industrial production in the Eurozone member countries.

  16. Fermentation of Allium chinense Bulbs With Lactobacillus plantarum ZDY 2013 Shows Enhanced Biofunctionalities, and Nutritional and Chemical Properties.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pan, Mingfang; Wu, Qinglong; Tao, Xueying; Wan, Cuixiang; Shah, Nagendra P; Wei, Hua

    2015-10-01

    In this study, fermentation of Allium chinense bulbs was carried out with Lactobacillus plantarum ZDY 2013. A decrease in pH from 6.8 to 3.5 and a stable lactic acid bacteria population were observed during 7-d fermentation. The total phenolic content increased by 2.7-fold in the aqueous and ethanol extracts of A. chinense bulbs after fermentation. Antioxidant capacity including 2,2-diphenyl-1-picrylhydrazyl radical-scavenging effect and reducing power of both extracts was significantly (P fermentation. Antagonistic test against 6 pathogens showed that fermentation significantly (P fermented bulbs, especially in the ethanol extracts of fermented bulbs against L. monocytogenes. Analysis of the free amino acid (FAA) profile by ion-exchange chromatography revealed that fermentation significantly (P fermentation. Our results suggested that fermentation of A. chinense bulbs with L. plantarum could improve their biofunctionalities, and nutritional and chemical properties.

  17. NATURAL PRODUCTS AS PRESERVATIVES FOR FAST GROWTH WOODS - A REVIEW

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ricardo Marques Barreiros

    2011-11-01

    Full Text Available Normal 0 21 false false false PT-BR X-NONE X-NONE /* Style Definitions */ table.MsoNormalTable {mso-style-name:"Tabela normal"; mso-tstyle-rowband-size:0; mso-tstyle-colband-size:0; mso-style-noshow:yes; mso-style-priority:99; mso-style-qformat:yes; mso-style-parent:""; mso-padding-alt:0cm 5.4pt 0cm 5.4pt; mso-para-margin:0cm; mso-para-margin-bottom:.0001pt; mso-pagination:widow-orphan; font-size:11.0pt; font-family:"Calibri","sans-serif"; mso-ascii-font-family:Calibri; mso-ascii-theme-font:minor-latin; mso-fareast-font-family:"Times New Roman"; mso-fareast-theme-font:minor-fareast; mso-hansi-font-family:Calibri; mso-hansi-theme-font:minor-latin; mso-bidi-font-family:"Times New Roman"; mso-bidi-theme-font:minor-bidi;} Wood is a universal material, economic, historic and sustainable. The paucity of species resistant to biological degradation forced man to use other less durable, especially fast growing, from reforestation, as some species of Eucalyptus and Pinus. These species have moderate or no resistance to wood decay organisms need special treatment and preservatives. The products currently used preservatives are highly toxic and are potential environmental hazards and human health. Thus, there is a growing need to develop effective chemicals, non-toxic to humans and the environment. The direction of research has aimed to develop environmentally friendly products and economic viability, and an alternative is the use of Crude Tall Oil (CTO, which is a waste processing coniferous softwood pulp for the production of kraft paper. The tall oil as a protective agent, has been considered a promising method for significantly reducing the capillary water absorption of sapwood, thereby removing one of the factors that favor the wood being attacked by fungi and insects: water, oxygen and nutrients. Research shows that the tall oil can be used neat, either fresh or distilled, or in combination with biocides.A madeira é um material universal, econ

  18. Structure elucidation of uniformly 13C labeled small molecule natural products.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reibarkh, Mikhail; Wyche, Thomas P; Saurí, Josep; Bugni, Tim S; Martin, Gary E; Williamson, R Thomas

    2015-12-01

    Utilization of isotopically labeled proteins and peptides is a routinely employed approach in biomolecular NMR investigations. The widespread availability of inexpensive, uniformly (13) C-enriched glucose now makes it possible to produce uniformly (13) C-labeled natural products by microbial fermentation. In this feature article, the authors describe an experimental approach for the rapid structural characterization of uniformly (13) C-labeled natural products based on the Constant-Time HSQC (CT-HSQC) experiment. Rigorous theoretical evaluation of the CT-HSQC experiment allowed the applicability of the experiment to be expanded from the traditional, narrow scope of labeled amino acids to encompass virtually any small molecule or U-(13) C labeled natural product. A suite of experiments including CT-HSQC, (13) C-(13) C COSY, and COSYLR experiments is sufficient for the structure elucidation of uniformly (13) C-labeled small molecules and natural products. Differences in NMR approaches for structure elucidation of natural abundance and uniformly (13) C-labeled molecules are also discussed. The present work provides a researcher working in this area of natural products chemistry with NMR structure elucidation tools for investigating (13) C-labeled small molecules and natural products.

  19. Review of natural products actions on cytokines in inflammatory bowel disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hur, Sun Jin; Kang, Sung Ho; Jung, Ho Sung; Kim, Sang Chul; Jeon, Hyun Soo; Kim, Ick Hee; Lee, Jae Dong

    2012-11-01

    The purpose of this review is to provide an overview of the effects that natural products have on inflammatory bowel disease (IBD) and to provide insight into the relationship between these natural products and cytokines modulation. More than 100 studies from the past 10 years were reviewed herein on the therapeutic approaches for treating IBD. The natural products having anti-IBD actions included phytochemicals, antioxidants, microorganisms, dietary fibers, and lipids. The literature revealed that many of these natural products exert anti-IBD activity by altering cytokine production. Specifically, phytochemicals such as polyphenols or flavonoids are the most abundant, naturally occurring anti-IBD substances. The anti-IBD effects of lipids were primarily related to the n-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids. The anti-IBD effects of phytochemicals were associated with modulating the levels of tumor necrosis factor α (TNF-α), interleukin (IL)-1, IL-6, inducible nitric oxide synthase, and myeloperoxide. The anti-IBD effects of dietary fiber were mainly mediated via peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor-γ, TNF-α, nitric oxide, and IL-2, whereas the anti-IBD effects of lactic acid bacteria were reported to influence interferon-γ, IL-6, IL-12, TNF-α, and nuclear factor-κ light-chain enhancer of activated B cells. These results suggest that the anti-IBD effects exhibited by natural products are mainly caused by their ability to modulate cytokine production. However, the exact mechanism of action of natural products for IBD therapy is still unclear. Thus, future research is needed to examine the effect of these natural products on IBD and to determine which factors are most strongly correlated with reducing IBD or controlling the symptoms of IBD.

  20. Thiol Probes To Detect Electrophilic Natural Products Based on Their Mechanism of Action.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Castro-Falcón, Gabriel; Hahn, Dongyup; Reimer, Daniela; Hughes, Chambers C

    2016-08-19

    New methods are urgently needed to find novel natural products as structural leads for the development of new drugs against emerging diseases such as cancer and multiresistant bacterial infections. Here we introduce a reactivity-guided drug discovery approach for electrophilic natural products, a therapeutically relevant class of natural products that covalently modify their cellular targets, in crude extracts. Using carefully designed halogenated aromatic reagents, the process furnishes derivatives that are UV-active and highly conspicuous via mass spectrometry by virtue of an isotopically unique bromine or chlorine tag. In addition to the identification of high-value metabolites, the process facilitates the difficult task of structure elucidation by providing derivatives that are primed for X-ray crystallographic analysis. We show that a cysteine probe efficiently and chemoselectively labels enone-, β-lactam-, and β-lactone-based electrophilic natural products (parthenolide, andrographolide, wortmannin, penicillin G, salinosporamide), while a thiophenol probe preferentially labels epoxide-based electrophilic natural products (triptolide, epoxomicin, eponemycin, cyclomarin, salinamide). Using the optimized method, we were able to detect and isolate the epoxide-bearing natural product tirandalydigin from Salinispora and thereby link an orphan gene cluster to its gene product.

  1. Discovery of New Compounds Active against Plasmodium falciparum by High Throughput Screening of Microbial Natural Products

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pérez-Moreno, Guiomar; Cantizani, Juan; Sánchez-Carrasco, Paula; Ruiz-Pérez, Luis Miguel; Martín, Jesús; el Aouad, Noureddine; Pérez-Victoria, Ignacio; Tormo, José Rubén; González-Menendez, Víctor; González, Ignacio; de Pedro, Nuria; Reyes, Fernando; Genilloud, Olga; Vicente, Francisca; González-Pacanowska, Dolores

    2016-01-01

    Due to the low structural diversity within the set of antimalarial drugs currently available in the clinic and the increasing number of cases of resistance, there is an urgent need to find new compounds with novel modes of action to treat the disease. Microbial natural products are characterized by their large diversity provided in terms of the chemical complexity of the compounds and the novelty of structures. Microbial natural products extracts have been underexplored in the search for new antiparasitic drugs and even more so in the discovery of new antimalarials. Our objective was to find new druggable natural products with antimalarial properties from the MEDINA natural products collection, one of the largest natural product libraries harboring more than 130,000 microbial extracts. In this work, we describe the optimization process and the results of a phenotypic high throughput screen (HTS) based on measurements of Plasmodium lactate dehydrogenase. A subset of more than 20,000 extracts from the MEDINA microbial products collection has been explored, leading to the discovery of 3 new compounds with antimalarial activity. In addition, we report on the novel antiplasmodial activity of 4 previously described natural products. PMID:26735308

  2. Discovery of New Compounds Active against Plasmodium falciparum by High Throughput Screening of Microbial Natural Products.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pérez-Moreno, Guiomar; Cantizani, Juan; Sánchez-Carrasco, Paula; Ruiz-Pérez, Luis Miguel; Martín, Jesús; El Aouad, Noureddine; Pérez-Victoria, Ignacio; Tormo, José Rubén; González-Menendez, Víctor; González, Ignacio; de Pedro, Nuria; Reyes, Fernando; Genilloud, Olga; Vicente, Francisca; González-Pacanowska, Dolores

    2016-01-01

    Due to the low structural diversity within the set of antimalarial drugs currently available in the clinic and the increasing number of cases of resistance, there is an urgent need to find new compounds with novel modes of action to treat the disease. Microbial natural products are characterized by their large diversity provided in terms of the chemical complexity of the compounds and the novelty of structures. Microbial natural products extracts have been underexplored in the search for new antiparasitic drugs and even more so in the discovery of new antimalarials. Our objective was to find new druggable natural products with antimalarial properties from the MEDINA natural products collection, one of the largest natural product libraries harboring more than 130,000 microbial extracts. In this work, we describe the optimization process and the results of a phenotypic high throughput screen (HTS) based on measurements of Plasmodium lactate dehydrogenase. A subset of more than 20,000 extracts from the MEDINA microbial products collection has been explored, leading to the discovery of 3 new compounds with antimalarial activity. In addition, we report on the novel antiplasmodial activity of 4 previously described natural products.

  3. Soil Properties and Plant Biomass Production in Natural Rangeland Management Systems

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Romeu de Souza Werner

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT Improper management of rangelands can cause land degradation and reduce the economic efficiency of livestock activity. The aim of this study was to evaluate soil properties and quantify plant biomass production in four natural rangeland management systems in the Santa Catarina Plateau (Planalto Catarinense of Brazil. The treatments, which included mowed natural rangeland (NR, burned natural rangeland (BR, natural rangeland improved through the introduction of plant species after harrowing (IH, and natural rangeland improved through the introduction of plant species after chisel plowing (IC, were evaluated in a Nitossolo Bruno (Nitisol. In the improved treatments, soil acidity was corrected, phosphate fertilizer was applied, and intercropped annual ryegrass (Lolium multiflorum, velvet grass (Holcus lanatus, and white clover (Trifolium repens were sown. Management systems with harrowed or chisel plowed soil showed improved soil physical properties; however, the effect decreased over time and values approached those of burned and mowed natural rangelands. Natural rangeland systems in the establishment phase had little influence on soil organic C. The mowed natural rangeland and improved natural rangeland exhibited greater production of grazing material, while burning the field decreased production and increased the proportion of weeds. Improvement of the natural rangelands increased leguminous biomass for pasture.

  4. Antifungal activity of different natural dyes against traditional products affected fungal pathogens

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    R Mari selvam; AJA Ranjit Singh; K Kalirajan

    2012-01-01

    Objective: In the present study to evaluate the anti fungal activity of natural dyes against traditional products affected fungal pathogens. Methods: Many traditional craft products affected fungal pathogens were isolated using potato dextrose agar medium. The isolated fungus were identified by morphological and microscopically characterization using Alexopolus manual. 50μl of Turmeric, Terminalli, Guava and Henna natural dyes were poured into the wells of the culture plates. If antifungal activity was present on the plates, it was indicated by an inhibition zone surrounding the well containing the natural dye. Result: At a dose level of 50μl of terminalli dye was able to inhibit the growth of all the fungi tested. The absorbance rate of natural dyes analyzed by UV Spectrophotometer. The absorbance rate is high in terminalli (2.266) and turmeric (2.255). Conclusions: Natural dyes were bound with traditional products to give good colour and good antimicrobial activity against isolated fungal pathogens.

  5. Cyclic Sulfamidate Enabled Syntheses of Amino Acids, Peptides, Carbohydrates, and Natural Products

    Science.gov (United States)

    This article reviews the emergence of cyclic sulfamidates as versatile intermediatesfor the synthesis of unnatural amino acids, chalcogen peptides, modified sugars, drugs and drug candidates, and important natural products.

  6. Anti-Biofilm Performance of Three Natural Products against Initial Bacterial Attachment

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Keith R. Stokes

    2013-11-01

    Full Text Available Marine bacteria contribute significantly towards the fouling consortium, both directly (modern foul release coatings fail to prevent “slime” attachment and indirectly (biofilms often excrete chemical cues that attract macrofouling settlement. This study assessed the natural product anti-biofilm performance of an extract of the seaweed, Chondrus crispus, and two isolated compounds from terrestrial sources, (+-usnic acid and juglone, against two marine biofilm forming bacteria, Cobetia marina and Marinobacter hydrocarbonoclasticus. Bioassays were developed using quantitative imaging and fluorescent labelling to test the natural products over a range of concentrations against initial bacterial attachment. All natural products affected bacterial attachment; however, juglone demonstrated the best anti-biofilm performance against both bacterial species at a concentration range between 5–20 ppm. In addition, for the first time, a dose-dependent inhibition (hormetic response was observed for natural products against marine biofilm forming bacteria.

  7. Pregnane X receptor and natural products: beyond drug-drug interactions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Staudinger, Jeff L; Ding, Xunshan; Lichti, Kristin

    2006-12-01

    The pregnane X receptor (PXR, NR1I2) is a member of the nuclear receptor superfamily that is activated by a myriad of compounds and natural products in clinical use. Activation of PXR represents the basis for several clinically important drug-drug interactions. Although PXR activation has undesirable effects in patients on combination therapy, it also mediates the hepatoprotective effects exhibited by some herbal remedies. This review focuses on PXR activation by natural products and the potential therapeutic opportunities presented. In particular, the biological effects of St. John's Wort, gugulipid, kava kava, Coleus forskolii, Hypoxis, Sutherlandia, qing hao, wu wei zi, gan cao and other natural products are discussed. The impact of these natural products on drug metabolism and hepatoprotection is highlighted in the context of activation and antagonism of PXR.

  8. Pregnane X receptor and natural products: beyond drug–drug interactions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Staudinger, Jeff L; Ding, Xunshan; Lichti, Kristin

    2010-01-01

    The pregnane X receptor (PXR, NR1I2) is a member of the nuclear receptor superfamily that is activated by a myriad of compounds and natural products in clinical use. Activation of PXR represents the basis for several clinically important drug–drug interactions. Although PXR activation has undesirable effects in patients on combination therapy, it also mediates the hepatoprotective effects exhibited by some herbal remedies. This review focuses on PXR activation by natural products and the potential therapeutic opportunities presented. In particular, the biological effects of St. John’s Wort, gugulipid, kava kava, Coleus forskolii, Hypoxis, Sutherlandia, qing hao, wu wei zi, gan cao and other natural products are discussed. The impact of these natural products on drug metabolism and hepatoprotection is highlighted in the context of activation and antagonism of PXR. PMID:17125405

  9. Recent advances in natural products from plants for treatment of liver diseases.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Aihua; Sun, Hui; Wang, Xijun

    2013-05-01

    Liver disease is any condition that may cause liver inflammation or tissue damage and affects liver function. Natural products that are found in vegetables, fruits, plant extracts, herbs, insects, and animals, have been traditionally used for treating liver diseases. They are chemical compounds that usually have biological activities for use in drug discovery and design. Many natural products have been clinically available as potent hepatoprotective agents against commonly occurring liver diseases. This review summarizes the current progress in the basic, clinical, and translational research on natural products in treatment of various liver diseases. Furthermore, we will focus on the discovery and biological evaluation of the natural products, which shows potential as a new therapeutic agent of liver diseases.

  10. Automated identification of depsipeptide natural products by an informatic search algorithm.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Skinnider, Michael A; Johnston, Chad W; Zvanych, Rostyslav; Magarvey, Nathan A

    2015-01-19

    Nonribosomal depsipeptides are a class of potent microbial natural products, which include several clinically approved pharmaceutical agents. Genome sequencing has revealed a large number of uninvestigated natural-product biosynthetic gene clusters. However, while novel informatic search methods to access these gene clusters have been developed to identify peptide natural products, depsipeptide detection has proven challenging. Herein, we present an improved version of our informatic search algorithm for natural products (iSNAP), which facilitates the detection of known and genetically predicted depsipeptides in complex microbial culture extracts. We validated this technology by identifying several depsipeptides from novel producers, and located a large number of novel depsipeptide gene clusters for future study. This approach highlights the value of chemoinformatic search methods for the discovery of genetically encoded metabolites by targeting specific areas of chemical space.

  11. Evolution of a Natural Products and Nutraceuticals Course in the Pharmacy Curriculum.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Geldenhuys, Werner J; Cudnik, Michelle L; Krinsky, Daniel L; Darvesh, Altaf S

    2015-08-25

    Objective. To develop, implement, and modify a required, second-year pharmacy course that provides an understanding of the scientific, therapeutic, and clinical principles, as well as the evidence-based medicine underlying the use of natural products. Design. A 28-hour, multi-faculty course was developed and offered in 2008. The course was modified over the years to enhance students' practice skills in the use of natural products. A course evaluation and survey were administered to assess the students' opinions. Assessment. Students performed well in the course and provided favorable evaluations, especially for the latest offering. Students reported significantly improved skills in providing advice to patients regarding the use of natural products. Conclusion. The course increased the students' knowledge and application of information and counseling skills regarding natural products.

  12. Systems Pharmacology‐Based Discovery of Natural Products for Precision Oncology Through Targeting Cancer Mutated Genes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fang, J; Cai, C; Wang, Q; Lin, P

    2017-01-01

    Massive cancer genomics data have facilitated the rapid revolution of a novel oncology drug discovery paradigm through targeting clinically relevant driver genes or mutations for the development of precision oncology. Natural products with polypharmacological profiles have been demonstrated as promising agents for the development of novel cancer therapies. In this study, we developed an integrated systems pharmacology framework that facilitated identifying potential natural products that target mutated genes across 15 cancer types or subtypes in the realm of precision medicine. High performance was achieved for our systems pharmacology framework. In case studies, we computationally identified novel anticancer indications for several US Food and Drug Administration‐approved or clinically investigational natural products (e.g., resveratrol, quercetin, genistein, and fisetin) through targeting significantly mutated genes in multiple cancer types. In summary, this study provides a powerful tool for the development of molecularly targeted cancer therapies through targeting the clinically actionable alterations by exploiting the systems pharmacology of natural products. PMID:28294568

  13. Pregnane X receptor and natural products: beyond drug–drug interactions

    OpenAIRE

    Staudinger, Jeff L.; Ding, Xunshan; Lichti, Kristin

    2006-01-01

    The pregnane X receptor (PXR, NR1I2) is a member of the nuclear receptor superfamily that is activated by a myriad of compounds and natural products in clinical use. Activation of PXR represents the basis for several clinically important drug–drug interactions. Although PXR activation has undesirable effects in patients on combination therapy, it also mediates the hepatoprotective effects exhibited by some herbal remedies. This review focuses on PXR activation by natural products and the pote...

  14. Web search and data mining of natural products and their bioactivities in PubChem

    OpenAIRE

    Ming, Hao; Tiejun, Cheng; Yanli, Wang; Stephen, Bryant H.

    2013-01-01

    Natural products, as major resources for drug discovery historically, are gaining more attentions recently due to the advancement in genomic sequencing and other technologies, which makes them attractive and amenable to drug candidate screening. Collecting and mining the bioactivity information of natural products are extremely important for accelerating drug development process by reducing cost. Lately, a number of publicly accessible databases have been established to facilitate the access ...

  15. De novo synthesis of natural products via the asymmetric hydration of polyenes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Yanping; Xing, Yalan; Zhang, Qi; O'Doherty, George A

    2011-08-14

    For the last ten years our group has been working toward the development of an asymmetric hydration approach to polyketide natural products based on the regioselective hydration of di- and tri-enoates. Key to the success of this approach is the recognition that both high regiocontrol and asymmetric induction could be obtained by the use of a Sharpless asymmetric dihydroxylation reaction. Herein we describe the development of the method and its application to natural product total synthesis.

  16. Collision-Induced Dissociation Mass Spectrometry: A Powerful Tool for Natural Product Structure Elucidation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Johnson, Andrew R; Carlson, Erin E

    2015-11-01

    Mass spectrometry is a powerful tool in natural product structure elucidation, but our ability to directly correlate fragmentation spectra to these structures lags far behind similar efforts in peptide sequencing and proteomics. Often, manual data interpretation is required and our knowledge of the expected fragmentation patterns for many scaffolds is limited, further complicating analysis. Here, we summarize advances in natural product structure elucidation based upon the application of collision induced dissociation fragmentation mechanisms.

  17. Chemical analyses of wasp-associated streptomyces bacteria reveal a prolific potential for natural products discovery

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Poulsen, Michael; Oh, Dong-Chan; Clardy, Jon;

    2011-01-01

    Identifying new sources for small molecule discovery is necessary to help mitigate the continuous emergence of antibiotic-resistance in pathogenic microbes. Recent studies indicate that one potentially rich source of novel natural products is Actinobacterial symbionts associated with social...... phylogenetically diverse and chemically prolific Actinobacteria from solitary wasps suggests that insect-associated Actinobacteria can provide a valuable source of novel natural products of pharmaceutical interest....

  18. Natural Products as Sources of New Drugs from 1981 to 2014.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Newman, David J; Cragg, Gordon M

    2016-03-25

    This contribution is a completely updated and expanded version of the four prior analogous reviews that were published in this journal in 1997, 2003, 2007, and 2012. In the case of all approved therapeutic agents, the time frame has been extended to cover the 34 years from January 1, 1981, to December 31, 2014, for all diseases worldwide, and from 1950 (earliest so far identified) to December 2014 for all approved antitumor drugs worldwide. As mentioned in the 2012 review, we have continued to utilize our secondary subdivision of a "natural product mimic", or "NM", to join the original primary divisions and the designation "natural product botanical", or "NB", to cover those botanical "defined mixtures" now recognized as drug entities by the U.S. FDA (and similar organizations). From the data presented in this review, the utilization of natural products and/or their novel structures, in order to discover and develop the final drug entity, is still alive and well. For example, in the area of cancer, over the time frame from around the 1940s to the end of 2014, of the 175 small molecules approved, 131, or 75%, are other than "S" (synthetic), with 85, or 49%, actually being either natural products or directly derived therefrom. In other areas, the influence of natural product structures is quite marked, with, as expected from prior information, the anti-infective area being dependent on natural products and their structures. We wish to draw the attention of readers to the rapidly evolving recognition that a significant number of natural product drugs/leads are actually produced by microbes and/or microbial interactions with the "host from whence it was isolated", and therefore it is considered that this area of natural product research should be expanded significantly.

  19. Natural Products as Tools for Neuroscience: Discovery and Development of Novel Agents to Treat Drug Abuse⊥

    OpenAIRE

    2009-01-01

    Much of what we know about the neurosciences is the direct result of studying psychoactive natural products. Unfortunately, there are many gaps in our understanding of the basic biological processes that contribute to the etiology of many CNS disorders. The investigation of psychoactive natural products offers an excellent approach to identify novel agents to treat CNS disorders and to find new chemical tools to better elucidate their biological mechanisms. This review will detail recent prog...

  20. Tolerance of natural baby skin-care products on healthy, full-term infants and toddlers

    OpenAIRE

    Coret CD; Suero MB; Tierney NK

    2014-01-01

    Catherine D Coret, Michael B Suero, Neena K Tierney Johnson & Johnson Consumer Companies, Inc, Skillman, NJ, USA Purpose: To evaluate the tolerance of baby skin-care products with at least 95% naturally derived ingredients on infants and toddlers. Materials and methods: Healthy, full-term infants and toddlers aged 1–36 months were enrolled. In study 1, a lightly fragranced natural baby hair and body wash (n=30), a lightly fragranced natural baby shampoo (n=30), or a lightly...

  1. Gene Discovery for Synthetic Biology: Exploring the Novel Natural Product Biosynthetic Capacity of Eukaryotic Microalgae.

    Science.gov (United States)

    O'Neill, E C; Saalbach, G; Field, R A

    2016-01-01

    Eukaryotic microalgae are an incredibly diverse group of organisms whose sole unifying feature is their ability to photosynthesize. They are known for producing a range of potent toxins, which can build up during harmful algal blooms causing damage to ecosystems and fisheries. Genome sequencing is lagging behind in these organisms because of their genetic complexity, but transcriptome sequencing is beginning to make up for this deficit. As more sequence data becomes available, it is apparent that eukaryotic microalgae possess a range of complex natural product biosynthesis capabilities. Some of the genes concerned are responsible for the biosynthesis of known toxins, but there are many more for which we do not know the products. Bioinformatic and analytical techniques have been developed for natural product discovery in bacteria and these approaches can be used to extract information about the products synthesized by algae. Recent analyses suggest that eukaryotic microalgae produce many complex natural products that remain to be discovered.

  2. The Continuing Development of E. coli as a Heterologous Host for Complex Natural Product Biosynthesis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Haoran; Fang, Lei; Osburne, Marcia S; Pfeifer, Blaine A

    2016-01-01

    Heterologous biosynthesis of natural products is meant to enable access to the vast array of valuable properties associated with these compounds. Often motivated by limitations inherent in native production hosts, the heterologous biosynthetic process begins with a candidate host regarded as technically advanced relative to original producing organisms. Given this requirement, E. coli has been a top choice for heterologous biosynthesis attempts as associated recombinant tools emerged and continue to develop. However, success requires overcoming challenges associated with natural product formation, including complex biosynthetic pathways and the need for metabolic support. These two challenges have been heavily featured in cellular engineering efforts completed to position E. coli as a viable surrogate host. This chapter outlines steps taken to engineer E. coli with an emphasis on genetic manipulations designed to support the heterologous production of polyketide, nonribosomal peptide, and similarly complex natural products.

  3. Recent Advances and Applications of Experimental Technologies in Marine Natural Product Research

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ke Li

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available Marine natural products are a rich source of novel and biologically active compounds. The number of identified marine natural compounds has grown 20% over the last five years from 2009 to 2013. Several challenges, including sample collection and structure elucidation, have limited the development of this research field. Nonetheless, new approaches, such as sampling strategies for organisms from extreme ocean environments, nanoscale NMR and computational chemistry for structural determination, are now available to overcome the barriers. In this review, we highlight the experimental technology innovations in the field of marine natural products, which in our view will lead to the development of many new drugs in the future.

  4. Walking in the woods with quantum chemistry--applications of quantum chemical calculations in natural products research.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tantillo, Dean J

    2013-08-01

    This Highlight describes applications of quantum chemical calculations to problems in natural products chemistry, including the elucidation of natural product structures (distinguishing between constitutional isomers, distinguishing between diastereomers, and assigning absolute configuration) and determination of reasonable mechanisms for their formation.

  5. Structure-Activity Relationships of the Bioactive Thiazinoquinone Marine Natural Products Thiaplidiaquinones A and B

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jacquie L. Harper

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available In an effort to more accurately define the mechanism of cell death and to establish structure-activity relationship requirements for the marine meroterpenoid alkaloids thiaplidiaquinones A and B, we have evaluated not only the natural products but also dioxothiazine regioisomers and two precursor quinones in a range of bioassays. While the natural products were found to be weak inducers of ROS in Jurkat cells, the dioxothiazine regioisomer of thiaplidiaquinone A and a synthetic precursor to thiaplidiaquinone B were found to be moderately potent inducers. Intriguingly, and in contrast to previous reports, the mechanism of Jurkat cell death (necrosis vs. apoptosis was found to be dependent upon the positioning of one of the geranyl sidechains in the compounds with thiaplidiaquinone A and its dioxothiazine regioisomer causing death dominantly by necrosis, while thiaplidiaquinone B and its dioxothiazine isomer caused cell death via apoptosis. The dioxothiazine regioisomer of thiaplidiaquinone A exhibited more potent in vitro antiproliferative activity against human tumor cells, with NCI sub-panel selectivity towards melanoma cell lines. The non-natural dioxothiazine regioisomers were also more active in antiplasmodial and anti-farnesyltransferase assays than their natural product counterparts. The results highlight the important role that natural product total synthesis can play in not only helping understand the structural basis of biological activity of natural products, but also the discovery of new bioactive scaffolds.

  6. Natural Products to Counteract the Epidemic of Cardiovascular and Metabolic Disorders

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Birgit Waltenberger

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available Natural products have always been exploited to promote health and served as a valuable source for the discovery of new drugs. In this review, the great potential of natural compounds and medicinal plants for the treatment or prevention of cardiovascular and metabolic disorders, global health problems with rising prevalence, is addressed. Special emphasis is laid on natural products for which efficacy and safety have already been proven and which are in clinical trials, as well as on plants used in traditional medicine. Potential benefits from certain dietary habits and dietary constituents, as well as common molecular targets of natural products, are also briefly discussed. A glimpse at the history of statins and biguanides, two prominent representatives of natural products (or their derivatives in the fight against metabolic disease, is also included. The present review aims to serve as an “opening” of this special issue of Molecules, presenting key historical developments, recent advances, and future perspectives outlining the potential of natural products for prevention or therapy of cardiovascular and metabolic disease.

  7. Screening for Marine Natural Products with Potential as Chemotherapeutics for Acute Myeloid Leukemia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hansen, Espen; Andersen, Jeanette H

    2016-01-01

    Nature is an important source for anti-cancer therapeutics, and nearly half of the currently marketed cancer drugs are derived from natural products. Most of the therapeutic natural products are derived from terrestrial sources, such as paclitaxel, vincristine, epothilones, doxorubicin, etoposide and camptothecin. However, the oceans have received growing interest as a source for new useful bioactive compounds, and there are currently several drugs derived from marine natural products for the treatment of cancer on the market. The current recommended chemotherapy of acute myeloid leukemia (AML) is founded on cytarabine, a molecule derived from a natural product isolated from a marine sponge. However, in order to increase the efficiency of the chemotherapy used in the treatment of AML, it is necessary to develop more targeted drugs with less pronounced side effects. In this review, we argue that marine natural products have many of the desired properties of such a drug, and that prefractionated extract libraries of marine plants, animals and microorganisms should be a part of the screening efforts for new AML chemotherapeutics.

  8. Chemo- and site-selective derivatizations of natural products enabling biological studies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Robles, Omar; Romo, Daniel

    2014-03-01

    Bioactive natural products and derivatives remain an enduring starting point for the discovery of new cellular targets for disease intervention and lead compounds for the development of new therapeutic agents. The former goal is accomplished through the synthesis of bioactive cellular probes from natural products, enabling insights into the mechanism of action of these natural products by classical affinity chromatography or more recent proteome profiling methods. However, the direct and selective modification of native natural products for these purposes remains a challenge due to the structural complexity and the wide functional group diversity found in these natural substances. The lack of selective synthetic methods available to directly manipulate unprotected complex small molecules, in particular to perform structure-activity relationship studies and prepare appropriate cellular probes, has recently begun to be addressed, benefitting from the broader emerging area of chemoselective synthetic methodology. Thus, new reagents, catalysts and reaction processes are enabling both chemo- and site-selective modifications of complex, native natural products. In this review, we describe selected recent examples of these functionalization strategies in this emerging area.

  9. Natural Products to Counteract the Epidemic of Cardiovascular and Metabolic Disorders.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Waltenberger, Birgit; Mocan, Andrei; Šmejkal, Karel; Heiss, Elke H; Atanasov, Atanas G

    2016-06-22

    Natural products have always been exploited to promote health and served as a valuable source for the discovery of new drugs. In this review, the great potential of natural compounds and medicinal plants for the treatment or prevention of cardiovascular and metabolic disorders, global health problems with rising prevalence, is addressed. Special emphasis is laid on natural products for which efficacy and safety have already been proven and which are in clinical trials, as well as on plants used in traditional medicine. Potential benefits from certain dietary habits and dietary constituents, as well as common molecular targets of natural products, are also briefly discussed. A glimpse at the history of statins and biguanides, two prominent representatives of natural products (or their derivatives) in the fight against metabolic disease, is also included. The present review aims to serve as an "opening" of this special issue of Molecules, presenting key historical developments, recent advances, and future perspectives outlining the potential of natural products for prevention or therapy of cardiovascular and metabolic disease.

  10. Natural products as sources of new lead compounds for the treatment of Alzheimer's disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huang, Ling; Su, Tao; Li, Xingshu

    2013-01-01

    Alzheimer's disease (AD) is the most prevalent form of dementia and affects approximately 24 million people worldwide. One possible approach for the treatment of this disease is the restoration of the level of acetylcholine (ACh) through the inhibition of acetylcholinesterase (AChE) with reversible inhibitors. Naturally occurring alkaloids are an important source of AChE inhibitors. Galantamine and huperzine A have been used for the clinical treatment of AD patients. In this review, we summarise the natural products and their derivatives that were reported to act as AChE inhibitors for the treatment of AD in 2010-2013. Several characteristics were summarised from the literature results: 1) Amongst all of the natural products with AChE inhibitory activity, alkaloids appear to be the most promising compound class. 2) Coumarins, flavonoids, stilbenes, and other natural products are also important AChE inhibitors from natural products. Among these inhibitors, 146 (IC50 = 0.573 µM) was identified as the most potent AChE inhibitor. 3) A coumarin derivative (117, IC50 = 0.11 nM) exhibited more than 100-fold superior activity compared with the reference drug donepezil hydrochloride (IC50 = 14 nM). In conclusion, natural products and their derivatives are promising leads for the development of new drugs for the future treatment of AD.

  11. Natural radiation - a perspective to radiological risk factors of nuclear energy production

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mustonen, R.; Christensen, T.; Stranden, E.

    1992-01-01

    Radiation doses from natural radiation and from man-made modifications on natural radiation, and different natural radiological environments in the Nordic countries are summarized and used as a perspective for the radiological consequences of nuclear energy production. The significance of different...... radiation sources can be judged against the total collective effective dose equivalent from natural radiation in the Nordic countries, 92 000 manSv per year. The collective dose from nuclear energy production during normal operation is estimated to 20 manSv per year and from non-nuclear energy production...... to 80 manSv per year. The increase in collective dose due to the conservation of heating energy in Nordic dwellings is estimated to 23 000 manSv per year, from 1973 to 1984. An indirect radiological danger index is defined in order to be able to compare the significance of estimated future releases...

  12. Modulation of Toll-like receptor signaling in innate immunity by natural products.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Luxi; Yu, Jianhua

    2016-08-01

    For centuries, natural products and their derivatives have provided a rich source of compounds for the development of new immunotherapies in the treatment of human disease. Many of these compounds are currently undergoing clinical trials, particularly as anti-oxidative, anti-microbial, and anti-cancer agents. However, the function and mechanism of natural products in how they interact with our immune system has yet to be extensively explored. Natural immune modulators may provide the key to control and ultimately defeat disorders affecting the immune system. They can either up- or down-regulate the immune response with few undesired adverse effects. In this review, we summarize the recent advancements made in utilizing natural products for immunomodulation and their important molecular targets, members of the Toll-like receptor (TLR) family, in the innate immune system.

  13. Subclass-specific labeling of protein-reactive natural products with customized nucleophilic probes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rudolf, Georg C; Koch, Maximilian F; Mandl, Franziska A M; Sieber, Stephan A

    2015-02-23

    Natural products represent a rich source of bioactive compounds that constitute a large fraction of approved drugs. Among those are molecules with electrophilic scaffolds, such as Michael acceptors, β-lactams, and epoxides that irreversibly inhibit essential enzymes based on their catalytic mechanism. In the search for novel bioactive molecules, current methods are challenged by the frequent rediscovery of known chemical entities. Herein small nucleophilic probes that attack electrophilic natural products and enhance their detection by HPLC-UV and HPLC-MS are introduced. A screen of diverse probe designs revealed one compound with a desired selectivity for epoxide- and maleimide-based antibiotics. Correspondingly, the natural products showdomycin and phosphomycin could be selectively targeted in extracts of their natural producing organism, in which the probe-modified molecules exhibited superior retention and MS detection relative to their unmodified counterparts. This method may thus help to discover small, electrophilic molecules that might otherwise easily elude detection in complex samples.

  14. Regional air quality impacts of increased natural gas production and use in Texas.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pacsi, Adam P; Alhajeri, Nawaf S; Zavala-Araiza, Daniel; Webster, Mort D; Allen, David T

    2013-04-02

    Natural gas use in electricity generation in Texas was estimated, for gas prices ranging from $1.89 to $7.74 per MMBTU, using an optimal power flow model. Hourly estimates of electricity generation, for individual electricity generation units, from the model were used to estimate spatially resolved hourly emissions from electricity generation. Emissions from natural gas production activities in the Barnett Shale region were also estimated, with emissions scaled up or down to match demand in electricity generation as natural gas prices changed. As natural gas use increased, emissions decreased from electricity generation and increased from natural gas production. Overall, NOx and SO2 emissions decreased, while VOC emissions increased as natural gas use increased. To assess the effects of these changes in emissions on ozone and particulate matter concentrations, spatially and temporally resolved emissions were used in a month-long photochemical modeling episode. Over the month-long photochemical modeling episode, decreases in natural gas prices typical of those experienced from 2006 to 2012 led to net regional decreases in ozone (0.2-0.7 ppb) and fine particulate matter (PM) (0.1-0.7 μg/m(3)). Changes in PM were predominantly due to changes in regional PM sulfate formation. Changes in regional PM and ozone formation are primarily due to decreases in emissions from electricity generation. Increases in emissions from increased natural gas production were offset by decreasing emissions from electricity generation for all the scenarios considered.

  15. Recent advances in the elucidation of enzymatic function in natural product biosynthesis [version 1; referees: 2 approved

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tan Gao-Yi

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available With the successful production of artemisinic acid in yeast, the promising potential of synthetic biology for natural product biosynthesis is now being realized. The recent total biosynthesis of opioids in microbes is considered to be another landmark in this field. The importance and significance of enzymes in natural product biosynthetic pathways have been re-emphasized by these advancements. Therefore, the characterization and elucidation of enzymatic function in natural product biosynthesis are undoubtedly fundamental for the development of new drugs and the heterologous biosynthesis of active natural products. Here, discoveries regarding enzymatic function in natural product biosynthesis over the past year are briefly reviewed.

  16. Recent advances in the elucidation of enzymatic function in natural product biosynthesis [version 2; referees: 2 approved

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gao-Yi Tan

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available With the successful production of artemisinic acid in yeast, the promising potential of synthetic biology for natural product biosynthesis is now being realized. The recent total biosynthesis of opioids in microbes is considered to be another landmark in this field. The importance and significance of enzymes in natural product biosynthetic pathways have been re-emphasized by these advancements. Therefore, the characterization and elucidation of enzymatic function in natural product biosynthesis are undoubtedly fundamental for the development of new drugs and the heterologous biosynthesis of active natural products. Here, discoveries regarding enzymatic function in natural product biosynthesis over the past year are briefly reviewed.

  17. Marine actinobacteria associated with marine organisms and their potentials in producing pharmaceutical natural products.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Valliappan, Karuppiah; Sun, Wei; Li, Zhiyong

    2014-09-01

    Actinobacteria are ubiquitous in the marine environment, playing an important ecological role in the recycling of refractory biomaterials and producing novel natural products with pharmic applications. Actinobacteria have been detected or isolated from the marine creatures such as sponges, corals, mollusks, ascidians, seaweeds, and seagrass. Marine organism-associated actinobacterial 16S rRNA gene sequences, i.e., 3,003 sequences, deposited in the NCBI database clearly revealed enormous numbers of actinobacteria associated with marine organisms. For example, RDP classification of these sequences showed that 112 and 62 actinobacterial genera were associated with the sponges and corals, respectively. In most cases, it is expected that these actinobacteria protect the host against pathogens by producing bioactive compounds. Natural products investigation and functional gene screening of the actinobacteria associated with the marine organisms revealed that they can synthesize numerous natural products including polyketides, isoprenoids, phenazines, peptides, indolocarbazoles, sterols, and others. These compounds showed anticancer, antimicrobial, antiparasitic, neurological, antioxidant, and anti-HIV activities. Therefore, marine organism-associated actinobacteria represent an important resource for marine drugs. It is an upcoming field of research to search for novel actinobacteria and pharmaceutical natural products from actinobacteria associated with the marine organisms. In this review, we attempt to summarize the present knowledge on the diversity and natural products production of actinobacteria associated with the marine organisms, based on the publications from 1991 to 2013.

  18. Genome mining unveils widespread natural product biosynthetic capacity in human oral microbe Streptococcus mutans

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Liwei; Hao, Tingting; Xie, Zhoujie; Horsman, Geoff P.; Chen, Yihua

    2016-01-01

    Streptococcus mutans is a major pathogen causing human dental caries. As a Gram-positive bacterium with a small genome (about 2 Mb) it is considered a poor source of natural products. Due to a recent explosion in genomic data available for S. mutans strains, we were motivated to explore the natural product production potential of this organism. Bioinformatic characterization of 169 publically available genomes of S. mutans from human dental caries revealed a surprisingly rich source of natural product biosynthetic gene clusters. Anti-SMASH analysis identified one nonribosomal peptide synthetase (NRPS) gene cluster, seven polyketide synthase (PKS) gene clusters and 136 hybrid PKS/NRPS gene clusters. In addition, 211 ribosomally synthesized and post-translationally modified peptides (RiPPs) clusters and 615 bacteriocin precursors were identified by a combined analysis using BAGEL and anti-SMASH. S. mutans harbors a rich and diverse natural product genetic capacity, which underscores the importance of probing the human microbiome and revisiting species that have traditionally been overlooked as “poor” sources of natural products. PMID:27869143

  19. Construction of a microbial natural product library for chemical biology studies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kato, Naoki; Takahashi, Shunji; Nogawa, Toshihiko; Saito, Tamio; Osada, Hiroyuki

    2012-04-01

    The RIKEN Natural Products Depository (NPDepo) is a public depository of small molecules. Currently, the NPDepo chemical library contains 39,200 pure compounds, half of which are natural products and their derivatives. In order to reinforce the uniqueness of our chemical library, we have improved our strategies for the collection of microbial natural products. Firstly, a microbial metabolite fraction library coupled with an MP (microbial products) plot database provides a powerful resource for the efficient isolation of microbial metabolites. Secondly, biosynthetic studies of microbial metabolites have enabled us to not only access ingenious biosynthetic machineries, but also obtain a variety of biosynthetic intermediates. Our chemical library contributes to the discovery of molecular probes for increasing our understanding of complex biological processes and for eventually developing new drug leads.

  20. Volatile organic compound emissions from unconventional natural gas production: Source signatures and air quality impacts

    Science.gov (United States)

    Swarthout, Robert F.

    Advances in horizontal drilling and hydraulic fracturing over the past two decades have allowed access to previously unrecoverable reservoirs of natural gas and led to an increase in natural gas production. Intensive unconventional natural gas extraction has led to concerns about impacts on air quality. Unconventional natural gas production has the potential to emit vast quantities of volatile organic compounds (VOCs) into the atmosphere. Many VOCs can be toxic, can produce ground-level ozone or secondary organic aerosols, and can impact climate. This dissertation presents the results of experiments designed to validate VOC measurement techniques, to quantify VOC emission rates from natural gas sources, to identify source signatures specific to natural gas emissions, and to quantify the impacts of these emissions on potential ozone formation and human health. Measurement campaigns were conducted in two natural gas production regions: the Denver-Julesburg Basin in northeast Colorado and the Marcellus Shale region surrounding Pittsburgh, Pennsylvania. An informal measurement intercomparison validated the canister sampling methodology used throughout this dissertation for the measurement of oxygenated VOCs. Mixing ratios of many VOCs measured during both campaigns were similar to or higher than those observed in polluted cities. Fluxes of natural gas-associated VOCs in Colorado ranged from 1.5-3 times industry estimates. Similar emission ratios relative to propane were observed for C2-C6 alkanes in both regions, and an isopentane:n-pentane ratio ≈1 was identified as a unique tracer for natural gas emissions. Source apportionment estimates indicated that natural gas emissions were responsible for the majority of C2-C8 alkanes observed in each region, but accounted for a small proportion of alkenes and aromatic compounds. Natural gas emissions in both regions accounted for approximately 20% of hydroxyl radical reactivity, which could hinder federal ozone standard

  1. Recreational drug discovery: natural products as lead structures for the synthesis of smart drugs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Appendino, Giovanni; Minassi, Alberto; Taglialatela-Scafati, Orazio

    2014-07-01

    Covering: up to December 2013. Over the past decade, there has been a growing transition in recreational drugs from natural materials (marijuana, hashish, opium), natural products (morphine, cocaine), or their simple derivatives (heroin), to synthetic agents more potent than their natural prototypes, which are sometimes less harmful in the short term, or that combine properties from different classes of recreational prototypes. These agents have been named smart drugs, and have become popular both for personal consumption and for collective intoxication at rave parties. The reasons for this transition are varied, but are mainly regulatory and commercial. New analogues of known illegal intoxicants are invisible to most forensic detection techniques, while the alleged natural status and the lack of avert acute toxicity make them appealing to a wide range of users. On the other hand, the advent of the internet has made possible the quick dispersal of information among users and the on-line purchase of these agents and/or the precursors for their synthesis. Unlike their natural products chemotypes (ephedrine, mescaline, cathinone, psilocybin, THC), most new drugs of abuse are largely unfamiliar to the organic chemistry community as well as to health care providers. To raise awareness of the growing plague of smart drugs we have surveyed, in a medicinal chemistry fashion, their development from natural products leads, their current methods of production, and the role that clandestine home laboratories and underground chemists have played in the surge of popularity of these drugs.

  2. Natural Products Induce a G Protein-Mediated Calcium Pathway Activating p53 in Cancer Cells

    Science.gov (United States)

    van Ginkel, Paul R.; Yan, Michael B.; Bhattacharya, Saswati; Polans, Arthur S.; Kenealey, Jason D.

    2015-01-01

    Paclitaxel, etoposide, vincristine and doxorubicin are examples of natural products being used as chemotherapeutics but with adverse side effects that limit their therapeutic window. Natural products derived from plants and having low toxicity, such as quercetin, resveratrol, epigallocatechin gallate and piceatannol, have been shown to inhibit tumor cell growth both in vitro and in pre-clinical models of cancer, but their mechanisms of action have not been fully elucidated, thus restricting their use as prototypes for developing synthetic analogs with improved anti-cancer properties. We and others have demonstrated that one of the earliest and consistent events upon exposure of tumor cells to these less toxic natural products is a rise in cytoplasmic calcium, activating several pro-apoptotic pathways. We describe here a G protein/inositol 1,4,5-trisphosphate pathway (InsP3) in MDA-MB-231 human breast cancer cells that mediates between these less toxic natural products and the release of calcium from the endoplasmic reticulum. Further, we demonstrate that this elevation of intracellular calcium modulates p53 activity and the subsequent transcription of several pro-apoptotic genes encoding PIG8, CD95, PIDD, TP53INP, RRM2B, Noxa, p21 and PUMA. We conclude from our findings that less toxic natural products likely bind to a G protein coupled receptor that activates a G protein-mediated and calcium-dependent pathway resulting selectively in tumor cell death. PMID:26341291

  3. Metabolomic application in toxicity evaluation and toxicological biomarker identification of natural product.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Dan-Qian; Chen, Hua; Chen, Lin; Tang, Dan-Dan; Miao, Hua; Zhao, Ying-Yong

    2016-05-25

    Natural product plays a vital role in disease prevention and treatment since the appearance of civilization, but the toxicity severely hinders its wide use. In order to avoid toxic effect as far as possible and use natural product safely, more comprehensive understandings of toxicity are urgently required. Since the metabolome represents the physiological or pathological status of organisms, metabolomics-based toxicology is of significance to observe potential injury before toxins have caused physiological or pathological damages. Metabolomics-based toxicology can evaluate toxicity and identify toxicological biomarker of natural product, which is helpful to guide clinical medication and reduce adverse drug reactions. In the past decades, dozens of metabolomic researches have been implemented on toxicity evaluation, toxicological biomarker identification and potential mechanism exploration of nephrotoxicity, hepatotoxicity, cardiotoxicity and central nervous system toxicity induced by pure compounds, extracts and compound prescriptions. In this paper, metabolomic technology, sample preparation, data process and analysis, and metabolomics-based toxicological research of natural product are reviewed, and finally, the potential problems and further perspectives in toxicological metabolomic investigations of natural product are discussed.

  4. Chemical proteomics approaches for identifying the cellular targets of natural products.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wright, M H; Sieber, S A

    2016-05-01

    Covering: 2010 up to 2016Deconvoluting the mode of action of natural products and drugs remains one of the biggest challenges in chemistry and biology today. Chemical proteomics is a growing area of chemical biology that seeks to design small molecule probes to understand protein function. In the context of natural products, chemical proteomics can be used to identify the protein binding partners or targets of small molecules in live cells. Here, we highlight recent examples of chemical probes based on natural products and their application for target identification. The review focuses on probes that can be covalently linked to their target proteins (either via intrinsic chemical reactivity or via the introduction of photocrosslinkers), and can be applied "in situ" - in living systems rather than cell lysates. We also focus here on strategies that employ a click reaction, the copper-catalysed azide-alkyne cycloaddition reaction (CuAAC), to allow minimal functionalisation of natural product scaffolds with an alkyne or azide tag. We also discuss 'competitive mode' approaches that screen for natural products that compete with a well-characterised chemical probe for binding to a particular set of protein targets. Fuelled by advances in mass spectrometry instrumentation and bioinformatics, many modern strategies are now embracing quantitative proteomics to help define the true interacting partners of probes, and we highlight the opportunities this rapidly evolving technology provides in chemical proteomics. Finally, some of the limitations and challenges of chemical proteomics approaches are discussed.

  5. Natural products induce a G protein-mediated calcium pathway activating p53 in cancer cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    van Ginkel, Paul R; Yan, Michael B; Bhattacharya, Saswati; Polans, Arthur S; Kenealey, Jason D

    2015-11-01

    Paclitaxel, etoposide, vincristine and doxorubicin are examples of natural products being used as chemotherapeutics but with adverse side effects that limit their therapeutic window. Natural products derived from plants and having low toxicity, such as quercetin, resveratrol, epigallocatechin gallate and piceatannol, have been shown to inhibit tumor cell growth both in vitro and in pre-clinical models of cancer, but their mechanisms of action have not been fully elucidated, thus restricting their use as prototypes for developing synthetic analogs with improved anti-cancer properties. We and others have demonstrated that one of the earliest and consistent events upon exposure of tumor cells to these less toxic natural products is a rise in cytoplasmic calcium, activating several pro-apoptotic pathways. We describe here a G protein/inositol 1,4,5-trisphosphate pathway (InsP3) in MDA-MB-231 human breast cancer cells that mediates between these less toxic natural products and the release of calcium from the endoplasmic reticulum. Further, we demonstrate that this elevation of intracellular calcium modulates p53 activity and the subsequent transcription of several pro-apoptotic genes encoding PIG8, CD95, PIDD, TP53INP, RRM2B, Noxa, p21 and PUMA. We conclude from our findings that less toxic natural products likely bind to a G protein coupled receptor that activates a G protein-mediated and calcium-dependent pathway resulting selectively in tumor cell death.

  6. Something old, something new: revisiting natural products in antibiotic drug discovery.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wright, Gerard D

    2014-03-01

    Antibiotic discovery is in crisis. Despite a growing need for new drugs resulting from the increasing number of multi-antibiotic-resistant pathogens, there have been only a handful of new antibiotics approved for clinical use in the past 2 decades. Faced with scientific, economic, and regulatory challenges, the pharmaceutical sector seems unable to respond to what has been called an "apocalyptic" threat. Natural products produced by bacteria and fungi are genetically encoded products of natural selection that have been the mainstay sources of the antibiotics in current clinical use. The pharmaceutical industry has largely abandoned these compounds in favor of large libraries of synthetic molecules because of difficulties in identifying new natural product antibiotics scaffolds. Advances in next-generation genome sequencing, bioinformatics, and analytical chemistry are combining to overcome barriers to natural products. Coupled with new strategies in antibiotic discovery, including inhibition of resistance, novel drug combinations, and new targets, natural products are poised for a renaissance to address what is a pressing health care crisis.

  7. Antimicrobial susceptibility of foodborne pathogens in organic or natural production systems: an overview.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jacob, Megan E; Fox, James Trent; Reinstein, Shelby L; Nagaraja, T G

    2008-12-01

    Organic and natural food production systems are increasing in popularity, at least partially because consumers perceive that these niche markets provide healthier and safer food products. One major difference between these niche markets and conventional production systems is the use of antimicrobials. Because antimicrobial agents exert selective pressures for antimicrobial resistance, relating antimicrobial susceptibility of foodborne bacteria to niche market production systems is of interest. Other differences between production systems might also influence the susceptibility of foodborne pathogens. The objective of this review is to compare the impact of food animal production systems on the antimicrobial susceptibility of common foodborne bacterial pathogens. Studies comparing the susceptibility of such pathogens were diverse in terms of geographic location, procedures, species of bacteria, and antimicrobials evaluated; thus, it was difficult to draw conclusions. The literature is highly variable in terms of production type and practices and susceptibility associations, although few studies have compared truly organic and conventional practices. When statistical associations were found between production type and minimum inhibitory concentrations or percentage of isolates resistant for a particular pathogen, the isolates from conventionally reared animals/products were more commonly resistant than the comparison group (organic, antibiotic free, etc.). Therefore, further studies are needed to better assess public health consequences of antimicrobial resistance and food animal production systems, specifically organic or natural versus conventional.

  8. Natural Resources and Local Development: The Argentinian Oilseed Complex and Biofuel Production

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eliana Scialabba

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Argentina is very rich in natural resources, particularly those linked to the oilseed production. Global demand and improved means of production, have resulted in a mature and developed production infrastructure geared toward export. This generates not just revenue, but also has other positive effects, such as the creation of jobs and sustainable development. In this context, biofuel production adds multidimensional value to the vegetable oil industry and generations many spin-off industries.

  9. Heronapyrrole D: A case of co-inspiration of natural product biosynthesis, total synthesis and biodiscovery

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jens Schmidt

    2014-05-01

    Full Text Available The heronapyrroles A–C have first been isolated from a marine-derived Streptomyces sp. (CMB-0423 in 2010. Structurally, these natural products feature an unusual nitropyrrole system to which a partially oxidized farnesyl chain is attached. The varying degree of oxidation of the sesquiterpenyl subunit in heronapyrroles A–C provoked the hypothesis that there might exist other hitherto unidentified metabolites. On biosynthetic grounds a mono-tetrahydrofuran-diol named heronapyrrole D appeared a possible candidate. We here describe a short asymmetric synthesis of heronapyrrole D, its detection in cultivations of CMB-0423 and finally the evaluation of its antibacterial activity. We thus demonstrate that biosynthetic considerations and the joint effort of synthetic and natural product chemists can result in the identification of new members of a rare class of natural products.

  10. Brazilian propolis: a natural product that improved the fungicidal activity by blood phagocytes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Possamai, Muryllo Mendes; Honorio-França, Adenilda Cristina; Reinaque, Ana Paula Barcelos; França, Eduardo Luzia; Souto, Paula Cristina de Souza

    2013-01-01

    Natural product incorporation into microcarriers increases the bioavailability of these compounds, consequently improving their therapeutic properties. Natural products, particularly those from bees such as propolis, are widely used in popular medicine. Propolis is a powerful treatment for several diseases. In this context, the present study evaluated the effect of propolis Scaptotrigona sp. and its fractions, alone or adsorbed to polyethylene glycol (PEG) microspheres, on the activity of human phagocytes against Candida albicans. The results show that propolis exerts a stimulatory effect on these cells to assist in combating the fungus, especially as the crude extract is compared with the fractions. However, when incorporated into microspheres, these properties were significantly potentiated. These results suggest that propolis adsorbed onto PEG microspheres has immunostimulatory effects on phagocytes in human blood. Therefore, propolis may potentially be an additional natural product that can be used for a variety of therapies.

  11. Brazilian Propolis: A Natural Product That Improved the Fungicidal Activity by Blood Phagocytes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Muryllo Mendes Possamai

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Natural product incorporation into microcarriers increases the bioavailability of these compounds, consequently improving their therapeutic properties. Natural products, particularly those from bees such as propolis, are widely used in popular medicine. Propolis is a powerful treatment for several diseases. In this context, the present study evaluated the effect of propolis Scaptotrigona sp. and its fractions, alone or adsorbed to polyethylene glycol (PEG microspheres, on the activity of human phagocytes against Candida albicans. The results show that propolis exerts a stimulatory effect on these cells to assist in combating the fungus, especially as the crude extract is compared with the fractions. However, when incorporated into microspheres, these properties were significantly potentiated. These results suggest that propolis adsorbed onto PEG microspheres has immunostimulatory effects on phagocytes in human blood. Therefore, propolis may potentially be an additional natural product that can be used for a variety of therapies.

  12. Natural Products Mediated Regulation of Oxidative Stress and DNA Damage in Ultraviolet Exposed Skin Cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Farooqi, Ammad A; Li, Ruei-Nian; Huang, Hurng-Wern; Ismail, Muhammad; Yuan, Shyng-Shiou F; Wang, Hui-Min D; Liu, Jing-Ru; Tang, Jen-Yang; Chang, Hsueh-Wei

    2015-01-01

    Data obtained through high-throughput technologies have gradually revealed that a unique stratified epithelial architecture of human skin along with the antioxidant-response pathways provided vital defensive mechanisms against UV radiation. However, it is noteworthy that skin is a major target for toxic insult by UV radiations that can alter its structure and function. Substantial fraction of information has been added into the existing pool of knowledge related to natural products mediated biological effects in UV exposed skin cells. Accumulating evidence has started to shed light on the potential of these bioactive ingredients as protective natural products in cosmetics against UV photodamage by exerting biological effects mainly through wide ranging intracellular signalling cascades of oxidative stress and modulation of miRNAs. In this review, we have summarized recently emerging scientific evidences addressing underlying mechanisms of UV induced oxidative stress and deregulation of signalling cascades and how natural products can be used tactfully to protect against UV induced harmful effects.

  13. Target identification of natural products and bioactive compounds using affinity-based probes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pan, Sijun; Zhang, Hailong; Wang, Chenyu; Yao, Samantha C L; Yao, Shao Q

    2016-05-04

    Covering: 2010 to 2014.Advances in isolation, synthesis and screening strategies have made many bioactive substances available. However, in most cases their putative biological targets remain unknown. Herein, we highlight recent advances in target identification of natural products and bioactive compounds by using affinity-based probes. Aided by photoaffinity labelling, this strategy can capture potential cellular targets (on and off) of a natural product or bioactive compound in live cells directly, even when the compound-target interaction is reversible with moderate affinity. The knowledge of these targets may help uncover molecular pathways and new therapeutics for currently untreatable diseases. In this highlight, we will introduce the development of various photoactivatable groups, their synthesis and applications in target identification of natural products and bioactive compounds, with a focus on work done in recent years and from our laboratory. We will further discuss the strengths and weaknesses of each group and the outlooks for this novel proteome-wide profiling strategy.

  14. Towards theory driven structure elucidation of complex natural products: mandelalides and coibamide A.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Snyder, Kevin M; Sikorska, Justyna; Ye, Tao; Fang, Lijing; Su, Wu; Carter, Rich G; McPhail, Kerry L; Cheong, Paul H-Y

    2016-06-28

    The effectiveness of computational tools in determining relative configurations of complex molecules is investigated, using natural products mandelalides A-D and coibamide A, towards a generalized recipe for the scientific community at large. Ultimately, continuing efforts in this vein will accelerate and strengthen relative structure elucidation of complex molecules, such as natural products. Molecular mechanics conformational search, quantum mechanical NMR chemical shift predictions, and DP4 analyses led to confirmation of the revised structures of mandelalides A-D and coibamide A. All chiral centers in the northern hemisphere of mandelalides A-D are inverted with respect to the originally proposed structures, in agreement with recent total syntheses of mandelalide A by Ye, Fürstner & Carter. In the case of coibamide A, it was found that Fang & Su's revision, in which both the macrocycle [MeAla(11)] and the side chain [HIV(2)] residues are inverted from l to d, was consistent with the authentic natural product and computations.

  15. Functional chromatography reveals three natural products that target the same protein with distinct mechanisms of action

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kang, MinJin; Wu, Tongde; Wijeratne, E. M. Kithsiri; Lau, Eric C.; Mason, Damian J.; Mesa, Celestina; Tillotson, Joseph; Zhang, Donna D.; Gunatilaka, A. A. Leslie; La Clair, James J.

    2014-01-01

    Access to lead compounds with defined molecular targets continues to be a barrier to the translation of natural product resources. As a solution, we have developed a system that uses discreet, recombinant proteins as the vehicles for natural product isolation. Here, we describe the use of this functional chromatographic method to identify natural products that bind to the AAA+ chaperone, p97, a promising cancer target. Application of this method to a panel of fungal and plant extracts identified rheoemodin, 1-hydroxydehydroherbarin and phomapyrrolidone A as distinct p97 modulators. Excitingly, each of these molecules displayed a unique mechanism of p97 modulation. This discovery provides strong support for the application of functional chromatography to the discovery of protein modulators that would likely escape traditional high-throughput or phenotypic screening platforms. PMID:25125376

  16. Discovery and resupply of pharmacologically active plant-derived natural products: A review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Atanasov, Atanas G; Waltenberger, Birgit; Pferschy-Wenzig, Eva-Maria; Linder, Thomas; Wawrosch, Christoph; Uhrin, Pavel; Temml, Veronika; Wang, Limei; Schwaiger, Stefan; Heiss, Elke H; Rollinger, Judith M; Schuster, Daniela; Breuss, Johannes M; Bochkov, Valery; Mihovilovic, Marko D; Kopp, Brigitte; Bauer, Rudolf; Dirsch, Verena M; Stuppner, Hermann

    2015-12-01

    Medicinal plants have historically proven their value as a source of molecules with therapeutic potential, and nowadays still represent an important pool for the identification of novel drug leads. In the past decades, pharmaceutical industry focused mainly on libraries of synthetic compounds as drug discovery source. They are comparably easy to produce and resupply, and demonstrate good compatibility with established high throughput screening (HTS) platforms. However, at the same time there has been a declining trend in the number of new drugs reaching the market, raising renewed scientific interest in drug discovery from natural sources, despite of its known challenges. In this survey, a brief outline of historical development is provided together with a comprehensive overview of used approaches and recent developments relevant to plant-derived natural product drug discovery. Associated challenges and major strengths of natural product-based drug discovery are critically discussed. A snapshot of the advanced plant-derived natural products that are currently in actively recruiting clinical trials is also presented. Importantly, the transition of a natural compound from a "screening hit" through a "drug lead" to a "marketed drug" is associated with increasingly challenging demands for compound amount, which often cannot be met by re-isolation from the respective plant sources. In this regard, existing alternatives for resupply are also discussed, including different biotechnology approaches and total organic synthesis. While the intrinsic complexity of natural product-based drug discovery necessitates highly integrated interdisciplinary approaches, the reviewed scientific developments, recent technological advances, and research trends clearly indicate that natural products will be among the most important sources of new drugs also in the future.

  17. Natural gas productive capacity for the lower 48 states 1984 through 1996, February 1996

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1996-02-09

    This is the fourth wellhead productive capacity report. The three previous ones were published in 1991, 1993, and 1994. This report should be of particular interest to those in Congress, Federal and State agencies, industry, and the academic community, who are concerned with the future availability of natural gas. The EIA Dallas Field Office has prepared five earlier reports regarding natural gas productive capacity. These reports, Gas Deliverability and Flow Capacity of Surveillance Fields, reported deliverability and capacity data for selected gas fields in major gas producing areas. The data in the reports were based on gas-well back-pressure tests and estimates of gas-in-place for each field or reservoir. These reports use proven well testing theory, most of which has been employed by industry since 1936 when the Bureau of Mines first published Monograph 7. Demand for natural gas in the United States is met by a combination of natural gas production, underground gas storage, imported gas, and supplemental gaseous fuels. Natural gas production requirements in the lower 48 States have been increasing during the last few years while drilling has remained at low levels. This has raised some concern about the adequacy of future gas supplies, especially in periods of peak heating or cooling demand. The purpose of this report is to address these concerns by presenting a 3-year projection of the total productive capacity of natural gas at the wellhead for the lower 48 States. Alaska is excluded because Alaskan gas does not enter the lower-48 States pipeline system. The Energy Information Administration (EIA) generates this 3-year projection based on historical gas-well drilling and production data from State, Federal, and private sources. In addition to conventional gas-well gas, coalbed gas and oil-well gas are also included.

  18. Discovery of phosphonic acid natural products by mining the genomes of 10,000 actinomycetes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ju, Kou-San; Gao, Jiangtao; Doroghazi, James R; Wang, Kwo-Kwang A; Thibodeaux, Christopher J; Li, Steven; Metzger, Emily; Fudala, John; Su, Joleen; Zhang, Jun Kai; Lee, Jaeheon; Cioni, Joel P; Evans, Bradley S; Hirota, Ryuichi; Labeda, David P; van der Donk, Wilfred A; Metcalf, William W

    2015-09-29

    Although natural products have been a particularly rich source of human medicines, activity-based screening results in a very high rate of rediscovery of known molecules. Based on the large number of natural product biosynthetic genes in microbial genomes, many have proposed "genome mining" as an alternative approach for discovery efforts; however, this idea has yet to be performed experimentally on a large scale. Here, we demonstrate the feasibility of large-scale, high-throughput genome mining by screening a collection of over 10,000 actinomycetes for the genetic potential to make phosphonic acids, a class of natural products with diverse and useful bioactivities. Genome sequencing identified a diverse collection of phosphonate biosynthetic gene clusters within 278 strains. These clusters were classified into 64 distinct groups, of which 55 are likely to direct the synthesis of unknown compounds. Characterization of strains within five of these groups resulted in the discovery of a new archetypical pathway for phosphonate biosynthesis, the first (to our knowledge) dedicated pathway for H-phosphinates, and 11 previously undescribed phosphonic acid natural products. Among these compounds are argolaphos, a broad-spectrum antibacterial phosphonopeptide composed of aminomethylphosphonate in peptide linkage to a rare amino acid N(5)-hydroxyarginine; valinophos, an N-acetyl l-Val ester of 2,3-dihydroxypropylphosphonate; and phosphonocystoximate, an unusual thiohydroximate-containing molecule representing a new chemotype of sulfur-containing phosphonate natural products. Analysis of the genome sequences from the remaining strains suggests that the majority of the phosphonate biosynthetic repertoire of Actinobacteria has been captured at the gene level. This dereplicated strain collection now provides a reservoir of numerous, as yet undiscovered, phosphonate natural products.

  19. Natural gas productive capacity for the lower 48 States, 1980 through 1995

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1994-07-14

    The purpose of this report is to analyze monthly natural gas wellhead productive capacity in the lower 48 States from 1980 through 1992 and project this capacity from 1993 through 1995. For decades, natural gas supplies and productive capacity have been adequate to meet demand. In the 1970`s the capacity surplus was small because of market structure (split between interstate and intrastate), increasing demand, and insufficient drilling. In the early 1980`s, lower demand, together with increased drilling, led to a large surplus capacity as new productive capacity came on line. After 1986, this large surplus began to decline as demand for gas increased, gas prices fell, and gas well completions dropped sharply. In late December 1989, the decline in this surplus, accompanied by exceptionally high demand and temporary weather-related production losses, led to concerns about the adequacy of monthly productive capacity for natural gas. These concerns should have been moderated by the gas system`s performance during the unusually severe winter weather in March 1993 and January 1994. The declining trend in wellhead productive capacity is expected to be reversed in 1994 if natural gas prices and drilling meet or exceed the base case assumption. This study indicates that in the low, base, and high drilling cases, monthly productive capacity should be able to meet normal production demands through 1995 in the lower 48 States (Figure ES1). Exceptionally high peak-day or peak-week production demand might not be met because of physical limitations such as pipeline capacity. Beyond 1995, as the capacity of currently producing wells declines, a sufficient number of wells and/or imports must be added each year in order to ensure an adequate gas supply.

  20. Techno-economic Analysis of Distributed Hydrogen Production from Natural Gas

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    LUK Ho Ting; LEI Ho Man; NG Wai Yee; JU Yihan; LAM Koon Fung

    2012-01-01

    It is well established that hydrogen has the potential to make a significant contribution to the world energy production. In U.S., majority of hydrogen production plants implement steam methane reforming (SMR) for centralized hydrogen production. However, there is a wide lack of agreement on the nascent stage of using hydro- gen as fuel in vehicles industry because of the difficulty in delivery and storage. By performing technological and economic analysis, this work aims to establish the most feasible hydrogen production pathway for automotives in near future. From the evaluation, processes such as thermal cracking of ammonia and centralized hydrogen production followed by bulk delivery are eliminated while on-site steam reforming of methanol and natural gas are the most technologically feasible options. These two processes are further evaluated by comprehensive economic analysis. The results showed that the steam reforming (SR) of natural gas has a shorter payback time and a higher return on investment (ROI) and internal rate of return (IRR). Sensitivity analysis has also been constructed to evaluate the impact of variables like NG feedstock price, capital of investment and operating capacity factor on the overall production cost of hydrogen. Based on this study, natural gas is prompted to be the most economically and technologically available raw material for short-term hydrogen production before the transition to renewable energy source such as solar energy, biomass and wind power.

  1. An overview of the marine natural products in clinical trials and on the market

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Marisa Rangel; Miriam Falkenberg

    2015-01-01

    The first marine natural products that served as leads or scaffolds for medicines were discovered in the middle of last century:the arabinosyl glycosides from the marine sponge Tectitethya crypta. Synthesis and modifications of the natural molecules generated antiviral and antileukemic drugs developed in the 1970’s and in the following decades, including the first effective treatment against HIV infection. With the improvement of techniques for the elucidation of chemical structure of the molecules, as well as chemical synthesis, especially from the 1990’s, there was an increase in the number of bioactive natural products characterized from marine organisms. New chemical structures with high specificity towards molecular targets in cells allowed the development of new drugs with indication for the treatment of several illnesses, from cancer to new antibiotics, and even neurological disorders. Currently there are at least 13 molecules derived from marine natural products on advanced clinical trials, and nine were approved to be used as medicines. Considering that in the past eight years, more than 1 000 new compounds from marine organisms were described, per year, the expectation is that many more drugs will be derived from marine natural products in a near future.

  2. Natural Fostering in Fritillaria cirrhosa: Integrating herbal medicine production with biodiversity conservation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xiwen Li

    2012-02-01

    Full Text Available Protected areas are generally regarded as a power tool to conserve biodiversity. Nonetheless, few protected areas could address three crucial problems simultaneously, namely funding, public participation and rural living. Here, we introduced a new protective approach, Natural Fostering, which integrated herbal medicine production with community conservation. The principles of Natural Fostering adopted species–species interaction at community level. Most effective chemical components of herbal medicine are derived from such interaction. Fritillaria cirrhosa was selected as an economic botany, one of herbal medicines, to carry out Natural Fostering. Community habitats, herbal medicine production, funding and income of local family were investigated to verify the feasibility of Natural Fostering for biodiversity. We found the density of plant populations and the annual average personal income of rural people increased. F. cirrhosa production could provide sufficient funds for sustainable conservation. Local people gradually changed their life style of wild collection and overgrazing, instead of herbal medicine production. The fostering area set up a good sustainable economic cycle. Natural Fostering can be presented as an effective and pragmatic way to conserve biological diversity and sustainable utilization of traditional medicinal resources.

  3. Annual report of the origin of natural gas liquids production form EIA-64A

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1995-12-31

    The collection of basic, verifiable information on the Nation`s reserves and production of natural gas liquids (NGL) is mandated by the Federal Energy Administration Act of 1974 (FEAA) (Public Law 93-275) and the Department of Energy Organization Act of 1977 (Public Law 95-91). Gas shrinkage volumes reported on Form EIA-64A by natural gas processing plant operators are used with natural gas data collected on a {open_quotes}wet after lease separation{close_quotes} basis on Form EIA-23, Annual Survey of Domestic Oil and Gas Reserves, to estimate {open_quotes}dry{close_quotes} natural gas reserves and production volumes regionally and nationally. The shrinkage data are also used, along with the plant liquids production data reported on Form EIA-64A, and lease condensate data reported on Form EIA-23, to estimate regional and national gas liquids reserves and production volumes. This information is the only comprehensive source of credible natural gas liquids data, and is required by DOE to assist in the formulation of national energy policies.

  4. An overview of the marine natural products in clinical trials and on the market

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marisa Rangel

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available The first marine natural products that served as leads or scaffolds for medicines were discovered in the middle of last century: the arabinosyl glycosides from the marine sponge Tectitethya crypta. Synthesis and modifications of the natural molecules generated antiviral and antileukemic drugs developed in the 1970’s and in the following decades, including the first effective treatment against HIV infection. With the improvement of techniques for the elucidation of chemical structure of the molecules, as well as chemical synthesis, especially from the 1990’s, there was an increase in the number of bioactive natural products characterized from marine organisms. New chemical structures with high specificity towards molecular targets in cells allowed the development of new drugs with indication for the treatment of several illnesses, from cancer to new antibiotics, and even neurological disorders. Currently there are at least 13 molecules derived from marine natural products on advanced clinical trials, and nine were approved to be used as medicines. Considering that in the past eight years, more than 1000 new compounds from marine organisms were described, per year, the expectation is that many more drugs will be derived from marine natural products in a near future.

  5. Expanding the range of 'druggable' targets with natural product-based libraries: an academic perspective.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bauer, Renato A; Wurst, Jacqueline M; Tan, Derek S

    2010-06-01

    Existing drugs address a relatively narrow range of biological targets. As a result, libraries of drug-like molecules have proven ineffective against a variety of challenging targets, such as protein-protein interactions, nucleic acid complexes, and antibacterial modalities. In contrast, natural products are known to be effective at modulating such targets, and new libraries are being developed based on underrepresented scaffolds and regions of chemical space associated with natural products. This has led to several recent successes in identifying new chemical probes that address these challenging targets.

  6. Natural products as antidepressants documented in Chinese patents from 1992 to 2013.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sun, Chang-Li; Geng, Chang-An; Yin, Xiu-Juan; Huang, Xiao-Yan; Chen, Ji-Jun

    2015-01-01

    Depressive disorder is a severe psychiatric problem all over the world. Clinical therapeutic agents for the treatment of depression in the market targeting on monoamine neurotransmitters are far from satisfaction due to their adverse effects. Novel classes of antidepressant agents with different mechanisms and low toxicity are needed. Natural products from traditional Chinese medicines have been revealed as new sources to cure the depressive symptoms with various chemical structures and promising activities. This paper reviews natural products as antidepressants documented in Chinese patents so far.

  7. Chemical biology--identification of small molecule modulators of cellular activity by natural product inspired synthesis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hübel, Katja; Lessmann, Torben; Waldmann, Herbert

    2008-07-01

    The aim of this tutorial review is to introduce the reader to the concept, synthesis and application of natural product-inspired compound collections as an important field in chemical biology. This review will discuss how potentially interesting scaffolds can be identified (structural classification of natural products), synthesized in an appropriate manner (including stereoselective transformations for solid phase-bound compounds) and tested in biological assays (cell-based screening as well as biochemical in vitro assays). These approaches will provide the opportunity to identify new and interesting compounds as well as new targets for chemical biology and medicinal chemistry research.

  8. TLC bioautography: high throughput technique for screening of bioactive natural products.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cheng, Zhihong; Wu, Tao

    2013-06-28

    TLC bioautography is a method that combines chromatographic separation and in situ biological activity determination. The antimicrobial, antioxidant and enzyme inhibitory activities can be performed on TLC bioautography. This method is mainly used for preliminary screening natural products possessing these biological activities and for the bioactivity-directed fractionation and isolation of active components from complex extracts. This review covers the mechanisms and methodology of the antimicrobial, antioxidant activities, and enzyme inhibition adopted on TLC. It will be in particular discuss the recent advances in these technologies and assess their applications in targeting natural products.

  9. Desymmetrization of 7-azabicycloalkenes by tandem olefin metathesis for the preparation of natural product scaffolds

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Deppermann Nina

    2007-12-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Tandem olefin metathesis sequences are known to be versatile for the generation of natural product scaffolds and have also been used for ring opening of strained carbo- and heterocycles. In this paper we demonstrate the potential of these reactions for the desymmetrization of 7-azabicycloalkenes. Results We have established efficient protocols for the desymmetrization of different 7-azabicycloalkenes by intra- and intermolecular tandem metathesis sequences with ruthenium based catalysts. Conclusion Desymmetrization of 7-azabicycloalkenes by olefin metathesis is an efficient process for the preparation of common natural product scaffolds such as pyrrolidines, indolizidines and isoindoles.

  10. Desymmetrization of 7-azabicycloalkenes by tandem olefin metathesis for the preparation of natural product scaffolds

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maison, Wolfgang; Büchert, Marina; Deppermann, Nina

    2007-01-01

    Background Tandem olefin metathesis sequences are known to be versatile for the generation of natural product scaffolds and have also been used for ring opening of strained carbo- and heterocycles. In this paper we demonstrate the potential of these reactions for the desymmetrization of 7-azabicycloalkenes. Results We have established efficient protocols for the desymmetrization of different 7-azabicycloalkenes by intra- and intermolecular tandem metathesis sequences with ruthenium based catalysts. Conclusion Desymmetrization of 7-azabicycloalkenes by olefin metathesis is an efficient process for the preparation of common natural product scaffolds such as pyrrolidines, indolizidines and isoindoles. PMID:18088413

  11. A minimalist fragment approach for the design of natural-product-like synthetic scaffolds.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Genis, Dmitry; Kirpichenok, Mikhail; Kombarov, Roman

    2012-11-01

    Chemistry groups involved in drug discovery continue to devote their efforts to improving compound design with the aim of identifying new drug candidates. Many crucial factors must be considered, including: chemical stability, synthetic difficulty, chemical complexity and diversity, ADMET properties, cost, chemical novelty and intellectual property issues, and 'biological appropriateness'. With regard to the latter point, natural products offer an outstanding source of biologically active molecules that provide many useful features that enable us to design innovative, biologically biased, synthetic compounds. This article outlines the recent approaches in this area and suggests a simple metric to assess synthetic compounds for natural product likeness.

  12. Factors affecting industrial wood, material production yield in Turkey’s natural beech forests

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Atilla Atik

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available The objectives of the present study are to determine the most important factors affecting industrial wood material production yield in natural oriental beech forests in Turkey using a multifaceted approach and to help entrepreneurs consider these factors to develop more sensitive and realistic production plans. In Günye Forest Management in Bartın province of the West Black Sea Region of Turkey, 41 production units were chosen as the study area. The 1277 ha study area was included in the 2007 and 2010 production management plan. The general state of the stand, natural stand structure, and production methods and tools are the factors thought most strongly affect industrial wood material production yield; 26 variables representing these factors were evaluated in the study. Through multidimensional statistical analyses, including main components, factor and regression  analysis, we found that the most important factors affecting production yield were fertility, aspect of land, skidding method, stand structure, skidding distance, growing stock, transportation and harmful abiotic factors. Production units were divided into three groups based on yield rates and the 26 variables, using discriminate analysis. From the results of the study, a sample model can be developed to help forest managers predict and plan annual industrial wood production more sensitively and realistically.

  13. Gluten Contamination in Naturally or Labeled Gluten-Free Products Marketed in Italy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Verma, Anil K.; Gatti, Simona; Galeazzi, Tiziana; Monachesi, Chiara; Padella, Lucia; Baldo, Giada Del; Annibali, Roberta; Lionetti, Elena; Catassi, Carlo

    2017-01-01

    Background: A strict and lifelong gluten-free diet is the only treatment of celiac disease. Gluten contamination has been frequently reported in nominally gluten-free products. The aim of this study was to test the level of gluten contamination in gluten-free products currently available in the Italian market. Method: A total of 200 commercially available gluten-free products (including both naturally and certified gluten-free products) were randomly collected from different Italian supermarkets. The gluten content was determined by the R5 ELISA Kit approved by EU regulations. Results: Gluten level was lower than 10 part per million (ppm) in 173 products (86.5%), between 10 and 20 ppm in 9 (4.5%), and higher than 20 ppm in 18 (9%), respectively. In contaminated foodstuff (gluten > 20 ppm) the amount of gluten was almost exclusively in the range of a very low gluten content. Contaminated products most commonly belonged to oats-, buckwheat-, and lentils-based items. Certified and higher cost gluten-free products were less commonly contaminated by gluten. Conclusion: Gluten contamination in either naturally or labeled gluten-free products marketed in Italy is nowadays uncommon and usually mild on a quantitative basis. A program of systematic sampling of gluten-free food is needed to promptly disclose at-risk products. PMID:28178205

  14. Evaluation of culture media for the production of secondary metabolites in a natural products screening program.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vandermolen, Karen M; Raja, Huzefa A; El-Elimat, Tamam; Oberlies, Nicholas H

    2013-12-17

    Variation in the growing environment can have significant impacts on the quantity and diversity of fungal secondary metabolites. In the industrial setting, optimization of growing conditions can lead to significantly increased production of a compound of interest. Such optimization becomes challenging in a drug-discovery screening situation, as the ideal conditions for one organism may induce poor metabolic diversity for a different organism. Here, the impact of different media types, including six liquid media and five solid media, on the secondary metabolite production of three fungal strains was examined in the context of the drug-discovery screening process. The relative production of marker compounds was used to evaluate the usefulness and reliability of each medium for the purpose of producing secondary metabolites.

  15. Computational strategies for genome-based natural product discovery and engineering in fungi.

    Science.gov (United States)

    van der Lee, Theo A J; Medema, Marnix H

    2016-04-01

    Fungal natural products possess biological activities that are of great value to medicine, agriculture and manufacturing. Recent metagenomic studies accentuate the vastness of fungal taxonomic diversity, and the accompanying specialized metabolic diversity offers a great and still largely untapped resource for natural product discovery. Although fungal natural products show an impressive variation in chemical structures and biological activities, their biosynthetic pathways share a number of key characteristics. First, genes encoding successive steps of a biosynthetic pathway tend to be located adjacently on the chromosome in biosynthetic gene clusters (BGCs). Second, these BGCs are often are located on specific regions of the genome and show a discontinuous distribution among evolutionarily related species and isolates. Third, the same enzyme (super)families are often involved in the production of widely different compounds. Fourth, genes that function in the same pathway are often co-regulated, and therefore co-expressed across various growth conditions. In this mini-review, we describe how these partly interlinked characteristics can be exploited to computationally identify BGCs in fungal genomes and to connect them to their products. Particular attention will be given to novel algorithms to identify unusual classes of BGCs, as well as integrative pan-genomic approaches that use a combination of genomic and metabolomic data for parallelized natural product discovery across multiple strains. Such novel technologies will not only expedite the natural product discovery process, but will also allow the assembly of a high-quality toolbox for the re-design or even de novo design of biosynthetic pathways using synthetic biology approaches.

  16. Genetic evidence for natural product-mediated plant-plant allelopathy in rice (Oryza sativa).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xu, Meimei; Galhano, Rita; Wiemann, Philipp; Bueno, Emilio; Tiernan, Mollie; Wu, William; Chung, Ill-Min; Gershenzon, Jonathan; Tudzynski, Bettina; Sesma, Ane; Peters, Reuben J

    2012-02-01

    • There is controversy as to whether specific natural products play a role in directly mediating antagonistic plant-plant interactions - that is, allelopathy. If proved to exist, such phenomena would hold considerable promise for agronomic improvement of staple food crops such as rice (Oryza sativa). • However, while substantiated by the presence of phytotoxic compounds at potentially relevant concentrations, demonstrating a direct role for specific natural products in allelopathy has been difficult because of the chemical complexity of root and plant litter exudates. This complexity can be bypassed via selective genetic manipulation to ablate production of putative allelopathic compounds, but such an approach previously has not been applied. • The rice diterpenoid momilactones provide an example of natural products for which correlative biochemical evidence has been obtained for a role in allelopathy. Here, we apply reverse genetics, using knock-outs of the relevant diterpene synthases (copalyl diphosphate synthase 4 (OsCPS4) and kaurene synthase-like 4 (OsKSL4)), to demonstrate that rice momilactones are involved in allelopathy, including suppressing growth of the widespread rice paddy weed, barnyard grass (Echinochloa crus-galli). • Thus, our results not only provide novel genetic evidence for natural product-mediated allelopathy, but also furnish a molecular target for breeding and metabolic engineering of this important crop plant.

  17. Metathesis transformations of natural products: cross-metathesis of natural rubber and mandarin oil by Ru-alkylidene catalysts.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martínez, Araceli; Gutiérrez, Selena; Tlenkopatchev, Mikhail A

    2012-05-18

    This study reports on the degradation of natural rubber (NR) via crossmetathesis with mandarin oil and d-limonene, an abundant compound in essential oils; that were used as chain transfer agents (CTAs) and green solvents. Reactions were performed in the presence of the ruthenium-alkylidene catalysts (PCy₃)₂(Cl)₂Ru=CHPh (I) and (1,3-dimesityl-4,5-dihydroimidazol-2-ylidene) (PCy₃)Cl₂Ru=CHPh (II), respectively. Catalyst II bears an N-heterocyclic carbene ligand (NHC) bounded to the ruthenium atom, which has a strong basic character; therefore it is more active toward trisubstituted olefins in comparison with catalyst I. In both cases, isolated monoterpene-terminated isoprene oligomers were obtained as products of the cross-metathesis degradation of NR. In the presence of catalyst II molecular weight values around M(n) × 10² and yields of 80% were obtained; whereas with catalyst I, the molecular weights of products were about M(n) × 10⁴ with yields ranging 70 to 74%. The composition and yield of NR degradation products were determined by GC/MS (EI) analysis and it was found that the oligomers obtained have primarily one vinyl group and one terpene-monocyclic group at the chain end, with isoprene units A(m) = 2, 3 y 4.

  18. Drug discovery prospect from untapped species: indications from approved natural product drugs.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Feng Zhu

    Full Text Available Due to extensive bioprospecting efforts of the past and technology factors, there have been questions about drug discovery prospect from untapped species. We analyzed recent trends of approved drugs derived from previously untapped species, which show no sign of untapped drug-productive species being near extinction and suggest high probability of deriving new drugs from new species in existing drug-productive species families and clusters. Case histories of recently approved drugs reveal useful strategies for deriving new drugs from the scaffolds and pharmacophores of the natural product leads of these untapped species. New technologies such as cryptic gene-cluster exploration may generate novel natural products with highly anticipated potential impact on drug discovery.

  19. Natural Products for the Prevention and Treatment of Hangover and Alcohol Use Disorder

    OpenAIRE

    Fang Wang; Ya Li; Yu-Jie Zhang; Yue Zhou; Sha Li; Hua-Bin Li

    2016-01-01

    Alcoholic beverages such as beer, wine and spirits are widely consumed around the world. However, alcohol and its metabolite acetaldehyde are toxic and harmful to human beings. Chronic alcohol use disorder or occasional binge drinking can cause a wide range of health problems, such as hangover, liver damage and cancer. Some natural products such as traditional herbs, fruits, and vegetables might be potential dietary supplements or medicinal products for the prevention and treatment of the pro...

  20. Control of Cowpea Weevil, Callosobruchus Maculatus (F.) (Coleoptera: Bruchidae), Using Natural Plant Products

    OpenAIRE

    Bamphitlhi Tiroesele; Kesegofetse Thomas; Seipati Seketeme

    2014-01-01

    A laboratory study was conducted to investigate the effects of natural products on the reproduction and damage of Callosobruchus maculatus, the cowpea weevil, on cowpea seeds at Botswana College of Agriculture in Gaborone, Botswana. The cowpea variety Blackeye was used in the study. Fifty grams of each plant product (garlic, peppermint and chilies) was added to 500 g of the cowpea seeds. Findings of this experiment revealed that chilies and garlic had negative effects on cowpea weevils for al...

  1. Chasing the Treasures of the Sea – Bacterial Marine Natural Products

    OpenAIRE

    Gulder, Tobias A.M.; Moore, Bradley S.

    2009-01-01

    Bacterial marine natural products are an important source of novel lead structures for drug discovery. The cytotoxic properties of many of these secondary metabolites are of particular interest for the development of new anti-cancer agents. Tremendous advances in marine molecular biology, genome sequencing, and bioinformatics have paved the way to fully exploit the biomedical potential of marine bacterial products. In addition, unique biosynthetic enzymes discovered from bacteria from the sea...

  2. Modification of Nafion membrane with biofunctional SiO2 nanofiber for proton exchange membrane fuel cells

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Hang; Li, Xiaojie; Zhuang, Xupin; Cheng, Bowen; Wang, Wei; Kang, Weimin; Shi, Lei; Li, Hongjun

    2017-02-01

    Proton currents are an integral part of the most important energy-converting structures in biology. We prepared a new type of bioinspired Nafion (Bio-Nafion) membrane composited of biofunctional SiO2 (Bio-SiO2) nanofiber and Nafion matrix. SiO2 nanofibers were prepared by electrospinning silica sol prepared from tetraethyl orthosilicate. Meanwhile, Bio-SiO2 nanofibers were synthesized by immobilizing amino acids (cysteine, serine, lysine, and glycine) on SiO2 nanofibers, which acted as efficient proton-conducting pathways that involved numerous H+ transport sites. In our study, the SiO2 nanofibers biofunctionalized with cysteine were further oxidized, and the composite membranes were designated as Nafion-Cys, Nafion-Lys, Nafion-Ser, and Nafion-Gly, respectively. We then investigated the different polar groups (sbnd SO3H, sbnd OH, and sbnd NH2) of the amino acids that contributed to membrane properties of thermal stability, water uptake (WU), dimensional stability, proton conductivity, and methanol permeability. Nafion-Cys exhibited the highest proton conductivity of 0.2424 S/cm (80 °C). Nafion-Gly showed the lowest proton conductivity and WU because glycine contains the least number of hydrophilic groups among the amino acids. Overall, the introduction of Bio-SiO2 nanofiber to composite membranes significantly improved proton conductivity, dimensional stability, and methanol permeability.

  3. Study about the effect of microgravity on biofunctions; Seitai kino eno bisho juryoku no eikyo ni kansuru kenkyu

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1998-03-01

    A study is made for the elucidation of the effect of microgravity on biofunctions. The protoplast of shiitake is exposed to microgravity and then cultured, and a significant difference occurs. The rate of colony formation by cell fusion in the test sector is found to be two times higher than that in the control sector. When swimming ciliates which are unicellular are suddenly exposed to microgravity, their swimming speeds changed differently according to the direction of swimming. When a mouse subjected to acupuncture for three days is exposed to microgravity, its water metabolism and excretory function are enhanced. A mouse treated with Chinese medicine reacts in the similar way. The change due to microgravity in the amount of acetylcholine in the hypothalamus is found characteristically time dependent. Mice infected with lethal herpes viruses just after exposure to microgravity die at a rate in proportion to the number of exposures and to the amount of viruses given. The migration speed of chemical stripes in case of a gel-base BZ (Belousov-Zhabotinsky) reaction under microgravity is equal to that on the ground. The trigger wave migration speed in case of a water solution-base BZ reaction under microgravity is reduced to approximately 80% of the speed on the ground. 12 refs., 31 figs., 3 tabs.

  4. Ultrasensitive detection of E. coli O157:H7 with biofunctional magnetic bead concentration via nanoporous membrane based electrochemical immunosensor.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chan, Ka Yiu; Ye, Wei Wei; Zhang, Yu; Xiao, Li Dan; Leung, Polly H M; Li, Yi; Yang, Mo

    2013-03-15

    In this paper, biofunctional magnetic beads were investigated for bacterial cells concentration in a nanoporous alumina membrane based immunosensor for ultra-sensitive detection of E. coli O157:H7. The specific antibody modified magnetic beads were used for concentration of E coli O157:H7 from samples in a small region to enhance sensitivity. The magnetic bead conjugated E. coli O157:H7 cells were then captured on the nanoporous alumina membrane with immobilized antibody via assembled PEG-silane linker. Scanning electron microscopy and fluorescent microscopy were used to demonstrate the magnetic bead-bacteria cell conjugation and bacteria cells magnetic concentration, respectively. Impedance spectroscopy was used to monitor the pure E coli O157:H7 cells and magnetic bead conjugated E coli O157:H7 cells binding on antibody immobilized nanoporous membrane with or without magnetic field. Compared with direct detection of pure bacteria cells, this method via magnetic bead conjugation and concentration demonstrated the ultrasensitivity of 10 CFU/mL for E coli O157:H7 detection.

  5. Construction and biofunctional evaluation of electrospun vascular graft loaded with selenocystamine for in situ catalytic generation of nitric oxide

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chen, Siyuan; An, Jun; Weng, Lei [State Key Laboratory of Medicinal Chemical Biology, Key Laboratory of Bioactive Materials for Ministry of Education, College of Life Sciences, Nankai University, Tianjin 300071 (China); Li, Yandong [Institute of Polymer Chemistry, College of Chemistry, Nankai University, Tianjin 300071 (China); Xu, Han; Wang, Yaping; Ding, Dan; Kong, Deling [State Key Laboratory of Medicinal Chemical Biology, Key Laboratory of Bioactive Materials for Ministry of Education, College of Life Sciences, Nankai University, Tianjin 300071 (China); Wang, Shufang, E-mail: wangshufang@nankai.edu.cn [State Key Laboratory of Medicinal Chemical Biology, Key Laboratory of Bioactive Materials for Ministry of Education, College of Life Sciences, Nankai University, Tianjin 300071 (China)

    2014-12-01

    Construction and biofunctional evaluation of a novel vascular graft with in situ catalytic generation of nitric oxide were described in this paper. Poly α-lysine and poly (γ-glutamic acid) were deposited alternately onto the surface of an electrospun poly ε-caprolactone matrix via electrostatic layer-by-layer self-assembly, and then selenocystamine was loaded as a catalyst. Measurement of in vitro catalytic generation of nitric oxide demonstrated that this catalyst-loaded material could considerably accelerate the release of nitric oxide from S-nitrosoglutathione. A fibroblast proliferation assay showed that the material possessed satisfactory cellular compatibility. The catalyst-loaded material could inhibit the spread of smooth muscle cells in the presence of nitric oxide donors. In arteriovenous-shunt experiment, the catalyst-loaded graft exhibited good anti-thrombotic property where it could prevent acute thrombosis by decreasing the adhesion and activation of platelets and other blood cells. These data suggest a new method of building vascular grafts with improved hemocompatibility and biological functions. - Highlights: • A porous small-diameter vascular graft was prepared by electrospinning. • Selenocystamine was loaded for in situ catalytic and sustained NO generation. • There was a significant catalytic NO generation on the catalyst-loaded sample. • The spread of smooth muscle cells was inhibited on the catalyst-loaded sample. • The catalyst-loaded sample showed anti-thrombotic property in AV-shunt experiment.

  6. Pyranone natural products as inspirations for catalytic reaction discovery and development.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McDonald, Benjamin R; Scheidt, Karl A

    2015-04-21

    Natural products continue to provide a wealth of opportunities in the areas of chemical and therapeutic development. These structures are effective measuring sticks for the current state of chemical synthesis as a field and constantly inspire new approaches and strategies. Tetrahydropryans and tetrahydropyran-4-ones are found in numerous bioactive marine natural products and medicinal compounds. Our interest in exploring the therapeutic potential of natural products containing these motifs provided the impetus to explore new methods to access highly functionalized, chiral pyran molecules in the most direct and rapid fashion possible. This goal led to exploration and development of a Lewis acid-mediated Prins reaction between a chiral β-hydroxy-dioxinone and aldehyde to produce a pyran-dioxinone fused product that can be processed in a single pot operation to the desired tetrahydropyran-4-ones in excellent yield and stereoselectivity. Although the Prins reaction is a commonly employed approach toward pyrans, this method uniquely provides a 3-carboxy-trisubstituted pyran and utilizes dioxinones in a manner that was underexplored at the time. The 3-carboxy substituent served as a key synthetic handhold when this method was applied to the synthesis of highly functionalized pyrans within the macrocyclic natural products neopeltolide, okilactiomycin, and exiguolide. When employed in challenging macrocyclizations, this tetrahydropyranone forming reaction proved highly stereoselective and robust. Another major thrust in our lab has been the synthesis of benzopyranone natural products, specifically flavonoids, because this broad and diverse family of compounds possesses an equally broad range of biological and medicinal applications. With the goal of developing a broad platform toward the synthesis of enantioenriched flavonoid analogs and natural products, a biomimetic, asymmetric catalytic approach toward the synthesis of 2-aryl benzopyranones was developed. A

  7. Process balance and product quality in the production of natural indigo from Polygonum tinctorium Ait. applying low-technology methods.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bechtold, T; Turcanu, A; Geissler, S; Ganglberger, E

    2002-02-01

    Indigo is the most important blue component in the class of natural dyes for cellulose and protein fibres. In the moderate European climate Polygonum tinctorium Ait. could be an interesting source for natural indigo (Vat blue 1). Following a cultivation of the plant material a simple procedure for the extraction of the indigo precursor indican was investigated with regard to crop and quality of dye obtained. The dependence of the crop on the storage conditions of the harvested plant material was investigated. The results quantify the distinct sensitivity of the fresh material to the time of storage before extraction with regard to the amount of natural indigo obtained, the photometrically determined indigo content in the product and the shade and colour depth observed in standardised dyeing experiments. A basic set of data is presented, which describes the process in terms of consumption of energy, water and chemicals and organic waste released from the extraction step.

  8. Large-Scale Biotechnological Production of the Antileukemic Marine Natural Product Sorbicillactone A

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Johannes F. Imhoff

    2007-06-01

    Full Text Available In the search for novel bioactive compounds from sponge-derived microorganisms, we have recently identified two structurally and biosynthetically unprecedented fungal metabolites, the novel-type alkaloids sorbicillactone A and sorbicillactone B. Sorbicillactone A is active against leukemia cells without showing notable cytotoxicity. Therefore, we have developed an efficient process for its biotechnological production and isolation on a large scale supplying sufficient material for the ongoing preclinical investigations and structure-activity relationship (SAR studies.

  9. Emerging Potential of Natural Products for Targeting Mucins for Therapy Against Inflammation and Cancer

    Science.gov (United States)

    Macha, Muzafar A.; Krishn, Shiv Ram; Jahan, Rahat; Banerjee, Kasturi; Batra, Surinder K.; Jain, Maneesh

    2015-01-01

    Deregulated mucin expression is a hallmark of several inflammatory and malignant pathologies. Emerging evidence suggests that, apart from biomarkers, these deregulated mucins are functional contributors to pathogenesis in inflammation and cancer. Both overexpression and downregulation of mucins in various organ systems is associated with pathobiology of inflammation and cancer. Restoration of mucin homeostasis has become an important goal for therapy and management of such disorders and has fueled the quest for selective mucomodulators. With improved understanding of mucin regulation and mechanistic insights into their pathobiological roles, there is optimism to find selective non-toxic agents capable of modulating mucin expression and function. Recently, natural compounds derived from dietary sources have drawn attention due to their anti-inflammatory and anti-oxidant properties and low toxicity. Considerable efforts have been directed towards evaluating dietary natural products as chemopreventive and therapeutic agents; identification, characterization and synthesis of their active compounds; and improving their delivery and bioavailability. We describe the current understanding of mucin regulation, rationale for targeting mucins with natural products and discuss some natural products that modulate mucin expression and functions. We further discuss the approaches and parameters that should guide future research to identify and evaluate selective natural mucomodulators for therapy. PMID:25624117

  10. Synthesis and biological properties of macrolactam analogs of the natural product macrolide (-)-A26771B.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Canova, Sophie; Lépine, Renaud; Thys, Amber; Baron, Anne; Roche, Didier

    2011-08-15

    Promising synthetic derivatives of macrolactone natural product (-)-A26771B have been designed and synthesized both from semisynthesis and total synthesis. Further optimization led to the first synthesis of macrolactam analogs of (-)-A26771B with improved antibacterial activity and metabolic stability.

  11. Design of compound libraries based on natural product scaffolds and protein structure similarity clustering (PSSC)

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Balamurugan, Rengarajan; Dekker, Frank J; Waldmann, Herbert; Dekker, Frans

    2005-01-01

    Recent advances in structural biology, bioinformatics and combinatorial chemistry have significantly impacted the discovery of small molecules that modulate protein functions. Natural products which have evolved to bind to proteins may serve as biologically validated starting points for the design o

  12. Biological evaluation of tubulysin A: A potential anticancer and antiangiogenic natural product

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kaur, Gurmeet; Hollingshead, Melinda; Holbeck, Susan; Schauer-Vukašinović, Vesna; Camalier, Richard F.; Dömling, Alexander; Agarwal, Seema

    2006-01-01

    Tubulysin A (tubA) is a natural product isolated from a strain of myxobacteria that has been shown to depolymerize microtubules and induce mitotic arrest. The potential of tubA as an anticancer and antiangiogenic agent is explored in the present study. tubA shows potent antiproliferative activity in

  13. Development of Antiatherosclerotic Drugs on the basis of Natural Products Using Cell Model Approach

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alexander N. Orekhov

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Atherosclerosis including its subclinical form is one of the key medical and social problems. At present, there is no therapy available for widespread use against subclinical atherosclerosis. The use of synthetic drugs for the prevention of arteriosclerosis in its early stages is not sufficient because of the limited indications for severe side effects and high cost of treatment. Obviously, effective antiatherosclerotic drugs based on natural products would be a preferred alternative. Simple cell-based models for testing different natural products have been developed and the ability of natural products to prevent intracellular lipid accumulation in primary cell culture was evaluated. This approach utilizing cell models allowed to test effects of such direct antiatherosclerotic therapy, analyzing the effects mimicking those which can occur “at the level” of arterial wall via the inhibition of intracellular lipid deposition. The data from the carried out clinical trials support a point of view that the identification of antiatherosclerotic activity of natural products might offer a great opportunity for the prevention and treatment of atherosclerotic disease, reducing cardiovascular morbidity and mortality.

  14. A fluorescence-based bioassay for antibacterials and its application in screening natural product extracts

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Michels, Katharina; Heinke, Ramona; Schöne, Pia; Kuipers, Oscar P; Arnold, Norbert; Wessjohann, Ludger A

    2015-01-01

    The reliable assessment of the biological activity of a minor component embedded in a complex matrix of several hundred compounds is a difficult but common task in the search for natural product-based antibiotics, for example, by bioassay-guided fractionation. To quantify the antibiotic properties,

  15. The Role of Natural Products in Drug Discovery and Development against Neglected Tropical Diseases

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Peter Mubanga Cheuka

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available Endemic in 149 tropical and subtropical countries, neglected tropical diseases (NTDs affect more than 1 billion people annually, including 875 million children in developing economies. These diseases are also responsible for over 500,000 deaths per year and are characterized by long-term disability and severe pain. The impact of the combined NTDs closely rivals that of malaria and tuberculosis. Current treatment options are associated with various limitations including widespread drug resistance, severe adverse effects, lengthy treatment duration, unfavorable toxicity profiles, and complicated drug administration procedures. Natural products have been a valuable source of drug regimens that form the cornerstone of modern pharmaceutical care. In this review, we highlight the potential that remains untapped in natural products as drug leads for NTDs. We cover natural products from plant, marine, and microbial sources including natural-product-inspired semi-synthetic derivatives which have been evaluated against the various causative agents of NTDs. Our coverage is limited to four major NTDs which include human African trypanosomiasis (sleeping sickness, leishmaniasis, schistosomiasis and lymphatic filariasis.

  16. Stereospecific Synthesis of the Skeleton of the Antitumor Marine Natural Product Et-743

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    LIU Zhan-Zhu; TANG Ye-Feng; WANG Ye; CHEN Shi-Zhi

    2003-01-01

    @@ Ecteinascidin 743 (Et-743) is an exceedingly potent antitumor agent isolated from the marine tunicate Ecteinascidia turbinate. As its structurally simplified version, Phthalascidin was found to retain the cytotoxicity of the natural product. Their novel structures, impressive biological activities and difficult availabilities conspire to render the attractive targets for total synthesis.

  17. Recent applications of intramolecular Diels-Alder reactions to natural product synthesis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Juhl, M.; Tanner, David Ackland

    2009-01-01

    This tutorial review presents some recent examples of intramolecular Diels-Alder (IMDA) reactions as key complexity-generating steps in the total synthesis of structurally intricate natural products. The opportunities afforded by transannular (TADA) versions of the IMDA reaction in complex molecu...

  18. Kainic Acid-Induced Excitotoxicity Experimental Model: Protective Merits of Natural Products and Plant Extracts

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nur Shafika Mohd Sairazi

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Excitotoxicity is well recognized as a major pathological process of neuronal death in neurodegenerative diseases involving the central nervous system (CNS. In the animal models of neurodegeneration, excitotoxicity is commonly induced experimentally by chemical convulsants, particularly kainic acid (KA. KA-induced excitotoxicity in rodent models has been shown to result in seizures, behavioral changes, oxidative stress, glial activation, inflammatory mediator production, endoplasmic reticulum stress, mitochondrial dysfunction, and selective neurodegeneration in the brain upon KA administration. Recently, there is an emerging trend to search for natural sources to combat against excitotoxicity-associated neurodegenerative diseases. Natural products and plant extracts had attracted a considerable amount of attention because of their reported beneficial effects on the CNS, particularly their neuroprotective effect against excitotoxicity. They provide significant reduction and/or protection against the development and progression of acute and chronic neurodegeneration. This indicates that natural products and plants extracts may be useful in protecting against excitotoxicity-associated neurodegeneration. Thus, targeting of multiple pathways simultaneously may be the strategy to maximize the neuroprotection effect. This review summarizes the mechanisms involved in KA-induced excitotoxicity and attempts to collate the various researches related to the protective effect of natural products and plant extracts in the KA model of neurodegeneration.

  19. Endophytes : exploiting biodiversity for the improvement of natural product-based drug discovery

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Staniek, Agata; Woerdenbag, Herman J.; Kayser, Oliver

    2008-01-01

    Endophytes, microorganisms that colonize internal tissues of all plant species, create a huge biodiversity with yet unknown novel natural products, presumed to push forward the frontiers of drug discovery. Next to the clinically acknowledged antineoplastic agent, paclitaxel, endophyte research has y

  20. Studies on the Synthesis of a Natural Product-Piceatannol and its Analogs

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2002-01-01

    Piceatannol, (E)-3, 3(, 4, 5(-tetrahydroxy stilbene, a natural polyhydroxy stilbene, possesses many biological activities, its synthesis has been reported. We designed another route of its synthesis, which can be controlled more easily. The synthetic product was characterized by elemental analysis, IR, MS and 1H-NMR. Its analogs were synthesized by the similar method.

  1. Essential Roles of Natural Products and Gaseous Mediators on Neuronal Cell Death or Survival

    OpenAIRE

    Yoshinori Mikami; Sho Kakizawa; Toshiko Yamazawa

    2016-01-01

    Although precise cellular and molecular mechanisms underlying neurodegeneration still remain enigmatic, key factors associated with degenerative disorders, such as glutamate toxicity and oxidative stress, have been recently identified. Accordingly, there has been growing interest in examining the effects of exogenous and endogenous molecules on neuroprotection and neurodegeneration. In this paper, we review recent studies on neuroprotective and/or neurodegenerative effects of natural products...

  2. Current status and prospects of computational resources for natural product dereplication: a review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mohamed, Ahmed; Nguyen, Canh Hao; Mamitsuka, Hiroshi

    2016-03-01

    Research in natural products has always enhanced drug discovery by providing new and unique chemical compounds. However, recently, drug discovery from natural products is slowed down by the increasing chance of re-isolating known compounds. Rapid identification of previously isolated compounds in an automated manner, called dereplication, steers researchers toward novel findings, thereby reducing the time and effort for identifying new drug leads. Dereplication identifies compounds by comparing processed experimental data with those of known compounds, and so, diverse computational resources such as databases and tools to process and compare compound data are necessary. Automating the dereplication process through the integration of computational resources has always been an aspired goal of natural product researchers. To increase the utilization of current computational resources for natural products, we first provide an overview of the dereplication process, and then list useful resources, categorizing into databases, methods and software tools and further explaining them from a dereplication perspective. Finally, we discuss the current challenges to automating dereplication and proposed solutions.

  3. Neuroprotective Effect of Natural Products on Peripheral Nerve Degeneration: A Systematic Review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Araújo-Filho, Heitor G; Quintans-Júnior, Lucindo J; Barreto, André S; Almeida, Jackson R G S; Barreto, Rosana S S; Quintans, Jullyana S S

    2016-04-01

    Peripheral nerve injury (PNI) is a serious public health problem that is linked with motor, sensory and autonomic deficits. Given the fact that this type of disorder leads to a decreased quality of life in most patients and adherence of available drugs is limited and have adverse effects, we investigated the efficacy of natural products in a PNI model. The search terms plants, medicinal, nerve regeneration, nerve crush, sciatic nerve as well as MeSH terms or free-text words were used to retrieve English language articles in PubMed, Scopus, Web of Science and LILACS published until July 2015. After sciatic nerve crush, natural products have improved significantly motor performance, sensory function and electrical conductance measured over weeks. Among the pharmacological targets suggested by the action of natural products, there were citations on the activation of the antiapoptotic signaling pathway, modulation in the expression of pro-inflammatory cytokines and neurotrophic factors. The systematic review provides scientific evidence that natural products are pharmacologically effective in the treatment of PNI such as sciatic nerve crush.

  4. Chemoselective enrichment as a tool to increase access to bioactive natural products: Case study borrelidin.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Trader, Darci J; Carlson, Erin E

    2015-11-01

    Chemoselective purification technologies have seen great success in biomolecule isolation, with a classic example being the genetically-encoded His tag utilized to enrich desired proteins from a crude lysate. We sought to translate this purification tactic into a powerful tool for the isolation of natural products and demonstrate that chemoselective enrichment can reduce the number of purification steps required and increase the yield obtained for important natural products, as compared to the use of traditional chromatography methods alone. To date, we have reported reversible enrichment tags for three functional groups, carboxylic acids and aliphatic or aryl hydroxyls. To illustrate the power of chemoselectivity-mediated purification of natural products, we present here an improved isolation of borrelidin. Application of our carboxylic acid tag yielded pure borrelidin in only two steps and with double the yield acquired with traditional chromatography methods. These results highlight the utility of this orthogonal strategy to facilitate the isolation of natural products, which are often present in minute quantities in their source materials.

  5. Fruit-based Natural Antioxidants in Meat and Meat Products: A Review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ahmad, S R; Gokulakrishnan, P; Giriprasad, R; Yatoo, M A

    2015-01-01

    Due to the potential toxic effects of synthetic antioxidants, natural antioxidant sources especially fruits are being preferred now-a-days for use in different meat products. The majority of the antioxidant capacity of a fruit is especially because of numerous phenolic compounds. Many of the phytochemicals present in fruits may help protect cells against the oxidative damage caused by free radicals, thereby reducing the risk of degenerative diseases such as cardiovascular diseases, various types of cancers, and neurological diseases. Various parts of the fruit including their byproducts like skin and seeds have been used in meat products. Plum has been used as plum puree, prunes (dried plum), and plum extracts. Grape skin, seed, peel extracts, and grape pomace; berries as cakes and powder extracts; pomegranate rind powder and its juice; and most of the citrus fruits have proved beneficial sources of antioxidants. All these natural sources have effectively reduced the thiobarbituric acid-reactive substances (TBARS) values and free radical frequency. Thus, lipid oxidation is prevented and shelf life is greatly enhanced by incorporating various kinds of fruits and their byproducts in meat and meat products. There is a great scope for the use of fruits as natural sources of antioxidants in meat industry. The review is intended to provide an overview of the fruit-based natural antioxidants in meat and meat products.

  6. Isolation of Betulin and Rearrangement to Allobetulin: A Biomimetic Natural Product Synthesis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Green, Brian; Bentley, Michael D.; Chung, Bong Y.; Lynch, Nicholas G.; Jensen, Bruce L.

    2007-01-01

    The triterpenes are a diverse class of widely distributed natural products derived from squalene. Various cyclization and subsequent rearrangement reactions produce many complex structural types. These compounds frequently display a wide divergence of biological properties. For example the pentacyclic triterpene, betulin, is isolated from white…

  7. New antitumour natural products from marine red algae: covering the period from 2003 to 2012.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pejin, Boris; Jovanovic, Katarina K; Savic, Aleksandar G

    2015-01-01

    This review covers the 2003-2012 literature data published for natural products originating from marine red algae. The focus is on new antitumour substances, together with details related to the organism sourced. It emphasises 14 promising compounds (isolated from 13 species) whose chemical structures are briefly discussed.

  8. Synthetic Applications of Asymmetric Horner-Wadsworth-Emmons Condensations: Approaches to Marine Natural Products

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Tullis, Joshua S.; Helquist, Paul; Rein, Tobias

    1999-01-01

    Asymmetric HWE condensations of meso-dialdehyde 1 with chiral phosphonates containing 8-phenylmenthol very directly generate chiral moieties that are seen in a number of cytotoxic natural products. The HWE reactions proceed in good yields with synthetically useful geometric and diastereoselectivi...

  9. Back to the Roots: Prediction of Biologically Active Natural Products from Ayurveda Traditional Medicine

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Polur, Honey; Joshi, Tejal; Workman, Christopher;

    2011-01-01

    Ayurveda, the traditional Indian medicine is one of the most ancient, yet living medicinal traditions. In the present work, we developed an in silico library of natural products from Ayurveda medicine, coupled with structural information, plant origin and traditional therapeutic use. Following this...... basis of Ayurveda medicine and in drug repurposing....

  10. Sharing and community curation of mass spectrometry data with Global Natural Products Social Molecular Networking

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Wang, Mingxun; Carver, Jeremy J.; Pevzner, Pavel

    2016-01-01

    The potential of the diverse chemistries present in natural products (NP) for biotechnology and medicine remains untapped because NP databases are not searchable with raw data and the NP community has no way to share data other than in published papers. Although mass spectrometry (MS) techniques ...

  11. Capturing the essence of organic synthesis: from bioactive natural products to designed molecules in today's medicine.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ghosh, Arun K

    2010-12-03

    In this Perspective, I outline my group's research involving the chemical syntheses of medicinally important natural products, exploration of their bioactivity, and the development of new asymmetric carbon-carbon bond-forming reactions. This paper also highlights our approach to molecular design and synthesis of conceptually novel inhibitors against target proteins involved in the pathogenesis of human diseases, including AIDS and Alzheimer's disease.

  12. Making a Natural Product Chemistry Course Meaningful with a Mini Project Laboratory

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hakim, Aliefman; Liliasari; Kadarohman, Asep; Syah, Yana Maolana

    2016-01-01

    This paper discusses laboratory activities that can improve the meaningfulness of natural product chemistry course. These laboratory activities can be useful for students from many different disciplines including chemistry, pharmacy, and medicine. Students at the third-year undergraduate level of chemistry education undertake the project to…

  13. Nature-inspired design strategies in sustainable product development: A case study of student projects

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    De Pauw, I.C.; Karana, E.; Kandachar, P.V.

    2012-01-01

    In design practice, Nature-Inspired Design Strategies (NIDS) can be applied when developing sustainable products. However, knowledge on how this actually helps designers is lacking. This study explores the effects of applying Cradle to Cradle and Biomimicry in student projects, as compared to using

  14. Computational strategies for genome-based natural product discovery and engineering in fungi

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Lee, van der T.A.J.; Medema, M.H.

    2016-01-01

    Fungal natural products possess biological activities that are of great value to medicine, agriculture and manufacturing. Recent metagenomic studies accentuate the vastness of fungal taxonomic diversity, and the accompanying specialized metabolic diversity offers a great and still largely untappe

  15. Microbial biotransformation as a tool for drug development based on natural products from mevalonic acid pathway: A review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mohamed-Elamir F. Hegazy

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Natural products are structurally and biologically interesting metabolites, but they have been isolated in minute amounts. The syntheses of such natural products help in obtaining them in bulk amounts. The recognition of microbial biotransformation as important manufacturing tool has increased in chemical and pharmaceutical industries. In recent years, microbial transformation is increasing significantly from limited interest into highly active area in green chemistry including preparation of pharmaceutical products. This is the first review published on the usage of microbial biocatalysts for some natural product classes and natural product drugs.

  16. Distance to semi-natural grassland influences seed production of insect-pollinated herbs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jakobsson, Anna; Ågren, Jon

    2014-05-01

    Marginal grassland fragments, such as road verges and field margins, may act as important supplemental habitats for grassland plants in the modern agricultural landscape. However, abundance of pollinators in such fragments has been found to decline with distance to larger natural and semi-natural habitats, and this could have corresponding effects on plant pollination. In this study, we performed a field experiment on road verges with three insect-pollinated grassland herbs to examine the relationship between distance to semi-natural grassland and plant reproductive success in two landscapes with contrasting farming intensities. In Lychnis viscaria and Lotus corniculatus, seed production tended to decrease with increasing distance to semi-natural grassland, but only in the landscape with high farming intensity. Seed production in Armeria maritima spp. maritima decreased with distance in both landscapes. Although many studies have investigated effects of natural habitat on crop pollination, little is known about the impact on pollination in native plants. The results from this study indicate that management of semi-natural grasslands improves not only biodiversity within the actual grassland but also pollination of native plants in the surrounding agricultural landscape.

  17. Economic Evaluation on Bio-Synthetic Natural Gas Production Integrated in a Thermomechanical Pulp Mill

    OpenAIRE

    Wennan Zhang; Jie He; Per Engstrand; Olof Björkqvist

    2015-01-01

    In this study, biorefinery as a concept is applied to thermomechanical pulp (TMP)-based paper production to evaluate the possibility of co-production of synthetic natural gas (SNG), electricity and district heating in addition to mechanical pulp and paper. The combined heat and power plant (CHP) associated to TMP is replaced by a biomass-to-SNG (BtSNG) plant. Implementing BtSNG in a mechanical pulp production line might improve the profitability of a TMP mill and also help to commercialize th...

  18. Matrix Metalloproteinase Inhibitors (MMPIs from Marine Natural Products: the Current Situation and Future Prospects

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Se-Kwon Kim

    2009-03-01

    Full Text Available Matrix metalloproteinases (MMPs are a family of more than twenty five secreted and membrane-bound zinc-endopeptidases which can degrade extracellular matrix (ECM components. They also play important roles in a variety of biological and pathological processes. Matrix metalloproteinase inhibitors (MMPIs have been identified as potential therapeutic candidates for metastasis, arthritis, chronic inflammation and wrinkle formation. Up to present, more than 20,000 new compounds have been isolated from marine organisms, where considerable numbers of these naturally occurring derivatives are developed as potential candidates for pharmaceutical application. Eventhough the quantity of marine derived MMPIs is less when compare with the MMPIs derived from terrestrial materials, huge potential for bioactivity of these marine derived MMPIs has lead to large number of researches. Saccharoids, flavonoids and polyphones, fatty acids are the most important groups of MMPIs derived from marine natural products. In this review we focus on the progress of MMPIs from marine natural products.

  19. Exploring fungal biodiversity for the production of water-soluble pigments as potential natural food colorants

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mapari, Sameer Shamsuddin; Nielsen, Kristian Fog; Larsen, Thomas Ostenfeld;

    2005-01-01

    The production of many currently authorized natural food colorants has a number of disadvantages, including a dependence on the supply of raw materials and variations in pigment extraction. Fungi provide a readily available alternative source of naturally derived food colorants that could easily...... be produced in high yields. The recent authorization of a fungal food colorant has fuelled research to explore the extraordinary chemical diversity and biodiversity of fungi for the biotechnological production of pigments as natural food colorants. These studies require an appropriate use of chernotaxonomic...... tools and a priori knowledge of fungal metabolites to carry out intelligent screening for known or novel colorants as lead compounds. Such screening would result in the preselection of some potential pigment producers and the deselection of pathogenic strains and toxin producers. With advances in gene...

  20. More stable productivity of semi natural grasslands than sown pastures in a seasonally dry climate.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sonia Ospina

    Full Text Available In the Neotropics the predominant pathway to intensify productivity is generally thought to be to convert grasslands to sown pastures, mostly in monoculture. This article examines how above-ground net primary productivity (ANPP in semi-natural grasslands and sown pastures in Central America respond to rainfall by: (i assessing the relationships between ANPP and accumulated rainfall and indices of rainfall distribution, (ii evaluating the variability of ANPP between and within seasons, and (iii estimating the temporal stability of ANPP. We conducted sequential biomass harvests during 12 periods of 22 days and related those to rainfall. There were significant relationships between ANPP and cumulative rainfall in 22-day periods for both vegetation types and a model including a linear and quadratic term explained 74% of the variation in the data. There was also a significant correlation between ANPP and the number of rainfall events for both vegetation types. Sown pastures had higher ANPP increments per unit rainfall and higher ANPP at the peak of the rainy season than semi-natural grasslands. In contrast, semi-natural grasslands showed higher ANPP early in the dry season. The temporal stability of ANPP was higher in semi-natural grasslands than in the sown pastures in the dry season and over a whole annual cycle. Our results reveal that, contrary to conventional thinking amongst pasture scientists, there appears to be no increase in ANPP arising from replacing semi-natural grasslands with sown pastures under prevailing pasture management practices in seasonally dry climates, while the temporal distribution of ANPP is more even in semi-natural grasslands. Neither sown pastures nor semi-natural grasslands are productive towards the end of the dry season, indicating the potential importance of the widespread practice of retaining tree cover in pastures.

  1. More stable productivity of semi natural grasslands than sown pastures in a seasonally dry climate.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ospina, Sonia; Rusch, Graciela M; Pezo, Danilo; Casanoves, Fernando; Sinclair, Fergus L

    2012-01-01

    In the Neotropics the predominant pathway to intensify productivity is generally thought to be to convert grasslands to sown pastures, mostly in monoculture. This article examines how above-ground net primary productivity (ANPP) in semi-natural grasslands and sown pastures in Central America respond to rainfall by: (i) assessing the relationships between ANPP and accumulated rainfall and indices of rainfall distribution, (ii) evaluating the variability of ANPP between and within seasons, and (iii) estimating the temporal stability of ANPP. We conducted sequential biomass harvests during 12 periods of 22 days and related those to rainfall. There were significant relationships between ANPP and cumulative rainfall in 22-day periods for both vegetation types and a model including a linear and quadratic term explained 74% of the variation in the data. There was also a significant correlation between ANPP and the number of rainfall events for both vegetation types. Sown pastures had higher ANPP increments per unit rainfall and higher ANPP at the peak of the rainy season than semi-natural grasslands. In contrast, semi-natural grasslands showed higher ANPP early in the dry season. The temporal stability of ANPP was higher in semi-natural grasslands than in the sown pastures in the dry season and over a whole annual cycle. Our results reveal that, contrary to conventional thinking amongst pasture scientists, there appears to be no increase in ANPP arising from replacing semi-natural grasslands with sown pastures under prevailing pasture management practices in seasonally dry climates, while the temporal distribution of ANPP is more even in semi-natural grasslands. Neither sown pastures nor semi-natural grasslands are productive towards the end of the dry season, indicating the potential importance of the widespread practice of retaining tree cover in pastures.

  2. Covalent attachment of the plant natural product naringenin to small glass and ceramic beads

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Grotewold Erich

    2005-10-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Natural products have numerous medicinal applications and play important roles in the biology of the organisms that accumulate them. Few methods are currently available for identifying proteins that bind to small molecules, therefore the discovery of cellular targets for natural products with pharmacological activity continues to pose a significant challenge in drug validation. Similarly, the identification of enzymes that participate in the biosynthesis or modification of natural products remains a formidable bottleneck for metabolic engineering. Flavonoids are one large group of natural products with a diverse number of functions in plants and in human health. The coupling of flavonoids to small ceramic and glass beads provides a first step in the development of high-throughput, solid-support base approaches to screen complex libraries to identify proteins that bind natural products. Results The utilization of small glass and ceramic beads as solid supports for the coupling of small molecules was explored. Initial characterization of the beads indicated uniform and high capacity loading of amino groups. Once the beads were deemed adequate for the linking of small molecules by the coupling of NHS-fluorescein followed by microscopy, chemical hydrolysis and fluorometry, the flavonoid naringenin was modified with 1,4-dibromobutane, followed by the attachment of aminopropyltriethoxysilane. After NMR structural confirmation, the resulting 7-(4-(3-(triethoxysilylpropylaminobutoxy naringenin was attached to the ceramic beads. Conclusion Our results demonstrate that ceramic and glass beads provide convenient solid supports for the efficient and facile coupling of small molecules. We succeeded in generating naringenin-coupled ceramic and glass beads. We also developed a convenient series of steps that can be applied for the solid-support coupling of other related flavonoids. The availability of solid-support coupled naringenin opens

  3. Comparing Migration Pathways of Biodegradation Products from Petroleum Hydrocarbon Natural Attenuation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hathaway, E.; de Sieyes, N. R.; Mackay, D. M.

    2014-12-01

    Petroleum hydrocarbons contaminants frequently exist in both the vadose and saturated zones at contaminated fuel sites. Natural biodegradation of petroleum hydrocarbon contaminants occur in in situ reactive zones present in both the vadose and saturated zones. Biodegradation of petroleum hydrocarbons results in a mass discharge of gaseous biodegradation products through the vadose zone and transport of dissolved gases through the saturated zone. While previous studies have focused solely on transport of degradation products or geochemical parameters in groundwater or efflux of gaseous byproducts from the vadose zone, this study examines both pathways for discharge of degradation products. Quantifying the mass discharge of the biodegradation products through these zones is important to estimate the rates of natural source attenuation, assess the success of monitored natural attenuation, and quantify and document contaminant mass loss. In this study, surface efflux and groundwater mass discharge rates of biodegradation products (carbon dioxide, methane, and other intermediates) were quantified using field data. Field and analytical methodologies will be presented along with the results of the data analysis and a discussion of the uncertainties. Based on the data analysis, the surface efflux pathway through the vadose was found to be the dominant pathway for carbon loss at the monitored field site.

  4. Organisms for biofuel production: natural bioresources and methodologies for improving their biosynthetic potentials.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hu, Guangrong; Ji, Shiqi; Yu, Yanchong; Wang, Shi'an; Zhou, Gongke; Li, Fuli

    2015-01-01

    In order to relieve the pressure of energy supply and environment contamination that humans are facing, there are now intensive worldwide efforts to explore natural bioresources for production of energy storage compounds, such as lipids, alcohols, hydrocarbons, and polysaccharides. Around the world, many plants have been evaluated and developed as feedstock for bioenergy production, among which several crops have successfully achieved industrialization. Microalgae are another group of photosynthetic autotroph of interest due to their superior growth rates, relatively high photosynthetic conversion efficiencies, and vast metabolic capabilities. Heterotrophic microorganisms, such as yeast and bacteria, can utilize carbohydrates from lignocellulosic biomass directly or after pretreatment and enzymatic hydrolysis to produce liquid biofuels such as ethanol and butanol. Although finding a suitable organism for biofuel production is not easy, many naturally occurring organisms with good traits have recently been obtained. This review mainly focuses on the new organism resources discovered in the last 5 years for production of transport fuels (biodiesel, gasoline, jet fuel, and alkanes) and hydrogen, and available methods to improve natural organisms as platforms for the production of biofuels.

  5. Natural Products for the Prevention and Treatment of Hangover and Alcohol Use Disorder

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fang Wang

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Alcoholic beverages such as beer, wine and spirits are widely consumed around the world. However, alcohol and its metabolite acetaldehyde are toxic and harmful to human beings. Chronic alcohol use disorder or occasional binge drinking can cause a wide range of health problems, such as hangover, liver damage and cancer. Some natural products such as traditional herbs, fruits, and vegetables might be potential dietary supplements or medicinal products for the prevention and treatment of the problems caused by excessive alcohol consumption. The aim of this review is to provide an overview of effective natural products for the prevention and treatment of hangover and alcohol use disorder, and special emphasis is paid to the possible functional component(s and related mechanism(s of action.

  6. Natural Products for the Prevention and Treatment of Hangover and Alcohol Use Disorder.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Fang; Li, Ya; Zhang, Yu-Jie; Zhou, Yue; Li, Sha; Li, Hua-Bin

    2016-01-07

    Alcoholic beverages such as beer, wine and spirits are widely consumed around the world. However, alcohol and its metabolite acetaldehyde are toxic and harmful to human beings. Chronic alcohol use disorder or occasional binge drinking can cause a wide range of health problems, such as hangover, liver damage and cancer. Some natural products such as traditional herbs, fruits, and vegetables might be potential dietary supplements or medicinal products for the prevention and treatment of the problems caused by excessive alcohol consumption. The aim of this review is to provide an overview of effective natural products for the prevention and treatment of hangover and alcohol use disorder, and special emphasis is paid to the possible functional component(s) and related mechanism(s) of action.

  7. Plant natural products: from traditional compounds to new emerging drugs in cancer therapy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ouyang, L; Luo, Y; Tian, M; Zhang, S-Y; Lu, R; Wang, J-H; Kasimu, R; Li, X

    2014-12-01

    Natural products are chemical compounds or substances produced naturally by living organisms. With the development of modern technology, more and more plant extracts have been found to be useful to medical practice. Both micromolecules and macromolecules have been reported to have the ability to inhibit tumour progression, a novel weapon to fight cancer by targeting its 10 characteristic hallmarks. In this review, we focus on summarizing plant natural compounds and their derivatives with anti-tumour properties, into categories, according to their potential therapeutic strategies against different types of human cancer. Taken together, we present a well-grounded review of these properties, hoping to shed new light on discovery of novel anti-tumour therapeutic drugs from known plant natural sources.

  8. [Drug development from natural fermentation products: establishing a manufacturing process which maximizes the potential of microorganisms].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nagao, Koji; Ueda, Satoshi; Kanda, Munekazu; Oohata, Nobutaka; Yamashita, Michio; Hino, Motohiro

    2010-11-01

    Natural fermentation products have long been studied as attractive targets for drug discovery due to their amazing diverse, complex chemical structures and biological activities. As such, a number of revolutionary drugs developed from natural fermentation products have contributed to global human health. To commercialize a drug derived from natural fermentation products, an effective chemical entity must be identified and thoroughly researched, and an effective manufacturing process to prepare a commercial supply must be developed. To construct such a manufacturing process for tacrolimus and micafungin, the following studies were conducted: first, we focused on controlling the production of the tacrolimus-related compound FR900525, a fermentation by-product of tacrolimus which was critical for quality assurance of the drug substance. FR900525 production was reduced by using a mutant strain which produced more pipecolic acid, the biosynthesis material of tacrolimus, than the original strain. Then, to optimize the fermentation process of FR901379, an intermediate of micafungin, a fed-batch culture was adopted to increase FR901379 productivity. Additionally, FULLZONE(TM) impeller was installed into the scaled-up fermenter, reducing the agitation-induced damage to the mycelium. As a result, the mycelial form changed from filamentous to pellet-shaped, and the air uptake rate during fermentation was drastically improved. Finally, we conducted screening for FR901379 acylase-producing microorganisms, as FR901379 acylase is necessary to manufacture micafungin. We were able to easily discover FR901379 acylase-producing microorganisms in soil samples using our novel, convenient screening method, which involves comparing the difference in antibiotic activity between FR901379 and its deacylated product.

  9. Natural products as starting points for future anti-malarial therapies: going back to our roots?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wells Timothy NC

    2011-03-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The discovery and development of new anti-malarials are at a crossroads. Fixed dose artemisinin combination therapy is now being used to treat a hundred million children each year, with a cost as low as 30 cents per child, with cure rates of over 95%. However, as with all anti-infective strategies, this triumph brings with it the seeds of its own downfall, the emergence of resistance. It takes ten years to develop a new medicine. New classes of medicines to combat malaria, as a result of infection by Plasmodium falciparum and Plasmodium vivax are urgently needed. Results Natural product scaffolds have been the basis of the majority of current anti-malarial medicines. Molecules such as quinine, lapachol and artemisinin were originally isolated from herbal medicinal products. After improvement with medicinal chemistry and formulation technologies, and combination with other active ingredients, they now make up the current armamentarium of medicines. In recent years advances in screening technologies have allowed testing of millions of compounds from pharmaceutical diversity for anti-malarial activity in cellular assays. These initiatives have resulted in thousands of new sub-micromolar active compounds – starting points for new drug discovery programmes. Against this backdrop, the paucity of potent natural products identified has been disappointing. Now is a good time to reflect on the current approach to screening herbal medicinal products and suggest revisions. Nearly sixty years ago, the Chinese doctor Chen Guofu, suggested natural products should be approached by dao-xing-ni-shi or ‘acting in the reversed order’, starting with observational clinical studies. Natural products based on herbal remedies are in use in the community, and have the potential unique advantage that clinical observational data exist, or can be generated. The first step should be the confirmation and definition of the clinical activity of herbal

  10. Complex marine natural products as potential epigenetic and production regulators of antibiotics from a marine Pseudomonas aeruginosa.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Bin; Waters, Amanda L; Sims, James W; Fullmer, Alexis; Ellison, Serena; Hamann, Mark T

    2013-05-01

    Marine microbes are capable of producing secondary metabolites for defense and competition. Factors exerting an impact on secondary metabolite production of microbial communities included bioactive natural products and co-culturing. These external influences may have practical applications such as increased yields or the generation of new metabolites from otherwise silent genes in addition to reducing or limiting the production of undesirable metabolites. In this paper, we discuss the metabolic profiles of a marine Pseudomonas aeruginosa in the presence of a number of potential chemical epigenetic regulators, adjusting carbon sources and co-culturing with other microbes to induce a competitive response. As a result of these stressors certain groups of antibiotics or antimalarial agents were increased most notably when treating P. aeruginosa with sceptrin and co-culturing with another Pseudomonas sp. An interesting cross-talking event between these two Pseudomonas species when cultured together and exposed to sceptrin was observed.

  11. Tolerance of natural baby skin-care products on healthy, full-term infants and toddlers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Coret CD

    2014-02-01

    Full Text Available Catherine D Coret, Michael B Suero, Neena K Tierney Johnson & Johnson Consumer Companies, Inc, Skillman, NJ, USA Purpose: To evaluate the tolerance of baby skin-care products with at least 95% naturally derived ingredients on infants and toddlers. Materials and methods: Healthy, full-term infants and toddlers aged 1–36 months were enrolled. In study 1, a lightly fragranced natural baby hair and body wash (n=30, a lightly fragranced natural baby shampoo (n=30, or a lightly fragranced natural baby lotion (n=32 were assessed over 2 weeks. In study 2, a lightly fragranced natural baby hair and body wash and a lightly fragranced natural baby lotion (n=33 were assessed as a regimen over 4 weeks. The wash and shampoo were used three or more times per week, but not more than once daily. Lotions were applied in the morning or after a bath. Clinicians assessed the arms, legs, torso, or scalp for erythema, dryness, peeling/flakiness (study 1 only, tactile roughness, edema (study 1 only, rash/irritation (study 2 only, and overall skin condition (study 2 only at baseline, week 1, and weeks 2 or 4. Parents completed skin assessment questionnaires. In study 2, stratum corneum hydration was measured. Subjects were monitored for adverse events. Results: No significant changes in clinical grading scores were observed, indicating that all products were well tolerated. By the end of each study, >90% of parents/caregivers believed each product was mild and gentle. In study 2, improvement in stratum corneum hydration was observed (+37% at week 1 and +48% at week 4, P<0.05 for both. In study 1, one baby experienced mild erythema on the neck and scalp after using the shampoo (possibly related to treatment. In study 2, there were no product-related adverse events. Conclusion: The natural baby skin-care products were well tolerated by infants and toddlers when used alone or as part of a skin-care regimen. Keywords: bath, cleanser, natural, infant, lotion, shampoo

  12. Natural or Induced: Identifying Natural and Induced Swarms from Pre-production and Co-production Microseismic Catalogs at the Coso Geothermal Field

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schoenball, Martin; Kaven, Joern; Glen, Jonathan M. G.; Davatzes, Nicholas C.

    2015-01-01

    Increased levels of seismicity coinciding with injection of reservoir fluids have prompted interest in methods to distinguish induced from natural seismicity. Discrimination between induced and natural seismicity is especially difficult in areas that have high levels of natural seismicity, such as the geothermal fields at the Salton Sea and Coso, both in California. Both areas show swarm-like sequences that could be related to natural, deep fluid migration as part of the natural hydrothermal system. Therefore, swarms often have spatio-temporal patterns that resemble fluid-induced seismicity, and might possibly share other characteristics. The Coso Geothermal Field and its surroundings is one of the most seismically active areas in California with a large proportion of its activity occurring as seismic swarms. Here we analyze clustered seismicity in and surrounding the currently produced reservoir comparatively for pre-production and co-production periods. We perform a cluster analysis, based on the inter-event distance in a space-time-energy domain to identify notable earthquake sequences. For each event j, the closest previous event i is identified and their relationship categorized. If this nearest neighbor’s distance is below a threshold based on the local minimum of the bimodal distribution of nearest neighbor distances, then the event j is included in the cluster as a child to this parent event i. If it is above the threshold, event j begins a new cluster. This process identifies subsets of events whose nearest neighbor distances and relative timing qualify as a cluster as well as a characterizing the parent-child relationships among events in the cluster. We apply this method to three different catalogs: (1) a two-year microseismic survey of the Coso geothermal area that was acquired before exploration drilling in the area began; (2) the HYS_catalog_2013 that contains 52,000 double-difference relocated events and covers the years 1981 to 2013; and (3) a

  13. Spectroscopic and quantum chemical analysis of a natural product - Hayatin hydrochloride

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mishra, Rashmi; Srivastava, Anubha; Tandon, Poonam; Jain, Sudha

    2015-08-01

    Majority of drugs in use today are natural products, natural product mimics or semi synthetic derivatives. Therefore in recent times, focus on plant research has increased all over the world and large body of evidence has been collected to show immense potential of medicinal plants used in various traditional systems. Therefore, in the present communication to aid that research, structural and spectroscopic analysis of a natural product, an alkaloid Hayatin hydrochloride was performed. Both ab initio Hartree-Fock and density functional theory employing B3LYP with complete relaxation in the potential energy surface using 6-311G (d,p) basis set were used for the calculations. The vibrational frequencies were calculated and scaled values were compared with experimental FT-IR and micro-Raman spectra. The complete assignments were performed on the basis of potential energy distribution. The structure-activity relationship has also been interpreted by mapping electrostatic potential surface, which are valuable information for the quality control of medicines and drug-receptor interactions. Electronic properties have been analysed employing TD-DFT for both gaseous and solvent phase. The calculated HOMO and LUMO energies show that charge transfer occurs within the molecule. Stability of the molecule arising from hyper conjugative interactions, charge delocalization has been analyzed using natural bond orbital (NBO) analysis.

  14. Analytical evaluation of natural radionuclides and their radioactive equilibrium in raw materials and by-products.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ji, Young-Yong; Chung, Kun Ho; Lim, Jong-Myoung; Kim, Chang-Jong; Jang, Mee; Kang, Mun Ja; Park, Sang Tae

    2015-03-01

    An investigation into the distribution of natural radionuclides and radioactive secular equilibrium in raw materials and by-products in a domestic distribution was conducted to deduce the optimum conditions for the analytical evaluation of natural radionuclides for (238)U, (226)Ra, and (232)Th using a gamma-ray spectrometer and inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometer (ICP-MS). The range of the specific activities of natural radionuclides was first evaluated by analyzing (228)Ac and (214)Bi, which are (232)Th and (226)Ra indicators, respectively, in about 100 samples of raw materials and by-products through a gamma-ray spectrometer. From further experiments using several samples selected based on the results of the distribution of natural radionuclides, the validation of their analytical evaluations for the indirect measurements using a gamma-ray spectrometer and direct measurements using ICP-MS was assured by comparing their results. Chemically processed products from the raw materials, such as Zr sand and ceramic balls, were generally shown for the type of bead and particularly analyzed showing a definite disequilibrium with above a 50% difference between (238)U and (226)Ra in the uranium series and (232)Th and (228)Ra in the thorium series.

  15. The rare fluorinated natural products and biotechnological prospects for fluorine enzymology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chan, K K Jason; O'Hagan, David

    2012-01-01

    Nature has hardly evolved a biochemistry of fluorine although there is a low-level occurrence of fluoroacetate found in selected tropical and subtropical plants. This compound, which is generally produced in low concentrations, has been identified in the plants due to its high toxicity, although to date the biosynthesis of fluoroacetate in plants remains unknown. After that, fluorinated entities in nature are extremely rare, and despite increasingly sophisticated screening and analytical methods applied to natural product extraction, it has been 25 years since the last bona fide fluorinated natural product was identified from an organism. This was the reported isolation of the antibiotic 4-fluorothreonine and the toxin fluoroacetate in 1986 from Streptomyces cattleya. This bacterium has proven amenable to biochemical investigation, the fluorination enzyme (fluorinase) has been isolated and characterized, and the biosynthetic pathway to these bacterial metabolites has been elucidated. Also the fluorinase gene has been cloned into a host bacterium (Salinispora tropica), and this has enabled the de novo production of a bioactive fluorinated metabolite from fluoride ion, by genetic engineering. Biotechnological manipulation of the fluorinase offers the prospects for the assembly of novel fluorinated metabolites by fermentation technology. This is particularly attractive, given the backdrop that about 15-20% of pharmaceuticals licensed each year (new chemical entities) contain a fluorine atom.

  16. Zebrafish bioassay-guided natural product discovery: isolation of angiogenesis inhibitors from East African medicinal plants.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alexander D Crawford

    Full Text Available Natural products represent a significant reservoir of unexplored chemical diversity for early-stage drug discovery. The identification of lead compounds of natural origin would benefit from therapeutically relevant bioassays capable of facilitating the isolation of bioactive molecules from multi-constituent extracts. Towards this end, we developed an in vivo bioassay-guided isolation approach for natural product discovery that combines bioactivity screening in zebrafish embryos with rapid fractionation by analytical thin-layer chromatography (TLC and initial structural elucidation by high-resolution electrospray mass spectrometry (HRESIMS. Bioactivity screening of East African medicinal plant extracts using fli-1:EGFP transgenic zebrafish embryos identified Oxygonum sinuatum and Plectranthus barbatus as inhibiting vascular development. Zebrafish bioassay-guided fractionation identified the active components of these plants as emodin, an inhibitor of the protein kinase CK2, and coleon A lactone, a rare abietane diterpenoid with no previously described bioactivity. Both emodin and coleon A lactone inhibited mammalian endothelial cell proliferation, migration, and tube formation in vitro, as well as angiogenesis in the chick chorioallantoic membrane (CAM assay. These results suggest that the combination of zebrafish bioassays with analytical chromatography methods is an effective strategy for the rapid identification of bioactive natural products.

  17. Natural products as promising drug candidates for the treatment of Alzheimer's disease: molecular mechanism aspect.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ansari, Niloufar; Khodagholi, Fariba

    2013-07-01

    Alzheimer's disease (AD) is the most common neurodegenerative disorder to date, with no curative or preventive therapy. Histopathological hallmarks of AD include deposition of β-amyloid plaques and formation of neurofibrillary tangles. Extent studies on pathology of the disease have made important discoveries regarding mechanism of disease and potential therapeutic targets. Many cellular changes including oxidative stress, disruption of Ca2+ homeostasis, inflammation, metabolic disturbances, and accumulation of unfolded/misfolded proteins can lead to programmed cell death in AD. Despite intensive research, only five approved drugs are available for the management of AD. Hence, there is a need to look at alternative therapies. Use of natural products and culinary herbs in medicine has gained popularity in recent years. Several natural substances with neuroprotective effects have been widely studied. Most of these compounds have remarkable antioxidant properties and act mainly by scavenging free radical species. Some of them increase cell survival and improve cognition by directly affecting amyloidogenesis and programmed cell death pathways. Further studies on these natural products and their mechanism of action, parallel with the use of novel pharmaceutical drug design and delivery techniques, enable us to offer an addition to conventional medicine. This review discussed some natural products with potential neuroprotective properties against Aβ with respect to their mechanism of action.

  18. Development of a usability evaluation method using natural product-use motion.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chang, Joonho; Jung, Kihyo; Lee, Wonsup; You, Heecheon

    2017-04-01

    The present study developed and tested a new usability evaluation method which considers natural product-use motions. The proposed method measures both natural product-use motions (NMs) and actual product-use motions (AMs) for a product using an optical motion capture system and examines the usability of the product based on motion similarity (MS; %) between NMs and AMs. The proposed method was applied to a usability test of four vacuum cleaners (A, B, C, and D) with 15 participants and their MSs were compared with EMG measurements and subjective discomfort ratings. Cleaners A (44.6%) and C (44.2%) showed higher MSs than cleaners B (42.9%) and D (41.7%); the MSs mostly corresponded to the EMG measurements, which could indicate that AMs deviated from NMs may increase muscular efforts. However, the MSs were slightly different from the corresponding discomfort ratings. The proposed method demonstrated its usefulness in usability testing, but further research is needed with various products to generalize its effectiveness.

  19. Surveillance of suspected adverse reactions to natural health products: the case of propolis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Menniti-Ippolito, Francesca; Mazzanti, Gabriela; Vitalone, Annabella; Firenzuoli, Fabio; Santuccio, Carmela

    2008-01-01

    Natural health products are promoted to the public as equally or more effective and less toxic than conventional drugs. However, some 'natural' medicines are known to have adverse effects. From April 2002 to August 2007, 18 suspected adverse reactions associated with propolis-containing products were reported to the national surveillance system of natural health products, coordinated by the Italian National Health Institute. Sixteen reports concerned allergic reactions (with dermatological or respiratory symptoms), while two concerned the digestive tract. Some of the reactions were serious: six patients were admitted to hospital or visited an emergency department and in two of these a life-threatening event was reported. In seven patients (four of whom were children), an allergic predisposition was indicated. Propolis, a resinous substance collected by honeybees from the buds of living plants, has been used for several purposes (dermatitis, laryngitis, oral ulcers) because of its wide range of suggested activities (antibacterial, antiviral, antifungal, anti-inflammatory, antioxidant and chemopreventive actions). However, propolis is also a potent sensitizer and should not be used in patients with an allergic predisposition, in particular an allergy to pollen. In Italy, products containing bee derivatives (bee pollen, royal jelly or propolis) are available to the public as food supplements. No label warning of possible adverse reactions is found on the packaging, although it is well known that atopic and asthmatic individuals may be at an increased risk of allergic reactions after using these products. The public and healthcare practitioners should be aware of the risk of allergic reactions to products derived from bees and a warning should be added to the packaging of these products.

  20. Action of natural products on p2 receptors: a reinvented era for drug discovery.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Faria, Robson; Ferreira, Leonardo; Bezerra, Rômulo; Frutuoso, Valber; Alves, Luiz

    2012-11-01

    Natural products contribute significantly to available drug therapies and have been a rich source for scientific investigation. In general, due to their low cost and traditional use in some cultures, they are an object of growing interest as alternatives to synthetic drugs. With several diseases such as cancer, and inflammatory and neuropathic diseases having been linked to the participation of purinergic (P2) receptors, there has been a flurry of investigations on ligands within natural products. Thirty-four different sources of these compounds have been found so far, that have shown either agonistic or antagonistic effects on P2 receptors. Of those, nine different plant sources demonstrated effects on P2X2, P2X3, P2X7, and possibly P2Y12 receptor subtypes. Microorganisms, which represent the largest group, with 26 different sources, showed effects on both receptor subtypes, ranging from P2X1 to P2X4 and P2X7, and P2Y1, P2Y2, P2Y4, and P2Y6. In addition, there were seventeen animal sources that affected P2X7 and P2Y1 and P2Y12 receptors. Natural products have provided some fascinating new mechanisms and sources to better understand the P2 receptor antagonism. Moreover, current investigations should clarify further pharmacological mechanisms in order to consider these products as potential new medicines.

  1. Impacts of Marcellus Shale Natural Gas Production on Regional Air Quality

    Science.gov (United States)

    Swarthout, R.; Russo, R. S.; Zhou, Y.; Mitchell, B.; Miller, B.; Lipsky, E. M.; Sive, B. C.

    2012-12-01

    Natural gas is a clean burning alternative to other fossil fuels, producing lower carbon dioxide (CO2) emissions during combustion. Gas deposits located within shale rock or tight sand formations are difficult to access using conventional drilling techniques. However, horizontal drilling coupled with hydraulic fracturing is now widely used to enhance natural gas extraction. Potential environmental impacts of these practices are currently being assessed because of the rapid expansion of natural gas production in the U.S. Natural gas production has contributed to the deterioration of air quality in several regions, such as in Wyoming and Utah, that were near or downwind of natural gas basins. We conducted a field campaign in southwestern Pennsylvania on 16-18 June 2012 to investigate the impact of gas production operations in the Marcellus Shale on regional air quality. A total of 235 whole air samples were collected in 2-liter electropolished stainless- steel canisters throughout southwestern Pennsylvania in a regular grid pattern that covered an area of approximately 8500 square km. Day and night samples were collected at each grid point and additional samples were collected near active wells, flaring wells, fluid retention reservoirs, transmission pipelines, and a processing plant to assess the influence of different stages of the gas production operation on emissions. The samples were analyzed at Appalachian State University for methane (CH4), CO2, C2-C10 nonmethane hydrocarbons (NMHCs), C1-C2 halocarbons, C1-C5 alkyl nitrates and selected reduced sulfur compounds. In-situ measurements of ozone (O3), CH4, CO2, nitric oxide (NO), total reactive nitrogen (NOy), formaldehyde (HCHO), and a range of volatile organic compounds (VOCs) were carried out at an upwind site and a site near active gas wells using a mobile lab. Emissions associated with gas production were observed throughout the study region. Elevated mixing ratios of CH4 and CO2 were observed in the

  2. Synthesis of furanone-based natural product analogues with quorum sensing antagonist activity

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hjelmgaard, Thomas; Persson, T.; Rasmussen, Thomas Bovbjerg;

    2003-01-01

    The synthesis of 5- and 3-(1'-hydroxyalkyl)-substituted 5H-furan-2-ones 4a-d and 8a-d as well as 5-alkylidene-5H-furan-2-ones 5a-d is described. A study of the structure-activity relationship of these furanone-based natural product analogues towards two different quorum sensing systems is reported....... Although the synthesized compounds are not as potent quorum sensing inhibitors as some natural counterparts and a synthetic analogue hereof, interesting structure-activity relationships are seen....

  3. Recent advances and new strategies in the NMR-based identification of natural products.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Halabalaki, Maria; Vougogiannopoulou, Konstantina; Mikros, Emmanuel; Skaltsounis, Alexios Leandros

    2014-02-01

    Nature comprises an untapped pool of unique compounds with high structural uniqueness and exceptional properties. At the core of natural products (NPs) discovery is the identification procedure and NMR remains the most efficient method. Technical improvements such as miniaturized and crycogenic NMR probes along with hyphenation capabilities and computational support are at the center of evolution. Concepts such as dereplication and metabolomics are increasingly adopted in NPs using the power of databases, currently fragmented. The introduction and utilization of these technical and computational implements could lead NPs research to more comprehensive structure identification and new holistic perspectives.

  4. Utilisation of coal and natural gas for the production of synfuels and chemicals in South Africa

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Scott, R.H.; Marriott, J.N.; Stones, J.D.A. (Department of Mineral and Energy Affairs, Lynwood Ridge (South Africa). Energy Branch)

    1992-01-01

    Initially, the paper discusses coal, natural gas, condensate and crude-oil resources in South Africa. Aspects of the utilisation of coal for synfuels and chemicals manufacture discussed include: background; strategic and economic considerations; and technological developments. Aspects of the utilisation of natural gas and condensate for synfuels manufacture discussed include: continuation of synfuels programme in the eighties; financing principles and economic viability. Other aspects of synfuels manufacture in general covered are: macro-economics of the synfuels programme; chemicals production from coal; environmental considerations and future prospects. 7 refs., 4 figs.

  5. Silver-catalyzed one-pot synthesis of arylnaphthalene lactone natural products.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Foley, Patrick; Eghbali, Nicolas; Anastas, Paul T

    2010-05-28

    Naturally occurring arylnaphthalene lactone lignans have demonstrated a variety of valuable medicinal chemistry properties and have therefore been of continued interest to drug discovery research. Our group has demonstrated a silver-catalyzed one-pot synthesis of the arylnaphthalene lactone core using carbon dioxide, phenylpropargyl chloride, and phenylacetylene. This new approach has been employed in the synthesis of six arylnaphthalene lactone natural products: retrochinensin (1), justicidin B (2), retrojusticidin B (3), chinensin (4), justicidin E (5), and taiwanin C (6). Additionally, an arylnaphthalene lactone regioisomer was isolated (9), which we refer to as isoretrojusticidin B.

  6. Mimicking/extracting structure and functions of natural products: synthetic approaches that address unexplored needs in chemical biology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hirai, Go

    2015-04-01

    Natural products are often attractive and challenging targets for synthetic chemists, and many have interesting biological activities. However, synthetic chemists need to be more than simply suppliers of compounds to biologists. Therefore, we have been seeking ways to actively apply organic synthetic methods to chemical biology studies of natural products and their activities. In this personal review, I would like to introduce our work on the development of new biologically active compounds inspired by, or extracted from, the structures of natural products, focusing on enhancement of functional activity and specificity and overcoming various drawbacks of the parent natural products.

  7. Occurrence, pathways and implications of biological production of reactive oxygen species in natural waters

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, T.; Hansel, C. M.; Voelker, B. M.; Lamborg, C. H.

    2014-12-01

    Reactive oxygen species (ROS), such as superoxide (O2-) and hydrogen peroxide (H2O2) play a critical role in the redox cycling of both toxic (e.g., Hg) and nutrient (e.g., Fe) metals. Despite the discovery of extracellular ROS production in various microbial cultures, including fungi, algae and bacteria, photo-dependent processes are generally considered as the predominant source of ROS in natural waters. Here we show that biological production of ROS is ubiquitous and occurs at a significant rate in freshwater and brackish water environments. Water samples were collected from three freshwater and one brackish water ponds in Cape Cod, Massachusetts, USA, periodically from 2012 to 2014. Production of O2- and H2O2 were measured in dark incubations of natural water using a chemiluminescent and a colorimetric probe, respectively. Rates of biological ROS production were obtained by comparing unfiltered with 0.2-μm filtered samples. The role of biological activity in ROS production was confirmed by the cessation of ROS production upon addition of formaldehyde. In surface water, production rates of O2- ranged from undetectable to 96.0 ± 30.0 nmol L-1 h-1, and production rates of H2O2 varied between 9.9 ± 1.3 nmol L-1 h-1 and 145.6 ± 11.2 nmol L-1 h-1. The maximum production rates of both ROS were observed in mid-summer 2013, which coincides with peak biological activity. ROS production in the water from aphotic zone was greater than in the water from photic zone. Thus, non-light dependent biological processes are likely the major contributors to ROS production in this system. Moreover, O2- production appeared to be enhanced by NADH and inhibited by proteinase-K, suggesting the possible involvement of NADH oxidoreductases in this process. The potential role of different microbial communities in ROS production, and the implications of biological ROS production for mercury speciation will also be discussed.

  8. Assessment of Anabaena sp. Strain PCC 7120 as a Heterologous Expression Host for Cyanobacterial Natural Products: Production of Lyngbyatoxin A.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Videau, Patrick; Wells, Kaitlyn N; Singh, Arun J; Gerwick, William H; Philmus, Benjamin

    2016-09-16

    Cyanobacteria are well-known producers of natural products of highly varied structure and biological properties. However, the long doubling times, difficulty in establishing genetic methods for marine cyanobacteria, and low compound titers have hindered research into the biosynthesis of their secondary metabolites. While a few attempts to heterologously express cyanobacterial natural products have occurred, the results have been of varied success. Here, we report the first steps in developing the model freshwater cyanobacterium Anabaena sp. strain PCC 7120 (Anabaena 7120) as a general heterologous expression host for cyanobacterial secondary metabolites. We show that Anabaena 7120 can heterologously synthesize lyngbyatoxin A in yields comparable to those of the native producer, Moorea producens, and detail the design and use of replicative plasmids for compound production. We also demonstrate that Anabaena 7120 recognizes promoters from various biosynthetic gene clusters from both free-living and obligate symbiotic marine cyanobacteria. Through simple genetic manipulations, the titer of lyngbyatoxin A can be improved up to 13-fold. The development of Anabaena 7120 as a general heterologous expression host enables investigation of interesting cyanobacterial biosynthetic reactions and genetic engineering of their biosynthetic pathways.

  9. Engineering a multi-biofunctional composite using poly(ethylenimine) decorated graphene oxide for bone tissue regeneration

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kumar, Sachin; Raj, Shammy; Sarkar, Kishor; Chatterjee, Kaushik

    2016-03-01

    Toward preparing strong multi-biofunctional materials, poly(ethylenimine) (PEI) conjugated graphene oxide (GO_PEI) was synthesized using poly(acrylic acid) (PAA) as a spacer and incorporated in poly(ε-caprolactone) (PCL) at different fractions. GO_PEI significantly promoted the proliferation and formation of focal adhesions in human mesenchymal stem cells (hMSCs) on PCL. GO_PEI was highly potent in inducing stem cell osteogenesis leading to near doubling of alkaline phosphatase expression and mineralization over neat PCL with 5% filler content and was ~50% better than GO. Remarkably, 5% GO_PEI was as potent as soluble osteoinductive factors. Increased adsorption of osteogenic factors due to the amine and oxygen containing functional groups on GO_PEI augment stem cell differentiation. GO_PEI was also highly efficient in imparting bactericidal activity with 85% reduction in counts of E. coli colonies compared to neat PCL at 5% filler content and was more than twice as efficient as GO. This may be attributed to the synergistic effect of the sharp edges of the particles along with the presence of the different chemical moieties. Thus, GO_PEI based polymer composites can be utilized to prepare bioactive resorbable biomaterials as an alternative to using labile biomolecules for fabricating orthopedic devices for fracture fixation and tissue engineering.Toward preparing strong multi-biofunctional materials, poly(ethylenimine) (PEI) conjugated graphene oxide (GO_PEI) was synthesized using poly(acrylic acid) (PAA) as a spacer and incorporated in poly(ε-caprolactone) (PCL) at different fractions. GO_PEI significantly promoted the proliferation and formation of focal adhesions in human mesenchymal stem cells (hMSCs) on PCL. GO_PEI was highly potent in inducing stem cell osteogenesis leading to near doubling of alkaline phosphatase expression and mineralization over neat PCL with 5% filler content and was ~50% better than GO. Remarkably, 5% GO_PEI was as potent as soluble

  10. Steam reforming of natural gas with integrated hydrogen separation for hydrogen production

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Oertel, M.; Schmitz, J.; Weirich, W.; Jendryssek-Neumann, D.; Schulten, R.

    1987-08-01

    The development of heat resistant permeation membranes has opened up new possibilities for the conversion of fossil energy resources. In steam reforming of natural gas, such membranes even permit a direct production of hydrogen at high temperatures during the conversion of feed hydrocarbons. Further gas processing, such as required for reformer gas in existing hydrogen production processes, is not necessary. Due to continuous hydrogen discharge directly in the reformer tube, the chemical equilibrium of the occurring reactions becomes displaced towards the products, resulting in more favourable process conditions and, consequently, in improved by 36% utilization of the feed hydrocarbons. At the same time, the hydrogen yield increases by 44%. The heat required, which is provided by a high temperature reactor, is 17% in excess of that in conventional plants. It can be expected that the simplified process design will produce substantial cost advantages over the existing processes for the production of hydrogen.

  11. Natural Products from Ethnodirected Studies: Revisiting the Ethnobiology of the Zombie Poison

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ulysses Paulino Albuquerque

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Wade Davis's study of Haitian “zombification” in the 1980s was a landmark in ethnobiological research. His research was an attempt to trace the origins of reports of “undead” Haitians, focusing on the preparation of the zombification poison. Starting with this influential ethnopharmacological research, this study examines advances in the pharmacology of natural products, focusing especially on those of animal-derived products. Ethnopharmacological, pharmacological, and chemical aspects are considered. We also update information on the animal species that reportedly constitute the zombie poison. Several components of the zombie powder are not unique to Haiti and are used as remedies in traditional medicine worldwide. This paper emphasizes the medicinal potential of products from zootherapy. These biological products are promising sources for the development of new drugs.

  12. Production of natural fiber reinforced thermoplastic composites through the use of polyhydroxybutyrate-rich biomass.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Coats, Erik R; Loge, Frank J; Wolcott, Michael P; Englund, Karl; McDonald, Armando G

    2008-05-01

    Previous research has demonstrated that production of natural fiber reinforced thermoplastic composites (NFRTCs) utilizing bacterially-derived pure polyhydroxybutyrate (PHB) does not yield a product that is cost competitive with synthetic plastic-based NFRTCs. Moreover, the commercial production of pure PHB is not without environmental impacts. To address these issues, we integrated unpurified PHB in NFRTC construction, thereby eliminating a significant energy and cost sink (ca. 30-40%) while concurrently yielding a fully biologically based commodity. PHB-rich biomass synthesized with the microorganism Azotobacter vinelandii UWD was utilized to manufacture NFRTCs with wood flour. Resulting composites exhibited statistically similar bending strength properties despite relatively different PHB contents. Moreover, the presence of microbial cell debris allowed for NFRTC processing at significantly reduced polymer content, relative to pure PHB-based NFRTCs. Results further indicate that current commercial PHB production yields are sufficiently high to produce composites comparable to those manufactured with purified PHB.

  13. Marketed marine natural products in the pharmaceutical and cosmeceutical industries: tips for success.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martins, Ana; Vieira, Helena; Gaspar, Helena; Santos, Susana

    2014-02-17

    The marine environment harbors a number of macro and micro organisms that have developed unique metabolic abilities to ensure their survival in diverse and hostile habitats, resulting in the biosynthesis of an array of secondary metabolites with specific activities. Several of these metabolites are high-value commercial products for the pharmaceutical and cosmeceutical industries. The aim of this review is to outline the paths of marine natural products discovery and development, with a special focus on the compounds that successfully reached the market and particularly looking at the approaches tackled by the pharmaceutical and cosmetic companies that succeeded in marketing those products. The main challenges faced during marine bioactives discovery and development programs were analyzed and grouped in three categories: biodiversity (accessibility to marine resources and efficient screening), supply and technical (sustainable production of the bioactives and knowledge of the mechanism of action) and market (processes, costs, partnerships and marketing). Tips to surpass these challenges are given in order to improve the market entry success rates of highly promising marine bioactives in the current pipelines, highlighting what can be learned from the successful and unsuccessful stories that can be applied to novel and/or ongoing marine natural products discovery and development programs.

  14. Marketed Marine Natural Products in the Pharmaceutical and Cosmeceutical Industries: Tips for Success

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ana Martins

    2014-02-01

    Full Text Available The marine environment harbors a number of macro and micro organisms that have developed unique metabolic abilities to ensure their survival in diverse and hostile habitats, resulting in the biosynthesis of an array of secondary metabolites with specific activities. Several of these metabolites are high-value commercial products for the pharmaceutical and cosmeceutical industries. The aim of this review is to outline the paths of marine natural products discovery and development, with a special focus on the compounds that successfully reached the market and particularly looking at the approaches tackled by the pharmaceutical and cosmetic companies that succeeded in marketing those products. The main challenges faced during marine bioactives discovery and development programs were analyzed and grouped in three categories: biodiversity (accessibility to marine resources and efficient screening, supply and technical (sustainable production of the bioactives and knowledge of the mechanism of action and market (processes, costs, partnerships and marketing. Tips to surpass these challenges are given in order to improve the market entry success rates of highly promising marine bioactives in the current pipelines, highlighting what can be learned from the successful and unsuccessful stories that can be applied to novel and/or ongoing marine natural products discovery and development programs.

  15. Can exploiting natural genetic variation in leaf photosynthesis contribute to increasing rice productivity? A simulation analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gu, Junfei; Yin, Xinyou; Stomph, Tjeerd-Jan; Struik, Paul C

    2014-01-01

    Rice productivity can be limited by available photosynthetic assimilates from leaves. However, the lack of significant correlation between crop yield and leaf photosynthetic rate (A) is noted frequently. Engineering for improved leaf photosynthesis has been argued to yield little increase in crop productivity because of complicated constraints and feedback mechanisms when moving up from leaf to crop level. Here we examined the extent to which natural genetic variation in A can contribute to increasing rice productivity. Using the mechanistic model GECROS, we analysed the impact of genetic variation in A on crop biomass production, based on the quantitative trait loci for various photosynthetic components within a rice introgression line population. We showed that genetic variation in A of 25% can be scaled up equally to crop level, resulting in an increase in biomass of 22-29% across different locations and years. This was probably because the genetic variation in A resulted not only from Rubisco (ribulose 1,5-bisphosphate carboxylase/oxygenase)-limited photosynthesis but also from electron transport-limited photosynthesis; as a result, photosynthetic rates could be improved for both light-saturated and light-limited leaves in the canopy. Rice productivity could be significantly improved by mining the natural variation in existing germ-plasm, especially the variation in parameters determining light-limited photosynthesis.

  16. Kaolin and copper-based products applications: ecotoxicology on four natural enemies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bengochea, P; Amor, F; Saelices, R; Hernando, S; Budia, F; Adán, A; Medina, P

    2013-05-01

    Lethal and sublethal effects of kaolin clays and two copper-based products on four natural enemies found in olive orchards Anthocoris nemoralis (F.) (Hem. Anthocoridae), Chelonus inanitus (L.) (Hym. Braconidae), Chilocorus nigritus (F.) (Col. Coccinellidae) and Scutellysta cyanea Motschulsky (Hym. Pteromalidae) are described. Both kaolin and copper can be applied for controlling the olive fruit fly and the olive moth, two important pests of this crop. The products did not increase the mortality of any of the insects studied, with the exception of A. nemoralis. The sublethal effects, however, differed depending on the parameter evaluated and the insect studied. Both kaolin and coppers slightly, but significantly, reduced the life span of C. inanitus and S. cyanea. Number of eggs laid by A. nemoralis females were reduced, but not significantly compared to the controls. In the behavioural experiments, clear preference for remaining on kaolin-untreated surfaces when insects were able to choose was observed. Despite having some negative effects, the negative impact on natural enemies was lower than the impact caused by products commonly applied in this crop against the pests stated above. Therefore, both kaolin and copper can be considered as alternative products to be applied in olive orchards if an effective resistance management programme is to be developed. Furthermore, both of them are allowed in organic farming, in which the number of products that can be applied is more restricted.

  17. Bioinformatics for the synthetic biology of natural products: integrating across the Design–Build–Test cycle

    Science.gov (United States)

    Currin, Andrew; Jervis, Adrian J.; Rattray, Nicholas J. W.; Swainston, Neil; Yan, Cunyu; Breitling, Rainer

    2016-01-01

    Covering: 2000 to 2016 Progress in synthetic biology is enabled by powerful bioinformatics tools allowing the integration of the design, build and test stages of the biological engineering cycle. In this review we illustrate how this integration can be achieved, with a particular focus on natural products discovery and production. Bioinformatics tools for the DESIGN and BUILD stages include tools for the selection, synthesis, assembly and optimization of parts (enzymes and regulatory elements), devices (pathways) and systems (chassis). TEST tools include those for screening, identification and quantification of metabolites for rapid prototyping. The main advantages and limitations of these tools as well as their interoperability capabilities are highlighted. PMID:27185383

  18. The direct oxidative diene cyclization and related reactions in natural product synthesis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Juliane Adrian

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available The direct oxidative cyclization of 1,5-dienes is a valuable synthetic method for the (diastereoselective preparation of substituted tetrahydrofurans. Closely related reactions start from 5,6-dihydroxy or 5-hydroxyalkenes to generate similar products in a mechanistically analogous manner. After a brief overview on the history of this group of transformations and a survey on mechanistic and stereochemical aspects, this review article provides a summary on applications in natural product synthesis. Moreover, current limitations and future directions in this area of chemistry are discussed.

  19. [Ecological/hygienic and toxicological evaluation of combustion products of aviation kerosene and liquefied natural gas].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Afanas'ev, R V; Berezin, G I; Raznoschikov, V V

    2006-01-01

    Products of kerosene combustion in the present-day aeroengines contain more than 200 compounds of incomplete combustion, partial oxidation, and thermal decomposition of fuel and oil. Most of these are strong toxicants for humans. Increase of temperature in the turbine engine combustion chamber led to production of very toxic nitrogen oxides. In search for the ecologically safe and less toxic alternative attention of fuel engineers was drawn to liquefied natural gas which compares well and even excels kerosene in ecological, economic and many other respects.

  20. Anti dermatophytic therapy--prospects for the discovery of new drugs from natural products.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Soares, Luciana Arantes; de Cássia Orlandi Sardi, Janaína; Gullo, Fernanda Patrícia; de Souza Pitangui, Nayla; Scorzoni, Liliana; Leite, Fernanda Sangalli; Giannini, Maria José Soares Mendes; Almeida, Ana Marisa Fusco

    2013-12-01

    Millions of people and animals suffer from superficial infections caused by a group of highly specialized filamentous fungi, the dermatophytes, which only infect keratinized structures. With the appearance of AIDS, the incidence of dermatophytosis has increased. Current drug therapy used for these infections is often toxic, long-term, and expensive and has limited effectiveness; therefore, the discovery of new anti dermatophytic compounds is a necessity. Natural products have been the most productive source for new drug development. This paper provides a brief review of the current literature regarding the presence of dermatophytes in immunocompromised patients, drug resistance to conventional treatments and new anti dermatophytic treatments.