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Sample records for biofuels project summaries

  1. Biofuels: Project summaries

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1994-07-01

    The US DOE, through the Biofuels Systems Division (BSD) is addressing the issues surrounding US vulnerability to petroleum supply. The BSD goal is to develop technologies that are competitive with fossil fuels, in both cost and environmental performance, by the end of the decade. This document contains summaries of ongoing research sponsored by the DOE BSD. A summary sheet is presented for each project funded or in existence during FY 1993. Each summary sheet contains and account of project funding, objectives, accomplishments and current status, and significant publications.

  2. Biofuels: 1995 project summaries

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1996-01-01

    Domestic transportation fuels are derived primarily from petroleum and account for about two-thirds of the petroleum consumption in the United States. In 1994, more than 40% of our petroleum was imported. That percentage is likely to increase, as the Middle East has about 75% of the world`s oil reserves, but the United States has only about 5%. Because we rely so heavily on oil (and because we currently have no suitable substitutes for petroleum-based transportation fuels), we are strategically and economically vulnerable to disruptions in the fuel supply. Additionally, we must consider the effects of petroleum use on the environment. The Biofuels Systems Division (BSD) is part of the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EE). The day-to-day research activities, which address these issues, are managed by the National Renewable Energy Laboratory in Golden, Colorado, and Oak Ridge National Laboratory in Oak Ridge, Tennessee. BSD focuses its research on biofuels-liquid and gaseous fuels made from renewable domestic crops-and aggressively pursues new methods for domestically producing, recovering, and converting the feedstocks to produce the fuels economically. The biomass resources include forage grasses, oil seeds, short-rotation woody crops, agricultural and forestry residues, algae, and certain industrial and municipal waste streams. The resulting fuels include ethanol, methanol, biodiesel, and ethers.

  3. Biofuels: Project summaries. Research summaries, Fiscal year 1992

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1993-05-01

    Domestic transportation fuels are almost exclusively derived from petroleum and account for about two-thirds of total US petroleum consumption. In 1990, more than 40% of the petroleum used domestically was imported. Because the United States has only 5% of the world`s petroleum reserves, and the countries of the Middle East have about 75%, US imports are likely to continue to increase. With our heavy reliance on oil and without suitable substitutes for petroleum-based transportation fuels, the United States is extremely vulnerable, both strategically and economically, to fuel supply disruptions. In addition to strategic and economic affairs, the envirorunental impacts of our use of petroleum are becoming increasingly evident and must be addressed. The US Department of Energy`s (DOE`s) Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EE), through its Biofuels Systems Division (BSD), is addressing these issues. The BSD is aggressively pursuing research on biofuels-liquid and gaseous fuels produced from renewable domestic feedstocks such as forage grasses, oil seeds, short-rotation tree crops, agricultural and forestry residues, algae, and certain industrial and municipal waste streams.

  4. Biofuels sources, biofuel policy, biofuel economy and global biofuel projections

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The term biofuel is referred to liquid, gas and solid fuels predominantly produced from biomass. Biofuels include energy security reasons, environmental concerns, foreign exchange savings, and socioeconomic issues related to the rural sector. Biofuels include bioethanol, biomethanol, vegetable oils, biodiesel, biogas, bio-synthetic gas (bio-syngas), bio-oil, bio-char, Fischer-Tropsch liquids, and biohydrogen. Most traditional biofuels, such as ethanol from corn, wheat, or sugar beets, and biodiesel from oil seeds, are produced from classic agricultural food crops that require high-quality agricultural land for growth. Bioethanol is a petrol additive/substitute. Biomethanol can be produced from biomass using bio-syngas obtained from steam reforming process of biomass. Biomethanol is considerably easier to recover than the bioethanol from biomass. Ethanol forms an azeotrope with water so it is expensive to purify the ethanol during recovery. Methanol recycles easier because it does not form an azeotrope. Biodiesel is an environmentally friendly alternative liquid fuel that can be used in any diesel engine without modification. There has been renewed interest in the use of vegetable oils for making biodiesel due to its less polluting and renewable nature as against the conventional petroleum diesel fuel. Due to its environmental merits, the share of biofuel in the automotive fuel market will grow fast in the next decade. There are several reasons for biofuels to be considered as relevant technologies by both developing and industrialized countries. Biofuels include energy security reasons, environmental concerns, foreign exchange savings, and socioeconomic issues related to the rural sector. The biofuel economy will grow rapidly during the 21st century. Its economy development is based on agricultural production and most people live in the rural areas. In the most biomass-intensive scenario, modernized biomass energy contributes by 2050 about one half of total energy

  5. CONNECTICUT BIOFUELS TECHNOLOGY PROJECT

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    BARTONE, ERIK

    2010-09-28

    DBS Energy Inc. (“DBS”) intends on using the Connecticut Biofuels Technology Project for the purpose of developing a small-scale electric generating systems that are located on a distributed basis and utilize biodiesel as its principle fuel source. This project will include research and analysis on the quality and applied use of biodiesel for use in electricity production, 2) develop dispatch center for testing and analysis of the reliability of dispatching remote generators operating on a blend of biodiesel and traditional fossil fuels, and 3) analysis and engineering research on fuel storage options for biodiesel of fuels for electric generation.

  6. FUNGIBLE AND COMPATIBLE BIOFUELS: LITERATURE SEARCH, SUMMARY, AND RECOMMENDATIONS

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bunting, Bruce G [ORNL; Bunce, Michael [ORNL; Barone, Teresa L [ORNL; Storey, John Morse [ORNL

    2011-04-01

    The purpose of the study described in this report is to summarize the various barriers to more widespread distribution of bio-fuels through our common carrier fuel distribution system, which includes pipelines, barges and rail, fuel tankage, and distribution terminals. Addressing these barriers is necessary to allow the more widespread utilization and distribution of bio-fuels, in support of a renewable fuels standard and possible future low-carbon fuel standards. These barriers can be classified into several categories, including operating practice, regulatory, technical, and acceptability barriers. Possible solutions to these issues are discussed; including compatibility evaluation, changes to bio-fuels, regulatory changes, and changes in the distribution system or distribution practices. No actual experimental research has been conducted in the writing of this report, but results are used to develop recommendations for future research and additional study as appropriate. This project addresses recognized barriers to the wider use of bio-fuels in the areas of development of codes and standards, industrial and consumer awareness, and materials compatibility issues.

  7. Will biofuel projects in Southeast Asia become white elephants?

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Southeast Asia's attempt to join the global biofuel development has not been very successful, despite the large amount of subsidies and incentives allotted for biofuel projects. The outcome of these projects has failed to meet expectation due to overrated assumptions and shortsighted policies. Utilization of edible feedstock such as palm oil and sugar cane for biofuel has disrupted the fragile industry due to the fluctuations of feedstock prices. The appropriate research on jatropha to prove its economic and environmental feasibility as energy crop has not been performed. Biofuel development in Southeast Asia remains at an early stage of development and requires highly intensive monitoring and strict legal enforcement to ensure future success. (author)

  8. Will biofuel projects in Southeast Asia become white elephants?

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Southeast Asia's attempt to join the global biofuel development has not been very successful, despite the large amount of subsidies and incentives allotted for biofuel projects. The outcome of these projects has failed to meet expectation due to overrated assumptions and shortsighted policies. Utilization of edible feedstock such as palm oil and sugar cane for biofuel has disrupted the fragile industry due to the fluctuations of feedstock prices. The appropriate research on jatropha to prove its economic and environmental feasibility as energy crop has not been performed. Biofuel development in Southeast Asia remains at an early stage of development and requires highly intensive monitoring and strict legal enforcement to ensure future success.

  9. Advanced fusion concepts project summaries

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The activities of all the projects supported by the Advanced Fusion Concepts Branch of the Office of Fusion Energy, DOE, are described. These descriptions are project summaries of each of the individual projects, and contain title, persons responsible, funding, purpose, approach, recent progress, future plans, planned milestones, graduate students and other staff, and recent publications

  10. Will biofuel projects in Southeast Asia become white elephants?

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sheng Goh, Chun; Teong Lee, Keat [School of Chemical Engineering, Engineering Campus, Universiti Sains Malaysia, Seri Ampangan, 14300 Nibong Tebal, Seberang Perai Selatan, Pulau Pinang (Malaysia)

    2010-08-15

    Southeast Asia's attempt to join the global biofuel development has not been very successful, despite the large amount of subsidies and incentives allotted for biofuel projects. The outcome of these projects has failed to meet expectation due to overrated assumptions and shortsighted policies. Utilization of edible feedstock such as palm oil and sugar cane for biofuel has disrupted the fragile industry due to the fluctuations of feedstock prices. The appropriate research on jatropha to prove its economic and environmental feasibility as energy crop has not been performed. Biofuel development in Southeast Asia remains at an early stage of development and requires highly intensive monitoring and strict legal enforcement to ensure future success. (author)

  11. Will biofuel projects in Southeast Asia become white elephants?

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Goh, Chun Sheng [School of Chemical Engineering, Engineering Campus, Universiti Sains Malaysia, Seri Ampangan, 14300 Nibong Tebal, Seberang Perai Selatan, Pulau Pinang (Malaysia); Lee, Keat Teong, E-mail: chktlee@eng.usm.m [School of Chemical Engineering, Engineering Campus, Universiti Sains Malaysia, Seri Ampangan, 14300 Nibong Tebal, Seberang Perai Selatan, Pulau Pinang (Malaysia)

    2010-08-15

    Southeast Asia's attempt to join the global biofuel development has not been very successful, despite the large amount of subsidies and incentives allotted for biofuel projects. The outcome of these projects has failed to meet expectation due to overrated assumptions and shortsighted policies. Utilization of edible feedstock such as palm oil and sugar cane for biofuel has disrupted the fragile industry due to the fluctuations of feedstock prices. The appropriate research on jatropha to prove its economic and environmental feasibility as energy crop has not been performed. Biofuel development in Southeast Asia remains at an early stage of development and requires highly intensive monitoring and strict legal enforcement to ensure future success.

  12. Experimental Plasma Research project summaries

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This report contains descriptions of the activities supported by the Experimental Plasma Research Branch of APP. The individual project summaries were prepared by the principal investigators and include objectives and milestones for each project. The projects are arranged in six research categories: Plasma Properties; Plasma Heating; Plasma Diagnostics; Atomic, Molecular and Nuclear Physics; Advanced Superconducting Materials; and the Fusion Plasma Research Facility (FPRF). Each category is introduced with a statement of objectives and recent progress and followed by descriptions of individual projects. An overall budget summary is provided at the beginning of the report

  13. Experimental Plasma Research project summaries

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    None

    1980-09-01

    This report contains descriptions of the activities supported by the Experimental Plasma Research Branch of APP. The individual project summaries were prepared by the principal investigators and include objectives and milestones for each project. The projects are arranged in six research categories: Plasma Properties; Plasma Heating; Plasma Diagnostics; Atomic, Molecular and Nuclear Physics; Advanced Superconducting Materials; and the Fusion Plasma Research Facility (FPRF). Each category is introduced with a statement of objectives and recent progress and followed by descriptions of individual projects. An overall budget summary is provided at the beginning of the report.

  14. Experimental plasma research project summaries

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1978-08-01

    This report contans descriptions of the activities supported by the Experimental Plasma Research Branch of APP. The individual project summaries were prepared by the principal investigators and include objectives and milestones for each project. The projects are arranged in six research categories: Plasma Properties; Plasma Heating; Plasma Measurements and Instrumentation; Atomic, Molecular and Nuclear Physics; Advanced Superconducting Materials; and the Fusion Plasma Research Facility (FPRF). Each category is introduced with a statement of objectives and recent progress and followed by descriptions of individual projects. An overall budget summary is provided at the beginning of the report.

  15. Experimental plasma research project summaries

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This report contans descriptions of the activities supported by the Experimental Plasma Research Branch of APP. The individual project summaries were prepared by the principal investigators and include objectives and milestones for each project. The projects are arranged in six research categories: Plasma Properties; Plasma Heating; Plasma Measurements and Instrumentation; Atomic, Molecular and Nuclear Physics; Advanced Superconducting Materials; and the Fusion Plasma Research Facility (FPRF). Each category is introduced with a statement of objectives and recent progress and followed by descriptions of individual projects. An overall budget summary is provided at the beginning of the report

  16. Experimental Plasma Research. Project summaries

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This is the fifth in a series of Project Summary books going back to 1976. They are issued approximately every two years and provide a short description of each project supported by the Experimental Plasma Research Branch of the Division of Applied Plasma Physics in the Office of Fusion Energy

  17. 2020 Vision Project Summary

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gordon, K.W.; Scott, K.P.

    2000-11-01

    Since the 2020 Vision project began in 1996, students from participating schools have completed and submitted a variety of scenarios describing potential world and regional conditions in the year 2020 and their possible effect on US national security. This report summarizes the students' views and describes trends observed over the course of the 2020 Vision project's five years. It also highlights the main organizational features of the project. An analysis of thematic trends among the scenarios showed interesting shifts in students' thinking, particularly in their views of computer technology, US relations with China, and globalization. In 1996, most students perceived computer technology as highly beneficial to society, but as the year 2000 approached, this technology was viewed with fear and suspicion, even personified as a malicious, uncontrollable being. Yet, after New Year's passed with little disruption, students generally again perceived computer technology as beneficial. Also in 1996, students tended to see US relations with China as potentially positive, with economic interaction proving favorable to both countries. By 2000, this view had transformed into a perception of China emerging as the US' main rival and ''enemy'' in the global geopolitical realm. Regarding globalization, students in the first two years of the project tended to perceive world events as dependent on US action. However, by the end of the project, they saw the US as having little control over world events and therefore, we Americans would need to cooperate and compromise with other nations in order to maintain our own well-being.

  18. Biofuels

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Biofuels are fuels made from non-fossil vegetal or animal materials (biomass). They belong to the renewable energy sources as they do not contribute to worsen some global environmental impacts, like the greenhouse effect, providing that their production is performed in efficient energy conditions with low fossil fuel consumption. This article presents: 1 - the usable raw materials: biomass-derived resources, qualitative and quantitative aspects, biomass uses; 2 - biofuels production from biomass: alcohols and ethers, vegetable oils and their esters, synthetic liquid or gaseous biofuels, biogas; 3 - characteristics of liquid biofuels and comparison with gasoline and diesel fuel; 4 - biofuel uses: alcohols and their esters, biofuels with oxygenated compounds; vegetable oils and their derivatives in diesel engines, biogas, example of global environmental impact: the greenhouse effect. (J.S.)

  19. GAIHE Project summary

    OpenAIRE

    General Information

    2016-01-01

    Within the Lifelong Learning Programme, funded by EACEA, the Erasmus Multilateral Project entitled: Governance and Adaptation to Innovative Modes of Higher Education Provision (539628-LLP-1-2013-1-NL-ERASMUS-EIGF) sets out to examine the evolution of the innovative modes of HE provision in teaching and learning across Europe, the motivations for their emergence as well as the ways in which higher education management and governance have responded and adapted to such new modes of provision....

  20. DECOVALEX II PROJECT Executive Summary

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    DECOVALEX II project started in November 1995 as a continuation of the DECOVALEX I project, which was completed at the end of 1994. The project was initiated by recognising the fact that a proper evaluation of the current capacities of numerical modelling of the coupled T-H-M processes in fractured media is needed not only for small scale, well controlled laboratory test cases such as those studied in DECOVALEX I, but also for less characterised, more complex and realistic in-situ experiments. This executive summary presents the motivation, structure, objectives, approaches, and highlights of the main tasks and main achievements of the DECOVALEX II project from 1995-1999. The main source of the materials came from four technical reports the project prepared by the project Secretariat, which, in turn, were based on numerous progress reports produced by a large number of international research teams over the three and half year period. The editors of this summary, together with the Steering Committee of the DECOVALEX II project, feel very encouraged by the progresses which have been made during the project time and very positive about the usefulness of the achievements reached by the project to the larger international community of scientific research and management of radioactive wastes in different countries. We sincerely hope that continued efforts be made to forward the research carried out in both DECOVALEX I and DECOVALEX II projects so that the disposal of radioactive waste could be managed on a more reliable scientific basis

  1. Advanced fusion concepts: project summaries

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This report contains descriptions of the activities of all the projects supported by the Advanced Fusion Concepts Branch of the Office of Fusion Energy, US Department of Energy. These descriptions are project summaries of each of the individual projects, and contain the following: title, principle investigators, funding levels, purpose, approach, progress, plans, milestones, graduate students, graduates, other professional staff, and recent publications. Information is given for each of the following programs: (1) reverse-field pinch, (2) compact toroid, (3) alternate fuel/multipoles, (4) stellarator/torsatron, (5) linear magnetic fusion, (6) liners, and (7) Tormac

  2. Advanced fusion concepts: project summaries

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    None

    1980-12-01

    This report contains descriptions of the activities of all the projects supported by the Advanced Fusion Concepts Branch of the Office of Fusion Energy, US Department of Energy. These descriptions are project summaries of each of the individual projects, and contain the following: title, principle investigators, funding levels, purpose, approach, progress, plans, milestones, graduate students, graduates, other professional staff, and recent publications. Information is given for each of the following programs: (1) reverse-field pinch, (2) compact toroid, (3) alternate fuel/multipoles, (4) stellarator/torsatron, (5) linear magnetic fusion, (6) liners, and (7) Tormac. (MOW)

  3. Separations innovative concepts: Project summary

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lee, V.E. (ed.)

    1988-05-01

    This project summary includes the results of 10 innovations that were funded under the US Department's Innovative Concept Programs. The concepts address innovations that can substantially reduce the energy used in industrial separations. Each paper describes the proposed concept, and discusses the concept's potential energy savings, market applications, technical feasibility, prior work and state of the art, and future development needs.

  4. Experimental plasma research project summaries

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The experimental plasma Research Branch has responsibility for developing a broad range of experimental data and new experimental techniques that are required for operating and interpreting present large-scale confinement experiments, and for designing future deuterium-tritium burining facilities. The Branch pursued these objectives by supporting research in DOE laboratories, other Federal laboratories, other Federal laboratories, universities, and private industry. Initiation and renewal of research projects are primarily through submission of unsolicited proposals by these institutions to DOE. Summaries of these projects are given

  5. Fusion Plasma Theory project summaries

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1993-10-01

    This Project Summary book is a published compilation consisting of short descriptions of each project supported by the Fusion Plasma Theory and Computing Group of the Advanced Physics and Technology Division of the Department of Energy, Office of Fusion Energy. The summaries contained in this volume were written by the individual contractors with minimal editing by the Office of Fusion Energy. Previous summaries were published in February of 1982 and December of 1987. The Plasma Theory program is responsible for the development of concepts and models that describe and predict the behavior of a magnetically confined plasma. Emphasis is given to the modelling and understanding of the processes controlling transport of energy and particles in a toroidal plasma and supporting the design of the International Thermonuclear Experimental Reactor (ITER). A tokamak transport initiative was begun in 1989 to improve understanding of how energy and particles are lost from the plasma by mechanisms that transport them across field lines. The Plasma Theory program has actively-participated in this initiative. Recently, increased attention has been given to issues of importance to the proposed Tokamak Physics Experiment (TPX). Particular attention has been paid to containment and thermalization of fast alpha particles produced in a burning fusion plasma as well as control of sawteeth, current drive, impurity control, and design of improved auxiliary heating. In addition, general models of plasma behavior are developed from physics features common to different confinement geometries. This work uses both analytical and numerical techniques. The Fusion Theory program supports research projects at US government laboratories, universities and industrial contractors. Its support of theoretical work at universities contributes to the office of Fusion Energy mission of training scientific manpower for the US Fusion Energy Program.

  6. Fusion Plasma Theory project summaries

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This Project Summary book is a published compilation consisting of short descriptions of each project supported by the Fusion Plasma Theory and Computing Group of the Advanced Physics and Technology Division of the Department of Energy, Office of Fusion Energy. The summaries contained in this volume were written by the individual contractors with minimal editing by the Office of Fusion Energy. Previous summaries were published in February of 1982 and December of 1987. The Plasma Theory program is responsible for the development of concepts and models that describe and predict the behavior of a magnetically confined plasma. Emphasis is given to the modelling and understanding of the processes controlling transport of energy and particles in a toroidal plasma and supporting the design of the International Thermonuclear Experimental Reactor (ITER). A tokamak transport initiative was begun in 1989 to improve understanding of how energy and particles are lost from the plasma by mechanisms that transport them across field lines. The Plasma Theory program has actively-participated in this initiative. Recently, increased attention has been given to issues of importance to the proposed Tokamak Physics Experiment (TPX). Particular attention has been paid to containment and thermalization of fast alpha particles produced in a burning fusion plasma as well as control of sawteeth, current drive, impurity control, and design of improved auxiliary heating. In addition, general models of plasma behavior are developed from physics features common to different confinement geometries. This work uses both analytical and numerical techniques. The Fusion Theory program supports research projects at US government laboratories, universities and industrial contractors. Its support of theoretical work at universities contributes to the office of Fusion Energy mission of training scientific manpower for the US Fusion Energy Program

  7. Panorama 2014 - Overview of second-generation biofuel projects

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Second-generation biofuels produced from lingo-cellulosic biomass are now one of the main technological options for reducing the climatic impacts imposed by fuels used in transportation. These processes are designed to significantly boost the quantities of biofuels available and to take over from their first-generation counterparts, given the ready availability of raw materials and their excellent environmental performances. They are already the subject of multiple pre-industrial scale projects in many regions of the world as part of R and D programs, and the first industrial installations are already operational or under construction, the majority of them in Europe and the United States. They now require a stable regulatory framework in order to progress to the industrial learning stage required for them to become fully competitive. This is why the current uncertainties surrounding regulations in Europe and to a lesser extent in the United States could delay their development. (authors)

  8. Advanced Fusion Concepts project summaries. FY 1983

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This report contains descriptions of the activities of all the projects supported by the Advanced Fusion Concepts Branch of the Office of Fusion Energy, US Department of Energy. These descriptions are project summaries of each of the individual projects, and contain the following: title, principle investigators, funding levels, purpose, approach, progress, plans, milestones, graduate studients, graduates, other professional staff, and recent publications. The individual project summaries are prepared by the principle investigators in collaboration with the Advanced Fusion Concepts (AFC) Branch. In addition to the project summaries, statements of branch objectives, and budget summaries are also provided

  9. Experimental plasma research project summaries

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This is the latest in a series of Project Summary books going back to 1976 and is the first after a hiatus of several years. They are published to provide a short description of each project supported by the Experimental Plasma Research Branch of the Division of Applied Plasma Physics in the Office of Fusion Energy. The Experimental Plasma Research Branch seeks to provide a broad range of experimental data, physics understanding, and new experimental techniques that contribute to operation, interpretation, and improvement of high temperature plasma as a source of fusion energy. In pursuit of these objectives, the branch supports research at universities, DOE laboratories, other federal laboratories and industry. About 70 percent of the funds expended are spent at universities and a significant function of this program is the training of students in fusion physics. The branch supports small- and medium-scale experimental studies directly related to specific critical plasma issues of the magnetic fusion program. Plasma physics experiments are conducted on transport of particles and energy within plasma and innovative approaches for operating, controlling, and heating plasma are evaluated for application to the larger confinement devices of the magnetic fusion program. New diagnostic approaches to measuring the properties of high temperature plasmas are developed to the point where they can be applied with confidence on the large-scale confinement experiments. Atomic data necessary for impurity control, interpretation of diagnostic data, development of heating devices, and analysis of cooling by impurity ion radiation are obtained. The project summaries are grouped into these three categories of plasma physics, diagnostic development and atomic physics

  10. Advanced energy projects: FY 1988 research summaries

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This report contains: Program Description; Summaries of Projects Active in FY 1988; Sample Statement of Work; FY 1988 Program Data; Small Business Innovation Research (SBIR) Projects; Investigator Index; and Institutional Index

  11. Advanced Energy Projects FY 1990 research summaries

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This report serves as a guide to prepare proposals and provides summaries of the research projects active in FY 1990, sponsored by the Office of Basic Energy Sciences Division of Advanced Energy Projects, Department of Energy. (JF)

  12. Advanced fusion concepts project summaries: 1981

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This report contains descriptions of the activities of all the projects supported by the Advanced Fusion Concepts Branch of the Office of Fusion Energy, US Department of Energy. These descriptions are project summaries of each of the individual projects, and contain the following: title, principle investigators, funding levels, purpose, approach, progress, plans, milestones, graduate students, graduates, other professional staff, and recent publications

  13. Advanced Energy Projects: FY 1993, Research summaries

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1993-09-01

    AEP has been supporting research on novel materials for energy technology, renewable and biodegradable materials, new uses for scientific discoveries, alternate pathways to energy efficiency, alternative energy sources, innovative approaches to waste treatment and reduction, etc. The summaries are grouped according to projects active in FY 1993, Phase I SBIR projects, and Phase II SBIR projects. Investigator and institutional indexes are included.

  14. Advanced Fusion Concepts project summaries, FY 1982

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This report contains descriptions of the activities of all the projects supported by the Advanced Fusion Concepts Branch of the Office of Fusion Energy, U.S. Department of Energy. These descriptions are project summaries of each of the individual projects, and contain the following: title, principle investigators, funding levels, purpose, approach, progress, plans, milestones, graduate students, graduates, other professional staff, and recent publications

  15. Using "EC-Assess" to Assess a Small Biofuels Project in Honduras

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ngassa, Franklin Chamda

    2010-01-01

    Biofuels may contribute to both rural economic development and climate change mitigation and adaptation. The Gota Verde Project in Yoro, Honduras, attempts to demonstrate the technical and economic feasibility of small-scale biofuel production for local use by implementing a distinctive approach to feedstock production that encourages small farm…

  16. Service Catalog Pilot Project Summary

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — This report summarizes the ServCat pilot project and offers recommendations for the full-scale implementation of the database. During the pilot project a total of...

  17. European airlines enter the biofuels market. Business Project Report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Van den Heuvel, E.

    2011-06-15

    Biofuels might offer opportunities for achieving improved balance of power to the European airlines in their market environment. The aviation sector in Europe is a high competitive market. It faces high rivalry and increasing fuel costs due to rising oil prices. Moreover, from 2012 the sector will be subject to stringent rules with respect to maximum allowed carbon emissions. Investigating the competitive forces in the aviation sector and executing a strategic group analysis maps the competitors and the major players in the supply chain and the options they have for using alternative fuels for low carbon performance. Both the market and non-market strategies of several European airlines have been studied. It appears that airlines are aiming at first mover advantage by moving upstream in the biofuel value chain. They search for collaboration with other stakeholders to change government regulation to their benefit and influence public opinion and research agendas. Airlines are late entrants in the biofuels market. This research has shown that biofuels can improve the market power balance for European airlines. Biofuels are key to improve the carbon performance of airlines. However, this implies that airlines take position at the resource side of the value chain for biojetfuels. This has the advantage of controlling the security of supply and managing biofuels production complying to ruling sustainability criteria.

  18. 2012 Clean Energy: Project Summaries

    OpenAIRE

    Asian Development Bank

    2013-01-01

    This report summarizes the investments in clean energy made by the operations departments of the Asian Development Bank (ADB) in 2012, condensing information from project databases and formal reports in an easy-to-reference format. This report was prepared by ADB’s Clean Energy Program which provides the cohesive agenda that encompasses and guides ADB’s lending and non-lending assistance, initiatives, and plan of action for sustainable growth in Asia and the Pacific.

  19. Advanced fusion concepts project summaries, FY 1988

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This report summarizes all the projects supported by the Advanced Fusion Concepts Branch of the Applied Plasma Physics Division of the Office of Fusion Energy, US Department of Energy. Each project summary was written by the respective principal investigator using the format: title, principal investigators, funding levels, purpose, approach, progress, plans, milestones, graduate students, graduates, other professional staff, and recent publications. This report is organized into three sections: Section one contains five summaries describing work in the reversed-field pinch program being performed by a diversified group of contractors, these include a national laboratory, a private company, and several universities. Section two contains eight summaries of work from the compact toroid area which encompasses field-reversed configurations, spheromaks, and heating and formation experiments. Section three contains summaries from two other programs, a density Z-pinch experiment and high-beta Q machine experiment. The intent of this collection of project summaries is to help the contractors of the Advanced Fusion Concepts Branch understand their relationship with the rest of the branch's activities. It is also meant to provide background to those outside the program by showing the range of activities of interest of the Advanced Fusion Concepts Branch

  20. Nuclear Propulsion Project Workshop summary

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miller, Thomas J.; Clark, John S.; Barnett, John W.

    1991-01-01

    NASA-Lewis has undertaken the planning and coordination of a joint NASA/DOE/DOD Nuclear Propulsion Project which will investigate both nuclear electric and nuclear thermal concepts. The three-agency team has been tasked with the development of an Interagency Agreement and Memorandum of Understanding, as well as the drafting of a statement as to astronaut crew guidelines and values, the assessment of human-rating requirements, the development of an interagency safety and environmental assessment plan, and the development of test facility requirements. Attention is to be given to the role of SP-100 for nuclear-electric propulsion applications.

  1. Advanced energy projects: FY 1987 research summaries

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This report contains brief summaries of all projects active in the Division of Advanced Energy Projects during Fiscal Year 1987 (October 1, 1986-September 30, 1987). The intent of this compilation is to provide a convenient means for quickly acquainting an interested reader with the program in Advanced Energy Projects. More detailed information on research activities in a particular project may be obtained by contacting directly the principal investigator. Some projects will have reached the end of their contract periods by the time this book appears, and will, therefore, no longer be active. Those cases in which work was completed in FY '87 are indicated by the footnote: Project completed. The annual funding level of each project is shown

  2. From 1st- to 2nd-Generation Biofuel Technologies: Extended Executive Summary

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2008-07-01

    This report looks at the technical challenges facing 2nd-generation biofuels, evaluates their costs and examines related current policies to support their development and deployment. The potential for production of more advanced biofuels is also discussed. Although significant progress continues to be made to overcome the technical and economic challenges, 2nd-generation biofuels still face major constraints to their commercial deployment.

  3. Overcoming the initial investment hurdle for advanced biofuels. An analysis of biofuel-related risks and their impact on project financing. Report of ELOBIO subtask 7

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The ELOBIO research project aims to develop policies that will help achieve a higher share of biofuels in total transport fuel in a low-disturbing and sustainable way. Workpackage 7 of the ELOBIO project aims at addressing the objective of providing a reliable estimate of the potential and costs of biofuels, given the application of low-disturbing policy measures. More specifically, we seek to evaluate the impact of these biofuel policy measures on the investment climate for second-generation technologies. To this end, we try to answer several sub-questions in a following logical sequence: (1) What are the different factors that contribute to investment risk in biofuels and what are their relative contributions to overall biofuel project risk as perceived by finance providers?; (2) How do these risks translate into cost of capital for different biofuel technologies?; (3) How does cost of capital influence market penetration rates for the different technologies?; and (4) What is the best policy (or policy mix) to overcome the initial investment hurdle for advanced biofuels, thus lowering their cost of capital and achieve wider market deployment?.

  4. Advanced energy projects; FY 1995 research summaries

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1995-09-01

    The AEP Division supports projects to explore novel energy-related concepts which are typically at an early stage of scientific development, and high-risk, exploratory concepts. Topical areas presently receiving support are: novel materials for energy technology, renewable and biodegradable materials, exploring uses of new scientific discoveries, alternate pathways to energy efficiency, alternative energy sources, and innovative approaches to waste treatment and reduction. There were 46 research projects during FY 1995; ten were initiated during that fiscal year. The summaries are separated into grant and laboratory programs, and small business innovation research programs.

  5. Deactivation, Decontamination and Decommissioning Project Summaries

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Peterson, David Shane; Webber, Frank Laverne

    2001-07-01

    This report is a compilation of summary descriptions of Deactivation, Decontamination and Decommissioning, and Surveillance and Maintenance projects planned for inactive facilities and sites at the INEEL from FY-2002 through FY-2010. Deactivations of contaminated facilities will produce safe and stable facilities requiring minimal surveillance and maintenance pending further decontamination and decommissioning. Decontamination and decommissioning actions remove contaminated facilities, thus eliminating long-term surveillance and maintenance. The projects are prioritized based on risk to DOE-ID, the public, and the environment, and the reduction of DOE-ID mortgage costs and liability at the INEEL.

  6. Summary usage statistics of the Helioviewer Project

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ireland, Jack; Stys, J. E.

    2013-07-01

    The Helioviewer Project enables visual exploration of the Sun and the inner heliosphere for everyone, everywhere via intuitive interfaces and novel technology. Images from the SDO, STEREO, SOHO, PROBA2 and Yohkoh missions are currently available. Users of the Helioviewer Project have made over one million movies and over two million screenshots since detailed (and anonymous) logging of Helioviewer Project usage was implemented in February 2011. These usage logs are analyzed to give a detailed breakdown on user interaction with solar and heliospheric data via Helioviewer Project clients and services. We present summary statistics on how our users are using our clients and services, which data they are interested in, and how they choose to interact with different data sources.

  7. Biofuels and certification. A workshop at the Harvard Kennedy School of Government. Summary report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Devereaux, Charan; Lee, Henry

    2009-06-01

    Liquid biofuels can provide a substitute for fossil fuels in the transportation sector. Many countries have mandated the use of biofuels, by creating targets for their use. If not implemented with care, however, actions that increase biofuel production can put upward pressure on food prices, increase greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions, and exacerbate degradation of land, forest, and water sources. A strong global biofuels industry will not emerge unless these environmental and social concerns are addressed. Interested parties around the world are actively debating the design and implementation of policies to meet the biofuel goals, particularly those established in the United States and Europe. In general, policy options for managing the potential risks and benefits of biofuel development should specify not only clear standards governing biofuel content and production processes, but also certification processes for verifying whether particular biofuels meet those standards, and specific metrics or indicators on which to base the certification. Historically, many standards in the energy and environment fields have ultimately been set or supported by governments. Many of the certification processes have been voluntary, carried out by independent third parties. The biofuels case is a young one, however, with questions of goals, standards, certification, and metrics still in interdependent flux. The workshop focused its discussions on certification issues, but found the discussions naturally reaching into ongoing debates regarding possible goals, standards, and metrics. Many countries are proposing that for a biofuel to qualify as contributing to government-mandated targets or goals, it must be certified to meet certain standards. These standards could be limited to the amount of GHG emitted in the production process or could include a number of other environmental sustainability concerns ranging from deforestation and biodiversity to water resources. While the threat to

  8. Advanced energy projects FY 1997 research summaries

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1997-09-01

    The mission of the Advanced Energy Projects (AEP) program is to explore the scientific feasibility of novel energy-related concepts that are high risk, in terms of scientific feasibility, yet have a realistic potential for a high technological payoff. The concepts supported by the AEP are typically at an early stage of scientific development. They often arise from advances in basic research and are premature for consideration by applied research or technology development programs. Some are based on discoveries of new scientific phenomena or involve exploratory ideas that span multiple scientific and technical disciplines which do not fit into an existing DOE program area. In all cases, the objective is to support evaluation of the scientific or technical feasibility of the novel concepts involved. Following AEP support, it is expected that each concept will be sufficiently developed to attract further funding from other sources to realize its full potential. Projects that involve evolutionary research or technology development and demonstration are not supported by AEP. Furthermore, research projects more appropriate for another existing DOE research program are not encouraged. There were 65 projects in the AEP research portfolio during Fiscal Year 1997. Eigheen projects were initiated during that fiscal year. This document consists of short summaries of projects active in FY 1997. Further information of a specific project may be obtained by contacting the principal investigator.

  9. Advanced Energy Projects FY 1996 research summaries

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1996-09-01

    The mission of the Advanced Energy Projects Division (AEP) is to explore the scientific feasibility of novel energy-related concepts. These concepts are typically at an early stage of scientific development and, therefore, are premature for consideration by applied research or technology development programs. The portfolio of projects is dynamic, but reflects the broad role of the Department in supporting research and development for improving the Nation`s energy posture. Topical areas presently receiving support include: alternative energy sources; innovative concepts for energy conversion and storage; alternate pathways to energy efficiency; exploring uses of new scientific discoveries; biologically-based energy concepts; renewable and biodegradable materials; novel materials for energy technology; and innovative approaches to waste treatment and reduction. Summaries of the 70 projects currently being supported are presented. Appendices contain budget information and investigator and institutional indices.

  10. Advanced energy projects FY 1994 research summaries

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1994-09-01

    The Division of Advanced Energy Projects (AEP) provides support to explore the feasibility of novel, energy-related concepts that evolve from advances in basic research. These concepts are typically at an early stage of scientific definition and, therefore, are premature for consideration by applied research or technology development programs. The AEP also supports high-risk, exploratory concepts that do not readily fit into a program area but could have several applications that may span scientific disciplines or technical areas. Projects supported by the Division arise from unsolicited ideas and concepts submitted by researchers. The portfolio of projects is dynamic and reflects the broad role of the Department in supporting research and development for improving the Nation`s energy outlook. FY 1994 projects include the following topical areas: novel materials for energy technology; renewable and biodegradable materials; exploring uses of new scientific discoveries; alternate pathways to energy efficiency; alternative energy sources; and innovative approaches to waste treatment and reduction. Summaries are given for 66 projects.

  11. Advanced energy projects FY 1994 research summaries

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The Division of Advanced Energy Projects (AEP) provides support to explore the feasibility of novel, energy-related concepts that evolve from advances in basic research. These concepts are typically at an early stage of scientific definition and, therefore, are premature for consideration by applied research or technology development programs. The AEP also supports high-risk, exploratory concepts that do not readily fit into a program area but could have several applications that may span scientific disciplines or technical areas. Projects supported by the Division arise from unsolicited ideas and concepts submitted by researchers. The portfolio of projects is dynamic and reflects the broad role of the Department in supporting research and development for improving the Nation's energy outlook. FY 1994 projects include the following topical areas: novel materials for energy technology; renewable and biodegradable materials; exploring uses of new scientific discoveries; alternate pathways to energy efficiency; alternative energy sources; and innovative approaches to waste treatment and reduction. Summaries are given for 66 projects

  12. ILUC mitigation case studies Tanzania. Applying the Low Indirect Impact Biofuel (LIIB) Methodology to Tanzanian projects

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Van de Staaij, J.; Spoettle, M.; Weddige, U.; Toop, G. [Ecofys, Utrecht (Netherlands)

    2012-10-15

    NL Agency is supporting WWF and the Secretariat of the Roundtable on Sustainable Biofuels (RSB) with the development of a certification module for biofuels with a low risk of indirect land use change (ILUC), the Low Indirect Impact Biofuel (LIIB) methodology (www.LIIBmethodology.org). The LIIB methodology was developed to certify that biomass feedstock for biofuels has been produced with a low risk of indirect impacts. It is designed as an independent module that can be added to biofuel policies and existing certification systems for sustainable biofuel and/or feedstock production, such as the RSB Standard, RSPO or NTA8080. It presents detailed ILUC mitigation approaches for four different solution types field-tested and audited in international pilots. Within the Global Sustainable Biomass programme and the Sustainable Biomass Import programme, coordinated by NL Agency, three projects are working on sustainable jatropha in Tanzania. Ecofys has been commissioned by NL Agency to contribute to the further development of the LIIB methodology by applying it to these three jatropha projects in Tanzania. All three projects located in the North of Tanzania, address sustainability in one way or another, but focus on the direct effects of jatropha cultivation and use. Interestingly, they nevertheless seem to apply different methods that could also minimise negative indirect impacts, including ILUC. Bioenergy feedstock production can have unintended consequences well outside the boundary of production operations. These are indirect impacts, which cannot be directly attributed to a particular operation. The most cited indirect impacts are ILUC and food/feed commodity price increases (an indirect impact on food security). ILUC can occur when existing cropland is used to cover the feedstock demand of additional biofuel production. When this displaces the previous use of the land (e.g. food production) this can lead to expansion of land use to new areas (e.g. deforestation) when

  13. Algae as a Feedstock for Biofuels. An Assessment of the Current Status and Potential for Algal Biofuels Production. Joint Summary report of IEA-AMF Annex XXXIV-2 and IEA Bioenergy Task 39

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    O' Conner, D. [S and T2 Consultants, Inc. (Canada)

    2011-09-15

    In 2010, the IEA Advanced Motor Fuels Implementing Agreement and the IEA Bioenergy Task 39 both commissioned reports on the status and potential opportunities for Algal Biofuels. While there were substantial similarities in the findings of the two reports, each report provides unique perspectives on different aspects of the technology and the opportunities. This summary draws on both of those reports. The Task 39 report (Bioenergy Algal Biofuels.pdf) was authored by Al Darzins and Philip Pienkos (NREL, US) and Les Edye (BioIndustry Partners, Australia). The IEA AMF report was prepared by Karen Sikes and Ralph McGill (Sentech, Inc. US) and Martijn Van Walwijk (Independent Researcher).

  14. Groundwater/Vadose Zone Integration Project Summary Description

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This Project Summary Description provides a high-level review of the reasons for establishing the Integration Project. It also identifies the mission that the project is tasked to accomplish; the work scope that must be performed to successfully accomplish the mission; and the organization and management approaches that will be used to implement the GW/VZ Integration Project work scope. The Project Summary Description is one of many documents and management tools that communicate the breadth and complexity of the Integration Project

  15. Project W-030 safety class upgrade summary report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This document presents a summary of safety class criteria for the 241-AY/AZ Tank Farm primary ventilation system upgrade under Project W-030, and recommends acceptance of the system as constructed, based on a review of supporting documentation

  16. Geothermal Energy Research and Development Program; Project Summaries

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    None

    1994-03-01

    This is an internal DOE Geothermal Program document. This document contains summaries of projects related to exploration technology, reservoir technology, drilling technology, conversion technology, materials, biochemical processes, and direct heat applications. [DJE-2005

  17. NASA Remediation Technology Collaboration Development Task, Overview and Project Summaries

    Science.gov (United States)

    Romeo, James G.

    2014-01-01

    An overview presentation of NASA's Remediation Technology Collaboration Development Task including the following project summaries: in situ groundwater monitor, in situ chemical oxidation, in situ bioremediation, horizontal multi-port well, and high resolution site characterization.

  18. DMF - A New Biofuel Candidate

    OpenAIRE

    Tian, Guohong; Daniel, Ritchie; Xu, Hongming

    2011-01-01

    This book aspires to be a comprehensive summary of current biofuels issues and thereby contribute to the understanding of this important topic. Readers will find themes including biofuels development efforts, their implications for the food industry, current and future biofuels crops, the successful Brazilian ethanol program, insights of the first, second, third and fourth biofuel generations, advanced biofuel production techniques, related waste treatment, emissions and environmental impacts...

  19. Current and future sustainable biofuels - Summary; Dagens och framtidens haallbara biodrivmedel - Sammanfattning

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Boerjesson, Paal [Lunds Univ., Lund (Sweden); Lundgren, Joakim [Luleaa Tekniska Univ., Luleaa (Sweden); Ahlgren, Serina [Sveriges Lantbruksuniv., Uppsala (Sweden); Nystroem, Ingrid [Swedish Knowledge Centre for Renewable Transportation Fuels, Goeteborg (Sweden); CIT Industriell Energi., Goeteborg (Sweden)

    2013-09-01

    This report has been prepared as a background paper for the state investigation 'Fossil Free Vehicle Traffic'. The purpose of this study is to describe and summarize the current knowledge on production of biofuels and linkages to sustainability issues such as energy and land efficiency, GHG performance and costs. The report includes both existing and future fuel systems under development and based on different raw materials and production processes. The study has primarily a Swedish perspective, but with international views. The report includes both existing and future fuel systems under development, and based on different raw materials and production processes. The study has primarily a Swedish perspective, but with international views. The report's analysis of energy efficiency, greenhouse gas performance and production costs is based on system analysis and a life-cycle perspective. The focus is on the production chain to the produced fuel (well-to-tank). Results are based on current research and commercial development of the respective chains. They are based primarily from standardized life cycle analysis and, in some production systems, also on industrial systems analysis. These two approaches have some differences in methodology, which are highlighted in the report. In the overview values and results have been compiled to make it possible to compare the results.

  20. Advanced energy projects FY 1992 research summaries

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The Division of Advanced Energy Projects (AEP) provides support to explore the feasibility of novel, energy-related concepts that evolve from advances in basic research. These concepts are typically at an early stage of scientific definition and, therefore, are beyond the scope of ongoing applied research or technology development programs. The Division provides a mechanism for converting basic research findings to applications that eventually could impact the Nation's energy economy. Technical topics include physical, chemical, materials, engineering, and biotechnologies. Projects can involve interdisciplinary approaches to solve energy-related problems. Projects are supported for a finite period of time, which is typically three years. Annual funding levels for projects are usually about $300,000 but can vary from approximately $50,000 to $500,000. It is expected that, following AEP support, each concept will be sufficiently developed and promising to attract further funding from other sources in order to realize its full potential. There were 39 research projects in the Division of Advanced Energy Projects during Fiscal Year 1992 (October 1, 1991 -- September 30, 1992). The abstracts of those projects are provided to introduce the overall program in Advanced Energy Projects. Further information on a specific project may be obtained by contacting the principal investigator, who is listed below the project title. Projects completed during FY 1992 are indicated

  1. Biomass gasification to heat, electricity and biofuels. HighBio project publication

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lassi, U.; Wikman, B. (eds.)

    2011-07-01

    Renewable energy and the use of biomass in energy production promotes sustainable development and decreases the use of fossil fuels. Biomass, e.g. wood chips can be used in the production of heat and electricity, as well as being used as a biofuel component and novel product for the chemical industry. Efficient utilisation of biomass requires a high level of knowledge and the development of new processes to create a new way of thinking. In this process, international co-operation plays a significant role. The aim of the HighBio project was to produce new information on biomass gasification and the utilisation opportunities of product gas in biofuel and biochemicals production. The project was also aimed at studying utilisation properties of biogasification ashes in distributed energy production. Small-scaled CHP plants can be used for simultaneous heat and power production by gasifying wood chips and by burning energy intensive product gas. Compared with thermal combustion, particulate emissions from gasification are lower, which also contributes to the EU's ever tightening emission legislation. Several small and middle scale companies in the Northern part of Finland and Sweden have worked with biomass gasification, and during the project, the birth of new ones has been seen. In this development stage, researchers of the HighBio project have also been strongly involved. Increased use of renewable energy opens up new possibilities for entrepreneurship and the birth of new companies, especially in rural areas. In order to enable these opportunities, we need research data from the universities, novel innovations, and especially their successful commercialisation. The HighBio project has also contributed to tackling those challenges by arranging research seminars and meetings to companies and other interest groups, as well as by establishing research activities and collaborations. Regional collaboration combined with national and international research networks

  2. DOE passive solar commercial buildings program: project summaries

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1982-01-01

    The 23 projects participating in this program comprise a wide range of building types including offices, retail establishments, educational facilities, public service facilities, community and visitor centers, and private specialized-use facilities, located throughout the United States. Summary data and drawings are presented for each project. (MHR)

  3. Projecting future grassland productivity to assess the sustainability of potential biofuel feedstock areas in the Greater Platte River Basin

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gu, Yingxin; Wylie, Bruce K.; Boyte, Stephen; Phyual, Khem

    2014-01-01

    This study projects future (e.g., 2050 and 2099) grassland productivities in the Greater Platte River Basin (GPRB) using ecosystem performance (EP, a surrogate for measuring ecosystem productivity) models and future climate projections. The EP models developed from a previous study were based on the satellite vegetation index, site geophysical and biophysical features, and weather and climate drivers. The future climate data used in this study were derived from the National Center for Atmospheric Research Community Climate System Model 3.0 ‘SRES A1B’ (a ‘middle’ emissions path). The main objective of this study is to assess the future sustainability of the potential biofuel feedstock areas identified in a previous study. Results show that the potential biofuel feedstock areas (the more mesic eastern part of the GPRB) will remain productive (i.e., aboveground grassland biomass productivity >2750 kg ha−1 year−1) with a slight increasing trend in the future. The spatially averaged EPs for these areas are 3519, 3432, 3557, 3605, 3752, and 3583 kg ha−1 year−1 for current site potential (2000–2008 average), 2020, 2030, 2040, 2050, and 2099, respectively. Therefore, the identified potential biofuel feedstock areas will likely continue to be sustainable for future biofuel development. On the other hand, grasslands identified as having no biofuel potential in the drier western part of the GPRB would be expected to stay unproductive in the future (spatially averaged EPs are 1822, 1691, 1896, 2306, 1994, and 2169 kg ha−1 year−1 for site potential, 2020, 2030, 2040, 2050, and 2099). These areas should continue to be unsuitable for biofuel feedstock development in the future. These future grassland productivity estimation maps can help land managers to understand and adapt to the expected changes in future EP in the GPRB and to assess the future sustainability and feasibility of potential biofuel feedstock areas.

  4. The REFUEL EU road map for biofuels in transport: Application of the project's tools to some short-term policy issues

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The current hot debate on biofuels calls for a balanced and realistic long-term strategy for biofuels. The REFUEL project provides several ingredients for such a strategy. Analyses in this project indicate that domestically produced biofuels can cover a significant share of EU fuel demand in the coming decades, with the EU-12 new member states and Ukraine as most promising regions. This potential can be realised with residual streams and on existing agricultural land, without conversion of e.g. nature reserves. Second generation biofuels are essential for the long-term success of biofuels due to their superior performance in many ways. But generally, the key challenge for the near future would be how to enhance the development of biofuels in a responsible way, i.e. stimulating the production chains with the best performance, and preventing negative impacts e.g., by paying careful attention to possible system impacts of biofuel production such as indirect land use changes and rising food prices. Finally, 2nd generation biofuels require specific policy: the precursor role of 1st generation is overrated, both in technical terms as well as in their role as market precursors. When it comes to synergies, 2nd generation biofuels might benefit more from other developments in the energy sector, such as initiatives in co-firing of biomass for (heat and) power, than from 1st generation biofuels, also because of the public resistance that the latter induce. (author)

  5. Regenesys utility scale energy storage. Project summary

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This report summarises the work to date, the current situation and the future direction of a project carried out by Regenesys Technology Ltd. (RGN) to investigate the benefits of electrochemical energy storage for power generators using renewable energy sources focussing on wind energy. The background to the study is traced covering the progress of the Regenesys energy storage technology, and the milestones achieved and lessons learnt. Details are given of the planned renewable-store-market interface to allow renewable generators optimise revenue under the New Electricity Trading Arrangements (NETA) and help in the connection of the renewable energy to the electric grid system. The four integrated work programmes of the project are described and involve a system study examining market penetration of renewable generators, a technical study into connection of renewable generators and energy storage, a small scale demonstration, and a pilot scale energy storage plant at Little Barton in Cambridgeshire. Problems leading to the closure of the project are discussed

  6. 2020 Vision Project Summary: FY99

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    K.W. Gordon; K.P. Scott

    2000-01-01

    During the 1998-99 school year, students from participating schools completed and submitted a variety of scenarios describing potential world and regional conditions in the year 2020 and their possible effect on U.S. national security. This report summarizes the student's views and describes trends observed over the course of the 2020 Vision project's four years.

  7. Ecological Compliance Assessment Project: 1994 Summary report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The Ecological Compliance Assessment Project (ECAP) began full operation on March 1, 1994. The project is designed around a baseline environmental data concept that includes intensive biological field surveys of key areas of the Hanford Site where the majority of Site activities occur. These surveys are conducted at biologically appropriate times of year to ensure that the data gathered are current and accurate. The data are entered into the ECAP database, which serves as a reference for the evaluation of review requests coming in to the project. This methodology provided the basis for over 90 percent of the review requests received. Field surveys conducted under ECAP are performed to document occurrence information for species of concern and to obtain habitat descriptions. There are over 200 species of concern on the Hanford Site, including plants, birds, mammals, reptiles, amphibians, fish, and invertebrates. In addition, Washington State has designated mature sagebrush-steppe habitat as a Priority Habitat meriting special protective measures. Of the projects reviewed, 17 resulted or will result in impacts to species or habitats of concern on the Hanford Site. The greatest impact has been on big sagebrush habitat. Most of the impact has been or will be within the 600 Area of the Site

  8. Scenarios for biofuels in the road transport sector - environmental and welfare economic consequences. Synthesis report from the REBECa project

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Frederiksen, P.

    2013-01-15

    The project, Renewable energy in the transport sector using biofuel as energy carrier (REBECa), aimed to investigate the potentials for providing biofuels for the road transport sector based on domestically cultivated bioenergy crops, and to analyse the consequences for air quality, land use, GHG emission and welfare economy. Moreover, a review of international perspectives on sustainability of biofuels was carried out. Different scenarios for the introduction of biofuels were developed - one aiming at 10 % share of biofuels in 2020, and another aiming at 25 % share in 2030. A forecast of the road transport until 2030 was produced and ensuing energy demand modelled. Estimates of the resulting demand for biomass, based on wheat grain, straw and rape, were introduced in agricultural scenarios of production and land use, and the possibilities for responding to the biomass requirements were analysed. Wellto-wheel emissions to air were calculated and impacts on air quality and health hazard investigated. Welfare economic effects corresponding to the well-to-wheel analytical framework were analysed. Results show that changes in air emissions (apart from CO{sub 2}) resulting from substitution of fossil fuel with biofuel were small, due to the general reduction of air emissions owing to EU policy implementation and technological development. The provision of sufficient home-grown bioenergy crops would at some stage influence the production of fodder. The overall results for fossil fuel reductions, CO{sub 2} emissions and the welfare economic costs using rape, wheat grain and straw as bioenergy crops, may point in opposite directions for the different fuels. While the largest gains in fossil fuel saving is related to the Rape Methyl Ester (RME) production chain, the welfare economic benefits show the largest positive results for 2{sup nd} generation biofuel. Results are highly dependent on decisions related to the analysis of co-products, and the prices of oil and wheat

  9. Price Projections of Feedstocks for Biofuels and Biopower in the U.S.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Langholtz, Matthew H [ORNL; Perlack, Robert D [ORNL; Graham, Robin Lambert [ORNL; Eaton, Laurence M [ORNL; Hellwinckel, Chad [Agricultural Policy Analysis Center, University of Tennessee; De La Torre Ugarte, Daniel G [ORNL

    2012-01-01

    The economic availability of biomass resources is a critical component in evaluating the commercial viability of biofuels. To evaluate projected farmgate prices and grower payments needed to procure 295 million dry Mg (325 million dry tons) of biomass in the U.S. by 2022, this research employs POLYSYS, an economic model of the U.S. agriculture sector. A price-run simulation suggests that a farmgate price of $58.42 Mg{sup -1} ($53.00 dry ton{sup -1}) is needed to procure this supply, while a demand-run simulation suggests that prices of $34.56 and $71.61 Mg{sup -1} ($30.00 and $62.00 dry ton{sup -1}) in are needed in 2012 and 2022, respectively, to procure the same supply, under baseline yield assumptions. Grower payments are reported as farmgate price minus resource-specific harvest costs.

  10. Advanced energy projects FY 1983 research summaries

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This Division supports exploratory research on novel concepts related to energy. The research is usually aimed at establishing the scientific feasibility of a concept and, where appropriate, also at estimating its economic viability. Because projects supported inevitably involve a high degree of risk, an indication of a high potential payoff is required. An immediate, specific application of the concept is not an absolute prerequisite for consideration; thus, for example, proposers of schemes leading to the development of x-ray lasers are not required to justify their proposals by discussing potential applications of such lasers. The concepts supported are typically at too early a stage of scientific verification to qualify for funding by DOE programs responsible for technology development. Where doubt exists, such programs are consulted, prior to proposal consideration by AEP, in order to establish their possible interest in the project

  11. 2020 Vision Project Summary, FY98

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    A Munoz; J. C. Clausen; K. P. Scott; K. W. Gordon

    1998-11-01

    The 2020 Vision project began in 1996 with two participating teachers and four classes. It has since grown to comprise more than a dozen participating teachers and hundreds of students across the country. Much of this growth took place in FY98, thanks to the accomplishment of several major goals: implementation of a mentor program, enhanced teacher training, a mid-year conference for students, recruitment of distant schools, and the development of an interactive Web site. The first part of this report describes these accomplishments, as well as future directions for 2020 Vision. The second part summarized the scenarios students wrote during the 1997-98 school year. it identifies recurrent themes in the students' scenarios and compares/contrasts them with scenarios written in the first two years of the project.

  12. 2013 Clean Energy Investments: Project Summaries

    OpenAIRE

    Asian Development Bank

    2014-01-01

    This report summarizes the investments in clean energy made by the operations departments of the AsianDevelopment Bank (ADB) in 2013, condensing information from project databases and formal reports in an easy-to-reference format. This report was prepared by ADB’s Clean Energy Program which provides the cohesive agenda that encompasses and guides ADB’s lending and non-lending assistance, initiatives, and plan of action for sustainable growth in Asia and the Pacific.

  13. Susanville geothermal energy project. Summary report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Longyear, A.B.

    1976-08-27

    The follow up on the Susanville geothermal energy project workshop is described. A post-conference survey was conducted and pertinent reports collected. Copies of available pertinent letter reports are included in the appendices. A proposed preliminary draft of a local ordinance structured for the protection of the resource is included in an appendix. The City Council of Susanville adopted a preliminary city of Susanville Geothermal policy. A copy of the objectives, guidelines, and criteria are included.

  14. FarmLime Project Summary Report

    OpenAIRE

    Mitchell, C. J.; Simukanga, S.; Shitumbanuma, V.; Banda, D.; Walker, B; Steadman, E. J.; Muibeya, B.; Mwanza, M.; Mtonga, M.; Kapindula, D.

    2003-01-01

    This report summarises work funded by the Department for International Development Knowledge and Research programme, as part of the British Government’s programme of aid to developing countries. The ‘FarmLime: Low-cost lime for small-scale farming’ project (R7410) set out to investigate a way of improving the agricultural performance of small scale farms through the use of low-cost agricultural lime produced within the farming district using locally occurring dolomite. The main technical rese...

  15. Summaries of the Idaho National Engineering Laboratory Radioecology and Ecology Program research projects

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This report provides summaries of individual research projects conducted by the Idaho National Engineering Laboratory Radioecology and Ecology Program. Summaries include projects in various stages, from those that are just beginning, to projects that are in the final publication stage

  16. Energy tariff project - Latvia. Summary report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Latvia has only a few indigenous energy resources that are concentrated on hydro-power, wood and peat. The country is therefore strongly dependant on imports of natural gas, oil, coal and electricity. After independence the supply of natural gas, oil and electricity were organised by three state owned joint-stock companies, Latvijas Gaze, Latvijas Nafta and Latvenergo. Partial privatisation of the gas and oil companies has been decided by the Latvian government but so far not implemented. Two types of models have been used within the Energy Tariff Project: The EFOM model that was developed and implemented for Latvia as a part of the EURIO project has been adapted to describe the long term reactions for the electricity and district heating sectors; A system of Customer Calculation Sheets for the analysis of consumer expenditure and utility revenue. The optimization model for the electricity and CHP system is also used to analyze the impact of gas tariffs for the electricity and district heating sector within geographical or institutional limits. In this report the following regions are specified: City of Riga; Other district heating areas; Rest of Latvia. The Danish tariff structure for natural gas was reviewed. The present structure is presently market orientated with direct links to the price movements of alternative fuels for all customer groups. (EG) 50 refs

  17. Summary Report for Capsule Dry Storage Project

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    JOSEPHSON, W S

    2003-09-04

    There are 1.936 cesium (Cs) and strontium (Sr) capsules stored in pools at the Waste Encapsulation and Storage Facility (WESF). These capsules will be moved to dry storage on the Hanford Site as an interim measure to reduce risk. The Cs/Sr Capsule Dry Storage Project (CDSP) is conducted under the assumption the capsules will eventually be moved to the repository at Yucca Mountain, and the design criteria include requirements that will facilitate acceptance at the repository. The storage system must also permit retrieval of capsules in the event vitrification of the capsule contents is pursued. A cut away drawing of a typical cesium chloride (CsCI) capsule and the capsule property and geometry information are provided in Figure 1.1. Strontium fluoride (SrF{sub 2}) capsules are similar in design to CsCl capsules. Further details of capsule design, current state, and reference information are given later in this report and its references. Capsule production and life history is covered in WMP-16938, Capsule Characterization Report for Capsule Dry Storage Project, and is briefly summarized in Section 5.2 of this report.

  18. Ceramic Technology Project database: March 1990 summary report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Keyes, B.L.P.

    1992-07-01

    This report is the fifth in a series of semiannual data summary reports on information being stored in the Ceramic Technology Project (CTP) database. The overall system status as of March 31, 1990, is summarized, and the latest additions of ceramic mechanical properties data are given for zirconia, silicon carbide, and silicon nitride ceramic mechanical properties data, including some properties on brazed specimens.

  19. 1981 Magnetic-fusion theory program project summaries

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The theory program supports research projects at three different types of sites: DOE and other government laboratories, universities, and industrial contractors. This report is organized into three sections corresponding to the three types of sites and within each section is organized alphabetically by site name. Summaries of each program are given

  20. Project Entsorgungsnachweis: summary of the safety case

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This paper presents some key aspects of the safety case for the proposed deep geological repository for the direct disposal of spent UO2 or mixed-oxide fuel (SF), vitrified high-level waste from the reprocessing of spent fuel (HLW) and long-lived intermediate-level waste (ILW) in the Opalinus Clay of the Zurcher Weinland in northern Switzerland (Nagra, 2002). These include arguments and analyses that: demonstrate safety and compliance with regulatory protection objectives; and indicate that the actual performance of the disposal system will, in reality, be more favourable than that evaluated in the quantitative analyses. The process by which the arguments and analyses are developed is termed safety assessment. Safety assessment is used to show how a proposed disposal system could evolve over the course of time and to test whether adequate levels of safety are to be expected based on what is known about the system, and whether there are any circumstances that cannot currently be ruled out in which safety might be compromised. In the case of the proposed SF/HLW/ILW repository, consistent with the early stage of a repository programme, the main emphasis is currently on assessing the general feasibility of the project and on discussing its robustness. The safety assessment also provides a platform for discussion of a broad range of topics related to repository development. (author)

  1. Environmentally compliant manufacturing. Project accomplishment summary

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The metal working industry needs to reduce the waste associated with scrap, worn tools, degradation of metal working fluids, and etc. One task in this project concerned metal working fluids (MWF), which typically consists of surfactants, anti-microbial agents, lubricating agents, complexing agents, and a number of other components. The waste stream volume from the MWF can be reduced by judiciously (1) recycling, (2) selective replacement of expended components, and (3) protecting against microbial contamination. This activity consists of developing an analytical method, amenable to automation, which addresses all three of the methods of extending the MWF lifetime, thereby reducing the waste stream. The technology for determining key components in MWF on-line (at the machine tool) did not exist. The Y-12 Plant's collaboration was selected for this particular endeavor because of its ongoing machining operations and expertise in automation. In addition, concerns have been raised regarding chronic exposure of machine shop personnel to metal working fluid mists generated during routine machining operations. The chemical composition of metal working fluids is fairly well known, however, the chemical and physical characteristics of the resulting aerosols (mists) are not as well known. Machinists exposed to these aerosols by inhalation and skin contact sometimes develop unpleasant reactions. The second task involved efforts to characterize mists generated from candidate cutting fluids

  2. NYU Ultracomputer project. Final project summary, 1979-1993

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gottlieb, A.

    1994-10-01

    This report discusses the following on the Ultracomputer project: simulation studies; network analysis; prototype hardware; VSLI design; coordination algorithms; systems software; application software; and compiler development.

  3. Summary of Differences in Approach to Executing the NGNP Project

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The following discuss the summary differences between the NGNP Industry Alliance's approach to execution of the NGNP Project as described in its Project Execution Strategy, and that included in the DOE's Report to Congress on the Next Generation Nuclear Plant dated April 2010. These summary differences are not a comprehensive description of the results of a detailed gap analysis, but rather are those differences that warrant discussion in meetings between DOE executives and the private sector represented by the Alliance. In practical fact, the full range and content of the differences will not be understood until such time as detailed discussions are engaged between the DOE and the Alliance to develop a mutually agreed-to project execution plan.

  4. Algae Biofuels Collaborative Project: Cooperative Research and Development Final Report, CRADA Number CRD-10-371

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    French, R. J.

    2012-04-01

    The goal of this project is to advance biofuels research on algal feedstocks and NREL's role in the project is to explore novel liquid extraction methods, gasification and pyrolysis as means to produce fuels from algae. To that end several different extraction methods were evaluated and numerous gasification and pyrolysis conditions were explored. It was found that mild hydrothermal treatment is a promising means to improve the extraction and conversion of lipids from algae over those produced by standard extraction methods. The algae were essentially found to gasify completely at a fairly low temperature of 750 degrees C in the presence of oxygen. Pyrolysis from 300-550 degrees C showed sequential release of phytene hydrocarbons, glycerides, and aromatics as temperature was increased. It appears that this has potential to release the glycerides from the non-fatty acid groups present in the polar lipids to produce a cleaner lipid. Further research is needed to quantify the pyrolysis and gasification yields, analyze the liquids produced and to test strategies for removing organic-nitrogen byproducts produced because of the high protein content of the feed. Possible strategies include use of high-lipid/low-protein algae or the use of catalytic pyrolysis.

  5. Climate, Biofuels and Water: Projections and Sustainability Implications for the Upper Mississippi River Basin

    Science.gov (United States)

    Deb, D.; Tuppad, P.; Daggupati, P.; Srinivasan, R.; Varma, D.

    2014-12-01

    Impact of climate change on the water resources of the United States exposes the vulnerability of feedstock-specific mandated fuel targets to extreme weather conditions that could become more frequent and intensify in the future. Consequently, a sustainable biofuel policy should consider a) how climate change would alter both water supply and demand and, b) in turn, how related changes in water availability will impact the production of biofuel crops and c) the environmental implications of large scale biofuel productions. Since, understanding the role of biofuels in the water cycle is key to understanding many of the environmental impacts of biofuels, the focus of this study is on modeling the rarely explored interactions between land use, climate change, water resources and the environment in future biofuel production systems to explore the impacts of the US biofuel policy and climate change on water and agricultural resources. More specifically, this research will address changes in the water demand and availability, soil erosion and water quality driven by both climate change and biomass feedstock production in the Upper Mississippi River Basin. We used the SWAT (Soil and Water Assessment Tool) hydrologic model to analyze the water quantity and quality consequences of land use and land management related changes in cropping conditions (e.g. more use of marginal lands, greater residue harvest, increased yields), plus management practices due to biofuel crops to meet the RFS target on water quality and quantity. Results show that even if the Upper Mississippi River Basin is a region of low water stress, it contributes to high nutrient load in Gulf of Mexico through seasonal shifts in streamflow, changes in extreme high and low flow events, changes in loadings and transport of sediments and nutrients due to changes in precipitation patterns and intensity, changes in frequency of occurrence of floods and drought, early melting of snow and ice, increasing

  6. Using the Lashof Accounting Methodology to Assess Carbon Mitigation Projects Using LCA: Ethanol Biofuel as a Case Study

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Courchesne, Alexandre; Becaert, Valerie; Rosenbaum, Ralph K.;

    2010-01-01

    As governments elaborate strategies to counter climate change, there is a need to compare the different options available on an environmental basis. This study proposes a life cycle assessment (LCA) framework integrating the Lashof Mg-year accounting methodology that allows the assessment and...... comparison of different carbon mitigation projects (e.g. biofuel use, sequestering plant, afforestation project, etc.). The Lashof accounting methodology is chosen amid other methods of greenhouse gas (GHG) emission characterization for its relative simplicity and capability of characterizing all types of...

  7. Project summary plan for HTGR recycle reference facility

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Baxter, B.J.

    1979-11-01

    A summary plan is introduced for completing conceptual definition of an HTGR Recycle Reference Facility (HRRF). The plan describes a generic project management concept, often referred to as the requirements approach to systems engineering. The plan begins with reference flow sheets and provides for the progressive evolution of HRRF requirements and definition through feasibility, preconceptual, and conceptual phases. The plan lays end-to-end all the important activities and elements to be treated during each phase of design. Identified activities and elements are further supported by technical guideline documents, which describe methodology, needed terminology, and where relevant a worked example.

  8. Project summary plan for HTGR recycle reference facility

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A summary plan is introduced for completing conceptual definition of an HTGR Recycle Reference Facility (HRRF). The plan describes a generic project management concept, often referred to as the requirements approach to systems engineering. The plan begins with reference flow sheets and provides for the progressive evolution of HRRF requirements and definition through feasibility, preconceptual, and conceptual phases. The plan lays end-to-end all the important activities and elements to be treated during each phase of design. Identified activities and elements are further supported by technical guideline documents, which describe methodology, needed terminology, and where relevant a worked example

  9. Ceramic Technology Project database: September 1990 summary report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Keyes, B.L.P.

    1992-06-01

    Data generated within the Ceramic Technology Project (CTP) represent a valuable resource for both research and industry. The CTP database was created to provide easy access to this information in electronic and hardcopy forms by using a computerized database and by issuing periodic hardcopy reports on the database contents. This report is the sixth in a series of semiannual database summaries and covers recent additions to the database, including joined brazed specimen test data. It covers 1 SiC, 34 SiN, 10 whisker-reinforced SiN, 2 zirconia-toughened aluminas, 8 zirconias, and 34 joints.

  10. SKI SITE-94. Deep Repository Performance Assessment Project. Summary

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The function of SITE-94 is to provide the Swedish Nuclear Power Inspectorate (SKI) with the capacity and supporting knowledge needed for reviewing the Swedish nuclear industry's R and D programs and for reviewing license applications, as stipulated in Swedish legislation. The report is structured as a Performance Assessment exercise needed for input to decisions regarding repository safety, but the SITE-94 is neither a safety assessment nor a model for future assessments to be undertaken by the prospective licensee. The specific project objectives of SITE-94 comprise site evaluation, performance assessment methodology, canister integrity and radionuclide release and transport calculations. The main report (SKI-R--96-36) gives a detailed description of the many inter-related studies undertaken as part of the research project, while the present report presents a condensed summary of the main report. 46 refs

  11. MIT LMFBR blanket research project. Final summary report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Driscoll, M.J.

    1983-08-01

    This is a final summary report on an experimental and analytical program for the investigation of LMFBR blanket characteristics carried out at MIT in the period 1969 to 1983. During this span of time, work was carried out on a wide range of subtasks, ranging from neutronic and photonic measurements in mockups of blankets using the Blanket Test Facility at the MIT Research Reactor, to analytic/numerical investigations of blanket design and economics. The main function of this report is to serve as a resource document which will permit ready reference to the more detailed topical reports and theses issued over the years on the various aspects of project activities. In addition, one aspect of work completed during the final year of the project, on doubly-heterogeneous blanket configurations, is documented for the record.

  12. MIT LMFBR blanket research project. Final summary report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This is a final summary report on an experimental and analytical program for the investigation of LMFBR blanket characteristics carried out at MIT in the period 1969 to 1983. During this span of time, work was carried out on a wide range of subtasks, ranging from neutronic and photonic measurements in mockups of blankets using the Blanket Test Facility at the MIT Research Reactor, to analytic/numerical investigations of blanket design and economics. The main function of this report is to serve as a resource document which will permit ready reference to the more detailed topical reports and theses issued over the years on the various aspects of project activities. In addition, one aspect of work completed during the final year of the project, on doubly-heterogeneous blanket configurations, is documented for the record

  13. Viewls - Shift gear to biofuels. Results and recommendations from the VIEWLS project

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Heuvel, E. van den

    2006-11-15

    Biofuels are fuels made from an organic origin, as opposed to a fossil-fuel-based origin. This is an enormous advantage in a period where the undesired impacts of environmental changes are increasingly being experienced. The organic origin implies that the circle between environmental profit and loss is (about to be) closed. At the same time, the advantage of being an organic fuel is also a weakness: the production of the biomass resources, the production processes themselves and the use of the fuels in transport vehicles lead to varying emission figures, thus causing a lack of consensus concerning the degree to which the 'circle' is closed. The fact that biofuels are produced from an organic origin also creates opportunities, especially for farmers and biomass producers. The new members of the European Union could benefit from this opportunity, creating a win-win situation for both existing and new Member States, i.e. employment in the agricultural sector and reduced environmental pressure in the transport sector - a sector confronted with continued increases in energy consumption and corresponding CO{sub 2}-eq. emissions. Furthermore, if biofuels can be produced in the extended European Union (EU-25) countries, then both existing and new Member States can contribute to the trend reversal of oil import dependency. In order to achieve this, we need to discover how to minimise the market introduction costs of biofuels when entering the transport fuels market. (au)

  14. Midwest Forensics Resource Center Project Summary June 2005

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    David Baldwin

    2005-06-01

    procedures, (3) capabilities, teaming, and leveraging, and (4) implementation plan. A successful proposal demonstrates knowledge of the background for the research and related work in the field and includes a research plan with a defined plan to implement the technology to benefit our partners at the crime laboratories. The project summaries are meant to demonstrate the range of research funded by the MFRC including chemistry, DNA, and patterned evidence. The project summaries describe the forensic need the projects serve as well as the benefits derived from the technology. The summaries provide a brief description of the technology and the accomplishments to date. In addition, the collaboration with regional partners and the status of the implementation of the technology are highlighted. These technical summaries represent the development and implementation of practical and useful technology for crime laboratories that the MFRC hopes to accomplish.

  15. Ceramic Technology Project database: March 1990 summary report. DOE/ORNL Ceramic Technology Project

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Keyes, B.L.P.

    1992-07-01

    This report is the fifth in a series of semiannual data summary reports on information being stored in the Ceramic Technology Project (CTP) database. The overall system status as of March 31, 1990, is summarized, and the latest additions of ceramic mechanical properties data are given for zirconia, silicon carbide, and silicon nitride ceramic mechanical properties data, including some properties on brazed specimens.

  16. Viability of biofuel use in CDM (Clean Development Mechanisms) projects; Viabilidade do uso do biodiesel para projetos de MDL (Mecanismo de Desenvolvimento Limpo)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fortes, Julio; Lima, Luciana Santana de [Universidade do Estado do Rio de Janeiro (UERJ), RJ (Brazil)

    2008-07-01

    Biodiesel, renewable energy source, has been adopted by several countries as a possible substitute for fossil fuels. Brazil, by its own, included oil and fat derived biofuel in its energetic matrix through National Politics for Biofuel Use and Production (NPBUP), issue in Law n. 11.097 of 01/13/2005. Many studies demonstrate the contribution of biofuel for Greenhouse Gases reduction, what turns projects using it into possible candidates for Clean Development Mechanism (CDM), instrument described in Kyoto Protocol. With purpose of studying the Brazilian potentiality of the insertion of biofuel into CDM projects, this report approaches many aspects related to CDM, as well the terms for being accepted as so. Through bibliographic review were listed the possibilities and the restraints for including biofuel in carbon market resulted, principally, by the obligation of its use; what goes against the principle of voluntary, for seen in the Protocol. I concluded analyzing the advantages of biofuel comparatively to environmental issues, emphasizing the necessity of making viable its entrance into carbon credits market. (author)

  17. Algal Biofuels; Algal Biofuels R&D at NREL (Brochure)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    2010-09-01

    An overview of NREL's algal biofuels projects, including U.S. Department of Energy-funded work, projects with U.S. and international partners, and Laboratory Directed Research and Development projects.

  18. Biofuel Database

    Science.gov (United States)

    Biofuel Database (Web, free access)   This database brings together structural, biological, and thermodynamic data for enzymes that are either in current use or are being considered for use in the production of biofuels.

  19. The biofuels in France

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The biofuels are liquid renewable energies sources resulting from vegetal matters. Today are two channels of biofuels: the ethanol channel for gasoline and the vegetal oils channel for the diesel. In the first part, the document presents the different channels and the energy efficiency of the products. It shows in the second part the advantages for the environment (CO2 accounting) and for the energy independence. It discusses then the future developments and the projects. The fourth part is devoted to the legislation, regulations, taxes and financial incentives. The last part presents the french petroleum industry actions and attitudes in the framework of the biofuels development. (A.L.B.)

  20. Summary : Cooperative whooping crane tracking project : Fall 1975 to spring 1989

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — Summary of the whooping crane tracking project for fall 1975 to spring 1989. The Project involves the following activities: (a) distribution of Pre­Migration...

  1. SOLERAS - Solar Controlled Environment Agriculture Project. Final report, Volume 1. Project summary

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1985-12-30

    A summary of the Solar Controlled Environment Agriculture Project is presented. The design of the greenhouses include transparent double pane glass roof with channels for fluid between the panes, inner pane tinted and double pane extruded acrylic aluminized mylar shade and diffuser. Solar energy technologies provide power for water desalination, for pumping irrigation water, and for cooling and heating the controlled environment space so that crops can grow in arid lands. The project is a joint effort between the United States and Saudi Arabia. (BCS)

  2. A Summary of chemical data from the EPORA project

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Thorring, H.; Steinnes, E. [Norwegian University of Science and Technology (Norway); Nikonov, V. [Institute of North Industrial Ecology Problems (Russian Federation); Rahola, T.; Rissanen, K. [Radiation and Nuclear Safety Authority, Helsinki (Finland)

    1999-08-01

    EPORA (Effects of Industrial Pollution on Distribution Dynamics of Radionuclides in Boreal Understorey Ecosystems) is part of the EU Nuclear Fission Safety Programme 1994-1998, and is co-ordinated by STUK. The main purpose of the project is to study the influence of strong chemical pollution on the turnover of long-lived artificial radionuclides in a northern boreal ecosystem, and its implication on the radiation exposure to local population. The study area is located in the Kola peninsula, Russia in the vicinity of the Monchegorsk copper-nickel smelter. The smelter has operated since 30's and has since then discharged large amounts of sulphur and heavy metals into its surroundings.The present report is a documentation of the chemical analyses of soils and vegetation performed in EPORA in order to characterize the ecological impact of the emissions from Monchegorsk at different distances from the smelter. It also contains a brief description of the methods used and a summary of the most prominent trends apparent from the data presented. (orig.)

  3. Tank farm restoration and safe operation, Project W-314, upgrade scope summary report (USSR)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The revision to the Project W-314 Upgrade Scope Summary Report (USSR), incorporates changes to the project scope from customer guidance. Included are incorporation of the recommendations from HNF-2500, agreements regarding interfaces with Project W-211, and assumption of scope previously assigned to Project W-454

  4. Biofuels worldwide

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    After over 20 years of industrial development, the outlook for biofuels now looks bright. Recent developments indicate that the use of biofuels, previously confined to a handful of countries including Brazil and the United States, is 'going global' and a world market may emerge. However, these prospects could eventually be limited by constraints relative to resources and costs. The future of biofuels probably depends on the development of new technologies to valorize lignocellulosic substances such as wood and straw. (author)

  5. International Trade of Biofuels (Brochure)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    2013-05-01

    In recent years, the production and trade of biofuels has increased to meet global demand for renewable fuels. Ethanol and biodiesel contribute much of this trade because they are the most established biofuels. Their growth has been aided through a variety of policies, especially in the European Union, Brazil, and the United States, but ethanol trade and production have faced more targeted policies and tariffs than biodiesel. This fact sheet contains a summary of the trade of biofuels among nations, including historical data on production, consumption, and trade.

  6. Light Water Reactor Sustainability Constellation Pilot Project FY11 Summary Report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Summary report for Fiscal Year 2011 activities associated with the Constellation Pilot Project. The project is a joint effor between Constellation Nuclear Energy Group (CENG), EPRI, and the DOE Light Water Reactor Sustainability Program. The project utilizes two CENG reactor stations: R.E. Ginna and Nine Point Unit 1. Included in the report are activities associate with reactor internals and concrete containments.

  7. DQO Summary Report for 105-N/109-N Interim Safe Storage Project Waste Characterization

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The DQO summary report provides the results of the DQO process completed for waste characterization activities for the 105-N/109-N Reactor Interim Safe Storage Project including decommission, deactivate, decontaminate, and demolish activities for six associated buildings.

  8. Executive summaries of reports leading to the construction of the Baca Geothermal Demonstration Project

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sherwood, P.B.; Newman, K.L.; Westermeier, J.F.; Giroux, H.D.; Lowe, G.D.; Nienberg, M.W.

    1980-05-01

    Executive summaries have been written for 61 reports and compilations of data which in part, have led to the construction of the Baca 50 MW Geothermal Demonstration Project (GDP). The reports and data include environmental research, reservoir and feasibility studies, the project proposal to DOE and the Final Environmental Impact Statement. These executive summaries are intended to give the reader a general overview of each report prior to requesting the report from the GDP Data Manager.

  9. Executive summaries of reports leading to the construction of the Baca Geothermal Demonstration Project

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sherwood, P.B.; Newman, K.L.; Westermeier, J.F.; Giroux, H.D.; Lowe, G.D.; Nienberg, M.W.

    1980-05-01

    Executive summaries have been written for 61 reports and compilations of data which, in part, have led to the construction of the Baca 50 MW Geothermal Demonstration Project (GDP). The reports and data include environmental research, reservoir and feasibility studies, the project proposal to DOE and the Final Environmental Impact Statement. These executive summaries are intended to give the reader a general overview of each report prior to requesting the report from the GDP Data Manager.

  10. World Biofuels Study

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Alfstad,T.

    2008-10-01

    This report forms part of a project entitled 'World Biofuels Study'. The objective is to study world biofuel markets and to examine the possible contribution that biofuel imports could make to help meet the Renewable Fuel Standard (RFS) of the Energy Independence and Security Act of 2007 (EISA). The study was sponsored by the Biomass Program of the Assistant Secretary for Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE), U.S. Department of Energy. It is a collaborative effort among the Office of Policy and International Affairs (PI), Department of Energy and Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL), National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL) and Brookhaven National Laboratory (BNL). The project consisted of three main components: (1) Assessment of the resource potential for biofuel feedstocks such as sugarcane, grains, soybean, palm oil and lignocellulosic crops and development of supply curves (ORNL). (2) Assessment of the cost and performance of biofuel production technologies (NREL). (3) Scenario-based analysis of world biofuel markets using the ETP global energy model with data developed in the first parts of the study (BNL). This report covers the modeling and analysis part of the project conducted by BNL in cooperation with PI. The Energy Technology Perspectives (ETP) energy system model was used as the analytical tool for this study. ETP is a 15 region global model designed using the MARKAL framework. MARKAL-based models are partial equilibrium models that incorporate a description of the physical energy system and provide a bottom-up approach to study the entire energy system. ETP was updated for this study with biomass resource data and biofuel production technology cost and performance data developed by ORNL and NREL under Tasks 1 and 2 of this project. Many countries around the world are embarking on ambitious biofuel policies through renewable fuel standards and economic incentives. As a result, the global biofuel demand is expected to grow very

  11. Novel biofuel formulations for enhanced vehicle performance

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Miller, Dennis [Michigan State Univ., East Lansing, MI (United States); Narayan, Ramani [Michigan State Univ., East Lansing, MI (United States); Berglund, Kris [Michigan State Univ., East Lansing, MI (United States); Lira, Carl [Michigan State Univ., East Lansing, MI (United States); Schock, Harold [Michigan State Univ., East Lansing, MI (United States); Jaberi, Farhad [Michigan State Univ., East Lansing, MI (United States); Lee, Tonghun [Michigan State Univ., East Lansing, MI (United States); Anderson, James [Michigan State Univ., East Lansing, MI (United States); Wallington, Timothy [Michigan State Univ., East Lansing, MI (United States); Kurtz, Eric [Michigan State Univ., East Lansing, MI (United States); Ruona, Will; Hass, Heinz

    2013-08-30

    engine under highly instrumented conditions. Simulation of and experimentation on combustion in single and multicylinder engines was carried out in detail throughout the project. The combustion behavior of biofuel blends neat and in petroleum were characterized in the MSU optical engine, in part to validate results obtained in the RCM and to provide data for comparison with simulations. Simulation of in- cylinder, low-temperature combustion included development of an extensive fuel injection model that included fuel spray breakup, evaporation, and ignition, along with prediction of cylinder temperature, pressure, and work produced. Single cylinder and multicylinder engine tests under advanced low-temperature combustion conditions conducted at Ford Motor Company validated experimental and simulation results obtained in the MSU engine and in MSU simulations. Single cylinder engine tests of an advanced biofuel containing biodiesel and dibutyl succinate, carried out under low-temperature combustion conditions, showed similar power generation and gas-phase emissions (CO, HC, NOx), but a reduction in particulates of as much as 60% relative to neat biodiesel and 95% relative to petroleum diesel at the same operating conditions. This remarkable finding suggests that biofuels may be able to play a role in eliminating the need for particulate removal systems in diesel vehicles. The multicylinder engine tests at Ford, carried out using butyl nonanoate as an advanced biofuel, also gave promising results, showing a strong decline in particulate emissions and simultaneously a modest decrease in NOx emissions relative to standard petroleum diesel at the same conditions. In summary, this project has shown that advanced biofuels and their blends are capable of maintaining performance while reducing emissions, particularly particulates (soot), in 3 compression ignition engines. The interdisciplinary nature of biofuel production and testing has identified fuel properties that are capable

  12. Tank farm restoration and safe operation, project W-314, upgrade scope summary report (USSR)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This revision to the Project W-314 Upgrade Scope Summary Report (USSR), incorporates changes to the project scope from Alternative Generation Analysis (AGA), customer guidance, and changing requirements. It defines the actual upgrades currently in scope, and provides traceability to the requirements and/or drivers

  13. Modeling the world heroin market : Assessing the consequences of changes in Afghanistan production (project summary)

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Paoli, L.; Reuter, P.; Greenfield, V.

    2006-01-01

    This document (16 pages) describes the project objectives and methods and summarizes its key findings. A book presenting in detail the project findings is published in 2009 by Oxford University Press. The information in this summary must be considered preliminary.

  14. The Position as Regards Functional Literacy Pilot Projects. Summary.

    Science.gov (United States)

    United Nations Educational, Scientific, and Cultural Organization, Paris (France).

    A comparative analysis was made of Experimental World Literacy Program projects in 17 nations (Algeria, Brazil, Chile, Equador, Ethiopia, Guinea, India, Iran, Mali, Jamaica, Madagascar, Nigeria, Sudan, Syria, Tanzania, Tunisia, and Venezuela) after 18 months of operation. Included were functional literacy projects in 10 nations, literacy programs…

  15. Environmental monitoring and assessment program: 1991 project descriptors. Summary report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kellar, P.; Suk, P.; Beach, A.

    1991-04-01

    The Environmental Monitoring and Assessment Program (EMAP) is a joint effort of the Office of Modeling, Monitoring Systems, and Quality Assurance and the Office of Environmental Processes and Effects Research, within the Office of Research and Development. The document has been prepared to provide information on the projects within EMAP completed in Fiscal Year 1990 and funded for Fiscal Year 1991. The document is organized into five major sections: the Introduction and Overview and four sections that contain individual Project Descriptors for the four major elements of EMAP. Sections 2, 3, 4, and 5 contain individual Project Descriptors for Resource Monitoring, Coordination Activities, Integration Activities, and Developmental Research, respectively. Additionally, each Project Descriptor is coded (to assist in budget and deliverables tracking) and indexed for easy reference. The categories used to generate the three indices at the back of the document are (1) Regions and States - EPA Regions and states in which field projects or principal research activities are or will be conducted; (2) Project Officers - responsible for managing the project, providing technical direction and guidance, and ensuring coordination among related projects; and (3) Principal Investigators - responsible for ensuring the objectives are met and the work plan is executed. The Principal Investigators Index is further broken down into four categories.

  16. Statistical Process Control. A Summary. FEU/PICKUP Project Report.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Owen, M.; Clark, I.

    A project was conducted to develop a curriculum and training materials to be used in training industrial operatives in statistical process control (SPC) techniques. During the first phase of the project, questionnaires were sent to 685 companies (215 of which responded) to determine where SPC was being used, what type of SPC firms needed, and how…

  17. Secretary's annual report to Congress. Volume III. Project summaries

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    None

    1981-01-01

    Progress and status of representative projects in each program within DOE are summarized. Subjects covered and the number of projects reported on are: conservation (2); fossil energy (11); nuclear energy (5); renewable energy resources (16); energy production and power marketing (3); general science (11); defense programs (7); contingency planning (3); and management and oversight (1). (MCW)

  18. Prime Hook NWR Marsh Restoration Project Summary & Monitoring Plan 2015

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — This living document provides a condensed explanation of wetland management history and a large-scale tidal marsh restoration project at Prime Hook NWR in Delaware....

  19. DOE Robotics Project. Summary of progress for 1991

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1991-01-01

    This document provide the bimonthly progress reports on the Department of Energy (DOE) Robotics Project by the University of Michigan. Reports are provided for the time periods of December 90/January 91 through June 91/July 91. (FI)

  20. Postface "The GITEWS Project – results, summary and outlook"

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    U. Münch

    2011-03-01

    Full Text Available This paper reflects the experiences and results gained during the GITEWS project (German Indonesian Tsunami Early Warning System, which was funded by the Federal German Ministry of Education and Research between spring 2005 and spring 2011. Many of the individual results have been presented at international conferences and in international journals. The NHESS special issue offers a comprehensive overview of the key findings within the project and the first phase of operation of the warning system.

  1. The Human Genome Diversity (HGD) Project. Summary document

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1993-12-31

    In 1991 a group of human geneticists and molecular biologists proposed to the scientific community that a world wide survey be undertaken of variation in the human genome. To aid their considerations, the committee therefore decided to hold a small series of international workshops to explore the major scientific issues involved. The intention was to define a framework for the project which could provide a basis for much wider and more detailed discussion and planning--it was recognized that the successful implementation of the proposed project, which has come to be known as the Human Genome Diversity (HGD) Project, would not only involve scientists but also various national and international non-scientific groups all of which should contribute to the project`s development. The international HGD workshop held in Sardinia in September 1993 was the last in the initial series of planning workshops. As such it not only explored new ground but also pulled together into a more coherent form much of the formal and informal discussion that had taken place in the preceding two years. This report presents the deliberations of the Sardinia workshop within a consideration of the overall development of the HGD Project to date.

  2. A summary of lessons learned activities conducted at the OECD Halden Reactor Project

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hallbert, B.P. [OECD Halden Reactor Project (Norway)

    1997-02-01

    A series of lessons learned studies have been conducted at the OECD Halden Reactor Project. The purpose of these lessons learned reports are to summarize knowledge and experience gained across a number of research project. This paper presents a summary of main issues addressed in four of these lessons learned projects. These are concerned with software development and quality assurance, software reliability, methods for test and evaluation of developed systems, and the evaluation of system design features.

  3. A summary of lessons learned activities conducted at the OECD Halden Reactor Project

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A series of lessons learned studies have been conducted at the OECD Halden Reactor Project. The purpose of these lessons learned reports are to summarize knowledge and experience gained across a number of research project. This paper presents a summary of main issues addressed in four of these lessons learned projects. These are concerned with software development and quality assurance, software reliability, methods for test and evaluation of developed systems, and the evaluation of system design features

  4. Summary Report for the SINBAD Search Tool Project

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cunha Da Silva, Alice [ORNL

    2012-06-01

    The Shielding Integral Benchmark Archive Database (SINBAD) Search Tool has been developed to serve as an interface with the SINBAD database to facilitate a simple and quick means of searching for information related to experimental benchmark problems. The Search Tool is written in Java and provides a better and efficient way to retrieve information from the SINBAD database. Searches can be performed quickly and easily. With regard to improvements, users are no longer required to know the name of the benchmarks to search the database. Instead, a search can be performed by specifying the experimental facility, constituents of the experimental benchmark, etc. In summary, a new powerful database search tool has been developed for SINBAD.

  5. Ceramic Technology Project data base: September 1992 summary report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Keyes, B.L.P.

    1993-06-01

    Data presented in this report represent an intense effort to improve processing methods, testing methods, and general mechanical properties (rupture modulus, tensile, creep, stress-rupture, dynamic and cyclic fatigue, fracture toughness) of candidate ceramics for use in advanced heat engines. This work was performed by many facilities and represents only a small part of the data generated by the Ceramic Technology Project (CTP) since 1986. Materials discussed include GTE PY6, GN-10, NT-154, NT-164, SN-260, SN-251, SN-252, AY6, silicon nitride combined with rare-earth oxides, Y-TZP, ZTA, NC-433, NT-230, Hexoloy SA, MgO-PSZ-to-MgO-PSZ joints, MgO-PSZ-to-cast iron, and a few whisker/fiber-reinforced ceramics. Information in this report was taken from the project`s semiannual and bimonthly progress reports and from final reports summarizing the results of individual studies. Test results are presented in tabular form and in graphs. All data, including test rig descriptions and material characterizations, are stored in the CTP data base and are available to all project participants on request. The objective of this report is to make available the test results from these studies but not to draw conclusions from those data.

  6. Solar heating and cooling. Research and development: project summaries

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1978-05-01

    The Conservation and Solar Applications Solar Heating and Cooling Research and Development Program is described. The evolution of the R and D program is described and the present program is outlined. A series of project descriptions summarizes the research and development presently supported for further development of collectors, thermal energy storage and heat exchangers, heat pumps, solar cooling, controls, and systems. (MHR)

  7. Preparatory assistance project alternative energy sources. Summary of results

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This work is about the forest areas and the artificial forest wood survey carried out in the alternative energy sources framework project. The use of wood as fuel in Uruguay requires specific actions of the State to ensure the balanced management of natural energy resources

  8. The Children's Hearings Project Research Findings. A Summary Report.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Merry, Sally E.; And Others

    Since 1980 the Children's Hearings Project (CHP) in Cambridge, Massachusetts, has offered status offenders and their families mediation as an alternative to the courts. This report describes CPH's origins and summarizes the results of an extensive research study conducted during the first 2 years of its operation. The key findings were: (1)…

  9. Summary report of project SIREN (Search, Intercept, Retrieve, Expulsion, Nuclear)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Project SIREN (Search, Intercept, Retrieve, Expulsion, Nuclear) has evaluated the technologies and operational strategies needed to rendezvous with and capture aerospace radioactive materials (e.g., a distressed or spent space reactor core) before such materials can reenter the terrestrial atmosphere and to move these captured materials to a space destination for proper disposal. The use of systems external to a satellite allows multiple attempts to prevent the nuclear materials from reentering the atmosphere. SIREN also has investigated means to prevent the breakup of nuclear-powered systems already in space. The SIREN project has determined that external means can be used reliably to prevent nuclear materials from reentering the terrestrial environment, prepared a computer model that can be used to evaluate the means to dispose of radioactive materials, assessed the hazards from existing nuclear power systems in space, and in discussions with Russian Federation representatives determined interest in joint activities in this area

  10. Summary report of project SIREN (Search, Intercept, Retrieve, Expulsion, Nuclear)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Buden, D.

    1992-12-01

    Project SIREN (Search, Intercept, Retrieve, Expulsion, Nuclear) has evaluated the technologies and operational strategies needed to rendezvous with and capture aerospace radioactive materials (e.g., a distressed or spent space reactor core) before such materials can reenter the terrestrial atmosphere and to move these captured materials to a space destination for proper disposal. The use of systems external to a satellite allows multiple attempts to prevent the nuclear materials from reentering the atmosphere. SIREN also has investigated means to prevent the breakup of nuclear-powered systems already in space. The SIREN project has determined that external means can be used reliably to prevent nuclear materials from reentering the terrestrial environment, prepared a computer model that can be used to evaluate the means to dispose of radioactive materials, assessed the hazards from existing nuclear power systems in space, and in discussions with Russian Federation representatives determined interest in joint activities in this area.

  11. Summary of student scenarios: 2020 Vision project, fiscal year 1997

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gordon, K.W.; Munoz, A.; Scott, K.P.; Rinne, R.

    1997-11-01

    The Strategic Issues Thinking: 2020 Vision project introduces students and teaches to national security issues through the techniques of scenario building, and engages them in an interactive process of creating scenarios relevant to the Department of Energy, Defense Programs (DOE/DP). Starting with the world as it is today, teams of students develop a series of scenarios on international developments over the next 25 years under various circumstances. This report identifies recurrent themes in the student`s scenarios, lists creative ways the students presented their scenarios, compares and contrasts the program`s FY97 results with FY96 results, identifies the benefits of the program, and offers a glimpse of Sandia`s future plans for the 2020 Vision project.

  12. Yakima Fisheries Project revised Draft Environmental Impact Statement: Summary

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The Bonneville Power Administration (BPA) proposes to fund the Yakima Fisheries Project (YFP) to undertake fishery research and enhancement activities in the Yakima River Basin. The State of Washington and the Yakima Indian Nation would jointly direct the project. The Yakima River system is a promising location for mitigation and enhancement to compensate for stock losses from development and operation of hydroelectric projects elsewhere in the Columbia Basin. The YFP would help determine the role that supplementation might play in increasing natural production of anadromous salmonids throughout the Columbia Basin. In cooperation with BPA, the project managers propose to construct, operate and maintain anadromous (e.g. salmon) fish production facilities. The goal is to conduct research activities designed to increase knowledge of supplementation techniques. These techniques would be applied to rebuild naturally spawning anadromous fish stocks historically present in the Yakima River Basin and, ultimately, those throughout the Columbia River Basin. Eventually, the YFP might involve the supplementation of all stocks of anadromous fish known to have occurred in the Yakima Basin. However, at this time only two alternatives have been proposed: Alternative 1 would supplement depressed naturally spawning populations of upper Yakima spring chinook salmon; Alternative 2 (preferred) would include all actions under Alternative 1; it would also add a study to determine the feasibility of re-establishing a naturally spawning population and a significant fall fishery for coho salmon in the Yakima Basin. (Coho smolts are currently being imported from another basin under the Columbia River Basin Fish Management Plan; the stock is now virtually eliminated from the Basin.)

  13. Automotive technology status and projections. Volume 1: Executive summary

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dowdy, M.; Burke, A.; Schneider, H.; Edmiston, W.; Klose, G. J.; Heft, R.

    1978-01-01

    Fuel economy, exhaust emissions, multifuel capability, advanced materials and cost/manufacturability for both conventional and advanced alternative power systems were assessed. To insure valid comparisons of vehicles with alternative power systems, the concept of an Otto-Engine-Equivalent (OEE) vehicle was utilized. Each engine type was sized to provide equivalent vehicle performance. Sensitivity to different performance criteria was evaluated. Fuel economy projections are made for each engine type considering both the legislated emission standards and possible future emissions requirements.

  14. Computer architecture evaluation for structural dynamics computations: Project summary

    Science.gov (United States)

    Standley, Hilda M.

    1989-01-01

    The intent of the proposed effort is the examination of the impact of the elements of parallel architectures on the performance realized in a parallel computation. To this end, three major projects are developed: a language for the expression of high level parallelism, a statistical technique for the synthesis of multicomputer interconnection networks based upon performance prediction, and a queueing model for the analysis of shared memory hierarchies.

  15. Asphalt Roofing Shingles Into Energy Project Summary Report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jameson, Rex, PE

    2008-04-28

    Based on a widely cited September, 1999 report by the Vermont Agency of Natural Resources, nearly 11 million tons of asphalt roofing shingle wastes are produced in the United States each year. Recent data suggests that the total is made up of about 9.4 million tons from roofing tear-offs and about 1.6 million tons from manufacturing scrap. Developing beneficial uses for these materials would conserve natural resources, promote protection of the environment and strengthen the economy. This project explored the feasibility of using chipped asphalt shingle materials in cement manufacturing kilns and circulating fluidized bed (CFB) boilers. A method of enhancing the value of chipped shingle materials for use as fuel by removing certain fractions for use as substitute raw materials for the manufacture of new shingles was also explored. Procedures were developed to prevent asbestos containing materials from being processed at the chipping facilities, and the frequency of the occurrence of asbestos in residential roofing tear-off materials was evaluated. The economic feasibility of each potential use was evaluated based on experience gained during the project and on a review of the well established use of shingle materials in hot mix asphalt. This project demonstrated that chipped asphalt shingle materials can be suitable for use as fuel in circulating fluidized boilers and cement kilns. More experience would be necessary to determine the full benefits that could be derived and to discover long term effects, but no technical barriers to full scale commercial use of chipped asphalt shingle materials in these applications were discovered. While the technical feasibility of various options was demonstrated, only the use of asphalt shingle materials in hot mix asphalt applications is currently viable economically.

  16. Draft Executive Summary Hawaii Geothermal Project - EIS Scoping Meetings

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    None

    1992-03-01

    After introductions by the facilitator and the program director from DOE, process questions were entertained. It was also sometimes necessary to make clarifications as to process throughout the meetings. Topics covered federal involvement in the HGP-EIS; NEPA compliance; public awareness, review, and access to information; Native Hawaiian concerns; the record of decision, responsibility with respect to international issues; the impacts of prior and on-going geothermal development activities; project definition; alternatives to the proposed action; necessary studies; Section 7 consultations; socioeconomic impacts; and risk analysis. Presentations followed, in ten meetings, 163 people presented issues and concerns, 1 additional person raised process questions only.

  17. Mississippi graduate DOE EPSCor trainee project. First annual summary report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wertz, D.L.

    1992-08-01

    The promotion of an aggressive energy research initiative was identified as a goal of the Mississippi Research Consortium (MRC) from its inception in 1986. The Department of Energy EPSCOR Program has provided opportunities to address the needs and enhance the interactive programs of energy-related research in the State of Mississippi. The Mississippi DOE EPSCOR Graduate Traineeships Project is a program of education and research which will (1) increase the number of trained professionals in the energy sciences and technology, particularly those from groups traditionally under-represented in the field, and (2) interface with existing networks of universities, industry, federal, and state institutions involved in energy-related activities.

  18. The international INTRAVAL project. Phase 2, Summary report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The international project INTRAVAL addresses the validation of models of transport of radionuclides through groundwater in the geosphere. Such models are used in the assessment of the long-term safety of radioactive waste disposal systems. The second phase of INTRAVAL, which started in 1990, was concluded at the end of 1993. The objective of Phase 2 was to increase the understanding how various geophysical, geohydrological and geochemical phenomena of importance for radionuclide transport from a repository to the biosphere could be described by mathematical models and to study the model validation process. Summarized results from Phase 2 of the INTRAVAL study are presented in this report. (K.A.)

  19. PROJECT W-551 SUMMARY INFORMATION FOR EARLY LAW INTERIM PRETREATMENT SYSTEM SELECTION

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    AR, TEDESCHI

    2008-08-11

    This report provides summary data for use by the decision board to assess and select the final technology for project W-551, Interim Pretreatment System. This project will provide early pretreated low activity waste feed to the Waste Treatment Plant to allow Waste Treatment Plan Low Activity Waste facility operation prior to construction completion of the Pretreatment and High Level Waste facilities. The candidate solids separations technologies are rotary microfiltration and crossflow filtration, and the candidate cesium separation technologies are fractional crystallization, caustic-side solvent extraction, and ion-exchange using spherical resorcinol-fonnaldebyde resin. This document provides a summary of comparative data against prior weighted criteria to support technology selection. Supporting details and background for this summary are documented in the separate report, RPP-RPT-37741.

  20. System visualization of integrated biofuels and high value chemicals developed within the MacroAlgaeBiorefinery (MAB3) project

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Seghetta, Michele; Hasler, Berit; Bastianoni, Simone;

    efficiencies has to be compensated for to make the biofuel prices competitive in replacing fossil fuel. Since it is difficult to increase the yield of the single biorefinery, the overall system productivity can be improved integrating different sub-systems. In this study, macroalgae cultivation in Denmark...

  1. OECD/SERENA Project Report. Summary and Conclusions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The OECD/SERENA Project Integration Report summarises the outcome of a broad range of activities conducted in the framework of the Organisation for Economic Cooperation and Development (OECD) Steam Explosion Resolution for Nuclear Applications Project (OECD/SERENA) to address remaining issues on fuel-coolant interaction (FCI) mechanisms and their effect on ex-vessel steam explosion energetics. The scope the OECD/SERENA project was to resolve uncertainties in the remaining issues and to bring the code capabilities to an adequate level for use in reactor safety applications. This scope was accomplished with the completion of three major tasks: (1) an experimental programme consisting of two sets of steam explosion experiments in two different facilities; (2) an analytical programme consisting of pre-test calculations in support of test specifications and post-test calculations in support of data analysis and code assessment, and also a code benchmark exercise; and (3) a reactor calculation exercise repeating the one performed in the framework of the CSNI/WGAMA SERENA activity performed from 2001 to 2006 (also referred to as SERENA Phase I, published as CSNI/R(2007)/11). The objectives of the experimental programme were to provide data: (1) to clarify the explosion behaviour of prototypic corium melts and for validation of steam explosion models for prototypic materials; and (2) for steam explosion behaviour in two different geometries to verify the geometrical extrapolation capabilities of the codes. These objectives were to be accomplished by conducting complementary sets of six experiments each at two different facilities: KROTOS at the Commissariat l'Energie Atomique et aux Energies Alternatives (CEA) in Cadarache, France, representing one-dimensional FCI configuration involving nominally 5 kilograms of prototypic corium melt, and TROI at Korea Atomic Energy Research Institute (KAERI) in Daejeon, Korea, representing multi-dimensional FCI configuration

  2. Externalities of fuel cycles 'ExternE' project. Summary report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    There is a growing requirement for policy analysts to take account of the environment in their decision making and to undertake the specified cost-benefit analysis. Within the European Union this is reflected in the 5th Environmental Action Programme, and the Commission's White Paper entitled 'Growth, competitiveness, employment and the ways forward to the 21st century'. This has led to a need for evaluation of environmental externalities. The ExternE Project commenced in 1991 as the European part of a collaborative study between the European Commission and the US Department of Energy. It aims to be the first systematic approach to the evaluation of external costs of a wide range of different fuel cycles. The project will result in an operational accounting framework for the quantification and monetarisation of priority environmental and other externalities. This framework will allow the calculation of the marginal external costs and benefits for specific power plants, at specific sites using specified technologies. There are three major phases in the project. Phase I was undertaken in collaboration with the US Department of Energy. In this phase the teams jointly developed the conceptual approach and methodology and shared scientific information for application to a number of fuel cycles. On the European side work concentrated on the nuclear and coal fuel cycles which together were expected to raise many of the fundamental issues in fuel cycle analysis. The project is currently nearing completion of Phase 2. During this phase the methodology has been applied to a wide range of different fossil, nuclear and renewable fuel cycles for power generation and energy conservation options. Also a series of National Implementation Programmes are underway in which the methodology and accounting framework are being applied to reference sites throughout Europe. In addition the general methodology is being extended to address the evaluation of externalities associated with

  3. Annual DOE active solar heating and cooling contractors' review meeting. Premeeting proceedings and project summaries

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    None,

    1981-09-01

    Ninety-three project summaries are presented which discuss the following aspects of active solar heating and cooling: Rankine solar cooling systems; absorption solar cooling systems; desiccant solar cooling systems; solar heat pump systems; solar hot water systems; special projects (such as the National Solar Data Network, hybrid solar thermal/photovoltaic applications, and heat transfer and water migration in soils); administrative/management support; and solar collector, storage, controls, analysis, and materials technology. (LEW)

  4. Summaries of fiscal year 1994 projects in medical applications and biophysical research

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This report provides information on the research supported in Fiscal Year 1994 by the Medical Applications and Biophysical Research Division of the Office of Health and Environmental Research. A brief statement of the scope of the following areas is presented: dosimetry; measurement science; radiological and chemical physics; structural biology; human genome; and medical applications. Summaries of the research projects in these categories are presented

  5. Idaho National Laboratory Annual Report FY 2013 LDRD Project Summaries

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dena Tomchak

    2014-03-01

    The FY 2013 LDRD Annual Report is a compendium of the diverse research performed to develop and ensure the INL’s technical capabilities support the current and future DOE missions and national research priorities. LDRD is essential to INL—it provides a means for the Laboratory to maintain scientific and technical vitality while funding highly innovative, high-risk science and technology research and development (R&D) projects. The program enhances technical capabilities at the Laboratory, providing scientific and engineering staff with opportunities to explore proof-of-principle ideas, advanced studies of innovative concepts, and preliminary technical analyses. Established by Congress in 1991, the LDRD Program proves its benefit each year through new programs, intellectual property, patents, copyrights, national and international awards, and publications.

  6. Pulsed Photonuclear Assessment (PPA) Technique: CY-05 Project Summary Report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Idaho National Laboratory, along with Idaho State University's Idaho Accelerator Center and Los Alamos National Laboratory, is developing an electron accelerator-based, photonuclear inspection technology, called the Pulsed Photonuclear Assessment (PPA) system, for the detection of nuclear material concealed within air-, rail-, and, primarily, maritime-cargo transportation containers. This report summarizes the advances and progress of the system's development in 2005. The contents of this report include an overview of the prototype inspection system, selected Receiver-Operator-Characteristic curves for system detection performance characterization, a description of the approach used to integrate the three major detection components of the PPA inspection system, highlights of the gray-scale density mapping technique being used for significant shield material detection, and higher electron beam energy detection results to support an evaluation for an optimal interrogating beam energy. This project is supported by the Department of Homeland Security Office of Research and Development and, more recently, the Domestic Nuclear Detection Office

  7. Budget Period 2 Summary Report Part 1: Hywind Maine Project

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Driscoll, Frederick; Platt, Andrew; Sirnivas, Senu

    2015-08-15

    This project was performed under the Work for Others—Funds in Agreement FIA-14-1793 between Statoil and the Alliance for Sustainable Energy, manager and operator of the National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL). To support the development of a 6-MW spar-mounted offshore wind turbine, Statoil funded NREL to perform tasks in the following three categories: 1. Design and analysis 2. Wake modeling 3. Concept resource assessment. This summarizes the document reports on the design and analysis work package, which built a FAST [Jonkman & Buhl, 2005] computer model of the Hywind 6-MW floating wind turbine system and uses this tool to evaluate the performance of a set of design load cases (DLCs). The FAST model was also used in Work Package 2: Wake Modeling.

  8. Summary of Propulsion System Needs in Support of Project Constellation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sumrall, Phil; Lorier, Terry; Baine, Michael

    2008-01-01

    In January 2004, the President of the United States established the Vision for Space Exploration (VSE) to return man to the moon and ultimately to extend manned space travel to Mars. This paper will summarize the manned space flight liquid propulsion system needs in support of Project Constellation over the next 10 years. It will include all engine needs to return man to the moon. An overview of engines currently under contract, those baselined but not yet under contract, and those engine needs that hav.e yet to be initiated. Project Constellation includes the components as shown Figure 1. Liquid propulsion systems supporting the manned portion of these elements include the following: the Crew Exploration Vehicle named Orion (crew module reaction control system (CMRCS), service module Orion Main Engine (OME), service module auxiliary RCS, and service module reaction control system (SMRCS)), the Crew Launch Vehicle named Ares 1 (J2X upper stage, first stage roll control system, second stage reaction control system, and the Ares I-X roll control system), the Heavy Lift Launch Vehicle named Ares V (RS68B first stage booster, J-2X upper stage, roll control systems, and the Earth Departure Stage (EDS) (powered by the same Ares V Upper Stage J-2X), and the Lunar Lander named Altair with both descent and ascent stages (lunar orbit insertion and descent main engine, ascent main engine, and attitude control systems for both stages). In addition, there may be additional engine needs for early demonstrators, but those will not be speculated on as part of this paper. Also, other portions of the VSE architecture, including the planned Orion abort demonstrations and the Lunar Precursor Robotic Program, are not addressed here as they either use solid motors or are focused on unmanned precursor missions.

  9. Biofuel impacts on water.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tidwell, Vincent Carroll; Malczynski, Leonard A.; Sun, Amy Cha-Tien

    2011-01-01

    Sandia National Laboratories and General Motors Global Energy Systems team conducted a joint biofuels systems analysis project from March to November 2008. The purpose of this study was to assess the feasibility, implications, limitations, and enablers of large-scale production of biofuels. 90 billion gallons of ethanol (the energy equivalent of approximately 60 billion gallons of gasoline) per year by 2030 was chosen as the book-end target to understand an aggressive deployment. Since previous studies have addressed the potential of biomass but not the supply chain rollout needed to achieve large production targets, the focus of this study was on a comprehensive systems understanding the evolution of the full supply chain and key interdependencies over time. The supply chain components examined in this study included agricultural land use changes, production of biomass feedstocks, storage and transportation of these feedstocks, construction of conversion plants, conversion of feedstocks to ethanol at these plants, transportation of ethanol and blending with gasoline, and distribution to retail outlets. To support this analysis, we developed a 'Seed to Station' system dynamics model (Biofuels Deployment Model - BDM) to explore the feasibility of meeting specified ethanol production targets. The focus of this report is water and its linkage to broad scale biofuel deployment.

  10. Summary report for Tetlin National Wildlife Refuge: Projected vegetation and fire regime response to future climate change in Alaska

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — This project is part of a statewide model analysis of future vegetation and fire regimer esponse to projected future climate. This document provides a summary of...

  11. Budget Period 2 Summary Report Part 3: Hywind Maine Project

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Driscoll, Frederick [Statoil Wind US LLC, Washington, DC (United States); Platt, Andrew [Statoil Wind US LLC, Washington, DC (United States); Sirnivas, Senu [Statoil Wind US LLC, Washington, DC (United States)

    2015-08-15

    This project was performed under the Work for Others—Funds in Agreement FIA-14-1793 between Statoil and the Alliance for Sustainable Energy, manager and operator of the National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL). To support the development of a 6-MW spar-mounted offshore wind turbine, NREL performed tasks on behalf of Statoil in the following three categories: 1. Design and analysis 2. Wake modeling 3. Concept resource assessment. This document summarizes the work performed in Work Package (WP) 3, where the spatial variability and influence that relevant parameters have on levelized cost of energy (LCOE) were analyzed. The study allows Statoil to identify areas of interest for floating wind technology and the Hywind concept in particular. This report describes the results of a study that NREL conducted to provide targeted insight into the United States (U.S.) offshore wind resource area that Statoil can use for taking strategic decisions about how to commercialize and market the company’s Hywind technology. The report centers on a new spatio-economic methodology that NREL has developed to assess how variability in spatial parameters can influence levelized cost of energy (LCOE) for different technologies. The method combines wind plant performance modeling, economic modeling, and national geospatial data layers to estimate the cost of potential projects using Hywind technology, considering the following parameters: • Water depth • Possible inshore assembly areas • Wind resource • Existing grid features and potential connection points • Wave regime • Environmentally sensitive areas • Seabed conditions • Competitive use areas • Prospective staging ports The scope of the study covers the major offshore regions within the contiguous United States, including the Atlantic Ocean, Gulf of Mexico, Pacific Ocean, and the Great Lakes. The spatio-economic assessment extends to 92 km (50 nm) off of the nearest land mass, consistent with the available data

  12. Summary and conclusions of the faults-in-clay project

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This report summarises a research project carried out by the British Geological Survey, in cooperation with ISMES of Italy, into the geophysical detection of faults in clay formations and the determination of the hydrogeological effects of such faults on the groundwater flow regime. Following evaluation of potential research sites, an extensive programme of investigations was conducted at Down Ampney, Gloucester, where the Oxford Clay formation is underlain by the aquifers of the Great Oolite Limestone group. A previously unknown fault of 50 m throw was identified and delineated by electrical resistivity profiling; the subsequent development of a technique utilising measurements of total resistance improved the resolution of the fault 'location' to an accuracy of better than one metre. Marked anisotropy of the clay resistivities complicates conventional geophysical interpretation, but gives rise to a characteristic anomaly across the steeply inclined strata in the fault zone. After exploratory core drilling, an array of 13 boreholes was designed and completed for cross-hole seismic tomography and hydrogeological measurement and testing. The groundwater heads in the clays were found to be in disequilibrium with those in the aquifers, as a result of water supply abstraction. The indication is that the hydraulic conductivity of the fault zone is higher than that of the surrounding clay by between one and two orders of magnitude. Methodologies for the general investigation of faults in clay are discussed. (Author)

  13. Budget Period 2 Summary Report Part 2: Hywind Maine Project

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Driscoll, Frederick; Platt, Andrew; Sirnivas, Senu

    2015-08-15

    This project was performed under the Work for Others—Funds in Agreement FIA-14-1793 between Statoil and the Alliance for Sustainable Energy, manager and operator of the National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL). To support the development of a 6-MW spar-mounted offshore wind turbine, Statoil funded NREL to perform tasks in the following three categories: 1. Design and analysis 2. Wake modeling 3. Concept resource assessment. This study expands upon the work conducted in Budget Period 1 (BP1) to investigate the influence of the wake generated from an upstream turbine on a downstream turbine using Computational Fluid Dynamics (CFD) high-fidelity modeling tool. Simulator fOr Wind Farms Application (SOWFA) [1] is an NREL high fidelity modeling tool that couples OpenFOAM [2] CFD and NREL’s Aero-Elastic code Fatigue, Aerodynamics, Structures, and Turbulence (FAST)[3]. In BP1 the configuration was based on Hywind-3MW at 140 m water depth in the Gulf of Maine; however this study for Budget Period 2 (BP2) the configuration investigated is based on Hywind-6MW at 220 m water depth off the coast of Boston. The objectives were to perform two-turbines One-Way Coupling (OWC), three-turbines Two-Way Coupling (TWC), and to investigate wind power plant optimization.

  14. Summary report on the Y-12 Sludge Detoxification Demonstration project

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The Y-12 Sludge Detoxification Demonstration was conducted in late 1988 at the Oak Ridge Gaseous Diffusion Plant (subsequently renamed the K-25 Site). The erstwhile Waste Management Technology Center (WMTC) managed the conduct of this waste treatment technology to assist the US Department of Energy/Oak Ridge Operations (DOE/ORO) in implementing the DOE Model. This demonstration was the first project selected by the Hazardous Waste Remedial Actions Program (HAZWRAP)(and funded by DOE) in which a private-sector vendor was contracted to demonstrate an innovative treatment process for treating some of the Oak Ridge Site's radioactive mixed wastes to enable their environmentally compliant disposal. Chem-Nuclear Systems, Inc. (CNSI) was the private-sector vendor selected to demonstrate its X*TRAX trademark process. Briefly, the X*TRAX trademark process consisted of thermally treating the sludge in an inert atmosphere (to remove the volatile components) to yield a dry residue (containing the nonvolatilized sludge components) and condensed liquids. The dry residue can then be immobilized in cementitious matrix for delisting and disposal in an industrial landfill; the condensed liquids can be disposed in, for example, an incinerator

  15. Executive summary and general conclusions of the rock sealing project

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The Stripa Rock Sealing Project logically followed the two first Stripa research phases dealing with canister-embedment and plugging of excavations in repositories. The major activities in the third phase were: * Literature review and interviews for setting the state of art of rock fracture sealing. * Pilot field and lab testing applying a new effective 'dynamic' grouting technique. * Development of a general grout flow theory. * Investigation of physical properties and longevity of major candidate grouts. * Performance of 4 large-scale tests. The literature study showed that longevity aspects limited the number of potentially useful grout materials to smectitic clay and cement. The pilot testing showed that fine-grained grouts can be effectively injected in relatively fine fractures. The theoretical work led to a general grout flow theory valid both for grouting at a constant, static pressure with non-Newtonian material properties, and for 'dynamic' injection with superimposed oscillations, yielding Newtonian material behavior. The investigation of physical properties of candidate grouts with respect to hydraulic conductivity, shear strength, sensitivity to mechanical strain, as well as to chemical stability, showed that effective sealing is offered, and that any rock can have its bulk conductivity reduced to about 10-10 m/s. The field tests comprised investigation of excavation-induced disturbance and attempts to seal disturbed rock, and in separate tests, grouting of deposition holes and a natural fine-fracture zone. Considerable disturbance of nearfield rock by blasting and stress changes, yielding an increase in axial hydraulic conductivity by 3 and 1 order of magnitude, respectively, was documented but various factors, primarily debris in the fractures, made grouting of blasted rock ineffective. Narrow fractures in deposition holes and in a natural fracture zone were sealed rather effectively. (au)

  16. Biofuels: The African experience

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Carrillo, L.A.; Nkolo, M. [German Agency for Technical Cooperation GTZ, Delegation Regionale des Eaux et Forets, Bertoua (Cameroon)

    2009-07-01

    In July 2006, the African Non-Petroleum Producers Association was formed in Senegal, Africa to develop alternative energy sources. It involved 13 of Africa's poorest nations, who joined forces to become global suppliers of biofuels, and some have set mandatory mixing of ethanol into gasoline. Although several biofuel production projects have been launched in western Africa, many of the new projects and plantations have not yet reached maturity due to the time lag between plantation and full-scale production, which is about 6 years. Major projects that could be producing significant quantities of biofuels in the next few years are not yet reflected in production statistics. Although ethanol is not yet being produced in large quantities in Africa, short-term opportunities exist. Countries in the South African Development Community are using molasses from the sugar can industry to produce ethanol. Biodiesel is also not currently produced on a significant scale in western Africa, but several other countries are gaining experience with cotton and palm oil resources, and Jatropha. Biomass residue also represents a large potential for all African countries involved in timber production. Unlike biodiesel production, land use conflicts are not an issue with biomass residue production.

  17. Project JADE. Comparison of repository systems. Executive summary of results

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    not be studied further. The JADE-project was initiated in 1996, and the main part of the study was carried out during 1997 and 1998. This report is published in 2001. The JADE study is consequently based on presumptions that were valid a few years ago. Some of these presumptions have been modified since then. The new presumptions are, however, not judged to change the overall conclusions

  18. WindSENSE Project Summary: FY2009-2011

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kamath, C

    2011-09-25

    Renewable resources, such as wind and solar, are providing an increasingly larger percentage of our energy needs. To successfully integrate these intermittent resources into the power grid while maintaining its reliability, we need to better understand the characteristics and predictability of the variability associated with these power generation resources. WindSENSE, a three year project at Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory, considered the problem of scheduling wind energy on the grid from the viewpoint of the control room operator. Our interviews with operators at Bonneville Power Administration (BPA), Southern California Edison (SCE), and California Independent System Operator (CaISO), indicated several challenges to integrating wind power generation into the grid. As the percentage of installed wind power has increased, the variable nature of the generation has become a problem. For example, in the Bonneville Power Administration (BPA) balancing area, the installed wind capacity has increased from 700 MW in 2006-2007 to over 1300 MW in 2008 and more than 2600 MW in 2009. To determine the amount of energy to schedule for the hours ahead, operators typically use 0-6 hour ahead forecasts, along with the actual generation in the previous hours and days. These forecasts are obtained from numerical weather prediction (NWP) simulations or based on recent trends in wind speed in the vicinity of the wind farms. However, as the wind speed can be difficult to predict, especially in a region with complex terrain, the forecasts can be inaccurate. Complicating matters are ramp events, where the generation suddenly increases or decreases by a large amount in a short time (Figure 1, right panel). These events are challenging to predict, and given their short duration, make it difficult to keep the load and the generation balanced. Our conversations with BPA, SCE, and CaISO indicated that control room operators would like (1) more accurate wind power generation forecasts

  19. Salton Sea Scientific Drilling Project: A summary of drilling and engineering activities and scientific results

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ross, H.P.; Forsgren, C.K. (eds.)

    1992-04-01

    The Salton Sea Scientific g Project (SSSDP) completed the first major well in the United States Continental Scientific Drilling Program. The well (State 2-14) was drilled to 10,W ft (3,220 m) in the Salton Sea Geothermal Field in California's Imperial Valley, to permit scientific study of a deep, high-temperature portion of an active geothermal system. The program was designed to investigate, through drilling and testing, the subsurface thermal, chemical, and mineralogical environments of this geothermal area. Extensive samples and data, including cores, cuttings, geothermal fluids and gases, and geophysical logs, were collected for future scientific analysis, interpretation, and publication. Short duration flow tests were conducted on reservoirs at a depth of approximately 6,120 ft (1,865 m) and at 10,136 ft (3,089 m). This report summarizes all major activities of the SSSDP, from project inception in the fall of 1984 through brine-pond cleanup and site restoration, ending in February 1989. This report presents a balanced summary of drilling, coring, logging, and flow-test operations, and a brief summary of technical and scientific results. Frequent reference is made to original records, data, and publication of results. The report also reviews the proposed versus the final well design, and operational summaries, such as the bit record, the casing and cementing program, and the coring program. Summaries are and the results of three flow tests. Several teamed during the project.

  20. Summaries of studies carried out in the NKS/BOK-2 project. Technical report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Summaries of studies carried out in the NKSBOK-2 project, Radiological and Environmental Consequences. The structure of the project as such is described in NKS-64, Radiological and Environmental Consequences - Final Report of the Nordic Nuclear Safety Research Project BOK-2. That report also includes compilations based on the summaries presented in this report. The project was carried out 1998-2001 with participants from all the Nordic countries. Representatives from the Baltic States were also invited to some of the meetings and seminars. The project consisted of work on terrestrial and marine radioecology and had a broad scope in order to enable participation of research groups with various fields of interest. The topics included improving assessment of old and recent fallout, use of radionuclides as tracers in Nordic marine areas, improving assessment of internal doses and use of mass spectrometry in radioecology. This report is a compilation of summaries from each research group, 32 papers in all, and gives references to papers published in scientific journals. Some of the studies have been described previously, at least to some degree, in NKS-70, Proceedings of the 8th Nordic Seminar on Radioecology, 25-28 February 2001, Rovaniemi, Finland. (au)

  1. Photovoltaic Programme Edition 2007. Summary Report, Project List, Annual Project Reports 2006 (Abstracts)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2007-07-01

    This 2007 edition summary report for the Swiss Federal Office of Energy (SFOE), reports on the work done within the framework of the Swiss Photovoltaics Program in 2006. The document contains 46 abstracts on work done in the photovoltaics area. The subjects reported on in the thin-film photovoltaics sector include advanced processing and characterisation of thin film silicon solar cells, high-rate deposition of micro-crystalline silicon, a new large-area VHF reactor for high-rate deposition of micro-crystalline silicon, the stability of zinc oxide in encapsulated thin film silicon solar cells, spectral photocurrent measurement, roll-to-roll technology for the production of thin film silicon modules, advanced thin film technologies, ultra thin silicon wafer cutting, bifacial thin industrial multi-crystalline silicon solar cells, flexible CIGS solar cells and mini-modules, large-area CIS-based thin-film solar modules and advanced thin-film technologies. In the area of dye-sensitised modules, the following projects are reported on: Dye-sensitised nano-crystalline solar cells, voltage enhancement of dye solar cells and molecular orientation as well as low band-gap and new hybrid device concepts for the improvement of flexible organic solar cells. Other projects reported on include a new PV wave making more efficient use of the solar spectrum, photovoltaic textiles, organic photovoltaic devices, photo-electrochemical and photovoltaic conversion and storage of solar energy, PV modules with antireflex glass, improved integration of PV into existing buildings, the seventh program at the LEEE-TISO, the 'PV enlargement' and 'Performance' programs, efficiency and annual electricity production of PV modules, photovoltaics system technology 2005-2006, an update on photovoltaics in view of the 'ecoinvent' v.2.0 tool and environmental information services for solar energy industries. The contributions to four Swiss IEA PVPS tasks and the Swiss

  2. Market Design Project. Demand Response Resources in Sweden - a summary

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    An important discussion in later years has been whether the necessary reserves in the electricity market are to be generated through normal market mechanisms, i.e. with the price as the primary controlling parameter, or if it requires a collectively financed capacity reserve and how regulations in such a case should be shaped. The issue is first and foremost a matter of where the line is drawn between that which 'the market' should handle and that which can be assured through regulation. Autumn 2002 Svenska Kraftnaet (the Swedish TSO) presented an investigation to the government in which it was suggested that the capacity balance should primarily be managed through the use of normal pricing mechanisms, but that the state should strengthen responsibility for the nation's capacity balance in the period up until 2008. When approaching an effect loss situation, spot prices and balancing power prices will skyrocket. Today, most people are in agreement that a condition for maintained delivery safety is that normal pricing mechanisms are in place and that consumption actually is affected by high prices. The main reason for this conclusion is that it is very expensive to keep production facilities in reserve for situations that are expected to occur very seldom - it is cheaper to encourage large customers to reduce their consumption. The other reason is that increased price sensitivity creates conditions for a more stable and more predictable pricing development in strained situations. While being aware that a response to increased demand is needed, we see too little of that on the market today. The aim of this project is to present concrete measures that will awaken this slumbering resource. In order to judge how much demand response that can reasonably be expected and if there is any financial gain for customers, electricity suppliers and grid operators; it has been necessary to cast a few predictions about future price peaks. We estimate price peaks in the 3-10 SEK

  3. Summary of the technical guidelines used in the project: The economics of greenhouse gas limitations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This document is a summary version of the technical guidelines for climate change mitigation assessment developed as a part of the Global Environment Facility (GEF) project The Economics of Greenhouse Gas Limitations; Technical guidelines (UNEP 1998). The objectives of this project have been to support the development of a methodology, an implementing framework and a reporting system which countries can use in the construction of national climate change policies and in meeting their future reporting obligations under the FCCC. The methodological framework developed in the guidelines covers key economic concepts, scenario building, modelling tools and common assumptions. It was used by several country studies included in the project. (au)

  4. Summary

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Document available in abstract form only. Full text follows: During the five sessions of the workshop, much insight has been gained in a variety of issues and challenges that national programmes will encounter as they approach the construction phase of deep geologic repositories as well as their plans to address and resolve these issues. Due to the wide range of participating programmes and due to the different phases of repository development represented, the information presented at the workshop ranged from general and generic questions to specific technical, managerial, administrative, legal, regulatory and procedural issues. Although many issues still awaiting their resolutions, it can be observed that there were joint views amongst the participants with respect to the nature and specificities of these issues. These include: - the need for flexibility (within a so-called safety envelope) when projects evolve over time, - the need to address targets could be very difficult in nature and in some cases may compete with each other when developing and optimising repository systems, - the central role of management with regard to developing adequate professional attitudes and an appropriate safety culture, taking into account the various professional disciplines involved, - the need for integrating different legal and regulatory fields, often addressed by different authorities, and the question of a 'leading regulator'; - the technical challenge of conceptualising parallel processes such as excavation in parts of a repository and emplacement in others and the need to fulfil related safety requirements (mining and occupational, radiation protection etc.), - monitoring may have different roles in different phases of repository development, or - the outstanding role of the safety case prepared in advance to operation (waste emplacement) compared to the cases prepared at other stages of repository development, and the need to act accordingly in the regulatory

  5. Biofuels made easy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Much has been said and written in Australia since the Federal Government introduced its Clean Fuels Policy in September 2001. Various biofuel projects are now being considered in different states of Australia for the manufacture of bioethanol and biodiesel from renewable resources. However, the economic viability required to establish an Australian liquid biofuels industry is predicated on supportive government legislation and an encouraging fuel excise regime. On the other hand, the benefits of such an industry are also in debate. In an attempt to clarify some of the concerns being raised, this paper endeavours to provide an overview of the current use of bioethanol and biodiesel around the world, to summarise the process technologies involved, to review the benefits and non-benefits of renewable fuels to the transport industry and to address the issues for such an industry here in Australia

  6. Project summary

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dungee, Ryan [SLAC National Accelerator Lab., Menlo Park, CA (United States)

    2015-08-22

    Telescope surveys have given us a great deal of information about our universe, but the images they capture carry with them an inherent limitation. The question then is how do we take this information to the next level? The answer: the Dark Energy Spectroscopic Instrument (DESI). DESI is an instrument that will measure the distance to tens of millions of galaxies in our night sky. This information can be combined with already existing images to construct a three dimensional map of our universe providing a great deal of new opportunities for cosmological research.

  7. SOLHYCO Project: cogeneration system with concentrated solar energy and biofuels; Projeto SOLHYCO: sistema de cogeracao de energia solar concentrada e biocombustiveis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Oliveira, Celso Eduardo Lins de; Rabi, Jose Antonio; Carrer, Celso da Costa; Cavinatto, Betina; Tomasella, Peterson Ricardo [Universidade de Sao Paulo (FZEA-USP), SP (Brazil). Fac. de Zootecnia e Engenharia de Alimentos

    2008-07-01

    Dispatchable renewable power generation is usually associated with expensive storages or additional back-up systems. Solar-hybrid systems can combine solar energy with an additional fuel and thus reliably provide electric power. If renewable fuels (e.g., biofuels) are employed, power generation becomes 100% sustainable at zero net emissions. Systems based on gas turbines are suited for cogeneration or combined cycles, making them very efficient and cost effective. These cycles require high temperatures and pressures, thus the solar energy has to be concentrated by a heliostat field onto the top of a tower and transferred by a solar receiver into the gas turbine cycle. At smaller power levels, cogeneration of heat and power is an attractive option by making use of the high exhaust temperature of the gas turbine, thus getting an additional benefit. The aim of this proposal is an significant extension of the objectives of the recently started SOLHYCO project by means A profound knowledge for market introduction will be gained by the assessment of the Brazilian market concerning solar resources, biofuels, electricity markets, heat markets and social needs. A detailed design study for a first demonstration unit will deliver all necessary economical, social and environmental data and accordingly 3 case studies have been defined. (author)

  8. Biofuels: The hidden cause of deforestation?

    OpenAIRE

    Smith, Alison; Lebensohn, Ignacio; Lickacz, Lindsay; Clarke, Louise

    2009-01-01

    The objective of the project is to establish a causal relationship between the biofuel market in the USA and the Amazonic Deforestation. The project parts from an objectivist approach and uses economic as well as environmental theories as a starting point. It attempts to demonstrate that biofuels are not as environmentally friendly as advertised, but instead have a detrimental effect on the Amazon Rainforest. The project utilizes statistics as a main source for empirical data, as well vari...

  9. Photovoltaic Programme, Edition 2006. Summary report. Project list. Annual project reports 2005 (abstracts)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nowak, S.

    2006-07-01

    This comprehensive, illustrated report for the Swiss Federal Office of Energy (SFOE) presents an overview of the work done as part of the 2005 research programme, along with the abstracts of the annual reports of the project leaders on research projects. It presents the programme's main points of focus, discusses the work done and the results obtained. Areas covered include cell technology (13 reports), solar modules and building integration (3 reports) , system technology (4 reports) as well as various further projects (5) that are connected with photovoltaics. Four further reports concern international co-operation. Further, several pilot and demonstration (P+D) projects are discussed. Lists of all research and development projects and pilot and demonstration projects are supplied. Work done at several institutions in Switzerland and at leading commercial companies is described.

  10. Lifecycle Analyses of Biofuels

    OpenAIRE

    Delucchi, Mark

    2006-01-01

    This manuscript on lifecycle analysis (LCA) of biofuels for transportation has three major parts: * I. An analysis of greenhouse-gas emissions from biofuels, estimated using the Lifecycle Emissions Model (LEM). * II. A review of recent LCAs of biofuels. * III. A comprehensive conceptual framework for doing LCAs of biofuels.

  11. Liquid biofuels

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This is a brief conference paper on the use of biofuels in vehicles, especially in Sweden. Vegetable oils replace only diesel. In Sweden, the vegetable oil most often used is rape-seed oil. These oils are not very efficient in ''raw'' form and are used as basis in esters, such as rape-seed methyl ester (RME). Although RME is renewable, biobased and reduces the atmospheric CO2 emission, it increases the emission of nitrogen oxides, it may cause startup problems in cold weather and is not stable when stored for long. Most RME available in Sweden is imported and the potential for increased Swedish production is very limited. By using methanol and ethanol both petrol and diesel can be replaced. While mixtures of petrol and alcohols are being used increasingly, mixtures of diesel and alcohols are unstable and their use requires technological development

  12. Fuelling biofuel

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The Canadian government has recently committed to legislation ensuring that all transportation fuels will be supplemented with biofuels by 2010. This article provided details of a position paper written by the Canadian Renewable Fuels Association in response to the legislation. Details of new research to optimize the future biodiesel industry were also presented. Guiding principles of the paper included the creation of open markets across provincial boundaries; the manipulation of tax structures to make products competitive in the United States; and establishing quality standards via the Canadian General Standards Board. It is expected that the principles will reassure petroleum producers and retailers, as ethanol behaves differently than gasoline in storage tanks. As ethanol is water-absorbing, retailers must flush and vacuum their tanks to remove water, then install 10 micron filters to protect fuel lines and dispenser filters from accumulated gasoline residue loosened by the ethanol. Refineries are concerned that the average content of ethanol remains consistent across the country, as refiners will be reluctant to make different blends for different provinces. Critics of biodiesel claim that it is not energy-intensive enough to meet demand, and biodiesel crops are not an efficient use of soils that could otherwise be used to grow food crops. However, researchers in Saskatchewan are committed to using a variety of methods such as reduced tillage systems to make biodiesel production more efficient. Laboratory research has resulted in improved refining processes and genetic manipulation of potential biodiesel crops. Membrane technology is now being used to select water from ethanol. A process developed by the Ottawa company Iogen Corporation uses enzymatic hydrolysis to break down the tough fibres found in corn stalks, leaves, wood and other biomass into sugars. Scientists are also continuing to improve oil content yields in canola and soybean crops. It was

  13. Human Genome Diversity Project. Summary of planning workshop 3(B): Ethical and human-rights implications

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1993-12-31

    The third planning workshop of the Human Genome Diversity Project was held on the campus of the US National Institutes of Health in Bethesda, Maryland, from February 16 through February 18, 1993. The second day of the workshop was devoted to an exploration of the ethical and human-rights implications of the Project. This open meeting centered on three roundtables, involving 12 invited participants, and the resulting discussions among all those present. Attendees and their affiliations are listed in the attached Appendix A. The discussion was guided by a schedule and list of possible issues, distributed to all present and attached as Appendix B. This is a relatively complete, and thus lengthy, summary of the comments at the meeting. The beginning of the summary sets out as conclusions some issues on which there appeared to be widespread agreement, but those conclusions are not intended to serve as a set of detailed recommendations. The meeting organizer is distributing his recommendations in a separate memorandum; recommendations from others who attended the meeting are welcome and will be distributed by the meeting organizer to the participants and to the Project committee.

  14. Weldon Spring Site Remedial Action Project quarterly environmental data summary (QEDS) for fourth quarter 1998

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1999-02-01

    This report contains the Quarterly Environmental Data Summary (QEDS) for the fourth quarter of 1998 in support of the Weldon Spring Site Remedial Action Project Federal Facilities Agreement. The data, except for air monitoring data and site KPA generated data (uranium analyses) were received from the contract laboratories, verified by the Weldon Spring Site verification group, and merged into the database during the fourth quarter of 1998. KPA results for on-site total uranium analyses performed during fourth quarter 1998 are included. Air monitoring data presented are the most recent complete sets of quarterly data.

  15. Biofuels and biodiversity in South Africa

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Patrick J. O’Farrell

    2011-05-01

    Full Text Available The South African government, as part of its efforts to mitigate the effects of the ongoing energy crisis, has proposed that biofuels should form an important part of the country’s energy supply. The contribution of liquid biofuels to the national fuel supply is expected to be at least 2% by 2013. The Biofuels Industrial Strategy of the Republic of South Africa of 2007 outlines key incentives for reaching this target and promoting the development of a sustainable biofuels industry. This paper discusses issues relating to this strategy as well as key drivers in biofuel processing with reference to potential impacts on South Africa’s rich biological heritage.

    Our understanding of many of the broader aspects of biofuels needs to be enhanced. We identify key areas where challenges exist, such as the link between technology, conversion processes and feedstock selection. The available and proposed processing technologies have important implications for land use and the use of different non-native plant species as desired feedstocks. South Africa has a long history of planting non-native plant species for commercial purposes, notably for commercial forestry. Valuable lessons can be drawn from this experience on mitigation against potential impacts by considering plausible scenarios and the appropriate management framework and policies. We conceptualise key issues embodied in the biofuels strategy, adapting a framework developed for assessing and quantifying impacts of invasive alien species. In so doing, we provide guidelines for minimising the potential impacts of biofuel projects on biodiversity.

  16. COMPUTATIONAL RESOURCES FOR BIOFUEL FEEDSTOCK SPECIES

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Buell, Carol Robin [Michigan State University; Childs, Kevin L [Michigan State University

    2013-05-07

    While current production of ethanol as a biofuel relies on starch and sugar inputs, it is anticipated that sustainable production of ethanol for biofuel use will utilize lignocellulosic feedstocks. Candidate plant species to be used for lignocellulosic ethanol production include a large number of species within the Grass, Pine and Birch plant families. For these biofuel feedstock species, there are variable amounts of genome sequence resources available, ranging from complete genome sequences (e.g. sorghum, poplar) to transcriptome data sets (e.g. switchgrass, pine). These data sets are not only dispersed in location but also disparate in content. It will be essential to leverage and improve these genomic data sets for the improvement of biofuel feedstock production. The objectives of this project were to provide computational tools and resources for data-mining genome sequence/annotation and large-scale functional genomic datasets available for biofuel feedstock species. We have created a Bioenergy Feedstock Genomics Resource that provides a web-based portal or clearing house for genomic data for plant species relevant to biofuel feedstock production. Sequence data from a total of 54 plant species are included in the Bioenergy Feedstock Genomics Resource including model plant species that permit leveraging of knowledge across taxa to biofuel feedstock species.We have generated additional computational analyses of these data, including uniform annotation, to facilitate genomic approaches to improved biofuel feedstock production. These data have been centralized in the publicly available Bioenergy Feedstock Genomics Resource (http://bfgr.plantbiology.msu.edu/).

  17. REFUEL: an EU road map for biofuels

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Londo, M.; Deurwarder, E.; Lensink, S. (and others)

    2007-05-15

    A successful mid-term development of biofuels calls for a robust road map. REFUEL assesses inter alia least-cost biofuel chain options, their benefits, outlines the technological, legislative and other developments that should take place, and evaluate different policy strategies for realisation. Some preliminary conclusions of the project are discussed here. There is a significant domestic land potential for energy crops in the EU, which could supply between one quarter and one third of gasoline and diesel demand by 2030 if converted into advanced biofuels. A biomass supply of 8 to 10 EJ of primary energy could be available at costs around or below 3 EURO/GJ. However, the introduction of advanced biofuel options may meet a considerable introductory cost barrier, which will not be overcome when EU policy is oriented to the introduction of biofuels at least cost. Therefore, conventional biodiesel and ethanol may dominate the market for decades to come, unless biofuels incentives are differentiated, e.g. on the basis of the differences in greenhouse gas performance among biofuels.The introduction of advanced biofuels may also be enhanced by creating stepping stones or searching introduction synergies. A stepping stone can be the short-term development of lignocellulosic biomass supply chains for power generation by co-firing; synergies can be found between advanced FT-diesel production and hydrogen production for the fuel cell. (au)

  18. Evaluation of nuclear facility decommissioning projects. Project summary report, Elk River Reactor

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This report summarizes information concerning the decommissioning of the Elk River Reactor. Decommissioning data from available documents were input into a computerized data-handling system in a manner that permits specific information to be readily retrieved. The information is in a form that assists the Nuclear Regulatory Commission in its assessment of decommissioning alternatives and ALARA methods for future decommissionings projects. Samples of computer reports are included in the report. Decommissioning of other reactors, including NRC reference decommissioning studies, will be described in similar reports

  19. Biofuel technologies. Recent developments

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gupta, Vijai Kumar [National Univ. of Ireland Galway (Ireland). Dept. of Biochemistry; MITS Univ., Rajasthan (India). Dept. of Science; Tuohy, Maria G. (eds.) [National Univ. of Ireland Galway (Ireland). Dept. of Biochemistry

    2013-02-01

    Written by experts. Richly illustrated. Of interest to both experienced researchers and beginners in the field. Biofuels are considered to be the main potential replacement for fossil fuels in the near future. In this book international experts present recent advances in biofuel research and related technologies. Topics include biomethane and biobutanol production, microbial fuel cells, feedstock production, biomass pre-treatment, enzyme hydrolysis, genetic manipulation of microbial cells and their application in the biofuels industry, bioreactor systems, and economical processing technologies for biofuel residues. The chapters provide concise information to help understand the technology-related implications of biofuels development. Moreover, recent updates on biofuel feedstocks, biofuel types, associated co- and byproducts and their applications are highlighted. The book addresses the needs of postgraduate researchers and scientists across diverse disciplines and industrial sectors in which biofuel technologies and related research and experimentation are pursued.

  20. Algal Biofuels R&D at NREL (Brochure)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    2012-09-01

    An overview of NREL's algal biofuels projects, including U.S. Department of Energy-funded work, projects with U.S. and international partners, and Laboratory Directed Research and Development projects.

  1. Biofuels of the Future

    OpenAIRE

    Oxburgh, Ron

    2007-01-01

    There are good biofuels and bad biofuels. The good ones offer the prospect of transport fuels that have much lower environmental impact than fossil fuels and could before long be less expensive as well. Bad or irresponsibly produced biofuels may at best bring little environmental advantage; at worst they may also cause serious environmental damage, habitat destruction and food shortages. The biofuel industry of the future will make a significant contribution to the greening of the world’s veh...

  2. Panorama 2007: Biofuels Worldwide

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The biofuels market is booming: after more than 20 years of industrial development, global bio-fuel production is growing fast. Willingness to reduce their oil dependence and necessity to promote low-carbon energies are the two main drivers for states to support biofuels development. (author)

  3. Biofuel production in Vietnam

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Thanh, le L.

    2016-01-01

    Biofuel production has continued to develop and is driven by government support around the world. A comprehensive analysis of biofuel production and the policy implementation is crucial for the biofuel sustainability development. The objective of this thesis is to study the energy efficiency, GHG em

  4. Can the Nigerian biofuel policy and incentives (2007) transform Nigeria into a biofuel economy?

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nigeria's economy is largely dependent on petroleum, yet the country is suffering from fuel supply shortages. In response to the transportation fuel supply difficulties in Nigeria, the country released the Nigerian Biofuel Policy and Incentives in 2007 to create favorable investment climate for the entrance of Nigeria into the biofuel sector. The paper assessed the progress made thus far by Nigeria, 4 years after the Nigerian biofuel was released in an attempt to answer the question whether the policy is adequate to transform Nigeria into a biofuel economy. The study found that little progress has been made, which includes commencement of the construction of 20 bioethanol factories, installation of biofuel handling facilities at two depots (Mosimi and Atlas Cove), and selection of retail outlets for biofuel/conventional fuel mix. The site construction of the announced biofuel projects is now slow and other progress is marginal. We therefore conclude that the Nigerian biofuel policy is unlikely to transform Nigeria into a biofuel economy unless the Government revert and refocus on biofuel and include additional financial incentives such as grants and subsidy to complement the tax waivers (income, import duty, VAT), loans, and insurance cover contained in the policy. - Highlights: ► Nigeria's economy is dependent on petroleum, yet the country is suffering from fuel shortages. ► The Nigerian Biofuel Policy and Incentives was released in 2007. ► Little progress has been made since the policy was released 4 years ago. ► Hence, the policy is unlikely to transform Nigeria into a biofuel economy

  5. Biofuels, poverty, and growth

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Arndt, Channing; Benfica, Rui; Tarp, Finn;

    2010-01-01

    This paper assesses the implications of large-scale investments in biofuels for growth and income distribution. We find that biofuels investment enhances growth and poverty reduction despite some displacement of food crops by biofuels. Overall, the biofuel investment trajectory analyzed increases...... Mozambique's annual economic growth by 0.6 percentage points and reduces the incidence of poverty by about 6 percentage points over a 12-year phase-in period. Benefits depend on production technology. An outgrower approach to producing biofuels is more pro-poor, due to the greater use of unskilled labor and...

  6. Advanced Industrial Materials (AIM) program. Compilation of project summaries and significant accomplishments FY 1996

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1997-04-01

    In many ways, the Advanced Industrial Materials (AIM) Program underwent a major transformation in Fiscal Year 1995 and these changes have continued to the present. When the Program was established in 1990 as the Advanced Industrial Concepts (AIC) Materials Program, the mission was to conduct applied research and development to bring materials and processing technologies from the knowledge derived from basic research to the maturity required for the end use sectors for commercialization. In 1995, the Office of Industrial Technologies (OIT) made radical changes in structure and procedures. All technology development was directed toward the seven {open_quotes}Vision Industries{close_quotes} that use about 80% of industrial energy and generated about 90% of industrial wastes. These are: (1) Aluminum; (2) Chemical; (3) Forest Products; (4) Glass; (5) Metal Casting; (6) Refineries; and (7) Steel. This report is a compilation of project summaries and significant accomplishments on materials.

  7. Summaries of research projects for fiscal years 1996 and 1997, medical applications and biophysical research

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1998-02-01

    The Medical Applications and Biophysical Research Division of the Office of Biological and Environmental Research supports and manages research in several distinct areas of science and technology. The projects described in this book are grouped by the main budgetary areas: General Life Sciences (structural molecular biology), Medical Applications (primarily nuclear medicine) and Measurement Science (analytical chemistry instrumentation), Environmental Management Science Program, and the Small Business Innovation Research Program. The research funded by this division complements that of the other two divisions in the Office of Biological and Environmental Research (OBER): Health Effects and Life Sciences Research, and Environmental Sciences. Most of the OBER programs are planned and administered jointly by the staff of two or all three of the divisions. This summary book provides information on research supported in these program areas during Fiscal Years 1996 and 1997.

  8. A Series Dissertation on Tianwan Nuclear Power Station--Summary of Tianwan Nuclear Power Station Project

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Li Qiankun

    2006-01-01

    This is a summary in relation to the construction and operation of Tianwan Nuclear Power Station (the Project) at Lianyungang, Jiangsu Province, the People' s Republic of China. The breakdown specialty topic shall been given in times to come. In this report, the author attempted to give some general description of the Project, including the Project site' s general layout and geographical conditions. A description of its exposure to the elements is also provided, supported by some data made available to us. The key component parts of the Project are described, namely, the nuclear island which includes the reactor, steam generator and so on; the conventional island and the balance of plant. Wherever possible, the improvements to the reactor design over the operating V320 are highlighted, which result in the V428 reactor model. The supplier and contractor for the major equipment such as the reactor and the turbine is the Russian company, namely Atomstroyexport (ASE). There are third country suppliers who provide other equipment. For instance, Siemens supplies the full digital I&C system and Framatome ANP supplies the emergency diesel generators; the metal-clad switchgear cabinet by ABB of Australia; the main steam isolation valve unit by CCI AG of Switzerland. All these foreign suppliers are well known globally. Their experience and quality of the equipment supplied by them are well recognized by the people in the respective fields. As for the civil work and erection work, the most experienced and trustworthy local contractors have been selected. These contractors have proven their competence in similar contract work before. For the testing of the equipment, stringent and proper procedures which meet international standards are adopted. Finally, the author wished on this report could provide the world a safety and advanced Nuclear Project building in China.

  9. RIBA Project - Risk-Informed approach for In-Service Inspection of Nuclear Power Plant Components. Project summary

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The need for a European review of a Risk-Informed Approach for In-Service Inspection of Nuclear Power Plant Components (RIBA) was identified in 1998. This was as a priority item in the programme of activities conducted in the framework of the Council Resolutions of 22 July 1975 and of 18 June 1992 on the Technological Problems of Nuclear Safety. The RIBA Project was established in November 1999 as a 24-month Study Contract funded by the European Commission within the frame of the former DG XI WGCS (Working Group on Codes and Standards). The Study Contract was subsequently managed for the EC by DG TREN. The participants in RIBA were Serco Assurance (project coordinator), Ringhals AB, EDF, Tecnatom SA and Westinghouse Electric Europe. The work is presented in a summary report with the detailed results contained in three companion reports as follows: main conclusions and recommendations, Review of Existing Risk-Informed Methodologies, A Comparative Study of Risk-Informed In-Service Inspection Applications, Conclusions and Recommendations for Risk-Informed in-service inspection methodology applied to Nuclear Power Plants in Europe. (author)

  10. Assessment of the Projected One Billion Ton Biomass for Cellulosic Biofuel Production and Its Potential Implications on Regional Water Quality and Availability

    Science.gov (United States)

    Demissie, Y. K.; Yan, E.; Wu, M.

    2011-12-01

    The DOE and USDA joint study, also commonly referred as the "Billion-Ton" study, assessed the cellulosic feedstock resources potential in the U.S. for producing second generation biofuel to replace 30 percent of the country's transportation fuels by year 2030. The available resource is expected to come from changing cropping pattern, increasing crop yield, harvesting agricultural and forest wood residues, and developing energy crops. Such large-scale changes in land use and crop managements are likely to affect the associated water quality and resources at both regional and local scales. To address the water sustainability associated with the projected biomass production in the Upper Mississippi River Basin (UMRB), we have developed a SWAT watershed model that simulate the changes in water quality (nitrogen, phosphorus, and soil erosion) and resources (soil water content, evapotranspiration, and runoff) of the region due to future biomass production scenario estimated by the Billion-Ton study. The scenario is implemented by changing the model inputs and parameters at subbasin and hydrologic response unit levels, as well as by improving the SWAT model to represent spatially varying crop properties. The potential impacts on water quality and water availability were compared with the results obtained from a baseline simulation which represents current watershed conditions and existing level of feedstock production. The basin level results suggested mixed effects on the water quality. The projected large-scale biomass production scenario is expected to decrease loadings of total nitrogen and nitrate in the streams while increase total phosphorus and suspended sediment. Results indicate an increase in the rate of evapotranspiration and a decrease in the soil water content and in surface runoff. discharge to the streams. The impacts at the subbasin or local scale varies spatially and temporally depending on the types of land use change, their locations, and crop

  11. Pre-feasibility workbook for bioenergy projects in eastern Ontario : executive summary

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This summary provided details of a pre-feasibility workbook designed to assist communities and developers in better understanding bioenergy challenges and opportunities in Ontario. The workbook examined issues related to the conversion of biomass through thermal conversion technologies and focused on combined heat and power projects that used forest and agricultural biomass in order to produce up to 10 MW of electricity under the Ontario Renewable Standard Offer Program. As part of the program, new generators of no more than 10 MW are paid a base rate of 11 cents per kWh and an additional 3.52 cents per kWh for on-peak production. The workbook was comprised of a review of biomass supply in the eastern Ontario region and included both forested and abandoned farm lands. A base-line financial analysis was included to assess the feasibility of projects using combustion, pyrolysis, and gasification technologies. Biomass sources in the region included mill residue, harvest waste, biomass mortality from natural events, stand management, and standing timber. Key elements required for parties interested in considering a bioenergy business initiative were also included

  12. Biofuels Baseline 2008

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hamelinck, C.; Koper, M.; Berndes, G.; Englund, O.; Diaz-Chavez, R.; Kunen, E.; Walden, D.

    2011-10-15

    The European Union is promoting the use of biofuels and other renewable energy in transport. In April 2009, the Renewable Energy Directive (2009/28/EC) was adopted that set a 10% target for renewable energy in transport in 2020. The directive sets several requirements to the sustainability of biofuels marketed in the frame of the Directive. The Commission is required to report to the European Parliament on a regular basis on a range of sustainability impacts resulting from the use of biofuels in the EU. This report serves as a baseline of information for regular monitoring on the impacts of the Directive. Chapter 2 discusses the EU biofuels market, the production and consumption of biofuels and international trade. It is derived where the feedstock for EU consumed biofuels originally come from. Chapter 3 discusses the biofuel policy framework in the EU and major third countries of supply. It looks at various policy aspects that are relevant to comply with the EU sustainability requirements. Chapter 4 discusses the environmental and social sustainability aspects associated with EU biofuels and their feedstock. Chapter 5 discusses the macro-economic effects that indirectly result from increased EU biofuels consumption, on commodity prices and land use. Chapter 6 presents country factsheets for main third countries that supplied biofuels to the EU market in 2008.

  13. Limits to biofuels

    Science.gov (United States)

    Johansson, S.

    2013-06-01

    Biofuel production is dependent upon agriculture and forestry systems, and the expectations of future biofuel potential are high. A study of the global food production and biofuel production from edible crops implies that biofuel produced from edible parts of crops lead to a global deficit of food. This is rather well known, which is why there is a strong urge to develop biofuel systems that make use of residues or products from forest to eliminate competition with food production. However, biofuel from agro-residues still depend upon the crop production system, and there are many parameters to deal with in order to investigate the sustainability of biofuel production. There is a theoretical limit to how much biofuel can be achieved globally from agro-residues and this amounts to approximately one third of todays' use of fossil fuels in the transport sector. In reality this theoretical potential may be eliminated by the energy use in the biomass-conversion technologies and production systems, depending on what type of assessment method is used. By surveying existing studies on biofuel conversion the theoretical limit of biofuels from 2010 years' agricultural production was found to be either non-existent due to energy consumption in the conversion process, or up to 2-6000TWh (biogas from residues and waste and ethanol from woody biomass) in the more optimistic cases.

  14. Limits to biofuels

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Johansson S.

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available Biofuel production is dependent upon agriculture and forestry systems, and the expectations of future biofuel potential are high. A study of the global food production and biofuel production from edible crops implies that biofuel produced from edible parts of crops lead to a global deficit of food. This is rather well known, which is why there is a strong urge to develop biofuel systems that make use of residues or products from forest to eliminate competition with food production. However, biofuel from agro-residues still depend upon the crop production system, and there are many parameters to deal with in order to investigate the sustainability of biofuel production. There is a theoretical limit to how much biofuel can be achieved globally from agro-residues and this amounts to approximately one third of todays’ use of fossil fuels in the transport sector. In reality this theoretical potential may be eliminated by the energy use in the biomass-conversion technologies and production systems, depending on what type of assessment method is used. By surveying existing studies on biofuel conversion the theoretical limit of biofuels from 2010 years’ agricultural production was found to be either non-existent due to energy consumption in the conversion process, or up to 2–6000TWh (biogas from residues and waste and ethanol from woody biomass in the more optimistic cases.

  15. Mobility chains analysis of technologies for passenger cars and light duty vehicles fueled with biofuels : application of the Greet model to project the role of biomass in America's energy future (RBAEF) project.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wu, M.; Wu, Y.; Wang, M; Energy Systems

    2008-01-31

    The Role of Biomass in America's Energy Future (RBAEF) is a multi-institution, multiple-sponsor research project. The primary focus of the project is to analyze and assess the potential of transportation fuels derived from cellulosic biomass in the years 2015 to 2030. For this project, researchers at Dartmouth College and Princeton University designed and simulated an advanced fermentation process to produce fuel ethanol/protein, a thermochemical process to produce Fischer-Tropsch diesel (FTD) and dimethyl ether (DME), and a combined heat and power plant to co-produce steam and electricity using the ASPEN Plus{trademark} model. With support from the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE), Argonne National Laboratory (ANL) conducted, for the RBAEF project, a mobility chains or well-to-wheels (WTW) analysis using the Greenhouse gases, Regulated Emissions, and Energy use in Transportation (GREET) model developed at ANL. The mobility chains analysis was intended to estimate the energy consumption and emissions associated with the use of different production biofuels in light-duty vehicle technologies.

  16. Biofuel from "humified" biomass

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kpogbemabou, D.; Lemée, L.; Amblès, A.

    2009-04-01

    In France, 26% of the emissions of greenhouse effect gas originate from transportation which depends for 87% on fossil fuels. Nevertheless biofuels can contribute to the fight against climate change while reducing energetic dependence. Indeed biomass potentially represents in France 30 Mtoe a year that is to say 15% national consumption. But 80% of these resources are made of lignocellulosic materials which are hardly exploitable. First-generation biofuels are made from sugar, starch, vegetable oil, or animal fats. Due to their competition with human food chain, first-generation biofuels could lead to food shortages and price rises. At the contrary second-generation biofuel production can use a variety of non food crops while using the lignocellulosic part of biomass [1]. Gasification, fermentation and direct pyrolysis are the most used processes. However weak yields and high hydrogen need are limiting factors. In France, the National Program for Research on Biofuels (PNRB) aims to increase mobilizable biomass resource and to develop lignocellulosic biomass conversion. In this context, the LIGNOCARB project studies the liquefaction of biodegraded biomass in order to lower hydrogen consumption. Our aim was to develop and optimize the biodegradation of the biomass. Once the reactor was achieved, the influence of different parameters (starting material, aeration, moisture content) on the biotransformation process was studied. The monitored parameters were temperature, pH and carbon /nitrogen ratio. Chemical (IHSS protocol) and biochemical (van Soest) fractionations were used to follow the maturity ("humic acid"/"fulvic acid" ratio) and the biological stability (soluble, hemicelluloses, celluloses, lignin) of the organic matter (OM). In example, the increase in lignin can be related to the stabilization since the OM becomes refractory to biodegradation whereas the increase in the AH/AF ratio traduces "humification". However, contrarily to the composting process, we do

  17. A Largely Unsatisfied Need: Continuing Professional Development for Process and Process Plant Industries. A Summary. FEU/PICKUP Project Report.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Geldhart, D.; Brown, A. S.

    This summary report outlines the aims of a project that focused on provision of short courses for technical professionals in the chemical and allied process industry and the process plant industry. Continuing education needs of both companies and individuals, as well as corporate policies and attitudes toward continuing education and constraints…

  18. Cancer Survivorship Research: A Review of the Literature and Summary of Current NCI-Designated Cancer Center Projects

    OpenAIRE

    Harrop, J. Phil; Dean, Julie A.; Paskett, Electra D.

    2011-01-01

    The number of cancer survivors and amount of cancer survivorship research has grown substantially during the past three decades. This paper provides a review of interventional and observational cancer survivorship research efforts as well as a summary of current cancer survivorship research projects being conducted by National Cancer Institute-designated cancer centers in an effort to identify areas that need further attention.

  19. Experiments with the production of ShapeShifting Media: Summary findings from the project NM2 (New Millennium, New Media)

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Williams, D.; Kegel, I.; Ursu, M.; Pals, N.; Leurdijk, A.

    2007-01-01

    Summary results of the assessment of new tools for the generation of reconfigurable screen media (ShapeShifting media) and of eight experimental ShapeShifting screen media productions covering genres including news, documentary and drama, are presented from the project New Millennium, New Media. The

  20. Alligator rivers analogue project. Final report; volume 1; summary of findings

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The Koongarra uranium ore deposit is located in the Alligator Rivers Region of the Northern Territory of Australia. Many of the processes that have controlled the development of this natural system are relevant to the performance assessment of radioactive waste repositories. An agreement was reached in 1987 by a number of agencies concerned with radioactive waste disposal to set up the International Alligator Rivers Analogue Project (ARAP) to study relevant aspects of the hydrological and geochemical evolution of the site. The Project ran for five years. The aims of the study were: to contribute to the production of reliable and realistic models for radionuclide migration within geological environments relevant to the assessment of the safety of radioactive waste repositories; to develop methods of validation of models using a combination of laboratory and field data associated with the Koongarra uranium deposit; and to encourage maximum interaction between modellers and experimentalists in achieving these objectives. It was anticipated that the substantial databases generated in the field and laboratory studies would then be used to develop and test geochemical and radionuclide transport models. The findings from the technical studies are discussed in the context of assessments of the long-term performance of geological repositories for radioactive wastes, which are being undertaken in many countries. They are also considered in an integrated 'Scenario Development' approach, aimed to understand the formation of the ore deposit. Despite their inherent uncertainties, the findings provide a basis for assessing the way in which radionuclides will migrate in environments with a variety of geologic settings and over a range of different geologic timescales. This summary report, which highlights the work and findings of the Alligator Rivers Analogue Project is one of a series of 16 volumes

  1. The Pilot Lunar Geologic Mapping Project: Summary Results and Recommendations from the Copernicus Quadrangle

    Science.gov (United States)

    Skinner, J. A., Jr.; Gaddis, L. R.; Hagerty, J. J.

    2010-01-01

    The first systematic lunar geologic maps were completed at 1:1M scale for the lunar near side during the 1960s using telescopic and Lunar Orbiter (LO) photographs [1-3]. The program under which these maps were completed established precedents for map base, scale, projection, and boundaries in order to avoid widely discrepant products. A variety of geologic maps were subsequently produced for various purposes, including 1:5M scale global maps [4-9] and large scale maps of high scientific interest (including the Apollo landing sites) [10]. Since that time, lunar science has benefitted from an abundance of surface information, including high resolution images and diverse compositional data sets, which have yielded a host of topical planetary investigations. The existing suite of lunar geologic maps and topical studies provide exceptional context in which to unravel the geologic history of the Moon. However, there has been no systematic approach to lunar geologic mapping since the flight of post-Apollo scientific orbiters. Geologic maps provide a spatial and temporal framework wherein observations can be reliably benchmarked and compared. As such, a lack of a systematic mapping program means that modern (post- Apollo) data sets, their scientific ramifications, and the lunar scientists who investigate these data, are all marginalized in regard to geologic mapping. Marginalization weakens the overall understanding of the geologic evolution of the Moon and unnecessarily partitions lunar research. To bridge these deficiencies, we began a pilot geologic mapping project in 2005 as a means to assess the interest, relevance, and technical methods required for a renewed lunar geologic mapping program [11]. Herein, we provide a summary of the pilot geologic mapping project, which focused on the geologic materials and stratigraphic relationships within the Copernicus quadrangle (0-30degN, 0-45degW).

  2. Current status: biomass valorisation and biofuels in Singapore

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    After having briefly presented the main types of biofuels (bio-ethanol, bio-diesel) and their first, second and third generation technologies to produce them (from food crops, from non food crops, and from algae), this report presents Singapore public R and D centres working in the field of biofuels development, and their activities. It also presents actors belonging to the private sector, and various realized and announced projects on biofuels

  3. Biofuels and the role of space in sustainable innovation journeys

    OpenAIRE

    Raman, Sujatha; Mohr, Alison

    2014-01-01

    This paper aims to identify the lessons that should be learnt from how biofuels have been envisioned from the aftermath of the oil shocks of the 1970s to the present, and how these visions compare with biofuel production networks emerging in the 2000s. Working at the interface of sustainable innovation journey research and geographical theories on the spatial unevenness of sustainability transition projects, we show how the biofuels controversy is linked to characteristics of globalised indus...

  4. Biomass, biogas and biofuels

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This article reviews the different ways to produce biofuels. It appears that there are 3 generations of biofuels. The first generation was based on the use of the energetic reserves of the plants for instance sugar from beetroot or starch from cereals or oil from oleaginous plants. The second generation is based on a more complete use of the plant, the main constituents of the plant: cellulose and lignin are turned into energy. The third generation of biofuels relies on the use of energy plants and algae. The second generation of biofuels reduces drastically the competition between an alimentary use and a non-alimentary use of plants. In 2008 the production of biofuels reached 43 Mtep which represents only 2% of all the energy used in the transport sector. The international agency for energy expects that the production of biofuels would be multiplied by a factor 6 (even 10 if inciting measures are taken) by 2030. (A.C.)

  5. Biofuel goes underground

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tollinsky, Norm

    2011-09-15

    Kirkland Lake Gold, a gold producer, is switching to a blend of biofuel to power the mine's underground equipment. Kirkland Lake Gold is using a soy-based product which has several advantages: less expensive: for example, the soybean-based biofuel used by Kirkland Lake Gold is 10 cents a liter less expensive than diesel; cleaner: biofuel can reduce emissions by up to 80 per cent compared to conventional diesel; and safer: biofuel is safer than miner's diesel because it has a much higher flash point. Testing with soybean-based biofuel began in the early 90s but its price was too high at that time. The federal government's regulation of renewable fuel quotas has led to the better availability of biofuel now. The supply should be doubled to meet government quotas.

  6. Biofuels and Food Security

    OpenAIRE

    Fischer, G; Hizsnyik, E.; Prieler, S.; Shah, M; van Velthuizen, H.T.

    2009-01-01

    Biofuels development has received increased attention in recent times as a means to mitigate climate change, alleviate global energy concerns and foster rural development. Its perceived importance in these three areas has seen biofuels feature prominently on the international agenda. Nevertheless, the rapid growth of biofuels production has raised many concerns among experts worldwide, in particular with regard to sustainability issues and the threat posed to food security. The UN Secretary G...

  7. Biofuels in China

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tan, Tianwei; Yu, Jianliang; Lu, Jike; Zhang, Tao

    The Chinese government is stimulating the biofuels development to replace partially fossil fuels in the transport sector, which can enhance energy security, reduce greenhouse gas emissions, and stimulate rural development. Bioethanol, biodiesel, biobutanol, biogas, and biohydrogen are the main biofuels developed in China. In this chapter, we mainly present the current status of biofuel development in China, and illustrate the issues of feedstocks, food security and conversion processes.

  8. LCA of Transportation Biofuels

    OpenAIRE

    Adlam, Elisabeth

    2007-01-01

    An increasing need to find alternatives to fossil fuels, and a growing awareness of the global warming effect has resulted in substantial research and development on biofuels. Biofuels are being considered a potential substitution of petroleum based fuels in the transport sector.With this increasing interest in biofuels comes the need to establish the environmental effect of the fuels. Results from several life cycle assessments reviewed in this report show that there are some benefits of bio...

  9. NREL biofuels program overview

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mielenz, J.R. [National Renewable Energy Laboratory, Golden, CO (United States)

    1996-09-01

    The NREL Biofuels Program has been developing technology for conversion of biomass to transportation fuels with support from DOE Office of Transportation Technologies Biofuels System Program. This support has gone to both the National Renewable Energy Laboratory, and over 100 subcontractors in universities and industry. This overview will outline the value of the Biofuels development program to the Nation, the current status of the technology development, and what research areas still need further support and progress for the development of a biofuels industry in the US.

  10. Comprehensive Summary and Analysis of Oral and Written Scoping Comments on the Hawaii Geothermal Project EIS (DOE Review Draft)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    None

    1992-09-18

    This report contains summaries of the oral and written comments received during the scoping process for the Hawaii Geothermal Project (HGP) Environmental Impact Statement (EIS). Oral comments were presented during public scoping meetings; written comments were solicited at the public scoping meetings and in the ''Advance Notice of Intent'' and ''Notice of Intent'' (published in the ''Federal Register'') to prepare the HGP EIS. This comprehensive summary of scoping inputs provides an overview of the issues that have been suggested for inclusion in the HGP EIS.

  11. Summaries of studies carried out in the NKS/BOK-2 project. Technical report[Radiological and environmental consequences

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Palsson, S.E. [Icelandic Radiation Protection Inst., Reykjavik (Iceland)] (ed.)

    2002-12-01

    Summaries of studies carried out in the NKSBOK-2 project, Radiological and Environmental Consequences. The structure of the project as such is described in NKS-64, Radiological and Environmental Consequences - Final Report of the Nordic Nuclear Safety Research Project BOK-2. That report also includes compilations based on the summaries presented in this report. The project was carried out 1998-2001 with participants from all the Nordic countries. Representatives from the Baltic States were also invited to some of the meetings and seminars. The project consisted of work on terrestrial and marine radioecology and had a broad scope in order to enable participation of research groups with various fields of interest. The topics included improving assessment of old and recent fallout, use of radionuclides as tracers in Nordic marine areas, improving assessment of internal doses and use of mass spectrometry in radioecology. This report is a compilation of summaries from each research group, 32 papers in all, and gives references to papers published in scientific journals. Some of the studies have been described previously, at least to some degree, in NKS-70, Proceedings of the 8{sup th} Nordic Seminar on Radioecology, 25-28 February 2001, Rovaniemi, Finland. (au)

  12. Allies in Biofuels. Opportunities in the Dutch - Argentinean biofuels trade relation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    First generation biofuels as an environmental solution are showing their own negative environmental, social and economic side effects. These need to be dealt with, because it is apparent that those same biofuels can be produced in a sustainable manner, thereby contributing to a healthier planet. Since both Argentina and the Netherlands would benefit from sustainable biofuels trade, policy measures need to be taken to guide the proper way. In what manner could bilateral cooperation concerning biofuels, optimize trade and policy output in both countries? By answering this question, one can hand solutions to upcoming problems - barriers to a sustainable energy structure - while at the same time facilitating trade between Argentina and the Netherlands. Besides providing information about the European, Dutch and Argentine market, this report presents an overview of biofuel policies. Special attention is given to the issue of sustainable biofuel production, in order to spread the necessary awareness, create wide support for corresponding politics, and offer opportunities for cooperation to prevent future entrapment. An entrapment, which could easily occur when actors in politics and business ignore international requirements for sustainable biofuel production. The research aims to produce the following output: Policy recommendations regarding the promotion of environmentally sound biofuels in both countries; A set arena to support a policy dialogue between both countries; An overview of current Dutch and Argentinean biofuel policies; Up to date information on current volumes of production, consumption and trade; Data with contact information of partners in both countries. Argentina shows an extremely professional agricultural sector, producing large quantities of vegetable oils, specifically of soybean. This sector has started to turn its attention towards biofuels - particularly to biodiesel. Projected production (for 2007-2008) is astonishingly high. The sector mainly

  13. Japan`s New Sunshine Project. 20. 1995 annual summary of coal liquefaction and gasification

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1996-10-01

    The paper described a summary of the 1995 study on coal liquefaction and gasification under the New Sunshine Project. As for coal liquefaction, a study was made of liquefaction characteristics and catalysts of various coals. Also studied were liquefaction conditions for quality improvement of liquefaction products, an evaluation method of quality of coal liquid, and a utilization method of coal liquid. In order to prevent carbonization and realize effective liquefaction, a study was conducted for elucidation of the reaction mechanism of high pressure hydrogenation. In a 150t/d pilot plant using hydrogen transfer hydrogenation solvents, the NEDOL method was studied using various catalysts and kinds of coals. This is a step prior to data acquisition for engineering, actual construction of equipment and operation. A 1t/d process supporting unit is a unit to support it. The unit conducts studies on slurry letdown valves and synthetic iron sulfide catalysts, screening of Chinese coals, etc. As to coal gasification, the paper added to the basic research the combined cycle power generation using entrained flow coal gasification for improvement of thermal efficiency and environmental acceptability and the HYCOL method for hydrogen production. 68 refs., 40 figs.

  14. Weldon Spring Site Remedial Action Project quarterly environmental data summary for second quarter 1998

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1998-08-11

    In support of the Weldon Spring Site Remedial Action Project Federal Facilities Agreement, a copy of the Quarterly Environmental Data Summary (QEDS) for the second quarter of 1998 is enclosed. The data presented constitutes the QEDS. The data were received from the contract laboratories, verified by the Weldon Spring Site verification group and, except for air monitoring data and site KPA generated data (uranium analyses), merged into the database during the second quarter of 1998. Air monitoring data presented are the most recent complete sets of quarterly data. Air data are not stored in the database and KPA data are not merged into the regular database. All data received and verified during the second quarter were within a permissible range of variability, except for those listed. Above normal occurrences are cited for groundwater, air, and NPDES data. There were no above normal occurrences for springs or surface water. The attached tables present the most recent data for air and the data merged into the database during the second quarter 1998 for groundwater, NPDES, surface water, and springs.

  15. Massachusetts Institute of Technology School of Chemical Engineering Practice, Brookhaven station: Summary of projects, 1983-1986

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1987-11-01

    The MIT Graduate School of Chemical Engineering Practice stresses engineering problem solving. The Practice School program, as it is commonly called, develops in a unique and particularly effective way the student's ability to apply fundamentals to problems in the chemical industry and thus accelerates one's professional development. The themes of atomization, emthanol production and utilization, hydrogen production and compression, localized electrochemical corrosion and biochemical engineering reflect some of the major programs at the Laboratory. The titles of all the projects are listed in chronological order in the index at the end of this document. Brief summaries are presented for each project with related projects grouped together.

  16. Massachusetts Institute of Technology School of Chemical Engineering Practice, Brookhaven station: Summary of projects, 1983-1986

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The MIT Graduate School of Chemical Engineering Practice stresses engineering problem solving. The Practice School program, as it is commonly called, develops in a unique and particularly effective way the student's ability to apply fundamentals to problems in the chemical industry and thus accelerates one's professional development. The themes of atomization, emthanol production and utilization, hydrogen production and compression, localized electrochemical corrosion and biochemical engineering reflect some of the major programs at the Laboratory. The titles of all the projects are listed in chronological order in the index at the end of this document. Brief summaries are presented for each project with related projects grouped together

  17. Bioproducts to Enable Biofuels Workshop Summary Report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bailey, Andrea [Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE), Washington, DC (United States); Leong, G. Jeremy [Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE), Washington, DC (United States); Fitzgerald, Nichole [Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE), Washington, DC (United States)

    2015-12-01

    This report summarizes the results of a public workshop sponsored by DOE/EERE in Westminster, Colorado, on July 16, 2015. The views and opinions of the workshop attendees, as summarized in this document, do not necessarily reflect those of the United States government or any agency thereof, nor do their employees make any warranty, expressed or implied, or assume any liability or responsibility for the accuracy, completeness, or usefulness of any information, apparatus, product, or process disclosed, or represent that its use would not infringe upon privately owned rights.

  18. Oak Ridge Dose Reconstruction Project Summary Report; Reports of the Oak Ridge Dose Reconstruction, Vol. 7

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In the early 1990s, concern about the Oak Ridge Reservation's past releases of contaminants to the environment prompted Tennessee's public health officials to pursue an in-depth study of potential off-site health effects at Oak Ridge. This study, the Oak Ridge dose reconstruction, was supported by an agreement between the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) and the State of Tennessee, and was overseen by a 12-member panel of individuals appointed by Tennessee's Commissioner of Health. The panel requested that the principal investigator for the project prepare the following report, ''Oak Ridge Dose Reconstruction Project Summary Report,'' to serve the following purposes: (1) summarize in a single, less technical report, the methods and results of the various investigations that comprised the Phase II of the dose reconstruction; (2) describe the systematic searching of classified and unclassified historical records that was a vital component of the project; and (3) summarize the less detailed, screening-level assessments that were performed to evaluate the potential health significance of a number of materials, such a uranium, whose priority did not require a complete dose reconstruction effort. This report describes each major step of the dose reconstruction study: (1) the review of thousands of historical records to obtain information relating to past operations at each facility; (2) estimation of the quantity and timing of releases of radioiodines from X-10, of mercury from Y-12, of PCB's from all facilities, and of cesium-137 and other radionuclides from White Oak Creek; (3) evaluation of the routes taken by these contaminants through the environment to nearby populations; and (4) estimation of doses and health risks to exposed groups. Calculations found the highest excess cancer risks for a female born in 1952 who drank goat milk; the highest non-cancer health risk was for children in a farm family exposed to PCBs in and near East Fork Poplar Creek. More detailed

  19. Project of coastal site characterization. Summary of discussions among the relevant partners and the dominant results of R and D in the project

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A project of coastal site characterization was performed with the project partners for 6 years from the fiscal year 2007 to 2012. This report summarized a frame-work for cooperation among the project partners and the summary of discussions through the project meetings. Additionally, the followings were also presented in this report considering the discussions in the project; examples of products obtained through development of investigation and evaluation techniques for coastal site characterization and the current status for integration of R and D products. A challenge performed through the project of coastal site characterization at Horonobe area could be a representative example for development of methodology to summarize the existing investigation and evaluation techniques, and to integrate the various products obtained in the coastal site investigations, from the view point of R and D for the management of high-level radioactive waste in Japan. (author)

  20. Sustainable Biofuels Development Center

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Reardon, Kenneth F. [Colorado State Univ., Fort Collins, CO (United States)

    2015-03-01

    The mission of the Sustainable Bioenergy Development Center (SBDC) is to enhance the capability of America’s bioenergy industry to produce transportation fuels and chemical feedstocks on a large scale, with significant energy yields, at competitive cost, through sustainable production techniques. Research within the SBDC is organized in five areas: (1) Development of Sustainable Crops and Agricultural Strategies, (2) Improvement of Biomass Processing Technologies, (3) Biofuel Characterization and Engine Adaptation, (4) Production of Byproducts for Sustainable Biorefining, and (5) Sustainability Assessment, including evaluation of the ecosystem/climate change implication of center research and evaluation of the policy implications of widespread production and utilization of bioenergy. The overall goal of this project is to develop new sustainable bioenergy-related technologies. To achieve that goal, three specific activities were supported with DOE funds: bioenergy-related research initiation projects, bioenergy research and education via support of undergraduate and graduate students, and Research Support Activities (equipment purchases, travel to attend bioenergy conferences, and seminars). Numerous research findings in diverse fields related to bioenergy were produced from these activities and are summarized in this report.

  1. Rainwater Wildlife Area Management Plan Executive Summary : A Columbia Basin Wildlife Mitigation Project.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Childs, Allen B.

    2002-02-01

    This Executive Summary provides an overview of the Draft Rainwater Wildlife Area Management Plan. The comprehensive plan can be viewed on the Confederated Tribes of the Umatilla Indian Reservation (CTUIR) website at: www.umatilla.nsn.us or requested in hard copy from the CTUIR at the address below. The wildlife area was established in September 1998 when the CTUIR purchased the Rainwater Ranch through Bonneville Power Administration (BPA) for purposes of fish and wildlife mitigation for the McNary and John Day dams. The Management Plan has been developed under a standardized planning process developed by BPA for Columbia River Basin Wildlife Mitigation Projects (See Guiding Policies Section below). The plan outlines the framework for managing the project area, provides an assessment of existing conditions and key resource issues, and presents an array of habitat management and enhancement strategies. The plan culminates into a 5-Year Action Plan that will focus management actions and prioritize funding during the 2002-2006 planning period. Since acquisition of the property in late 1998, the CTUIR has conducted an extensive baseline resource assessment in preparation for the management plan, initiated habitat restoration in the Griffin Fork drainage to address road-related resource damage caused by roads constructed for forest practices and an extensive flood event in 1996, and initiated infrastructure developments associated with the Access and Travel Management Plan (i.e., installed parking areas, gates, and public information signs). In addition to these efforts, the CTUIR has worked to set up a long-term funding mechanism with BPA through the NPPC Fish and Wildlife Program. The CTUIR has also continued to coordinate closely with local and state government organizations to ensure consistency with local land use laws and maintain open lines of communication regarding important issues such as big game hunting, tribal member exercise of treaty rights, and public

  2. Impacts of Climate Change on Biofuels Production

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Melillo, Jerry M. [Marine Biological Laboratory, Woods Hole, MA (United States)

    2014-04-30

    The overall goal of this research project was to improve and use our biogeochemistry model, TEM, to simulate the effects of climate change and other environmental changes on the production of biofuel feedstocks. We used the improved version of TEM that is coupled with the economic model, EPPA, a part of MIT’s Earth System Model, to explore how alternative uses of land, including land for biofuels production, can help society meet proposed climate targets. During the course of this project, we have made refinements to TEM that include development of a more mechanistic plant module, with improved ecohydrology and consideration of plant-water relations, and a more detailed treatment of soil nitrogen dynamics, especially processes that add or remove nitrogen from ecosystems. We have documented our changes to TEM and used the model to explore the effects on production in land ecosystems, including changes in biofuels production.

  3. Increasing Feedstock Production for Biofuels: Economic Drivers, Environmental Implications, and the Role of Research

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    none,

    2009-10-27

    The Biomass Research and Development Board (Board) commissioned an economic analysis of feedstocks to produce biofuels. The Board seeks to inform investments in research and development needed to expand biofuel production. This analysis focuses on feedstocks; other interagency teams have projects underway for other parts of the biofuel sector (e.g., logistics). The analysis encompasses feedstocks for both conventional and advanced biofuels from agriculture and forestry sources.

  4. Modelling production cost scenarios for biofuels and fossil fuels in Europe

    OpenAIRE

    Festel, Gunter; Würmseher, Martin; Rammer, Christian; Boles, Eckhard; Bellof, Martin

    2013-01-01

    This paper presents the results of a calculation model for biofuel production costs in 2015 and 2020 based on raw material price projections and considering scale and learning effects. Distinguishing six types of biofuels, the paper finds that scale economies and learning effects are critical for 2nd generation biofuels to become competitive. In case these effects can be utilized, cost saving potentials for 2nd generation biofuels are significant.

  5. Research in progress: FY 1984. Summaries of projects sponsored by the Office of Health and Environmental Research

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This report provides a compilation of summaries of the research projects supported by the Office of Health and Environmental Research (OHER) during Fiscal Year 1984. OHER is a component of the Office of Energy Research within the US Department of Energy, responsible for developing a comprehensive understanding of the health and environmental effects of energy technology development and use as well as other Departmental operations. The OHER program is broad in scope and diverse in character with substantial commitments to both applied and basic research. The research projects have been organized to reflect the major themes and focus of the OHER program. Each research category is preceeded by a short narrative to provide some perspective of the scope of activities which follow. Within each research category, the summaries are organized by efforts performed in DOE laboratories (onsite laboratories) and those performed elsewhere (offsite contractors) to help characterize their respective role in the program. The compilation of project titles and summaries, despite its volume, is still a relatively superficial source of information. It does not provide a sound basis for considering program quality or even relevance

  6. Extremophiles in biofuel synthesis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barnard, Desire; Casanueva, Ana; Tuffin, Marla; Cowan, Donald

    2010-01-01

    The current global energy situation has demonstrated an urgent need for the development of alternative fuel sources to the continually diminishing fossil fuel reserves. Much research to address this issue focuses on the development of financially viable technologies for the production of biofuels. The current market for biofuels, defined as fuel products obtained from organic substrates, is dominated by bioethanol, biodiesel, biobutanol and biogas, relying on the use of substrates such as sugars, starch and oil crops, agricultural and animal wastes, and lignocellulosic biomass. This conversion from biomass to biofuel through microbial catalysis has gained much momentum as biotechnology has evolved to its current status. Extremophiles are a robust group of organisms producing stable enzymes, which are often capable of tolerating changes in environmental conditions such as pH and temperature. The potential application of such organisms and their enzymes in biotechnology is enormous, and a particular application is in biofuel production. In this review an overview of the different biofuels is given, covering those already produced commercially as well as those under development. The past and present trends in biofuel production are discussed, and future prospects for the industry are highlighted. The focus is on the current and future application of extremophilic organisms and enzymes in technologies to develop and improve the biotechnological production of biofuels. PMID:20662378

  7. Biofuel Feedstock Assessment for Selected Countries

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kline, K.L.; Oladosu, G.A.; Wolfe, A.K.; Perlack, R.D.; Dale, V.H.

    2008-02-18

    Findings from biofuel feedstock production assessments and projections of future supply are presented and discussed. The report aims to improve capabilities to assess the degree to which imported biofuel could contribute to meeting future U.S. targets to reduce dependence on imported oil. The study scope was focused to meet time and resource requirements. A screening process identified Argentina, Brazil, Canada, China, Colombia, India, Mexico, and the Caribbean Basin Initiative (CBI) region for initial analysis, given their likely role in future feedstock supply relevant to U.S. markets. Supply curves for selected feedstocks in these countries are projected for 2012, 2017 and 2027. The supply functions, along with calculations to reflect estimated supplies available for export and/or biofuel production, were provided to DOE for use in a broader energy market allocation study. Potential cellulosic supplies from crop and forestry residues and perennials were also estimated for 2017 and 2027. The analysis identified capacity to potentially double or triple feedstock production by 2017 in some cases. A majority of supply growth is derived from increasing the area cultivated (especially sugarcane in Brazil). This is supplemented by improving yields and farming practices. Most future supplies of corn and wheat are projected to be allocated to food and feed. Larger shares of future supplies of sugarcane, soybean and palm oil production will be available for export or biofuel. National policies are catalyzing investments in biofuel industries to meet targets for fuel blending that generally fall in the 5-10% range. Social and environmental concerns associated with rapid expansion of feedstock production are considered. If the 2017 projected feedstock supply calculated as ‘available’ for export or biofuel were converted to fuel, it would represent the equivalent of about 38 billion gallons of gasoline. Sugarcane and bagasse dominate the available supply, representing 64

  8. Biofuels Group NSF DUSEL Project

    Science.gov (United States)

    One of the major challenges in biomass degradation is its recalcitrance to chemicals or enzymes due to the presence of complex polymer composites consisting of cellulose, hemicellulose, and lignin. Recently, extremophiles isolated from deep subsurface, hot springs, and compost piles have shown high...

  9. Renewable Energy Laboratory Development for Biofuels Advanced Combustion Studies

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Soloiu, Valentin [Georgia Southern Univ., Statesboro, GA (United States)

    2012-03-31

    The research advanced fundamental science and applied engineering for increasing the efficiency of internal combustion engines and meeting emissions regulations with biofuels. The project developed a laboratory with new experiments and allowed investigation of new fuels and their combustion and emissions. This project supports a sustainable domestic biofuels and automotive industry creating economic opportunities across the nation, reducing the dependence on foreign oil, and enhancing U.S. energy security. The one year period of research developed fundamental knowledge and applied technology in advanced combustion, emissions and biofuels formulation to increase vehicle's efficiency. Biofuels combustion was investigated in a Compression Ignition Direct Injection (DI) to develop idling strategies with biofuels and an Indirect Diesel Injection (IDI) intended for auxiliary power unit.

  10. Biofuels: which interest, which perspectives?

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This paper is a synthesis of several studies concerning the production and utilization of bio-fuels: energy balance and greenhouse effect of the various bio-fuel systems; economical analysis and profitability of bio-fuel production; is the valorization of bio-fuel residues and by-products in animal feeding a realistic hypothesis?; assessment of the cost for the community due to tax exemption for bio-fuels

  11. Integrated computer control system CORBA-based simulator FY98 LDRD project final summary report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The CORBA-based Simulator was a Laboratory Directed Research and Development (LDRD) project that applied simulation techniques to explore critical questions about distributed control architecture. The simulator project used a three-prong approach comprised of a study of object-oriented distribution tools, computer network modeling, and simulation of key control system scenarios. This summary report highlights the findings of the team and provides the architectural context of the study. For the last several years LLNL has been developing the Integrated Computer Control System (ICCS), which is an abstract object-oriented software framework for constructing distributed systems. The framework is capable of implementing large event-driven control systems for mission-critical facilities such as the National Ignition Facility (NIF). Tools developed in this project were applied to the NIF example architecture in order to gain experience with a complex system and derive immediate benefits from this LDRD. The ICCS integrates data acquisition and control hardware with a supervisory system, and reduces the amount of new coding and testing necessary by providing prebuilt components that can be reused and extended to accommodate specific additional requirements. The framework integrates control point hardware with a supervisory system by providing the services needed for distributed control such as database persistence, system start-up and configuration, graphical user interface, status monitoring, event logging, scripting language, alert management, and access control. The design is interoperable among computers of different kinds and provides plug-in software connections by leveraging a common object request brokering architecture (CORBA) to transparently distribute software objects across the network of computers. Because object broker distribution applied to control systems is relatively new and its inherent performance is roughly threefold less than traditional point

  12. Thai-Alberta Co-operative Assessment Project (1978-1980) Concerning Thirty-two Rural Secondary Schools in the Third National Economic and Social Plan, Thailand (1972-1976). Summary Report [and] Executive Summary.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gue, Leslie R.; Chareonchai, Ruang

    The summary report, a condensed version of the final report of the Thai-Alberta Cooperative Assessment Project, is drawn largely from Chapter 8 of the final report and presents the essential nature, scope, and findings of a project involving data from over 5,000 Thai participants (principals, teachers, students, parents and alumni) in a sample of…

  13. Texas Solar Collaboration DOE Rooftop Solar Challenge City of Houston Project Summary

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ronk, Jennifer [Houston Advanced Research Center, TX (United States)

    2013-02-14

    The City of Houston is committed to achieving a sustainable solar infrastructure. In 2008, Houston was named a United States Department of Energy (DOE) Solar America City. As a Solar America City, Houston teamed with the Houston Advanced Research Center (HARC), Sandia National Laboratory (Sandia), industry, and academia, to implement the Solar Houston Initiative and prepare the Solar Houston Plan. The Solar Houston initiative was focused on identifying and overcoming barriers associated with establishing a solar infrastructure that is incorporated into the City of Houston’s overall energy plan. A broad group of Houston area stakeholders, facilitated by HARC, came together to develop a comprehensive solar plan that went beyond technology to address barriers and establish demonstrations, public outreach, education programs and other activities. The plan included proposed scopes of work in four program areas: policies, solar integration, public outreach, and education. Through the support of the DOE SunShot Rooftop Solar Challenge (RSC) grant to the Texas Collaboration (San Antonio, Austin, and Hosuton), Houston has been able to implement several of the recommendations of the Solar Houston Plan. Specific recommendations that this project was able to support include; Working with the other Texas Solar America Cities (San Antonio and Austin), to harmonize permitting and inspection processes to simplify for installers and lower soft costs of installation; Participating in state level solar policy groups such as the Texas Renewable Energy Industries Association (TRIEA); Continued coordination with the local transmission and distribution utility (CenterPoint) and retail electric providers (REP); Identification of opportunities to improve permitting and interconnection; Providing training on PV systems to City inspectors; Educating the public by continuing outreach, training, and workshops, particularly using the the Green Building Resources Center; Evaluating methods of

  14. Biofuels - 5 disturbing questions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Initially considered as the supreme weapon against greenhouse gas emissions, biofuels are today hold responsible to all harms of the Earth: leap of agriculture products price, deforestation, food crisis. Considered some time ago as the perfect clean substitute to petroleum, biofuels are now suspected to have harmful effects on the environment. Should it be just an enormous technical, environmental and human swindle? Should we abandon immediately biofuels to protect the earth and fight the threatening again starvation? Should we wait for the second generation of efficient biofuels, made from non food-derived products and cultivation wastes? This book analyses this delicate debate through 5 main questions: do they starve the world? Are they a clean energy source? Do they contribute to deforestation? Are they economically practicable? Is the second generation ready? (J.S.)

  15. Market possibilities for biofuels

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The market for biofuels in Sweden after introduction of a proposed CO2-tax on fossil fuels is forecast. The competition between biofuels, fossil fuels and electricity is described for important market segments such as: Paper industry, Sawmills, Other energy-intensive industry, Power and heat producers, small Heat producers, and for Space heating of one-family houses. A market increase of the use of biofuels is probable for the segment small (district) heating centrals, 10 TWh in the next ten year period and even more during a longer period. Other market segments will not be much affected. An increased use of biofuels in paper and pulp industry will not influence the fuel market, since the increase will happen in the industry's normal lumber purchase. (2 figs., 18 tabs.)

  16. Future of Liquid Biofuels for APEC Economies

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Milbrandt, A.; Overend, R. P.

    2008-05-01

    This project was initiated by APEC Energy Working Group (EWG) to maximize the energy sector's contribution to the region's economic and social well-being through activities in five areas of strategic importance including liquid biofuels production and development.

  17. Grass Pollen Pollution from Biofuels Farming

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Ratajová, A.; Tříska, Jan; Vrchotová, Naděžda; Kolář, L.; Kužel, S.

    2013-01-01

    Roč. 26, č. 4 (2013), s. 199-203. ISSN 2151-321X R&D Projects: GA MŠk(CZ) ED1.1.00/02.0073 Institutional support: RVO:67179843 Keywords : grass pollen pollution * biofuels farming * temperate climate * PK-fertilization * N-fertilization * phenolic Subject RIV: EH - Ecology, Behaviour Impact factor: 0.556, year: 2013

  18. The biofuels, situation, perspectives

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The climatic change with the fight against the greenhouse effect gases, sees the development of ''clean'' energy sources. Meanwhile the biofuels remain penalized by their high production cost, the interest is increasing. Facing their development ecologists highlight the environmental and social negative impacts of the development of the biofuels. The author aims to take stock on the techniques and the utilizations. (A.L.B.)

  19. Microalgae: biofuel production

    OpenAIRE

    Babita Kumari; Vinay Sharma

    2013-01-01

    In the present day, microalgae feedstocks are gaining interest in energy scenario due to their fast growth potential coupled with relatively high lipid, carbohydrate and nutrients contents. All of these properties render them an excellent source for biofuels such as biodiesel, bioethanol and biomethane; as well as a number of other valuable pharmaceutical and nutraceutical products. The present review is a critical appraisal of the commercialization potential of microalgae biofuels....

  20. Turbomachinery in Biofuel Production

    OpenAIRE

    Görling, Martin

    2011-01-01

    The aim for this study has been to evaluate the integration potential of turbo-machinery into the production processes of biofuels. The focus has been on bio-fuel produced via biomass gasification; mainly methanol and synthetic natural gas. The research has been divided into two parts; gas and steam turbine applications. Steam power generation has a given role within the fuel production process due to the large amounts of excess chemical reaction heat. However, large amounts of the steam prod...

  1. Outlook for advanced biofuels

    OpenAIRE

    Hamelinck, Carlo Noël

    2004-01-01

    Modern use of biomass can play an important role in a sustainable energy supply. Biomass abounds in most parts of the world and substantial amounts could be produced at low costs. Motor biofuels seem a sensible application of biomass: they are among the few sustainable alternatives to the transportation sector and can address many of the problems associated with mineral oil. Many biofuels are conceivable. Biodiesel (from oil crops) and ethanol from sugar beets or grains are already used in pr...

  2. Growth, reproductive phenology and yield responses of a potential biofuel plant, Jatropha curcas grown under projected 2050 levels of elevated CO2.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kumar, Sumit; Chaitanya, Bharatula S K; Ghatty, Sreenivas; Reddy, Attipalli R

    2014-11-01

    Jatropha (Jatropha curcas) is a non-edible oil producing plant which is being advocated as an alternative biofuel energy resource. Its ability to grow in diverse soil conditions and minimal requirements of essential agronomical inputs compared with other oilseed crops makes it viable for cost-effective advanced biofuel production. We designed a study to investigate the effects of elevated carbon dioxide concentration ([CO(2)]) (550 ppm) on the growth, reproductive development, source-sink relationships, fruit and seed yield of J. curcas. We report, for the first time that elevated CO(2) significantly influences reproductive characteristics of Jatropha and improve its fruit and seed yields. Net photosynthetic rate of Jatropha was 50% higher in plants grown in elevated CO(2) compared with field and ambient CO(2) -grown plants. The study also revealed that elevated CO(2) atmosphere significantly increased female to male flower ratio, above ground biomass and carbon sequestration potential in Jatropha (24 kg carbon per tree) after 1 year. Our data demonstrate that J. curcas was able to sustain enhanced rate of photosynthesis in elevated CO(2) conditions as it had sufficient sink strength to balance the increased biomass yields. Our study also elucidates that the economically important traits including fruit and seed yield in elevated CO(2) conditions were significantly high in J. curcas that holds great promise as a potential biofuel tree species for the future high CO(2) world. PMID:24655305

  3. Public acceptance of biofuels

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The public acceptance of biofuels in Greece is examined in this work. The analysis of 571 face to face interviews shows that 90.7% of the respondents believe that climatic changes are related to fossil fuel consumption, while only 23.8% know the difference between biodiesel and bioethanol. 76.1% believe that energy saving should precede the use of an alternative source of energy. Only 27.3% believe that priority must be given to biofuels over other renewable energy sources. Only 49.9% think that the use of biofuels can be an effective solution against climatic changes and 53.9% believe that the use of biofuels can be an effective solution for the energy problem. Finally, 80.9% of the car owners are willing to use biofuels, 44.8% are willing to pay the supplementary amount of 0.06 Euro /L of the fuel market price, while the average amount reported as willing to pay was 0.079 Euro /L on top of the fuel market price. Furthermore, eight models correlating the eight main responses with several socioeconomic variables are developed and analyzed. Those findings heave important policy implications related to the use and promotion of biofuels.

  4. Public acceptance of biofuels

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Savvanidou, Electra; Zervas, Efthimios; Tsagarakis, Konstantinos P. [Department of Environmental Engineering, Democritus University of Thrace, Vas. Sofias 12, 67100 Xanthi (Greece)

    2010-07-15

    The public acceptance of biofuels in Greece is examined in this work. The analysis of 571 face to face interviews shows that 90.7% of the respondents believe that climatic changes are related to fossil fuel consumption, while only 23.8% know the difference between biodiesel and bioethanol. 76.1% believe that energy saving should precede the use of an alternative source of energy. Only 27.3% believe that priority must be given to biofuels over other renewable energy sources. Only 49.9% think that the use of biofuels can be an effective solution against climatic changes and 53.9% believe that the use of biofuels can be an effective solution for the energy problem. Finally, 80.9% of the car owners are willing to use biofuels, 44.8% are willing to pay the supplementary amount of 0.06 EUR/L of the fuel market price, while the average amount reported as willing to pay was 0.079 EUR/L on top of the fuel market price. Furthermore, eight models correlating the eight main responses with several socioeconomic variables are developed and analyzed. Those findings heave important policy implications related to the use and promotion of biofuels. (author)

  5. Making biofuels sustainable

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Full text: As the twentieth century drew to a close, there was considerable support for the use of biofuels as a source of renewable energy. To many people, they offered significant savings in greenhouse gas emissions compared to fossil fuels, an opportunity for reduced dependency on oil for transport, and potential as a counter weight to increasing oil prices. They also promised an opportunity for rural economies to benefit from a new market for their products and a chance of narrowing the gap between rich and poor nations. Biofuel development was encouraged by government subsidies, and rapid growth occurred in many parts of the world. Forty per cent of Brazilian sugar cane is used for biofuel production, for example, as is almost a quarter of maize grown in the United States. Although only around 1 per cent of arable land is cultivated to grow feedstock for biofuels, there has been increasing concern over the way a largely unchecked market has developed, and about its social and environmental consequences. Recent research has confirmed that food prices have been driven significantly higher by competition for prime agricultural land and that savings in greenhouse gas emissions are much smaller - and in some cases entirely eliminated - when environmentally important land, such as rainforest, is destroyed to grow biofuels. As a result, many now believe that the economic benefits of biofuels have been obtained at too high a social and environmental price, and they question whether they can be a truly sustainable source of energy. The United Kingdom has always had sustainability at the heart of its biofuel policies and set up the Renewable Fuels Agency to ensure that this goal was met. The direct effects of biofuel production are already being assessed through five measures of environmental performance and two measures of social performance, as well as measures of the energy efficiency of the production processes used and of the greenhouse gas savings achieved

  6. National inventory of selected biological monitoring programs. Summary report of current or recently completed projects, 1976

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kemp, H. T.

    1976-10-01

    The Inventory has resulted in establishment of a series of data bases containing biological monitoring information of varying types, namely, directory of investigators, record of projects received from mail questionnaire, detailed description of selected biomonitoring projects, and bibliographic citations supporting the projects received. This report contains detailed descriptions of selected biomonitoring projects organized on a state-by-state basis and with appropriate indices.

  7. Beyond commonplace biofuels: Social aspects of ethanol

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Biofuels policies and projects may lead to environmental, economic and social impacts. A number of studies point out the need to deliver comprehensive sustainability assessments regarding biofuels, with some presenting analytical frameworks that claim to be exhaustive. However, what is often found in the literature is an overexploitation of environmental and economic concerns, by contrast to a limited appraisal of the social aspects of biofuels. Building on a systematic review of the peer-reviewed literature, this paper discusses the social constraints and strengths of ethanol, with regard to the product's lifecycle stages and the actors involved. Its objective is to contribute to the development of social frameworks to be used in assessing the impact of ethanol. Main findings indicate that ethanol developments can increase the levels of social vulnerability, although there is little evidence in the literature regarding the positive and negative social impacts of 1st-generation ethanol and potential impacts of cellulosic ethanol. Further work is needed on the formulation of social criteria and indicators for a comprehensive sustainability assessment of this biofuel. Policy makers need to internalise the social dimension of ethanol in decision-making to prevent public opposition and irreversible social costs in the future. - Highlights: ► The literature lacks evidence on the social impacts of ethanol. ► Further work is needed on social criteria and indicators for assessment. ► Ethanol developments can increase the levels of social vulnerability. ► Decision-making should internalise the social dimension of biofuels sustainability

  8. Incorporating Primary Literature Summary Projects into a First-Year Chemistry Curriculum

    Science.gov (United States)

    Forest, Kaya; Rayne, Sierra

    2009-01-01

    In our focus on material that must be covered in a content-rich course such as first-year chemistry, we often neglect the development of other essential skills such as reading, writing, and critical thinking. The primary research literature summary assignment described attempts to address this issue. The purpose of the assignment is to introduce…

  9. Statistics for Librarians: A Distance Learning Package. A Summary. FEU/PICKUP Project Report.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Blackie, Edna

    This summary report provides a brief description of the development of a distance learning curriculum package by the School of Librarianship and Information Studies at Newcastle upon Tyne Polytechnic, which was designed to teach the skills of presenting, analyzing, and evaluating statistical information to middle-management-level librarians and…

  10. Macroalgae Analysis A National GIS-based Analysis of Macroalgae Production Potential Summary Report and Project Plan

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Roesijadi, Guritno; Coleman, Andre M.; Judd, Chaeli; Van Cleve, Frances B.; Thom, Ronald M.; Buenau, Kate E.; Tagestad, Jerry D.; Wigmosta, Mark S.; Ward, Jeffrey A.

    2011-12-01

    The overall project objective is to conduct a strategic analysis to assess the state of macroalgae as a feedstock for biofuels production. The objective in FY11 is to develop a multi-year systematic national assessment to evaluate the U.S. potential for macroalgae production using a GIS-based assessment tool and biophysical growth model developed as part of these activities. The initial model development for both resource assessment and constraints was completed and applied to the demonstration areas. The model for macroalgal growth was extended to the EEZ off the East and West Coasts of the United States, and a plan to merge the findings for an initial composite assessment was developed. In parallel, an assessment of land-based, port, and offshore infrastructure needs based on published and grey literature was conducted. Major information gaps and challenges encountered during this analysis were identified. Also conducted was an analysis of the type of local, state, and federal requirements that pertain to permitting land-based facilities and nearshore/offshore culture operations

  11. Intelligent Route Guidance for Heavy Vehicles : Project 031461 :Deliverable 1.2 : Summary on System Architecture and Visions

    OpenAIRE

    ALEKSA, Michael; BLERVAQUE, Vincent; CEREZO, Veronique; DELEFOSSE, Rémi; DOLCEMASCOLO, Victor; EICHLOM, Claudia; Ihs, Anita; SJOGREN, Leif; SPIELHOFER, Roland; STUTZ, Rainer

    2007-01-01

    RAPPORT DE CONTRAT The main purpose of this report is to summarise the results of work package 1 System conception and User Requirements to a system architecture for the HeavyRoute project. This summary shall offer a structural basis for the other technical work packages, especially for work package 3 and work package 4. Work package 1 was dedicated to develop the system conception of HeavyRoute and to gather and analyse the user requirements for an intelligent routing, guidance and naviga...

  12. Small-Scale Hydroelectric Power Demonstration Project. Pennsylvania Hydroelectric Development Corporation Flat Rock Dam: Project summary report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gleeson, L.

    1991-12-01

    The US Department of Energy Field Office, Idaho, Small-Scale Hydroelectric Power Program was initiated in conjunction with the restoration of three power generating plants in Idaho Falls, Idaho, following damage caused by the Teton Dam failure on June 5, 1976. There were many parties interested in this project, including the state and environmental groups, with different concerns. This report was prepared by the developer and describes the design alternatives the applicant provided in an attempt to secure the Federal Energy Regulatory Commission license. Also included are correspondence between the related parties concerning the project, major design alternatives/project plan diagrams, the license, and energy and project economics.

  13. Bio-fuels

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This report presents an overview of the technologies which are currently used or presently developed for the production of bio-fuels in Europe and more particularly in France. After a brief history of this production since the beginning of the 20. century, the authors describe the support to agriculture and the influence of the Common Agricultural Policy, outline the influence of the present context of struggle against the greenhouse effect, and present the European legislative context. Data on the bio-fuels consumption in the European Union in 2006 are discussed. An overview of the evolution of the activity related to bio-fuels in France, indicating the locations of ethanol and bio-diesel production facilities, and the evolution of bio-fuel consumption, is given. The German situation is briefly presented. Production of ethanol by fermentation, the manufacturing of ETBE, the bio-diesel production from vegetable oils are discussed. Second generation bio-fuels are then presented (cellulose enzymatic processing), together with studies on thermochemical processes and available biomass resources

  14. Quality Assurance. Summary Report of a Project to Develop and Evaluate a Quality Assurance Package. FEU/PICKUP Project Report.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Further Education Unit, London (England).

    A curriculum development project began with a market survey to investigate the demand for training in quality assurance (QA). The project objective was to develop a final study program that would cater to a broad range of employees, from operative to senior management; enable employees to appreciate their potential role within a QA system; and…

  15. BioFuels Atlas (Presentation)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Moriarty, K.

    2011-02-01

    Presentation for biennial merit review of Biofuels Atlas, a first-pass visualization tool that allows users to explore the potential of biomass-to-biofuels conversions at various locations and scales.

  16. The legitimacy of biofuel certification

    OpenAIRE

    Partzsch, Lena

    2009-01-01

    Abstract The biofuel boom is placing enormous demands on existing cropping systems, with the most crucial consequences in the agri-food sector. The biofuel industry is responding by initiating private governance and certification. The Roundtable on Sustainable Palm Oil (RSPO) and the Cramer Commission, among others, have formulated criteria on ?sustainable? biofuel production and processing. This article explores the legitimacy of private governance and certification by the biofuel...

  17. Microalgae biofuel potentials (review).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ghasemi, Y; Rasoul-Amini, S; Naseri, A T; Montazeri-Najafabady, N; Mobasher, M A; Dabbagh, F

    2012-01-01

    With the decrease of fossil based fuels and the environmental impact of them over the planet, it seems necessary to seek the sustainable sources of clean energy. Biofuels, is becoming a worldwide leader in the development of renewable energy resources. It is worthwhile to say that algal biofuel production is thought to help stabilize the concentration of carbon dioxide in the atmosphere and decrease global warming impacts. Also, among algal fuels' attractive characteristics, algal biodiesel is non toxic, with no sulfur, highly biodegradable and relatively harmless to the environment if spilled. Algae are capable of producing in excess of 30 times more oil per acre than corn and soybean crops. Currently, algal biofuel production has not been commercialized due to high costs associated with production, harvesting and oil extraction but the technology is progressing. Extensive research was conducted to determine the utilization of microalgae as an energy source and make algae oil production commercially viable. PMID:22586908

  18. Biofuels: making tough choices

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Vermeulen, Sonja; Dufey, Annie; Vorley, Bill

    2008-02-15

    The jury is still out on biofuels. But one thing at least is certain: serious trade-offs are involved in the production and use of these biomass-derived alternatives to fossil fuels. This has not been lost on the European Union. The year kicked off with an announcement from the EU environment commissioner that it may be better for the EU to miss its target of reaching 10 per cent biofuel content in road fuels by 2020 than to compromise the environment and human wellbeing. The 'decision tree' outlined here can guide the interdependent processes of deliberation and analysis needed for making tough choices in national biofuels development.

  19. The Danish Biofuel Debate

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hansen, Janus

    2014-01-01

    from the molecular level and envisions positive synergies in the use of biomass. The other is a holistic bioscarcity perspective originating in life-cycle analysis and ecology. This perspective works downwards from global resource scope conditions, and envisions negative consequences from an increased...... of biofuels enrol scientific authority to support their positions? The sociological theory of functional differentiation combined with the concept of advocacy coalition can help in exploring this relationship between scientific claims-making and the policy stance of different actors in public debates...... about biofuels. In Denmark two distinct scientific perspectives about biofuels map onto the policy debates through articulation by two competing advocacy coalitions. One is a reductionist biorefinery perspective originating in biochemistry and neighbouring disciplines. This perspective works upwards...

  20. Biogas and biofuels barometer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    European union countries are becoming more and more interested by the characteristics of biogas in terms of environment and energy production and are developing their proper channels of valorization according to their potential. In this way, biogas production reached nearly 5,3 million tons oil equivalent in 2006, representing a 13,6% increase with respect to 2005. Statistical data are provided on the primary energy production of biogas, the electricity production from biogas, gross heat production from biogas, and the representative firms of the biogas sector. In a second part the biofuels barometer is presented. The agricultural environment and landscape of the European Union countries is redefined a little more each year by energy crops for biofuel production. According to the first estimates for 2006, biofuel consumption reached 5,38 Mtoe last year in the EU, corresponding to a 1,8% share of the total consumption of fuels devoted to transport. (A.L.B.)

  1. Wildlife Loss Estimates and Summary of Previous Mitigation Related to Hydroelectric Projects in Montana, Volume Three, Hungry Horse Project.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Casey, Daniel

    1984-10-01

    This assessment addresses the impacts to the wildlife populations and wildlife habitats due to the Hungry Horse Dam project on the South Fork of the Flathead River and previous mitigation of theses losses. In order to develop and focus mitigation efforts, it was first necessary to estimate wildlife and wildlife hatitat losses attributable to the construction and operation of the project. The purpose of this report was to document the best available information concerning the degree of impacts to target wildlife species. Indirect benefits to wildlife species not listed will be identified during the development of alternative mitigation measures. Wildlife species incurring positive impacts attributable to the project were identified.

  2. The Brazilian biofuels industry

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Goldemberg José

    2008-05-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Ethanol is a biofuel that is used as a replacement for approximately 3% of the fossil-based gasoline consumed in the world today. Most of this biofuel is produced from sugarcane in Brazil and corn in the United States. We present here the rationale for the ethanol program in Brazil, its present 'status' and its perspectives. The environmental benefits of the program, particularly the contribution of ethanol to reducing the emission of greenhouse gases, are discussed, as well as the limitations to its expansion.

  3. Development and field evaluation of animal feed supplementation packages (AFRA project II-17 - RAF/5/041). Project summary

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The Joint FAO/IAEA programme has supported animal production research in Africa for many years through country Technical Co-operation (TC) Projects, Regional Projects (AFRA) and Co-ordinated Research Project (CRP). These activities have helped to build up the infrastructure needed in the countries concerned to conduct much of the research in animal reproduction and nutrition. In the past the Agency has provided technical assistance in defining reproductive indices of ruminant livestock species and identifying nutritional constraints to productivity of animals maintained on smallholder farms under various topographical and environmental conditions. In view of the satisfactory progress of AFRA Project VIII in identifying the major constraints to livestock productivity in the region, and the recognition of many Member States of the importance of supplementary feeding for improving milk and meat production, a regional strategy was proposed for developing affordable and sustainable supplementation packages for improving productivity from smallholder farms using locally available feed resources. The new Regional Project was initiated in 1997 with the following objectives: 1. To produce a supplementary feed in the form of a convenient and easy-to-use package for improving milk and meat production in peri-urban areas 2. To promote the uptake of this technology through demonstrations of its advantages in terms of increased productivity and benefit: cost ratio 3. To maximize the use of locally available feed material such as molasses, cereal bran, legume tree leaves, oil seed meals, etc. for feeding ruminant livestock, thereby reducing the use of high cost concentrate feeds 4. To promote technical co-operation amongst developing countries (TCDC) in the region and take advantage of established infrastructure and available human and technical resources to solve problems of common interest. From 1997 until 2000 the project has been operational with 13 Member States

  4. Summary report of the TC regional project on 'QA/QC of nuclear analytical techniques' RER-2-004 (1999-2001)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This report provides a summary of the Cekmece Nuclear Research and Training Centre participation in the Project. The Project helped in setting up quality assurance system in the Centre and resulted in a progress in analytical proficiency as shown in the proficiency test results. The main accomplishments are listed along with the tasks to be done

  5. Southwest regional geothermal operations research program. Summary report. First project year, June 1977--August 1978

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Meyer, R.T.; Davidson, R.

    1978-12-01

    A summary report is given of the information, data, and results presented by New Mexico Energy Institute and the five State Teams in their separate draft reports. The objective is to develop scenarios for the development of each identified geothermal resource area in Arizona, Colorado, Nevada, New Mexico and Utah. Included are an overview; an economic analysis; institutitional procedures, contraints, and incentives; location of geothermal resources in the southwest; geothermal development postulations, state by state; and recommended actions for promoting and accelerating geothermal development. (MHR)

  6. Mirage project. Second summary progress report (Work period January to December 1984)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This report summarizes the second year of work (1984) in the CEC project MIRAGE on migration of radionuclides in the geosphere. It complements CEC reports EUR 9304 (Description of the project) and EUR 9543 (Works carried out in 1983) on the same topic

  7. Groundwater/Vadose Zone Integration Project Science and Technology Summary Description

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This volume of the Project Description for the Groundwater/Vadose Zone Integration Project contains the Science and Technology roadmap. Roadmapping is a process in which problem holders come together with problem solvers to define problems and establish a path to solution

  8. Groundwater/vadose zone integration project science and technology summary description

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This volume of the Project Description for the Groundwater/Vadose Zone Integration Project contains the Science and Technology roadmap. Roadmapping is a process in which problem holders come together with problem solvers to define problems and establish a path to solution

  9. Reconciling biofuels, sustainability and commodities demand. Pitfalls and policy options

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Increasing fossil fuel prices, energy security considerations and environmental concerns, particularly concerning climate change, have motivated countries to explore alternative energy sources including biofuels. Global demand for biofuels has been rising rapidly due to biofuel support policies established in many countries. However, proposed strong links between biofuels demand and recent years' high food commodity prices, and notions that increasing biofuels production might bring about serious negative environmental impacts, in particularly associated with the land use change to biofuel crops, have shifted public enthusiasm about biofuels. In this context, the ELOBIO project aims at shedding further light to these aspects of biofuel expansion by collecting and reviewing the available data, and also developing strategies to decrease negative effects of biofuels while enabling their positive contribution to climate change, security of supply and rural development. ELOBIO considers aspects associated with both 1st and 2nd generation biofuels, hence analyses effects on both agricultural commodity markets and lignocellulosic markets. This project, funded by the Intelligent Energy Europe programme, consists of a review of current experiences with biofuels and other renewable energy policies and their impacts on other markets, iterative stakeholder-supported development of low-disturbing biofuels policies, model supported assessment of these policies' impacts on food, feed and lignocellulosic markets, and finally an assessment of the effects of selected optimal policies on biofuels costs and potentials. Results of the ELOBIO study show that rapid biofuel deployment without careful monitoring of consequences and implementation of mitigating measures risks leading to negative consequences. Implementing ambitious global biofuel targets for 2020, based on current 1st generation technologies, can push international agricultural commodity prices upwards and increase crop

  10. PETROBRAS, an energy company and the Brazilian biofuel program

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Torres, Fernando; Diehl Filho, Rubin P.; Fernandes Valle, Luiz Alberto

    2010-09-15

    Ever since the launches of Proalcool (ETHANOL PROGRAM) and PNPB (BIODIESEL PROGRAM), PETROBRAS (as an energy company) has been actively participating in these national projects and investing in tankage collection and storage, shipment and marine terminals, distribution infrastructure, biodiesel and ethanol plants and second-generation biofuels. It has also been the pioneer in offering these products at its service stations to final consumers. PETROBRAS in its 2008-2012 Business Plan intends to invest US$ 1.5 billion in biofuel business and act globally in biofuel commercialization and logistics, leading national biodiesel production and expanding its presence in the ethanol business.

  11. The biofuels in France; Les biocarburants en France

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2006-04-15

    The biofuels are liquid renewable energies sources resulting from vegetal matters. Today are two channels of biofuels: the ethanol channel for gasoline and the vegetal oils channel for the diesel. In the first part, the document presents the different channels and the energy efficiency of the products. It shows in the second part the advantages for the environment (CO{sub 2} accounting) and for the energy independence. It discusses then the future developments and the projects. The fourth part is devoted to the legislation, regulations, taxes and financial incentives. The last part presents the french petroleum industry actions and attitudes in the framework of the biofuels development. (A.L.B.)

  12. DECOVALEX III PROJECT. Mathematical Models of Coupled Thermal-Hydro-Mechanical Processes for Nuclear Waste Repositories. Executive Summary

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jing, L.; Stephansson, O. [Royal Inst. of Technology, Stockholm (Sweden). Engineering Geology; Tsang, C.F. [Lawrence Berkely National Laboratory, Berkeley, CA (United States). Earth Science Div.; Mayor, J.C. [ENRESA, Madrid (Spain); Kautzky, F. [Swedish Nuclear Power Inspectorate, Stockholm (Sweden)] (eds.)

    2005-02-15

    DECOVALEX is an international consortium of governmental agencies associated with the disposal of high-level nuclear waste in a number of countries. The consortium's mission is the DEvelopment of COupled models and their VALidation against EXperiments. Hence the acronym/name DECOVALEX. Currently, agencies from Canada, Finland, France, Germany, Japan, Spain, Switzerland, Sweden, United Kingdom, and the United States are in DECOVALEX. Emplacement of nuclear waste in a repository in geologic media causes a number of physical processes to be intensified in the surrounding rock mass due to the decay heat from the waste. The four main processes of concern are thermal, hydrological, mechanical and chemical. Interactions or coupling between these heat-driven processes must be taken into account in modeling the performance of the repository for such modeling to be meaningful and reliable. DECOVALEX III is organized around four tasks. The FEBEX (Full-scale Engineered Barriers EXperiment) in situ experiment being conducted at the Grimsel site in Switzerland is to be simulated and analyzed in Task 1. Task 2, centered around the Drift Scale Test (DST) at Yucca Mountain in Nevada, USA, has several sub-tasks (Task 2A, Task 2B, Task 2C and Task 2D) to investigate a number of the coupled processes in the DST. Task 3 studies three benchmark problems: a) the effects of thermal-hydrologic-mechanical (THM) coupling on the performance of the near-field of a nuclear waste repository (BMT1); b) the effect of upscaling THM processes on the results of performance assessment (BMT2); and c) the effect of glaciation on rock mass behavior (BMT3). Task 4 is on the direct application of THM coupled process modeling in the performance assessment of nuclear waste repositories in geologic media. This executive summary presents the motivation, structure, objectives, approaches, and the highlights of the main achievements and outstanding issues of the tasks studied in the DECOVALEX III project

  13. DECOVALEX III PROJECT. Mathematical Models of Coupled Thermal-Hydro-Mechanical Processes for Nuclear Waste Repositories. Executive Summary

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    DECOVALEX is an international consortium of governmental agencies associated with the disposal of high-level nuclear waste in a number of countries. The consortium's mission is the DEvelopment of COupled models and their VALidation against EXperiments. Hence the acronym/name DECOVALEX. Currently, agencies from Canada, Finland, France, Germany, Japan, Spain, Switzerland, Sweden, United Kingdom, and the United States are in DECOVALEX. Emplacement of nuclear waste in a repository in geologic media causes a number of physical processes to be intensified in the surrounding rock mass due to the decay heat from the waste. The four main processes of concern are thermal, hydrological, mechanical and chemical. Interactions or coupling between these heat-driven processes must be taken into account in modeling the performance of the repository for such modeling to be meaningful and reliable. DECOVALEX III is organized around four tasks. The FEBEX (Full-scale Engineered Barriers EXperiment) in situ experiment being conducted at the Grimsel site in Switzerland is to be simulated and analyzed in Task 1. Task 2, centered around the Drift Scale Test (DST) at Yucca Mountain in Nevada, USA, has several sub-tasks (Task 2A, Task 2B, Task 2C and Task 2D) to investigate a number of the coupled processes in the DST. Task 3 studies three benchmark problems: a) the effects of thermal-hydrologic-mechanical (THM) coupling on the performance of the near-field of a nuclear waste repository (BMT1); b) the effect of upscaling THM processes on the results of performance assessment (BMT2); and c) the effect of glaciation on rock mass behavior (BMT3). Task 4 is on the direct application of THM coupled process modeling in the performance assessment of nuclear waste repositories in geologic media. This executive summary presents the motivation, structure, objectives, approaches, and the highlights of the main achievements and outstanding issues of the tasks studied in the DECOVALEX III project. The

  14. Systems-Level Synthetic Biology for Advanced Biofuel Production

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ruffing, Anne [Sandia National Lab. (SNL-NM), Albuquerque, NM (United States); Jensen, Travis J. [Sandia National Lab. (SNL-NM), Albuquerque, NM (United States); Strickland, Lucas Marshall [Sandia National Lab. (SNL-NM), Albuquerque, NM (United States); Meserole, Stephen [Sandia National Lab. (SNL-NM), Albuquerque, NM (United States); Tallant, David [Sandia National Lab. (SNL-NM), Albuquerque, NM (United States)

    2015-03-01

    Cyanobacteria have been shown to be capable of producing a variety of advanced biofuels; however, product yields remain well below those necessary for large scale production. New genetic tools and high throughput metabolic engineering techniques are needed to optimize cyanobacterial metabolisms for enhanced biofuel production. Towards this goal, this project advances the development of a multiple promoter replacement technique for systems-level optimization of gene expression in a model cyanobacterial host: Synechococcus sp. PCC 7002. To realize this multiple-target approach, key capabilities were developed, including a high throughput detection method for advanced biofuels, enhanced transformation efficiency, and genetic tools for Synechococcus sp. PCC 7002. Moreover, several additional obstacles were identified for realization of this multiple promoter replacement technique. The techniques and tools developed in this project will help to enable future efforts in the advancement of cyanobacterial biofuels.

  15. Technology Roadmaps: Biofuels for Transport

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2011-07-01

    Biofuels could provide up to 27% of total transport fuel worldwide by 2050. The use of transport fuels from biomass, when produced sustainably, can help cut petroleum use and reduce CO2 emissions in the transport sector, especially in heavy transport. Sustainable biofuel technologies, in particular advanced biofuels, will play an important role in achieving this roadmap vision. The roadmap describes the steps necessary to realise this ambitious biofuels target; identifies key actions by different stakeholders, and the role for government policy to adopt measures needed to ensure the sustainable expansion of both conventional and advanced biofuel production.

  16. Swiss Photovoltaics Programme 2008 edition - Summary report, annual project abstracts for 2007

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2008-04-15

    This comprehensive, illustrated report issued by the Swiss Federal Office of Energy (SFOE) presents an overview of activities in 2007 within the framework of the Swiss Photovoltaics Research Programme. Work completed in 2007 and the results achieved in the areas of cell technology, solar modules and building integration, electrical systems technology, supplementary projects and studies are summarised. National and international co-operation is examined. New, current and completed Pilot and Demonstration projects are reported on as are the prospects for the year 2008. The report is completed with lists of research and development as well as pilot and demonstration projects.

  17. Summary of discussions on the next project at RCNP, Osaka University

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A meeting was held in May 1985 to discuss what should be the next project of RCNP (Research Center for Nuclear Physics), Osaka University, in relation with other similar projects in Japanese Universities or institutes. About 70 researchers from various universities and institutes in Japan gathered and discussed new nuclear physics projects including a 300 MeV cyclotron. Before entering discussions some short reports conserning selection of machine, requirement from physical studies or political problems were presented. And some selected commentators gave short comments for active discussions. All these reports and comments are included in this collective report. (Aoki, K.)

  18. Improving EU biofuels policy?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Swinbank, Alan; Daugbjerg, Carsten

    2013-01-01

    in the WTO, as there would be a clearer link between policy measures and the objective of reductions in GHG emissions; and the combination of the revised RED and the FQD would lessen the commercial incentive to import biofuels with modest GHG emission savings, and thus reduce the risk of trade tension....

  19. Outlook for advanced biofuels

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hamelinck, Carlo Noël

    2004-01-01

    Modern use of biomass can play an important role in a sustainable energy supply. Biomass abounds in most parts of the world and substantial amounts could be produced at low costs. Motor biofuels seem a sensible application of biomass: they are among the few sustainable alternatives to the tran

  20. The rationality of biofuels

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In an editorial of a recent issue of a known academic journal, Prof. Hartmut Michel affirmed that “…the production of biofuels constitutes an extremely inefficient land use… We should not grow plants for biofuel production.”, after comparing the area occupied with plants for bioenergy production with the one required for photovoltaic cells to supply the same amount of energy for transportation. This assertion is not correct for all situations and this comparison deserves a more careful analysis, evaluating the actual and prospective technological scenarios and other relevant aspects, such as capacity requirements, energy consumed during the life cycle of energy systems and the associated impacts. In this communication this comparison is revaluated, presenting a different perspective, more favorable for the bioenergy routes. - Highlights: • Energy systems and life cycle impacts are compared under equal conditions. • The comparison is done between biofuels and photovoltaic/battery in mobility uses. • Biofuels are a valuable option when produced sustainably by efficient routes

  1. Biofuel seeks endorsement

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Jongeneel, C.; Rentmeester, S.

    2015-01-01

    Biofuels such as ethanol from sugar cane and cellulose ‘waste’ are theoretically sustainable, as their combustion releases no more CO2 than is absorbed during production. Even so, they are also controversial, because they are believed to be grown at the expense of food crops, or because areas of rai

  2. Biofuels from urban landscapes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Biomass from urban landscapes is an untapped resource. Lawn thatch and clippings, fallen leaves and tree limbs are all potential sources of biofuels. Most cities already collect and transport these materials to disposal sites; but, alternatively could collect and transport these materials to a loc...

  3. National Geo-Database for Biofuel Simulations and Regional Analysis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Izaurralde, Roberto C.; Zhang, Xuesong; Sahajpal, Ritvik; Manowitz, David H.

    2012-04-01

    The goal of this project undertaken by GLBRC (Great Lakes Bioenergy Research Center) Area 4 (Sustainability) modelers is to develop a national capability to model feedstock supply, ethanol production, and biogeochemical impacts of cellulosic biofuels. The results of this project contribute to sustainability goals of the GLBRC; i.e. to contribute to developing a sustainable bioenergy economy: one that is profitable to farmers and refiners, acceptable to society, and environmentally sound. A sustainable bioenergy economy will also contribute, in a fundamental way, to meeting national objectives on energy security and climate mitigation. The specific objectives of this study are to: (1) develop a spatially explicit national geodatabase for conducting biofuel simulation studies; (2) model biomass productivity and associated environmental impacts of annual cellulosic feedstocks; (3) simulate production of perennial biomass feedstocks grown on marginal lands; and (4) locate possible sites for the establishment of cellulosic ethanol biorefineries. To address the first objective, we developed SENGBEM (Spatially Explicit National Geodatabase for Biofuel and Environmental Modeling), a 60-m resolution geodatabase of the conterminous USA containing data on: (1) climate, (2) soils, (3) topography, (4) hydrography, (5) land cover/ land use (LCLU), and (6) ancillary data (e.g., road networks, federal and state lands, national and state parks, etc.). A unique feature of SENGBEM is its 2008-2010 crop rotation data, a crucially important component for simulating productivity and biogeochemical cycles as well as land-use changes associated with biofuel cropping. We used the EPIC (Environmental Policy Integrated Climate) model to simulate biomass productivity and environmental impacts of annual and perennial cellulosic feedstocks across much of the USA on both croplands and marginal lands. We used data from LTER and eddy-covariance experiments within the study region to test the

  4. Advanced Turbine Technology Applications Project (ATTAP) and Hybrid Vehicle Turbine Engine Technology Support project (HVTE-TS): Final summary report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1998-12-01

    This final technical report was prepared by Rolls-Royce Allison summarizing the multiyear activities of the Advanced Turbine Technology Applications Project (ATTAP) and the Hybrid Vehicle Turbine Engine Technology Support (HVTE-TS) project. The ATTAP program was initiated in October 1987 and continued through 1993 under sponsorship of the US Department of Energy (DOE), Energy Conservation and Renewable Energy, Office of Transportation Technologies, Propulsion Systems, Advanced Propulsion Division. ATTAP was intended to advance the technological readiness of the automotive ceramic gas turbine engine. The target application was the prime power unit coupled to conventional transmissions and powertrains. During the early 1990s, hybrid electric powered automotive propulsion systems became the focus of development and demonstration efforts by the US auto industry and the Department of energy. Thus in 1994, the original ATTAP technology focus was redirected to meet the needs of advanced gas turbine electric generator sets. As a result, the program was restructured to provide the required hybrid vehicle turbine engine technology support and the project renamed HVTE-TS. The overall objective of the combined ATTAP and HVTE-TS projects was to develop and demonstrate structural ceramic components that have the potential for competitive automotive engine life cycle cost and for operating 3,500 hr in an advanced high temperature turbine engine environment. This report describes materials characterization and ceramic component development, ceramic components, hot gasifier rig testing, test-bed engine testing, combustion development, insulation development, and regenerator system development. 130 figs., 12 tabs.

  5. Biofuel on contaminated land

    Science.gov (United States)

    Suer, Pascal; Andersson-Sköld, Yvonne; Blom, Sonja; Bardos, Paul; Polland, Marcel; Track, Thomas

    2010-05-01

    Desktop studies of two Swedish contaminated sites has indicated that growing biofuel crops on these sites may be more environmentally beneficial than alternative risk management approaches such as excavation / removal or containment The demand for biofuel increases pressure on the cultivatable soil of the world. While contaminated land is not very suitable for food production, cultivation of low and medium contaminated soil may remove some pressure from agricultural soils. For larger sites, biofuel cultivation may be economically viable without a remediation bonus. Suitable sites have topographic conditions that allow agricultural machinery, are not in urgent need of remediation, and contamination levels are not plant toxic. Life cycle assessment (LCA) was done for two cases. The (desk top) case studies were - Case K, a 5000 m2 site where salix (willow) was cultivated with hand-held machinery and the biofuel harvest was left on site, and - Case F, a 12 ha site were on site ensuring was being considered, and were salix might have rented an economic profit if the remediation had not been urgent due to exploitation pressure. Some selected results for biofuel K; biofuel F; excavation K; and on site ensuring F respectively: Energy: 0,05; 1,4; 3,5; 19 TJ Waste: 1; 9; 1200; 340 ton Land use off-site: 190; 3 500; 200 000; 1 400 000 m² a Global warming: 3; 86; 230; 1 200 ton CO2 eq Acidification: 25; 1 000; 2 600; 14 000 kg SO2 eq Photochemical smog: 10; 180; 410; 2 300 kg ethene eq Human health: 2; 51; 150; 620 index The environmental impact of the traditional remediation methods of excavation and on-site ensuring was mainly due to the transport of contaminated soil and replacement soil, and landfilling of the contaminated soil. Biofuel cultivation avoids these impacts, while fertiliser production and agricultural machinery would have a lower environmental impact than moving large volumes of soil around. Journeys of a controller to check on the groundwater quality also

  6. BLS Projections to 2006--A Summary. Employment Outlook: 1996-2006.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bowman, Charles

    1997-01-01

    Introduces this special issue on the Bureau of Labor Statistics' new projections of the occupational, industrial, and demographic structure of the labor force, which present a detailed look at the U.S. economy in 2006. (JOW)

  7. Project Summary. IN-SITU AQUIFER RESTORATION OF CHLORINATED ALIPHATICS BY METHANOTROPHIC BACTERIA

    Science.gov (United States)

    This project evaluated the potential of an innovative approach to aquifer restoration: enhanced in-situ biotransformation of chlorinated aliphatic solvents by a bacterial community grown on methane under aerobic conditions. The target chlorinated compounds were trichloroethene (...

  8. USFWS/DU Floating Nest Structure Project Report: 1997 season and final summary

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — This report presents four-year results from a waterfowl floating nest structure project in the Morris Wetland District, Minnesota. The study was conducted from 1994...

  9. Summary of work in climate change, pest risk analysis, and biodiversity for Valdivia SANREM project

    OpenAIRE

    Garrett, Karen A.

    2008-01-01

    Metadata only record This presentation summarizes work in climate change, pest risk analysis, and biodiversity for Valdivia SANREM project LTRA-4 (Practices and Strategies for Vulnerable Agro-Ecosystems)

  10. Wind Powering America's Wind for Schools Project: Summary Report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Baring-Gould, I.; Newcomb, C.

    2012-06-01

    This report provides an overview of the U.S. Department of Energy, Wind Powering America, Wind for Schools project. It outlines teacher-training activities and curriculum development; discusses the affiliate program that allows school districts and states to replicate the program; and contains reports that provide an update on activities and progress in the 11 states in which the Wind for Schools project operates.

  11. A summary of lessons learned at the Shippingport Station Decommissioning Project (SSDP)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This paper describes the lessons learned from a management perspective during decommissioning. The lessons learned are presented in a chronological sequence during the life of the project up to the present time. The careful analysis of the lessons learned and the implementation of corresponding actions have contributed toward improving the effectiveness of decommissioning as time progresses. The lessons learned should be helpful in planning future decommissioning projects

  12. Summary results of an assessment of research projects in the Nuclear Medicine Research program

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In May 1987, OHER management requested the Office of Program Analysis (OPA) to conduct a peer review of the projects of the DOE Nuclear Medicine Research program. This was done using procedures and a quantitative methodology OPA developed for assessing DOE research programs. Sixty-three individual nuclear medicine projects were reviewed by seven panels; one panel on isotopes and radioisotopes, three on radiopharmacology, two on clinical feasibility, and one on instrumentation. Each panel consisted of five to ten knowledgeable reviewers. 5 figs

  13. Overview of the Estonian Biofuels Association activities

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Due to global warming and environment pollution because of widespread use of fossil fuels there are already tendencies to stabilize and decrease the consumption of these energy resources and take into use more renewable energy resources. Estonian Biofuels Association (EBA) is a non-profit association, which was founded on 8. of May 1998 in Tallinn. The EBA is an independent and voluntary alliance of its members. Fields of activity of the EBA are by biofuels research, developing and evaluation to engage environmental, biofuels and energy saving. EBA members are: energy consultants, scientists, as well as fuel suppliers, DH-companies, technology suppliers, energy service companies etc. The members of EBA are involved in different projects in Estonia, where biomass are produced and used for heating, where wood, waste, peat, rape oil and biogas resources are examined and put into use, and also projects which deal with energy saving and environment friendly equipment production for using biofuels. During our short experience we have noticed that people in Estonia have become more aware of biomass and their use, so the development of environment friendly and sustainable energetics will continue in Estonia. Available biofuels in Estonia could compete with fossil fuels if burnt rationally with high technology equipment. EBA members are convinced that biomass have perspective and that they could play an important role in improving Estonian economic and environmental situation. Modem biomass combustion devices are taken into use more the faster general wealth increases and EBA can raise people's awareness of bio fuel subject through special, courses and media. We want Estonian energy policy to develop towards widespread use of renewable energy resources, which would save energy and environment improve nation's foreign trade balance and create jobs mainly in rural areas

  14. Stuart oil shale project stage two: executive summary: draft environmental impact statement

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The project is an oil shale open pit mine and processing operation that is currently being commissioned 15 km north of Gladstone, Queensland, Australia, and is owned as a joint venture by Southern Pacific Petroleum N.L., Central Pacific Minerals N.L, and Suncor Energy Inc., a leading Canadian company that is an integrated energy company. The results of a comprehensive investigation are included of the potential environmental impacts of the project, and which are described in the Draft Environmental Impact Statement (EIS). In stage two, there is included the existing mine expansion as well as the construction of an additional process plant based around a larger commercial scale ATP oil shale processing plant. The new stage two operation will be developed next to and integral with services and infrastructure provided for stage one. Described are: the assessment process, regulatory framework and the project area, the needs for an alternative to the project, the proposal itself, the existing natural, social and economic impacts, and the environmental impacts as well as plans for their mitigation. In appendices there are included a draft environmental management overview strategy and an environmental management plan. The elements covered in the report by section are: background, need for the project, the proponent, legislation and approvals, project description, environmental issues and impact management

  15. Biofuels in Europe

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This article contains a short overview of biomass consumption in Eu countries. The market share of biomass comparing with the other renewable energy sources, analysis, figures of development options and potential barriers are presented. Some special paragraphs were devoted to liquid biofuels like ethanol, methanol and bio-diesel oils. Lacking of the distribution system of liquid biofuels is one of the barriers in implementation. The granulated wood pellets is going to be one of the most widespread bio fuel for households in Austria and Southern Germany and for small scale district heating in Denmark and Sweden. From the analyse follows, that in countries with the state support and subsidies, the biomass consumption is much more developed and is competing with the fossil fuels in heat and power market. But in countries without this support the share of biofuels is decreasing. The last paragraph is describing the situation of biomass consumption in Estonia. Up to now here are positive as well as negative examples of biomass boilers implementation. Comparison of the heat prices in Estonia and in E U countries is presented in Fig. 2. Considering that our heat prices are about 2 times less than the E U average, implementation of the quite expensive western burning technology in Estonia would be more complicated than in E U countries. This points out even bigger necessity of the state support or subsidizing in Estonia. But there is another, economically more feasible way for subsidizing - to start the production of the small bio-fuelled boilers and the fuel handling technology in Estonia. This should reduce the total investment cost of the bio-fuelled heating systems. (author)

  16. Preliminary Design Report for the Yakima/Klickitat Production Project; Executive Summary.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    US Bonneville Power Administration.

    1990-03-01

    A master plan for the Yakima/Klickitat Production Project (YKPP) was developed by the Northwest Power Planning Council (Council) on October 15, 1987, as a reasonable basis upon which the Bonneville Power Administration (BPA) could proceed to fund predesign work on the project. The Council approved the predesign work on the condition that eight preliminary tasks were completed. These tasks are: Agreement on a refined statement of project goals. Completion of a technical analysis of water supplies. Completion of an experimental design plan. Development of a harvest management plan. Assessment of potential genetic risks. Project coordination with all other affected parties. Submission of a preliminary design report to the Council. Develop a project management structure. The preliminary design report summarizes the work completed on these tasks. It provides a description of the preliminary design, engineering, and construction phases of project development, and gives an estimate of project costs. Also included is a description of other studies that were conducted to support YKPP planning. The results of studies conducted during the last 30 months indicate that hatchery facilities can be built in the Yakima and Klickitat subbasins to provide harvest benefits and to supplement natural production. Planning for the Yakima subbasin is at a more advanced stage of development than for the Klickitat subbasin because of greater availability of basic resource information. The information needed to proceed with final design and construction for the Klickitat subbasin will be available by 1992, as ongoing predesign work continues. This schedule is consistent with the anticipated phased completion of the YKPP by 1997.

  17. Biofuelled heating plants

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The purpose of this report is to serve as a basis to enable establishment and operation of small and medium-sized bio-fuel plants, district heating plants and local district heating plants. Furthermore, the purpose of this report is to serve as a guideline and basis when realizing projects, from the first concept to established plant. Taking into account all the phases, from selection of heating system, fuel type, selection of technical solutions, authorization request or application to operate a plant, planning, construction and buying, inspection, performance test, take-over and control system of the plant. Another purpose of the report is to make sure that best available technology is used and to contribute to continuous development of the technology. The report deals mainly with bio-fuelled plants in the effect range 0.3 to10 MW. The term 'plant' refers to combined power and heating plants as well as 'simpler' district heating plants. The last-mentioned is also often referred to as 'local heating plant'. In this context, the term bio fuel refers to a wide range of fuel types. The term bio fuel includes processed fractions like powders, pellets, and briquettes along with unprocessed fractions, such as by-products from the forest industry; chips and bark. Bio fuels also include straw, energy crops and cereal waste products, but these have not been expressly studied in this report. The report is structured with appendixes regarding the various phases of the projects, with the purpose of serving as a helping handbook, or manual for new establishment, helping out with technical and administrative advice and environmental requirements. Plants of this size are already expanding considerably, and the need for guiding principles for design/technology and environmental requirements is great. These guiding principles should comply with the environmental legislation requirements, and must contain advice and recommendations for bio fuel plants in this effect range, also in

  18. Summary of literature review of risk communication: Hanford Environmental Dose Reconstruction Project

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Byram, S.J.

    1991-05-01

    The Hanford Environmental Dose Reconstruction (HEDR) Project will estimate radiation exposures people may have received from radioactive materials released during past operations at the Department of Energy's Hanford Site near Richland, Washington. The project is being conducted by Pacific Northwest Laboratory (PNL) under the direction of an independent Technical Steering Panel (TSP). The Centers for Disease Control (CDC) will use HEDR dose estimates in studies to investigate a potential link between thyroid disease and historical Hanford emissions. The HEDR Project was initiated to address public concerns about the possible health impacts from past releases of radioactive materials from Hanford. The TSP recognized early in the project that special mechanisms would be required to communicate effectively to the many different concerned audiences. To identify and develop these mechanisms, the TSP issued Directive 89-7 to PNL in May 1989. The TSP directed PNL to examine methods to communicate the causes and effects of uncertainties in the dose estimates. A literature review was conducted as the first activity in response to the TSP's directive. This report presents the results of the literature review. The objective of the literature review was to identify key principles'' that could be applied to develop communications strategies for the project. 26 refs., 6 figs.

  19. Summary of literature review of risk communication: Hanford Environmental Dose Reconstruction Project

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The Hanford Environmental Dose Reconstruction (HEDR) Project will estimate radiation exposures people may have received from radioactive materials released during past operations at the Department of Energy's Hanford Site near Richland, Washington. The project is being conducted by Pacific Northwest Laboratory (PNL) under the direction of an independent Technical Steering Panel (TSP). The Centers for Disease Control (CDC) will use HEDR dose estimates in studies to investigate a potential link between thyroid disease and historical Hanford emissions. The HEDR Project was initiated to address public concerns about the possible health impacts from past releases of radioactive materials from Hanford. The TSP recognized early in the project that special mechanisms would be required to communicate effectively to the many different concerned audiences. To identify and develop these mechanisms, the TSP issued Directive 89-7 to PNL in May 1989. The TSP directed PNL to examine methods to communicate the causes and effects of uncertainties in the dose estimates. A literature review was conducted as the first activity in response to the TSP's directive. This report presents the results of the literature review. The objective of the literature review was to identify ''key principles'' that could be applied to develop communications strategies for the project. 26 refs., 6 figs

  20. Summary of a reference book on financing arrangements for nuclear power projects in developing countries

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The IAEA has recently published a reference book entitled Financing Arrangements for Nuclear Power Projects in Developing Countries (Technical Reports Series No. 353). The book reviews comprehensively the main features and problems concerning the financing of such projects in developing countries and presents innovative approaches for power generation financing. It also discusses the special conditions and requirements of nuclear power projects and the complexities of their financing, focusing on the practical issues to be dealt with to achieve successful financing, as well as the constraints encountered by most developing countries. This booklet summarizes the important features of the financing arrangements discussed in the reference book and was prepared with the aim of widely disseminating the results

  1. Summary of field operations Technical Area I well PGS-1. Site-Wide Hydrogeologic Characterization Project

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The Environmental Restoration (ER) Project at Sandia National Laboratories, New Mexico is managing the project to assess and, when necessary, to remediate sites contaminated by the lab operations. Within the ER project, the site-wide hydrogeologic characterization task is responsible for the area-wide hydrogeologic investigation. The purpose of this task is to reduce the uncertainty about the rate and direction of groundwater flow beneath the area and across its boundaries. This specific report deals with the installation of PGS-1 monitoring well which provides information on the lithology and hydrology of the aquifer in the northern area of the Kirtland Air Force Base. The report provides information on the well design; surface geology; stratigraphy; structure; drilling, completion, and development techniques; and borehole geophysics information

  2. The international INTRAVAL project. Summary and conclusions by the TVO/VTT Team

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Teollisuuden Voima Oy (TVO) participated the international cooperation project INTRAVAL and VTT Energy acted as a project team. The Finnish participation focused on flow and transport in crystalline fractured rock and six test cases out of thirteen were tackled. The experimental results were evaluated mainly by means of analytical transport models. The report presents a short review of the experience obtained in the course of the project. It concentrates on the issues revealed in the discussions and analyses of the six test cases in which the TVO/VTT team actively participated but some of the conclusions are even more general in nature. Some suggestions are made for future experimental and theoretical work in the field of geosphere. (15 refs., 2 tabs.)

  3. Biofuel Feedstock Assessment For Selected Countries

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kline, Keith L [ORNL; Oladosu, Gbadebo A [ORNL; Wolfe, Amy K [ORNL; Perlack, Robert D [ORNL; Dale, Virginia H [ORNL

    2008-02-01

    Findings from biofuel feedstock production assessments and projections of future supply are presented and discussed. The report aims to improve capabilities to assess the degree to which imported biofuel could contribute to meeting future U.S. targets to reduce dependence on imported oil. The study scope was focused to meet time and resource requirements. A screening process identified Argentina, Brazil, Canada, China, Colombia, India, Mexico, and the Caribbean Basin Initiative (CBI) region for initial analysis, given their likely role in future feedstock supply relevant to U.S. markets. Supply curves for selected feedstocks in these countries are projected for 2012, 2017 and 2027. The supply functions, along with calculations to reflect estimated supplies available for export and/or biofuel production, were provided to DOE for use in a broader energy market allocation study. Potential cellulosic supplies from crop and forestry residues and perennials were also estimated for 2017 and 2027. The analysis identified capacity to potentially double or triple feedstock production by 2017 in some cases. A majority of supply growth is derived from increasing the area cultivated (especially sugarcane in Brazil). This is supplemented by improving yields and farming practices. Most future supplies of corn and wheat are projected to be allocated to food and feed. Larger shares of future supplies of sugarcane, soybean and palm oil production will be available for export or biofuel. National policies are catalyzing investments in biofuel industries to meet targets for fuel blending that generally fall in the 5-10% range. Social and environmental concerns associated with rapid expansion of feedstock production are considered. If the 2017 projected feedstock supply calculated as 'available' for export or biofuel were converted to fuel, it would represent the equivalent of about 38 billion gallons of gasoline. Sugarcane and bagasse dominate the available supply

  4. Country Report Summary: Romania [Project Management in Nuclear Power Plant Construction: Guidelines and Experience

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The Cernavoda NPP Project was initiated in 1979, with the signature of an Engineering, Procurement and Technology Transfer contract with Atomic Energy of Canada Limited. Work at site started in 1981 (for Unit 1) and 1982 (for Unit 2). Two different approaches were followed for construction management, with different results in project progress. The initial ambitious programme to build the plant with the Owner assuming the overall responsibility was a political decision intended to increase local participation that proved unrealistic. Economic instability (financing and staffing problems) and lack of competent project management resulted in major project delays. As a result, new completion contracts were signed with AECL and ANSALDO in 1991 and in 2003. Unit 1 and Unit 2 were completed as delayed projects in 1996 and 2007, respectively. The site was initially designed for five 706 MW(e) CANDU 6 units (fuelled by natural uranium, and heavy water cooled and moderated). The successful formula proved to be a joint Project Organization between the Owner and an AECL and ANSALDO Management Team. This organization included all the necessary groups to cover the responsibilities related to construction and commissioning of the units and on to the transfer to commercial operation. It included the Management Directorate, Quality Assurance, Engineering/Quality Surveillance, Construction, Planning, Scheduling and Budget Control, Finance and Accounting, Safety and Licensing, Procurement, Material Management, Training, Commissioning/Operation and Services/Logistics. Participation of the owner personnel in the Management Team, together with the rule of appointing a local deputy for any managerial position occupied by an experienced expat from AECL or Ansaldo ensured a smooth transfer of responsibility for the operation of the plant to the owner.

  5. Advanced system demonstration for utilization of biomass as an energy source. Volume I. Scope and design criteria and project summary

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    None

    1980-10-01

    The information in this document is the result of an intensive engineering effort to demonstrate the feasibility of biomass-fueled boilers in cogeneration applications. This design package is based upon a specific site in the State of Maine. However, the design is generic in nature and could serve as a model for other biomass conversion facilities located anywhere biomass is abundant. The project's purpose and summary information are presented: the plant, its concept of operation; and other overall information are described. The capital cost estimate for the plant, and the basis upon which it was obtained are given; a schedule of key milestones and activities required to construct the plant and put it into operation is presented; and the general findings in areas that affect the viability of the project are discussed. The technical design, biomass study, environmental impact, commercialization, and economic factors are addressed. Each major plant area and the equipment and facilities that each includes are discussed in depth. Some overall plant requirements, including noise control, reliability, maintainability, and safety, are detailed. The results of each study relating to alternatives considered for optimizing plant operation parameters and specific system process schemes are briefly presented. All economic factors that affect the feasibility and viability of the biomass project are defined and evaluated.

  6. Geotechnical characterization of the North Ramp of the Exploratory Studies Facility: Yucca Mountain Site Characterization Project. Volume 1, Data summary

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Brechtel, C.E.; Lin, Ming; Martin, E. [Agapito Associates, Inc., Grand Junction, CO (United States); Kessel, D.S. [Sandia National Labs., Albuquerque, NM (United States)

    1995-05-01

    This report presents the results of geological and geotechnical characterization of the Miocene volcanic tuff rocks of the Timber Mountain and Paintbrush groups that the tunnel boring machine will encounter during excavation of the Exploratory Studies Facility (ESF) North Ramp. The is being constructed by the DOE as part of the Yucca Mountain Project site characterization activities. The purpose of these activities is to evaluate the feasibility of locating a potential high-level nuclear waste repository on lands adjacent to the Nevada Test Site, Nye County, Nevada. This report was prepared as part of the Soil and Rock Properties Studies in accordance with the 8.3.1.14.2 Study Plan. This report is volume 1 of the data summary.

  7. Geotechnical characterization of the North Ramp of the Exploratory Studies Facility: Yucca Mountain Site Characterization Project. Volume 1, Data summary

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This report presents the results of geological and geotechnical characterization of the Miocene volcanic tuff rocks of the Timber Mountain and Paintbrush groups that the tunnel boring machine will encounter during excavation of the Exploratory Studies Facility (ESF) North Ramp. The is being constructed by the DOE as part of the Yucca Mountain Project site characterization activities. The purpose of these activities is to evaluate the feasibility of locating a potential high-level nuclear waste repository on lands adjacent to the Nevada Test Site, Nye County, Nevada. This report was prepared as part of the Soil and Rock Properties Studies in accordance with the 8.3.1.14.2 Study Plan. This report is volume 1 of the data summary

  8. Arid Lands Biofuel

    Science.gov (United States)

    Neupane, B. P.

    2013-05-01

    Dependence on imported petroleum, as well as consequences from burning fossil fuels, has increased the demand for biofuel sources in the United States. Competition between food crops and biofuel crops has been an increasing concern, however, since it has the potential to raise prices for US beef and grain products due to land and resource competition. Biofuel crops that can be grown on land not suitable for food crops are thus attractive, but also need to produce biofuels in a financially sustainable manner. In the intermountain west of Nevada, biofuel crops need to survive on low-organic soils with limited precipitation when grown in areas that are not competing with food and feed. The plants must also yield an oil content sufficiently high to allow economically viable fuel production, including growing and harvesting the crop as well as converting the hydrocarbons into a liquid fuel. Gumweed (Grindelia squarrosa) currently appears to satisfy all of these requirements and is commonly observed throughout the west. The plant favors dry, sandy soils and is most commonly found on roadsides and other freshly disturbed land. A warm season biennial, the gumweed plant is part of the sunflower family and normally grows 2-4 feet high with numerous yellow flowers and curly leaves. The gumweed plant contains a large store of diterpene resins—most abundantly grindelic acid— similar to the saps found on pine trees that are used to make inks and adhesives. The dry weight harvest on the experimental field is 5130 lbs/acre. Whole plant biomass yields between 11-15% (average 13%) biocrude when subjected to acetone extraction whereas the buds alone contains up to a maximum of 35% biocrude when harvested in 'white milky' stage. The extract is then converted to basic form (sodium grindelate) followed by extraction of nonpolar constituents (mostly terpenes) with hexane and extracted back to ethyl acetate in acidified condition. Ethyl acetate is removed under vacuum to leave a dark

  9. Safety basis academy summary of project implementation from 2007-2009

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Johnston, Julie A [Los Alamos National Laboratory

    2009-01-01

    During fiscal years 2007 through 2009, in accordance with Performance Based Incentives with DOE/NNSA Los Alamos Site Office, Los Alamos National Security (LANS) implemented and operated a Safety Basis Academy (SBA) to facilitate uniformity in technical qualifications of safety basis professionals across the nuclear weapons complex. The implementation phase of the Safety Basis Academy required development, delivery, and finalizing a set of 23 courses. The courses developed are capable of supporting qualification efforts for both federal and contractor personnel throughout the DOE/NNSA Complex. The LANS Associate Director for Nuclear and High Hazard Operations (AD-NHHO) delegated project responsibillity to the Safety Basis Division. The project was assigned to the Safety Basis Technical Services (SB-TS) Group at Los Alamos National Laboratory (LANL). The main tasks were project needs analysis, design, development, implementation of instructional delivery, and evaluation of SBA courses. DOE/NNSA responsibility for oversight of the SBA project was assigned to the Chief of Defense for Nuclear Safety, and delegated to the Authorization Basis Senior Advisor, Continuous Learning Chair (CDNS-ABSA/CLC). NNSA developed a memorandum of agreement with LANS AD-NHHO. Through a memorandum of agreement initiated by NNSA, the DOE National Training Center (NTC) will maintain the set of Safety Basis Academy courses and is able to facilitate course delivery throughout the DOE Complex.

  10. PROJECT W-551 INTERIM PRETREATMENT SYSTEM TECHNOLOGY SELECTION SUMMARY DECISION REPORT AND RECOMMENDATION

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This report provides the conclusions of the tank farm interim pretreatment technology decision process. It documents the methodology, data, and results of the selection of cross-flow filtration and ion exchange technologies for implementation in project W-551, Interim Pretreatment System. This selection resulted from the evaluation of specific scope criteria using quantitative and qualitative analyses, group workshops, and technical expert personnel

  11. PROJECT W-551 INTERIM PRETREATMENT SYSTEM TECHNOLOGY SELECTION SUMMARY DECISION REPORT AND RECOMMENDATION

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    CONRAD EA

    2008-08-12

    This report provides the conclusions of the tank farm interim pretreatment technology decision process. It documents the methodology, data, and results of the selection of cross-flow filtration and ion exchange technologies for implementation in project W-551, Interim Pretreatment System. This selection resulted from the evaluation of specific scope criteria using quantitative and qualitative analyses, group workshops, and technical expert personnel.

  12. Teens for AIDS Prevention. Washington, D.C. Demonstration Project: Program Summary.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Center for Population Options, Washington, DC.

    The nation's attention must be focused on the growing risk to its teenagers of contracting AIDS (Acquired Immune Deficiency Syndrome). As part of this effort, the Center for Population Options (CPO) organized a teen AIDS prevention project in Washington, D.C., based on information obtained from four focus groups comprised of 8-12 teens each. The…

  13. Summary of Industry-Academia Collaboration Projects on Cluster Ion Beam Process Technology

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Processes employing clusters of ions comprised of a few hundred to many thousand atoms are now being developed into a new field of ion beam technology. Cluster-surface collisions produce important non-linear effects which are being applied to shallow junction formation, to etching and smoothing of semiconductors, metals, and dielectrics, to assisted formation of thin films with nano-scale accuracy, and to other surface modification applications. In 2000, a four year R and D project for development of industrial technology began in Japan under funding from the New Energy and Industrial Technology Development Organization (NEDO). Subjects of the projects are in areas of equipment development, semiconductor surface processing, high accuracy surface processing and high-quality film formation. In 2002, another major cluster ion beam project which emphasized nano-technology applications has started under a contract from the Ministry of Economy and Technology for Industry (METI). This METI project involved development related to size-selected cluster ion beam equipment and processes, and development of GCIB processes for very high rate etching and for zero damage etching of magnetic materials and compound semiconductor materials. This paper describes summery of the results.

  14. The Pocos de Caldas project: summary and implications for radioactive waste management

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This report provides an overview of the Pocos de Caldas natural analogue study, aspects of which have been described in the previous 14 reports of this series. The first part of this report provides the historical background to the project, describes the research programme developed at the Osamu Utsumi and Morro do Ferro sites and summarises the main findings of the geological, hydrologic and geochemical characterisation work. This is followed by reviews of the four analogue sub-projects - testing geochemical models of trace element solubility and speciation, evaluation of models of redox front development and movement, examining the role of natural colloids as a vector for transport of trace elements and appraisal of a modelling approach to quantifying hydrothermal alteration and solute transport processes. Finally, the direct implications of the project to radioactive waste management are discussed along with some valuable spin-off which was identified. Such a large multidisciplinary study proved a very valuable focus for forging contacts between specialists from different disciplines in a manner closely analogous to that required for an integrated site assessment. The iterative development of the modellers' wish lists and the field/lab analytical programme was a key to the success of this project and provides guidelines for site-specific performance assessment. (author) figs., tabs., 26 refs

  15. Environmental Licensing for Hydroelectric Projects in Brazil : A Contribution to the Debate, Volume 1, Summary Report

    OpenAIRE

    World Bank

    2008-01-01

    This study points out that hydroelectric plants will continue to play a prominent role in the Brazilian electric matrix. A significant portion of the potential hydroelectric plants of the country is located in the Amazon, environmentally sensitive region. The licensing of hydroelectric projects in Brazil is considered a major obstacle for the expanding the capacity of generating electricit...

  16. National Program for Solar Heating and Cooling of Buildings. Project Data Summaries. Vol. II: Demonstration Support.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Energy Research and Development Administration, Washington, DC. Div. of Solar Energy.

    Brief abstracts of projects funded by the Energy Research and Development Administration (ERDA) and conducted under the National Program for Solar Heating and Cooling of Buildings are presented in three volumes. This, the second volume, identifies the major efforts currently underway in support of the national program. The National Aeronautics and…

  17. Compliance status summaries for federal and state statutory directives that apply to the Salt Repository Project at the Deaf Smith County Site, Texas

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1986-07-01

    This document contains statutory summaries, checklists of compliance requirements, status summaries, and lists of information needs for the environmental and health and safety statutory directives at Federal and State levels that apply to the Salt Repository Project at the Deaf Smith County Site, Texas. Statutes that apply in general to any repository project but not specifically to the Deaf Smith are not included. The information herein supplements the Salt Repository Project Statutory Compliance Plan and the Salt Repository Project Permitting Management Plan by providing lengthy details on statutory directives, compliance requirements, information needs, and the overall status of the environmental and health and safety compliance program for the Salt Repository Project at the Deaf Smith County Site, Texas.

  18. Compliance status summaries for federal and state statutory directives that apply to the Salt Repository Project at the Deaf Smith County Site, Texas

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This document contains statutory summaries, checklists of compliance requirements, status summaries, and lists of information needs for the environmental and health and safety statutory directives at Federal and State levels that apply to the Salt Repository Project at the Deaf Smith County Site, Texas. Statutes that apply in general to any repository project but not specifically to the Deaf Smith are not included. The information herein supplements the Salt Repository Project Statutory Compliance Plan and the Salt Repository Project Permitting Management Plan by providing lengthy details on statutory directives, compliance requirements, information needs, and the overall status of the environmental and health and safety compliance program for the Salt Repository Project at the Deaf Smith County Site, Texas

  19. The Decovalex III Project: A Summary of Activities and LessonsLearned

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tsang, Chin-Fu; Jing, Lanru; Stephansson, Ove; Kautsky, Fritz

    2005-03-21

    Initiated in 1992, the DECOVALEX project is an international collaboration for advancing the understanding and modeling of coupled thermo-hydro-mechanical (THM) processes in geologic systems. The project has made important scientific achievements through three stages and is progressing in its fourth stage. It has played a key role in the development of mathematical modeling and in situ testing of coupled THM processes in fractured rock and buffer/backfill materials, a subject of importance for performance assessment of radioactive waste geologic repositories. This paper summarizes studies under the most recent stage of the project, DECOVALEX III (2000-2003). These studies include those of two major field experiments: (a) the FEBEX experiment at Grimsel, Switzerland, investigating coupled THM processes in a crystalline rock-bentonite system, and (b) the Drift Scale Test (DST) experiment at Yucca Mountain, Nevada, investigating coupled THM processes in unsaturated tuff. These are two of the largest multiyear heater tests undertaken to date for the study of coupled THM processes in geological systems. In addition, three so-called benchmark tests are also studied to evaluate the impact of coupled THM processes under different scenarios and geometries. Within the DECOVALEX project, multiple research teams participated in each of the studies, using different approaches and computer codes. Comparisons of results have provided insight into coupled THM processes, which in turn has stimulated further development of our modeling capabilities. Lessons learned from these studies are discussed. The scientific advances and enhanced insight gained through this kind of international cooperation illustrate the effectiveness of the DECOVALEX project.

  20. Severe accident management: a summary of the VAHTI and ROIMA projects

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Two severe accident research projects: 'Severe Accident Management' (VAHTI), 1994-96 and 'Reactor Accidents' Phenomena and Simulation (ROIMA) 1997-98. have been conducted at VTT Energy within the RETU research programme. The main objective was to assist the severe accident management programmes of the Finnish nuclear power plants. The projects had several subtopics. These included thermal hydraulic validation of the APROS code, studies of failure mode of the BWR pressure vessel, investigation of core melt progression within a BWR pressure vessel, containment phenomena, development of a computerised severe accident training tool, and aerosol behaviour experiments. The last topic is summarised by another paper in the seminar. The projects have met the objectives set at the project commencement. Calculation tools have been developed and validated suitable for analyses of questions specific for the Finnish plants. Experimental fission product data have been produced that can be used to validate containment aerosol codes. The tools and results have been utilised in plant assessments. One of the main achievements has been the computer code PASULA for analysis of interactions between core melt and pressure vessel. The code has been applied to pressure vessel penetration analysis. The results have shown the importance of the nozzle construction. Modelling possibilities have recently improved by addition of a creep and porous debris models. Cooling of a degraded BWR core has been systematically studied as joint Nordic projects with a set of severe accident codes. Estimates for coolable conditions have been provided. Recriticality due to reflooding of a damaged core has been evaluated. (orig.)

  1. Summary record of the experts meeting on the proposed OECD-IRSN STLOC project

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The purpose of this meeting was to determine the interest in member countries for the types of LOCA tests envisaged in the STLOC programme proposed by IRSN. The IRSN proposal was circulated among this Group in advance of the meeting. After the presentations and discussions, the Group recommendations were as follows: different views were expressed as to the need to perform the LOCA integral tests; there was an understanding that the results of separate effect tests (ANL, JAERI, Halden) would need to be obtained before deciding on the intended LOCA tests proposed in STLOC; IRSN and the OECD-NEA should explore the possibility to run the first ST test with air ingress (STLOC1), for which partial funding already exists (this test is foreseen for 2008); the need of LOCA tests as envisaged in STLOC should be re-assessed in about three years time (2006); analytical and experimental progress on LOCA tests should be monitored until then, through for instance the SEGFSM. An executive summary of the IRSN Source term LOCA program LOCA part is given in an appendix

  2. Tropical Ocean and Global Atmosphere (TOGA) heat exchange project: A summary report

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, W. T.; Niiler, P. P.

    1985-01-01

    A pilot data center to compute ocean atmosphere heat exchange over the tropical ocean is prposed at the Jet Propulsion Laboratory (JPL) in response to the scientific needs of the Tropical Ocean and Global Atmosphere (TOGA) Program. Optimal methods will be used to estimate sea surface temperature (SET), surface wind speed, and humidity from spaceborne observations. A monthly summary of these parameters will be used to compute ocean atmosphere latent heat exchanges. Monthly fields of surface heat flux over tropical oceans will be constructed using estimations of latent heat exchanges and short wave radiation from satellite data. Verification of all satellite data sets with in situ measurements at a few locations will be provided. The data center will be an experimental active archive where the quality and quantity of data required for TOGA flux computation are managed. The center is essential to facilitate the construction of composite data sets from global measurements taken from different sensors on various satellites. It will provide efficient utilization and easy access to the large volume of satellite data available for studies of ocean atmosphere energy exchanges.

  3. Biofuels and Food Security: Implications of an Accelerated Biofuels Production

    OpenAIRE

    Fischer, G; Hizsnyik, E.; Prieler, S.; Shah, M; van Velthuizen, H.T.

    2009-01-01

    Biofuels development has received increased attention in recent times as a means to mitigate climate change, alleviate global energy concerns and foster rural development. Its perceived importance in these three areas has seen biofuels feature prominently on the international agenda. Nevertheless, the rapid growth of biofuels production has raised many concerns among experts worldwide, in particular with regard to sustainability issues and the threat posed to food security. The UN Secretary G...

  4. Summary of Carbon Storage Project Public Information Meeting and Open House, Hawesville, Kentucky, October 28, 2010

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Harris, David; Williams, David; Bowersox, J Richard; Leetaru, Hannes

    2012-06-01

    The Kentucky Geological Survey (KGS) completed a second phase of carbon dioxide (CO{sub 2}) injection and seismic imaging in the Knox Group, a Cambrian Ordovician dolomite and sandstone sequence in September 2010. This work completed 2 years of activity at the KGS No. 1 Marvin Blan well in Hancock County, Kentucky. The well was drilled in 2009 by a consortium of State and industry partners (Kentucky Consortium for Carbon Storage). An initial phase of CO{sub 2} injection occurred immediately after completion of the well in 2009. The second phase of injection and seismic work was completed in September 2010 as part of a U.S. DOE funded project, after which the Blan well was plugged and abandoned. Following completion of research at the Blan well, a final public meeting and open house was held in Hancock County on October 28, 2010. This meeting followed one public meeting held prior to drilling of the well, and two on site visits during drilling (one for news media, and one for school teachers). The goal of the final public meeting was to present the results of the project to the public, answer questions, and address any concerns. Despite diligent efforts to publicize the final meeting, it was poorly attended by the general public. Several local county officials and members of the news media attended, but only one person from the general public showed up. We attribute the lack of interest in the results of the project to several factors. First, the project went as planned, with no problems or incidents that affected the local residents. The fact that KGS fulfilled the promises it made at the beginning of the project satisfied residents, and they felt no need to attend the meeting. Second, Hancock County is largely rural, and the technical details of carbon sequestration were not of interest to many people. The county officials attending were an exception; they clearly realized the importance of the project in future economic development for the county.

  5. Fermentative biofuels production

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The limited reserves and increasing prices of fossil carbohydrates, as well as the global warming due to their utilization, impose the finding of renewable energy sources. Because of this, since decades an increasing interest in production of alcohols, which can be used as a fuel additives or fuels for direct replacement in gasoline engines, is observed. Alcohols can be obtained chemically or as products of microbial metabolism of different species in fermentation of sugars or starchy materials. In the present review are summarized different fermentative pathways for production of all alcohols, which are or could be used as biofuels. The focus of the paper is on production limitations, strains development and economical perspectives. Key words: fermentation, biofuel, alcohols

  6. Microalgae: biofuel production

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Babita Kumari

    2013-04-01

    Full Text Available In the present day, microalgae feedstocks are gaining interest in energy scenario due to their fast growth potential coupled with relatively high lipid, carbohydrate and nutrients contents. All of these properties render them an excellent source for biofuels such as biodiesel, bioethanol and biomethane; as well as a number of other valuable pharmaceutical and nutraceutical products. The present review is a critical appraisal of the commercialization potential of microalgae biofuels. The available literature on various aspects of microalgae for e.g. its cultivation, life cycle assessment, and conceptualization of an algal biorefinery, has been done. The evaluation of available information suggests the operational and maintenance cost along with maximization of oil-rich microalgae production is the key factor for successful commercialization of microalgae-based fuels.

  7. Carbon-negative biofuels

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Current Kyoto-based approaches to reducing the earth's greenhouse gas problem involve looking for ways to reduce emissions. But these are palliative at best, and at worst will allow the problem to get out of hand. It is only through sequestration of atmospheric carbon that the problem can be solved. Carbon-negative biofuels represent the first potentially huge assault on the problem, in ways that are already technically feasible and practicable. The key to carbon negativity is to see it not as technically determined but as an issue of strategic choice, whereby farmers and fuel producers can decide how much carbon to return to the soil. Biochar amendment to the soil not only sequesters carbon but also enhances the fertility and vitality of the soil. The time is approaching when biofuels will be carbon negative by definition, and, as such, they will sweep away existing debates over their contribution to the solution of global warming. (author)

  8. Summaries of BFRL fire research in-house projects and grants, 1994

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jason, Nora H.

    1994-10-01

    This report describes the fire research projects performed in the Buildings and Fire Research Laboratory (BFRL) and under its extramural grants program during Fiscal Year 1993. Included are research performed both with funds appropriated to the BFRL Fire Research Program and under contract to outside organizations. The BFRL Fire Research Program has directed its efforts under four program thrusts. The in-house priority projects, extramural grants, and externally-funded efforts thus form an integrated, focussed ensemble. This publication is organized along those lines: (1) Performance-based Fire Standards; (2) Fire Safe Materials and Products; (3) Advanced Fire Sensing and Suppression; (4) Large/Industrial Fires. For the convenience of the reader, an alphabetical listing of all grants is contained in the Part 2.0.

  9. Summaries of BFRL fire research in-house projects and grants, 1993

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jason, Nora H.

    1993-09-01

    The report describes the fire research projects performed in the Building and Fire Research Laboratory (BFRL) and under its extramural grants program during fiscal year 1993. The BFRL Fire Research Program has directed its efforts under three program thrusts. The in-house priority projects, grants, and externally-funded efforts thus form an integrated, focussed ensemble. The publication is organized along those lines: fire risk and hazard prediction - carbon monoxide prediction, turbulent combustion, soot, engineering analysis, fire hazard assessment, and large fires; fire safety of products and materials - materials combustion, furniture flammability, and wall and ceiling fires; and advanced technologies for fire sensing and control - fire detection and fire suppression. For the convenience of the reader, an alphabetical listing of all grants is contained in Part 2.0.

  10. Solar thermal power systems point-focusing thermal and electric applications projects. Volume 1: Executive summary

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marriott, A.

    1980-01-01

    The activities of the Point-Focusing Thermal and Electric Applications (PETEA) project for the fiscal year 1979 are summarized. The main thrust of the PFTEA Project, the small community solar thermal power experiment, was completed. Concept definition studies included a small central receiver approach, a point-focusing distributed receiver system with central power generation, and a point-focusing distributed receiver concept with distributed power generation. The first experiment in the Isolated Application Series was initiated. Planning for the third engineering experiment series, which addresses the industrial market sector, was also initiated. In addition to the experiment-related activities, several contracts to industry were let and studies were conducted to explore the market potential for point-focusing distributed receiver (PFDR) systems. System analysis studies were completed that looked at PFDR technology relative to other small power system technology candidates for the utility market sector.

  11. Biofuel market and carbon modeling to evaluate French biofuel policy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In order to comply with European objectives, France has set up an ambitious biofuel plan. This plan is evaluated considering two criteria: tax exemption need and GHG emission savings. An economic marginal analysis and a life cycle assessment (LCA) are provided using a coupling procedure between a partial agro-industrial equilibrium model and a refining optimization model. Thus, we are able to determine the minimum tax exemption needed to place on the market a targeted quantity of biofuel by deducing the agro-industrial marginal cost of biofuel production to the biofuel refining long-run marginal revenue. In parallel, a biofuels LCA is carried out using model outputs. Such a method avoid common allocation problems between joint products. The French biofuel plan is evaluated for 2008, 2010 and 2012 using prospective scenarios. Results suggest that biofuel competitiveness depends on crude oil prices and petroleum products demands. Consequently, biofuel tax exemption does not always appear to be necessary. LCA results show that biofuels production and use, from 'seed to wheel', would facilitate the French Government's to compliance with its 'Plan Climat' objectives by reducing up to 5% GHG emissions in the French road transport sector by 2010. (authors)

  12. Biofuel market and carbon modeling to analyse French biofuel policy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In order to comply with European Union objectives, France has set up an ambitious biofuel plan. This plan is evaluated on the basis of two criteria: tax exemption on fossil fuels and greenhouse gases (GHG) emission savings. An economic marginal analysis and a life cycle assessment (LCA) are provided using a coupling procedure between a partial agro-industrial equilibrium model and an oil refining optimization model. Thus, we determine the minimum tax exemption needed to place on the market a targeted quantity of biofuel by deducting the biofuel long-run marginal revenue of refiners from the agro-industrial marginal cost of biofuel production. With a clear view of the refiner's economic choices, total pollutant emissions along the biofuel production chains are quantified and used to feed an LCA. The French biofuel plan is evaluated for 2008, 2010 and 2012 using prospective scenarios. Results suggest that biofuel competitiveness depends on crude oil prices and demand for petroleum products and consequently these parameters should be taken into account by authorities to modulate biofuel tax exemption. LCA results show that biofuel production and use, from ''seed to wheel'', would facilitate the French Government's compliance with its ''Plan Climat'' objectives by reducing up to 5% GHG emissions in the French road transport sector by 2010. (author)

  13. Country Report Summary: China [Project Management in Nuclear Power Plant Construction: Guidelines and Experience

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In March 2009, China began the construction of four AP1000 units in the context of its Nuclear Power Self-reliance programme of which two units at Sanmen in Zhejiang Province and two units at Haiyang in Shandong Province. The Chinese government and every other party involved in the construction of these 4 AP1000 units paid particular attention to the progress, the safety and the economy of this project.

  14. Government Research and Development Summaries: Nuclear, Te, Ti Project Briefs. Monthly report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nuclear, Te, Ti Project Briefs describe the status of all RandD programs submitted to the Power Information Center by the government sponsors in energy conversion from fission, fusion, and radioisotope power sources and other thermal systems that use thermionic systems. These briefs also follow related investigations of plasma dynamics. The document is not to be reproduced, in whole or in part, for dissemination outside your own organization nor may it be reproduced for advertising or sales promotion purposes

  15. Summary of the data collection and analysis process used for Temelin NPP PSA project

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The Temelin NPP is a WWER-1000/320 two unit plant under construction. This paper briefly discusses the characteristics of data sources that were used to estimate the initiating event frequencies, component reliability parameters, unavailabilities due to maintenance, common cause failure probabilities and human error probabilities in the frame of Temelin PSA Project covering Level 1 for both at power and non power modes of operation, external events and the Level 2 analysis. (authors)

  16. Center for Advanced Biofuel Systems (CABS) Final Report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kutchan, Toni M. [Donald Danforth Plant Science Center, St. Louis, MO (United States)

    2015-12-02

    One of the great challenges facing current and future generations is how to meet growing energy demands in an environmentally sustainable manner. Renewable energy sources, including wind, geothermal, solar, hydroelectric, and biofuel energy systems, are rapidly being developed as sustainable alternatives to fossil fuels. Biofuels are particularly attractive to the U.S., given its vast agricultural resources. The first generation of biofuel systems was based on fermentation of sugars to produce ethanol, typically from food crops. Subsequent generations of biofuel systems, including those included in the CABS project, will build upon the experiences learned from those early research results and will have improved production efficiencies, reduced environmental impacts and decreased reliance on food crops. Thermodynamic models predict that the next generations of biofuel systems will yield three- to five-fold more recoverable energy products. To address the technological challenges necessary to develop enhanced biofuel systems, greater understanding of the non-equilibrium processes involved in solar energy conversion and the channeling of reduced carbon into biofuel products must be developed. The objective of the proposed Center for Advanced Biofuel Systems (CABS) was to increase the thermodynamic and kinetic efficiency of select plant- and algal-based fuel production systems using rational metabolic engineering approaches grounded in modern systems biology. The overall strategy was to increase the efficiency of solar energy conversion into oils and other specialty biofuel components by channeling metabolic flux toward products using advanced catalysts and sensible design:1) employing novel protein catalysts that increase the thermodynamic and kinetic efficiencies of photosynthesis and oil biosynthesis; 2) engineering metabolic networks to enhance acetyl-CoA production and its channeling towards lipid synthesis; and 3) engineering new metabolic networks for the

  17. Biofuels and the role of space in sustainable innovation journeys.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Raman, Sujatha; Mohr, Alison

    2014-02-15

    This paper aims to identify the lessons that should be learnt from how biofuels have been envisioned from the aftermath of the oil shocks of the 1970s to the present, and how these visions compare with biofuel production networks emerging in the 2000s. Working at the interface of sustainable innovation journey research and geographical theories on the spatial unevenness of sustainability transition projects, we show how the biofuels controversy is linked to characteristics of globalised industrial agricultural systems. The legitimacy problems of biofuels cannot be addressed by sustainability indicators or new technologies alone since they arise from the spatial ordering of biofuel production. In the 1970-80s, promoters of bioenergy anticipated current concerns about food security implications but envisioned bioenergy production to be territorially embedded at national or local scales where these issues would be managed. Where the territorial and scalar vision was breached, it was to imagine poorer countries exporting higher-value biofuel to the North rather than the raw material as in the controversial global biomass commodity chains of today. However, controversy now extends to the global impacts of national biofuel systems on food security and greenhouse gas emissions, and to their local impacts becoming more widely known. South/South and North/North trade conflicts are also emerging as are questions over biodegradable wastes and agricultural residues as global commodities. As assumptions of a food-versus-fuel conflict have come to be challenged, legitimacy questions over global agri-business and trade are spotlighted even further. In this context, visions of biofuel development that address these broader issues might be promising. These include large-scale biomass-for-fuel models in Europe that would transform global trade rules to allow small farmers in the global South to compete, and small-scale biofuel systems developed to address local energy needs in the

  18. Uranium Oxide Rate Summary for the Spent Nuclear Fuel (SNF) Project (OCRWM)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The purpose of this document is to summarize the uranium oxidation reaction rate information developed by the Hanford Spent Nuclear Fuel (SNF) Project and describe the basis for selecting reaction rate correlations used in system design. The selection basis considers the conditions of practical interest to the fuel removal processes and the reaction rate application during design studies. Since the reaction rate correlations are potentially used over a range of conditions, depending of the type of evaluation being performed, a method for transitioning between oxidation reactions is also documented. The document scope is limited to uranium oxidation reactions of primary interest to the SNF Project processes. The reactions influencing fuel removal processes, and supporting accident analyses, are: uranium-water vapor, uranium-liquid water, uranium-moist air, and uranium-dry air. The correlation selection basis will consider input from all available sources that indicate the oxidation rate of uranium fuel, including the literature data, confirmatory experimental studies, and fuel element observations. Trimble (2000) summarizes literature data and the results of laboratory scale experimental studies. This document combines the information in Trimble (2000) with larger scale reaction observations to describe uranium oxidation rate correlations applicable to conditions of interest to the SNF Project

  19. Uranium Oxide Rate Summary for the Spent Nuclear Fuel (SNF) Project (OCRWM)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    PAJUNEN, A.L.

    2000-09-20

    The purpose of this document is to summarize the uranium oxidation reaction rate information developed by the Hanford Spent Nuclear Fuel (SNF) Project and describe the basis for selecting reaction rate correlations used in system design. The selection basis considers the conditions of practical interest to the fuel removal processes and the reaction rate application during design studies. Since the reaction rate correlations are potentially used over a range of conditions, depending of the type of evaluation being performed, a method for transitioning between oxidation reactions is also documented. The document scope is limited to uranium oxidation reactions of primary interest to the SNF Project processes. The reactions influencing fuel removal processes, and supporting accident analyses, are: uranium-water vapor, uranium-liquid water, uranium-moist air, and uranium-dry air. The correlation selection basis will consider input from all available sources that indicate the oxidation rate of uranium fuel, including the literature data, confirmatory experimental studies, and fuel element observations. Trimble (2000) summarizes literature data and the results of laboratory scale experimental studies. This document combines the information in Trimble (2000) with larger scale reaction observations to describe uranium oxidation rate correlations applicable to conditions of interest to the SNF Project.

  20. Bio-fuels - biohazard

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Politicians have a clear explanation for growing commodity prices. It is all the fault of speculators. It is easy to point the finger at an imaginary enemy. It is more difficult and from the point of view of a political career suicidal to admit one's mistakes. And there are reasons for remorse. According to studies prepared by the OECD and the World Bank bio-fuels are to be blame for high food prices. The bio-fuel boom that increases the demand for agro-commodities has been created by politicians offering generous subsidies. And so farming products do not end up on the table, but in the fuel tanks of cars in the form of additives. And their only efficiency is that they make food more expensive. The first relevant indication that environmentalist tendencies in global politics have resulted in shortages and food price increases can be found in a confidential report prepared by the World Bank. Parts of the report were leaked to the media last month. According to this information growing bio-fuel production has resulted in a food price increase by 75%. The theory that this development was caused by speculators and Chinese and Indian demand received a serious blow. And the OECD report definitely contradicted the excuse used by the politicians. According to the report one of the main reasons for growing food prices are generously subsidized bio-fuels. Their share of the increase of demand for agro-commodities in 2005 -2007 was 60% according to the study. (author)

  1. Biofuels barometer: Crops pending

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The actors and production capacities have changed only little in the biofuel sector from year to another. Nevertheless, it is interesting to take stock of the development of this sector at the end of 2002, so as to update the more complete barometer published in issue 144 of Systemes Solaires. Indeed, European ethanol production grew by 13% and that of bio-diesel by more than 20% in 2001. (authors)

  2. Biofuels - the UFIP position

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Since 2003 a directive promote the biofuels use. The industry is then using them in ETBE (Ethyl Tertio Butyl Ether) fuels and in diesel oil of vegetal oils esters EMHV. Meanwhile some of them present technical difficulties and must free themselves from fiscal incentives which make them competitive. For these reasons, the UFIP (french union of petroleum industries) do not agree their obligatory incorporation. (A.L.B.)

  3. Biofuels and Food (In)Security in Africa. The Case of Mozambique

    OpenAIRE

    Ingólfur Pálsson 1980

    2016-01-01

    This thesis is examining the drivers and effects of biofuel production in the countries of Sub Saharan Africa. More precisely, the thesis is concerned with the efficiency of the biofuel production as a development tool: can such projects respond to the needs of the population? On the case of Mozambique, the research conducted in course of writing this thesis examines the biofuel policies and processes against one of the fundamental rights of individuals – food security. As this is a resource ...

  4. Biofuel and food security: insights from a system dynamics model. The case of Ghana

    OpenAIRE

    Ansah, Isaac

    2014-01-01

    Abstract Empirical evidence from research points to biofuel as a possible substitute to conventional fossil fuel-gasoline and diesel. Some countries USA and many in Europe are working towards mandates and legislations that impose on the market a share of biofuel in the national energy mix in the medium to long term. In response to policy preferences and attractive incentives, global biofuel production tripled between year 2000 and 2007 and again was projected to double by 2011 (Molony & ...

  5. Plants producing biofuels

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Papavinasam, S. [Natural Resources Canada, Ottawa, ON (Canada). CANMET Materials Technology Lab

    2009-08-15

    Biofuels are currently produced primarily from five plants, namely corn, canola, sugar cane, palm oil, jatropha. However, research and development efforts are underway around the world produce biofuels from other sources, particularly from algae. This paper described the characteristics of the top 5 plants and their role in the production of biofuels. Countries where these plants are cultivated were also summarized. The article indicated that producing ethanol from corn, is not very efficient since growing corn requires more fertilizer and pesticides than most other crops, plus the corn kernels have to undergo energy-intensive distillation and chemical extraction processes. China is the world's largest producer of rapeseed oil, with an annual production of 12 million tons. The countries of the European Union collectively produce another 16 million tons, of which nearly 4 million tons were used in 2006 to produce biodiesel. Brazil is the world's largest producer of sugar cane, and accounts for about 45 per cent of global ethanol production. Malaysia and Indonesia are the key players in the palm oil market, accounting for 85 per cent of global production. India has identified more than 11 million hectares that would be suitable for growing jatropha, whose seeds contain up to 40 per cent oil that can be burned in a conventional diesel engine after extraction. 1 tab.

  6. Benchmarking biofuels; Biobrandstoffen benchmarken

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Croezen, H.; Kampman, B.; Bergsma, G.

    2012-03-15

    A sustainability benchmark for transport biofuels has been developed and used to evaluate the various biofuels currently on the market. For comparison, electric vehicles, hydrogen vehicles and petrol/diesel vehicles were also included. A range of studies as well as growing insight are making it ever clearer that biomass-based transport fuels may have just as big a carbon footprint as fossil fuels like petrol or diesel, or even bigger. At the request of Greenpeace Netherlands, CE Delft has brought together current understanding on the sustainability of fossil fuels, biofuels and electric vehicles, with particular focus on the performance of the respective energy carriers on three sustainability criteria, with the first weighing the heaviest: (1) Greenhouse gas emissions; (2) Land use; and (3) Nutrient consumption [Dutch] Greenpeace Nederland heeft CE Delft gevraagd een duurzaamheidsmeetlat voor biobrandstoffen voor transport te ontwerpen en hierop de verschillende biobrandstoffen te scoren. Voor een vergelijk zijn ook elektrisch rijden, rijden op waterstof en rijden op benzine of diesel opgenomen. Door onderzoek en voortschrijdend inzicht blijkt steeds vaker dat transportbrandstoffen op basis van biomassa soms net zoveel of zelfs meer broeikasgassen veroorzaken dan fossiele brandstoffen als benzine en diesel. CE Delft heeft voor Greenpeace Nederland op een rijtje gezet wat de huidige inzichten zijn over de duurzaamheid van fossiele brandstoffen, biobrandstoffen en elektrisch rijden. Daarbij is gekeken naar de effecten van de brandstoffen op drie duurzaamheidscriteria, waarbij broeikasgasemissies het zwaarst wegen: (1) Broeikasgasemissies; (2) Landgebruik; en (3) Nutriëntengebruik.

  7. Potentials of biofuels

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Munack, A.; Schroder, O. [Johann Heinrich von Thunen Inst., Braunschweig (Germany); Krahl, J. [Coburg Univ. of Applied Sciences, Coburg (Germany); Bunger, J. [Inst. for Prevention and Occupational Medicine of the German Social Accident Insurance, Ruhr-Univ. Inst., Bochum (Germany)

    2010-07-01

    This paper discussed the potential of biofuels with particular reference to the situation in Germany and Europe. Emphasis was on technical potential, such as biofuel production, utilization and environmental aspects. The Institute of Agricultural Technology and Biosystems Engineering ran vTI emission tests on diesel engines to evaluate the environmental impacts of biofuels. This testing facility is able to drive heavy-duty diesel engines in both stationary and dynamic test cycles, such as the European ESC and ETC. Additional analyses were conducted to determine the fine and ultra-fine particles, polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAH), aldehydes, ketones, and the usual regulated exhaust gas compounds. Ames tests were conducted to assess the mutagenic potential of tailpipe emissions. Previous study results showed that neat vegetable oils can render the exhaust high in mutagenic potency. Some of the non-regulated exhaust gas compounds were found to vary nonlinearly with the blend composition. B20 was found to have high mutagenic potential and was subject to sedimentation.

  8. Time for commercializing non-food biofuel in China

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The booming automobile in China has added additional pressure on the country that needs to import almost 50% of its oil. Non-food-based biofuel is a viable fuel alternative for cars. China already has the required-foundation to commercialize non-food-based biofuel. Chinese crop straw and stock, energy crop, and woody biomass that could potentially be converted into energy are projected to be 700 million toe (ton of oil equivalent) in the near future. Meanwhile, Chinese food-based ethanol fuel industry ranks as the world's third after United States and Brazil. Several non-food-based ethanol plants are constructed or under constructed, one of which has been licensed. However, more efforts should be directed to commercializing non-food-based biofuel, including industrialized feedstock, strengthening key technology research, supporting private enterprise, and E10 upgrading to E20. The enormous increase in private ownership of car must compel China to commercialize biofuel. (author)

  9. CONSUMERS’ ATTITUDES RELATED TO BIOFUEL USE IN TRANSPORTATION

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Florin Mariasiu

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper presents the results of a field survey to determine the attitudes of consumers (citizens related to the use of biofuels in transport. Attitudes of citizens towards biotechnologies and renewable energy use to reduce pollutant effects on the environment are an important factor (and even decisive in political decision-making necessary to develop new investments and the practical implementation of the proposed projects in the field of renewable sources. The aim of the study was to identify the attitudes of citizens (consumers regarding follow specific issues: the identification of environmental attitudes and use of biofuels, exploring the connections between attitudes and actions declared effective environmentally taken and exploring attitudes towards authorities environmental policies. It was found that there is a favorable attitude for a massive use of biofuels in transport, even in the absence of relevant sources of information about the complexity of the effects of using biofuels in transport.

  10. Summary guidelines

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Halsnaes, K.; Painuly, J.P.; Turkson, J.; Meyer, H.J.; Markandya, A.

    1999-09-01

    This document is a summary version of the methodological guidelines for climate change mitigation assessment developed as part of the Global Environment Facility (GEF) project Economics of Greenhouse Gas Limitations; Methodological Guidelines. The objectives of this project have been to develop a methodology, an implementing framework and a reporting system which countries can use in the construction of national climate change mitigation policies and in meeting their future reporting obligations under the FCCC. The methodological framework developed in the Methodological Guidelines covers key economic concepts, scenario building, modelling tools and common assumptions. It was used by several country studies included in the project. (au) 13 refs.

  11. BIOFUELS: FROM HOPES TO REALITY

    OpenAIRE

    José Osvaldo Beserra CARIOCA; Friedrich, Horst E.; Ehrenberger, Simone

    2011-01-01

    This paper combines the research for biofuels processing development with the vehicle conception to focus on realistic scenarios for biofuels to attend vehicle specifications and future green mobility. Actually, these are two important segments of fuels and biofuels context which should converge to a sustainable and realistic model. Recently, due to the climate changes versus fossil fuels use, and its consequences, the United Nations System addressed to the world a report on green economy ind...

  12. Biofuel cells and their development

    OpenAIRE

    Bullen, R.A.; Arnot, T.C.; Walsh, F. C.

    2006-01-01

    This review considers the literature published since 1994 on microbial and enzymatic biofuel cells. Types of biofuel cell are classified according to the nature of the electrode reaction and the nature of the biochemical reactions. The performance of fuel cells is critically reviewed and a variety of possible applications is considered. The current direction of development of biofuel cells is carefully analysed. While considerable chemical development of enzyme electrodes has occurred, relati...

  13. Project Rio Blanco. Environmental surveillance summary report, Part 2, July 1973-December 1976

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1976-01-01

    Project RIO BLANCO was a joint venture undertaken by the US Atomic Energy Commission (AEC) representing the federal government, and CER Geonuclear Corporation representing private industry. As originally conceived, Phase I of the project involved the simultaneous detonation of three nuclear devices in a single emplacement well, and was the third event in the AEC's Plowshare program to develop peaceful uses for nuclear devices. The main purpose of the RIO BLANCO experiment, as well as that of the other two Plowshare detonations, was to investigate the feasibility of using nuclear detonations in deep underground formations where the gas was too tightly held to be released under other known techniques. A total of approximately 9000 radiochemical analyses have been done on 4110 environmental samples pertaining to Project RIO BLANCO by the Department during the period July, 1973 through December, 1976. These include: 3186 air particulate filter samples; 54 air moisture samples; 34 sediment and soil samples; 9 compressed air samples; 44 municipal water supply samples; 122 special well samples; 622 river and stream samples; and 39 snow samples. Levels of radioactivity in the environment and salinity in the surface and well waters were determined before the detonation so that any undesirable changes caused by the detonations could be more easily identified. The collected data identify environmental levels of radioactivity for an extensive area of western Colorado. This report is prepared in two parts. Part I covers the period January 1, 1971 through June 30, 1973, including pre-shot activities and results of surveillance for the six weeks following the detonations. Part II contains the results of environmental surveillance during the periods of re-entry and production test flaring of the gas from the cavities produced by the nuclear explosions and during the period at final shutdown and abandonment of the site. 18 figs., 1 tab.

  14. Summary of operations and performance of the Murdock site restoration project in 2008.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    LaFreniere, L. M.; Environmental Science Division

    2009-06-04

    This document summarizes the performance of the groundwater and surface water restoration systems installed by the Commodity Credit Corporation of the U.S. Department of Agriculture (CCC/USDA) at the former CCC/USDA grain storage facility in Murdock, Nebraska, during the third full year of system operation, from January 1 through December 31, 2008. Performance in June 2005 through December 2007 was reported previously (Argonne 2007, 2008). In the Murdock project, several innovative technologies are being used to remove carbon tetrachloride contamination from a shallow aquifer underlying the town, as well as from water naturally discharged to the surface at the headwaters of a small creek (a tributary to Pawnee Creek) north of the town (Figure 1.1). The restoration activities at Murdock are being conducted by the CCC/USDA as a non-time-critical removal action under the regulatory authority and supervision of the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (EPA), Region VII. Argonne National Laboratory assisted the CCC/USDA by providing technical oversight for the restoration effort and facilities during this review period. Included in this report are the results of all sampling and monitoring activities performed in accord with the EPA-approved Monitoring Plan for this site (Argonne 2006), as well as additional investigative activities conducted during the review period. The annual performance reports for the Murdock project assemble information that will become part of the five-year review and evaluation of the remediation effort. This review will occur in 2010. This document presents overviews of the treatment facilities (Section 2) and site operations and activities (Section 3), then describes the groundwater, surface water, vegetation, and atmospheric monitoring results (Section 4) and modifications and costs during the review period (Section 5). Section 6 summarizes the current period of operation. A gallery of photographs of the Murdock project is in Appendix A.

  15. International Uranium Resources Evaluation Project (IUREP) orientation phase mission summary report: Turkey

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A report has recently been published which describes the findings of the International Uranium Resources Evaluation Project (IUREP) mission to Turkey. The IUREP Orientation Phase mission to Turkey estimates that the Speculative Resources of that country fall within the range of 21 000 to 55 000 tonnes of uranium. This potential is expected to lie in areas of Neogene and possibly other Tertiary sediments, in particular in the areas of the Menderes Massif and Central Anatolia. The mission describes a proposed exploration programme with expenditures over a five year period of between $80 million and $110 million, with nearly half of the amount being spent on drilling. (author)

  16. Summary report of the University of Manchester involvement in the Chemval project

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chemval is an international geochemical exercise, which aims at applying and validating predictive computer programmes describing the chemistry of radionuclides in the geosphere. As a component of the CEC Mirage project - second phase (on migration of radionuclides in the geosphere), Chemval is carried out in the framework of the third Community R and D programme on radioactive waste management and storage (1985-89). It is jointly funded by the Commission of the European Communities and Her Majesty's Inspectorate of Pollution (UK Department of the Environment)

  17. A summary report on the Flat-Plate Solar Array Project Workshop on Transparent Conducting Polymers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kachare, R.; Moacanin, J.

    1985-01-01

    The proceedings and technical discussions of a workshop on Transparent Conducting Polymers (TCP) for solar cell applications are reported. This is in support of the Device Research Task of the Flat-Flate Solar Array Project. The workshop took place on January 11 and 12, 1985, in Santa Barbara, California. Participants included university and industry researchers. The discussions focused on the electronic and optical properties of TCP, and on experimental issues and problems that should be addressed for high-efficiency solar cell application.

  18. The Palmottu natural analogue project. The behaviour of natural radionuclides in and around uranium deposits. Summary report 1992-1994

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The Palmottu U-Th mineralization at Nummi-Pusula, southwestern Finland, has been studied as a natural analogue to deep disposal of radioactive wastes since 1988. The report gives a summary of the results of investigations carried out during the years 1992-1994. The Palmottu Analogue Project aims at a more profound understanding of radionuclide transport processes in fractured crystalline bedrock. The essential factors controlling transport are groundwater flow and interaction between water and rock. Accordingly, the study includes structural interpretations based in part on geophysical measurements, hydrological studies including hydraulic downhole measurements, flow modelling, hydrogeochemical characterization of groundwater, uranium chemistry and colloid chemistry, mineralogical studies, geochemical interpretation and modelling, including paleohydrogeological aspects, and studies of radionuclide mobilization and migration processes including numerical simulations. The project has produced a large amount of data related to natural analogue aspects. The data obtained have already been utilized in developing logical conceptual ideas of the time frames and processes operating in the bedrock of the site. (61 refs., 24 figs., 8 tabs.)

  19. The Palmottu natural analogue project. The behaviour of natural radionuclides in and around uranium deposits. Summary report 1992-1994

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Blomqvist, R.; Ruskeeniemi, T.; Ahonen, L. [Geological Survey of Finland, Espoo (Finland); Suksi, J. [Helsinki Univ. (Finland). Lab. of Radiochemistry; Niini, H. [Helsinki Univ. of Technology, Otaniemi (Finland). Lab. of Engineering Geology and Geophysics; Vuorinen, U. [VTT Chemical Technology, Espoo (Finland); Jakobsson, K. [Finnish Centre for Radiation and Nuclear Safety, Helsinki (Finland)

    1995-06-01

    The Palmottu U-Th mineralization at Nummi-Pusula, southwestern Finland, has been studied as a natural analogue to deep disposal of radioactive wastes since 1988. The report gives a summary of the results of investigations carried out during the years 1992-1994. The Palmottu Analogue Project aims at a more profound understanding of radionuclide transport processes in fractured crystalline bedrock. The essential factors controlling transport are groundwater flow and interaction between water and rock. Accordingly, the study includes structural interpretations based in part on geophysical measurements, hydrological studies including hydraulic downhole measurements, flow modelling, hydrogeochemical characterization of groundwater, uranium chemistry and colloid chemistry, mineralogical studies, geochemical interpretation and modelling, including paleohydrogeological aspects, and studies of radionuclide mobilization and migration processes including numerical simulations. The project has produced a large amount of data related to natural analogue aspects. The data obtained have already been utilized in developing logical conceptual ideas of the time frames and processes operating in the bedrock of the site. (61 refs., 24 figs., 8 tabs.).

  20. Biofuel technology handbook. 2. ed.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rutz, Dominik; Janssen, Rainer

    2008-01-15

    This comprehensive handbook was created in order to promote the production and use of biofuels and to inform politicians, decision makers, biofuel traders and all other relevant stakeholders about the state-of-the-art of biofuels and relevant technologies. The large variety of feedstock types and different conversion technologies are described. Explanations about the most promising bio fuels provide a basis to discuss about the manifold issues of biofuels. The impartial information in this handbook further contributes to diminish existing barriers for the broad use of biofuels. Emphasis of this handbook is on first generation biofuels: bio ethanol, Biodiesel, pure plant oil, and bio methane. It also includes second generation biofuels such as BTL-fuels and bio ethanol from lingo-cellulose as well as bio hydrogen. The whole life cycle of bio fuels is assessed under technical, economical, ecological, and social aspect. Characteristics and applications of bio fuels for transport purposes are demonstrated and evaluated. This is completed by an assessment about the most recent studies on biofuel energy balances. This handbook describes the current discussion about green house gas (GHG) balances and sustainability aspects. GHG calculation methods are presented and potential impacts of biofuel production characterized: deforestation of rainforests and wetlands, loss of biodiversity, water pollution, human health, child labour, and labour conditions.

  1. Biofuel Subsidies and International Trade

    OpenAIRE

    Bandyopadhyay, Subhayu; Bhaumik, Sumon; Wall, Howard J.

    2010-01-01

    This paper explores optimal biofuel subsidization in the context of a general equilibrium trade model. The focus is on biofuels such as corn-based ethanol, which diverts corn from use as food to use as an intermediate input in energy production. In the small-country case, when a Pigouvian tax on conventional fuels such as crude is in place, the optimal biofuel subsidy is zero. When the tax on crude is not available as a policy option, however, a second-best biofuel subsidy (or tax) is opti...

  2. Telemedicine. Final report/project accomplishments summary CRADA number 95-KCP-1014

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    VanDeusen, A.L.

    1997-04-01

    This project was initiated to fill existing voids in the telemedicine equipment market. Currently, when a medical facility adds telemedicine capability to their video conference system, they must purchase expensive and bulky encoders and decoders in order to send information over the available data channel. Even with this expensive equipment, only one data type (stethoscope or ECG) can be sent at a time. In addition, since existing encoders and decoders are not designed specifically for telemedicine, special cables must be built to connect with this equipment. This project resulted in the design and construction of an encoder/decoder system that resolved these issues. The unit (referred to as the Telecoder) is designed specifically for the telemedicine market. The Telecoder is compact, handles two types of data (stethoscope and ECG) simultaneously, integrates with existing medical equipment, and is less expensive. In addition to the Telecoder module, a prototype was built that adds all the necessary logic and interfaces necessary to integrate the basic encoder design into additional Cardionics products. Although a complete integration into other Cardionics products was not in the scope of this CRADA, all the basic design work has been done to allow Cardionics to complete the work.

  3. The Barselina Project Phase 4 Summary report. Ignalina Unit 2 Probabilistic Safety Analysis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The Barselina Project was initiated in the summer of 1991. The project is a multilateral co-operation between Lithuania, Russia and Sweden. The long range objective is to establish common perspectives and unified bases for assessment of severe accident risks and needs for remedial measures for the RBMK reactors. The Swedish BWR Barsebaeck is used as reference plant and the Lithuanian RBMK Ignalina as application plant. During phase 3, from March, 1993 to June, 1994, a full scope Probabilistic Safety Analysis (PSA) model of the Ignalina Nuclear Power Plant unit 2 (INPP-2) was developed to identify possible safety improvement of risk importance. The probabilistic methodology was applied on a plant specific basis for a channel type reactor of RBMK design. To increase the realism of the risk model a set of deterministic analyses were performed and plant/RBMK-specific data bases were developed and used. A general concept for analysing this type of reactor was developed. During phase 4, July 1994 to September 1996, the PSA was further developed, taking into account plant changes, improved modeling methods and extended plant information concerning dependencies (area events, dynamic effects, electrical and signal dependencies). The updated model is quantified and new results and conclusions are evaluated

  4. HIFSA: Heavy-Ion Fusion Systems Assessment Project: Volume 1, Executive summary

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The Heavy-Ion Fusion Systems Assessment (HIFSA) was conducted with the specific objective of evaluating the prospects of using induction-linac heavy-ion accelerators to generate economical electrical power from Inertial Confinement Fusion (ICF). Cost/performance models of the major fusion power plant systems were used to identify promising areas in parameter space. Resulting cost-of-electricity projections for a plant size of 1 GWe are comparable to those from other fusion system studies, some of which were for much larger power plants. These favorable projections maintain over an unusually large domain of parameter space but depend especially on making large cost savings for the accelerator by using higher charge-to-mass ratio ions than assumed previously. The feasibility of realizing such savings has been shown by (1) experiments demonstrating transport stability better than anticipated for space-charge-dominated beams, and (2) theoretical predictions that the final transport and pulse compression in reactor-chamber environments will be sufficiently resistant to streaming instabilities to allow successful propagation of neutralized beams to the target. Results of the HIFSA study already have had a significant impact on the heavy-ion induction accelerator R and D program, especially in selection of the charge-state objectives. Also, the study should enhance the credibility of induction linacs as ICF drivers

  5. Meeting the global demand for biofuels in 2021 through sustainable land use change policy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The 2013 renewable energy policy mandates adopted in twenty-seven countries will increase the need for liquid biofuels. To achieve this, ethanol produced from corn and sugarcane will need to increase from 80 to approximately 200 billion l in 2021. This could be achieved by increasing the productivity of raw material per hectare, expansion of land into dedicated biofuels, or a combination of both. We show here that appropriate land expansion policies focused on conservationist programs and a scientific basis, are important for sustainable biofuel expansion whilst meeting the increasing demand for food and fiber. The Brazilian approach to biofuel and food security could be followed by other nations to provide a sustainable pathway to renewable energy and food production globally. One sentence summary: Conservationist policy programs with scientific basis are key to drive the expansion of biofuel production and use towards sustainability

  6. Summary of operations and performance of the Murdock site restoration project in 2007.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    LaFreniere, L. M.; Environmental Science Division

    2008-06-03

    This document summarizes the performance of the groundwater and surface water restoration systems installed by the Commodity Credit Corporation of the U.S. Department of Agriculture (CCC/USDA) at the former CCC/USDA grain storage facility in Murdock, Nebraska, during the second full year of system operation, from January 1 through December 31, 2007. Performance in June 2005 through December 2006 was reported previously (Argonne 2007). In the Murdock project, several innovative technologies are being used to remove carbon tetrachloride contamination from a shallow aquifer underlying the town, as well as from water naturally discharged to the surface at the headwaters of a small creek (a tributary to Pawnee Creek) north of the town (Figure 1.1). The restoration activities at Murdock are being conducted by the CCC/USDA as a non-time-critical removal action under the regulatory authority and supervision of the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (EPA), Region VII. Argonne National Laboratory assisted the CCC/USDA by providing technical oversight for the restoration effort and facilities during this review period. Included in this report are the results of all sampling and monitoring activities performed in accord with the EPA-approved Monitoring Plan for this site (Argonne 2006), as well as additional investigative activities conducted during the review period. The annual performance reports for the Murdock project assemble information that will become part of the five-year review and evaluation of the remediation effort. This review will occur in 2010. This document presents overviews of the treatment facilities (Section 2) and site operations and activities (Section 3), then describes the groundwater, surface water, vegetation, and atmospheric monitoring results (Section 4) and modifications and costs during the review period (Section 5). Section 6 summarizes the current period of operation. A gallery of photographs of the Murdock project is in Appendix A. A brief

  7. Road-map for 2. generation biofuels

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This document presents road-map issues concerning the requirements for biofuels of second generation, and defines the priorities addressed by a demonstrator program. It recalls the context created by the challenges of climate change and the excessive dependence on fossil fuels, and the objectives defined by the European Union in terms of biofuel share in the global consumption. Then, it describes the candidate technologies for the production of this second generation of biofuels, those based on thermo-chemical processes (mainly the pyrolysis-gasification of biomass), and those based on biochemical processes (enzymatic hydrolysis and fermentation of biomass). It highlights the technological challenges for these processes, and describes the various objectives of research projects supported by a 'demonstrator fund'. It discusses the necessity to develop demonstrators, and mentions some current projects of private companies, competitiveness clusters, and public research institutions. An agenda is defined from 2009 to 2020 which encompasses the research, demonstration and operation phases. An appendix provides brief presentations of thermo-chemical or biological demonstrators currently under operation or under construction in foreign countries (Germany, Finland, United States of America, Sweden, Spain, Canada, Japan, and Denmark)

  8. Japan's New Sunshine Project. 1998 Annual summary of hydrogen energy R and D

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1999-07-01

    Summarized herein are the reports on R and D efforts on hydrogen energy, as part of the FY 1998 New Sunshine Project. For production of hydrogen, characteristics related to transport number were investigated for steam electrolysis at high temperature, in which a sintered ceramic powder was used as the electrolyte and the cell was equipped with platinum electrodes. For utilization of hydrogen, energy conversion techniques were investigated using hydrogen occluding alloys for testing methods for alloy microstructures and hydrogenation characteristics, and preparation of and performance testing methods for the cathodes charged with the aid of hydrogen gas. For analysis/assessment for development of hydrogen-related techniques, the investigated items included water electrolysis with solid polymer electrolytes, hydrogen transport techniques using metal hydrides, hydrogen storing techniques using metal hydrides, hydrogen engines, and techniques for preventing hydrogen embrittlement. Analysis/assessment for development of hydrogen turbines was also investigated as one of the 12 R and D themes reported herein. (NEDO)

  9. International Uranium Resources Evaluation Project (IUREP) orientation phase mission summary report: Madagascar

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A report has recently been made public which describes the findings of the International Uranium Resources Evaluation Project (IUREP) Mission to Madagascar. The IUREP Orientation Phase Mission to Madagascar estimates the Speculative Resources of that country to be within the wide range of 4 000 to 38 000 tonnes uranium. Such resources could lie in areas with known occurrences (uranothorianite, Ft. Dauphin up to 5 000 t U, i.e. 'pegmatoids'; uranocircite, Antsirabe up to 3 000 t U in Neogene sediments; carnotiteautonite, Karoo area up to 30 000 t U in sandstones and in areas with as yet untested environments (e.g. related to unconformities and calcretes). Modifications to existing uranium exploration programmes are suggested and policy alternatives reviewed. No specific budget is proposed. (author)

  10. International Uranium Resources Evaluation Project (IUREP) orientation phase mission summary report: Colombia

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A full report has been released describing the findings of the International Uranium Resources Evaluation Project (IUREP) Orientation Phase Mission to Colombia. The Mission suggests that the speculative uranium resources of the country could be within the very wide range of 20 000 tonnes of 220 000 tonnes of uranium metal. The Mission finds that the area with the highest potential is the Llanos Orientales (Interior Zone), which has the potential of hosting quartz-pebble conglomerate deposits, Proterozoic unconformity-related deposits and sandstone deposits. The Mission recommends that approximately US$80 million should be expended in a phased ten-year exploration programme. It is likely that the majority of the funds will be needed for drilling, followed by ground surveys and airborne radiometry. It is the opinion of the Mission that the considerable funds required for the proposed programme could most suitably be raised by inviting national or foreign commercial organizations to participate under a shared production agreement. (author)

  11. International Uranium Resources Evaluation Project (IUREP) orientation phase mission summary report: Rwanda

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A report has recently been published which describes the findings of the International Uranium Resources Evaluation Project (IUREP) Mission to Rwanda. The IUREP Orientation Phase Mission to Rwanda estimates that the Speculative Resources of that country fall within the range of 500 to 5 000 tonnes of uranium. The majority of this potential is expected to be located in the Precambrian Ruzizian, especially in conjunction with tectonized pegmatoidal remobilizations of metamorphic sediments of western Rwanda. Other favourable geological environments include lamprophyric dikes and post tectonic granites of central Rwanda. The Mission recommends that over a period of five years approximately US$4.2 million be spent on exploration in Rwanda. The majority of this would be spent on airborne and ground geophysical surveys ($1.5 million) and exploration drilling ($1 million). Prospecting, trenching and tunneling and analytical work would require the remainder of the $4.2 million ($1.7 million). (author)

  12. International Uranium Resources Evaluation Project (IUREP) orientation phase mission summary report: Cameroon

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A report has recently been published which describes the findings of the International Uranium Resources Evaluation Project (IUREP) Mission to Cameroon. The IUREP Orientation Phase Mission to Cameroon estimates the Speculative Resources of that country to be in the order of 10 000 tonnes uranium for syenite-associated U-deposits in southern Cameroon, and in the order of 5 000 tonnes uranium for uranium deposits associated with albitized and desilicified late tectonic Panafrican granites (episyenite) and Paleozoic volcanics in northern Cameroon. No specific tonnage is given for Francevillian equivalents (DJA-Series) and for Mesozoic and Cenozoic sedimentary basins, which are thought to hold limited potential for sandstone hosted uranium. However the Douala basin, consisting of mixed marine and continental sequences merits some attention. No specific budget and programme for uranium exploration are proposed for Cameroon. Instead specific recommendations concerning specific potential environments and general recommendation concerning the methodology of exploration are made. (author)

  13. International Uranium Resources Evaluation Project (IUREP) orientation phase mission summary report: Burundi

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A report has recently been published which describes the findings of the International Uranium Resources Evaluation Project (IUREP) Mission to Burundi. The IUREP Orientation Phase Mission to Burundi estimates that the Speculative Resources of that country fall within the range of 300 to more than 4 100 tonnes of uranium. The potential is rather evenly distributed throughout the Proterozoic of Burundi in various geological environments (unconformity, hydrothermal, fault controlled, etc.). The mission recommends that over a period of five years U.S. $ 3 to 4.5 million be spent on exploration in Burundi, with even spending on the various exploration techniques as e.g. prospecting, drilling trenching, geophysical surveys, analyses, etc. (author)

  14. Cyber Security Indications and Warning System (SV): CRADA 1573.94 Project Accomplishments Summary

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hu, Tan Chang (PI, Sandia); Robinson, David G. (Technical PI)

    2011-09-08

    As the national focus on cyber security increases, there is an evolving need for a capability to provide for high-speed sensing of events, correlation of events, and decision-making based on the adverse events seen across multiple independent large-scale network environments. The purpose of this Shared Vision project, Cyber Security Indications and Warning System, was to combine both Sandia's and LMC's expertise to discover new solutions to the challenge of protecting our nation's infrastructure assets. The objectives and scope of the proposal was limited to algorithm and High Performance Computing (HPC) model assessment in the unclassified environment within funding and schedule constraints. The interest is the identification, scalability assessment, and applicability of current utilized cyber security algorithms as applied in an HPC environment.

  15. The European Tracer Experiment description and summary of the ETEX project

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The European Tracer Experiment (ETEX) is jointly organised by the European Commission, the International Atomic Energy Agency and the World Meteorological Organization. The project was established to evaluate the validity of long-range transport models for real time application in emergency management and to assemble a database which will allow the evaluation of long-range atmospheric dispersion models in general. ETEX main objectives were to conduct a European-scale tracer experiment, and test the capability of meteorological institutes responsible for emergency response to forecast in real time atmospheric dispersion. Following this, the Atmospheric Transport Model Evaluation Study II (ATMES II) will simulate the tracer experiment with the same meteorological input data for all models

  16. Assessment of uncertainties in risk analysis of chemical establishments. The ASSURANCE project. Final summary report

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lauridsen, K.; Kozine, Igor; Markert, Frank;

    2002-01-01

    This report summarises the results obtained in the ASSURANCE project (EU contract number ENV4-CT97-0627). Seven teams have performed risk analyses for the same chemical facility, an ammonia storage. The EC's Joint Research Centre at Ispra and RisøNational Laboratory co-ordinated the exercise and...... ranking among the adherents of the probabilistic approach. Breaking down the modelling of both frequencyand consequence assessments into suitably small elements and conducting case studies allowed identifying root causes of uncertainty in the final risk assessments. Large differences were found in both...... the frequency assessments and in the assessment ofconsequences. The report gives a qualitative assessment of the importance to the final calculated risk of uncertainties in assumptions made, in the data and the calculation methods used. This assessment can serve as a guide to areas where, in...

  17. International Uranium Resources Evaluation Project (IUREP) orientation phase mission summary report: Peru

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A report has recently been published which describes the findings of the International Uranium Resources Evaluation Project (TUREP) Mission to Peru. The IUREP Orientation Phase Mission to Peru estimates that the Speculative Resources of that country fall within the range of 6 000 to 11 000 tonnes uranium. The majority of this potential is expected to be located in Late Tertiary ignimbrites and associated sediments in the high Andes of southern Peru. Other favourable geological environments include calcretes, developed from Tertiary volcanogenic sources over the Precambrian in the Pacific Coastal desert in southern Peru, and Hercynian subvolcanic granites in the eastern Cordillera of southern Peru. The Mission recommends that over a period of five years approximately U.S. $10 million be spent on exploration in Peru. The majority of this would be spent on drilling ($5 million) and tunnelling ($2 million) with an additional $3 million on surface and airborne radiometric surveys. (author)

  18. International Uranium Resources Evaluation Project (IUREP) orientation phase mission summary report: Uganda

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A full report has been compiled describing the findings of the International Uranium Resources Evaluation Project (IUREP) Orientation Phase Mission to Uganda. The Mission suggest that the speculative uranium resources of the country could be within the very wide range of 0 to 105 000 tonnes of uranium metal. The Mission finds that most of these speculative resources are related to Proterozoic unconformities and to Cenozoic sandstones of the Western Rift Valley. Some potential is also associated with Post-tectonic granites. The Mission recommends to rehabilitate the Geological Survey of Uganda in order to enable it to conduct and support a uranium exploration programme for unconformity related and for standstone hosted uranium deposits. Recommended exploration methods encompass geological mapping and compilation, an airborne gamma-ray spectrometer survey north of 1 deg. North latitude, stream sediment sampling, and ground scintillometric surveys in favourable areas. Follow up work should include VLF-EM surveys, emanometry and drilling. (author)

  19. International Uranium Resources Evaluation Project (IUREP) orientation phase mission summary report: Bolivia

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A report has recently been published which describes the findings of the International Uranium Resources Evaluation Project (IUREP) mission to Bolivia. The IUREP Orientation Phase mission to Bolivia estimates that the Speculative Uranium Resources of that country fall within the range of 100 to 107 500 tonnes uranium. The majority of this potential is expected to be located in the Precambrian crystalline and sedimentary rocks of the southwestern part of the Central Brazilian Shield. Other potentially favourable geologic environments include Palaeozoic two mica granites and their metasedimentary hosts, Mesozoic granites and granodiorites as well as the intruded formations and finally Tertiary acid to intermediate volcanics. The mission recommends that approximately US$ 13 million be spent on exploration in Bolivia over a five-year period. The majority of this expenditure would be for airborne and surface exploration utilising geologic, magnetometric, radiometric, and geochemical methods and some pitting, trenching, tunneling and drilling to further evaluate the discovered occurrences. (author)

  20. International Uranium Resources Evaluation Project (IUREP) orientation phase mission summary report: Ghana

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A report has recently been published which describes the findings of the International Uranium Resources Evaluation Project (IUREP) Mission to Ghana. The IUREP Orientation Phase Mission to Ghana estimates that the Speculative Resources of that country fall within the range of 15 000 to 40 000 tonnes of uranium. The majority of this potential is expected to be located in the Proterozoic Panafrican Mobile Belt (up to 17 000 tonnes uranium) and the Paleozoic Obosum Beds of the Voltaian basin (up to 15 000 tonnes uranium), the remainder being associated with various other geological environments. The mission recommends that over a period of three (3) years approximately U.S. $5 million) would be spent on exploration in Ghana. A major part of this (U.S $2 million) would be spent on an airborne spectrometer survey over the Voltaian basin (Obosum beds), much of the remainder being spent on ground surveys, trenching and percussion drilling. (author)

  1. International Uranium Resources Evaluation Project (IUREP) orientation phase mission summary report: Venezuela

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A report has recently been published which describes the findings of the International Uranium Resources Evaluation Project (IUREP) mission to Venezuela. The IUREP Orientation Phase mission to Venezuela estimates that the Speculative Resources of that country fall within the range 2,000 to 42,000 tonnes uranium.- The majority of this potential is expected to be located in the Precambrian crystalline and sedimentary rocks of the Guayana Shield. Other potentially favorable geologic environments include Cretaceous phosphorite beds, continental sandstone and granitic rocks. The mission recommends that approximately US $18 million be spent on exploration in Venezuela over the next five years. The majority of this expenditure would be for surface surveys utilizing geologic studies, radiometric and geochemical surveys and some drilling for geologic information. Additional drilling would be required later to substantiate preliminary findings. (author)

  2. Summary and abstracts: Applied Research Units and Projects 1996 UCETF Program

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1999-05-21

    The Urban Consortium (UC), created by PTI, is a network of jurisdictions with populations of over 250,000. The UC provides a platform for research and enterprise through its Energy, Environmental, Transportation, and Telecommunications and Information Task Forces. The UC provides a unique creative forum where elected and appointed officials and technical managers identify, test, and validate practical ways to improve the provision of public services and, where possible, generate new revenue opportunities. Public Technology, Inc., is the non-profit technology organization of the National League of Cities, the National Association of Counties, and the International City/County Management Association. PTI creates and advances technology-based products, services, and enterprises in cities and counties nationwide. Staffed by PTI, the UC addresses the critical needs of local governments through its Task Forces. The Urban Consortium Energy Task Force (UCETF) program has, since its inception, acted as a laboratory to develop, test solutions and share the resulting products or management approaches with the wider audience of local governments. It has addressed the overlap between energy and environment and economic development policy issues, and, is the nation's most extensive cooperative local government program to improve energy management and decision-making through applied research and technology cooperation. Proposals to meet the specific objectives of the UCETF annual R and D program are solicited from major urban jurisdictions. Projects based on these proposals are then selected by the UCETF for direct conduct and management by staff of city and county governments. Projects selected for each year's program are organized in thematic units to assure effective management and ongoing peer-to-peer experience exchange, with results documented at the end of each program year.

  3. Country Report Summary: Brazil [Project Management in Nuclear Power Plant Construction: Guidelines and Experience

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In 1975, Brazil and Germany signed a Cooperation Agreement to develop in Brazil a complete nuclear fuel cycle. It included the development of a heavy equipment industry, a nuclear fuel factory and a protocol for purchasing eight NPPs of the PWR type. The two first 1300 MW units were ordered in 1975. In 1976, at the beginning of the Project, a twelve month time gap between the completions of the two plants was planned. Later these time gaps were changed to 18 months and, then, to 24 months, until the investments were substantially reduced from 1984 to 1994. Engineers, technical and administrative personnel were kept employed to continue the engineering, to set up a component preservation and inspection programme, and to proceed at a very slow speed construction of the site structures. In 1976, during the construction of Angra 2 concrete analysis of the containment foundations carried out in cooperation with the Licensing Authority led to a recalculation of this structure. This caused a severe schedule delay and the foundations were completed only in 1982. From 1984 onwards the slow economic conditions in Brazil had a serious effect on the implementation of the nuclear power program and the construction of Angra 2 and Angra 3. This situation led the utility to proceed with the construction of Angra 2 and the rock excavation of Angra 3, according to the annual budget authorized by the Brazilian government, until 1986 when the whole project was stopped. In March, 1996 the mechanical, electric and I and C erections were re-started and all the systems, whose erection was a pre-condition for core loading, were installed and ready for operation in March, 2000. Angra 2 was declared operational in December 2000. Angra 3 received a Construction License from the Brazilian Authorities in June 2010 and the first concrete of the Reactor building was poured June 1st, 2010. According to the Time Schedule, Commercial Operation should start in December 2015.

  4. Biofuel and Bioenergy implementation scenarios. Final report of VIEWLS WP5, modelling studies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This report is published within the framework of the European Commission-supported project 'Clear Views on Clean Fuels' or VIEWLS. The overall objectives of this project are to provide structured and clear data on the availability and performance of biofuel and to identify the possibilities and strategies towards large-scale sustainable production, use and trading of biofuels for the transport sector in Europe, including Central and Eastern European Countries (CEEC). This reports constitutes the outcome of the Work Package 5 (WP5) of the VIEWLS project. In WP5 the EU biofuels and bioenergy markets are modelled with the aim to conduct quantitative analyses on the production and costs of biofuels and on the resulting market structure and supply chains. In a bigger context, where possible, WP5 aims also to provide insight into larger socio-economic impacts of bioenergy trade within Europe. The objective of this research is to develop a cost efficient biofuel strategy for Europe in terms of biofuel production, cost and trade, and to assess its larger impact on bioenergy markets and trade up to 2030. Based on the biomass availability and associated costs within EU25, under different conditions, scenarios for biofuels production and cost can be constructed using quantitative modelling tools. Combining this with (cost) data on biofuel conversion technologies and transport of biomass and biofuels, the lowest cost biofuel supply chain given a certain demand predetermined by the biofuels Directive can be designed. In a broader context, this is supplemented by a design of a sustainable bioenergy supply chain in view of the fact that biomass-heat, biomass-electricity and biofuels are competing for the same biomass resources. In other words, the scarcity of bioenergy crops, as manifested through overall bioenergy demand, is an essential variable in bioenergy scenarios

  5. Project Deep Drilling KLX02 - Phase 2. Methods, scope of activities and results. Summary report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ekman, L. [GEOSIGMA AB/LE Geokonsult AB, Uppsala (Sweden)

    2001-04-01

    Geoscientific investigations performed by SKB, including those at the Aespoe Hard Rock Laboratory, have so far comprised the bedrock horizon down to about 1000 m. The primary purposes with the c. 1700 m deep, {phi}76 mm, sub vertical core borehole KLX02, drilled during the autumn 1992 at Laxemar, Oskarshamn, was to test core drilling technique at large depths and with a relatively large diameter and to enable geoscientific investigations beyond 1000 m. Drilling of borehole KLX02 was fulfilled very successfully. Results of the drilling commission and the borehole investigations conducted in conjunction with drilling have been reported earlier. The present report provides a summary of the investigations made during a five year period after completion of drilling. Results as well as methods applied are described. A variety of geoscientific investigations to depths exceeding 1600 m were successfully performed. However, the investigations were not entirely problem-free. For example, borehole equipment got stuck in the borehole at several occasions. Special investigations, among them a fracture study, were initiated in order to reveal the mechanisms behind this problem. Different explanations seem possible, e.g. breakouts from the borehole wall, which may be a specific problem related to the stress situation in deep boreholes. The investigation approach for borehole KLX02 followed, in general outline, the SKB model for site investigations, where a number of key issues for site characterization are studied. For each of those, a number of geoscientific parameters are investigated and determined. One important aim is to erect a lithological-structural model of the site, which constitutes the basic requirement for modelling mechanical stability, thermal properties, groundwater flow, groundwater chemistry and transport of solutes. The investigations in borehole KLX02 resulted in a thorough lithological-structural characterization of the rock volume near the borehole. In order

  6. Project Deep Drilling KLX02 - Phase 2. Methods, scope of activities and results. Summary report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Geoscientific investigations performed by SKB, including those at the Aespoe Hard Rock Laboratory, have so far comprised the bedrock horizon down to about 1000 m. The primary purposes with the c. 1700 m deep, φ76 mm, sub vertical core borehole KLX02, drilled during the autumn 1992 at Laxemar, Oskarshamn, was to test core drilling technique at large depths and with a relatively large diameter and to enable geoscientific investigations beyond 1000 m. Drilling of borehole KLX02 was fulfilled very successfully. Results of the drilling commission and the borehole investigations conducted in conjunction with drilling have been reported earlier. The present report provides a summary of the investigations made during a five year period after completion of drilling. Results as well as methods applied are described. A variety of geoscientific investigations to depths exceeding 1600 m were successfully performed. However, the investigations were not entirely problem-free. For example, borehole equipment got stuck in the borehole at several occasions. Special investigations, among them a fracture study, were initiated in order to reveal the mechanisms behind this problem. Different explanations seem possible, e.g. breakouts from the borehole wall, which may be a specific problem related to the stress situation in deep boreholes. The investigation approach for borehole KLX02 followed, in general outline, the SKB model for site investigations, where a number of key issues for site characterization are studied. For each of those, a number of geoscientific parameters are investigated and determined. One important aim is to erect a lithological-structural model of the site, which constitutes the basic requirement for modelling mechanical stability, thermal properties, groundwater flow, groundwater chemistry and transport of solutes. The investigations in borehole KLX02 resulted in a thorough lithological-structural characterization of the rock volume near the borehole. In order to

  7. Biofuels versus food production: Does biofuels production increase food prices?

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rapidly growing fossil energy consumption in the transport sector in the last two centuries caused problems such as increasing greenhouse gas emissions, growing energy dependency and supply insecurity. One approach to solve these problems could be to increase the use of biofuels. Preferred feedstocks for current 1st generation biofuels production are corn, wheat, sugarcane, soybean, rapeseed and sunflowers. The major problem is that these feedstocks are also used for food and feed production. The core objective of this paper is to investigate whether the recent increase of biofuels production had a significant impact on the development of agricultural commodity (feedstock) prices. The most important impact factors like biofuels production, land use, yields, feedstock and crude oil prices are analysed. The major conclusions of this analysis are: In recent years the share of bioenergy-based fuels has increased moderately, but continuously, and so did feedstock production, as well as yields. So far, no significant impact of biofuels production on feedstock prices can be observed. Hence, a co-existence of biofuel and food production seems possible especially for 2nd generation biofuels. However, sustainability criteria should be seriously considered. But even if all crops, forests and grasslands currently not used were used for biofuels production it would be impossible to substitute all fossil fuels used today in transport.

  8. The price for biofuels sustainability

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The production and usage of biofuels has increased worldwide, seeking goals of energy security, low-carbon energy and rural development. As biofuels trade increased, the European Union introduced sustainability regulations in an attempt to reduce the risks associated with biofuels. Producers were then confronted with costs of sustainability certification, in order to access the EU market. Hopes were that sustainably-produced biofuels would be rewarded with higher prices in the EU. Based on a review of recent literature, interviews with traders and price data from Platts, this paper explores whether sustainability premiums emerged and if so, did they represent an attracting feature in the market for sustainable biofuels. This article finds that premiums for ethanol and biodiesel evolved differently between 2011 and 2012, but have been in general very small or inexistent, with certified fuels becoming the new norm in the market. For different reasons, there has been an apparent convergence between biofuel policies in the EU and the US. As market operators perceive a long-term trend for full certification in the biofuels market, producers in developing countries are likely to face additional challenges in terms of finance and capacity to cope with the sustainability requirements. - Highlights: • EU biofuel sustainability rules were once thought to reward compliant producers with price-premiums. • Premiums for certified biofuels, however, have been small for biodiesel and almost non-existent for ethanol. • As sustainable biofuels became the new norm, premiums disappeared almost completely in 2012. • Early stages of supply chains concentrate the highest compliance costs, affecting specially developing country producers. • Producers are now in a market where sustainable biofuels have become the new norm

  9. Summary of operations and performance of the Murdock site restoration project in June 2005-December 2006.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    LaFreniere, L. M.; Environmental Science Division

    2007-05-31

    This document summarizes the performance of the groundwater and surface water restoration systems installed by the Commodity Credit Corporation of the U.S. Department of Agriculture (CCC/USDA) at the former CCC/USDA grain storage facility in Murdock, Nebraska, during the initial period of systems operation, from June 2005 through December 2006. In the Murdock project, several innovative technologies are being used to remove carbon tetrachloride contamination from a shallow aquifer underlying the town, as well as from water naturally discharged to the surface at the headwaters of a small creek (a tributary to Pawnee Creek) north of the town (Figure 1.1). The restoration activities at Murdock are being conducted by the CCC/USDA as a non-time-critical removal action under the regulatory authority and supervision of the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (EPA), Region VII. Argonne National Laboratory assisted the CCC/USDA by providing technical oversight for the restoration effort and facilities during this review period. Included in this report are the results of all sampling and monitoring activities performed in accord with the EPA-approved Monitoring Plan for this site (Argonne 2006), as well as additional investigative activities conducted during the review period. This document presents overviews of the treatment facilities (Section 2) and site operations and activities (Section 3), then describes the groundwater, surface water, vegetation, and atmospheric monitoring results (Section 4) and modifications and costs during the review period (Section 5). Section 6 summarizes the initial period of operation.

  10. Japan`s new sunshine project. 1995 annual summary of solar energy R and D program

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1996-12-01

    The paper reported the details of the research results of the New Sunshine Project in fiscal 1995. As for the technical development for the practical use of photovoltaic power systems, the development of manufacturing technologies for low-cost substrates and the low-cost fabrication of multicrystalline solar cells/modules were conducted as the development of technology for thin substrate polycrystalline solar cells for practical use. As the research on fabrication technology for thin film solar cells for practical use, conducted were the research on low-cost fabrication technology for large-area modules and the technological development for qualitative improvement. The paper further made the technological development for super-high efficiency solar cells, the research and development of evaluation system for photovoltaic power generation system, the research and development of peripheral technology for photovoltaic power system, the research and development of system to utilize photovoltaic energy, the demonstrative research of the photovoltaic power system, etc. As to the research and development of photovoltaic power systems, conducted were the characterization and control of surface/interface recombination velocity of crystalline silicon thin films, the research on surface passivation for high-efficiency silicon solar cells, etc. Moreover, with relation to the utilization technology of solar thermal energy, the paper made the research on advanced solar components, the research and development of utilization technology of solar thermal system for industrial and other uses, etc. 302 figs., 58 tabs.

  11. International Uranium Resources Evaluation Project (IUREP) orientation phase mission summary report: Zambia

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A report has recently been published which describes the findings of the International Uranium Resources Evaluation Project (IUREP) mission to Zambia. The IUREP Orientation Phase mission to Zambia estimates that the Speculative Resources of that country fall within the range of 33 000 and 100 000 tonnes uranium. The majority of these resources are believed to exist in the Karoo sediments. Other potentially favourable geological environments are the Precambrian Katanga sediments, as well as intrusive rocks of different chemical compositions and surficial duricrusts. Previous unofficial estimates of Zambia's Reasonably Assured Resources (RAR) and Estimated Additional Resources (EAR) are considered to be still valid: the total RAR amount to 6 000 tonnes uranium, located in Karoo (4 000 tonnes) and Katanga (2 000 tonnes) sediments, while the EAR are believed to total 4 000 tonnes being found only in Karoo sediments. The mission recommends that approximately US$ 40 million be spent on uranium exploration in Zambia over 10 years. The largest part of this expenditure would be for drilling, while the remainder should be spent on airborne and ground surveys, as well as on interpretative work on previous airborne data, Landsat imageries, etc. (author)

  12. International Uranium Resources Evaluation Project (IUREP) orientation phase mission summary report: Somalia

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A full report has been compiled describing the findings of the International Uranium Resources Evaluation Project (IUREP) Orientation Phase Mission to Somalia. The Mission suggests that in addition to the reasonably assured resources (RAR) of 5 000 t uranium and estimated additional resources (EAR) of 11 000 t uranium in calcrete deposits, the speculative resources (SR) could be within the wide range of 0 - 150 000 t uranium. The majority of these speculative resources are related to sandstone and calcrete deposits. The potential for magmatic hydrothermal deposits is relatively small. The Mission recommends an exploration programme of about US$ 22 000 000 to test the uranium potential of the country which is thought to be excellent. The Mission also suggests a reorganization of the Somalia Geological Survey in order to improve its efficiency. Recommended methods include geological mapping, Landsat imagery interpretation, airborne and ground scintillometer surveys, and geochemistry. Follow-up radiometric surveys, exploration geophysics, mineralogical studies, trenching and drilling are proposed in favourable areas. (author)

  13. NKA/KRU project on operator training, control room designing and human reliability. Summary report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A Nordic integrated project on human reliability in the conditions of new advanced technology seeks to establish: - The actual repertoire of activities and tasks performed by the operating staff of a nuclear power plant and its dependence on the present and future levels of automation. - The knowledge required for these activities and appropriate means for training plant operators and for competence evaluation and retraining in coping with the rare events. - Models of human operator performance; how do operators read information and make decisions under normal and abnormal plant conditions and how does their performance depend upon control room design. - The typical limits of human capabilities and mechanisms of human errors as they are represented in existing records of incidents and accidents in industrial plants. - The use of process computers for improved design of data presentation and operator support systems, especially for disturbance analysis and diagnosis during infrequent plant disturbance. - Development of experimental techniques to validate research results and proposals for improved man/machine interfaces and other computer-based support systems. (EG)

  14. Japan sunshine project 1987 annual summary of Hydrogen energy R and D

    Science.gov (United States)

    1988-04-01

    This paper presents the findings of the researches on hydrogen energy in sunshine project in FY87. A duration test of the electrolyte membrane of solid polymer fabricated by bonding Pt and Ir catalyst layers was made for seven months to produce hydrogen by the electrolysis of water. The result indicates that the electrolysis will be able to be made at high current density. The sensitivity to stress corrosion cracking of stainless steel for electrolysis of water was evaluated. Since a thin film of stabilized zirconia fabricated by sintering at a temperature of 1500 C or higher is dense and conductive, it is a promising solid electrolyte. Since an inert phase to hydrogen is developed in a high-density metallic alloy for hydrogen storage produced by sintering and partially melting Mg7Zn3-Ni, it must be improved. A heating module of hydrogenated material monolithically coated on copper tube was investigated. The application of metallic alloy for hydrogen storage to the hydrogen electrode is studied. A hydrogen-fueled prime mover system circulating an inert gas is being developed. Since the low alloy steel part is extremely embrittled by heating, the intergranular face of coarse crystal affected by the cycle of welding heat is a problem.

  15. Summary Report, Southwest Regional Geothermal Operations Research Program: First project year, June 1977-August 1978

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Meyer, Richard T.; Davidson, Ray

    1978-12-01

    The overall objectives of the first year project were as follows: (1) to develop realistic but aggressive scenarios with certainty factors for the development of each identified geothermal resource area in Arizona, Colorado, Nevada, New Mexico, and Utah; (2) to delineate the public actions, together with their schedules, required for the scenarios to materialize; and (3) to develop a computer-based data storage and retrieval system (i.e. a Regional Program Progress Monitor) of the level of a preliminary working model, which is capable of displaying program approach but is not loaded with all available data. In addition, each sponsor had supplementary objectives aligned to its own programmatic goals. DOE sought to develop expertise and programs within the appropriate state agencies upon which future DOE development and commercialization activities could be structured. FCRC sought to promote the utilization of geothermal energy throughout the five-state region for purposes of expanded economic development, increased employment, and higher citizen incomes. The goals of the five states varied from state to state, but generally included the following: development of alternative energy sources to replace dwindling supplies of oil and natural gas; economic and industrial development in rural areas; encouragement of industry and utility development of geothermal energy for electrical power generation; demonstration of the practical applications of energy research and development; and close interaction with business and industry for the commercialization of both electric and direct thermal applications.

  16. Japan's sunshine project 1987 annual summary of geothermal energy R and D

    Science.gov (United States)

    1988-04-01

    Results are reported on the geothermal energy research for 1987 in the Sunshine Project. Exploration methods and formation mechanism of fracture type reservoirs were studied together with the study of their productivity. Basic maps for regional resources evaluation were prepared for five regions in Japan and parameters were determined. Percussion drills and aerated mud excavation technique were developed. Damages in hydrothermal flow were investigated and materials were developed. Crushing and thermal extraction mechanism were analyzed by the pressurized water crushing experiments at a quarry. Results of field experiment on the hot rock mass were analyzed. Environmental conservation and multipurpose use of hot water were investigated. Wide area hydrothermal flow system was surveyed at three areas. High accuracy MT method was developed and its effectiveness was demonstrated. Data was compared and analyzed for the Sengan and Kurikoma areas, which differ in abundance to each other. For development of binary 10 MW class demonstration plant, a well was excavated and tested, downhole pumps were tested and improved, and the conceptual design was investigated for plant equipment. Researches were conducted on the production and recirculation mechanism of hot water and control of water flowout.

  17. Japan`s sunshine project. 17.. 1992 annual summary of coal liquefaction and gasification

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1993-09-01

    This report describes the achievement of coal liquefaction and gasification technology development in the Sunshine Project for FY 1992. It presents the research and development of coal liquefaction which includes studies on reaction mechanism of coal liquefaction and catalysts for coal liquefaction, the research and development of coal gasification technologies which includes studies on gasification characteristics of various coals and improvement of coal gasification efficiency, the development of bituminous coal liquefaction which includes engineering, construction and operation of a bituminous coal liquefaction pilot plant and research by a process supporting unit (PSU), the development of brown coal liquefaction which includes research on brown coal liquefaction with a pilot plant and development of techniques for upgrading coal oil from brown coal, the development of common base technologies which includes development of slurry letdown valves and study on upgrading technology of coal-derived distillates, the development of coal-based hydrogen production technology with a pilot plant, the development of technology for entrained flow coal gasification, the assessment of coal hydrogasification, and the international co-operation. 4 refs., 125 figs., 39 tabs.

  18. 'FASTBUS' - A description, a status report, and a summary of ongoing projects

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    FASTBUS is a modular data and control bus and mechanical packaging standard currently under development. It is being funded by the United States Department of Energy and fully supported by the European ESONE Committee. FASTBUS is being designed to meet the high-speed data acquisition and parallel and distributed processing requirements of the next generation of large-scale physics experiments. It is a multiprocessor system with multiple bus segments which operate independently but link together for passing data. It operates asynchronously to accommodate very high and very low speed devices over long and short paths, using handshake protocols for reliability. It can also operate synchronously without handshakes for transfer of data blocks at maximum speed. The motivation for developing FASTBUS, its goals, history and organizational structure are summarized. Its features such as bus protocols, sparse data scan capabilities, power supplies and mechanics, bus segmentation and parallel processing structures, etc. are described. European and United States systems being proposed or built using FASTBUS along with hardware and software projects to aid in the standard or system development are discussed. The paper concludes by reviewing the present state of and development schedules for the FASTBUS standard. (orig.)

  19. Predicting Function of Biological Macromolecules: A Summary of LDRD Activities: Project 10746

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    FRINK, LAURA J. D.; REMPE, SUSAN L.; MEANS, SHAWN A.; STEVENS, MARK J.; CROZIER, PAUL S.; MARTIN, MARCUS G.; SEARS, MARK P.; HJALMARSON, HAROLD P.

    2002-11-01

    This LDRD project has involved the development and application of Sandia's massively parallel materials modeling software to several significant biophysical systems. They have been successful in applying the molecular dynamics code LAMMPS to modeling DNA, unstructured proteins, and lipid membranes. They have developed and applied a coupled transport-molecular theory code (Tramonto) to study ion channel proteins with gramicidin A as a prototype. they have used the Towhee configurational bias Monte-Carlo code to perform rigorous tests of biological force fields. they have also applied the MP-Sala reacting-diffusion code to model cellular systems. Electroporation of cell membranes has also been studied, and detailed quantum mechanical studies of ion solvation have been performed. In addition, new molecular theory algorithms have been developed (in FasTram) that may ultimately make protein solvation calculations feasible on workstations. Finally, they have begun implementation of a combined molecular theory and configurational bias Monte-Carlo code. They note that this LDRD has provided a basis for several new internal (e.g. several new LDRD) and external (e.g. 4 NIH proposals and a DOE/Genomes to Life) proposals.

  20. International Uranium Resources Evaluation Project (IUREP) orientation phase mission summary report: Morocco

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A report has recently been published on the findings of the mission to Morocco under the International Uranium Resources Evaluation Project (IUREP) Orientation Phase. The IUREP Orientation Phase Mission estimates that the speculative resources of Morocco range from 70 000 to 180 000 tonnes of uranium, half of which could be expected to occur in the Northern Provinces, which are relatively well explored, and the other half in the little explored Southern Provinces. In the north, speculative resources are fairly evenly distributed among the various types of deposit, in particular vein deposits (intragranitic and contact) linked with Hercynian and Precambrian blocks, the sandstone type deposits linked with Mesozoic strata and the volcanogenic deposits, especially of Precambrian age. The potential for large high-grade deposits, especially for those linked with unconformities and linear albitites, has been little investigated in Morocco and is chiefly thought to lie in the Precambrian in the Anti-Atlas and Southern Provinces. Here, the presence of acid volcanic rock reinforces the uranium potential, and there is also some potential for calcrete-related deposits. Phosphate-related uranium, to be recovered shortly, constitutes by far the largest reserves in Morocco, estimated at about 7 million tonnes of recoverable uranium. Recommendations have been made for further study of known occurrences and identification of new ones, such as unconformity and albitite-related deposits. (author)

  1. Summary geologic report on the Missoula/Bitterroot Drilling Project, Missoula/Bitterroot Basins, Montana

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The objective of the drilling project was to obtain information to assess the favorability of the Tertiary sedimentary units in the Missoula and Bitterroot Valleys for uranium potential. The group of Montana Tertiary basins, including the Missoula and Bitterroot Basins, has been assigned a speculative uranium potential of 46,557 tons of U3O8 at $100/lb by the 1980 National Uranium Resource Evaluation report. The seven drill holes, two in the Missoula Valley and five in the Bitterroot Valley, verified observations made during surface studies and provided additional information about the subsurface that was previously unknown. No uranium was found, although of the two localities the Bitterroot Valley is the more favorable. Three stratigraphic units were tentatively identified on the basis of lithology: pre-Renova clastic units, Renova Formation equivalents, and Sixmile Creek Formation equivalents. Of the three, the Renova Formation equivalents in the Bitterroot Valley appear to be the most favorable for possible uranium occurrences and the pre-Renova clastic units the least favorable

  2. Meeting the Demand for Biofuels: Impact on Land Use and Carbon Mitigation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Khanna, Madhu; Jain, Atul; Onal, Hayri; Scheffran, Jurgen; Chen, Xiaoguang; Erickson, Matt; Huang, Haixiao; Kang, Seungmo.

    2011-08-14

    The purpose of this research was to develop an integrated, interdisciplinary framework to investigate the implications of large scale production of biofuels for land use, crop production, farm income and greenhouse gases. In particular, we examine the mix of feedstocks that would be viable for biofuel production and the spatial allocation of land required for producing these feedstocks at various gasoline and carbon emission prices as well as biofuel subsidy levels. The implication of interactions between energy policy that seeks energy independence from foreign oil and climate policy that seeks to mitigate greenhouse gas emissions for the optimal mix of biofuels and land use will also be investigated. This project contributes to the ELSI research goals of sustainable biofuel production while balancing competing demands for land and developing policy approaches needed to support biofuel production in a cost-effective and environmentally friendly manner.

  3. Country Report Summary: Japan [Project Management in Nuclear Power Plant Construction: Guidelines and Experience

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The Hokkaido Electric Power Company (HEPCO) is the owner of the Tomari NPP comprising three operating PWR units. The latest unit to be connected to the grid, Tomari Unit 3, is a 3-loop PWR power plant with an electric output of 912 MW(e) supplied by Mitsubishi Heavy Industries (MHI). This is the newest unit in HEPCO and it is the newest PWR unit in Japan as well. The first concrete at Tomari Unit 3 was poured at the end of summer in 2004. The unit entered into commercial operation in December 2009. The Tomari site is located on a northern Japanese island. It is battered by strong winds and receives much snow in the winter. Therefore, civil works and building construction were temporarily suspended every year from the beginning of December until the end of March. This increased construction duration by one year compared to other sites. Consequently from first concrete to the start of commercial operation construction at Tomari lasted 64 months. There are specific factors in the approach to construction of nuclear power plants in Japan. (1) Japanese legislation defines that the sole licensee must be the electric power company. This implies that the electric power company is responsible for the safety of the plant and in that capacity it must submit for approval the Safety Analysis Report (SAR) but it is also responsible for the design and reliability of the plant; hence it must also submit for approval the Construction Plan (CP), containing all necessary detailed design information. Consequently, the electric power company becomes the sole counterpart to the regulatory body on all aspects of the project. (2) All Japanese electric power companies are considerably large and have the tradition to do the engineering of their power plant themselves, and this not only for nuclear but also for conventional power plant. Therefore, the owner/utilities in Japan carry themselves the burden of major portions of the engineering, procurement and construction (EPC) of their NPPs

  4. Advanced Industrial Materials (AIM) Program: Compilation of project summaries and significant accomplishments, FY 1997

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1998-05-01

    The mission of the Advanced Industrial Materials (AIM) Program is to support development and commercialization of new or improved materials to improve energy efficiency, productivity, product quality, and reduced waste in the major process industries. A fundamentally new way of working with industries--the Industries of the Future (IOF) strategy--concentrates on the major process industries that consume about 90% of the energy and generate about 90% of the waste in the industrial sector. These are the aluminum, chemical, forest products, glass, metalcasting, and steel industries. OIT has encouraged and assisted these industries in developing visions of what they will be like 20 or 30 years into the future, defining the drivers, technology needs, and barriers to realization of their visions. These visions provide a framework for development of technology roadmaps and implementation plans. The AIM Program supports IOF by conducting research and development on materials to solve problems identified in the roadmaps. This is done by National Laboratory/industry/university teams with the facilities and expertise needed to develop new and improved materials. Each project in the AIM Program has active industrial participation and support. Assessments of materials needs and opportunities in the process industries are an on-going effort within the program. These assessments are being used for program planning and priority setting, followed by support of work to satisfy those needs. All the industries have identified materials as critical, particularly for high-temperature strength, corrosion resistance, and wear resistance. Also important from the energy efficiency viewpoint are membranes, catalytic membranes, and reactors for separations, both for processing and waste reduction. AIM focuses, therefore, on high-temperature materials, corrosion resistant materials, wear resistant materials, strong polymers, coatings, and membrane materials for industrial applications.

  5. Summary Record of the Fourth Meeting of Records, Knowledge and Memory (RK and M) Across Generations Project

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Preservation of Records, Knowledge and Memory (RK and M) across Generations is an initiative under the RWMC in the area of knowledge consolidation and transfer. Disposal in engineered facilities built in stable, deep geological formations is the reference means for permanently isolating long-lived radioactive waste from the biosphere. However, there is no intention to forgo, at any time, knowledge and awareness either of the repository or of the waste that it contains. The cultural dimension of preserving RK and M is an important subject. Overall, long-term preservation of RK and M is a multidisciplinary work area in which much learning is expected over the coming years. This is the task of the RWMC's RK and M initiative. A major outcome will be a menu-driven document that - the RK and M Wiki - that will allow people to identify the elements of a strategic action plan for RK and M preservation. This document is a summary record of the 4. Meeting of the RK and M project. Three appendices are attached to the summary: - A: Agreed changes to the key observations of the September 2012 Workshop Proceedings; - B: Summary of the discussion and action points regarding the development of the MDD Wiki; - C: Decisions and Actions. The list of participants is also attached to the end of the document. The summary is made of 32 items: 1: Progress Report (Claudio Pescatore); 2: September 2012 Workshop Proceedings (Claudio Pescatore); 3: Glossary and Bibliography Update (Anne Claudel); 4: UNESCO Digital Conference Report and Work with CoData (Claudio Pescatore); 5: Observations on the Proceedings of the UNESCO Digital Memory Conference (Anne Claudel); 6: Discussion; 7: Archives and Digital Libraries (Per Carlsson); 8: Literature Survey on Markers and Memory Preservation (Marcos Buser); 9: Tsunami Stones Report - Development Work (Helen Gordon-Smith); 10: Markers Discussion (Jantine Schroeder); 11: Study of local communities' position on monitoring and the preservation of knowledge

  6. Environmental and economic implications of second generation biofuels for transportation - BIOVAIKU

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Soimakallio, S. [VTT Technical Research Centre of Finland, Espoo (Finland)], email: sampo.soimakallio@vtt.fi

    2012-07-01

    The key objective of the project is to assess greenhouse gas and other environmental impacts of producing and using second generation biofuels. In addition, economic implications for Finland taking into account availability and competition of raw materials are analysed in three technology and target scenarios aiming to reach the EU's 10% target proposed for the biofuels in road transportation in 2020.

  7. The Impact of Biofuel Production on Crop Production in the Southern Plains

    OpenAIRE

    Ragan, Holly R.; Kenkel, Philip L.

    2007-01-01

    The objective of the study is to determine how grain-based ethanol, cellulosic-based ethanol, and biodiesel production could influence cropping patterns in the Southern Plains. The study analyzes current and potential biofuel crop production and projects cropping changes at various biofuel prices.

  8. National Algal Biofuels Technology Roadmap

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ferrell, John [Dept. of Energy (DOE), Washington DC (United States); Sarisky-Reed, Valerie [Dept. of Energy (DOE), Washington DC (United States)

    2010-05-01

    The framework for National Algal Biofuels Technology Roadmap was constructed at the Algal Biofuels Technology Roadmap Workshop, held December 9-10, 2008, at the University of Maryland-College Park. The Workshop was organized by the Biomass Program to discuss and identify the critical challenges currently hindering the development of a domestic, commercial-scale algal biofuels industry. This Roadmap presents information from a scientific, economic, and policy perspectives that can support and guide RD&D investment in algal biofuels. While addressing the potential economic and environmental benefits of using algal biomass for the production of liquid transportation fuels, the Roadmap describes the current status of algae RD&D. In doing so, it lays the groundwork for identifying challenges that likely need to be overcome for algal biomass to be used in the production of economically viable biofuels.

  9. Biofuels. An overview. Final Report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The overall objective of this desk study is to get an overview of the most relevant liquid biofuels especially in the African context, and more specifically in the Netherlands' relevant partner countries. The study will focus on biofuels for transport, but will also consider biofuels for cooking and power generation. Biogas as the result of anaerobic fermentation which can be used for cooking, lighting and electricity generation will not be considered in this study. Liquid biofuels are usually divided into alcohols that are used to substitute for gasoline and oils that are used to substitute for diesel and are often called Biodiesel, and this division will be followed in this study. In chapter 2 we will analyse several aspects of the use of alcohols particularly ethanol, in chapter 3 the same analysis will be done for oils, using as example the very promising Jatropha oil. In chapter we will analyse socio-economic issues of the use of these biofuels

  10. Streamflow impacts of biofuel policy-driven landscape change.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sami Khanal

    Full Text Available Likely changes in precipitation (P and potential evapotranspiration (PET resulting from policy-driven expansion of bioenergy crops in the United States are shown to create significant changes in streamflow volumes and increase water stress in the High Plains. Regional climate simulations for current and biofuel cropping system scenarios are evaluated using the same atmospheric forcing data over the period 1979-2004 using the Weather Research Forecast (WRF model coupled to the NOAH land surface model. PET is projected to increase under the biofuel crop production scenario. The magnitude of the mean annual increase in PET is larger than the inter-annual variability of change in PET, indicating that PET increase is a forced response to the biofuel cropping system land use. Across the conterminous U.S., the change in mean streamflow volume under the biofuel scenario is estimated to range from negative 56% to positive 20% relative to a business-as-usual baseline scenario. In Kansas and Oklahoma, annual streamflow volume is reduced by an average of 20%, and this reduction in streamflow volume is due primarily to increased PET. Predicted increase in mean annual P under the biofuel crop production scenario is lower than its inter-annual variability, indicating that additional simulations would be necessary to determine conclusively whether predicted change in P is a response to biofuel crop production. Although estimated changes in streamflow volume include the influence of P change, sensitivity results show that PET change is the significantly dominant factor causing streamflow change. Higher PET and lower streamflow due to biofuel feedstock production are likely to increase water stress in the High Plains. When pursuing sustainable biofuels policy, decision-makers should consider the impacts of feedstock production on water scarcity.

  11. Biofuels in the U.S. Challenges and Opportunities

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hoekman, S. Kent [Desert Research Institute, Division of Atmospheric Sciences, 2215 Raggio Parkway, Reno, NV 89512 (United States)

    2009-01-15

    Biofuels are of rapidly growing interest for reasons of energy security, diversity, and sustainability - as well as for greenhouse gas mitigation. In recent years, the U.S. has enacted regulations - and adopted aggressive goals - to encourage increased usage of biofuels. Individual States (especially California) have taken even stronger positions with respect to biofuels. Initial efforts have focused mainly on ethanol, produced via fermentation of sugars from grains (especially corn). Today's R and D focus is on '2nd Generation Biofuels' that are produced from a variety of biomass feedstocks utilizing a wide range of conversion technologies. This paper summarizes policy and regulatory drivers for biofuels in the U.S., describes usage trends and projections, and highlights major R and D efforts to promote development and commercialization of 2nd Generation Biofuels. R and D is being conducted in many areas, including biomass resource assessment, development of new biomass feedstocks, improved conversion technologies, and integration of systems. Other important considerations include fuel quality and specifications, as well as requirements for blending, distribution, and storage. Considerable R and D, policy, and regulatory efforts are also focused on the energy and environmental consequences of biofuels. This includes not only direct emissions associated with vehicular uses, but also the fuels' life-cycle impacts with respect to total energy usage, greenhouse gas emissions, and multi-media effects. Due to the wide diversity of biomass feedstocks, conversion technologies, and systems integration approaches, the life-cycle impacts of biofuels can vary widely. (author)

  12. Streamflow impacts of biofuel policy-driven landscape change.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khanal, Sami; Anex, Robert P; Anderson, Christopher J; Herzmann, Daryl E

    2014-01-01

    Likely changes in precipitation (P) and potential evapotranspiration (PET) resulting from policy-driven expansion of bioenergy crops in the United States are shown to create significant changes in streamflow volumes and increase water stress in the High Plains. Regional climate simulations for current and biofuel cropping system scenarios are evaluated using the same atmospheric forcing data over the period 1979-2004 using the Weather Research Forecast (WRF) model coupled to the NOAH land surface model. PET is projected to increase under the biofuel crop production scenario. The magnitude of the mean annual increase in PET is larger than the inter-annual variability of change in PET, indicating that PET increase is a forced response to the biofuel cropping system land use. Across the conterminous U.S., the change in mean streamflow volume under the biofuel scenario is estimated to range from negative 56% to positive 20% relative to a business-as-usual baseline scenario. In Kansas and Oklahoma, annual streamflow volume is reduced by an average of 20%, and this reduction in streamflow volume is due primarily to increased PET. Predicted increase in mean annual P under the biofuel crop production scenario is lower than its inter-annual variability, indicating that additional simulations would be necessary to determine conclusively whether predicted change in P is a response to biofuel crop production. Although estimated changes in streamflow volume include the influence of P change, sensitivity results show that PET change is the significantly dominant factor causing streamflow change. Higher PET and lower streamflow due to biofuel feedstock production are likely to increase water stress in the High Plains. When pursuing sustainable biofuels policy, decision-makers should consider the impacts of feedstock production on water scarcity. PMID:25289698

  13. Country Report Summary: Bulgaria [Project Management in Nuclear Power Plant Construction: Guidelines and Experience

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The Belene site on the Danube River was approved by the Bulgarian Government in 1981 for the construction of a second nuclear power plant in Bulgaria. The same year, preparation of the site preparation commenced with: -Construction of anti-filtration walls; -Erection of external communications, civil and installation facilities. To avoid the risk of site flooding, the terrain was built up by eight meters and levelled at the same time. By 1989 the following erection works were completed: -Circulation pipelines; -Units 1 and 2 ballast mats; -Unit 1 reactor building up to elevation 13.20 m, and the foundation and support structure of the turbine hall; -Diesel generators cubicles. In 1990, the Bulgarian Government decided to suspend project execution due to financial difficulties. Since then, multiple measures have been undertaken to preserve the equipment supplied, the construction site itself and the buildings. Various investigations and assessments have been carried out with respect to the site suitability and the equipment status, all of which yielded positive conclusions. New investigations were conducted in relation to site safety and its compliance with international safety requirements. An extensive research on the seismic safety of the Belene site was carried out. A number of missions were dispatched by the IAEA and other authorities. All these came up with positive conclusions and confirmed that the Belene site was suitable for the construction of a new nuclear power plant. At the end of 2002, the Bulgarian Government took a decision in principle to re-start construction at the Belene site. An Environmental Impact Assessment was carried out in the period from October 2003 to November 2004, and the final report was submitted for public discussions in both Bulgaria and Romania. The procedure ended up successfully, resulting in Decision No.18-8 from the Ministry of Environment and Waters, dated November 22, 2004, to approve the investment proposal for the

  14. Executive summary: Weldon Spring Site Environmental Report for calendar year 1992. Weldon Spring Site Remedial Action Project, Weldon Spring, Missouri

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1993-06-01

    This report has been prepared to provide information about the public safety and environmental protection programs conducted by the Weldon Spring Site Remedial Action Project. The Weldon Spring site is located in southern St. Charles County, Missouri, approximately 48 km (30 mi) west of St. Louis. The site consists of two main areas, the Weldon Spring Chemical Plant and raffinate pits and the Weldon Spring Quarry. The objectives of the Site Environmental Report are to present a summary of data from the environmental monitoring program, to characterize trends and environmental conditions at the site, and to confirm compliance with environmental and health protection standards and requirements. The report also presents the status of remedial activities and the results of monitoring these activities to assess their impacts on the public and environment. The scope of the environmental monitoring program at the Weldon Spring site has changed since it was initiated. Previously, the program focused on investigations of the extent and level of contaminants in the groundwater, surface waters, buildings, and air at the site. In 1992, the level of remedial activities required monitoring for potential impacts of those activities, particularly on surface water runoff and airborne effluents. This report includes monitoring data from routine radiological and nonradiological sampling activities. These data include estimates of dose to the public from the Weldon Spring site; estimates of effluent releases; and trends in groundwater contaminant levels. Also, applicable compliance requirements, quality assurance programs, and special studies conducted in 1992 to support environmental protection programs are reviewed.

  15. Nye County nuclear waste repository project office independent scientific investigations program. Summary annual report, May 1996--April 1997

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This annual summary report, prepared by Multimedia Environmental Technology, Inc. (MET) on behalf of Nye County Nuclear Waste Project Office, summarizes the activities that were performed during the period from May 1, 1996 to April 30, 1997. These activities were conducted in support of the Independent Scientific Investigation Program (ISIP) of Nye County at the Yucca Mountain Site (YMS). The Nye County NWRPO is responsible for protecting the health and safety of the Nye County residents. NWRPO's on-site representative is responsible for designing and implementing the Independent Scientific Investigation Program (ISIP). Major objectives of the ISIP include: (1) Investigating key issues related to conceptual design and performance of the repository that can have major impact on human health, safety, and the environment. (2) Identifying areas not being addressed adequately by DOE Nye County has identified several key scientific issues of concern that may affect repository design and performance which were not being adequately addressed by DOE. Nye County has been conducting its own independent study to evaluate the significance of these issues

  16. Nye County nuclear waste repository project office independent scientific investigations program. Summary annual report, May 1996--April 1997

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1997-05-01

    This annual summary report, prepared by Multimedia Environmental Technology, Inc. (MET) on behalf of Nye County Nuclear Waste Project Office, summarizes the activities that were performed during the period from May 1, 1996 to April 30, 1997. These activities were conducted in support of the Independent Scientific Investigation Program (ISIP) of Nye County at the Yucca Mountain Site (YMS). The Nye County NWRPO is responsible for protecting the health and safety of the Nye County residents. NWRPO`s on-site representative is responsible for designing and implementing the Independent Scientific Investigation Program (ISIP). Major objectives of the ISIP include: (1) Investigating key issues related to conceptual design and performance of the repository that can have major impact on human health, safety, and the environment. (2) Identifying areas not being addressed adequately by DOE Nye County has identified several key scientific issues of concern that may affect repository design and performance which were not being adequately addressed by DOE. Nye County has been conducting its own independent study to evaluate the significance of these issues.

  17. The International hydrocoin project. Groundwater hydrology modelling strategies for performance assessment of nuclear waste disposal. Summary report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In 1984 the Swedish Nuclear Power Inspectorate, SKI, initiated the international cooperation project HYDROCOIN for the study of groundwater flow modelling in the context of radioactive waste disposal. The objective of HYDROCOIN was to improve knowledge of the influence of various strategies for groundwater flow modelling for the safety assessment of final repositories for radioactive wastes. The study comprised: the impact on the groundwater flow calculations of different solution algorithms, the capabilities of different models to describe field tests and bench-scale experiments, and the impact on the groundwater flow calculations of incorporating various physical phenomena. The work was conducted at three levels addressing code verification (Level 1), model validation (Level 2), and sensitivity and uncertainty analysis of groundwater flow calculations (Level 3). This report gives an overview and summary of test cases of HYDROCOIN Level 1, the issue of validation groundwater flow models (HYDROCOIN Level 2), the methodologies used in uncertainty and sensitivity analysis (HYDROCOIN Level 3). 108 figs., 24 tabs., 2 appendices

  18. Thermal Power Systems, Small Power Systems Applications Project. Annual technical report. Volume I. Executive summary, Fiscal Year 1978

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1979-01-15

    This report is a summary of the SPSA Annual Technical Report. It covers Small Power Systems Applications activities for FY 1978. Studies were conducted to address current small power system technology as applied to power plants up to 10 MWe in size. Markets for small power systems were characterized and cost goals were established for the project. Candidate power plant system design concepts were selected for evaluation and preliminary performance and cost assessments were made. Economic studies were conducted at JPL and under contract to Burns and McDonnell. Breakeven capital costs were determined for leading contenders among the candidate systems. An applications study was made of the potential use of small power systems in providing part of the demand for pumping power by the extensive aqueduct system of California, estimated to be 1000 MWe by 1985. Criteria and methodologies were developed for application to the ranking of candidate power plant system design concepts. Experimental power plants concepts of 1 MWe rating were studied by three contractors as a Phase I effort leading toward the definition of a power plant configuration for subsequent detail design, construction, testing, and evaluation as Engineering Experiment No. 1 (EE No. 1). Site selection criteria and ground rules for the solicitation of EE No. 1 site participation proposals by DOE were developed.

  19. A summary of CSNI Project FALSIRE analyses of the second HSST pressurized-thermal-shock experiment (PTSE-2)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A comparative summary of Project FALSIRE Workshop analyses of the second pressurized-thermal-shock experiment (PTSE-2) is presented. All analytical predictions are found to underestimate the measured crack-mouth-opening displacement (CMOD) and crack propagation data for the first loading transient. Additional analyses performed subsequent to the FALSIRE Workshop are described that examine some possible explanations for these differences in predicted and measured structural response. Updated analysis results based on temperature-independent material and physical properties are shown to substantially underestimate measured data describing time histories of circumferential surface strains. No improvement in the comparisons is obtained by incorporating temperature-dependent properties into plane stress or plane strain models. However, two-dimensional models may not be adequate to represent the structural response of the vessel. A pronounced axial dependence of the measured CMOD and crack extension data from the first transient implies that significant three-dimensional loading effects may have played an important role in the experiment. 4 refs., 40 figs., 12 tabs

  20. Analysis of advanced biofuels.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dec, John E.; Taatjes, Craig A.; Welz, Oliver; Yang, Yi

    2010-09-01

    Long chain alcohols possess major advantages over ethanol as bio-components for gasoline, including higher energy content, better engine compatibility, and less water solubility. Rapid developments in biofuel technology have made it possible to produce C{sub 4}-C{sub 5} alcohols efficiently. These higher alcohols could significantly expand the biofuel content and potentially replace ethanol in future gasoline mixtures. This study characterizes some fundamental properties of a C{sub 5} alcohol, isopentanol, as a fuel for homogeneous-charge compression-ignition (HCCI) engines. Wide ranges of engine speed, intake temperature, intake pressure, and equivalence ratio are investigated. The elementary autoignition reactions of isopentanol is investigated by analyzing product formation from laser-photolytic Cl-initiated isopentanol oxidation. Carbon-carbon bond-scission reactions in the low-temperature oxidation chemistry may provide an explanation for the intermediate-temperature heat release observed in the engine experiments. Overall, the results indicate that isopentanol has a good potential as a HCCI fuel, either in neat form or in blend with gasoline.

  1. Case concerning Gabcikovo-Nagymaros project (Hungary/Slovakia). Summary of the Judgement of 25 September 1997

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The summary of the judgement contains: Review of the history of law-suit; Legal consequences of the Judgment. The operative paragraphs reads as follows: (1) A. Finds, that Hungary was not entitled to suspend and subsequently abandon, in 1989, its part of the works in the dam project, as laid down in the treaty signed in 1977 by Hungary and Czechoslovakia and related instruments; B. Finds, that Czechoslovakia was entitled to proceed, in 1991, to the provisional solutionas described in the terms of the Special Agreement; C. Finds, that Czechoslovakia was not entitled to put into operation, from 1992, this provisional solution; D. Finds, that notification, 1992, of termination of the Treaty of 1977 and related instruments by Hungary did not have the legal effect of terminating them; 2. A. Finds, that Slovakia, as successor to Czechoslovakia, became a party the Treaty of 1997 as from 1993; B. Finds, that Hungary and Slovakia must negotiate in good faith in the light of the prevailing situation, and must take all necessary measures to ensure the achievement of the objectives of the Treaty of 1977, in accordance with such modalities as they may agree upon; C. Finds, that, unless the Parties otherwise agree, a joint operational regime must be established in accordance with the Treaty of 1977; C. Finds, that, unless the Parties otherwise agree, Hungary shall compensate Slovakia for the damage sustained by Czechoslovakia and by Slovakia on accounts of the suspension and abandonment by Hungary of works for which it was responsible: and Slovakia shall compensate Hungary for the damage it has sustained on account of the putting into operation of the provisional solutionby Czechoslovakia and its maintenance in service by Slovakia; E. Finds, that, the settlement of accounts for the construction and operation of the works must be effected in accordance with relevant provisions of the Treaty of 1977 and related instruments, taking due account of such measures as will have been

  2. Considering Trade Policies for Liquid Biofuels

    OpenAIRE

    Kojima, Masami; Mitchell, Donald; Ward, William

    2007-01-01

    This report addresses the issues associated with trade in liquid biofuels is a second Energy Sector Management Assistance Program report on biofuels, and part of a broader assessment of bioenergy undertaken by the World Bank. The report asks how liberalizing trade in liquid biofuels might affect biofuel production and consumption. Bioenergy is playing an increasingly important role as an a...

  3. The Biofuels Revolution: Understanding the Social, Cultural and Economic Impacts of Biofuels Development on Rural Communities

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Selfa, Theresa L; Goe, Richard; Kulcsar, Laszlo; Middendorf, Gerad; Bain, Carmen

    2013-02-11

    The aim of this research was an in-depth analysis of the impacts of biofuels industry and ethanol plants on six rural communities in the Midwestern states of Kansas and Iowa. The goal was to provide a better understanding of the social, cultural, and economic implications of biofuels development, and to contribute to more informed policy development regarding bioenergy.Specific project objectives were: 1. To understand how the growth of biofuel production has affected and will affect Midwestern farmers and rural communities in terms of economic, demographic, and socio-cultural impacts; 2. To determine how state agencies, groundwater management districts, local governments and policy makers evaluate or manage bioenergy development in relation to competing demands for economic growth, diminishing water resources, and social considerations; 3. To determine the factors that influence the water management practices of agricultural producers in Kansas and Iowa (e.g. geographic setting, water management institutions, competing water-use demands as well as producers attitudes, beliefs, and values) and how these influences relate to bioenergy feedstock production and biofuel processing; 4. To determine the relative importance of social-cultural, environmental and/or economic factors in the promotion of biofuels development and expansion in rural communities; The research objectives were met through the completion of six detailed case studies of rural communities that are current or planned locations for ethanol biorefineries. Of the six case studies, two will be conducted on rural communities in Iowa and four will be conducted on rural communities in Kansas. A multi-method or mixed method research methodology was employed for each case study.

  4. The biofuels excellence network; Rede de excelencia em biocombustiveis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Costa, Paulo de Tarso; Nascimento Filho, Lenart Palmeira do; Campos, Michel Fabianski [PETROBRAS S.A., Rio de Janeiro, RJ (Brazil); Freire, Luiz Gustavo de Melo [Accenture, Rio de Janeiro, RJ (Brazil)

    2008-07-01

    The organization of the Biofuels Excellence Network, inside PROMINP - the Program of Mobilization of the National Industry of Oil and Natural Gas, has the objective of improving the actions of technical innovation and management in the chain of Oil, Gas Natural and Biofuels, through the optimized use of physical, financial, technological resources, of information and staff, with maximum qualification in areas of the human knowledge, whose purpose is to make decisions on specific problems of improvement of processes and/or products, besides promoting actions for the development and reinforcement of the markets of ethanol and biodiesel. The organization of the Biofuels Excellence Network became necessary, in order to enable Brazil to reach vanguard standards in biofuels (ethanol and biodiesel) in a sustainable, competitive and environmentally responsible way. Among the main reasons for the creation of the Biofuels Excellence Network are: to speed up the acquisition of knowledge and innovation, through partnerships with academical, technological, and government institutions; to contribute with PETROBRAS Strategical Planning planned goals; to capture synergies through the accomplishment of Projects of the Strategical Partners interest; to create sustainable economic value as a result of the Network Projects; to foster specialized professional qualification for the alcohol industry. (author)

  5. Photonics: Technology project summary

    Science.gov (United States)

    Depaula, Ramon P.

    1991-01-01

    Photonics involves the use of light (photons) in conjunction with electronics for applications in communications, computing, control, and sensing. Components used in photonic systems include lasers, optical detectors, optical wave guide devices, fiber optics, and traditional electronic devices. The goal of this program is to develop hybrid optoelectronic devices and systems for sensing, information processing, communications, and control. It is hoped that these new devices will yield at least an order of magnitude improvement in performance over existing technology. The objective of the program is to conduct research and development in the following areas: (1) materials and devices; (2) networking and computing; (3) optical processing/advanced pattern recognition; and (4) sensing.

  6. Conference summaries

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This volume contains summaries of 28 papers presented at the 27. conference of the Canadian Nuclear Association. These papers discuss the general situation of the Canadian nuclear industry and the CANDU reactor; dialogue with the public; the International Atomic Energy Agency; and economic goals and operating lessons. It also contains summaries of 70 papers presented at the 8. conference of the Canadian Nuclear Society, which discuss plant life extension; safety and the environment; reactor physics; thermalhydraulics; risk assessment; the CANDU spacer location and repositioning project; CANDU operations; safety research after Chernobyl; fuel channels; and nuclear technology developments. The individual papers are also available in INIS-mf--13673 (CNA), and INIS-mf--12909 (CNS). (L.L.)

  7. High-resolution crosswell imaging of a west Texas carbonate reservoir. Part 1: Project summary and interpretation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Harris, J.M.; Nolen-Hoeksema, R.C.; Van Schaack, M.; Lazaratos, S.K.; Rector, J.W. [Stanford Univ., CA (United States); Langan, R.T. [Chevron Petroleum Technology Co., La Habra, CA (United States)]|[Stanford Univ., CA (United States). Geophysics Dept.

    1995-05-01

    A carbon dioxide flood pilot is being conducted in a section of Chevron`s McElroy field in Crane County, west Texas. Prior to CO{sub 2} injection, two high-frequency crosswell seismic profiles were recorded to investigate the use of seismic profiling for high-resolution reservoir delineation and CO{sub 2} monitoring. These preinjection profiles provide the baseline for time-lapse monitoring. Profile {number_sign}1 was recorded between an injector well and an offset observation well at a nominal well-to-well distance of 184 ft (56 m). Profile {number_sign}2 was recorded between a producing well and the observation well at a nominal distance of 600 ft (183 m). The combination of traveltime tomography and stacked CDP reflection amplitudes demonstrates how high-frequency crosswell seismic data can be used to image both large and small scale heterogeneity between wells: transmission traveltime tomography is used to image the large scale velocity variations; CDP reflection imaging is then used to image smaller scale impedance heterogeneities. The results of this integrated study demonstrate (1) the use of crosswell seismic profiling to produce a high-resolution reservoir delineation and (2) the possibility for successful monitoring of CO{sub 2} in carbonate reservoirs. The crosswell data were acquired with a piezoelectric source and a multilevel hydrophone array. Both profiles, nearly 80,000 seismic traces, were recorded in approximately 80 hours using a new acquisition technique of shooting on-the-fly. This paper presents the overall project summary and interpretation of the results from the near-offset profile.

  8. Biofuels: policies, standards and technologies

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2010-09-15

    Skyrocketing prices of crude oil in the middle of the first decade of the 21st century accompanied by rising prices for food focused political and public attention on the role of biofuels. On the one hand, biofuels were considered as a potential automotive fuel with a bright future, on the other hand, biofuels were accused of competing with food production for land. The truth must lie somewhere in-between and is strongly dependent on the individual circumstance in different countries and regions. As food and energy are closely interconnected and often compete with each other for other resources, such as water, the World Energy Council - following numerous requests of its Member Committees - decided to undertake an independent assessment of biofuels policies, technologies and standards.

  9. Transgenic woody plants for biofuel

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Wei Tang; Anna Y.Tang

    2014-01-01

    Transgenic trees as a new source for biofuel have brought a great interest in tree biotechnology. Genetically modifying forest trees for ethanol production have advantages in technical challenges, costs, environmental concerns, and financial problems over some of crops. Genetic engineering of forest trees can be used to reduce the level of lignin, to produce the fast-growing trees, to develop trees with higher cellulose, and to allow the trees to be grown more widely. Trees can establish themselves in the field with less care of farmers, compared to most of crops. Transgenic crops as a new source for biofuel have been recently reviewed in several reviews. Here, we overview transgenic woody plants as a new source for biofuel including genetically modified woody plants and environment; main focus of woody plants genetic modifications;solar to chemical energy transfer; cellulose biosynthesis;lignin biosynthesis;and cellulosic ethanol as biofuel.

  10. Environmental and economic implications of second generation biofuels for transportation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Soimakallio, S. (VTT Technical Research Centre of Finland, Espoo (Finland)); Pasanen, K. (Finnish Forest Research Institute, Joensuu (Finland)); Seppaelae, J. (Finnish Environment Institute SYKE, Helsinki (Finland)); Honkatukia, J. (Government Institute for Economic Research, Helsinki (Finland)), Thun, R. (MTT Agrifood Research Finland, Jokioinen (Finland))

    2008-07-01

    The key objective of the project is to assess greenhouse gas and other environmental impacts of producing and using second generation biofuels. In addition, economic implications for Finland taking into account availability and competition of raw materials are analysed in three technology and target scenarios aiming to reach the EU's 10% target proposed for the biofuels in road transportation in 2020. Technologies for which environmental impact analysis are carried out are F-T diesel, NExBTL diesel, second generation ethanol and Brazilian ethanol. Raw materials considered include forest residues, peat, reed canary grass, straw, palm oil, rapeseed oil, waste fats and sugar cane. Economic implications for Finland by 2020 are studied in different scenarios with various assumptions as regards e.g. to self-sufficiency. Sustainability criteria for biofuels proposed by various organisations or institutions are critically analysed. The project is carried out by VTT Technical Research Centre of Finland, Finnish Environment Institute SYKE, MTT Agrifood Research Finland, Finnish Forest Research Institute (METLA) and The Government Institute for Economic Research (VATT). The current knowledge and ongoing national and international projects are exploited to produce transparent and reliable data on environmental and economic impacts of considered biofuels. The final report of the project is scheduled to he published at the end of this year. (orig.)

  11. Third generation biofuels from microalgae

    OpenAIRE

    Dragone, Giuliano; Fernandes, Bruno Daniel; A.A. Vicente; Teixeira, J. A.

    2010-01-01

    Biofuel production from renewable sources is widely considered to be one of the most sustainable alternatives to petroleum sourced fuels and a viable means for environmental and economic sustainability. Microalgae are currently being promoted as an ideal third generation biofuel feedstock because of their rapid growth rate, CO2 fixation ability and high production capacity of lipids; they also do not compete with food or feed crops, and can be produced on non-arable land. Microalg...

  12. Effect of biofuel on environment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Biofuels are alcohols, esters, and other chemical made from cellulosic biomass such as herbaceous and woody plants, agricultural and forestry residues, and a large portion of municipal solid and industrial waste. Biofuels are renewable and mostly suitable for diesel engines due to their similar physiochemical properties as traditional diesel oil. Demand of biofuel is increasing and some European countries have started using biofuel in diesel engine. This interest has been grown in many countries mainly due to fluctuating oil prices because of diminishing availability of conventional sources and polluted environment. However, the use of biofuel for diesel engine would be more beneficial to oil importing countries by saving foreign exchange, because biofuel is domestic renewable fuels. This paper presents the evaluation results of a multi-cylinder diesel engine operated on blends of ten, twenty, thirty, forty and fifty percent of ordinary coconut oil (COCO) with ordinary diesel (OD). The test results from all the COCO blends were compared with OD. The fuels were compared based on the emissions results including, exhaust temperature, NOx, smoke, CO, HC, benzene and polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbon (PAH). Carbon deposit on injector nozzles was also monitored. Exhaust emissions results showed that increasing coconut oil in blend decreases all the exhaust emissions. Carbon deposited on injector nozzles was observed where no hard carbon was found on injector tip when the engine was running on COCO blends. (Author)

  13. BIOWINOL TECHNOLOGIES: A HYBRID GREEN PROCESS FOR BIOFUEL PRODUCTION – PHASE 2

    Science.gov (United States)

    The development of hollow fiber membrane (HFM) reactor will result in improved gas utilization that will positively impact overall process efficiencies. Successful completion of this project could result in the development of many decentralized biofuel production systems near ...

  14. Regime-dependent topological properties of biofuels networks

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Krištoufek, Ladislav; Janda, K.; Zilberman, D.

    2013-01-01

    Roč. 86, č. 2 (2013), 40-1-40-12. ISSN 1434-6028 R&D Projects: GA ČR GA402/09/0965 Grant ostatní: GA UK(CZ) 118310; GA ČR(CZ) GAP402/11/0948 Institutional support: RVO:67985556 Keywords : topology * biofuels * correlations Subject RIV: AH - Economics Impact factor: 1.463, year: 2013 http://library.utia.cas.cz/separaty/2013/E/kristoufek-regime-dependent topological properties of biofuels networks.pdf

  15. Time-Frequency Dynamics of Biofuel-Fuel-Food System

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Vácha, Lukáš; Janda, K.; Krištoufek, Ladislav; Zilberman, D.

    2013-01-01

    Roč. 40, č. 1 (2013), s. 233-241. ISSN 0140-9883 R&D Projects: GA ČR(CZ) GBP402/12/G097 Grant ostatní: GA ČR(CZ) GAP402/11/0948 Institutional support: RVO:67985556 Keywords : biofuels * correlations * wavelet coherence Subject RIV: AH - Economics Impact factor: 2.580, year: 2013 http://library.utia.cas.cz/separaty/2013/E/vacha-time-frequency dynamics of biofuels-fuels-food system.pdf

  16. A summary of the November 1992, final guidelines for the preparation of an environmental impact statement for the proposed Conawapa project draft for review and comment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Manitoba Hydro has proposed the Conawapa Project, which includes the design, construction, operation, maintenance, and decommissioning of the Conawapa generating station, new Riel converter station and ground electrode, new Bipole II transmission line, expansion of the existing Henday converter station, new Riel-Dorsey transmission line, upgrading of the Southern Receiver system, new Henday-Riel and Riel-Ontario transmission lines, and ancillary facilities and activities. An environmental impact statement must be prepared to identify valued environmental components of the ecosystem and components and activities of the social, economic and cultural systems of communities affected by the proposed project. The guidelines cover project need and justification, project description, description of the environmental setting, environmental impacts, and response to environmental impacts. This document includes a summary of the draft guidelines together with the guidelines themselves. 10 refs., 3 figs

  17. Carbon footprint of traffic biofuels - BioCarF

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Luoranen, M. [Lappeenranta University of Technology (Finland). LUT Energy - Environmental technology], email: mika.luoranen@lut.fi

    2012-07-01

    There are goals to expand the use of biofuels produced from biomasses to reduce greenhouse gases (GHG) from the traffic sector which have led to the growing utilization of biomasses. Expanding natural gas grids have created an opportunity to increase the use of biogas in gas operated cars by delivering biogas via natural gas grids. Despite the growing use of electric cars, there will be a demand for biofuels in heavy vehicles, ships, and airplanes which cannot be converted to use electricity because of the lack of sufficient battery technology. Biofuels can be produced from different kinds of feedstock. Biodiversity and social questions, such as the effects on food price, have put more pressure on decisions related to feedstock production and availability. The goal of this project is to find out the most potential raw materials and production technologies for such traffic biofuels that can replace traditional petroleum products or natural gas in the transportation use in the existing vehicles. Different options are compared from a life cycle point of view. GHG emissions and effects on carbon footprint in the traffic sector with different biofuel production chains will be investigated. In addition to GHG emissions, other factors such as social aspects, biodiversity, and water scarcity are taken into account in recognizing the best options.

  18. Energy from biomass. Summaries of the Biomass Projects carried out as part of the Department of Trade and Industry's New and Renewable Energy Programme. Vol. 5: straw, poultry litter and energy crops as energy sources

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1999-01-01

    These volumes of summaries provide easy access to the many projects carried out in the Energy from Biomass programme area as part of the Department of Trade and Industry's New and Renewable Energy Programme. The summaries in this volume cover contractor reports on the subject published up to December 1997. (author)

  19. Energy from biomass. Summaries of the Biomass Projects carried out as part of the Department of Trade and Industry's New and Renewable Energy Programme. Vol. 3: converting wood fuel to energy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1998-12-01

    These volumes of summaries provide easy access to the many projects carried out in the Energy from Biomass programme area as part of the Department of Trade and Industry's New and Renewable Energy Programme. The summaries in this volume cover contractor reports on the subject published up to December 1997. (author)

  20. Energy from biomass. Summaries of the Biomass Projects carried out as part of the Department of Trade and Industry`s New and Renewable Energy Programme. Vol. 4: anaerobic digestion for biogas

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1998-12-01

    These volumes of summaries provide easy access to the many projects carried out in the Energy from Biomass programme area as part of the Department of Trade and Industry`s New and Renewable Energy Programme. The summaries in this volume cover contractor reports on the subject published up to December 1997. (author)

  1. The biofuel potential of crop based biomass in Denmark in 2020; Danmarks potentiale for afgroedebaseret biobraendstofproduktion i aar 2020

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bertelsen Blume, S.

    2008-02-15

    According to climate change observations and foresights several countries including Denmark have committed to reduce GHGemissions. However, the transport sector is still increasing its GHGemissions. Substitution of fossil fuels with biofuels seems to be the best way to reduce CO{sub 2}-emission from this sector on the shorter term. This project evaluates how Denmark can produce enough biofuels to fulfil the political goal of 10 % substitution of the fossil fuel consumption in the year of 2020. This project also approaches the suitability of different crop species to the biofuel industry. Maize and sugar beet are the most suitable crops for biofuel production when only focusing on maximum biofuel yield. Alfalfa is likewise showings great potential and is the most suitable crop in terms of sustainable biofuel production, because of low energy requirements (diesel, fertilizer, pesticide and irrigation) during cropping. Even though maize has higher needs for energy during cropping, it will still be suitable for sustainable biofuel production because of the high biofuel yield. Present calculations show that it is possible to meet the required amount of biofuels by using domestic biomass, which is currently exported (cereal grain) or not utilized (eg. straw). However, these calculations assume that it will become possible to convert the whole amount of carbohydrates into biofuel before 2020. In terms of assessing the biofuel production potential three storylines are defined for the development until 2020. Changes in land use and crop composition are suggested for each storyline to adjust the biofuel production to Danish agriculture. The biofuel production potential is also assessed for two regions in Denmark. Here the region of Storstroem shows greater potential than the region of Soenderjylland because of low density of domestic animals. (au)

  2. Summary of experience from a large number of construction inspections; Wind power plant projects; Erfarenhetsaaterfoering fraan entreprenadbesiktningar

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Andersson, Bertil; Holmberg, Rikard

    2010-08-15

    This report presents a summary of experience from a large number of construction inspections of wind power projects. The working method is based on the collection of construction experience in form of questionnaires. The questionnaires were supplemented by a number of in-depth interviews to understand more in detail what is perceived to be a problem and if there were suggestions for improvements. The results in this report is based on inspection protocols from 174 wind turbines, which corresponds to about one-third of the power plants built in the time period. In total the questionnaires included 4683 inspection remarks as well as about one hundred free text comments. 52 of the 174 inspected power stations were rejected, corresponding to 30%. It has not been possible to identify any over represented type of remark as a main cause of rejection, but the rejection is usually based on a total number of remarks that is too large. The average number of remarks for a power plant is 27. Most power stations have between 20 and 35 remarks. The most common remarks concern shortcomings in marking and documentation. These are easily adjusted, and may be regarded as less serious. There are, however, a number of remarks which are recurrent and quite serious, mainly regarding gearbox, education and lightning protection. Usually these are also easily adjusted, but the consequences if not corrected can be very large. The consequences may be either shortened life of expensive components, e.g. oil problems in gear boxes, or increased probability of serious accidents, e.g. maladjusted lightning protection. In the report, comparison between power stations with various construction period, size, supplier, geography and topography is also presented. The general conclusion is that the differences are small. The results of the evaluation of questionnaires correspond well with the result of the in-depth interviews with clients. The problem that clients agreed upon as the greatest is the lack

  3. From Biomass to Biofuels: NREL Leads the Way

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    2006-08-01

    This brochure covers how biofuels can help meet future needs for transportation fuels, how biofuels are produced, U.S. potential for biofuels, and NREL's approach to efficient affordable biofuels.

  4. Biofuels feedstock development program

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The Department of Energy's (DOE's) Biofuels Feedstock Development Program (BFDP) leads the nation in the research, development, and demonstration of environmentally acceptable and commercially viable dedicated feedstock supply systems (DFSS). The purpose of this report is to highlight the status and accomplishments of the research that is currently being funded by the BFDP. Highlights summarized here and additional accomplishments are described in more detail in the sections associated with each major program task. A few key accomplishments include (1) development of a methodology for doing a cost-supply analysis for energy crops and the application of that methodology to looking at possible land use changes around a specific energy facility in East Tennessee; (2) preliminary documentation of the relationship between woody crop plantation locations and bird diversity at sites in the Midwest, Canada, and the pacific Northwest supplied indications that woody crop plantations could be beneficial to biodiversity; (3) the initiation of integrated switchgrass variety trials, breeding research, and biotechnology research for the south/southeast region; (4) development of a data base management system for documenting the results of herbaceous energy crop field trials; (5) publication of three issues of Energy Crops Forum and development of a readership of over 2,300 individuals or organizations as determined by positive responses on questionnaires

  5. Evaluation of nuclear facility decommissioning projects. Three Mile Island Unit 2 reactor building decontamination. Summary status report. Volume 2

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This document summarizes information relating to decontamination of the Three Mile Island Unit 2 (TMI-2) reactor building. The report covers activities for the period of June 1, 1979 through March 29, 1985. The data collected from activity reports, reactor containment entry records, and other sources were entered into a computerized data system which permits extraction/manipulation of specific information which can be used in planning for recovery from an accident similar to that experienced at TMI-2 on March 28, 1979. This report contains summaries of man-hours, manpower, and radiation exposures incurred during decontamination of the reactor building. Support activities conducted outside of radiation areas are excluded from the scope of this report. Computerized reports included in this document are: a chronological summary listing work performed relating to reactor building decontamination for the period specified; and summary reports for each major task during the period. Each task summary is listed in chronological order for zone entry and subtotaled for the number of personnel entries, exposures, and man-hours. Manually-assembled table summaries are included for: labor and exposures by department and labor and exposures by major activity

  6. Evaluation of nuclear facility decommissioning projects. Three Mile Island Unit 2 reactor building decontamination. Summary status report. Volume 2

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Doerge, D.H.; Miller, R.L.; Scotti, K.S.

    1986-05-01

    This document summarizes information relating to decontamination of the Three Mile Island Unit 2 (TMI-2) reactor building. The report covers activities for the period of June 1, 1979 through March 29, 1985. The data collected from activity reports, reactor containment entry records, and other sources were entered into a computerized data system which permits extraction/manipulation of specific information which can be used in planning for recovery from an accident similar to that experienced at TMI-2 on March 28, 1979. This report contains summaries of man-hours, manpower, and radiation exposures incurred during decontamination of the reactor building. Support activities conducted outside of radiation areas are excluded from the scope of this report. Computerized reports included in this document are: a chronological summary listing work performed relating to reactor building decontamination for the period specified; and summary reports for each major task during the period. Each task summary is listed in chronological order for zone entry and subtotaled for the number of personnel entries, exposures, and man-hours. Manually-assembled table summaries are included for: labor and exposures by department and labor and exposures by major activity.

  7. Biofuels and sustainability in Africa

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The combined effects of climate change, the continued volatility of fuel prices, the recent food crisis and global economic turbulence have triggered a sense of urgency among policymakers, industries and development practitioners to find sustainable and viable solutions in the area of biofuels. This sense of urgency is reflected in the rapid expansion of global biofuels production and markets over the past few years. Biofuels development offers developing countries some prospect of self-reliant energy supplies at national and local levels, with potential economic, ecological, social, and security benefits. Forty-two African countries are net oil importers. This makes them particularly vulnerable to volatility in global fuel prices and dependent on foreign exchange to cover their domestic energy needs. The goal therefore is to reduce the high dependence on imported petroleum by developing domestic, renewable energy. But can this objective be achieved while leaving a minimal social and environmental footprint? A fundamental question is if biofuels can be produced with consideration of social, economic and environmental factors without setting unrealistic expectation for an evolving renewable energy industry that holds such great promise. The overall performance of different biofuels in reducing non-renewable energy use and greenhouse gas emissions varies when considering the entire lifecycle from production through to use. The net performance depends on the type of feedstock, the production process and the amount of non-renewable energy needed. This paper presents an overview of the development of biofuels in Africa, and highlights country-specific economic, environmental and social issues. It proposes a combination framework of policy incentives as a function of technology maturity, discusses practices, processes and technologies that can improve efficiency, lower energy and water demand, and further reduce the social and environmental footprint of biofuels

  8. NRC review of Electric Power Research Institute's Advanced Light Reactor Utility Requirements Document - Program summary, Project No. 669

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The staff of the US Nuclear Regulatory Commission has prepared Volume 1 of a safety evaluation report (SER), ''NRC Review of Electric Power Research Institute's Advanced Light Water Reactor Utility Requirements Document -- Program Summary,'' to document the results of its review of the Electric Power Research Institute's ''Advanced Light Water Reactor Utility Requirements Document.'' This SER provides a discussion of the overall purpose and scope of the Requirements Document, the background of the staff's review, the review approach used by the staff, and a summary of the policy and technical issues raised by the staff during its review

  9. Characterization of ashes from biofuels

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Frandsen, F.J.; Hansen, L.A. [Technical Univ. of Denmark. Dept. of Chemical Engineering (Denmark); Soerensen, H.S. [Geological Survey of Denmark and Greenland (Denmark); Hjuler, K. [dk-TEKNIK. Energy and Environment (Denmark)

    1998-02-01

    One motivation for initiating the present project was that the international standard method of estimating the deposit propensity of solid fuels, of which a number of variants exist (e.g. ISO, ASTM, SD, DIN), has shown to be unsuitable for biomass ashes. This goal was addressed by the development of two new methods for the detection of ash fusibility behaviour based on Simultaneous Thermal Analysis (STA) and High Temperature Light Microscopy (HTLM), respectively. The methods were developed specifically for ashes from biofuels, but are suitable for coal ashes as well. They have been tested using simple salt mixtures, geological standards and samples from straw CHP and coal-straw PF combustion plants. All samples were run in a nitrogen atmosphere at a heating rate of 10 deg. C/min. In comparison with the standard method, the new methods are objective and have superior repeatability and sensitivity. Furthermore, the two methods enable the melting behavior to be characterized by a continuous measurement of melt fraction versus temperature. Due to this two-dimensional resolution of the results, the STA and HTLM methods provide more information than the standard method. The study of bottom ash and fly ash as well as deposit samples from straw test firings at the Haslev and Slagelse Combined Heat and Power plants resulted in a better understanding of mineral behaviour during straw grate firing. In these tests a number of straws were fired which had been carefully selected for having different qualities with respect to sort and potassium and chlorine contents. By studying bottom ashes from Slagelse it was found that the melting behaviour correlated with the deposition rate on a probe situated at the outlet part of the combustion zone. (EG)

  10. Competitivity of biofuels in heating

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The competitivity of indigenous fuels in heating of residential houses in comparison with imported fuels, and both electricity and district heating, has been studied in this research, ordered by the Finnish Ministry of Trade and Industry. Heating plants of residential house scale (20-1000 kW) have been investigated in the research. Only the new heating plants are included in the investigation. The heat generation calculations concerning the residential heating plants have been made for following indigenous fuels: sod peat, fuel-chips, peat and wood pellets, firewood and straw. In addition to these, the calculations have been made for light fuel-oil, electric heating, district heating and natural gas. The local energy tariffs have to be taken into account in electric heating, district heating and natural gas heating. A calculation model, based on flowsheet calculation, forms the main result of the project. By using the model it is possible to update the competitivity data rapidly. Of all the indigenous fuels, sod peat and fuel-chips appeared to be competitive with electric and district heating costs in nearly all scales investigated. The construction of the heat generation costs of solid indigenous fuels differs remarkably from those of electric and district heating. The main part of the heating costs of wood chips and sod peat is formed of fixed costs; i.e. of investment costs and of the costs of heating and control work. The energy costs are the highest costs items in electric an district heating, as well as in the oil heating. It is possible to improve the competitivity of biofuels by developing cheaper boilers and fuel processing and storage devices

  11. Final report on the potential of local biofuels development to the Environmental and Renewable Industries Committee

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    There is significant interest in renewable and sustainable energy technologies, particularly biofuels, because of the growing crisis in the agricultural and forestry sectors, rising fuel prices, dwindling energy supply and growing awareness of the impact of traditional energy resources on the environment. Biofuels represent a possible opportunity to move towards a sustainable bio-economy in which agricultural and forestry products, co-products, and waste materials are utilized to produce energy. This report discussed the policy context for biofuels. The key local drivers for biofuel development in Prince Edward Island (PEI) were presented. These include rising energy prices; dependence on fossil fuels; climate change; and agricultural industry challenges. Biofuel policies and initiatives in a federal context, in central and western Canada, in New England, and in Atlantic Canada were also addressed. Prince Edward Island feedstocks such as forestry, agriculture, marine-based, and waste resources were examined. The report also identified the biofuel potential in PEI with reference to biocombustibles; pure plant oils; biodiesel; ethanol; and biogas. Last, the report outlined several biofuel projects, proposal, and initiatives and presented conclusions and recommendations. Several appendices were also included on resource materials; federal funding programs; Canadian renewable fuel standards and tax incentives; and the PEI biofuels evaluation framework. It was concluded that biomass feedstocks such as wood, cereals, straw, grasses, and crop residues offer significant potential for space and water heating applications and electricity generation. refs., tabs

  12. Global production of biofuels in the context of food security

    OpenAIRE

    Rosiak, Ewa; Łopaciuk, Wiesław; Szajner, Piotr; Grochowska, Renata

    2014-01-01

    The main objective of the study is the issue of global production of biofuels in the context of food security. Production of biofuels and food security – competition and correlations. Raw materials for production of biofuels as compared to conditions on global markets. Global market of biofuels. Impact of production of biofuels on cereal market. Impact of production of biofuels on oilseed market.

  13. Biofuels system economics

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Biofuels, or fuels produced from biomass resources, represent an environmentally responsible source of liquid fuels. The combustion of petroleum and coal releases large volumes of carbon dioxide which have been stored millions of years ago that contribute to the enhanced greenhouse effect. Biomass resources sequester carbon during their growing period, and when processed, this recently stored carbon is released as carbon dioxide. If biomass is replanted after harvesting, the carbon is again sequestered, resulting in a short cycle carbon loop. Another growing problem is waste disposal. Biomass wastes such as wood residues and municipal solid waste (MSW) often are landfilled and produce methane, another greenhouse gas. Diverting these wastes to a processing facility can eliminate methane production from landfilling. The Tennessee Valley Authority (TVA) is developing technology to convert biomass resources to fuels, chemicals, and solid residue that can be used for power generation. There is an estimated 1,118 to 2,945 million tons of biomass resources available annually that can be converted to renewable fuels using newly developed conversion processes. Economic evaluation of these processes have shown promise. This paper compares the economics of six biomass conversion systems. Prices and costs vary for site-specific areas, and the cost numbers used in the TVA comparison represent general systems. The rate of return on investments vary from 15.5% to 19.8% depending on the feedstock, process, and products. TVA is continuing research and development activities to improve economics of biomass systems and make them more attractive to commercial users. These technologies are environmentally friendly and can help to reduce the rate of atmospheric carbon dioxide and methane accumulation

  14. The second generation biofuels from the biomass

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The author takes stock on the second generation biofuels in the world, the recent technologies, their advantages, the research programs and the economical and environmental impacts of the biofuels development. (A.L.B.)

  15. 78 FR 34975 - Notice of Contract Proposals (NOCP) for the Advanced Biofuels Payment Program

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-06-11

    ... Rural Business-Cooperative Service Notice of Contract Proposals (NOCP) for the Advanced Biofuels Payment Program AGENCY: Rural Business-Cooperative Service, United States Department of Agriculture (USDA). ACTION: Notice. SUMMARY: This Notice of Contract Proposals announces the acceptance of applications and...

  16. Evaluation of nuclear facility decommissioning projects. Three Mile Island Unit 2 reactor defueling and disassembly. Summary status report. Volume 3

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This document summarizes information relating to the preparations for defueling the Three Mile Island Unit 2 (TMI-2) reactor and disassembly activities being performed concurrently with decontamination of the facility. Data have been collected from activity reports, reactor containment entry records, and other sources and entered in a computerized data sysem which permits extraction/manipulation of specific data which can be used in planning for recovery from a loss of coolant event similar to that experienced at TMI-2 on March 28, 1979. This report contains summaries of man-hours, manpower, and radiation exposures incurred during the period of April 23, 1979 to April 16, 1985, in the completion of activities related to preparation for reactor defueling. Support activities conducted outside of radiation areas are not included within the scope of this report. Computerized reports included in this document are: A chronological summary listing work performed for the period; and summary reports for each major task undertaken in connection with the specific scope of this report. Presented in chronological order for the referenced time period. Manually-assembled table summaries are included for: Labor and exposures by department; and labor and exposures by major activity

  17. Biofuels and Sustainable Transport: A Conceptual Discussion

    OpenAIRE

    Geoffrey Gilpin; Erling Holden

    2013-01-01

    Strategies for sustainably using biofuels must be thoroughly assessed at several levels. First, the use of biofuels must comply with sustainable development’s main dimensions. Second, the use of biofuels must comply with sustainable transport’s main dimensions. Third, gains from using biofuels strategies must compare favorably to gains from other sustainable transport strategies, such as altering transport patterns and reducing transport volume. Fourth, the gains must compare favorably to...

  18. Biofuels from food processing wastes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Zhanying; O'Hara, Ian M; Mundree, Sagadevan; Gao, Baoyu; Ball, Andrew S; Zhu, Nanwen; Bai, Zhihui; Jin, Bo

    2016-04-01

    Food processing industry generates substantial high organic wastes along with high energy uses. The recovery of food processing wastes as renewable energy sources represents a sustainable option for the substitution of fossil energy, contributing to the transition of food sector towards a low-carbon economy. This article reviews the latest research progress on biofuel production using food processing wastes. While extensive work on laboratory and pilot-scale biosystems for energy production has been reported, this work presents a review of advances in metabolic pathways, key technical issues and bioengineering outcomes in biofuel production from food processing wastes. Research challenges and further prospects associated with the knowledge advances and technology development of biofuel production are discussed. PMID:26874262

  19. Biofuels, a bad thing?; Boeser Biokraftstoff?

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jensen, D.; Bensmann, M.

    2008-05-15

    The discussions over biofuels are still going on. Critics claim that biofuels ruin engine components, destroy rainforests and cause high food prices and global hunger. According to this contribution, the Federal government's biofuels policy was wrong and was doomed to fail. (orig.)

  20. Overview on Biofuels from a European Perspective

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ponti, Luigi; Gutierrez, Andrew Paul

    2009-01-01

    In light of the recently developed European Union (EU) Biofuels Strategy, the literature is reviewed to examine (a) the coherency of biofuel production with the EU nonindustrial vision of agriculture, and (b) given its insufficient land base, the implications of a proposed bioenergy pact to grow biofuel crops in the developing world to meet EU…

  1. Biofuels in Africa : Opportunities, Prospects, and Challenges

    OpenAIRE

    Mitchell, Donald

    2011-01-01

    Biofuels offer new opportunities for African countries. They can contribute to economic growth, employment, and rural incomes. They can become an important export for some countries and provide low-cost fuel for others. There is also a potentially large demand for biofuels to meet the rapidly growing need for local fuel. Abundant natural resources and low-cost labor make producing biofuel ...

  2. Assessing the environmental sustainability of biofuels.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kazamia, Elena; Smith, Alison G

    2014-10-01

    Biofuels vary in their potential to reduce greenhouse gas emissions when displacing fossil fuels. Savings depend primarily on the crop used for biofuel production, and on the effect that expanding its cultivation has on land use. Evidence-based policies should be used to ensure that maximal sustainability benefits result from the development of biofuels. PMID:25281367

  3. Nutrient management studies in biofuel cropping systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Research was conducted to determine the effect of nutrient management practices on biofuel crop production, and to evaluate long term effects of biofuel crop production on selected chemical, physical and microbiological properties. Experimental plots for research on biofuel crop production were esta...

  4. Panorama 2007: Biofuels in Europe

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The current leader on the world bio-diesel market, Europe is, after the United States and Brazil, one of the regions driving the production and utilization of biofuels. Its ambitious bio-fuel content targets for motor fuels (5.75% by 2010 and 8% by 2015) encourage Member States to significantly develop those pathways. This raises certain questions, especially about available biomass resources. It is likely that, beyond 2010, technologies other than those in existence today, using ligno-cellulosic biomass, will have to be implemented. (author)

  5. Policies promoting Biofuels in Sweden

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Holmgren, Kristina [IVL Swedish Environmental Research Inst., Goeteborg (Sweden); Chalmers Univ. of Technology, Div. of Heat and Power Technology., Goeteborg (Sweden)

    2012-07-01

    This report was written as part of a course in Environmental Economics and Policy Instruments at the University of Gothenburg. It aims at summarizing the policy instruments introduced to directly affect the production and use of biofuels in Sweden. Since Sweden is part of the EU also EU policies were included. There are additional policy instruments which affect the production and utilization of biofuels in a more indirect way that are not presented here. The economic analysis in this paper is limited and could be developed from the information presented in order to draw further conclusions on necessary changes in order to reach set targets.

  6. Ceramic Technology Project database: September 1990 summary report. [SiC, SiN, whisker-reinforced SiN, ZrO-toughened aluminas, zirconias, joints

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Keyes, B.L.P.

    1992-06-01

    Data generated within the Ceramic Technology Project (CTP) represent a valuable resource for both research and industry. The CTP database was created to provide easy access to this information in electronic and hardcopy forms by using a computerized database and by issuing periodic hardcopy reports on the database contents. This report is the sixth in a series of semiannual database summaries and covers recent additions to the database, including joined brazed specimen test data. It covers 1 SiC, 34 SiN, 10 whisker-reinforced SiN, 2 zirconia-toughened aluminas, 8 zirconias, and 34 joints.

  7. Summary of discussion points and further deliberations in the special committee on the ITER project in the Atomic Energy Commission

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Discussion points and further deliberations in the Special Committee, which was established in December 1996 on the ITER Project were: 'Global environment problem and energy problem', 'Promotion of the fusion energy development' and 'ITER Project'

  8. Biofuel supply chain, market, and policy analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Leilei

    Renewable fuel is receiving an increasing attention as a substitute for fossil based energy. The US Department of Energy (DOE) has employed increasing effort on promoting the advanced biofuel productions. Although the advanced biofuel remains at its early stage, it is expected to play an important role in climate policy in the future in the transportation sector. This dissertation studies the emerging biofuel supply chain and markets by analyzing the production cost, and the outcomes of the biofuel market, including blended fuel market price and quantity, biofuel contract price and quantity, profitability of each stakeholder (farmers, biofuel producers, biofuel blenders) in the market. I also address government policy impacts on the emerging biofuel market. The dissertation is composed with three parts, each in a paper format. The first part studies the supply chain of emerging biofuel industry. Two optimization-based models are built to determine the number of facilities to deploy, facility locations, facility capacities, and operational planning within facilities. Cost analyses have been conducted under a variety of biofuel demand scenarios. It is my intention that this model will shed light on biofuel supply chain design considering operational planning under uncertain demand situations. The second part of the dissertation work focuses on analyzing the interaction between the key stakeholders along the supply chain. A bottom-up equilibrium model is built for the emerging biofuel market to study the competition in the advanced biofuel market, explicitly formulating the interactions between farmers, biofuel producers, blenders, and consumers. The model simulates the profit maximization of multiple market entities by incorporating their competitive decisions in farmers' land allocation, biomass transportation, biofuel production, and biofuel blending. As such, the equilibrium model is capable of and appropriate for policy analysis, especially for those policies

  9. Executive summary

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    On 18 May 2001, the Finnish Parliament ratified the Decision in Principle on the final disposal facility for spent nuclear fuel at Olkiluoto, within the municipality of Eurajoki. The Municipality Council and the government has made positive decisions earlier, at the end of 2000, and in compliance with the Nuclear Energy Act, Parliament's ratification was then required. The decision is valid for the spent fuel generated by the existing Finnish nuclear power plants and means that the construction of the final disposal facility is considered to be in line with the overall good of society. Earlier steps included, amongst others, the approval of the technical project by the Safety Authority. Future steps include construction of an underground rock characterisation facility, ONKALO (2003-2004), and application for separate construction and operating licences for the final disposal facility (from about 2010). How did this political and societal decision come about? The FSC Workshop provided the opportunity to present the history leading up to the Decision in Principle (DiP), and to examine future perspectives with an emphasis on stakeholder involvement. This Executive Summary gives an overview of the presentations and discussions that took place at the workshop. It presents, for the most part, a factual account of the individual presentations and of the discussions that took place. It relies importantly on the notes that were taken at the meeting. Most materials are elaborated upon in a fuller way in the texts that the various speakers and session moderators contributed for these proceedings. The structure of the Executive Summary follows the structure of the workshop itself. Complementary to this Summary and also provided with this document, is a NEA Secretariat's perspective aiming to place the results of all discussions, feedback and site visit into an international perspective. (authors)

  10. Stakeholder views on biofuels. WP1 Final report about the results of the stakeholder questionnaire

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    For the VIEWLS project an internet-based questionnaire on biofuels was distributed among a large group of stakeholders in the European Union, Accession Countries and the Americas in the second half of 2003. The purpose of the questionnaire was to collect information on stakeholders' opinion on biofuel related topics including the future potential of biofuels and drivers and barriers for the market introduction. Here the main results are presented. The results should only be regarded as indicative because no detailed statistical analysis was performed due to the difference in representation from different countries and stakeholder groups

  11. Economic and social implications of biofuel use and production in Canada

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The potential role of biofuels in meeting Canadian commitments to greenhouse gas emissions was discussed. The characteristics of various biofuels were presented, including ethanol, methanol, biodiesel and biogas. Benefits of biofuels included a reduction in air contaminants as well as lower greenhouse gas emissions. Federal and provincial programs are currently in place to encourage production and use of biofuels. The Federal Ethanol Expansion Plan was outlined with reference to its target to increase ethanol production from 238 m litres to 1400 m litres by 2010. The main instruments of the program include excision of the gasoline tax exemption, ethanol expansion and the fact that ethanol can operate a polyfuels vehicle fleet. Provincial policies on ethanol were outlined, driven by characteristics of provincial economies. Provincial tax exemptions for ethanol were provided and an overview of the global ethanol market was presented. A map of existing and projected ethanol projects in Canada was presented, along with a forecast of Canadian ethanol production capacity. A time-line of Nebraska's ethanol production from the years 1985 to 2004 was provided. Economic drivers for ethanol include additional markets for products of agricultural, marine and forestry industries; the enhancement and diversification of rural and regional economies; employment; and energy security. Challenges to growth in biofuel production include technological knowledge and a lack of public awareness concerning the benefits of biofuel. The production and use of biofuels may increase environmental amenities but decrease economic growth. Issues concerning the economics of biofuel research were reviewed. The demand for biofuels has grown slowly in Canada, but has been promoted or mandated federally and in several provinces. The costs of biofuel production were reviewed, with a chart presenting ethanol production costs by plant size. Barriers to trade include the complexity of provincial tax

  12. Estimates of US biofuels consumption, 1990

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This report is the sixth in the series of publications developed by the Energy Information Administration to quantify the amount of biofuel-derived primary energy used by the US economy. It provides preliminary estimates of 1990 US biofuels energy consumption by sector and by biofuels energy resource type. The objective of this report is to provide updated annual estimates of biofuels energy consumption for use by congress, federal and state agencies, and other groups involved in activities related to the use of biofuels. 5 figs., 10 tabs

  13. Advancing Biofuels: Balancing for Sustainability

    Science.gov (United States)

    As with most technologies, use of biofuels has both benefits and risks, which vary by feedstock. Expected benefits include increased energy independence, reduced consumption of fossil fuels, reduced emission of greenhouse gases and invigorated rural economies. Anticipated risks include potential com...

  14. An Outlook on Microalgal Biofuels

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Wijffels, R.H.; Barbosa, M.J.

    2010-01-01

    Microalgae are considered one of the most promising feedstocks for biofuels. The productivity of these photosynthetic microorganisms in converting carbon dioxide into carbon-rich lipids, only a step or two away from biodiesel, greatly exceeds that of agricultural oleaginous crops, without competing

  15. Four myths surrounding U.S. biofuels

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The rapid growth of biofuels has elicited claims and predictions concerning the current and future role of these fuels in the U.S. vehicle-fuel portfolio. These assertions are at times based on a false set of assumptions concerning the biofuel's market related to the petroleum and agricultural commodities markets, and the nonmarket consequences of our automobile driving. As an aid in clarifying these market relations, the following four biofuel myths are presented: (1) biofuels will be adopted because we will soon run out of oil, (2) biofuels will solve the major external costs associated with our automobile driving, (3) biofuels cause food price inflation (the food before fuel issue), and (4) biofuels will become a major vehicle fuel. - Highlights: → Biofuels will be adopted because we will soon run out of oil. → Biofuels will solve the major external costs associated with our automobile driving. → Biofuels cause food price inflation (the food before fuel issue). → Biofuels will become a major vehicle fuel.

  16. Biofuels Feedstock Development Program annual progress report for 1991

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wright, L.L.; Cushman, J.H.; Ehrenshaft, A.R.; McLaughlin, S.B.; McNabb, W.A.; Ranney, J.W.; Tuskan, G.A.; Turhollow, A.F.

    1992-12-01

    This report provides an overview of the ongoing research funded in 1991 by the Department of Energy's Biofuels Feedstock Development Program (BFDP). The BFDP is managed by the Environmental Sciences Division of the Oak Ridge National Laboratory and encompasses the work formerly funded by the Short Rotation Woody Crops Program and the Herbaceous Energy Crops Program. The combined program includes crop development research on both woody and herbaceous energy crop species, cross-cutting energy and environmental analysis and integration, and information management activities. Brief summaries of 26 different program activities are included in the report.

  17. Biofuels Feedstock Development Program annual progress report for 1991

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wright, L.L.; Cushman, J.H.; Ehrenshaft, A.R.; McLaughlin, S.B.; McNabb, W.A.; Ranney, J.W.; Tuskan, G.A.; Turhollow, A.F.

    1992-12-01

    This report provides an overview of the ongoing research funded in 1991 by the Department of Energy`s Biofuels Feedstock Development Program (BFDP). The BFDP is managed by the Environmental Sciences Division of the Oak Ridge National Laboratory and encompasses the work formerly funded by the Short Rotation Woody Crops Program and the Herbaceous Energy Crops Program. The combined program includes crop development research on both woody and herbaceous energy crop species, cross-cutting energy and environmental analysis and integration, and information management activities. Brief summaries of 26 different program activities are included in the report.

  18. Resetting global expectations from agricultural biofuels

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Aggressive renewable energy policies have helped the biofuels industry grow at a rate few could have predicted. However, while discourse on the energy balance and environmental impacts of agricultural biofuel feedstocks are common, the potential they hold for additional production has received considerably less attention. Here we present a new biofuel yield analysis based on the best available global agricultural census data. These new data give us the first opportunity to consider geographically-specific patterns of biofuel feedstock production in different regions, across global, continental, national and sub-national scales. Compared to earlier biofuel yield tables, our global results show overestimates of biofuel yields by ∼100% or more for many crops. To encourage the use of regionally-specific data for future biofuel studies, we calculated complete results for 20 feedstock crops for 238 countries, states, territories and protectorates.

  19. Algal Biology Toolbox Workshop Summary Report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    None

    2016-08-09

    BETO works to accelerate the development of a sustainable, cost-competitive, advanced biofuel industry that can strengthen U.S. energy security, environmental quality, and economic vitality, through research, development, and demonstration projects in partnership with industry, academia, and national laboratory partners. BETO’s Advanced Algal Systems Program (also called the Algae Program) has a long-term applied research and development (R&D) strategy to increase the yields and lower the costs of algal biofuels. The team works with partners to develop new technologies, to integrate technologies at commercially relevant scales, and to conduct crosscutting analyses to bet- ter understand the potential and challenges of the algal biofuels industry. Research has indicated that this industry is capable of producing billions of gallons of renewable diesel, gasoline, and jet fuels annually. R&D activities are integrated with BETO’s longstanding effort to accelerate the commercialization of lignocellulosic biofuels.

  20. The Manhattan Court Employment Project. Summary Report on Phase One: November 1, 1967, to October 3, 1969.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vera Inst. of Justice, New York, NY.

    This report on the first 2 years of a projected 3-year project describes an attempt to use counseling and job placement to divert some arrestees from possible jail sentences. Arrestees who meet the criteria for acceptance into the program are granted a 90-day continuance, during which time the staff representative, who is an ex-offender himself,…

  1. Political, economic and environmental impacts of biofuels: A review

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Current energy policies address environmental issues including environmentally friendly technologies to increase energy supplies and encourage cleaner, more efficient energy use, and address air pollution, greenhouse effect, global warming, and climate change. The biofuel policy aims to promote the use in transport of fuels made from biomass, as well as other renewable fuels. Biofuels provide the prospect of new economic opportunities for people in rural areas in oil importer and developing countries. The central policy of biofuel concerns job creation, greater efficiency in the general business environment, and protection of the environment. Projections are important tools for long-term planning and policy settings. Renewable energy sources that use indigenous resources have the potential to provide energy services with zero or almost zero emissions of both air pollutants and greenhouse gases. Biofuels are expected to reduce dependence on imported petroleum with associated political and economic vulnerability, reduce greenhouse gas emissions and other pollutants, and revitalize the economy by increasing demand and prices for agricultural products.

  2. Political, economic and environmental impacts of biofuels: A review

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Current energy policies address environmental issues including environmentally friendly technologies to increase energy supplies and encourage cleaner, more efficient energy use, and address air pollution, greenhouse effect, global warming, and climate change. The biofuel policy aims to promote the use in transport of fuels made from biomass, as well as other renewable fuels. Biofuels provide the prospect of new economic opportunities for people in rural areas in oil importer and developing countries. The central policy of biofuel concerns job creation, greater efficiency in the general business environment, and protection of the environment. Projections are important tools for long-term planning and policy settings. Renewable energy sources that use indigenous resources have the potential to provide energy services with zero or almost zero emissions of both air pollutants and greenhouse gases. Biofuels are expected to reduce dependence on imported petroleum with associated political and economic vulnerability, reduce greenhouse gas emissions and other pollutants, and revitalize the economy by increasing demand and prices for agricultural products. (author)

  3. Biofuel implementation agendas. A review of Task 39 Member Countries

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Biofuels for use in the transportation sector have been produced on a significant scale since the 1970's, using a variety of technologies. The biofuels widely available today are predominantly sugar- and starch-based bioethanol, and oilseed- and waste oil-based biodiesel, although new technologies under development may allow the use of lignocellulosic feedstocks. Measures to promote the use of biofuels include renewable fuel mandates, tax incentives, and direct funding for capital projects or fleet upgrades. This paper provides a review of the policies behind the successful establishment of the biofuel industry in countries around the world. The impact of direct funding programs and excise tax exemptions are examined using the United States as a case study. It is found that the success of five major bioethanol producing states (Illinois, Iowa, Nebraska, South Dakota, and Minnesota) is closely related to the presence of funding designed to support the industry in its start-up phase. The study concludes that successful policy interventions can take many forms, but that success is equally dependent upon external factors which include biomass availability, an active industry, and competitive energy prices

  4. Photovoltaic Programme, Edition 2006. Summary report. Project list. Annual project reports 2005; Programm Photovoltaik, Ausgabe 2006. Ueberblicksbericht. Liste der Projekte. Jahresberichte der Beauftragten 2005

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nowak, S.

    2006-07-01

    This comprehensive, illustrated report for the Swiss Federal Office of Energy (SFOE) presents an overview of the work done as part of the 2005 research programme, along with the annual reports of the project leaders on research projects. It presents the programme's main points of focus, discusses the work done and the results obtained. Areas covered include cell technology (13 reports), solar modules and building integration (3 reports) , system technology (4 reports) as well as various further projects (5) that are connected with photovoltaics. Four further reports concern international co-operation. Further, several pilot and demonstration (P+D) projects are discussed. Lists of all research and development projects and pilot and demonstration projects are supplied. Work done at several institutions in Switzerland and at leading commercial companies is described.

  5. Industrial Minerals and Artisanal Mining Study (Ethiopia World Bank Energy Access Project) : summary of activities, findings and recommendations of industrial minerals sub-project

    OpenAIRE

    Morgan, D. J.

    2007-01-01

    This report describes the findings of the industrial minerals sub-project of the Industrial Minerals and Artisanal Mining Study, one of three projects carried out by the British Geological Survey for the Ethiopia Energy Access Project – Mineral Component, under funding from the World Bank. The current status of the industrial minerals sub-sector in Ethiopia has been assessed through a survey of producers and users, data on domestic production and imports, and reference to conventional pub...

  6. Carbon dioxide neutral, integrated biofuel facility

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Powell, E.E.; Hill, G.A. [Department of Chemical Engineering, University of Saskatchewan, 57 Campus Drive, Saskatoon, Saskatchewan, S7N 5A9 (Canada)

    2010-12-15

    Algae are efficient biocatalysts for both capture and conversion of carbon dioxide in the environment. In earlier work, we have optimized the ability of Chlorella vulgaris to rapidly capture CO{sub 2} from man-made emission sources by varying environmental growth conditions and bioreactor design. Here we demonstrate that a coupled biodiesel-bioethanol facility, using yeast to produce ethanol and photosynthetic algae to produce biodiesel, can result in an integrated, economical, large-scale process for biofuel production. Each bioreactor acts as an electrode for a coupled complete microbial fuel cell system; the integrated cultures produce electricity that is consumed as an energy source within the process. Finally, both the produced yeast and spent algae biomass can be used as added value byproducts in the feed or food industries. Using cost and revenue estimations, an IRR of up to 25% is calculated using a 5 year project lifespan. (author)

  7. Projections of Northern Great Plains coal mining and energy conversion development, 1975 to 2000 A. D. Summary volume

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Power, T.M.; Duffield, J.W.; McBride, J.R.; Stroup, R.L.; Wheeling, T.D.; Tomlinson, W.D.; Thurman, W.J.; Silverman, A.J.

    1976-05-01

    The Montana University Coal Demand Study attempts to do three things: Present a systematic way to evaluate what will influence Northern Great Plain (NGP) coal development; indicate the key ''swing variables determining development; and establish how, quantitatively, the level of development will vary if these variables change. The result is a projection that should remain true even through future changes in political or economic conditions, for such changes will simply shift the projection in a quantitatively specified way to different levels. This study is a first, fairly limited attempt to meet the above objectives. All the individual determinants of the demand for NGP coal have not been studied in equal depth. Throughout we have tried to indicate both the Study's limitations and the research that further refinement would require. Two primary sources of demand for NGP coal are analyzed--coal-fired electric generation and gasification of coal into synthetic natural gas. A variety of projections are presented, each dependent upon a particular set of assumptions. These projections are compared with each other and with previous projections--in particular those made by the Northern Great Plains Resources Program and the Federal Energy Administration's Project Independence Report. Finally, the differences among the various projections are critically analyzed.

  8. The TRAIN-project: railway safety and the train driver information environment and work situation. A summary of the main results

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kecklund, L. [MTO Psychology and Swedish National Rail Administration (Sweden); Ingre, M.; Kecklund, G.; Soederstroem, M.; Aakerstedt, T. [National Inst. for Psychosocial Factors and Health (Sweden); Lindberg, E. [Swedish National Rail Administration (Sweden); Jansson, A.; Olsson, E.; Sandblad, B. [Uppsala Univ. (Sweden). Dept. of Human-Computer Interaction; Almqvist, P. [Swedish State Railways (Sweden)

    2001-07-01

    The TRAIN project investigates traffic safety related risks, focusing in particular on the train driver work situation, use of information but also on the supporting safety organisation. It is an on-going project funded and managed by Swedish National Rail Administration and carried out by independent researchers. The project provides a multi-disciplinary investigation by use of a man-technology-organisation (MTO) perspective. Activities performed are task analysis, evaluation of the drivers use of information and interaction with the ATP system as well as analyses of stress, mental workload and work hours. Several methods are being used such as interviews, questionnaires, diaries, activity monitoring and videotapes. This paper gives an overview of the project as well as a short summary of the main results. Detailed results are presented in separate reports as started in the reference list. Some of the main results are that the drivers report severe problems concerning sleepiness on early morning shifts, problems with maintenance on vehicles, lack of information supporting the planning task as well as problems in understanding ATP functions. Two groups of drivers having a feed-back related as opposed to a feed-forward driving style could be identified. In conclusion there is a great need to perform more scientific studies of human factors and railway safety as well as to implement safety management programs including professional human factors competence in the railway industries. (orig.)

  9. Concerns About Climate Change Mitigation Projects: Summary of Findings from Case Studies in Brazil, India, Mexico, and South Africa

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sathaye, Jayant A.; Andrasko, Kenneth; Makundi, Willy; La Rovere, Emilio Lebre; Ravinandranath, N.H.; Melli, Anandi; Rangachari, Anita; Amaz, Mireya; Gay, Carlos; Friedmann, Rafael; Goldberg, Beth; van Horen, Clive; Simmonds, Gillina; Parker, Gretchen

    1998-11-01

    The concept of joint implementation as a way to implement climate change mitigation projects in another country has been controversial ever since its inception. Developing countries have raised numerous issues at the project-specific technical level, and broader concerns having to do with equity and burden sharing. This paper summarizes the findings of studies for Brazil, India, Mexico and South Africa, four countries that have large greenhouse gas emissions and are heavily engaged in the debate on climate change projects under the Kyoto Protocol. The studies examine potential or current projects/programs to determine whether eight technical concerns about joint implementation can be adequately addressed. They conclude that about half the concerns were minor or well managed by project developers, but concerns about additionality of funds, host country institutions and guarantees of performance (including the issues of baselines and possible leakage) need much more effort to be adequately addressed. All the papers agree on the need to develop institutional arrangements for approving and monitoring such projects in each of the countries represented. The case studies illustrate that these projects have the potential to bring new technology, investment, employment and ancillary socioeconomic and environmental benefits to developing countries. These benefits are consistent with the goal of sustainable development in the four study countries. At a policy level, the studies' authors note that in their view, the Annex I countries should consider limits on the use of jointly implemented projects as a way to get credits against their own emissions at home, and stress the importance of industrialized countries developing new technologies that will benefit all countries. The authors also observe that if all countries accepted caps on their emissions (with a longer time period allowed for developing countries to do so) project-based GHG mitigation would be significantly

  10. Mixed bio-fuel produced with use of rapeseed pomace

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Závada, J.; Nadkanská, H.; Šašek, Petr; Smatanová, N.; Bouchal, T.

    Volume 1, Book 4. Sofie: International Multidisciplinary Scientific GeoConference & EXPO SGEM, 2014, s. 347-352. ISBN 978-619-7105-15-5. ISSN 1314-2704. [International Multidisciplinary Scientific Geoconference and EXPO, SGEM 2014. Albena (BG), 17.06.2014-26.06.2014] R&D Projects: GA MŠk(CZ) LO1219 Keywords : biomass * pellets * biofuel * pomace Subject RIV: DM - Solid Waste and Recycling http://www.sgem.org/sgemlib/spip.php?article4664&lang=en

  11. How Biofuels Policies Boosted Grain Staple Prices: A Counterfactual Analysis

    OpenAIRE

    Bobenrieth, Eugenio; Wright, Brian; Zeng, Di

    2014-01-01

    We empirically address the implications of biofuel policy regarding major grains, to the subsequent evolution of the markets for calories from the three major grains, maize, wheat and rice. The implied market variables, namely, market price, consumption, and stocks, using a structurally estimated model combined with data on current and projected demand shifts, replicate the levels and dynamics of actual market behaviors, including the price rise before and during the 2007-2008 world food pric...

  12. Biofuel quality control by portable XRF-analyser

    OpenAIRE

    Golubev, Vitaly

    2015-01-01

    The objective of this thesis project was to find out feasibility of using a handheld XRF-analyser in solid biofuel quality control, particularly for recovered wood. Global biomass supply is estimated to grow rapidly, creating demand for automatic quality control systems. X-ray fluorescent technology brings about quick, accurate and non-destructive elemental analysis. Recovered wood fuel is challenging for combustion due to high levels of contaminants. During this work a list of challenging ch...

  13. Executive summary: evaluation of the evidence to support practice guidelines for nutritional care of preterm infants-the Pre-B Project.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Raiten, Daniel J; Steiber, Alison L; Hand, Rosa K

    2016-02-01

    Preterm birth (infants born at United States and globally. No universally accepted practice guidelines exist for the nutritional care of preterm infants. To address the current state of knowledge and to support systematic reviews that will be used to develop evidence-informed guidance, a consortium consisting of the American Academy of Pediatrics, the ASN, the American Society for Parenteral and Enteral Nutrition, the Academy of Nutrition and Dietetics, the Food and Drug Administration, the CDC, the USDA/Agricultural Research Service (USDA/ARS), and the Eunice Kennedy Shriver National Institute of Child Health and Human Development/NIH initiated the Pre-B Project. The project included the constitution of 4 thematic working groups charged with the following tasks: 1) develop a series of topics/questions for which there is sufficient evidence to support a systematic review process to be conducted by the Academy of Nutrition and Dietetics' Evidence Analysis Library (EAL), leading to the development of new guidelines for nutritional care of preterm infants, and 2) develop a targeted research agenda to address priority gaps in our understanding of the role of nutrition in the health and development of preterm/neonatal intensive care unit infants. This review consists of a project overview including a summary of a workshop hosted by the USDA/ARS Children's Nutrition Research Center and summary reports of the 4 working groups established to address the following themes: 1) nutrient specifications, 2) clinical/practical issues in enteral feeding, 3) gastrointestinal and surgical issues, and 4) current standards for assessing infant feeding outcomes. These reports will serve as the basis for the ultimate guideline development process to be conducted by the Academy of Nutrition and Dietetics' EAL. PMID:26791179

  14. From first generation biofuels to advanced solar biofuels.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aro, Eva-Mari

    2016-01-01

    Roadmaps towards sustainable bioeconomy, including the production of biofuels, in many EU countries mostly rely on biomass use. However, although biomass is renewable, the efficiency of biomass production is too low to be able to fully replace the fossil fuels. The use of land for fuel production also introduces ethical problems in increasing the food price. Harvesting solar energy by the photosynthetic machinery of plants and autotrophic microorganisms is the basis for all biomass production. This paper describes current challenges and possibilities to sustainably increase the biomass production and highlights future technologies to further enhance biofuel production directly from sunlight. The biggest scientific breakthroughs are expected to rely on a new technology called "synthetic biology", which makes engineering of biological systems possible. It will enable direct conversion of solar energy to a fuel from inexhaustible raw materials: sun light, water and CO2. In the future, such solar biofuels are expected to be produced in engineered photosynthetic microorganisms or in completely synthetic living factories. PMID:26667057

  15. Rail transportation of biofuels; Jaernvaegstransport av biobraenslen

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Frosch, Martin; Thoren, Peter

    2010-05-15

    The project has had the task of describing how the rail transportation of biofuels can be increased. This has been made by analyzing the current conditions of five transmission terminals and five different CHP plants, henceforth called reference cases, and the prevailing conditions at their reception terminals. For each of the five reference cases several transport solutions have been created that take in consideration how these conditions affect the efficiency of the transport solutions for 23 different relations. The study will also show to what extent reduction of environmental impacts can be achieved with the rail transportation of biofuels as alternative to road transport. Three of the reference cases are in operation, one under construction and one in the development phase. To develop transportation solutions and identify potential catchment areas for biofuels a slightly higher resolution than what normally is analyzed in existing literature is required. Therefore, these analysis have been made for each of the relevant catchment areas with the help of forest assessment data, kNN-data, from the Swedish agricultural university (SLU), statistics of peat production from the Swedish geological survey (SGU) and the Forestry boards (Skogsstyrelsen) statistical yearbook of 2008. The calculations underlying the transport solutions are relating to the sustainability of each catchment area, constraints and opportunities at both the reception and transmission terminals, and the practical solutions for wagons, containers and number of possible weekly circulations. The target audience is the heating and CHP plants in Sweden, wishing to use rail transport of biofuels, regardless of available infrastructure since remote receiving terminals also can be used if needed. The results of the economical analysis for all possible relations are based on calculations with 20 wagons in each circulation. Due to topographic limitations and limited traction capacity all relations

  16. Building the Human Vaccines Project: strategic management recommendations and summary report of the 15-16 July 2014 business workshop.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schenkelberg, Theodore; Kieny, Marie-Paule; Bianco, A E; Koff, Wayne C

    2015-05-01

    The Human Vaccines Project is a bold new initiative, with the goal of solving the principal scientific problem impeding vaccine development for infectious diseases and cancers: the generation of specific, broad, potent and durable immune responses in humans. In the July 2014 workshop, 20 leaders from the public and private sectors came together to give input on strategic business issues for the creation of the Human Vaccines Project. Participants recommended the Project to be established as a nonprofit public-private partnership, structured as a global R&D consortium closely engaged with industrial partners, and located/affiliated with one or more major academic centers conducting vaccine R&D. If successful, participants concluded that the Project could greatly accelerate the development of new and improved vaccines, with the potential to transform disease prevention in the 21st century. PMID:25673514

  17. Electricity from photovoltaic solar cells: Flat-Plate Solar Array Project final report. Volume I: Executive Summary

    OpenAIRE

    Callaghan, W.; McDonald, R

    1986-01-01

    In 1975, the U.S. Government contracted the Jet Propulsion Laboratory to develop, by 1985, in conjunction with industry, the photovoltaics (PV) module and array technology required for widespread use of photovoltaics as a significant terrestrial energy source. As a result, a project that eventually became known as the Flat-Plate Solar Array (FSA) Project was formed to manage an industry, university, and Government team to perform the necessary research and development. The original goals were...

  18. Innovation in emerging energy technologies: A case study analysis to inform the path forward for algal biofuels

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Algal biofuel is an emerging energy source that has the potential to improve upon the environmental benefits realized by conventional biofuels and contribute to the biofuels mandate set by the Renewable Fuel Standard (RFS). While there has been much research into producing fuel from algae, a commercial-scale facility has not yet been built. We examine two case studies of energy technology innovation in the United States, first generation biodiesel and solar photovoltaics (PV), using the technological innovation system (TIS) framework to provide lessons and inform the path forward for commercializing algal biofuel. We identify five event types that have been the most influential to these innovation processes: changing expectations, technology development, demonstration projects, policy targets, and government subsidies. Some algal biofuel demonstration projects have occurred, but despite falling under the mandates set forth in the RFS (a policy target), algal biofuels do not currently receive production subsidies. The main finding from the case study analysis is that government interventions have significantly influenced the innovation processes of first generation biodiesel and solar PV and will likely be key factors in the commercialization of algal biofuel. - Highlights: • Two energy technology case studies were analyzed with a TIS framework. • Major drivers in the innovation process were identified in each case. • Government interventions were key factors for both. • The one identified key driver algal biofuel is lacking is federal subsidies. • All components of the TIS framework deserve attention in promoting innovation

  19. Toward nitrogen neutral biofuel production.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huo, Yi-Xin; Wernick, David G; Liao, James C

    2012-06-01

    Environmental concerns and an increasing global energy demand have spurred scientific research and political action to deliver large-scale production of liquid biofuels. Current biofuel processes and developing approaches have focused on closing the carbon cycle by biological fixation of atmospheric carbon dioxide and conversion of biomass to fuels. To date, these processes have relied on fertilizer produced by the energy-intensive Haber-Bosch process, and have not addressed the global nitrogen cycle and its environmental implications. Recent developments to convert protein to fuel and ammonia may begin to address these problems. In this scheme, recycling ammonia to either plant or algal feedstocks reduces the demand for synthetic fertilizer supplementation. Further development of this technology will realize its advantages of high carbon fixation rates, inexpensive and simple feedstock processing, in addition to reduced fertilizer requirements. PMID:22054644

  20. Carbon and energy balances for a range of biofuels options

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Elsayed, M.A.; Matthews, R.; Mortimer, N.D.

    2003-03-01

    This is the final report of a project to produce a set of baseline energy and carbon balances for a range of electricity, heat and transport fuel production systems based on biomass feedstocks. A list of 18 important biofuel technologies in the UK was selected for study of their energy and carbon balances in a consistent approach. Existing studies on these biofuel options were reviewed and their main features identified in terms of energy input, greenhouse gas emissions (carbon dioxide, methane, nitrous oxide and total), transparency and relevance. Flow charts were produced to represent the key stages of the production of biomass and its conversion to biofuels. Outputs from the study included primary energy input per delivered energy output, carbon dioxide outputs per delivered energy output, methane output per delivered energy output, nitrous oxide output per delivered energy output and total greenhouse gas requirements. The net calorific value of the biofuel is given where relevant. Biofuels studied included: biodiesel from oilseed rape and recycled vegetable oil; combined heat and power (CHP) by combustion of wood chip from forestry residues; CHP by gasification of wood chip from short rotation coppice; electricity from the combustion of miscanthus, straw, wood chip from forestry residues and wood chip from short rotation coppice; electricity from gasification of wood chip from forestry residues and wood chip from short rotation coppice; electricity by pyrolysis of wood chip from forestry residues and wood chip from short rotation coppice; ethanol from lignocellulosics, sugar beet and wheat; heat (small scale) from combustion of wood chip from forestry residues and wood chip from short rotation coppice; and rapeseed oil from oilseed rape.