WorldWideScience

Sample records for biofuels vegetable oils

  1. Hydrocracking of vacuum gas oil-vegetable oil mixtures for biofuels production.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bezergianni, Stella; Kalogianni, Aggeliki; Vasalos, Iacovos A

    2009-06-01

    Hydrocracking of vacuum gas oil (VGO)--vegetable oil mixtures is a prominent process for the production of biofuels. In this work both pre-hydrotreated and non-hydrotreated VGO are assessed whether they are suitable fossil components in a VGO-vegetable oil mixture as feed-stocks to a hydrocracking process. This assessment indicates the necessity of a VGO pre-hydrotreated step prior to hydrocracking the VGO-vegetable oil mixture. Moreover, the comparison of two different mixing ratios suggests that higher vegetable oil content favors hydrocracking product yields and qualities. Three commercial catalysts of different activity are utilized in order to identify a range of products that can be produced via a hydrocracking route. Finally, the effect of temperature on hydrocracking VGO-vegetable oil mixtures is studied in terms of conversion and selectivity to diesel, jet/kerosene and naphtha.

  2. Liquid Biofuels: Vegetable Oils and Bioethanol; Biocombustibles Liquidos: aceites Vegetales y Bioetanol

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ballesteros, M.; Ballesteros, I.; Oliva, J.M.; Navarro, A.A.

    1998-12-01

    The European energy policy has defined clear objectives to reduce the high dependency on fossil petroleum imports, and to increase the security of sustainable energy supply for the transport sector. Moreover, the European environmental policy is requesting clean fuels that reduce environmental risks. Liquid Biofuels (vegetable oils and bioethanol) appear to be in a good position to contribute to achieve these goals expressed by the established objective of European Union to reach for biofuels a market share of 5% of motor vehicle consumption. This work presents the current state and perspectives of the production and utilisation of liquid fuels from agricultural sources by reviewing agricultural feedstocks for energy sector, conversion technologies and different ways to use biofuels. Environmental and economical aspects are also briefly analysed. (Author) 10 refs.

  3. Layered double hydroxide catalyst for the conversion of crude vegetable oils to a sustainable biofuel

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mollaeian, Keyvan

    Over the last two decades, the U.S. has developed the production of biodiesel, a mixture of fatty acid methyl esters, using chiefly vegetable oils as feedstocks. However, there is much concern about the availability of high-quality vegetable oils for longterm biodiesel production. Problems have also risen due to the production of glycerol, an unwanted byproduct, as well as the need for process wash water. Therefore, this study was initiated to produce not only fatty acid methyl esters (FAMEs) but also fatty acid glycerol carbonates (FAGCs) by replacing methanol with dimethyl carbonate (DMC). The process would have no unnecessary byproducts and would be a simplified process compared to traditional biodiesel. In addition, this altering of the methylating agent could convert triglycerides, free fatty acids, and phospholipids to a sustainable biofuel. In this project, Mg-Al Layered Double Hydroxide (LDH) was optimized by calcination in different temperature varied from 250°C to 450°C. The gallery between layers was increased by intercalating sodium dodecylsulfate (SDS). During catalyst preparation, the pH was controlled ~10. In our experiment, triazabicyclodecene (TBD) was attached with trimethoxysilane (3GPS) as a coupling agent, and N-cetyl-N,N,N-trimethylammonium bromide (CTAB) was added to remove SDS from the catalyst. The catalyst was characterized by XRD, FTIR, and Raman spectroscopy. The effect of the heterogeneous catalyst on the conversion of canola oil, corn oil, and free fatty acids was investigated. To analyze the conversion of lipid oils to biofuel an in situ Raman spectroscopic method was developed. Catalyst synthesis methods and a proposed mechanism for converting triglycerides and free fatty acids to biofuel will be presented.

  4. Economics of small-scale on-farm use of canola and soybean for biodiesel and straight vegetable oil biofuels

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    While the cost competitiveness of vegetable oil-based biofuels (VOBB) has impeded extensive commercialization on a large-scale, the economic viability of small-scale on-farm production of VOBB is unclear. This study assessed the cost competitiveness of small-scale on-farm production of canola- [Brassica napus (L.)] and soybean-based [Glycine max (L.)] biodiesel and straight vegetable oil (SVO) biofuels in the upper Midwest at 2007 price levels. The effects of feedstock type, feedstock valuation (cost of production or market price), biofuel type, and capitalization level on the cost L-1 of biofuel were examined. Valuing feedstock at the cost of production, the cost of canola-based biodiesel ranged from 0.94 to 1.13 L-1 and SVO from 0.64 to 0.83 L-1 depending on capitalization level. Comparatively, the cost of soybean-based biodiesel and SVO ranged from 0.40 to 0.60 L-1 and from 0.14 to 0.33 L-1, respectively, depending on capitalization level. Valuing feedstock at the cost of production, soybean biofuels were cost competitive whereas canola biofuels were not. Valuing feedstock at its market price, canola biofuels were more cost competitive than soybean-based biofuels, though neither were cost competitive with petroleum diesel. Feedstock type proved important in terms of the meal co-product credit, which decreased the cost of biodiesel by 1.39 L-1 for soybean and 0.44 L-1 for canola. SVO was less costly to produce than biodiesel due to reduced input costs. At a small scale, capital expenditures have a substantial impact on the cost of biofuel, ranging from 0.03 to 0.25 L-1. (author)

  5. Is it environmentally advantageous to use vegetable oil directly as biofuel instead of converting it to biodiesel?

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The oil price instability and the measures taken to reduce the increase in greenhouse gas emissions are the main factors promoting the development and use of environmentally friendly energies. From an energy efficiency point of view, biofuels constitute a renewable energy source and its use helps to reduce energy dependency on fossil fuels. The most used biofuels for transport worldwide are biodiesel (BD) and bioethanol. However, there are other options such as straight vegetable oil (SVO). SVO can be small-scale produced in local cooperatives through pressing, filtering and conditioning processes which are much simpler than the ones required for BD production. In this study a comparative life cycle assessment (LCA) of two biofuels obtained from Spanish rapeseed, namely small-scale SVO and large-scale BD, is performed. The LCA methodology allows the two biofuels' production and their rate of consumption in a vehicle (a truck) to be compared. In this manner, it is possible to assess which is environmentally advantageous: to use SVO directly as biofuel or to convert it to BD. Moreover, LCA is used in the study to calculate the energy return on investment index (EROI) and an energy conversion ratio to evaluate which biofuel is more energy efficient. The obtained results show the environmental benefits of using SVO instead of BD by analyzing representative impact categories defined by the CML and EDIP methods. A sensitivity analysis has also been conducted. EROI indexes for SVO and BD production show a clear preference for SVO as compared to BD.

  6. Small-scale production of straight vegetable oil from rapeseed and its use as biofuel in the Spanish territory

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Biofuels nowadays are an important topic of study. The most significant point is the availability of bioethanol or biodiesel and their production from different raw materials. It is already known that large-scale production of first-generation biodiesel cannot be seen as an alternative to fossil fuels due to land requirements, competition with food, increase in fertilizer requirements and pressure on tropical forests among others. This fact does not necessarily apply to second-generation biofuels or small-scale niche productions. Straight vegetable oil (SVO) can be used directly in diesel engines with minor modifications. Our proposal is a small-scale SVO production system for self-supply in agricultural machinery. In this paper a model to provide SVO to local farmers in a specific area in Catalonia (Spain) is presented. We also present a discussion about the regulations to be changed in order to make possible the incorporation of SVO as engine fuel in diesel vehicles and a comparative analysis between the emissions of tractors fed with SVO and petrodiesel. Moreover, a quantitative economic analysis of modifying diesel engines and long-term operability costs are shown and a first-run economic analysis comparing the actual crop rotation with the proposed one and some alternatives is studied.

  7. HVO, hydrotreated vegetable oil. A premium renewable biofuel for diesel engines

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mikkonen, Seppo [Neste Oil, Porvoo (Finland); Honkanen, Markku; Kuronen, Markku [Neste Oil, Espoo (Finland)

    2013-06-01

    HVO is renewable paraffinic diesel fuel produced from vegetable oils or animal fats by hydrotreating and isomerization. Composition is similar to GTL. HVO is not ''biodiesel'' which is a definition reserved for FAME. HVO can be used in diesel fuel without any ''blending wall'' as well as in addition to the FAME in EN 590. As a blending component HVO enhances fuel properties thanks to its high cetane, zero aromatics and reasonable distillation range. HVO can be used for upgrading gas oils to meet diesel fuel standard and for producing premium diesel fuels. HVO is comparable to fossil diesel regarding fuel logistics, stability, water separation and microbiological growth. The use of HVO as such or in blends reduces NO{sub x} and particulate emissions. Risks for fuel system deposits and engine oil deterioration are low. Combustion is practically ash-free meaning low risk for exhaust aftertreatment life-time. Winter grade fuels down to -40 C cloud point can be produced by HVO process from many kinds of feedstocks. HVO is fully accepted by directives and fuel standards. (orig.)

  8. Selection and characterization of biofuel-producing environmental bacteria isolated from vegetable oil-rich wastes.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Almudena Escobar-Niño

    Full Text Available Fossil fuels are consumed so rapidly that it is expected that the planet resources will be soon exhausted. Therefore, it is imperative to develop alternative and inexpensive new technologies to produce sustainable fuels, for example biodiesel. In addition to hydrolytic and esterification reactions, lipases are capable of performing transesterification reactions useful for the production of biodiesel. However selection of the lipases capable of performing transesterification reactions is not easy and consequently very few biodiesel producing lipases are currently available. In this work we first isolated 1,016 lipolytic microorganisms by a qualitative plate assay. In a second step, lipolytic bacteria were analyzed using a colorimetric assay to detect the transesterification activity. Thirty of the initial lipolytic strains were selected for further characterization. Phylogenetic analysis revealed that 23 of the bacterial isolates were Gram negative and 7 were Gram positive, belonging to different clades. Biofuel production was analyzed and quantified by gas chromatography and revealed that 5 of the isolates produced biofuel with yields higher than 80% at benchtop scale. Chemical and viscosity analysis of the produced biofuel revealed that it differed from biodiesel. This bacterial-derived biofuel does not require any further downstream processing and it can be used directly in engines. The freeze-dried bacterial culture supernatants could be used at least five times for biofuel production without diminishing their activity. Therefore, these 5 isolates represent excellent candidates for testing biofuel production at industrial scale.

  9. Selection and characterization of biofuel-producing environmental bacteria isolated from vegetable oil-rich wastes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Escobar-Niño, Almudena; Luna, Carlos; Luna, Diego; Marcos, Ana T; Cánovas, David; Mellado, Encarnación

    2014-01-01

    Fossil fuels are consumed so rapidly that it is expected that the planet resources will be soon exhausted. Therefore, it is imperative to develop alternative and inexpensive new technologies to produce sustainable fuels, for example biodiesel. In addition to hydrolytic and esterification reactions, lipases are capable of performing transesterification reactions useful for the production of biodiesel. However selection of the lipases capable of performing transesterification reactions is not easy and consequently very few biodiesel producing lipases are currently available. In this work we first isolated 1,016 lipolytic microorganisms by a qualitative plate assay. In a second step, lipolytic bacteria were analyzed using a colorimetric assay to detect the transesterification activity. Thirty of the initial lipolytic strains were selected for further characterization. Phylogenetic analysis revealed that 23 of the bacterial isolates were Gram negative and 7 were Gram positive, belonging to different clades. Biofuel production was analyzed and quantified by gas chromatography and revealed that 5 of the isolates produced biofuel with yields higher than 80% at benchtop scale. Chemical and viscosity analysis of the produced biofuel revealed that it differed from biodiesel. This bacterial-derived biofuel does not require any further downstream processing and it can be used directly in engines. The freeze-dried bacterial culture supernatants could be used at least five times for biofuel production without diminishing their activity. Therefore, these 5 isolates represent excellent candidates for testing biofuel production at industrial scale.

  10. Selection and characterization of biofuel-producing environmental bacteria isolated from vegetable oil-rich wastes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Escobar-Niño, Almudena; Luna, Carlos; Luna, Diego; Marcos, Ana T; Cánovas, David; Mellado, Encarnación

    2014-01-01

    Fossil fuels are consumed so rapidly that it is expected that the planet resources will be soon exhausted. Therefore, it is imperative to develop alternative and inexpensive new technologies to produce sustainable fuels, for example biodiesel. In addition to hydrolytic and esterification reactions, lipases are capable of performing transesterification reactions useful for the production of biodiesel. However selection of the lipases capable of performing transesterification reactions is not easy and consequently very few biodiesel producing lipases are currently available. In this work we first isolated 1,016 lipolytic microorganisms by a qualitative plate assay. In a second step, lipolytic bacteria were analyzed using a colorimetric assay to detect the transesterification activity. Thirty of the initial lipolytic strains were selected for further characterization. Phylogenetic analysis revealed that 23 of the bacterial isolates were Gram negative and 7 were Gram positive, belonging to different clades. Biofuel production was analyzed and quantified by gas chromatography and revealed that 5 of the isolates produced biofuel with yields higher than 80% at benchtop scale. Chemical and viscosity analysis of the produced biofuel revealed that it differed from biodiesel. This bacterial-derived biofuel does not require any further downstream processing and it can be used directly in engines. The freeze-dried bacterial culture supernatants could be used at least five times for biofuel production without diminishing their activity. Therefore, these 5 isolates represent excellent candidates for testing biofuel production at industrial scale. PMID:25099150

  11. Review on biofuel oil and gas production processes from microalgae

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Microalgae, as biomass, are a potential source of renewable energy, and they can be converted into energy such as biofuel oil and gas. This paper presents a brief review on the main conversion processes of microalgae becoming energy. Since microalgae have high water content, not all biomass energy conversion processes can be applied. By using thermochemical processes, oil and gas can be produced, and by using biochemical processes, ethanol and biodiesel can be produced. The properties of the microalgae product are almost similar to those of offish and vegetable oils, and therefore, it can be considered as a substitute of fossil oil.

  12. Phenolation of vegetable oils

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    ZORAN S. PETROVIĆ

    2011-04-01

    Full Text Available Novel bio-based compounds containing phenols suitable for the syn­thesis of polyurethanes were prepared. The direct alkylation of phenols with different vegetable oils in the presence of superacids (HBF4, triflic acid as ca­talysts was studied. The reaction kinetics was followed by monitoring the de­crease of the double bond content (iodine value with time. In order to under­stand the mechanism of the reaction, phenol was alkylated with model com­pounds. The model compounds containing one internal double bond were 9-oc­tadecene and methyl oleate and those with three double bonds were triolein and high oleic safflower oil (82 % oleic acid. It was shown that the best structures for phenol alkylation are fatty acids with only one double bond (oleic acid. Fatty acids with two double bonds (linoleic acid and three double bonds (lino­lenic acid lead to polymerized oils by a Diels–Alder reaction, and to a lesser extent to phenol alkylated products. The reaction product of direct alkylation of phenol with vegetable oils is a complex mixture of phenol alkylated with poly­merized oil (30–60 %, phenyl esters formed by transesterification of phenol with triglyceride ester bonds (<10 % and unreacted oil (30 %. The phenolated vegetable oils are new aromatic–aliphatic bio-based raw materials suitable for the preparation of polyols (by propoxylation, ethoxylation, Mannich reactions for the preparation of polyurethanes, as intermediates for phenolic resins or as bio-based antioxidants.

  13. Second generation biofuels from microbial oil

    OpenAIRE

    Leiva-Candia, David E.

    2014-01-01

    Biodiesel can be produced from different oleaginous sources. Currently, the most extended biodiesel originates from vegetable oils, due to their availability and similar properties to diesel fuel. However, the use of vegetable oil as feedstock to produce biodiesel is controversial due to biodiesel low sustainability, potential conflict with food and the use of arable land for energy purposes. In this context, this thesis reviews novel alternatives to the traditional raw mate...

  14. Evaluation of chosen fruit seeds oils as potential biofuel

    Science.gov (United States)

    Agbede, O. O.; Alade, A. O.; Adebayo, G. A.; Salam, K. K.; Bakare, T.

    2012-04-01

    Oils available in mango, tangerine and African star seeds were extracted and characterized to determine their fuel worthiness for biofuel production. Furthermore, the fuel properties of the three oils were within the range observed for some common oil seeds like rapeseed, soybean and sunflower, which are widely sourced for the production of biodiesel on an industrial scale. The low iodine values of the oil extend their applications as non-drying oil for lubrication purposes, however, the fuel properties exhibited by the oils enlist them as potential oil seeds for the production of biofuel and further research on the improvement of their properties will make them suitable biofuel of high economic values.

  15. Vegetable Oil: Nutritional and Industrial Perspective.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kumar, Aruna; Sharma, Aarti; Upadhyaya, Kailash C

    2016-06-01

    Oils of plant origin have been predominantly used for food-based applications. Plant oils not only represent a non-polluting renewable resource but also provide a wide diversity in fatty acids (FAs) composition with diverse applications. Besides being edible, they are now increasingly being used in industrial applications such as paints, lubricants, soaps, biofuels etc. In addition, plants can be engineered to produce fatty acids which are nutritionally beneficial to human health. Thus these oils have potential to 1) substitute ever increasing demand of non -renewable petroleum sources for industrial application and 2) also spare the marine life by providing an alternative source to nutritionally and medically important long chain polyunsaturated fatty acids or 'Fish oil'. The biochemical pathways producing storage oils in plants have been extensively characterized, but the factors regulating fatty acid synthesis and controlling total oil content in oilseed crops are still poorly understood. Thus understanding of plant lipid metabolism is fundamental to its manipulation and increased production. This review on oils discusses fatty acids of nutritional and industrial importance, and approaches for achieving future designer vegetable oil for both edible and non-edible uses. The review will discuss the success and bottlenecks in efficient production of novel FAs in non-native plants using genetic engineering as a tool.

  16. Vegetable Oil: Nutritional and Industrial Perspective.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kumar, Aruna; Sharma, Aarti; Upadhyaya, Kailash C

    2016-06-01

    Oils of plant origin have been predominantly used for food-based applications. Plant oils not only represent a non-polluting renewable resource but also provide a wide diversity in fatty acids (FAs) composition with diverse applications. Besides being edible, they are now increasingly being used in industrial applications such as paints, lubricants, soaps, biofuels etc. In addition, plants can be engineered to produce fatty acids which are nutritionally beneficial to human health. Thus these oils have potential to 1) substitute ever increasing demand of non -renewable petroleum sources for industrial application and 2) also spare the marine life by providing an alternative source to nutritionally and medically important long chain polyunsaturated fatty acids or 'Fish oil'. The biochemical pathways producing storage oils in plants have been extensively characterized, but the factors regulating fatty acid synthesis and controlling total oil content in oilseed crops are still poorly understood. Thus understanding of plant lipid metabolism is fundamental to its manipulation and increased production. This review on oils discusses fatty acids of nutritional and industrial importance, and approaches for achieving future designer vegetable oil for both edible and non-edible uses. The review will discuss the success and bottlenecks in efficient production of novel FAs in non-native plants using genetic engineering as a tool. PMID:27252590

  17. Finding the food-fuel balance. Supply and demand dynamics in global vegetable oil markets

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Savanti, P.

    2012-10-15

    Demand for vegetable oils for food and biofuel use is expected to increase by an additional 23 million tonnes by 2016; however supply is expected to struggle to keep up with this demand, according to this Rabobank report. Vegetable oil stocks have reached a 38 year low this year due in large part to constraints such as land availability and adverse weather.

  18. The Fall of Oil Prices and the Effects on Biofuels.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reboredo, Fernando H; Lidon, Fernando; Pessoa, Fernanda; Ramalho, José C

    2016-01-01

    This analysis is focused on the effect of the abrupt decline of oil prices on biofuels, particularly second-generation ethanol. The efforts to decrease the production costs of biofuels, especially cellulosic ethanol (CE), will be greatly threatened if current oil prices remain low, especially since production is not slowing. Only huge state subsidies could alleviate this threat, but the challenge is to persuade citizens that this sacrifice is worthwhile.

  19. Vegetable oil basestocks for lubricants

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Garces, R.; Martinez-Force, E.; Salas, J.

    2011-07-01

    The use of vegetable biodegradable basestocks for lubricant oils present several advantages over the much more extended mineral bases. These advantages refer to biodegradability, a renewable feedstock of local production, lubricant and viscosity index and lower costs than synthetic lubricant bases. Despite these benefits, their use in industry and motor vehicles is not yet extensive due their lower stability and higher pour points. Vegetable oils are esters of fatty acids and glycerol, and their physicochemical properties rely mainly on the composition of their acyl moieties. Thus, to assure the maximum levels of stability while maintaining acceptable behavior at low temperatures, monounsaturated fatty acids are preferred for this purpose. The presence of natural antioxidants also improves the properties of these vegetable based stocks as lubricants. These oils usually require additives to improve their viscosity value, oxidative stability and properties at low temperatures. In the present work, the different sources of vegetable oils appropriate for biolubricant production were reviewed. Their properties and the future improvement of the oil bases, oil based stock production, uses and additives are discussed. (Author).

  20. Determination of the physical characteristics of vegetable oils

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Andrade, Danielle Oliveira de; Andrade, Ednilton Tavares de; Pereira, Roberto Guimaraes [Universidade Federal Fluminense (TER/UFF), Niteroi, RJ (Brazil). Dept. de Engenharia Agricola e do Meio Ambiente; Tulcan, Oscar Edwin Piamba [Universidade Nacional da Colombia (UNAL), Bogota (Colombia). Fac de Ingenieria

    2008-07-01

    The objective of this work was the characterization of vegetable oils of canola, sunflower, corn and soybean through corrosion, kinematic viscosity, density, cloud point and flow point tests. Vegetable oils are used as raw material for preparation of biofuels or as fuel diesel additive or substitute. The vegetable oils tested showed a low level of corrosion, kinematic viscosities are measured in the range of 31 to 36 mm{sup 2}.s{sup -1}, density was tested at 15 and 20 deg C and showed results varying in the third decimal order. For the oils tested, the cloud point is around 0 deg C and the flow point around -17 deg C. (author)

  1. Evaluation of the agricultural tractor using biofuel and diesel oil; Avaliacao de um trator agricola utilizando biocombustivel e oleo diesel

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lopes, Reny Adilmar Prestes; Pinheiro Neto, Raimundo; Meyer, Wagner; Mendonca, Elton Costa de; Roberti, Marcelo [Universidade Estadual de Maringa (UEM), PR (Brazil)], Emails: raplopes@uem.br, rpneto@uem.br

    2009-07-01

    Test with alternative fuels is essential to evaluate the performance of machines and engines. In this paper, the performance of a tractor in chiseling operation was evaluated using oil diesel and biofuel (oil diesel + soybean vegetable oil mixture). Speed of displacement, slip wheels, force traction bar and fuel consumption was evaluated in areas under tillage and no-tillage. The speed of displacement of the set presented similar behavior in tillage and no-tillage. Bigger values mean force in the bar of traction, slip and fuel consumptions had been observed for no-tillage with the tractor operating with diesel. Bigger values mean consumption the biofuel had been observed in areas under tillage. The coverings of the soil had influenced in the values of force bar traction, slip wheels, speed of displacement and fuel consumption. In the studied conditions, the tests demonstrate that the mixture oil diesel + soybean vegetable oil had not influenced in the performance of the tractor. (author)

  2. Fuel properties of biodiesel from vegetable oils and oil mixtures. Influence of methyl esters distribution

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In this work, the quality of biodiesel produced by basic transesterification from several vegetable oils (soybean, rapeseed, sunflower, high oleic sunflower, Cynara Cardunculus L., Brassica Carinata and Jatropha Curca) cultivated in Extremadura has been studied in detail. The influence of raw material composition on properties such as density, viscosity, cetane number, higher heating value, iodine and saponification values and cold filter plugging point has been verified. Other biodiesel properties such as acid value, water content and flash and combustion points were more dependent on characteristics of production process. Biodiesel produced by rapeseed, sunflower and high oleic sunflower oils transesterification have been biofuels with better properties according to Norm EN 14214. Finally, it has been tested that it is possible to use oils mixtures in biodiesel production in order to improve the biodiesel quality. In addition, with the same process conditions and knowing properties of biodiesel from pure oils; for biodiesel from oils mixtures, its methyl esters content, and therefore properties dependent this content can be predicted from a simple mathematical equation proposed in this work. - Highlights: • Biodiesel quality produced by basic transesterification from vegetable oils. • We examine influences of methyl esters distribution on biodiesel properties. • Biofuels from soybean, sunflower and rapeseed oils were with better properties. • Oils mixtures improve biodiesel quality to fulfill Norm EN 14214. • An equation to predict properties of biodiesel from oil mixtures is proposed

  3. Vegetable oil as a diesel fuel

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    O' Callaghan, C.

    1982-05-01

    There are a wide range of vegetable oils which may be used in the diesel engine such as palm oil, soyabean oil, sunflower oil and rapeseed oil. This paper reports on preliminary work with rapeseed oil as a possible alternative to diesel. The oil was degummed by hydration. Physical and chemical properties of the oil are compared to diesel fuel. Three types of fuel were tested in a tractor: (a) pure diesel oil; (b) a 50:50 mixture of diesel oil and rapeseed oil; and (c) pure rapeseed oil. Power-speed curves were constructed for each fuel type and observations on nozzle cooking and smoke emissions made.

  4. Composition of Algal Oil and Its Potential as Biofuel

    OpenAIRE

    Pascal Schlagermann; Gerold Göttlicher; Robert Dillschneider; Rosa Rosello-Sastre; Clemens Posten

    2012-01-01

    First test flights using blends with algae oil are already carried out and expectations by the aviation and other industries are high. On the other hand technical data about performance of cultivation systems, downstream processing, and suitability of algae oil as fuel are still limited. The existing microalgae growing industry mainly produces for the food and feed market. Energy efficiency is so far out of scope but needs to be taken into account if the product changes to biofuel. Energy and...

  5. Aboveground carbon stocks in oil palm plantations and the threshold for carbon-neutral vegetation conversion on mineral soils

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Khasanah, N.; Noordwijk, van M.; Ningsih, H.

    2015-01-01

    The carbon (C) footprint of palm oil production is needed to judge emissions from potential biofuel use. Relevance includes wider sustainable palm oil debates. Within life cycle analysis, aboveground C debt is incurred if the vegetation replaced had a higher C stock than oil palm plantations. Our st

  6. Vegetable oil basestocks for lubricants

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Garcés, Rafael

    2011-03-01

    Full Text Available The use of vegetable biodegradable basestocks for lubricant oils present several advantages over the much more extended mineral bases. These advantages refer to biodegradability, a renewable feedstock of local production, lubricant and viscosity index and lower costs than synthetic lubricant bases. Despite these benefits, their use in industry and motor vehicles is not yet extensive due their lower stability and higher pour points. Vegetable oils are esters of fatty acids and glycerol, and their physicochemical properties rely mainly on the composition of their acyl moieties. Thus, to assure the maximum levels of stability while maintaining acceptable behavior at low temperatures, monounsaturated fatty acids are preferred for this purpose. The presence of natural antioxidants also improves the properties of these vegetable based stocks as lubricants. These oils usually require additives to improve their viscosity value, oxidative stability and properties at low temperatures. In the present work, the different sources of vegetable oils appropriate for biolubricant production were reviewed. Their properties and the future improvement of the oil bases, oil based stock production, uses and additives are discussed.

    El uso de bases vegetales biodegradables para aceites lubricantes presenta varias ventajas sobre las mucho más extendidas bases minerales. Estas ventajas se centran sobre todo en su biodegradabilidad, en ser un recurso renovable de producción local, en su lubricidad y en su índice de viscosidad, presentando además costes más bajos que las bases sintéticas. Sin embargo, estas ventajas no han extendido el uso de bases vegetales ni en industria ni en automoción debido a su menor estabilidad y sus mayores puntos críticos de fluidez. Los aceites vegetales son ésteres de ácidos grasos y glicerol y sus propiedades físico-químicas dependen principalmente de su composición acílica. Así, para asegurar los máximos niveles de

  7. Advances in biofuel production from oil palm and palm oil processing wastes: A review

    OpenAIRE

    Jundika C. Kurnia; Sachin V. Jangam; Saad Akhtar; Sasmito, Agus P.; Mujumdar, Arun S.

    2016-01-01

    Over the last decades, the palm oil industry has been growing rapidly due to increasing demands for food, cosmetic, and hygienic products. Aside from producing palm oil, the industry generates a huge quantity of residues (dry and wet) which can be processed to produce biofuel. Driven by the necessity to find an alternative and renewable energy/fuel resources, numerous technologies have been developed and more are being developed to process oil-palm and palm-oil wastes into biofuel. To further...

  8. Advances in biofuel production from oil palm and palm oil processing wastes: A review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jundika C. Kurnia

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available Over the last decades, the palm oil industry has been growing rapidly due to increasing demands for food, cosmetic, and hygienic products. Aside from producing palm oil, the industry generates a huge quantity of residues (dry and wet which can be processed to produce biofuel. Driven by the necessity to find an alternative and renewable energy/fuel resources, numerous technologies have been developed and more are being developed to process oil-palm and palm-oil wastes into biofuel. To further develop these technologies, it is essential to understand the current stage of the industry and technology developments. The objective of this paper is to provide an overview of the palm oil industry, review technologies available to process oil palm and palm oil residues into biofuel, and to summarise the challenges that should be overcome for further development. The paper also discusses the research and development needs, technoeconomics, and life cycle analysis of biofuel production from oil-palm and palm-oil wastes.

  9. Improving Palm Oil Properties for using as Biofuel by Microemulsion Technique

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tongcumpou, Chantra; Ploysrimongkol, Jutatip (National Center of Excellence for Environmental and Hazardous Waste Management (NCE-EHWM), Chulalongkorn Univ., Phathumwon, Bangkok (Thailand)). E-mail: Chantra.T@chula.ac.th

    2008-10-15

    Vegetable oil has been widely developed to be a renewable fuel by the process of transesterification to alter structure of the oil to be a methyl ester for using with diesel engine. In this work, instead of alter the structure of vegetable oil, the preparation to modify some properties of the oil was studied in order to obtain a suitable biofuel for diesel engine by using microemulsion technique. This technique is based on the property of microemulsion system which is known as a system that providing a homogeneous transparent solution and thermodynamically stable. The preparation by this technique was carried out by direct mixing of palm oil with alcohol and nonionic surfactant at suitable proportion and condition to yield another product which is called 'microemulsion biofuel (MB)'. Alcohol and surfactants are the two main components that help to modify property of palm oil, i.e viscosity to be more suitable with diesel engine. Unlike transesterification process, microemulsion technique gives 100% yield of MB without any waste or by product. In order to obtain, the pseudo-ternary phase diagram of the palm oil, water and surfactant - alcohol ratio for preparation of MB was investigated. Therefore, the product of a stable and transparent homogenous phase was exhibited. The MB product is expected to be used directly or blending with fossil diesel. Some properties of our product and its blends were measured in order to test run with a real diesel engine. These parameters included the properties for performance of operation and engine maintenance from running with these products i.e. flash point, cloud point, carbon residue, gross heat combustion, water content, Acid number, kinematic viscosity and copper strip corrosion. The result shows that our MB product has met the standard properties for biodiesel and/or diesel

  10. Composition of Algal Oil and Its Potential as Biofuel

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pascal Schlagermann

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available First test flights using blends with algae oil are already carried out and expectations by the aviation and other industries are high. On the other hand technical data about performance of cultivation systems, downstream processing, and suitability of algae oil as fuel are still limited. The existing microalgae growing industry mainly produces for the food and feed market. Energy efficiency is so far out of scope but needs to be taken into account if the product changes to biofuel. Energy and CO2 balances are used to estimate the potential of algae oil to fulfil the EU sustainability criteria for biofuels. The analysis is supported by lab tests as well as data gained by a pilot scale demonstrator combined with published data for well-known established processes. The algae oil composition is indicator of suitability as fuel as well as for economic viability. Approaches attaining high value fractions are therefore of great importance and will be discussed in order to determine the most intended market.

  11. Climate design of vegetable oil fuels for agricultural equipment; Klimadesign von Pflanzenoelkraftstoffen fuer landwirtschaftliche Maschinen

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Stoehr, Michael [B.A.U.M. Consult GmbH, Muenchen (Germany). International and Energy Projects; Pickel, Peter [John Deere European Technology Innovation Center, Kaiserslautern (Germany)

    2012-07-01

    The use of biofuels in agricultural machinery is an option for complying with climate protection requirements that are presently discussed to be placed on manufacturers of mobile off-road machinery by the European Commission. A mathematical model has been developed that allows calculating greenhouse gas emissions (GHGE) of biofuels for complex production paths in a straightforward, transparent manner and in pattern with the EU's Fuel Quality Directive (FQD). Therewith it has been shown that both rape seed and camelina sativa oil fuels can save more than 60 % GHGE. Key parameters have been identified and rules for a climate design of vegetable oil fuels have been formulated. (orig.)

  12. Hydrocracking of used cooking oil for biofuels production.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bezergianni, Stella; Kalogianni, Aggeliki

    2009-09-01

    Hydrocracking of used cooking oil is studied as a potential process for biofuels production. In this work several parameters are considered for evaluating the effectiveness of this technology, including hydrocracking temperature, liquid hourly space velocity (LHSV) and days on stream (DOS). Conversion and total biofuels production is favored by increasing temperature and decreasing LHSV. However moderate reaction temperatures and LHSVs are more attractive for diesel production, whereas higher temperatures and smaller LHSVs are more suitable for gasoline production. Furthermore heteroatom (S, N and O) removal increases as hydrocracking temperature increases, with de-oxygenation being particularly favorable. Saturation, however, is not favored with temperature indicating the necessity of a pre-treatment step prior to hydrocracking to enable saturation of the double bonds and heteroatom removal. Finally the impact of extended operation (catalyst life) on product yields and qualities indicates that all reactions are affected yet at different rates. PMID:19369071

  13. Straight Vegetable Oil as a Diesel Fuel?

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    None

    2014-01-01

    Biodiesel, a renewable fuel produced from animal fats or vegetable oils, is popular among many vehicle owners and fleet managers seeking to reduce emissions and support U.S. energy security. Questions sometimes arise about the viability of fueling vehicles with straight vegetable oil (SVO), or waste oils from cooking and other processes, without intermediate processing. But SVO and waste oils differ from biodiesel (and conventional diesel) in some important ways and are generally not considered acceptable vehicle fuels for large-scale or long-term use.

  14. House soap made with used vegetable oil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rosana Maria Alberici

    2004-06-01

    Full Text Available In this work, an alternative method to recycle used vegetable oil was developed. Because it disposal in the environment has caused serious pollution problems, it was used to make house soap.

  15. A preliminary investigation into the biofuel characteristics of tigernut (Cyperus esculentus) oil

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Barminas, J.T.; Maina, H.M.; Tahir, S.; Kubmarawa, D. [Federal University of Technology, Yola (Nigeria). Dept. of Chemistry; Tsware, K. [Federal College of Education, Yola (Nigeria). Dept. of Home Economics

    2001-08-01

    Laboratory scale experiments were carried out to produce and characterise biofuel from tigernut (Cyperus esculentus) oil. Transesterification of tigernut oil afforded methyl and ethyl esters, which had fuel properties similar to common biofuels, hence tigernut could be utilised as an alternative renewable energy resource. (author)

  16. A preliminary investigation into the biofuel characteristics of tigernut (Cyperus esculentus) oil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barminas, J T; Maina, H M; Tahir, S; Kubmarawa, D; Tsware, K

    2001-08-01

    Laboratory scale experiments were carried out to produce and characterise biofuel from tigernut (Cyperus esculentus) oil. Transesterification of tigernut oil afforded methyl and ethyl esters, which had fuel properties similar to common biofuels, hence tigernut could be utilised as an alternative renewable energy resource. PMID:11396913

  17. The life cycle emission of greenhouse gases associated with plant oils used as biofuel

    OpenAIRE

    Reijnders, L.

    2011-01-01

    Life cycle assessment of greenhouse gas emissions associated with biofuels should not only consider fossil fuel inputs, but also N2O emissions and changes in carbon stocks of (agro) ecosystems linked to the cultivation of biofuel crops. When this is done, current plant oils such as European rapeseed oil and oil from soybeans and oil palms cultivated on recently deforested soils have higher life cycle greenhouse gas emissions than conventional diesel.

  18. Imported palm oil for biofuels in the EU: Profitability, greenhouse gas emissions and social welfare effects

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    We examine the social desirability of renewable diesel production from imported palm oil in the EU when greenhouse gas emissions are taken into account. Using a partial market equilibrium model, we also study the sectoral social welfare effects of a biofuel policy consisting of a blend mandate in a small EU country (Finland), when palm oil based diesel is used to meet the mandated quota for biofuels. We develop a market equilibrium model for three cases: i) no biofuel policy, ii) biofuel policy consisting of socially optimal emission-based biofuel tax credit and iii) actual EU biofuel policy. Our results for the EU biofuel market, Southeast Asia and Finland show very little evidence that a large scale use of imported palm oil in diesel production in the EU can be justified by lower greenhouse gas emission costs. Cuts in emission costs may justify extensive production only if low or negative land-use change emissions result from oil palm cultivation and if the estimated per unit social costs of emissions are high. In contrast, the actual biofuel policies in the EU encourage the production of palm oil based diesel. Our results indicate that the sectoral social welfare effects of the actual biofuel policy in Finland may be negative and that if emissions decrease under actual biofuel policy, the emission abatement costs can be high regardless of the land use change emissions. - Highlights: • We study the social desirability of renewable diesel production from palm oil in EU. • We also study sectoral social welfare impacts of actual biofuel policy in Finland. • Life cycle GHG emission costs of diesels are included in the economic analysis. • Extensive use of palm oil diesel in EU is difficult to justify by climate benefits. • The social welfare effects of the actual biofuel policy in Finland can be negative

  19. Epoxy Resins Modified with Vegetable Oils

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    P.Czub

    2007-01-01

    1 Results The application of modified natural oils, nontoxic, biodegradable and renewable materials, for the modification and the synthesis of epoxy resins were presented. Firstly, the application of epoxidized vegetable oils (soybean, rapeseed, linseed and sunflower):as reactive diluents for epoxy resins was proposed and studied[1-2]. Viscosity reducing ability of epoxidized oils was tested in the compositions with Bisphenol A based low-molecular-weight epoxy resins. The rheological behaviour of the mi...

  20. Detection of argan oil adulterated with vegetable oils: New markers

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ourrach, I.; Rada, M.; Perez-Camino, M. C.; Benaissa, M.; Guinda, A

    2012-07-01

    This work aims to contribute to controlling the authenticity of pure argan oil, a valuable Moroccan product. Fatty acids, hydrocarbon fraction, 3,5-stigmastadiene, the alkyl esters of fatty acids, chlorophyllic pigments and physical properties such as viscosity, density and refractive index were studied in order to detect the adulteration of argan oil with edible vegetable oils. The results found in this study show that 3,5-stigmastadiene, kaurene and pheophytin-a can be used as possible new markers for argan oil blends of up to 5% with refined, sunflower and virgin olive oils. Due to the similarity of the fatty acid compositions of the edible oils studied and argan oil, fatty acids can be employed as markers for the detection of argan oil adulteration at levels higher than 10%. Among the physical properties studied, the refractive index shows significant differences for sunflower oil and its blend at 10% with argan oil. (Author) 35 refs.

  1. Undesired interactions of biofuels with the lubricating oil; Wechselwirkungen von Biokraftstoffen mit dem Motorschmieroel

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Schuemann, Ulrike; Berndt, Silvia [Rostock Univ. (Germany). Betriebsstoff- und Umweltlabor; Fluegge, Evelyn; Harndorf, Horst [Rostock Univ. (Germany). Lehrstuhl fuer Kolbenmaschinen und Verbrennungsmotoren

    2012-04-15

    When using rapeseed oil or biodiesel in engines a significant fuel input in the engine lubricating oil can be observed for operational reasons. At the University of Rostock factors were examined that lead to critical changes if biofuel shares are present in the lubricating oil. Particular attention was paid to the determination of the local thermal loads of the lubricating oil in the real engine. A selected lubricating oil which is well-suited for the operation with biofuel was tested in field tests on five tractors with respect to extended oil changing (also: oil drain) intervals. (orig.)

  2. Vegetable oil base stocks for lubricants

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Garces, R.; Martinez-Force, E.; Salas, J.

    2011-07-01

    The use of vegetable biodegradable base stocks for lubricant oils present several advantages over the much more extended mineral bases. These advantages refer to biodegradability, a renewable feedstock of local production, lubricant and viscosity index and lower costs than synthetic lubricant bases. Despite these benefits, their use in industry and motor vehicles is not yet extensive due their lower stability and higher pour points. Vegetable oils are esters of fatty acids and glycerol, and their physicochemical properties rely mainly on the composition of their acyl moieties. Thus, to assure the maximum levels of stability while maintaining acceptable behavior at low temperatures, monounsaturated fatty acids are preferred for this purpose. The presence of natural antioxidants also improves the properties of these vegetable based stocks as lubricants. These oils usually require additives to improve their viscosity value, oxidative stability and properties at low temperatures. In the present work, the different sources of vegetable oils appropriate for bio lubricant production were reviewed. Their properties and the future improvement of the oil bases, oil based stock production, uses and additives are discussed. (Author).

  3. Analysis of physical characteristics of vegetable oils

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Piamba Tulcan, Oscar Edwin [Universidade Nacional da Colombia (UNAL), Bogota (Colombia). Fac. de Ingenieria; Universidade Federal Fluminense (PGMEC/UFF), Niteroi, RJ (Brazil). Programa de Pos-Graduacao em Engenharia Mecanica], E-mail: oepiambat@unal.edu.co; Andrade, Danielle Oliveira de; Andrade, Ednilton Tavares de [Universidade Federal Fluminense (TER/UFF), Niteroi, RJ (Brazil). Dept. de Engenharia Agricola e do Meio Ambiente; Pereira, Roberto Guimaraes [Universidade Federal Fluminense (TER/UFF), Niteroi, RJ (Brazil). Dept. de Engenharia Mecanica

    2008-07-01

    Different vegetable oils were characterized using standardized methods. The evaluated characteristics were density, viscosity, flow point, cloud point and corrosion. The obtained data was tabulated and compared with average composition values of oils in percentage of fatty acids and iodine number for each oil. In this analysis it is shown that viscosity decreases with the increase of the iodine number, and density decrease. The cloud and flow point have greater relation with the presence of saturated or highly unsaturated fatty acids, respectively. The index of corrosion is greater when oil saturation or its iodine number are increased. (author)

  4. Detection of argan oil adulterated with vegetable oils: new markers

    OpenAIRE

    Ourrach, I.; Rada, M.; Pérez-Camino, M. C.; Benaissa, M; Guinda, Á.

    2012-01-01

    This work aims to contribute to controlling the authenticity of pure argan oil, a valuable Moroccan product. Fatty acids, hydrocarbon fraction, 3,5-stigmastadiene, the alkyl esters of fatty acids, chlorophyllic pigments and physical properties such as viscosity, density and refractive index were studied in order to detect the adulteration of argan oil with edible vegetable oils. The results found in this study show that 3,5-stigmastadiene, kaurene and pheophytin-a can be used as possible new ...

  5. 21 CFR 180.30 - Brominated vegetable oil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 3 2010-04-01 2009-04-01 true Brominated vegetable oil. 180.30 Section 180.30... Brominated vegetable oil. The food additive brominated vegetable oil may be safely used in accordance with... used on an interim basis as a stabilizer for flavoring oils used in fruit-flavored beverages, for...

  6. Biofuel Production Using Butanol and Used Transformer Oil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J.Antony Pradeep

    2016-08-01

    Full Text Available Energy demand of the world increases tremendously. The use of fossil fuels to this extent makes it limited and it is an important cause for global warming. To reduce the emission of greenhouse gases and fossil fuel usage, many developments were made using renewable energy. Ethanol was used as a substitute for gasoline lately but it is highly corrosive and need separate tankers for transportation. Instead of using ethanol, butanol will give high mileage, less corrosive and has higher flash and boiling point than ethanol. In this project, biofuel is produced by transesterification of butanol and used transformer oil with KOH as catalyst. Glycerol is a by-product in this process. It can be used as a substrate for the microbial production of plastics and in anaerobic digestion.

  7. ANALYSIS OF THE PHYSICALAND CHEMICAL CHARACTERISTICS OF VEGETABLE OILS AS FUEL

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Giuseppe Toscano

    2007-09-01

    Full Text Available Possible relationships between physical and chemical properties of vegetable oils as biofuels have been studied. 19 samples of vegetable oils of different types and origin were considered. First the relationship between the viscosity of each oil and the temperature was studied. Subsequently, single and multiple regression analyses were carried out between viscosity, iodine number, saponification number and calorific value. It was observed that temperature has a key role in controlling the level of viscosity of the oils, and the relationship between viscosity and temperature is specific to each type of product. Moreover, the chemical structure of the tryglicerides conditions to a great extent the physical, mechanical and energy characteristics of the oil. In particular the length of the carbon chains and the unsaturation level are related to the value of viscosity in a single and multiple relationship. The calorific value increases with the increase in the length of the carbon chain. This study could be useful to develop simplified methods for controlling the quality of vegetable oils as biofuels and for improving the technology of their energy transformation.

  8. Vegetable oils and protection of plants

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Charlemagne, D. [Societe Robbe, 60 - Compiegne (France)

    1995-09-01

    Vegetable oils are biodegradable, inoffensive for environment and people and flammable. They have a lot of assets to be marketed as additives for weed killers, insecticides and rat-killing. They can be used too as pulverization vectors in insecticides treatments. (O.L.).

  9. Preparation of function-enhanced vegetable oils

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hiroshi Maeda

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: Previously, we (HM found that most commercially available edible oils, which were processed by hexane extraction followed by a number of purification steps, were extremely low in anti-peroxy radical (ROO., or radical scavenging activity. This is a great contrast to the respective virgin oils as exemplified by extra-virgin olive oil or crude rape seed oil [1-4] (Figure 1. Therefore, such highly purified oils will became prooxidant and less desirable food components in terms of health oriented diet. Oxidized oils may eventually cause DNA cleavages, modification of proteins, RNA, and lipids, as well as cellular damage, or promote inflammation and carcinogenesis at later time [5-9]. These commercial oils of low antioxidant activity may be improved by adding functionally effective antioxidative components, by using dried vegetable-waste such as tomato-juice-waste-residues and wine-ferment-waste-residues. Their antioxiative components will be transferred into the functionally poor grade edible oils, and consequently, one can improve the quality of such functionally poor oils and thereby contributing human health [2,8,9]. The purpose of this paper is to report a practical procedure to fortify functionally low grade conventional edible oils to functionally enriched edible oils using dried vegetable-waste residues such as tomato juice waste, and wine-ferment-residues, or other vegetable-waste residues. Methods: (1 Preparation and measurements of lycopene and carotenoid enriched oils. To 5.0g or 1.0g of the dried residue of tomato juice waste, 100ml of commercial rape seed (canola oil was added respectively. Each mixture was incubated at room temperature in dark for several weeks. Amount of lycopene and carotenoids extracted into the oil was monitored by increase of absorption (400-550nm and fluorescence at 470nm of carotenoid. Grape-juice ferment (wine waste was similarly prepared after hot air drying, and immersed in canola oil. (2

  10. Greenhouse gas emissions and energy balance of palm oil biofuel

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    de Souza, Simone Pereira; Pacca, Sergio [Graduate Program on Environmental Engineering Science, School of Engineering of Sao Carlos, University of Sao Paulo, Rua Arlindo Bettio, 1000 Sao Paulo (Brazil); de Avila, Marcio Turra; Borges, Jose Luiz B. [Brazilian Agricultural Research Corporation (Embrapa - Soja) (Brazil)

    2010-11-15

    based on the information provided by other authors resulted in 2406 kg CO{sub 2}e/ha, on average. The Angarita et al. (2009) [Angarita EE, Lora EE, Costa RE, Torres EA. The energy balance in the palm oil-derived methyl ester (PME) life cycle for the cases in Brazil and Colombia. Renewable Energy 2009;34:2905-13] study does not report emissions. When compared to diesel on a energy basis, avoided emissions due to the use of biodiesel account for 80 g CO{sub 2}e/MJ. Thus, avoided life cycle emissions associated with the use of biodiesel yield a net reduction of greenhouse gas emissions. We also assessed the carbon balance between a palm tree plantation, including displaced emissions from diesel, and a natural ecosystem. Considering the carbon balance outcome plus life cycle emissions the payback time for a tropical forest is 39 years. The result published by Gibbs et al. (2008) [Gibbs HK, Johnston M, Foley JA, Holloway T, Monfreda C, Ramankutty N, et al., Carbon payback times for crop-based biofuel expansion in the tropics: the effects of changing yield and technology. Environmental Research Letters 2008;3:10], which ignores life cycle emissions, determined a payback range for biodiesel production between 30 and 120 years. (author)

  11. Strategic environmental assessment for sustainable expansion of palm oil biofuels in Brazilian north region

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Carvalho, Carolina

    2010-09-15

    Biofuels development in Brazil is a key factor for the environment and sustainable development of the country. Brazil has great potential of available areas and has favourable climate and geography for biofuel production, such as palm oil, soy, sugar cane, etc. This research aims to evaluate palm oil production and expansion in Para state, in the north of Brazil and also Amazonian territory. Degraded land will be evaluated through remote sensing, because palm oil crops should be placed in these lands, and secondly, expansion scenarios would be created. This PhD research will be a decision support tool for public policies.

  12. Production of advanced biofuels: Co-processing of upgraded pyrolysis oil in standard refinery units

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Miguel Mercader, de F.; Groeneveld, M.J.; Kersten, S.R.A.; Way, N.W.J.; Schaverien, C.J.; Hogendoorn, J.A.

    2010-01-01

    One of the possible process options for the production of advanced biofuels is the co-processing of upgraded pyrolysis oil in standard refineries. The applicability of hydrodeoxygenation (HDO) was studied as a pyrolysis oil upgrading step to allow FCC co-processing. Different HDO reaction end temper

  13. Catalytic processes towards the production of biofuels in a palm oil and oil palm biomass-based biorefinery.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chew, Thiam Leng; Bhatia, Subhash

    2008-11-01

    In Malaysia, there has been interest in the utilization of palm oil and oil palm biomass for the production of environmental friendly biofuels. A biorefinery based on palm oil and oil palm biomass for the production of biofuels has been proposed. The catalytic technology plays major role in the different processing stages in a biorefinery for the production of liquid as well as gaseous biofuels. There are number of challenges to find suitable catalytic technology to be used in a typical biorefinery. These challenges include (1) economic barriers, (2) catalysts that facilitate highly selective conversion of substrate to desired products and (3) the issues related to design, operation and control of catalytic reactor. Therefore, the catalytic technology is one of the critical factors that control the successful operation of biorefinery. There are number of catalytic processes in a biorefinery which convert the renewable feedstocks into the desired biofuels. These include biodiesel production from palm oil, catalytic cracking of palm oil for the production of biofuels, the production of hydrogen as well as syngas from biomass gasification, Fischer-Tropsch synthesis (FTS) for the conversion of syngas into liquid fuels and upgrading of liquid/gas fuels obtained from liquefaction/pyrolysis of biomass. The selection of catalysts for these processes is essential in determining the product distribution (olefins, paraffins and oxygenated products). The integration of catalytic technology with compatible separation processes is a key challenge for biorefinery operation from the economic point of view. This paper focuses on different types of catalysts and their role in the catalytic processes for the production of biofuels in a typical palm oil and oil palm biomass-based biorefinery. PMID:18434141

  14. Exploring the Implications of Oil Prices for Global Biofuels, Food Security, and GHG Mitigation

    OpenAIRE

    Cai, Yongxia; Beach, Robert H.; Zhang, Yuquan

    2014-01-01

    Efforts to satisfy global energy demand and improve food security while simultaneously taking action to mitigate climate change pose many key challenges for the world. In this study, the Applied Dynamic Analysis of the Global Economy (ADAGE), a computable general equilibrium (CGE) model, is applied to examine the impact of oil price on biofuel expansion, and subsequently, on food supply/price, land use change and climate mitigation potential, when both first and second generation biofuel feed...

  15. New Biofuel Alternatives: Integrating Waste Management and Single Cell Oil Production

    OpenAIRE

    Elia Judith Martínez; Vijaya Raghavan; Fernando González-Andrés; Xiomar Gómez

    2015-01-01

    Concerns about greenhouse gas emissions have increased research efforts into alternatives in bio-based processes. With regard to transport fuel, bioethanol and biodiesel are still the main biofuels used. It is expected that future production of these biofuels will be based on processes using either non-food competing biomasses, or characterised by low CO2 emissions. Many microorganisms, such as microalgae, yeast, bacteria and fungi, have the ability to accumulate oils under special culture co...

  16. Novel Bioplastics and biocomposites from Vegetable Oils

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Henna, Phillip H. [Iowa State Univ., Ames, IA (United States)

    2008-01-01

    there are three degrees of unsaturation. In addition, the double bonds are not in conjugation. Table 1 gives the fatty acid make-up of linseed oil. It can be seen that linseed oil has an average of 6.0 double bonds per triglyceride. Its fatty acid content consists of 5.4% palmitic acid (C16:0), 3.5% stearic acid (C18:0), 19% oleic acid (C18:1), 24 % linoleic acid (C18:2) and 47% linolenic (C18:3). Table 1 also gives the fatty acid composition and varying degrees of unsaturation for various other naturally-occurring natural vegetable oils. The regions of unsaturation in natural oils allow for interesting polymer chemistry to take place. Some of this interesting polymer science, however, involves chemical modification of the regions of unsaturation. Acrylated epoxidized soybean oil (AESO) is prepared by epoxidation of the double bonds, followed by ring opening with acrylic acid. The resulting oil has both acrylate groups and hydroxyl groups. Wool and colleagues have further reacted the hydroxyl groups within the oil with maleic anhydride to produce maleated acrylated epoxidized soybean oil (MAESO). The MAESO has been copolymerized with styrene free radically to produce promising thermosetting sheet molding resins. Petrovi? and co-workers have directly ring opened the epoxidized oil to produce polyols that produce promising polyurethanes through condensation polymerization with diisocyanates. Our group's work initially focused on direct cationic copolymerization of the double bonds or conjugated double bonds of natural oils with monomers, such as styrene and divinylbenzene, to produce promising thermosetting resins. The only modification of the oils that was carried out in these studies was conjugation of the double bonds to enhance the reactivity of the oil. This work has been expanded recently with the incorporation of glass fiber to produce promising composites. We have also explored thermal polymerization techniques to make novel thermosets. This dissertation is

  17. Green processing for commercial production of feruloylated vegetable oils

    Science.gov (United States)

    Covalent incorporation of ferulic acid into vegetable oils produces a desirable product for cosmetic applications. Current practice involves the biocatalytic transesterification of ethyl ferulate with soybean oil, followed by a molecular distillation step to remove unconsumed ethyl ferulate and the...

  18. Environmental Impacts and Costs of Hydrotreated Vegetable Oils, Transesterified Lipids and Woody BTL—A Review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andreas Brekke

    2011-05-01

    Full Text Available This article reviews and compares assessments of three biodiesel fuels: (1 transesterified lipids, (2 hydrotreated vegetable oils (HVO, and (3 woody biomass-to-liquid (BTL Fischer-Tropsch diesel and selected feedstock options. The article attempts to rank the environmental performance and costs of fuel and feedstock combinations. Due to inter-study differences in goal and study assumptions, the ranking was mostly qualitative and intra-study results are emphasized. Results indicate that HVO made from wastes or by-products such as tall oil, tallow or used cooking oil outperform transesterified lipids and BTL from woody material, both with respect to environmental life cycle impacts and costs. These feedstock options are, however, of limited availability, and to produce larger volumes of biofuels other raw materials must also be used. BTL from woody biomass seems promising with good environmental performance and the ability not to compete with food production. Production of biofuels from agricultural feedstock sources requires much energy and leads to considerable emissions due to agrochemical inputs. Thus, such biodiesel fuels are ranked lowest in this comparison. Production of feedstock is the most important life cycle stage. Avoiding detrimental land use changes and maintaining good agricultural or forestry management practices are the main challenges to ensure that biofuels can be a sustainable option for the future transport sector.

  19. Sedimentation Of Oil-MIneral Aggregates For Remediation Of Vegetable Oil Spills

    Science.gov (United States)

    A response alternative for floating vegetable oil spills based on sedimentation of negatively buoyant oil-mineral aggregrates followed by anaerobic biodegradation in the sediments is under investigation. Sedimentation of floating canola oil by interaction with montmorillonite wa...

  20. Detection of argan oil adulterated with vegetable oils: new markers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ourrach, I.

    2012-10-01

    Full Text Available This work aims to contribute to controlling the authenticity of pure argan oil, a valuable Moroccan product. Fatty acids, hydrocarbon fraction, 3,5-stigmastadiene, the alkyl esters of fatty acids, chlorophyllic pigments and physical properties such as viscosity, density and refractive index were studied in order to detect the adulteration of argan oil with edible vegetable oils. The results found in this study show that 3,5-stigmastadiene, kaurene and pheophytin-a can be used as possible new markers for argan oil blends of up to 5% with refined, sunflower and virgin olive oils. Due to the similarity of the fatty acid compositions of the edible oils studied and argan oil, fatty acids can be employed as markers for the detection of argan oil adulteration at levels higher than 10%. Among the physical properties studied, the refractive index shows significant differences for sunflower oil and its blend at 10% with argan oil.

    El objetivo principal de este trabajo es contribuir al control de la autenticidad del aceite argán, un producto marroquí muy valorado. Con el fin de detectar la adulteración del aceite de argán con aceites vegetales comestibles, se han estudiado los siguientes parámetros: ácidos grasos, fracción de hidrocarburos, 3,5-estigmastadieno, ésteres alquílicos, pigmentos clorofílicos y propiedades físicas como la viscosidad, densidad e índice de refracción. Los resultados de este estudio muestran que el 3,5-estigmastadieno, kaureno y la feofitina-a podrían utilizarse como nuevos marcadores en la detección del aceite de argán adulterado con aceites refinados y aceite oliva virgen al 5%. La composición en ácidos grasos puede emplearse para la detección de la adulteración del aceite de argán a niveles superiores al 10%, debido a la similitud en la composición de los aceites estudiados. Entre las propiedades físicas analizadas, el índice de refracción mostró diferencias significativas entre el aceite de arg

  1. Process modeling and supply chain design for advanced biofuel production based on bio-oil gasification

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Qi

    As a potential substitute for petroleum-based fuel, second generation biofuels are playing an increasingly important role due to their economic, environmental, and social benefits. With the rapid development of biofuel industry, there has been an increasing literature on the techno-economic analysis and supply chain design for biofuel production based on a variety of production pathways. A recently proposed production pathway of advanced biofuel is to convert biomass to bio-oil at widely distributed small-scale fast pyrolysis plants, then gasify the bio-oil to syngas and upgrade the syngas to transportation fuels in centralized biorefinery. This thesis aims to investigate two types of assessments on this bio-oil gasification pathway: techno-economic analysis based on process modeling and literature data; supply chain design with a focus on optimal decisions for number of facilities to build, facility capacities and logistic decisions considering uncertainties. A detailed process modeling with corn stover as feedstock and liquid fuels as the final products is presented. Techno-economic analysis of the bio-oil gasification pathway is also discussed to assess the economic feasibility. Some preliminary results show a capital investment of 438 million dollar and minimum fuel selling price (MSP) of $5.6 per gallon of gasoline equivalent. The sensitivity analysis finds that MSP is most sensitive to internal rate of return (IRR), biomass feedstock cost, and fixed capital cost. A two-stage stochastic programming is formulated to solve the supply chain design problem considering uncertainties in biomass availability, technology advancement, and biofuel price. The first-stage makes the capital investment decisions including the locations and capacities of the decentralized fast pyrolysis plants and the centralized biorefinery while the second-stage determines the biomass and biofuel flows. The numerical results and case study illustrate that considering uncertainties can be

  2. Friction and wear behavior of thioether hydroxy vegetable oil

    Science.gov (United States)

    This work describes the tribochemical evaluation of vegetable oil based antiwear additive obtained through chemical modification. The sulfur was incorporated using a chemical reaction of epoxidized vegetable oil and common thiols, resulting in formation of a hydroxy thioether derivative of vegetabl...

  3. INVESTIGATION OF HYDRODYNAMIC MIXER FOR BIODIESEL PRODUCTION FROM VEGETABLE OILS HYPERACIDITY IN CONDITIONS AGRICULTURAL ENTERPRISES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hoang N. D.

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available Тhe article presents an investigation of hydrodynamic mixer for biodiesel production from vegetable oils hyperacidity in the conditions of agricultural companies. The process of hydrodynamic mixer which mixes the flow of biofuels from jatropha oil with carbon dioxide to wash it. The regularities of disclosing the relationship of the parameters (diameter and length of the mixing chamber, the mode (the pressure and flow rate from the medium (dynamic viscosity, density, elasticity to the energy characteristics of the process (mixing power on. Based on the method of similarity and dimensions of physical quantities obtained criterion turbulence. A reduction in the flow pressure and agitation power with increasing diameter. We have justified the mode (pressure at the nozzle exit corresponds to the critical, in which the carbon dioxide gets into the mixing chamber properties of liquids, solutions for biofuels, and the mixture becomes a quasi-homogeneous. Based criteria of regime change from a supersonic flow in the subsonic, allowed us to determine the condition of quasi-homogeneity of the mixture. It is proved that we form a supersonic flow liquid-gas at the same time it is transformed into subsonic, accompanied by the acoustic cavitation effect leap remixing due to isentropic pressure jump. The article justifies the physics of cavitation effects of carbon dioxide on biofuels, result of which is to improve the physical and chemical properties of the medium due to the structuring of the molecules of the solution, which has a positive effect on the mixing

  4. Subsidy modes, waste cooking oil and biofuel: Policy effectiveness and sustainable supply chains in China

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Many countries are concerned with the waste-to-energy for economic development and societal welfare. This paper constructs a dynamic game model that, for the first time compares the incentive effects of four common subsidy modes on waste cooking oil supply for biofuel refining and sales of waste cooking oil refined products. The model considers the impact of preferential tax treatment, a raw material subsidy, a sales subsidy and an investment subsidy on the profits of biofuel enterprises and waste cooking oil recyclers. Results indicate that common approaches adopted in developed economies such as raw material price subsidies and finished products sales subsidies increase the profits of both biofuel enterprises and recyclers. On the contrary, investment subsidies, which are relatively common in some regions of China, increase the profits of recyclers, while reducing revenues achieved by biofuel enterprises. To promote the supply chain, policy should give priority to raw material price subsidies and finished products sales subsidies, and for investment subsidies, however, the government should be cautious

  5. Energy and greenhouse gas emission savings of biofuels in Spain's transport fuel. The adoption of the EU policy on biofuels

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Using Life Cycle Assessment (LCA) the fossil energy benefits and avoided global warming emissions have been evaluated for the EU Biofuels goals in Spain. The Biofuels considered are cereal ethanol, biodiesel from residual oils, and from palm, sunflower, soybeans and rapeseed vegetable oils. Our findings are that the source of the cereal and vegetable oil influences the efficacy of the Biofuels and that results greatly depend on whether or not electricity has been produced as co-product in bioethanol plants and that without CHP the energy balance of ethanol is negative with few greenhouse gas offsets.

  6. Waste oil derived biofuels in China bring brightness for global GHG mitigation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liang, Sai; Liu, Zhu; Xu, Ming; Zhang, Tianzhu

    2013-03-01

    This study proposed a novel way for global greenhouse gas reduction through reusing China's waste oil to produce biofuels. Life cycle greenhouse gas mitigation potential of aviation bio-kerosene and biodiesel derived from China's waste oil in 2010 was equivalent to approximately 28.8% and 14.7% of mitigation achievements on fossil-based CO2 emissions by Annex B countries of the Kyoto Protocol in the period of 1990-2008, respectively. China's potential of producing biodiesel from waste oil in 2010 was equivalent to approximately 7.4% of China's fossil-based diesel usage in terms of energy. Potential of aviation bio-kerosene derived from waste oil could provide about 43.5% of China's aviation fuel demand in terms of energy. Sectors key to waste oil generation are identified from both production and consumption perspectives. Measures such as technology innovation, government supervision for waste oil collection and financial subsidies should be introduced to solve bottlenecks.

  7. [FREQUENTLY USED VEGETABLE OILS IN SOUTH AMERICA: FEATURES AND PROPERTIES].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Durán Agüero, Samuel; Torres García, Jairo; Sanhueza Catalán, Julio

    2015-01-01

    In recent decades, the consumption of vegetable oils has increased in our society, being an important part of the diet worldwide. South America is a major producer of an important variety of vegetable oils. The composition of vegetable oils is not standard as it varies greatly in the amount of saturated, monounsaturated and polyunsaturated fatty acids, and particularly in the amounts of omega-6 and omega-3, which are associated with the source either plant species, seed, plant or fruit, providing different nutritional benefits. The purpose of this article is to review and update the data and evidence about the consumption of oils produced and commercialized in South America, such as soybean oil, corn, palm, sunflower, canola and olive oils, and also to determine health effects from studies related with the topic. PMID:26262691

  8. Biofuel production from catalytic cracking of woody oils.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xu, Junming; Jiang, Jianchun; Chen, Jie; Sun, Yunjuan

    2010-07-01

    The catalytic cracking reactions of several kinds of woody oils have been studied. The products were analyzed by GC-MS and FTIR and show the formation of olefins, paraffins and carboxylic acids. Several kinds of catalysts were compared. It was found that the fraction distribution of product was modified by using base catalysts such as CaO. The products from woody oils showed good cold flow properties compared with diesel used in China. The results presented in this work have shown that the catalytic cracking of woody oils generates fuels that have physical and chemical properties comparable to those specified for petroleum based fuels. PMID:20206508

  9. 77 FR 4300 - Notice of Data Availability Concerning Renewable Fuels Produced From Palm Oil Under the RFS Program

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-01-27

    .... agriculture from using palm oil for biofuel production are small in comparison to the international impacts.\\3... other vegetable oils would increase to back fill the palm oil diverted to the biofuels industry (See Table II-2). Due to market- mediated responses vegetable oil production does not increase enough to...

  10. Highly efficient procedure for the transesterification of vegetable oil

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Liang, Xuezheng; Gao, Shan; He, Mingyuan [Shanghai Key Laboratory of Green Chemistry and Chemical Process, Department of Chemistry, East China Normal University, Shanghai 200062 (China); Yang, Jianguo [Shanghai Key Laboratory of Green Chemistry and Chemical Process, Department of Chemistry, East China Normal University, Shanghai 200062 (China); Energy Institute, Department of Materials Science and Engineering, Pennsylvania State University, University Park, PA 16802 (United States)

    2009-10-15

    The highly efficient procedure has been developed for the synthesis of biodiesel from vegetable oil and methanol. The KF/MgO has been selected as the most efficient catalyst for the reactions with the yield of 99.3%. Operational simplicity, without need of the purification of raw vegetable oil, low cost of the catalyst used, high activities, no saponification and reusability are the key features of this methodology. (author)

  11. Preparation of function-enhanced vegetable oils

    OpenAIRE

    Hiroshi Maeda; Takao Satoh; Waliul Islam

    2016-01-01

    Background: Previously, we (HM) found that most commercially available edible oils, which were processed by hexane extraction followed by a number of purification steps, were extremely low in anti-peroxy radical (ROO.), or radical scavenging activity. This is a great contrast to the respective virgin oils as exemplified by extra-virgin olive oil or crude rape seed oil [1-4] (Figure 1). Therefore, such highly purified oils will became prooxidant and less desirable food components in terms of...

  12. Emission reduction from a diesel engine fueled by pine oil biofuel using SCR and catalytic converter

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vallinayagam, R.; Vedharaj, S.; Yang, W. M.; Saravanan, C. G.; Lee, P. S.; Chua, K. J. E.; Chou, S. K.

    2013-12-01

    In this work, we propose pine oil biofuel, a renewable fuel obtained from the resins of pine tree, as a potential substitute fuel for a diesel engine. Pine oil is endowed with enhanced physical and thermal properties such as lower viscosity and boiling point, which enhances the atomization and fuel/air mixing process. However, the lower cetane number of the pine oil hinders its direct use in diesel engine and hence, it is blended in suitable proportions with diesel so that the ignition assistance could be provided by higher cetane diesel. Since lower cetane fuels are prone to more NOX formation, SCR (selective catalyst reduction), using urea as reducing agent, along with a CC (catalytic converter) has been implemented in the exhaust pipe. From the experimental study, the BTE (brake thermal efficiency) was observed to be increased as the composition of pine oil increases in the blend, with B50 (50% pine oil and 50% diesel) showing 7.5% increase over diesel at full load condition. The major emissions such as smoke, CO, HC and NOX were reduced by 70.1%, 67.5%, 58.6% and 15.2%, respectively, than diesel. Further, the average emissions of B50 with SCR and CC assembly were observed to be reduced, signifying the positive impact of pine oil biofuel on atmospheric environment. In the combustion characteristics front, peak heat release rate and maximum in-cylinder pressure were observed to be higher with longer ignition delay.

  13. [Fast discrimination of edible vegetable oil based on Raman spectroscopy].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhou, Xiu-Jun; Dai, Lian-Kui; Li, Sheng

    2012-07-01

    A novel method to fast discriminate edible vegetable oils by Raman spectroscopy is presented. The training set is composed of different edible vegetable oils with known classes. Based on their original Raman spectra, baseline correction and normalization were applied to obtain standard spectra. Two characteristic peaks describing the unsaturated degree of vegetable oil were selected as feature vectors; then the centers of all classes were calculated. For an edible vegetable oil with unknown class, the same pretreatment and feature extraction methods were used. The Euclidian distances between the feature vector of the unknown sample and the center of each class were calculated, and the class of the unknown sample was finally determined by the minimum distance. For 43 edible vegetable oil samples from seven different classes, experimental results show that the clustering effect of each class was more obvious and the class distance was much larger with the new feature extraction method compared with PCA. The above classification model can be applied to discriminate unknown edible vegetable oils rapidly and accurately. PMID:23016334

  14. Advanced Chemical Reactor Technologies for Biodiesel Production from Vegetable Oils - A Review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Luqman Buchori

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available Biodiesel is an alternative biofuel that can replace diesel oil without requiring modifications to the engine and advantageously produces cleaner emissions. Biodiesel can be produced through transesterification process between oil or fat and alcohol to form esters and glycerol. The transesterification can be carried out with or without a catalyst. The catalyzed production of biodiesel can be performed by using homogeneous, heterogeneous and enzyme. Meanwhile, non-catalytic transesterification with supercritical alcohol provides a new way of producing biodiesel. Microwave and ultrasound assisted transesterification significantly can reduce reaction time as well as improve product yields. Another process, a plasma technology is promising for biodiesel synthesis from vegetable oils due to very short reaction time, no soap formation and no glycerol as a by-product. This paper reviews briefly the technologies on transesterification reaction for biodiesel production using homogeneous, heterogeneous, and enzyme catalysts, as well as advanced methods (supercritical, microwave, ultrasonic, and plasma technology. Advantages and disadvantages of each method were described comprehensively. Copyright © 2016 BCREC GROUP. All rights reserved Received: 17th May 2016; Revised: 20th September 2016; Accepted: 20th September 2016 How to Cite: Buchori, L., Istadi, I., Purwanto, P. (2016. Advanced Chemical Reactor Technologies for Biodiesel Production from Vegetable Oils - A Review. Bulletin of Chemical Reaction Engineering & Catalysis, 11 (3: 406-430 (doi:10.9767/bcrec.11.3.490.406-430 Permalink/DOI: http://doi.org/10.9767/bcrec.11.3.490.406-430

  15. The substitutive effect of biofuels on fossil fuels in the lower and higher crude oil price periods

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chang, Ting-Huan [Energy and Environment Research Laboratories, Industrial Technology Research Institute, Hsinchu County 310 (China); Department of Banking and Finance, Tamkang University, No.151, Ying-Chuan Road, Taipei County 251 (China); Su, Hsin-Mei [Department of Banking and Finance, Tamkang University, No.151, Ying-Chuan Road, Taipei County 251 (China)

    2010-07-15

    Various biofuels, including bioethanol and biodiesel are technologically being considered replacements for fossil fuels, such as the conventional gasoline and diesel. This paper aims to measure whether economic substitutability can be generated during periods of higher and/or lower prices of crude oil. The empirical results of the bivariate EGARCH model prove that this substitutive effect was occurred during the higher crude oil price period due to the significant price spillover effects from crude oil futures to corn and soybean futures, indicating that the increase in food prices can be attributed to more consumption of biofuels. We suggest more extensive research in the search for fuel alternatives from inedible feedstock such as pongamia, jojoba, jatropha, especially the 2nd generation biofuel technologies such as algae-based biofuels. (author)

  16. Recommendations for a sustainable development of biofuels in France

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The biofuels are presented as a solution to the greenhouse gases and the petroleum consumption decrease. The development of the biofuels needs an active research of the production, transformation and use costs improvement. It will be necessary to prepare the market of the biofuels to the globalization. Some recommendations are also provided in the domains of the vegetal oil ester, the ethanol for the diesel and for the development of simulation tools to evaluate the costs. (A.L.B.)

  17. Biofuels, tax policies and oil prices in France: Insights from a dynamic CGE model

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The 2009 Renewable Energies Directive (RED) has set up ambitious targets concerning biofuel consumption in the European Union by 2020. Nevertheless, budgetary constraints and growing concerns about the environmental integrity of first-generation biofuels have imposed a phasing out of the fiscal instruments to promote them. Focusing on France, this paper combines an exogenous increase in oil prices and tax policies on fossil fuels. The objective is to determine the efficiency of an alternative incentive scheme for biodiesel consumption based on a higher price of the fossil fuel substitute. Policy simulations are implemented through a dynamic computable general equilibrium (CGE) model calibrated on 2009 French data. The results show that the 10% biodiesel mandate set by the RED would not be achieved even if the fixed taxes on diesel reach the same level as those on gasoline. Although integrating the rise in oil prices into the fiscal framework improves the biodiesel penetration rate, it remains below the target. Moreover, we find that the effects of biofuel consumption are limited to the biofuel chain sectors. In other agricultural sectors, the substitution effect of biodiesel with diesel is partially offset by the pricing effect induced by higher energy production costs. - Highlights: • We represent the French biodiesel production chain through a dynamic CGE model. • We examine the efficiency of alternative support schemes to biodiesel in France. • Ambitious targets require substantial additional taxes on diesel and rising oil prices. • Spillover effects are limited to the biodiesel chain sectors. • Energy-intensive sectors suffer from higher production costs

  18. Effect of vegetable oil (Brazil nut oil and mineral oil (liquid petrolatum on dental biofilm control

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cíntia de Fátima Buldrini Filogônio

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available Dental biofilm control represents a basic procedure to prevent caries and the occurrence of periodontal diseases. Currently, toothbrushes and dentifrices are used almost universally, and the employment of good oral hygiene allows for appropriate biofilm removal by both mechanical and chemical control. The aim of this study was to evaluate the effectiveness of adding vegetable or mineral oil to a commercially available dentifrice in dental biofilm control. A comparison using the Oral Hygiene Index Simplified (OHI-S was performed in 30 individuals who were randomly divided into three groups. Group 1 (G1 received a commercially available dentifrice; the composition of this dentifrice was modified by addition of mineral oil (Nujol® for group 2 (G2 or a vegetable oil (Alpha Care® for group 3 (G3 at 10% of the total volume, respectively. The two-way repeated-measures analysis of variance (two-way ANOVA was used to test the effect of group (G1, G2 and G3 or time (baseline, 45 days and 90 days on the OHI-S index scores. Statistical analysis revealed a significant reduction in the OHI-S at day 90 in G2 (p < 0.05 and G3 (p < 0.0001 in comparison to G1. Therefore, the addition of a vegetable or a mineral oil to a commercially available dentifrice improved dental biofilm control, suggesting that these oils may aid in the prevention and/or control of caries and periodontal disease.

  19. Effect of vegetable oil (Brazil nut oil) and mineral oil (liquid petrolatum) on dental biofilm control.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Filogônio, Cíntia de Fátima Buldrini; Soares, Rodrigo Villamarim; Horta, Martinho Campolina Rebello; Penido, Cláudia Valéria de Sousa Resende; Cruz, Roberval de Almeida

    2011-01-01

    Dental biofilm control represents a basic procedure to prevent caries and the occurrence of periodontal diseases. Currently, toothbrushes and dentifrices are used almost universally, and the employment of good oral hygiene allows for appropriate biofilm removal by both mechanical and chemical control. The aim of this study was to evaluate the effectiveness of adding vegetable or mineral oil to a commercially available dentifrice in dental biofilm control. A comparison using the Oral Hygiene Index Simplified (OHI-S) was performed in 30 individuals who were randomly divided into three groups. Group 1 (G1) received a commercially available dentifrice; the composition of this dentifrice was modified by addition of mineral oil (Nujol®) for group 2 (G2) or a vegetable oil (Alpha Care®) for group 3 (G3) at 10% of the total volume, respectively. The two-way repeated-measures analysis of variance (two-way ANOVA) was used to test the effect of group (G1, G2 and G3) or time (baseline, 45 days and 90 days) on the OHI-S index scores. Statistical analysis revealed a significant reduction in the OHI-S at day 90 in G2 (p comparison to G1. Therefore, the addition of a vegetable or a mineral oil to a commercially available dentifrice improved dental biofilm control, suggesting that these oils may aid in the prevention and/or control of caries and periodontal disease.

  20. The development of the biofuels in the german farms

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Germany is today at the first place of the world for the production and the utilization of vegetable oils and by products, the Diester. The main reasons of this enjoyment is the two european directives on biofuels and the tax exemption at 100% decided by the government in 2004. All the biofuels available in Germany, as the ethanol, the vegetable oils and the bio-alcohol, are presented in this paper. The research axis and the government policy in favor of the biofuels are also discussed. (A.L.B.)

  1. Free and Esterified Sterol Distribution in Four Romanian Vegetable Oil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Francisc Vasile DULF

    2010-09-01

    Full Text Available The unsaponifiable lipid fraction of plant-based foods is a potential source of bioactive components such as phytosterols, triterpenoids, carotenoids, tocopherols and various hydrocarbons. The free and esterified sterol concentrations in four Romanian edible oils (corn germ, wheat germ, sweet almond and grape seed oil were determined, including individual values for β-sitosterol, campesterol, stigmasterol, Δ5-avenasterol, sitostanol, campestanol, and cholesterol. Free and esterified sterols were separated by solid-phase extraction (SPE, saponified, and analyzed as trimethylsilyl ether derivatives using gas-chromatography (GC with flame ionization detector (FID. Differences in total sterol content and the proportion of esterified (ES and free sterols (FS were evident for studied oil samples. In general, β-sitosterol was the most prevalent phytosterol, ranging in concentration from 158.3 mg/100 g in grape seed oil to 478.5 mg/100 g in corn germ oil. Only in these two vegetable oil, we identified trace amount of cholesterol (<3 mg/100g. The total sterol concentrations ranged from 199.9 mg/100g (sweet almond oil to 745.2 mg/100 g (corn germ oil. In corn germ and wheat germ oil, the dominant form of sterols was the esterified one (60.7% ES and 55.6% ES, respectively, of total sterols. This study consolidates the view that vegetable oils are good natural sources of phytosterols. The analyses of these components provide rich information about the identity and quality of vegetable oils. The corn germ and wheat germ oils proved to be the richest sources in phytosterols, being recommended as functional oils.

  2. Eco-Friendly Multipurpose Lubricating Greases from Vegetable Residual Oils

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ponnekanti Nagendramma

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available Environmentally friendly multipurpose grease formulation has been synthesized by using Jatropha vegetable residual oil with lithium soap and multifunctional additive. The thus obtained formulation was evaluated for its tribological performance on a four-ball tribo-tester. The anti-friction and anti-wear performance characteristics were evaluated using standard test methods. The biodegradability and toxicity of the base oil was assessed. The results indicate that the synthesized residual oil grease formulation shows superior tribological performance when compared to the commercial grease. On the basis of physico-chemical characterization and tribological performance the vegetable residual oil was found to have good potential for use as biodegradable multipurpose lubricating grease. In addition, the base oils are biodegradable and non toxic.

  3. Environmental and Social Impacts of Oil Palm Plantations and their Implications for Biofuel Production in Indonesia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Heru Komarudin

    2012-03-01

    Full Text Available This paper reviews the development of oil palm with linkages to biofuel in Indonesia and analyzes the associated environmental and socioeconomic impacts. We selected three plantation study sites in West Papua (Manokwari, West Kalimantan (Kubu Raya, and Papua (Boven Digoel to assess the impacts. Research findings indicate that the development of oil palm in all three sites has caused deforestation, resulting in significant secondary external impacts such as water pollution, soil erosion, and air pollution. In terms of social impacts, many stakeholder groups, i.e., employees, out-growers, and investing households, report significant gains. However, we found these benefits were not evenly distributed. Other stakeholders, particularly traditional landowners, experienced restrictions on traditional land use rights and land losses. We observed increasing land scarcity, rising land prices, and conflicts over land in all sites. Three major trade-offs are associated with the development of oil palm plantations, including those related to biofuels: unevenly distributed economic benefits are generated at the cost of significant environmental losses; there are some winners but also many losers; and economic gains accrue at the expense of weak rule of law. To reduce the negative impacts and trade-offs of oil palm plantations and maximize their economic potential, government decision makers need to restrict the use of forested land for plantation development, enforce existing regulations on concession allocation and environmental management, improve monitoring of labor practices, recognize traditional land use rights, and make land transfer agreements involving customary land more transparent and legally binding.

  4. Identification of vegetable oil botanical speciation in refined vegetable oil blends using an innovative combination of chromatographic and spectroscopic techniques.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Osorio, Maria Teresa; Haughey, Simon A; Elliott, Christopher T; Koidis, Anastasios

    2015-12-15

    European Regulation 1169/2011 requires producers of foods that contain refined vegetable oils to label the oil types. A novel rapid and staged methodology has been developed for the first time to identify common oil species in oil blends. The qualitative method consists of a combination of a Fourier Transform Infrared (FTIR) spectroscopy to profile the oils and fatty acid chromatographic analysis to confirm the composition of the oils when required. Calibration models and specific classification criteria were developed and all data were fused into a simple decision-making system. The single lab validation of the method demonstrated the very good performance (96% correct classification, 100% specificity, 4% false positive rate). Only a small fraction of the samples needed to be confirmed with the majority of oils identified rapidly using only the spectroscopic procedure. The results demonstrate the huge potential of the methodology for a wide range of oil authenticity work. PMID:26190602

  5. Next generation of liquid biofuel production

    OpenAIRE

    Batidzirai, B.

    2012-01-01

    More than 99% of all currently produced biofuels are classified as “first generation” (i.e. fuels produced primarily from cereals, grains, sugar crops and oil seeds) (IEA, 2008b). “Second generation” or “next generation” biofuels, on the other hand, are produced from lignocellulosic feedstocks such as agricultural and forest residues, as well as purpose-grown energy crops such as vegetative grasses and short rotation forests (SRF). These feedstocks largely consist of cellulose, hemicellulose ...

  6. A detection method of vegetable oils in edible blended oil based on three-dimensional fluorescence spectroscopy technique.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xu, Jing; Liu, Xiao-Fei; Wang, Yu-Tian

    2016-12-01

    Edible blended vegetable oils are made from two or more refined oils. Blended oils can provide a wider range of essential fatty acids than single vegetable oils, which helps support good nutrition. Nutritional components in blended oils are related to the type and content of vegetable oils used, and a new, more accurate, method is proposed to identify and quantify the vegetable oils present using cluster analysis and a Quasi-Monte Carlo integral. Three-dimensional fluorescence spectra were obtained at 250-400nm (excitation) and 260-750nm (emission). Mixtures of sunflower, soybean and peanut oils were used as typical examples to validate the effectiveness of the method.

  7. Wet scrubbing of biomass producer gas tars using vegetable oil

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bhoi, Prakashbhai Ramabhai

    The overall aims of this research study were to generate novel design data and to develop an equilibrium stage-based thermodynamic model of a vegetable oil based wet scrubbing system for the removal of model tar compounds (benzene, toluene and ethylbenzene) found in biomass producer gas. The specific objectives were to design, fabricate and evaluate a vegetable oil based wet scrubbing system and to optimize the design and operating variables; i.e., packed bed height, vegetable oil type, solvent temperature, and solvent flow rate. The experimental wet packed bed scrubbing system includes a liquid distributor specifically designed to distribute a high viscous vegetable oil uniformly and a mixing section, which was designed to generate a desired concentration of tar compounds in a simulated air stream. A method and calibration protocol of gas chromatography/mass spectroscopy was developed to quantify tar compounds. Experimental data were analyzed statistically using analysis of variance (ANOVA) procedure. Statistical analysis showed that both soybean and canola oils are potential solvents, providing comparable removal efficiency of tar compounds. The experimental height equivalent to a theoretical plate (HETP) was determined as 0.11 m for vegetable oil based scrubbing system. Packed bed height and solvent temperature had highly significant effect (p0.05) effect on the removal of model tar compounds. The packing specific constants, Ch and CP,0, for the Billet and Schultes pressure drop correlation were determined as 2.52 and 2.93, respectively. The equilibrium stage based thermodynamic model predicted the removal efficiency of model tar compounds in the range of 1-6%, 1-4% and 1-2% of experimental data for benzene, toluene and ethylbenzene, respectively, for the solvent temperature of 30° C. The NRTL-PR property model and UNIFAC for estimating binary interaction parameters are recommended for modeling absorption of tar compounds in vegetable oils. Bench scale

  8. Energy and greenhouse gas emission savings of biofuels in Spain's transport fuel. The adoption of the EU policy on biofuels

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lechon, Y.; Cabal, H.; de la Rua, C.; Caldes, N.; Santamaria, M.; Saez, R. [CIEMAT, Energy Department, Energy System Analysis Unit, Avda Complutense 22, 28040 Madrid (Spain)

    2009-06-15

    Using Life Cycle Assessment (LCA) the fossil energy benefits and avoided global warming emissions have been evaluated for the EU Biofuels goals in Spain. The Biofuels considered are cereal ethanol, biodiesel from residual oils, and from palm, sunflower, soybeans and rapeseed vegetable oils. Our findings are that the source of the cereal and vegetable oil influences the efficacy of the Biofuels and that results greatly depend on whether or not electricity has been produced as co-product in bioethanol plants and that without CHP the energy balance of ethanol is negative with few greenhouse gas offsets. (author)

  9. Optimization of Refining Craft for Vegetable Insulating Oil

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhou, Zhu-Jun; Hu, Ting; Cheng, Lin; Tian, Kai; Wang, Xuan; Yang, Jun; Kong, Hai-Yang; Fang, Fu-Xin; Qian, Hang; Fu, Guang-Pan

    2016-05-01

    Vegetable insulating oil because of its environmental friendliness are considered as ideal material instead of mineral oil used for the insulation and the cooling of the transformer. The main steps of traditional refining process included alkali refining, bleaching and distillation. This kind of refining process used in small doses of insulating oil refining can get satisfactory effect, but can't be applied to the large capacity reaction kettle. This paper using rapeseed oil as crude oil, and the refining process has been optimized for large capacity reaction kettle. The optimized refining process increases the acid degumming process. The alkali compound adds the sodium silicate composition in the alkali refining process, and the ratio of each component is optimized. Add the amount of activated clay and activated carbon according to 10:1 proportion in the de-colorization process, which can effectively reduce the oil acid value and dielectric loss. Using vacuum pumping gas instead of distillation process can further reduce the acid value. Compared some part of the performance parameters of refined oil products with mineral insulating oil, the dielectric loss of vegetable insulating oil is still high and some measures are needed to take to further optimize in the future.

  10. The biofuels stakes in France. DGEMP - DIREM/DIDEME; Les enjeux des biocarburants en France. DGEMP - DIREM/DIDEME

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2005-06-15

    The biofuels are fuels obtained from vegetal raw materials. Two main channel are developed in France: the ethanol channel (ethanol and ETBE, ethyl tertio butyl ether) for the gasoline vehicles and the vegetal oils channel with the EMHV (ester methyl vegetal oils) for the diesel vehicles. This document presents the different channels, the financial incentives and the french energy policy to promote the biofuels. (A.L.B.)

  11. Vegetable oil from fruits of forest species

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Razzaque, M.A.; Sayeed, M.; Das, S.C.

    1983-01-01

    Seeds were collected from species in various areas of Bangladesh to assess their potential for production of industrial (e.g. for paint, varnish, soap) and edible oils: Aleurites montana; Amoora spp.; Amoora spectabilis; Aphanamixis (Ricinocarpodendron) polystachya; Calophyllum inophyllum; Elaeis guineensis; Garcinia cowa; Hydnocarpus kurzii; Mallotus philippinensis; Mesua ferrea; Mimusops elengi; Pongamia pinnata; Schleichera oleosa; Shorea robusta; and Zanthoxylum budrunga. In cases where the seed coat could be detached, the weight ratio of seed coat to kernel was calculated. Oil contents of kernel, pulp or whole seed were determined by solvent extraction depending on the ease of separation of the seed coat. Free fatty acid contents and saponification and iodine values of the oil samples were determined. High percentages of oil were obtained from most species. 10 references.

  12. New Biofuel Alternatives: Integrating Waste Management and Single Cell Oil Production

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Elia Judith Martínez

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available Concerns about greenhouse gas emissions have increased research efforts into alternatives in bio-based processes. With regard to transport fuel, bioethanol and biodiesel are still the main biofuels used. It is expected that future production of these biofuels will be based on processes using either non-food competing biomasses, or characterised by low CO2 emissions. Many microorganisms, such as microalgae, yeast, bacteria and fungi, have the ability to accumulate oils under special culture conditions. Microbial oils might become one of the potential feed-stocks for biodiesel production in the near future. The use of these oils is currently under extensive research in order to reduce production costs associated with the fermentation process, which is a crucial factor to increase economic feasibility. An important way to reduce processing costs is the use of wastes as carbon sources. The aim of the present review is to describe the main aspects related to the use of different oleaginous microorganisms for lipid production and their performance when using bio-wastes. The possibilities for combining hydrogen (H2 and lipid production are also explored in an attempt for improving the economic feasibility of the process.

  13. Enzymatic transesterification of waste vegetable oil to produce biodiesel.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lopresto, C G; Naccarato, S; Albo, L; De Paola, M G; Chakraborty, S; Curcio, S; Calabrò, V

    2015-11-01

    An experimental study on enzymatic transesterification was performed to produce biodiesel from waste vegetable oils. Lipase from Pseudomonas cepacia was covalently immobilized on a epoxy-acrylic resin support. The immobilized enzyme exhibited high catalytic specific surface and allowed an easy recovery, regeneration and reutilisation of biocatalyst. Waste vegetable oils - such as frying oils, considered not competitive with food applications and wastes to be treated - were used as a source of glycerides. Ethanol was used as a short chain alcohol and was added in three steps with the aim to reduce its inhibitory effect on lipase activity. The effect of biocatalyst/substrate feed mass ratios and the waste oil quality have been investigated in order to estimate the process performances. Biocatalyst recovery and reuse have been also studied with the aim to verify the stability of the biocatalyst for its application in industrial scale.

  14. Streptomycetes biosynthesis processes in the presence of vegetable oils

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    I. V. Zhernosekova

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available The rise of biosynthesis activity of the strain Streptomyces recifensis var. lyticus 2Р-15 induced by vegetable oil was established. When cultivating the streptomycetes in the mixed medium (glucose and sunflower oil the maximum biomass accumulation and staphylolytic enzymes’ activity of the strain 2P-15 increased by 19 and 20 % respectively in comparison with the streptomycetes grown in the medium of glucose and olive oil. The concentration of exogenic protein was also 9 times more for glucose and sunflower oil substrate. Monosubstrate of sunflower or olive oil didn’t increase the biosynthetic activity of the strain. However, the maximal indices were higher for sunflower oil than for olive one.

  15. Energy policy, social exclusion and sustainable development: The biofuels and oil and gas cases in Brazil

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hall, Jeremy; Matos, Stelvia; Silvestre, Bruno

    2010-09-15

    Recent Brazilian policies have encouraged impoverished communities to participate in the country's growing energy industry. This paper explores the country's attempts to encourage such participation within the oil and gas and biofuels sectors. Our research is based on interviews with industry executives, policymakers, non-governmental organizations and farmers conducted between 2005-2009 in Brazil, an emerging energy leader, yet a country grappling with social exclusion. We propose that some sectors have a propensity to be exclusive due to technological complexity, whereas other sectors, although less complex, tend to economize at the expense of social programs. We conclude with managerial and policy implications.

  16. The efficacy of essential oils as natural preservatives in vegetable oil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mahboubi, Mohaddese; Kazempour, Nastaran; Mahboubi, Atefeh

    2014-12-01

    The efforts for finding the natural preservatives with nontoxicity and nonirritancy have encouraged the scientists to research among the medicinal plants. The preservative efficacy of Daucus carota, Ferula gummosa, Eugenium caryophyllata, Oliveria decumbens, Pelargonium graveolens, Ziziphora tenuir, Acorus calamus, and Trachyspermum ammi essential oils on challenge test's pathogens and on pathogen's inoculated vegetable oil was evaluated by antimicrobial effectiveness test. Carotol (46%), β-pinene (62.7%), eugenol (78.4%), thymol (50.6%), cis-asarone (27.5%), thymol (50.1%), and α-terpineol (19.5%) were the primary main components of D. carota, F. gummosa, E. caryophyllata, T. ammi, A. calamus, O. decumbens, and Z. tenuir essential oils, respectively. A. niger was more sensitive microorganism to oils. The antimicrobial activity of O. decumbens oil was the highest. Different concentrations of essential oils were added to the vegetable oil. The results of test on the vegetable oil showed that the combination of O. decumbens and P. graveolens oils (0.5:0.5%) had enough efficacies as natural preservative in vegetable oil. PMID:24552253

  17. Undesirable substances in vegetable oils: anything to declare?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lacoste Florence

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available The presence of undesirable compounds in vegetable and animal oils and fats may have many different origins. Although the potential toxicity of most of these undesirable compounds is real, poisoning risks are rather limited due to the efficient elimination during oil-refining steps, careful conditioning, choice of efficient packaging and industrial quality control management. However the research of contaminants is part of multiple controls conducted by fat and oil industry to verify the conformity of products placed on the market in relation to regulations such as the European commission regulation EC No. 1881/2006 setting maximum levels for some contaminants in food as lead, some mycotoxins, dioxins, polychlorobiphenyls, benzo[a]pyrene. In the absence of regulation, the detection of contaminants must be addressed in partnership with authorities according to the toxicity of molecules. The controls are not confined to environmental contaminants. They also include compounds that can be formed during the production process of vegetable oils such as esters of 3-monochloropropanediol. This article focuses more particularly on heavy metals, polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons, mineral oils, phthalates and 3-MCPD or glycidyl esters. Aspects such as methods for analysis, limits fixed by EC regulation and occurrence in vegetable oils are discussed.

  18. Sustainability aspects of biobased products : comparison of different crops and products from the vegetable oil platform

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Meesters, K.P.H.; Corré, W.J.; Conijn, J.G.; Patel, M.K.; Bos, H.L.

    2012-01-01

    This study focusses on the production of vegetable oil based products. A limited number of aspacts of the sustainability of the full chain (from agriculture to product at the factory gate) was evaluated. Three different vegetable oils were taken into account: palm oil, soy oil and rapeseed oil. Also

  19. Comparison between jojoba oil and other vegetable oils as a substitute to petroleum

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    El Kinawy, O. [National Research centre, Dokki, Cairo (Egypt)

    2004-06-15

    Jojoba oil and other vegetable oils, such as soybean, sunflower and castor oils, were evaluated to be used as lubricants. Three standard mineral lubricating oils were considered in this study as reference. The essential parameters tested for comparison were the oil viscosity, viscosity index, and viscosity--temperature and shear rate--shear stress relationships. The effect of excessive heating on the vegetable oils' stability was studied and the corresponding parameters were also measured. Jojoba oil was found to be the best among all tested oils, whereas it gave the minimum change in viscosity gradient and hence the highest viscosity index. There was a linear relation between shear rate and shear stress of all oils before and after heat deterioration. Therefore, these oils were considered as Newtonion liquids. However, the oil viscosity, as well as the rate of viscosity variation with temperature, ({delta}{sup '}{eta}/{delta}{tau}) were affected by heat deterioration being lowered in value, in case of jojoba oil, and higher value, in case of castor oil. Jojoba oil was examined for other important properties for its use as a lubricant, such as refractive index, acid value, peroxide value, saponification value, iodine value, flash, fire and pour points. (author)

  20. Bio-fuels

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This report presents an overview of the technologies which are currently used or presently developed for the production of bio-fuels in Europe and more particularly in France. After a brief history of this production since the beginning of the 20. century, the authors describe the support to agriculture and the influence of the Common Agricultural Policy, outline the influence of the present context of struggle against the greenhouse effect, and present the European legislative context. Data on the bio-fuels consumption in the European Union in 2006 are discussed. An overview of the evolution of the activity related to bio-fuels in France, indicating the locations of ethanol and bio-diesel production facilities, and the evolution of bio-fuel consumption, is given. The German situation is briefly presented. Production of ethanol by fermentation, the manufacturing of ETBE, the bio-diesel production from vegetable oils are discussed. Second generation bio-fuels are then presented (cellulose enzymatic processing), together with studies on thermochemical processes and available biomass resources

  1. Life cycle analyses applied to first generation bio-fuels consumed in France

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This rather voluminous publication reports detailed life cycle analyses for the different present bio-fuels channels also named first-generation bio-fuels: bio-ethanol, bio-diesel, pure vegetal oils, and oil. After a recall of the general principles adopted for this life-cycle analysis, it reports the modelling of the different channels (agricultural steps, bio-fuel production steps, Ethyl tert-butyl ether or ETBE steps, vehicles, animal fats and used vegetal oils, soil assignment change). It gives synthetic descriptions of the different production ways (methyl ester from different plants, ethanol from different plants). It reports and compares the results obtained in terms of performance

  2. Green Diesel from Hydrotreated Vegetable Oil Process Design Study

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hilbers, T.J.; Sprakel, L.M.J.; Enk, van den L.B.J.; Zaalberg, B.; Berg, van den H.; Ham, van der A.G.J.

    2015-01-01

    A systematic approach was applied to study the process of hydrotreating vegetable oils. During the three phases of conceptual, detailed, and final design, unit operations were designed and sized. Modeling of the process was performed with UniSim Design®. Producing green diesel and jet fuel from vege

  3. Research on Biodiesel and Vegetable Oil Fuels - Then and Now

    Science.gov (United States)

    A vegetable oil was used as diesel fuel for the first time in 1900 and the first biodiesel dates from the 1930's. Significant insights into fuel properties were already gained in those times. This article briefly discusses such results and relates the author's own recent work on biodiesel fuel pro...

  4. Heterogeneous hydrogenation of vegetable oils : A literature review

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Veldsink, JW; Bouma, MJ; Schoon, NH; Beenackers, AACM

    1997-01-01

    Hardening of vegetable oils is reviewed from an engineering point of view. The present review focuses on kinetics of the hydrogenation and relevant transport and adsorption steps. It aims to contribute to accelerate new research to improve substantially on selectivities in general and a decrease of

  5. Performances of cutting fluids in turning. Vegetable based oil - RV

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Axinte, Dragos Aurelian; Belluco, Walter

    1999-01-01

    Scope of the present measurement campaign is the evaluation of the cutting fluid performance. The report presents the standard routine and the results obtained when turning stainless steel and brass with a commercial vegetable based oil called RV. The methods were developed to be applicable...

  6. Fat, oil and grease waste from municipal wastewater: characterization, activation and sustainable conversion into biofuel.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pastore, Carlo; Pagano, Michele; Lopez, Antonio; Mininni, Giuseppe; Mascolo, Giuseppe

    2015-01-01

    Fat, oil and grease (FOG) recovered by the oil/water separator of a wastewater treatment plant (WWTP) were sampled, characterized, activated and converted into biofuel. Free acids (50-55%) and fatty soaps (26-32%) not only composed the main components, but they were also easily separable from the starting waste. The respective free fatty acid profiles were gas-chromatographically evaluated, interestingly verifying that free acids had a different profile (mainly oleic acid) with respect to the soapy fraction (saturated fatty acids were dominant). The inorganic composition was also determined for soaps, confirming that calcium is the most commonly present metal. The chemical activation of this fatty waste was made possible by converting the starting soaps into the respective free fatty acids by using formic acid as activator, coproducing the relevant formates. The activated fatty matter was then converted into biofuel through direct esterification under very mild conditions (345 K, atmospheric pressure) and obtaining thermodynamic conversion in less than 2 h. The process was easily scaled up, isolating at the end pure biodiesel (purity > 96%) through distillation under vacuum, providing a final product conformed to commercial purposes.

  7. Environmentally friendly properties of vegetable oil methyl esters

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gateau Paul

    2005-07-01

    Full Text Available Measurements were carried out on Vegetable Oil Methyl Esters (VOME or FAME answering the most recent specifications. The products tested are RME (Rapeseed oil Methyl Ester, ERME (Erucic Rapeseed oil Methyl Esters, SME (Sunflower oil Methyl Esters, and HOSME (High Oleic Sunflower oil Methyl Esters. They contain more than 99.5% of fatty acid mono esters. The compositions are given. VOME are not volatile and they are not easily flammable. They are not soluble in water and they are biodegradable. According to the methods implemented for the determination of the German classification of substances hazardous to waters WGK, they are not toxic on mammals and unlike diesel fuel they are not toxic on fish, daphnia, algae and bacteria. The RME is not either toxic for shrimps. According to tests on rabbits, RME and SME are not irritating for the skin and the eyes. VOME display particularly attractive environmental properties.

  8. Mathematical Modeling of Vegetable-Oil Crystallization

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hjorth, Jeppe Lindegaard

    oils and fats comprise an abundant number of TAGs giving rise to complex chemical compositions. In this research the focus will mainly be on TAGs, disregarding minor components. To date improvements of oils and fats have largely been based on empirical laboratory tests designed by skilled experts...... by combining the 5 sections. The actual work is primarily concerned with sections 2-4, while the outputs (section 5) are used as a measure of the model’s performance. Section 2 deals with the thermodynamic foundation needed to correctly understand and describe the driving force toward crystallization of TAGs...... in literature, solid-liquid equilibria for complex systems are calculated by minimization of the Gibb’s free energy of the system. Possible phase splits are taken into account by employing the tangent-plane criterion. Non-ideal mixing leads to excess Gibb’s free energy, which can be described by an activity...

  9. Vegetable oil based emulsions in milk

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Veronika Mikulcová

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available Milk and dairy products represent an important part of functional food in the market. Based on their positive health and nutritional benefits, they have gained popularity and their consumption as well as production is on the rise in the last few decades. As a result of this trend, milk-based products are being used for the delivery of bioactive food ingredients. This study is devoted to the formulation of stable emulsions containing grape seed oil dispersed with several emulsifiers (Tween 80, monocaprylin, and lecithin in milk. Photon correlation spectroscopy was used to evaluate the characteristics of the emulsions in terms of mean droplet size, droplet size distribution and polydispersity index. Emulsions were prepared using 2% and 5% w/w grape seed oil, and 3%, 5%, or 8% w/w emulsifier, and these were homogenized at two different rates of 1050 and 13400 rpm. Parameters influencing emulsion particle size and particle size distribution were identified, which included emulsifier type, its HLB value, oil type (virgin, refined, homogenization rate and the fat content in the milk. Homogenization at 13400 rpm for 10 min. produced fine emulsions with small mean particle sizes and monomodal distribution of droplets. Regarding emulsifier type, the smallest droplet sizes were obtained with formulations containing Tween 80 (250-315 nm, whereas lecithin primarily accounted for the monomodal particle size distributions.

  10. Catalytic applications in the production of biodiesel from vegetable oils.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sivasamy, Arumugam; Cheah, Kien Yoo; Fornasiero, Paolo; Kemausuor, Francis; Zinoviev, Sergey; Miertus, Stanislav

    2009-01-01

    The predicted shortage of fossil fuels and related environmental concerns have recently attracted significant attention to scientific and technological issues concerning the conversion of biomass into fuels. First-generation biodiesel, obtained from vegetable oils and animal fats by transesterification, relies on commercial technology and rich scientific background, though continuous progress in this field offers opportunities for improvement. This review focuses on new catalytic systems for the transesterification of oils to the corresponding ethyl/methyl esters of fatty acids. It also addresses some innovative/emerging technologies for the production of biodiesel, such as the catalytic hydrocracking of vegetable oils to hydrocarbons. The special role of the catalyst as a key to efficient technology is outlined, together with the other important factors that affect the yield and quality of the product, including feedstock-related properties and various system conditions. PMID:19360707

  11. Preventive effect of cinnamon essential oil on lipid oxidation of vegetable oil

    OpenAIRE

    Keshvari, Mahtab; Asgary, Sedigheh; Jafarian-Dehkordi, Abbas; Najafi, Somayeh; Ghoreyshi-Yazdi, Seyed Mojtaba

    2013-01-01

    BACKGROUND Lipid oxidation is the main deterioration process that occurs in vegetable oils. This process was effectively prevented by natural antioxidants. Cinnamomum zeylanicum (Cinnamon) is rich with antioxidants. The present study was conducted to evaluate the effect of cinnamon on malondialdehyde (MDA) rate production in two high consumption oils in Iranian market. METHODS Chemical composition of cinnamon essential oil was analyzed by gas chromatography-mass spectroscopy (GC-MS). 200 µl e...

  12. The biofuels in France; Les biocarburants en France

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2006-04-15

    The biofuels are liquid renewable energies sources resulting from vegetal matters. Today are two channels of biofuels: the ethanol channel for gasoline and the vegetal oils channel for the diesel. In the first part, the document presents the different channels and the energy efficiency of the products. It shows in the second part the advantages for the environment (CO{sub 2} accounting) and for the energy independence. It discusses then the future developments and the projects. The fourth part is devoted to the legislation, regulations, taxes and financial incentives. The last part presents the french petroleum industry actions and attitudes in the framework of the biofuels development. (A.L.B.)

  13. Optimization of biodiesel production process using recycled vegetable oil

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lugo, Yarely

    Petro diesel toxic emissions and its limited resources have created an interest for the development of new energy resources, such as biodiesel. Biodiesel is traditionally produced by a transesterification reaction between vegetable oil and an alcohol in the presence of a catalyst. However, this process is slow and expensive due to the high cost of raw materials. Low costs feedstock oils such as recycled and animal fats are available but they cannot be transesterified with alkaline catalysts due to high content of free fatty acids, which can lead to undesirable reactions such as saponification. In this study, we reduce free fatty acids content by using an acid pre-treatment. We compare sulfuric acid, hydrochloric acid and ptoluenesulfonic acid (PTSA) to pre-treat recycled vegetable oil. PTSA removes water after 60 minutes of treatment at room temperature or within 15 minutes at 50°C. The pretreatment was followed by a transesterification reaction using alkaline catalyst. To minimize costs and accelerate reaction, the pretreatment and transesterification reaction of recycle vegetable oil was conducted at atmospheric pressure in a microwave oven. Biodiesel was characterized using a GC-MS method.

  14. Supercritical fluids technology for clean biofuel production

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Dongsheng Wen; H.Jiang; Kai Zhang

    2009-01-01

    Biofuels are liquid or gaseous fuels that are predominantly produced from biomass for transport sector applications.As biofuels are renewable,sustainable,carbon neutral and environmentally benign,they have been proposed as promising alternative fuels for gasoline and diesel engines.This paper reviews state-of-the-art application of the supercritical fluid(SCF)technique in biofuels production that includes biodiesel from vegetable oils via the transesterification process,bio-hydrogen from the gasification and bio-oil from the lique-faction of biomass,with biodiesel production as the main focus. The global biofuel situation and biofuel economics are also reviewed.The SCF has been shown to be a promising technique for future large-scale biofuel production,especially for biodiesel production from waster oil and fat.Compared with conventional biofuel production methods,the SCF technology possesses a number of advantages that includes fast inetics,high fuel production rate,ease of continuous operation and elimination of the necessity of catalysts.The harsh operation environment,i.e. the high temperature and high pressure,and its request on the materials and associated cost are the main concerns for its wide application.

  15. [Benzo(a)pyrene contamination of vegetable oils].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jedra, Małgorzata; Starski, Andrzej; Gawarska, Halina; Sawilska-Rautenstrauch, Dorota

    2008-01-01

    Benzo(a)pyrene (B(a)P) analysis was carried out with glass chromatographic column with alumina followed by reverse phase high-performance liquid chromatography (HPLC) and spectrofluorometric detection. B(a)P level in 40 vegetable oils were as follow: from 0.11 to 0.38 microg/kg in olive; from 0.92 to 3.74 microg/kg in rape seed oils; from 0.11 to 2.25 microg/kg in sunflower oils and from 0.33 to 1.26 microg/kg in soya oils. In another investigated oils: arachide (peanut) corn, safflower, linen, hempen, sesame, pumpkin seeds, grape seeds---values from 0.10 to 1.44 microg/kg and 3.83 microg/kg in sea buckthorn oil were detected. B(a)P concentration in 4 from 40 investigated oils exceed the 2 ppb limit proposed by the European Commission. Heating of sample of oils: olive, rape, soya, linen, corn, sesame, peanut, in temp. 240 degrees C for 30 min. has not influence on decreased of B(a)P level. PMID:18807910

  16. Antithrombotic lipid minor constituents from vegetable oils. Comparison between olive oils and others.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Karantonis, Haralabos C; Antonopoulou, Smaragdi; Demopoulos, Constantinos A

    2002-02-27

    Many epidemiological studies suggest that vegetable oils and especially olive oil present a protective effect against atherosclerosis. In this study, total lipids (TL) of Greek olive oils and seed oils of four kinds, namely, soybean, corn, sunflower, and sesame oil, were separated into total polar lipids (TPL) and total neutral lipids (TNL) via a novel extraction procedure. TPL and TNL of olive oil were fractionated by HPLC for further study. Each lipid fraction from HPLC separation along with TL, TPL, and TNL lipid samples from oils were tested in vitro for their capacity to induce or to inhibit washed rabbit platelet aggregation. Comparison between olive and seed oils supports the superiority of olive oil as high levels of platelet activating factor (PAF) antagonists have been detected, mainly in TPL. In addition, the structure of the most active fraction from olive oil was elucidated, as a glycerol-glycolipid. Because it has already been reported that PAF plays a pivotal role in atherogenesis, the existence of PAF agonists and antagonists in vegetable oils may explain their protective role against atherosclerosis.

  17. Testing and preformance measurement of straight vegetable oils as an alternative fuel for diesel engines

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lakshminarayanan, Arunachalam

    Rising fuel prices, growing energy demand, concerns over domestic energy security and global warming from greenhouse gas emissions have triggered the global interest in bio-energy and bio-fuel crop development. Backlash from these concerns can result in supply shocks of traditional fossil fuels and create immense economic pressure. It is thus widely argued that bio-fuels would particularly benefit developing countries by off-setting their dependencies on imported petroleum. Domestically, the transportation sector accounts for almost 40% of liquid fuel consumption, while on-farm application like tractors and combines for agricultural purposes uses close to an additional 18%. It is estimated that 40% of the farm budget can be attributed to the fuel costs. With the cost of diesel continuously rising, farmers are now looking at using Straight Vegetable Oil (SVO) as an alternative fuel by producing their own fuel crops. This study evaluates conventional diesel compared to the use of SVO like Camelina, Canola and Juncea grown on local farms in Colorado for their performance and emissions on a John Deere 4045 Tier-II engine. Additionally, physical properties like density and viscosity, metal/mineral content, and cold flow properties like CFPP and CP of these oils were measured using ASTM standards and compared to diesel. It was found that SVOs did not show significant differences compared to diesel fuel with regards to engine emissions, but did show an increase in thermal efficiency. Therefore, this study supports the continued development of SVO production as a viable alternative to diesel fuels, particularly for on-farm applications. The need for providing and developing a sustainable, economic and environmental friendly fuel alternative has taken an aggressive push which will require a strong multidisciplinary education in the field of bio-energy. Commercial bio-energy development has the potential to not only alleviate the energy concerns, but also to give renewed

  18. Effect of methanol extracts of rosemary and olive vegetable water on the stability of olive oil and sunflower oil

    OpenAIRE

    Gamel, T. H.; Kiritsakis, A.

    1999-01-01

    Effect of methanol extracts of rosemary and olive vegetable water on the stability of olive oil and sunflower oil. Methanol phenolic extracts of dry rosemary leaves and olive vegetable water filtrate, in combination with BHA, were added to olive oil (blend of refined and virgin olive oil, 3 to 1) and to sunflower oil and their antioxidant effects under accelerated conditions were evaluated. Accelerated conditions included the oven test (at 63 °C) and the conductivity method (Rancimat at 120 °...

  19. Multigeneration studies on red palm oil, and on hydrogenated vegetable oil containing mahua oil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Manorama, R; Chinnasamy, N; Rukmini, C

    1993-05-01

    Edible grade red palm oil (RPO; Elaeis guineensis) is being considered for use an an edible oil in India since it is one of the richest natural sources of carotenoids. Earlier chemical and nutritional evaluations in rats indicated no adverse effects. Multigeneration breeding studies in rats have now been carried out. Mahua oil (MO; Madhuca latifolia) is used in hydrogenated vegetable oil (HVO) for human consumption. Earlier studies on MO indicated adverse effects on the male reproductive system. Hence, a study was undertaken to evaluate the safety of HVO containing 30% MO (MO-HVO) in terms of reproductive performance. A three-generation study was conducted with groups of 12 male and 12 female Wistar/NIN/inbred albino rats fed, at 10% in the diet (20% protein), groundnut oil (controls), RPO, refined, bleached and deodorized palmolein (RBDPO), or MO-HVO. Reproductive parameters including percentage conception, birth weight, litter size, weanling weight, sex ratio at birth and weaning, preweaning mortality and number of days from introduction to mating, were recorded. Behavioural and reflexological tests were conducted on preweaning animals. Adult animals were subjected to weekly observation. No significant differences were found between the RPO and MO-HVO groups in comparison with groups fed GNO or RBDPO in any of the above parameters. However, certain indications of reduced fertility were observed in the MO-HVO group in the first and third generations. The results indicate that RPO did not produce any adverse effect on reproductive performance or other toxicological parameters studied, and therefore it can be considered as safe for consumption. On the other hand, HVO containing 30% MO needs further testing with a larger number of animals. PMID:8505022

  20. Ozonized vegetable oils and therapeutic properties: A review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nathália R. Almeida

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Derived from ozonetherapy, the ozonized oils represent an Ozonized oils represent an interesting pharmaceutical approach to the management of a variety of dermatological pathologies. Ozone reacts with carbon-carbon double bonds of unsaturated fatty acids according to the mechanism described by Criegee, forming ozonides or 1,2,4 trioxolane rings and peroxides as the most important products, responsible for the antimicrobial activity and stimulating tissue repair and regeneration properties. The ozonized vegetable oils can be liquids or semisolids at room temperature and have stability periods that may be adequate for commercial distribuition. Ozonized sunflower oil (Oleozon®, a drug registered nationally and developed in the Ozone Research Center in Cuba has been tested and it was found to have valuable antimicrobial activity against bacteria, fungi and virus. FT-IR and NMR technics are used to confirm the structural changes undergone by oil during the ozonation. For determining the quality of ozonized oils, analytical methods such as peroxide, acidity and iodine values are usually carried out. Products are available for an alternative use of available resources, natural and renewable sources, simple technology, low cost and with extensive biological activity with reduced collateral effects. DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.17807/orbital.v4i4.467

  1. Authentication of vegetable oils by bulk and molecular carbon isotope analyses with emphasis on olive oil and pumpkin seed oil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Spangenberg, J E; Ogrinc, N

    2001-03-01

    The authenticity of vegetable oils consumed in Slovenia and Croatia was investigated by carbon isotope analysis of the individual fatty acids by the use of gas chromatography-combustion-isotope ratio mass spectrometry (GC/C/IRMS), and through carbon isotope analysis of the bulk oil. The fatty acids from samples of olive, pumpkin, sunflower, maize, rape, soybean, and sesame oils were separated by alkaline hydrolysis and derivatized to methyl esters for chemical characterization by capillary gas chromatography/mass spectrometry (GC/MS) prior to isotopic analysis. Enrichment in heavy carbon isotope ((13)C) of the bulk oil and of the individual fatty acids are related to (1) a thermally induced degradation during processing (deodorization, steam washing, or bleaching), (2) hydrolytic rancidity (lipolysis) and oxidative rancidity of the vegetable oils during storage, and (3) the potential blend with refined oil or other vegetable oils. The impurity or admixture of different oils may be assessed from the delta(13)C(16:0) vs. delta(13)C(18:1) covariations. The fatty acid compositions of Slovenian and Croatian olive oils are compared with those from the most important Mediterranean producer countries (Spain, Italy, Greece, and France). PMID:11312892

  2. Economic and technical considerations on the use of vegetable oils as fuel substitute for diesel oil; Consideracoes economicas e tecnicas sobre o uso de oleos vegetais combustiveis como substituto de oleo diesel

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mourad, Anna Lucia [Universidade Estadual de Campinas (DE/FEM/UNICAMP), SP (Brazil). Fac. de Engenharia Mecanica. Dept. de Energia], Email: anna@ital.sp.gov.br

    2006-07-01

    The introduction of bio diesel in the Brazilian energy matrix has been mainly motivated by the governmental actions, which foresees social and economical development to the country in a program that allows the use of different oil seed crops as raw materials for biofuels production. Cost estimates considering the average price received by the farmer and the oil content of each vegetable shows that the minimum cost of bio fuel was about 1,1(castor bean); 1,8(peanut); 2,0(soy beans); 3,3(corn) higher than the average cost of fossil diesel from 1975 to 2004. Among the evaluated raw materials, only the palm oil had inferior cost compared to the petroleum diesel (0.6%). The oleaginous plants that have a higher oil content and smaller agricultural production cost to produce bio fuels are economically most feasible and they should be prioritized in the government program so that it may become economically sustainable along the years, as well as generate adequate profit to the farmers of each culture. The feasibility of National Program for Biofuels Use and Production and both economical and environmental aspects should also consider the destination of the main by-products of the biofuel productive chain such as the left over cakes after extraction of the oil and glycerine produced during the transesterification process. (author)

  3. Correlation of basic oil quality indices and electrical properties of model vegetable oil systems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Prevc, Tjaša; Cigić, Blaž; Vidrih, Rajko; Poklar Ulrih, Nataša; Šegatin, Nataša

    2013-11-27

    Model vegetable oil mixtures with significantly different basic oil quality indices (free fatty acid, iodine, and Totox values) were prepared by adding oleic acids, synthetic saturated triglycerides, or oxidized safflower oil ( Carthamus tinctorius ) to the oleic type of sunflower oil. Dielectric constants, dielectric loss factors, quality factors, and electrical conductivities of model lipids were determined at frequencies from 50 Hz to 2 MHz and at temperatures from 293.15 to 323.15 K. The dependence of these dielectric parameters on basic oil quality indices was investigated. Adding oleic acids to sunflower oil resulted in lower dielectric constants and conductivities and higher quality factors. Reduced iodine values resulted in increased dielectric constants and quality factors and decreased conductivities. Higher Totox values resulted in higher dielectric constants and conductivities at high frequencies and lower quality factors. Dielectric constants decreased linearly with temperature, whereas conductivities followed the Arrhenius law.

  4. Utilisation of vegetable oils in the production of lovastatin by Aspergillus terreus ATCC 20542 in submerged cultivation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pattana Sripalakit

    2011-07-01

    Full Text Available The effect of vegetable oils as a supplementary carbon source during the production of lovastatin by Aspergillus terreus ATCC 20542 in submerged culture was investigated. The six vegetable oils tested were sesame oil, sunflower oil, soya bean oil, corn oil, palm oil and olive oil. Lovastatin concentration and biomass were measured. Lovastatin production was higher in several oil-containing media compared to control medium. In particular, palm oil and soya bean oil significantly improved lovastatin production. Yields with palm oil and soya bean oil were 4.5- and 1.4-fold higher respectively, compared with control. Sesame oil and corn oil, however, had a negative effect on lovastatin production. Biomass was proportional to vegetable oil concentration, but an excessive vegetable oil concentration resulted in a lower yield of lovastatin. Thus, some vegetable oils appear to be excellent adjuvants for improving efficiency of lovastatin production.

  5. A detection method of vegetable oils in edible blended oil based on three-dimensional fluorescence spectroscopy technique.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xu, Jing; Liu, Xiao-Fei; Wang, Yu-Tian

    2016-12-01

    Edible blended vegetable oils are made from two or more refined oils. Blended oils can provide a wider range of essential fatty acids than single vegetable oils, which helps support good nutrition. Nutritional components in blended oils are related to the type and content of vegetable oils used, and a new, more accurate, method is proposed to identify and quantify the vegetable oils present using cluster analysis and a Quasi-Monte Carlo integral. Three-dimensional fluorescence spectra were obtained at 250-400nm (excitation) and 260-750nm (emission). Mixtures of sunflower, soybean and peanut oils were used as typical examples to validate the effectiveness of the method. PMID:27374508

  6. Disinfection of vegetable seed by treatment with essential oils, organic acids and plant extract

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Wolf, van der J.M.; Birnbaum, Y.E.; Zouwen, van der P.S.; Groot, S.P.C.

    2008-01-01

    Various essential oils, organic acids, Biosept, (grapefruit extract), Tillecur and extracts of stinging nettle and golden rod were tested for their antimicrobial properties in order to disinfect vegetable seed. In in vitro assays, thyme oil, oregano oil, cinnamon oil, clove oil and Biosept had the h

  7. Production of Biodiesel from Vegetable Oil Using Microware Irradiation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    N. Kapilan

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available The petroleum oil supply crisis, the increase in demand and the price eruption have led to a search for an alternative fuel of bio-origin in India. Among the alternative fuels, biodiesel is considered as a sustainable renewable alternative fuel to fossil diesel. Non-edible jatropha oil has considerable potential for the production of biodiesel in India. The production of biodiesel from jatropha oil using a conventional heating method takes more than 1h. In this work, microwave irradiation has been used as a source of heat for the transesterification reaction. A domestic microwave oven was modified and used for microwave heating of the reactants. The time taken for biodiesel production using microwave irradiation was 1 min. The fuel property analysis shows that the properties of jatropha oil biodiesel satisfy the biodiesel standards, and are close to the fossil diesel standards. From this work, it is concluded that biodiesel can be produced from vegetable oil using microwave irradiation, with a significant reduction in production time.

  8. Comparative study on using biofuel, waste cooking oil, methane, biogas for diesel electric generator

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Searching bio fuels replaced mineral diesel reduces the energy cost and contributes for low carbon and green growth attracted many studies. The comparative study on using alternative bio fuels such as waste cooking oil (WC), palm biodiesel, biogas from biomass waste, methane gas mixed with diesel oil (DO) and use for diesel engine to find out the advantages of bio fuels targeted in proposal of using alternative energy from biomass waste. The fuel heat value, the viscosity, electric power, fuel consumption, temperature of exhausted gas, and temperature engine and gas emission such as SO2, NOx, CO when using alternative fuels were testing and comparing. The result showed that the biofuel: biogas, WC or biodiesel could be replaced up to 93% of convention DO and using alternative fuel is feasible for diesel electric engine. The concentration of exhausted gas CO2, O2, SO2, NO2 and CO was tested and the measured result shower the improvement of air emission quality when using bio fuels. (author)

  9. Panorama 2007: Biofuels Worldwide

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The biofuels market is booming: after more than 20 years of industrial development, global bio-fuel production is growing fast. Willingness to reduce their oil dependence and necessity to promote low-carbon energies are the two main drivers for states to support biofuels development. (author)

  10. COMPARISON OF THE QUALITY OF VEGETABLE OILS DESIGNED FOR THE FRYING FOOD

    OpenAIRE

    Ladislav Mura; Lucia Zeleňáková; Radoslav Židek; Silvia Pastyriková

    2012-01-01

    The object of the research was to investigate the quality of vegetable oils for cooking food. The analysis used two types of oils - oil Fritol and Promienna. Both oils were purchased commercially. Oil changes were observed at frying French fries. At the same changes were observed oil stored at room temperature and the temperature in the refrigerator. The determined parameters included the measurement of polar materials in oil with electronic device Testo 265 for measuring the quality of cooki...

  11. Capturing stakeholders´ views on oil palm-based biofuel and biomass utilisation in Malaysia

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Malaysia is the world′s second largest producer of palm oil and generates surplus palm biomass waste that can be used for bioenergy development. Malaysia aims to diversify its energy portfolio by investing into renewable energy mostly to reduce its reliance on fossil fuels. This paper captures synergetic and conflicting interests of key stakeholders, who play an important role in shaping the regulatory and business environment in Malaysia′s renewable energy sector. Particularly, this research analyses the perceptions of three stakeholder groups (government agencies, industry players, and non-governmental organisations) regarding palm-based biofuel and biomass utilisation in Malaysia by combining Strengths, Weaknesses, Opportunities, and Threats (SWOT) analysis with an Analytical Hierarchy Process (AHP) framework. Overall, results show a greater sense of optimism among the three stakeholder groups for the development of palm-based biomass utilisation in Malaysia, compared to the development of first generation palm-oil based biodiesel. We discuss the findings in light of on-going debates and policy processes, highlighting some key issues that need to be addressed in order to meet oil-palm related targets set in Malaysia’s ambitious renewable energy plan. - Highlights: • Optimism of stakeholders is greater for palm biomass utilisation than palm biodiesel. • The negative overall outlook for palm biodiesel is perhaps a symptom of hindsight. • Palm biodiesel: strengths (18%), weaknesses (34%), opportunities (23%), and threats (25%). • Palm biomass: strengths (42%), weaknesses (23%), opportunities (15%), and threats (21%). • Views of stakeholder groups are relevant to meeting Malaysia´s renewables target

  12. Valorization of residues from refining of used vegetable oils

    OpenAIRE

    Hidalgo-Barrio, Dolores; Gómez-Rincón, Marta; Aguado-Pesquera, Alicia; Martín-Marroquín, Jesús María; Sastre-García, Emilia

    2014-01-01

    This study investigates the advantages of two-phase anaerobic digestion for treating a mixture (1/5 v/v) of used vegetable oils processing wastes and pig manure using two semi-continuous digesters operated at mesophilic temperature (37±1 ºC). The experiments were conducted at hydraulic retention times (HRT) of 0.5, 1, 2 and 4 days in the first stage (acidifier) and at HRT of 11.5, 15, 18 and 20 days in the second stage (methanizer). The results revealed that the HRT had a high influence on th...

  13. Vegetable Oil-Based Metal Working Fluids-A Review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vaibhav Koushik A.V

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available Metal working fluids are widely employed to increase the machining productivity and quality of metal cutting, but their usage poses a great threat to ecology and health of workers in the industry. Therefore, a need arose to identify eco-friendly and hazard free alternatives to conventional mineral oil based metal working fluids. Vegetable oils have become identified world over as a potential source of environmentally favorable metal working fluids due to a combination of biodegradability, renewability and excellent lubrication performance. Low oxidation and thermal stability, poor low temperature behavior, however limit their potential application as metal working lubricants and has become the thrust area of research of scientists and tribologists world over.

  14. The economic feasibility of vegetal oil diesel obtained from palm oil

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This paper's aim is to verify production costs technical economical feasibility of a vegetable diesel fuel, obtained by trans esterification from oil palm. The study shows that depending yields, agricultural interest taxes and on the petroleum price's evolution, at the international market, the vegetable diesel oil, will be competitive with regular diesel oil. It could already be competitive in some Amazonian, remote areas which present good climatic and soil conditions. So a pilot field project is suggested to evaluate its feasibility, which when confirmed, would allow large scale developments, for instance in these Amazonian areas, where the rain forest was irrationally devastated in recent years. By this way, it could be gotten important self sustainable, environmental and economical returns, thus it deals with a renewable energy source in replacement to petroleum. 8 refs, 9 tabs

  15. Yesterday and Tomorrow of the Palm Oil Biodiesel : A Functional Analysis of the Biofuel Technological Innovation System in Malaysia

    OpenAIRE

    Hosseinzadeh, Maziar

    2013-01-01

    The world needs energy everyday more than yesterday. It depends heavily on fossil fuels for satisfying this need, but these resources create environmental problems and will deplete one day. Biofuels are a suitable substitute and Malaysia has great potentials for developing them. However, after a short-lived promising start, the biodiesel (palm oil methyl ester) industry of Malaysia is facing a crisis now. Instead of using the neo-classical approach and proposing policy interventions based on ...

  16. Vegetable oils as hydraulic fluids for agricultural applications

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mendoza, G.; Igartua, A.; Fernandez-Diaz, B.; Urquiola, F.; Vivanco, S.; Arguizoniz, R.

    2011-07-01

    The formulation of environmentally friendly lubricants following the criterion of the European EcoLabel is expensive owing to the lack of technological development in this area. The present work deals with the development of lubricant formulations from vegetable oils, in particular using high oleic sunflower oil as base fluid. These new biolubricants have to perform as good as the reference lubricants used in the real application (an agricultural tractor) but with the additional condition and value of their biodegradability without toxicity. Formulation development has been performed by Verkol Lubricantes, involving the selection of the base oil and the design of the additive package. The investigation performed by Tekniker in the laboratory has covered different aspects, characterizing the most important physicochemical properties of the lubricants, including their behavior at low temperatures and their resistance to oxidation. The ribological properties of the new biolubricants have also been studied, analyzing their ability to protect the interacting surface from wear, as well as the level of friction generated during sliding. Moreover, the compatibility of the new formulated oil with all the seals present in the real application has been taken into consideration. The selected lubricant is now being tested in agricultural machinery from AGRIA. (Author).

  17. Natural (Mineral, Vegetable, Coconut, Essential) Oils and Contact Dermatitis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Verallo-Rowell, Vermén M; Katalbas, Stephanie S; Pangasinan, Julia P

    2016-07-01

    Natural oils include mineral oil with emollient, occlusive, and humectant properties and the plant-derived essential, coconut, and other vegetable oils, composed of triglycerides that microbiota lipases hydrolyze into glycerin, a potent humectant, and fatty acids (FAs) with varying physico-chemical properties. Unsaturated FAs have high linoleic acid used for synthesis of ceramide-I linoleate, a barrier lipid, but more pro-inflammatory omega-6:-3 ratios above 10:1, and their double bonds form less occlusive palisades. VCO FAs have a low linoleic acid content but shorter and saturated FAs that form a more compact palisade, more anti-inflammatory omega-6:-3 ratio of 2:1, close to 7:1 of olive oil, which disrupts the skin barrier, otherwise useful as a penetration enhancer. Updates on the stratum corneum illustrate how this review on the contrasting actions of NOs provide information on which to avoid and which to select for barrier repair and to lower inflammation in contact dermatitis genesis. PMID:27373890

  18. Natural (Mineral, Vegetable, Coconut, Essential) Oils and Contact Dermatitis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Verallo-Rowell, Vermén M; Katalbas, Stephanie S; Pangasinan, Julia P

    2016-07-01

    Natural oils include mineral oil with emollient, occlusive, and humectant properties and the plant-derived essential, coconut, and other vegetable oils, composed of triglycerides that microbiota lipases hydrolyze into glycerin, a potent humectant, and fatty acids (FAs) with varying physico-chemical properties. Unsaturated FAs have high linoleic acid used for synthesis of ceramide-I linoleate, a barrier lipid, but more pro-inflammatory omega-6:-3 ratios above 10:1, and their double bonds form less occlusive palisades. VCO FAs have a low linoleic acid content but shorter and saturated FAs that form a more compact palisade, more anti-inflammatory omega-6:-3 ratio of 2:1, close to 7:1 of olive oil, which disrupts the skin barrier, otherwise useful as a penetration enhancer. Updates on the stratum corneum illustrate how this review on the contrasting actions of NOs provide information on which to avoid and which to select for barrier repair and to lower inflammation in contact dermatitis genesis.

  19. Using vegetation spectral indices to detect oil pollution in the Niger Delta

    OpenAIRE

    Adamu, Bashir; Tansey, Kevin; Ogutu, Booker

    2015-01-01

    Vegetation health and vigour may be affected by oil leakage or pollution. This effect can alter a plant’s behaviour and may be used as evidence for detecting oil pollution in the environment. Satellite remote sensing has been shown to be an effective tool and approach to detect and monitor vegetation health and status in polluted areas. Previous research has used vegetation indices derived from remotely sensed satellite data to monitor vegetation health. This study investigated the potential ...

  20. Biodiesel classification by base stock type (vegetable oil) using near infrared spectroscopy data

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Balabin, Roman M., E-mail: balabin@org.chem.ethz.ch [Department of Chemistry and Applied Biosciences, ETH Zurich, 8093 Zurich (Switzerland); Safieva, Ravilya Z. [Gubkin Russian State University of Oil and Gas, 119991 Moscow (Russian Federation)

    2011-03-18

    The use of biofuels, such as bioethanol or biodiesel, has rapidly increased in the last few years. Near infrared (near-IR, NIR, or NIRS) spectroscopy (>4000 cm{sup -1}) has previously been reported as a cheap and fast alternative for biodiesel quality control when compared with infrared, Raman, or nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) methods; in addition, NIR can easily be done in real time (on-line). In this proof-of-principle paper, we attempt to find a correlation between the near infrared spectrum of a biodiesel sample and its base stock. This correlation is used to classify fuel samples into 10 groups according to their origin (vegetable oil): sunflower, coconut, palm, soy/soya, cottonseed, castor, Jatropha, etc. Principal component analysis (PCA) is used for outlier detection and dimensionality reduction of the NIR spectral data. Four different multivariate data analysis techniques are used to solve the classification problem, including regularized discriminant analysis (RDA), partial least squares method/projection on latent structures (PLS-DA), K-nearest neighbors (KNN) technique, and support vector machines (SVMs). Classifying biodiesel by feedstock (base stock) type can be successfully solved with modern machine learning techniques and NIR spectroscopy data. KNN and SVM methods were found to be highly effective for biodiesel classification by feedstock oil type. A classification error (E) of less than 5% can be reached using an SVM-based approach. If computational time is an important consideration, the KNN technique (E = 6.2%) can be recommended for practical (industrial) implementation. Comparison with gasoline and motor oil data shows the relative simplicity of this methodology for biodiesel classification.

  1. Characterization and Performance Test of Palm Oil Based Bio-Fuel Produced Via Ni/Zeolite-Catalyzed Cracking Process

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sri Kadarwati

    2015-02-01

    Full Text Available Catalytic cracking process of palm oil into bio-fuel using Ni/zeolite catalysts (2-10% wt. Ni at various reaction temperatures (400-500oC in a flow-fixed bed reactor system has been carried out. Palm oil was pre-treated to produce methyl ester of palm oil as feedstock in the catalytic cracking reactions. The Ni/zeolite catalysts were prepared by wetness impregnation method using Ni(NO32.6H2O as the precursor. The products were collected and analysed using GC, GC-MS, and calorimeter. The effects of process temperatures and Ni content in Ni/zeolite have been studied. The results showed that Ni-2/zeolite could give a yield of 99.0% at 500oC but only produced gasoline fraction of 18.35%. The physical properties of bio-fuel produced in this condition in terms of density, viscosity, flash point, and specific gravity were less than but similar to commercial fuel. The results of performance test in a 4-strike engine showed that the mixture of commercial gasoline (petrol and bio-fuel with a ratio of 9:1 gave similar performance to fossil-based gasoline with much lower CO and O2 emissions and more efficient combustion

  2. Deoxygenation of waste cooking oil and non-edible oil for the production of liquid hydrocarbon biofuels.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Romero, M J A; Pizzi, A; Toscano, G; Busca, G; Bosio, B; Arato, E

    2016-01-01

    Deoxygenation of waste cooking vegetable oil and Jatropha curcas oil under nitrogen atmosphere was performed in batch and semi-batch experiments using CaO and treated hydrotalcite (MG70) as catalysts at 400 °C. In batch conditions a single liquid fraction (with yields greater than 80 wt.%) was produced containing a high proportion of hydrocarbons (83%). In semi-batch conditions two liquid fractions (separated by a distillation step) were obtained: a light fraction and an intermediate fraction containing amounts of hydrocarbons between 72-80% and 85-88% respectively. In order to assess the possible use of the liquid products as alternative fuels a complete chemical characterization and measurement of their properties were carried out. PMID:25869843

  3. Deoxygenation of waste cooking oil and non-edible oil for the production of liquid hydrocarbon biofuels.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Romero, M J A; Pizzi, A; Toscano, G; Busca, G; Bosio, B; Arato, E

    2016-01-01

    Deoxygenation of waste cooking vegetable oil and Jatropha curcas oil under nitrogen atmosphere was performed in batch and semi-batch experiments using CaO and treated hydrotalcite (MG70) as catalysts at 400 °C. In batch conditions a single liquid fraction (with yields greater than 80 wt.%) was produced containing a high proportion of hydrocarbons (83%). In semi-batch conditions two liquid fractions (separated by a distillation step) were obtained: a light fraction and an intermediate fraction containing amounts of hydrocarbons between 72-80% and 85-88% respectively. In order to assess the possible use of the liquid products as alternative fuels a complete chemical characterization and measurement of their properties were carried out.

  4. Delivery of Vegetable Oil Suspensions in a Shear Thinning Fluid for Enhanced Bioremediation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zhong, Lirong; Truex, Michael J.; Kananizadeh, Negin; Li, Yusong; Lea, Alan S.; Yan, Xiulan

    2015-04-01

    In situ anaerobic biological processes are widely applied for dechlorination of chlorinated solvents in groundwater. A wide range of organic substrates have been tested and applied to support the dechlorination processes. Vegetable oils are a promising substrate and have been shown to induce effective dechlorination, have limited geochemical impacts, and good longevity. Distribution of vegetable oil in the subsurface, because it is a non-aqueous phase material, has typically been addressed by creating emulsified oil solutions. In this study, inexpensive waste vegetable oils were suspended in a xanthan gum solution, a shear-thinning fluid, as an alternative oil delivery mechanism. The stability, oil droplet size and distribution, and rheological behavior of the oil suspensions that are created in the xanthan solutions were studied in batch experiments. The injectability of the suspensions and oil distribution in porous medium were evaluated in column tests. Numerical modeling of the oil droplet transport and distribution in porous media was conducted to help interpret the column-test data. Batch studies showed that simple mixing of vegetable oil and xanthan solution produced stable suspensions of the oil as micron-size droplets. The mixture rheology retains shear-thinning properties that facilitate improved uniformity of substrate distribution in heterogeneous aquifers. Column tests demonstrated successful injection of the vegetable oil suspension into porous medium. This study provided evidence that vegetable oil suspensions in xanthan are a potential substrate to support in situ anaerobic bioremediation with favorable injection properties.

  5. Application of vegetable oils in the treatment of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons-contaminated soils.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yap, C L; Gan, S; Ng, H K

    2010-05-15

    A brief review is conducted on the application of vegetable oils in the treatment of PAH-contaminated soils. Three main scopes of treatment strategies are discussed in this work including soil washing by oil, integrated oil-biological treatment and integrated oil-non-biological treatment. For each of these, the arguments supporting vegetable oil application, the applied treatment techniques and their efficiencies, associated factors, as well as the feasibility of the techniques are detailed. Additionally, oil regeneration, the environmental impacts of oil residues in soil and comparison with other commonly employed techniques are also discussed.

  6. First Brazilian patent for dielectric vegetable oil for transformers; Primeira patente brasileira de oleo dieletrico vegetal para transformadores

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Carioca, Jose O.B.; Carvalho, Paulo C.M.; Correa, Raimundo G.C.; Bernardo, Francisco A.B. [Universidade Federal do Ceara (UFC), Fortaleza, CE (Brazil); Coelho Junior, Luiz G. [2 Companhia Energetica do Ceara (COELCE), Fortaleza, CE (Brazil); Abreu, Rosa F.A. [Universidade Estadual do Ceara (UECE), Fortaleza, CE (Brazil)

    2008-07-01

    The present paper discuss the development of different insulating oils for electric power transformers during the last hundred years and analyze comparatively the potential for the use of vegetable oils as a source for green dielectric oils, due to its high level of biodegradability, nontoxic, material compatibility, good electric strength and insulation properties, long-term oxidative and thermal stability, relatively low pour point and reasonable cost. Based on these premises, the authors developed a new type of insulating fluid based on Brazilian vegetable oils never used before for this purpose. This product is competitive with similar and patented products developed from canola and soya vegetable oils. Recently a new patent related with the process for the production of this fluid was submitted to the World Industrial Property Organization - WIPO. (author)

  7. On the Mineral and Vegetal Oils Used as Electroinsulation in Transformers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Şerban, Mariana; Sângeorzan, Livia; Helerea, Elena

    Due to the relatively large availability and reduced price, the mineral transformer oils are widely used as electrical insulating liquids. However, mineral oil drastically degrades over time in service. New efforts were made to improve mineral oils characteristics, and other types of liquids like vegetal oils are proposed. This paper deals with new comparative tests on mineral and vegetal oils using as indicator the electric strength. The samples of non-additive mineral oil type TR 30 and vegetal oils of rape, sunflower and corn have been tested with increasing voltage of 60 Hz using different electrodes. The obtained data have been statistical processed. The analyze shows different average values of electrical strength for the different type of sample. New method of testing through electrical breakdown is proposed. Experimental data confirms that it is possible to use as electroinsulation organic vegetal oils in power transformers.

  8. Recommendations for a sustainable development of biofuels in France; Recommandations pour un developpement durable des biocarburants en France

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Douaud, A.; Gruson, J.F

    2006-01-15

    The biofuels are presented as a solution to the greenhouse gases and the petroleum consumption decrease. The development of the biofuels needs an active research of the production, transformation and use costs improvement. It will be necessary to prepare the market of the biofuels to the globalization. Some recommendations are also provided in the domains of the vegetal oil ester, the ethanol for the diesel and for the development of simulation tools to evaluate the costs. (A.L.B.)

  9. Optical characterization of pure vegetable oils and their biodiesels using Raman spectroscopy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Firdous, S.; Anwar, S.; Waheed, A.; Maraj, M.

    2016-04-01

    Great concern regarding energy resources and environmental polution has increased interest in the study of alternative sources of energy. Biodiesels as an alternative fuel provide a suitable diesel oil substitute for internal combustion engines. The Raman spectra of pure biodiesels of soybean oil, olive oil, coconut oil, animal fats, and petroleum diesel are optically characterized for quality and biofuel as an alternative fuel. The most significant spectral differences are observed in the frequency range around 1457 cm-1 for pure petroleum diesel, 1427 for fats biodiesel, 1670 cm-1 for pure soybean oil, 1461 cm-1 for soybean oil based biodiesel, 1670 cm-1 for pure olive oil, 1666 cm-1 for olive oil based biodiesel, 1461 cm-1 for pure coconut oil, and 1460 cm-1 for coconut oil based biodiesel, which is used for the analysis of the phase composition of oils. A diode pump solid-state laser with a 532 nm wavelength is used as an illuminating light. It is demonstrated that the peak positions and relative intensities of the vibrations of the oils can be used to identify the biodiesel quality for being used as biofuel.

  10. Algal biofuels.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Razeghifard, Reza

    2013-11-01

    The world is facing energy crisis and environmental issues due to the depletion of fossil fuels and increasing CO2 concentration in the atmosphere. Growing microalgae can contribute to practical solutions for these global problems because they can harvest solar energy and capture CO2 by converting it into biofuel using photosynthesis. Microalgae are robust organisms capable of rapid growth under a variety of conditions including in open ponds or closed photobioreactors. Their reduced biomass compounds can be used as the feedstock for mass production of a variety of biofuels. As another advantage, their ability to accumulate or secrete biofuels can be controlled by changing their growth conditions or metabolic engineering. This review is aimed to highlight different forms of biofuels produced by microalgae and the approaches taken to improve their biofuel productivity. The costs for industrial-scale production of algal biofuels in open ponds or closed photobioreactors are analyzed. Different strategies for photoproduction of hydrogen by the hydrogenase enzyme of green algae are discussed. Algae are also good sources of biodiesel since some species can make large quantities of lipids as their biomass. The lipid contents for some of the best oil-producing strains of algae in optimized growth conditions are reviewed. The potential of microalgae for producing petroleum related chemicals or ready-make fuels such as bioethanol, triterpenic hydrocarbons, isobutyraldehyde, isobutanol, and isoprene from their biomass are also presented.

  11. Preparation of Biofuel Using Acetylatation of Jojoba Fatty Alcohols and Assessment as a Blend Component in Ultra Low Sulfur Diesel Fuel

    Science.gov (United States)

    The majority of biodiesel fuels are produced from vegetable oils or animal fats by transesterification of oil with alcohol in the presence of a catalyst. In this study, a new class of biofuel is explored by acetylation of fatty alcohols from Jojoba oil. Recently, we reported Jojoba oil methyl este...

  12. Changes occurring in vegetable oils composition due to microwave heating

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hassan El-Mallah, M.

    2003-12-01

    Full Text Available The effect of microwave heating on three vegetable oils having different lipid compositions was studied. Sunflower, soybean and peanut oils in comparison with oil admixture of soybean and peanut oil (1:1, w/w, were selected for this study. Each oil was heated for 2, 4, 6, 8, 10, 12, 15 and 18 minutes in microwave oven. Peroxide value, free acidity and colour absorbance (at 420 nm were proportionally increasing with the increase of heating period. Colour absorption threw light on the formation of browning products arising from phospholipids during microwave heating. Total tocopherol contents were determined by preparative thin layer chromatography, whereas the fatty acid compositions and formed epoxy acid were analyzed by capillary gas liquid chromatography. The formed conjugated dienes and trienes were determined by UV spectrophotometry. It was found that the total tocopherols of the microwave heated oils, decreased depending on the type of the predominating tocopherols. Also a relation of peroxide formation, during microwave heating, with changes in total tocopherol composition was discussed. It was found that polyunsaturated fatty acids generally decreased by increasing the heating period. The results obtained from the heated oil admixture helped interpret the results obtained from other heated individual oils.Se estudia el efecto del calentamiento en horno de microondas sobre aceites de diferente composición en ácidos grasos. Aceites de girasol, soja, cacahuete y una mezcla de soja y cacahuete al 50%, se calentaron durante 2, 4, 6, 8 10, 12, 15 y 18 minutos. Los valores de índice de peróxidos, acidez libre y absorbancia a 420 nm fueron proporcionales al tiempo de calentamiento. Otras determinaciones incluyeron el contenido total en tocoferoles mediante cromatografía en capa fina, la composición en ácidos grasos y en epoxiácidos mediante cromatografía gas líquido, y la formación de dienos y trienos conjugados mediante

  13. Antioxidant Effect on Oxidation Stability of Blend Fish Oil Biodiesel with Vegetable Oil Biodiesel and Petroleum Diesel Fuel

    OpenAIRE

    Hossain, M; S.M.A Sujan; M.S. Jamal

    2013-01-01

    Two different phenolic synthetic antioxidants were used to improve the oxidation stability of fish oil biodiesel blends with vegetable oil biodiesel and petroleum diesel. Butylhydroxytoluene (BHT) most effective for improvement of the oxidation stability of petro diesel, whereas  tert-butylhydroquinone (TBHQ) showed good performance in fish oil biodiesel. Fish oil/Rapeseed oil biodiesel mixed showed some acceptable results in higher concentration ofantioxidants. TBHQ showed better oxidation s...

  14. Biodegradation and toxicity of vegetable oils in contaminated aquatic environments: Effect of antioxidants and oil composition.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Salam, Darine A; Suidan, Makram T; Venosa, Albert D

    2016-03-15

    Antioxidants may affect the oxidative rate of vegetable oils determining their fate and impact in contaminated aquatic media. In previous studies, we demonstrated the effectiveness of butylated hydroxytoluene (BHT), one of the most used antioxidants in edible oils, in enhancing the biodegradation of glyceryl trilinoleate, a pure triacylglycerol of cis,cis-9,12-octadecadienoic acid (C18:2 delta), through retarding its oxidative polymerization relatively to the oil with no added antioxidant. In this study, the effect of BHT on the biodegradation and toxicity of purified canola oil, a mixed-acid triacylglycerol with high C18:1 content, was investigated in respirometric microcosms and by use of the Microtox® assay. Investigations were carried out in the absence and presence (200 mg kg(-1)) of the antioxidant, and at an oil loading of 0.31 L m(-2) (333 gal acre(-1)). Substantial oil mineralization was achieved after 16 weeks of incubation (>77%) and was not significantly different (p>0.05) between the two BHT treatments, demonstrating an important role of the oil fatty acid composition in determining the potency of antioxidants and, consequently, the fate of spilled vegetable oils. Furthermore, for both treatments, toxicity was measured at early stages of the experiments and disappeared at a later stage of incubation. The observed transient toxicity was associated with the combined effect of toxic biodegradation intermediates and autoxidation products. These results were supported by the gradual disappearance of BHT in the microcosms initially supplemented with the antioxidant, reaching negligible amounts after only 2 weeks of incubation. PMID:26780134

  15. Sea transport of animal and vegetable oils and its environmental consequences.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bucas, Gwenaelle; Saliot, Alain

    2002-12-01

    The increasing production-and therefore sea traffic--of vegetable oils has regularly led to spillages during the past 40 years. The accident of Allegra, on October,lst, 1997, in the English Channel gave rise to a spillage of 900 tonnes of palm nut oil. The drift of this solid vegetable oil was followed by aerial observations. Samples of oil were collected in order to analyse its chemical evolution. This study, associated with several bibliographic cases of pollution by non-petroleum oils, shows that drifting oils can mix with floating material to sink or form a crust. They can also be oxidized or disperse and/or be degraded by bacteria. They may also polymerise. The coating properties of vegetable oils act as crude oils to affect sea life, tourism and yachting. As a result, it is necessary to quickly collect the oil after a spillage, using usual equipment (booms and pumps). PMID:12523544

  16. Activated carbon adsorption of PAHs from vegetable oil used in soil remediation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gong, Zongqiang; Alef, Kassem; Wilke, Berndt-Michael; Li, Peijun

    2007-05-01

    Vegetable oil has been proven to be advantageous as a non-toxic, cost-effective and biodegradable solvent to extract polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) from contaminated soils for remediation purposes. The resulting vegetable oil contained PAHs and therefore required a method for subsequent removal of extracted PAHs and reuse of the oil in remediation processes. In this paper, activated carbon adsorption of PAHs from vegetable oil used in soil remediation was assessed to ascertain PAH contaminated oil regeneration. Vegetable oils, originating from lab scale remediation, with different PAH concentrations were examined to study the adsorption of PAHs on activated carbon. Batch adsorption tests were performed by shaking oil-activated carbon mixtures in flasks. Equilibrium data were fitted with the Langmuir and Freundlich isothermal models. Studies were also carried out using columns packed with activated carbon. In addition, the effects of initial PAH concentration and activated carbon dosage on sorption capacities were investigated. Results clearly revealed the effectiveness of using activated carbon as an adsorbent to remove PAHs from the vegetable oil. Adsorption equilibrium of PAHs on activated carbon from the vegetable oil was successfully evaluated by the Langmuir and Freundlich isotherms. The initial PAH concentrations and carbon dosage affected adsorption significantly. The results indicate that the reuse of vegetable oil was feasible.

  17. Vegetable oils in the agriculture. Experience reports; Pflanzenoel als Kraftstoff in der Landwirtschaft. Erfahrungsberichte

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kemnitz, Dietmar [Fachagentur Nachwachsende Rohstoffe e.V., Guelzow (Germany); Paul, Nicole [Fachagentur Nachwachsende Rohstoffe e.V., Guelzow (Germany); WPR COMMUNICATION GmbH und Co. KG, Koenigswinter/Bonn (Germany); Wichmann, Volker; Schuemann, Ulrike [Rostock Univ. (Germany); Maurer, Karl [Hohenheim Univ. (Germany); Remmele, Edgar [Technologie- und Foerderzentrum Straubing (Germany)

    2006-08-15

    In the agriculture, bio fuels increasingly meet with great interest. The use of bio diesel and vegetable oil as alternative fuels in diesel engines requires clear technical adjustments. The brochure under consideration reports on realizations of farmers who switched their tractors to an operation with vegetable oils. The brochure consists of the following contributions: (a) Employment of vegetable oil as fuel in the agriculture (empiric reports of farmers); (b) Re-equipment on operation with vegetable oil (empiric reports of reequipping persons); (c) Scientifically accompanying research of re-equipment (results of a 100-tractor-demonstration project); (d) Mixtures of plant oil and diesel fuel (results from engine test stand investigations); (e) Production of vegetable oil (experiences from an oil mill operator); (f) scientifically accompanying research for the production of vegetable oils (references to the production of rapeseed oil fuel according to the standard DIN 51605); (g) Hints and notes for the practice; (h) Fuel filling stations for self-consumers and storage of vegetable oil; (i) FNR funding programs bio fuels in the agriculture; (j) Adresses and contact persons.

  18. Comparison of Dissolved Gases in Mineral and Vegetable Insulating Oils under Typical Electrical and Thermal Faults

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chenmeng Xiang

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available Dissolved gas analysis (DGA is attracting greater and greater interest from researchers as a fault diagnostic tool for power transformers filled with vegetable insulating oils. This paper presents experimental results of dissolved gases in insulating oils under typical electrical and thermal faults in transformers. The tests covered three types of insulating oils, including two types of vegetable oil, which are camellia insulating oil, Envirotemp FR3, and a type of mineral insulating oil, to simulate thermal faults in oils from 90 °C to 800 °C and electrical faults including breakdown and partial discharges in oils. The experimental results reveal that the content and proportion of dissolved gases in different types of insulating oils under the same fault condition are different, especially under thermal faults due to the obvious differences of their chemical compositions. Four different classic diagnosis methods were applied: ratio method, graphic method, and Duval’s triangle and Duval’s pentagon method. These confirmed that the diagnosis methods developed for mineral oil were not fully appropriate for diagnosis of electrical and thermal faults in vegetable insulating oils and needs some modification. Therefore, some modification aiming at different types of vegetable oils based on Duval Triangle 3 were proposed in this paper and obtained a good diagnostic result. Furthermore, gas formation mechanisms of different types of vegetable insulating oils under thermal stress are interpreted by means of unimolecular pyrolysis simulation and reaction enthalpies calculation.

  19. [Application of fluorescence spectra and parallel factor analysis in the classification of edible vegetable oils].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, Xi-jun; Pan, Zhao; Zhao, Yan-peng; Liu, Hai-long; Zheng, Long-jiang

    2014-08-01

    The fluorescence spectra of 22 samples of 8 kinds of edible vegetable oils (soybean oil, maize oil, olive oil, rice oil, peanut oil, walnut oil, sunflower oil and sesame oil) were measured with FS920 fluorescence spectrometer and the fluorescence matrixs (EEMs) were analyzed with parallel factor (PARAFAC) analysis model. To synthesize the capabilities of material characterization and component identification, fluorescence spectra combined with PARAFAC fulfill the classification of vegetable oils. The map feature (peak position, peak value and peak number) was obtained by analyzing three dimensional spectra and con tour maps in the range of emission wavelength from 260 to 750 nm, and excitation wavelengths from 250 to 550 nm. The fluorescent substances (unsaturated fatty acids, vitamin E and its derivatives, chlorophyll and carotenoid) corresponding to spectrum peaks were determined. The factor-number was selected and the components (vitamin E and its derivatives, linoleic acid and linolenic acid, fatty acid oxidation products, vegetable oil oxidation products) corresponding to each factor were ascertained. The four-factor excitation and emission profiles and projection score plots of PARAFAC model were plotted. Different vegetable oils can be characterized and distinguished with the map features of fluorescence spectra and sample projection plots of PARAFAC model. The results demonstrate the capability of the combination of fluorescence spectra technology and four-factor PARAFAC model for differentiating and characterizing vegetable oils. PMID:25474950

  20. Effects of vegetable oils on biochemical and biophysical properties of membrane retinal pigment epithelium cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Said, Toihiri; Tremblay-Mercier, Jennifer; Berrougui, Hicham; Rat, Patrice; Khalil, Abdelouahed

    2013-10-01

    The aim of this study was to investigate the effect of vegetable oil enrichment of retinal pigment epithelial (RPE) cells on their biochemical and biophysical properties. For this, RPE cells were incubated with 4 different vegetables oils (olive oil, corn oil, argan oil, and camelina oil). The cytotoxicity of these vegetable oils was assessed in vivo on 8-week-old mice and in vitro by using the neutral red and YO-PRO-1 tests. Membrane fluidity was evaluated by fluorescence anisotropy using the fluorescent probe diphenylhexatriene, and membrane fatty acid composition was assessed by gas chromatography. None of the oils tested displayed cytotoxic effects. In vitro, omega-3 rich oils improved membrane fluidity by 47% compared with the control cells. The omega-3 PUFA content within membranes decreased by 38% to 55% when cells were incubated separately with olive oil, corn oil, or argan oil, and increased when cells were incubated with a mixture of those oils, or with camelina oil alone (50% and 103% increase, respectively). Our results show that the fatty acids in vegetable oil incorporate into retinal cells and increase the plasma membrane fluidity.

  1. Heat Transfer Properties of a Series of Oxidized and Unoxidized Vegetable Oils in Comparison with Petroleum Oil-Based Quenchants

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Souza, Ester Carvalho; Canale, Lauralice C. F.; Sarmiento, G. Sánchez; Agaliotis, Eliana; Carrara, Juan C.; Schicchi, Diego S.; Totten, George E.

    2013-07-01

    Vegetable oils, especially soybean oil, exhibit substantially poorer thermal-oxidative stability than commercially available petroleum oil quenchant formulations. Therefore, to achieve any commercially interesting performance, vegetable oils must be stabilized by the addition of antioxidant inhibitors. This work describes the ability of two commercially available antioxidants, Irganox L 57 and Irganox L 109, to stabilize soybean oil against thermal-oxidative degradation. In addition, the effect of antioxidant stabilization on quenching performance was evaluated by determining the profile of heat transfer coefficient variation throughout the quenching process at different times after being subjected to an accelerated thermal-oxidation aging test. The results of this work are discussed here.

  2. Production of glycerol-free biofuel from canola oil and dimethyl carbonate using triazabicyclodecene in homogeneous and heterogeneous catalysis operations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Islam, Mohammad Rafiqul

    Due to the increasing awareness of the dwindling fossil fuel resources and environmental issues, biofuel became an alternative renewable fuel to meet the steady increase of energy consumption and environmental demands. This work was designed to produce biofuel free from glycerol, soap, catalyst and wastes from canola oil and dimethyl carbonate (DMC) using an organocatalyst, triazabicyclodecene (TBD). To achieve these goals, several interconnected research activities were undertaken. First, a flow sheet was developed for the process and operating criteria were identified by laboratory experimentation verified with Aspen Plus. Mass and energy integration studies were performed to minimize the consumption of materials and energy utilities. Next, kinetics of canola oil transesterification using TBD as homogeneous catalyst in dimethyl carbonate has been investigated and a model was developed. Kinetics data were vital in process assessment and kinetics model was essential in the study of chemical reaction and catalyst development. Finally, a heterogeneous catalyst was developed for use as a biofuel catalyst through the immobilization of TBD into MgAl layered double hydroxides (LDHs) which can combine the advantages of homogeneous catalysis with the best properties of heterogeneous materials.

  3. Potentials of biofuels

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Munack, A.; Schroder, O. [Johann Heinrich von Thunen Inst., Braunschweig (Germany); Krahl, J. [Coburg Univ. of Applied Sciences, Coburg (Germany); Bunger, J. [Inst. for Prevention and Occupational Medicine of the German Social Accident Insurance, Ruhr-Univ. Inst., Bochum (Germany)

    2010-07-01

    This paper discussed the potential of biofuels with particular reference to the situation in Germany and Europe. Emphasis was on technical potential, such as biofuel production, utilization and environmental aspects. The Institute of Agricultural Technology and Biosystems Engineering ran vTI emission tests on diesel engines to evaluate the environmental impacts of biofuels. This testing facility is able to drive heavy-duty diesel engines in both stationary and dynamic test cycles, such as the European ESC and ETC. Additional analyses were conducted to determine the fine and ultra-fine particles, polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAH), aldehydes, ketones, and the usual regulated exhaust gas compounds. Ames tests were conducted to assess the mutagenic potential of tailpipe emissions. Previous study results showed that neat vegetable oils can render the exhaust high in mutagenic potency. Some of the non-regulated exhaust gas compounds were found to vary nonlinearly with the blend composition. B20 was found to have high mutagenic potential and was subject to sedimentation.

  4. A novel quantitative analysis method of three-dimensional fluorescence spectra for vegetable oils contents in edible blend oil

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xu, Jing; Wang, Yu-Tian; Liu, Xiao-Fei

    2015-04-01

    Edible blend oil is a mixture of vegetable oils. Eligible blend oil can meet the daily need of two essential fatty acids for human to achieve the balanced nutrition. Each vegetable oil has its different composition, so vegetable oils contents in edible blend oil determine nutritional components in blend oil. A high-precision quantitative analysis method to detect the vegetable oils contents in blend oil is necessary to ensure balanced nutrition for human being. Three-dimensional fluorescence technique is high selectivity, high sensitivity, and high-efficiency. Efficiency extraction and full use of information in tree-dimensional fluorescence spectra will improve the accuracy of the measurement. A novel quantitative analysis is proposed based on Quasi-Monte-Carlo integral to improve the measurement sensitivity and reduce the random error. Partial least squares method is used to solve nonlinear equations to avoid the effect of multicollinearity. The recovery rates of blend oil mixed by peanut oil, soybean oil and sunflower are calculated to verify the accuracy of the method, which are increased, compared the linear method used commonly for component concentration measurement.

  5. Characterization of Fatty Acid Profile of Argan Oil and Other Edible Vegetable Oils by Gas Chromatography and Discriminant Analysis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ascensión Rueda

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Virgin argan oil is an emergent oil that is being introduced into specialized international markets as a healthy and luxury food. In order to compare the fatty acid composition of argan oil with that of the eleven other vegetable edible oils, a combination of gas chromatography as analytical technique and multivariate discriminant analysis was applied. This analysis takes into account the conjoint effect of all the variables analyzed in the discrimination between oils and also shows the contribution of each variable to oils characterization. The model correctly classified 100% oil samples. According to the fatty acid composition, argan oil showed closest similarity firstly with sesame oil and secondly with high oleic sunflower oil. Olive oil was close to avocado oil and almond oil, followed by argan oil. Thus, similarities and differences between vegetable oils based on their fatty acid profile were established by the application of multivariate discriminant analysis. This method was proven to be a useful tool to study the relationships between oils according to the fat composition and to determine the importance of the fatty acid variables on the oils classification.

  6. Liquid Bio fuels: Vegetable Oils and Bi oethanol

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The European energy policy has defined clear objectives to reduce the high dependency on fossil petroleum imports, and to increase the security of sustainable energy supply for the transport sector. Moreover, the European environmental policy is requesting clean fuels that reduce environmental risks. Liquid Bio fuels (vegetable oils and bio ethanol) appear to be in a good position to contribute to achieve these goals expressed by the established objective of European Union to reach for bio fuels a market share of 5% of motor vehicle consumption. This work presents the current state and perspectives of the production and utilisation of liquid fuels from agricultural sources by reviewing agricultural feedstocks for energy sector, conversion technologies and different ways to use bio fuels. Environmental and economical aspects are also briefly analysed. (Author) 10 refs

  7. Basic data biogas Germany. Solid fuels, biofuels, biogas; Basisdaten Bioenergie Deutschland. Festbrennstoffe - Biokraftstoffe - Biogas

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2012-08-15

    The brochure ''Basic data biogas Germany'' gives statistical information about (a) renewable energies: primary energy consumption, power generation, energy supply, avoidance of greenhouse gases; (b) Solid fuels: energetic utilization, wood pellets, energy consumption, comparison to heating oil; (c) Biofuels: consumption, bioethanol, biodiesel, vegetable oils; (d) Biogas: biogas power plants, energy content, production, legal aspects.

  8. Evaluation of Palm Oil as a Suitable Vegetable Oil for Vitamin A Fortification Programs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pignitter, Marc; Hernler, Natalie; Zaunschirm, Mathias; Kienesberger, Julia; Somoza, Mark Manuel; Kraemer, Klaus; Somoza, Veronika

    2016-01-01

    Fortification programs are considered to be an effective strategy to mitigate vitamin A deficiency in populations at risk. Fortified vegetable oils rich in polyunsaturated fatty acids were shown to be prone to oxidation, leading to limited vitamin A stability. Thus, it was hypothesized that fortified oils consisting of mainly saturated fatty acids might enhance the stability of vitamin A. Mildly (peroxide value: 1.0 meq O₂/kg) and highly (peroxide value: 7.5 meq O₂/kg) oxidized palm oil was stored, after fortification with 60 International Units/g retinyl palmitate, in 0.5 L transparent polyethylene terephthalate bottles under cold fluorescent lighting (12 h/day) at 32 °C for 57 days. An increase of the peroxide value by 15 meq O₂/kg, which was also reflected by a decrease of α-tocopherol congener by 15%-18%, was determined independent of the initial rancidity. The oxidative deterioration of the highly oxidized palm oil during storage was correlated with a significant 46% decline of the vitamin A content. However, household storage of mildly oxidized palm oil for two months did not induce any losses of vitamin A. Thus, mildly oxidized palm oil may be recommended for vitamin A fortification programs, when other sources of essential fatty acids are available. PMID:27338464

  9. Evaluation of Palm Oil as a Suitable Vegetable Oil for Vitamin A Fortification Programs

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marc Pignitter

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available Fortification programs are considered to be an effective strategy to mitigate vitamin A deficiency in populations at risk. Fortified vegetable oils rich in polyunsaturated fatty acids were shown to be prone to oxidation, leading to limited vitamin A stability. Thus, it was hypothesized that fortified oils consisting of mainly saturated fatty acids might enhance the stability of vitamin A. Mildly (peroxide value: 1.0 meq O2/kg and highly (peroxide value: 7.5 meq O2/kg oxidized palm oil was stored, after fortification with 60 International Units/g retinyl palmitate, in 0.5 L transparent polyethylene terephthalate bottles under cold fluorescent lighting (12 h/day at 32 °C for 57 days. An increase of the peroxide value by 15 meq O2/kg, which was also reflected by a decrease of α-tocopherol congener by 15%–18%, was determined independent of the initial rancidity. The oxidative deterioration of the highly oxidized palm oil during storage was correlated with a significant 46% decline of the vitamin A content. However, household storage of mildly oxidized palm oil for two months did not induce any losses of vitamin A. Thus, mildly oxidized palm oil may be recommended for vitamin A fortification programs, when other sources of essential fatty acids are available.

  10. Evaluation of Palm Oil as a Suitable Vegetable Oil for Vitamin A Fortification Programs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pignitter, Marc; Hernler, Natalie; Zaunschirm, Mathias; Kienesberger, Julia; Somoza, Mark Manuel; Kraemer, Klaus; Somoza, Veronika

    2016-06-21

    Fortification programs are considered to be an effective strategy to mitigate vitamin A deficiency in populations at risk. Fortified vegetable oils rich in polyunsaturated fatty acids were shown to be prone to oxidation, leading to limited vitamin A stability. Thus, it was hypothesized that fortified oils consisting of mainly saturated fatty acids might enhance the stability of vitamin A. Mildly (peroxide value: 1.0 meq O₂/kg) and highly (peroxide value: 7.5 meq O₂/kg) oxidized palm oil was stored, after fortification with 60 International Units/g retinyl palmitate, in 0.5 L transparent polyethylene terephthalate bottles under cold fluorescent lighting (12 h/day) at 32 °C for 57 days. An increase of the peroxide value by 15 meq O₂/kg, which was also reflected by a decrease of α-tocopherol congener by 15%-18%, was determined independent of the initial rancidity. The oxidative deterioration of the highly oxidized palm oil during storage was correlated with a significant 46% decline of the vitamin A content. However, household storage of mildly oxidized palm oil for two months did not induce any losses of vitamin A. Thus, mildly oxidized palm oil may be recommended for vitamin A fortification programs, when other sources of essential fatty acids are available.

  11. Evaluation of Palm Oil as a Suitable Vegetable Oil for Vitamin A Fortification Programs

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pignitter, Marc; Hernler, Natalie; Zaunschirm, Mathias; Kienesberger, Julia; Somoza, Mark Manuel; Kraemer, Klaus; Somoza, Veronika

    2016-01-01

    Fortification programs are considered to be an effective strategy to mitigate vitamin A deficiency in populations at risk. Fortified vegetable oils rich in polyunsaturated fatty acids were shown to be prone to oxidation, leading to limited vitamin A stability. Thus, it was hypothesized that fortified oils consisting of mainly saturated fatty acids might enhance the stability of vitamin A. Mildly (peroxide value: 1.0 meq O2/kg) and highly (peroxide value: 7.5 meq O2/kg) oxidized palm oil was stored, after fortification with 60 International Units/g retinyl palmitate, in 0.5 L transparent polyethylene terephthalate bottles under cold fluorescent lighting (12 h/day) at 32 °C for 57 days. An increase of the peroxide value by 15 meq O2/kg, which was also reflected by a decrease of α-tocopherol congener by 15%–18%, was determined independent of the initial rancidity. The oxidative deterioration of the highly oxidized palm oil during storage was correlated with a significant 46% decline of the vitamin A content. However, household storage of mildly oxidized palm oil for two months did not induce any losses of vitamin A. Thus, mildly oxidized palm oil may be recommended for vitamin A fortification programs, when other sources of essential fatty acids are available. PMID:27338464

  12. Determination of lipid oxidation products in vegetable oils and marine omega-3 supplements

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rune Blomhoff

    2011-06-01

    Full Text Available Background : There is convincing evidence that replacing dietary saturated fats with polyunsaturated fats (PUFA decreases risk of cardiovascular diseases. Therefore, PUFA rich foods such as vegetable oils, fatty fish, and marine omega-3 supplements are recommended. However, PUFA are easily oxidizable and there is concern about possible negative health effects from intake of oxidized lipids. Little is known about the degree of lipid oxidation in such products. Objective : To assess the content of lipid oxidation products in a large selection of vegetable oils and marine omega-3 supplements available in Norway. Both fresh and heated vegetable oils were studied. Design : A large selection of commercially available vegetable oils and marine omega-3 supplements was purchased from grocery stores, pharmacies, and health food stores in Norway. The content of lipid oxidation products were measured as peroxide value and alkenal concentration. Twelve different vegetable oils were heated for a temperature (225°C and time (25 minutes resembling conditions typically used during cooking. Results : The peroxide values were in the range 1.04–10.38 meq/kg for omega-3 supplements and in the range 0.60–5.33 meq/kg for fresh vegetable oils. The concentration range of alkenals was 158.23–932.19 nmol/mL for omega-3 supplements and 33.24–119.04 nmol/mL for vegetable oils. After heating, a 2.9–11.2 fold increase in alkenal concentration was observed for vegetable oils. Conclusions : The contents of hydroperoxides and alkenals in omega-3 supplements are higher than in vegetable oils. After heating vegetable oils, a large increase in alkenal concentration was observed.

  13. Vitamin E and Beta Carotene Composition in Four Different Vegetable Oils

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ab. G.M. Top

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Problem statement: Some vegetable oils contains natural antioxidants such as beta carotene and vitamin E namely tocopherol and tocotrienol. Different vegetable oils contained different amount of vitamin E and β-carotene. Approach: Study was carried out to investigate the natural antioxidants (vitamin E and beta carotene composition in four different vegetable oils [Red Palm Olein (RPO, palm plein (PO, Corn Oil (CO and Coconut Oil (COC]. Results: The results showed that RPO contained the highest amount of vitamin E and β-carotene compared to the other three types of vegetable oils studied. Conclusion: The RPO can be considered as a good source of natural antioxidant (tocopherol, tocotrienol and β-carotene.

  14. Monitoring `Renewable resources`. Vegetable oils and other fuels from plants. Third status report; Monitoring `Nachwachsende Rohstoffe`. Pflanzliche Oele und andere Kraftstoffe aus Pflanzen. Dritter Sachstandsbericht

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Roesch, C.

    1997-11-01

    The present status report `vegetable oils and other fuels from plants` deals with important developments on the utilization of biofuels in spark ignition engines and diesel engines since presentation of the report `growing raw materials` of the Enquete comission `Technikfolgenabschaetzung und -bewertung`. The report deals mainly with rapeseed oil and rape seed oil fatty acid methyl ester produced from this (mentioned short of biodiesel) as well as with bioethanol made from sugar beet and grain. (orig./SR) [Deutsch] Der vorliegende Sachstandsbericht `Pflanzliche Oele und andere Kraftstoffe aus Pflanzen` beschaeftigt sich mit den wichtigsten Entwicklungen beim Einsatz von Biokraftstoffen in Otto- und Dieselmotoren seit Vorlage des Berichts `Nachwachsende Rohstoffe` der Enquete-Kommission `Technikfolgenabschaetzung und -bewertung`. Der Bericht befasst sich schwerpunktmaessig mit Rapsoel und daraus hergestelltem Rapsoelfettsaeuremethylester (kurz Biodiesel genannt) sowie mit aus Zuckerrueben und Getreide erzeugtem Bioethanol. (orig./SR)

  15. TRANSESTERIFICATION OF VEGETABLES OIL USING SUBAND SUPERCRITICAL METHANOL

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nyoman Puspa Asri

    2012-11-01

    Full Text Available A benign process, non catalytic transesterification in sub and supercritical methanol method was usedto prepare biodiesel from vegetables oil. The experiment was carried out in batch type reactor (8.8 mlcapacity, stainless steel, AKICO, JAPAN by changing the reaction condition such as reactiontemperature (from 210°C in subcritical condition to 290°C in supercritical state with of 20°Cinterval, molar ratio oil to methanol (1:12-1:42 and time of reaction (10-90 min. The fatty acidmethyl esters (FAMEs content was analyzed by gas chromatography-flame ionization detector (GCFID.Such analysis can be used to determine the biodiesel yield of the transesterification. The resultsshowed that the yield of biodiesel increases gradually with the increasing of reaction time atsubcritical state (210-230oC. However, it was drastically increased at the supercritical state (270-290oC. Similarly, the yield of biodiesel sharply increased with increasing the ratio molar of soy oilmethanolup to 1:24. The maximum yield 86 and 88% were achieved at 290oC, 90 min of reaction timeand molar ratio of oil to methanol 1:24, for soybean oil and palm oil, respectively.Proses transesterifikasi non katalitik dengan metanol sub dan superkritis,merupakan proses yang ramah lingkungan digunakan untuk pembuatan biodiesel dari minyak nabati.Percobaan dilakukan dalam sebuah reaktor batch (kapasitas 8,8 ml, stainless steel, AKICO, JAPAN,dengan variabel kondisi reaksi seperti temperatur reaksi (dari kondisi subkritis 210°C-kondisisuperkritis 290°C dengan interval 20°C, rasio molar minyak-metanol (1:12-1:42 dan waktu reaksi(10-90 menit. Kandungan metil ester asam lemak (FAME dianalisis dengan kromatografi gasdengan detektor FID (GC-FID. Hasil Analisis tersebut dapat digunakan untuk menentukan yieldbiodiesel dari proses transesterifikasi. Hasil penelitian menunjukkan bahwa yield biodiesel meningkatsecara perlahan dengan meningkatnya waktu reaksi pada keadaan subkritis (210-230oC. Namun

  16. Nonlinearities in the World Vegetable Oil Price System: El Nino Effects

    OpenAIRE

    Ubilava, David; Holt, Matthew T.

    2009-01-01

    In this research we estimate the effect of El Nino Southern Oscillation (ENSO) over time on market dynamics for eight major vegetable oil prices. We estimate a system for vegetable oil prices by using a smooth transition vector error correction model (STVECM) to analyze impacts of ENSO events on production, and, more interestingly, their asymmetric nature. The results of estimated Exponential STVECM and Quadratic STAR models, respectively for the system of oil price equations and the ENSO var...

  17. Evaluation of antioxidants stability by thermal analysis and its protective effect in heated edible vegetable oil

    OpenAIRE

    Seme Youssef Reda

    2011-01-01

    In this work, through the use of thermal analysis techniques, the thermal stabilities of some antioxidants were investigated, in order to evaluate their resistance to thermal oxidation in oils, by heating canola vegetable oil, and to suggest that antioxidants would be more appropriate to increase the resistance of vegetable oils in the thermal degradation process in frying. The techniques used were: Thermal Gravimetric (TG) and Differential Scanning Calorimetry (DSC) analyses, as well as an a...

  18. Operation variables in transesterification of vegetable oil: an enzymatic catalysis review

    OpenAIRE

    Andrés Felipe Rojas González; Erika Girón Gallego; Harlen Gerardo Torres Castañeda

    2010-01-01

    This paper presents the results of a literature review regarding how operating conditions influence vegetable oil enzymatic transesterification yield. The following parameters were studied: temperature and time reaction, alcohol: oil molar ratio, alcohol type, biocatalyst type and concentration, solvent, mixed intensity, reagent purity and free fatty acid and moisture concentration. Yields greater than 90% can be achieved in the enzymatic catalyst of vegetable oil using 35-50°C temperatures, ...

  19. Operation variables in transesterification of vegetable oil: an enzymatic catalysis review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andrés Felipe Rojas González

    2010-07-01

    90h and a 3:1alcohol: vegetable oil molar ratio; however, such values would intrinsically depend on the type of lipase and oil u- sed. It was also found that free fatty acid and moisture concentration were parameters which did not require rigorous control due to high enzyme specificity. Lipases immobilised from Pseudomona cepacia bacteria and Rhizopus orizae fungi were most used in vegetable oil enzymatic transesterification.

  20. Biofuels from Jatropha curcas oil – Perspectives for tropical regions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Becker Klaus

    2009-07-01

    Full Text Available Almost 40% of the world’s population of 6,7 billion people do not have access to affordable energy resources and drinking water of acceptable quality. But nothing is more important than the alleviation of hunger. The number of hungry people, according to the newest FAO statistics, has risen to close to one billion in 2008. Therefore, special attention needs to be given to research in food and agriculture. To this stock of global problems new challenges are added through the increase in human population of 80 million persons a year and the concomitant loss of large areas of former fertile agricultural land, mostly in the poorest countries. Jatropha curcas is the most primitive member of the large genus Euphorbiaceae. The name is derived from the Greek iatros (doctor and trophe (food. Jatropha curcas is a perennial plant, native and widely spread throughout the tropics. It is not grazed by animals, grows readily on degraded lands, is drought and to some extent disease resistant. It is a multipurpose plant. There are two genotypes of Jatropha curcas, a toxic and a non-toxic one. The latter genotype is found in Mexico only. Well developed dry seeds from Jatropha curcas weigh between 650- 750 mg and contain 30-35% of oil that is suitable for conversion into biodiesel of high quality by the conventional, proven processes. The kernel forms around 65% of the seeds. The de-oiled kernel meal has a crude protein content of between 58% and 60% and a favourable amino acid profile. Extracts of the toxic genotype provide chemicals with potential in medicinal, pharmaceutical and bio-pesticide application. In contrast to other fossil fuel alternatives, like biofuels from food crops such as maize, soybean, sugar cane and palm, bioenergy from Jatropha curcas grown on wasteland incurs no carbon debt and thus, offers immediate and sustained greenhouse gas advantages. Potential benefits of large scale Jatropha plantations on degraded land are expected to be

  1. Physicochemical properties and potential food applications of Moringa oleifera seed oil blended with other vegetable oils.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dollah, Sarafhana; Abdulkarim, Sabo Muhammad; Ahmad, Siti Hajar; Khoramnia, Anahita; Ghazali, Hasanah Mohd

    2014-01-01

    Blends (30:70, 50:50 and 70:30 w/w) of Moringa oleifera seed oil (MoO) with palm olein (PO), palm stearin (PS), palm kernel oil (PKO) and virgin coconut oil (VCO) were prepared. To determine the physicochemical properties of the blends, the iodine value (IV), saponication value (SV), fatty acid (FA) composition, triacylglycerol (TAG) composition, thermal behaviour (DSC) and solid fat content (SFC) tests were analysed. The incorporation of high oleic acid (81.73%) MoO into the blends resulted in the reduction of palmitic acid content of PO and PS from 36.38% to 17.17% and 54.66% to 14.39% and lauric acid content of PKO and VCO from 50.63% to 17.70% and 51.26% to 26.05% respectively while oleic acid and degree of unsaturation were increased in all blends. Changes in the FA composition and TAG profile have significantly affected the thermal behavior and solid fat content of the oil blends. In MoO/PO blends the melting temperature of MoO decreased while, in MoO/PS, MoO/PKO and MoO/VCO blends, it increased indicating produce of zero-trans harder oil blends without use of partial hydrogenation. The spreadability of PS, PKO and VCO in low temperatures was also increased due to incorporation of MoO. The melting point of PS significantly decreased in MoO/PS blends which proved to be suitable for high oleic bakery shortening and confectionary shortening formulation. The finding appears that blending of MoO with other vegetable oils would enable the initial properties of the oils to be modified or altered and provide functional and nutritional attributes for usage in various food applications, increasing the possibilities for the commercial use of these oils.

  2. Physicochemical properties and potential food applications of Moringa oleifera seed oil blended with other vegetable oils.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dollah, Sarafhana; Abdulkarim, Sabo Muhammad; Ahmad, Siti Hajar; Khoramnia, Anahita; Ghazali, Hasanah Mohd

    2014-01-01

    Blends (30:70, 50:50 and 70:30 w/w) of Moringa oleifera seed oil (MoO) with palm olein (PO), palm stearin (PS), palm kernel oil (PKO) and virgin coconut oil (VCO) were prepared. To determine the physicochemical properties of the blends, the iodine value (IV), saponication value (SV), fatty acid (FA) composition, triacylglycerol (TAG) composition, thermal behaviour (DSC) and solid fat content (SFC) tests were analysed. The incorporation of high oleic acid (81.73%) MoO into the blends resulted in the reduction of palmitic acid content of PO and PS from 36.38% to 17.17% and 54.66% to 14.39% and lauric acid content of PKO and VCO from 50.63% to 17.70% and 51.26% to 26.05% respectively while oleic acid and degree of unsaturation were increased in all blends. Changes in the FA composition and TAG profile have significantly affected the thermal behavior and solid fat content of the oil blends. In MoO/PO blends the melting temperature of MoO decreased while, in MoO/PS, MoO/PKO and MoO/VCO blends, it increased indicating produce of zero-trans harder oil blends without use of partial hydrogenation. The spreadability of PS, PKO and VCO in low temperatures was also increased due to incorporation of MoO. The melting point of PS significantly decreased in MoO/PS blends which proved to be suitable for high oleic bakery shortening and confectionary shortening formulation. The finding appears that blending of MoO with other vegetable oils would enable the initial properties of the oils to be modified or altered and provide functional and nutritional attributes for usage in various food applications, increasing the possibilities for the commercial use of these oils. PMID:25007749

  3. Biofuels for transportation. From R and D to market

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pilo, C. [comp.

    1996-11-01

    The aim of the Workshop was to bring together stakeholders in industry, government and science to identify technical, economic and institutional opportunities and/or barriers to the market penetration of biofuels and to tackle these issues jointly in an international environment. The Workshop was to cover the role of biofuels in replacing fossil fuels and achieving sustainable transportation. It was to be more oriented towards policy issues than towards analyses of scientific and technical details. The Workshop was focused on the conditions in Northern Europe and North America. Three main themes were chosen: THEME 1. Biomass Feedstocks. How do we produce them cost-effectively and for what purpose? THEME 2. Biofuels for Transportation. What will make them technically and economically competitive? THEME 3. Market Penetration of Biofuels. How do we remove barriers? The following biofuels were considered during the Workshop: Alcohols, such as ethanol and methanol. Ethers, such as MTBE (methyl-tertio-butyl-ether) and ETBE (ethyl-tertio-butyl-ether). Vegetable oils and esters, such as VME (vegetable-oil-methylester), RME (rape-oil-methyl-ester) and REE (rape-oil-ethyl-ester)

  4. COMPARISON OF THE QUALITY OF VEGETABLE OILS DESIGNED FOR THE FRYING FOOD

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ladislav Mura

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available The object of the research was to investigate the quality of vegetable oils for cooking food. The analysis used two types of oils - oil Fritol and Promienna. Both oils were purchased commercially. Oil changes were observed at frying French fries. At the same changes were observed oil stored at room temperature and the temperature in the refrigerator. The determined parameters included the measurement of polar materials in oil with electronic device Testo 265 for measuring the quality of cooking oil. Determination of change in the texture of oil during the oil deterioration by device Texturometer TA.XT Plus and determination the peroxide value by STN EN ISO 3960:2007. The work is also evaluating the results of the studied parameters. In all compared cases based on the content of the TPM showed higher heat resistance oil Fritol and sample of oil stored in the refrigerator.doi:10.5219/210

  5. Influence of Vegetable Oil on the Thermal Aging Rate of Kraft Paper and its Mechanism

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    YANG Lijun; DENG Bangfei; LIAO Ruijin; SUN Caixin; ZHU Mengzhao

    2012-01-01

    With the development of new insulation materials,vegetable oil—the best substitute for mineral oil—has gradually been widely used in the liquid insulation of transformers.To investigate the influence of vegetable oil on the thermal aging rate of oil paper,Kraft paper impregnated with mineral oil and vegetable oil have been underwent thermally accelerated aging at three different temperatures.The degree of polymerization(DP) of Kraft paper was measured to indicate the aging degree of insulation paper.The aging rate of Kraft paper in mineral oil and vegetable oil was compared quantitatively,and results showed that vegetable oil retarded paper's degradation rate and extended its useful lifetime.The reasons contributing to such phenomena were analyzed using X-ray Photoelectron Spectroscopy(XPS) and molecular simulation software.Kraft paper in vegetable oil had larger activation energy.Due to the larger interaction force between water and natural ester molecules,water molecules were easily bonded with natural ester,weakening the hydrolysis process of cellulose.Cellulose was chemically modified by natural ester during the thermal aging process,and the reactive-OH(hydroxyl) groups on the cellulose became esterified with fatty acid esters.Water molecules were firmly bounded to the ester groups on glucose produced by esterification.The long-chain fatty acid esterified to cellulose was parallel with cellulose chains and acted as a "water barrier" to further weaken the hydrolysis process.

  6. Studies on the nutrition of brackish water catfish - Chrysichthys nigrodigitatus . 1. Preliminary investigations on the probable use of vegetable oil in catfish feeds

    OpenAIRE

    Igbinosun, J.E.; Talabi, S.O.

    1983-01-01

    Four groups of brackishwater catfish were fed four diets: N.F. (NIOMR formula 1 feed), A. B. and C. for seven weeks. Feeds N.F., A., B and C. contained 1.21% fish oil + 5.59% vegetable oil; 1.21% fish oil + 7.39% vegetable oil; 1.21% fish oil + 9.09% vegetable oil; 1.21% fish oil + 10.89% vegetable oil respectively. Results of feeding trial showed that growth was best in the group fed diets containing 10.89% vegetable oil and least in those containing 9.09% vegetable oil

  7. Vegetable oils as hydraulic fluids for agricultural applications

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mendoza, G.

    2011-03-01

    Full Text Available The formulation of environmentally friendly lubricants following the criterion of the European EcoLabel is expensive owing to the lack of technological development in this area. The present work deals with the development of lubricant formulations from vegetable oils, in particular using high oleic sunflower oil as base fluid. These new biolubricants have to perform as good as the reference lubricants used in the real application (an agricultural tractor but with the additional condition and value of their biodegradability without toxicity. Formulation development has been performed by Verkol Lubricantes, involving the selection of the base oil and the design of the additive package. The investigation performed by Tekniker in the laboratory has covered different aspects, characterizing the most important physicochemical properties of the lubricants, including their behavior at low temperatures and their resistance to oxidation. The tribological properties of the new biolubricants have also been studied, analyzing their ability to protect the interacting surface from wear, as well as the level of friction generated during sliding. Moreover, the compatibility of the new formulated oil with all the seals present in the real application has been taken into consideration. The selected lubricant is now being tested in agricultural machinery from AGRIA.

    La formulación de lubricantes amigables con el medioambiente siguiendo los criterios Europeos de la EcoLabel resulta cara debido a la falta de desarrollo tecnológico en esta área. En el presente trabajo se han desarrollado formulaciones de lubricantes a partir de aceites de origen vegetal, en particular empleando como aceite base el GAO (Girasol de Alto Oleico. Estos nuevos lubricantes deben presentar un comportamiento tan bueno como el de los lubricantes de referencia empleados en la aplicación real (un tractor agrícola, pero con la condición y valor añadido de ser biodegradables y no t

  8. Use of vegetable oil as fuel to improve the efficiency of cooking stove

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Natarajan, R.; Karthikeyan, N.S.; Agarwaal, Avinash [Energy Centre, School of Mechanical and Building Sciences, Vellore Institute of Technology University, Vellore 632 014 (India); Sathiyanarayanan, K. [Chemistry Division, School of Science and Humanities, Vellore Institute of Technology University, Vellore 632 014 (India)

    2008-11-15

    In this study, an attempt has been made to use waste vegetable oil as a fuel for a cooking stove. Suitable modifications have been made in the kerosene stove for use with vegetable oil as fuel. The efficiency of the stove using vegetable oil as fuel is observed to be as high as 48.9% as compared to 34.9% with that of a conventional stove when a flat copper bottom vessel is used. Corresponding efficiency increase is also observed with other vessels. (author)

  9. Experimental study on the performance characteristics and emission analysis of a diesel engine using vegetable oils

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saha, Anup; Ehite, Ekramul Haque; Alam, M. M.

    2016-07-01

    In this research, Vegetable oils derived from Sesame Seed and Rice Bran were used and experimented upon. Using Kerosene as the solvent in varying proportions (30%, 50%, 70% by volume) with the vegetables oils, different blends of Sesame and Rice Bran Oils were produced. The important characteristic properties were found by experimentation and compared with those of Straight Run Diesel. Subsequently, Straight Run Diesel, vegetable oils and their blends were used to run a diesel engine one-by-one and the performance analysis was conducted, followed by an investigation of the exhaust emissions. From the comparative performance analysis, it was found that Rice Bran oil showed better performance as a fuel than Sesame with regards to power production and specific fuel consumption and also resulted in less Carbon Monoxide (CO) emission than Sesame oil blends.

  10. FACTORS INFLUENCING SYNTHESIS OF EXTRACELLULAR LIPASES BY YARROWIA LIPOLYTICA IN MEDIUM CONTAINING VEGETABLE OILS

    OpenAIRE

    Agata Urszula Fabiszewska; Ewa Białecka-Florjańczyk

    2014-01-01

    The aim of this study was to evaluate lipase activity of Yarrowia lipolytica KKP 379 in media containing selected vegetable oils as the sole carbon source. The highest activity for extracellular Yarrowia lipolytica lipases was obtained in a corn oil medium, which was almost two times higher compared to lipase activity in olive oil medium, while the lowest lipolytic activity was observed in medium containing rice and peanut oils. Literature suggested that free fatty acids, especially oleic aci...

  11. Physico-chemical properties of blends of palm olein with other vegetable oils

    OpenAIRE

    Mobin Siddique, Bazlul; Ahmad, Anees; Hakimi Ibrahim, Mohamad; Hena, Sufia; Rafatullah, Mohd; Omar A. K, Mohd

    2010-01-01

    Palm oil (olein) was blended with other edible oils for the enhancement of its market acceptability in terms of melting point depression and shelf life. The physico-chemical properties like viscosity, density, melting behavior, peroxide value (PV), saponification value (SV) and iodine value (IV) of four different binary blends with four vegetable oils were evaluated. Palm olein was found to be more stable against rancidity than the other oils. For the stability against oxidation and melting p...

  12. Fatty Acid Digestibility in Lactating Cows Fed Increasing Amounts of Protected Vegetable Oil, Fish Oil or Saturated Fat

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Børsting, Christian Friis; Weisbjerg, Martin Riis; Hvelplund, Torben

    1992-01-01

    Fatty acid digestion was studied in three dairy cows cannulated in the rumen, duodenum and ileum. Cows were fed encapsulated fat sources (vegetable oil, saturated fat and fish oil). A preperiod diet was fed with no added fat. In a graeco-latin design nine diets comprising three levels of each...

  13. Inedible vegetable oils and their derivatives for alternative diesel fuels in CI engines: A review

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    No, Soo-Young [Chungbuk National University, Department of Biosystems Engineering, Cheongju 361-763 (Korea, Republic of)

    2011-01-15

    The use of inedible vegetable oils as an alternative fuel for diesel engine is accelerated by the energy crisis due to depletion of resources and increased environmental problems including the great need for edible oil as food and the reduction of biodiesel production cost, etc. Of a lot of inedible vegetable oils which can be exploited for substitute fuel as diesel fuel, seven vegetable oils, i.e., jatropha, karanja, mahua, linseed, rubber seed, cottonseed and neem oils were selected for discussion in this review paper. The application of jatropha oil as a liquid fuel for CI engine can be classified with neat jatropha oil, engine modifications such as preheating, and dual fuelling, and fuel modifications such as jatropha oil blends with other fuels, mostly with diesel fuel, biodiesel, biodiesel blends and degumming. Therefore, jatropha oil is a leading candidate for the commercialization of non-edible vegetable oils. There exists a big difference in the fuel properties of seven inedible vegetable oils and its biodiesels considered in this review. It is clear from this review that biodiesel generally causes an increase in NOx emission and a decrease in HC, CO and PM emissions compared to diesel. It was reported that a diesel engine without any modification would run successfully on a blend of 20% vegetable oil and 80% diesel fuel without damage to engine parts. This trend can be applied to the biodiesel blends even though particular biodiesel shows 40% blend. In addition, the blends of biodiesel and diesel can replace the diesel fuel up to 10% by volume for running common rail direct injection system without any durability problems. (author)

  14. Effect of Replacing Pork Fat with Vegetable Oils on Quality Properties of Emulsion-type Pork Sausages

    OpenAIRE

    Lee, Hyun-Jin; Jung, Eun-Hee; Lee, Sang-Hwa; Kim, Jong-Hee; Lee, Jae-Joon; Choi, Yang-II

    2015-01-01

    This study was conducted to evaluate the quality properties of emulsion-type pork sausages when pork fat is replaced with vegetable oil mixtures during processing. Pork sausages were processed under six treatment conditions: T1 (20% pork fat), T2 (10% pork fat + 2% grape seed oil + 4% olive oil + 4% canola oil), T3 (4% grape seed oil + 16% canola oil), T4 (4% grape seed oil + 4% olive oil + 12% canola oil), T5 (4% grape seed oil + 8% olive oil + 8% canola oil), and T6 (4% grape seed oil + 12%...

  15. Determination of saturated aliphatic hydrocarbons in vegetable oils

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gómez-Coca, R. B.

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this work is to inform about the development of a simple and reliable off-line method for the determination of saturated hydrocarbons (SH in vegetable oils. SH can be used as markers for fuel or for mineral oil contamination in edible oils and fats. The method consists of the isolation of the fraction by LC on deactivated silver-silica gel and subsequent on-column GC-FID analysis. This stationary phase was prepared avoiding any kind of activation. The method was developed and validated through the participation in both a proficiency test organized by the Joint Research Centre of the European Commission, and a collaborative trial carried out with trained Spanish laboratories according to the standard ISO 5725. Results showed acceptable repeatability and reproducibility values, and Horrat index, being this protocol in use with satisfactory results ever since. The method’s LOQ is 15 mg.kg–1 and its LOD 5 mg.kg–1, which make it suitable to quantify the 50 mg.kg–1 limit established by the EU, and to detect mineral oil content within the 10–500 mg.kg–1 range. Although other procedures with lower LOD have been developed throughout the years, the use of just regular laboratory equipment such as GC-FID makes the proposed method appropriate for application on a routine basis.El objetivo de este trabajo es el de dar cuenta del desarrollo de un método sencillo y fiable para la determinación de hidrocarburos saturados (HS en aceites vegetales. Los HS pueden utilizarse como marcadores de contaminación de aceites y grasas comestibles con fuel-oil y aceites minerales El procedimiento consiste en el aislamiento de la fracción correspondiente por cromatografía en columna de gel de sílice argentada sin activar y posterior análisis mediante GC (on-column-FID. El método se desarrolló y validó mediante la participación en una prueba de competencia organizada por el Joint Research Centre de la Comisión Europea, además de con un

  16. A new method to determine oxidative stability of vegetable fats and oils at simulated frying temperature

    OpenAIRE

    Gertz Christian; Parkash Kochhar S.

    2001-01-01

    A new procedure at simulated frying conditions in our laboratory was developed to monitor frying stability of fats and oils. Water-conditioned silica was prepared and added to the fresh vegetable oil, which was heated for two hours at 170°C. The oil stability at frying temperature was then evaluated by determining the amount of formed dimeric triglycerides The results obtained showed that the stability of the vegetable oils at frying temperature could not be explained by the fatty acid compos...

  17. The viscosity of diesel oil and mixtures with straight vegetable oils: Palm, cabbage palm, cotton, groundnut, copra and sunflower

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Abolle, Abolle; Kouakou, Loukou; Planche, Henri [Unite de Chimie et Procedes de l' Ecole Nationale Superieure des Techniques Avancees, 32 Boulevard Victor, 75739 Paris Cedex 15 (France)

    2009-09-15

    The feed back experience of using straight vegetable oil (SVO) as a fuel in the existing diesel engines evidences the need for fitting several physical properties, among them the fuel viscosity. An empirical modelling is proposed in order to interpolate viscosity to any kind of diesel oil/SVO blend. This model is fitted on an experimental viscosity database on blends, varying the SVO mass proportion in the blend, the blend temperature between cloud point and 353 K, and including six vegetable oils varying the fatty acids composition. Extrusion rheology was also checked by varying the pressure drop. Measurements show that blends behave Newtonian. (author)

  18. Mixtures of Vegetable Oil and Xanthan as a Substrate for Biological Dechlorination

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhong, L.; Macbeth, T.; Truex, M. J.; Yan, X.

    2012-12-01

    In situ anaerobic biological processes are widely applied for dechlorination of chlorinated solvents in groundwater. A wide range of organic substrates have been tested and applied to support the dechlorination processes. Key factors considered in substrate selection are the induced dechlorination kinetics, geochemical impacts such as pH decreases, longevity of the substrate, and ability to distribute the substrate in the subsurface. Vegetable oils are a promising substrate and have been shown to induce effective dechlorination, have limited geochemical impacts, and good longevity. Distribution of vegetable oil in the subsurface, because it is a non-aqueous phase material, has typically been addressed by creating emulsified oil solutions. In this study, inexpensive waste vegetable oils were tested in laboratory microcosm experiments and induced dechlorination reactions with minor geochemical impacts and good longevity. Additional testing showed that mixtures of waste vegetable oil and Xanthan, a biopolymer with shear-thinning properties, produced stable suspensions of the oil as micron-scale droplets. The mixture rheology retains shear-thinning properties that would facilitate improved uniformity of substrate distribution in heterogeneous aquifers. Soil column tests were conducted as a first step in quantifying the transport of the oil droplets in the mixture through porous media. Results show that the mixture of vegetable oil and Xanthan is a potential substrate for supporting in situ anaerobic bioremediation for some subsurface settings.

  19. Remediation of trichloroethylene-contaminated soils by star technology using vegetable oil smoldering.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Salman, Madiha; Gerhard, Jason I; Major, David W; Pironi, Paolo; Hadden, Rory

    2015-03-21

    Self-sustaining treatment for active remediation (STAR) is an innovative soil remediation approach based on smoldering combustion that has been demonstrated to effectively destroy complex hydrocarbon nonaqueous phase liquids (NAPLs) with minimal energy input. This is the first study to explore the smoldering remediation of sand contaminated by a volatile NAPL (trichloroethylene, TCE) and the first to consider utilizing vegetable oil as supplemental fuel for STAR. Thirty laboratory-scale experiments were conducted to evaluate the relationship between key outcomes (TCE destruction, rate of remediation) to initial conditions (vegetable oil type, oil: TCE mass ratio, neat versus emulsified oils). Several vegetable oils and emulsified vegetable oil formulations were shown to support remediation of TCE via self-sustaining smoldering. A minimum concentration of 14,000 mg/kg canola oil was found to treat sand exhibiting up to 80,000 mg/kg TCE. On average, 75% of the TCE mass was removed due to volatilization. This proof-of-concept study suggests that injection and smoldering of vegetable oil may provide a new alternative for driving volatile contaminants to traditional vapour extraction systems without supplying substantial external energy.

  20. Photolysis of polychlorinated dibenzo-p-dioxins and dibenzofurans dissolved in vegetable oils: influence of oil quality.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Isosaari, Pirjo; Laine, Olli; Tuhkanen, Tuula; Vartiainen, Terttu

    2005-03-20

    Sunlight or ultraviolet light irradiation of polychlorinated dibenzo-p-dioxins and dibenzofurans (PCDD/Fs) in the presence of vegetable oil offers a potential method for the cleanup of contaminated soil. In this study, the effects of different types of vegetable oils on the photochemical degradation of 1,2,3,4,6,7,8-heptachlorodibenzofuran and heptachlorodibenzo-p-dioxin (1,2,3,4,6,7,8-HpCDF/HpCDD) were investigated in the laboratory. Using a blacklight lamp as a source of ultraviolet light, 93-100% of 1,2,3,4,6,7,8-HpCDF degraded in 60 min in rapeseed oil, extra virgin olive oil and olive oil. Less degradation occurred in palm oil (59%), toluene (39%) and hexane (20%). The better degradation in vegetable oils in comparison with organic solvents was attributed to the photooxidation of lipids producing hydrogen for PCDD/F dechlorination. In addition to the hydrogen donor capacity, permeability of ultraviolet light was involved in the differences between vegetable oils. alpha-Tocopherol and chlorophyll did not influence the performance of oil at concentrations normally present in vegetable oils, whereas beta-carotene had an inhibitory effect on the degradation of 1,2,3,4,6,7,8-HpCDF. Up to 28% of the degradation products of 1,2,3,4,6,7,8-HpCDF were formed via the dechlorination pathway. Products included both toxic (2,3,7,8-chlorinated) and non-toxic PCDD/Fs, the toxic PCDD/Fs being more stable. Irradiation of 1,2,3,4,6,7,8-HpCDD yielded only non-toxic dechlorination products. Polychlorinated hydroxybiphenyls (OH-PCBs), polychlorinated dihydroxybiphenyls (DOH-PCBs) and polychlorinated hydroxydiphenylethers (OH-PCDEs) containing one to seven chlorine atoms were not detected in irradiated HpCDF/HpCDD samples.

  1. Photolysis of polychlorinated dibenzo-p-dioxins and dibenzofurans dissolved in vegetable oils: influence of oil quality

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sunlight or ultraviolet light irradiation of polychlorinated dibenzo-p-dioxins and dibenzofurans (PCDD/Fs) in the presence of vegetable oil offers a potential method for the cleanup of contaminated soil. In this study, the effects of different types of vegetable oils on the photochemical degradation of 1,2,3,4,6,7,8-heptachlorodibenzofuran and heptachlorodibenzo-p-dioxin (1,2,3,4,6,7,8-HpCDF/HpCDD) were investigated in the laboratory. Using a blacklight lamp as a source of ultraviolet light, 93-100% of 1,2,3,4,6,7,8-HpCDF degraded in 60 min in rapeseed oil, extra virgin olive oil and olive oil. Less degradation occurred in palm oil (59%), toluene (39%) and hexane (20%). The better degradation in vegetable oils in comparison with organic solvents was attributed to the photooxidation of lipids producing hydrogen for PCDD/F dechlorination. In addition to the hydrogen donor capacity, permeability of ultraviolet light was involved in the differences between vegetable oils. α-Tocopherol and chlorophyll did not influence the performance of oil at concentrations normally present in vegetable oils, whereas β-carotene had an inhibitory effect on the degradation of 1,2,3,4,6,7,8-HpCDF. Up to 28% of the degradation products of 1,2,3,4,6,7,8-HpCDF were formed via the dechlorination pathway. Products included both toxic (2,3,7,8-chlorinated) and non-toxic PCDD/Fs, the toxic PCDD/Fs being more stable. Irradiation of 1,2,3,4,6,7,8-HpCDD yielded only non-toxic dechlorination products. Polychlorinated hydroxybiphenyls (OH-PCBs), polychlorinated dihydroxybiphenyls (DOH-PCBs) and polychlorinated hydroxydiphenylethers (OH-PCDEs) containing one to seven chlorine atoms were not detected in irradiated HpCDF/HpCDD samples

  2. Production of vegetal oil for energetic purposes; Producao de oleo vegetal com fins energeticos a partir de oleoginosas perenes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Andrade Pinto, R. de [Companhia Paranaense de Energia (COPEL), Curitiba, PQ (Brazil)

    1987-12-31

    The technology to obtain vegetable oil from trans esterification is already dominated. However, the oil grain`s cultures of annual cycle (soy-beans, peanuts, sunflowers) demand fertile and plain lands, which actually ought to be destined for food production, The utilization of slope wise areas, which are often destroyed by means of burning, for the reforestation with perennial oily trees which will be subject for further experimental researches, is studied. Particularly, the studies involves the cultivation of avocado`s varieties, which present pulps with a high oil concentration, in regions of temperate climates. It also involves an analysis of the high productivity and various difficulties to be surpassed, since the development of a simple procedure for thr oils and by-products extraction (in rural properties), until genetic developments of new avocado`s kinds, in order to achieve a better adaptation to the regions climate and to contain a higher oil concentration. 7 refs., 1 tab.

  3. The influence of proximity on the potential demand for vegetable oil as a diesel substitute: A rural survey in West Africa

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bio-energy demand is known to be influenced by geographical origin and social equity. This paper aims to highlight the influence of the proximity between biomass production and energy consumption on the demand for alternative bio-fuels. In the context of Burkina Faso, we explore potential demand for vegetable oil (Jatropha Curcas) as a diesel substitute among engine owners. Survey data are based on a between-groups design: one group of respondents experiencing a local supply chain, while the other a global one. Results show that proximity has a significant effect on potential demand itself and on the formation and strength of beliefs regarding vegetable oil. In a local supply chain context, the demand is superior and seems to be guided more by a certain economic and technical rationality. Conversely, the prospect of a vegetable oil produced outside the village restrains demand and this latter is more determined by contextual factors and social interaction. Our analysis confirms that demand does not only depend on technical and economic factors such as price but also on the integration of the biomass production and processing in the socioeconomic life of local rural populations. Understanding demand construction and assessing underlying beliefs are key success factors for bio-energy projects. (authors)

  4. Heterogeneously catalyzed reactions with vegetable oils : epoxidation and nucleophilic epoxide ring-opening with alcohols

    OpenAIRE

    Rios, Luis Alberto

    2003-01-01

    Chemical modification of vegetable oils, via epoxidation and epoxide ring-opening with alcohols was studied, using environmentally acceptable methods. Epoxidation of vegetable oils with peracids produced in the presence of heterogeneous acidic catalysts requires low contact between the epoxide and the acidic centers to avoid consecutive reactions. The main by-product is the ketone, obtained from the epoxide rearrangement reaction. Ketone formation is favored by strongly acidic catalysts and b...

  5. Industrial vegetable oil by-products increase the ductility of polylactide

    OpenAIRE

    RUELLAN A.; GUINAULT, A; SOLLOGOUB, C; CHOLLET, G; A. Ait-Mada; Ducruet, V; DOMENEK, S

    2015-01-01

    The use of industrial by-products of the vegetable oil industry as ductility increasing additives of polylactide (PLA) was investigated. Vegetable oil deodorization condensates were melt-blended by twin-screw extrusion up to a max- imum inclusion quantity of 20 wt% without preliminary purification. Sample films were obtained by single screw cast extrusion. Compounded PLA films featured largely improved ductility in tensile testing with an elongation at break up to 180%. The glass transition t...

  6. Ignition and combustion behaviour of vegetable oils after injection in a constant volume combustion chamber

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The ignition and combustion behaviour of vegetable oils to be used as fuel in combustion engines was researched using a constant volume combustion chamber. The chosen vegetable oils were characterised using the two structure indices average number of carbon atoms AC and average number of double bonds ADB. The structure indices were derived from the composition of the analysed fatty acids. The performance of these two structure indices in estimating differences in fuel properties, such as density, net calorific value, elementary composition and surface tension, was shown. The structure indices were also used to explain ignition and combustion behaviour. Differences in ignition and combustion behaviour were primarily recognised in the ignition delay and the first phase of combustion (premixed combustion). No differences were observed between the vegetable oils in subsequent phases of combustion. The longer the ignition delay, the higher the share was of premixed combustion. Models for the prediction of the ignition delay were developed using ADB. The ignition delay rises with increasing ADB. Differences in AC had no significant impact on the ignition delay. Hence, vegetable oils with a high ignition quality are characterised by a low amount of double bonds. The developed models can be used for estimation of the ignition quality and combustion behaviour of unknown vegetable oils. - Highlights: • Ten vegetable oils and two vegetable oil mixtures were tested. • Two suitable structure indices were developed from the fatty acid composition to predict fuel properties. • Differences were detected in the ignition behaviour and in the first combustion phase. • Vegetable oils with short ignition delay are characterised by a low number of double bonds

  7. IN VITRO STUDY ON THE STEROIDOGENIC EFFECT OF USED VEGETABLE OILS IN PORCINE MODEL

    OpenAIRE

    Adriana Kolesárová; Nora Maruniaková; Marek Halenár; Marína Medveďová; Shubhadeep Roychoudhury

    2013-01-01

    Vegetable oils are extracted from seeds like rapeseed, soybean, corn, sunflower, safflower and are found in majority of processed foods. A study was conducted in western Slovakia to determine possible effect of used vegetable oils (100 µl/ml) after cooking in households, school canteens and fast food restaurants on secretion activity of steroid hormones progesterone and 17 β-estradiol on porcine ovarian granulosa cells in vitro. Progesterone and estradiol are essential for normal ovarian cycl...

  8. Effect of vegetable oil oxidation on the hydrogenation reaction process

    OpenAIRE

    Kalantari, Faranak; Bahmaei, Manochehr; Ameri, Majid; Shoaei, Ehsan

    2010-01-01

    Hydrogenation has been carried out in a batch reactor with three different oxidized bleached oils in order to discover the effect of oxidation on the hydrogenation reaction process. Specifications of hydrogenated oils such as melting point, Iodine value, solid fat content and fatty acid composition of the oxidized oils were compared with their un-oxidized reference oils. Oxidized bleached sunflower oil was hydrogenated to target melting points (34, 39 and 42°C) at higher iodine values vs. its...

  9. Vegetable oils affect the composition of lipoproteins in sea bream (Sparus aurata).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Caballero, Maria José; Torstensen, Bente E; Robaina, Lidia; Montero, Daniel; Izquierdo, Marisol

    2006-11-01

    The aim of the present study was to determine the influence of the dietary fatty acid profile on the lipoprotein composition in sea bream fed different vegetable oils. Six experimental diets were formulated combining fish oil with three vegetable oils (soybean, rapeseed, linseed) in order to obtain 60-80 % (w/w) fish-oil replacement. VLDL, LDL and HDL in plasma samples were obtained by sequential centrifugal flotation. The lipid class, protein content and fatty acid composition of each lipoprotein fraction were analysed. HDL was the predominant lipoprotein in sea bream plasma containing the highest proportion of protein (34 %) and phosphatidylcholine. LDL presented a high content of cholesterol, whereas triacylglycerol comprised a larger proportion of VLDL. The lipid class of the lipoprotein fractions was affected by the dietary vegetable oils. Thus, a high dietary inclusion of soyabean and linseed oil (80 %) increased the cholesterol in HDL and LDL in comparison to fish oil. Similarly, the triacylglycerol concentration of VLDL was increased in fish fed 80 % soyabean and linseed oils owing to the low n-3 highly unsaturated fatty acid content of these diets. Lipoprotein fatty acid composition easily responded to dietary fatty acid composition. VLDL was the fraction more affected by dietary fatty acid, followed by LDL and HDL. The n-3 highly unsaturated fatty acid content increased in the order VLDL less than LDL and less than HDL, regardless of dietary vegetable oils.

  10. Organohalogen compounds in present day vegetable oils sourced from the Middle East

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jacobs, M. [Univ. of Surrey, Guildford (United Kingdom); Covaci, A. [Univ. of Antwerp (Belgium)

    2004-09-15

    Organohalogen chemicals such as hexachlorohexanes (HCHs), hexachlorobenzene (HCBs), polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) and polybrominated diphenyl ethers (PBDEs) are persistent, hydrophobic and thus accumulate in the food chain. The relevance of fish and dairy products as source for human contamination with these pollutants is widely recognized and as a result, routine monitoring programs of fish and dairy products are used to monitor exposure. Monitoring of vegetable oils for organohalogen contaminants is more on an ad hoc basis vegetable oils are generally far less contaminated than animal fats. Where monitoring is undertaken, samples originating from or entering the European and US market are generally analysed and data are available in the published literature. However, little data is available in the public domain for other major producers, particularly the Middle East. Olive oil is integral to Middle Eastern cooking and is widely consumed in relatively large quantities. Rich in monounsaturated fatty acids, nutritionally olive oil is considered to impart important health benefits as observed in southern Mediterranean diet studies. Here we report the levels of PCBs, organochlorine pesticides (OCPs) and PBDEs in eight olive oil and three vegetable oil samples from the Middle East obtained in 2003 and in three additional olive oil samples from the Mediterranean countries (Turkey, Greece and Egypt). The present study provides an extension of our previous study on organohalogen contaminant data in historic olive and ground nut oil from Palestine and gives a preliminary indication of dietary exposure to organohalogen contaminants from vegetable oils.

  11. Rapid determination of saponification value and polymer content of vegetable and fish oils by terahertz spectroscopy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jiang, Feng Ling; Ikeda, Ikuo; Ogawa, Yuichi; Endo, Yasushi

    2012-01-01

    A rapid method for determining the saponification value (SV) and polymer content of vegetable and fish oils using the terahertz (THz) spectroscopy was developed. When the THz absorption spectra for vegetable and fish oils were measured in the range of 20 to 400 cm⁻¹, two peaks were seen at 77 and 328 cm⁻¹. The level of absorbance at 77 cm⁻¹ correlated well with the SV. When the THz absorption spectra of thermally treated high-oleic safflower oils were measured, the absorbance increased with heating time. The polymer content in thermally treated oil correlated with the absorbance at 77 cm⁻¹. These results demonstrate that the THz spectrometry is a suitable non-destructive technique for the rapid determination of the SV and polymer content of vegetable and fish oils.

  12. Novel polymeric materials from vegetable oils and vinyl monomers: preparation, properties, and applications.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lu, Yongshang; Larock, Richard C

    2009-01-01

    Veggie-based products: Vegetable-oil-based polymeric materials, prepared by free radical, cationic, and olefin metathesis polymerizations, range from soft rubbers to ductile or rigid plastics, and to high-performance biocomposites and nanocomposites. They display a wide range of thermophysical and mechanical properties and may find promising applications as alternatives to petroleum-based polymers.Vegetable oils are considered to be among the most promising renewable raw materials for polymers, because of their ready availability, inherent biodegradability, and their many versatile applications. Research on and development of vegetable oil based polymeric materials, including thermosetting resins, biocomposites, and nanocomposites, have attracted increasing attention in recent years. This Minireview focuses on the latest developments in the preparation, properties, and applications of vegetable oil based polymeric materials obtained by free radical, cationic, and olefin metathesis polymerizations. The novel vegetable oil based polymeric materials obtained range from soft rubbery materials to ductile or rigid plastics and to high-performance biocomposites and nanocomposites. These vegetable oil based polymeric materials display a wide range of thermophysical and mechanical properties and should find useful applications as alternatives to their petroleum-based counterparts. PMID:19180601

  13. A new method to determine oxidative stability of vegetable fats and oils at simulated frying temperature

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gertz Christian

    2001-01-01

    Full Text Available A new procedure at simulated frying conditions in our laboratory was developed to monitor frying stability of fats and oils. Water-conditioned silica was prepared and added to the fresh vegetable oil, which was heated for two hours at 170°C. The oil stability at frying temperature was then evaluated by determining the amount of formed dimeric triglycerides The results obtained showed that the stability of the vegetable oils at frying temperature could not be explained by the fatty acid composition alone. Corn oil was observed to be more stable than soybean oil, and rapeseed oil was better than olive oil. It was also observed that crude, non-refined oils were found to have a better heat stability than refin-ed oils. To estimate the effectiveness of synthetic and naturally occurring antioxidants, namely various tocopherols, tocopherol acetate and phytosterol fractions, phenolic compounds like quercetin, oryzanol, ferulic acid, gallates, BHT, BHA and other compounds like ascorbic acid 6-palmitate and squalene were added to refined sunflower and rape seed oil, and their oxidative stability at elevated temperature (OSET values determined. Both linoleic and oleic rich oils gave comparable results for the activity of the various compounds. alpha-tocopherol, tocopherol esters and BHA had low effects on oil stability at frying temperature, while ascorbyl palmitate and some phytosterol fractions were found to have the most stabilizing activity under frying conditions.

  14. The effect of consecutive steps of refining on squalene content of vegetable oils.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nergiz, Cevdet; Celikkale, Deniz

    2011-06-01

    The aim of this study is to evaluate the effect of refining steps on the squalene content of some vegetable oils. A comparison has been made between the crude oils and consecutive steps of refining process (neutralization, bleaching, deodorization, winterization) in the amounts of squalene of the oil samples. Among the oils, virgin and refined olive oils contained higher amounts of squalene. A mean of 491.0 ± 15.55 mg/100 g squalene was found in virgin olive oil samples. While appreciable quantities of squalene has been reduced during refining, considerable level of squalene were still present in refined olive oils (290.0 ± 9.89 mg/100 g). The squalene content of crude seed oils varied from 13.8 ± 0.39 mg/100 g to 26.2 ± 0.08 mg/100 g as average. It has been determined that refining process reduced the level of squalene in examined oils. The highest reduction in squalene content of the oils was detected during deodorization. The effect of refining steps on the amount of squalene in vegetable oils was found to be significant (p oil has been considered an important source of squalene, even after it has been refined, compared to seed oils.

  15. United States Gulf of Mexico Coastal Marsh Vegetation Responses and Sensitivities to Oil Spill: A Review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S. Reza Pezeshki

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available The present review summarizes the literature on the effects of oil spill on the U.S. Gulf of Mexico coastal vegetation including freshwater-, brackish-, and salt-marshes. When in contact with plant tissues, oil may have adverse impacts via physical and chemical effects. Oil may also become detrimental to plants by covering soil surfaces, leading to root oxygen stress and/or penetrate into the soil where it becomes in contact with the roots. The affected vegetation may survive the impact by producing new leaves, however, an episode of oil spill may impose severe stress. Oil spills may lead to partial or complete plant death but in many situations plants recover by regenerating new shoots. Plant sensitivity to oil varies among species; plants from salt marshes appear to be more sensitive than freshwater species. In addition, sensitivity appears to be dependent on the oil characteristics and the quantity of oil being spilled, repeated oiling events, season of spill, greenhouse vs. field conditions, and plant age are among the many factors that interact simultaneously. Many aspects of coastal plant responses to oiling remain in need of additional research, including the possibility that differences in oil sensitivity may interact with changes in the environment, and contribution to additional wetland losses through coastal erosion. Environmental stressors such as drought and salinity may also interact with oil, leading to the observed changes in plant species community composition following an oil spill.

  16. Biofuels in Spain: Market penetration analysis and competitiveness in the automotive fuel market

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    For several years the European Union (E.U.) has been promoting the use of biofuels due to their potential benefits such as the reduction of dependence on foreign energy imports (the raw materials can be produced within the E.U.), the more stable fossil fuel prices (they can replace fossil fuels on the market), the greenhouse gas (GHG) reduction (biofuels' raw materials fix CO2 from the atmosphere) and the fact that they can represent an additional source of income for the primary sector (biofuels' raw materials are vegetables that can be grown and harvested). Despite the public aids (direct and indirect), biofuels are not competitive with fossil fuels at present, but it is possible that in the future the environment conditions change and biofuels might become competitive. It is difficult to assess whether this will happen or not, but it is possible to make an assessment of a future situation. This article presents two analyses with one objective: to determine if biofuels might become competitive in the future. The first analysis examines the dependencies of two quotations which have a strong relationship with fuels: the crude oil quotation and the CO2 bond quotation. The analysis of these relationships may help to forecast the future competitiveness of biofuels. For instance, biofuels' future competitiveness will be higher if their raw material costs are not related to crude oil quotations or if they are related in a negative way (the higher the crude oil quotations the lower the raw material biofuels' cost). The second analysis focuses on the market penetration of biofuels in the Spanish market. There are data related to biofuels monthly consumption in Spain since 2007 and it is possible to know if biofuels are gaining market quota since then. (author)

  17. Recent developments in microbial oils production: a possible alternative to vegetable oils for biodiesel without competition with human food?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gwendoline Christophe

    2012-02-01

    Full Text Available Since centuries vegetable oils are consumed as human food but it also finds applications in biodiesel production which is attracting more attention. But due to being in competition with food it could not be sustainable and leads the need to search for alternative. Nowdays microbes-derived oils (single cell oils seem to be alternatives for biodiesel production due to their similar composition to that of vegetable oils. However, the cold flow properties of the biodiesel produced from microbial oils are unacceptable and have to be modified by an efficient transesterification. Glycerol which is by product of transesterification can be valorised into some more useful products so that it can also be utilised along with biodiesel to simplify the downstream processing. The review paper discusses about various potent microorganisms for biodiesel production, enzymes involved in the lipid accumulation, lipid quantification methods, catalysts used in transesterification (including enzymatic catalyst and valorisation of glycerol.

  18. Organogels of vegetable oil with plant wax – trans/saturated fat replacements

    Science.gov (United States)

    This featured article reviews recent advances on the development of trans fat-free, low saturated fat food products from organogels formed by a plant wax in a vegetable oil. Plant waxes are of great interest in this research area because they are obtained as by-products during the oil refining proce...

  19. A technical evaluation of biodiesel from vegetable oils vs. algae. Will algae-derived biodiesel perform?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Biodiesel, one of the most prominent renewable alternative fuels, can be derived from a variety of sources including vegetable oils, animal fats and used cooking oils as well as alternative sources such as algae. While issues such as land-use change, food vs. fuel, feedstock availability, and produc...

  20. Unilever food safety assurance system for refined vegetable oils and fats

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    van Duijn Gerrit

    2010-03-01

    Full Text Available The Unilever Food Safety Assurance system for refined oils and fats is based on risk assessments for the presence of contaminants or pesticide residues in crude oils, and refining process studies to validate the removal of these components. Crude oil risk assessments were carried out by combining supply chain visits, and analyses of the contaminant and pesticide residue levels in a large number of crude oil samples. Contaminants like poly-aromatic hydrocarbons and hydrocarbons of mineral origin, and pesticide residues can largely be removed by refining. For many years, this Food Safety Assurance System has proven to be effective in controlling contaminant levels in refined vegetable oils and fats.

  1. Microbial-Derived Oils and Value-Added Products: Biosynthesis and Applications for Biofuel Production

    OpenAIRE

    McCurdy, Alex T.

    2015-01-01

    Efforts are being made to replace petroleum-derived fuels with biofuels in a cost competitive manner. It is apparent that the continued use of petroleum is futile as population and technological growth put increasing pressure on the demand for cheap energy and chemicals. Diminishing resources, civil unrest in the Middle East, and the impact of using petrochemicals on the environment are critical driving forces for research in generating renewable petroleum replacements that can be produced wi...

  2. 33 CFR 154.1240 - Specific requirements for animal fats and vegetable oils facilities that could reasonably be...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... fats and vegetable oils facilities that could reasonably be expected to cause substantial harm to the... SECURITY (CONTINUED) POLLUTION FACILITIES TRANSFERRING OIL OR HAZARDOUS MATERIAL IN BULK Response Plans for Animal Fats and Vegetable Oils Facilities § 154.1240 Specific requirements for animal fats and...

  3. United States Gulf of Mexico Coastal Marsh Vegetation Responses and Sensitivities to Oil Spill: A Review

    OpenAIRE

    S. Reza Pezeshki; Ronald D. DeLaune

    2015-01-01

    The present review summarizes the literature on the effects of oil spill on the U.S. Gulf of Mexico coastal vegetation including freshwater-, brackish-, and salt-marshes. When in contact with plant tissues, oil may have adverse impacts via physical and chemical effects. Oil may also become detrimental to plants by covering soil surfaces, leading to root oxygen stress and/or penetrate into the soil where it becomes in contact with the roots. The affected vegetation may survive the impact by pr...

  4. Fuel properties and calculation of higher heating values of vegetable oils

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Demirbas, A. [Black Sea Technical University, Akcaabat-Trabzon (Turkey). Dept. of Science Education

    1998-07-01

    This short communication reports investigations on the physical, chemical and fuel properties of vegetable oils. Combustion heats, determined as higher heating values (HHVs), of vegetable oil samples obtained from different Turkish sources were determined experimentally and calculated from chemical analyses. The HHV (kJ g{sup -1}) of the oils as a function of saponification value (SV) and iodine value (IV) was calculated with the equation: HHV = 49.43 - (0.041(SV) + 0.015(IV)), for which the correlation coefficient was 0.9999. The HHVs calculated from this equation showed a mean difference of 0.0067%. 18 refs., 2 figs., 4 tabs.

  5. Direct oxidation of waste vegetable oil in solid-oxide fuel cells

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhou, Z. F.; Kumar, R.; Thakur, S. T.; Rudnick, L. R.; Schobert, H.; Lvov, S. N.

    Solid-oxide fuel cells with ceria, ceria-Cu, and ceria-Rh anode were demonstrated to generate stable electric power with waste vegetable oil through direct oxidation of the fuel. The only pre-treatment to the fuel was a filtration to remove particulates. The performance of the fuel cell was stable over 100 h for the waste vegetable oil without dilution. The generated power was up to 0.25 W cm -2 for ceria-Rh fuel cell. This compares favorably with previously studied hydrocarbon fuels including jet fuels and Pennsylvania crude oil.

  6. Incorporating different vegetable oils into an aqueous dispersion of hybrid organic nanoparticles

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Samyn, Pieter, E-mail: Pieter.Samyn@fobawi.uni-freiburg.de [Albert-Luedwigs-University Freiburg, Institute for Forest Utilization (Germany); Schoukens, Gustaaf [Ghent University, Department of Textiles (Belgium); Stanssens, Dirk; Vonck, Leo; Van den Abbeele, Henk [Topchim N.V. (Belgium)

    2012-08-15

    Different vegetable oils including soy oil, high-oleic sunflower oil, corn oil, castor oil (CO), rapeseed oil, and hydrogenated CO were added to the imidization reaction of poly(styrene-maleic anhydride) or SMA, with ammonium hydroxide in aqueous medium. The oils favorably reduce viscosity during ammonolysis of the anhydride moieties and increase the maximum solid content of the dispersed imidized SMA to at least 50 wt%, compared to a maximum of 35 wt% for pure imidized SMA. The viscosity of imidized SMA with polyunsaturated oils was generally larger than for monosaturated oils, but it was highest for COs due to high contents of hydroxyl groups. Depending on the oil reactivity, homogeneous or core-shell nanoparticles with 20-60 nm diameters formed. The interactions of oil and organic phase were studied by Fourier-transform infrared spectroscopy, indicating qualitative variances between different oils, the fraction imidized SMA and remaining fraction of ammonolyzed SMA without leakage of oil upon diluting the dispersion and precipitation at low pH. A quantitative analysis with calculation of imide contents, amounts of reacted oil and chemical interactions was made by Fourier-transform-Raman spectroscopy suggesting that most interactions take place around the unsaturated oil moieties and ammonolyzed anhydride.

  7. Replacement of Dietary Fish Oil with Vegetable Oils Improves the Growth and Flesh Quality of Large Yellow Croaker (Larmichthys crocea)

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    DUAN Qingyuan; MAI Kangsen; SHENTU Jikang; AI Qinghui; ZHONG Huiying; JIANG Yujian; ZHANG Lu; ZHANG Chunxiao; GUO Sitong

    2014-01-01

    We investigated the effect of the replacement of dietary fish oil with vegetable oils on the growth and flesh quality of large yellow croaker (Larmichthys crocea). The basal diet (FO) was formulated to contain 66.5%fish meal and 6.4%menhaden fish oil;whereas the other 3 experimental diets were formulated by replacing the fish oil with 50%soybean oil (SO50), 100%soybean oil (SO100) and 100%palm oil (PO100), respectively. The 4 diets were randomly assigned to 4 floating sea cages (3.0 m × 3.0 m × 3.0 m), and each was stocked with 250 fish individuals with an initial average weight of 245.29 g ± 7.45 g. The fish were fed to apparent sa-tiation twice a day at 5:00 and 17:00, respectively, for 12 weeks. Experimental analysis showed that the specific growth rate of fish fed SO50 or PO100 were significantly higher than that of fish fed FO or SO100 (P0.05). Compared to FO diet, SO50, SO100 and PO100 diets led to substantial decreases in the liquid loss and wa-ter loss from fresh fillets (1 d, 4℃) (P<0.05). Similarly, thiobarbituric acid reactive substance (TBARS) values of fillets under dif-ferent storage conditions (1 d, 4℃;7 d, 4℃;4 weeks,-20℃;8 weeks,-20℃) decreased significantly after partial or complete re-placement of fish oil with vegetable oils. These findings indicated that the growth performance and selected flesh quality properties (liquid holding capacity and TBARS value) of large yellow croaker were substantially improved by replacing dietary fish oil with vegetable oils.

  8. A rapid method to authenticate vegetable oils through surface-enhanced Raman scattering

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lv, Ming Yang; Zhang, Xin; Ren, Hai Rui; Liu, Luo; Zhao, Yong Mei; Wang, Zheng; Wu, Zheng Long; Liu, Li Min; Xu, Hai Jun

    2016-03-01

    Vegetable oils are essential in our daily diet. Among various vegetable oils, the major difference lies in the composition of fatty acids, including unsaturated fatty acids (USFA) and saturated fatty acids (SFA). USFA include oleic acid (OA), linoleic acid (LA), and α-linolenic acid (ALA), while SFA are mainly palmitic acid (PA). In this study, the most typical and abundant USFA present with PA in vegetable oils were quantified. More importantly, certain proportional relationships between the integrated intensities of peaks centered at 1656 cm-1 (S1656) in the surface-enhanced Raman scattering spectra of different USFA were confirmed. Therefore, the LA or ALA content could be converted into an equivalent virtual OA content enabling the characterization of the USFA content in vegetable oils using the equivalent total OA content. In combination with the S1656 of pure OA and using peanut, sesame, and soybean oils as examples, the ranges of S1656 corresponding to the National Standards of China were established to allow the rapid authentication of vegetable oils. Gas chromatograph-mass spectrometer analyses verified the accuracy of the method, with relative errors of less than 5%. Moreover, this method can be extended to other detection fields, such as diseases.

  9. Experimental Investigation of Performanec of Single Cylinder 4s Diesel Engine Using Dual Vegetable Oil Blended

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Prof. C. S. Koli

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available Over the last two decades there has been a tremendous increase in the number of automobiles and a corresponding increase in the fuel price. In this regard, alternative fuels like vegetable oils play a major role. Use of pure vegetable oil in diesel engines causes some problems due to their high viscosity compared with diesel fuel. To solve the problems due to high viscosity various techniques are used. One such technique is fuel blending. This paper investigated the performance parameters of dual vegetable oil blends (mixture of Mustard oil and Palm oil with diesel on a stationary single cylinder, four stroke direct injection compression ignition engine. The blends of BB 10 (combination of Diesel 90% by volume, Mustard oil 5% by volume and Palm oil 5% by volume and blends of BB 20 (combination of Diesel 80% by volume, Mustard oil 10% by volume and Palm oil 10% by volume gave better brake thermal efficiency, lower total fuel consumption and lower brake specific fuel consumption than other blends (BB 30, BB 40 and BB 50.

  10. Effect of Catalyst on Transesterifi cation of Waste Vegetable Oils from Food Processing Facility

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zoran Iličković

    2009-12-01

    Full Text Available Converting waste vegetable oils from food processing facilities, restaurants and households to biodiesel by the transestrification reaction with methanol has important advantages for human health and environment. The transesterification reaction of waste vegetable oils is affected by free fatty acids and water content of oils and fats, type of alcohol, type and quantities of catalyst, reaction temperature and reaction time. Basic aim of this paper is to explore effect of type and quantities of catalyst on transesterification process of different waste vegetable oils from food processing facilities with methanol. Comparison of basic characteristics between produced biodiesel, industrially produced biodiesel and values from European standards for biodiesel fuel (EN14214 was made.

  11. Effect of Catalyst on Transesterification of Waste Vegetable Oils from Food Processing Facility

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zoran Iličković

    2009-12-01

    Full Text Available Converting waste vegetable oils from food processing facilities, restaurants and households to biodiesel by the transestrification reaction with methanol has important advantages for human health and environment. The transesterification reaction of waste vegetable oils is affected by free fatty acids and water content of oils and fats, type of alcohol, type and quantities of catalyst, reaction temperature and reaction time. Basic aim of this paper is to explore effect of type and quantities of catalyst on transesterification process of different waste vegetable oils from food processing facilities with methanol. Comparison of basic characteristics between produced biodiesel, industrially produced biodiesel and values from European standards for biodiesel fuel (EN14214 was made.

  12. Evaluation of antioxidants stability by thermal analysis and its protective effect in heated edible vegetable oil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Seme Youssef Reda

    2011-06-01

    Full Text Available In this work, through the use of thermal analysis techniques, the thermal stabilities of some antioxidants were investigated, in order to evaluate their resistance to thermal oxidation in oils, by heating canola vegetable oil, and to suggest that antioxidants would be more appropriate to increase the resistance of vegetable oils in the thermal degradation process in frying. The techniques used were: Thermal Gravimetric (TG and Differential Scanning Calorimetry (DSC analyses, as well as an allusion to a possible protective action of the vegetable oils, based on the thermal oxidation of canola vegetable oil in the laboratory under constant heating at 180 ºC/8 hours for 10 days. The studied antioxidants were: ascorbic acid, sorbic acid, citric acid, sodium erythorbate, BHT (3,5-di-tert-butyl-4-hydroxytoluene, BHA (2, 3-tert-butyl-4-methoxyphenol, TBHQ (tertiary butyl hydroquinone, PG (propyl gallate - described as antioxidants by ANVISA and the FDA; and also the phytic acid antioxidant and the SAIB (sucrose acetate isobutyrate additive, which is used in the food industry, in order to test its behavior as an antioxidant in vegetable oil. The following antioxidants: citric acid, sodium erythorbate, BHA, BHT, TBHQ and sorbic acid decompose at temperatures below 180 ºC, and therefore, have little protective action in vegetable oils undergoing frying processes. The antioxidants below: phytic acid, ascorbic acid and PG, are the most resistant and begin their decomposition processes at temperatures between 180 and 200 ºC. The thermal analytical techniques have also shown that the SAIB antioxidant is the most resistant to oxidative action, and it can be a useful choice in the thermal decomposition prevention of edible oils, improving stability regarding oxidative processes.

  13. Effects of Oil-Contaminated Sediments on Submerged Vegetation: An Experimental Assessment of Ruppia maritima.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Charles W Martin

    Full Text Available Oil spills threaten the productivity of ecosystems through the degradation of coastal flora and the ecosystem services these plants provide. While lab and field investigations have quantified the response of numerous species of emergent vegetation to oil, the effects on submerged vegetation remain uncertain. Here, we discuss the implications of oil exposure for Ruppia maritima, one of the most common species of submerged vegetation found in the region affected by the recent Deepwater Horizon oil spill. We grew R. maritima in a range of manipulated sediment oil concentrations: 0, 0.26, 0.53, and 1.05 mL oil /L tank volume, and tracked changes in growth (wet weight and shoot density/length, reproductive activity (inflorescence and seed production, root characteristics (mass, length, diameter, and area, and uprooting force of plants. While no statistical differences were detected in growth, plants exhibited significant changes to reproductive output, root morphology, and uprooting force. We found significant reductions in inflorescences and fruiting bodies at higher oil concentrations. In addition, the roots growing in the high oil were shorter and wider. Plants in medium and high oil required less force to uproot. A second experiment was performed to separate the effects of root morphology and oiled sediment properties and indicated that there were also changes to sediment cohesion that contributed to a reduction in uprooting forces in medium and high oil. Given the importance of sexual reproduction for these plants, oil contamination may have substantial population-level effects. Moreover, areas containing buried oil may be more susceptible to high energy storm events due to the reduction in uprooting force of foundation species such as R. maritima.

  14. Selection and characterization of biofuel-producing environmental bacteria isolated from vegetable oil-rich wastes

    OpenAIRE

    Almudena Escobar-Niño; Carlos Luna; Diego Luna; Marcos, Ana T.; David Cánovas; Encarnación Mellado

    2014-01-01

    Fossil fuels are consumed so rapidly that it is expected that the planet resources will be soon exhausted. Therefore, it is imperative to develop alternative and inexpensive new technologies to produce sustainable fuels, for example biodiesel. In addition to hydrolytic and esterification reactions, lipases are capable of performing transesterification reactions useful for the production of biodiesel. However selection of the lipases capable of performing transesterification reactions is not e...

  15. Detection of argan oil adulteration with vegetable oils by high-performance liquid chromatography-evaporative light scattering detection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Salghi, Rachid; Armbruster, Wolfgang; Schwack, Wolfgang

    2014-06-15

    Triacylglycerol profiles were selected as indicator of adulteration of argan oils to carry out a rapid screening of samples for the evaluation of authenticity. Triacylglycerols were separated by high-performance liquid chromatography-evaporative light scattering detection. Different peak area ratios were defined to sensitively detect adulteration of argan oil with vegetable oils such as sunflower, soy bean, and olive oil up to the level of 5%. Based on four reference argan oils, mean limits of detection and quantitation were calculated to approximately 0.4% and 1.3%, respectively. Additionally, 19 more argan oil reference samples were analysed by high-performance liquid chromatography-refractive index detection, resulting in highly comparative results. The overall strategy demonstrated a good applicability in practise, and hence a high potential to be transferred to routine laboratories.

  16. Effect of Replacing Pork Fat with Vegetable Oils on Quality Properties of Emulsion-type Pork Sausages.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Hyun-Jin; Jung, Eun-Hee; Lee, Sang-Hwa; Kim, Jong-Hee; Lee, Jae-Joon; Choi, Yang-Ii

    2015-01-01

    This study was conducted to evaluate the quality properties of emulsion-type pork sausages when pork fat is replaced with vegetable oil mixtures during processing. Pork sausages were processed under six treatment conditions: T1 (20% pork fat), T2 (10% pork fat + 2% grape seed oil + 4% olive oil + 4% canola oil), T3 (4% grape seed oil + 16% canola oil), T4 (4% grape seed oil + 4% olive oil + 12% canola oil), T5 (4% grape seed oil + 8% olive oil + 8% canola oil), and T6 (4% grape seed oil + 12% olive oil + 4% canola oil). Proximate analysis showed significant (psausages. Furthermore, replacement with vegetable oil mixtures significantly decreased the ash content (psausages. Also, cholesterol content in T6 was significantly lower than T2 (psausages were significantly (poil mixtures replacement. On the contrary, cohesiveness and springiness in the T4 group were similar to those of group T1. The unsaturated fatty acid content in emulsion-type pork sausages was increased by vegetable oil mixtures replacement. Replacement of pork fat with mixed vegetable oils had no negative effects on the quality properties of emulsion-type pork sausages, and due to its reduced saturated fatty acid composition, the product had the quality characteristics of the healthy meat products desired by consumers.

  17. Production of Biodiesel from Vegetable Oil Using Microware Irradiation

    OpenAIRE

    N. Kapilan

    2012-01-01

    The petroleum oil supply crisis, the increase in demand and the price eruption have led to a search for an alternative fuel of bio-origin in India. Among the alternative fuels, biodiesel is considered as a sustainable renewable alternative fuel to fossil diesel. Non-edible jatropha oil has considerable potential for the production of biodiesel in India. The production of biodiesel from jatropha oil using a conventional heating method takes more than 1h. In this work, microwave irradiation has...

  18. Determination of trigonelline in seeds and vegetable oils by capillary electrophoresis as a novel marker for the detection of adulterations in olive oils.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sánchez-Hernández, Laura; Puchalska, Patrycja; García-Ruiz, Carmen; Crego, Antonio L; Marina, Maria Luisa

    2010-07-14

    A capillary electrophoresis method with UV detection was developed for the first time for the determination of the pyridine betaine trigonelline (N-methylnicotinic acid) in seeds and vegetable oils. Analytical characteristics of the method showed its good performance in terms of linearity (r > 0.999), precision (relative standard deviations oils). The developed method was applied to the analysis of soy and sunflower seeds, three varieties of olives, and sunflower, soy, and extra virgin olive oils. Trigonelline was determined in soy and sunflower seeds and their respective oils, whereas it was not detected in olives or olive oils. Different mixtures of extra virgin olive oil with seed oils were analyzed, detecting up to 10% of soy oil in olive oil. As a consequence, trigonelline is proposed in this work as a novel marker for the detection of adulterations of olive oils with other vegetable oils such as soy and sunflower oils.

  19. An Investigation on Tribological Properties and Lubrication Mechanism of Graphite Nanoparticles as Vegetable Based Oil Additive

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yu Su

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper used graphite nanoparticles with the diameter of 35 and 80 nm and LB2000 vegetable based oil to prepare graphite oil-based nanofluids with different volume fractions by two-step method. The tribological properties of graphite nanoparticles as LB2000 vegetable based oil additive were investigated with a pin-on-disk friction and wear tester. Field emission scanning electron microscope (FE-SEM and energy dispersive spectroscopy (EDS were used to examine the morphology and the content of some typical elements of wear scar, respectively. Further, the lubrication mechanism of graphite nanoparticles was explored. It was found that graphite nanoparticles as vegetable based oil additive could remarkably improve friction-reducing and antiwear properties of pure oil. With the increase of volume fraction of graphite nanoparticles, the friction coefficient and the wear volume of disk decreased. At the same volume fraction, the smaller particles, the lower friction coefficient and wear volume. The main reason for the improvement in friction-reducing and antiwear properties of vegetable based oil using graphite nanoparticles was that graphite nanoparticles could form a physical deposition film on the friction surfaces.

  20. Breads Fortified with Freeze-Dried Vegetables: Quality and Nutritional Attributes. Part II: Breads Not Containing Oil as an Ingredient

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Viren Ranawana

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available The present article describes the second part of a study investigating the effect of adding vegetables on the nutritional, physico-chemical, and oxidative properties of wheat bread, and specifically focuses on bread that does not contain oil as an added ingredient. Wheat flour breads fortified with freeze-dried carrot, tomato, beetroot or broccoli were developed and assessed for their nutritional composition, antioxidant potential, oxidative stability, and storage properties. Using a simulated in vitro model, the study also examined the impact of vegetable addition on the oxidative stability of macronutrients during gastro-intestinal digestion. Adding vegetables improved the nutritional and functional attributes of the oil-free breads. However, they demonstrated a lower antioxidant potential compared to their oil-containing counterparts. Similarly, the textural and storage properties of the oil-free vegetable breads were poorer compared to the oil-containing breads. As expected, in the absence of oil the oil-free breads were associated with lower lipid oxidation both in their fresh form and during gastro-intestinal digestion. Adding vegetables reduced protein oxidation in the fresh oil-free breads but had no effect during gastro-intestinal digestion. The impact of vegetables on macronutrient oxidation in the oil-free breads during digestion appears to be vegetable-specific with broccoli exacerbating it and the others having no effect. Of the evaluated vegetables, beetroot showed the most promising nutritional and physico-chemical benefits when incorporated into bread that does not contain added oil.

  1. Soil TPH concentration estimation using vegetation indices in an oil polluted area of eastern China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhu, Linhai; Zhao, Xuechun; Lai, Liming; Wang, Jianjian; Jiang, Lianhe; Ding, Jinzhi; Liu, Nanxi; Yu, Yunjiang; Li, Junsheng; Xiao, Nengwen; Zheng, Yuanrun; Rimmington, Glyn M

    2013-01-01

    Assessing oil pollution using traditional field-based methods over large areas is difficult and expensive. Remote sensing technologies with good spatial and temporal coverage might provide an alternative for monitoring oil pollution by recording the spectral signals of plants growing in polluted soils. Total petroleum hydrocarbon concentrations of soils and the hyperspectral canopy reflectance were measured in wetlands dominated by reeds (Phragmites australis) around oil wells that have been producing oil for approximately 10 years in the Yellow River Delta, eastern China to evaluate the potential of vegetation indices and red edge parameters to estimate soil oil pollution. The detrimental effect of oil pollution on reed communities was confirmed by the evidence that the aboveground biomass decreased from 1076.5 g m(-2) to 5.3 g m(-2) with increasing total petroleum hydrocarbon concentrations ranging from 9.45 mg kg(-1) to 652 mg kg(-1). The modified chlorophyll absorption ratio index (MCARI) best estimated soil TPH concentration among 20 vegetation indices. The linear model involving MCARI had the highest coefficient of determination (R(2) = 0.73) and accuracy of prediction (RMSE = 104.2 mg kg(-1)). For other vegetation indices and red edge parameters, the R(2) and RMSE values ranged from 0.64 to 0.71 and from 120.2 mg kg(-1) to 106.8 mg kg(-1) respectively. The traditional broadband normalized difference vegetation index (NDVI), one of the broadband multispectral vegetation indices (BMVIs), produced a prediction (R(2) = 0.70 and RMSE = 110.1 mg kg(-1)) similar to that of MCARI. These results corroborated the potential of remote sensing for assessing soil oil pollution in large areas. Traditional BMVIs are still of great value in monitoring soil oil pollution when hyperspectral data are unavailable.

  2. Soil TPH concentration estimation using vegetation indices in an oil polluted area of eastern China.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Linhai Zhu

    Full Text Available Assessing oil pollution using traditional field-based methods over large areas is difficult and expensive. Remote sensing technologies with good spatial and temporal coverage might provide an alternative for monitoring oil pollution by recording the spectral signals of plants growing in polluted soils. Total petroleum hydrocarbon concentrations of soils and the hyperspectral canopy reflectance were measured in wetlands dominated by reeds (Phragmites australis around oil wells that have been producing oil for approximately 10 years in the Yellow River Delta, eastern China to evaluate the potential of vegetation indices and red edge parameters to estimate soil oil pollution. The detrimental effect of oil pollution on reed communities was confirmed by the evidence that the aboveground biomass decreased from 1076.5 g m(-2 to 5.3 g m(-2 with increasing total petroleum hydrocarbon concentrations ranging from 9.45 mg kg(-1 to 652 mg kg(-1. The modified chlorophyll absorption ratio index (MCARI best estimated soil TPH concentration among 20 vegetation indices. The linear model involving MCARI had the highest coefficient of determination (R(2 = 0.73 and accuracy of prediction (RMSE = 104.2 mg kg(-1. For other vegetation indices and red edge parameters, the R(2 and RMSE values ranged from 0.64 to 0.71 and from 120.2 mg kg(-1 to 106.8 mg kg(-1 respectively. The traditional broadband normalized difference vegetation index (NDVI, one of the broadband multispectral vegetation indices (BMVIs, produced a prediction (R(2 = 0.70 and RMSE = 110.1 mg kg(-1 similar to that of MCARI. These results corroborated the potential of remote sensing for assessing soil oil pollution in large areas. Traditional BMVIs are still of great value in monitoring soil oil pollution when hyperspectral data are unavailable.

  3. Soil TPH concentration estimation using vegetation indices in an oil polluted area of eastern China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhu, Linhai; Zhao, Xuechun; Lai, Liming; Wang, Jianjian; Jiang, Lianhe; Ding, Jinzhi; Liu, Nanxi; Yu, Yunjiang; Li, Junsheng; Xiao, Nengwen; Zheng, Yuanrun; Rimmington, Glyn M

    2013-01-01

    Assessing oil pollution using traditional field-based methods over large areas is difficult and expensive. Remote sensing technologies with good spatial and temporal coverage might provide an alternative for monitoring oil pollution by recording the spectral signals of plants growing in polluted soils. Total petroleum hydrocarbon concentrations of soils and the hyperspectral canopy reflectance were measured in wetlands dominated by reeds (Phragmites australis) around oil wells that have been producing oil for approximately 10 years in the Yellow River Delta, eastern China to evaluate the potential of vegetation indices and red edge parameters to estimate soil oil pollution. The detrimental effect of oil pollution on reed communities was confirmed by the evidence that the aboveground biomass decreased from 1076.5 g m(-2) to 5.3 g m(-2) with increasing total petroleum hydrocarbon concentrations ranging from 9.45 mg kg(-1) to 652 mg kg(-1). The modified chlorophyll absorption ratio index (MCARI) best estimated soil TPH concentration among 20 vegetation indices. The linear model involving MCARI had the highest coefficient of determination (R(2) = 0.73) and accuracy of prediction (RMSE = 104.2 mg kg(-1)). For other vegetation indices and red edge parameters, the R(2) and RMSE values ranged from 0.64 to 0.71 and from 120.2 mg kg(-1) to 106.8 mg kg(-1) respectively. The traditional broadband normalized difference vegetation index (NDVI), one of the broadband multispectral vegetation indices (BMVIs), produced a prediction (R(2) = 0.70 and RMSE = 110.1 mg kg(-1)) similar to that of MCARI. These results corroborated the potential of remote sensing for assessing soil oil pollution in large areas. Traditional BMVIs are still of great value in monitoring soil oil pollution when hyperspectral data are unavailable. PMID:23342066

  4. Effect of oil type and fatty acid composition on dynamic and steady shear rheology of vegetable oils.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yalcin, Hasan; Toker, Omer Said; Dogan, Mahmut

    2012-01-01

    In this study, effect of fatty acid composition on dynamic and steady shear rheology of oils was studied. For this aim, different types of vegetable oils (soybean, sunflower, olive, hazelnut, cottonseed and canola), were used. Rheological properties of oil samples were identified by rheometer (Thermo-Haake) at 25°C and fatty acid composition of oils was determined by GC (Agilent 6890). Steady shear rheological properties of oil samples were measured at shear rate range of 0.1-100 s⁻¹. Viscosity of olive, hazelnut, cottonseed, canola, soybean and sunflower was 61.2 mPa.s, 59.7 mPa.s, 57.3 mPa.s, 53.5 mPa.s, 48.7 mPa.s and 48.2 mPa.s, respectively. There was a significant difference between viscosity of oils except soybean and sunflower. As a result it was seen that there was a correlation between viscosity and monounsaturated (R=0.89), polyunsaturated (R=-0.97) fatty acid composition of oils, separately. Equation was found to predict viscosity of the oils based on mono and polyunsaturation composition of oils. In addition the dynamic rheological properties of oils were also examined. G', G'' and tan δ (G''/G') values were measured at 0.3 Pa (in viscoelastic region) and 0.1-1 Hz. As a result of multiple regression analysis another equations were found between tan δ, viscosity and polyunsaturated fatty acids.

  5. Vegetable oil spills on salt marsh sediments; comparison between sunflower and linseed oils.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pereira, M Glória; Mudge, Stephen M; Latchford, John

    2003-09-01

    The effects of a simulated spill of sunflower oil in salt marsh sediments were compared with an experiment with linseed oil. Sunflower and linseed oil penetrated the sediments at the same rates but different adsorption of the oils onto sediment particles resulted in the establishment of anaerobic conditions at shallower depths in sediments contaminated with linseed oil than with sunflower oil. The total lipid content of sunflower oil contaminated sediments remained almost stable for 6 months, whilst only 40% of linseed oil remained in the sediment after 2 months. Numbers of culturable heterotrophic bacteria and aerobic oil degrading bacteria in muddy sediment increased rapidly in response to the presence of the oils but bacterial numbers in sandy sediments increased more slowly for sunflower oil. Changes in fatty acid composition indicate similar degradation pathways for both oils but sunflower oil degraded more slowly than linseed oil and thus has the potential for longer lasting effects in marine environments.

  6. A systematic review of high-oleic vegetable oil substitutions for other fats and oils on cardiovascular disease risk factors: implications for novel high-oleic soybean oils.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huth, Peter J; Fulgoni, Victor L; Larson, Brian T

    2015-11-01

    High-oleic acid soybean oil (H-OSBO) is a trait-enhanced vegetable oil containing >70% oleic acid. Developed as an alternative for trans-FA (TFA)-containing vegetable oils, H-OSBO is predicted to replace large amounts of soybean oil in the US diet. However, there is little evidence concerning the effects of H-OSBO on coronary heart disease (CHD)(6) risk factors and CHD risk. We examined and quantified the effects of substituting high-oleic acid (HO) oils for fats and oils rich in saturated FAs (SFAs), TFAs, or n-6 (ω-6) polyunsaturated FAs (PUFAs) on blood lipids in controlled clinical trials. Searches of online databases through June 2014 were used to select studies that defined subject characteristics; described control and intervention diets; substituted HO oils compositionally similar to H-OSBO (i.e., ≥70% oleic acid) for equivalent amounts of oils high in SFAs, TFAs, or n-6 PUFAs for ≥3 wk; and reported changes in blood lipids. Studies that replaced saturated fats or oils with HO oils showed significant reductions in total cholesterol (TC), LDL cholesterol, and apolipoprotein B (apoB) (P oil sources with HO oils showed significant reductions in TC, LDL cholesterol, apoB, TGs, TC:HDL cholesterol and increased HDL cholesterol and apoA-1 (mean percentage of change: -5.7%, -9.2%, -7.3%, -11.7%, -12.1%, 5.6%, 3.7%, respectively; P oils high in n-6 PUFAs with equivalent amounts of HO oils, TC, LDL cholesterol, TGs, HDL cholesterol, apoA-1, and TC:HDL cholesterol did not change. These findings suggest that replacing fats and oils high in SFAs or TFAs with either H-OSBO or oils high in n-6 PUFAs would have favorable and comparable effects on plasma lipid risk factors and overall CHD risk.

  7. Harnessing indigenous plant seed oil for the production of bio-fuel by an oleaginous fungus, Cunninghamella blakesleeana- JSK2, isolated from tropical soil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sukrutha, S K; Janakiraman, Savitha

    2014-01-01

    Cunninghamella blakesleeana- JSK2, a gamma-linolenic acid (GLA) producing tropical fungal isolate, was utilized as a tool to evaluate the influence of various plant seed oils on biomass, oleagenicity and bio-fuel production. The fungus accumulated 26 % total lipid of their dry biomass (2 g/l) and 13 % of GLA in its total fatty acid. Among the various plant seed oils tested as carbon sources for biotransformation studies, watermelon oil had an effect on biomass and total lipid increasing up to 9.24 g/l and 34 % respectively. Sunflower, pumpkin, and onion oil increased GLA content between 15-18 %. Interestingly, an indigenous biodiesel commodity, Pongamia pinnata oil showed tremendous effect on fatty acid profile in C. blakesleeana- JSK2, when used as a sole source of carbon. There was complete inhibition of GLA from 13 to 0 % and increase in oleic acid content, one of the key components of biodiesel to 70 % (from 20 % in control). Our results suggest the potential application of indigenous plant seed oils, particularly P. pinnata oil, for the production of economically valuable bio-fuel in oleaginous fungi in general, and C. blakesleeana- JSK2, in particular.

  8. Harnessing indigenous plant seed oil for the production of bio-fuel by an oleaginous fungus, Cunninghamella blakesleeana- JSK2, isolated from tropical soil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sukrutha, S K; Janakiraman, Savitha

    2014-01-01

    Cunninghamella blakesleeana- JSK2, a gamma-linolenic acid (GLA) producing tropical fungal isolate, was utilized as a tool to evaluate the influence of various plant seed oils on biomass, oleagenicity and bio-fuel production. The fungus accumulated 26 % total lipid of their dry biomass (2 g/l) and 13 % of GLA in its total fatty acid. Among the various plant seed oils tested as carbon sources for biotransformation studies, watermelon oil had an effect on biomass and total lipid increasing up to 9.24 g/l and 34 % respectively. Sunflower, pumpkin, and onion oil increased GLA content between 15-18 %. Interestingly, an indigenous biodiesel commodity, Pongamia pinnata oil showed tremendous effect on fatty acid profile in C. blakesleeana- JSK2, when used as a sole source of carbon. There was complete inhibition of GLA from 13 to 0 % and increase in oleic acid content, one of the key components of biodiesel to 70 % (from 20 % in control). Our results suggest the potential application of indigenous plant seed oils, particularly P. pinnata oil, for the production of economically valuable bio-fuel in oleaginous fungi in general, and C. blakesleeana- JSK2, in particular. PMID:24142351

  9. Emerging Techniques in Vegetable Oil Analysis Using Stable Isotope Ratio Mass Spectrometry

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kelly, S. D.; Rhodes, C.

    2002-07-01

    As the practice of vegetable oil adulteration becomes more sophisticated, the possibility to subvert detection using established techniques such as capillary gas chromatography is increasing. One of the most powerful techniques to be used in food authenticity studies is stable isotope ratio mass spectrometry (SIRMS) which utilises differences in the natural abundance of the stable isotopes of the light bio elements hydrogen, nitrogen, carbon, oxygen and sulfur to detect food fraud. SIRMS has found application in the authentication of a wide range of foodstuffs, including fruit juices, wines, spirits, honey and to detect the adulteration of flavour compounds with synthetic analogues. This papers reviews the current state-of-the-art for the authentication of vegetable oils using SIRMS and highlights emergent techniques such as compound-an position specific-isotope mass spectrometry. These latter developments offer the potential to provide more rapid and improved detection of the economic adulteration of vegetable oils. (Author) 38 refs.

  10. FACTORS INFLUENCING SYNTHESIS OF EXTRACELLULAR LIPASES BY YARROWIA LIPOLYTICA IN MEDIUM CONTAINING VEGETABLE OILS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Agata Urszula Fabiszewska

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this study was to evaluate lipase activity of Yarrowia lipolytica KKP 379 in media containing selected vegetable oils as the sole carbon source. The highest activity for extracellular Yarrowia lipolytica lipases was obtained in a corn oil medium, which was almost two times higher compared to lipase activity in olive oil medium, while the lowest lipolytic activity was observed in medium containing rice and peanut oils. Literature suggested that free fatty acids, especially oleic acid present in olive oil, are good inducers of microbial lipase synthesis, however the results of this study do not support the hypothesis that high oleic acid content stimulates high lipolytic activity. Neither the relationship between the percentage of individual fatty acids in triacylglycerols of vegetable oils nor their content at the sn-1,3 positions influenced the activity of extracellular lipases synthesized by Yarrowia lipolytica KKP 379. Several hypothesis are given regarding the presence of other factors which may determine differences in extracellular lipolytic activity of yeast grown on different vegetable oils, such as presence of metal ions, the content of free fatty acids and critical micellar concentration.

  11. The Structure and Fundamental Problems of Vegetable Oil Industry in Turkey

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    O. Azabagaoglu

    2006-01-01

    Full Text Available There are 167 oil factories in Turkey, with a capacity not only to meet Turkey's domestic demand but also for export purpose. Of these, 8 are concerned with the production and the marketing of margarine, while the others process unrefined and refined oil. In Turkey, the vegetable oil industry has a capacity about 6 million tons of seed grounding and 3 million tons of unrefined oil capacity. In addition, there is also a 950 thousand tons capacity for margarine production. However, the insufficiency of unrefined material has resulted low level capacity usage. For example, the capacity usage was realized as 50% for seed grounding, 47% for unrefined oil production and 40% for margarine production. In this research, the various problems such as quality of unrefined material, finance, storage, etc faced by the vegetable oil industry, from the supliance of unrefined material to domestic and international marketing have been investigated. This study was carried out thoroughly in Turkey for aiming to identify measurements in order to vegetable oil industry could operate near to full capacity.

  12. Vegetation diversity and biomass : response to oil sand tailings disposal in Fort McMurray, Alberta

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    While covering the bottom of constructed wetlands with a layer of oil sands tailings has been proposed as a means of disposal, the salts and naphthenic acids (NA) in tailings may have negative impacts on wetland vegetation development. This study was conducted to determine if wetlands constructed with oil sands tailings have a lower vegetation diversity and biomass than constructed wetlands that are not amended with tailings. The effects of NA and salinity on the vegetation in natural, constructed, and tailings-impacted wetlands were evaluated in 30 sites in the Fort McMurray region. Results of the study indicate that the presence of tailings negatively impacted both vegetation diversity and biomass. Salinity was identified as the primary causal factor.

  13. Experimental investigation of electro-rheological properties of modeled vegetable oils.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Valantina, S Rubalya; Susan, D; Bavasri, S; Priyadarshini, V; Saraswathi, R Ramya; Suriya, M

    2016-02-01

    Vegetable oil becomes polarized on oxidation and polymerization resulting in the formation of peroxide, triglycerides, etc. The quality and reusable state were investigated for sunflower, sesame, rice bran oil and model oil with the addition of oleic acid (2, 4 and 6 %) and antioxidants (citric and tert-Butyl hydroquinone-TBHQ). Excessive reclaims of cooking oil produce toxic by-products due to chemical breakdown that induce the production of polar compounds in oil. To determine the consumable fitness, variations of dielectric constant are observed at different temperatures (29 to 70 °C) and frequencies (1 to 10(7)Hz) for the cooking oil. Physical parameters, such as viscosity and density associated with the saturated and unsaturated fatty acid, are also measured at different temperatures to determine the quality of oil. Dielectric constant and viscosity are correlated and analyzed using a newly developed equation with high correlation constant (R (2)  = 0.998) for oil added with citric acid. Oil added with 2-4 % of oleic acid is observed to have high determination coefficient (R (2)  > 0.92). A lowest correlation (R (2)  = 0.6-0.7) was observed for the oil added with TBHQ. The present study also states that addition of TBHQ to oil does not impede oxidation reaction. Besides, even the shelf life of the oil could not be enhanced and may produce adverse effects in human health.

  14. Effect of vegetable oil oxidation on the hydrogenation reaction process

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kalantari, Faranak

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available Hydrogenation has been carried out in a batch reactor with three different oxidized bleached oils in order to discover the effect of oxidation on the hydrogenation reaction process. Specifications of hydrogenated oils such as melting point, Iodine value, solid fat content and fatty acid composition of the oxidized oils were compared with their un-oxidized reference oils. Oxidized bleached sunflower oil was hydrogenated to target melting points (34, 39 and 42°C at higher iodine values vs. its reference oil with the same reaction time. Oxidized bleached soybean and canola oils were hydrogenated to target melting points (34, 39 and 42°C at higher iodine values as well, but reaction times were longer than their reference oils. The resulting solid fat content and total trans fatty acids of all hydrogenated oils were less than their references. A peroxide value above 0.5meq O2/kg for non auto-oxidized oils and above 5meq O2/kg for auto-oxidized oils will significantly change the hydrogenation process.

    La hidrogenación fue llevada cabo en un reactor discontinuo con tres aceites decoloradas y oxidadas con objeto de estudiar el efecto de la oxidación en el proceso de hidrogenación. Las especificaciones de los aceites hidrogenados tales como el punto de fusión, índice de yodo, contenido de grasa sólida y composición de ácidos grasos de los aceites oxidados fueron comparados con sus correspondientes aceites de referencia sin oxidar. El aceite de girasol decolorado y oxidado fue hidrogenado hasta alcanzar un punto de fusión (34, 39 and 42°C con altos índices de yodo versus su aceite de referencia con el mismo tiempo de reacción. Aceites decolorado y oxidado de soja y de canola fueron hidrogenados hasta alcanzar puntos de fusión (34,39 y 42°C con altos valores de yodo, pero los tiempo de reacción fueron más largos que en sus aceites de referencia. Los resultados del contenido de grasa sólida y ácidos grasos

  15. Analysing the implication of the EU 20-10-20 targets for world vegetable oil production

    OpenAIRE

    Gay, Stephan Hubertus; Mueller, Marc; Santuccio, Federica

    2008-01-01

    The European Commission proposes a minimum of 10 % biofuels in the total transport fuel use by 2020. The new 10% minimum target in 2020 is combined with the existing regulation, which fixes the target at 5.75% in 2010. This paper will in particular investigates how a full implementation of the 20- 10-20 targets would affect production and trade of oil plants in the EU and its main trade partners on this commodity markets, particularly Malaysia and Indonesia. The global general equilibrium mod...

  16. Using MODIS NDVI products for vegetation state monitoring on the oil production territory in Western Siberia

    OpenAIRE

    Kovalev Anton; Tokareva Olga

    2016-01-01

    Article describes the results of using remote sensing data for vegetation state monitoring on the oil field territories in Western Siberia. We used MODIS data product providing the normalized difference vegetation index (NDVI) values. Average NDVI values of each studied area were calculated for the period from 2010 to 2015 with one year interval for June, July and August. Analysis was carried out via an open tool of geographic information system QGIS used for spatial analysis and calculation ...

  17. Formation of alkanes alkylcycloalkanes and alkylbenzenes during the catalytic hydrocracking of vegetable oils

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Filho, G.N. da Rocha; Brodzki, D.; Djega-Mariadassou, G. (Universite Pierre et Marie Curie, Paris (France). Lab. Reactivite de Surface et Structure)

    1993-04-01

    Catalytic hydrocracking of vegetable oils was performed in the presence of a NiMo/[gamma]-Al[sub 2]O[sub 3] catalyst sulfided in situ with elemental sulfur under hydrogen pressure. Various vegetable oils were selected to study the effect of the degree of saturation and lateral chain length: [ital Passiflora edulis] (maracuja), [ital Astrocaryum vulgare] (tucuma), [ital Mauritia flexuosa] (buriti), [ital Orbygnya martiana] (babassu) and soybean. The effects of reaction temperature and hydrogen pressure in cyclization were studied. Carboxylic acids were used as model compounds. 29 refs., 5 figs., 5 tabs.

  18. Fuels Coming from Locals Vegetables Oils for Operating of Thermals Engines

    Science.gov (United States)

    Agboue, Akichi; Yobou, Bokra

    The energy crisis born from the oil problem determined a renewal of attention on the possible possibilities of production of substitute fuels for the operation of the machines and the thermal engines. The fuel`s production based on vegetable oils require a renewal attention about the research of replacement fuel for the opeating of machines and thermal engines. Actually, the scientific world takes an interest in the research of others liquids fuel obtained with renewables energy sources whose vegetables have a good place. So, for helping to solve the fuel problem and particularly in third world countries without petroleum resources but producing fruits and oils seed, this research was about search of fuel from vegetables oils. Extraction and physico-chemical analysis performed on various vegetables plants show an interesting energy aspect. Evaluation of actually energy parameters will permit to do a comparison with classics fuel like gas-oil and petrol. Finally, analysis of thermal engines show that fuels coming from biomass like jatropha, ricinodendron and pistacia can to use for operating of those thermal engines.

  19. Self-consistent photothermal techniques: Application for measuring thermal diffusivity in vegetable oils

    Science.gov (United States)

    Balderas-López, J. A.; Mandelis, Andreas

    2003-01-01

    The thermal wave resonator cavity (TWRC) was used to measure the thermal properties of vegetable oils. The thermal diffusivity of six commercial vegetable oils (olive, corn, soybean, canola, peanut, and sunflower) was measured by means of this device. A linear relation between both the amplitude and phase as functions of the cavity length for the TWRC was observed and used for the measurements. Three significant figure precisions were obtained. A clear distinction between extra virgin olive oil and other oils in terms of thermal diffusivity was shown. The high measurement precision of the TWRC highlights the potential of this relatively new technique for assessing the quality of this kind of fluids in terms of their thermophysical properties.

  20. Ultrasound assisted PTC catalyzed saponification of vegetable oils using aqueous alkali.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bhatkhande, B S; Samant, S D

    1998-03-01

    A few vegetable oils were saponified using aqueous KOH and different PTCs at room temperature in the presence of ultrasound. The extent of saponification was studied using the saponification value as a reference. Optimizations of various parameters such as time, selection of PTC, quantity of PTC, quantity of KOH and quantity of water were carried out using soyabean oil as a sample oil under sonication with stirring. To study the effect of ultrasound, the saponification was also carried out at 35 +/- 2 degrees C under different conditions, namely stirring, sonication, stirring and sonication, and heating at 100 degrees C. It was found that the heterogeneous liquid-liquid phase saponification of different vegetable oils using aq. KOH/CTAB was remarkably accelerated at 35 +/- 2 degrees C in the presence of ultrasound along with stirring.

  1. Characterisation of minor components in vegetable oil by comprehensive gas chromatography with dual detection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Purcaro, Giorgia; Barp, Laura; Beccaria, Marco; Conte, Lanfranco S

    2016-12-01

    The profile of minor compounds, such as alcohols, sterols, free and alkyl fatty acids, waxes, etc., was investigated in different vegetable oils by a comprehensive gas chromatographic system, coupled with a simultaneous dual detection (flame ionisation detector and mass spectrometer) for quantitative and qualitative purposes. Such a system generated a unique two-dimensional chromatogram to be used as a chemical fingerprint. Multi-level information, due not only to a more "comprehensive" preparation technique, but also thanks to the exploitation of a more powerful and sensitive analytical determination allowed the extrapolation of diagnostic information from the minor components profile of different vegetable oils, along with their characteristic profile. Furthermore, an admixture of an extra virgin olive oil with a low amount of sunflower and palm oils was evaluated, attesting to the powerful diagnostic information provided by the proposed approach. PMID:27374590

  2. Effects of Vegetable Oil Type and Lipophilic Emulsifiers on the Induction Period of Fat Crystallization.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miyagawa, Yayoi; Ogawa, Takenobu; Nakagawa, Kyuya; Adachi, Shuji

    2015-01-01

    The induction period of crystallization, which is defined as the time required for oil to start to crystallize, is useful indicator of the freeze-thaw stability of food emulsions such as mayonnaise. We investigated the induction period of vegetable oils with low melting points, such as rapeseed and soybean oils, which are commonly employed for mayonnaise production. The induction period was measured by monitoring the temperature of a specimen during storage at low temperature. The induction period depended on the type of oil and lipophilic emulsifier, emulsifier concentration, and storage temperature. The effect of the oil type on the induction period depended on the composition of the oil. Differential scanning calorimetry (DSC) analyses of the lipophilic emulsifiers suggested that the melting trend of the emulsifier is strongly related to the induction period.

  3. Using vegetable oils and animal fats in Diesel Engines: chemical analyses and engine texts

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In this work, some vegetable oils (rapeseed oil, palm oil) and animal fat were tested in a Diesel engine at a range of engine spreads and torque settings, after preheating at 700C. Engine performance, fuel consumption and NOx, unburnt hydrocarbons and soot emissions have been recorded. The results have been compared to those obtained with diesel fuel in the same test conditions. The oils and fats were also analyzed for their physical and chemical properties (viscosity, composition, unsaturation, heating value). NOx emissions were found to be lower for the oils than for the diesel fuel. This, combined with higher HC emissions, can probably be explained through less effective atomization due to the higher viscosity of the oils and fat. On the other hand, soot emissions were found to decrease.

  4. Cultivation of Chlorella sp. as Biofuel Sources in Palm Oil Mill Effluent (POME)

    OpenAIRE

    H Hadiyanto; Muhamad Maulana Azimatun Nur; Ganang Dwi Hartanto

    2012-01-01

    Renewable energy is essential and vital aspect for development in Indonesia especially less oil reserve for coming 15 years. Biodiesel has received much attention as renewable energy in recent years. One of potential biodiesel is produced from microalgae. Due to high content of nutrients in Palm Oil Mill Effluent (POME), this waste is a potential for nutrient growth for microalgae. Chlorella is one of high potential for biodiesel since it has high lipid content (20-30%). The objective of the ...

  5. Microalgae as a raw material for biofuels production.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gouveia, Luisa; Oliveira, Ana Cristina

    2009-02-01

    Biofuels demand is unquestionable in order to reduce gaseous emissions (fossil CO(2), nitrogen and sulfur oxides) and their purported greenhouse, climatic changes and global warming effects, to face the frequent oil supply crises, as a way to help non-fossil fuel producer countries to reduce energy dependence, contributing to security of supply, promoting environmental sustainability and meeting the EU target of at least of 10% biofuels in the transport sector by 2020. Biodiesel is usually produced from oleaginous crops, such as rapeseed, soybean, sunflower and palm. However, the use of microalgae can be a suitable alternative feedstock for next generation biofuels because certain species contain high amounts of oil, which could be extracted, processed and refined into transportation fuels, using currently available technology; they have fast growth rate, permit the use of non-arable land and non-potable water, use far less water and do not displace food crops cultures; their production is not seasonal and they can be harvested daily. The screening of microalgae (Chlorella vulgaris, Spirulina maxima, Nannochloropsis sp., Neochloris oleabundans, Scenedesmus obliquus and Dunaliella tertiolecta) was done in order to choose the best one(s), in terms of quantity and quality as oil source for biofuel production. Neochloris oleabundans (fresh water microalga) and Nannochloropsis sp. (marine microalga) proved to be suitable as raw materials for biofuel production, due to their high oil content (29.0 and 28.7%, respectively). Both microalgae, when grown under nitrogen shortage, show a great increase (approximately 50%) in oil quantity. If the purpose is to produce biodiesel only from one species, Scenedesmus obliquus presents the most adequate fatty acid profile, namely in terms of linolenic and other polyunsaturated fatty acids. However, the microalgae Neochloris oleabundans, Nannochloropsis sp. and Dunaliella tertiolecta can also be used if associated with other

  6. The effects of heated vegetable oils on blood pressure in rats

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kamsiah Jaarin

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available OBJECTIVES: The goal of this study was to determine the possible mechanism that is involved in the blood pressureraising effect of heated vegetable oils. METHODS: Adult male Sprague-Dawley rats were divided into 11 groups; the control group was fed with rat chow, and the other groups were fed with chow that was mixed with 15% weight/weight palm or soy oils, which were either in a fresh form or heated once, twice, five, or ten times. Blood pressures were measured at the baseline and throughout the 24-week study. Plasma nitric oxide levels were assessed prior to treatment and at the end of the study. Following 24 weeks, the rats were sacrificed to investigate their vascular reactivity using the thoracic aorta. RESULTS: Palm and soy oils had no detrimental effects on blood pressure, and they significantly elevated the nitric oxide contents and reduced the contractile responses to phenylephrine. However, trials using palm and soy oils that were repeatedly heated showed an increase in blood pressure, enhanced phenylephrine-induced contractions, reduced acetylcholine- and sodium nitroprusside-induced relaxations relative to the control and rats that were fed fresh vegetable oils. CONCLUSIONS: The blood pressure-raising effect of the heated vegetable cooking oils is associated with increased vascular reactivity and a reduction in nitric oxide levels. The chronic consumption of heated vegetable oils leads to disturbances in endogenous vascular regulatory substances, such as nitric oxide. The thermal oxidation of the cooking oils promotes the generation of free radicals and may play an important contributory role in the pathogenesis of hypertension in rats.

  7. Assessment of freshwater sediment toxicity from enhanced anaerobic vegetable oil degradation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lee, K.; Wohlgeschaffen, G.; King, T.; Cobanli, S.E. [Department of Fisheries and Oceans, Dartmouth, NS (Canada). Bedford Inst. of Oceanography; Doe, K.G.; Jackman, P.M. [Environment Canada, Moncton, NB (Canada). Environmental Conservation Branch; Wrenn, B.A.; Li, Z. [Washington Univ., St. Louis, MO (United States). Dept. of Civil Engineering; Venosa, A. [United States Environmental Protection Agency, Cincinnati, OH (United States)

    2004-07-01

    This study addressed some of the concerns associated with a proposed vegetable oil spill remediation method for use in aquatic environments. The method involves the addition of clay to mediate the transport of oil to the sediment where anaerobic microorganisms decompose it. There is concern that oleic acid and metabolic by products in the oil may be toxic. This study monitored the biodegradation and toxicity of canola oil within anaerobic sediments in replicate test chambers using Microtox{sup R} and amphipods bioassays. Anaerobic degradation was confirmed through gravimetric analysis of the residual oil and measurements of methane production. The Microtox{sup R} Solid-Phase Test indicated a trend towards the depression of EC50 values with higher oil concentrations at T=0. Both the oiled treatments had elevated toxicity levels after 2 weeks, but the sediments were found to recover to control levels after 2 months. Monitoring of survival and growth patterns of the amphipods assays showed similar trends. The results indicate that concerns are unfounded regarding the production of free fatty acids and other toxic metabolites from anaerobic hydrolysis of vegetable oil triglycerides in the proposed spill countermeasure.

  8. Determination of some inorganic metals in edible vegetable oils by inductively coupled plasma atomic emission spectroscopy (ICP-AES)

    OpenAIRE

    Musa Özcan, M.; Altun, Turkan; Gode, Fethiye; Arslan, Gulsin; Pehlivan, Erol

    2008-01-01

    Seventeen edible vegetable oils were analyzed spectrometrically for their metal (Cu, Fe, Mn, Co, Cr, Pb, Cd, Ni, and Zn) contents. Toxic metals in edible vegetable oils were determined by Inductively Coupled Plasma Atomic Emission Spectrometry (ICP-AES). The highest metal concentrations were measured as 0.0850, 0.0352, 0.0220, 0.0040, 0.0010, 0.0074, 0.0045, 0.0254 and 0.2870 mg/kg for copper in almond oil, for iron in corn oil-(c), for manganese in soybean oil, for cobalt in sunflower oil-(b...

  9. Nutritional enrichment of vegetable oils with long-chain n-3 fatty acids through enzymatic interesterification with a new vegetable lipase

    OpenAIRE

    Sousa, J.S.; Torres, A. G.; FREIRE D.M.G.

    2015-01-01

    The aim of the present work was to produce vegetable oils enriched with long-chain n-3 fatty acids of nutraceutical interest, through an enzyme-catalyzed interesterification with a new lipase, from physic nut (Jatropha curcas L.). The Vegetable Lipase Powder (biocatalyst) called VLP, which has never been applied in functional foods, was obtained from the physic nut seed, and efficiently hydrolyzed the 95% of waste fish oil in 24 h. Urea precipitation was used to concentrate polyunsaturated fa...

  10. Antioxidant Effect on Oxidation Stability of Blend Fish Oil Biodiesel with Vegetable Oil Biodiesel and Petroleum Diesel Fuel

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. Hossain

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available Two different phenolic synthetic antioxidants were used to improve the oxidation stability of fish oil biodiesel blends with vegetable oil biodiesel and petroleum diesel. Butylhydroxytoluene (BHT most effective for improvement of the oxidation stability of petro diesel, whereas  tert-butylhydroquinone (TBHQ showed good performance in fish oil biodiesel. Fish oil/Rapeseed oil biodiesel mixed showed some acceptable results in higher concentration ofantioxidants. TBHQ showed better oxidation stability than BHT in B100 composition. In fish oil biodiesel/diesel mixed fuel, BHT was more effective antioxidant than TBHQ to increase oxidationstability because BHT is more soluble than TBHQ. The stability behavior of biodiesel/diesel blends with the employment of the modified Rancimat method (EN 15751. The performance ofantioxidants was evaluated for treating fish oil biodiesel/Rapeseed oil biodiesel for B100, and blends with two type diesel fuel (deep sulfurization diesel and automotive ultra-low sulfur or zero sulfur diesels. The examined blends were in proportions of 5, 10, 15, and 20% by volume of fish oilbiodiesel.

  11. Silver-nanoparticle-embedded antimicrobial paints based on vegetable oil

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kumar, Ashavani; Vemula, Praveen Kumar; Ajayan, Pulickel M.; John, George

    2008-03-01

    Developing bactericidal coatings using simple green chemical methods could be a promising route to potential environmentally friendly applications. Here, we describe an environmentally friendly chemistry approach to synthesize metal-nanoparticle (MNP)-embedded paint, in a single step, from common household paint. The naturally occurring oxidative drying process in oils, involving free-radical exchange, was used as the fundamental mechanism for reducing metal salts and dispersing MNPs in the oil media, without the use of any external reducing or stabilizing agents. These well-dispersed MNP-in-oil dispersions can be used directly, akin to commercially available paints, on nearly all kinds of surface such as wood, glass, steel and different polymers. The surfaces coated with silver-nanoparticle paint showed excellent antimicrobial properties by killing both Gram-positive human pathogens (Staphylococcus aureus) and Gram-negative bacteria (Escherichia coli). The process we have developed here is quite general and can be applied in the synthesis of a variety of MNP-in-oil systems.

  12. Low pressure catalytic co-conversion of biogenic waste (rapeseed cake) and vegetable oil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Giannakopoulou, Kanellina; Lukas, Michael; Vasiliev, Aleksey; Brunner, Christoph; Schnitzer, Hans

    2010-05-01

    Zeolite catalysts of three types (H-ZSM-5, Fe-ZSM-5 and H-Beta) were tested in the catalytic co-conversion of rapeseed cake and safflower oil into bio-fuel. This low pressure process was carried out at the temperatures of 350 and 400 degrees Celsius. The yields and compositions of the product mixtures depended on the catalyst nature and the process temperatures. The produced organic phases consisted mainly of hydrocarbons, fatty acids and nitriles. This mixture possessed improved characteristics (e.g. heating value, water content, density, viscosity, pH) compared with the bio-oils, making possible its application as a bio-fuel. The most effective catalyst, providing the highest yield of organic liquid phase, was the highly acidic/wide-pore H-Beta zeolite. The products obtained on this catalyst demonstrated the highest degree of deoxygenation and the higher HHV (Higher Heating Value). The aqueous liquid phase contained water-soluble carboxylic acids, phenols and heterocyclic compounds. PMID:20060714

  13. Separation of steroids using vegetable oils in microemulsion electrokinetic capillary chromatography.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sirén, Heli; Vesanen, Sari; Suomi, Johanna

    2014-01-15

    The steroids, hydrocortisone, androstenedione, 17-α-hydroxyprogesterone, testosterone, 17-α-methyltestosterone, and progesterone were separated with microemulsion electrokinetic chromatography (MEEKC) and detected with UV absorption. The microemulsion phases were prepared from both artificial and vegetable oils, from them the first was made of alkane and alcohol and the latter from colza, olive, linseed, and walnut oils. The electrolyte solutions were made to emulsions using sodium dodecyl sulfate and alkaline tetraborate. The solution mixtures made from ethyl acetate, sodium dodecyl sulfate, 1-butanol, acetonitrile, and sodium tetraborate were used as the reference solutions to evaluate the performance of the vegetable oil emulsions. Our study showed that the lipophilic organic phase in the microemulsion did provide resolution improvements but not selectivity changes. The results also correlate with real interactions of the steroids with the lipophilic organic microemulsion phase. The quality of the oils between the manufacturers did not have importance, which was noticed from the equal behavior of the steroids in the vegetable oil emulsions. Detection limits of the steroids in vegetable oil emulsions were at the level of 0.20-0.43μg/L. Thus, they were 2-10 times higher than the concentrations in the partial filling micellar electrokinetic chromatography (PF-MEKC), which we have obtained earlier. The repeatability (RSD%) of the electrophoretic mobilities of the steroids was between 0.50 and 3.70. The RSD% values between the inter-day separations were below 1%, but when walnut and olive oils were used the values exceeded even 10%. PMID:24355214

  14. QUALITY CHARACTERISTICS OF CHICKEN BURGERS ENRICHED WITH VEGETABLE OILS, INULIN AND WHEAT FIBER

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. Cegielka

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available The aim of the study was to modify the composition of chicken burgers in terms of nutritional value by substitution of 20% of pork jowl with a mixture of rapeseed oil and linseed oil, and addition of inulin (1% or wheat fiber (3%. Substitution of pork jowl with vegetable oils resulted in significant increase in polyunsaturated fatty acids, and rosemary extract retarded the oxidation process of lipids. Addition of wheat fiber was helpful in maintaining the thermal processing yield and texture of burgers. Microbiological quality of vacuum packed burgers subjected to 21-day storage at +4°C±1 and -20°C±1 was satisfactory.

  15. The use of isotope ratios (13C/12C) for vegetable oils authentication

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cristea, G.; Magdas, D. A.; Mirel, V.

    2012-02-01

    Stable isotopes are now increasingly used for the control of the geographical origin or authenticity of food products. The falsification may be more or less sophisticated and its sophistication as well as its costs increases with the improvement of analytical methods. In this study 22 vegetable oils (olive, sunflower, palm, maize) commercialized on Romanian market were investigated by mean of δ13C in bulk oil and the obtained results were compared with those reported in literature in order to check the labeling of these natural products. The obtained results were in the range of the mean values found in the literature for these types of oils, thus providing their accurate labeling.

  16. Comparison of Chemical Characteristics of High Oleic Acid Fraction of Moringa oleifera Oil with Some Vegetable Oils

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    F. Rahman1

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available Chemical characteristics of High oleic acid fraction (HOF of Moringa oleifera oil (MOO was compared with sunflower, soybean and canola oils. HOF of MOO was obtained by dry fractionation at 0oC. Iodine value and C18:1 in HOF increased from 61.55 to 82.47 points and 70.29% to 81.15%, respectively. Cloud point of HOF was 1.1oC as compared to 10.2oC in MOO. The induction period of HOF was greater than all the vegetable oils tested in this investigation. HOF can be used as a source of edible oil with better health attributes and superior storage stability.

  17. Analysis of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons in vegetable oils combining gel permeation chromatography with solid-phase extraction clean-up

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Fromberg, Arvid; Højgård, A.; Duedahl-Olesen, Lene

    2007-01-01

    of benzo[a]pyrene levels in foods laid down by the Commission of the European Communities. A survey of 69 vegetable oils sampled from the Danish market included olive oil as well as other vegetable oils such as rapeseed oil, sunflower oil, grape seed oil and sesame oil. Levels of benzo[a]pyrene in all...... the oils were low (sunflower oil containing 11 mu g kg(-1) benzo[a]pyrene.......A semi-automatic method for the determination of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) in edible oils using a combined gel permeation chromatography/solid-phase extraction (GPC/SPE) clean-up is presented. The method takes advantage of automatic injections using a Gilson ASPEC XL sample handling...

  18. Genotoxicity evaluation of wood-derived and vegetable oil-derived stanol esters

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Turnbull, D.; Frankos, V.H.; Delft, J.H.M. van; Vogel, N. de

    1999-01-01

    Plant stanol esters from wood and vegetable oil sources were tested for genotoxicity in bacterial (Salmonella typhimurium) and mammalian cell (L5178Y) gene mutation assays and in a mammalian cell chromosome aberration assay (CHO cells). The two stanol ester formulations were tested separately at dos

  19. [Determination of gossypol in edible vegetable oil with high performance liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Wenhua; Huang, Chaoqun; Xie, Wen; Shen, Li

    2014-06-01

    A liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry (LC-MS/MS) method was developed for the determination of gossypol in edible vegetable oil. The sample was extracted with ethyl alcohol by vortex-excited oscillation. The extract was cleaned up by 0.22 microm filter membrane and centrifuged for 5 min at 4 000 r/min after standing in a fridge at 4 degrees C for 30 min. The compound was separated on a C18 column (100 mm x 2.1 mm, 3.5 microm) with acetonitrile and 1% (v/v) formic acid aqueous solution as mobile phase. The detection of gossypol was carried out by LC-MS/MS with positive electrospray ionization under multiple reaction monitoring (MRM) mode using external standard method. The limits of quantification (S/N > 10) of gossypol in edible vegetable oil was 1 mg/kg. The recoveries were from 87.4% to 100% at the spiked levels of 1, 2, 200 mg/kg of gossypol in edible vegetable oil with the relative standard deviations (RSDs) between 3.9% and 12.2%. The method, with high sensitivity, good precision and high recovery, was suitable for the confirmation and quantification of gossypol residue in edible vegetable oil. PMID:25269254

  20. A systematic framework for CAFD and resources allocation optimisation using MINLP in vegetable oil processing

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Quaglia, Alberto; Sarup, Bent; Sin, Gürkan;

    the optimal processing network for vegetable oil extraction and refining (including biodiesel production and various options for byproducts valorization), as well as the optimal material flows to each processing step. In order to optimize the resources needed to solve such a large and complex problem...

  1. Reaction Pathways for the Deoxygenation of Vegetable Oils and Related Model Compounds

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Gosselink, R.W.; Hollak, S.A.W.; Chang, S.; Haveren, van J.; Jong, de K.P.; Bitter, J.H.; Es, van D.S.

    2013-01-01

    Vegetable oil-based feeds are regarded as an alternative source for the production of fuels and chemicals. Paraffins and olefins can be produced from these feeds through catalytic deoxygenation. The fundamentals of this process are mostly studied by using model compounds such as fatty acids, fatty a

  2. Analysis of regiospecific triacylglycerols in vegetable oils and animal fats by electrospray mass spectrometry

    Science.gov (United States)

    A method of regiospecific analysis of triacylglycerols (TAG) in vegetable oils and animal fats is reported here using the electrospray ionization MS3 of TAG lithiated adducts. The fragment ions of the MS3 from the loss of fatty acids at the sn-2 position as alpha, Beta-unsaturated fatty acids were u...

  3. [Determination of gossypol in edible vegetable oil with high performance liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Wenhua; Huang, Chaoqun; Xie, Wen; Shen, Li

    2014-06-01

    A liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry (LC-MS/MS) method was developed for the determination of gossypol in edible vegetable oil. The sample was extracted with ethyl alcohol by vortex-excited oscillation. The extract was cleaned up by 0.22 microm filter membrane and centrifuged for 5 min at 4 000 r/min after standing in a fridge at 4 degrees C for 30 min. The compound was separated on a C18 column (100 mm x 2.1 mm, 3.5 microm) with acetonitrile and 1% (v/v) formic acid aqueous solution as mobile phase. The detection of gossypol was carried out by LC-MS/MS with positive electrospray ionization under multiple reaction monitoring (MRM) mode using external standard method. The limits of quantification (S/N > 10) of gossypol in edible vegetable oil was 1 mg/kg. The recoveries were from 87.4% to 100% at the spiked levels of 1, 2, 200 mg/kg of gossypol in edible vegetable oil with the relative standard deviations (RSDs) between 3.9% and 12.2%. The method, with high sensitivity, good precision and high recovery, was suitable for the confirmation and quantification of gossypol residue in edible vegetable oil.

  4. Synthesis of epoxidized cardanol and its antioxidative properties for vegetable oils and biodiesel

    Science.gov (United States)

    A novel antioxidant epoxidized cardanol (ECD), derived from cardanol, was synthesized and characterized by FT-IR, 1H-NMR and 13C-NMR. Oxidative stability of ECD used in vegetable oils and biodiesel was evaluated by pressurized differential scanning calorimetry (PDSC) and the Rancimat method, respect...

  5. A novel cardanol-based antioxidant and its application in vegetable oils and biodiesel

    Science.gov (United States)

    A novel antioxidant, epoxidized cardanol (ECD), derived from cardanol has been synthesized and characterized by FT-IR, 1H-NMR and 13C-NMR. Oxidative stability of ECD in vegetable oils and biodiesel was evaluated by the pressurized differential scanning calorimetry and Rancimat methods, respectively....

  6. On the atomization and combustion of liquid biofuels in gas turbines: towards the application of biomass-derived pyrolysis oil

    OpenAIRE

    Sallevelt, Johan Leonard Hendrik Pieter

    2015-01-01

    The combustion of liquid biofuels in gas turbines is an efficient way of generating heat and power from biomass. Gas turbines play a major role in the global energy supply and are suitable for a wide range of applications. However, biofuels generally have different properties compared to conventional fossil fuels. This can lead to various problems in case biofuels are directly used in existing installations. This thesis aims to provide better insight into the combustion of biomass-derived pyr...

  7. Grinding temperature and energy ratio coefficient in MQL grinding of high-temperature nickel-base alloy by using different vegetable oils as base oil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Li Benkai

    2016-08-01

    Full Text Available Vegetable oil can be used as a base oil in minimal quantity of lubrication (MQL. This study compared the performances of MQL grinding by using castor oil, soybean oil, rapeseed oil, corn oil, sunflower oil, peanut oil, and palm oil as base oils. A K-P36 numerical-control precision surface grinder was used to perform plain grinding on a workpiece material with a high-temperature nickel base alloy. A YDM–III 99 three-dimensional dynamometer was used to measure grinding force, and a clip-type thermocouple was used to determine grinding temperature. The grinding force, grinding temperature, and energy ratio coefficient of MQL grinding were compared among the seven vegetable oil types. Results revealed that (1 castor oil-based MQL grinding yields the lowest grinding force but exhibits the highest grinding temperature and energy ratio coefficient; (2 palm oil-based MQL grinding generates the second lowest grinding force but shows the lowest grinding temperature and energy ratio coefficient; (3 MQL grinding based on the five other vegetable oils produces similar grinding forces, grinding temperatures, and energy ratio coefficients, with values ranging between those of castor oil and palm oil; (4 viscosity significantly influences grinding force and grinding temperature to a greater extent than fatty acid varieties and contents in vegetable oils; (5 although more viscous vegetable oil exhibits greater lubrication and significantly lower grinding force than less viscous vegetable oil, high viscosity reduces the heat exchange capability of vegetable oil and thus yields a high grinding temperature; (6 saturated fatty acid is a more efficient lubricant than unsaturated fatty acid; and (7 a short carbon chain transfers heat more effectively than a long carbon chain. Palm oil is the optimum base oil of MQL grinding, and this base oil yields 26.98 N tangential grinding force, 87.10 N normal grinding force, 119.6 °C grinding temperature, and 42.7% energy

  8. Grinding temperature and energy ratio coe cient in MQL grinding of high-temperature nickel-base alloy by using di erent vegetable oils as base oil

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Li Benkai; Li Changhe; Zhang Yanbin; Wang Yaogang; Jia Dongzhou; Yang Min

    2016-01-01

    Vegetable oil can be used as a base oil in minimal quantity of lubrication (MQL). This study compared the performances of MQL grinding by using castor oil, soybean oil, rapeseed oil, corn oil, sunflower oil, peanut oil, and palm oil as base oils. A K-P36 numerical-control precision surface grinder was used to perform plain grinding on a workpiece material with a high-temperature nickel base alloy. A YDM–III 99 three-dimensional dynamometer was used to measure grinding force, and a clip-type thermocouple was used to determine grinding temperature. The grinding force, grind-ing temperature, and energy ratio coefficient of MQL grinding were compared among the seven veg-etable oil types. Results revealed that (1) castor oil-based MQL grinding yields the lowest grinding force but exhibits the highest grinding temperature and energy ratio coefficient;(2) palm oil-based MQL grinding generates the second lowest grinding force but shows the lowest grinding temperature and energy ratio coefficient;(3) MQL grinding based on the five other vegetable oils produces similar grinding forces, grinding temperatures, and energy ratio coefficients, with values ranging between those of castor oil and palm oil;(4) viscosity significantly influences grinding force and grinding tem-perature to a greater extent than fatty acid varieties and contents in vegetable oils;(5) although more viscous vegetable oil exhibits greater lubrication and significantly lower grinding force than less vis-cous vegetable oil, high viscosity reduces the heat exchange capability of vegetable oil and thus yields a high grinding temperature;(6) saturated fatty acid is a more efficient lubricant than unsaturated fatty acid;and (7) a short carbon chain transfers heat more effectively than a long carbon chain. Palm oil is the optimum base oil of MQL grinding, and this base oil yields 26.98 N tangential grinding force, 87.10 N normal grinding force, 119.6 °C grinding temperature, and 42.7%energy ratio coefficient

  9. Chemical and spectroscopic characterization of a vegetable oil used as dielectric coolant in distribution transformers

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gomez, Neffer A.; Abonia, Rodrigo, E-mail: rodrigo.abonia@correounivalle.edu.co [Departamento de Quimica, Escuela de Ingenieria Electrica, Universidad del Valle, Cali (Colombia); Cadavid, Hector [Grupo GRALTA, Escuela de Ingenieria Electrica, Universidad del Valle, Cali (Colombia); Vargas, Ines H. [Area de Ingenieria de Distribucion, Empresas Publicas de Medellin (EPM), Medellin (Colombia)

    2011-09-15

    In this work, a complete UV-Vis, IR and (1H, 13C and DEPT) NMR spectroscopic analysis was performed for a FR3 vegetable oil sample used as dielectric coolant in an experimental distribution transformer. The same spectroscopic analysis was performed for three used FR3 oil samples (i.e., 4 months in use, 8 months in use and 7 years in use), removed from several operating distribution transformers. Comparison of the data indicated that no significant spectroscopic changes, and hence, no structural changes occurred to the oils by the use. Chemical transformations like catalytic hydrogenation (hardening) and hydrolysis were performed to the FR3 oil sample and the obtained products were analyzed by spectroscopic methods in order to collect further structural information about the FR3 oil. Accelerated aging tests in laboratory were also performed for three FR3 oil samples affording interesting information about the structure of the degradation products. These findings would be valuable to search for a spectroscopy-based technique for monitoring the lifetime and performance of this insulating vegetable oil. (author)

  10. Sensor and Methodology for Dielectric Analysis of Vegetal Oils Submitted to Thermal Stress

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sergio Luiz Stevan

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available Vegetable oils used in frying food represent a social problem as its destination. The residual oil can be recycled and returned to the production line, as biodiesel, as soap, or as putty. The state of the residual oil is determined according to their physicochemical characteristics whose values define its economically viable destination. However, the physicochemical analysis requires high costs, time and general cost of transporting. This study presents the use of a capacitive sensor and a quick and inexpensive method to correlate the physicochemical variables to the dielectric constant of the material undergoing oil samples to thermal cycling. The proposed method allows reducing costs in the characterization of residual oil and the reduction in analysis time. In addition, the method allows an assessment of the quality of the vegetable oil during use. The experimental results show the increasing of the dielectric constant with the temperature, which facilitates measurement and classification of the dielectric constant at considerably higher temperatures. The results also confirm a definitive degradation in used oil and a correlation between the dielectric constant of the sample with the results of the physicochemical analysis (iodine value, acid value, viscosity and refractive index.

  11. Sensor and methodology for dielectric analysis of vegetal oils submitted to thermal stress.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stevan, Sergio Luiz; Paiter, Leandro; Galvão, José Ricardo; Roque, Daniely Vieira; Chaves, Eduardo Sidinei

    2015-01-01

    Vegetable oils used in frying food represent a social problem as its destination. The residual oil can be recycled and returned to the production line, as biodiesel, as soap, or as putty. The state of the residual oil is determined according to their physicochemical characteristics whose values define its economically viable destination. However, the physicochemical analysis requires high costs, time and general cost of transporting. This study presents the use of a capacitive sensor and a quick and inexpensive method to correlate the physicochemical variables to the dielectric constant of the material undergoing oil samples to thermal cycling. The proposed method allows reducing costs in the characterization of residual oil and the reduction in analysis time. In addition, the method allows an assessment of the quality of the vegetable oil during use. The experimental results show the increasing of the dielectric constant with the temperature, which facilitates measurement and classification of the dielectric constant at considerably higher temperatures. The results also confirm a definitive degradation in used oil and a correlation between the dielectric constant of the sample with the results of the physicochemical analysis (iodine value, acid value, viscosity and refractive index). PMID:26501293

  12. Impacts of the Deepwater Horizon oil spill on the salt marsh vegetation of Louisiana.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hester, Mark W; Willis, Jonathan M; Rouhani, Shahrokh; Steinhoff, Marla A; Baker, Mary C

    2016-09-01

    The coastal wetland vegetation component of the Deepwater Horizon oil spill Natural Resource Damage Assessment documented significant injury to the plant production and health of Louisiana salt marshes exposed to oiling. Specifically, marsh sites experiencing trace or greater vertical oiling of plant tissues displayed reductions in cover and peak standing crop relative to reference (no oiling), particularly in the marsh edge zone, for the majority of this four year study. Similarly, elevated chlorosis of plant tissue, as estimated by a vegetation health index, was detected for marsh sites with trace or greater vertical oiling in the first two years of the study. Key environmental factors, such as hydrologic regime, elevation, and soil characteristics, were generally similar across plant oiling classes (including reference), indicating that the observed injury to plant production and health was the result of plant oiling and not potential differences in environmental setting. Although fewer significant impacts to plant production and health were detected in the latter years of the study, this is due in part to decreased sample size occurring as a result of erosion (shoreline retreat) and resultant loss of plots, and should not be misconstrued as indicating full recovery of the ecosystem. PMID:27299994

  13. Chemical and spectroscopic characterization of a vegetable oil used as dielectric coolant in distribution transformers

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In this work, a complete UV-Vis, IR and (1H, 13C and DEPT) NMR spectroscopic analysis was performed for a FR3 vegetable oil sample used as dielectric coolant in an experimental distribution transformer. The same spectroscopic analysis was performed for three used FR3 oil samples (i.e., 4 months in use, 8 months in use and 7 years in use), removed from several operating distribution transformers. Comparison of the data indicated that no significant spectroscopic changes, and hence, no structural changes occurred to the oils by the use. Chemical transformations like catalytic hydrogenation (hardening) and hydrolysis were performed to the FR3 oil sample and the obtained products were analyzed by spectroscopic methods in order to collect further structural information about the FR3 oil. Accelerated aging tests in laboratory were also performed for three FR3 oil samples affording interesting information about the structure of the degradation products. These findings would be valuable to search for a spectroscopy-based technique for monitoring the lifetime and performance of this insulating vegetable oil. (author)

  14. Experimental investigation of various vegetable fibers as sorbent materials for oil spills

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Annunciado, T.R.; Sydenstricker, T.H.D.; Amico, S.C. [Federal University of Parana, Curitiba, (Brazil). Department of Mechanical Engineering

    2005-11-15

    Oil spills are a global concern due to their environmental and economical impact. various commercial systems have been developed to control these spills, including the use of fibers as sorbents. This research investigates the use of various vegetable fibers, namely mixed leaves residues, mixed sawdust, sisal (Agave sisalana), coir fiber (Cocos nucifera), sponge-gourd (Luffa cylindrica) and silk-floss as sorbent materials of crude oil. Sorption tests with crude oil were conducted in deionized and marine water media, with and without agitation. Water uptake by the fibers was investigated by tests in dry conditions and distillation of the impregnated sorbent. The silk-floss fiber showed a very high degree of hydrophobicity and oil sorption capacity of approximately 85 g oil/g sorbent (in 24 hours). Specific gravity measurements and buoyancy tests were also used to evaluate the suitability of these fibers for the intended application. (author)

  15. Biofuels - the UFIP position; Biocarburants - la position de l'UFIP

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2004-07-01

    Since 2003 a directive promote the biofuels use. The industry is then using them in ETBE (Ethyl Tertio Butyl Ether) fuels and in diesel oil of vegetal oils esters EMHV. Meanwhile some of them present technical difficulties and must free themselves from fiscal incentives which make them competitive. For these reasons, the UFIP (french union of petroleum industries) do not agree their obligatory incorporation. (A.L.B.)

  16. Microalgae biofuel potentials (review).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ghasemi, Y; Rasoul-Amini, S; Naseri, A T; Montazeri-Najafabady, N; Mobasher, M A; Dabbagh, F

    2012-01-01

    With the decrease of fossil based fuels and the environmental impact of them over the planet, it seems necessary to seek the sustainable sources of clean energy. Biofuels, is becoming a worldwide leader in the development of renewable energy resources. It is worthwhile to say that algal biofuel production is thought to help stabilize the concentration of carbon dioxide in the atmosphere and decrease global warming impacts. Also, among algal fuels' attractive characteristics, algal biodiesel is non toxic, with no sulfur, highly biodegradable and relatively harmless to the environment if spilled. Algae are capable of producing in excess of 30 times more oil per acre than corn and soybean crops. Currently, algal biofuel production has not been commercialized due to high costs associated with production, harvesting and oil extraction but the technology is progressing. Extensive research was conducted to determine the utilization of microalgae as an energy source and make algae oil production commercially viable. PMID:22586908

  17. Methane production from cork contaminated with vegetable oils

    OpenAIRE

    Neves, Tânia Marisa Teixeira

    2014-01-01

    Dissertação de mestrado integrado em Engenharia Biológica (área de especialização em Tecnologias Ambientais) Os derrames de óleo vegetal, embora pouco divulgados, constituem um grave problema ambiental. Este tipo de acidentes ocorre com frequência na translação deste produto entre diferentes países e no próprio armazenamento. A cortiça, matéria-prima com grande importância económica, social e ambiental em Portugal, tem elevada capacidade de reter óleos vegetais e que pode, port...

  18. Assay in engine of agricultural tractor with biofuel

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lopes, Reny Adilmar Prestes; Meyer, Wagner [Universidade Estadual de Maringa (DEA/CCA/UEM), Cidade Gaucha, PR (Brazil). Centro de Ciencias Agrarias. Dept. de Engenharia Agricola], E-mail: raplopes@uem.br; Pinheiro Neto, Raimundo; Pinheiro, Andreia Cristina [Universidade Estadual de Maringa (DAG/CCA/UEM), PR (Brazil). Centro de Ciencias Agrarias. Dept. de Agronomia; Laurindo, Jose Carlos [Instituto de Tecnologia do Parana (CERBIO/TECPAR), Curitiba, PR (Brazil). Centro Brasileiro de Referencia em Biocombustiveis; Biazzono, Sergio Luis [Instituto de Tecnologia do Parana (TECPAR), Maringa, PR (Brazil). Inspecao Veicular

    2008-07-01

    The use of biofuel in tractors of diesel engines and agricultural harvester, in the operations of soil preparation and harvest, is a good option of fuel economy for the agriculturist. For a good performance of the machine a good regulation is necessary. The experiment was carried through in the Experimental Farm Iguatemi of the State University of Maringa, Maringa - PR. A tractor Massey Ferguson MF275 was used for the assay connected to be even grating. It carried through if the assays of consumption of diesel (100%) and biofuel (diesel 80% + vegetable oil 20%). To carry through the assay tractor + grating with three openings and without load was used to be even set. The rotation without load and of work was of 1900 rpm and mean speed of 6 km h{sup -1}. The hourly consumption was verified by a test tube and a fluxgate OVAL Flow mate M III - LSF 45L0-M2 connected to data logger CR23X. The hourly consumption was express in L h{sup -1}. The engine of the tractor presented similar behavior of fuel consumption for diesel and biofuel. The mean values of consumption had been inside of the specified one for the manufacturer. Mixture 80% diesel + 20% vegetable oil can be used as biofuel in the engine in study. (author)

  19. Effects of antioxidants on the fate and impact of spilled vegetable oils in aquatic environments

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Salam, D.A.; Suidan, M.T. [University of Cincinnati (United States)], email: salamda@email.uc.edu; Venosa, A.D. [U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (United States)

    2011-07-01

    Adding antioxidants to vegetable oils prevents lipid oxidation. Antioxidants always influence oil biodegradability and their toxicity patterns in impacted water bodies. This study used glyceryl trilinoleate as a model system to investigate the impact of butylated-hydroxytoluene (BHT) concentration on the biodegradability of vegetable oils and induced toxicity. As is known, glyceryl trilinoleate is the most susceptible triglyceride with regard to auto-oxidation. Biodegradation experiments on glyceryl trilinoleate were run by means of respirometric experiments. In this study, various concentrations of BHT ranging from 0 to 200 ppm (no BHT added, 50, 100, 200) were tested and the completely mixed conditions in 250 mL microcosms were simulated. There were three replicate samples and three abiotic blanks per BHT level. Through observing the competition between polymerization and biodegradation, it was found out that toxicity did not exist in the liquid phase after 19 weeks of incubation with the exception of the abiotic blanks with no BHT added.

  20. Biosynthesis of medium chain length poly(3-hydroxyalkanoates) (mcl-PHAs) by Comamonas testosteroni during cultivation on vegetable oils.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thakor, Nehal; Trivedi, Ujjval; Patel, K C

    2005-11-01

    Comamonas testosteroni has been studied for its ability to synthesize and accumulate medium chain length poly(3-hydroxyalkanoates) (mcl-PHAs) during cultivation on vegetable oils available in the local market. Castor seed oil, coconut oil, mustard oil, cotton seed oil, groundnut oil, olive oil and sesame oil were supplemented in the mineral medium as a sole source of carbon for growth and PHAs accumulation. The composition of PHAs was analysed by a coupled gas chromatography/mass spectroscopy (GC/MS). PHAs contained C6 to C14 3-hydroxy acids, with a strong presence of 3-hydroxyoctanoate when coconut oil, mustard oil, cotton seed oil and groundnut oil were supplied. 3-hydroxydecanoate was incorporated at higher concentrations when castor seed oil, olive oil and sesame oil were the substrates. Purified PHAs samples were characterized by Fourier Transform Infrared (FTIR) and 13C NMR analysis. During cultivation on various vegetable oils, C. testosteroni accumulated PHAs up to 78.5-87.5% of the cellular dry material (CDM). The efficiency of the culture to convert oil to PHAs ranged from 53.1% to 58.3% for different vegetable oils. Further more, the composition of the PHAs formed was not found to be substrate dependent as PHAs obtained from C. testosteroni during growth on variety of vegetable oils showed similar compositions; 3-hydroxyoctanoic acid and/or 3-hydroxydecanoic acid being always predominant. The polymerizing system of C. testosteroni showed higher preference for C8 and C10 monomers as longer and smaller monomers were incorporated less efficiently.

  1. Comparison and analysis of fatty acids, sterols, and tocopherols in eight vegetable oils.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Changmo; Yao, Yunping; Zhao, Guozhong; Cheng, Wen; Liu, Huilin; Liu, Chunyang; Shi, Zhen; Chen, Yao; Wang, Shuo

    2011-12-14

    The similarities and differences of eight vegetable oils produced in China were investigated in terms of their fatty acid, sterol, and tocopherol compositions and subsequent data processing by hierarchical clustering analysis and principal component analysis. The lipid profiles, acquired by analytical techniques tailored to each lipid class, revealed great similarities among the fatty acid profiles of corn and sesame oil as well as few differences in their sterol profiles. It turns out that not only was there great similarity between the fatty acid profiles of corn oil and sesame oil but also there were not too many differences for the sterol profiles. Sunflower and tea-seed oil showed similar sterol compositions, while the tea-seed oil tocopherol was very similar to palm oil. The results demonstrated that the use of only one of these profiles was unreliable for indentifying oil origin and authenticity. In contrast, the use of the sterol or tocopherol profile together with the fatty acid profile more accurately discriminates these oils.

  2. Fourier transform infrared and fluorescence spectroscopy for analysis of vegetable oils

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nigri S.

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available Fourier transform infrared (FTIR and fluorescence spectroscopy, combined with chemometric approaches have been developed to analysis of extra virgin olive oil adulterated with pomace olive oil. The measurements were made on pure vegetable oils: extra virgin oil, pomace olive oil and that adulterated with varying concentration of pomace olive oil. Today, the application of FTIR spectroscopy has increased in food studied, and particularly has become a powerful analytical tool in the study of edible oils and fats. The spectral regions where the variations were observed chosen for developing models and cross validation was used. The synchronous fluorescence spectrometry takes advantage of the hardware capability to vary both the excitation and emission wavelengths during the analysis with constant wavelength difference is maintained between the two. The region between 300 and 400 nm is attributed to the tocopherols and phenols, the derivatives of vitamin E are associated with the region 400–600 nm and the bands in the region of 600–700 nm are attributed to the chlorophyll and peophytin pigments. The results presented in this study suggest that FTIR and fluorescence may be a useful tool for analysis and detecting adulteration of extra virgin olive oil with pomace oil.

  3. Biofuels. An overview. Final Report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The overall objective of this desk study is to get an overview of the most relevant liquid biofuels especially in the African context, and more specifically in the Netherlands' relevant partner countries. The study will focus on biofuels for transport, but will also consider biofuels for cooking and power generation. Biogas as the result of anaerobic fermentation which can be used for cooking, lighting and electricity generation will not be considered in this study. Liquid biofuels are usually divided into alcohols that are used to substitute for gasoline and oils that are used to substitute for diesel and are often called Biodiesel, and this division will be followed in this study. In chapter 2 we will analyse several aspects of the use of alcohols particularly ethanol, in chapter 3 the same analysis will be done for oils, using as example the very promising Jatropha oil. In chapter we will analyse socio-economic issues of the use of these biofuels

  4. Production of brown algae pyrolysis oils for liquid biofuels depending on the chemical pretreatment methods

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Highlights: • Pyrolysis of Saccharina japonica, brown algae to produce hydrocarbons. • Sulfuric acid pretreatment of macroalgae to remove inorganic elements. • CaCl2 treatment of macroalgae to remove valuable fucoidan. • Sulfuric acid pretreatment suppressed the formation of large biochar chunks. • The pretreatment methods allowed the continuous operation of pyrolysis. - Abstract: Based on observations of rapidly growing biochar in fluidization beds, kelp (Saccharina japonica), a species of brown algae, was pretreated for the efficient operation of pyrolysis processes to produce pyrolysis oils. The removal of catalytically active inorganic minerals and the softening of polymeric seaweed structures were performed by means of chemical treatments, including a CaCl2 treatment to isolate valuable and sticky fucoidan and a sulfuric acid treatment to remove catalytically active minerals. The sulfuric acid pretreatment significantly reduced the inorganic elements but did not significantly affect the properties of the pyrolysis oil compared to the non-treated kelp pyrolysis oil. Whereas the non-treated kelp produced significantly large chunks of biochar, which hindered the continuous operation of pyrolysis, the kelp treated with sulfuric acid did not produce aggregated large particles of biochar, thereby offering a means of developing reliable continuous pyrolysis processes

  5. Chemical Composition of Vegetative Parts and Flowers Essential Oils of Wild Anvillea garcinii Grown in Saudi Arabia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Merajuddin Khan

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available The flowers and vegetative parts essential oils of Anvillea garcinii were analyzed by GC-FID and GC-MS using polar and nonpolar columns which led to the identification of total 140 compounds from both oils, among which 130 compounds were identified for the first time in the genus Anvillea. In the flowers oil 126 compounds were identified, whereas 119 compounds were identified in the vegetative parts oil of A. garcinii representing 95.7% and 94.9% of the total oil composition, respectively. The major components in the flowers oil were bornyl acetate (33.7%, cis-nerolidol (7.3% and camphene (6.1%. In contrast, the major compounds in the vegetative parts oil were cis-nerolidol (16.0%, terpine n-4-ol (10.4% and cabreuva oxide B (6.4%.

  6. Chemical Composition of Vegetative Parts and Flowers Essential Oils of Wild Anvillea garcinii Grown in Saudi Arabia

    OpenAIRE

    Merajuddin Khan; Mahmood Mohammed Saeed Abdullah; Ahmad Amine Mousa; Hamad Zaid Alkhathlan

    2015-01-01

    The flowers and vegetative parts essential oils of Anvillea garcinii were analyzed by GC-FID and GC-MS using polar and nonpolar columns which led to the identification of total 140 compounds from both oils, among which 130 compounds were identified for the first time in the genus Anvillea. In the flowers oil 126 compounds were identified, whereas 119 compounds were identified in the vegetative parts oil of A. garcinii representing 95.7% and 94.9% of the total oil composition, respectively. Th...

  7. On the atomization and combustion of liquid biofuels in gas turbines: towards the application of biomass-derived pyrolysis oil

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Sallevelt, Johan Leonard Hendrik Pieter

    2015-01-01

    The combustion of liquid biofuels in gas turbines is an efficient way of generating heat and power from biomass. Gas turbines play a major role in the global energy supply and are suitable for a wide range of applications. However, biofuels generally have different properties compared to conventiona

  8. The influence of vegetable oils on biosurfactant production by Serratia marcescens.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ferraz, Cristina; De Araújo, Alvaro A; Pastore, Glaucia M

    2002-01-01

    The production of biosurfactant, a surface-active compound, by two Serratia marcescensstrains was tested on minimal culture medium supplemented with vegetable oils, considering that it is well known that these compounds stimulate biosurfactant production. The vegetable oils tested included soybean, olive, castor, sunflower, and coconut fat. The results showed a decrease in surface tension of the culture medium without oil from 64.54 to 29.57, with a critical micelle dilution (CMD(-1)) and CMD(-2) of 41.77 and 68.92 mN/m, respectively. Sunflower oil gave the best results (29.75 mN/m) with a CMD(-1) and CMD-2 of 36.69 and 51.41 mN/m, respectively. Sunflower oil contains about 60% of linoleic acid. The addition of linoleic acid decreased the surface tension from 53.70 to 28.39, with a CMD(-1) of 29.72 and CMD(-2) of 37.97, suggesting that this fatty acid stimulates the biosurfactant production by the LB006 strain. In addition, the crude precipitate surfactant reduced the surface tension of water from 72.00 to 28.70 mN/m. These results suggest that the sunflower oil's linoleic acid was responsible for the increase in biosurfactant production by the LB006 strain. PMID:12018306

  9. Production of biodiesel from waste vegetable oil using impregnated diatomite as heterogeneous catalyst

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Edward Modiba; Christopher Enweremadu; Hilary Rutto

    2015-01-01

    In this study, biodiesel was produced from waste vegetable oil using a heterogeneous base catalyst synthesized by impregnating potassium hydroxide (KOH) onto diatomite. Response surface methodology based on a central composite design was used to optimize four transesterification variables:temperature (30–120 °C), reaction time (2–6 h), methanol to oil mass ratio (10%–50%) and catalyst to oil mass ratio (2.1%–7.9%). A quadratic poly-nomial equation was obtained to correlate biodiesel yield to the transesterification variables. The diatomite–KOH catalyst was characterized using X-ray diffraction (XRD), Fourier transform infra-red spectroscopy (FTIR) and a scanning electron microscope (SEM) equipped with an energy dispersive X-ray detector (EDS). A maximum biodiesel yield of 90%(by mass) was obtained. The reaction conditions were as follows:methanol to oil mass ratio 30%, catalyst to oil mass ratio 5%, reaction time 4 h, and reaction temperature 75 °C. The XRD, FTIR and SEM (EDS) results confirm that the addition of KOH modifies the structure of diatomite. During impregnation and calcination of the diatomite catalyst the K2O phase forms in the diatomite structural matrix and the active basicity of this compound facilitates the transesterification process. It is possible to recycle the diatomite–KOH catalyst up to three times. The crucial biodiesel properties from waste vegetable oil are within the American Stan-dard Test Method specifications.

  10. Transesterification of vegetable oils with ethanol and characterization of the key fuel properties of ethyl esters

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Anastopoulos, G.; Zannikou, Y.; Stournas, S. [National Technical University of Athens, School of Chemical Engineering, Laboratory of Fuels Technology and Lubricants, Iroon Polytechniou 9, Athens 15780 (Greece); Kalligeros, S. [Hellenic Organization for Standardization, Technical Committee 66, 67 Prevezis Street, Athens, 10444 (Greece)

    2009-07-01

    The transesterification reactions of four different vegetable oils (sunflower, rapeseed, olive oil and used frying oil) with ethanol, using sodium hydroxide as catalyst, were studied. The ester preparation involved a two-step transesterification reaction, followed by purification. The effects of the mass ratio of catalyst to oil (0.25 - 1.5%), the molar ratio of ethanol to oil (6:1 - 12:1), and the reaction temperature (35 - 90 {sup o}C) were studied for the conversion of sunflower oil to optimize the reaction conditions in both stages. The rest of the vegetable oils were converted to ethyl esters under optimum reaction parameters. The optimal conditions for first stage transesterification were an ethanol/oil molar ratio of 12:1, NaOH amount (1% wt/wt), and 80 {sup o}C temperature, whereas the maximum yield of ethyl esters reached 81.4% wt/wt. In the second stage, the yield of ethyl esters was improved by 16% in relation with the one-stage transesterification, which was obtained under the following optimal conditions: catalyst concentration 0.75% and ethanol/oil molar ratio 6:1. The fuel properties of the esters were measured according to EN test methods. Based on the experimental results one can see that the ethyl esters do not differ significantly from methyl esters. Moreover, the results showed that the values of density, viscosity, and higher heating value of ethyl esters were similar to those of automotive and heavy duty engine diesel fuel. However, the CFPP values were higher, which may contribute to potential difficulties in cold starts. On the other hand, the flash points, which were higher than those of diesel fuel constituted a safety guarantee from the point of view of handling and storage. (author)

  11. Transesterification of Vegetable Oils with Ethanol and Characterization of the Key Fuel Properties of Ethyl Esters

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Stamoulis Stournas

    2009-06-01

    Full Text Available The transesterification reactions of four different vegetable oils (sunflower, rapeseed, olive oil and used frying oil with ethanol, using sodium hydroxide as catalyst, were studied. The ester preparation involved a two-step transesterification reaction, followed by purification. The effects of the mass ratio of catalyst to oil (0.25 – 1.5%, the molar ratio of ethanol to oil (6:1 – 12:1, and the reaction temperature (35 – 90 °C were studied for the conversion of sunflower oil to optimize the reaction conditions in both stages. The rest of the vegetable oils were converted to ethyl esters under optimum reaction parameters. The optimal conditions for first stage transesterification were an ethanol/oil molar ratio of 12:1, NaOH amount (1% wt/wt, and 80 °C temperature, whereas the maximum yield of ethyl esters reached 81.4% wt/wt. In the second stage, the yield of ethyl esters was improved by 16% in relation with the one-stage transesterification, which was obtained under the following optimal conditions: catalyst concentration 0.75% and ethanol/oil molar ratio 6:1. The fuel properties of the esters were measured according to EN test methods. Based on the experimental results one can see that the ethyl esters do not differ significantly from methyl esters. Moreover, the results showed that the values of density, viscosity, and higher heating value of ethyl esters were similar to those of automotive and heavy duty engine diesel fuel. However, the CFPP values were higher, which may contribute to potential difficulties in cold starts. On the other hand, the flash points, which were higher than those of diesel fuel constituted a safety guarantee from the point of view of handling and storage.

  12. Biofuels and sustainability.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Solomon, Barry D

    2010-01-01

    Interest in liquid biofuels production and use has increased worldwide as part of government policies to address the growing scarcity and riskiness of petroleum use, and, at least in theory, to help mitigate adverse global climate change. The existing biofuels markets are dominated by U.S. ethanol production based on cornstarch, Brazilian ethanol production based on sugarcane, and European biodiesel production based on rapeseed oil. Other promising efforts have included programs to shift toward the production and use of biofuels based on residues and waste materials from the agricultural and forestry sectors, and perennial grasses, such as switchgrass and miscanthus--so-called cellulosic ethanol. This article reviews these efforts and the recent literature in the context of ecological economics and sustainability science. Several common dimensions for sustainable biofuels are discussed: scale (resource assessment, land availability, and land use practices); efficiency (economic and energy); equity (geographic distribution of resources and the "food versus fuel" debate); socio-economic issues; and environmental effects and emissions. Recent proposals have been made for the development of sustainable biofuels criteria, culminating in standards released in Sweden in 2008 and a draft report from the international Roundtable on Sustainable Biofuels. These criteria hold promise for accelerating a shift away from unsustainable biofuels based on grain, such as corn, and toward possible sustainable feedstock and production practices that may be able to meet a variety of social, economic, and environmental sustainability criteria. PMID:20146765

  13. Complete utilization of non-edible oil seeds of Cascabela thevetia through a cascade of approaches for biofuel and by-products.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sut, Debashis; Chutia, Rahul Singh; Bordoloi, Neonjyoti; Narzari, Rumi; Kataki, Rupam

    2016-08-01

    Lipid-rich biomass, generally opted for biodiesel production, produces a substantial amount of by-product (de-oiled cake and seed cover) during the process. Complete utilization of Cascabela thevetia seeds for biofuel production through both chemical and thermochemical conversion route is investigated in the present study. Various properties of biodiesel produced was characterized and compared with those obtained from similar oil seeds. The by-products of the chemical process were used as a feedstock for pyrolysis at different temperatures in a fixed bed reactor. Maximum bio-oil yields of 29.11% and 26.18% were observed at 500°C. The bio-oil obtained at optimum yield was characterized by CHN analyzer, NMR and FTIR spectroscopy. The biochar produced was further characterized by SEM-EDX, XRD and FTIR along with elemental analysis to explore its utilization for various purposes. The present investigation depicts a new approach towards complete utilization of lipid-rich bio-resources to different types of biofuels and biochar. PMID:26927236

  14. Complete utilization of non-edible oil seeds of Cascabela thevetia through a cascade of approaches for biofuel and by-products.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sut, Debashis; Chutia, Rahul Singh; Bordoloi, Neonjyoti; Narzari, Rumi; Kataki, Rupam

    2016-08-01

    Lipid-rich biomass, generally opted for biodiesel production, produces a substantial amount of by-product (de-oiled cake and seed cover) during the process. Complete utilization of Cascabela thevetia seeds for biofuel production through both chemical and thermochemical conversion route is investigated in the present study. Various properties of biodiesel produced was characterized and compared with those obtained from similar oil seeds. The by-products of the chemical process were used as a feedstock for pyrolysis at different temperatures in a fixed bed reactor. Maximum bio-oil yields of 29.11% and 26.18% were observed at 500°C. The bio-oil obtained at optimum yield was characterized by CHN analyzer, NMR and FTIR spectroscopy. The biochar produced was further characterized by SEM-EDX, XRD and FTIR along with elemental analysis to explore its utilization for various purposes. The present investigation depicts a new approach towards complete utilization of lipid-rich bio-resources to different types of biofuels and biochar.

  15. Mechanism of formation of 3-chloropropan-1,2-diol (3-MCPD) esters under conditions of the vegetable oil refining.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Šmidrkal, Jan; Tesařová, Markéta; Hrádková, Iveta; Berčíková, Markéta; Adamčíková, Aneta; Filip, Vladimír

    2016-11-15

    3-MCPD esters are contaminants that can form during refining of vegetable oils in the deodorization step. It was experimentally shown that their content in the vegetable oil depends on the acid value of the vegetable oil and the chloride content. 3-MCPD esters form approximately 2-5 times faster from diacylglycerols than from monoacylglycerols. It has been proved that the higher fatty acids content in the oil caused higher 3-MCPD esters content in the deodorization step. Neutralization of free fatty acids in the vegetable oil before the deodorization step by alkaline carbonates or hydrogen carbonates can completely suppress the formation of 3-MCPD esters. Potassium salts are more effective than sodium salts. PMID:27283615

  16. PERFORMANCE AND EMISSION CHARACTERISTICS OF A CI ENGINE OPERATED ON VEGETABLE OILS AS ALTERNATIVE FUELS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    K. Rajagopal

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available An experimental analysis was done using a four-stroke, single cylinder, constant speed, water-cooled diesel engine, which was interfaced with Engine software. Performance and emission characteristics were evaluated for three non-edible vegetable oils, i.e. thumba, jojoba, neem oil, as well as jojoba methyl ester, to study the effect of injection pressure at 205, 220, 240 and 260 bar with a variation in injection timing at 23°bTDC and 28°bTDC. The performance of jojoba methyl ester improved with an increase in injection pressure. A maximum brake thermal efficiency of 29.72% was obtained with lower emissions compared to the other vegetable oils; this might be explained by low viscosity and better combustion. Further investigations were carried out with a new lubricant, SAE 5W-30, which improved the performance of the CI engine by 1.59%. All of the abovementioned investigations were fruitful and these results are expected to lead to substantial contributions in the development of a viable vegetable oil engine.

  17. Transesterification of waste vegetable oil under pulse sonication using ethanol, methanol and ethanol–methanol mixtures

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Highlights: • Pulse sonication effect on transesterification of waste vegetable oil was studied. • Effects of ethanol, methanol, and alcohol mixtures on FAMEs yield were evaluated. • Effect of ultrasonic intensity, power density, and its output rates were evaluated. • Alcohol mixtures resulted in higher biodiesel yields due to better solubility. - Abstract: This study reports on the effects of direct pulse sonication and the type of alcohol (methanol and ethanol) on the transesterification reaction of waste vegetable oil without any external heating or mechanical mixing. Biodiesel yields and optimum process conditions for the transesterification reaction involving ethanol, methanol, and ethanol–methanol mixtures were evaluated. The effects of ultrasonic power densities (by varying sample volumes), power output rates (in W), and ultrasonic intensities (by varying the reactor size) were studied for transesterification reaction with ethanol, methanol and ethanol–methanol (50%-50%) mixtures. The optimum process conditions for ethanol or methanol based transesterification reaction of waste vegetable oil were determined as: 9:1 alcohol to oil ratio, 1% wt. catalyst amount, 1–2 min reaction time at a power output rate between 75 and 150 W. It was shown that the transesterification reactions using ethanol–methanol mixtures resulted in biodiesel yields as high as >99% at lower power density and ultrasound intensity when compared to ethanol or methanol based transesterification reactions

  18. Vegetable-oil based metalworking fluids research developments for machining processes: survey, applications and challenges

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lawal Sunday Albert

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Research developments in the application of vegetable-oil based metalworking fluids (MWFs in machining processes have witnessed a great attention in recent years, this being due to the environmental friendliness and performances recorded while machining. In the work reported in this paper, the authors surveyed relevant literatures, identified gaps in the application of vegetable-oil based MWFs, and proposed challenges and needs to fill the gaps created as a result of new development in engineering material applications. The engineering materials for the machining processes addressed were classified into three categories: ferrous materials, non-ferrous materials and super alloys materials. This survey is both timeline and process defined. It identified gaps in the research developments at various periods of time with respect to applications to various processes. It concluded by making a case for application of vegetable-oil based MWFs for milling and grinding processes and super alloy materials as a way of addressing environmental impact that is always associated with application of mineral-oil based MWFs.

  19. Deep drawing of 304 L Steel Sheet using Vegetable oils as Forming Lubricants

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shashidhara, Y. M.; Jayaram, S. R.

    2012-12-01

    The study involves the evaluation of deep drawing process using two non edible oils, Pongam (Pongammia pinnata) and Jatropha (Jatropha carcass) as metal forming lubricants. Experiments are conducted on 304L steel sheets under the raw and modified oils with suitable punch and die on a hydraulic press of 200 ton capacity. The punch load, draw-in-length and wall thickness distribution for deep drawn cups are observed. The drawn cups are scanned using laser scanning technique and 3D models are generated using modeling package. The wall thickness profiles of cups at different sections (or height) are measured using CAD package. Among the two raw oils, the drawn cups under Jatropha oil, have uniform wall thickness profile compared to Pongam oil. Uneven flow of material and cup rupturing is observed under methyl esters of Pongam and Jatropha oil lubricated conditions. However, the results are observed under epoxidised Jatropha oil with uniform metal flow and wall thicknesses compared to mineral and other versions of vegetable oils.

  20. Effect of vegetable de-oiled cake-diesel blends on diesel engine

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Raj, C.S. [Bharathiyar College of Engineering and Technology, Karaikal (India). MGR Educational and Research Inst.; Arivalagar, A.; Sendilvelan, S. [MGR Univ., Chennai (India). MGR Educational and Research Inst.; Arul, S. [Panimalar College of Engineering, Channai (India)

    2009-07-01

    This study evaluated the use of coconut oil methyl ester (COME) as a blending agent with the vegetable de-oiled cakes used in biodiesel production. Different proportions of the de-oiled cake were combined with diesel in order to investigate performance, emissions, and combustion characteristics. The experiments were conducted on a 4-stroke single cylinder, air-cooled diesel engine. Fuel flow rates were measured and a thermocouple was used to measure exhaust gas temperatures. A combustion analyzer was used to measure cylinder pressure and heat release rates. Brake thermal efficiency, brake power, and specific fuel consumption performance was monitored. Results of the study showed that rates of heat release were reduced for the de-oiled cake blended fuels as a result of the change in fuel molecular weight. The variation of NOx with load for neat diesel blends was examined. There was no variation of NOx emission up to 50 per cent of load for all blended oils, and it increased with load. Smoke density was reduced for all blends. Soot production was decreased by the oxygen present in the de-oiled cake. The study showed that fossil fuel oil consumption decreased by 14 to 15 per cent when the de-oiled biodiesel was used at low loads, and 4 to 5 per cent at peak loads. 10 refs., 4 tabs., 9 figs.

  1. Synchronous front-face fluorescence spectroscopy for authentication of the adulteration of edible vegetable oil with refined used frying oil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tan, Jin; Li, Rong; Jiang, Zi-Tao; Tang, Shu-Hua; Wang, Ying; Shi, Meng; Xiao, Yi-Qian; Jia, Bin; Lu, Tian-Xiang; Wang, Hao

    2017-02-15

    Synchronous front-face fluorescence spectroscopy has been developed for the discrimination of used frying oil (UFO) from edible vegetable oil (EVO), the estimation of the using time of UFO, and the determination of the adulteration of EVO with UFO. Both the heating time of laboratory prepared UFO and the adulteration of EVO with UFO could be determined by partial least squares regression (PLSR). To simulate the EVO adulteration with UFO, for each kind of oil, fifty adulterated samples at the adulterant amounts range of 1-50% were prepared. PLSR was then adopted to build the model and both full (leave-one-out) cross-validation and external validation were performed to evaluate the predictive ability. Under the optimum condition, the plots of observed versus predicted values exhibited high linearity (R(2)>0.96). The root mean square error of cross-validation (RMSECV) and root mean square error of prediction (RMSEP) were both lower than 3%.

  2. Synchronous front-face fluorescence spectroscopy for authentication of the adulteration of edible vegetable oil with refined used frying oil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tan, Jin; Li, Rong; Jiang, Zi-Tao; Tang, Shu-Hua; Wang, Ying; Shi, Meng; Xiao, Yi-Qian; Jia, Bin; Lu, Tian-Xiang; Wang, Hao

    2017-02-15

    Synchronous front-face fluorescence spectroscopy has been developed for the discrimination of used frying oil (UFO) from edible vegetable oil (EVO), the estimation of the using time of UFO, and the determination of the adulteration of EVO with UFO. Both the heating time of laboratory prepared UFO and the adulteration of EVO with UFO could be determined by partial least squares regression (PLSR). To simulate the EVO adulteration with UFO, for each kind of oil, fifty adulterated samples at the adulterant amounts range of 1-50% were prepared. PLSR was then adopted to build the model and both full (leave-one-out) cross-validation and external validation were performed to evaluate the predictive ability. Under the optimum condition, the plots of observed versus predicted values exhibited high linearity (R(2)>0.96). The root mean square error of cross-validation (RMSECV) and root mean square error of prediction (RMSEP) were both lower than 3%. PMID:27664635

  3. Biofuel Database

    Science.gov (United States)

    Biofuel Database (Web, free access)   This database brings together structural, biological, and thermodynamic data for enzymes that are either in current use or are being considered for use in the production of biofuels.

  4. Cultivation of Chlorella sp. as Biofuel Sources in Palm Oil Mill Effluent (POME

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    H Hadiyanto

    2012-07-01

    Full Text Available Renewable energy is essential and vital aspect for development in Indonesia especially less oil reserve for coming 15 years. Biodiesel has received much attention as renewable energy in recent years. One of potential biodiesel is produced from microalgae. Due to high content of nutrients in Palm Oil Mill Effluent (POME, this waste is a potential for nutrient growth for microalgae. Chlorella is one of high potential for biodiesel since it has high lipid content (20-30%. The objective of the research is to determine growth rate and biomass productivity in Chlorella Sp cultured in POME. Chlorella Sp was cultured in 20%, 50%, 70% POME using urea concentration 0.1gr/L (low nitrogen source and 1gr/l (high nitrogen source at flask disk, pH 6.8-7.2; aerated using aquarium pump and fluorescence lamp 3000-6000 lux as light. Medium was measured using spectrophotometer Optima Sp-300 OD at 680 wave length in 15 days to calculate specific growth rate. At end of cultivation, Chlorella sp was filtered and measured as dry weight. Result indicated that Chlorella sp at 50% POME 1gr/L urea showed higher specific growth rate (0.066/day. Factor affecting growth rate of microalgae is CNP ratio, POME concentration, and urea concentration.

  5. Operations variables in the transesterification process of vegetable oil: a review - chemical catalysis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andrés Felipe Rojas González

    2010-05-01

    Full Text Available This article describes the results of a bibliographic review of the effects of operation conditions on process yield in the chemical transesterification of vegetable oil. The parameters studied were: temperature and time reaction, alcohol:oil molar ratio, catalyst and alcohol type, catalyst concentration, mixed intensity and free fatty acid and water concentration. It also reports that this pro- cess has been carried out with basic and acid catalysts using homogeneous and heterogeneous catalytic processes for a wide va- riety of oils. It was found that reaction yield increased when temperature and time reaction increased; however this parameter de- creased at low catalyst concentration ( 1% w/w and water (> 3% w/w concentration in oil.

  6. [Rapid discriminating hogwash oil and edible vegetable oil using near infrared optical fiber spectrometer technique].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Bing-Fang; Yuan, Li-Bo; Kong, Qing-Ming; Shen, Wei-Zheng; Zhang, Bing-Xiu; Liu, Cheng-Hai

    2014-10-01

    In the present study, a new method using near infrared spectroscopy combined with optical fiber sensing technology was applied to the analysis of hogwash oil in blended oil. The 50 samples were a blend of frying oil and "nine three" soybean oil according to a certain volume ratio. The near infrared transmission spectroscopies were collected and the quantitative analysis model of frying oil was established by partial least squares (PLS) and BP artificial neural network The coefficients of determina- tion of calibration sets were 0.908 and 0.934 respectively. The coefficients of determination of validation sets were 0.961 and 0.952, the root mean square error of calibrations (RMSEC) was 0.184 and 0.136, and the root mean square error of predictions (RMSEP) was all 0.111 6. They conform to the model application requirement. At the same time, frying oil and qualified edible oil were identified with the principal component analysis (PCA), and the accurate rate was 100%. The experiment proved that near infrared spectral technology not only can quickly and accurately identify hogwash oil, but also can quantitatively detect hog- wash oil. This method has a wide application prospect in the detection of oil.

  7. Biofuel from "humified" biomass

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kpogbemabou, D.; Lemée, L.; Amblès, A.

    2009-04-01

    In France, 26% of the emissions of greenhouse effect gas originate from transportation which depends for 87% on fossil fuels. Nevertheless biofuels can contribute to the fight against climate change while reducing energetic dependence. Indeed biomass potentially represents in France 30 Mtoe a year that is to say 15% national consumption. But 80% of these resources are made of lignocellulosic materials which are hardly exploitable. First-generation biofuels are made from sugar, starch, vegetable oil, or animal fats. Due to their competition with human food chain, first-generation biofuels could lead to food shortages and price rises. At the contrary second-generation biofuel production can use a variety of non food crops while using the lignocellulosic part of biomass [1]. Gasification, fermentation and direct pyrolysis are the most used processes. However weak yields and high hydrogen need are limiting factors. In France, the National Program for Research on Biofuels (PNRB) aims to increase mobilizable biomass resource and to develop lignocellulosic biomass conversion. In this context, the LIGNOCARB project studies the liquefaction of biodegraded biomass in order to lower hydrogen consumption. Our aim was to develop and optimize the biodegradation of the biomass. Once the reactor was achieved, the influence of different parameters (starting material, aeration, moisture content) on the biotransformation process was studied. The monitored parameters were temperature, pH and carbon /nitrogen ratio. Chemical (IHSS protocol) and biochemical (van Soest) fractionations were used to follow the maturity ("humic acid"/"fulvic acid" ratio) and the biological stability (soluble, hemicelluloses, celluloses, lignin) of the organic matter (OM). In example, the increase in lignin can be related to the stabilization since the OM becomes refractory to biodegradation whereas the increase in the AH/AF ratio traduces "humification". However, contrarily to the composting process, we do

  8. Synthesis of 1,2,4 trioxolanes from vegetable oils for pharmaceutical and veterinary application

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nathália R. Almeida

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available Vegetable oils are rich in mono-and poly-unsaturated fatty acids, and these compounds contain carbon-carbon double bonds available for chemical/structural modification, especially via oxidative processes. Sunflower oil obtained from seed of sunflower (Helianthus annuus contains a large amount of these acids, such as linoleic (48-74% and oleic (14-39% acids, proving to be an ideal starting material for these changes [1]. Ozone is an oxidizing agent that reacts with double bonds of fatty acids present in vegetable oils to form ozonides or 1,2,4 trioxolanes,  and peroxidic species such as hydroperoxides, hydrogen peroxide, polymeric peroxides and other organic peroxides. These compounds are of great pharmaceutical interest for the treatment of various dermatological diseases, due to their antimicrobial properties and stimulating action on tissue repair and regeneration [2]. In this work, the sunflower oil was ozonized, and the ideal conditions, as reaction time, ozone concentration and temperature, were determined. The IR and 1H and 13C NMR of ozonized oils confirm the formation of 1,2,4 trioxolane ring according to the mechanism proposed by Criegee [3]. The ozonolysis reaction was performed under different conditions and the product is in the process of knowledge protection or patent.

  9. Enzymatic interesterification of vegetable oil/ fish oil blend for margarine production

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ibrahim, Nuzul Amri Bin; Xu, Xuebing

    the desired properties. In this study, palm stearin (PS), palm kernel oil (PKO) and fish oil (FO) are blended and modified by enzymatic interesterification. PS functioned as the hard stock, PKO as the soft oil and FO as a source for eicosapentaenoic acid (EPA)/ docosahexaenoic acid (DHA). The purpose......In margarine formulation, oils of different melting points are blended to make a product that is spreadable at room temperature. Usually, the blend would be subjected to modification process, either by interesterification (chemical or enzymatic) or partial hydrogenation in order to achieve...

  10. Methyl Ester (Bio diesel) Production from Waste Cooking Vegetable Oil by Microwave Irradiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In this study we tried to develop, test and optimize a batch microwave system using waste cooking vegetable oil (WCVO) that was used as bio diesel feedstock. Two catalysts, sodium hydroxide (NaOH) and potassium hydroxide (KOH) were tested in this study. Transesterification reactions between oil and methanol were carried out in presence of microwaves. It was observed that by using of microwaves, the reaction times were drastically reduced. As high as 99.5 % conversions could be achieved for 0.5% KOH concentration. Moreover, quality analysis of bio diesels according to international standards was performed and the samples were found to meet the necessary specifications. (author)

  11. Investigation Of Spontaneous Combustion Tendency Of Vegetable Oils By The Means Of Differential Thermal Analysis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ivan Hrušovský

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available The potential of vegetable oils to undergo violent thermal oxidation is long-known problem. The process of this oxidation is investigated by the means of differential thermal analysis. Polyurethane foam was saturated with Tung oil rich in unsaturated fatty acids at three different mass rations, and airflow at three different rates is introduces to the sample to ensure sufficient volume of air for oxidation. The samples were thermally stressed both dynamically and isothermally. The results were compared to results of standard differential Mackey test.

  12. Influence of deep frying on the unsaponifiable fraction of vegetable edible oils enriched with natural antioxidants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Orozco, Mara I; Priego-Capote, Feliciano; Luque de Castro, Maria D

    2011-07-13

    The influence of deep frying, mimicked by 20 heating cycles at 180 °C (each cycle from ambient temperature to 180 °C maintained for 5 min), on the unsaponifiable fraction of vegetable edible oils represented by three characteristic families of compounds (namely, phytosterols, aliphatic alcohols, and triterpenic compounds) has been studied. The target oils were extra virgin olive oil (with intrinsic content of phenolic antioxidants), refined sunflower oil enriched with antioxidant phenolic compounds isolated from olive pomace, refined sunflower oil enriched with an autoxidation inhibitor (dimethylpolysiloxane), and refined sunflower oil without enrichment. Monitoring of the target analytes as a function of both heating cycle and the presence of natural antioxidants was also evaluated by comparison of the profiles after each heating cycle. Identification and quantitation of the target compounds were performed by gas cromatography-mass spectrometry in single ion monitoring mode. Analysis of the heated oils revealed that the addition of natural antioxidants could be an excellent strategy to decrease degradation of lipidic components of the unsaponifiable fraction with the consequent improvement of stability.

  13. COMPARISON OF BIODIESEL PRODUCTIVITIES OF DIFFERENT VEGETABLE OILS BY ACIDIC CATALYSIS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    AYTEN SAGIROGLU

    2011-03-01

    Full Text Available Biodiesel has become a subject which increasingly attracts worldwide attention because of its environmental benefits, biodegradability and renewability. Biodiesel production typically involves the transesterification of a triglyceride feedstock with methanol or other short-chain alcohols. This paper presents a study of transesterification of various vegetable oils, sunflower, safflower, canola, soybean, olive, corn, hazelnut and waste sunflower oils, with the acidic catalyst. Under laboratory conditions, fatty acid methyl esters (FAME were prepared by using methanol in the presence of 1.85% hydrochloric acid at 100 °C for 1 h and 25 °C for 3 h. The analyses of biodiesel were carried out by gas chroma¬tography and thin layer chromatography. Also, biodiesel productivities (% were determined on basis of the ratio of ester to oil content (w/w. The biodiesel productivities for all oils were found to be about 80% and about 90% at 25 and 100 °C, respectively. Also, the results showed that the yield of biodiesel depended on temperature for some oils, including canola, sunflower, safflower oils, but it was not found significant differences among all of the oil types on biodiesel productivities.

  14. In Vitro Rumen Fermentation of Ration Supplemented with Protected Vegetable Oils

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    N. Hidayah

    2014-08-01

    Full Text Available This experiment was designed to evaluate the effects of protected vegetable oils supplementation on in vitro fermentation characteristics, rumen microbial population, and methane production in cattle. The treatments were arranged in a complete randomized block design involving 2 factors i.e. oil type (sesame, canola, and flaxseed and protection methods (non protected, calcium soap, and microencapsulation. Variables observed were rumen pH, N-NH3, total and molar proportion of VFA, dry matter and organic matter digestibility, population of protozoa and total bacteria, methane production, and hydrogen balance. Data were tested using Analysis of Variance (ANOVA and the differences among treatments means were examined by Duncan Multiple Range Test. The oil type did not affect all variables measured. The protection method using microencapsulation significantly increased N-NH3 concentration. There was an interaction between oil type and protection method on total VFA concentration, molar proportion of VFA, and methane production. The supplementation of calcium soap-flaxseed oil significantly increased total VFA production, while the supplementation of microencapsulated flaxseed oil had the highest propionate concentration and H2 utilization, the lowest A:P ratio, and methane production. It is concluded that microencapsulated flaxseed oil was the best treatment to optimize rumen fermentation.

  15. Phase-transfer catalysis and ultrasonic waves II: saponification of vegetable oil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Entezari, M H; Keshavarzi, A

    2001-07-01

    Saponification of oils which is a commercially important heterogeneous reaction, can be speeded up by the application of ultrasound in the presence of phase-transfer catalyst (PTC). This paper focuses on the ability of ultrasound to cause efficient mixing of this liquid-liquid heterogeneous reaction. Castor oil was taken as a model oil and the kinetic of the reaction was followed by the extent of saponification. The hydrolysis of castor oil was carried out with different PTC such as cetyl trimethyl ammonium bromide (CTAB), benzyl triethyl ammonium chloride (BTAC) and tetrabutyl ammonium bromide (TBAB) in aqueous alkaline solution. As hydroxyl anion moves very slowly from aqueous to oil phase, the presence of a PTC is of prime importance. For this purpose, cationic surfactants are selected. The sonication of biphasic system were performed by 20 kHz (simple horn and cup horn) and 900 kHz. It was found that CTAB was better than the two others and this could be related to the molecular structure of the PTCs. The effect of temperature was also studied on the saponification process. By increasing the temperature, the yield was also increased and this could be explained by intermolecular forces, interfacial tension and mass transfer. Saponification of three different vegetable oils shows that the almond oil is saponified easier than the two others and this could be related to their properties such as surface tension, viscosity and density.

  16. Influence of deep frying on the unsaponifiable fraction of vegetable edible oils enriched with natural antioxidants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Orozco, Mara I; Priego-Capote, Feliciano; Luque de Castro, Maria D

    2011-07-13

    The influence of deep frying, mimicked by 20 heating cycles at 180 °C (each cycle from ambient temperature to 180 °C maintained for 5 min), on the unsaponifiable fraction of vegetable edible oils represented by three characteristic families of compounds (namely, phytosterols, aliphatic alcohols, and triterpenic compounds) has been studied. The target oils were extra virgin olive oil (with intrinsic content of phenolic antioxidants), refined sunflower oil enriched with antioxidant phenolic compounds isolated from olive pomace, refined sunflower oil enriched with an autoxidation inhibitor (dimethylpolysiloxane), and refined sunflower oil without enrichment. Monitoring of the target analytes as a function of both heating cycle and the presence of natural antioxidants was also evaluated by comparison of the profiles after each heating cycle. Identification and quantitation of the target compounds were performed by gas cromatography-mass spectrometry in single ion monitoring mode. Analysis of the heated oils revealed that the addition of natural antioxidants could be an excellent strategy to decrease degradation of lipidic components of the unsaponifiable fraction with the consequent improvement of stability. PMID:21644588

  17. Quantitative analysis of acrolein in heated vegetable oils by liquid chromatography with pulsed electrochemical detection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Casella, Innocenzo G; Contursi, Michela

    2004-09-22

    A sensitive and selective analytical method for the determination of acrolein in heated vegetable oils by liquid chromatographic separation with pulsed electrochemical detection is described. An optimized triple-step pulsed waveform, based on the formation/inhibition of PtOH species on the electrode surface, a consequence of the absence/presence of adsorbing analytes, is described for the sensitive detection of acrolein in acidic medium. Under these optimized experimental conditions the proposed analytical method allowed detection limits of 0.15 microM without pre- or postcolumn derivatization or tedious cleanup procedures. The proposed analytical method was successfully employed for the sensitive determination of acrolein in fresh and heated vegetable oils with good mean recoveries, selectivity, and analytical reproducibility. PMID:15366826

  18. Determination of lipid oxidation products in vegetable oils and marine omega-3 supplements

    OpenAIRE

    Halvorsen, Bente Lise; Blomhoff, Rune

    2011-01-01

    Background: There is convincing evidence that replacing dietary saturated fats with polyunsaturated fats (PUFA) decreases risk of cardiovascular diseases. Therefore, PUFA rich foods such as vegetable oils, fatty fish, and marine omega-3 supplements are recommended. However, PUFA are easily oxidizable and there is concern about possible negative health effects from intake of oxidized lipids. Little is known about the degree of lipid oxidation in such products. Objective: To assess the content ...

  19. Biofuels combustion.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Westbrook, Charles K

    2013-01-01

    This review describes major features of current research in renewable fuels derived from plants and from fatty acids. Recent and ongoing fundamental studies of biofuel molecular structure, oxidation reactions, and biofuel chemical properties are reviewed, in addition to combustion applications of biofuels in the major types of engines in which biofuels are used. Biofuels and their combustion are compared with combustion features of conventional petroleum-based fuels. Two main classes of biofuels are described, those consisting of small, primarily alcohol, fuels (particularly ethanol, n-butanol, and iso-pentanol) that are used primarily to replace or supplement gasoline and those derived from fatty acids and used primarily to replace or supplement conventional diesel fuels. Research efforts on so-called second- and third-generation biofuels are discussed briefly.

  20. Vegetable Oil-Loaded Nanocapsules: Innovative Alternative for Incorporating Drugs for Parenteral Administration.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Venturinil, C G; Bruinsmann, A; Oliveira, C P; Contri, R V; Pohlmann, A R; Guterres, S S

    2016-02-01

    An innovative nanocapsule formulation for parenteral administration using selected vegetable oils (mango, jojoba, pequi, oat, annatto, calendula, and chamomile) was developed that has the potential to encapsulate various drugs. The vegetable oil-loaded nanocapsules were prepared by interfacial deposition and compared with capric/caprylic triglyceride-loaded lipid core nanocapsules. The major objective was to investigate the effect of vegetable oils on particle size distribution and physical stability and to determine the hemolytic potential of the nanocapsules, considering their applicability for intravenous administration. Taking into account the importance of accurately determining particle size for the selected route of administration, different size characterization techniques were employed, such as Laser Diffraction, Dynamic Light Scattering, Multiple Light Scattering, Nanoparticle Tracking Analysis, and Transmission Electronic Microscopy. Laser diffraction studies indicated that the mean particle size of all nanocapsules was below 300 nm. For smaller particles, the laser diffraction and multiple light scattering data were in agreement (D[3,2]-130 nm). Dynamic light scattering and nanoparticle tracking analysis, two powerful techniques that complement each other, exhibited size values between 180 and 259 nm for all nanoparticles. Stability studies demonstrated a tendency of particle creaming for jojoba-nanocapsules and sedimentation for the other nanoparticles; however, no size variation occurred over 30 days. The hemolysis test proved the hemocompatibility of all nanosystems, irrespective of the type of oil. Although all developed nanocapsules presented the potential for parenteral administration, jojoba oil-loaded nanocapsules were selected as the most promising nanoformulation due to their low average size and high particle size homogeneity.

  1. Enhancement of growth of Lentinus crinitus in soil using benomyl and vegetable oil Aumento do crescimento de Lentinus crinitus em solo usando benomil e óleo vegetal

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kátia M.G. Machado

    2006-12-01

    Full Text Available In order to identify alternatives for soil fumigation in bioremediation process, the addition of benomyl and vegetable oil on the growth of L. crinitus and mitosporic fungi were evaluated. Benomyl can be used as an alternative to methyl bromide. Addition of vegetable oil favors the growth of L. crinitus.Para identificar alternativas para a fumigação de solo em processos de biorremediação, foi avaliada a adição de benomil e de óleo vegetal no crescimento de Lentinus crinitus e fungos mitospóricos. Benomil pode ser usado como alternativa ao brometo de metila. A adição de óleo vegetal favoreceu o crescimento de L. crinitus.

  2. Effect of methanol extracts of rosemary and olive vegetable water on the stability of olive oil and sunflower oil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gamel, T. H.

    1999-10-01

    Full Text Available Effect of methanol extracts of rosemary and olive vegetable water on the stability of olive oil and sunflower oil. Methanol phenolic extracts of dry rosemary leaves and olive vegetable water filtrate, in combination with BHA, were added to olive oil (blend of refined and virgin olive oil, 3 to 1 and to sunflower oil and their antioxidant effects under accelerated conditions were evaluated. Accelerated conditions included the oven test (at 63 °C and the conductivity method (Rancimat at 120 °C. Frying process at 180 °C was also applied. The methanol phenolic extracts and the BHA were added to each oil at the following concentrations: 200 ppm rosemary extract; 200 ppm olive vegetable water extract; 100 ppm rosemary extract + 100 ppm BHA; 100 ppm vegetable water extract + 100 ppm BHA and 200 ppm BHA. In general, antioxidant effect of phenolic additives of rosemary and of BHA was in the following order: 200 ppm rosemary extract > 100 ppm rosemary extract + 100 ppm BHA > and 200 ppm BHA. The addition of 200 ppm vegetable water extract and 100 ppm vegetable water extract + 100 ppm BHA exhibited similar antioxidant effect to that of 200 ppm BHA.

    Extractos metanólicos de fenoles de hojas secas de romero y filtrados de agua de vegetación de la aceituna, en combinación con BHA, se añadieron al aceite de oliva (mezcla de aceite de oliva refinado y virgen, 3 a 1 y al aceite de girasol, evaluándose sus efectos antioxidantes usando condiciones aceleradas. Estas condiciones incluyeron el test del horno de oxidación (a 63 °C y el método de conductividad (Rancimat a 120 °C. También se aplicó al proceso de fritura a 180 °C. Los extractos metanólicos de fenoles y el BHA se añadieron a cada aceite en las siguientes concentraciones: 200 ppm de extracto de romero, 200 ppm de extracto de agua de vegetación de la aceituna, 100 ppm de extracto de romero + 100 ppm de BHA, 100 ppm de extracto de agua de vegetación + 100 ppm de BHA y 200 ppm de BHA

  3. Synthesis of vegetable oil based polyol with cottonseed oil and sorbitol derived from natural source

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Lian Kun Jia; Li Xiang Gong; Wen Jiao Ji; Cheng You Kan

    2011-01-01

    In order to prepare the polyol with all bio-based components as raw materials, cottonseed oil was first epoxidized by peroxyformic acid generated in situ from hydrogen peroxide and formic acid, and the cottonseed oil based polyols with variable hydroxyl value were then prepared by the ring-opening of epoxidized cottonseed oil with sorbitol, which is a multi-functional hydroxyl compound derived from a natural source. The chemical structure of the products was characterized with FTIR analysis, and the residual epoxy oxygen content and hydroxyl value of the polyol versus the ring-opening time were investigated.

  4. Potential and limitations of biomass production for energy purposes: Vegetable oils compared with alcohol

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Since Brazil has favourable conditions for biomass production, as regards land mass, soil and climate, several agricultural products have been proposed as alternatives to petroleum-derived fuels. An analysis is made of the potential and limitations of energy systems using biomass production aimed at the use of vegetable oils in diesel engines compared with the experience acquired in Brazil with alcohol fuel in Otto engines. The current status of the national programme for alcohol production (PNA) within the framework of Brazilian agriculture in the last few years is presented, taking into account its objectives, achievements and impacts. Regarding vegetable oils, it must be emphasized that freight and mass passenger transport is being researched in every aspect - from the agricultural production of oleaginous plants to the use of oils in diesel engines. To assess the potential of oleaginous plant production, land needs for the years 1990 and 2000 have been estimated. From the study of some selected oleaginous plants and their potential expansion in a realistic way it was concluded that the viability of this alternative to diesel oil is limited in the short and medium term compared with alcohol, which provides better conditions for great expansion in the short term. It is believed that the option is viable, provided that it is launched gradually to avoid repeating the negative impacts that (according to some experts) were generated by PNA. (author)

  5. A novel infrared spectrophotometric method for the rapid determination of petroleum hydrocarbons, and animal and vegetable oils in water

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Song Lin Tang; Yong Zhang; Sheng Zhong; Ai Min Li

    2012-01-01

    To determine the concentrations of total oils,petroleum hydrocarbons,and animal and vegetable oils in water,the conventional analytical methods involve two scans as well as a step of magnesium silicate adsorption to remove the animal and vegetable oils in water samples.In this study,a novel analytical method was developed to determine the above oils in wastewater samples through just one scan-the concentration of animal and vegetable oils,and that of total oils were determined by measuring the absorbance of the >C=O bond in the peak area between 1750 cm-1 and 1735 cm-1,and ofthe C-H bond at 2930cm-1,2960 cm-1,and 3030 cm- 1,respectively.The concentration of petroleum hydrocarbons was then calculated by subtracting the concentration of animal and vegetable oils from that of total oils.Compared with the well-known analytical method GB/T 16488-1996,the novel approach displayed similar accuracy in the quantitative determination of oils in wastewater samples,but significantly reduced material cost and operation time.

  6. Pretreatment techniques for biofuels and biorefineries

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fang, Zhen (ed.) [Chinese Academy of Sciences, Kunming, YN (China). Xishuangbanna Tropical Botonical Garden

    2013-02-01

    The first book focused on pretreatment techniques for biofuels contributed by the world's leading experts. Extensively covers the different types of biomass, various pretreatment approaches and methods that show the subsequent production of biofuels and chemicals. In addition to traditional pretreatment methods, novel techniques are also introduced and discussed. An accessible reference work for students, researchers, academicians and industrialists in biorefineries. This book includes 19 chapters contributed by the world's leading experts on pretreatment methods for biomass. It extensively covers the different types of biomass (e.g. molasses, sugar beet pulp, cheese whey, sugarcane residues, palm waste, vegetable oil, straws, stalks and wood), various pretreatment approaches (e.g. physical, thermal, chemical, physicochemical and biological) and methods that show the subsequent production of biofuels and chemicals such as sugars, ethanol, extracellular polysaccharides, biodiesel, gas and oil. In addition to traditional methods such as steam, hot-water, hydrothermal, diluted-acid, organosolv, ozonolysis, sulfite, milling, fungal and bacterial, microwave, ultrasonic, plasma, torrefaction, pelletization, gasification (including biogas) and liquefaction pretreatments, it also introduces and discusses novel techniques such as nano and solid catalysts, organic electrolyte solutions and ionic liquids. This book offers a review of state-of-the-art research and provides guidance for the future paths of developing pretreatment techniques of biomass for biofuels, especially in the fields of biotechnology, microbiology, chemistry, materials science and engineering. It intends to provide a systematic introduction of pretreatment techniques. It is an accessible reference work for students, researchers, academicians and industrialists in biorefineries.

  7. Effects of Vegetable Oils on The Quality Parameters of Red Pepper During Storage

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    L. A. Inanc

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Sunflower, cottonseed, hazelnut, soybean and sesame oils at the concentration of 0, 2, 4 or 6 g/100g red pepper were added into red pepper to determine the effects of the oils on color and oxidative stability during 12-month storage at room temperature. The changes in color, free fatty acid content and peroxide value were determined in 2 month intervals. Initial colors of samples were ranged between 75.26 and 79.95 (ASTA unit, and decreased as the amount of the added vegetable oils increased. Color losses were increased by increasing time for all samples while the color of the soybean oil added samples was more stable. Free fatty acid content and peroxide value of red pepper extracted oils increased significantly as the storage time increased. At the end of storage, free fatty acid content of sesame oil added red pepper was higher than that of others and the lower peroxide value was observed in the control.

  8. Biodiesel production from vegetable oil and waste animal fats in a pilot plant.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alptekin, Ertan; Canakci, Mustafa; Sanli, Huseyin

    2014-11-01

    In this study, corn oil as vegetable oil, chicken fat and fleshing oil as animal fats were used to produce methyl ester in a biodiesel pilot plant. The FFA level of the corn oil was below 1% while those of animal fats were too high to produce biodiesel via base catalyst. Therefore, it was needed to perform pretreatment reaction for the animal fats. For this aim, sulfuric acid was used as catalyst and methanol was used as alcohol in the pretreatment reactions. After reducing the FFA level of the animal fats to less than 1%, the transesterification reaction was completed with alkaline catalyst. Due to low FFA content of corn oil, it was directly subjected to transesterification. Potassium hydroxide was used as catalyst and methanol was used as alcohol for transesterification reactions. The fuel properties of methyl esters produced in the biodiesel pilot plant were characterized and compared to EN 14214 and ASTM D6751 biodiesel standards. According to the results, ester yield values of animal fat methyl esters were slightly lower than that of the corn oil methyl ester (COME). The production cost of COME was higher than those of animal fat methyl esters due to being high cost biodiesel feedstock. The fuel properties of produced methyl esters were close to each other. Especially, the sulfur content and cold flow properties of the COME were lower than those of animal fat methyl esters. The measured fuel properties of all produced methyl esters met ASTM D6751 (S500) biodiesel fuel standards.

  9. Effect of an olive phenolic extract on the quality of vegetable oils during frying.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Esposto, S; Taticchi, A; Di Maio, I; Urbani, S; Veneziani, G; Selvaggini, R; Sordini, B; Servili, M

    2015-06-01

    The potential of a phenolic extract (PE) from olive vegetation water (OVW) to limit the negative effects of frying was tested after adding it at different concentrations to a refined olive oil (RO). Its efficacy was also compared to ROs containing butylated hydroxytoluene (BHT) and an extra virgin olive oil (EVOO) with a high polyphenol content. Analyses of the oils collected after 30min, 1, 2, 4, 6, 8, 10 and 12h of frying at 180°C, demonstrated that degradation of the polyphenols was proportional to the original content; at a concentration of at least 400mg/kg of polyphenols, PE was able to reduce oxidation of the tocopherols and the emission of low-molecular-weight aldehydes better than BHT and with similar results to the EVOO. In addition, secoiridoid oxidative compounds were examined by high-performance liquid chromatography/triple quadrupole tandem mass spectrometry with electrospray ionisation. PMID:25624222

  10. Conversion of lime kilns from oil firing to biofuel firing: Operating experience and modelling; Konvertering av mesaugnar fraan olje- till biobraensleeldning: Drifterfarenheter och modellering

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wadsborn, Rickard; Berglin, Niklas; Richards, Tobias

    2007-12-15

    Alternative fuels and techniques affect the operation of the lime kiln and the recausticizing plant, as well as the liquor cycle. An important effect is due to the introduction of non-process elements (NPEs), e.g. potassium, phosphorus and magnesium that accumulate in the liquor and lime cycles, respectively. Temperature profile and flame stability in the kiln also tend to change, which may have effects on ring formation. Availability and maintenance requirements for different technical solutions are important for the real saving of fossil fuel that can be reached over a longer period. The project has aimed to compile experience of the type indicated above, and to develop tools that may facilitate conversion to biofuel firing. The objective has been to gain comprehensive knowledge of the biofuels that can be used for lime kiln firing and compare them, focusing on practical experience from the plants that use or have used biofuels. One goal has been to develop validated models that can be used to describe changes that occur in the lime kiln and the chemical recovery cycle when changing fuels. The primary target group for the report is people working with energy and process related tasks in the pulp industry, and those delivering fuels or system solutions to the industry. The project has comprised data collection and modelling, as well as interviews with operations managers and visits to the mills that have several years of experience with firing of biofuels to replace oil in the lime kiln. A compilation of operating experience shows that conversion to biofuel firing is fully possible with both bark and wood powder, or with fuel gas from gasification of bark or wood shavings, and that the biofuel can replace the main part of the fuel oil in the lime kiln. However, the possibility to introduce biofuels into the lime kiln varies from mill to mill, as the mill have different possibilities to handle variations in availability of the kiln and mass flows of lime. In

  11. Trace metal contents of selected seeds and vegetables from oil producing areas of Nigeria.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wegwu, Matthew O; Omeodu, Stephen I

    2010-07-01

    The concentrations of accumulated trace metals in selected seeds and vegetables collected in the oil producing Rivers State of Nigeria were investigated. The values were compared with those of seeds and vegetables cultivated in Owerri, a less industrialized area in Nigeria. The lead (Pb) and cadmium (Cd) contents of the seeds obtained from Rivers State ranged between 0.10 and 0.23 microg/g dry weight, while those of the seeds cultivated in Owerri fell below the detection limit of 0.01 microg/g dry weight. The highest manganese (Mn) level (902 microg/g dry weight) was found in Irvingia garbonesis seeds cultivated in Rivers State. Similarly, the highest nickel (Ni) value (199 microg/g dry weight) was also obtained in I. garbonesis, however, in the seeds sampled in Owerri. The highest copper (Cu), zinc (Zn), and iron (Fe) levels (16.8, 5.27, and 26.2 microg/g dry weight, resp.) were detected in seeds collected in Rivers State. With the exception of Talinum triangulae, Ocinum gratissimum, and Piper guineese, with Pb levels of 0.09, 0.10, and 0.11 microg/g dry weight, respectively, the Pb and Cd levels in the vegetables grown in Owerri fell below the detection limit of 0.01 microg/g dry weight. The trace metal with the highest levels in all the vegetables studied was Mn, followed by Fe. The highest concentrations of Ni and Cu occurred in vegetables collected from Rivers State, while the highest level of Zn was observed in Piper guineese collected in Owerri, with a value of 21.4 microg/g dry weight. Although the trace metal concentrations of the seeds and vegetables collected in Rivers State tended to be higher than those of the seeds and vegetables grown in Owerri, the average levels of trace metals obtained in this study fell far below the WHO specifications for metals in foods. PMID:20658661

  12. Biofuel market and carbon modeling to evaluate French biofuel policy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In order to comply with European objectives, France has set up an ambitious biofuel plan. This plan is evaluated considering two criteria: tax exemption need and GHG emission savings. An economic marginal analysis and a life cycle assessment (LCA) are provided using a coupling procedure between a partial agro-industrial equilibrium model and a refining optimization model. Thus, we are able to determine the minimum tax exemption needed to place on the market a targeted quantity of biofuel by deducing the agro-industrial marginal cost of biofuel production to the biofuel refining long-run marginal revenue. In parallel, a biofuels LCA is carried out using model outputs. Such a method avoid common allocation problems between joint products. The French biofuel plan is evaluated for 2008, 2010 and 2012 using prospective scenarios. Results suggest that biofuel competitiveness depends on crude oil prices and petroleum products demands. Consequently, biofuel tax exemption does not always appear to be necessary. LCA results show that biofuels production and use, from 'seed to wheel', would facilitate the French Government's to compliance with its 'Plan Climat' objectives by reducing up to 5% GHG emissions in the French road transport sector by 2010. (authors)

  13. Rheology of oleogels based on sorbitan and glyceryl monostearates and vegetable oils for lubricating applications

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sánchez, R.

    2011-09-01

    Full Text Available Oleogels based on sorbitan and glyceryl monostearates and different types of vegetable oils, potentially applicable as biodegradable alternatives to traditional lubricating greases, have been studied. In particular, the rheological behavior, by means of small-amplitude oscillatory shear (SAOS measurements, and some lubrication performance-related properties (mechanical stability and tribological response have been evaluated in this work. SAOS response and mechanical stability of these oleogels are significantly influenced by the type and concentration of the organogelator and the vegetable oil used in the formulations. Glyceryl monostearate (GMS generally produces stronger gels than sorbitan monostearate (SMS. The use of low-viscosity oils, such as rapeseed and soybean oils, yields gels with significantly higher values of the linear viscoelastic functions than oleogels prepared with high-viscosity oils, i.e. castor oil. The rheological behavior of SMS-based oleogels also depends on the cooling rate applied during the gelification process. On the other hand, the oleogels studied present low values of the friction coefficient obtained in a tribological contact, although only some GMS/castor oil-based oleogels exhibit a suitable mechanical stability.

    En el presente trabajo se han estudiado diferentes oleogeles, basados en monoestearatos de sorbitano y glicerilo y aceites vegetales, que podrían ser potencialmente empleados como alternativas biodegradables a las grasas lubricantes tradicionales. En concreto, se ha evaluado su comportamiento reológico, a través de ensayos en cizalla oscilatoria, y algunas propiedades relacionadas con su rendimiento en la lubricación, tales como su estabilidad mecánica y comportamiento tribológico. La respuesta reológica y la estabilidad mecánica de los oleogeles estudiados están significativamente influenciadas por el tipo y la concentración del agente gelificante y por el aceite vegetal empleado. As

  14. Biological research survey for the efficient conversion of biomass to biofuels.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kent, Michael Stuart; Andrews, Katherine M. (Computational Biosciences)

    2007-01-01

    The purpose of this four-week late start LDRD was to assess the current status of science and technology with regard to the production of biofuels. The main focus was on production of biodiesel from nonpetroleum sources, mainly vegetable oils and algae, and production of bioethanol from lignocellulosic biomass. One goal was to assess the major technological hurdles for economic production of biofuels for these two approaches. Another goal was to compare the challenges and potential benefits of the two approaches. A third goal was to determine areas of research where Sandia's unique technical capabilities can have a particularly strong impact in these technologies.

  15. Making biofuels sustainable

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Full text: As the twentieth century drew to a close, there was considerable support for the use of biofuels as a source of renewable energy. To many people, they offered significant savings in greenhouse gas emissions compared to fossil fuels, an opportunity for reduced dependency on oil for transport, and potential as a counter weight to increasing oil prices. They also promised an opportunity for rural economies to benefit from a new market for their products and a chance of narrowing the gap between rich and poor nations. Biofuel development was encouraged by government subsidies, and rapid growth occurred in many parts of the world. Forty per cent of Brazilian sugar cane is used for biofuel production, for example, as is almost a quarter of maize grown in the United States. Although only around 1 per cent of arable land is cultivated to grow feedstock for biofuels, there has been increasing concern over the way a largely unchecked market has developed, and about its social and environmental consequences. Recent research has confirmed that food prices have been driven significantly higher by competition for prime agricultural land and that savings in greenhouse gas emissions are much smaller - and in some cases entirely eliminated - when environmentally important land, such as rainforest, is destroyed to grow biofuels. As a result, many now believe that the economic benefits of biofuels have been obtained at too high a social and environmental price, and they question whether they can be a truly sustainable source of energy. The United Kingdom has always had sustainability at the heart of its biofuel policies and set up the Renewable Fuels Agency to ensure that this goal was met. The direct effects of biofuel production are already being assessed through five measures of environmental performance and two measures of social performance, as well as measures of the energy efficiency of the production processes used and of the greenhouse gas savings achieved

  16. Fatty Acid Profile of Cheese from Dairy Goats Fed a Diet Enriched with Castor, Sesame and Faveleira Vegetable Oils

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ertha Medeiros

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available The addition of vegetable oils to the diets of dairy goats is an alternative to supplemental feeding during the dry period and improves the lipid profile of milk and by-products. Cheeses were produced using milk from cross bred goats (Saanen × Alpina fed diets enriched with 4% vegetable oil (faveleira, sesame or castor, the fatty acid profile of cheeses was studied. Supplementation with vegetable oils did not increase the total fat percentage of the cheese (p ≥ 0.05 but did increase the percentage of CLA isomers, long-chain fatty acids (LCFA and polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFA; in addition, the index of desirable fatty acids (DFA - expressed as the sum of unsaturated fatty acids plus stearic acid was increased for cheese made from milk from goats fed sesame or faveleira oil. Cheeses may have had increased percentages of cis-9,trans-11-CLA due to the supplementation of animal diets with vegetable oils rich in C18:2, such as faveleira and sesame oils. The fatty acid profile of goat cheese did not change significantly in response to the use of castor oil. Thus, the addition of sesame and faveleira oils to goat diets positively altered the fatty acid profile, which improved the nutritional characteristics of the fat present in goat cheese.

  17. Preparation and Viscosity of Biodiesel from New and Used Vegetable Oil: An Inquiry-Based Environmental Chemistry Laboratory

    Science.gov (United States)

    Clarke, Nathan R.; Casey, John Patrick; Brown, Earlene D.; Oneyma, Ezenwa; Donaghy, Kelley J.

    2006-01-01

    A synthesis is developed to make biodiesel from vegetable oils such as soybean, sunflower, and corn oil, as an exercise in the laboratory. Viscosity measurements were used to gain an understanding of an intermolecular property of the biodiesel and that has limited the implementation of biodiesel on a wide scale basis, solidification at low…

  18. Stability of potato chip fried in vegetable oils with different degree of unsaturation. Effect of ascorbyl palmitate during storage

    OpenAIRE

    TORRES R.; Salam, M.; Pérez, P.; Goicoechea, E.; Ortiz, J; Romero, N; Urra, C.; Dobarganes, M. C.; Robert, P.; Masson, L

    2002-01-01

    Four vegetable oils with different polyunsaturated/saturated fatty acid ratio (P/S): 5.2 for sunflower oil, 3.,4 for canola rapeseed oil, 0.4 for a blend of palm oleic and canola rapeseed oil (80:20), and 0.3 for palm olein were assayed for stability of crisps fried in these oils during storage at 60º C. The action of ascorbyl palmitate with special attention to its synergistic effect on the natural antioxidants was also tested. by addition to the fried potatoes. The evolution of ...

  19. Determination of Milk Fat Adulteration with Vegetable Oils and Animal Fats by Gas Chromatographic Analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Jin-Man; Kim, Ha-Jung; Park, Jung-Min

    2015-09-01

    This study assessed the potential application of gas chromatography (GC) in detecting milk fat (MF) adulteration with vegetable oils and animal fats and of characterizing samples by fat source. One hundred percent pure MF was adulterated with different vegetable oils and animal fats at various concentrations (0%, 10%, 30%, 50%, 70%, and 90%). GC was used to obtain the fatty acid (FA) profiles, triacylglycerol (TG) contents, and cholesterol contents. The pure MF and the adulterated MF samples were discriminated based on the total concentrations of saturated FAs and on the 2 major FAs (oleic acid [C18:1n9c] and linoleic acid [C18:2n6c], TGs [C52 and C54], and cholesterol contents using statistical analysis to compared difference. These bio-markers enabled the detection of as low as 10% adulteration of non-MF into 100% pure MF. The study demonstrated the high potential of GC to rapidly detect MF adulteration with vegetable and animal fats, and discriminate among commercial butter and milk products according to the fat source. These data can be potentially useful in detecting foreign fats in these butter products. Furthermore, it is important to consider that several individual samples should be analyzed before coming to a conclusion about MF authenticity. PMID:26265530

  20. Determination of Milk Fat Adulteration with Vegetable Oils and Animal Fats by Gas Chromatographic Analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Jin-Man; Kim, Ha-Jung; Park, Jung-Min

    2015-09-01

    This study assessed the potential application of gas chromatography (GC) in detecting milk fat (MF) adulteration with vegetable oils and animal fats and of characterizing samples by fat source. One hundred percent pure MF was adulterated with different vegetable oils and animal fats at various concentrations (0%, 10%, 30%, 50%, 70%, and 90%). GC was used to obtain the fatty acid (FA) profiles, triacylglycerol (TG) contents, and cholesterol contents. The pure MF and the adulterated MF samples were discriminated based on the total concentrations of saturated FAs and on the 2 major FAs (oleic acid [C18:1n9c] and linoleic acid [C18:2n6c], TGs [C52 and C54], and cholesterol contents using statistical analysis to compared difference. These bio-markers enabled the detection of as low as 10% adulteration of non-MF into 100% pure MF. The study demonstrated the high potential of GC to rapidly detect MF adulteration with vegetable and animal fats, and discriminate among commercial butter and milk products according to the fat source. These data can be potentially useful in detecting foreign fats in these butter products. Furthermore, it is important to consider that several individual samples should be analyzed before coming to a conclusion about MF authenticity.

  1. Vegetation community composition in wetlands created following oil sand mining in Alberta, Canada.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roy, Marie-Claude; Foote, Lee; Ciborowski, Jan J H

    2016-05-01

    Reclaiming wetlands following open pit mining for industrial oil sand extraction is challenging due to the physical and chemical conditions of the post-mined landscape. The aim of our study was to examine and compare the influence of oil sands process water (OSPW) and material (fine fluid tails or FFT) on the plant community composition of created wetlands. Compared to created-unamended and natural wetlands, the created wetlands amended with OSPW and/or FFT (created-tailings wetlands) had significantly higher water salinity, conductivity, dissolved oxygen concentration and lower oxidative-reductive potential. Water chemistry parameters of created-unamended did not differ significantly from those of natural wetlands. The sediment of created wetlands had significantly less moisture, total nitrogen, and organic content than the natural wetlands. The application of OSPW/FFT in created wetlands will likely lead to initial vegetation composition atypical of natural regional wetlands. For the objective of reclaiming vegetation composition to the status of natural regional wetlands, unamended wetlands were the best reclamation option, based on the physical and chemical parameters measured. Despite being the favored reclamation option, created-unamended wetlands' physical and chemical characteristics remain atypical of natural wetlands. Most significantly, the basin morphometry of created wetlands was significantly different from that of naturally-formed wetlands in the region, and this appears to partly explain difference in vegetation composition. We also demonstrate that species richness alone is not a useful measure in wetland monitoring. Instead, plant community composition is a better indicator of wetland conditions.

  2. Using MODIS NDVI products for vegetation state monitoring on the oil production territory in Western Siberia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kovalev Anton

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Article describes the results of using remote sensing data for vegetation state monitoring on the oil field territories in Western Siberia. We used MODIS data product providing the normalized difference vegetation index (NDVI values. Average NDVI values of each studied area were calculated for the period from 2010 to 2015 with one year interval for June, July and August. Analysis was carried out via an open tool of geographic information system QGIS used for spatial analysis and calculation of statistical parameters within chosen polygons. Results are presented in graphs showing the variation of NDVI for each study area and explaining the changes in trend lines for each field. It is shown that the majority of graphs are similar in shape which is caused by similar weather conditions. To confirm these results, we have conducted data analysis including temperature conditions and information about the accidents for each area. Abnormal changes in NDVI values revealed an emergency situation on the Priobskoe oil field caused by the flood in 2015. To sum up, the research results show that vegetation of studied areas is in a sufficiently stable state.

  3. Comparative evaluation of selected vegetable oils and Terpenes on Transdermal permeation of Ketorolac Tromethamine

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Goudanavar Prakash

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available A reservoir type transdermal patch for delivery of ketorolac tromethamine (KT, a potent analgesic agent was studied. Studies were carried out to investigate the effect of permeation enhancers on the in vitro permeation of KT across rat skin. Films were prepared by using hydroxy propyl methyl cellulose (HPMC and polyvinylalcohol (PVA polymers by incorporating glycerine as plasticizers using solvent casting method. A total of fourteen formulations were prepared by using same drug polymer ratio of 1:1 and incorporated different terpenes and vegetable oils as permeation enhancers in same concentrations. The prepared systems released the drug in the following order: FP2 > FP3 > FH2 > FP5 > FH3 > FP4 > FH5 > FH4 > FH6 > FP6 > FH7 > FP7 > FH1 > FH1. The various permeation parameters such as enhancement ratio and percent of drug permeated were determined for all the formulations. The maximum percent of drug permeation was observed with PVA monolithic system containing 10% d-limonene. Permeation enhancement of KT with different enhancers followed the order: d-limonene > cineole > olive oil > menthol >linseed oil > sunflower oil. The in vitro release studies revealed that terpenes showed better permeation enhancement than vegetable oils and the release was sustained up to 24 h and it follows zero-order kinetics. All the films were found to be stable at 37°C and 45°C with respect to their physical parameters. A reservoir type transdermal patch for delivery of KT thus appears to be feasible of delivering KT across skin.

  4. Long storage stability of biodiesel from vegetable and used frying oils

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Abderrahim Bouaid; Mercedes Martinez; Jose Aracil [Complutense University, Madrid (Spain). Department of Chemical Engineering

    2007-11-15

    Biodiesel is defined as the mono-alkyl esters of vegetable oils. Production of biodiesel has grown tremendously in European Union in the last years. Though the commercial prospects for biodiesel have also grown, there remains some concern with respect to its resistance to oxidative degradation during storage. Due to the chemical structure of biodiesel the presence of the double bond in the molecule produce a high level of reactivity with the oxygen, especially when it placed in contact with air. Consequently, storage of biodiesel over extended periods may lead to degradation of fuel properties that can compromise fuel quality. This study used samples of biodiesel prepared by the process of transesterification from different vegetable oils: high oleic sunflower oil (HOSO), high and low erucic Brassica carinata oil (HEBO and LEBO) respectively and used frying oil (UFO). These biodiesels, produced from different sources, were used to determine the effects of long storage under different conditions on oxidation stability. Samples were stored in white (exposed) and amber (not exposed) glass containers at room temperature. The study was conducted for a period of 30-months. At regular intervals, samples were taken to measure the following physicochemical quality parameters: acid value (AV), peroxide value (PV), viscosity {nu}, iodine value (IV) and insoluble impurities (II). Results showed that AV, PV, {nu} and II increased, while IV decreased with increasing storage time of biodiesel samples. However, slight differences were found between biodiesel samples exposed and not exposed to daylight before a storage time of 12 months. But after this period the differences were significant. 22 refs., 5 figs., 3 tabs.

  5. Supercritical carbon dioxide extraction of antioxidants from rosemary (Rosmarinus officinalis) leaves for use in edible vegetable oils

    OpenAIRE

    Vicente, G. de; Martín, Diana; García-Risco, Mónica R.; Fornari, Tiziana; Reglero, Guillermo

    2012-01-01

    Supercritical extraction was employed to produce rosemary (Rosmarinus officinalis L.) extracts with different composition and antioxidant activity. CO2 was utilized as supercritical solvent and diverse extraction conditions (temperature, pressure, amount of cosolvent and fractionation scheme) were applied. The extracts with higher antioxidant content were selected to study their capability as natural antioxidant of several commercial edible vegetable oils. Linseed oil (LO), grape seed oil (GO...

  6. The Influence of Different Vegetable Oils on Some ω-3 Polyunsaturated Fatty Acids from Thigh and Abdominal Fat of Broilers

    OpenAIRE

    Dragoş Sorin Fota; Lavinia Ştef; Dan Drinceanu; Izabella Fota; Rodica Căpriţă; Adrian Căpriţă

    2011-01-01

    Energy sources, especialy vegetable oils, added to the combined fodder can segnificantly modefy the fatty acids profile of the chicken feed, thus through its control the fatty acids profile of the carcases can be modefied, through enrichment in some fatty acids. In this respect an experiment was coduced on broilers, made up of three experimental groups, fed with a combined base fodder (corn and soybean meal) in which 2% of different energy sources were added (sunflower oil, soybean oil, linse...

  7. The process greasoline {sup registered}. Catalytic cracking of used vegetable oils and vegetable products; Das greasoline {sup registered} -Verfahren. Katalytisches Cracken von gebrauchten Pflanzenoelen und Pflanzenprodukten

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Danzig, Joachim; Fastabend, Anna; Greve, Anna; Heil, Volker; Juricev-Spiric, Marko; Kraft, Axel; Krzanowski, Marcin; Meller, Karl; Menne, Andreas; Unger, Christoph; Urban, Wolfgang [Fraunhofer-Institut fuer Umwelt-, Sicherheits- und Energietechnik UMSICHT, Oberhausen (Germany)

    2009-12-15

    Converting bio-based waste oils and fats as well as non-edible plant oils into oxygen-free components for quality aviation, shipping and automotive fuels represents a promising option to use these materials. Catalytic cracking over microporous and mesoporous catalysts like activated carbon offers a suitable process of considerable commercial and ecological potential. Moreover, this technology can be applied in order to produce high-caloric fuel gases like bio-based LPG. For example, these gases could be used for upgrading bio-methane into true bio-based synthetic natural gas without adding fossil components. Such a mixture would be ready to be fed into natural gas pipelines. In the future, used bio-hydraulic-oils could be collected and used as biofuels feedstock. Conversion of bio-hydraulic-oils as model substances resulted in organic liquid product yields of up to 64 wt.-%. Catalytic cracking of Jatropha Curcas-oil revealed the catalyst's usage time to be as important as the reaction temperature for optimising fuel gas production. (orig.)

  8. DPPH assay of vegetable oils and model antioxidants in protic and aprotic solvents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Prevc, Tjaša; Segatin, Nataša; Ulrih, Nataša Poklar; Cigić, Blaž

    2013-05-15

    The rate of reaction of phenolic antioxidants with DPPH depends on solvent composition. The rate constants can differ by more than two orders of magnitude for the same phenolic compound. Reactions are faster in alcohols than in ethyl acetate that is used routinely for the analysis of antioxidant potential (AOP) of nonpolar samples such as vegetable oils. Incorporation of an acid base pair into the assay solvent buffers the system against acid impurities such as free fatty acids and CO2 from the air. This is shown to increase the rate of oxidation and number of electrons of phenolic compounds exchanged with DPPH. Typically, DPPH assays are performed for predetermined time intervals at which phenolic compounds are not fully oxidized and therefore higher reaction rates result in higher values of AOP. More than twofold AOP was obtained for oleuropein, sesamol, sinapic acid, caffeic acid and protocatechuic acid in buffered alcohols than in ethyl acetate. The AOP of sesame, pumpkin seed and extra virgin olive oil is accordingly higher when determined in buffered alcohols. DPPH assays in ethyl acetate result in underestimation of AOP of unrefined vegetable oils. PMID:23618135

  9. Sterols and sterol oxides in the potato products, and sterols in the vegetable oils used for industrial frying operations

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dutta, Paresh Chandra

    1996-04-01

    Full Text Available The objective of this study was to determine the composition of sterols in vegetable oils used in industrial frying operations, and sterols and sterol oxides in the fried potato products. The sterols and sterol oxides were enriched by saponification of oils and by solid phase extraction. Preparative thin layer chromatography, capillary gas chromatography, gas chromatography-mass spectrometry, and nuclear magnetic resonance spectroscopy, were used to give qualitative and quantitative data. The results revealed that the content of desmethylsterols in palm oil, sunflower oil, high oleic sunflower oil, and rapeseed oil/palm oil blend were, 790, 4501, 3550, and 4497 ppm, respectively. Sitosterol was the major desmethylsterol in all samples. Palm oil also contained the lowest levels of total unsaponifiables. The sterols and unsaponifiable contents in sunflower oil were, to some extent, higher than in higholeic sunflower oil. The compositions of sterols after two days of frying were neither markedly different in the oils nor in the potato products fried in these oils compared with the original oils. Isomerised sterols were tentatively quantified to account for 10 ppm, 50 ppm and 20 ppm, in rapeseed oil/palm oil blend, sunflower oil, and high-oleic sunflower oils, respectively. Lipids extracted from French fries prepared in rapeseed oil/palm oil blend contained the highest levels of total sterol oxides, 191 ppm, and epoxides of both sitosterol and campesterol were the major contributors, together at a level of 172 ppm. On the other hand, lipids extracted from French fries prepared in sunflower oil and high-oleic sunflower oil contained 7α-hydroxy-, 7β-hydroxy-, 7-keto- and both epimers of epoxysitosterol, generally in equal amounts. All samples also contained small amounts of different oxidation products of campesterol and stigmasterol.

  10. World Biofuels Study

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Alfstad,T.

    2008-10-01

    This report forms part of a project entitled 'World Biofuels Study'. The objective is to study world biofuel markets and to examine the possible contribution that biofuel imports could make to help meet the Renewable Fuel Standard (RFS) of the Energy Independence and Security Act of 2007 (EISA). The study was sponsored by the Biomass Program of the Assistant Secretary for Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE), U.S. Department of Energy. It is a collaborative effort among the Office of Policy and International Affairs (PI), Department of Energy and Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL), National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL) and Brookhaven National Laboratory (BNL). The project consisted of three main components: (1) Assessment of the resource potential for biofuel feedstocks such as sugarcane, grains, soybean, palm oil and lignocellulosic crops and development of supply curves (ORNL). (2) Assessment of the cost and performance of biofuel production technologies (NREL). (3) Scenario-based analysis of world biofuel markets using the ETP global energy model with data developed in the first parts of the study (BNL). This report covers the modeling and analysis part of the project conducted by BNL in cooperation with PI. The Energy Technology Perspectives (ETP) energy system model was used as the analytical tool for this study. ETP is a 15 region global model designed using the MARKAL framework. MARKAL-based models are partial equilibrium models that incorporate a description of the physical energy system and provide a bottom-up approach to study the entire energy system. ETP was updated for this study with biomass resource data and biofuel production technology cost and performance data developed by ORNL and NREL under Tasks 1 and 2 of this project. Many countries around the world are embarking on ambitious biofuel policies through renewable fuel standards and economic incentives. As a result, the global biofuel demand is expected to grow very

  11. Influence of Monodisperse Fe3O4 Nanoparticle Size on Electrical Properties of Vegetable Oil-Based Nanofluids

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bin Du

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Insulating oil modified by nanoparticles (often called nanofluids has recently drawn considerable attention, especially concerning the improvement of electrical breakdown and thermal conductivity of the nanofluids. In this paper, three sized monodisperse Fe3O4 nanoparticles were prepared and subsequently dispersed into insulating vegetable oil to achieve nanofluids. The dispersion stability of nanoparticles in nanofluids was examined by natural sedimentation and zeta potential measurement. The electrical breakdown strength, space charge distribution, and several dielectric characteristics, for example, permittivity, dielectric loss, and volume resistivity of these nanofluids, were comparatively investigated. Experimental results show that the monodisperse Fe3O4 nanoparticles not only enhance the dielectric strength but also uniform the electric field of the nanofluids. The depth of electrical potential well of insulating vegetable oils and nanofluids were analyzed to clarify the influence of nanoparticles on electron trapping and on insulation improvement of the vegetable oil.

  12. Fatty acids composition as a means to estimate the high heating value (HHV) of vegetable oils and biodiesel fuels

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fassinou, Wanignon Ferdinand; Koua, Kamenan Blaise; Toure, Siaka [Laboratoire d' Energie Solaire, UFR-SSMT, Universite de Cocody (Cote d' Ivoire), 22BP582 Abidjan 22 (Ivory Coast); Sako, Aboubakar; Fofana, Alhassane [Laboratoire de Physique de l' Atmosphere et de Mecanique des Fluides, UFR-SSMT, Universite de Cocody (Cote d' Ivoire), 22BP582 Abidjan 22 (Ivory Coast)

    2010-12-15

    High heating value (HHV) is an important property which characterises the energy content of a fuel such as solid, liquid and gaseous fuels. The previous assertion is particularly important for vegetable oils and biodiesels fuels which are expected to replace fossil oils. Estimation of the HHV of vegetable oils and biodiesels by using their fatty acid composition is the aim of this paper. The comparison between the HHVs predicted by the method and those obtained experimentally gives an average bias error of -0.84% and an average absolute error of 1.71%. These values show the utility, the validity and the applicability of the method to vegetable oils and their derivatives. (author)

  13. Characterization of vegetable oils: detailed compositional fingerprints derived from electrospray ionization fourier transform ion cyclotron resonance mass spectrometry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, Zhigang; Rodgers, Ryan P; Marshall, Alan G

    2004-08-25

    Adulteration of vegetable oil is of concern for both commercial and health reasons. Compositional based fingerprints can potentially reveal both the oil source and its possible adulteration. Here, electrospray ionization (ESI) Fourier transform ion cyclotron resonance mass spectrometry (FT-ICR MS) resolves and identifies literally thousands of distinct chemical components of commercial canola, olive, and soybean oils, without extraction or other wet chemical separation pretreatment. In negative-ion ESI FT-ICR MS, the acidic components of soybean oil are easily distinguished from those of canola and olive oil based on relative abundances of C(18) fatty acids, whereas olive oil differs from canola and soybean oil based on relative abundances of tocopherols. In positive-ion ESI FT-ICR MS, the three oils are readily distinguished according to the relative abundances of di- and triacylglycerols with various numbers of double bonds in the fatty acid chains. We demonstrate the detection of soybean oil as an adulterant of olive oil, based on relative abundances of members of each of several chemical families. We suggest that the detailed chemical compositions of vegetable oils can be used to characterize them and to detect and identify adulterants. PMID:15315364

  14. Characterization of vegetable oils: detailed compositional fingerprints derived from electrospray ionization fourier transform ion cyclotron resonance mass spectrometry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, Zhigang; Rodgers, Ryan P; Marshall, Alan G

    2004-08-25

    Adulteration of vegetable oil is of concern for both commercial and health reasons. Compositional based fingerprints can potentially reveal both the oil source and its possible adulteration. Here, electrospray ionization (ESI) Fourier transform ion cyclotron resonance mass spectrometry (FT-ICR MS) resolves and identifies literally thousands of distinct chemical components of commercial canola, olive, and soybean oils, without extraction or other wet chemical separation pretreatment. In negative-ion ESI FT-ICR MS, the acidic components of soybean oil are easily distinguished from those of canola and olive oil based on relative abundances of C(18) fatty acids, whereas olive oil differs from canola and soybean oil based on relative abundances of tocopherols. In positive-ion ESI FT-ICR MS, the three oils are readily distinguished according to the relative abundances of di- and triacylglycerols with various numbers of double bonds in the fatty acid chains. We demonstrate the detection of soybean oil as an adulterant of olive oil, based on relative abundances of members of each of several chemical families. We suggest that the detailed chemical compositions of vegetable oils can be used to characterize them and to detect and identify adulterants.

  15. Process Parameters Optimization of Potential SO42-/ZnO Acid Catalyst for Heterogeneous Transesterification of Vegetable Oil to Biodiesel

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Istadi Istadi

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available Among the possible renewable energy resources, diesel fuels derived from triglycerides of vegetable oils and animal fats have shown potential as substitutes for petroleum-based diesel fuels. The biodiesel could be produced from vegetable oils over homogeneous catalyst, heterogeneous catalyst, or enzymatic catalyst. In this study, the synthesized SO42-/ZnO catalyst was explored to be used in the heterogeneous biodiesel production by using the vegetable oils and methanol. The study began with the preparation of SO42-/ZnO catalyst followed by the transesterification reaction between vegetable oil with methanol. The independent variables (reaction time and the weight ratio of catalyst/oil were optimized to obtain the optimum biodiesel (fatty acid methyl ester yield. The results of this study showed that the acid catalyst SO42-/ZnO was potential to be used as catalyst for biodiesel production through heterogeneous transesterification of vegetable oils. Optimum operating condition for this catalytic reaction was the weight ratio of catalyst/oil of 8:1 and reaction time of 2.6 h with respect to 75.5% yield of methyl ester products. The biodiesel product was also characterized to identify the respected fatty acid methyl ester components. Copyright © 2012 by BCREC UNDIP. All rights reserved. (Selected Paper from International Conference on Chemical and Material Engineering (ICCME 2012Received: 23rd October 2012, Revised: 25th November 2012, Accepted: 25th November 2012[How to Cite: I. Istadi, Didi D. Anggoro, Luqman Buchori, Inshani Utami, Roikhatus Solikhah, (2012. Process Parameters Optimization of Potential SO42-/ZnO Acid Catalyst for Heterogeneous Transesterification of Vegetable Oil to Biodiesel. Bulletin of Chemical Reaction Engineering & Catalysis, 7(2: 150-157. (doi:10.9767/bcrec.7.2.4064.150-157][How to Link / DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.9767/bcrec.7.2.4064.150-157 ] | View in 

  16. The role of genomics and biotechnology in achieving global food security for high-oleic vegetable oil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wilson, Richard F

    2012-01-01

    Health related concerns for dietary 'trans-fat' in the U.S. have mediated a significant decline in the use of hydrogenated vegetable oils in edible applications. Oils having a natural abundance of oleic acid provide many functional properties that are derived from partial hydrogenation of polyunsaturated oils. However, the long term agronomic production capacity of existing high-oleic oil crops to replace hydrogenated oil ingredients is not sustainable. Although improvements are expected in processing technology, genetic modification of seed composition offers the most promising tactic to increase the overall supply of high-oleic commodity oils. Genetic enhancement of oleic acid concentration has been demonstrated experimentally in nearly every oilseed. Private companies have launched production of genetically enhanced oleic acid cultivars such as: Nexera™ Omega-9 canola and Omega-9 sunflower oils. The E. I. du Pont de Nemours and Company plans commercial production of Plenish™ high-oleic soybeans in 2012. The Monsanto Co. plans commercial production of Vistive-Gold™ low-saturated high-oleic soybeans possibly as early as 2013. These 'new' high-oleic oilseeds must not only exhibit superior oil quality but also sequentially improved yield potential. Genetic maps that help breeders identify, locate and track useful genes will facilitate accomplishment of that goal. However, a reference sequence map in soybean is the only available chromosome scale assembly of an oilseed genome. Knowledge of genome structure enables technological advances that help increase soybean yielding ability, improve crop protection against biotic stresses, and reveal alleles for genes that mediate expression of quality traits. Led by soybean, genetically enhanced high-oleic vegetable oils that now are becoming commercially available may capture greater than 40% of the domestic consumption of vegetable oil in the U.S. by 2020. This innovation in oilseed technology is a positive step toward

  17. Rapid bioassay-guided screening of toxic substances in vegetable oils that shorten the life of SHRSP rats

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lewandowski Paul

    2010-02-01

    Full Text Available Abstract It has been consistently reported that vegetable oils including canola oil have a life shortening effect in Stroke-Prone Spontaneously Hypertensive Rats (SHRSP and this toxic effect is not due to the fatty acid composition of the oil. Although it is possible that the phytosterol content or type of phytosterol present in vegetable oils may play some role in the life shortening effect observed in SHRSP rats this is still not completely resolved. Furthermore supercritical CO2 fractionation of canola oil with subsequent testing in SHRSP rats identified safe and toxic fractions however, the compounds responsible for life shortening effect were not characterised. The conventional approach to screen toxic substances in oils using rats takes more than six months and involves large number of animals. In this article we describe how rapid bioassay-guided screening could be used to identify toxic substances derived from vegetable oils and/or processed foods fortified with vegetable oils. The technique incorporates sequential fractionation of oils/processed foods and subsequent treatment of human cell lines that can be used in place of animal studies to determine cytotoxicity of the fractions with structural elucidation of compounds of interest determined via HPLC-MS and GC-MS. The rapid bioassay-guided screening proposed would require two weeks to test multiple fractions from oils, compared with six months if animal experiments were used to screen toxic effects. Fractionation of oil before bio-assay enhances the effectiveness of the detection of active compounds as fractionation increases the relative concentration of minor components.

  18. In situ burning of oil in coastal marshes. 1. Vegetation recovery and soil temperature as a function of water depth, oil type, and marsh type.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lin, Qianxin; Mendelssohn, Irving A; Bryner, Nelson P; Walton, William D

    2005-03-15

    In-situ burning of oiled wetlands potentially provides a cleanup technique that is generally consistent with present wetland management procedures. The effects of water depth (+10, +2, and -2 cm), oil type (crude and diesel), and oil penetration of sediment before the burn on the relationship between vegetation recovery and soil temperature for three coastal marsh types were investigated. The water depth over the soil surface during in-situ burning was a key factor controlling marsh plant recovery. Both the 10- and 2-cm water depths were sufficient to protect marsh vegetation from burning impacts, with surface soil temperatures of Distichlis spicata. Oil type (crude vs diesel) and oil applied to the marsh soil surface (0.5 L x m(-2)) before the burn did not significantly affect plant recovery. Thus, recovery is species-specific when no surface water exists. Even water at the soil surface will most likely protect wetland plants from burning impact.

  19. Biofuels and biodiversity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wiens, John; Fargione, Joseph; Hill, Jason

    2011-06-01

    The recent increase in liquid biofuel production has stemmed from a desire to reduce dependence on foreign oil, mitigate rising energy prices, promote rural economic development, and reduce greenhouse gas emissions. The growth of this industry has important implications for biodiversity, the effects of which depend largely on which biofuel feedstocks are being grown and the spatial extent and landscape pattern of land requirements for growing these feedstocks. Current biofuel production occurs largely on croplands that have long been in agricultural production. The additional land area required for future biofuels production can be met in part by reclaiming reserve or abandoned croplands and by extending cropping into lands formerly deemed marginal for agriculture. In the United States, many such marginal lands have been enrolled in the Conservation Reserve Program (CRP), providing important habitat for grassland species. The demand for corn ethanOl has changed agricultural commodity economics dramatically, already contributing to loss of CRP lands as contracts expire and lands are returned to agricultural production. Nevertheless, there are ways in which biofuels can be developed to enhance their coexistence with biodiversity. Landscape heterogeneity can be improved by interspersion of land uses, which is easier around facilities with smaller or more varied feedstock demands. The development of biofuel feedstocks that yield high net energy returns with minimal carbon debts or that do not require additional land for production, such as residues and wastes, should be encouraged. Competing land uses, including both biofuel production and biodiversity protection, should be subjected to comprehensive cost-benefit analysis, so that incentives can be directed where they will do the most good.

  20. Assessing the Economic, Environmental and Social Sustainability of Biofuel Policies

    OpenAIRE

    Mela, Giulio

    2013-01-01

    Biofuels started to raise interest almost 40 years ago, when the Arab oil embargo pushed oil prices up and therefore spurred the research towards new forms of energy. Nevertheless, biofuel production has not really taken off until recently, when the combination of high oil prices, concern about greenhouse gas emissions, and the progressive reduction of oil reserves induced many countries across the world to implement policies encouraging biofuels production. At the beginning of the 2000s, ...

  1. Investigation of activated Al-pillared clay efficiency in vegetable oil purification

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lomić Gizela A.

    2004-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper represents a contribution to the applicability of natural clays and their derivates as adsorbents in the process of purification of vegetable oil. Investigation of textural properties of raw and purified clay samples reveals that during acid activation and Al-pillaring, BET and micropore surface area increases significantly. However, bleaching capacity of clay and its derivates is not determined by using sample surface area, but rather sample total pore volume. Surface area, especially micropore surface area contributes to removal of smaller molecules. This was confirmed by successful elimination of moisture and volatile materials by samples with an appropriate micropore structure. Used samples of clay and its derivates do not significantly influence acid and peroxide values of raw sunflower oil during its treatment.

  2. Evaluation of Group-Contribution Methods to Estimate Vegetable Oils and Biodiesel Properties

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    E. G. Lima Neto

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available Knowing the phase equilibrium has fundamental importance on mixture separation; and physical and thermodynamic properties of the compounds underlie that equilibrium. Estimation methods are supposed to be a powerful skill for predicting physical and thermodynamic properties of the involved compounds, not only because the large number of properties that can be predicted (vapor pressure, boiling point, melting point, critical properties, etc but also due to the low deviation to experimental measure. This work focuses the prediction of some properties of organic substances present in vegetable oils and in the biodiesel of these oils through group-contribution methods and empiric relations. Estimations were compared to data available on literature and experimental data. This comparison shows satisfactory deviation for application on engineering problems.

  3. Performance evaluation of vegetable-based oils in drilling austenitic stainless steel

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Belluco, Walter; De Chiffre, Leonardo

    2004-01-01

    The efficiency of six cutting oils was evaluated in drilling AISI 316L austenitic stainless steel using conventional HSS-Co tools by measurements of tool life, tool wear, cutting forces and chip formation. Seven tools were tested with each fluid to catastrophic failure. Cutting forces and chip...... breaking were recorded for each bore, and tool wear was measured at constant intervals. A commercial mineral-based oil was taken as reference product, and five vegetable-based cutting fluids at different levels of additivation were tested. All measured parameters were in agreement, confirming...... that a performing fluid produces longer tool life, better chip breaking, lower wear and cutting forces. In particular, good correlation was found between tool life and cutting forces. Differences in cutting forces due to the fluid could be measured with a higher repeatability than tool life, thus resulting...

  4. Determination of coenzyme Q10, coenzyme Q9, and melatonin contents in virgin argan oils: comparison with other edible vegetable oils.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Venegas, Carmen; Cabrera-Vique, Carmen; García-Corzo, Laura; Escames, Germaine; Acuña-Castroviejo, Darío; López, Luis Carlos

    2011-11-23

    Virgin argan oil possesses high antioxidant capacity (AC), which may be partially explained by its high content in antioxidant molecules such as polyphenols and tocopherols. However, the content in other antioxidant molecules, for example, coenzyme Q10 (CoQ(10)), coenzyme Q9 (CoQ(9)), and melatonin (Mel), which have been identified in other edible vegetable oils, have not been evaluated in virgin argan oil. Consequently, it was decided to evaluate the contents of CoQ(10), CoQ(9), and Mel in virgin argan oils and compare the results to those obtained in extra virgin olive oils and some varieties of seed oils. By the use of sensitive HPLC-EC/F methods, the results showed that virgin argan oil is a rich source of CoQ(10) and Mel, but no CoQ(9) was detected. Extra virgin olive oil showed higher levels of CoQ(10) and lower levels of Mel than virgin argan oil. Between the seed oil samples, only virgin soybean oil showed higher CoQ(10) and Mel levels than virgin argan oil. The results may be relevant for the contribution of CoQ(10) and Mel to the biological activities of virgin argan oil.

  5. Plants producing biofuels

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Papavinasam, S. [Natural Resources Canada, Ottawa, ON (Canada). CANMET Materials Technology Lab

    2009-08-15

    Biofuels are currently produced primarily from five plants, namely corn, canola, sugar cane, palm oil, jatropha. However, research and development efforts are underway around the world produce biofuels from other sources, particularly from algae. This paper described the characteristics of the top 5 plants and their role in the production of biofuels. Countries where these plants are cultivated were also summarized. The article indicated that producing ethanol from corn, is not very efficient since growing corn requires more fertilizer and pesticides than most other crops, plus the corn kernels have to undergo energy-intensive distillation and chemical extraction processes. China is the world's largest producer of rapeseed oil, with an annual production of 12 million tons. The countries of the European Union collectively produce another 16 million tons, of which nearly 4 million tons were used in 2006 to produce biodiesel. Brazil is the world's largest producer of sugar cane, and accounts for about 45 per cent of global ethanol production. Malaysia and Indonesia are the key players in the palm oil market, accounting for 85 per cent of global production. India has identified more than 11 million hectares that would be suitable for growing jatropha, whose seeds contain up to 40 per cent oil that can be burned in a conventional diesel engine after extraction. 1 tab.

  6. Properties of Cookies Made with Natural Wax-Vegetable Oil Organogels.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hwang, Hong-Sik; Singh, Mukti; Lee, Suyong

    2016-05-01

    The aim of this study was to examine the feasibility of cookies in which the conventional margarine is replaced with an organogel of vegetable oil (VO) and natural wax. New cookies from VO organogels contain no trans fats and much less saturated fats than cookies made with a conventional margarine. To understand the effects of different kinds of waxes, organogels were prepared from 4 different waxes including sunflower wax (SW), rice bran wax (RBW), beeswax, and candelilla wax and properties of cookie dough and cookie were evaluated. To investigate the effects of different VOs on the properties of cookies, 3 VOs including olive oil, soybean oil and flaxseed oil representing oils rich in oleic acid (18:1), linoleic acid (18:2), and linolenic acid (18:3), respectively, were used. Both the wax and VO significantly affected properties of organogel such as firmness and melting behavior shown in differential scanning calorimetry. The highest firmness of organogel was observed with SW and flaxseed oil. Properties of dough such as hardness and melting behavior were also significantly affected by wax and VO while trends were somewhat different from those for organogels. SW and RBW provided greatest hardnesses to cookie dough. However, hardness, spread factor, and fracturability of cookie containing the wax-VO organogel were not significantly affected by different waxes and VOs. Several cookies made with wax-VO organogels showed similar properties to cookies made with a commercial margarine. Therefore, this study shows the high feasibility of utilization of the organogel technology in real foods such as cookies rich in unsaturated fats.

  7. Animal performance and meat characteristics in steers reared in intensive conditions fed with different vegetable oils.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Castro, T; Cabezas, A; De la Fuente, J; Isabel, B; Manso, T; Jimeno, V

    2016-03-01

    Enhancing the quality of beef meat is an important goal in terms of improving both the nutritional value for the consumer and the commercial value for producers. The aim of this work was to study the effects of different vegetable oil supplements on growth performance, carcass quality and meat quality in beef steers reared under intensive conditions. A total of 240 Blonde D' Aquitaine steers (average BW=293.7±38.88 kg) were grouped into 24 batches (10 steers/batch) and were randomly assigned to one of the three dietary treatments (eight batches per treatment), each supplemented with either 4% hydrogenated palm oil (PALM) or fatty acids (FAs) from olive oil (OLI) or soybean oil (SOY). No differences in growth performance or carcass quality were observed. For the meat quality analysis, a steer was randomly selected from each batch and the 6th rib on the left half of the carcass was dissected. PALM meat had the highest percentage of 16:0 (P<0.05) and the lowest n-6/n-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFA) ratio (P<0.05), OLI had the highest content of t11-18:1 (P<0.01) and c9,t11-18:2 (P<0.05) and SOY showed the lowest value of monounsaturated fatty acids (MUFA) (P<0.001), the highest percentage of PUFA (P<0.01) and a lower index of atherogenicity (P=0.07) than PALM. No significant differences in the sensory characteristics of the meat were noted. However, the results of the principal component analysis of meat characteristics enabled meat from those steers that consumed fatty acids from olive oil to be differentiated from that of steers that consumed soybean oil.

  8. Properties of Cookies Made with Natural Wax-Vegetable Oil Organogels.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hwang, Hong-Sik; Singh, Mukti; Lee, Suyong

    2016-05-01

    The aim of this study was to examine the feasibility of cookies in which the conventional margarine is replaced with an organogel of vegetable oil (VO) and natural wax. New cookies from VO organogels contain no trans fats and much less saturated fats than cookies made with a conventional margarine. To understand the effects of different kinds of waxes, organogels were prepared from 4 different waxes including sunflower wax (SW), rice bran wax (RBW), beeswax, and candelilla wax and properties of cookie dough and cookie were evaluated. To investigate the effects of different VOs on the properties of cookies, 3 VOs including olive oil, soybean oil and flaxseed oil representing oils rich in oleic acid (18:1), linoleic acid (18:2), and linolenic acid (18:3), respectively, were used. Both the wax and VO significantly affected properties of organogel such as firmness and melting behavior shown in differential scanning calorimetry. The highest firmness of organogel was observed with SW and flaxseed oil. Properties of dough such as hardness and melting behavior were also significantly affected by wax and VO while trends were somewhat different from those for organogels. SW and RBW provided greatest hardnesses to cookie dough. However, hardness, spread factor, and fracturability of cookie containing the wax-VO organogel were not significantly affected by different waxes and VOs. Several cookies made with wax-VO organogels showed similar properties to cookies made with a commercial margarine. Therefore, this study shows the high feasibility of utilization of the organogel technology in real foods such as cookies rich in unsaturated fats. PMID:27027545

  9. Fuel vegetable oils under some economic considerations; Oleos vegetais combustiveis sob algumas consideracoes economicas

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mourad, Anna Lucia [Universidade Estadual de Campinas (UNICAMP), SP (Brazil). Fac. de Engenharia Mecanica. Dept. de Energia]|[Instituto de Tecnologia de Alimentos (ITAL), Campinas, SP (Brazil)). Centro de Tecnologia de Embalagem]. E-mail: anna@ital.sp.gov.br

    2006-07-01

    The introduction of bio diesel in the Brazilian energy matrix has been mainly motivated by the governmental actions, which foresees social and economical development to the country in a program that allows the use of different oil seed crops as raw materials for bio fuel production. Cost estimates considering the average price received by the farmer and the oil content of each vegetable shows that the minimum cost of bio fuel was about 1.1(castor bean); 1.8(peanut); 2.0(soy beans); 3.3(corn) higher than the average cost of fossil diesel from 1975 to 2004. Among the evaluated raw materials, only the palm oil had inferior cost compared to the petroleum diesel (0.6%). The oleaginous plants that have a higher oil content and smaller agricultural production cost to produce bio fuels are economically most feasible and they should be prioritized in the Government Program so that it may become economically sustainable along the years, as well as generate adequate profit to the farmers of each culture. (author)

  10. Sedimentation and deformation of an aqueous sodium hydroxide drop in vegetable oil

    Science.gov (United States)

    White, Andrew; Hyacinthe, Hyaquino; Ward, Thomas

    2013-11-01

    The addition of water droplets in fuels is known to provide benefits such as decreased Nitrous Oxide NOx emissions. Unfortunately the shelf life of a water-fuel emulsion is limited by the sedimentation rate of the water droplets. It is well known that adding surfactants can significantly slow the sedimentation rate due to the introduction of Marangoni stresses. In the case of a vegetable oil fuel, adding sodium hydroxide (NaOH) to the water droplets will produce surfactants through saponification in the form of sodium-carboxylate salts. Pendant drops of aqueous NaOH solutions with pH between 11 and 13 will be suspended in several oils such as corn, olive, canola and soybean oil in order to measure the interfacial tension. The change in interfacial tension with time will be used to estimate the surfactant concentration and the saponification rate. Then individual drops will be placed in the oils to observe the settling velocity and drop deformation. NSF CBET.

  11. Survey of dissolved air flotation system efficiency for reduce of pollution of vegetable oil industry wastewater.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Keramati, H; Alidadi, H; Parvaresh, A R; Movahedian, H; Mahvi, A H

    2008-10-01

    The aim of this research was to sudy the reduction of pollution of vegetable oil manufacturing wastewater with DAF system. At first phase of this examination, the optimum dosage of the coagulants was determined. The coagulants that used in this study were Alum and Ferric Chloride. The second phase was flotation in this series of examinations, oil, COD, total solid, volatile solid, fixed solid and suspended solid measured in raw wastewater and the effluent of the DAF pilot. Optimum value of pH for alum and ferric chloride obtained 7.5 and 5.5, respectively. Optimum dosage for these obtained 30 and 32 mg L(-1) in this research. Mean removal for the parameters ofoil, COD, total solid, volatile solid, fixed solid and suspended solid obtained 75.85, 78.27, 77.32, 82.47, 73.52 and 85.53%, respectively. With pressure rising from 3 to 4 and 5 atm removing rate of COD, total solid, volatile solid, fixed solid parameters reduced, but oil and suspended solid have increase. In addition, following increase of flotation time up to 120 sec all of the measured parameters have increase in removing rate. Optimum A/S for removal of COD, total solid, volatile solid, fixed solid parameters obtained 0.001 and for oil and suspended solid obtained 0.0015.

  12. Epoxidized Vegetable Oils Plasticized Poly(lactic acid Biocomposites: Mechanical, Thermal and Morphology Properties

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Buong Woei Chieng

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available Plasticized poly(lactic acid PLA with epoxidized vegetable oils (EVO were prepared using a melt blending method to improve the ductility of PLA. The plasticization of the PLA with EVO lowers the Tg as well as cold-crystallization temperature. The tensile properties demonstrated that the addition of EVO to PLA led to an increase of elongation at break, but a decrease of tensile modulus. Plasticized PLA showed improvement in the elongation at break by 2058% and 4060% with the addition of 5 wt % epoxidized palm oil (EPO and mixture of epoxidized palm oil and soybean oil (EPSO, respectively. An increase in the tensile strength was also observed in the plasticized PLA with 1 wt % EPO and EPSO. The use of EVO increases the mobility of the polymeric chains, thereby improving the flexibility and plastic deformation of PLA. The SEM micrograph of the plasticized PLA showed good compatible morphologies without voids resulting from good interfacial adhesion between PLA and EVO. Based on the results of this study, EVO may be used as an environmentally friendly plasticizer that can improve the overall properties of PLA.

  13. The Quality of Transparent Soap from Farmer's Crude Calophyllum Seed Oil

    OpenAIRE

    Sawarni Hasibuan; Sahirman Sahirman; Amar Ma’ruf

    2014-01-01

    Calophyllum inophyllum plants is one of the potential non-edible vegetable oil in Indonesia. Currently, the utilization of C. inophyllum seed oils directed for biofuels such as biodiesel feedstock. The oleochemical product diversification of C. inophyllum seed oil into transparent soap products is prospective to be developed, considering its utilization that does not compete with edible oil.  The purpose of this research is to obtain the best conditions for the production process of C. inophy...

  14. [Fast analysis of common fatty acids in edible vegetable oils by ultra-performance convergence chromatography-mass spectrometry].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lin, Chunhua; Xie, Xianqing; Fan, Naili; Tu, Yuanhong; Chen, Yan; Liao, Weilin

    2015-04-01

    A fast analytical method for five common fatty acids in six edible vegetable oils was developed by ultra-performance convergence chromatography-mass spectrometry (UPC2-MS). The five fatty acids are palmitic acid, stearic acid, oleic acid, linoleic acid and linolenic acid. Their contents in the corn oil, sunflower oil, soybean oil, tea oil, rapeseed oil and peanut oil were compared. The chromatographic separation was performed on an ACQUITY UPC2 BEH 2-EP column (100 mm x 2.1 mm, 1.7 µm) using the mobile phases of carbon dioxide and methanol/acetonitrile (1:1, v/v) with gradient elution. The separated compounds were detected by negative electrospray ionization ESF-MS. The results showed that the reasonable linearities were achieved for all the analytes over the range of 0.5-100 mg/L with the correlation coefficients (R2) of 0.9985-0.9998. The limits of quantification (S/N ≥ 10) of the five fatty acids were 0.15-0.50 mg/L. The recoveries of the five fatty acids at three spiked levels were in the range of 89.61%-108.50% with relative standard deviations of 0.69%-3.01%. The developed method showed high performance, good resolution and fast analysis for the underivatized fatty acids. It has been successfully used to detect the five fatty acids from corn oil, sunflower oil, soybean oil, tea oil rapeseed oil and peanut oil. PMID:26292410

  15. Four myths surrounding U.S. biofuels

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The rapid growth of biofuels has elicited claims and predictions concerning the current and future role of these fuels in the U.S. vehicle-fuel portfolio. These assertions are at times based on a false set of assumptions concerning the biofuel's market related to the petroleum and agricultural commodities markets, and the nonmarket consequences of our automobile driving. As an aid in clarifying these market relations, the following four biofuel myths are presented: (1) biofuels will be adopted because we will soon run out of oil, (2) biofuels will solve the major external costs associated with our automobile driving, (3) biofuels cause food price inflation (the food before fuel issue), and (4) biofuels will become a major vehicle fuel. - Highlights: → Biofuels will be adopted because we will soon run out of oil. → Biofuels will solve the major external costs associated with our automobile driving. → Biofuels cause food price inflation (the food before fuel issue). → Biofuels will become a major vehicle fuel.

  16. Effects of Soil-applied Paclobutrazol on the Vegetative and Reproductive Growth of Biofuel Plant Jatropha curcas%土施多效唑对小桐子营养生长与生殖生长的影响

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    宋娟; 陈茂盛; 李家龙; 牛龙见; 徐增富

    2013-01-01

    小桐子(Jatropha curcas)是一种具有多种用途的植物,其种子含油量高达40%,是一种很有应用前景的能源植物.小桐子在温度、湿度较高的地区,特别是其修剪后新萌发的枝条经常出现营养生长旺盛,成花量较少的现象,导致其种子产量较低.本研究采用多效唑(paclobutrazol,PAC)对小桐子进行土施处理,结果表明:多效唑的使用剂量为0.8g·m-1树冠直径时,可有效抑制小桐子的营养生长,降低株高;同时促进小桐子的生殖生长,增加开花和结果枝条数量,增加花序和果序数量,增加单个花序的总花数和雌花的比例,可将小桐子单株种子产量提高2.4倍.此外,多效唑处理使小桐子的开花期和结果期更加集中,便于田间管理和采收.多效唑作为赤霉素合成的抑制剂,可以有效地促进小桐子由营养生长向生殖生长的转变,对于了解赤霉素在调控小桐子花发育方面的作用具有重要意义;同时也有助于克隆有关功能基因,进一步采用转基因技术对小桐子进行遗传改良.%Multipurpose plant Jatropha curcas seeds contain about 40% oil, which is a promising energy plant for producing biofuels. Jatropha plants, especially those grown in tropical areas, show excessive vegetative growth, and erratic flowering and fruiting, which result in the low seed yield observed. This study was undertaken to determine the effects of plant growth regulator paclobutrazol ( PAC) , an inhibitor of phytohormone gibberellin biosynthesis, on the inhibition of vegetative growth, and the promotion of reproductive growth of Jatropha. The results showed that soil application of PAC with an appropriate dose (0. 8 g · m-1 canopy diameter) inhibited shoot growth, reduced plant height, and promoted reproductive growth of Jatropha. The number of flowering and fruiting branches and the number of inflorescence and infructescence were significantly increased by PAC treatment. Although PAC treatment

  17. Simultaneous determination of capsaicin and dihydrocapsaicin for vegetable oil adulteration by immunoaffinity chromatography cleanup coupled with LC-MS/MS.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ma, Fei; Yang, Qingqing; Matthäus, Bertrand; Li, Peiwu; Zhang, Qi; Zhang, Liangxiao

    2016-05-15

    Capsaicin and dihydrocapsaicin were selected as adulteration markers to authenticate vegetable oils. In this study, a method of immunoaffinity chromatography (IAC) combined with liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry was established for the determination of capsaicin and dihydrocapsaicin in vegetable oils. In this method, immunosorbents were obtained by covalently coupling highly specific capsaicinoid polyclonal antibodieswith CNBr-activated Sepharose 4B, and then packed into a polyethylene column. In this paper, the major parameters affecting IAC extraction efficiency, including loading, washing and eluting conditions, were also investigated. The IAC column displayed high selectivity for capsaicin and dihydrocapsaicin with the maximum capacity of 240ng. The limit of detection (LOD) and limit of quantification (LOQ) for capsaicin were calculated as 0.02 and 0.08μgkg(-1), and for dihydrocapsaicin were 0.03 and 0.10μgkg(-1). The recoveries of capsaicin and dihydrocapsaicin in oil samples were in the range of 87.3-95.2% with the relative standard deviation (RSD) of less than 6.1%. The results indicated that capsaicinoid compounds could not be found in edible vegetable oils. Therefore, the proposed method is simple, reliable and adequate for routine monitoring of capsaicinoid compounds in vegetable oils and has an excellent potential for detection of adulteration with inedible waste oil. PMID:26739369

  18. Performance of vegetable oils as a cooling medium in comparison to a standard mineral oil

    Science.gov (United States)

    Totten, G. E.; Tensi, H. M.; Lainer, K.

    1999-08-01

    Immersion quenching is the most widely used quenching technique today and is usually one of the last steps in heat treat processing. Improper hardening to incorrect cooling is generally a great loss and causes a great percentage of manufacturing costs. To avoid a failure in cooling, researchers are committed to describing the cooling effect as precisely as possible. The cooling of immersion cooled workpieces or probes is generally characterized by the process of wetting. Evaporable fluids exhibit the three well known stages of cooling: vapor blanket stage, boiling stage, and convective heat transfer. Therefore cooling behavior is influenced by a wide variety and depends on a number of parameters, that is, type of quenchant used, bath temperature, rate of agitation, and the physical and chemical properties of the quenched parts. Environmental pollution has caused the search for new products in har dening and shock cooling of steels. The use of soybean oils as quenching fluids is new, and compared with standard mineral oils, there are many advantages mainly concerning the environment and the health of workers.

  19. Early impact of oil palm planting density on vegetative and oil yield variables in West Africa

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bonneau Xavier

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available A range of various different planting distances (from 7.5 to 9.5 m between oil palms were tested using an equilateral triangle design in a plantation density experiment which was settled in an oil palm commercial plantation in Nigeria. Climatic conditions were quite stable, with two seasons and around 2000 mm of annual rainfall. The soil was of desaturated ferralitic type, sandy on the surface, deep and without coarse elements. The early impact of plantation density was analysed at eight years after planting. Some early signs of depressive effect on yields were found for high planting densities (180 and 205 p/ha. Such a negative impact was not severe enough to counteract the effects of a higher number of palms per hectare. As a consequence, a gradient could be observed as yields (in tons of bunches per hectare increased with density. We can anticipate that the competition effect between palms will increase over time with high densities, so that the counteracting point ought to be reached in a few years. A thinning treatment has been included in the protocol. Thinning was carried out at the end of the eight-year period.

  20. Green diesel production via catalytic hydrogenation/decarboxylation of triglycerides and fatty acids of vegetable oil and brown grease

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sari, Elvan

    Increase in the petroleum prices, projected increases in the world's energy demand and environmental awareness have shifted the research interest to the alternative fuel technologies. In particular, green diesel, vegetable oil/animal fat/waste oil and grease derived hydrocarbons in diesel boiling range, has become an attractive alternative to biodiesel---a mixture of fatty acid methyl esters, particularly due to its superior fuel properties that are similar to petroleum diesel. Hence, green diesel can be used as a drop-in fuel in the current diesel engines. The current technology for production of green diesel-hydrodeoxygenation of triglycerides and fatty acids over conventional hydrotreating catalysts suffers from fast catalyst deactivation in the absence of hydrogen combined with high temperatures and high fatty acid content in the feedstock. Additionally, excess hydrogen requirement for hydrodeoxygenation technique leads to high production costs. This thesis proposes a new technology-selective decarboxylation of brown grease, which is a mixture of fats and oils collected from waste water trap and rich in fatty acids, over a supported noble metal catalyst that overcomes the green diesel production challenges. In contrast to other feedstocks used for liquid biofuel production, brown grease is inexpensive and non-food competing feedstock, therefore the process finds solution to waste management issues, reduces the renewable fuel production cost and does not add to the global food shortage problems. Special catalyst formulations were developed to have a high activity and stability in the absence of hydrogen in the fatty acid decarboxylation process. The study shows how catalyst innovations can lead to a new technology that overcomes the process challenges. First, the effect of reaction parameters on the activity and the selectivity of brown grease decarboxylation with minimum hydrogen consumption over an activated carbon supported palladium catalyst were

  1. Techno-economic comparison of biojet fuel production from lignocellulose, vegetable oil and sugar cane juice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Diederichs, Gabriel Wilhelm; Ali Mandegari, Mohsen; Farzad, Somayeh; Görgens, Johann F

    2016-09-01

    In this study, a techno-economic comparison was performed considering three processes (thermochemical, biochemical and hybrid) for production of jet fuel from lignocellulosic biomass (2G) versus two processes from first generation (1G) feedstocks, including vegetable oil and sugar cane juice. Mass and energy balances were constructed for energy self-sufficient versions of these processes, not utilising any fossil energy sources, using ASPEN Plus® simulations. All of the investigated processes obtained base minimum jet selling prices (MJSP) that is substantially higher than the market jet fuel price (2-4 fold). The 1G process which converts vegetable oil, obtained the lowest MJSPs of $2.22/kg jet fuel while the two most promising 2G processes- the thermochemical (gasification and Fischer-Tropsch synthesis) and hybrid (gasification and biochemical upgrading) processes- reached MJSPs of $2.44/kg and $2.50/kg jet fuel, respectively. According to the economic sensitivity analysis, the feedstock cost and fixed capital investment have the most influence on the MJSP.

  2. Techno-economic comparison of biojet fuel production from lignocellulose, vegetable oil and sugar cane juice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Diederichs, Gabriel Wilhelm; Ali Mandegari, Mohsen; Farzad, Somayeh; Görgens, Johann F

    2016-09-01

    In this study, a techno-economic comparison was performed considering three processes (thermochemical, biochemical and hybrid) for production of jet fuel from lignocellulosic biomass (2G) versus two processes from first generation (1G) feedstocks, including vegetable oil and sugar cane juice. Mass and energy balances were constructed for energy self-sufficient versions of these processes, not utilising any fossil energy sources, using ASPEN Plus® simulations. All of the investigated processes obtained base minimum jet selling prices (MJSP) that is substantially higher than the market jet fuel price (2-4 fold). The 1G process which converts vegetable oil, obtained the lowest MJSPs of $2.22/kg jet fuel while the two most promising 2G processes- the thermochemical (gasification and Fischer-Tropsch synthesis) and hybrid (gasification and biochemical upgrading) processes- reached MJSPs of $2.44/kg and $2.50/kg jet fuel, respectively. According to the economic sensitivity analysis, the feedstock cost and fixed capital investment have the most influence on the MJSP. PMID:27259188

  3. Non Catalytic Transesterification of Vegetables Oil to Biodiesel in Sub-and Supercritical Methanol: A Kinetic’s Study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nyoman Puspa Asri

    2013-03-01

    Full Text Available Non catalytic transesterification in sub and supercritical methanol have been used to produce biodiesel from palm oil and soybean oil. A kinetic study was done under reaction condition with temperature and time control. The experiments were carried out in a batch type reactor at reaction temperatures from 210 °C (subcritical condition to 290 °C (the supercritical state in the interval ranges of temperature of 20 °C and at various molar ratios of oil to methanol. The rate constants of the reaction were determined by employing a simple method, with the overall chemical reaction followed the pseudo-first–order reaction. Based on the results, the rate constants of vegetables oil were significantly influenced by reaction temperature, which were gradually increased at subcritical temperature, but sharply increased in the supercritical state. However, the rate constants of soybean oil were slightly higher than that of palm oil. The activation energy for transesterification of soybean oil was 89.32 and 79.05 kJ/mole for palm oil. Meanwhile, the frequency factor values of both oils were 72462892 and 391210 min-1, respectively. The rate reaction for both of oil were expressed as -rTG = 72462892 exp(-89.32/RTCTG for soybean oil and -rTG = 391210 exp(-79.05/RTCTG for palm oil. © 2013 BCREC UNDIP. All rights reservedReceived: 18th October 2012; Revised: 14th December 2012; Accepted: 16th December 2012[How to Cite: N.P. Asri, S. Machmudah, W. Wahyudiono, S. Suprapto, K. Budikarjono, A. Roesyadi, M. Goto, (2013. Non Catalytic Transesterification of Vegetables Oil to Biodiesel in Sub-and Supercritical Methanol: A Kinetic’s Study. Bulletin of Chemical Reaction Engineering & Catalysis, 7 (3: 215-223. (doi:10.9767/bcrec.7.3.4060.215-223][Permalink/DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.9767/bcrec.7.3.4060.215-223 ] View in  |

  4. Enhancement of biofuels production by means of co-pyrolysis of Posidonia oceanica (L.) and frying oil wastes: Experimental study and process modeling.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zaafouri, Kaouther; Ben Hassen Trabelsi, Aida; Krichah, Samah; Ouerghi, Aymen; Aydi, Abdelkarim; Claumann, Carlos Alberto; André Wüst, Zibetti; Naoui, Silm; Bergaoui, Latifa; Hamdi, Moktar

    2016-05-01

    Energy recovery from lignocellulosic solid marine wastes, Posidonia oceanica wastes (POW) with slow pyrolysis responds to the growing trend of alternative energies as well as waste management. Physicochemical, thermogravimetric (TG/DTG) and spectroscopic (FTIR) characterizations of POW were performed. POW were first converted by pyrolysis at different temperatures (450°C, 500°C, 550°C and 600°C) using a fixed-bed reactor. The obtained products (bio-oil, syngas and bio char) were analyzed. Since the bio-oil yield obtained from POW pyrolysis is low (2wt.%), waste frying oil (WFO) was added as a co-substrate in order to improve of biofuels production. The co-pyrolysis gave a better yield of liquid organic fraction (37wt.%) as well as syngas (CH4,H2…) with a calorific value around 20MJ/kg. The stoichiometric models of both pyrolysis and co-pyrolysis reactions were performed according to the biomass formula: CαHβOγNδSε. The thermal kinetic decomposition of solids was validated through linearized Arrhenius model. PMID:26897417

  5. Production of natural antioxidants from vegetable oil deodorizer distillates: effect of catalytic hydrogenation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pagani, María Ayelén; Baltanás, Miguel A

    2010-02-01

    Natural tocopherols are one of the main types of antioxidants found in living creatures, but they also have other critical biological functions. The biopotency of natural (+)-alpha-tocopherol (RRR) is 36% higher than that of the synthetic racemic mixture and 300% higher than the SRR stereoisomer. Vegetable oil deodorizer distillates (DD) are an excellent source of natural tocopherols. Catalytic hydrogenation of DD preconcentrates has been suggested as a feasible route for recovery of tocopherols in high yield. However, it is important to know whether the hydrogenation operation, as applied to these tocopherol-rich mixtures, is capable of preserving the chiral (RRR) character, which is critical to its biopotency. Fortified (i.e., (+)-alpha-tocopherol enriched) sunflower oil and methyl stearate, as well as sunflower oil DD, were fully hydrogenated using commercial Ni and Pd catalysts (120-180 degrees C; 20-60 psig). Products were analyzed by chiral HPLC. Results show that the desired chiral configuration (RRR) is fully retained. Thus, the hydrogenation route can be safely considered as a valid alternative for increasing the efficiency of tocopherol recovery processes from DDs while preserving their natural characteristics.

  6. Energetic potential of the vegetable oil of Canton Tosagua ricinus comunnis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The plantation of Higuerilla (Ricinus communis L.) can be considered as an alternative of high energy, economic and social importance for the climatic conditions of the Ecuador's coastal area, due to its easy cultivation, the resistance to the drought is being considered as a plant generator for rent and work for small farmers in the geography of Tosagua, Rocafuerte and other towns in the vicinity to Manabi province. The castor oil is a xerofila and heliofila plantation in other words , adapted to arid atmospheres and sun loving. The paper shows a characterization carried out to higuerilla seeds in the biotechnology laboratory of to the Polytechnic High School of Calceta (ESPAM). The seeds collected in different villages near Tosagua, let us estimate the energy potential of the Higuerilla plantation like energy source for the Manabi province. The industrialization of the product obtained from Higuerilla plantation would have as advantage the pure vegetable oil (PVO) as main by-product, besides it can obtain a cake rich in protein. The castor oil cake can be used to restore out lands; also, it contains products that can be used for the control of nematodes of the ground, due to the high toxicity that confers it toxic protein denominated ricine. (author)

  7. Carbon and energy balances for a range of biofuels options

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Elsayed, M.A.; Matthews, R.; Mortimer, N.D.

    2003-03-01

    This is the final report of a project to produce a set of baseline energy and carbon balances for a range of electricity, heat and transport fuel production systems based on biomass feedstocks. A list of 18 important biofuel technologies in the UK was selected for study of their energy and carbon balances in a consistent approach. Existing studies on these biofuel options were reviewed and their main features identified in terms of energy input, greenhouse gas emissions (carbon dioxide, methane, nitrous oxide and total), transparency and relevance. Flow charts were produced to represent the key stages of the production of biomass and its conversion to biofuels. Outputs from the study included primary energy input per delivered energy output, carbon dioxide outputs per delivered energy output, methane output per delivered energy output, nitrous oxide output per delivered energy output and total greenhouse gas requirements. The net calorific value of the biofuel is given where relevant. Biofuels studied included: biodiesel from oilseed rape and recycled vegetable oil; combined heat and power (CHP) by combustion of wood chip from forestry residues; CHP by gasification of wood chip from short rotation coppice; electricity from the combustion of miscanthus, straw, wood chip from forestry residues and wood chip from short rotation coppice; electricity from gasification of wood chip from forestry residues and wood chip from short rotation coppice; electricity by pyrolysis of wood chip from forestry residues and wood chip from short rotation coppice; ethanol from lignocellulosics, sugar beet and wheat; heat (small scale) from combustion of wood chip from forestry residues and wood chip from short rotation coppice; and rapeseed oil from oilseed rape.

  8. Development of a method to recovery and amplification DNA by real-time PCR from commercial vegetable oils.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ramos-Gómez, Sonia; Busto, María D; Perez-Mateos, Manuel; Ortega, Natividad

    2014-09-01

    This study describes the design of a suitable DNA isolation method from commercial vegetable oils for the application of DNA markers for food safety and traceability. Firstly, a comparative study was made of eight methods for the recovery of high quality DNA from olive, sunflower and palm oils, and a CTAB-based method was selected. In order to optimize this method, the effect of the organic compounds and several components in the lysis buffer and the lysis and precipitation time were evaluated. For the purpose of overcoming the limitations detected in spectrophotometric and PCR DNA yield evaluations, the performance of the extraction protocols during the optimization processes was evaluated using qPCR. The suggested DNA extraction optimized is less time consuming than other conventional DNA extraction methods, uses a reduced oil volume and is cheaper than available commercial kits. Additionally, the applicability of this method has been successfully assayed in ten commercial vegetable oils and derivatives. PMID:24731357

  9. Tribological Performance of Hydrogenated Amorphous Carbon (a-C: H) DLC Coating when Lubricated with Biodegradable Vegetal Canola Oil

    OpenAIRE

    H.M. Mobarak; Chowdhury, M.

    2014-01-01

    Increasing environmental awareness and demands for lowering energy consumptions are strong driving forces behind the development of the vehicles of tomorrow. Without the advances of lubricant chemistry and adequate lubricant formulation, expansion of modern engines would not have been possible. Considering environmental awareness factors as compared to mineral oils, vegetal oil based biolubricants are renewable, biodegradable, non-toxic and have a least amount of greenhouse gases. Furthermore...

  10. Differentiation of frog fats from vegetable and marine oils by Fourier Transform Infrared Spectroscopy and chemometric analysis

    OpenAIRE

    M. E. Ali; Nina Naquiah, A. N.; Mustafa, S; S. B. A. Hamid

    2015-01-01

    The agro-based production and consumption of frogs coupled with world-wide trading have been increased in the recent years giving rise to the risk of frog fat adulteration in expensive vegetable and marine oils. For the first time, we profiled here frog fats using Fourier Transform Infrared (FTIR) Spectroscopy coupled with multivariate principal component analysis (PCA). The comparison of the FTIR spectral absorbance intensities demonstrated linkage of frog fats to other edible fats and oils....

  11. Evaluation of the use of a vegetable oil in distribution transformers Evaluación del uso de un aceite vegetal en transformadores de distribución

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Diego Fernando-Navas

    2012-08-01

    Full Text Available Since the start of transformers immersed in refrigerating liquid, the fluid traditionally used has been mineral oil. However, in recent decades, efforts have been joined in the search for alternatives with a lower environmental impact and which also satisfy the technical requirements of insulation and refrigeration in the transformers. Currently, insulating vegetable oils are available in the market, which may have lower environmental impact during their use and final disposition; nevertheless, their high cost and short time of use have limited their massive application. This work presents the thermal behavior evaluation of two distribution transformers at different powers immersed in dielectric vegetable oil, comparing their performance with that of two constructively equal transformers immersed in mineral oil. The results obtained reveal that the transformers comply with the requirements of existing standards.Desde los inicios de los transformadores inmersos en líquido refrigerante, el fluido empleado por tradición ha sido el aceite de origen mineral. Sin embargo, en las últimas décadas se han unido esfuerzos en la búsqueda de alternativas que tengan un menor impacto en el medio ambiente y que a su vez satisfagan los requerimientos técnicos de aislamiento y refrigeración en los transformadores. Actualmente se encuentran en el mercado aceites aislantes de origen vegetal que pueden tener un menor impacto ambiental durante su uso y disposición final; no obstante, su elevado costo y su poco tiempo de uso han limitado su aplicación masiva. En este trabajo se presenta la evaluación del comportamiento térmico de dos transformadores de distribución de diferente potencia inmersos en aceite dieléctrico de origen vegetal y se compara su desempeño con el de dos transformadores constructivamente iguales inmersos en aceite mineral. Los resultados obtenidos revelan que los transformadores cumplen con los requerimientos de la normatividad

  12. Evaluation of emissions in gas powered electric generator engine with vegetable oil; Avaliacao das emissoes de gases em motor gerador eletrico alimentado com oleo vegetal

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Oliveira, Thalita C. de; Cunha, Joao Paulo Barreto; Cotrim, Suzane Santana; Brito, Gustavo Mendes; Delmond, Josue Gomes [Universidade Estadual de Goias (UNUCET/UEG), Anapolis, GO (Brazil). Unidade Universitaria de Ciencias Exatas e Tecnologicas], E-mail: thalitacarrijo@gmail.com

    2012-11-01

    The use of vegetable oils as fuel in diesel engines is a good alternative to reduce emissions of greenhouse gases in the atmosphere from the use of fossil fuels, either in pure form or as biodiesel. The soybean, oilseed single high-availability in Brazil, is the most viable feedstock for the production of oil and its use as a fuel because of the structure of production, distribution and grain crushing. This study aimed to evaluate the performance of a duty diesel generator fueled with blends of diesel and soybean oil at concentrations of 10%, 25%, 50% and 75%, and soybean oil pure, 100%. During the tests we evaluated the energy consumption of the generator and the emission of greenhouse gases (O{sub 2}, CO, CO{sub 2}, NO{sub x} and SO{sub 2}), according to the demand of electric charges (0, 500, 1000, 1500 and 2000 Watts) connected to the group generator. The results, using the F test, showed that the hourly consumption of fuel increased with increasing concentration in the mixture of diesel fuel and engine load demand from the generator. It follows that in the environment, increasing the oil concentration in the mixture caused a reduction in emissions, except for the emission of oxygen. The best choice for the operation for the engine generator using vegetable oil soya be provided for up to 60 % oil in the mixture and load demand up to 1000W, in which occurred lower emissions of carbon monoxide (CO) and therefore improved efficiency in the combustion process. (author)

  13. Absolute Viscosities of Vegetable Oils at Different Temperatures and Shear Rate Range of 64.5 to 4835 s−1

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lemuel M. Diamante

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available A study was carried out to determine the effect of higher shear rates (64.5 to 4835 s−1 on the absolute viscosities of different vegetable oils at different temperatures (26 to 90°C. The absolute viscosities of the different vegetable oils were determined using a Lamy Viscometer RM100, a rotating viscometer with coaxial cylinder. The torque of each sample at different temperatures was recorded at different shear rates. Based on the rheograms (plot of mean shear stress against shear rate, all of the vegetable oils studied were found to be Newtonian fluids. Rice bran oil was the most viscous (0.0398 Pa·s at 38°C while walnut oil was the least viscous (0.0296 Pa·s at 38°C among the oils studied. The higher shear range used did not significantly affect the absolute viscosities of the vegetable oils at the different temperatures. The absolute viscosities of the vegetable oils decreased with increasing temperature and can be fitted with an Arrhenius type relationship. The activation energies for the different vegetable oils ranged from 21 to 30 kJ/mole. The peanut and safflower oils had the highest and lowest activation energies, respectively. This means that greater energy was needed to effect a viscosity change in the peanut oil.

  14. The dynamics of oil accumulation in Scenedesmus obliquus

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Breuer, G.

    2015-01-01

    .Abstract long Global demands for food and biofuels increase rapidly, together with an increase of concerns for depleting fossil resources and climate change. New sustainable sources of vegetable oil, from now on referred to as triacylglycerol (TAG), are therefore highly desired. Ar

  15. Testing market efficiency of crude palm oil futures to European participants

    OpenAIRE

    Liu, Xing

    2009-01-01

    Palm oil is the most consumed and traded vegetable oils in the EU and the world. Increasing non-food uses for vegetable oils in especially feedstock of biofuels in recent years have caused the price volatility to rise in both EU and global market. The most efficient pricing of crude palm oil (CPO) is to found on Bursa Malaysia (BMD), and it provides by far the world’s most liquid palm oil contract. The goal of this study is to investigate CPO futures market efficiency of BMD for the European ...

  16. Continuous and pulse sonication effects on transesterification of used vegetable oil

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Highlights: • We studied continuous and pulse sonication effects on transesterification reaction. • Pulse sonication appears to have superior effects on transesterification reaction. • Effects of various process parameters on FAMEs yield were discussed in detail. • Effects of ultrasonic intensity and power density were compared for both conditions. • Continuous sonication may be beneficial for short time and plug-flow conditions. - Abstract: This study reports on the effects of direct application of continuous and pulse sonication on transesterification reaction of used vegetable oil. Specific to this research, thermal effects of ultrasonics in transesterification reaction without external conventional heating along with the effects of different ultrasonic intensities and power densities were reported. Two process parametric evaluation studies were conducted to compare the effects of continuous and pulse sonication. These included methanol to oil ratio, catalyst concentration and reaction time effects on the transesterification reaction. For continuous sonication, a catalyst amount of 0.5% (wt/wt), methanol to oil ratio of 9:1 was sufficient to complete the transesterification reaction in 1–2 min at a power output of 150 W with a biodiesel yield of 93.5%. For pulse sonication, a maximum biodiesel yield of 98% was achieved at 2.5 min of reaction time, 9:1 methanol to oil ratio, and 1.25% catalyst. Generally, higher biodiesel yields were observed for pulse sonication compared to continuous sonication under any given process condition. Power density and ultrasonic intensity tests revealed that biodiesel yields were more sensitive to continuous sonication due to intense mixing. A plug-flow or contact-type reactor design may improve overall ultrasonic utilization in the transesterification reaction under continuous sonication

  17. Physico-chemical properties of blends of palm olein with other vegetable oils

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mobin Siddique, Bazlul

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available Palm oil (olein was blended with other edible oils for the enhancement of its market acceptability in terms of melting point depression and shelf life. The physico-chemical properties like viscosity, density, melting behavior, peroxide value (PV, saponification value (SV and iodine value (IV of four different binary blends with four vegetable oils were evaluated. Palm olein was found to be more stable against rancidity than the other oils. For the stability against oxidation and melting point depression the palm olein-canola (PO/CO blend was found to be better than the others. The Differential Scanning Calorimeter (DSC thermogram of the melting behavior of the blends traces some new polymorphs of the triglyceride. This study will help the oil producing industry to find out the most economically viable oil blends for cooking purposes, with maximum nutrition as well as desirable physico-chemical properties.

    Aceite de palma (oleína fue mezclada con otros aceites comestibles para aumentar su aceptabilidad en el mercado en términos de descenso del punto de fusión y mejora de su almacenamiento. Las propiedades físico-químicas tales como viscosidad, densidad, comportamiento en la fusión, valor de peróxidos (PV, valor de saponificación (SV e índice de yodo (IV de cuatro diferentes mezclas binarias con cuatro aceites vegetales fueron evaluadas. La oleína de palma fue más estable frente a la rancidez que otros aceites. En la estabilidad frente la oxidación y el descenso del punto de fusión, la mezcla de oleína de palma/canola (PO/CO fue mejor que las otras. Los termogramas del calorímetro diferencial de barrido (DSC referidos al comportamiento de fusión de las mezclas indican algunos nuevos polimorfismos de los triglicéridos. Este estudio podría ayudar a las empresas que elaboran aceites a encontrar los aceites económicamente más viables para cocinar, con buenas propiedades nutricionales, así como con unas propiedades f

  18. Saltmarsh revisited: The long-term effects of oil and dispersant on saltmarsh vegetation. Environmental Studies Research Funds report No. 122

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    MacKinnon, D.S.; Lane, P.A.

    1993-01-01

    The effects of treatment of saltmarsh vegetation with Corexit 9527, a chemical dispersant, and Alberta sweet blend crude oil were examined at Conrod's Beach Saltmarsh on Petpeswick Inlet, Nova Scotia. Treatments (oil, dispersant, or oil and dispersant) were applied to three distinct marsh vegetation types in early July 1986, and vegetation and soil characteristics were measured in late summer 1986, 1987, 1988 (vegetation only), and 1990. This report describes the results of 1988 and 1990 sampling periods, two and four years after treatments were applied.

  19. Next generation of liquid biofuel production

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Batidzirai, B.

    2012-01-01

    More than 99% of all currently produced biofuels are classified as “first generation” (i.e. fuels produced primarily from cereals, grains, sugar crops and oil seeds) (IEA, 2008b). “Second generation” or “next generation” biofuels, on the other hand, are produced from lignocellulosic feedstocks such

  20. The ecotoxicology of vegetable versus mineral based lubricating oils 3. Coral fertilization and adult corals

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Biodegradable vegetable-derived lubricants (VDL) might be less toxic to marine organisms than mineral-derived oils (MDL) due to the absence of high molecular weight aromatics, but this remains largely untested. In this laboratory study, adult corals and coral gametes were exposed to various concentrations of a two-stroke VDL-1A and a corresponding MDL to determine which lubricant type was more toxic to each life stage. In the fertilization experiment, gametes from the scleractinian coral Acropora microphthalma were exposed to water-accommodated fractions (WAF) of VDL-1A and MDL for four hours. The MDL and VDL-1A WAFs inhibited normal fertilization of the corals at 200 μg l-1 total hydrocarbon content (THC) and 150 μg l-1 THC respectively. Disturbance of a stable coral-dinoflagellate symbiosis is regarded as a valid measure of sub-lethal stress in adult corals. The state of the symbiosis in branchlets of adult colonies of Acropora formosa was monitored using indicators such as dinoflagellate expulsion and dark-adapted photosystem II yields of dinoflagellate (using pulse amplitude modulation fluorescence). An effect on symbiosis was measurable following 48 h exposure to the lubricants at concentrations of 190 μg l-1 and 37 μg l-1 THC for the MDL and VDL-1A respectively. GC/MS revealed that the main constituent of the VDL-1A WAF was the compound coumarin, added by the manufacturer to improve odour. The fragrance containing coumarin was removed from the lubricant formulation and the toxicity towards adult corals re-examined. The coumarin-free VDL-2 exhibited significantly less toxicity towards the adult corals than all of the other oil types tested, with the only measurable effect being a slight but significant drop in photosynthetic efficiency at 280 μg l-1. - Vegetable-derived lubricants were less toxic to adult corals than their mineral counterparts

  1. Micellar electrokinetic chromatography method for the simultaneous determination of furanic compounds in honey and vegetable oils.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Foo Wong, Yong; Makahleh, Ahmad; Al Azzam, Khaldun M; Yahaya, Noorfatimah; Saad, Bahruddin; Sulaiman, Siti Amrah

    2012-08-15

    A simple micellar electrokinetic chromatography (MEKC) method for the simultaneous determination of 2-furfural (2-F), 3-furfural (3-F), 5-methylfurfural (5-MF), 5-hydroxymethylfurfural (5-HMF), 2-furoic acid (2-FA) and 3-furoic acid (3-FA) in honey and vegetable oils is described. Parameters affecting the separation such as pH, buffer and surfactant concentrations, applied voltage, capillary temperature, injection time and capillary length were studied and optimized. The separation was carried out in normal polarity mode at 20 °C, 22 kV and using hydrodynamic injection (17 s). The separation was achieved in a bare fused-silica capillary (46 cm × 50 μm i.d.) with a background electrolyte of 75 mM phosphoric acid (pH 7.3), containing 200 mM of sodium dodecyl sulphate (SDS). The detection wavelengths were at 200 nm (2-FA and 3-FA) and 280 nm (2-F, 3-F, 5-MF, 5-HMF). The furfurals were well separated in less than 20 min. The method was validated in terms of linearity, limit of detection and quantitation, precision and recoveries. Calibration curves of the six furfurals were well correlated (r(2)>0.991) within the range 1-25 μg mL(-1). Relative standard deviations of intra- and inter-day migration times and corrected peak areas ≤9.96% were achieved. The limit of detection (signal:noise, 3) was 0.33-0.70 μg mL(-1) whereas the limit of quantitation (signal:noise, 10) was 1.00-2.12 μg mL(-1). The method was applied to the determination of furanic compounds in honeys and vegetable oils (palm, walnut, grape seed and rapeseed). The effects of thermal treatment and gamma irradiation on the formation of the furanic compounds in honey were also investigated. PMID:22841043

  2. Effects of vegetable oil residue after soil extraction on physical-chemical properties of sandy soil and plant growth.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gong, Zongqiang; Li, Peijun; Wilke, B M; Alef, Kassem

    2008-01-01

    Vegetable oil has the ability to extract polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) from contaminated sandy soil for a remediation purpose, with some of the oil remaining in the soil. Although most of the PAHs were removed, the risk of residue oil in the soil was not known. The objective of this study was to evaluate the effects of the vegetable oil residue on higher plant growth and sandy soil properties after soil extraction for a better understanding of the soil remediation. Addition of sunflower oil and column experiment were performed on a PAH contaminated soil and/or a control soil, respectively. Soils were incubated for 90 d, and soil pH was measured during the soil incubation. Higher plant growth bioassays with Avena sativa L. (oat) and Brassica rapa L. (turnip) were performed after the incubation, and then soil organic carbon contents were measured. The results show that both the nutrient amendment and the sunflower oil degradation resulted in the decrease of soil pH. When these two process worked together, their effects were counteracted due to the consumption of the nutrients and oil removal, resulting in different pH profiles. Growth of A. sativa was adversely affected by the sunflower oil, and the nutrient amendments stimulated the A. sativa growth significantly. B. rapa was more sensitive to the sunflower oil than A. sativa. Only 1% sunflower oil addition plus nutrient amendment stimulated B. rapa growth. All the other treatments on B. rapa inhibited its growth significantly. The degradation of the sunflower oil in the soils was proved by the soil organic carbon content.

  3. Renewable energy from vegetation; Les energies renouvelables d'origine vegetale

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sales, C. [Centre francais de cooperation international en recherche agronomique pour le developpement (France)

    2009-07-15

    Currently, vegetation accounts for 3 major types of energy sources, notably woody biomass, starches and vegetable oils. Bio-ethanol and biodiesel is produced from the fermentation of starches, such as sugar cane, beet sugar, sorghum, corn and potatoes. Biofuels can be produced from palm tree oil, coconut oil , soya oil, sunflower oil or any type of vegetable based oil. This article discussed energy efficiency issues and the environmental impact of developing these energies. In general, the lower energy efficiency of the starches can be attributed to the enzymes responsible for the catalysis. The article also reviewed the thermochemistry and energy efficiency regarding second generation fuels. It also discussed the burning of biomass, including woody biomass, forest waste and agricultural waste. 1 ref., 2 figs.

  4. 食用植物油掺杂鉴定方法综述%Summarization of Identifying Methods for Adulterate Edible Vegetable Oil

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    钭培明; 柴振林; 朱杰丽; 杨柳

    2012-01-01

    阐述了在食用植物油中掺入非食用植物油的种类、危害性及检测方法,综述了在食用植物油中掺入其他食用植物油的各种检测方法,例如理化法、光度法、色谱法.%The author expounded the kind and harmfulness of non - edible vegetable oil and the identifying methods of edible vegetable oil mixed with non - edible vegetable oil, and summarized several detection methods of edible vegetable oil adulterated with other edible vegetable oil, including physicochemical method, photometry and chromatography.

  5. Continuous Conversion of Rapeseed Oil to Bio-Fuels on 10VNi-10Ce /gamma- Al/sub 2/O/sub 3/ Catalyst

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Deoxygenation of rapeseed oil over V and Ni supported on Al/sub 2/O/sub 3/ promoted by Ce was investigated. The supported catalyst was prepared by incipient wetness impregnation method. The obtained catalyst was characterized using techniques of XRD, BET, NH/sub 3/ -TPD, H/sub 2/-TPD and TPR analysis. The results revealed that the catalyst had good thermal stability and three kinds of acidities sites. Compared with sintering, the catalyst deactivation was due to coke deposition. The results of FT-IR, SF-3, GC and GC-MS indicated that reaction temperature is the key factor and that oil velocity is very important factor and that reaction pressure is a less important one in producing bio-fuels. The condition was optimized under such circumstances -- reaction temperature at 450 degree C, reaction pressure at 3.0MPa, oil velocity at 0.1mL/min and the gas velocity at 30mL/min, respectively. The alkanes content and alkenes content of liquid products are 60.03% and 29.44%, respectively, under the optimized condition. The main products are the hydrocarbon compounds under C/sub 18/. The results of GC and SF-3 showed that the reaction of decarboxylation and decarbonylation occurred at the same time, and that the oxygen in the oil is mainly removed by the forms of CO and CO/sub 2/, and that small part is removed by the form of H/sub 2/O. From the results of FT-IR?SF-3 and GC-MS, the generating mechanism of Non- ester renewable diesel was deduced. (author)

  6. Improvement of the quality of wood derived biofuel-oils; Puuperaeisten biopolttooeljyjen laadun parantaminen. Raakasuovan terminen nestefaasikaesittely hiilivety-polttoaineiksi

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Oasmaa, A.; McKeough, P.; Kuoppala, E.; Kylloenen, H.; Levander, J.; Tapola, E.; Haekkinen, R.

    1995-12-31

    Liquid-phase thermochemical processing of tall oil soap has been experimentally investigated. The organic matter of tall oil soap, which is a by-product of kraft pulping, originates mainly from wood extractives. Conventional processing of tall oil soap involves acidulation to yield crude tall oil and subsequent distillation of the oil at centralized refineries. Because tall oil originating from birch wood is far less valuable than that from pine, there is an economic incentive in the Nordic countries to develop alternative conversion processes for the tall oil soap produced at pulp mills where birch is widely used as feedstock. Both catalytic hydrotreatment and liquid-phase thermal treatment of a mixed pine/birch soap have been investigated in the laboratory. Liquid and gaseous hydrocarbons were the principal products formed in both types of treatment. Although the liquid product formed under hydrotreatment conditions contained a higher proportion of aliphatic compounds, it was clear that the thermal treatment process would be, economically, the more favorable option. In the thermal process, a predominantly hydrocarbon oil product was obtained at 450 deg C using a residence time of at least 60 min. About 50 % of the energy content of the tall oil soap was recovered as oil product, about 30 % as gases, and about 20 % as organic material contained in an aqueous slurry phase. When the oil product was carefully separated from the aqueous slurry phase, only trace amounts of impurities, such as water, sodium and organic acid salts were present in the product. A techno-economic evaluation of the process concept has been performed. The economics of the thermal treatment process appear to be favorable in comparison with those of the conventional acidulation process

  7. Acid-Catalyzed Preparation of Biodiesel from Waste Vegetable Oil: An Experiment for the Undergraduate Organic Chemistry Laboratory

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bladt, Don; Murray, Steve; Gitch, Brittany; Trout, Haylee; Liberko, Charles

    2011-01-01

    This undergraduate organic laboratory exercise involves the sulfuric acid-catalyzed conversion of waste vegetable oil into biodiesel. The acid-catalyzed method, although inherently slower than the base-catalyzed methods, does not suffer from the loss of product or the creation of emulsion producing soap that plagues the base-catalyzed methods when…

  8. Surface integrity and part accuracy in reaming and tapping stainless steel with new vegetable based cutting oils

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Belluco, Walter; De Chiffre, Leonardo

    2002-01-01

    This paper presents an investigation on the effect of new formulations of vegetable oils on surface integrity and part accuracy in reaming and tapping operations with AISI 316L stainless steel. Surface integrity was assessed with measurements of roughness, microhardness, and using metallographic...

  9. Biofuels: policies, standards and technologies

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2010-09-15

    Skyrocketing prices of crude oil in the middle of the first decade of the 21st century accompanied by rising prices for food focused political and public attention on the role of biofuels. On the one hand, biofuels were considered as a potential automotive fuel with a bright future, on the other hand, biofuels were accused of competing with food production for land. The truth must lie somewhere in-between and is strongly dependent on the individual circumstance in different countries and regions. As food and energy are closely interconnected and often compete with each other for other resources, such as water, the World Energy Council - following numerous requests of its Member Committees - decided to undertake an independent assessment of biofuels policies, technologies and standards.

  10. Rheology of oleo gels based on sorbitan and glyceryl mono stearates and vegetable oils for lubricating applications

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sanchez, R.; Franco, J. M.; Delgado, M. A.; Valencia, C.; Gallegos, C.

    2011-07-01

    Oleo gels based on sorbitan and glyceryl mono stearates and different types of vegetable oils, potentially applicable as biodegradable alternatives to traditional lubricating greases, have been studied. In particular, the rheological behavior, by means of small-amplitude oscillatory shear (SAOS) measurements, and some lubrication performance-related properties (mechanical stability and tribological response) have been evaluated in this work. SAOS response and mechanical stability of these oleo gels are significantly influenced by the type and concentration of the organogelator and the vegetable oil used in the formulations. Glyceryl monostearate (GMS) generally produces stronger gels than sorbitan monostearate (SMS). The use of low-viscosity oils, such as rapeseed and soybean oils, yields gels with significantly higher values of the linear viscoelastic functions than oleo gels prepared with high-viscosity oils, i.e. castor oil. The rheological behavior of SMS-based oleo gels also depends on the cooling rate applied during the gelification process. On the other hand, the oleo gels studied present low values of the friction coefficient obtained in a tribological contact, although only some GMS/castor oil-based oleo gels exhibit a suitable mechanical stability. (Author) 28 refs.

  11. Vegetation Impact and Recovery from Oil-Induced Stress on Three Ecologically Distinct Wetland Sites in the Gulf of Mexico

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kristen Shapiro

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available April 20, 2010 marked the start of the British Petroleum Deepwater Horizon oil spill, the largest marine oil spill in US history, which contaminated coastal wetland ecosystems across the northern Gulf of Mexico. We used hyperspectral data from 2010 and 2011 to compare the impact of oil contamination and recovery of coastal wetland vegetation across three ecologically diverse sites: Barataria Bay (saltmarsh, East Bird’s Foot (intermediate/freshwater marsh, and Chandeleur Islands (mangrove-cordgrass barrier islands. Oil impact was measured by comparing wetland pixels along oiled and oil-free shorelines using various spectral indices. We show that the Chandeleur Islands were the most vulnerable to oiling, Barataria Bay had a small but widespread and significant impact, and East Bird’s Foot had negligible impact. A year later, the Chandeleur Islands showed the strongest signs of recovery, Barataria Bay had a moderate recovery, and East Bird’s Foot had only a slight increase in vegetation. Our results indicate that the recovery was at least partially related to the magnitude of the impact such that greater recovery occurred at sites that had greater impact.

  12. Green diesel production via catalytic hydrogenation/decarboxylation of triglycerides and fatty acids of vegetable oil and brown grease

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sari, Elvan

    Increase in the petroleum prices, projected increases in the world's energy demand and environmental awareness have shifted the research interest to the alternative fuel technologies. In particular, green diesel, vegetable oil/animal fat/waste oil and grease derived hydrocarbons in diesel boiling range, has become an attractive alternative to biodiesel---a mixture of fatty acid methyl esters, particularly due to its superior fuel properties that are similar to petroleum diesel. Hence, green diesel can be used as a drop-in fuel in the current diesel engines. The current technology for production of green diesel-hydrodeoxygenation of triglycerides and fatty acids over conventional hydrotreating catalysts suffers from fast catalyst deactivation in the absence of hydrogen combined with high temperatures and high fatty acid content in the feedstock. Additionally, excess hydrogen requirement for hydrodeoxygenation technique leads to high production costs. This thesis proposes a new technology-selective decarboxylation of brown grease, which is a mixture of fats and oils collected from waste water trap and rich in fatty acids, over a supported noble metal catalyst that overcomes the green diesel production challenges. In contrast to other feedstocks used for liquid biofuel production, brown grease is inexpensive and non-food competing feedstock, therefore the process finds solution to waste management issues, reduces the renewable fuel production cost and does not add to the global food shortage problems. Special catalyst formulations were developed to have a high activity and stability in the absence of hydrogen in the fatty acid decarboxylation process. The study shows how catalyst innovations can lead to a new technology that overcomes the process challenges. First, the effect of reaction parameters on the activity and the selectivity of brown grease decarboxylation with minimum hydrogen consumption over an activated carbon supported palladium catalyst were

  13. Vegetable oil sources in diets for freshwater angelfish (Pterophyllum scalare, Cichlidae: growth and thermal tolerance

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A.K. Ikeda

    2011-06-01

    Full Text Available The influence of fatty acid composition of the diets on the productive performance and on cold and heat tolerance of juvenile freshwater angelfish (Pterophyllum scalare, in three different phases, was studied. Phase I studied the productive performance of freshwater angelfish in a completely randomized experimental design with four treatments, canola, linseed, olive and soybean oils and four replicates during 50 days using 192 fish in 16 aquaria. Phase II studied the cold tolerance of juvenile freshwater angelfish using 72 juvenile freshwater angelfish, coming from phase I and maintained in 12 aquaria climatized chamber. The temperature was reduced 1ºC per day, until the observation of 100% fish mortality. Phase III, it was studied the heat tolerance of juvenile freshwater angelfish employing an identical procedure to phase II, but with a daily increase of 1ºC. Significant differences (P>0.05 were not observed for any parameters evaluated. Thus, it was concluded that the type of vegetable oil (canola, linseed, olive and soybean used as a diet supplement did not affect the productive performance, nor the tolerance to cold and heat, of juvenile freshwater angelfish.

  14. Toxicological evaluation of vegetable oils and biodiesel in soil during the biodegradation process

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ivo S. Tamada

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available Vegetable oils and their derivatives, like biodiesel, are used extensively throughout the world, thus posing an environmental risk when disposed. Toxicity testing using test organisms shows how these residues affect ecosystems. Toxicity tests using earthworms (Eisenia foetida. are widespread because they are a practical resource for analyzing terrestrial organisms. For phytotoxicological analysis, we used seeds of arugula (Eruca sativa and lettuce (Lactuca sativa. to analyze the germination of seeds in contaminated soil samples. The toxicological experiment was conducted with four different periods of biodegradation in soil: zero days, 60 days, 120 days and 180 days. The studied contaminants were soybean oil (new and used and biodiesel (B100. An evaluation of the germination of both seeds showed an increased toxicity for all contaminants as the biodegradation occurred, biodiesel being the most toxic among the contaminants. On the other hand, for the tests using earthworms, the biodiesel was the only contaminant that proved to be toxic. Therefore, the higher toxicity of the sample containing these hydrocarbons over time can be attributed to the secondary compounds formed by microbial action. Thus, we conclude that the biodegradation in soil of the studied compounds requires longer periods for the sample toxicity to be decreased with the action of microorganisms.

  15. Toxicological evaluation of vegetable oils and biodiesel in soil during the biodegradation process.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tamada, Ivo S; Montagnolli, Renato N; Lopes, Paulo R M; Bidoia, Ederio D

    2012-10-01

    Vegetable oils and their derivatives, like biodiesel, are used extensively throughout the world, thus posing an environmental risk when disposed. Toxicity testing using test organisms shows how these residues affect ecosystems. Toxicity tests using earthworms (Eisenia foetida) are widespread because they are a practical resource for analyzing terrestrial organisms. For phytotoxicological analysis, we used seeds of arugula (Eruca sativa) and lettuce (Lactuca sativa) to analyze the germination of seeds in contaminated soil samples. The toxicological experiment was conducted with four different periods of biodegradation in soil: zero days, 60 days, 120 days and 180 days. The studied contaminants were soybean oil (new and used) and biodiesel (B100). An evaluation of the germination of both seeds showed an increased toxicity for all contaminants as the biodegradation occurred, biodiesel being the most toxic among the contaminants. On the other hand, for the tests using earthworms, the biodiesel was the only contaminant that proved to be toxic. Therefore, the higher toxicity of the sample containing these hydrocarbons over time can be attributed to the secondary compounds formed by microbial action. Thus, we conclude that the biodegradation in soil of the studied compounds requires longer periods for the sample toxicity to be decreased with the action of microorganisms.

  16. Multiresidue analysis of environmental pollutants in edible vegetable oils by gas chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhou, Rui-Ze; Jiang, Jie; Mao, Ting; Zhao, Ya-Song; Lu, Yong

    2016-09-15

    A novel multiresidue determination of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs), phthalate esters (PAEs) and alkylphenols (APs) in edible vegetable oils was developed. The samples were extracted with hexane-saturated acetonitrile, and after concentration, the extract was directly qualitatively and quantitatively analyzed by gas chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry (GC-MS/MS) with multiple reaction monitoring (MRM) in positive ion mode. The calibration curve displayed good linearity in the range of 2-100μg/L, with correlation coefficients greater than 0.99. The mean recoveries were 70.0-110.8% by analysis of spiked oil, and the relative standard deviations (RSDs) were 2.1-10.2% (n=6), respectively. The limits of detection (LODs) for the 23 PAHs, 17 PAEs and 3 APs were 0.1-1.0μg/kg, 0.1-4.0μg/kg and 1.2-3.0μg/kg, respectively. The established method effectively avoided interference from large amounts of lipids and pigments. It was applied to real sample and shown to be a rapid and reliable alternative for determination and confirmation in routine analysis. PMID:27080878

  17. The effect of using olive oil vegetation water on some physical and chemical characteristics of soil and nutrient element contents of fig (Ficus carica L. cv. Sarilop) leaves

    OpenAIRE

    Şahin, Berrin; Çobanoğlu, Ferit; Ertan, Birgül; Konak, Ramazan; TUTMUŞ, Eşref; Belge, Aytekin; Çokuysal, Burçin

    2008-01-01

    In that project, it has been aimed to determine method of using that olive oil vegetation water as on organic manure in dried fig production and to obtain positive solution for environmental pollution. Fig and olive are important agricultural products in Aydin province. It has been accepted that reducing of crop nutritient quantities in agricultural lands is caused negative effect on dried fig product quality and yield. The oil vegetation water which is occurred in olive oil facto...

  18. Comparison of indirect and direct quantification of esters of monochloropropanediol in vegetable oil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dubois, Mathieu; Tarres, Adrienne; Goldmann, Till; Empl, Anna Maria; Donaubauer, Alfred; Seefelder, Walburga

    2012-05-01

    The presence of fatty acid esters of monochloropropanediol (MEs) in food is a recent concern raised due to the carcinogenicity of their hydrolysable moieties 2- and 3-monochloropropanediol (2- and 3-MCPD). Several indirect methods for the quantification of MEs have been developed and are commonly in use until today, however significant discrepancies among analytical results obtained are challenging their reliability. The aim of the present study was therefore to test the trueness of an indirect method by comparing it to a newly developed direct method using palm oil and palm olein as examples. The indirect method was based on ester cleavage under acidic conditions, derivatization of the liberated 2- and 3-MCPD with heptafluorobutyryl imidazole and GC-MS determination. The direct method was comprised of two extraction procedures targeting 2-and 3-MCPD mono esters (co-extracting as well glycidyl esters) by the use of double solid phase extraction (SPE), and 2- and 3-MCPD di-esters by the use of silica gel column, respectively. Detection was carried out by liquid chromatography coupled to time of flight mass spectrometry (LC-ToF-MS). Accurate quantification of the intact compounds was assured by means of matrix matched standard addition on extracts. Analysis of 22 palm oil and 7 palm olein samples (2- plus 3-MCPD contamination ranged from 0.3 to 8.8 μg/g) by both methods revealed no significant bias. Both methods were therefore considered as comparable in terms of results; however the indirect method was shown to require less analytical standards, being less tedious and furthermore applicable to all type of different vegetable oils and hence recommended for routine application.

  19. Biofuels in Europe

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This article contains a short overview of biomass consumption in Eu countries. The market share of biomass comparing with the other renewable energy sources, analysis, figures of development options and potential barriers are presented. Some special paragraphs were devoted to liquid biofuels like ethanol, methanol and bio-diesel oils. Lacking of the distribution system of liquid biofuels is one of the barriers in implementation. The granulated wood pellets is going to be one of the most widespread bio fuel for households in Austria and Southern Germany and for small scale district heating in Denmark and Sweden. From the analyse follows, that in countries with the state support and subsidies, the biomass consumption is much more developed and is competing with the fossil fuels in heat and power market. But in countries without this support the share of biofuels is decreasing. The last paragraph is describing the situation of biomass consumption in Estonia. Up to now here are positive as well as negative examples of biomass boilers implementation. Comparison of the heat prices in Estonia and in E U countries is presented in Fig. 2. Considering that our heat prices are about 2 times less than the E U average, implementation of the quite expensive western burning technology in Estonia would be more complicated than in E U countries. This points out even bigger necessity of the state support or subsidizing in Estonia. But there is another, economically more feasible way for subsidizing - to start the production of the small bio-fuelled boilers and the fuel handling technology in Estonia. This should reduce the total investment cost of the bio-fuelled heating systems. (author)

  20. Microalgae: biofuel production

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Babita Kumari

    2013-04-01

    Full Text Available In the present day, microalgae feedstocks are gaining interest in energy scenario due to their fast growth potential coupled with relatively high lipid, carbohydrate and nutrients contents. All of these properties render them an excellent source for biofuels such as biodiesel, bioethanol and biomethane; as well as a number of other valuable pharmaceutical and nutraceutical products. The present review is a critical appraisal of the commercialization potential of microalgae biofuels. The available literature on various aspects of microalgae for e.g. its cultivation, life cycle assessment, and conceptualization of an algal biorefinery, has been done. The evaluation of available information suggests the operational and maintenance cost along with maximization of oil-rich microalgae production is the key factor for successful commercialization of microalgae-based fuels.

  1. Utilization of immobilized lipases as catalysts in the transesterification of non-edible vegetable oils with ethanol

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    P. C. Tiosso

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available This work reports the use of commercially available immobilized lipase preparations (Novozym® 435 and Lipozyme TL IM, both from Novozymes, and Lipase PS IM from Amano as catalysts in the transesterification reaction of different alkyl-chain triglycerides with ethanol. The ethanolysis of native oils from Brazilian Amazon plants andiroba (Carapa guianensis, babassu (Orbignya sp., jatropa (Jatropha curcas, and palm (Elaeis sp. was studied in a solvent-free system. In a typical reaction, the immobilized preparations were added to the mixture of vegetable oil-to-ethanol in a molar ratio of 1:9. The reactions were performed at 50 ºC for a maximum period of 48 h. Under the conditions used, all the immobilized lipase preparations were able to generate the main esters of fatty acids present in the tested feedstocks, and both the reaction rate and ester yield were dependent on the source of lipase and vegetable oil. The viscosity values for the samples obtained in each reaction displayed a consistent reduction in relation to their original feedstocks, which also confirms the high conversion of triglycerides to ethyl esters (99.8-74.0%. The best performances were obtained with Amano PS IM and Novozym® 435, with the biodiesel samples from the babassu and jatropha oils exhibiting viscosity values in accordance with those predicted by the technical standards of ASTM D6751 (1.9-6.0 mm²/s. Lipozyme TL IM displayed an unsatisfactory performance, indicating that the conditions of the transesterification reaction should be improved. This comparative study using different catalysts and several vegetable oil sources with varying fatty acid compositions is particularly important for all tropical countries with a diversity of native vegetable oil sources.

  2. Tensão superficial estática de soluções aquosas com óleos minerais e vegetais utilizados na agricultura Surface tension of mineral oils and vegetable oils

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cristina G. de Mendonça

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available O trabalho teve como objetivo avaliar a tensão superficial estática de soluções aquosas com formulações de óleos minerais e vegetais emulsionáveis utilizados como adjuvantes na agricultura. Os óleos minerais e vegetais, quando adicionados aos produtos fitossanitários, podem imprimir características desejáveis à calda de pulverização, como reduzir a tensão superficial em soluções aquosas, possibilitar maior contato da calda com a superfície vegetal ou reduzir o potencial de deriva durante as pulverizações. Foram testados os seguintes produtos comerciais: óleos minerais (Assist, Attach, Dytrol, Iharol, Mineral Oil, Spinner, Sunspray-E e Triona e óleos vegetais (Agrex'oil Vegetal, Crop Oil, Natur'l Óleo, Óleo Vegetal Nortox e Veget Oil, todos com registro de uso na agricultura. A tensão superficial das soluções aquosas foi avaliada em 11 concentrações para cada produto (0,025; 0,05; 0,1; 0,25; 0,5; 0,75; 1,0; 1,5; 2,0; 2,5 e 3,0% v/v. Essa propriedade dos óleos minerais e dos óleos vegetais foi estimada medindo-se a massa das gotas formadas na extremidade de uma bureta. Ao conjunto de dados obtidos para cada produto, na avaliação da tensão superficial, foram determinadas as análises de variância e de regressão, ajustando-se os dados ao Modelo de Mitscherlich. Entre os óleos minerais, destacaram-se os produtos: Assist, Dytrol, Iharol e Mineral Oil por apresentarem as menores tensões superficiais mínimas estimadas pelo Modelo, respectivamente, 29,255; 28,442; 26,097 e 28,584 mN m-1. Os óleos vegetais que apresentaram os menores valores de tensão superficial mínima estimados pelo Modelo, foram: Agrex' oil Vegetal (27,716 mN m-1, Natur'l óleo (28,216 mN m-1, Veget Oil (27,308 mN m-1 e Crop Oil (29,964 mN m-1.The aim of this work was to evaluate the surface tension of water emulsion with mineral oils and vegetable oils used as adjuvant. The mineral and vegetable oils when added to the agrochemicals can

  3. Advances of in edible vegetable oil as rick hydrocarbon bio-fuel%非食用植物油作为生物富烃燃料原料的研究进展

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    李洋; 张爱华; 肖志红; 汪红梅; 李昌珠

    2014-01-01

    随着世界化石能源渐趋枯竭、环境问题日益突出、能源需求的不断扩大,促使人们积极寻找新的替代能源燃料。在这些新型能源中,具有高生物降解性的、无毒的生物富烃燃料作为替代燃料更具吸引力。选用非食用植物油作为主要的原料制备生物富烃燃料可以缓解食用油的压力和减少原料的成本。本文阐述非食用植物油作为未来生物富烃燃料的主要原料的必要性和潜力,介绍目前国内外非食用植物油研究现状及几种常用的非食用植物油作为生产生物富烃燃料的发展状况。%People search for new alternative energy with energy crisis due to depletion of resources,increased environ-mental problems,and growing energy demand. Because of biodegradability and nontoxicity biodiesel has become more at-tractive as alternative fuel. It can be reducing cvst feedstaks and dependeng on edible oil to make bio-fuel for inedible vegetable oil.Therefore,the aim of this paper is to review the necessity and potentiality of the in edible oils and to iden-tify the emerging technologies to produce biodiesel. The current domestic and foreign research of development and several in edible vegetable oil as biodiesel production was introduced.

  4. Microalgae as Sustainable Renewable Energy Feedstock for Biofuel Production

    OpenAIRE

    Srikanth Reddy Medipally; Fatimah Md. Yusoff; Sanjoy Banerjee; Shariff, M

    2015-01-01

    The world energy crisis and increased greenhouse gas emissions have driven the search for alternative and environmentally friendly renewable energy sources. According to life cycle analysis, microalgae biofuel is identified as one of the major renewable energy sources for sustainable development, with potential to replace the fossil-based fuels. Microalgae biofuel was devoid of the major drawbacks associated with oil crops and lignocelluloses-based biofuels. Algae-based biofuels are technical...

  5. The comparison of solid phase microextraction-GC and static headspace-GC for determination of solvent residues in vegetable oils.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ligor, Magdalena; Buszewski, Bogusław

    2008-02-01

    The objective of these investigations has been the determination of volatile organic compounds including residue solvents present in vegetable oil samples. Some olive oil, rape oil, sunflower oil, soy-bean oil, pumpkin oil, grape oil, rice oil as well as hazel-nut oil samples were analysed. Among residue solvents the following compounds have been mentioned: acetone, n-hexane, benzene, and toluene. Some experiments for the solid phase microextraction (SPME)-GC-flame ionisation detection (FID) were performed to examine extraction conditions such as fiber exposure time, temperature of extraction, and temperature of desorption. Various SPME fibers such as polydimethylsiloxane, Carboxen/polydimethylsiloxane and polydimethylsiloxane/divinylbenzene coatings were used for the isolation of tested compounds from vegetable oil samples. After optimisation of SPME, real vegetable oil samples were examined using SPME-GC/MS. Based on preliminary experiments the qualitative and quantitative analyses for the determination of acetone, n-hexane, benzene and toluene were performed by SPME-GC-FID and static head-space (SHS)-GC-FID methods. The regression coefficients for calibration curves for the examined compounds were R(2) > or = 0.992. This shows that the used method is linear in the examined concentration range (0.005-0.119 mg/kg for SPME-GC-FID and 0.003-0.728 mg/kg for SHS-GC-FID). Chemical properties of analysed vegetable oils have been characterised by chemometric procedure (cluster analysis).

  6. Production of rapeseed oil fuel in decentralized oil extraction plants. Handbook. 2. new rev. and enl. ed.; Herstellung von Rapsoelkraftstoff in dezentralen Oelgewinnungsanlagen. Handbuch

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Remmele, Edgar [Technologie- und Foerderzentrum (TFZ) im Kompetenzzentrum fuer Nachwachsende Rohstoffe, Straubing (Germany)

    2009-11-15

    Increasing oil prices, the dependence on petroleum imports and the desire to reduce the CO{sub 2} emissions, are arguments to accelerate the production and utilization of biofuels. In 2007, 3.3 million tons of biodiesel and 772,000 tons of vegetable oil were used as fuel. The technically and economically successful production of rapeseed oil fuel in decentralized oil mills requires a quality assurance. Specifically, the brochure under consideration reports on the following: (1) Oilseed processing; (2) Centralized oil production in Germany; (3) Design of a decentralized oil mill; (4) Production of rapeseed oil fuel in decentralized systems; (5) Quality assurance for rapeseed oil fuel in decentralized oil mills; (6) Properties of rapeseed oil fuel; (7) Quality of rapeseed oil fuel from decentralized oil mills; (8) Economic aspects of decentralized oil extraction; (9) Legal framework conditions.

  7. Tribological Performance of Hydrogenated Amorphous Carbon (a-C: H DLC Coating when Lubricated with Biodegradable Vegetal Canola Oil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    H.M. Mobarak

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available Increasing environmental awareness and demands for lowering energy consumptions are strong driving forces behind the development of the vehicles of tomorrow. Without the advances of lubricant chemistry and adequate lubricant formulation, expansion of modern engines would not have been possible. Considering environmental awareness factors as compared to mineral oils, vegetal oil based biolubricants are renewable, biodegradable, non-toxic and have a least amount of greenhouse gases. Furthermore, improvement in engine performance and transmission components, which were impossible to achieve by applying only lubricants design, is now possible through diamond like carbon (DLC coatings. DLC coatings exhibit brilliant tribological properties, such as good wear resistance and low friction. In this regard, tribological performance of a-C: H DLC coating when lubricated with Canola vegetal oil has been investigated by the help of a ball-on-flat geometry. Experimental results demonstrated that the a-C: H DLC coating exhibited better performance with Canola oil in terms of friction and wear as compared to the uncoated materials. Large amount of polar components in the Canola oil significantly improved the tribological properties of the a-C:H coating. Thus, usage of a-C: H DLC coating with Canola oil in the long run may have a positive impact on engine life.

  8. Comparison of the radical scavenging potential of polar and lipidic fractions of olive oil and other vegetable oils under normal conditions and after thermal treatment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Valavanidis, Athanasios; Nisiotou, Christala; Papageorgiou, Yiannis; Kremli, Ioulia; Satravelas, Nikolaos; Zinieris, Nikolaos; Zygalaki, Helen

    2004-04-21

    The antioxidant activity (IC(50)) of extra virgin olive oil (EVOO), commercial olive oil, and other vegetable oils (soybean, sunflower, and corn oil) was determined by UV-vis and by electron paramagnetic resonance (EPR) spectroscopy of the stable radical 2,2-diphenyl-1-picrylhydrazyl (DPPH). Also, we studied the antioxidant activity of the methanol soluble phase (methanolic, MF) and the nonsoluble phase (lipidic, LF) of oils by the same methods. Similarly, we studied the effect of heating on the antioxidant activity at 160 and 190 degrees C. Also, the MF, containing the polyphenolic substances, was used for measurements of the radical scavenging capacity toward the most important oxygen free radicals, superoxide anion (O(2)(*)(-)) and hydroxyl (HO(*)) radicals. Results showed that soybean oil and EVOO had the highest antioxidant potential and thermal stability. In the case of soybean oil, the antioxidant capacity is the result of its high content of gamma- and delta-tocopherols (with the highest antioxidant capacity and thermostabilities), whereas in EVOO, the antioxidant potential is the result of the combination of specific antioxidant polyphenols, which are acting additionally as effective stabilizers of alpha-tocopherol. The high content of EVOO in tyrosol, hydrotyrosol, and oleuropein and other polyphenolics with radical scavenging abilities toward superoxide anion and hydroxyl radical suggests that olive oil possesses biological properties that could partially account for the observed beneficial health effects of the Mediterranean diet.

  9. Emissions from diesel engines using fatty acid methyl esters from different vegetable oils as blends and pure fuel

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schröder, O.; Munack, A.; Schaak, J.; Pabst, C.; Schmidt, L.; Bünger, J.; Krahl, J.

    2012-05-01

    Biodiesel is used as a neat fuel as well as in blends with mineral diesel fuel. Because of the limited availability of fossil resources, an increase of biogenic compounds in fuels is desired. To achieve this goal, next to rapeseed oil, other sustainably produced vegetable oils can be used as raw materials. These raw materials influence the fuel properties as well as the emissions. To investigate the environmental impact of the exhaust gas, it is necessary to determine regulated and non-regulated exhaust gas components. In detail, emissions of aldehydes and polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAH), as well as mutagenicity in the Ames test are of special interest. In this paper emission measurements on a Euro III engine OM 906 of Mercedes-Benz are presented. As fuel vegetable oil methyl esters from various sources and reference diesel fuel were used as well as blends of the vegetable oil methyl esters with diesel fuel. PAH were sampled according to VDI Guideline 3872. The sampling procedure of carbonyls was accomplished using DNPH cartridges coupled with potassium iodide cartridges. The carbon monoxide and hydrocarbon emissions of the tested methyl esters show advantages over DF. The particle mass emissions of methyl esters were likewise lower than those of DF, only linseed oil methyl ester showed higher particle mass emissions. A disadvantage is the use of biodiesel with respect to emissions of nitrogen oxides. They increased depending on the type of methyl ester by 10% to 30%. Emissions of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) and the results of mutagenicity tests correlate with those of the PM measurements, at which for palm oil methyl ester next to coconut oil methyl ester the lowest emissions were detected. From these results one can formulate a clear link between the iodine number of the ester and the emission behaviour. For blends of biodiesel and diesel fuel, emissions changed linearly with the proportion of biodiesel. However, especially in the non

  10. Emissions from diesel engines using fatty acid methyl esters from different vegetable oils as blends and pure fuel

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Biodiesel is used as a neat fuel as well as in blends with mineral diesel fuel. Because of the limited availability of fossil resources, an increase of biogenic compounds in fuels is desired. To achieve this goal, next to rapeseed oil, other sustainably produced vegetable oils can be used as raw materials. These raw materials influence the fuel properties as well as the emissions. To investigate the environmental impact of the exhaust gas, it is necessary to determine regulated and non-regulated exhaust gas components. In detail, emissions of aldehydes and polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAH), as well as mutagenicity in the Ames test are of special interest. In this paper emission measurements on a Euro III engine OM 906 of Mercedes-Benz are presented. As fuel vegetable oil methyl esters from various sources and reference diesel fuel were used as well as blends of the vegetable oil methyl esters with diesel fuel. PAH were sampled according to VDI Guideline 3872. The sampling procedure of carbonyls was accomplished using DNPH cartridges coupled with potassium iodide cartridges. The carbon monoxide and hydrocarbon emissions of the tested methyl esters show advantages over DF. The particle mass emissions of methyl esters were likewise lower than those of DF, only linseed oil methyl ester showed higher particle mass emissions. A disadvantage is the use of biodiesel with respect to emissions of nitrogen oxides. They increased depending on the type of methyl ester by 10% to 30%. Emissions of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) and the results of mutagenicity tests correlate with those of the PM measurements, at which for palm oil methyl ester next to coconut oil methyl ester the lowest emissions were detected. From these results one can formulate a clear link between the iodine number of the ester and the emission behaviour. For blends of biodiesel and diesel fuel, emissions changed linearly with the proportion of biodiesel. However, especially in the non

  11. BREAD SPREADS PREPARED FROM VEGETABLE OIL BLENDS HAVING BALANCED FATTY ACID PROFILE

    OpenAIRE

    SAGARIKA BHATTACHARYYA

    2013-01-01

    Palm oil and mowrah oil are semi solid at room temperature in tropical countries. The oils are blended separately with til oil and rice bran oil respectively in formulation of bread spreads. Moreover, the fatty acid profile of the experimental oil blends are more balanced compared to that of butter or margarine. The experiment shows that the margarines prepared from the blend of palm oil and til oil and mowrah oil and rice bran oil in different proportion like 85:15 and 80:20 respectively are...

  12. Emerging techniques in vegetable oil analysis using stable isotope ratio mass spectrometry

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rhodes, Christopher

    2002-03-01

    Full Text Available As the practice of vegetable oil adulteration becomes more sophisticated, the possibility to subvert detection using established techniques such as capillary gas chromatography is increasing. One of the most powerful techniques to be used in food authenticity studies is stable isotope ratio mass spectrometry (SIRMS which utilises differences in the natural abundance of the stable isotopes of the ‘light’ bio-elements hydrogen, nitrogen, carbon, oxygen and sulfur to detect food fraud. SIRMS has found application in the authentication of a wide range of foodstuffs, including fruit juices, wines, spirits, honey and to detect the adulteration of flavour compounds with synthetic analogues. This papers reviews the current state-of-the-art for the authentication of vegetable oils using SIRMS and highlights emergent techniques such as compound- and position specific-isotope mass spectrometry. These latter developments offer the potential to provide more rapid and improved detection of the economic adulteration of vegetable oils.A medida que la práctica de la adulteración de aceites vegetales se hace más sofisticada, las posibilidades de evitar la detección utilizando técnicas tradicionales como la cromatografía de gases en columna capilar aumentan. Una de las técnicas más poderosas que más se utilizan en los estudios de autentificación de alimentos es la espectrometría de masas de relaciones isotópicas, que utiliza diferencias en la abundancia natural de isótopos estables de elementos ligeros biológicos hidrógeno, nitrógeno, carbón, oxigeno y azufre para detectar fraude en los alimentos. La espectrometría de masas de relaciones isotópicas ha encontrado aplicación en la autentificación de una amplia gama de alimentos, incluyendo zumos de frutas, vinos, bebidas alcohólicas de alta graduación, miel, y en la detección de la adulteración de los compuestos aromáticos con sus análogos de origen sintético. Este trabajo

  13. COMPETITIVE POSITION OF THE MAIN PRODUCERS AND EXPORTERS OF OILSEEDS AND VEGETABLE OILS IN THE INTRA-EU TRADE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Karolina Pawlak

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available The aim of the paper was to assess the competitive position of the main producers and exporters of oilseeds and vegetable oils in the intra-EU trade in 2004 and 2012. The competitiveness was assessed with the use of a selected set of quantitative measures of international competitive position. Moreover, some shares of the analysed countries in the intra-EU trade, as well as relative export intensity of oilseeds and vegetable oils in these countries were estimated. On the basis of the conducted analyses it is possible to conclude that apart from Germany in trade in rapeseed and soya beans, as well as the Netherlands in trade in rapeseed and sunflower-seed, the main producers and exporters of oilseeds were competitive on the Single European Market. Excluding soya-bean oil produced in the EU mainly from imported raw material, competitive advantage of most of the countries decreased together with the level of processing and was lower in trade in vegetable oils.

  14. The ecotoxicology of vegetable versus mineral based lubricating oils 3. Coral fertilization and adult corals

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mercurio, Philip; Negri, Andrew P.; Burns, Kathryn A.; Heyward, Andrew J

    2004-05-01

    Biodegradable vegetable-derived lubricants (VDL) might be less toxic to marine organisms than mineral-derived oils (MDL) due to the absence of high molecular weight aromatics, but this remains largely untested. In this laboratory study, adult corals and coral gametes were exposed to various concentrations of a two-stroke VDL-1A and a corresponding MDL to determine which lubricant type was more toxic to each life stage. In the fertilization experiment, gametes from the scleractinian coral Acropora microphthalma were exposed to water-accommodated fractions (WAF) of VDL-1A and MDL for four hours. The MDL and VDL-1A WAFs inhibited normal fertilization of the corals at 200 {mu}g l{sup -1} total hydrocarbon content (THC) and 150 {mu}g l{sup -1} THC respectively. Disturbance of a stable coral-dinoflagellate symbiosis is regarded as a valid measure of sub-lethal stress in adult corals. The state of the symbiosis in branchlets of adult colonies of Acropora formosa was monitored using indicators such as dinoflagellate expulsion and dark-adapted photosystem II yields of dinoflagellate (using pulse amplitude modulation fluorescence). An effect on symbiosis was measurable following 48 h exposure to the lubricants at concentrations of 190 {mu}g l{sup -1} and 37 {mu}g l{sup -1} THC for the MDL and VDL-1A respectively. GC/MS revealed that the main constituent of the VDL-1A WAF was the compound coumarin, added by the manufacturer to improve odour. The fragrance containing coumarin was removed from the lubricant formulation and the toxicity towards adult corals re-examined. The coumarin-free VDL-2 exhibited significantly less toxicity towards the adult corals than all of the other oil types tested, with the only measurable effect being a slight but significant drop in photosynthetic efficiency at 280 {mu}g l{sup -1}. - Vegetable-derived lubricants were less toxic to adult corals than their mineral counterparts.

  15. Factors affecting the wettability of different surface materials with vegetable oil at high temperatures and its relation to cleanability

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ashokkumar, Saranya; Adler-Nissen, Jens; Møller, Per

    2012-01-01

    The main aim of the work was to investigate the wettability of different surface materials with vegetable oil (olive oil) over the temperature range of 25–200°C to understand the differences in cleanability of different surfaces exposed to high temperatures in food processes. The different surface...... different levels of roughness. The cosine of the contact angle of olive oil on different surface materials rises linearly with increasing temperature. Among the materials analyzed, polymers (PTFE, silicone) gave the lowest cosθ values. Studies of the effect of roughness and surface flaws on wettability...... contact angle and cleanability. In addition to surface wettability with oil many other factors such as roughness and surface defects play an essential role in determining their cleanability....

  16. Determination of some inorganic metals in edible vegetable oils by inductively coupled plasma atomic emission spectroscopy (ICP-AES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Musa Özcan, M.

    2008-09-01

    Full Text Available Seventeen edible vegetable oils were analyzed spectrometrically for their metal (Cu, Fe, Mn, Co, Cr, Pb, Cd, Ni, and Zn contents. Toxic metals in edible vegetable oils were determined by Inductively Coupled Plasma Atomic Emission Spectrometry (ICP-AES. The highest metal concentrations were measured as 0.0850, 0.0352, 0.0220, 0.0040, 0.0010, 0.0074, 0.0045, 0.0254 and 0.2870 mg/kg for copper in almond oil, for iron in corn oil-(c, for manganese in soybean oil, for cobalt in sunflower oil-(b and almond oil, for chromium in almond oil, for lead in virgin olive oil, for cadmium in sunflower oil-(e, for nickel almond oil and for zinc in almond oil respectively. The method for determining toxic metals in edible vegetable oils by using ICP-AES is discussed. The metals were extracted from low quantities of oil (2-3 g with a 10% nitric acid solution. The extracted metal in acid solution can be injected into the ICPAES. The proposed method is simple and allows the metals to be determined in edible vegetable oils with a precision estimated below 10% relative standard deviation (RSD for Cu, 5% for Fe, 15% for Mn, 8% for Co, 10% for Cr, 20% for Pb, 5% for Cd, 16% for Ni and 11% for Zn.En este estudio se analizó espectrométricamente el contenido en metales (Cu, Fe, Mn, Co, Cr, Pb, Cd, Ni, and Zn de 17 aceites vegetales comestibles mediante ICP-AES. Las concentaciones más elevadas se encontraron para el cobre en el aceite de almendra (0.0850 mg/kg, para el hierro en el aceite de maiz(c,(0.0352 mg/kg, para el manganeso en el aceite de soja (0.0220 mg/kg, para el cobalto en el aceite de girasol (b (0.0040 mg/kg, para el cromo en el aceite de almendra (0.0010 mg/kg, para el plomo en el aceite de oliva virgen (0.0074 mg/kg, para el cadmio en el aceite de girasol (e (0.0045 mg/kg, para el niquel en el aceite de almendra (0.0254 mg/kg y para el zincen el aceite de almendra (0.2870 mg/kg. Los metales se extrajeron a partir de bajas cantidades de aceite (2-3 g, con

  17. Nutritional enrichment of vegetable oils with long-chain n-3 fatty acids through enzymatic interesterification with a new vegetable lipase

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sousa, J. S.

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available The aim of the present work was to produce vegetable oils enriched with long-chain n-3 fatty acids of nutraceutical interest, through an enzyme-catalyzed interesterification with a new lipase, from physic nut (Jatropha curcas L.. The Vegetable Lipase Powder (biocatalyst called VLP, which has never been applied in functional foods, was obtained from the physic nut seed, and efficiently hydrolyzed the 95% of waste fish oil in 24 h. Urea precipitation was used to concentrate polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFA and was further interesterified with oils of different sources by means of enzymatic catalysis. After the interesterification reaction, which was also catalyzed by the VLP, the PUFA content in coconut oil increased almost ten-fold from 1.8% to 17.7%. In palm oil, the PUFA content increased two-fold from 10.5% to 21.8%, while in olive oil the level of PUFA increased from 8.6% to 21.3%. The mixture of eicosapentaenoic acid (EPA and docosahexaenoic acid (DHA (3.7% to 3.9% was incorporated into the triacylglycerol fraction of each of the coconut, palm and olive oils. Through the hydroesterification (hydrolysis followed by interesterification all the interesterified vegetable oils tested presented sufficient EPA and DHA levels to satisfy the levels recommended for intake by human adults in one tablespoon.El objetivo del presente trabajo fue producir aceites vegetales enriquecidos con ácidos grasos n-3 de cadena larga de interés nutraceutico, por interesterificación catalizada mediante una nueva lipasa, una enzima de semilla de Jatropha curcas L. La lipasa vegetal en polvo (biocatalizador llamada VLP, nunca ha sido aplicada en alimentos funcionales, se obtuvo mediante procedimientos físicos con semillas de nueces, e hidrolizó eficientemente el 95% de aceites de residuos de pescado en 24 h. La precipitación con urea se utilizó para concentrar los ácidos grasos poliinsaturados (PUFA que fueron posteriormente interesterificados con aceites de

  18. Application of vegetable oils in infant formula milk powder%植物油在婴儿配方乳粉中的应用探讨

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    房新平; 翟红梅; 胡长利

    2014-01-01

    The fatty acid contents of seven vegetable oils ( soybean oil, corn oil, walnut oil,sunflower seed oil, high oleic sunflower seed oil, palm oil and coconut oil) often used in infant formula milk pow-der were determined, and linoleic acid, linolenic acid and oleic acid,as the important indicators of fatty acid were analyzed. Furthermore, these results were compared with the fatty acid compositions of three noval vegetable oils(double - low rapeseed oil, rice bran oil and safflower seed oil), and the applications of the noval vegetable oils in infant formula milk powder were discussed.%从婴儿配方乳粉在用的7种植物油(大豆油、玉米油、核桃油、葵花籽油、高油酸葵花籽油、棕榈油和椰子油)入手,通过检测植物油的脂肪酸含量,对亚油酸、亚麻酸和油酸等几个主要指标进行了分析,进而与3种新型植物油(双低菜籽油、米糠油和红花籽油)的脂肪酸组成进行了比较,对新型植物油在婴儿配方乳粉中的应用进行了探讨。

  19. Pilot scale production, characterization, and optimization of epoxidized vegetable oil-based resins

    Science.gov (United States)

    Monono, Ewumbua Menyoli

    Novel epoxidized sucrose soyate (ESS) resins perform much better than other vegetable oil-based resins; thus, they are of current interest for commercial scale production and for a wide range of applications in coatings and polymeric materials. However, no work has been published that successfully scaled-up the reaction above a 1 kg batch size. To achieve this goal, canola oil was first epoxidized at a 300 g scale to study the epoxidation rate and thermal profile at different hydrogen peroxide (H2O2) addition rates, bath temperatures, and reaction times. At least 83% conversion of double bonds to oxirane was achieved by 2.5 h, and the reaction temperature was 8-15 °C higher than the water bath temperature within the first 30-40 min of epoxidation. A 38 L stainless steel kettle was modified as a reactor to produce 10 kg of ESS. Twenty 7-10 kg batches of ESS were produced with an overall 87.5% resin yield and > 98% conversion after batch three. The conversion and resin quality were consistent across the batches due to the modifications on the reaction that improved mixing and reaction temperature control within 55-65 oC. The total production time was reduced from 8 to 4 days due to the fabrication of a 40 L separatory funnel for both washing and filtration. A math model was developed to optimize the epoxidation process. This was done by using the Box-Behnken design to model the conversion at various acetic acid, H2O2, and Amberlite ratios and at various reaction temperatures and times. The model had an adjusted R2 of 97.6% and predicted R2 of 96.8%. The model showed that reagent amounts and time can be reduced by 18% without compromising the desired conversion value and quality.

  20. The ecotoxicology of vegetable versus mineral based lubricating oils: 3. Coral fertilization and adult corals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mercurio, Philip; Negri, Andrew P; Burns, Kathryn A; Heyward, Andrew J

    2004-05-01

    Biodegradable vegetable-derived lubricants (VDL) might be less toxic to marine organisms than mineral-derived oils (MDL) due to the absence of high molecular weight aromatics, but this remains largely untested. In this laboratory study, adult corals and coral gametes were exposed to various concentrations of a two-stroke VDL-1A and a corresponding MDL to determine which lubricant type was more toxic to each life stage. In the fertilization experiment, gametes from the scleractinian coral Acropora microphthalma were exposed to water-accommodated fractions (WAF) of VDL-1A and MDL for four hours. The MDL and VDL-1A WAFs inhibited normal fertilization of the corals at 200 microg l(-1) total hydrocarbon content (THC) and 150 microg l(-1) THC respectively. Disturbance of a stable coral-dinoflagellate symbiosis is regarded as a valid measure of sub-lethal stress in adult corals. The state of the symbiosis in branchlets of adult colonies of Acropora formosa was monitored using indicators such as dinoflagellate expulsion and dark-adapted photosystem II yields of dinoflagellate (using pulse amplitude modulation fluorescence). An effect on symbiosis was measurable following 48 h exposure to the lubricants at concentrations of 190 microg l(-1) and 37 microg l(-1) THC for the MDL and VDL-1A respectively. GC/MS revealed that the main constituent of the VDL-1A WAF was the compound coumarin, added by the manufacturer to improve odour. The fragrance containing coumarin was removed from the lubricant formulation and the toxicity towards adult corals re-examined. The coumarin-free VDL-2 exhibited significantly less toxicity towards the adult corals than all of the other oil types tested, with the only measurable effect being a slight but significant drop in photosynthetic efficiency at 280 microg l(-1).

  1. Biofuels: 1995 project summaries

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1996-01-01

    Domestic transportation fuels are derived primarily from petroleum and account for about two-thirds of the petroleum consumption in the United States. In 1994, more than 40% of our petroleum was imported. That percentage is likely to increase, as the Middle East has about 75% of the world`s oil reserves, but the United States has only about 5%. Because we rely so heavily on oil (and because we currently have no suitable substitutes for petroleum-based transportation fuels), we are strategically and economically vulnerable to disruptions in the fuel supply. Additionally, we must consider the effects of petroleum use on the environment. The Biofuels Systems Division (BSD) is part of the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EE). The day-to-day research activities, which address these issues, are managed by the National Renewable Energy Laboratory in Golden, Colorado, and Oak Ridge National Laboratory in Oak Ridge, Tennessee. BSD focuses its research on biofuels-liquid and gaseous fuels made from renewable domestic crops-and aggressively pursues new methods for domestically producing, recovering, and converting the feedstocks to produce the fuels economically. The biomass resources include forage grasses, oil seeds, short-rotation woody crops, agricultural and forestry residues, algae, and certain industrial and municipal waste streams. The resulting fuels include ethanol, methanol, biodiesel, and ethers.

  2. Effects of vegetable oil residue after soil extraction on physical-chemical properties of sandy soil and plant growth

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    GONG Zongqiang; LI Peijun; B.M.Wilke; Kassem Alef

    2008-01-01

    Vegetable oil has the ability to extract polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) from contaminated sandy soft for a remediation purpose, with some of the oft remaining in the soil. Although most of the PAHs were removed, the risk of residue oil in the soft was not known. The objective of this study was to evaluate the effects of the vegetable oil residue on higher plant growth and sandy soft properties after soil extraction for a better understanding of the soil remediation. Addition of sunflower oil and column experiment were performed on a PAH contaminated soil and/or a control soft, respectively. Soils were incubated for 90 d, and soil pH was measured during the soil incubation. Higher plant growth bioassays with Avena sativa L. (oat) and Brassica rapa L. (turnip) were performed after the incubation, and then soil organic carbon contents were measured. The results show that both the nutrient amendment and the sunflower oil degradation resulted in the decrease of soil pH. When these two process worked together, their effects were counteracted due to the consumption of the nutrients and oil removal, resulting in different pH profiles. Growth ofA. sativa was adversely affected by the sunflower oil, and the nutrient amendments stimulated the A. sativa growth significantly. B. rapa was more sensitive to the sunflower oil than A. sativa. Only 1% sunflower oft addition plus nutrient amendment stimulated B. rapa growth. All the other treatments on B. rapa inhibited its growth significantly. The degradation of the sunflower oft in the soils was proved by the soft organic carbon content.

  3. Round table on bio-fuels; Table ronde sur les biocarburants

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2005-11-15

    The French ministers of agriculture and of industry have organized a meeting with the main French actors of agriculture, petroleum industry, car making and accessories industry and with professionals of agriculture machines to encourage the development of bio-fuels in France. This meeting took place in Paris in November 21, 2005. Its aim was to favor the partnerships between the different actors and the public authorities in order to reach the ambitious goals of the government of 5.75% of bio-fuels in fossil fuels by 2008, 7% by 2010 and 10% by 2015. The main points discussed by the participants were: the compatibility of automotive fuel standards with the objectives of bio-fuel incorporation, the development of direct incorporation of methanol in gasoline, the ethanol-ETBE partnership, the question of the lower calorific value of ETBE (ethyl tertio butyl ether), the development of new bio-fuels, the development of bio-diesel and the specific case of pure vegetal oils, and the fiscal framework of bio-fuels. This meeting has permitted to reach important improvements with 15 concrete agreements undertaken by the participants. (J.S.)

  4. Hyperspectral Imagery for Mapping Disease Infection in Oil Palm PlantationUsing Vegetation Indices and Red Edge Techniques

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Helmi Z.M. Shafri

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available Problem Statement: Large scale plantation of oil palm trees requires on-time detection of diseases as the ganoderma basal stem rot disease was present in more than 50% of the oil palm plantations in Peninsular Malaysia. Approach: To deal with this problem, airborne hyperspectral imagery offers a better solution in order to detect and map the oil palm trees that were affected by the disease on time. Airborne hyperspectral can provide data on user requirement and has the capability of acquiring data in narrow and contiguous spectral bands which makes it possible to discriminate between healthy and diseased plants better compared to multispectral imagery. By using vegetation indices and red edge techniques, the condition of oil palm trees could be determined accurately. Results: Generally, all of these techniques showed better results as they could give accuracy between 73 and 84%. The highest accuracy was achieved by using Lagrangian interpolation technique with 84% of overall accuracy. Conclusions/Recommendations: The red edge based techniques were more effective than vegetation indices in detecting Ganoderma-infected oil palm trees plantation since there were three out of four techniques that could yield high accuracy results.

  5. The Influence of Different Vegetable Oils on Some ω-3 Polyunsaturated Fatty Acids in Broiler Chickens Breast

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dragoş-Sorin Fota

    2011-05-01

    Full Text Available Taking into consideration that the vegetable oils added to the combined fodder can significantly modify the fatty acids profile in broiler food, through its redirection even the fatty acids profile of carcasses can be modified through enrichment in certain fatty acids and obtaining functional foods. Therefore an experiment was conduced on broilers, made up of three experimental groups, fed with a combined base fodder in which 2% of different fat sources have been incorporated (sunflower oil, soybean oil, linseed oil. After the 42 days growth period, the fatty acids profile, % of fatty acids in 100 g product (EPA, DPA, DHA, ∑ SFA, ∑ MUFA, ∑ PUFA of the chicken from the experimental groups, were determined. Fatty acids were determined using gascromatography. The data obtained after statistic processing and interpretation have highlighted the fact that, concerning the fatty acids profile in the chickens breast, we can observe variations of the determined fatty acids content, what shows us that they can be influenced through dietary factors, but there quantity being determined by the participation % of the energy sources (vegetable oils, but also by the fatty acids content of the participating raw materials.

  6. The Influence of Different Vegetable Oils on Some ω-3 Polyunsaturated Fatty Acids from Thigh and Abdominal Fat of Broilers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dragoş Sorin Fota

    2011-05-01

    Full Text Available Energy sources, especialy vegetable oils, added to the combined fodder can segnificantly modefy the fatty acids profile of the chicken feed, thus through its control the fatty acids profile of the carcases can be modefied, through enrichment in some fatty acids. In this respect an experiment was coduced on broilers, made up of three experimental groups, fed with a combined base fodder (corn and soybean meal in which 2% of different energy sources were added (sunflower oil, soybean oil, linseed oil. At the end of the 42 days growing period, using gaz cromatography, the fatty acids profile, % of fatty acids in 100 g product (EPA,DPA, DHA, Σ SFA, Σ MUFA, Σ PUFA from the studied cut pieces, were determined. The results obtained after statistc processing and interpretation of the data, showed the fact that regarding the fatty acids profile in chicken thigh and abdominal fat we can observe variations, what denotes that the fatty acids profile can be influenced by dietary factors, the quantity being yet determined by the participation % of the energy sources (vegetable oils, but also by the fatty acids content of the participating raw materials.

  7. Comparing biofuels obtained from pyrolysis, of soybean oil or soapstock, with traditional soybean biodiesel: Density, kinematic viscosity, and surface tensions

    Science.gov (United States)

    A product with diesel like properties was synthesized by a pyrolysis method, from either edible soybean oil, or an inedible soybean soapstock starting material (PD and SD, respectively). Some physical properties of the material were studied, neat, and in blends; with both high sulfur and low sulfur...

  8. Impact of accidental leakage of furnace oil on Mahul creek mangrove vegetation

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    Ram, A.; Rao, M.N.; Shailesh, S.; Joshilkar, V.; Rakesh, P.S.; Gajbhiye, S.N.

    plants due to oil contamination depending on the type, quantity and decomposed state of the oil, mangrove species, and prevailing metrological and tidal conditions20.Generally, when the oil spill takes place in the open sea, it goes under several...

  9. A note on the combustion of blends of diesel and soya, sunflower and rapeseed vegetable oils in a light boiler

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    San Jose Alonso, J.; Lopez, E. [Dpto. Ingenieria Energetica y Fluidomecanica, E.T.S. de Ingenieros Industriales, Universidad de Valladolid, Paseo del Cauce s/n, 47011 Valladolid (Spain); Lopez Sastre, J.A.; Romero-Avila, C. [Dpto. Quimica Organica, E.T.S. de Ingenieros Industriales, Universidad de Valladolid, Paseo del Cauce s/n, 47011 Valladolid (Spain)

    2008-09-15

    This paper deals with the study of the vegetable oils (VO) used as fuel for heating. The properties of sunflower, rape and soya oils are studied and these are compared with the properties of C-diesel fuel (used for heating domestic purposes in Spain). The mixtures of VO and diesel are studied and characterized and, finally, the results of a series of combustion trials of the mixtures in a conventional heating installation with a mechanical pulverization burner are presented. The results show that viscosity of VO limits the use of blends up to 40% of them, and the oxygen present in their structures contributes to an efficiency gain. (author)

  10. Extraction of tocopherolquinone from commercially produced vegetable oil waste and its regeneration back to vitamin E

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bayala, Isso

    Vegetable oils are the most important natural source of vitamin E in the human diet. These oils are refined in order to eliminate impurities and undesirable substances that may affect the taste or cause health risks. While the goal of the refinery is to improve the quality of certain organoleptic parameters such as odors, it also has some negative impacts on the content and stability of the micronutrients such as tocopherols and tocotrienols. Synthetic vitamin E now manufactured as all-racemic alpha tocopheryl acetate is usually marked as d, l-tocopherol or d, l-tocopheryl acetate with no known side effects, but has been proven to be less active than its natural form. Naturopathic and orthomolecular medicine advocates consider the synthetic vitamin E forms to offer little or no benefit for cancer, circulatory and heart diseases. The market for vitamin E has been growing since the year 2000 causing a gradual rise in pricing because of the shortage in supplies. On a geographical basis North America constitutes the largest consumer on the planet with 50 % of the synthetic vitamin E world market followed by Europe with 25 % and Latin America and Asia Pacific sharing equally the remaining balance. In response to the shortfall, several companies are modifying their operations by rationalizing their older facilities while upgrading technology and adding capacity to meet the demand. But this response has also its downside with companies obligated to meet tough environmental regulations. The purpose of the present dissertation was to develop a method that can help industries involved in vitamin E production maximize their productivity by transforming some of the waste products to vitamin E. To that end, a cost effective simple method was developed in chapter II using tin (II) to regenerate tocopherolquinone back to vitamin E. Chapter II also concerns a method developed to reduce tocopherolquinone back to vitamin E but this time using the chemical species chromium (III

  11. Microbial Dynamics During a Temporal Sequence of Bioreduction Stimulated by Emulsified Vegetable Oil

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schadt, C. W.; Gihring, T. M.; Yang, Z.; Wu, W.; Green, S.; Overholt, W.; Zhang, G.; Brandt, C. C.; Campbell, J. H.; Carroll, S. C.; Criddle, C.; Jardine, P. M.; Lowe, K.; Mehlhorn, T.; Kostka, J. E.; Watson, D. B.; Brooks, S. C.

    2011-12-01

    Amendments of slow-release substrates (e.g. emulsified vegetable oil; EVO) are potentially pragmatic alternatives to short-lived labile substrates for sustained uranium bioimmobilization within groundwater systems. The spatial and temporal dynamics of geochemical and microbial community changes during EVO amendment are likely to differ significantly from populations stimulated by readily utilizable soluble substrates (e.g. ethanol or acetate). We tracked dynamic changes in geochemistry and microbial communities for 270 days following a one-time EVO injection at the Oak Ridge Integrated Field Research Challenge (ORIFRC) site that resulted in decreased groundwater U concentrations for ~4 months. Pyrosequencing and quantitative PCR of 16S rRNA and dissimilatory sulfite reductase (dsrA) genes from monitoring well samples revealed a rapid decline in bacterial community richness and evenness after EVO injection, concurrent with increased 16S rRNA copy levels, indicating the selection of a narrow group consisting of 10-15 dominant OTUs, rather than a broad community stimulation. By association of the known physiology of close relatives identified in the pyrosequencing analysis, it is possible to infer a hypothesized sequence of microbial functions leading the major changes in electron donors and acceptors in the system. Members of the Firmicutes family Veillonellaceae dominated after injection and most likely catalyzed the initial oil decomposition and utilized the glycerol associated with the oils. Sulfate-reducing bacteria from the genus Desulforegula, known for LCFA oxidation to acetate, also dominated shortly after EVO amendment and are thought to catalyze this process. Acetate and H2 production during LCFA degradation appeared to stimulate NO3-, Fe(III), U(VI), and SO42- reduction by members of the Comamonadaceae, Geobacteriaceae, and Desulfobacterales. Methanogenic archaea flourished late in the experiment and in some samples constituted over 25 % of the total

  12. [Biofuels, food security and transgenic crops].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Acosta, Orlando; Chaparro-Giraldo, Alejandro

    2009-01-01

    Soaring global food prices are threatening to push more poor people back below the poverty line; this will probably become aggravated by the serious challenge that increasing population and climate changes are posing for food security. There is growing evidence that human activities involving fossil fuel consumption and land use are contributing to greenhouse gas emissions and consequently changing the climate worldwide. The finite nature of fossil fuel reserves is causing concern about energy security and there is a growing interest in the use of renewable energy sources such as biofuels. There is growing concern regarding the fact that biofuels are currently produced from food crops, thereby leading to an undesirable competition for their use as food and feed. Nevertheless, biofuels can be produced from other feedstocks such as lingo-cellulose from perennial grasses, forestry and vegetable waste. Biofuel energy content should not be exceeded by that of the fossil fuel invested in its production to ensure that it is energetically sustainable; however, biofuels must also be economically competitive and environmentally acceptable. Climate change and biofuels are challenging FAO efforts aimed at eradicating hunger worldwide by the next decade. Given that current crops used in biofuel production have not been domesticated for this purpose, transgenic technology can offer an enormous contribution towards improving biofuel crops' environmental and economic performance. The present paper critically presents some relevant relationships between biofuels, food security and transgenic plant technology.

  13. Biofuels: The African experience

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Carrillo, L.A.; Nkolo, M. [German Agency for Technical Cooperation GTZ, Delegation Regionale des Eaux et Forets, Bertoua (Cameroon)

    2009-07-01

    In July 2006, the African Non-Petroleum Producers Association was formed in Senegal, Africa to develop alternative energy sources. It involved 13 of Africa's poorest nations, who joined forces to become global suppliers of biofuels, and some have set mandatory mixing of ethanol into gasoline. Although several biofuel production projects have been launched in western Africa, many of the new projects and plantations have not yet reached maturity due to the time lag between plantation and full-scale production, which is about 6 years. Major projects that could be producing significant quantities of biofuels in the next few years are not yet reflected in production statistics. Although ethanol is not yet being produced in large quantities in Africa, short-term opportunities exist. Countries in the South African Development Community are using molasses from the sugar can industry to produce ethanol. Biodiesel is also not currently produced on a significant scale in western Africa, but several other countries are gaining experience with cotton and palm oil resources, and Jatropha. Biomass residue also represents a large potential for all African countries involved in timber production. Unlike biodiesel production, land use conflicts are not an issue with biomass residue production.

  14. Biocatalytic Behaviour of Immobilized Rhizopus oryzae Lipase in the 1,3-Selective Ethanolysis of Sunflower Oil to Obtain a Biofuel Similar to Biodiesel

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carlos Luna

    2014-08-01

    Full Text Available A new biofuel similar to biodiesel was obtained in the 1,3-selective transesterification reaction of sunflower oil with ethanol using as biocatalyst a Rhizopus oryzae lipase (ROL immobilized on Sepiolite, an inorganic support. The studied lipase was a low cost powdered enzyme preparation, Biolipase-R, from Biocon-Spain, a multipurpose additive used in food industry. In this respect, it is developed a study to optimize the immobilization procedure of these lipases on Sepiolite. Covalent immobilization was achieved by the development of an inorganic-organic hybrid linker formed by a functionalized hydrocarbon chain with a pendant benzaldehyde, bonded to the AlPO4 support surface. Thus, the covalent immobilization of lipases on amorphous AlPO4/sepiolite (20/80 wt % support was evaluated by using two different linkers (p-hydroxybenzaldehyde and benzylamine-terephthalic aldehyde, respectively. Besides, the catalytic behavior of lipases after physical adsorption on the demineralized sepiolite  was also evaluated. Obtained results indicated that covalent immobilization with the p-hydroxybenzaldehyde linker gave the best biocatalytic behavior. Thus, this covalently immobilized lipase showed a remarkable stability as well as an excellent capacity of reutilization (more than five successive reuses without a significant loss of its initial catalytic activity. This could allow a more efficient fabrication of biodiesel minimizing the glycerol waste production.

  15. Biodiesel Production from Vegetable Oil over Plasma Reactor: Optimization of Biodiesel Yield using Response Surface Methodology

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bambang Tri Nugroho

    2009-06-01

    Full Text Available Biodiesel production has received considerable attention in the recent past as a renewable fuel. The production of biodiesel by conventional transesterification process employs alkali or acid catalyst and has been industrially accepted for its high conversion and reaction rates. However for alkali catalyst, there may be risk of free acid or water contamination and soap formation is likely to take place which makes the separation process difficult. Although yield is high, the acids, being corrosive, may cause damage to the equipment and the reaction rate was also observed to be low. This research focuses on empirical modeling and optimization for the biodiesel production over plasma reactor. The plasma reactor technology is more promising than the conventional catalytic processes due to the reducing reaction time and easy in product separation. Copyright (c 2009 by BCREC. All Rights reserved.[Received: 10 August 2009, Revised: 5 September 2009, Accepted: 12 October 2009][How to Cite: I. Istadi, D.D. Anggoro, P. Marwoto, S. Suherman, B.T. Nugroho (2009. Biodiesel Production from Vegetable Oil over Plasma Reactor: Optimization of Biodiesel Yield using Response Surface Methodology. Bulletin of Chemical Reaction Engineering and Catalysis, 4(1: 23-31. doi:10.9767/bcrec.4.1.23.23-31][How to Link/ DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.9767/bcrec.4.1.23.23-31

  16. Biodiesel Production from Vegetable Oil over Plasma Reactor: Optimization of Biodiesel Yield using Response Surface Methodology

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Istadi Istadi

    2009-06-01

    Full Text Available Biodiesel production has received considerable attention in the recent past as a renewable fuel. The production of biodiesel by conventional transesterification process employs alkali or acid catalyst and has been industrially accepted for its high conversion and reaction rates. However for alkali catalyst, there may be risk of free acid or water contamination and soap formation is likely to take place which makes the separation process difficult. Although yield is high, the acids, being corrosive, may cause damage to the equipment and the reaction rate was also observed to be low. This research focuses on empirical modeling and optimization for the biodiesel production over plasma reactor. The plasma reactor technology is more promising than the conventional catalytic processes due to the reducing reaction time and easy in product separation. Copyright (c 2009 by BCREC. All Rights reserved.[Received: 10 August 2009, Revised: 5 September 2009, Accepted: 12 October 2009][How to Cite: I. Istadi, D.D. Anggoro, P. Marwoto, S. Suherman, B.T. Nugroho (2009. Biodiesel Production from Vegetable Oil over Plasma Reactor: Optimization of Biodiesel Yield using Response Surface Methodology. Bulletin of Chemical Reaction Engineering and Catalysis, 4(1: 23-31.  doi:10.9767/bcrec.4.1.7115.23-31][How to Link/ DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.9767/bcrec.4.1.7115.23-31 || or local: http://ejournal.undip.ac.id/index.php/bcrec/article/view/7115

  17. In situ bioremediation of uranium with emulsified vegetable oil as the electron donor.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Watson, David B; Wu, Wei-Min; Mehlhorn, Tonia; Tang, Guoping; Earles, Jennifer; Lowe, Kenneth; Gihring, Thomas M; Zhang, Gengxin; Phillips, Jana; Boyanov, Maxim I; Spalding, Brian P; Schadt, Christopher; Kemner, Kenneth M; Criddle, Craig S; Jardine, Philip M; Brooks, Scott C

    2013-06-18

    A field test with a one-time emulsified vegetable oil (EVO) injection was conducted to assess the capacity of EVO to sustain uranium bioreduction in a high-permeability gravel layer with groundwater concentrations of (mM) U, 0.0055; Ca, 2.98; NO3(-), 0.11; HCO3(-), 5.07; and SO4(2-), 1.23. Comparison of bromide and EVO migration and distribution indicated that a majority of the injected EVO was retained in the subsurface from the injection wells to 50 m downgradient. Nitrate, uranium, and sulfate were sequentially removed from the groundwater within 1-2 weeks, accompanied by an increase in acetate, Mn, Fe, and methane concentrations. Due to the slow release and degradation of EVO with time, reducing conditions were sustained for approximately one year, and daily U discharge to a creek, located approximately 50 m from the injection wells, decreased by 80% within 100 days. Total U discharge was reduced by 50% over the one-year period. Reduction of U(VI) to U(IV) was confirmed by synchrotron analysis of recovered aquifer solids. Oxidants (e.g., dissolved oxygen, nitrate) flowing in from upgradient appeared to reoxidize and remobilize uranium after the EVO was exhausted as evidenced by a transient increase of U concentration above ambient values. Occasional (e.g., annual) EVO injection into a permeable Ca and bicarbonate-containing aquifer can sustain uranium bioreduction/immobilization and decrease U migration/discharge.

  18. Simple and rapid quantification of brominated vegetable oil in commercial soft drinks by LC-MS.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chitranshi, Priyanka; Gamboa da Costa, Gonçalo

    2016-12-15

    We report here a simple and rapid method for the quantification of brominated vegetable oil (BVO) in soft drinks based upon liquid chromatography-electrospray ionization mass spectrometry. Unlike previously reported methods, this novel method does not require hydrolysis, extraction or derivatization steps, but rather a simple "dilute and shoot" sample preparation. The quantification is conducted by mass spectrometry in selected ion recording mode and a single point standard addition procedure. The method was validated in the range of 5-25μg/mL BVO, encompassing the legal limit of 15μg/mL established by the US FDA for fruit-flavored beverages in the US market. The method was characterized by excellent intra- and inter-assay accuracy (97.3-103.4%) and very low imprecision [0.5-3.6% (RSD)]. The direct nature of the quantification, simplicity, and excellent statistical performance of this methodology constitute clear advantages in relation to previously published methods for the analysis of BVO in soft drinks. PMID:27451219

  19. Simple and rapid quantification of brominated vegetable oil in commercial soft drinks by LC-MS.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chitranshi, Priyanka; Gamboa da Costa, Gonçalo

    2016-12-15

    We report here a simple and rapid method for the quantification of brominated vegetable oil (BVO) in soft drinks based upon liquid chromatography-electrospray ionization mass spectrometry. Unlike previously reported methods, this novel method does not require hydrolysis, extraction or derivatization steps, but rather a simple "dilute and shoot" sample preparation. The quantification is conducted by mass spectrometry in selected ion recording mode and a single point standard addition procedure. The method was validated in the range of 5-25μg/mL BVO, encompassing the legal limit of 15μg/mL established by the US FDA for fruit-flavored beverages in the US market. The method was characterized by excellent intra- and inter-assay accuracy (97.3-103.4%) and very low imprecision [0.5-3.6% (RSD)]. The direct nature of the quantification, simplicity, and excellent statistical performance of this methodology constitute clear advantages in relation to previously published methods for the analysis of BVO in soft drinks.

  20. Study of by-products of agro-food industries which could be used for bio-fuel production (animal fat, used food oils, and wine production by-products). Synthesis of the final report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    As the Renewable Energy directive proposes the implementation of incentive arrangements for the production of bio-fuels from biomass, this report proposes a synthesis of a study which addressed three by-products of agro-food industry and of catering (collective, traditional, fast) which can help to reach objectives of energy production from biomass: used food oils, rendered animal fat of category 1 and 2, and vinification by-products (grape marc, lees, sludge). The objectives were to quantify, at the French national and regional levels, present resources and uses for these three by-products, non-valorised volumes and thus potentially available volumes for the production of liquid bio-fuels, to identify present actors and their interactions, and to study the potential of local production of liquid bio-fuels. The study comprised a comprehensive analysis of production and valorisation sectors for the three addressed types of by-products, and an identification of recent experiments implemented for the production of liquid bio-fuels. This synthesis states the lessons learned from the study of these three different sectors, and proposes recommendations for further developments

  1. Breads Fortified with Freeze-Dried Vegetables: Quality and Nutritional Attributes. Part 1: Breads Containing Oil as an Ingredient

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Viren Ranawana

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available There is increasing emphasis on reformulating processed foods to make them healthier. This study for the first time comprehensively investigated the effects of fortifying bread (containing oil as an ingredient with freeze-dried vegetables on its nutritional and physico-chemical attributes. Breads fortified with carrot, tomato, beetroot or broccoli were assessed for nutrition, antioxidant potential, storage life, shelf stability, textural changes and macronutrient oxidation. Furthermore, using an in vitro model the study for the first time examined the impact of vegetable addition on the oxidative stability of macronutrients during human gastro-intestinal digestion. As expected, adding vegetables improved the nutritional and antioxidant properties of bread. Beetroot and broccoli significantly improved bread storage life. None of the vegetables significantly affected bread textural changes during storage compared to the control. Lipid oxidation in fresh bread was significantly reduced by all four types of vegetables whilst protein oxidation was lowered by beetroot, carrot and broccoli. The vegetables demonstrated varying effects on macronutrient oxidation during gastro-intestinal digestion. Beetroot consistently showed positive effects suggesting its addition to bread could be particularly beneficial.

  2. Improving the economics of biodiesel production through the use of low value lipids as feedstocks. Vegetable oil soapstock

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Haas, Michael J. [U.S. Department of Agriculture, Agricultural Research Service, Eastern Regional Research Center, 600 East Mermaid Lane, Wyndmoor, PA 19038 (United States)

    2005-06-25

    Semirefined and refined vegetable oils are the predominant feedstocks for the production of biodiesel. However, their relatively high costs render the resulting fuels unable to compete with petroleum-derived fuel. We have investigated the production of fatty acid methyl esters (FAME; biodiesel) from soapstock (SS), a byproduct of edible oil refining that is substantially less expensive than edible-grade refined oils. Multiple approaches were taken in search of a route to the production of fatty acid methyl esters from soybean soapstock. The most effective method involved the complete saponification of the soapstock followed by acidulation using methods similar to those presently employed in industry. This resulted in an acid oil with a free fatty acid (FFA) content greater than 90%. These fatty acids were efficiently converted to methyl esters by acid-catalyzed esterification. The fatty acid composition of the resulting ester product reflected that of soy soapstock and was largely similar to that of soybean oil. Following a simple washing protocol, this preparation met the established specifications for biodiesel of the American Society for Testing and Materials. Engine emissions and performance during operation on soy soapstock biodiesel were comparable to those on biodiesel from soy oil. An economic analysis suggested that the production cost of soapstock biodiesel would be approximately US$ 0.41/l, a 25% reduction relative to the estimated cost of biodiesel produced from soy oil. (author)

  3. Arid Lands Biofuel

    Science.gov (United States)

    Neupane, B. P.

    2013-05-01

    Dependence on imported petroleum, as well as consequences from burning fossil fuels, has increased the demand for biofuel sources in the United States. Competition between food crops and biofuel crops has been an increasing concern, however, since it has the potential to raise prices for US beef and grain products due to land and resource competition. Biofuel crops that can be grown on land not suitable for food crops are thus attractive, but also need to produce biofuels in a financially sustainable manner. In the intermountain west of Nevada, biofuel crops need to survive on low-organic soils with limited precipitation when grown in areas that are not competing with food and feed. The plants must also yield an oil content sufficiently high to allow economically viable fuel production, including growing and harvesting the crop as well as converting the hydrocarbons into a liquid fuel. Gumweed (Grindelia squarrosa) currently appears to satisfy all of these requirements and is commonly observed throughout the west. The plant favors dry, sandy soils and is most commonly found on roadsides and other freshly disturbed land. A warm season biennial, the gumweed plant is part of the sunflower family and normally grows 2-4 feet high with numerous yellow flowers and curly leaves. The gumweed plant contains a large store of diterpene resins—most abundantly grindelic acid— similar to the saps found on pine trees that are used to make inks and adhesives. The dry weight harvest on the experimental field is 5130 lbs/acre. Whole plant biomass yields between 11-15% (average 13%) biocrude when subjected to acetone extraction whereas the buds alone contains up to a maximum of 35% biocrude when harvested in 'white milky' stage. The extract is then converted to basic form (sodium grindelate) followed by extraction of nonpolar constituents (mostly terpenes) with hexane and extracted back to ethyl acetate in acidified condition. Ethyl acetate is removed under vacuum to leave a dark

  4. Authentication of vegetable oils by confocal X-ray scattering analysis with coherent/incoherent scattered X-rays.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Fangzuo; Liu, Zhiguo; Sun, Tianxi

    2016-11-01

    This paper presents an alternative analytical method based on the Rayleigh to Compton scattering intensity ratio and effective atomic number for non-destructive identification of vegetable oils using confocal energy dispersive X-ray fluorescence and scattering spectrometry. A calibration curve for the Rayleigh to Compton scattering intensity ratio and effective atomic number was constructed on the basis of a reliable physical model for X-ray scattering. The content of light elements, which are "invisible" using X-ray fluorescence, can be calculated "by difference" from the calibration curve. In this work, we demonstrated the use of this proposed approach to identify complex organic matrices in different vegetable oils with high precision and accuracy. PMID:27211668

  5. Evaluation of used vegetable oil for biogas production in Spain; Evaluacion del potencial de aceite vegetal usado para la obtencion de biogasoleo en la Comunidad de Castilla y Leon

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Antolin, G.; Tinaut, F. V.; Saez, A. R.; Vegas, L.; Briceno, Y. [Universidad de Valladolid (Spain)

    2002-07-01

    This work studies the potential of the residual vegetal oil that is generated in the Community of Castilla and Leon, evaluating the one that could be destined for the production of biogas. Also, it sets out a management model that will allow to establish a suitable collection and processing of this oil. (Author) 10 refs.

  6. Conventional and advanced liquid biofuels

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Đurišić-Mladenović Nataša L.

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Energy security and independence, increase and fluctuation of the oil price, fossil fuel resources depletion and global climate change are some of the greatest challanges facing societies today and in incoming decades. Sustainable economic and industrial growth of every country and the world in general requires safe and renewable resources of energy. It has been expected that re-arrangement of economies towards biofuels would mitigate at least partially problems arised from fossil fuel consumption and create more sustainable development. Of the renewable energy sources, bioenergy draws major and particular development endeavors, primarily due to the extensive availability of biomass, already-existence of biomass production technologies and infrastructure, and biomass being the sole feedstock for liquid fuels. The evolution of biofuels is classified into four generations (from 1st to 4th in accordance to the feedstock origin; if the technologies of feedstock processing are taken into account, than there are two classes of biofuels - conventional and advanced. The conventional biofuels, also known as the 1st generation biofuels, are those produced currently in large quantities using well known, commercially-practiced technologies. The major feedstocks for these biofuels are cereals or oleaginous plants, used also in the food or feed production. Thus, viability of the 1st generation biofuels is questionable due to the conflict with food supply and high feedstocks’ cost. This limitation favoured the search for non-edible biomass for the production of the advanced biofuels. In a general and comparative way, this paper discusses about various definitions of biomass, classification of biofuels, and brief overview of the biomass conversion routes to liquid biofuels depending on the main constituents of the biomass. Liquid biofuels covered by this paper are those compatible with existing infrastructure for gasoline and diesel and ready to be used in

  7. Breads Fortified with Freeze-Dried Vegetables: Quality and Nutritional Attributes. Part 1: Breads Containing Oil as an Ingredient

    OpenAIRE

    Viren Ranawana; Vassilios Raikos; Fiona Campbell; Charles Bestwick; Phyllis Nicol; Lesley Milne; Garry Duthie

    2016-01-01

    There is increasing emphasis on reformulating processed foods to make them healthier. This study for the first time comprehensively investigated the effects of fortifying bread (containing oil as an ingredient) with freeze-dried vegetables on its nutritional and physico-chemical attributes. Breads fortified with carrot, tomato, beetroot or broccoli were assessed for nutrition, antioxidant potential, storage life, shelf stability, textural changes and macronutrient oxidation. Furthermore, usin...

  8. Phenotypic Diversity Analysis of Oil Palm (Elaeis guineensis Jacq.) Germplasm Cameroon Origin Based on Vegetative and Physiologic Characteristic

    OpenAIRE

    Lubis, Mahmud Irfan; Putri, Lollie Agustina P.; Purba, Abdul Razak

    2016-01-01

    Forty seven accessions as a part of of oil palm germplasm Cameroon Origin is planted at Adolina, an estate of PT Perkebunan Nusantara IV were evaluated for the variability based on their early vegetative and physiology characteristics. Mean data from these accessions were analysed by Multivarite Analysis consist of Principal Component Analysis (PCA), revealing their variability and distribution. Results demonstrated that principal component analysis obtained two main components to contribute ...

  9. Metabolism and fatty acid profile in fat and lean rainbow trout lines fed with vegetable oil: effect of carbohydrates.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Biju Sam Kamalam

    Full Text Available The present study investigated the effect of dietary carbohydrates on metabolism, with special focus on fatty acid bioconversion and flesh lipid composition in two rainbow trout lines divergently selected for muscle lipid content and fed with vegetable oils. These lines were chosen based on previously demonstrated potential differences in LC-PUFA synthesis and carbohydrate utilization. Applying a factorial study design, juvenile trout from the lean (L and the fat (F line were fed vegetable oil based diets with or without gelatinised starch (17.1% for 12 weeks. Blood, liver, muscle, intestine and adipose tissue were sampled after the last meal. Feed intake and growth was higher in the L line than the F line, irrespective of the diet. Moderate postprandial hyperglycemia, strong induction of hepatic glucokinase and repressed glucose-6-phosphatase transcripts confirmed the metabolic response of both lines to carbohydrate intake. Further at the transcriptional level, dietary carbohydrate in the presence of n-3 LC-PUFA deficient vegetable oils enhanced intestinal chylomicron assembly, disturbed hepatic lipid metabolism and importantly elicited a higher response of key desaturase and elongase enzymes in the liver and intestine that endorsed our hypothesis. PPARγ was identified as the factor mediating this dietary regulation of fatty acid bioconversion enzymes in the liver. However, these molecular changes were not sufficient to modify the fatty acid composition of muscle or liver. Concerning the genotype effect, there was no evidence of substantial genotypic difference in lipid metabolism, LC-PUFA synthesis and flesh fatty acid profile when fed with vegetable oils. The minor reduction in plasma glucose and triglyceride levels in the F line was linked to potentially higher glucose and lipid uptake in the muscle. Overall, these data emphasize the importance of dietary macro-nutrient interface in evolving fish nutrition strategies.

  10. Production of biodiesel fuel by transesterification of different vegetable oils with methanol using Al₂O₃ modified MgZnO catalyst.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Olutoye, M A; Hameed, B H

    2013-03-01

    An active heterogeneous Al2O3 modified MgZnO (MgZnAlO) catalyst was prepared and the catalytic activity was investigated for the transesterification of different vegetable oils (refined palm oil, waste cooking palm oil, palm kernel oil and coconut oil) with methanol to produce biodiesel. The catalyst was characterized by using X-ray diffraction, Fourier transform infrared spectra, thermo gravimetric and differential thermal analysis to ascertain its versatility. Effects of important reaction parameters such as methanol to oil molar ratio, catalyst dosage, reaction temperature and reaction time on oil conversion were examined. Within the range of studied variability, the suitable transesterification conditions (methanol/oil ratio 16:1, catalyst loading 3.32 wt.%, reaction time 6h, temperature 182°C), the oil conversion of 98% could be achieved with reference to coconut oil in a single stage. The catalyst can be easily recovered and reused for five cycles without significant deactivation.

  11. Borehole geophysical monitoring of amendment emplacement and geochemical changes during vegetable oil biostimulation, Anoka County Riverfront Park, Fridley, Minnesota

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lane, Jr., John W.; Day-Lewis, Frederick D.; Johnson, Carole D.; Joesten, Peter K.; Kochiss, Christopher S.

    2007-01-01

    The U.S. Geological Survey (USGS) conducted a series of geophysical investigations to monitor a field-scale biostimulation pilot project at the Anoka County Riverfront Park (ACP), downgradient from the Naval Industrial Reserve Ordnance Plant, in Fridley, Minnesota. The pilot project was undertaken by the U.S. Naval Facilities Engineering Command, Southern Division, for the purpose of evaluating biostimulation using emulsified vegetable oil to treat ground water contaminated with chlorinated hydrocarbons. Vegetable oil was introduced to the subsurface to serve as substrate for naturally occurring microbes, which ultimately break down chlorinated hydrocarbons into chloride, carbon dioxide, and water through oxidation-reduction reactions. In support of this effort, the USGS collected cross-borehole radar data and conventional borehole geophysical data in five site visits over 1.5 years to evaluate the effectiveness of geophysical methods for monitoring emplacement of the vegetable oil emulsion and for tracking changes in water chemistry. Radar zero-offset profile (ZOP) data, radar traveltime tomograms, electromagnetic (EM) induction logs, natural gamma logs, neutron porosity logs, and magnetic susceptibility logs were collected and analyzed.

  12. Phenols and the antioxidant capacity of Mediterranean vegetables prepared with extra virgin olive oil using different domestic cooking techniques.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ramírez-Anaya, Jessica Del Pilar; Samaniego-Sánchez, Cristina; Castañeda-Saucedo, Ma Claudia; Villalón-Mir, Marina; de la Serrana, Herminia López-García

    2015-12-01

    Potato, tomato, eggplant and pumpkin were deep fried, sautéed and boiled in Mediterranean extra virgin olive oil (EVOO), water, and a water/oil mixture (W/O). We determined the contents of fat, moisture, total phenols (TPC) and eighteen phenolic compounds, as well as antioxidant capacity in the raw vegetables and compared these with contents measured after cooking. Deep frying and sautéing led to increased fat contents and TPC, whereas both types of boiling (in water and W/O) reduced the same. The presence of EVOO in cooking increased the phenolics identified in the raw foods as oleuropein, pinoresinol, hydroxytyrosol and tyrosol, and the contents of vegetable phenolics such as chlorogenic acid and rutin. All the cooking methods conserved or increased the antioxidant capacity measured by DPPH, FRAP and ABTS. Multivariate analyses showed that each cooked vegetable developed specific phenolic and antioxidant activity profiles resulting from the characteristics of the raw vegetables and the cooking techniques.

  13. Methodology for bioremediation monitoring of oil wastes contaminated soils by using vegetal bio indicators; Metodologia para monitoramento de biorremediacao de solos contaminados com residuos oleosos com bioindicadores vegetais

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nascimento Neto, Durval; Carvalho, Francisco Jose Pereira de Campos [Parana Univ., Curitiba, PR (Brazil). Curso de Pos-Graduacao em Ciencia do Solo]. E-mail: fjcampos@cce.ufpr.br

    1998-07-01

    This work studies the development of a methodology for the evaluation of the bioremediation status of oil waste contaminated soils, by using vegetal bioindicators for the bioremediation process monitoring, and evaluation of the environmental impacts on the contaminated areas.

  14. Optical methods and differential scanning calorimetry as a potential tool for discrimination of olive oils (extra virgin and mix with vegetable oils)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nikolova, Kr.; Yovcheva, T.; Marudova, M.; Eftimov, T.; Bodurov, I.; Viraneva, A.; Vlaeva, I.

    2016-03-01

    Eleven samples from olive oil have been investigated using four physical methods - refractive index measurement, fluorescence spectra, color parameters and differential scanning colorimetry. In pomace olive oil (POO) and extra virgin olive oil (EVOO) the oleic acid (65.24 %-78.40 %) predominates over palmitic (10.47 %-15.07 %) and linoleic (5.26 %-13.92 %) acids. The fluorescence spectra contain three peaks related to oxidation products at about λ = (500-540) nm, chlorophyll content at about λ = (675-680) nm and non determined pigments at λ = (700-750) nm. The melting point for EVOO and POO is between -1 °C and -6 °C. In contrast, the salad olive oils melt between -24 °C and -30 °C. The refractive index for EVOO is lower than that for mixed olive oils. The proposed physical methods could be used for fast and simple detection of vegetable oils in EVOO without use of chemical substances. The experimental results are in accordance with those obtained by chemical analysis.

  15. Global Economic Effects of USA Biofuel Policy and the Potential Contribution from Advanced Biofuels

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gbadebo Oladosu; Keith Kline; Paul Leiby; Rocio Uria-Martinez; Maggie Davis; Mark Downing; Laurence Eaton

    2012-01-01

    This study evaluates the global economic effects of the USA renewable fuel standards (RFS2), and the potential contribution from advanced biofuels. Our simulation results imply that these mandates lead to an increase of 0.21 percent in the global gross domestic product (GDP) in 2022, including an increase of 0.8 percent in the USA and 0.02 percent in the rest of the world (ROW); relative to our baseline, no-RFS scenario. The incremental contributions to GDP from advanced biofuels in 2022 are estimated at 0.41 percent and 0.04 percent in the USA and ROW, respectively. Although production costs of advanced biofuels are higher than for conventional biofuels in our model, their economic benefits result from reductions in oil use, and their smaller impacts on food markets compared with conventional biofuels. Thus, the USA advanced biofuels targets are expected to have positive economic benefits.

  16. Determination of the antioxidant activity based on the content changes in fatty acid methyl esters in vegetable oils

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Housam Haj Hamdo; Zaid Al-Assaf; Warid Khayata

    2014-01-01

    Free radicals,which are generated in several biochemical reactions in the body,have been implicated as mediators of many diseases,including cancer,atherosclerosis and heart diseases.Although the endogenous antioxidants can scavenge these free radicals,they are often insufficient to maintain the in vivo redox balance.The antioxidant activity (AOA) was examined by addition of each tested antioxidants [alpha-tocopherol (a-T),beta-tocopherol (β-T),gamma-tocopherol (γ-T),delta-tocopherol (δ-T),butylated hydroxyanisole (BHA),2,6-di-tert-butyl-4-methylphenol (BHT),and ascorbyle palmitate (AP)] to four types of different vegetable oils (sunflower oil,soybean oil,corn oil and olive oil).Moreover,content changes in fatty acids were then investigated every 3 months during the storage period.The results showed that the AOA was different among the tested antioxidants.The AOA for BHA was the most for different types of oil compared with other antioxidants,whereas the δ-T possessed the lowest AOA.

  17. The influence of deep frying using various vegetable oils on acrylamide formation in sweet potato (Ipomoea batatas L. Lam) chips.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lim, P K; Jinap, S; Sanny, M; Tan, C P; Khatib, A

    2014-01-01

    The objective of this study was to evaluate the precursors of acrylamide formation in sweet potato (SP) (Ipomoea batatas L. Lam) chips and to determine the effect of different types of vegetable oils (VOs), that is, palm olein, coconut oil, canola oil, and soya bean oil, on acrylamide formation. The reducing sugars and amino acids in the SP slices were analyzed, and the acrylamide concentrations of SP chips were measured. SP chips that were fried in a lower degree of unsaturation oils contained a lower acrylamide concentration (1443 μg/kg), whereas those fried with higher degree of unsaturated oils contained a higher acrylamide concentration (2019 μg/kg). SP roots were found to contain acrylamide precursors, that is, 4.17 mg/g glucose and 5.05 mg/g fructose, and 1.63 mg/g free asparagine. The type of VO and condition used for frying, significantly influenced acrylamide formation. This study clearly indicates that the contribution of lipids in the formation of acrylamide should not be neglected. PMID:24344977

  18. Quantitative analysis of triglyceride species of vegetable oils by high performance liquid chromatography via a flame ionization detector.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Phillips, F C; Erdahl, W L; Schmit, J A; Privett, O S

    1984-11-01

    A method for the quantitative analysis of triglyceride species composition of vegetable oils by reversed-phase high performance liquid chromatography (RP-HPLC) via a flame ionization detector (FID) is described. Triglycerides are separated into molecular species via Zorbax chemically bonded octadecylsilane (ODS) columns using gradient elution with methylene chloride in acetonitrile. Identification of species is made by matching the retention times of the peaks in the chromatogram with the order of elution of all of the species that could be present in the sample on the basis of a random distribution of the fatty acids and comparison of experimental and calculated theoretical carbon numbers (TCN). Quantitative analysis is based on a direct proportionality of peak areas. Differences in the response of individual species were small and did not dictate the use of response factors. The method is applied to cocoa butter before and after randomization, soybean oil and pure olive oil.

  19. Development of rapid determination of 18 phthalate esters in edible vegetable oils by gas chromatography tandem mass spectrometry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Yinping; Wang, Shuhui; Wang, Li

    2013-02-13

    A simultaneous and fast determination of 18 phthalic acid esters (PAEs) in edible vegetable oils was developed. After solvent extraction, the PAEs in the oil sample were further cleaned up by solid-phase extraction. After concentration, the extract was directly injected into gas chromatography tandem mass spectrometry (GC-MS/MS) in positive-ion electron impact (EI) mode. Method quantification limits of 18 PAEs were between 0.01 and 0.1 mg/kg. Quantitative recoveries ranging from 63.9 to 115.3% were obtained by analysis of spiked oil. The relative standard deviations were less than 15% (n = 6). The method could potentially overcome the interference from large amounts of lipids and pigment. It was applied to real sample and shown to be a rapid and reliable alternative for determination and confirmation of PAEs in routine analysis. PMID:23339279

  20. Green chemistry, biofuels, and biorefinery.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Clark, James H; Luque, Rafael; Matharu, Avtar S

    2012-01-01

    In the current climate of several interrelated impending global crises, namely, climate change, chemicals, energy, and oil, the impact of green chemistry with respect to chemicals and biofuels generated from within a holistic concept of a biorefinery is discussed. Green chemistry provides unique opportunities for innovation via product substitution, new feedstock generation, catalysis in aqueous media, utilization of microwaves, and scope for alternative or natural solvents. The potential of utilizing waste as a new resource and the development of integrated facilities producing multiple products from biomass is discussed under the guise of biorefineries. Biofuels are discussed in depth, as they not only provide fuel (energy) but are also a source of feedstock chemicals. In the future, the commercial success of biofuels commensurate with consumer demand will depend on the availability of new green (bio)chemical technologies capable of converting waste biomass to fuel in a context of a biorefinery.